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See detailThe eccentric intervention for prevention: muscle and tendon aspects
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Hody, Stéphanie ULg; Delvaux, François ULg et al

in European Journal of Sports Medicine (2014), 1(2), 37-46

The muscle-tendon pathologies remain very common in sport as well as to manual workers. An action of primary and secondary prevention is crucial if we are to prevent the occurrence of these pathologies ... [more ▼]

The muscle-tendon pathologies remain very common in sport as well as to manual workers. An action of primary and secondary prevention is crucial if we are to prevent the occurrence of these pathologies and prevent recurrence. The eccentric contractions marked by the removal of muscle insertions, gives them certain preventive and rehabilitative characteristics. It is now clearly shown that the eccentric work applied to the muscle-tendon complex, leads to progressive structural changes. These adaptations allow the muscles and tendons to better suit external stresses under which they are subjected and thereby reduce the lesion risk but also to prevent recurrence. Finally, it is also accepted that only the sub maximal eccentric exercise gradually increased helped protect (up to 1 year) of Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness in case of severe and unusual eccentric work. [less ▲]

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See detailMode identification based on time-series spectrophotometry for the bright rapid sdB pulsator EC 01541-1409
Randall, Suzanna K; Fontaine, Gilles; Geier, Stephan et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 563

We present an analysis of time-resolved spectrophotometry gathered with FORS/VLT for the rapidly pulsating hot B subdwarf EC 01541-1409 with the aim of identifying the degree index ℓ of the larger ... [more ▼]

We present an analysis of time-resolved spectrophotometry gathered with FORS/VLT for the rapidly pulsating hot B subdwarf EC 01541-1409 with the aim of identifying the degree index ℓ of the larger amplitude modes. This mode identification can be extremely useful in detailed searches for viable asteroseismic models in parameter space, and can be crucial for testing the validity of a solution a posteriori. To achieve it, we exploit the ℓ-dependence of the monochromatic amplitude, phase, and velocity-to-amplitude ratio of a mode as a function of wavelength. We use the ℓ-sensitive phase lag between the flux perturbation and the radial velocity as an additional diagnostic tool. On this basis, we are able to unambiguously identify the dominant 140.5 s pulsation of our target as a radial mode, and the second-highest amplitude periodicity at 145.8 s as an ℓ = 2 mode. We further exploit the exceptionally high-sensitivity data that we gathered for the dominant mode to infer modal properties that are usually quite difficult to estimate in sdB pulsators, namely the physical values of the dimensionless radius, temperature, and surface gravity perturbations. [less ▲]

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See detailRevue épidémiologique des blessures lors de la pratique du rugby à XV
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Julia, Marc; Chupin, Marie et al

in Journal de Traumatologie du Sport (2014), 31(1), 49-53

Rugby is an increasingly popular sport. Full contact being a major characteristic of rugby, injuries are not uncommon. The incidence of injury in Rugby Union reaches 30–91 per 1,000 hours of game time ... [more ▼]

Rugby is an increasingly popular sport. Full contact being a major characteristic of rugby, injuries are not uncommon. The incidence of injury in Rugby Union reaches 30–91 per 1,000 hours of game time. This epidemiological review of injuries in rugby players reports their localization, nature, causes, moment of occurrence in matches and seasonal trends as well as the influence of the player’s position, field conditions, and duration of off time after injury. [less ▲]

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See detailSpecial Issue on Natural Language Processing and Information Systems
Bouma, Gosse; Ittoo, Ashwin ULg; Basile, Valerio et al

in Data and Knowledge Engineering (2014), 90

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See detailPrecision design of ethylene- and polar-monomer-based copolymers by organometallic-mediated radical polymerization
Kermagoret, Anthony ULg; Debuigne, Antoine ULg; Jérôme, Christine ULg et al

in Nature Chemistry (2014), 6(3), 179-187

The copolymerization of ethylene with polar monomers is a major challenge when it comes to the manufacture of materials with potential for a wide range of commercial applications. In the chemical industry ... [more ▼]

The copolymerization of ethylene with polar monomers is a major challenge when it comes to the manufacture of materials with potential for a wide range of commercial applications. In the chemical industry, free-radical polymerization is used to make a large proportion of such copolymers, but the forcing conditions result in a lack of fine control over the architecture of the products. Herein we introduce a synthetic tool, effective under mild experimental conditions, for the precision design of unprecedented ethylene- and polar-monomer-based copolymers. We demonstrate how an organocobalt species can control the growth of the copolymer chains, their composition and the monomer distribution throughout the chain. By fine tuning the ethylene pressure during polymerization and by exploiting a unique reactive mode of the end of the organometallic chain, novel block-like copolymer structures can be prepared. This highly versatile synthetic platform provides access to a diverse range of polymer materials. [less ▲]

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See detailPourquoi tant de richesse? Dossier Reliques & reliquaires
George, Philippe ULg

in Arts Sacrés (2014), 28

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See detailBHS guidelines for the treatment of marginal zone lymphomas.
BRON, D.; VAN DEN NESTE, E.; KENTOS, A. et al

in Belgian Journal of Hematology (2014), 5

Marginal zone lymphomas are a heterogeneous subtype of indolent B-non-Hodgkin Lymphoma that includes three distinct diseases: Extranodal mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, nodal marginal zone ... [more ▼]

Marginal zone lymphomas are a heterogeneous subtype of indolent B-non-Hodgkin Lymphoma that includes three distinct diseases: Extranodal mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, nodal marginal zone lymphoma and splenic marginal zone lymphoma lymphocytes +/- villous lymphocytes. The different diagnosis, work up and treatment options are discussed in these guidelines. [less ▲]

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See detailFacultative paedomorphosis and the pattern of intra- and interspecific variation in cranial skeleton: lessons from European newts (Ichthyosaura alpestris and Lissotriton vulgaris)
Ivanović, Ana; Cvijanović, Milena; Denoël, Mathieu ULg et al

in Zoomorphology (2014), 133(1), 99-109

Paedomorphosis, the presence of ancestral larval and juvenile traits that occur at the descendent adult stage, is an evolutionary phenomenon that shaped morphological evolution in many vertebrate lineages ... [more ▼]

Paedomorphosis, the presence of ancestral larval and juvenile traits that occur at the descendent adult stage, is an evolutionary phenomenon that shaped morphological evolution in many vertebrate lineages, including tailed amphibians. Among salamandrid species, paedomorphic and metamorphic phenotypes can be observed within single populations (facultative paedomorphosis). Despite wide interest in facultative paedomorphosis and polymorphism produced by heterochronic changes (heterochronic polymorphism), the studies that investigate intraspecific morphological variation in facultative paedomorphic species are largely missing. By quantifying the cranium size and development (bone development and remodeling), we investigated the variation at multiple levels (i.e., between sexes, populations and species) of two facultatively paedomorphic European newt species: the alpine and the smooth newt. The pattern of variation between paedomorphs (individuals keeping larval traits at the adult stage) and metamorphs (metamorphosed adult individuals) varied between species and among populations within a single species. The patterns of variation in size and skull formation appear to be more uniform in the alpine than in the smooth newt, indicating that developmental constraints differed between species (more pronounced in alpine than in smooth newt). Our study shows that the cranial skeleton provides detailed insight in the pattern of variation and divergence in heterochronic polymorphism within and between species and open new questions related to heterochronic polymorphism and evolution of cranial skeleton. [less ▲]

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See detailExtensive study of HD 25558, a long-period double-lined binary with two SPB components
Sódor, Á.; De Cat, P.; Wright, D. J. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2014), 438(4), 3535-3556

We carried out an extensive observational study of the Slowly Pulsating B (SPB) star, HD 25558. The ~2000 spectra obtained at different observatories, the ground-based and MOST satellite light curves ... [more ▼]

We carried out an extensive observational study of the Slowly Pulsating B (SPB) star, HD 25558. The ~2000 spectra obtained at different observatories, the ground-based and MOST satellite light curves revealed that this object is a double-lined spectroscopic binary with an orbital period of about 9 years. The observations do not allow the inference of an orbital solution. We determined the physical parameters of the components, and found that both lie within the SPB instability strip. Accordingly, both show line-profile variations due to stellar pulsations. Eleven independent frequencies were identified in the data. All the frequencies were attributed to one of the two components based on Pixel-by-pixel variability analysis of the line profiles. Spectroscopic and photometric mode identification was also performed for the frequencies of both stars. These results suggest that the inclination and rotation of the two components are rather different. The primary is a slow rotator with ~6 d period, seen at ~60 deg inclination, while the secondary rotates fast with ~1.2 d period, and is seen at ~20 inclination. Spectropolarimetric measurements revealed that the secondary component has a magnetic field with at least a few hundred Gauss strength, while no magnetic field can be detected in the primary. [less ▲]

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See detailClimatological study of ionospheric irregularities over the European mid-latitude sector with GPS
Wautelet, Gilles ULg; Warnant, René ULg

in Journal of Geodesy (2014), 88(3), 223-240

High-frequency variability of the ionosphere, or irregularities, constitutes the main threat for real-time precise positioning techniques based on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) measurements ... [more ▼]

High-frequency variability of the ionosphere, or irregularities, constitutes the main threat for real-time precise positioning techniques based on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) measurements. Indeed, during periods of enhanced ionospheric variability, GNSS users in the field – who cannot verify the integrity of their measurements – will experience positioning errors that can reach several decimeters, while the nominal accuracy of the technique is cm-level. In the frame of this paper, a climatological analysis of irregularities over the European mid-latitude region is presented. Based on a ten year GPS dataset over Belgium, the work analyzes the occurrence rate (as a function of the solar cycle, season and local time) as well as the amplitude of ionospheric irregularities observed at a single GPS station. The study covers irregularities either due to space weather events (solar origin) or of terrestrial origin. If space weather irregularities are responsible for the largest effects in terms of ionospheric error, their occurrence rate highly depends on solar activity. Indeed, the occurrence rate of ionospheric irregularities is about 9% during solar maximum, whereas it drops to about 0% during medium or low solar activity periods. Medium-Scale Ionospheric Disturbances (MSTIDs) occurring during daytime in autumn/winter are the most recurrent pattern of the time series, with yearly proportions slightly varying with the solar cycle and an amplitude of about 10% of the TEC background. Another recurrent irregularity type, though less frequent than MSTIDs, is the noise-like variability in TEC observed during summer nighttime, under quiet geomagnetic conditions. These summer nighttime irregularities exhibit amplitudes ranging between 8 and 15% of the TEC background. [less ▲]

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See detailLaTeX, un peu, beaucoup (3. Le béhaba)
Dupont, Pascal ULg

in Losanges (2014)

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See detailIntroduction : Visions du Paradis/Visions of paradise
Melice, Anne ULg; Van Wolputte, Steven; Pype, Katrien

in Social Compass (2014), 61 (1)

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See detailL'ÉCHO-DOPPLER TRANSCRÂNIEN DANS LA PRISE EN CHARE DES STÉNOSES ARTÉRIELLES CERVICALES ET INTRACRÂNIENNES
SCHOYSMAN, Laurent ULg; TSHIBANDA, Luaba ULg; OTTO, Bernard ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014), 69

Le progrès technique en imagerie a permis le développement de l’écho-Doppler transcrânien en mode duplex ou triplex. A côté des autres techniques de neuro-imagerie, son intérêt dans la pathologie ... [more ▼]

Le progrès technique en imagerie a permis le développement de l’écho-Doppler transcrânien en mode duplex ou triplex. A côté des autres techniques de neuro-imagerie, son intérêt dans la pathologie vasculaire cérébrale va grandissant. Le présent article a pour but de présenter cette technique en détaillant ses indications actuelles chez les patients présentant des sténoses artérielles cervicales et intra-crâniennes. [less ▲]

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See detailInterview: Rosalind Hackett reflects on religious media in Africa
Melice, Anne ULg; Hackett, Rosalind; Van Wolputte, Steven et al

in Social Compass (2014), 61 (1)

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See detailIntroduction : Visions du Paradis/Visions of paradise
Melice, Anne ULg; Van Wolputte, Steven; Pype, Katrien

in Social Compass (2014), 61 (1)

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See detailMais ce "p", que veut-il dire finalement ?
Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Dardenne, Nadia ULg

in Medi-Sphere (2014), 437

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See detailMineralogical and geotechnical characterization of clays from Northern Morocco for their potential use in ceramic industry
El Ouahabi, Meriam ULg; Daoudi, Lahcen; Fagel, Nathalie ULg

in Clay Minerals (2014), 49

This study focuses on the mineralogical and geotechnical characterization of Northern Morocco clays (i.e., from Tangier and Tetouan areas) and further comparison with main clay ores used in national ... [more ▼]

This study focuses on the mineralogical and geotechnical characterization of Northern Morocco clays (i.e., from Tangier and Tetouan areas) and further comparison with main clay ores used in national ceramic (i.e., from Meknes, Fes, Salé and Safi regions). Sampled clays were analyzed by X-ray diffraction on bulk and clay (< 2 µm) fractions to identify the mineralogical assemblages of the clay outcrops. Further analyses were conducted to determine the particle size distribution (laser diffraction particle analyser), the total organic matter content (from LossOnIgnition measurements) and the Atterberg limits of the raw clays. The aims of this study were first to investigate the spatial variability of the clay samples and second to evaluate their potential application as raw materials in ceramic industry. Tetouan and Tangier clays are characterized by diversified mineralogical assemblages (in particular a variable proportion of clay, quartz and calcite) in regard with Meknes, Fes, Salé and Safi clays (high clay content, quartz and calcite). The clay fraction of Tetouan and Tangier samples is dominated by illite and kaolinite with variable contribution of chlorite, smectite and/or vermiculite. Illite is the dominant phase in Meknes, Fes, Safi and Salé clays, but is associated with kaolinite. There is no direct relationship between the mineral assemblage composition and the lithology of the series. The studied clays materials consist generally in fine particles with medium to high plasticity and low organic matter content. Taking into account mineralogy, grain-size distribution and plasticity those clays seem to be suitable as raw material for the growing Morocco ceramic industry. [less ▲]

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See detailClinically meaningful effect of strontium ranelate on symptoms in knee osteoarthritis: a responder analysis
Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Bellamy, Nicholas et al

in Rheumatology (2014), 53

Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of strontium ranelate in improving symptoms in knee OA. Methods. Symptoms were assessed over 3 years in patients with primary knee OA receiving ... [more ▼]

Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of strontium ranelate in improving symptoms in knee OA. Methods. Symptoms were assessed over 3 years in patients with primary knee OA receiving strontium ranelate 2 g/day (n = 454), 1 g/day (n = 445) or placebo (n = 472) in the Strontium Ranelate Efficacy in Knee Osteoarthritis Trial. Clinical response was evaluated using WOMAC subscores, minimal perceptible clinical improvement (MPCI), minimal clinically important improvement (MCII) and a modified OMERACT Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) responder definition. Patients who withdrew prematurely from the study were considered non-responders. Results. There was no significant effect on symptoms for strontium ranelate 1 g/day. At the dosage of 2 g/day, strontium ranelate was associated with greater response than placebo in terms of 520% improvement in WOMAC pain from baseline to the last visit (58% vs 47%, P = 0.002) and 550% improvement in WOMAC pain (42% vs 36%, P = 0.083). Significant differences were found in MPCI response for WOMAC pain (52% vs 40%, P<0.001), stiffness (47% vs 39%, P = 0.009) and physical function (46% vs 37%, P = 0.009) and in MCII response for WOMAC physical function (46% vs 37%, P = 0.013). There were also more OMERACT-OARSI-like responders with strontium ranelate (44% vs 35%, P = 0.004). The treatment placebo difference in MPCI response for WOMAC pain was significant after 6 months (P = 0.024), while that in MPCI and MCII response for WOMAC physical function reached significance after 12 months (P = 0.027 and P = 0.019, respectively). Conclusion. Treatment with strontium ranelate 2 g/day over 3 years is associated with a clinically meaningful improvement in pain from 6 months as well as physical function and stiffness as assessed by the number of responders above thresholds of clinical relevance. [less ▲]

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See detailA differential Lyapunov framework for contraction analysis
Forni, Fulvio ULg; Sepulchre, Rodolphe ULg

in IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control (2014), 59(3), 614-628

Lyapunov's second theorem is an essential tool for stability analysis of differential equations. The paper provides an analog theorem for incremental stability analysis by lifting the Lyapunov function to ... [more ▼]

Lyapunov's second theorem is an essential tool for stability analysis of differential equations. The paper provides an analog theorem for incremental stability analysis by lifting the Lyapunov function to the tangent bundle. The Lyapunov function endows the state-space with a Finsler structure. Incremental stability is inferred from infinitesimal contraction of the Finsler metrics through integration along solutions curves. [less ▲]

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See detailOARSI guidelines for the non-surgical management of knee osteoarthritis
McAlindon; Henrotin, Yves ULg

in Osteoarthritis and Cartilage (2014), 22(3), 363-388

This paper presents concise, up-to-date, patient-focused, evidence-based, expert consensus guidelines for the management of knee osteoarthritis, intended to inform patients, physicians and allied ... [more ▼]

This paper presents concise, up-to-date, patient-focused, evidence-based, expert consensus guidelines for the management of knee osteoarthritis, intended to inform patients, physicians and allied healthcare professionnal worlwide. [less ▲]

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See detailOlder adults, physical activity and the internet: Exploring their behaviours, beliefs and opinions
Mouton, Alexandre ULg; Cloes, Marc ULg

in International Journal of Physical Education (2014), 51(1), 18-29

Despite the numerous health benefits, population physical activity (PA) levels are low and decline with age. As the population grows older, with some major implications in terms of public health cost ... [more ▼]

Despite the numerous health benefits, population physical activity (PA) levels are low and decline with age. As the population grows older, with some major implications in terms of public health cost, innovative interventions to promote PA in older adults are of major interest. The Internet holds potential for delivering effective PA interventions and older adults are the largest-growing group of Internet users. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to explore the older adults’ behaviours, beliefs and opinions about PA and Internet. At baseline, 75 older adults participated in the two stages of the study: (1) an assessment of their behaviours and beliefs about PA and web-based PA promotion; and (2) the experimentation of a single session of home-exercising followed by an interview regarding their opinion on this session. Results exposed that a minority of the participants were regularly active according to the stage of change for PA. Depending on their knowledge of PA, participants mainly perceived social and health aspects as barriers or motivators for their practice of PA. Senior adults considered home-exercising delivered via the Internet sufficiently relevant, acceptable, original, appreciated and reproducible only if it goes along with a reinforced social support and a community-centred PA promotion. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Ultraviolet Spectrograph on NASA’s Juno Mission
Gladstone, G Randal; Persyn, Steven C.; Eterno, John S. et al

in Space Science Reviews (2014)

The ultraviolet spectrograph instrument on the Juno mission (Juno-UVS) is a long-slit imaging spectrograph designed to observe and characterize Jupiter’s far-ultraviolet (FUV) auroral emissions. These ... [more ▼]

The ultraviolet spectrograph instrument on the Juno mission (Juno-UVS) is a long-slit imaging spectrograph designed to observe and characterize Jupiter’s far-ultraviolet (FUV) auroral emissions. These observations will be coordinated and correlated with those from Juno’s other remote sensing instruments and used to place in situ measurements made by Juno’s particles and fields instruments into a global context, relating the local data with events occurring in more distant regions of Jupiter’s magnetosphere. Juno-UVS is based on a series of imaging FUV spectrographs currently in flight—the two Alice instruments on the Rosetta and New Horizons missions, and the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission. However, Juno-UVS has several important modifications, including (1) a scan mirror (for targeting specific auroral features), (2) extensive shielding (for mitigation of electronics and data quality degradation by energetic particles), and (3) a cross delay line microchannel plate detector (for both faster photon counting and improved spatial resolution). This paper describes the science objectives, design, and initial performance of the Juno-UVS. [less ▲]

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See detailAn astronomical survey conducted in Belgium
Nazé, Yaël ULg; Fontaine, Sébastien ULg

in Physics Education (2014), 49

This article presents the results of the first survey conducted in Belgium about the interest and knowledge in astronomy. Two samples were studied, the public at large (667 questionnaires) and students ... [more ▼]

This article presents the results of the first survey conducted in Belgium about the interest and knowledge in astronomy. Two samples were studied, the public at large (667 questionnaires) and students (2589 questionnaires), but the results are generally similar in both samples. We evaluated people’s interest, main information source, and attitudes towards astronomy, as well as their supposed and actual knowledge of the subject. The main conclusion is that, despite a poor self-confidence, people do know the basic astronomical concepts. However, that knowledge is not deeply rooted, as reasoning questions show well-spread misconceptions and/or misunderstandings. [less ▲]

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See detailAllogeneic stem cell transplantation for advanced cutaneous T-cell lymphomas: a study from the French Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and French Study Group on Cutaneous Lymphomas
de Masson, Adele; Beylot-Barry, Marie; Bouaziz, Jean-David et al

in Haematologica (2014), 99(3), 527-534

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See detailSimultaneous determination of seven azole antifungal drugs in serum by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography and diode array detection
MISTRETTA, Virginie ULg; DUBOIS, Nathalie ULg; DENOOZ, Raphael ULg et al

in Acta Clinica Belgica (2014), 69(1), 53-61

Azole antifungals are a group of fungistatic agents that can be administered orally or parenterally. The determination of the concentrations of these antifungals (miconazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole ... [more ▼]

Azole antifungals are a group of fungistatic agents that can be administered orally or parenterally. The determination of the concentrations of these antifungals (miconazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, and its major active metabolite, hydroxy-itraconazole) in serum can be useful to adapt the doses to pharmacological ranges because of large variability in the absorption and metabolism of the drugs, multiple drug interactions, but also potential resistance or toxicity. A method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of these drugs in serum utilizing ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography and diode array detection (UHPLC-DAD). After a simple and rapid liquid– liquid extraction, the pre-treated sample was analysed on an UHPLC-DAD system (Waters CorporationH). The chromatographic separation was carried out on an Acquity BEH C18 column (Waters Corporation) with a gradient mode of mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and aqueous ammonium bicarbonate 10.0 M pH10. The flow rate was 0.4 ml/min and the injection volume was 5 ml. The identification wavelength varied according to the drug from 210 to 260 nm. The method was validated by the total error method approach by using an analytical validation software (eNnoval V3.0 ArlendaH). The seven azole antifungals were identified by retention time and specific UV spectra, over a 13-minute run time. All calibration curves showed good linearity (r2.0.99) in ranges considered clinically adequate. The assay was linear from 0.05 to 10 mg/l for voriconazole, posaconazole, itraconazole, hydroxy-itraconazole, and ketoconazole, from 0.3 to 10 mg/l for fluconazole, and from 0.1 to 10 mg/l for miconazole. The bias and imprecision values for intraand inter-assays were lower than 10% and than 15%, respectively. In conclusion, a simple, sensitive, and selective UHPLC-DAD method was developed and validated to determine seven azole antifungal drugs in human serum. This method is applicable to patient samples, and can be applied successfully to clinical applications and therapeutic drug monitoring. [less ▲]

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See detailInterview: Rosalind Hackett reflects on religious media in Africa
Melice, Anne ULg; Hackett, Rosalind; Van Wolputte, Steven et al

in Social Compass (2014), 61 (1)

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See detailOptimized look-ahead tree policies: a bridge between look-ahead tree policies and direct policy search
Jung, Tobias ULg; Wehenkel, Louis ULg; Ernst, Damien ULg et al

in International Journal of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing (2014), 28(3-5), 255-289

Direct policy search (DPS) and look-ahead tree (LT) policies are two popular techniques for solving difficult sequential decision-making problems. They both are simple to implement, widely applicable ... [more ▼]

Direct policy search (DPS) and look-ahead tree (LT) policies are two popular techniques for solving difficult sequential decision-making problems. They both are simple to implement, widely applicable without making strong assumptions on the structure of the problem, and capable of producing high performance control policies. However, computationally both of them are, each in their own way, very expensive. DPS can require huge offline resources (effort required to obtain the policy) to first select an appropriate space of parameterized policies that works well for the targeted problem, and then to determine the best values of the parameters via global optimization. LT policies do not require any offline resources; however, they typically require huge online resources (effort required to calculate the best decision at each step) in order to grow trees of sufficient depth. In this paper, we propose optimized look-ahead trees (OLT), a model-based policy learning scheme that lies at the intersection of DPS and LT. In OLT, the control policy is represented indirectly through an algorithm that at each decision step develops, as in LT using a model of the dynamics, a small look-ahead tree until a prespecified online budget is exhausted. Unlike LT, the development of the tree is not driven by a generic heuristic; rather, the heuristic is optimized for the target problem and implemented as a parameterized node scoring function learned offline via DPS. We experimentally compare OLT with pure DPS and pure LT variants on optimal control benchmark domains. The results show that the LT-based representation is a versatile way of compactly representing policies in a DPS scheme (which results in OLT being easier to tune and having lower offline complexity than pure DPS); while at the same time, DPS helps to significantly reduce the size of the look-ahead trees that are required to take high-quality decisions (which results in OLT having lower online complexity than pure LT). Moreover, OLT produces overall better performing policies than pure DPS and pure LT and also results in policies that are robust with respect to perturbations of the initial conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Third/Second Generation PTH Assay Ratio as a Marker for Parathyroid Carcinoma: Evaluation Using an Automated Platform
CAVALIER, Etienne ULg; BETEA, Daniela ULg; SCHLECK, Marie-Louise ULg et al

in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (2014), 99(3), 453-7

Background: Parathyroid carcinoma (PCa) is rare and often difficult to differentiate initially from benign disease. Because PCa oversecretes amino PTH that is detected by third-generation but not by ... [more ▼]

Background: Parathyroid carcinoma (PCa) is rare and often difficult to differentiate initially from benign disease. Because PCa oversecretes amino PTH that is detected by third-generation but not by second-generation PTH assays, the normal generation PTH ( 1) is inverted in PCa (ie, 1). Objective: The objective of the investigation was to study the utility and advantages of automated generation PTH ratio measurements using the Liaison XL platform over existing manual techniques. Setting: The study was conducted at a tertiary-referral academic center. Design: This was a retrospective laboratory study. Subjects: Eleven patients with advanced PCa (mean age 56.0 y). The controls were patients with 1°-hyperparathyroidism (n 144;meanage 53.8 y), renal transplantation (n 41;meanage 50.6 y), hemodialysis (n 80; mean age 65.2 y), and healthy elderly subjects (n 40; mean age 72.6 y). Results: The median (interquartile range) generation PTH ratio was 1.16 (1.10 –1.38) in the PCa group, which was significantly higher than the control groups: 0.74 (hemodialysis, 0.71–0.75), 0.77 (renal transplant, 0.73–0.79), 0.80 (healthy elderly, 0.74–0.83), and 0.76 (1°-hyperparathyroidism, 0.74–0.78). An inverted -generation PTH ratio ( 1) was seen in 9 of 11 PCa patients (81.8%) and in 7 of 305 controls (2.3%), 3 of 80 hemodialysis (3.8%), and 4 of 144 1°-hyperparathyroidism patients (2.8%). Of four PCa patients who had a normal PTH ratio with the manual method, two had an inverted -generation PTH ratio with the automated method. Conclusions: Study of the -generation PTH ratio in large patient populations should be feasible using a mainstream automated platform like the Liaison XL. The current study confirms the utility of the inverted -generation PTH ratio as a marker of PCa (sensitivity: 81.8%; specificity: 97.3%). [less ▲]

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See detailNouvelles courbes de productivité harmonisées pour le douglas, l'épicéa et les mélèzes en wallonie
Perin, Jérôme ULg; De Thier, Olivier ULg; Claessens, Hugues ULg et al

in Forêt Wallonne (2014), 129(mars/avril),

Les courbes de productivité sont des outils de diagnostic précieux en gestion forestière. Elles permettent d'estimer le potentiel de production d'un peuplement de structure équienne d’âge connu à partir d ... [more ▼]

Les courbes de productivité sont des outils de diagnostic précieux en gestion forestière. Elles permettent d'estimer le potentiel de production d'un peuplement de structure équienne d’âge connu à partir d'une mesure ponctuelle de la hauteur dominante. Une nouvelle génération de modèles de productivité plus fiables ont été développés pour l'épicéa, le douglas et les mélèzes en Wallonie et ont été intégrés au sein d'un outil informatique de diagnostic simple et rapide d'utilisation. [less ▲]

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See detailTransiting planets from WASP-South, Euler and TRAPPIST: WASP-68 b, WASP-73 b and WASP-88 b, three hot Jupiters transiting evolved solar-type stars
Delrez, Laetitia ULg; Van Grootel, Valérie ULg; Anderson, D. R. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014)

Using the WASP transit survey, we report the discovery of three new hot Jupiters, WASP-68 b, WASP-73 b and WASP-88 b. The planet WASP-68 bhas a mass of 0.95 ± 0.03 MJup, a radius of 1.24-0.06+0.10 RJup ... [more ▼]

Using the WASP transit survey, we report the discovery of three new hot Jupiters, WASP-68 b, WASP-73 b and WASP-88 b. The planet WASP-68 bhas a mass of 0.95 ± 0.03 MJup, a radius of 1.24-0.06+0.10 RJup, and orbits a V = 10.7 G0-type star (1.24 ± 0.03 M&sun; 1.69-0.06+0.11 R&sun;, Teff = 5911 ± 60 K) with a period of 5.084298 ± 0.000015 days. Its size is typical of hot Jupiters with similar masses. The planet WASP-73 bis significantly more massive (1.88-0.06+0.07 MJup) and slightly larger (1.16-0.08+0.12 RJup) than Jupiter. It orbits a V = 10.5 F9-type star (1.34-0.04+0.05 M&sun;, 2.07-0.08+0.19 R&sun;, Teff = 6036 ± 120 K) every 4.08722 ± 0.00022 days. Despite its high irradiation (~2.3 × 109 erg s-1 cm-2), WASP-73 b has a high mean density (1.20-0.30+0.26 rhoJup) that suggests an enrichment of the planet in heavy elements. The planet WASP-88 bis a 0.56 ± 0.08 MJuphot Jupiter orbiting a V = 11.4 F6-type star (1.45 ± 0.05 M&sun;, 2.08-0.06+0.12 R&sun;, Teff = 6431 ± 130 K) with a period of 4.954000 ± 0.000019 days. With a radius of 1.70-0.07+0.13 RJup, it joins the handful of planets with super-inflated radii. The ranges of ages we determine through stellar evolution modeling are 4.5-7.0 Gyr for WASP-68, 2.8-5.7 Gyr for WASP-73 and 1.8-4.3 Gyr for WASP-88. The star WASP-73 appears to be significantly evolved, close to or already in the subgiant phase. The stars WASP-68 and WASP-88 are less evolved, although in an advanced stage of core H-burning. [less ▲]

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See detailLéopold Ier et la religion catholique (1831-1865). L’opium d’un Roi ?
Genin, Vincent ULg

in Trésor de Liège : Bulletin trimestriel (2014), 38

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See detailAllogeneic stem cell transplantation for advanced cutaneous T-cell lymphomas: a study from the French Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and French Study Group on Cutaneous Lymphomas
de Masson, Adele; Beylot-Barry, Marie; Bouaziz, Jean-David et al

in Haematologica (2014), 99(3), 527-534

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See detailSpecial Issue on Natural Language Processing and Information Systems
Bouma, Gosse; Ittoo, Ashwin ULg; Basile, Valerio et al

in Data and Knowledge Engineering (2014), 90

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See detailPre-transplant prognostic factors of long-term survival after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation with matched related/unrelated donors
SERVAIS, Sophie ULg; Porcher, Raphael; Xhaard, Aliénor et al

in Haematologica (2014), 99(3), 519-526

Mobilized peripheral blood has become the predominant stem cell source for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Few studies have compared outcome of HLA-matched related and HLA-matched unrelated ... [more ▼]

Mobilized peripheral blood has become the predominant stem cell source for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Few studies have compared outcome of HLA-matched related and HLA-matched unrelated donor peripheral blood stem cell transplants. We conducted a retrospectivesingle-center analysis of 442 patients with hematologic malignancies who underwent peripheral blood stem cell transplantationfrom matched related or matched unrelated donorand we analyzed prognostic factors for long-term survival.To account for disease/status heterogeneity, patients were risk-stratified according to theDisease Risk Index.Five-year overall survival was similar aftertransplants with matched related and unrelated donor. Because donor age ≥60 years impacted outcome during model building, we further considered 3 groups of donors: matched unrelated donor (aged < 60 years by definition), matched related donor aged <60 yearsand matched related donoraged ≥60 years. In multivariate analysis, donor type/age groupand graft CD34+ and CD3+ cell doses significantly impactedlong-term survival. Transplants with matched unrelated donor and matched related donor<60years resulted in similar long-term survival while transplant with matched related donor≥60years was associated with higher risks for late mortality and treatment failure. Lower mortality risks were observed after transplant with CD34+ cell dose > 4.5 x 106/kgand CD3+ cell dose > 3 x 108/kg. The Disease Risk Index failed to predictsurvival. We builtan “Adapted Disease Risk Index” by modifying risks for myeloproliferative neoplasms and multiple myeloma, thatimproved stratification ability for progression-free survivalbut not for overall survival. [less ▲]

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See detailGas injection test in the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone: data analysis and numerical modelling
De la Vaissière, Rémi; Gerard, Pierre; Radu, Jean-Pol ULg et al

in Geological Society, London, Special Publications Online First (2014)

This paper describes a field-scale experiment on gas transport mechanisms performed at Andra’s Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in a clay rock. The experimental layout consists of two parallel ... [more ▼]

This paper describes a field-scale experiment on gas transport mechanisms performed at Andra’s Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in a clay rock. The experimental layout consists of two parallel boreholes that are equipped with multiple packer completions isolating three intervals each, which have been continuously monitoring the pore pressure evolution of the clay rock. Nitrogen gas was injected in the middle test interval of one of the boreholes at increasing rates. The entire gas test comprised six periods of controlled gas injections, each fol-lowed by a shut-in pressure recovery phase. The experimental data are presented along with their interpretation by means of numerical modelling of two-phase flow of gas and water using different numerical codes and different geometrical approaches that include axisymmetric, half-space and full 3D models. An iterative modelling process was used to show step-by-step how an accu-rate description of each component of the experiment system produced a satisfactory reproduc-tion of the experimental data and an improved understanding of the relevant phenomena. For instance, the initial volume of remaining water in the test interval, and the presence of a damaged zone around the boreholes, was important for the models to obtain good agreement with the field data. [less ▲]

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See detailEpidemiological tools for effective surveillance of porcine cysticercosis in Africa
Goussanou, J.S.E; Kpodekon, M.T.; Youssao, A.K.I. et al

in Veterinary World (2014), 7(3), 125-134

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See detailThe Third/Second Generation PTH Assay Ratio as a Marker for Parathyroid Carcinoma: Evaluation Using an Automated Platform
CAVALIER, Etienne ULg; BETEA, Daniela ULg; SCHLECK, Marie-Louise ULg et al

in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (2014), 99(3), 453-7

Background: Parathyroid carcinoma (PCa) is rare and often difficult to differentiate initially from benign disease. Because PCa oversecretes amino PTH that is detected by third-generation but not by ... [more ▼]

Background: Parathyroid carcinoma (PCa) is rare and often difficult to differentiate initially from benign disease. Because PCa oversecretes amino PTH that is detected by third-generation but not by second-generation PTH assays, the normal generation PTH ( 1) is inverted in PCa (ie, 1). Objective: The objective of the investigation was to study the utility and advantages of automated generation PTH ratio measurements using the Liaison XL platform over existing manual techniques. Setting: The study was conducted at a tertiary-referral academic center. Design: This was a retrospective laboratory study. Subjects: Eleven patients with advanced PCa (mean age 56.0 y). The controls were patients with 1°-hyperparathyroidism (n 144;meanage 53.8 y), renal transplantation (n 41;meanage 50.6 y), hemodialysis (n 80; mean age 65.2 y), and healthy elderly subjects (n 40; mean age 72.6 y). Results: The median (interquartile range) generation PTH ratio was 1.16 (1.10 –1.38) in the PCa group, which was significantly higher than the control groups: 0.74 (hemodialysis, 0.71–0.75), 0.77 (renal transplant, 0.73–0.79), 0.80 (healthy elderly, 0.74–0.83), and 0.76 (1°-hyperparathyroidism, 0.74–0.78). An inverted -generation PTH ratio ( 1) was seen in 9 of 11 PCa patients (81.8%) and in 7 of 305 controls (2.3%), 3 of 80 hemodialysis (3.8%), and 4 of 144 1°-hyperparathyroidism patients (2.8%). Of four PCa patients who had a normal PTH ratio with the manual method, two had an inverted -generation PTH ratio with the automated method. Conclusions: Study of the -generation PTH ratio in large patient populations should be feasible using a mainstream automated platform like the Liaison XL. The current study confirms the utility of the inverted -generation PTH ratio as a marker of PCa (sensitivity: 81.8%; specificity: 97.3%). [less ▲]

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See detailClimate and Security: Evidence, Emerging Risks and a New Agenda
Gemenne, François ULg; Barnett, Jon; Adger, W. Neil et al

in Climatic Change (2014), 123(1), 1-9

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See detail(Re-)Assessing Career Patterns in Multi-Level Systems: Insights from Wallonia in Belgium
Dodeigne, Jérémy ULg

in Regional & Federal Studies (2014), 24(2), 151-171

This article proposes a new analytical framework for the study of political careers in multi-level systems. It is argued that the study of vertical movements between political arenas, which constitutes ... [more ▼]

This article proposes a new analytical framework for the study of political careers in multi-level systems. It is argued that the study of vertical movements between political arenas, which constitutes the prevalent methodological approach in the literature on political careers, should be complemented by the study of horizontal movements within political arenas. Based on a longitudinal analysis of individual political careers, the micro-approach developed in this article allows the comprehension of all territorial dynamics of political careers in multi-level systems. Based on an in-depth case study of all 419 Walloon careers in Belgium, four career patterns are identified: national careers, regional careers, multi-level careers and discrete careers. Although Belgium presents an integrated structure of opportunity, it is demonstrated that key evidences underline the prevalence of a regional and a national political class along a highly integrated political elites. [less ▲]

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See detailExuberant inflammatory reaction as a side effect of platelet-rich plasma injection in treating one case of tendinopathy
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; LEONARD, Philippe ULg et al

in Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine (2014), 24(2), 150-152

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains a large quantity of growth factors, which may enhance tendon healing processes. Local infiltration of PRP represents a relatively new treatment for tendinopathies. To ... [more ▼]

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains a large quantity of growth factors, which may enhance tendon healing processes. Local infiltration of PRP represents a relatively new treatment for tendinopathies. To date, no side effects have been reported after infiltration of PRP to treat tendinopathy. We reported a case of exuberant inflammatory reaction after one infiltration of PRP to treat jumper’s knee in a type 1 diabetic patient who was 35 years old. Injections of PRP must be proposed after careful consideration for patients with morbidity risks linked to insulin-dependent diabetes. [less ▲]

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See detailIntentionnalité in obliquo
Dewalque, Arnaud ULg

in Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique (2014)

Je suggère ici qu'une théorie adéquate de l'intentionnalité ne peut pas faire l'économie de la notion d'intentionnalité latérale ou "in modo obliquo". Je compare, sur ce point, les contributions de ... [more ▼]

Je suggère ici qu'une théorie adéquate de l'intentionnalité ne peut pas faire l'économie de la notion d'intentionnalité latérale ou "in modo obliquo". Je compare, sur ce point, les contributions de Chisholm et de Brentano. Après une brève introduction (§ 1), je reconstruis la théorie de la référence indirecte de Chisholm (§§ 2-3) et la théorie des représentations in obliquo de Brentano (§§ 4-6). À mon sens, ces théories présupposent toutes deux l’idée que certains items ne peuvent pas être visés de façon directe ou in recto – ce qui implique la question suivante: en vertu de quoi certains items ne peuvent-ils pas être représentés in recto? (§ 7). Je fais alors l’hypothèse que la notion de contenu abstrait ou dépendant, développée par Stumpf et Husserl, offre une solution à ce problème (§ 8). Enfin, je suggère que ce critère permet de construire une interprétation plausible de la théorie brentanienne et, simultanément, de jeter un regard critique sur la théorie de la référence indirecte de Chisholm (§ 9). [less ▲]

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See detailClimate and Security: Evidence, Emerging Risks and a New Agenda
Gemenne, François ULg; Adger, Neil; Barnett, Jon et al

in Climatic Change (2014)

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See detailUpdated distribution and biogeography of amphibians and reptiles of Europe
Silero, Neftali; Campos, João; Bonardi, Anna et al

in Amphibia-Reptilia (2014), 35(1), 1-31

A precise knowledge of the spatial distribution of taxa is essential for decision-making processes in land management and biodiversity conservation, both for present and under future global change ... [more ▼]

A precise knowledge of the spatial distribution of taxa is essential for decision-making processes in land management and biodiversity conservation, both for present and under future global change scenarios. This is a key base for several scientific disciplines (e.g. macro-ecology, biogeography, evolutionary biology, spatial planning, or environmental impact assessment) that rely on species distribution maps. An atlas summarizing the distribution of European amphibians and reptiles with 50×50 km resolution maps based on ca. 85,000 grid records was published by the Societas Europaea Herpetologica (SEH) in 1997. Since then, more detailed species distribution maps covering large parts of Europe became available, while taxonomic progress has led to a plethora of taxonomic changes including new species descriptions. To account for these progresses, we compiled information from different data sources: published in books and websites, ongoing national atlases, personal data kindly provided to the SEH, the 1997 European Atlas, and the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). Databases were homogenised, deleting all information except species names and coordinates, projected to the same coordinate system (WGS84) and transformed into a 50×50 km grid. The newly compiled database comprises more than 384,000 grid and locality records distributed across 40 countries. We calculated species richness maps as well as maps of Corrected Weighted Endemism and species distribution types (i.e. groups of species with similar distribution patterns) by hierarchical cluster analysis using Jaccard’s index as association measure. Our analysis serves as a preliminary step towards an interactive, dynamic and online distributed database system (NA2RE system) of the current spatial distribution of European amphibians and reptiles (see http://na2re.ismai.pt). The NA2RE system will serve as well to monitor potential temporal changes in their distributions. Grid maps of all species are made available along with this paper as a tool for decision-making and conservation-related studies and actions. We also identify taxonomic and geographic gaps of knowledge that need to be filled, and we highlight the need to add temporal and altitudinal data for all records, to allow tracking potential species distribution changes as well as detailed modelling of the impacts of land use and climate change on European amphibians and reptiles. [less ▲]

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See detailA learning procedure for sampling semantically different valid expressions
St-Pierre, David Lupien; Maes, Francis; Ernst, Damien ULg et al

in International Journal of Artificial Intelligence (2014), 12(1), 18-35

A large number of problems can be formalized as finding the best symbolic expression to maximize a given numerical objective. Most approaches to approximately solve such problems rely on random ... [more ▼]

A large number of problems can be formalized as finding the best symbolic expression to maximize a given numerical objective. Most approaches to approximately solve such problems rely on random exploration of the search space. This paper focuses on how this random exploration should be performed to take into account expressions redundancy and invalid expressions. We propose a learning algorithm that, given the set of available constants, variables and operators and given the target finite number of trials, computes a probability distribution to maximize the expected number of semantically different, valid, generated expressions. We illustrate the use of our approach on both medium-scale and large-scale expression spaces, and empirically show that such optimized distributions significantly outperform the uniform distribution in terms of the diversity of generated expressions. We further test the method in combination with the recently proposed nested Monte-Carlo algorithm on a set of benchmark symbolic regression problems and demonstrate its interest in terms of reduction of the number of required calls to the objective function. [less ▲]

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See detailGlobal Isochrons and Phase Sensitivity of Bursting Neurons
Mauroy, Alexandre ULg; Rhoads, Blane; Moehlis, Jeff et al

in SIAM Journal on Applied Dynamical Systems (2014), 13(1), 306-338

Phase sensitivity analysis is a powerful method for studying (asymptotically periodic) bursting neuron models. One popular way of capturing phase sensitivity is through the computation of isochrons ... [more ▼]

Phase sensitivity analysis is a powerful method for studying (asymptotically periodic) bursting neuron models. One popular way of capturing phase sensitivity is through the computation of isochrons---subsets of the state space that each converge to the same trajectory on the limit cycle. However, the computation of isochrons is notoriously difficult, especially for bursting neuron models. In [W. E. Sherwood and J. Guckenheimer, SIAM J. Appl. Dyn. Syst., 9 (2010), pp. 659--703], the phase sensitivity of the bursting Hindmarsh--Rose model is studied through the use of singular perturbation theory: cross sections of the isochrons of the full system are approximated by those of fast subsystems. In this paper, we complement the previous study, providing a detailed phase sensitivity analysis of the full (three-dimensional) system, including computations of the full (two-dimensional) isochrons. To our knowledge, this is the first such computation for a bursting neuron model. This was made possible thanks to the numerical method recently proposed in [A. Mauroy and I. Mezić, Chaos, 22 (2012), 033112]---relying on the spectral properties of the so-called Koopman operator---which is complemented with the use of adaptive quadtree and octree grids. The main result of the paper is to highlight the existence of a region of high phase sensitivity called the almost phaseless set and to completely characterize its geometry. In particular, our study reveals the existence of a subset of the almost phaseless set that is not predicted by singular perturbation theory (i.e., by the isochrons of fast subsystems). We also discuss how the almost phaseless set is related to empirically observed phenomena such as addition/deletion of spikes and to extrema of the phase response of the system. Finally, through the same numerical method, we show that an elliptic bursting model is characterized by a very high phase sensitivity and other remarkable properties. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term outcome and use of 6-Minute Walk test in West Highland white Terriers with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Lilja-Maula, LIO; Laurila, HP; Syrjä, P et al

in Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2014), 28(2), 379-385

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See detailThe Governance of Mixed Companies: Policy Implications for Local Governments
Marra, A; Cruz, N.F.; Marques, R.C. et al

in Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics (2014), 85(1), 1-164

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See detailSpline approximation to conditional Archimedean copula
Lambert, Philippe ULg

in Stat (2014), 3(1), 200-217

We propose a flexible copula model to describe changes with a covariate in the dependence structure of (conditionally exchangeable) random variables. The starting point is a spline approximation to the ... [more ▼]

We propose a flexible copula model to describe changes with a covariate in the dependence structure of (conditionally exchangeable) random variables. The starting point is a spline approximation to the generator of an Archimedean copula. Changes in the dependence structure with a covariate x are modelled by flexible regression of the spline coefficients on x. The performances and properties of the spline estimate of the reference generator and the abilities of these conditional models to approximate conditional copulas are studied through extensive simulations. Inference is made using Bayesian arguments with posterior distributions explored using importance sampling or adaptive MCMC algorithms. The modelling strategy is illustrated with the analysis of bivariate growth curve data. [less ▲]

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See detailThe feedback of massive stars on interstellar astrochemical processes
De Becker, Michaël ULg

in Astrophysics & Space Science (2014), 350(1), 237-243

Astrochemistry is a discipline that studies physico-chemical processes in astrophysical environments. Such environments are characterized by conditions that are substantially different from those existing ... [more ▼]

Astrochemistry is a discipline that studies physico-chemical processes in astrophysical environments. Such environments are characterized by conditions that are substantially different from those existing in usual chemical laboratories. Models which aim to explain the formation of molecular species in interstellar environments must take into account various factors, including many that are directly, or indirectly related to the populations of massive stars in galaxies. The aim of this paper is to review the influence of massive stars, whatever their evolution stage, on the physico-chemical processes at work in interstellar environments. These influences include the ultraviolet radiation field, the production of high energy particles, the synthesis of radionuclides and the formation of shocks that permeate the interstellar medium. [less ▲]

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See detailA method to evaluate the adaptability of photovoltaic energy on urban facades
Esclapés Jover, F.J.; Ferreiro Prieto, I.; Piera Llodrá, J. et al

in Solar Energy (2014), 105

Solar simulation and evaluation tools are essential for the design of novel energy and environmental strategies. To date, a number published studies in this area focused on the analysis of flat roofs and ... [more ▼]

Solar simulation and evaluation tools are essential for the design of novel energy and environmental strategies. To date, a number published studies in this area focused on the analysis of flat roofs and small urban areas. This paper presents a method, based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS), for defining the potential of photovoltaic solar energy over urban faßcades. The method enables the generation of 3D solar maps from two standard data sources, namely cadastral cartography and data on solar irradiance registered by the Spanish State Meteorological Agency (AEMET, for its initials in Spanish). A series of charts have been generated relating the urban and solar geometries as a result of the numerical model. The charts permit the study of the optimal parameters for the photovoltaic integration over faßcades. In addition, a study conducted over a representative urban area of Madrid is discussed as an example of the applicability of the discussed methodology. Finally, the adequacy of the Spanish Technical Edification Code (CTE, for its initials in Spanish), defining thresholds regarding the usability of photovoltaic energy, has been tested both theoretically and through the case study. Our study concludes that this regulation hinders the architectural integration of photovoltaic devices given the strict usability thresholds adopted. [less ▲]

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See detailL'ENMG…C'est le pied
WANG, François-Charles ULg

in Neurologies (2014), 17(166), 108-113

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See detailVers une synthèse de la conception et une définition des zones dans le gradient urbain-rural
Andre, Marie ULg; Mahy, Grégory ULg; Lejeune, Philippe ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(1), 61-74

The increasing footprint of urbanization on landscapes justifies the study of cities and the zones surrounding them. Paradoxically, the concepts relating to these zones remain unclear. Scientists from ... [more ▼]

The increasing footprint of urbanization on landscapes justifies the study of cities and the zones surrounding them. Paradoxically, the concepts relating to these zones remain unclear. Scientists from different disciplines diverge when defining these zones or their limits; they even often mention the zones without any definition. This practice excludes comparison between studies. By means of bibliographic research, the variety of terms used to describe the different zones composing the urban-rural gradient has been evidenced, as well as the characteristics of the zones themselves. They have been evaluated according to their relative importance and according to a series of criteria. Finally, new definitions for the different zones have been proposed in order to enable their identification in the field. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of Metabolic Pathways Expressed by Pichia anomala KH6 in the Presence of the Pathogen Botrytis cinerea on Apple: New Possible Targets for Biocontrol Improvement
Kwasiborski, Anthony; Bajji, Mohammed; Renaut, J. et al

in PLoS ONE (2014), 9(3),

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See detailNatural Language Processing and Information Systems
Bouma, Gosse; Ittoo, Ashwin ULg; Basile, Valerio et al

in Data and Knowledge Engineering (2014)

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See detailAllaitement maternel en Wallonie et à Bruxelles : états des lieux et perspectives
Robert, Emmanuelle; Noirhomme-Renard, Florence ULg

in Santé Conjuguée (2014)

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See detailL'imaginaire politique de la théorie de l'énonciation
Provenzano, François ULg

in Langage et Société (2014), 147(mars 2014), 133-150

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See detailChitosan nanoparticles for siRNA delivery: Optimizing formulation to increase stability and efficiency
Ragelle, Héloïse; Riva, Raphaël ULg; Vandermeulen, G. et al

in Journal of Controlled Release (2014), 176

This study aims at developing chitosan-based nanoparticles suitable for an intravenous administration of small interfering RNA (siRNA) able to achieve (i) high gene silencing without cytotoxicity and (ii ... [more ▼]

This study aims at developing chitosan-based nanoparticles suitable for an intravenous administration of small interfering RNA (siRNA) able to achieve (i) high gene silencing without cytotoxicity and (ii) stability in biological media including blood. Therefore, the influence of chitosan/tripolyphosphate ratio, chitosan physicochemical properties, PEGylation of chitosan as well as the addition of an endosomal disrupting agent and a negatively charged polymer was assessed. The gene silencing activity and cytotoxicity were evaluated on B16 melanoma cells expressing luciferase. We monitored the integrity and the size behavior of siRNA nanoparticles in human plasma using fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy and single particle tracking respectively. The presence of PEGylated chitosan and poly(ethylene imine) was essential for high levels of gene silencing in vitro. Chitosan nanoparticles immediately released siRNA in plasma while the inclusion of hyaluronic acid and high amount of poly(ethylene glycol) in the formulation improved the stability of the particles. The developed formulations of PEGylated chitosan-based nanoparticles that achieve high gene silencing in vitro, low cytotoxicity and high stability in plasma could be promising for intravenous delivery of siRNA. [less ▲]

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See detailGlucose-, pH- and thermo-responsive nanogels crosslinked by functional superparamagnetic maghemite nanoparticles as innovative drug delivery systems
Liu, Ji ULg; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Debuigne, Antoine ULg et al

in Journal of Materials Chemistry B (2014), 2(8), 1009-1023

Reversibly crosslinked (RCL) nanogels made of thermo-responsive poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(Nvinylcaprolactam) copolymers were combined with maghemite nanoparticles and developed as new drug delivery ... [more ▼]

Reversibly crosslinked (RCL) nanogels made of thermo-responsive poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(Nvinylcaprolactam) copolymers were combined with maghemite nanoparticles and developed as new drug delivery systems (DDS). The crosslinking was formed via boronate/diol bonding from the surfacefunctionalized superparamagnetic maghemite nanoparticles, endowing the DDS with thermo-, pH- and glucose-responsiveness. The capability to load a hydrophobic drug model Nile red (NR) within the RCL nanogels was evaluated, and stimuli-triggered drug release behaviours under different conditions were tested. Zero premature release behaviour was detected at physiological pH in the absence of glucose, whereas triggered release was observed upon exposure to acidic pH (5.0) and/or in the presence of glucose. In light of the superparamagnetic properties of the maghemite nanoparticles and RCL nanogels, magnetically-induced heating, MR imaging performance, as well as remotely magnetically-triggered drug release under alternating magnetic field (AMF), were investigated. Cytotoxicity against fibroblast-like L929 and human melanoma MEL-5 cell lines was assessed via the MTS assay. In vitro stimuli-triggered release of tamoxifen, a chemotherapeutic drug, was also studied within MEL-5 cell cultures under different conditions. These innovative RCL nanogels, integrating different stimuli-responsive components, hydrophobic chemotherapeutic moieties and also diagnostic agents together via reversible crosslinking, are promising new theranostic platforms. [less ▲]

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See detailLes éléments de preuve recueillis à l'étranger : essai de synthèse
Michiels, Olivier ULg; Falque, Géraldine ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2014), 2014/9

L’origine des preuves provenant de l’étranger sont aussi diverses que variées. Pensons, par exemple, aux éléments probatoires obtenus à la suite d’une demande d’entraide judiciaire, aux preuves issues ... [more ▼]

L’origine des preuves provenant de l’étranger sont aussi diverses que variées. Pensons, par exemple, aux éléments probatoires obtenus à la suite d’une demande d’entraide judiciaire, aux preuves issues d’une enquête pénale menée dans un pays tiers ou encore aux preuves recueillies à l’étranger par les autorités nationales dans le cadre de leurs interventions transfrontalières . L’examen concret de la régularité de ces éléments probatoires soumis au juge national méritait que l’on s’y attarde. En effet, les traités d’entraide ne prévoient généralement pas la manière dont ces preuves étrangères doivent être contrôlées et, le cas échéant, sanctionnées. Aussi, ce sont la jurisprudence et le législateur nationaux qui se sont efforcés, au fil du temps, de poser des critères clairs en la matière . L’arrêt commenté se situe dans la droite ligne de cette problématique et a donné l’occasion aux auteurs de rappeler les quelques règles qui s’imposent en la matière. Après un bref résumé des faits de la cause, et avant d’envisager la question de la preuve recueillie à l’étranger à proprement parler, les auteurs ont égalemnet entrepris de faire un rapide détour par les principes qui régissent la preuve récoltée en Belgique. [less ▲]

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See detailCosmological constraints on mirror matter parameters
Ciarcelluti, Paolo; Wallemacq, Quentin ULg

in Advances in High Energy Physics (2014), 2014

Up-to-date estimates of the cosmological parameters are presented as a result of numerical simulations of cosmic microwave background and large scale structure, considering a flat Universe in which the ... [more ▼]

Up-to-date estimates of the cosmological parameters are presented as a result of numerical simulations of cosmic microwave background and large scale structure, considering a flat Universe in which the dark matter is made entirely or partly of mirror matter, and the primordial perturbations are scalar adiabatic and in linear regime. A statistical analysis using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method allows to obtain constraints of the cosmological parameters. As a result, we show that a Universe with pure mirror dark matter is statistically equivalent to the case of an admixture with cold dark matter. The upper limits for the ratio of the temperatures of ordinary and mirror sectors are around 0.3 for both the cosmological models, that show the presence of a dominant fraction of mirror matter, 0.06 < Ω_{mirror} h^2 < 0.12. [less ▲]

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See detailDark atoms and the positron-annihilation-line excess in the galactic bulge
Cudell, Jean-René ULg; Khlopov, Maxim; Wallemacq, Quentin ULg

in Advances in High Energy Physics (2014), 2014

It was recently proposed that stable particles of charge -2, O^{--}, can exist and constitute dark matter after they bind with primordial helium in O-helium (OHe) atoms. We study here in details the ... [more ▼]

It was recently proposed that stable particles of charge -2, O^{--}, can exist and constitute dark matter after they bind with primordial helium in O-helium (OHe) atoms. We study here in details the possibility that this model provides an explanation for the excess of gamma radiation in the positron-annihilation line from the galactic bulge observed by INTEGRAL. This explanation assumes that OHe, excited to a 2s state through collisions in the central part of the Galaxy, de-excites to its ground state via an E0 transition, emitting an electron-positron pair. The cross section for OHe collisions with excitation to 2s level is calculated and it is shown that the rate of such excitations in the galactic bulge strongly depends not only on the mass of O-helium, which is determined by the mass of O^{--}, but also on the density and velocity distribution of dark matter. Given the astrophysical uncertainties on these distributions, this mechanism constrains the O^{--} mass to lie in two possible regions. One of these is reachable in the experimental searches for stable multicharged particles at the LHC. [less ▲]

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See detailcompte rendu de : Paul Schubert, Pierre Ducrey, Pascale Derron (ed.), Les Grecs héritiers des Romains
Rochette, Bruno ULg

in Bryn Mawr Classical Review [=BMCR] (2014)

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See detailSpeciation slowing down in widespread and long-living tree taxa : insights from the tropical timber tree genus Milicia (Moraceae)
Daïnou, Kasso ULg; Mahy, Grégory ULg; Duminil, Jérôme et al

in Heredity (2014)

The long generation time and large effective size of widespread forest tree species can result in slow evolutionary rate and incomplete lineage sorting, complicating species delimitation. We addressed ... [more ▼]

The long generation time and large effective size of widespread forest tree species can result in slow evolutionary rate and incomplete lineage sorting, complicating species delimitation. We addressed this issue with the African timber tree genus Milicia that comprises two morphologically similar and often confounded species: M. excelsa, widespread from West to East Africa, and M. regia, endemic to West Africa. We combined information from nuclear microsatellites (nSSRs), nuclear and plastid DNA sequences, and morphological systematics to identify significant evolutionary units and infer their evolutionary and biogeographical history. We detected five geographically coherent genetic clusters using nSSRs and three levels of genetic differentiation. First, one West African cluster matched perfectly with the morphospecies M. regia that formed a monophyletic clade at both DNA sequences. Second, a West African M. excelsa cluster formed a monophyletic group at plastid DNA and was more related to M. regia than to Central African M. excelsa, but shared many haplotypes with the latter at nuclear DNA. Third, three Central African clusters appeared little differentiated and shared most of their haplotypes. Although gene tree paraphyly could suggest a single species in Milicia following the phylogenetic species concept, the existence of mutual haplotypic exclusivity and nonadmixed genetic clusters in the contact area of the two taxa indicate strong reproductive isolation and, thus, two species following the biological species concept. Molecular dating of the first divergence events showed that speciation in Milicia is ancient (Tertiary), indicating that long-living tree taxa exhibiting genetic speciation may remain similar morphologically. [less ▲]

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See detailImproving halva quality with dietary fibres of sesame seed coats and date pulp, enriched with emulsifier
Elleuch, Mohamed; Bedigian, Dorothea; Maazoun, Bouthaina et al

in Food Chemistry (2014), 145

Supplementation of halva with waste products of manufacturing, for example defatted sesame seed coats (testae) and date fibre concentrate, can improve its nutritional and organoleptic qualities. These ... [more ▼]

Supplementation of halva with waste products of manufacturing, for example defatted sesame seed coats (testae) and date fibre concentrate, can improve its nutritional and organoleptic qualities. These constituents provide high fibre content and technological potential for retaining water and fat. Standard halva supplemented with date fibre concentrate, defatted sesame testae and emulsifier was evaluated for oil separation, texture and colour changes, sensory qualities and acceptability to a aste panel. Addition of both fibres with an emulsifier, improved emulsion stability and increased the hardness of halva significantly. The functional properties of sesame testae and date fibres promote nutrition and health, supplying polyphenol antioxidants and laxative benefits. [less ▲]

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See detailScale-down effect on the extracellular proteome of Escherichia coli: correlation with membrane permeability and modulation according substrate heterogeneities
Brognaux, Alison ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg; Twizere, Jean-Claude ULg et al

in Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering (2014)

Protein leakage is induced in well-mixed fed-batch bioreactor by comparison with cultures carried out in scale-down conditions. This effect is attributed to a progressive increase of cell membrane ... [more ▼]

Protein leakage is induced in well-mixed fed-batch bioreactor by comparison with cultures carried out in scale-down conditions. This effect is attributed to a progressive increase of cell membrane permeability and the synthesis of several outer-membrane components allowing to cope with substrate limitation commonly found in high-cell density culture. A comparative analysis of protein leakage has thus been performed in well-mixed bioreactors and in scale-down devices. The extracellular proteome of E.coli has been investigated by 2D-gel electrophoresis and identified by subsequent MALDI-TOF analysis. On 110 picked spots, 67 proteins have been identified and the sub-localisation and the molecular function of these proteins have been determined. A majority of the extracellular proteome was composed of outer-membrane and periplasmic proteins (64%) confirming the fact that leakage is involved in high-cell density cultures. About 50% of this extracellular proteome was composed of transport and binding proteins. Furthermore, the more abundant spots on the gel corresponded to porin proteins and periplasmic transporters. In particular, the OmpC porin was found to be very abundant. Moreover, the scale-down effect on this extracellular proteome has been investigated by 2D-DIGE analysis (2-Dimensional Differential in-Gel Electrophoresis) and significant differences have been observed by comparison with culture carried out in well-mixed systems. Indeed, since substrate limitation signal is alleviated in this kind of apparatus, cell permeability was lowered as shown by flow cytometry. In scale-down conditions, protein leakage was thus less abundant. [less ▲]

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See detailScale-down effect on the extracellular proteome of Escherichia coli: correlation with membrane permeability and modulation according substrate heterogeneities
Brognaux, Alison ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg; Twizere, Jean-Claude ULg et al

in Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering (2014)

Protein leakage is induced in well-mixed fed-batch bioreactor by comparison with cultures carried out in scale-down conditions. This effect is attributed to a progressive increase of cell membrane ... [more ▼]

Protein leakage is induced in well-mixed fed-batch bioreactor by comparison with cultures carried out in scale-down conditions. This effect is attributed to a progressive increase of cell membrane permeability and the synthesis of several outer-membrane components allowing to cope with substrate limitation commonly found in high-cell density culture. A comparative analysis of protein leakage has thus been performed in well-mixed bioreactors and in scale-down devices. The extracellular proteome of E.coli has been investigated by 2D-gel electrophoresis and identified by subsequent MALDI-TOF analysis. On 110 picked spots, 67 proteins have been identified and the sub-localisation and the molecular function of these proteins have been determined. A majority of the extracellular proteome was composed of outer-membrane and periplasmic proteins (64%) confirming the fact that leakage is involved in high-cell density cultures. About 50% of this extracellular proteome was composed of transport and binding proteins. Furthermore, the more abundant spots on the gel corresponded to porin proteins and periplasmic transporters. In particular, the OmpC porin was found to be very abundant. Moreover, the scale-down effect on this extracellular proteome has been investigated by 2D-DIGE analysis (2-Dimensional Differential in-Gel Electrophoresis) and significant differences have been observed by comparison with culture carried out in well-mixed systems. Indeed, since substrate limitation signal is alleviated in this kind of apparatus, cell permeability was lowered as shown by flow cytometry. In scale-down conditions, protein leakage was thus less abundant. [less ▲]

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See detailCombining PET images and neuropsychological test data for automatic diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease
Segovia-Román, Fermín ULg; Bastin, Christine ULg; Salmon, Eric ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2014), 9(2),

In recent years, several approaches to develop computer aided diagnosis (CAD) systems for dementia have been proposed. Some of these systems analyze neurological brain images by means of machine learning ... [more ▼]

In recent years, several approaches to develop computer aided diagnosis (CAD) systems for dementia have been proposed. Some of these systems analyze neurological brain images by means of machine learning algorithms in order to find the patterns that characterize the disorder, and a few combine several imaging modalities to improve the diagnostic accuracy. However, they usually do not use neuropsychological testing data in that analysis. The purpose of this work is to measure the advantages of using not only neuroimages as data source in CAD systems for dementia but also neuropsychological scores. To this aim, we compared the accuracy rates achieved by systems that use neuropsychological scores beside the imaging data in the classification step and systems that use only one of these data sources. In order to address the small sample size problem and facilitate the data combination, a dimensionality reduction step (implemented using three different algorithms) was also applied on the imaging data. After each image is summarized in a reduced set of image features, the data sources were combined and classified using three different data combination approaches and a Support Vector Machine classifier. That way, by testing different dimensionality reduction methods and several data combination approaches, we aim not only highlighting the advantages of using neuropsychological scores in the classification, but also implementing the most accurate computer system for early dementia detention. The accuracy of the CAD systems were estimated using a database with records from 46 subjects, diagnosed with MCI or AD. A peak accuracy rate of 89% was obtained. In all cases the accuracy achieved using both, neuropsychological scores and imaging data, was substantially higher than the one obtained using only the imaging data. [less ▲]

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See detailCan the collapse of a fly ash heap develop into an air-fluidized flow? - Reanalysis of the Jupille accident (1961)
Stilmant, Frédéric ULg; Pirotton, Michel ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in Geomorphology (2014)

A fly ash heap collapse occurred in Jupille (Liege, Belgium) in 1961. The subsequent flow of fly ash reached a surprisingly long runout and had catastrophic consequences. Its unprecedented degree of ... [more ▼]

A fly ash heap collapse occurred in Jupille (Liege, Belgium) in 1961. The subsequent flow of fly ash reached a surprisingly long runout and had catastrophic consequences. Its unprecedented degree of fluidization attracted scientific attention. As drillings and direct observations revealed no water-saturated zone at the base of the deposits, scientists assumed an air-fluidization mechanism, which appeared consistent with the properties of the material. In this paper, the air-fluidization assumption is tested based on two-dimensional numerical simulations. The numerical model has been developed so as to focus on the most prominent processes governing the flow, with parameters constrained by their physical interpretation. Results are compared to accurate field observations and are presented for different stages in the model enhancement, so as to provide a base for a discussion of the relative influence of pore pressure dissipation and pore pressure generation. These results show that the apparently high diffusion coefficient that characterizes the dissipation of air pore pressures is in fact sufficiently low for an important degree of fluidization to be maintained during a flow of hundreds of meters. [less ▲]

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See detailGold nanorods coated with a thermo-responsive poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) corona as drug delivery systems for remotely near infrared-triggered release
Liu, Ji ULg; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; De Pauw, Marie-Claire ULg et al

in Polymer Chemistry (2014), 5(3), 799-813

Poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PEG-b-PNVCL) copolymers are prepared from a PEG macro-chain transfer agent in DMF at 65 °C via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT ... [more ▼]

Poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PEG-b-PNVCL) copolymers are prepared from a PEG macro-chain transfer agent in DMF at 65 °C via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The well-defined PEG114-b-PNVCL237 copolymer with a cloud point temperature of 39 °C is used for the formation of a thermo-responsive polymer corona on the surface of gold nanorods (GNRs) via a “grafting-to” approach. Thermo-responsiveness and thermo-dependent optical properties of the as-obtained GNR@PEG-b-PNVCL nanoparticles are studied with dynamic light scattering and UV/vis spectroscopy techniques. Near infrared (NIR)-induced heating of GNR@PEG-b-PNVCL is also explored in aqueous suspension under NIR laser irradiation (802 nm, up to 250 mW). The potential of these GNR@PEG-b-PNVCL nanoparticles to be used as smart drug delivery systems (DDS) is then studied. A hydrophilic drug model, Rhodamine ® B, is used to assess the guest loading capacity, and triggered release behaviours are then evaluated under conventional external heating or internal heating induced by remote NIR irradiation. Cytotoxicity evaluation of the GNR@PEG-b-PNVCL against the fibroblast-like L929 cell line is carried out via the MTS assay in order to confirm the improved biocompatibility of the GNRs after polymer coating. These thermo-responsive GNR@PEG-b-PNVCL nanoparticles are promising DDS that combine the chemotherapeutic and phototherapeutic functions. [less ▲]

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See detailCustomizing mesoscale self-assembly with three-dimensional printing
Poty, Martin ULg; Lumay, Geoffroy ULg; Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg

in New Journal of Physics (2014)

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See detailIs dark matter made of mirror matter? Evidence from cosmological data
Ciarcelluti, Paolo; Wallemacq, Quentin ULg

in Physics Letters B (2014), 729

We present new fast numerical simulations of cosmic microwave background and large scale structure in the case in which the cosmological dark matter is made entirely or partly of mirror matter. We ... [more ▼]

We present new fast numerical simulations of cosmic microwave background and large scale structure in the case in which the cosmological dark matter is made entirely or partly of mirror matter. We consider scalar adiabatic primordial perturbations at linear scales in a flat Universe. The speed of the simulations allows us for the first time to use Markov Chain Monte Carlo analyses to constrain the mirror parameters. A Universe with pure mirror matter can fit very well the observations, equivalently to the case of an admixture with cold dark matter. In both cases, the analyses show a clear indication of the presence of a consistent amount of mirror dark matter, 0.05 < Ω_{mirror} h^2 < 0.12. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental investigation of meandering jets in shallow reservoirs
Peltier, Yann ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in Environmental Fluid Mechanics (2014)

Meandering flows in rectangular shallow reservoirs were experimentally investi- gated. The characteristic frequency, the longitudinal wave length and the mean lateral exten- sion of the meandering jet ... [more ▼]

Meandering flows in rectangular shallow reservoirs were experimentally investi- gated. The characteristic frequency, the longitudinal wave length and the mean lateral exten- sion of the meandering jet were extracted from the first paired modes, obtained by a proper orthogonal decomposition of the surface velocity field measured by large scale PIV. The depth-normalised characteristic lengths and the Strouhal number were then compared to the main dimensionless numbers characterizing the experiments: Froude number, friction num- ber and reservoir shape factor. The normalised wave length and mean lateral extension of the meandering jet are neither correlated with the Froude number nor with the reservoir shape factor; but a clear relationship is found with the friction number. Similarly, the Strouhal num- ber is found proportional to a negative power of the friction number. In contrast, the Froude number and the reservoir shape factor enable to predict the occurrence of a meandering flow pattern: meandering jets occur for Froude number greater than 0.21 and for a shape factor smaller than 6.2. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of extraction procedures on the chemical, rheological and textural properties of ulvan from Ulva lactuca of Tunisia coast
Yaich, Hela; Garna, Haikel; Besbes, Souhail et al

in Food Hydrocolloids (2014), (40), 53-63

The impact of the extraction conditions has been studied on the yield, chemical composition, rheological and textural properties of ulvan from the green seaweed Ulva lactuca. High ulvan yield was obtained ... [more ▼]

The impact of the extraction conditions has been studied on the yield, chemical composition, rheological and textural properties of ulvan from the green seaweed Ulva lactuca. High ulvan yield was obtained after combining enzymatic and chemical extraction but the lowest yield results at the drastic conditions (pH 1.5 and 90 C). Besides, solvent acidity was an important parameter controlling the ulvan extraction efficiency. The different extraction processes affected chemical composition of ulvan extracts and in particular, sulphate, ash and sugar contents. Low proportions of galactose, glucose and protein were also found in sulphated polysaccharides. The extract, which is resulted from combined enzymatic and chemical extraction, was mainly composed of high peak molecular weight polysaccharides. Ulvan hy-drocolloids demonstrated a pseudoplastic behavior. Viscoelastic behavior was carried out at a concen-tration of 1.6% (w/v) in the presence of 7 mM sodium tetraborate and at pH 7.5. However, polysaccharides formed a gel. It was not the case for the extract at pH 1.5 and 90 C under the same conditions. The results showed that a significant effect of the conditions of extraction on the textural characteristic (firmness, springiness and adhesiveness) of ulvan gels. [less ▲]

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See detailTransnational modelling of the Meuse District with PegOpera simulation software
Grard, Aline ULg; Everbecq, Etienne ULg; MAGERMANS, POL ULg et al

in International Journal of River Basin Management (2014)

The environmental software PEGOPERA is a new tool resulting from the coupling of the PEGASE model (Planification Et Gestion de l’ASsainissement des Eaux, French acronym for planning and management of ... [more ▼]

The environmental software PEGOPERA is a new tool resulting from the coupling of the PEGASE model (Planification Et Gestion de l’ASsainissement des Eaux, French acronym for planning and management of water purification) with a friendly Graphical User Interface. PEGASE is an integrated and physically based river/basin model and is devoted to the characterisation of the physico-chemical state of surface water, at the scale of a whole watershed or basin, including International River Basin District (IRBD). The aim of the model is to simulate non stationary scenarios at various scales (from a few km² to hundreds of thousands km²) while handling the entire river tree (hundreds to thousands of water bodies). The purpose of PEGOPERA is to provide the stakeholders - as regards to surface water management - with a tool dedicated to the deterministic calculation of water quality of the rivers taking into account pollutant loads and discharges. In the context of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, the international coordination between neighbouring states and regions is required. The PEGOPERA software is adapted to simulate the IRBD Meuse. Indeed: i. An integrated transnational database relevant to the entire district is available; ii. The software is operational: the Meuse application has been calibrated and validated independently on most of regional sub-basins of the district; iii. The software could be used to simulate historical and future scenarios to assess water quality improvement that may be expected after applying basic and supplementary measures. The results demonstrate the relevance of the use of this software in this kind of transnational modelling. Some regions of the International District of the Meuse are validated on historical situations. Other parts still need to be improved in terms of consolidating the input databases. Prospective scenarios implementing measures from the WFD are carried out at this District scale. [less ▲]

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See detailCoastal flood damage and adaptation costs under 21st century sea-level rise
Hinkel, J.; Lincke, D.; Vafeidis, A. T. et al

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2014), online

Coastal flood damage and adaptation costs under 21st century sea-level rise are assessed on a global scale taking into account a wide range of uncertainties in continental topography data, population data ... [more ▼]

Coastal flood damage and adaptation costs under 21st century sea-level rise are assessed on a global scale taking into account a wide range of uncertainties in continental topography data, population data, protection strategies, socioeconomic development and sea-level rise. Uncertainty in global mean and regional sea level was derived from four different climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5, each combined with three land-ice scenarios based on the published range of contributions from ice sheets and glaciers. Without adaptation, 0.2–4.6% of global population is expected to be flooded annually in 2100 under 25–123 cm of global mean sea-level rise, with expected annual losses of 0.3–9.3% of global gross domestic product. Damages of this magnitude are very unlikely to be tolerated by society and adaptation will be widespread. The global costs of protecting the coast with dikes are significant with annual investment and maintenance costs of US$ 12–71 billion in 2100, but much smaller than the global cost of avoided damages even without accounting for indirect costs of damage to regional production supply. Flood damages by the end of this century are much more sensitive to the applied protection strategy than to variations in climate and socioeconomic scenarios as well as in physical data sources (topography and climate model). Our results emphasize the central role of long-term coastal adaptation strategies. These should also take into account that protecting large parts of the developed coast increases the risk of catastrophic consequences in the case of defense failure. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh-frequency A-type pulsators discovered using SuperWASP
Holdsworth, Daniel L.; Smalley, B.; Gillon, Michaël ULg et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2014)

We present the results of a survey using the WASP archive to search for high-frequency pulsations in F-, A- and B-type stars. Over 1.5 million targets have been searched for pulsations with amplitudes ... [more ▼]

We present the results of a survey using the WASP archive to search for high-frequency pulsations in F-, A- and B-type stars. Over 1.5 million targets have been searched for pulsations with amplitudes greater than 0.5 millimagnitude. We identify over 350 stars which pulsate with periods less than 30 min. Spectroscopic follow-up of selected targets has enabled us to confirm 10 new rapidly oscillating Ap stars, 13 pulsating Am stars and the fastest known δ Scuti star. We also observe stars which show pulsations in both the high-frequency domain and the low-frequency δ Scuti range. This work shows the power of the WASP photometric survey to find variable stars with amplitudes well below the nominal photometric precision per observation. [less ▲]

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See detailA multi-method approach to radial-velocity measurement for single-object spectra
David, M.; Blomme, R.; Frémat, Y. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 562

Context. The derivation of radial velocities from large numbers of spectra that typically result from survey work, requires automation. However, except for the classical cases of slowly rotating late-type ... [more ▼]

Context. The derivation of radial velocities from large numbers of spectra that typically result from survey work, requires automation. However, except for the classical cases of slowly rotating late-type spectra, existing methods of measuring Doppler shifts require fine-tuning to avoid a loss of accuracy due to the idiosyncrasies of individual spectra. The radial velocity spectrometer (RVS) on the Gaia mission, which will start operating very soon, prompted a new attempt at creating a measurement pipeline to handle a wide variety of spectral types. <BR /> Aims: The present paper describes the theoretical background on which this software is based. However, apart from the assumption that only synthetic templates are used, we do not rely on any of the characteristics of this instrument, so our results should be relevant for most telescope-detector combinations. <BR /> Methods: We propose an approach based on the simultaneous use of several alternative measurement methods, each having its own merits and drawbacks, and conveying the spectral information in a different way, leading to different values for the measurement. A comparison or a combination of the various results either leads to a "best estimate" or indicates to the user that the observed spectrum is problematic and should be analysed manually. <BR /> Results: We selected three methods and analysed the relationships and differences between them from a unified point of view; with each method an appropriate estimator for the individual random error is chosen. We also develop a procedure for tackling the problem of template mismatch in a systematic way. Furthermore, we propose several tests for studying and comparing the performance of the various methods as a function of the atmospheric parameters of the observed objects. Finally, we describe a procedure for obtaining a knowledge-based combination of the various Doppler-shift measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailAlignment in star-debris disc systems seen by Herschel
Greaves, J. S.; Kennedy, G. M.; Thureau, N. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society : Letters (2014), 438

Many nearby main-sequence stars have been searched for debris using the far-infrared Herschel satellite, within the DEBRIS, DUNES and Guaranteed-Time Key Projects. We discuss here 11 stars of spectral ... [more ▼]

Many nearby main-sequence stars have been searched for debris using the far-infrared Herschel satellite, within the DEBRIS, DUNES and Guaranteed-Time Key Projects. We discuss here 11 stars of spectral types A-M where the stellar inclination is known and can be compared to that of the spatially resolved dust belts. The discs are found to be well aligned with the stellar equators, as in the case of the Sun's Kuiper belt, and unlike many close-in planets seen in transit surveys. The ensemble of stars here can be fitted with a star-disc tilt of ≲ 10°. These results suggest that proposed mechanisms for tilting the star or disc in fact operate rarely. A few systems also host imaged planets, whose orbits at tens of au are aligned with the debris discs, contrary to what might be expected in models where external perturbers induce tilts. [less ▲]

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See detailCoûts de soins de malades diabétiques hospitalisés en court séjour à Lubumbashi : Etude descriptive transversale
Mundongo Tshamba, Henri; Kaj Malonga, Françoise; Ditend, Grévisse et al

in Diabetes Research & Clinical Practice (2014), 103(Supplement 1), 32

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See detailDe nieuwe fairness tax: EU- en verdragsconform ?
Peeters, Bart ULg

in Fiscologue International (2014), 361

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See detailPerfect Conductor and Impedance Boundary Condition Corrections via a Finite Element Subproblem Method
Dular, Patrick ULg; Péron, Victor; Perrussel, Ronan et al

in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics (2014), 50(2),

A finite element subproblem method is developed to correct the inaccuracies proper to perfect conductor and impedance boundary condition models, particularly near edges and corners of the conductors, for ... [more ▼]

A finite element subproblem method is developed to correct the inaccuracies proper to perfect conductor and impedance boundary condition models, particularly near edges and corners of the conductors, for a large range of conductivities and frequencies. Successive local corrections, supported by fine local meshes, can be obtained from each model to a more accurate one, allowing efficient extensions of their domains of validity. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of firing time and framework thickness on veneered Y-TZP discs curvature.
Jakubowicz-Kohen, Boris D.; Sadoun, Michael J.; Douillard, Thierry et al

in Dental materials : official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials (2014), 30(2), 242-248

OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present work was to study the curvature of very thinly, veneered Y-TZP discs of different framework thicknesses submitted to different firing times. METHODS: Fifteen 20-mm ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present work was to study the curvature of very thinly, veneered Y-TZP discs of different framework thicknesses submitted to different firing times. METHODS: Fifteen 20-mm-wide Y-TZP discs were produced in three different thicknesses: 0.75, 1, 1.5mm. One disc from each group was left unveneered while the others were layered with a 0.1mm veneering ceramic layer. All discs underwent five firing cycles for a total cumulative firing time of 30min, 1, 2, 5 and 10h at 900 degrees C. The curvature profile was measured using a profilometer after the veneering process and after each firing cycle respectively. A fitted curve was then used to estimate the, curvature radius. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) measurements were taken on veneering, ceramic and Y-TZP beam samples that underwent the same firing schedule. Those data were used to calculate the curvature generated by CTE variations over firing time. RESULTS: All bilayered samples exhibited a curvature that increased over firing time inversely to framework thickness. However non-veneered samples did not exhibit any curvature modification. SIGNIFICANCE: The results of the present study reveal that even a very thin veneer layer (0.1mm) can induce a significant curvature of Y-TZP discs. The dilatometric results showed that Tg and CTE, variations are not sufficient to explain this curvature. A chemical-induced zirconia volume, augmentation located at the framework sub-surface near the interface could explain the sample, curvature and its increase with firing time. [less ▲]

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See detailThe RIAD peptidomimetic inhibits HIV-1 replication in humanized NSG mice
Singh, Maneesh; Singh, Pratibha; Vaira, Dolores et al

in European Journal of Clinical Investigation (2014), 44(2), 146-152

Background Increased intracellular concentration of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in T cells is associated with various immunodeficiency conditions including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Several ... [more ▼]

Background Increased intracellular concentration of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in T cells is associated with various immunodeficiency conditions including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Several reports indicate a critical role of activated protein kinase A (PKA) in the susceptibility of cells to HIV infection. We have used a cell permeable, stable peptidomimetic version (P3) of the RI-anchoring disruptor (RIAD), which prevents PKA interaction with A-kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs). It is known that RIAD peptide abrogates effects of localized cAMP signalling through anchored type I PKA in lymphocytes and prevents murine AIDS (MAIDS) infection when expressed as a transgene in mice. Methods and Results In vitro HIV-infected human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) show reduced levels of p24 and intracellular cAMP in T cells when treated with RIAD peptidomimetic (RIAD-P3). Humanized NOD/SCID/IL2cnull (NSG) mice infected with HIV-1 JRCSF and treated with RIAD-P3 (3􏰀5 mg) once every 2 weeks showed significantly reduced levels of viral load at +28, +42 and +56 days and increased CD4 numbers at +56 days after the start of treatment. RIAD-P3-treated humanized mice had lower levels of intracellular cAMP in T cells sorted from splenocytes. Conclusions Treatment with RIAD-P3 limits HIV-1 viral replication and stabilizes CD4 levels by mechanisms involving cAMP/PKA-I pathway in human PBMCs and humanized NSG mice. [less ▲]

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See detailA New Method for the Determination of Cyanide Ions and Their Quantification in Some Senegalese Cassava Varieties
Diallo, Younoussa; Gueye, Momar Talla; Ndiaye, Cheikh et al

in American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (2014), 5(3), 181-187

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a starchy staple food that previous researches have showed to contain cyanogenic compounds, precursors of hydrocyanic acid, undoubtedly toxic for humans. With the aim ... [more ▼]

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a starchy staple food that previous researches have showed to contain cyanogenic compounds, precursors of hydrocyanic acid, undoubtedly toxic for humans. With the aim to determine food security in cassava, this study developed a simple, fast and less expensive step for quantifying cyanide ions by using micro-diffusion with modified Conway cells. After an enzymatic degradation, the cyanide ions were quantified by electrochemical procedures. The validation of this method is estimated. The concentration of cyanide ions at different part of the samples was determined. The results showed high toxicity in some fresh Senegalese consumed cassava varieties (>100 mg HCN·kg﹣1). However, in the processed cassava products, less than 10 mg HCN·kg﹣1 was found in the different varieties studied except for the chips where the levels of CN﹣ contents were important (>49 mg HCN·kg﹣1). [less ▲]

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See detailTargeting the synovial angiogenesis as a novel treatment approach to osteoarthritis.
Henrotin, Yves ULg; Pesesse, Laurence; Lambert, Cécile ULg

in Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease (2014), 6(1), 20-34

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See detailLa validité des procédures conventionnelles de récusation d’arbitres
Caprasse, Olivier ULg; Henry, Frédéric ULg

in Journal des Tribunaux (2014)

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See detailLe traitement médical conservateur des tendinopathies du genou
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; BAUVIR, Philippe ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg et al

in Ortho-Rhumato (2014), 12(1), 31-34

Les traitements «passifs» des tendinopathies sont généralement utilisés de manière empirique pour combattre la douleur mais ne modifient pas la structure histologique du tendon. Par contre, le travail ... [more ▼]

Les traitements «passifs» des tendinopathies sont généralement utilisés de manière empirique pour combattre la douleur mais ne modifient pas la structure histologique du tendon. Par contre, le travail excentrique a pour but de contrecarrer une théorie étiopathogénique proposant une insuffisance de résistance du tendon exposé à des charges externes qui peuvent progressivement entrainer des lésions. Les résultats cliniques suite à cette prise en charge montrent souvent une évolution favorable des douleurs. Les ondes de choc extra-corporelles demeurent une option thérapeutique non-invasives et présentent peu de complications. De plus, elles sont employées avec succès pour traiter des tendinopathies chroniques rebelles aux traitements conservateurs classiques. Le plasma riche en plaquettes (PRP) est obtenu par centrifugation de sang autologue afin d’obtenir une grande concentration plaquettaire dépendant de la technique employée. Malgré la preuve de l’efficacité du PRP sur la régénération tissulaire en laboratoire, il existe actuellement peu de preuves cliniques tangibles concernant le traitement des tendinopathies chroniques. Enfin, d’autres nouvelles options thérapeutiques (patches de dérivés nitrés, infiltrations de polidocanol, d’acide hyaluronique et de cellules souches) sont également abordées. [less ▲]

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See detailCloistered Baryogenesis
Aristizabal Sierra, Diego ULg; Fong, Chee Sheng; Nardi, Enrico et al

in Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics [= JCAP] (2014), 2014

The cosmological matter-antimatter asymmetry can arise from the baryon number conserving CP asymmetry in two body decays of heavy particles, when the two final states carry equal and opposite baryon ... [more ▼]

The cosmological matter-antimatter asymmetry can arise from the baryon number conserving CP asymmetry in two body decays of heavy particles, when the two final states carry equal and opposite baryon number, and one couples directly or indirectly to electroweak sphalerons so that its baryon asymmetry gets partly reprocessed into a lepton asymmetry, while the other remains chemically decoupled from the thermal bath with its baryon content frozen. After sphaleron switchoff the decay of the decoupled particles inject in the thermal plasma an unbalanced baryon asymmetry, giving rise to baryogenesis. We highlight the features of this mechanism in a type-I seesaw model extended by adding a new colored scalar coupled to the heavy Majorana neutrinos. If the colored scalar has an O(TeV) mass, it would leave at the LHC a characteristic signature throughout all layers of the detectors. [less ▲]

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See detailAdolf Eichmann sous la loupe des tests projectifs: TAT, Rorschach, Szondi
Peralta, Alberto; Kramer, Richard; Stassart, Martine ULg

in Szondiana (2014)

Under consideration of three major projective personality tests (TAT, Rorschach and Szonditests) it appears that Adolf Eichmann who has organized the deportation of jewish european people to Auschwitz ... [more ▼]

Under consideration of three major projective personality tests (TAT, Rorschach and Szonditests) it appears that Adolf Eichmann who has organized the deportation of jewish european people to Auschwitz, was no common individual but a perverse one with schizoparanoïd features behind an obsessionnal mask. These data contradict the famous opinion of Hanna Arendt about "the banality of evil" [less ▲]

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See detailAdrenomedullin refines mortality prediction by the BODE index in COPD - The "BODE-A" index.
Stolz, Daiana; Kostikas, Kostantinos; Blasi, Francesco et al

in European Respiratory Journal (2014)

The BODE index is well-validated for mortality prediction in COPD. Concentrations of plasma proadrenomedullin, a surrogate for mature adrenomedullin, independently predicted 2-year mortality among ... [more ▼]

The BODE index is well-validated for mortality prediction in COPD. Concentrations of plasma proadrenomedullin, a surrogate for mature adrenomedullin, independently predicted 2-year mortality among inpatients with COPD exacerbation.We compared accuracy of initial proadrenomedullin level, BODE, and BODE components, alone or combined, in predicting 1-year or 2-year all-cause mortality in a multicenter, multinational observational cohort with stable, moderate to very severe COPD.Proadrenomedullin was significantly associated (P<0.001) with 1-year mortality (4.7%) and 2-year mortality (7.8%), and comparably predictive to BODE regarding both (C statistics: 0.691 vs. 0.745, 0.635 vs. 0.679). Relative to using BODE alone, adding proadrenomedullin significantly improved 1-year and 2-year mortality prognostication (C statistics: 0.750, 0.818; both P<0.001). Proadrenomedullin plus BOD was more predictive than was the original BODE including 6-minute-walk distance. In multivariable analysis, proadrenomedullin (LR X2 13.0, P<0.001), body mass index (8.5, P=0.004), and 6-minute-walk distance (7.5, P=0.006), but not modified MMRC dyspnoea score (2.2, P=0.14) or FEV1 % predicted (0.3, P=0.60), independently foretold 2-year survival.Proadrenomedullin plus BODE better predicts mortality in COPD patients than does BODE alone; proadrenomedullin may substitute for 6-minute-walk distance in BODE when 6-minute-walk testing is unavailable. [less ▲]

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See detailSuspicion de fibrose pulmonaire idiopathique chez un West Highland White Terrier
Roels, Elodie ULg; Bolen, Géraldine ULg; Clercx, Cécile ULg

in Monde Vétérinaire (Le) : European Veterinary Magazine (2014), 139

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See detailParameter identification of the STICS crop model, using an accelerated formal MCMC approach
Dumont, Benjamin ULg; Leemans, Vincent ULg; Mansouri, Majdi ULg et al

in Environmental Modelling & Software (2014), 52

This study presents a Bayesian approach for the parameters’ identification of the STICS crop model based on the recently developed Differential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) algorithm. The ... [more ▼]

This study presents a Bayesian approach for the parameters’ identification of the STICS crop model based on the recently developed Differential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) algorithm. The posterior distributions of nine specific crop parameters of the STICS model were sampled with the aim to improve the growth simulations of a winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) culture. The results obtained with the DREAM algorithm were initially compared to those obtained with a Nelder-Mead Simplex algorithm embedded within the OptimiSTICS package. Then, three types of likelihood functions implemented within the DREAM algorithm were compared, namely the standard least square, the weighted least square, and a transformed likelihood function that makes explicit use of the coefficient of variation (CV). The results showed that the proposed CV likelihood function allowed taking into account both noise on measurements and heteroscedasticity which are regularly encountered in crop modelling [less ▲]

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See detailInfiniment petits en économie
Bair, Jacques ULg; Henry, Valérie ULg

in Tangente, l'aventure mathématique (2014), 156

Depuis la création de l'analyse mathématique, principalement par Newton et Leibniz, les économistes ont découvert qu'ils pouvaient exploiter avec succès le concept mathématique d'infiniment petit dans ... [more ▼]

Depuis la création de l'analyse mathématique, principalement par Newton et Leibniz, les économistes ont découvert qu'ils pouvaient exploiter avec succès le concept mathématique d'infiniment petit dans leurs raisonnements. Dans cet article est donné un aperçu des premières apparitions de l'analyse infinitésimale en économie. [less ▲]

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