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See detailLarge predatory marine reptiles from the Albian–Cenomanian of Annopol, Poland
Bardet, Nathalie; Fischer, Valentin ULg; Machalski, Marcin

in Geological Magazine (2016)

During the Early–Late Cretaceous transition, marine ecosystems in Eurasia hosted a diverse set of large predatory reptiles that occupied various niches. However, most of our current knowledge of these ... [more ▼]

During the Early–Late Cretaceous transition, marine ecosystems in Eurasia hosted a diverse set of large predatory reptiles that occupied various niches. However, most of our current knowledge of these animals is restricted to a small number of bonebed-like deposits. Little is known of the geographical and temporal extent of such associations. The middle Albian – middle Cenomanian phosphorite-bearing succession exposed at Annopol, Poland produces numerous ichthyosaurian and plesiosaurian fossils. These are mostly isolated skeletal elements (e.g. teeth, vertebrae), but disarticulated partial skeletons and an articulated, sub vertically embedded ichthyosaur skull are also available. The following taxa are identified: ‘Platypterygius’ sp., cf. Ophthalmosaurinae, Ichthyosauria indet., Polyptychodon interruptus, Pliosauridae indet., Elasmosauridae<indet. and Plesiosauria indet. The large-sized ichthyosaur ‘Platypterygius’ and the pliosaurid Polyptychodon interruptus predominate within the upper Albian – middle Cenomanian deposits. The Annopol record, combined with data from England, France and western Russia, suggests that ‘Platypterygius’ and Polyptychodon interruptus formed a long-term, stable ecological sympatry in marine ecosystems of the European archipelago, at least during the Albian – middle Cenomanian. In addition, the marine reptile assemblage from Annopol is distinct from other Eurasian ecosystems in containing also elasmosaurids in its Albian portion. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh Temperature Ferromagnetism in a GdAg2 Monolayer
Ormaza, M.; Fernandez, L.; Ilyn, M. et al

in Nano Letters (2016), 0(0),

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See detailCorrelation between resting state fMRI total neuronal activity and PET metabolism in healthy controls and patients with disorders of consciousness
Soddu, Andrea ULg; Gomez, Francisco; Heine, Lizette ULg et al

in Brain and Behavior (2016)

Introduction: The mildly invasive 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is a well-established imaging technique to measure ‘resting state’ cerebral metabolism. This technique made ... [more ▼]

Introduction: The mildly invasive 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is a well-established imaging technique to measure ‘resting state’ cerebral metabolism. This technique made it possible to assess changes in metabolic activity in clinical applications, such as the study of severe brain injury and disorders of consciousness. Objective: We assessed the possi- bility of creating functional MRI activity maps, which could estimate the rela- tive levels of activity in FDG-PET cerebral metabolic maps. If no metabolic absolute measures can be extracted, our approach may still be of clinical use in centers without access to FDG-PET. It also overcomes the problem of recogniz- ing individual networks of independent component selection in functional mag- netic resonance imaging (fMRI) resting state analysis. Methods: We extracted resting state fMRI functional connectivity maps using independent component analysis and combined only components of neuronal origin. To assess neu- ronality of components a classification based on support vector machine (SVM) was used. We compared the generated maps with the FDG-PET maps in 16 healthy controls, 11 vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome patients and four locked-in patients. Results: The results show a significant similarity with q = 0.75  0.05 for healthy controls and q = 0.58  0.09 for vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome patients between the FDG- PET and the fMRI based maps. FDG-PET, fMRI neuronal maps, and the conjunction analysis show decreases in frontoparietal and medial regions in vegetative patients with respect to controls. Subsequent analysis in locked-in syndrome patients produced also consistent maps with healthy controls. Conclusions: The constructed resting state fMRI functional connectivity map points toward the possibility for fMRI resting state to estimate relative levels of activity in a metabolic map. [less ▲]

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See detailRisk assessment of soil compaction in the Walloon region in Belgium
D'Or, Dimitri; Destain, Marie-France ULg

in Mathematical Geosciences (2016)

It is well known that soil compaction affects root growth and disrupts the activity of soil microfauna and microorganisms, resulting in yield loss. With the more intensive use of heavy machines in ... [more ▼]

It is well known that soil compaction affects root growth and disrupts the activity of soil microfauna and microorganisms, resulting in yield loss. With the more intensive use of heavy machines in agriculture and forestry, the risk of soil compaction is increasing. In this study, precompression stress (Pc) was chosen as an indicator of the susceptibility of soils to compaction and was calculated using pedotransfer functions (PTFs). PTFs involve eight variables related to the hydraulic and mechanical behaviour of soils: organic matter content; bulk density; air capacity; available water capacity; non-plant available water capacity; saturated hydraulic conductivity; cohesion; and angle of internal friction. Combining these PTFs with geostatistics and Monte Carlo simulations, Pc maps were produced at the regional scale for Wallonia in Belgium, accompanied by uncertainty quantification maps. These maps were then used to produce compaction risk maps based on common scenarios. The results showed that the modal Pc map was coherent with the spatial distribution of the main variables, namely soil texture and organic matter content. The risk maps enabled areas with a compaction risk in both agricultural and forestry contexts to be identified. These maps could be useful in drawing up soil protection measures and policies. [less ▲]

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See detailHeterogeneous bedrock investigation for a closed-loop geothermal system: A case study
Radioti, Georgia ULg; Delvoie, Simon ULg; Charlier, Robert ULg et al

in Geothermics (2016)

This paper investigates bedrock heterogeneity by applying three different geophysical approaches, in order to study the long-term behaviour and the interaction between closed-loop geothermal systems. The ... [more ▼]

This paper investigates bedrock heterogeneity by applying three different geophysical approaches, in order to study the long-term behaviour and the interaction between closed-loop geothermal systems. The investigated site consists of four boreholes equipped with geothermal pipes on the campus of University of Liege, Belgium. The first approach includes acoustic borehole imaging, gamma-ray logging and cuttings observation and results to a detailed fracture characterisation, rock identification and layer dip angle determination. The second approach consists of measuring the thermal conductivity of cuttings at the laboratory. Study of cuttings thermal conductivity measurements can contribute to bedrock heterogeneity knowledge concerning the transition of one formation to another and the layer dipping. The third approach is based on high-resolution temperature profiles, measured during the hardening of the grouting material and the recovery phase of a Distributed Thermal Response Test. Through this approach a correlation of the temperature profiles to the geological characteristics of the surrounding bedrock is identified. The analysis of this correlation can provide information on fractured zones, alternation of different rock types and layering dipping. This latter approach can be easily applied on closed-loop geothermal systems to characterise the bedrock and investigate its heterogeneity as well as contribute to the their long-term behaviour prediction and to the optimisation of their efficiency. [less ▲]

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See detailSludge dewatering and drying: about the difficulty of making experiments with a non-stabilized material
Pambou, Yvon-Bert ULg; Fraikin, Laurent ULg; Salmon, Thierry ULg et al

in Desalination and Water Treatment (2016), 57(30), 13841-13856

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See detailExamen de jurisprudence (2010-2013) - Les sociétés commerciales (première partie)
Caprasse, Olivier ULg; Dieux, Xavier; Lambrecht, Philippe

in Revue Critique de Jurisprudence Belge [= RCJB] (2016)

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See detailEmpédocle, ou comment entrer en philosophie. Sartre et la pensée allemande dans les années 1920
Cormann, Grégory ULg

in Etudes Sartriennes (2016), 20

Comment Sartre est-il entré en philosophie ? Au-delà des petits récits légendaires, tels que ceux que Raymond Aron a laissés à propos de la découverte de la phénoménologie ou de la première formulation de ... [more ▼]

Comment Sartre est-il entré en philosophie ? Au-delà des petits récits légendaires, tels que ceux que Raymond Aron a laissés à propos de la découverte de la phénoménologie ou de la première formulation de la théorie de la contingence pendant les années passées à l’ENS, le présent article vise à établir les conditions dans lesquelles Sartre a formulé à son origine le projet de faire œuvre de philosophe. En pistant le réseau de curiosité intellectuelle pour la pensée allemande dont le titre du manuscrit Empédocle atteste, cet article reconstitue d’abord le milieu intellectuel dans lequel Sartre évolue au milieu des années 1920 avec ses camarades Aron et Nizan, autour des activités du Groupe d’Information Internationale de l’École Normale Supérieure. Comme les Carnets et Les Mots le confirment dans l’après-coup, ce milieu intellectuel fortement « alsacien » lui permet tout à la fois de prolonger et de compliquer – jusqu’à la rupture, peut-être – la vocation à la fois pédagogique et critique que charriait son inscription dans une histoire intellectuelle double, française et allemande. Dans cette étude de la « sociabilité alsacienne » du jeune Sartre et de son rapport avec les premières générations de la germanistique française, la figure de Robert Minder (1902-1980) sert de point de comparaison avec Sartre. La suite de l’article précise la nature du projet philosophique de Sartre dans le rapport qu’il entretient avec la vocation littéraire qui l’a attiré vers des études de philosophie. Dans cette partie, c’est la rencontre personnelle et théorique de Sartre avec Bernard Groethuysen (1880-1946) qui sert de guide. La trajectoire du philosophe allemand permet tout à la fois à Sartre d’articuler la littérature et la philosophie (dans un espace de circulation culturelle franco-allemand) et d’amorcer le passage de l’exigence nietzschéenne d’un recommencement de la philosophie (qui vaut aussi pour l’après-Première Guerre mondiale) avec le programme d’une philosophie rigoureuse déjà incarné chez Groethuysen par la phénoménologie de Husserl. En conclusion, l’article revient sur la façon dont Sartre récupère la situation particulière dans laquelle il rédige son Empédocle – son histoire amoureuse avec Simone Jollivet – en direction d’une philosophie qui expose non seulement le philosophe à une enquête permanente sur soi (Victor Hugo prenant alors le relais de Nietzsche), mais qui soit aussi une entreprise philosophique nouvelle qui conteste de l’intérieur, en la poussant dans ses conséquences extrêmes, la généalogie héroïque – et masculiniste – dont elle est issue. En somme, il s’agit ici, par le truchement d’une lecture symbolique d’un texte de jeunesse, de considérer la philosophie sartrienne au point où elle se précède elle-même, avant la découverte de Heidegger et avant la rencontre de Simone de Beauvoir. Dans cette reconstruction des conditions de possibilité de la philosophie de Sartre – et de Beauvoir – se poursuit dès lors l’entreprise, encore très partiellement réalisée, de faire l’archéologie de la philosophie française contemporaine (selon l’expression d’Alain Badiou) dans l’entre-deux-guerres, à savoir de déterminer la portée critique et historiographique de la phénoménologie existentialiste. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards Generic Image Classification using Tree-based Learning: an Extensive Empirical Study
Marée, Raphaël ULg; Geurts, Pierre ULg; Wehenkel, Louis ULg

in Pattern Recognition Letters (2016)

This paper considers the general problem of image classification without using any prior knowledge about image classes. We study variants of a method based on supervised learning whose common steps are ... [more ▼]

This paper considers the general problem of image classification without using any prior knowledge about image classes. We study variants of a method based on supervised learning whose common steps are the extraction of random subwindows described by raw pixel intensity values and the use of ensemble of extremely randomized trees to directly classify images or to learn image features. The influence of method parameters and variants is thoroughly evaluated so as to provide baselines and guidelines for future studies. Detailed results are provided on 80 publicly available datasets that depict very diverse types of images (more than 3800 image classes and over 1.5 million images). [less ▲]

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See detailDe la matérialisation de quelques concepts phénoménologiques.
Frère, Bruno ULg

in SociologieS (2016)

Résumé : Ce article suggère une réflexion sur les rapports qu’entretiennent sociologie et philosophie. Il entend montrer qu’établir des ponts entre les deux disciplines a non seulement toujours été ... [more ▼]

Résumé : Ce article suggère une réflexion sur les rapports qu’entretiennent sociologie et philosophie. Il entend montrer qu’établir des ponts entre les deux disciplines a non seulement toujours été d’usage mais s’avère aujourd’hui urgent. En effet, faisant l’économie d’une considération sérieuse de la prise que lui offre la sociologie sur le monde, la philosophie risque d’échouer à penser les transformations politiques et économiques des société contemporaines. A l’inverse, une certaine tendance positiviste semble menacer la sociologie qui se débarrasserait de toutes connaissances philosophiques. Afin de rappeler l’intérêt que l’une et l’autre se doivent réciproquement, cet article voudrait montrer comment il peut être utile à la sociologie de donner corps à certains concepts philosophiques lorsqu’elle s’avère confrontée à certaines difficultés. Afin d’illustrer le propos, nous nous référerons à un exemple puisé au sein de l’économie solidaire. Ici en effet, c’est en acceptant que se matérialise dans l’enquête le concept d’état d’esprit intentionnel que la philosophie phénoménologique vient à point nommé pour aider la sociologie pragmatique de la critique à se représenter les contradictions qui peuvent apparaître entre action et justification. Et ce sans pour autant renoncer à « prendre les gens aux sérieux » et s’en retourner vers une traditionnelle sociologie du dévoilement qui expliquerait ces contradictions par le décalage qui existerait entre habitus (ou sens pratique) d’une part et illusions réflexives des acteurs d’autre part. Mots clefs : phénoménologie, états d’esprit intentionnel, philosophie, sociologie pragmatique, économie solidaire. Summary : This article is a reflexion about the relationship between sociology and philosophy. It will show that building bridges between the two disciplines, whilst recurrent, is more urgent now than ever. On the one hand, philosophy will be unable to contribute meaningfully to discussions about the major political and economic transformations experienced by contemporary societies without engaging with Sociology. On the other hand without philosophical insights Sociology risks drifting towards positivistic trends. In this article we propose to show how each discipline can benefit from cross-fertilisations and in particular how Sociology can appropriate philosophical concepts to address certain challenges. Drawing on a specific example from solidary economy, we will show that the concept of intentional mindset borrowed from phenomenological philosophy enables pragmatic sociology to account for the gaps which are liable to emerge between action and justification. This concept fulfills the key tenet of pragmatic sociology that to take social actors seriously we must eschew a type of sociological approach which would consist of revealing that the gaps between action and justification arise from social actors’ illusory apprehension of their habitus. Key words: phénoménology, mindset, states of mind, philosophy, pragmatic sociology, solidarity economy. [less ▲]

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See detailSubstitution of egg yolk by a cyclodextrin-cholesterol complex allows a reduction of the glycerol concentration into the freezing medium of equine sperm.
Blommaert, Didier; Franck, Thierry ULg; Donnay, Isabelle et al

in Cryobiology (2016), 72(1), 27-32

The aim of this work was to completely replace the egg yolk a classical diluent for freezing equine semen by a cyclodextrin-cholesterol complex. At the same time, the reduction in the glycerol content ... [more ▼]

The aim of this work was to completely replace the egg yolk a classical diluent for freezing equine semen by a cyclodextrin-cholesterol complex. At the same time, the reduction in the glycerol content used for cryopreservation and the incubation time between sperm and the freezing media were evaluated. Horse ejaculates were frozen with four different freezing extenders: a frozen reference medium (IF) containing egg yolk and 2.5% glycerol and media without egg yolk but supplemented with 1.5 mg 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin cholesterol (HPbetaCD-C) complex and containing either 1% (G1), 2% (G2) or 3% glycerol (G3). Three incubation times (90, 120 and 180 min) at 4 degrees C between the fresh semen and the different media were tested before freezing. Viability and motility analyses were performed with computer assisted semen analysis (CASA). Results showed that the freezing media containing the HPbetaCD-C complex with 1%, 2% and 3% glycerol significantly improve the 3 in vitro parameters of post thawing semen quality (viability, progressive and total mobilities) compared to IF. The best improvement of the parameters was obtained with G1 medium and the longest contact time. The substitution of egg yolk by HPbetaCD-C complex allows the decrease of protein charge of the medium while favouring the cholesterol supply to membrane spermatozoa offering it a better resistance to osmotic imbalance and a better tolerance to the glycerol toxicity. Our results highlight that the egg yolk of an extender for the freezing of horse semen can be completely substituted by HPbetaCD-C complex. [less ▲]

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See detailLa pensée future épisodique : entre simulation et contexte autobiographique
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg

in Revue de Neuropsychologie (2016), 8

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See detail. Mass sensor utilising the mode-localisation effect in an electrostatically-coupled MEMS resonator pair fabricated using an SOI process
Wood, Graham; Chun, Zhao; Pu, Suan et al

in Microelectronic Engineering (2016), 159

The change in the mass, achieved with focused ion beam(FIB) milling, of one of a pair of electrostatically-coupled microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) resonators has been detected utilising the mode ... [more ▼]

The change in the mass, achieved with focused ion beam(FIB) milling, of one of a pair of electrostatically-coupled microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) resonators has been detected utilising the mode-localisation effect. It has been demonstrated that the shift in the amplitude ratio of the coupled-resonators at the in-phase mode frequency, in response to a mass change, is five orders of magnitude greater than the equivalent resonant frequency shift of a single resonator device. The device has been fabricated using a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based process, which allows for high-yield and stiction-free fabrication. In addition, the design of the resonators has been created to have a larger surface area than previously reported designs, in order to facilitate future biological functionalisation. The mass sensitivity has been compared to current state-of-the-art mode-localised mass sensors and a 5.4 times increase in the amplitude ratio response to a given mass change has been demonstrated for the device in this work. [less ▲]

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See detailCreatinine-based equations for the adjustment of drug dosage in an obese population.
BOUQUEGNEAU, Antoine ULg; Vidal-Petiot, E; Moranne, O et al

in British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology (2016), 81(2), 349-361

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See detailPrognostic relevance of epilepsy at presentation in glioblastoma patients.
Berendsen, Sharon; Varkila, Meri; Kroonen, Jerome et al

in Neuro-oncology (2016)

BACKGROUND: Epileptogenic glioblastomas are thought to convey a favorable prognosis, either due to early diagnosis or potential antitumor effects of antiepileptic drugs. We investigated the relationship ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Epileptogenic glioblastomas are thought to convey a favorable prognosis, either due to early diagnosis or potential antitumor effects of antiepileptic drugs. We investigated the relationship between survival and epilepsy at presentation, early diagnosis, and antiepileptic drug therapy in glioblastoma patients. METHODS: Multivariable Cox regression was applied to survival data of 647 consecutive patients diagnosed with de novo glioblastoma between 2005 and 2013 in order to investigate the association between epilepsy and survival in glioblastoma patients. In addition, we quantified the association between survival and valproic acid (VPA) treatment. RESULTS: Epilepsy correlated positively with survival (HR: 0.75 (95% CI: 0.61-0.92), P < .01). This effect is independent of age, sex, performance status, type of surgery, adjuvant therapy, tumor location, and tumor volume, suggesting that this positive correlation cannot be attributed solely to early diagnosis. For patients who presented with epilepsy, the use of the antiepileptic drug VPA did not associate with survival when compared with patients who did not receive VPA treatment. CONCLUSION: Epilepsy is an independent prognostic factor for longer survival in glioblastoma patients. This prognostic effect is not solely explained by early diagnosis, and survival is not associated with VPA treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailParsimonious time series clustering using P-splines
Iorio, Carmela; Frasso, Gianluca ULg; D’Ambrosio, Antonio et al

in Expert Systems with Applications (2016)

Abstract We introduce a parsimonious model-based framework for clustering time course data. In these applications the computational burden becomes often an issue due to the large number of available ... [more ▼]

Abstract We introduce a parsimonious model-based framework for clustering time course data. In these applications the computational burden becomes often an issue due to the large number of available observations. The measured time series can also be very noisy and sparse and an appropriate model describing them can be hard to define. We propose to model the observed measurements by using P-spline smoothers and then to cluster the functional objects as summarized by the optimal spline coefficients. According to the characteristics of the observed measurements, our proposal can be combined with any suitable clustering method. In this paper we provide applications based on non-hierarchical clustering algorithms. We evaluate the accuracy and the efficiency of our proposal by simulations and by analyzing two real data examples. [less ▲]

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See detailExternal Costs as Competitiveness Factors for Freight Transport — A State of the Art
Mostert, Martine ULg; Limbourg, Sabine ULg

in Transport Reviews (2016)

External costs have been a key issue in the last years of transport research. In Europe, this trend is in line with the political willingness to internalize externalities in transport pricing policies ... [more ▼]

External costs have been a key issue in the last years of transport research. In Europe, this trend is in line with the political willingness to internalize externalities in transport pricing policies. This paper has two purposes. It first identifies the recent work achieved in the field of external costs of road and intermodal freight transport, where each paper is assessed in terms of its perspective (academic or project oriented), its objective (prescription, application, projection), the type of externality (air pollution, climate change, noise, accidents, congestion) and the type of cost (marginal, average, total) that is considered. The literature review reveals a gap in the development of generic mathematical functions for external costs of transport. The second objective of the paper is thus to highlight the usefulness of such functions by identifying the main parameters that influence freight transport competitiveness in terms of external costs, and by determining which of these parameters should be incorporated in further research works. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantitative assessment of mouse mammary gland morphology using automated digital image processing and TEB detection.
Blacher, Silvia ULg; Gérard, Céline ULg; Gallez, Anne ULg et al

in Endocrinology (2016)

The assessment of rodent mammary gland morphology is largely used to study the molecular mechanisms driving breast development and to analyze the impact of various endocrine disruptors with putative ... [more ▼]

The assessment of rodent mammary gland morphology is largely used to study the molecular mechanisms driving breast development and to analyze the impact of various endocrine disruptors with putative pathological implications. In this work, we propose a methodology relying on fully automated digital image analysis methods including image processing and quantification of the whole ductal tree and of the terminal end buds (TEB) as well. It allows to accurately and objectively measure both growth parameters and fine morphological glandular structures. Mammary gland elongation was characterized by two parameters: the length and the epithelial area of the ductal tree. Ductal tree fine structures were characterized by: 1) branch end-point density, 2) branching density and 3) branch length distribution. The proposed methodology was compared to quantification methods classically used in the literature. This procedure can be transposed to several software and thus largely used by scientists studying rodent mammary gland morphology. [less ▲]

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See detailRecommendations for the conduct of clinical trials for drugs to treat or prevent sarcopenia
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Cooper, Cyrus; Rizzoli, René et al

in Aging Clinical and Experimental Research (2016), 28(1), 47-58

Purpose: Sarcopenia is an age-related muscle condition which is frequently a precursor of frailty, mobility disability and premature death. It has a high prevalence in older populations and presents a ... [more ▼]

Purpose: Sarcopenia is an age-related muscle condition which is frequently a precursor of frailty, mobility disability and premature death. It has a high prevalence in older populations and presents a considerable social and economic burden. Potential treatments are under development but, as yet, no guidelines support regulatory studies for new drugs to manage sarcopenia. The objective of this position paper is therefore to suggest a set of potential endpoints and target population definitions to stimulate debate and progress within the medico-scientific and regulatory communities. Methods: A multidisciplinary expert working group was hosted by the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis, which reviewed and discussed the recent literature from a perspective of clinical experience and guideline development. Relevant parallels were drawn from the development of definition of osteoporosis as a disease and clinical assessment of pharmaceutical treatments for that indication. Results A case-finding decision tree is briefly reviewed with a discussion of recent prevalence estimations of different relevant threshold values. The selection criteria for patients in regulatory studies are discussed according to the aims of the investigation (sarcopenia prevention or treatment) and the stage of project development. The possible endpoints of such studies are reviewed and a pleais made for the establishment of a core outcome set to be used in all clinical trials of sarcopenia. Conclusions : The current lack of guidelines for the assessment of new therapeutic treatments for sarcopenia could potentially hinder the delivery of effective medicines to patients at risk. [less ▲]

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See detailDelayed neuroendocrine sexual maturation in female rats after a very low dose of Bisphenol A through altered GABAergic neurotransmission and opposing effects of a high dose.
Franssen, Delphine ULg; GERARD, Arlette ULg; HENNUY, Benoit ULg et al

in Endocrinology (2016)

Rat sexual maturation is preceded by a reduction of the interpulse interval (IPI) of gonadotropinreleasing hormone (GnRH) neurosecretion. This work aims at studying disruption of that neuroendocrine event ... [more ▼]

Rat sexual maturation is preceded by a reduction of the interpulse interval (IPI) of gonadotropinreleasing hormone (GnRH) neurosecretion. This work aims at studying disruption of that neuroendocrine event in females after early exposure to a very low dose of Bisphenol A (BPA), a ubiquitous endocrine disrupting chemical. Female rats were exposed to vehicle or BPA 25 ng/kg.day, 25 g/kg.day, or 5 mg/kg.day from postnatal day (PND) 1 to 5 or 15. Exposure to 25 ng/kg.day of BPA for 5 or 15 days was followed by a delay in developmental reduction of GnRH IPI studied ex vivo on PND 20. After 15 days of exposure to that low dose of BPA, vaginal opening tended to be delayed. In contrast, exposure to BPA 5 mg/kg.day for 15 days resulted in a premature reduction inGnRHIPI and a trend toward early vaginal opening. RNAseq analysis on PND20 indicated that exposure to BPA resulted in opposing dose effectsonthemRNAexpression of hypothalamic genes involved inGABAA neurotransmission. The study of GnRH secretion in vitro in the presence of GABAA receptor agonist/antagonist confirmed an increased or a reduced GABAergic tone after in vivo exposure to the very low or the high dose of BPA, respectively. Overall, we show for the first time that neonatal exposure to BPA leads to opposing dose-dependent effects on the neuroendocrine control of puberty in the female rat. A very low and environmentally relevant dose of BPA delays neuroendocrine maturation related to puberty through increased inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmission. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-ovarian aromatization is required to activate female sexual motivation in testosterone-treated ovariectomized quail
de Bournonville, Catherine; Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Ball, Gregory et al

in Hormones and Behavior (2016), 83

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See detailPassive acoustic recording of Ophidion rochei calling activity in Calvi Bay (France)
Kever, Loïc ULg; Lejeune, Pierre; Michel, Loïc ULg et al

in Marine Ecology (2016)

Passive acoustic recording (PAR) systems are non-invasive and allow researchers to collect data on large spatial and temporal scales. Since fish sounds are species-specific and repetitive, PAR can provide ... [more ▼]

Passive acoustic recording (PAR) systems are non-invasive and allow researchers to collect data on large spatial and temporal scales. Since fish sounds are species-specific and repetitive, PAR can provide a large amount of data about spatio-temporal variation in fish distribution and behaviors. Ophidion rochei is a sand-dwelling species from Mediterranean and Black Sea meaning the behavior of this discreet nocturnal fish cannot be observed in the field. Fortunately, male O. rochei produce long multiple-pulsed calls that are easy to identify. The aim of this study was to determine that male calls are linked to reproduction behaviors. If so, PAR would allow a fine description of the seasonal and daily cycles in O. rochei reproduction. A hydrophone was deployed from 18 July 2011 to 21 June 2012 and from 7 June 2013 to 2 July 2013 on a sandy area (42.5801° N, 8.7285° E) in front of the STARESO research station (NW Corsica). Male sounds were obtained only at night from late spring to early fall. The annual sound production period corresponds to the reproductive season of O. rochei. Sound production followed diel cycles: it was sustained for the entire night at the beginning of the sound production season but limited to shorter periods in the evening during the second half of the season. These differences in daily and seasonal sound production tempo can be used in future recordings to make inter-annual comparisons and estimate the physiological state of the fish. [less ▲]

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See detailL’utilisation de l’hydrolyse enzymatique pour la production de nanocellulose dans une stratégie de bioraffinage forestier intégré
Bombeck, Pierre-Louis ULg; Hebert, Jacques ULg; Richel, Aurore ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2016), 20(1), 94-103

Introduction. In a world that seeks to break free from petrochemicals, the concept of forest biomass biorefinery is increasingly being studied as a way to maximize the value of the components of this ... [more ▼]

Introduction. In a world that seeks to break free from petrochemicals, the concept of forest biomass biorefinery is increasingly being studied as a way to maximize the value of the components of this biomass. Due to the high added value expected when transforming cellulose fibers into nanocellulose, this technology is highly attractive to the pulp and paper industrial world. Literature. The concept of integrated forest biorefinery is to adapt existing pulp mills so as to maximize the value of the co-products. Through the use of various methods, two types of nanocellulose may be obtained from the cellulose in the pulp. Due to its production of valuable byproducts, enzymatic hydrolysis is an interesting method to use for this purpose, but it must be combined with mechanical post-treatments. The production of nanocellulose from chemical pulp takes place in the final step of pulp production, and could be implemented without modifying the existing mills. The economic viability of this mode of production and the potential market size are the subject of recent studies that appear encouraging. Conclusions. Nanocellulose is a promising biomaterial whose field of application continues to grow. Cellulose in wood pulp can be used as a raw material for the production of nanocellulose using enzymatic pre-treatments that generate valuable co-products. This process can be integrated into a conventional chemical pulp mill and constitutes a broadening of the products available to the pulp and paper industry. [less ▲]

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See detailHydrodynamics of long-duration urban floods: experiments and numerical modelling
Arrault; Finaud-Guyot, Pascal; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in Natural Hazards & Earth System Sciences (2016), 16

Flood risk in urbanized areas raises increasing concerns as a result of demographic and climate changes. Hydraulic modelling is a key component of urban flood risk analysis. Yet, detailed validation data ... [more ▼]

Flood risk in urbanized areas raises increasing concerns as a result of demographic and climate changes. Hydraulic modelling is a key component of urban flood risk analysis. Yet, detailed validation data are still lacking for comprehensively validating hydraulic modelling of inundation flow in urbanized floodplains. ln this study, we present an experimental model of inundation flow in a typical European urban district and we compare the experimental observations with predictions by a shallow-water numerical model. The setup is 5 ll\X Sm and involves seven streets along each direction, leading to 49 intersections. Different inflow discharges and flow partitions were tested. The performance ofthe numerical model is assessed and the upscaling ofthe experimental observations to the field is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailTrophic ecology of the seagrass-inhabiting footballer demoiselle Chrysiptera annulata (Peters, 1855); comparison with three other reef-associated damselfishes
Lepoint, Gilles ULg; Michel, Loïc ULg; Parmentier, Eric ULg et al

in Belgian Journal of Zoology (2016), 146(1), 21-32

Many damselfishes (Pomacentridae) are herbivorous or omnivorous with an important contribution of different kinds of algae in their diet. They display different levels of territoriality and farming ... [more ▼]

Many damselfishes (Pomacentridae) are herbivorous or omnivorous with an important contribution of different kinds of algae in their diet. They display different levels of territoriality and farming behavior, from almost non territorial to monoculture farmers. In addition, few species inhabit seagrass meadows but, presently, none can be considered as seagrass-eating specialists. The footballer demoiselle, Chrysiptera annulata, is found in the seagrass meadows on the reef flat of the Great Reef of Toliara (Madagascar, Mozambique Channel). Regarding this unusual habitat for pomacentrid, this study aimed to answer 3 questions: 1) What is the diet of C. annulata? 2) Do the resources supporting this diet include seagrass? 3) Does its trophic niche overlap those of other sympatric damselfishes (Pomacentrus trilineatus, Chrysiptera unimaculata and Plectroglyphidodon lacrymatus) living in close association with macrophytes or eating algae? Stomach content examination and stable isotope analysis showed that the footballer demoiselle is not a seagrass consumer but is an omnivorous/herbivorous species heavily relying on algal resources and small invertebrates. SIAR, a stable isotope mixing model, indicated it assimilated large amount of turf algae and various benthic or planktonic invertebrates in lower proportions. SIBER metrics pointed out that isotopic niche of the footballer demoiselle partly overlaps the one of its congeneric C. unimaculata, but not those of P. trilineatus and P. lacrymatus. Trophic strategies of C. annulata differed both from farming species such as P. lacrymatus or from less territorial herbivores such as P. trilineatus. Its seagrass meadow habitat on the Great Reef of Toliara allow the conquest of an unusual habitat for damselfishes and could limit competition with C. unimaculata, a species displaying the same territorial behavior and the same isotopic niche but living on the reef itself. [less ▲]

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See detailRéparation des ouvrages en béton armé - Partie 2 : Compatibilité et performances
Courard, Luc ULg; Bissonnette, Benoît

in Techniques de l'Ingénieur. Analyse Chimique et Caractérisation (2016)

La réparation des bétons nécessite non seulement une bonne connaissance du support à réparer, des matériaux de réparation et de l’environnement dans lequel ils vont être mis en œuvre, mais aussi une ... [more ▼]

La réparation des bétons nécessite non seulement une bonne connaissance du support à réparer, des matériaux de réparation et de l’environnement dans lequel ils vont être mis en œuvre, mais aussi une compréhension des mécanismes à la base de l’adhésion. Les compatibilités dimensionnelle, électrochimique, chimique et porosimétrique (perméabilité) sont les clés de la réussite et de la durabilité de la réparation. Sur la base de l’analyse du patrimoine en béton armé et des stratégies d’intervention possible, l’accent a été placé dans la première partie sur l’étude des effets et des causes des principaux défauts de surface observés. Une fois la condition du béton en place adéquatement évaluée (Partie 1), la préparation de la surface avant réparation, sa propreté ou encore sa rugosité sont des conditions essentielles au développement de l’adhérence et de l’accrochage du produit de réparation, garantissant ainsi la durabilité de l’intervention. [less ▲]

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See detail[18F]FPRGD2 PET/CT imaging of integrin αvβ3 levels in patients with locally advanced rectal carcinoma
WITHOFS, Nadia ULg; Martinive, Philippe ULg; VANDERICK, Jean ULg et al

in European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging (2016)

PURPOSE: Our primary objective was to determine if [18F]FPRGD2 PET/CT performed at baseline and/or after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) could predict tumour regression grade (TRG) in locally advanced rectal ... [more ▼]

PURPOSE: Our primary objective was to determine if [18F]FPRGD2 PET/CT performed at baseline and/or after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) could predict tumour regression grade (TRG) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Secondary objectives were to compare baseline [18F]FPRGD2 and [18F]FDG uptake, to evaluate the correlation between posttreatment [18F]FPRGD2 uptake and tumour microvessel density (MVD) and to determine if [18F]FPRGD2 and FDG PET/CT could predict disease-free survival. METHODS: Baseline [18F]FPRGD2 and FDG PET/CT were performed in 32 consecutive patients (23 men, 9 women; mean age 63 +/- 8 years) with LARC before starting any therapy. A posttreatment [18F]FPRGD2 PET/CT scan was performed in 24 patients after the end of CRT (median interval 7 weeks, range 3 - 15 weeks) and before surgery (median interval 4 days, range 1 - 15 days). RESULTS: All LARC showed uptake of both [18F]FPRGD2 (SUVmax 5.4 +/- 1.5, range 2.7 - 9) and FDG (SUVmax 16.5 +/- 8, range 7.1 - 36.5). There was a moderate positive correlation between [18F]FPRGD2 and FDG SUVmax (Pearson's r = 0.49, p = 0.0026). There was a moderate negative correlation between baseline [18F]FPRGD2 SUVmax and the TRG (Spearman's r = -0.37, p = 0.037), and a [18F]FPRGD2 SUVmax of >5.6 identified all patients with a complete response (TRG 0; AUC 0.84, 95 % CI 0.68 - 1, p = 0.029). In the 24 patients who underwent a posttreatment [18F]FPRGD2 PET/CT scan the response index, calculated as [(SUVmax1 - SUVmax2)/SUVmax1] x 100 %, was not associated with TRG. Post-treatment [18F]FPRGD2 uptake was not correlated with tumour MVD. Neither [18F]FPRGD2 nor FDG uptake predicted disease-free survival. CONCLUSION: Baseline [18F]FPRGD2 uptake was correlated with the pathological response in patients with LARC treated with CRT. However, the specificity was too low to consider its clinical routine use. [less ▲]

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See detailConsumer acceptance of insect-based alternative meat products in Western countries
Caparros Megido, Rudy ULg; Gierts, Chloé; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

in Food Quality & Preference (2016)

During the past few years, entomophagy has been increasing in significance. As insects are generally high in protein, they are principally considered as meat substitutes. Nevertheless, in Western ... [more ▼]

During the past few years, entomophagy has been increasing in significance. As insects are generally high in protein, they are principally considered as meat substitutes. Nevertheless, in Western countries, meat substitute consumption is actually very low, principally due to food neophobia and poor sensory qualities in comparison with meat. In insect particular case, food neophobia is clearly high. To reduce insect food neophobia, previous studies suggest to insert invisible insect in food preparation and/or to associate them with known flavors. In this study, a survey on entomophagy perception and hedonic tests were realized to assess the level of sensory-liking of hybrid insect-based burgers (beef, lentils, mealworms and beef, mealworms and lentils). Participants’ overall liking of the four burgers differed between genders and was influenced by burger appearance and taste. Women clearly preferred beef burger appearance, whereas men preferred the appearance of beef and insect-based burgers. Concerning insect-based burger taste, participants (men and women) rated it intermediately, between that of the beef and lentil burger, with a preference for the mealworm and beef burger. Results also showed that people with previous entomophagy experience was limited but that they gave globally higher ratings to all preparations. In conclusion, insect tasting sessions are important to decrease food neophobia, as they encourage people to “take the first step” and become acquainted with entomophagy. Nevertheless, insect integration into Western food culture will involve a transitional phase with minced or powdered insects incorporated into ready-to-eat preparations, as people are not ready to add insects to their diets in “whole form.” [less ▲]

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See detailStructuring effects of lecithins on model fat systems: A comparison between native and hydrolyzed forms
Delacharlerie, S.; Petrut, Raul Flaviu ULg; Deckers, S. et al

in LWT - Food Science and Technology (2016), 72

Lecithin find a wide spread application in the food industry. The purpose of the work reported here was to systematically map the effects of some commercially available lecithins from different sources ... [more ▼]

Lecithin find a wide spread application in the food industry. The purpose of the work reported here was to systematically map the effects of some commercially available lecithins from different sources (soybean, sunflower, rapeseed), in their native state or hydrolysed form, on the crystallization behavior of model fat systems. To this end, systems based on palm oil as hard fat were studied. Next to macroscopic properties such as product hardness, the crystallization behaviour and the microstructure were studied as a function of time and temperature. Addition of the studied lecithin preparations had a significant influence on the hardness (p < 0.05) indicating a structuring effect; this was confirmed by polarised light microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. The impact of the hydrolysed lecithin was however different from the native one. It was shown that the lecithin hydrophobicity is determinant for the structuring ability. [less ▲]

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See detailImmiscible iron- and silica-rich liquids in the Upper Zone of the Bushveld Complex
Fischer, Lennart A.; Wang, Meng; Charlier, Bernard ULg et al

in Earth and Planetary Science Letters (2016), 443

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See detailBott type periodicity for the higher octonions
Kreusch, Marie ULg

in Journal of Noncommutative Geometry (2016), 9(4), 1041-1393

We study the series of complex nonassociative algebras $\bbO_n$ and real nonassociative algebras $\bbO_{p,q}$ introduced in~\cite{MGO2011}. These algebras generalize the classical algebras of octonions ... [more ▼]

We study the series of complex nonassociative algebras $\bbO_n$ and real nonassociative algebras $\bbO_{p,q}$ introduced in~\cite{MGO2011}. These algebras generalize the classical algebras of octonions and Clifford algebras. The algebras $\bbO_{n}$ and $\bbO_{p,q}$ with $p+q=n$ have a natural $\Z_2^n$-grading, and they are characterized by cubic forms over the field $\Z_2$. We establish a periodicity for the algebras~$\bbO_{n}$ and $\bbO_{p,q}$ similar to that of the Clifford algebras $\mathrm{Cl}_{n}$ and~$\mathrm{Cl}_{p,q}$. [less ▲]

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See detailLumbopelvic motor control and low back pain in elite soccer players: a cross-sectional study
GROSDENT, Stéphanie ULg; Demoulin, Christophe ULg; Rodriguez de la Cruz, Carlos ULg et al

in Journal of Sports Sciences (2016)

This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the history of low back pain and quality of lumbopelvic motor control in soccer players. Forty-three male elite soccer players (mean age, 18.2 ± 1 ... [more ▼]

This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the history of low back pain and quality of lumbopelvic motor control in soccer players. Forty-three male elite soccer players (mean age, 18.2 ± 1.4 years) filled in questionnaires related to low back pain and attended a session to assess lumbopelvic motor control by means of five tests (the bent knee fall out test, the knee lift abdominal test, the sitting knee extension test, the waiter ’ s bow and the transversus abdominis test). A physiotherapist, blinded to the medical history of the participants, scored (0 = failed, 1 = correct) the performance of the players for each of the tests resulting in a lumbopelvic motor control score ranging from 0 to 5. Forty-seven per cent of the soccer players reported a disabling low back pain episode lasting at least two consecutive days in the previous year. These players scored worse lumbopelvic motor control than players without a history of low back pain (lumbopelvic motor control score of 1.8 vs. 3.3, P < 0.01). The between-groups difference was particularly marked for the bent knee fall out test, the knee lift abdominal test and the transversus abdominis test (P < 0.01). In conclusion, most soccer players with a history of low back pain had an altered lumbopelvic motor control. Further research should examine whether lumbopelvic motor control is etiologically involved in low back pain episodes in soccer players. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effect of insulin on plasma glucose concentrations, expression of hepatic glucose transporters and key gluconeogenic enzymes during the perinatal period in broiler chickens
Franssens, L.; Lesuisse, J.; Wang, Yuan ULg et al

in General and Comparative Endocrinology (2016)

Chickens have blood glucose concentrations that are twofold higher than those observed in mammals. Moreover, the insulin sensitivity seems to decrease with postnatal age in both broiler and layer chickens ... [more ▼]

Chickens have blood glucose concentrations that are twofold higher than those observed in mammals. Moreover, the insulin sensitivity seems to decrease with postnatal age in both broiler and layer chickens. However, little is known about the response of insulin on plasma glucose concentrations and mRNA abundance of hepatic glucose transporters 1, 2, 3, 8, 9 and 12 (GLUT1, 2, 3, 8, 9 and 12) and three regulatory enzymes of the gluconeogenesis, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 and 2 (PCK1 and 2) or fructose-1,6-biphosphatase 1 (FBP1) in chicks during the perinatal period. In the present study, broiler embryos on embryonic day (ED)16, ED18 or newly-hatched broiler chicks were injected intravenously with bovine insulin (1. μg/g body weight (BW)) to examine plasma glucose response and changes in hepatic mRNA abundance of the GLUTs, PCK1 and 2 and FBP1. Results were compared with a non-treated control group and a saline-injected sham group. Plasma glucose levels of insulin-treated ED18 embryos recovered faster from their minimum level than those of insulin-treated ED16 embryos or newly-hatched chicks. In addition, at the minimum plasma glucose level seven hours post-injection (PI), hepatic GLUT2, FBP1 and PCK2 mRNA abundance was decreased in insulin-injected embryos, compared to sham and control groups, being most pronounced when insulin injection occurred on ED16. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailPrésentation
Gauvry, Charlotte ULg; Leclercq, Bruno ULg

in Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique (2016)

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See detailNew Hosts of The Lassa Virus.
Olayemi, Ayodeji; Cadar, Daniel; Magassouba, N. Faly et al

in Scientific Reports (2016), 6

Lassa virus (LASV) causes a deadly haemorrhagic fever in humans, killing several thousand people in West Africa annually. For 40 years, the Natal multimammate rat, Mastomys natalensis, has been assumed to ... [more ▼]

Lassa virus (LASV) causes a deadly haemorrhagic fever in humans, killing several thousand people in West Africa annually. For 40 years, the Natal multimammate rat, Mastomys natalensis, has been assumed to be the sole host of LASV. We found evidence that LASV is also hosted by other rodent species: the African wood mouse Hylomyscus pamfi in Nigeria, and the Guinea multimammate mouse Mastomys erythroleucus in both Nigeria and Guinea. Virus strains from these animals were isolated in the BSL-4 laboratory and fully sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses of viral genes coding for glycoprotein, nucleoprotein, polymerase and matrix protein show that Lassa strains detected in M. erythroleucus belong to lineages III and IV. The strain from H. pamfi clusters close to lineage I (for S gene) and between II &III (for L gene). Discovery of new rodent hosts has implications for LASV evolution and its spread into new areas within West Africa. [less ▲]

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See detailThe thyroid gland and thyroid hormones in sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) during early development and metamorphosis
Schnitzler, Joseph ULg; Klaren, Peter; Mariavelle, Emeline ULg et al

in Fish Physiology and Biochemistry (2016), 42(2), 607-616

The sheepshead minnow is widely used in ecotoxicological studies that only recently have begun to focus on disruption of the thyroid axis by xenobiotics and endocrine disrupting compounds. However ... [more ▼]

The sheepshead minnow is widely used in ecotoxicological studies that only recently have begun to focus on disruption of the thyroid axis by xenobiotics and endocrine disrupting compounds. However, reference levels of the thyroid prohormone thyroxine (T4) and biologically active hormone 3,5,30-triiodothyronine (T3) and their developmental patterns are unknown. This study set out to describe the ontogeny and morphology of the thyroid gland in sheepshead minnow, and to correlate these with whole-body concentrations of thyroid hormones during early development and metamorphosis. Eggs were collected by natural spawning in our laboratory. T4 and T3 were extracted from embryos, larvae and juveniles and an enzyme-linked immunoassay was used to measure whole-body hormone levels. Length and body mass, hatching success, gross morphology, thyroid hormone levels and histology were measured. The onset of metamorphosis at 12-day post-hatching coincided with surges in whole-body T4 and T3 concentrations. Thyroid follicles were first observed in pre-metamorphic larvae at hatching and were detected exclusively in the subpharyngeal region, surrounding the ventral aorta. Follicle size and thyrocyte epithelial cell heights varied during development, indicating fluctuations in thyroid hormone synthesis activity. The increase in the whole-body T3/T4 ratio was indicative of an increase in outer ring deiodination activity. This study establishes a baseline for thyroid hormones in sheepshead minnows, which will be useful for the understanding of thyroid hormone functions and in future studies of thyroid toxicants in this species. [less ▲]

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See detailLong term-cultured and cryopreserved primordial germ cells from various chicken breeds retain high proliferative potential and gonadal colonisation competency
Tonus, Céline ULg; Cloquette, Karine; Ectors, Fabien ULg et al

in Reproduction, Fertility and Development (2016), 28(5), 628-639

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See detailLes ambiguïtés de l’anthropomorphisme : de la divinité agissante à sa statue dans la céramique grecque
Collard, Hélène ULg

in MethIS : Méthodes et Interdisciplinarité en Sciences Humaines (2016), 5

L’image, sous ses divers aspects, a joué un rôle essentiel dans la vie des anciens Grecs, en particulier dans le domaine religieux, puisque elle était l’une des modalités de perception du divin. En Grèce ... [more ▼]

L’image, sous ses divers aspects, a joué un rôle essentiel dans la vie des anciens Grecs, en particulier dans le domaine religieux, puisque elle était l’une des modalités de perception du divin. En Grèce, la figuration anthropomorphe des dieux est largement majoritaire. Toutefois, en se tournant vers un support particulier, le vase peint, et un type de représentation particulier, la statue divine, on montrera ici que l’anthropomorphisme a pu amener une certaine ambiguïté. Dans la céramique, les représentations de statues fonctionnent sur plusieurs modes, selon la chronologie. C’est ce que l’on propose d’analyser, en examinant un groupe de vases décorés d’un thème semblable et sur lesquels une divinité est représentée, mais soit sous la forme d’une figure « vivante », soit d’une statue plus ou moins bien caractérisée. Cette étude permettra d’aborder les concepts de « fixité » et de « mouvement » de/dans l’image, mais aussi d’explorer quelques pistes de réflexions sur l’image divine et, plus largement, sur les modes de représentation du divin en Grèce ancienne. [less ▲]

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See detailSimultaneous multi-scale and multi-instrument observations of Saturn's aurorae during the 2013 observing campaign
Melin, H.; Badman, S.; Stallard, T. et al

in Icarus (2016)

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See detailDetecting urban road network accessibility problems using taxi GPS data
Cui, JianXun; Liu, Feng; Janssens, Davy et al

in Journal of Transport Geography (2016), 51

Urban population growth and economic development have led to the creation of new communities, jobs and services at places where the existing road network might not cover or efficiently handle traffic ... [more ▼]

Urban population growth and economic development have led to the creation of new communities, jobs and services at places where the existing road network might not cover or efficiently handle traffic. This generates isolated pockets of areas which are difficult to reach through the transport system. To address this accessibility problem, we have developed a novel approach to systematically examine the current urban land use and road network conditions as well as to identify poorly connected regions, using GPS data collected from taxis. This method is composed of four major steps. First, city-wide passenger travel demand patterns and travel times are modeled based on GPS trajectories. Upon this model, high density residential regions are then identified, and measures to assess accessibility of each of these places are developed. Next, the regions with the lowest level of accessibility among all the residential areas are detected, and finally the detected regions are further examined and specific transport situations are analyzed. By applying the proposed method to the Chinese city of Harbin, we have identified 20 regions that have the lowest level of accessibility by car among all the identified residential areas. A serious reachability problem to petrol stations has also been discovered, in which drivers from 92.6% of the residential areas have to travel longer than 30 min to refill their cars. Furthermore, the comparison against a baseline model reveals the capacity of the derived measures in accounting for the actual travel routes under divergent traffic conditions. The experimental results demonstrate the potential and effectiveness of the proposed method in detecting car-based accessibility problems, contributing towards the development of urban road networks into a system that has better reachability and more reduced inequity. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh resolution characterization of the soil organic carbon depth profile in a soil landscape affected by erosion
Jague, Emilien; Sommer, Michael; Saby, Nicolas et al

in Soil & Tillage Research (2016), 156

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See detailThe role of personal goals in autonoetic experience when imagining future events
Lehner, Edith; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg

in Consciousness & Cognition (2016), 42

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See detailEffect of rifampin on the disposition of brivaracetam in human subjects: further insights into brivaracetam hydrolysis.
Stockis, Armel; Watanabe, Shikiko; Scheen, André ULg et al

in Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals (2016), 44(6), 792-799

Brivaracetam (BRV) is a high-affinity synaptic vesicle protein 2A ligand developed for the treatment of uncontrolled partial-onset seizures. The present Phase I open-label two-way crossover study was ... [more ▼]

Brivaracetam (BRV) is a high-affinity synaptic vesicle protein 2A ligand developed for the treatment of uncontrolled partial-onset seizures. The present Phase I open-label two-way crossover study was designed to assess the effect of rifampin on the pharmacokinetics of BRV and its hydroxy (BRV-OH); acid (BRV-AC); and hydroxy acid (BRV OHAC) metabolites. Twenty-six healthy subjects received BRV 150mg single oral dose, either alone or following 5 days of rifampin 600 mg/day. BRV and its metabolites were examined for their plasma profiles and urinary excretion. Pharmacokinetic modeling was developed to estimate the rate constants of the various metabolic routes. Parallel in vitro assays were conducted to characterize the hydrolysis of BRV to BRV-AC as well as to identify any potential effect of rifampin on the hydrolysis reaction. Rifampin did not significantly affect the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of BRV but decreased its area under the curve (AUC) by 45%. In addition, rifampin significantly increased the AUC of BRV-OH (+109%), decreased the AUC of BRV-AC (-53%), but had little effect on BRV-OHAC (-10%). In vitro assays showed that the major urinary metabolite BRV-AC (33% of the dose) was likely to be formed by amidase EC 3.5.1.4. In vitro data indicated that the enzyme was not significantly inhibited nor induced by rifampin. Modeling confirmed that all the observed changes in vivo were secondary to the induction of the CYP2C19-mediated hydroxylation of BRV to BRV-OH (3.7-fold increase in the rate constant). [less ▲]

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See detailReappraisal of the diuretic effect of empagliflozin in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial: Comparison with classic diuretics.
Scheen, André ULg

in Diabètes & Métabolism (2016)

AIMS: Empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, has been associated with a remarkable reduction in cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and ... [more ▼]

AIMS: Empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, has been associated with a remarkable reduction in cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and antecedents of cardiovascular disease. This effect was attributed to a diuretic (haemodynamic) rather than metabolic (antiatherogenic) effect. The aim of this review is to offer arguments that either support or challenge this 'diuretic hypothesis'. METHODS: The literature was scrutinized to: (1) examine the diuretic effects of SGLT2 inhibitors vs. hydrochlorothiazide as the reference diuretic; (2) analyze the effects of classic diuretics on cardiovascular outcomes and mortality in diabetic patients; and (3) reconsider some of the specific analyses of the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial possibly related to a diuretic effect. RESULTS: The diuretic effect of empagliflozin has so far been poorly investigated, although SGLT2 inhibitors have actions distinct from those of classic diuretics. The effects of thiazide-like diuretics on cardiovascular and overall mortality have been limited in diabetic patients with hypertension, whereas the effects of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in subgroups of diabetic patients with heart failure were more impressive, but still largely inferior to those reported in EMPA-REG, where relative reductions in mortality with empagliflozin were observed in diabetic patients with or without heart failure, arterial hypertension, renal impairment or diuretic background therapy. CONCLUSION: Although the diuretic hypothesis was put forward to explain the remarkable reduction in mortality with empagliflozin in EMPA-REG, the available results do not support a major contribution of this mechanism, unless the specific diuretic effect of SGLT2 inhibitors turns out to be markedly different from those of classic diuretics. [less ▲]

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See detailCalf health: Cholesterol deficiency causing calf illthrift and diarrhoea
Duff, J. P.; Passant, S.; Wessels, M. et al

in The Veterinary record (2016), 178(17), 424-5

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See detailDialects in Pre-Coptic Egyptian. With a special attention to Late Egyptian
Winand, Jean ULg

in Lingua Aegyptia [= LingAeg] (2016), 23

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See detailNeural correlates of event clusters in past and future thoughts: How the brain integrates specific episodes with autobiographical knowledge
Demblon, Julie ULg; Bahri, Mohamed Ali ULg; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg

in NeuroImage (2016), 127

When remembering the past or envisioning the future, events often come to mind in organized sequences or stories rather than in isolation from one another. The aim of the present fMRI study was to ... [more ▼]

When remembering the past or envisioning the future, events often come to mind in organized sequences or stories rather than in isolation from one another. The aim of the present fMRI study was to investigate the neural correlates of such event clusters. Participants were asked to consider pairs of specific past or future events: in one condition, the two events were part of the same event cluster (i.e., they were thematically and/or causally related to each other), whereas in another condition the two events only shared a surface feature (i.e., their location); a third condition was also included, in which the two events were unrelated to each other. The results showed that the processing of past and future events that were part of a same cluster was associated with higher activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), rostrolateral PFC, and left lateral temporal and parietal regions, compared to the two other conditions. Furthermore, functional connectivity analyses revealed an increased coupling between these cortical regions. These findings suggest that largely similar processes are involved in organizing events in clusters for the past and the future. The medial and rostrolateral PFC might play a pivotal role in mediating the integration of specific events with conceptual autobiographical knowledge ‘stored’ in more posterior regions. Through this integrative process, this set of brain regions might contribute to the attribution of an overarching meaning to representations of specific past and future events, by contextualizing them with respect to personal goals and general knowledge about one's life story. [less ▲]

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See detailMetabolomics as a Challenging Approach for Medicinal Chemistry and Personalized Medicine.
Frederich, Michel ULg; Pirotte, Bernard ULg; Fillet, Marianne ULg et al

in Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2016)

"Omics" sciences have been developed to provide a holistic point of view of biology and to better understand the complexity of an organism as a whole. These systems biology approaches can be examined at ... [more ▼]

"Omics" sciences have been developed to provide a holistic point of view of biology and to better understand the complexity of an organism as a whole. These systems biology approaches can be examined at different levels, starting from the most fundamental, i.e., the genome, and finishing with the most functional, i.e., the metabolome. Similar to how genomics is applied to the exploration of DNA, metabolomics is the qualitative and quantitative study of metabolites. This emerging field is clearly linked to genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics. In addition, metabolomics provides a unique and direct vision of the functional outcome of an organism's activities that are required for it to survive, grow, and respond to internal and external stimuli or stress, e.g., pathologies and drugs. The links between metabolic changes, patient phenotype, physiological and/or pathological status, and treatment are now well established and have opened a new area for the application of metabolomics in the drug discovery process and in personalized medicine. [less ▲]

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See detailTargeting the tricuspid valve: A new therapeutic challenge.
LANCELLOTTI, Patrizio ULg; Fattouch, Khalil; DULGHERU, Raluca Elena ULg

in Archives of cardiovascular diseases (2016)

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See detailInvestigational insulin secretagogues for type 2 diabetes.
SCHEEN, André ULg

in Expert opinion on investigational drugs (2016), 25(4), 405-22

INTRODUCTION: Insulin secretory defects are a key feature in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Classical insulin-secreting agents such as sulfonlyureas stimulate insulin secretion independent ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: Insulin secretory defects are a key feature in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Classical insulin-secreting agents such as sulfonlyureas stimulate insulin secretion independent of glucose and cause hypoglycemia. Despite the advantages offered by incretin-based therapies, there is still a medical need for developing new insulin secretagogues for treating T2D. AREA COVERED: This article discusses: the new advances in the field of incretin-based therapies, glucokinase (GK) activators, free fatty acid receptor (FFAR) or G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) agonists (GPR40, GPR119, GPR120), imeglimin and some other insulin secretagogues with diverse mechanisms of action still in preclinical development. EXPERT OPINION: New insulin secretagogues should offer major advantages over sulfonylureas and gliptins. The challenge is to avoid uncontrolled insulin secretion and minimize the risk of hypoglycemia, to protect cells from progressive loss of mass and function for a better durability of glucose control, and to offer a good safety profile. Numerous approaches are in development. However, it is too early to decide whether one new pharmacological class will emerge as a clinically useful insulin secretagogue in the near feature. [less ▲]

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See detailGrowth hormone releasing hormone excess and blockade in X-LAG syndrome.
Daly, Adrian Francis ULg; Lysy, Philippe; Defilles, Celine et al

in Endocrine-related cancer (2016)

X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) syndrome is a newly-described form of inheritable pituitary gigantism that begins in early childhood and is usually associated with markedly elevated growth hormone (GH) and ... [more ▼]

X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) syndrome is a newly-described form of inheritable pituitary gigantism that begins in early childhood and is usually associated with markedly elevated growth hormone (GH) and prolactin secretion by mixed pituitary adenomas/hyperplasia. Microduplications on chromosome Xq26.3 including the GPR101 gene cause X-LAG syndrome. In individual cases random GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) levels have been elevated. We performed a series of hormonal profiles in a young female sporadic X-LAG syndrome patient and subsequently undertook in vitro studies of primary pituitary tumor culture following neurosurgical resection. The patient demonstrated consistently elevated circulating GHRH levels throughout preoperative testing, which was accompanied by marked GH and prolactin hypersecretion; GH demonstrated a paradoxical increase following TRH administration. In vitro, the pituitary cells showed baseline GH and prolactin release that was further stimulated by GHRH administration. Co-incubation with GHRH and the GHRH receptor antagonist, acetyl-(D-Arg(2))-GHRH (1-29) amide, blocked the GHRH-induced GH stimulation; the GHRH receptor antagonist alone significantly reduced GH release. Pasireotide, but not octreotide, inhibited GH secretion. A ghrelin receptor agonist and an inverse agonist led to modest, statistically significant increases and decreases in GH secretion, respectively. GHRH hypersecretion can accompany the pituitary abnormalities seen in X-LAG syndrome. These data suggest that the pathology of X-LAG syndrome may include hypothalamic dysregulation of GHRH secretion, which is in keeping with localization of GPR101 in the hypothalamus. Therapeutic blockade of GHRH secretion could represent a way to target the marked hormonal hypersecretion and overgrowth that characterizes X-LAG syndrome. [less ▲]

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See detailÉtude des potentialités des systèmes d’application contrôlée des gouttes (CDA) pour les traitements phytosanitaires en céréaliculture (synthèse bibliographique)
Ouled Taleb Salah, Sofiene ULg; De Cock, Nicolas ULg; Massinon, Mathieu ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment (2016)

Introduction. L’application contrôlée des gouttes (CDA) présente le double avantage de réduire à la fois l’étendue de la distribution des tailles des gouttes et le volume appliqué par rapport aux buses ... [more ▼]

Introduction. L’application contrôlée des gouttes (CDA) présente le double avantage de réduire à la fois l’étendue de la distribution des tailles des gouttes et le volume appliqué par rapport aux buses hydrauliques conventionnelles. Littérature. Cette revue investigue la potentialité de la CDA par rapport aux buses hydrauliques dans le cadre du désherbage précoce des adventices (2-3 feuilles). En termes de rétention, les études reliant les caractéristiques des gouttes (taille, vitesse et direction) et l’architecture, la densité et la mouillabilité du feuillage, en fonction de la formulation de bouillies, ont été abordées. Ces études montrent que des gouttes de 300 μm avec un adjuvant approprié et des jets émis 60° vers l’avant par rapport à la verticale contribuent à l’augmentation de la rétention sur les cibles problématiques à port dressé. L’effet des réductions des volumes d’application pour ces deux techniques est étudié sur base de la moyenne, du coefficient de variation et du taux de couverture des dépôts. Néanmoins, les résultats de ces études ne peuvent être généralisés du fait des différences de réglages opératoires entre les deux techniques d’application. Quant à la dérive, les atomiseurs CDA orientés horizontalement présentent un potentiel de dérive plus important que les buses hydrauliques pour lesquelles le spray est orienté vers le bas. La dérive augmente avec la vitesse du vent et diminue lorsque le diamètre médian volumétrique (DV50) augmente. Conclusions. De nouveaux réglages des atomiseurs de la CDA en termes de DV50 et de direction du jet peuvent répondre aux défis de l’agriculture de précision. Les pistes d’innovations proposées sont d’une part une amélioration de la résistance à l’usure des dents situées en bordure des disques et, d’autre part, une distribution granulométrique plus étroite. [less ▲]

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See detailThe clinical challenge of concomitant aortic and mitral valve stenosis.
Unger, Philippe; Lancellotti, Patrizio ULg; de Canniere, Didier

in Acta Cardiologica (2016), 71(1), 3-6

The coexistence of mitral and aortic stenosis is not exceptional. Whereas rheumatic fever is currently plummeting in the Western countries, the incidence of degenerative disease is inversely increasing ... [more ▼]

The coexistence of mitral and aortic stenosis is not exceptional. Whereas rheumatic fever is currently plummeting in the Western countries, the incidence of degenerative disease is inversely increasing. The haemodynamic interactions which may interfere both with the usual echocardiographic parameters and with the invasive assessment may render the diagnosis difficult. The therapeutic challenges raised by this entity should not be underestimated. The increased morbidity and mortality of multivalvular surgery has to be balanced with the risk of a second operation down the line if one valvular involvement, deemed of a lesser importance, is neglected. This complex situation requires the multidisciplinary approach of a heart team involving surgeons, cardiologists, geriatrists if need be and imaging specialists. [less ▲]

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See detailRevised diagnosis and severity criteria for sinusoidal obstruction syndrome/veno-occlusive disease in adult patients: a new classification from the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Mohty, M.; Malard, F.; Abecassis, M. et al

in Bone Marrow Transplantation (2016)

Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, also known as veno-occlusive disease (SOS/VOD), is a potentially life threatening complication that can develop after hematopoietic cell transplantation. Although SOS/VOD ... [more ▼]

Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, also known as veno-occlusive disease (SOS/VOD), is a potentially life threatening complication that can develop after hematopoietic cell transplantation. Although SOS/VOD progressively resolves within a few weeks in most patients, the most severe forms result in multi-organ dysfunction and are associated with a high mortality rate (480%). Therefore, careful attention must be paid to allow an early detection of SOS/VOD, particularly as drugs have now proven to be effective and licensed for its treatment. Unfortunately, current criteria lack sensitivity and specificity, making early identification and severity assessment of SOS/VOD difficult. The aim of this work is to propose a new definition for diagnosis, and a severity-grading system for SOS/VOD in adult patients, on behalf of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. [less ▲]

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See detailTea production between contract and none contract farmers in Phu Tho Province of Vietnam
Le Thi Kim, Oanh ULg; Bui Thi, Nga; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

in Scholars Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences (2016), 3(2), 117-122

Tea is one of key crops which substantially contributes to Vietnam’s annual exports, creates jobs and raises income for farmers. However, tea production farmers are still facing many difficulties such as ... [more ▼]

Tea is one of key crops which substantially contributes to Vietnam’s annual exports, creates jobs and raises income for farmers. However, tea production farmers are still facing many difficulties such as low farm management, disease control, etc. Of which, tea consumption is considered to be the most challenge and the main reasons is the low cooperation between farmers and other stakeholders in the tea value chain. This study aims to look more deeply and find out the linkage and benefit of farmers in the model of cooperation between farmers and tea processing company through contract and none contract tea production in the study site. The results shown that the contract farming in tea production in the study sites was still not tightened and did not reflect clearly its real roles. However, it was gradually reflected it s roles as the fully contract farmers (worker farmers) received the highest productivity, turnover and value added and the most satisfied, the contract farmers (partly contract) achieved not as high benefit but quite satisfied with their results and contract. None contract farmers although received reasonable results recently but they still did not assure the production, they would like to engage in some kinds of cooperation in the future. [less ▲]

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See detailExistence of two groups of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis based on biofilm formation, intracellular survival, capsular profile and agr-typing.
Bardiau, Marjorie ULg; Caplin, Jonathan; Detilleux, Johann ULg et al

in Veterinary microbiology (2016), 185

Staphylococcus (S.) aureus is recognised worldwide as an important pathogen causing contagious acute and chronic bovine mastitis. Chronic mastitis account for a significant part of all bovine cases and ... [more ▼]

Staphylococcus (S.) aureus is recognised worldwide as an important pathogen causing contagious acute and chronic bovine mastitis. Chronic mastitis account for a significant part of all bovine cases and represent an important economic problem for dairy producers. Several properties (biofilm formation, intracellular survival, capsular expression and group agr) are thought to be associated with this chronic status. In a previous study, we found the existence of two groups of strains based on the association of these features. The aim of the present work was to confirm on a large international and non-related collection of strains the existence of these clusters and to associate them with case history records. In addition, the genomes of eight strains were sequenced to study the genomic differences between strains of each cluster. The results confirmed the existence of both groups based on capsular typing, intracellular survival and agr-typing: strains cap8-positive, belonging to agr group II, showing a low invasion rate and strains cap5-positive, belonging to agr group I, showing a high invasion rate. None of the two clusters were associated with the chronic status of the cow. When comparing the genomes of strains belonging to both clusters, the genes specific to the group "cap5-agrI" would suggest that these strains are better adapted to live in hostile environment. The existence of these two groups is highly important as they may represent two clusters that are adapted differently to the host and/or the surrounding environment. [less ▲]

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See detailPalindromic sequences generated from marked morphisms
Labbé, Sébastien ULg; Pelantova, Edita

in European Journal of Combinatorics (2016), 51

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See detailSynthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of benzothiazoles and tetrahydrobenzothiazoles bearing urea or thiourea moieties as vasorelaxants and inhibitors of the insulin releasing process
Harrouche, K; Renard, JF; Bouider, N et al

in European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2016), 115

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See detailIconic turn et critique du paradigme langagier
Hagelstein, Maud ULg

in Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique (2016), 12 (2016)(2),

Comment appréhender le problème de la légalité des significations dans le champ non verbal du visuel ? Tel est l’exercice auquel s’essaie le théoricien de l’image allemand Gottfried Boehm, soucieux de ... [more ▼]

Comment appréhender le problème de la légalité des significations dans le champ non verbal du visuel ? Tel est l’exercice auquel s’essaie le théoricien de l’image allemand Gottfried Boehm, soucieux de dégager les principes formels structurant l’émergence de significations dans le domaine du visuel, tout en tenant à distance l’usage de la grammaire prédicative pour la compréhension des images. Sa proposition s’inscrit dans le cadre des débats autour de ce que l’on appelle — dans le domaine de la théorie de l’image actuelle — l’iconic turn (le « tournant iconique » / ikonische Wendung). À bien des égards, l’iconic turn est lié à une réflexion large sur l’héritage de l’iconologie, cette discipline d’interprétation des images inaugurée en 1912 par le théoricien de l’art Aby Warburg (1866-1929), nourrie par la philosophie des formes symboliques de Ernst Cassirer (1874-1945), et systématisée par Erwin Panofsky (1892-1968) dans ses Essais d’iconologie (1939), notamment1. Visant l’interprétation du contenu symbolique des images, la méthode iconologique concevait l’art comme l’un des domaines essentiels de production de sens, une « forme symbolique » privilégiée, pour reprendre la terminologie cassirérienne2. Le célèbre tableau synthétique repris en introduction aux Essais d’iconologie montre comment procède l’iconologie, par dégagement progressif de couches de significations. S’il a construit sa méthode en dialogue avec la philosophie, Panofsky n’a pas pour autant intégré au cahier des charges de l’iconologie l’ambition de dégager systématiquement les principes formels conditionnant la possibilité même de la signification — raison pour laquelle cette discipline n’est pas à proprement parler philosophique. L’iconologie est exégétique ; elle offre les outils nécessaires à une interprétation précise du contenu des œuvres. Table des matières 1. Changement de paradigme : le tournant iconique 2. La différence iconique : une logique des contrastes 3. L’image montre la monstration 4. Un affranchissement relatif Conclusion [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of a Reference Database for Particle-Induced Gamma-ray Emission spectroscopy
Dimitriou, P.; Becker, H.-W.; Bogdanović-Radović, I. et al

in Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section B, Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms (2016), 371

Particle-Induced Gamma-ray Emission (PIGE) is a powerful analytical technique that exploits the interactions of rapid charged particles with nuclei located near a sample surface to determine the ... [more ▼]

Particle-Induced Gamma-ray Emission (PIGE) is a powerful analytical technique that exploits the interactions of rapid charged particles with nuclei located near a sample surface to determine the composition and structure of the surface regions of solids by measurement of characteristic prompt γ rays. The potential for depth profiling of this technique has long been recognized, however, the implementation has been limited owing to insufficient knowledge of the physical data and lack of suitable user-friendly computer codes for the applications. Although a considerable body of published data exists in the nuclear physics literature for nuclear reaction cross sections with γ rays in the exit channel, there is no up-to-date, comprehensive compilation specifically dedicated to IBA applications. A number of PIGE cross-section data had already been uploaded to the Ion Beam Analysis Nuclear Data Library (IBANDL) (http://www-nds.iaea.org/ibandl) by members of the IBA community by 2011, however a preliminary survey of this body of unevaluated experimental data has revealed numerous discrepancies beyond the uncertainty limits reported by the authors. Using the resources and coordination provided by the IAEA, a concerted effort to improve the situation was made within the Coordinated Research Project on the Development of a Reference Database for PIGE spectroscopy, from 2011 to 2015. The aim of the CRP was to create a data library for Ion Beam Analysis that contains reliable and usable data on charged particle γ-ray emission cross sections that would be made freely available to the user community. As the CRP has reached its completion, we shall present its main achievements, including the results of nuclear cross-section evaluations and the development of a computer code that will become available to the public allowing for the implementation of a standardless PIGE technique. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailNew data about anatomy, branching, and inferred growth patterns in the Early Devonian plant Armoricaphyton chateaupannense, Montjean-sur-Loire, France
Gerrienne, Philippe ULg; Gensel, PG

in Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology (2016), 224(Part 1), 38-53

This study provides detailed information, based on serial peels, on the anatomy of the primary and secondary xylem, lateral branch formation, and proposed growth pattern of Armoricaphyton Strullu-Derrien ... [more ▼]

This study provides detailed information, based on serial peels, on the anatomy of the primary and secondary xylem, lateral branch formation, and proposed growth pattern of Armoricaphyton Strullu-Derrien et al., an Early Devonian (Pragian) basal euphyllophyte. The centrarch primary xylem strand is circular to oval in cross section and includes P-type tracheids. The pattern of lateral branch departure is described in detail based on serial peels. The secondary xylem, illustrated in transverse, radial and tangential longitudinal sections, includes P-type tracheids with similar pitting in radial and tangential walls. The presence of one-walled spaces interpreted as rays is confirmed. This study also documents the earliest occurrence of secondary xylem at bases of next higher order of branches. A model of growth for this unusual Early Devonian plant is presented, with documented epidogenetic, menetogenetic and possible apoxogenetic phases. The difference in proportion of primary tosecondary xylem is postulated to be a result of this mode of growth. The possible implications of xylem size and organization in the lateral organ in Armoricaphyton relative to the early evolution of the megaphyllous leaf are briefly discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailHow much does the Dallas Pain Questionnaire score have to improve to indicate that patients with chronic low back pain feel better or well?
Marty, M; Courvoisier, D; Foltz, V et al

in European Spine Journal (2016), 25

Purpose: The Dallas Pain Questionnaire (DPQ) assesses the impact of low back pain (LBP) on four components (0–100) of daily life. We estimated the minimal clinically important improvement (MCII) and the ... [more ▼]

Purpose: The Dallas Pain Questionnaire (DPQ) assesses the impact of low back pain (LBP) on four components (0–100) of daily life. We estimated the minimal clinically important improvement (MCII) and the patient acceptable symptom state (PASS) values of DPQ in LBP patients. Methods: 142 patients with LBP lasting for at least 4 weeks completed a battery of questionnaires at baseline and 6 months later. Questions for MCII addressed patientreported response to treatment at 6 months on a five-point Likert scale, while a yes/no question concerning satisfaction with present state was used to determine PASS. MCII wascomputed as the difference in mean DPQ scores between patients reporting treatment as effective vs. patients reporting treatment as not effective, and PASS was computed as the third quartile of the DPQ score among patients who reported being satisfied with their present state. Results: MCII values were 22, 23, 2 and 10 for daily activities, work and leisure, social interest, and anxiety/depression, respectively. PASS values were 29, 23, 20 and 21 for the four components, respectively. The PASS total score threshold of 24 correctly classified 84.1 % of the patients who reported being unsatisfied with their present state, and 74.7 % of patients reported being satisfied. Conclusions: These values give information of paramount importance for clinicians in interpreting change in DPQ values over time. Authors should be encouraged to report the percentage of patients who reach MCII and PASS values in randomized clinical trials and cohort studies to help clinicians to interpret clinical results. [less ▲]

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See detailRegional integration and agricultural trade development in Rwanda: the case of staple foods sector
Musabanganji, Edouard ULg; Karangwa, Antoine; Azadi, Hossein ULg et al

in Poljoprivreda i Sumarstvo = Agriculture and Forestry (2016), 62(2), 153-162

This paper investigated the impact of regional integration on the agricultural trade development. Using a literature review, the study showed that the results of common agricultural initiatives aiming at ... [more ▼]

This paper investigated the impact of regional integration on the agricultural trade development. Using a literature review, the study showed that the results of common agricultural initiatives aiming at agriculture sector and agricultural trade development have not been convincing due to lack of appropriate mechanisms and institutional actions to operationalize regional agricultural policy and strategy at the national level. The paper also revealed that Rwanda benefited from its accession to EAC, especially in terms of the ease of access to regional markets through the establishment of the Common Market, the Customs Union and the alleviation of some of regional trade barriers for basic foodstuffs and consumer goods. This led to an increased value of its agricultural products exports to neighboring countries. The analysis of the Net Export Index and the Grubel-Lloyd measure for maize, potato and bean revealed that Rwanda is a net importer of maize and a net exporter of potato and bean. For these two staple foods, the results revealed that if Rwanda manages, through policy and institutional actions, to remove or alleviate the bottlenecks that prevent farmers from producing enough for export, it can have a competitive advantage on neighboring countries' markets whose access has been facilitated by its accession to the EAC. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of total phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity in cherry species and cultivars
Pissard, Audrey; Lateur, Marc; Baeten, V et al

in Journal of Berry Research (2016)

BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that cherries, especially sour cultivars, contain substantial amounts of phenolic compounds. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to (i) analyze the total phenolic compound ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that cherries, especially sour cultivars, contain substantial amounts of phenolic compounds. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to (i) analyze the total phenolic compound (TPC) content and the antioxidant capacity (AC) of a large range of cultivars using the same methodology in one laboratory, and (ii) determine the possible relationship between agronomic characteristics and AC. METHODS: A total of 245 samples including sweet, sour and hybrid cultivars from our collections were harvested at their optimum maturity and characterized according to their TPC, DPPH and ORAC values. RESULTS: The TPC content and DPPH and ORAC values varied greatly among the cherries, with the sour cultivars presenting higher levels than the sweet ones. The PCA plot showed a slight grouping by species and confirmed the high TPC content level in sour cultivars. The bi-colored cultivars had lower TPC and antioxidant capacity (AC) values than dark-colored ones, indicating that coloration could give an indication of the AC of fruits. No significant relationship between the agronomic and chemical properties was highlighted. CONCLUSIONS: Cherry fruits, especially from sour cultivars, represent an important source of bioactive compounds and could attract new interest as a ‘functional food’. [less ▲]

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See detailAdaptation posologique des médicaments et fonction rénale : Quel(s) estimateur(s) faut-il choisir?
DELANAYE, Pierre ULg; Flamant, M; CAVALIER, Etienne ULg et al

in Néphrologie & Thérapeutique (2016), 12(1), 18-31

Le choix de la formule d’estimation du de´ bit de filtration glomérulaire (DFG) a` utiliser pour l’adaptation posologique fait encore de´ bat, principalement entre la formule de Cockcroft et les équations ... [more ▼]

Le choix de la formule d’estimation du de´ bit de filtration glomérulaire (DFG) a` utiliser pour l’adaptation posologique fait encore de´ bat, principalement entre la formule de Cockcroft et les équations plus récentes, MDRD (pour Modified Diet in Renal Disease) et CKD-EPI (pour Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology). Les arguments mis en avant en faveur de l’utilisation de la formule de Cockcroft sont : qu’elle a été préférentiellement utilisée pour décider des adaptations posologiques avant la mise sur le marché des médicaments, qu’elle permettrait une meilleure prédiction du risque de survenue des effets indésirables a` l’accumulation des médicaments, qu’elle permettrait de limiter le surdosage médicamenteux chez la personne âgée. Dans cet article d’opinion, nous discutons les faiblesses de l’argumentaire des partisans du maintien de l’utilisation de la formule de Cockcroft dans le contexte de l’adaptation posologique, ainsi que les limites et le manque de fiabilité de cette formule. Nous soutenons la recommandation de la Haute Autorité de sante´ (HAS) sur l’utilisation systématique, en 2015, de l’équation CKD-EPI pour l’estimation du DFG. Lorsque le DFG est e´ value´ dans le but d’adapter la posologie d’un médicament, la désindexation de la surface corporelle est préférable. Compte tenu des difficultés d’estimation du DFG chez la personne âgée et chez les individus a` gabarit hors norme, nous recommandons d’utiliser en priorité dans ces populations, des médicaments pour lesquels un suivi pharmacologique est disponible, ou d’avoir recours à une méthode de référence de mesure du DFG. [less ▲]

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See detailEdouard Poty: a bio- and bibliography
Denayer, Julien ULg; Aretz, Markus ULg; Barchy, Laurent et al

in Geologica Belgica (2016), 19(1-2), 3-6

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See detailMigration, prostitution and the representation of the black female subject in Nigerian video films about Italy
Jedlowski, Alessandro ULg

in Journal of Italian Cinema and Media Studies (2016), 4(1), 9-23

Much contemporary images of black women in Italian media are marked by the legacy of colonialist propaganda and tend to perpetuate a representation of black women as passive eroticized objects of the ... [more ▼]

Much contemporary images of black women in Italian media are marked by the legacy of colonialist propaganda and tend to perpetuate a representation of black women as passive eroticized objects of the white male gaze. In this sense, Ponzanesi’s call for ‘new and less biased representations, which could help to assess the multiple subject positions that black identities now occupy’ (2005: 179) is still relevant. This article responds to this call by analyzing two Nigerian video films that thematize migration and prostitution trafficking in Italy. By highlighting the complexity of the processes of ‘subjectivation’ taking place throughout the migratory process, these videos invite their viewers to look at the postcolonial subject’s responsibility in shaping the world in which s/he lives, and offer a representation of the black female subject able to go beyond the voyeuristic attitude that characterize much of the existing contemporary Italian visual culture about this topic. [less ▲]

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See detailRB regulates the production and the survival of newborn neurons in the embryonic and adult dentate gyrus.
Vandenbosch, Renaud ULg; Clark, Alysen; Fong, Bensun et al

in Hippocampus (2016)

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See detailRhubarb extract prevents hepatic inflammation induced by acute alcohol intake, an effect related to the modulation of the gut microbiota.
Neyrinck, Audrey M.; Etxeberria, Usune; Taminiau, Bernard ULg et al

in Molecular Nutrition & Food Research (2016)

SCOPE: Binge consumption of alcohol is an alarming global health problem. Acute ethanol intoxication is characterized by inflammation and oxidative stress, which could be promoted by gut barrier function ... [more ▼]

SCOPE: Binge consumption of alcohol is an alarming global health problem. Acute ethanol intoxication is characterized by inflammation and oxidative stress, which could be promoted by gut barrier function alterations. In this study, we have tested the hypothesis of the hepatoprotective effect of rhubarb extract in a mouse model of binge drinking and we explored the contribution of the gut microbiota in the related- metabolic effects. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mice were fed a control diet supplemented with or without 0.3% rhubarb extract for 17 days and were necropsied 6 hours after an alcohol challenge. Supplementation with rhubarb extract changed the microbial ecosystem (assessed by 16S rDNA pyrosequencing) in favor of Akkermansia muciniphila and Parabacteroides goldsteinii. Furthermore, it improved alcohol-induced hepatic injury, down-regulated key markers of both inflammatory and oxidative stresses in the liver tissue, without affecting significantly steatosis. In the gut, rhubarb supplementation increased crypt depth, tissue weight, the expression of antimicrobial peptides. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that some bacterial genders involved in gut barrier function, are promoted by phytochemicals present in rhubarb extract, and could therefore be involved in the modulation of the susceptibility to hepatic diseases linked to acute alcohol consumption. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative virucidal efficacy of seven disinfectants against murine norovirus and feline calicivirus, surrogates of human norovirus
Zonta, William ULg; Mauroy, Axel ULg; Farnir, Frédéric ULg et al

in Food and Environmental Virology (2016)

Human noroviruses (HuNoV) are the leading cause of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis in humans and can be transmitted either by person-to-person contact or by consumption of contaminated food. Knowledge ... [more ▼]

Human noroviruses (HuNoV) are the leading cause of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis in humans and can be transmitted either by person-to-person contact or by consumption of contaminated food. Knowledge of an efficient disinfection for both hands and food contact surfaces is helpful for the food sector and provides precious information for public health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of seven disinfectants belonging to different groups of biocides (alcohol, halogen, oxidizing agents, quaternary ammonium compounds, aldehyde and biguanide) on infectious viral titre and on genomic copy number. Due to the absence of a cell culture system for HuNoV, two HuNoV surrogates such as murine norovirus (MNV) and feline calicivirus (FCV), were used and the tests were performed in suspension, on gloves and on stainless steel discs. When, as criteria of efficacy, a log reduction > 3 of the infectious viral titre on both surrogates and in the three tests is used, the most efficacious disinfectants in this study appear to be biocidal products B, C and D, representing the halogens, the oxidizing agents group and a mix of QAC, alcohol and aldehyde, respectively. In addition, these three disinfectants also elicited a significant effect on genomic copy number for both surrogate viruses and in all three tests. The results of this study demonstrate that a halogen compound, oxidizing agents and a mix of QAC, alcohol and aldehyde are advisable for HuNoV disinfection of either potentially contaminated surfaces or materials in contact with foodstuffs. [less ▲]

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See detailDeletion of Murid Herpesvirus 4 ORF63 Affects the Trafficking of Incoming Capsids toward the Nucleus.
Latif, Muhammad Bilal ULg; Machiels, Bénédicte ULg; Xiao, Xue ULg et al

in Journal of virology (2016), 90(5), 2455-72

Gammaherpesviruses are important human and animal pathogens. Despite the fact that they display the classical architecture of herpesviruses, the function of most of their structural proteins is still ... [more ▼]

Gammaherpesviruses are important human and animal pathogens. Despite the fact that they display the classical architecture of herpesviruses, the function of most of their structural proteins is still poorly defined. This is especially true for tegument proteins. Interestingly, a potential role in immune evasion has recently been proposed for the tegument protein encoded by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus open reading frame 63 (ORF63). To gain insight about the roles of ORF63 in the life cycle of a gammaherpesvirus, we generated null mutations in the ORF63 gene of murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4). We showed that disruption of ORF63 was associated with a severe MuHV-4 growth deficit both in vitro and in vivo. The latter deficit was mainly associated with a defect of replication in the lung but did not affect the establishment of latency in the spleen. From a functional point of view, inhibition of caspase-1 or the inflammasome did not restore the growth of the ORF63-deficient mutant, suggesting that the observed deficit was not associated with the immune evasion mechanism identified previously. Moreover, this growth deficit was also not associated with a defect in virion egress from the infected cells. In contrast, it appeared that MuHV-4 ORF63-deficient mutants failed to address most of their capsids to the nucleus during entry into the host cell, suggesting that ORF63 plays a role in capsid movement. In the future, ORF63 could therefore be considered a target to block gammaherpesvirus infection at a very early stage of the infection. IMPORTANCE: The important diseases caused by gammaherpesviruses in human and animal populations justify a better understanding of their life cycle. In particular, the role of most of their tegument proteins is still largely unknown. In this study, we used murid herpesvirus 4, a gammaherpesvirus infecting mice, to decipher the role of the protein encoded by the viral ORF63 gene. We showed that the absence of this protein is associated with a severe growth deficit both in vitro and in vivo that was mainly due to impaired migration of viral capsids toward the nucleus during entry. Together, our results provide new insights about the life cycle of gammaherpesviruses and could allow the development of new antiviral strategies aimed at blocking gammaherpesvirus infection at the very early stages. [less ▲]

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See detailThere is nothing more pratical than a good theory. Conceptuals tools for the Practioners in Conservation
Verbeeck, Muriel ULg

in Studies in Conservation (2016)

This paper sheds light on the efficiency of philosophical conceptualization to grasp the modalities of contemporary art. The concepts of intentionality, attentionality and aesthetic functionality borrowed ... [more ▼]

This paper sheds light on the efficiency of philosophical conceptualization to grasp the modalities of contemporary art. The concepts of intentionality, attentionality and aesthetic functionality borrowed from Gerard Genette are used to analyze a practical case: Dirty Corner, installation by Anish Kapoor vandalized in the gardens of Versailles. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat Is the Role of Minimally Invasive Mitral Valve Surgery in High-Risk Patients? A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.
Moscarelli, Marco; Fattouch, Khalil; Casula, Roberto et al

in The Annals of thoracic surgery (2016)

BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive valve surgery is related to certain better postoperative outcomes. We aimed to assess the role of minimally invasive mitral valve surgery in high-risk patients. METHODS: A ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive valve surgery is related to certain better postoperative outcomes. We aimed to assess the role of minimally invasive mitral valve surgery in high-risk patients. METHODS: A systematic literature review identified eight studies of which seven fulfilled criteria for meta-analysis. Outcomes for a total of 1,254 patients (731 were conventional standard sternotomy and 523 were minimally invasive mitral valve surgery) were submitted to meta-analysis using random effects modeling. Heterogeneity and subgroup analysis with quality scoring were assessed. The primary end point was early mortality. Secondary end points were intraoperative and postoperative outcomes and long-term follow-up. RESULTS: Minimally invasive mitral valve surgery conferred comparable early mortality to standard sternotomy (p = 0.19); it was also associated with a lower number of units of blood transfused (weighted mean difference, -1.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], -3.04 to -0.82; p = 0.0006) and atrial fibrillation rate (odds ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.32 to 0.74; p = 0.0007); however, cardiopulmonary bypass time was longer (weighted mean difference, 20.88; 95% CI, -1.90 to 43.65; p = 0.07). There was no difference in terms of valve repair rate (odds ratio, 1.51; 95% CI, 0.89 to 2.54; p = 0.12), and the incidence of stroke was significantly lower in the high-quality analysis with no heterogeneity (odds ratio, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.15 to 0.82; p = 0.02; chi2, 1.67; I2, 0%; p = 0.43). CONCLUSIONS: Minimally invasive mitral valve surgery is a safe and comparable alternative to standard sternotomy in patients at high risk, with similar early mortality and repair rate and better postoperative outcomes, although a longer cardiopulmonary bypass time is required. [less ▲]

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See detailGrammaire matérielle et erreur de catégorie
Leclercq, Bruno ULg

in Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique (2016), 12(2), 170-195

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See detailPratique de l'ostéosynthèse des fractures de jambe en République démocratique du Congo
Amisi Kitoko, R.; Asolanyongo, M.K.; Losimba, J.L. et al

in Revue de Chirurgie Orthopédique et traumatologique (2016), 102(3), 306-9

La prise en charge chirurgicale de la traumatologie à Kisangani (République démocratique du Congo) se heurte à des contraintes médico-économiques et culturelles qui aboutissent souvent à des prises en ... [more ▼]

La prise en charge chirurgicale de la traumatologie à Kisangani (République démocratique du Congo) se heurte à des contraintes médico-économiques et culturelles qui aboutissent souvent à des prises en charge retardées. Le but de cette étude était de déterminer les délais de prise en charge, les délais opératoires et de les corréler aux complications postopératoires. Les résultats radiologiques et fonctionnels des fractures de jambe ont été également évalués. Notre hypothèse était que le taux de complications est significativement plus élevé en cas de prise en charge retardée. Cette étude rétrospective a été réalisée aux cliniques universitaires de Kisangani de 1996 à 2009. Soixante-seize fractures de jambe ou du pilon tibial traitées par ostéosynthèse interne ou externe à foyer fermé ou ouvert ont été analysées. Les résultats radiologiques et fonctionnels ont été évalués à 12 mois minimum. La prise en charge des patients était tardive. Le délai moyen d’admission à l’hôpital était de 19 ± 18,28 jours (extrêmes de 1 à 90 jours) avec une différence significative des complications selon le délai d’admission (p < 0,05) aux dépens des patients admis tardivement. Le délai opératoire moyen après l’admission était de 9,5 ± 8,51 jours (extrêmes de 1 à 30 jours) avec une différence significative des complications selon le délai opératoire (p < 0,05) aux dépens des patients opérés tardivement (infections, pseudarthrose). Le délai d’admission ou opératoire n’influençait pas les résultats fonctionnels (p > 0,05). Ces résultats sont cohérents avec ceux rapportés dans la littérature. Le retard de la chirurgie est associé à l’augmentation de complications postopératoires (infection, pseudarthrose) et de la durée d’hospitalisation. Un retard opératoire de plus de 48 heures doit être évité, sauf pour les patients médicalement instables qui nécessitent une période de stabilisation médicale. Niveau de preuve. – Niveau IV : rétrospectif – série historique. [less ▲]

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See detailMelanoma antigen-D2: a nucleolar protein undergoing delocalization during cell cycle and after cellular stress
Pirlot, Céline ULg; Thiry, Marc ULg; Trussart, Charlotte ULg et al

in BBA Molecular Cell Research (2016), 1853(3), 581-595

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See detailStakeholders’ perceptions, attitudes and practices towards risk prevention in the food chain
Lupo, C; Wilmart, O; Van Huffel, X et al

in Food Control (2016), 66

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See detailCompte-rendu de l'ouvrage "Wirklichkeit und Wahrnehmung. Neue Perspektiven auf Theodor Storm"
Leyh, Valérie ULg

in Schriften der Theodor-Storm-Gesellschaft (2016), 65

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See detailCassini in situ observations of long duration magnetic reconnection in Saturn’s magnetotail
Arridge, C.S.; Eastwood, J.P.; Jackman, C.M. et al

in Nature (2016)

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See detailAn inversion method for cometary atmospheres
Hubert, Benoît ULg; Opitom, Cyrielle ULg; Hutsemekers, Damien ULg et al

in Icarus (2016)

Remote observation of cometary atmospheres produces a measurement of the cometary emissions integrated along the line of sight. This integration is the so-called Abel transform of the local emission rate ... [more ▼]

Remote observation of cometary atmospheres produces a measurement of the cometary emissions integrated along the line of sight. This integration is the so-called Abel transform of the local emission rate. The observation is generally interpreted under the hypothesis of spherical symmetry of the coma. Under that hypothesis, the Abel transform can be inverted. We derive a numerical inversion method adapted to cometary atmospheres using both analytical results and least squares fitting techniques. This method, derived under the usual hypothesis of spherical symmetry, allows us to retrieve the radial distribution of the emission rate of any unabsorbed emission, which is the fundamental, physically meaningful quantity governing the observation. A Tikhonov regularization technique is also applied to reduce the possibly deleterious effects of the noise present in the observation and to warrant that the problem remains well posed. Standard error propagation techniques are included in order to estimate the uncertainties affecting the retrieved emission rate. Several theoretical tests of the inversion techniques are carried out to show its validity and robustness. In particular, we show that the Abel inversion of real data is only weakly sensitive to an offset applied to the input flux, which implies that the method, applied to the study of a cometary atmosphere, is only weakly dependent on uncertainties on the sky background which has to be subtracted from the raw observations of the coma. We apply the method to observations of three different comets observed using the TRAPPIST telescope: 103P/ Hartley 2, F6/ Lemmon and A1/ Siding Spring. We show that the method retrieves realistic emission rates, and that characteristic lengths and production rates can be derived from the emission rate for both CN and C2 molecules. We show that the retrieved characteristic lengths can differ from those obtained from a direct least squares fitting over the observed flux of radiation, and that discrepancies can be reconciled for by correcting this flux by an offset (to which the inverse Abel transform is nearly not sensitive). The A1/Siding Spring observations were obtained very shortly after the comet produced an outburst, and we show that the emission rate derived from the observed flux of CN emission at 387 nm and from the C2 emission at 514.1 nm both present an easily-identifiable shoulder that corresponds to the separation between pre- and post-outburst gas. As a general result, we show that diagnosing properties and features of the coma using the emission rate is easier than directly using the observed flux, because the Abel transform produces a smoothing that blurs the signatures left by features present in the coma. We also determine the parameters of a Haser model fitting the inverted data and fitting the line-of-sight integrated observation, for which we provide the exact analytical expression of the line-of-sight integration of the Haser model. [less ▲]

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See detailApoptosis of Sertoli cells after conditional ablation of murine double minute 2 (Mdm2) gene is p53-dependent and results in male sterility.
Fouchecourt, S.; Livera, G.; Messiaen, S. et al

in Cell death and differentiation (2016)

Beside its well-documented role in carcinogenesis, the function of p53 family has been more recently revealed in development and female reproduction, but it is still poorly documented in male reproduction ... [more ▼]

Beside its well-documented role in carcinogenesis, the function of p53 family has been more recently revealed in development and female reproduction, but it is still poorly documented in male reproduction. We specifically tested this possibility by ablating Mdm2, an E3 ligase that regulates p53 protein stability and transactivation function, specifically in Sertoli cells (SCs) using the AMH-Cre line and created the new SC-Mdm2-/- line. Heterozygous SC-Mdm2-/+ adult males were fertile, but SC-Mdm2-/- males were infertile and exhibited: a shorter ano-genital distance, an extra duct along the vas deferens that presents a uterus-like morphology, degenerated testes with no organized seminiferous tubules and a complete loss of differentiated germ cells. In adults, testosterone levels as well as StAR, P450c17 (Cyp17a1) and P450scc (Cyp11a1) mRNA levels decreased significantly, and both plasma LH and FSH levels increased. A detailed investigation of testicular development indicated that the phenotype arose during fetal life, with SC-Mdm2-/- testes being much smaller at birth. Interestingly, Leydig cells remained present until adulthood and fetal germ cells abnormally initiated meiosis. Inactivation of Mdm2 in SCs triggered p53 activation and apoptosis as early as 15.5 days post conception with significant increase in apoptotic SCs. Importantly, testis development occurred normally in SC-Mdm2-/- lacking p53 mice (SC-Mdm2-/-p53-/-) and accordingly, these mice were fertile indicating that the aforementioned phenotypes are entirely p53-dependent. These data not only highlight the importance of keeping p53 in check for proper testicular development and male fertility but also certify the critical role of SCs in the maintenance of meiotic repression.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 16 October 2015; doi:10.1038/cdd.2015.120. [less ▲]

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See detailHealth capability of family caregivers: how different factors interrelate and their respective contributions using a Bayesian approach
Bucki, Barbara; Spitz, Elisabeth; Etienne, Anne-Marie ULg et al

in BMC Public Health (2016), 16(1), 364

Background: The lifestyles of family caregivers pose risks to their physical, mental and social health. The capability to stay healthy may be protective in the context of poor socioeconomic conditions and ... [more ▼]

Background: The lifestyles of family caregivers pose risks to their physical, mental and social health. The capability to stay healthy may be protective in the context of poor socioeconomic conditions and risk behaviours, but the interrelations between its aspects and their respective influences remain unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the interrelations between the factors comprising health capability of family caregivers (HCFC) and the respective contributions of its components. Methods: All stroke patients admitted to all hospitals in Luxembourg were identified by the ‘Inspection Générale de la Sécurité Sociale’ using the national database system for care expenditure reimbursement, and asked to designate the main person caring for them. Sixty-two caregivers (mean age 59.3 years; 40 women and 22 men) responded face to face, to a questionnaire including 20 items measuring eight aspects of health capability (physical functioning, psychological functioning, lifestyle value, self-efficacy towards the use of health services, family support, social capital, material conditions/sense of security, and satisfaction with the interactions with health services). Using a Bayesian approach, significance values were estimated by comparing the test values to the posterior distribution of the parameters. Structural equation modelling with standard deviations was applied. Results: Female family caregivers had lower scores than men in physical and psychological functioning. Family caregivers with the lowest incomes had the least lifestyle value, social capital and material conditions/security. Self-efficacy towards health services increased with age. The material conditions/sense of security factor was positively correlated with almost all the others. The items that impacted health capability factors the most were - for physical functioning – atigue, and - for family support - feeling abandoned by the family. Conclusions: During the chronic phase, relationships between risk behaviours can help guide social and health decision-makers to determine their priorities in improving the lives of family caregivers. Enhancing health capability involves implementing programs that relieve family caregivers physically, and foster family networking around the person being cared for. Special attention should also be paid to the socially disadvantaged in order to fight inequalities in health capability. [less ▲]

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See detailSearching for consensus among physicians involved in the management of sick-listed workers in the Belgian health care sector: a qualitative study among practitioners and stakeholders
Vanmeerbeek, Marc ULg; Govers, Patrick ULg; Schippers, Nathalie ULg et al

in BMC Public Health (2016), 16

Background In Belgium, the management of sick leave involves general practitioners (GPs), occupational health physicians (OPs) and social insurance physicians (SIPs). A dysfunctional relationship among ... [more ▼]

Background In Belgium, the management of sick leave involves general practitioners (GPs), occupational health physicians (OPs) and social insurance physicians (SIPs). A dysfunctional relationship among these physicians can impede a patient’s ability to return to work. The objective of this study was to identify ways to improve these physicians’ mutual collaboration. Methods Two consensus techniques were successively performed among the three professional groups. Eight nominal groups (NGs) gathered 74 field practitioners, and a two-round Delphi process involved 32 stakeholders. Results From the results, it appears that two areas (reciprocal knowledge and evolution of the legal and regulatory framework) are objects of consensus among the three medical group that were surveyed. Information transfer, particularly electronic transfer, was stressed as an important way to improve. The consensual proposals regarding interdisciplinary collaboration indicate specific and practical changes to be implemented when professionals are managing workers who are on sick leave. The collaboration process appeared to be currently more problematic, but the participants correctly identified the need for common training. Conclusions The three physician groups all agree regarding several inter-physician collaboration proposals. The study also revealed a latent conflict situation among the analysed professionals that can arise from a lack of mutual recognition. Practical changes or improvements must be included in an extended framework that involves the different determinants of interdisciplinary collaboration that are shown by theoretical models. Collaboration is a product of the actions and behaviours of various partners, which requires reciprocal knowledge and trust; collaboration also implies political and economic structures that are led by public health authorities. [less ▲]

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See detailEarthquake imprints on a lacustrine deltaic system: the Kürk Delta along the East Anatolian Fault (Turkey)
Hubert, Aurelia ULg; El Ouahabi, Meriam ULg; Garcia-Moreno, David et al

in Sedimentology (2016)

Deltas contain sedimentary records that are not only indicative of water level changes, but also particularly sensitive to earthquake shaking typically resulting in soft-sediment-deformation structures ... [more ▼]

Deltas contain sedimentary records that are not only indicative of water level changes, but also particularly sensitive to earthquake shaking typically resulting in soft-sediment-deformation structures. The Kürk lacustrine delta lies at the south-western extremity of Lake Hazar in eastern Turkey and is adjacent to the seismogenic East Anatolian Fault (EAF), which has generated earthquakes of magnitude 7. In this paper we have reevaluated water level changes and earthquake shaking that have affected the Kürk Delta combining geophysical data (seismic-reflection profiles and side-scan sonar), remote sensing images, historical data, onland outcrops and offshore coring. The history of water level changes provides a temporal framework for the depositional record. In addition to the commonly soft-sediment-deformation documented previously, onland outcrops reveal a record of deformation (fracturing, tilt and clastic dykes) linked to large earthquake-induced liquefactions and lateral spreading. The recurrent liquefaction structures can be used to obtain a paleoseismological record. Five event horizons were identified that could be linked to historical earthquakes occurring in the last 1000 years along the EAF. Sedimentary cores sampling the most recent subaqueous sedimentation revealed the occurrence of another type of earthquake indicator. Based on radionuclide dating (137Cs and 210Pb), two major sedimentary events were attributed to the 1874-1875 EAF earthquake sequence. Their sedimentological characteristics were determined by X-ray imagery, XRD, LOI, grain-size distribution and geophysical measurements. The events are interpreted to be hyperpycnal deposits linked to post-seismic sediment reworking of earthquake-triggered landslides. [less ▲]

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See detailReady for Change!
Nchimi Longang, Alain ULg

in Journal of the Belgian Society of Radiology (2016)

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See detailGuiana Dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) and DR-CALUX for Screening Coastal Brazilian Environments for Dioxins and Related Compounds
Dorneles, Paulo; Lailson-Brito, Jose; Bisi, Tatiana et al

in Archives of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology (2016)

Guiana dolphin is the top predator of highest toxicological concern in Brazil and many studies on levels of persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxicant (PBT) pollutants have been performed on the species ... [more ▼]

Guiana dolphin is the top predator of highest toxicological concern in Brazil and many studies on levels of persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxicant (PBT) pollutants have been performed on the species. However, due to high costs of the analyses, only one investigation comprised the determination of dioxins and related compounds (DRCs) in Guiana dolphin tissues. The dioxin responsive-chemically activated luciferase gene expression (DR-CALUX ) cell bioassay was used in the present study for the analyses of hepatic samples from 28 male Guiana dolphins in order to screen estuarine environments for DRCs, comprising three regions (Northeastern, Southeastern, and Southern) and four states [Parana´ (PR), Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Espı´rito Santo (ES), and Ceara´ (CE)] of Brazil. High bioanalytical equivalent (BEQ) concentrations [dioxins (pg BEQ/g lipid)] were found, varying from 1.94 to 15.6 pg BEQ/g. A significant negative correlation between BEQ concentrations and total length was found in Guiana dolphins from Brazil (all analysed dolphins). This pattern also was verified for RJ state, pointing to (1) chemically induced developmental disruption or to (2) increasing efficiency of the detoxifying activity with the growth of the animal. Comparison was performed with literature data and significantly higher BEQ levels were found in Brazilian Guiana dolphins than in those reported for North Sea harbour porpoises. Higher levels were found in Southeastern (the most PBT-contaminated area of the country) than in Southern region. However, it is not possible to affirm that Guiana dolphins are more contaminated by DRCs in SE than in S region, because individuals were lengthier in S than in SE region. Our results seem to have mirrored dolphin exposure to PCBs in Brazil according to the literature. Further studies are required for investigating the hypotheses 1 and 2 mentioned above. [less ▲]

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See detailInterrelations de la criminologie et du droit autour de la délinquance juvénile : Je t’aime moi non plus
Mathys, Cécile ULg

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2016), 1

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See detail« La Théorie critique n’a aucun rapport avec la société. » Kluge, Adorno et l’indomptable Leni Peickert
Hamers, Jérémy ULg; Cormann, Grégory ULg

in Tijdschrift voor Filosofie (2016), 78

In Artists Under the Big Top: Perplexed (1968), Alexander Kluge’s second feature film, as well as in its short sequel The Indomitable Leni Peickert (1969), the filmmaker reflects about the possibility to ... [more ▼]

In Artists Under the Big Top: Perplexed (1968), Alexander Kluge’s second feature film, as well as in its short sequel The Indomitable Leni Peickert (1969), the filmmaker reflects about the possibility to create a « reformed circus » which aims at reintroducing some sensuality in the spectator’s experience. Taking this project as well as its central figure, the apparently passive elephant, as a metaphorical starting point, this article reconstitutes a virtual dialogue between the filmmaker and his friend and former master Theodor W. Adorno around the issue of communicability and effectiveness of Critical Theory. Crossing several text fragments by the philosopher (Dialectic of Enlightenment, Resignation and Education After Auschwitz a.o.) with film excerpts, short stories and interviews by Kluge, this dialogue made of real exchanges, as well as direct and indirect quotes of Adorno in Kluge’s films – considered here to be belated joint projects –, finally tries to give an answer to following crucial question: how can Adorno’s critical reflection remain politically, that is socially effective. [less ▲]

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See detailCryogenic zone compression GC-HRTOFMS for the measurement of PCB-153 and DDE in 20 mL serum samples
L'homme, Benjamin; Focant, Jean-François ULg

in Analytical Methods (2016), 8

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See detailOsteoarthritis year in review 2015: soluble biomarkers and the BIPED criteria.
Bay-Jensen, A. C.; Reker, D.; Kjelgaard-Petersen, C. F. et al

in Osteoarthritis and cartilage / OARS, Osteoarthritis Research Society (2016), 24(1), 9-20

OBJECTIVE: To review and summarize biomarker data published from April 2014 to May 2015 to provide insight to the ongoing work in the field of osteoarthritis (OA). Furthermore, to summarize the BIPED ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To review and summarize biomarker data published from April 2014 to May 2015 to provide insight to the ongoing work in the field of osteoarthritis (OA). Furthermore, to summarize the BIPED criteria and set it in context of the medical needs of 2015. METHODS: PubMed was used as searching machine: Time period 2014/04/01-2015/05/01, MeSH term [Biomarker] AND [Osteoarthritis], Language; English, Full text available. Reviews were excluded. Only papers describing protein based biomarkers measured in human body fluids from OA patients were included. RESULTS: Biomarkers of joint tissue turnover, cytokines, chemokines and peptide arrays were measured in different cohorts and studies. Amongst those were previously tested biomarkers such as osteocalcin, Carboxy-terminal cross-linked fragment of type II collagen (CTX-II) and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). A majority of the biomarker were classified as I, B or B biomarkers according to the BIPED criteria. Work is continuing on testing biomarkers in OA. There is still a huge, unmet medical need to identify, test, validate and qualify novel and well-known biomarkers. A pre-requisite for this is better characterization and classification of biomarkers to their needs, which may not be reached before higher understanding of OA phenotypes has been gained. In addition, we provide some references to some recent guidelines from Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) on qualification and usage of biomarkers for drug development and personalized medicine, which may provide value to the field. [less ▲]

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