References of "Scientific journals"      in Complete repository Arts & humanities   Archaeology   Art & art history   Classical & oriental studies   History   Languages & linguistics   Literature   Performing arts   Philosophy & ethics   Religion & theology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Business & economic sciences   Accounting & auditing   Production, distribution & supply chain management   Finance   General management & organizational theory   Human resources management   Management information systems   Marketing   Strategy & innovation   Quantitative methods in economics & management   General economics & history of economic thought   International economics   Macroeconomics & monetary economics   Microeconomics   Economic systems & public economics   Social economics   Special economic topics (health, labor, transportation…)   Multidisciplinary, general & others Engineering, computing & technology   Aerospace & aeronautics engineering   Architecture   Chemical engineering   Civil engineering   Computer science   Electrical & electronics engineering   Energy   Geological, petroleum & mining engineering   Materials science & engineering   Mechanical engineering   Multidisciplinary, general & others Human health sciences   Alternative medicine   Anesthesia & intensive care   Cardiovascular & respiratory systems   Dentistry & oral medicine   Dermatology   Endocrinology, metabolism & nutrition   Forensic medicine   Gastroenterology & hepatology   General & internal medicine   Geriatrics   Hematology   Immunology & infectious disease   Laboratory medicine & medical technology   Neurology   Oncology   Ophthalmology   Orthopedics, rehabilitation & sports medicine   Otolaryngology   Pediatrics   Pharmacy, pharmacology & toxicology   Psychiatry   Public health, health care sciences & services   Radiology, nuclear medicine & imaging   Reproductive medicine (gynecology, andrology, obstetrics)   Rheumatology   Surgery   Urology & nephrology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Law, criminology & political science   Civil law   Criminal law & procedure   Criminology   Economic & commercial law   European & international law   Judicial law   Metalaw, Roman law, history of law & comparative law   Political science, public administration & international relations   Public law   Social law   Tax law   Multidisciplinary, general & others Life sciences   Agriculture & agronomy   Anatomy (cytology, histology, embryology...) & physiology   Animal production & animal husbandry   Aquatic sciences & oceanology   Biochemistry, biophysics & molecular biology   Biotechnology   Entomology & pest control   Environmental sciences & ecology   Food science   Genetics & genetic processes   Microbiology   Phytobiology (plant sciences, forestry, mycology...)   Veterinary medicine & animal health   Zoology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Physical, chemical, mathematical & earth Sciences   Chemistry   Earth sciences & physical geography   Mathematics   Physics   Space science, astronomy & astrophysics   Multidisciplinary, general & others Social & behavioral sciences, psychology   Animal psychology, ethology & psychobiology   Anthropology   Communication & mass media   Education & instruction   Human geography & demography   Library & information sciences   Neurosciences & behavior   Regional & inter-regional studies   Social work & social policy   Sociology & social sciences   Social, industrial & organizational psychology   Theoretical & cognitive psychology   Treatment & clinical psychology   Multidisciplinary, general & others     Showing results 901 to 1000 of 58908     5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15     Quantitative Agreement between Electron-Optical Phase Images of $WSe_2$ and Simulations Based on Electrostatic Potentials that Include Bonding EffectsBorghardt, S.; Winkler, F.; Zanolli, Zeila et alin Physical Review Letters (2017), 118Detailed reference viewed: 22 (3 ULg) Critical issues in parameter calibration of cyclic models for steel membersFrancavilla, Antonella Bianca ; Chisari, Corrado; Latour, Massimo et alin Engineering Structures (2017), 132Accurate response predictions of steel structures subjected to earthquake loading involve the use of models able to simulate properly the cyclic behaviour of the regions where nonlinear phenomena take ... [more ▼]Accurate response predictions of steel structures subjected to earthquake loading involve the use of models able to simulate properly the cyclic behaviour of the regions where nonlinear phenomena take place. In case of full-strength joints, they are represented by the members connected, which may present softening response due to local buckling. Even though a number of phenomenological models have been developed in the last decades, their calibration seems to have received less attention. Usually, calibration is based on matching the experimental and numerical cyclic responses under loading protocols proposed by standards. Since these were not developed to this aim, the predictive capability of so calibrated models deserves investigation. In this work, a calibration procedure based on the minimisation of response misfit is presented and critically discussed, with reference to an experimental programme carried out at the University of Salerno. Different assumptions about the function to minimise, the ultimate rotation and number of objectives are compared and analysed. The main outcome of this investigation is that a calibration based on cyclic response only is not robust, since its accuracy under different loading conditions may deteriorate. The introduction of the monotonic test in a multi-objective framework may be effective, and its accuracy is confirmed by the results of pseudo-dynamic tests. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 6 (2 ULg) Use of donor milk in the neonatal intensive care unitde halleux, Virginie; Pieltain, Catherine; SENTERRE, Thibault et alin Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine (2017)Detailed reference viewed: 15 (4 ULg) Antiplasmodial activity of Mezoneuron benthamianum leaves and identification of its active constituentsJansen, Olivia ; Tchinda, Alembert T.; Loua, Jean et alin Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2017), 203(March), 20--26Detailed reference viewed: 27 (7 ULg) Three-Dimensional Morphology of the Left Ventricular Outflow Tract: Impact on Grading Aortic Stenosis Severity.Caballero, Luis; Saura, Daniel; Oliva-Sandoval, Maria Jose et alin Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography (2017), 30(1), 28-35BACKGROUND: Left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) measurement is a critical step in the quantification of aortic valve area. The assumption of a circular morphology of the LVOT may induce some errors. The ... [more ▼]BACKGROUND: Left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) measurement is a critical step in the quantification of aortic valve area. The assumption of a circular morphology of the LVOT may induce some errors. The aim of this study was to assess the three-dimensional (3D) morphology of the LVOT and its impact on grading aortic stenosis severity. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients with aortic stenosis were studied retrospectively. LVOT dimensions were measured using 3D transesophageal echocardiography at three levels: at the hinge points (HP) of the aortic valve and at 4 and 8 mm proximal to the annular plane. Results were compared with standard two-dimensional echocardiographic measurements. RESULTS: Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography showed a funnel shape that was more circular at the HP and more elliptical at 4 and 8 mm proximal to the annular plane (circularity index = 0.92 vs 0.83 vs 0.76, P < .001). Cross-sectional area was smaller at the HP and larger at 4 and 8 mm from the annular plane (3.6 vs 3.9 vs 4.1 cm2, P = .001). The best correlation between two-dimensional and 3D transesophageal echocardiographic dimensions was at the HP (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.75; 95% CI, 0.59-0.86). When the HP approach was selected, there was a reduction in the percentage of patients with low flow (from 41% to 29%). CONCLUSIONS: A large portion of patients with aortic stenosis have funnel-shaped and elliptical LVOTs, a morphology that is more pronounced in the region farther from the annular plane. Two-dimensional LVOT measurement closer to the annular plane has the best correlation with 3D measurements. Measurement of the LVOT closer to the annular plane should be encouraged to reduce measurement errors. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 169 (2 ULg) Increased expression of bacterial amoA during an N2O emission peak in an agricultural fieldTheodorakopoulos, Nicolas ; Lognoul, Margaux ; Degrune, Florine et alin Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment (2017), 236Levels of N-cycle gene transcripts (nirK, nirS, nosZ, amoA) were measured during an N2O emission peak in an agricultural soil. Automated dynamic closed chambers were used to monitor an N2O emission peak ... [more ▼]Levels of N-cycle gene transcripts (nirK, nirS, nosZ, amoA) were measured during an N2O emission peak in an agricultural soil. Automated dynamic closed chambers were used to monitor an N2O emission peak on a maize crop after a natural rainfall. The peak occurred rapidly after the rainfall began. Spatial and temporal variability in N2O emission was observed between chambers. An analysis of N-cycle gene transcript levels revealed an increase in bacterial amoA gene transcripts (but not in archaeal amoA transcripts), correlating strongly with N2O emission. This suggests the involvement of nitrification enzymes, despite a high water-filled pore space (80%). Reverse transcription of bacterial 16S rRNA followed by partial sequencing of the resulting cDNAs revealed few rainfall-induced changes in the potentially active bacterial community, and notably no significant change in the relative abundance of 16S rRNAs from the nitrifier genus Nitrosospira. Expression of the amoA gene appears as a possible proxy for monitoring the N2O emission peak. To our knowledge, this is the first experiment to evaluate the expression of N-cycle genes during an N2O emission peak on an agricultural field. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 46 (12 ULg) Robust asymptotic tests for the equality of multivariate coefficients of variationAerts, Stéphanie ; Haesbroeck, Gentiane in TEST (2017), 26(1), 163-187In order to easily compare several populations on the basis of more than one feature, multivariate coefficients of variation (MCV) may be used as they allow to summarize relative dispersion in a single ... [more ▼]In order to easily compare several populations on the basis of more than one feature, multivariate coefficients of variation (MCV) may be used as they allow to summarize relative dispersion in a single index. However, up to date, no test of equality of one or more MCV's has been developed in the literature. In this paper, several classical and robust Wald type tests are proposed and studied. The asymptotic distributions of the test statistics are derived under elliptical symmetry, and the asymptotic efficiency of the robust versions is compared to the classical tests. Robustness of the proposed procedures is examined through partial influence functions of the test statistic, as well as by means of power and level influence functions. A simulation study compares the performance of the classical and robust tests under uncontaminated and contaminated schemes, and the difference with the usual covariance homogeneity test is highlighted. As a by-product, these tests may also be considered in the univariate context where they yield procedures that are both robust and easy-to-use. They provide an interesting alternative to the numerous parametric tests of comparison of univariate coefficients of variation existing in the literature, which are, in most cases, unreliable in presence of outliers. The methods are illustrated on a real data set. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 41 (6 ULg) La « discrimination à rebours » au sein du marché intérieur : une illégalité qu’il ne faut pas voir au niveau européen ?Van Cleynenbreugel, Pieter in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2017)Cet article dresse un panorama de la jurisprudence sur les situations purement internes au droit du marché intérieur et du phénomène juridique de la discrimination à rebours. Il est conclu qu'une telle ... [more ▼]Cet article dresse un panorama de la jurisprudence sur les situations purement internes au droit du marché intérieur et du phénomène juridique de la discrimination à rebours. Il est conclu qu'une telle discrimination est inhérente au régime juridique de l'Union européenne caractérisé par le principe d'attribution des compétences. Il convient aux Etats membres d'y apporter des solutions fondées sur leurs droits constitutionnels respectifs. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 29 (0 ULg) A look at Intact Forest Landscapes and their relevance in Central African forest policyHaurez, Barbara ; Daïnou, Kasso ; Vermeulen, Cédric et alin Forest Policy and Economics (2017), 80Tropical forests are major providers of natural resources and ecosystem services but their ecological functions are at threat, due to increasing human pressure linked to economic development. The ... [more ▼]Tropical forests are major providers of natural resources and ecosystem services but their ecological functions are at threat, due to increasing human pressure linked to economic development. The identification of priority areas for conservation is crucial for land use planning to ensure the protection of biodiversity and ecological function. Intact Forest Landscapes (IFLs), as defined by Greenpeace and World Resources Institute (WRI), are areas of the forest ecosystems not subjected to human activities. They have beenidentified by mapping human disturbances through remote sensing. Contrary to similar global-scale concepts, IFLs have been integrated into the standards of the certification body Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and therefore have practical implications for forest management policies. The Motion 65, approved in the general assembly of FSC in 2014, mandates the protection of IFLs located in FSC certified logging concessions. Until the implementation of national standards, forestry operations are banished from 80% of the IFL area within each forest management unit. To trace the history and evaluate the suitability of IFLs in the Central African context, we searched for documents related to the IFL method, and related approaches focusing on the identification of areas devoid of human disturbances. The IFL method is simple and cost-effective and allows for a global assessment of the influence of human infrastructures and industrial exploitation on forests However, the method does not consider the situation below the canopy and those forest components not visible by satellites. For example, hunting, one of the main threats faced by wildlife in Central African forests today, cannot be detected with satellite imagery. On the other hand, other anthropogenic activities which remote sensing may detect may be compatible with forest ecosystem conservation. To better tailor the IFL approach to Central African forests, we recommend (i) the consideration of wildlife communities in the intactness analysis, (ii) a thorough evaluation of the impacts of human activities on forest ecosystems, and (iii) the integration of local stakeholders and governments in the design of land management strategies to respond to social, economic and environmental needs [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (8 ULg) L'image de marque des villes wallonnesScatton, Loïc; Schmitz, Serge in Belgeo (2017), 2016(1), City branding practices have become widespread but few studies measure their effects on medium-sized cities. Through an analysis of the practices of city branding and internal and external images of the ... [more ▼]City branding practices have become widespread but few studies measure their effects on medium-sized cities. Through an analysis of the practices of city branding and internal and external images of the cities of Liege and Charleroi, this article points out the relative strengths and weaknesses of the images of each of the Walloon cities, among their businessmen, vis-a vis those of the other Walloon city. The images of these two cities are composites and branding policies are still in their infancy. These policies have followed a top-down approach which may explain the limited use of the two brands even if they use ideas shared by local entrepreneurs. However the research underlines the absence of opinions on certain characteristics of the cities or a negative view which often requires works in the field but also better communication. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 85 (29 ULg) Corn stover as feedstock for the production of ethanol: chemical composition of different anatomical fractions and varietiesBerchem, Thomas ; Roiseux, Olivier; Vanderghem, Caroline et alin Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining (2017)The available grain corn stover produced in Belgium is estimated at 290 000 dry tons, a suffi cient amount to supply a biorefi nery. Differences regarding size, prematurity, and drying speed have been ... [more ▼]The available grain corn stover produced in Belgium is estimated at 290 000 dry tons, a suffi cient amount to supply a biorefi nery. Differences regarding size, prematurity, and drying speed have been observed among the cultivated grain corn varieties in Wallonia (Belgium). This study aims to evaluate the variation in composition of different anatomical fractions (stalks, leaves, cobs, and husks) of three Walloon varieties of grain corn stover (SyMultitop, Padrino, and Alduna) with significant production volumes. In addition, the Padrino variety was assessed for variation in chemical composition at three harvesting times. Walloon grain corn stover contains large amounts of polysaccharides (33.4% to 41.3% of glucans and 13.9% to 28.2% of xylans) and lignin (10.4% to 15.3%). Some différences were noted between varieties and anatomical fractions. Depending on how the feedstock is harvested, it is possible to produce between 79 and 81 M liters of ethanol per year without adversely affecting soil sustainability. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 30 (8 ULg) Regional sea level changes for the 20th and the 21st century induced by the regional variability in Greenland ice sheet surface mass lossMeyssignac, B.; Fettweis, Xavier ; Chevrier, R. et alin Journal of Climate (2017), onlineSurface mass balance (SMB) variations of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) has been identified as an important contributor to contemporary and projected global mean sea level variations but their impact on ... [more ▼]Surface mass balance (SMB) variations of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) has been identified as an important contributor to contemporary and projected global mean sea level variations but their impact on the regional sea level change pattern is still poorly known. This study provides for the first time, consistent estimates (i.e. computed with the same models over the past -1900-2015- and over the future -2015-2100-) of GrIS SMB over 1900-2100 based on the output of 32 atmospheric-ocean General Circulation Models and Earth system models involved in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). It is based on a downscaling technique calibrated against the MAR regional climate model in order to calculate an ensemble of 32 Greenland SMB estimates at regional scale. Because the GrIS SMB does not respond uniformly to greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. the southern part of the GrIS is more sensitive to climate warming. This study shows that it should be in imbalance in the 21st century sooner that the northern part. This regional variability affects significantly the associated relative sea level pattern over the entire ocean and particularly along the eastern coast of US and the northern coast of Europe. This highlights the necessity of taking into account GrIS regional SMB changes to evaluate accurately relative sea level changes in future projections. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 26 (3 ULg) Thermal Conductivity of Straw Bales: Full Size Measurements Considering the Direction of the Heat FlowCostes, Jean-Philippe; Evrard, Arnaud; Biot, Benjamin et alin Buildings (2017), 7(11), 1-15The thermal conductivity of straw bales is an intensively discussed topic in the international straw bale community. Straw bales are, by nature, highly heterogeneous and porous. They can have a relatively ... [more ▼]The thermal conductivity of straw bales is an intensively discussed topic in the international straw bale community. Straw bales are, by nature, highly heterogeneous and porous. They can have a relatively large range of density and the baling process can influence the way the fibres are organised within the bale. In addition, straw bales have a larger thickness than most of the insulating materials that can be found in the building industry. Measurement apparatus is usually not designed for such thicknesses, and most of the thermal conductivity values that can be found in the literature are defined based on samples in which the straw bales are resized. During this operation, the orientation of the fibres and the density may not be preserved. This paper starts with a literature review of straw bale thermal conductivity measurements and presents a measuring campaign performed with a specific Guarded Hot Plate, designed to measure samples up to 50 cm thick. The influence of the density is discussed thoroughly. Representative values are proposed for a large range of straw bales to support straw-bale development in the building industry. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 27 (3 ULg) Percevoir et reconnaître des symboles : La théorie de la représentation iconique de Dominic LopesHagelstein, Maud in Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique (2017)In his works on the epistemological value of images (Understanding Pictures — 1996), Dominic Lopes (Department of Philosophy — University of British Columbia) develops an analytical aesthetics primarily ... [more ▼]In his works on the epistemological value of images (Understanding Pictures — 1996), Dominic Lopes (Department of Philosophy — University of British Columbia) develops an analytical aesthetics primarily concerned with iconic representation. His analysis distinguishes two models of iconic representation comprehension. In the first model, inspired by perceptual approaches like that of Richard Wollheim, the process of image recognition is rooted in perception (to sum it up: perceptualism embraces the idea of « likeness » between the image and what it represents). One of this model’s shortcomings, however, is that it too readily assumes that perception can be a natural, straightforward process. Indeed, iconic representation can not be understood through perception alone, as vision is of course influenced by cultural and, most of all, cognitive processes. A representative model thus needs to account for the ways in which iconic recognition differs from ordinary visual recognition. In the second model, which build off of symbolic approaches like that of Nelson Goodman, iconic representation works the same way as other types of symbols, particularly linguistic ones. Thus, this approach considers the similarities between images and language (representations which are both affected by processes of denotation and predication). However, we all know how strongly image theoreticians have been resisting the linguistic paradigm (iconic turn topic): some worry about overlooking the image’s semantic density in favor of its « simple » descriptive quality. Lopes finds a path between these two models by developing a « theory of aspect recognition », which incorporates perceptive elements into a symbolic structure. According to Lopes, if we agree that images belong to symbolic systems of denotation, then « they might be symbols for which the reference is dependent on the carrying out of perceptive aptitudes », a claim which my talk will explore. I will also discuss how Lopes’ theory accounts for skills acquisition (the capacity to recognize) through images, and shows how images help these skills progressively develop. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (0 ULg) Infrared imaging of high density protein arrays.De Meutter, Joelle; Vandenameele, Julie ; Matagne, André et alin Analyst (2017)We propose in this paper that protein microarrays could be analysed by infrared imaging in place of enzymatic or fluorescence labelling. This label-free method reports simultaneously a large series of ... [more ▼]We propose in this paper that protein microarrays could be analysed by infrared imaging in place of enzymatic or fluorescence labelling. This label-free method reports simultaneously a large series of data on the spotted sample (protein secondary structure, phosphorylation, glycosylation, presence of impurities, etc.). In the present work, 100 mum protein spots each containing about 100 pg protein were deposited to form high density regular arrays. Using arrays of infrared detectors, high resolution images could be obtained where each pixel of the image is in fact a full infrared spectrum. With microarrays, hundreds of experimental conditions can be tested easily and quickly, with no further labelling or chemistry of any kind. We describe how the noise present in the infrared spectra can be split into image noise and detector noise. We also detail how both types of noise can be most conveniently dealt with to generate very high quality spectra of less than 100 pg protein. Finally, the results suggest that the protein secondary structure is preserved during microarray building. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (2 ULg) Don't judge a fish by its fins: species delineation of Congolese Labeo (Cyprinidae)Van Steenberge, Maarten; Gajdzik, Laura ; Chilala, Alex et alin Zoologica Scripta (2016)Conspicuous characters are often useful in species identification. Yet, identification and delineation are two different processes, and such characters do not necessarily provide the best basis on which ... [more ▼]Conspicuous characters are often useful in species identification. Yet, identification and delineation are two different processes, and such characters do not necessarily provide the best basis on which species can be delineated. This is illustrated by the case of the Labeo with papillary lips from the Congo basin. Traditionally, species delineation in this group was based on a conspicuous trait: the shape of the dorsal fin, which shows a profound degree of differentiation. Morphometric analyses were performed on 185 specimens both with and without measurements taken on this fin. The groups obtained using these two approaches were compared with those obtained through DNA barcoding. For this, 24 sequences of the standard barcoding COI gene were obtained. Species delineations based on morphological and molecular results were in agreement when the shape of the dorsal fin was ignored. This suggested that of the five nominal species known from the Congo basin, L. altivelis, L. rosae, L. lineatus, L. weeksii and L. maleboensis, only the former three remain valid. Consequently, L. weeksii was synonymised with L. altivelis and L. maleboensis with L. lineatus. The sole Congo basin endemic is L. lineatus as L. altivelis and L. rosae also occur in more southern basins. The use of the shape of the dorsal fin in morphological studies has previously led to overestimates of species diversity in this group. This is due to the fact that L. altivelis shows a remarkable amount of geographical variation for this trait. The large amount of intra- and interspecific variation in this character was caused by differential allometric growth in different parts of the dorsal fin. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 24 (2 ULg) Is Competence a Holy Grail for Teaching? Reflections on Nursing EducationDancot, Jacinthe in Nursing & Care Open Access Journal (2016), 1(4), 00021The competence-based approach is largely widespread in the nursing schools and is viewed as a golden standard for professional teaching. But the practical use of the concept is varying among institutions ... [more ▼]The competence-based approach is largely widespread in the nursing schools and is viewed as a golden standard for professional teaching. But the practical use of the concept is varying among institutions and even teachers. The goal of this narrative review is to clarify the conception of competence and its use in the fields of education and nursing. Regarding education, Gonczi, Tardif, Jonnaert and Beckers are the key authors referred to. A first apparent consensus over the holistic nature of the competence quickly gives place to the observation of important nuances in conceptions. Similarly, in the field of nursing, Benner is first discussed, and recent literature reviews and concept analyses are taken into account: similar nuances are detected, as well as difficulties in the practical implementation of the concept. Considering the lack of consensus and the paradigmaticalincoherences detected among the sources consulted for this review, we question the use of competence as single point of view for teaching and assessing, and we propose other avenues to be explored in order to recognize emergent professionality. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 314 (2 ULg) Continuous Production of Itraconazole-based Solid Dispersions by Hot Melt Extrusion: Preformulation, Optimization and Design Space Determination.Thiry, Justine ; Lebrun, Pierre; Vinassa, Chloé et alin International Journal of Pharmaceutics (2016), 515(1-2), 114-124Detailed reference viewed: 59 (12 ULg) Comprehension of an organosolv process for lignin extraction on Festuca arundinacea and monitoring of the cellulose degradationSchmetz, Quentin ; Maniet, Guillaume ; Jacquet, Nicolas et alin Industrial Crops and Products (2016), 94It is commonly accepted that the current society needs to partially substitute fossil resources by renewable ones. Among many solutions, one approach consists in the development of biorefinery involving ... [more ▼]It is commonly accepted that the current society needs to partially substitute fossil resources by renewable ones. Among many solutions, one approach consists in the development of biorefinery involving lignocellulosic biomass to produce bio-based materials and fuels. This study focuses on the comprehension of an organosolv treatment designed to break the complex lignocellulosic structure for high purity lignin extraction from tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). This grass benefits from an increasing interest in Western Europe and has been suggested as feedstock for biorefinery. However, its use as material for high purity lignin production has not been determined yet. Ethanol/water, 92/8% [v/v] with H2SO4 0.32 M was investigated at pilot scale under conventional heating (5 °C min−1 during 30 min and stabilized at 148 °C for 5 min). Precipitated lignin were analyzed as well as the composition of side-stream products (recovered cellulosic pulp and the aqueous hydrolysate). Lignin has been recovered at a purity level of 90% with a yield of 60%. The main contaminants were nitrogen containing compounds and degraded hemicelluloses. 2D-HSQC NMR (Two Dimension-Heteronuclear Single Quantum Correlation Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) revealed a co-extraction of ferulates and coumarates function as well as arabinoxylan. Cellulose was recovered at 53% purity with 60% yield. The conditions appear to be too harsh for tall fescue and led to significant amount of cellulose degradation. A process using a lower alcohol concentration will be developed to provide better yields of both cellulose and lignin. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 79 (20 ULg) Interpellation du genre et sujets mélancoliques. Butler lectrice d’AlthusserBorotto, Jessica in Cahiers du GRM (2016), 8Cet article propose d’explorer la manière dont Judith Butler remobilise la thèse althussérienne de l’interpellation dans La Vie psychique du pouvoir . Nous essaierons de saisir les éléments qui nous ... [more ▼]Cet article propose d’explorer la manière dont Judith Butler remobilise la thèse althussérienne de l’interpellation dans La Vie psychique du pouvoir . Nous essaierons de saisir les éléments qui nous paraissent enrichir la problématique althussérienne, suggérant que la compréhension de la dimension psychique du pouvoir qui ressort de sa lecture permet de complexifier la relation du sujet au pouvoir. Afin de tisser des liens précis entre l’interpellation chez Althusser et la subjectivation chez Butler, nous examinerons d’abord le rôle que Nietzsche et Foucault recouvrent dans la formulation de la théorie de la subjectivation chez Butler. Ensuite, il s’agit de comprendre en quoi la matérialité et l’ambiguïté des mécanismes de subjectivation, qui déjà caractérisent l’interpellation althussérienne, deviennent chez Butler les sources d’une relation critique aux conditions d’émergence du sujet. Enfin nous préciserons comment elle mobilise de telles sources pour élaborer cette figure de la psychanalyse qu’est la mélancolie et pour décrire sa transformation en deuil. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (1 ULg) Learning from Incidents and Incident Reporting: Safety Governance at a Belgian Nuclear Research CenterRossignol, Nicolas ; Van Oudheusden, Michiel in Science, Technology & Human Values (2016), Online FirstThis article examines how incidents are governed in a Belgian Nuclear Research Center by way of an incident reporting system named REX. Drawing on a documentary analysis of incident reports, interviews ... [more ▼]This article examines how incidents are governed in a Belgian Nuclear Research Center by way of an incident reporting system named REX. Drawing on a documentary analysis of incident reports, interviews and focus groups with personnel, it illustrates how REX enacts a safety governmentality centered on identifying incident causes and culprits. As this governmentality mode obscures the epistemic and political character of incidents, it closes down important opportunities for collective learning about safety and safety governance. It is argued that joint reflection about incidents and resistances towards incident reporting serve as fruitful starting points for a more reflexive safety governance that makes explicit how decisions are made in high-risk contexts. Social scientists can enhance governance of this kind by pointing to different perceptions and evaluations of incidents and by insisting that contending interpretations are confronted and accounted for. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (4 ULg) Screening transplant donors for HTLV-1 and -2Gallo, Robert; Willems, Luc ; Hasegawa, 4 Hideki et alin Blood (2016), 128(26), Detailed reference viewed: 19 (5 ULg) Neuromuscular blockade as part of an anaesthetic protocol for cataract surgery in an alpacaTutunaru, Alexandru-Cosmin ; Storms, Goedele ; Monclin, Sébastien et alin Journal of Camelid Science (2016), 9A six-month-old alpaca was presented to the veterinary teaching hospital of the University of Liège (Belgium) with a bilateral cataract. A decision was made to perform bilateral cataract surgery after an ... [more ▼]A six-month-old alpaca was presented to the veterinary teaching hospital of the University of Liège (Belgium) with a bilateral cataract. A decision was made to perform bilateral cataract surgery after an ocular ultrasound and electroretinogram were performed to assess the posterior segment and retinal function, respectively. As a premedication, the alpaca received xylazine, butorphanol and midazolam intramuscularly. Anaesthesia was induced subsequently with ketamine and midazolam intravenously and maintained with isoflurane on oxygen/air mixture. The alpaca was mechanically ventilated during surgery. Neuromuscular blockade was induced and maintained with cis-atracurium intravenously. The dose of cis-atracurium was permanently adapted using a peripheral nerve stimulator. This case report brings new knowledge regarding the use and dosage of cis-atracurium in alpacas. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 26 (11 ULg) EditorialBorotto, Jessica ; Petteni, Oriane ; Wustefeld, Sophie et alin Cahiers du GRM (2016), 10Detailed reference viewed: 16 (6 ULg) Effect of the Extraction Technique, Heating Time and Cryogenic Grinding (N2 at -196°C) on the Composition of Cumin Seeds Volatile OilMékaoui, R; Benkaci-Ali, Farid; Scholl, Georges et alin Journal of Essential Oil-Bearing Plants [=JEOBP] (2016), 19(8), 1903-1919Two techniques of extraction of essential oils (Steam distillation assisted by microwave (SDAM) and hydrodistillation assisted by microwave (HDAM)) are respectively advanced steam distillation (SD) and ... [more ▼]Two techniques of extraction of essential oils (Steam distillation assisted by microwave (SDAM) and hydrodistillation assisted by microwave (HDAM)) are respectively advanced steam distillation (SD) and hydrodistillation techniques (HD), in which a microwave oven is used in the extraction process. They are considered as accelerated techniques extraction performed at atmospheric pressure. The cryogrinding (CG) showed a difference on the yields and aromatic profile comparing to the sample grinding. Isolation and concentration of volatile compounds are performed by a single stage for the extraction of volatile oil from Algerian (Sahara) Cuminum cyminum seeds (CCS). The chemical composition of the essential oil of this plant as a function of extraction time was also studied. The major components and family classes showed a significant variation with the extraction time. Gas chromatography (GC), GCxGC-mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS)] were utilised for qualitative and quantitative analysis of essential oils extracted by these two methods. The major compounds are cumin aldehyde (HDAM-CG: 20.50-53.35 %, SDAM-CG: 21.68 66.6 %), p-cymene (HDAM-CG: 14.1-37.54 %, SDAM-CG: 6.06-20.18 %), β-pinene (HDAM-CG: 4.53-14.74 %, SDAM-CG: 4.3-32.65 %) and γ-terpinene (HDAM-CG: 1.26-14.70 %, SDAM-CG: 5.13-18.23 %). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 16 (1 ULg) SU(3) flavor symmetry breaking in large $N_c$ excited baryonsStancu, Floarea in Physical Review. D : Particles and Fields (2016), 94The $1/N_c$ expansion method for studying the mass spectrum of excited baryons is shortly reviewed together with applications to mixed symmetric states. The $[{\bf 70, \ell^+}]$ multiplet, belonging to ... [more ▼]The $1/N_c$ expansion method for studying the mass spectrum of excited baryons is shortly reviewed together with applications to mixed symmetric states. The $[{\bf 70, \ell^+}]$ multiplet, belonging to the $N$ = 2 band, is reanalyzed, with emphasis on hyperons and the SU(3) symmetry breaking operators entering the mass formula to first order. An important result is that the hierarchy of masses as a function of strangeness is correctly reproduced for all multiplets. Predictions for unknown excited hyperons to SU(6) $\times$ O(3) multiplets are made. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 10 (2 ULg) La SNCB : prête pour la libéralisation totale du rail ?Gautier, Axel ; Salem, Imanin Regards Economiques (2016)La SNCB n’a pas su s’adapter à la libéralisation du fret ferroviaire faute de rentabilité. Dans la perspective d’une libéralisation du transport de passagers annoncée pour 2023, nous évaluons les ... [more ▼]La SNCB n’a pas su s’adapter à la libéralisation du fret ferroviaire faute de rentabilité. Dans la perspective d’une libéralisation du transport de passagers annoncée pour 2023, nous évaluons les performances de l’entreprise. Notre étude met en avant un déficit de productivité et une contribution faible des passagers aux coûts par rapport à d’autres opérateurs européens. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 50 (5 ULg) New data on the incertae sedis biota and foraminifera of the mid-Famennian Baelen Member (Late Devonian, eastern Belgium)Vachard, Daniel; Dreesen, Roland; Mottequin, Bernard et alin Paleobiodiversity and Paleoenvironments (2016), 21The Baelen mud mounds in eastern Belgium represent a local member of the mid-Famennian Souverain-Pré Formation (an important carbonate interval within the Condroz Sandstone Group). The lower part of this ... [more ▼]The Baelen mud mounds in eastern Belgium represent a local member of the mid-Famennian Souverain-Pré Formation (an important carbonate interval within the Condroz Sandstone Group). The lower part of this member contains silty bioclastic wackestones and packstones that are particularly rich in the problematical algae Serrisinella and Dreesenullella. Plurilocular foraminifera (Septabrunsiina and Baelenia) and rare solitary rugose corals (Neaxon? sp.) occur within crinoidal grainstones (tempestites) interfingering with the latter bioclastic wacke-/packstones and red-stained stromatactoid spiculitic mudstones (carbonate mound core facies). Although Serrisinella is quite common in other mid- and late Famennian limestones, of Belgium, Dreesenulella is almost endemic of the Baelen Member. Both genera apparently inhabited the muddy sediment-water interface, constituting meadows probably in zones of intermittently strong bottom currents. The taxonomic similarities between Dreesenulella and Saccamminopsis are discussed, as well as their possible affinities with the Xenophophyrea and Kokomiacea. Moreover, the first stages of the Septabrunsiina–Baelenia foraminiferal lineage are analysed in detail. The taxonomic and palaoecological positioning of Serrissinella and Dreesenulella adds to the discussion about the palaeobathymetry of the Baelen mud mounds and corroborates sedimentological evidence for their relatively shallow carbonate ramp depositional setting. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (3 ULg) Model Sensitivity Studies of the Decrease in Atmospheric Carbon TetrachlorideChipperfield, M. P.; Liang, Q.; Rigby, M. et alin Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (2016), 16Carbon tetrachloride is an ozone-depleting substance, which is controlled by the Montreal Protocol and for which the atmospheric abundance is decreasing. However, the current observed rate of this ... [more ▼]Carbon tetrachloride is an ozone-depleting substance, which is controlled by the Montreal Protocol and for which the atmospheric abundance is decreasing. However, the current observed rate of this decrease is known to be slower than expected based on reported CCl4 emissions and its estimated overall atmospheric lifetime. Here we use a three-dimensional (3-D) chemical transport model to investigate the impact on its predicted decay of uncertainties in the rates at which CCl4 is removed from the atmosphere by photolysis, by ocean uptake and by degradation in soils. The largest sink is atmospheric photolysis (76% of total) but a reported 10% uncertainty in its combined photolysis cross-section and quantum yield has only a modest impact on the modelled rate of CCl4 decay. This is partly due to the limiting effect of the rate of transport of CCl4 from the main tropospheric reservoir to the stratosphere where photolytic loss occurs. The model suggests large interannual variability in the magnitude of this stratospheric photolysis sink caused by variations in transport. The impact of uncertainty in the minor soil sink (9% of total) is also relatively small. In contrast, the model shows that uncertainty in ocean loss (15% of total) has the largest impact on modelled CCl4 decay due to its sizeable contribution to CCl4 loss and large uncertainty range (157 to 313 years). With an assumed CCl4 emission rate of 39 Gg/yr, the reference simulation with best estimate of loss processes still underestimates the observed CCl4 (overestimates the decay) over the past two decades but to a smaller extent than previous studies. Changes to the rate of CCl4 loss processes, in line with known uncertainties, could bring the model into agreement with in situ surface and remote-sensing measurements, as could an increase in emissions to around 45 Gg/yr. Further progress in constraining the CCl4 budget is partly limited by systematic biases between observational datasets. For example, surface observations from the NOAA network are larger than from the AGAGE network but have shown a steeper decreasing trend over the past two decades. These differences imply a difference in emissions which is significant relative to uncertainties in the magnitudes of the CCl4 sinks. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 47 (1 ULg) Insights on Molecular Mechanisms of Chondrocytes Death in OsteoarthritisCHARLIER, Edith ; RELIC, Biserka ; Deroyer, Céline et alin International Journal of Molecular Sciences (2016)Abstract: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a joint pathology characterized by progressive cartilage degradation. Medical care is mainly based on alleviating pain symptoms. Compelling studies report the presence of ... [more ▼]Abstract: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a joint pathology characterized by progressive cartilage degradation. Medical care is mainly based on alleviating pain symptoms. Compelling studies report the presence of empty lacunae and hypocellularity in cartilage with aging and OA progression, suggesting that chondrocyte cell death occurs and participates to OA development. However, the relative contribution of apoptosis per se in OA pathogenesis appears complex to evaluate. Indeed, depending on technical approaches, OA stages, cartilage layers, animal models, as well as in vivo or in vitro experiments, the percentage of apoptosis and cell death types can vary. Apoptosis, chondroptosis, necrosis, and autophagic cell death are described in this review. The question of cell death causality in OA progression is also addressed, as well as the molecular pathways leading to cell death in response to the following inducers: Fas, Interleukin-1 (IL-1 ), Tumor Necrosis factor- (TNF- ), leptin, nitric oxide (NO) donors, and mechanical stresses. Furthermore, the protective role of autophagy in chondrocytes is highlighted, as well as its decline during OA progression, enhancing chondrocyte cell death; the transition being mainly controlled by HIF-1 /HIF-2 imbalance. Finally, we have considered whether interfering in chondrocyte apoptosis or promoting autophagy could constitute therapeutic strategies to impede OA progression. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 16 (6 ULg) The role of AIP mutations in pituitary adenomas: 10 years onDaly, Adrian ; BECKERS, Albert in Endocrine (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 19 (5 ULg) The performance of atmospheric pressure gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry compared to gas chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry for the analysis of polychlorinated dioxins and PCBs in food and feed samplesten Dam, Guillaume; Pussente, Igor; Scholl, Georges et alin Journal of Chromatography. A (2016), 1477Recently, gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC–MS/MS) has been added in EuropeanUnion (EU) legislation as an alternative to magnetic sector high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) for the ... [more ▼]Recently, gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC–MS/MS) has been added in EuropeanUnion (EU) legislation as an alternative to magnetic sector high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) for the analysis of dioxins and dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCB) in food and feed. In this study the performance of APGC–MS/MS compared to GC–HRMS is investigated and compared with EU legislation. The study includes the legislative parameters, relative intermediate precision standard devia-tion (SRw,rel), trueness, sensitivity, linear range and ion ratio tolerance. In addition, over 200 real samplesof large variety and spanning several orders of magnitude in concentration were analyzed by both techniques and the selectivity was evaluated by comparing chromatograms. The SRw,rel and trueness were evaluated using (in-house) reference samples and fulfill to EU legislation, though the SRw,rel was better with GC–HRMS. The sensitivity was considerably better than of GC–HRMS while the linear range was similar. Ion ratios were mostly within the tolerable range of ±15%. A (temporary unresolved) systematic deviation in ion ratio was observed for several congeners, yet this did not lead to exceeding of the maxi-mum ion ratio limits. The APGC–MS/MS results for the non-dioxin-like-PCBs (ndl-PCBs) were negatively biased, particularly for PCB138 and 153 in contaminated samples. The selectivity of APGC–MS/MS was lower for several matrices. Particularly for contaminated samples, interfering peaks were observed in the APGC chromatograms of the native compounds (dioxins) and labeled internal standards (PCBs). These can lead to biased results and ultimately to false positive samples. It was concluded that the determination of dioxins and PCBs using APGC–MS/MS meets the requirements set by the European Commission. However, due to generally better selectivity and SRw,rel, GC–HRMS is the preferred method for monitoring purposes. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 38 (11 ULg) Cell cycle S phase markers are expressed in cerebral neuron nuclei of cats infected by the Feline Panleukopenia VirusPoncelet, Luc; Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ; Ando et alin Cell Cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) (2016), 15(24), 3482-3489The cell cycle-associated neuronal death hypothesis, which has been proposed as a common mechanism for most neurodegenerative diseases, is notably supported by evidencing cell cycle effectors in neurons ... [more ▼]The cell cycle-associated neuronal death hypothesis, which has been proposed as a common mechanism for most neurodegenerative diseases, is notably supported by evidencing cell cycle effectors in neurons. However, in naturally occurring nervous system diseases, these markers are not expressed in neuron nuclei but in cytoplasmic compartments. In other respects, the Feline Panleukopenia Virus (FPV) is able to complete its cycle in mature brain neurons in the feline species. As a parvovirus, the FPV is strictly dependent on its host cell reaching the cell cycle S phase to start its multiplication. In this retrospective study on the whole brain of 12 cats with naturally-occurring, FPV-associated cerebellar atrophy, VP2 capsid protein expression was detected by immunostaining not only in some brain neuronal nuclei but also in neuronal cytoplasm in 2 cats, suggesting that viral mRNA translation was still occurring. In these cats, double immunostainings demonstrated the expression of cell cycle S phase markers cyclin A, cdk2 and PCNA in neuronal nuclei. Parvoviruses are able to maintain their host cells in S phase by triggering the DNA damage response. S139 phospho H2A1, a key player in the cell cycle arrest, was detected in some neuronal nuclei, supporting that infected neurons were also blocked into the S phase. PCR studies did not support a co-infection with an adeno or herpes virus. ERK1/2 nuclear accumulation was observed in some neurons suggesting that the ERK signaling pathway might be involved as a mechanism driving these neurons far into the cell cycle. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 ULg) Kim Stroumza, Heinz Messmer (dir.), Langage et savoir-faire : des pratiques professionnelles du travail social et de la santé passées à la loupeMathy, Adrien in Lectures (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 24 (1 ULg) Aging of monolithic zirconia dental prostheses: Protocol for a 5-year prospective clinical study using ex vivo analysesKOENIG, Vinciane ; Wulfman, Claudine; DERBANNE, Mathieu et alin Contemporary Clinical Trials Communication (2016), 4Background: Recent introduction of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) monolithic zirconia dental prostheses raises the issue of material low thermal degradation (LTD), a ... [more ▼]Background: Recent introduction of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) monolithic zirconia dental prostheses raises the issue of material low thermal degradation (LTD), a wellknown problem with zirconia hip prostheses. This phenomenon could be accentuated by masticatory mechanical stress. Until now zirconia LTD process has only been studied in vitro. This work introduces an original protocol to evaluate LTD process of monolithic zirconia prostheses in the oral environment and to study their general clinical behavior, notably in terms of wear. Methods/design: 101 posterior monolithic zirconia tooth elements (molars and premolars) are included in a 5-year prospective clinical trial. On each element, several areas between 1 and 2 mm2 (6 on molars, 4 on premolars) are determined on restoration surface: areas submitted or non-submitted to mastication mechanical stress, glazed or non-glazed. Before prosthesis placement, ex vivo analyses regarding LTD and wear are performed using Raman spectroscopy, SEM imagery and 3D laser profilometry. After placement, restorations are clinically evaluated following criteria of the World Dental Federation (FDI), complemented by the analysis of fracture clinical risk factors. Two independent examiners perform the evaluations. Clinical evaluation and ex vivo analyses are carried out after 6 months and then each year for up to 5 years. Discussion: For clinicians and patients, the results of this trial will justify the use of monolithic zirconia restorations in dental practice. For researchers, the originality of a clinical study including ex vivo analyses of material aging will provide important data regarding zirconia properties. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 60 (19 ULg) Waveform relaxation for the computational homogenization of multiscale magnetoquasistatic problemsNiyonzima, Innocent; Geuzaine, Christophe ; Schöps, Sebastianin Journal of Computational Physics (2016), 327Detailed reference viewed: 7 (1 ULg) The influence of spatially structured soil properties on tree community assemblages at a landscape scale in the tropical forests of southern CameroonVleminckx, Jason; Doucet, Jean-Louis ; Morin, Julie et alin Journal of Ecology (2016)Species distribution within plant communities results from both the influence of deterministic processes, related to environmental conditions, and neutral processes related to dispersal limitation and ... [more ▼]Species distribution within plant communities results from both the influence of deterministic processes, related to environmental conditions, and neutral processes related to dispersal limitation and stochastic events, the relative importance of each factor depending on the observation scale. Assessing the relative contribution of environment necessitates controlling for spatial dependences among data points. Recent methods, combining multiple regression and Moran's eigenvectors maps (MEM), have been proved successful in disentangling the influence of pure spatial processes related to dispersal limitation, pure environmental variables (not spatially structured) and spatially structured environmental properties. However, the latter influence is usually not testable when using advanced spatial models like MEM. To overcome this issue, we propose an original approach, based on torus-translations and Moran spectral randomizations, to test the fraction of species abundance variation that is jointly explained by space and seven soil variables, using three environmental and tree species abundance data sets (consisting of 120, 52 and 34 plots of 0·2 ha each, located along 101-, 66- and 35-km-long transect-like inventories, respectively) collected in tropical moist forests in southern Cameroon. The overall abundance of species represented by ≥30 individuals, and 27% of these species taken individually, were significantly explained by fine-scale (<5 km) and/or broad-scale (5–100 km) spatially structured variations in soil nutrient concentrations (essentially the concentration of available Mn, Mg and Ca) along the 120-plots area. The number of significant tests considerably decreased when investigating the two smaller data sets, which mostly resulted from low statistical power rather than weaker floristic and/or edaphic variation captured among plots. Synthesis. Our results provide evidence that tree species turnovers are partly controlled by spatially structured concentrations in soil nutrients at scales ranging from few hundreds of metres to c. 100 km, a poorly documented subject in Central African forests. We also highlight the usefulness of our testing procedure to correctly interpret the space-soil fraction of variation partitioning analyses (which always accounted here for the most important part of the soil contribution), as this fraction was sometimes relatively high (R2 values up to c. 0·3) but nearly or not significant. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 31 (5 ULg) Limited Impact of Imatinib in a Murine Model of Sclerodermatouc Chronic Graft-versus-Host DiseaseBelle, Ludovic ; Fransolet, Gilles ; Somja, Joan et alin PLoS ONE (2016), 11Background Sclerodermatous chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease (scl-cGVHD) is one of the most severe form of cGVHD. The Platelet-derived Grotwth Factor (PDGF) and the Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β ... [more ▼]Background Sclerodermatous chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease (scl-cGVHD) is one of the most severe form of cGVHD. The Platelet-derived Grotwth Factor (PDGF) and the Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) play a significant role in the fibrosing process occurring in scl-cGVHD. This prompted us to assess the impact of the PDGF-r and c-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib on scl-cGVHD. Methods To assess the impact of imatinib on T cell subset proliferation in vivo, Balb/cJ recipient mice were lethally (7 Gy) irradiated and then injected with 10x106 bone marrow cells from B10.D2 mice on day 0. Fourteen days later, 70x106 carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-labeled splenocytes from B10.D2 mice were infused and imatinib or sterile water was administered for 5 days. To induce severe scl-cGVHD, Balb/cJ mice were injected i.v. with 10.106 bone marrow cells and 70.106 splenocytes from B10.D2 donor mice after 7 Gy irradiation. Mice were then given sterile water or imatinib from day +7 after transplantation to the end of the experiment (day +52). Results Imatinib decreased the proliferation of total T cells (P = 0.02), CD8+ T cells (P = 0.01), and of regulatory T cells (Tregs) (P = 0.02) in the spleen. In the severe scl-cGVHD model, imatinib-treated mice had significantly lower levels of PDGF-r phosphorylation than control mice on day 29 after transplantation (P = 0.008). However, scl-cGVHD scores were similar between vehicle- and imatinib-treated mice during the whole experiment, while there was a suggestion for less weight loss in imatinib-treated mice that reached statistical significance at day +52 following transplantation (P = 0.02). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 58 (27 ULg) Introduction du Dossier de traductionBorotto, Jessica ; Cavazzini, Andreain Cahiers du GRM (2016), 10Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 ULg) Brisons le système, pouvoir aux femmes ! (Padoue, 1974)Borotto, Jessica in Cahiers du GRM (2016), 10Detailed reference viewed: 14 (1 ULg) Correcting circulation biases in a lower-resolution global general circulation model with data assimilationCanter, Martin ; Barth, Alexander ; Beckers, Jean-Marie in Ocean Dynamics (2016)In this study, we aim at developing a new method of bias correction using data assimilation. This method is based on the stochastic forcing of a model to correct bias by directly adding an additional ... [more ▼]In this study, we aim at developing a new method of bias correction using data assimilation. This method is based on the stochastic forcing of a model to correct bias by directly adding an additional source term into the model equations. This method is presented and tested first with a twin experiment on a fully controlled Lorenz ’96 model. It is then applied to the lower-resolution global circulation NEMO-LIM2 model, with both a twin experiment and a real case experiment. Sea surface height observations are used to create a forcing to correct the poorly located and estimated currents. Validation is then performed throughout the use of other variables such as sea surface temperature and salinity. Results show that the method is able to consistently correct part of the model bias. The bias correction term is presented and is consistent with the limitations of the global circulation model causing bias on the oceanic currents. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 35 (12 ULg) Résister à l’essentialisation de l’Allemagne : Les Temps Modernes, revue franco-allemande ?Franck, Thomas in Trajectoires (2016), 10Im Zentrum des vorliegenden Aufsatzes steht die Doppelausgabe (46-47) der französischen Zeitschrift Temps Modernes, die unter dem Titel „Allemagne“ im August-September 1949 erschien und einen besonderen ... [more ▼]Im Zentrum des vorliegenden Aufsatzes steht die Doppelausgabe (46-47) der französischen Zeitschrift Temps Modernes, die unter dem Titel „Allemagne“ im August-September 1949 erschien und einen besonderen Fall von kulturellem und intellektuellem Transfer zwischen Deutschland und Frankreich darstellt. Mit Mitteln der Diskursanalyse und der Imagologie sollen hier rhetorische Strategien herausgearbeitet werden, die der Realisierung eines kritischen Projekts und der Anprangerung der Stereotypen dienen, die Deutschland damals zugeschrieben wurden. Aufgestellt wird folgende These: Indem sie Intellektuelle aus unterschiedlichen Orten und Disziplinen und heterogenes Wissen zusammenbringt, bietet sich die Zeitschrift besonders gut für eine kritische Reflexion der herrschenden Ideologien und kollektiven Überzeugungen an. Indem es Deutschen mit kommunistischer und antifaschistischer Gesinnung das Wort erteilt, will das Heft „Allemagne“ zu Erkenntnissen über ein ‚anderes Deutschland‘ kommen, das von Aufstand und Widerstand geprägt ist, und bricht so mit einer Reduktion des Landes auf eine unveränderliche und monolithische Identität, die als gleichermaßen fügsam und autoritär verstanden wurde. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 21 (5 ULg) In vitro evaluation of biocompatibility of uncoated thermally reduced graphene and carbon nanotube-loaded PVDF membranes with adult neural stem cell-derived neurons and gliaDefteralı, Çağla; Verdejo, Raquel; Majeed, Shahid et alin Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology (2016), 4(n° 64), Graphene, graphene-based nanomaterials (GBNs), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are being investigated as potential substrates for the growth of neural cells. However, in most in vitro studies, the cells were ... [more ▼]Graphene, graphene-based nanomaterials (GBNs), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are being investigated as potential substrates for the growth of neural cells. However, in most in vitro studies, the cells were seeded on these materials coated with various proteins implying that the observed effects on the cells could not solely be attributed to the GBN and CNT properties. Here, we studied the biocompatibility of uncoated thermally reduced graphene (TRG) and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes loaded with multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) using neural stem cells isolated from the adult mouse olfactory bulb (termed aOBSCs). When aOBSCs were induced to differentiate on coverslips treated with TRG or control materials (polyethyleneimine-PEI and polyornithine plus fibronectin- PLO/F) in a serum-free medium, neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes were generated in all conditions, indicating that TRG permits the multi-lineage differentiation of aOBSCs. However, the total number of cells was reduced on both PEI and TRG. In a serum-containing medium, aOBSC-derived neurons and oligodendrocytes grown on TRG were more numerous than in controls; the neurons developed synaptic boutons and oligodendrocytes were more branched. In contrast, neurons growing on PVDF membranes had reduced neurite branching, and on MWCNTs-loaded membranes oligodendrocytes were lower in numbers than in controls. Overall, these findings indicate that uncoated TRG may be biocompatible with the generation, differentiation, and maturation of aOBSC-derived neurons and glial cells, implying a potential use for TRG to study functional neuronal networks. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 38 (1 ULg) Dynamics of the flares in the active polar region of JupiterBonfond, Bertrand ; Grodent, Denis ; Badman, S. V. et alin Geophysical Research Letters (2016)The dusk-side of the polar region of Jupiter's UV aurorae, called the active region, sometimes exhibits quasi-periodic (QP) flares on time-scales of 2-3 minutes. Based on Hubble Space Telescope Far-UV ... [more ▼]The dusk-side of the polar region of Jupiter's UV aurorae, called the active region, sometimes exhibits quasi-periodic (QP) flares on time-scales of 2-3 minutes. Based on Hubble Space Telescope Far-UV time-tag images, we show for the first time that the northern hemisphere also displays QP-flares. The area covered by these flares can reach up to 2.4 × 108 km2 (i.e. the whole active region), but often only involves an area an order of magnitude smaller. Using a magnetic field mapping model, we deduced that these areas correspond to the dayside outer magnetosphere. In our dataset, quasi-periodic features are only seen on half of the cases and even on a given observation, a region can be quiet for one half and blinking on the other half. Consecutive observations in the two hemispheres show that the brightening can occur in phase. Combined with the size and location of the flares, this behaviour suggests that the QP-flares most likely take place on closed magnetic field lines. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 31 (6 ULg) Aging Processes in Lithiated FeSn2 Based Negative Electrode for Li-ion Batteries: a New Challenge for Tin Based Intermetallic Materialschamas, mohamad; Mahmoud, Abdelfattah ; Tang, Junlei et alin Journal of Physical Chemistry C (2016)Tin based intermetallic compounds proposed as negative electrode materials for Li-ion batteries not only suffer from capacity fade during cycling due to volume variations but also from aging phenomena in ... [more ▼]Tin based intermetallic compounds proposed as negative electrode materials for Li-ion batteries not only suffer from capacity fade during cycling due to volume variations but also from aging phenomena in lithiated states. By using FeSn2 as a model compound, we propose an analysis of this process by combining electrochemical potential measurements, 119Sn and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopies, magnetic measurements and impedance spectroscopy. We show that the Fe/Li7Sn2 composite obtained at the end of the first discharge is progressively transformed during the aging process occurring within the electrochemical cell in open circuit condition. The Fe nanoparticles are stable while the Li7Sn2 nanoparticles are progressively delithiated with time leading to Sn-rich LixSn nano-alloys without observable back reaction with Fe. The deinserted lithium atoms react with the electrolyte and modify the surface electrode interphase (SEI) by increasing its thickness and/or decreasing its porosity [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 17 (0 ULg) 25 Jahre Autorengespräche. Carsten Gansel liefert ein „multiperspektivistisches Panorama auf die Kultur- und Zeitgeschichte der jüngsten deutschen Vergangenheit“Letawe, Céline in Literaturkritik.de (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 ULg) La reconnaissance des génocides et la répression du négationnismeGrandjean, Geoffrey in Courrier Hebdomadaire du CRISP (2016), 2304-2305La reconnaissance politique d’un génocide et la répression de la négation de celui-ci représentent deux enjeux d’une grande importance symbolique. Surtout, elles constituent un exercice très délicat pour ... [more ▼]La reconnaissance politique d’un génocide et la répression de la négation de celui-ci représentent deux enjeux d’une grande importance symbolique. Surtout, elles constituent un exercice très délicat pour l’autorité politique qui pose de tels actes. Il s’agit en effet de consacrer une vérité historique et de dicter le souvenir qui doit en être véhiculé. L’intervention d’une instance politique dans le champ de l’histoire et de la mémoire est toujours entourée de nombreux débats. Les discussions, souvent vives, portent sur diverses questions. Le principe d’une action législative dans un tel domaine est-il recevable et pertinent ? Quelle définition de « génocide » convient-il d’adopter ? La répression du négationnisme est-elle de nature à justifier une limitation de la liberté d’expression ? Si oui, dans quelle mesure cette restriction s’applique-t-elle aussi aux chercheurs ? Lorsqu’il s’agit d’événements historiques relatifs à un autre État, faut-il faire primer l’éthique et la morale sur la diplomatie ? Les réponses à ces interrogations fondamentales se cristallisent dans des lignes de fracture qui échappent aux clivages partisans classiques. En Belgique, les initiatives de reconnaissance des crimes de génocide et de pénalisation de leur négation sont le fait des deux chambres du Parlement fédéral. Elles ont abouti à diverses dispositions législatives, telles la loi réprimant la négation du génocide commis par le régime nazi à l’encontre des Juifs pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale (1995), une résolution relative au génocide perpétré par l’Empire ottoman à l’encontre des Arméniens en 1915 (1998), une résolution sur le génocide des Tutsis au Rwanda en 1994 (2004) et une résolution relative à la commémoration du centenaire du génocide arménien (2015). G. Grandjean retrace et éclaire l’ensemble des débats parlementaires qui se sont tenus en Belgique depuis 1992 autour de la question de la mémoire des crimes de masse. Son Courrier hebdomadaire offre les clés de lecture pour la compréhension des débats en cours quant à une extension de la loi de 1995. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 39 (13 ULg) WASP-92b, WASP-93b and WASP-118b: Three new transiting close-in giant planetsHay, K. L.; Collier-Cameron, A.; Doyle, A. P. et alin Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2016), 463We present the discovery of three new transiting giant planets, first detected with the WASP telescopes, and establish their planetary nature with follow up spectroscopy and ground-based photometric ... [more ▼]We present the discovery of three new transiting giant planets, first detected with the WASP telescopes, and establish their planetary nature with follow up spectroscopy and ground-based photometric lightcurves. WASP-92 is an F7 star, with a moderately inflated planet orbiting with a period of 2.17 days, which has R[SUB]p[/SUB] = 1.461 ± 0.077R[SUB]J[/SUB] and M[SUB]p[/SUB] = 0.805 ± 0.068M[SUB]J[/SUB]. WASP-93b orbits its F4 host star every 2.73 days and has R[SUB]p[/SUB] = 1.597 ± 0.077R[SUB]J[/SUB] and M[SUB]p[/SUB] = 1.47 ± 0.029M[SUB]J[/SUB]. WASP-118b also has a hot host star (F6) and is moderately inflated, where R[SUB]p[/SUB] = 1.440 ± 0.036R[SUB]J[/SUB] and M[SUB]p[/SUB] = 0.514 ± 0.020M[SUB]J[/SUB] and the planet has an orbital period of 4.05 days. They are bright targets (V = 13.18, 10.97 and 11.07 respectively) ideal for further characterisation work, particularly WASP-118b, which is being observed by K2 as part of campaign 8. The WASP-93 system has sufficient angular momentum to be tidally migrating outwards if the system is near spin-orbit alignment, which is divergent from the tidal behaviour of the majority of hot Jupiters discovered. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 33 (6 ULg) The IACOB project. IV. New predictions for high-degree non-radial mode instability domains in massive stars and their connection with macroturbulent broadeningGodart, Mélanie ; Simón-Díaz, S.; Herrero, A. et alin Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 597Context. Asteroseismology is a powerful tool to access the internal structure of stars. Apart from the important impact of theoretical developments, progress in this field has been commonly associated ... [more ▼]Context. Asteroseismology is a powerful tool to access the internal structure of stars. Apart from the important impact of theoretical developments, progress in this field has been commonly associated with the analysis of time-resolved observations. Recently, the so-called macroturbulent broadening has been proposed as a complementary and less expensive way - in terms of observational time - to investigate pulsations in massive stars.