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See detailUsing zero-inlated models to predict the relative distribution and abundance of roe deer over very large spatial scales
Bouyer, Yaëlle ULg; Rigot, Thibaud; Panzacchi, Manuela et al

in Annales Zoologici Fennici (2015), 52

In Norway, recovering populations of large carnivores commonly prey on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Understanding predator habitat use and ecology requires fine-scaled information on prey distribution ... [more ▼]

In Norway, recovering populations of large carnivores commonly prey on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Understanding predator habitat use and ecology requires fine-scaled information on prey distribution and abundance. However, the massive spatial scales at which large carnivores use the landscape presents many practical and statistical challenges for developing functional prey distribution models. Pellet-count data from >1000 km of transects gathered across southeastern Norway from 2005 to 2011 were used to derive a map of relative prey abundance for roe deer. These data were modeled using zero-inflated hurdle models using both environmental and anthropogenic variables. Snow depth and agricultural fields were the most significant variables in explaining both presence and abundance. Internal k-cross validation of the model showed medium accuracy (Spearman r = 0.35), whereas external evaluation carried out on the basis of independently collected snow-tracking data (Spearman r = 0.37) and hunting statistics (Spearman r = 0.88) showed high accuracy. The map generated can facilitate both the study of broad scale processes linking predators and prey as well as roe deer management in southeastern Norway. [less ▲]

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See detailIntegrating hydrological features and 1 genetically validated occurrence data in occupancy 2 modeling of an endemic and endangered semi‐aquatic mammal species, Galemys pyrenaicus. 3 4
Charbonnel, Anaïs; Buisson, Laetitia; Biffi, Marjorie et al

in Biological Conservation (2015), Sous Presse

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See detailIntratumoral heterogeneity and consequences for targeted therapies
Turtoi, Andrei ULg; Blomme, Arnaud ULg; Castronovo, Vincenzo ULg

in Bulletin du Cancer (2015), 102(1), 17-23

According to the clonal model and Darwinian evolution, cancer cell evolves through new mutations helping it to proliferate, migrate, invade and metastasize. Recent genetic studies have clearly shown that ... [more ▼]

According to the clonal model and Darwinian evolution, cancer cell evolves through new mutations helping it to proliferate, migrate, invade and metastasize. Recent genetic studies have clearly shown that tumors, when diagnosed, consist of a large number of mutations distributed in different cells. This heterogeneity translates in substantial genetic plasticity enabling cancer cells to adapt to any hostile environment. As targeted therapy focuses only on one pathway or protein, there will always be a cell with the "right" genetic background to survive the treatment and cause tumor relapse. Because today's targeted therapies never took tumor heterogeneity into account, nearly all novel drugs fail to provide patients with a considerable improvement of the survival. However, emerging proteomic studies guided by the idea that Darwinian selection is governed by the phenotype and not genotype, show that heterogeneity at the protein level is much less complex, then it could be expected from genetic studies. This information together with the recent trend to switch from functional to cytotoxic targeting may offer an entirely new strategy to efficiently combat cancer. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic and impact of major insect pests on Jatropha curcas L. in two cropping systems with contrasting characteristics in the province of Kinshasa (DRC)
Minengu, Jean de Dieu; Verheggen, François ULg; Mergeai, Guy ULg

in Tropicultura (2015), 3

The dynamic and impact of the major insect pests on Jatropha curcas L. were studied on two plantations located in the province of Kinshasa, the first in pure stand without irrigation (Mbankana site), the ... [more ▼]

The dynamic and impact of the major insect pests on Jatropha curcas L. were studied on two plantations located in the province of Kinshasa, the first in pure stand without irrigation (Mbankana site), the second under irrigation in combination with other crops (N'sele site). In Mbankana, after being planted during the long rainy season (October - December), the plants suffer significant attacks by crickets Brachytrupes membranaceus Drury (Orthoptera, Gryllidae), which cause a mortality rate of 10 - 40%. The first half of October and second half of December are the best planting periods when it comes to limiting these losses. At N'sele, cricket attacks during planting are controlled by the farmers who eat these insects. After being planted at both sites, the plants are attacked by leaf miner caterpillars Stomphastis thraustica Meyrick (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) and flea beetles Aphthona sp. (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae), which consume the leaf blades and buds. The size of these two pest populations and resulting damage reach a peak during the wettest time of year. On adult plants at N'sele, insect pests observed include flea beetles, leaf miners, and shield-backed bugs Calidea sp. (Heteroptera, Scutelleridae). These bugs cause damage to flowers and capsules. In the absence of insecticide treatments, yield losses reached 90% in Mbankana and 60% in N'sele. The discussion focuses on what causes the different pest impact levels recorded between the cropping systems and methods used to limit the main types of damage caused by insects on J. curcas in the Kinshasa region. [less ▲]

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See detailSurveillance systems evaluation: a systematic review of the existing approaches
Calba, C; Goutard, FL; Hoinville, L et al

in BMC Public Health (2015), 15

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See detailL'infraction d'urbanisme qui affecte l'immeuble vendu donne-t-elle lieu à la garantie d'éviction ou à la garantie des vices cachés?
Onclin, François ULg

in Revue Générale de Droit Civil Belge = Tijdschrift voor Belgisch Burgerlijk (2015), (1), 24-34

Cette étude commente un arrêt de la Cour d'appel de Liège prononcé le 10 mai 2012. Quelles sont les voies d'action qui s'ouvrent à l'acheteur insatisfait qui découvre, après la vente, que le bien immeuble ... [more ▼]

Cette étude commente un arrêt de la Cour d'appel de Liège prononcé le 10 mai 2012. Quelles sont les voies d'action qui s'ouvrent à l'acheteur insatisfait qui découvre, après la vente, que le bien immeuble qu'il vient d'acquérir est en situation infractionnelle sur le plan du droit de l'urbanisme ? La question se pose de savoir si l'infraction d'urbanisme constitue une cause d'éviction ou un vice caché au sens du Code civil. [less ▲]

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See detailIncentive salience attribution under reward uncertainty: A Pavlovian model
Anselme, Patrick ULg

in Behavioural Processes (2015), 111(1), 6-18

There is a vast literature on the behavioural effects of partial reinforcement in Pavlovian conditioning. Compared with animals receiving continuous reinforcement, partially rewarded animals typically ... [more ▼]

There is a vast literature on the behavioural effects of partial reinforcement in Pavlovian conditioning. Compared with animals receiving continuous reinforcement, partially rewarded animals typically show (a) a slower development of the conditioned response (CR) early in training and (b) a higher asymptotic level of the CR later in training. This phenomenon is known as the partial reinforcement acquisition effect (PRAE). Learning models of Pavlovian conditioning fail to account for it. In accordance with the incentive salience hypothesis, it is here argued that incentive motivation (or ‘wanting’) plays a more direct role in controlling behaviour than does learning, and reward uncertainty is shown to have an excitatory effect on incentive motivation. The psychological origin of that effect is discussed and a computational model integrating this new interpretation is developed. Many features of CRs under partial reinforcement emerge from this model. [less ▲]

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See detailPharmacodynamics, Efficacy and Safety of Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter Type 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Scheen, André ULg

in Drugs (2015), 75(1), 33-59

Inhibitors of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) are proposed as a novel approach for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Several compounds are already available in many countries ... [more ▼]

Inhibitors of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) are proposed as a novel approach for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Several compounds are already available in many countries (dapagliflozin, canagliflozin, empagliflozin and ipragliflozin) and some others are in a late phase of development. The available SGLT2 inhibitors share similar pharmacokinetic characteristics, with a rapid oral absorption, a long elimination half-life allowing once-daily administration, an extensive hepatic metabolism mainly via glucuronidation to inactive metabolites, the absence of clinically relevant drug-drug interactions and a low renal elimination as parent drug. SGLT2 co-transporters are responsible for reabsorption of most (90 %) of the glucose filtered by the kidneys. The pharmacological inhibition of SGLT2 co-transporters reduces hyperglycaemia by decreasing renal glucose threshold and thereby increasing urinary glucose excretion. The amount of glucose excreted in the urine depends on both the level of hyperglycaemia and the glomerular filtration rate. Results of numerous placebo-controlled randomised clinical trials of 12-104 weeks duration have shown significant reductions in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), resulting in a significant increase in the proportion of patients reaching HbA1c targets, and a significant lowering of fasting plasma glucose when SGLT2 inhibitors were administered as monotherapy or in addition to other glucose-lowering therapies including insulin in patients with T2DM. In head-to-head trials of up to 2 years, SGLT2 inhibitors exerted similar glucose-lowering activity to metformin, sulphonylureas or sitagliptin. The durability of the glucose-lowering effect of SGLT2 inhibitors appears to be better; however, this remains to be more extensively investigated. The risk of hypoglycaemia was much lower with SGLT2 inhibitors than with sulphonylureas and was similarly low as that reported with metformin, pioglitazone or sitagliptin. Increased renal glucose elimination also assists weight loss and could help to reduce blood pressure. Both effects were very consistent across the trials and they represent some advantages for SGLT2 inhibitors when compared with other oral glucose-lowering agents. The pharmacodynamic response to SGLT2 inhibitors declines with increasing severity of renal impairment, and prescribing information for each SGLT2 inhibitor should be consulted regarding dosage adjustments or restrictions in moderate to severe renal dysfunction. Caution is also recommended in the elderly population because of a higher risk of renal impairment, orthostatic hypotension and dehydration, even if the absence of hypoglycaemia represents an obvious advantage in this population. The overall effect of SGLT2 inhibitors on the risk of cardiovascular disease is unknown and will be evaluated in several ongoing prospective placebo-controlled trials with cardiovascular outcomes. The impact of SGLT2 inhibitors on renal function and their potential to influence the course of diabetic nephropathy also deserve more attention. SGLT2 inhibitors are generally well-tolerated. The most frequently reported adverse events are female genital mycotic infections, while urinary tract infections are less commonly observed and generally benign. In conclusion, with their unique mechanism of action that is independent of insulin secretion and action, SGLT2 inhibitors are a useful addition to the therapeutic options available for the management of T2DM at any stage in the natural history of the disease. Although SGLT2 inhibitors have already been extensively investigated, further studies should even better delineate the best place of these new glucose-lowering agents in the already rich armamentarium for the management of T2DM. [less ▲]

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See detailStellar laboratories. IV. New Ga IV, Ga V and Ga VI oscillator strengths and the gallium abundance in the hot white dwarfs G191-B2B and RE 0503-289
Rauch, T; Werner, K; Quinet, Pascal ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2015), 577(A6),

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See detailRestoring testosterone levels by adding dehydroepiandrosterone to a drospirenone containing combined oral contraceptive: I. Endocrine effects.
Zimmerman, Y.; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg; Pintiaux, Axelle ULg et al

in Contraception (2015), 91(2), 127-33

OBJECTIVES: Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) decrease testosterone (T) levels. This study investigated restoration of T and other androgen concentrations during COC use by 'co-administration' of ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) decrease testosterone (T) levels. This study investigated restoration of T and other androgen concentrations during COC use by 'co-administration' of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). STUDY DESIGN: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 99 new COC starters (18-35 years old with body mass index range 18-34kg/m(2)), a COC containing 30mcg ethinylestradiol (EE) and 3mg drospirenone (DRSP) was used for 3cycles, followed by 6cycles of the same COC combined with either 50mg/day DHEA or placebo. Total T, albumin, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), DHEA-sulfate (DHEA-S), Delta4-androstenedione (AD), 3alpha-androstanediol glucuronide (ADG) and estradiol (E2) were measured, whereas free T and the free T index (FTI) were calculated. Assessments took place at baseline (no COC use), after the run-in period (COC use alone) and during the treatment period (DHEA or placebo). RESULTS: During COC use alone, androgen levels decreased, especially total T by 62% and free T by 86%, and SHBG increased by 243%. Total T increased with DHEA compared to placebo (change from end of run-in period to end of treatment period - 1.3+/-1.2nmol/L vs. 0.0+/-0.4nmol/L; p<.0001) - and was restored to baseline levels. Free T and the FTI increased significantly (p<.0001), but the free T level was still 53% below baseline levels. DHEA-S, AD and ADG increased significantly to levels above baseline (p<.0001 for each). DHEA had no effect on SHBG, albumin and E2. CONCLUSIONS: An EE/DRSP containing COC strongly suppressed endogenous androgen concentrations in all users. The addition of 50mg DHEA to a COC regimen containing EE/DRSP restored total T to baseline levels, but free T levels were restored by only 47% as most of the T remains bound to SHBG. IMPLICATIONS: When using a COC that increases SHBG considerably, a daily dose of 50mg DHEA is insufficient to normalize free T levels completely. [less ▲]

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See detailMutation of the iron-sulfur cluster assembly gene IBA57 causes fatal infantile leukodystrophy.
DEBRAY, François-Guillaume ULg; Stumpfig, Claudia; Vanlander, Arnaud V. et al

in Journal of inherited metabolic disease (2015)

Leukodystrophies are a heterogeneous group of severe genetic neurodegenerative disorders. A multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome was found in an infant presenting with a progressive ... [more ▼]

Leukodystrophies are a heterogeneous group of severe genetic neurodegenerative disorders. A multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome was found in an infant presenting with a progressive leukoencephalopathy. Homozygosity mapping, whole exome sequencing, and functional studies were used to define the underlying molecular defect. Respiratory chain studies in skeletal muscle isolated from the proband revealed a combined deficiency of complexes I and II. In addition, western blotting indicated lack of protein lipoylation. The combination of these findings was suggestive for a defect in the iron-sulfur (Fe/S) protein assembly pathway. SNP array identified loss of heterozygosity in large chromosomal regions, covering the NFU1 and BOLA3, and the IBA57 and ABCB10 candidate genes, in 2p15-p11.2 and 1q31.1-q42.13, respectively. A homozygous c.436C > T (p.Arg146Trp) variant was detected in IBA57 using whole exome sequencing. Complementation studies in a HeLa cell line depleted for IBA57 showed that the mutant protein with the semi-conservative amino acid exchange was unable to restore the biochemical phenotype indicating a loss-of-function mutation of IBA57. In conclusion, defects in the Fe/S protein assembly gene IBA57 can cause autosomal recessive neurodegeneration associated with progressive leukodystrophy and fatal outcome at young age. In the affected patient, the biochemical phenotype was characterized by a defect in the respiratory chain complexes I and II and a decrease in mitochondrial protein lipoylation, both resulting from impaired assembly of Fe/S clusters. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh numbers of mobilized CD34+ cells collected in AML in first remission are associated with high relapse risk irrespective of treatment with autologous peripheral blood SCT or autologous BMT
Hengeveld, M.; Suciu, S.; Chelgoum, Y. et al

in Bone Marrow Transplantation (2015), 50

The faster hematopoietic recovery after autologous peripheral blood SCT (APBSCT) in patients with AML may be offset by an increased relapse risk as compared with autologous BMT (ABMT). The EORTC and ... [more ▼]

The faster hematopoietic recovery after autologous peripheral blood SCT (APBSCT) in patients with AML may be offset by an increased relapse risk as compared with autologous BMT (ABMT). The EORTC and GIMEMA Leukemia Groups conducted a trial (AML-10) in which they compared, as second randomization, APBSCT and ABMT in first CR patients without an HLA compatible donor. A total of 292 patients were randomized. The 5-year DFS rate was 41% in the APBSCT arm and 46% in the ABMT arm with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.17; 95% confidence interval = 0.85–1.59; P = 0.34. The 5-year cumulative relapse incidence was 56% vs 49% (P = 0.26), and the 5-year OS 50% and 55% (P = 0.6) in the APBSCT and ABMT groups, respectively. APBSCT was associated with significantly faster recovery of neutrophils and platelets, shorter duration of hospitalization, reduced need of transfusion packed RBC and less days of intravenous antibiotics. In both treatment groups, higher numbers of mobilized CD34+ cells were associated with a significantly higher relapse risk irrespective of the treatment given after the mobilization. Randomization between APBSCT and ABMT did not result in significantly different outcomes in terms of DFS, OS and relapse incidence. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a genotype-based approach for a patient-centered pharmacologic therapy of type 2 diabetes.
Scheen, André ULg

in Annals of translational medicine (2015), 3(Suppl 1), 36

The recent data reported by Tang and colleagues in Science Translational Medicine suggest that alpha-2 adrenoceptors (alpha2AAR) genetic heterogeneity may explain diverging results regarding the effects ... [more ▼]

The recent data reported by Tang and colleagues in Science Translational Medicine suggest that alpha-2 adrenoceptors (alpha2AAR) genetic heterogeneity may explain diverging results regarding the effects of alpha2AAR antagonists on insulin secretion and glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes. They first confirmed that the risk variant for rs553668 (the A allele for a single-nucleotide polymorphism in ADRA2A) is likely to cause defective insulin secretion in human pancreatic islets. Second they showed that blocking alpha2AAR with yohimbine dose-dependently improves the reduced insulin secretion during an oral glucose tolerance test in patients with the risk variant. The successful translation of genomic information into clinical intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes provides proof of concept for the feasibility of individualized treatment based on genotype. [less ▲]

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See detailComplex dynamics of a nonlinear aerospace structure: numerical continuation and normal modes
Renson, Ludovic ULg; Noël, Jean-Philippe ULg; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg

in Nonlinear Dynamics (2015), 79(2), 1293-1309

This paper investigates the dynamics of a real-life aerospace structure possessing a strongly nonlinear component with multiple mechanical stops. A full-scale finite element model is built for gaining ... [more ▼]

This paper investigates the dynamics of a real-life aerospace structure possessing a strongly nonlinear component with multiple mechanical stops. A full-scale finite element model is built for gaining additional insight into the nonlinear dynamics that was observed experimentally, but also for uncovering additional nonlinear phenomena, such as quasiperiodic regimes of motion. Forced/unforced, damped/undamped numerical simulations are carried out using advanced techniques and theoretical concepts such as numerical continuation and nonlinear normal modes. [less ▲]

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See detailSolar Energy Prediction: An International Contest to Initiate Interdisciplinary Research on Compelling Meteorological Problems
McGovern, Amy; Gagne II, David John; Eustaquio, Lucas et al

in Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society [= BAMS] (2015)

As meteorological observing systems and models grow in complexity and number, the size of the data becomes overwhelming for humans to analyze using traditional techniques. Computer scientists, and ... [more ▼]

As meteorological observing systems and models grow in complexity and number, the size of the data becomes overwhelming for humans to analyze using traditional techniques. Computer scientists, and specifically machine learning and data mining researchers, are developing frameworks for analyzing big data. The AMS Committee on Artificial Intelligence and its Applications to Environmental Science aims to bring AI researchers and environmental scientists together to increase the synergy between the two. The AI committee has sponsored 4 previous contests on a variety of meteorological problems including wind energy, storm classification, winter hydrometeor classification, and air pollution, with the goal of bringing together the two fields of research. Although these were successful, the audience was limited to existing environmental science researchers (usually 10-20 teams of people primarily within the AMS community). For the 2013/14 contest, we expanded to a global audience by focusing on the compelling problem of solar energy prediction and by having the established forum Kaggle host our contest. Using this forum, we had over 160 teams from all around the world participate. Improved solar energy forecasting is a necessary component of making solar energy a viable alternative power source. This paper summarizes our experiences in the 2013/14 contest, discusses the data in detail, and presents the winning prediction methods. The contest data come from the NOAA/ESRL Global Ensemble Forecasting System Reforecast Version 2 and the Oklahoma Mesonet with sponsorship from EarthRisk Technologies. All winning methods utilized gradient boosted regression trees but differed in parameter choices and interpolation methods. [less ▲]

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See detailTransnational Politics as Cultural Circulation: Toward a Conceptual Understanding of Migrant Political Participation on the Move
Boccagni, Paolo; Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULg; Levitt, Peggu

in Mobilities (2015)

This article contributes to the burgeoning literature on transnational politics by bringing tools used by scholars of cultural diffusion and circulation into these debates. We build on research on social ... [more ▼]

This article contributes to the burgeoning literature on transnational politics by bringing tools used by scholars of cultural diffusion and circulation into these debates. We build on research on social remittances and their potential to yield broader and deeper effects or to ‘scale up’ and ‘scale out.’ Based on a variety of empirical examples, we propose that processes such as circulation, portability, and contact, viewed through a transnational optic, help to nuance recent research on political transnationalism and its empirical indicators – including, most notably, external voting. [less ▲]

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See detailHeat can erase epigenetic marks of vernalization in Arabidopsis
Bouché, Frédéric ULg; Detry, Nathalie ULg; Périlleux, Claire ULg

in Plant Signaling & Behavior (2015), 10(3), 990799

Vernalization establishes a memory of winter that must be maintained for weeks or months in order to promote flowering the following spring. The stability of the vernalized state varies among plant ... [more ▼]

Vernalization establishes a memory of winter that must be maintained for weeks or months in order to promote flowering the following spring. The stability of the vernalized state varies among plant species and depends on the duration of cold exposure. In Arabidopsis thaliana, winter leads to epigenetic silencing of the floral repressor gene FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) and the duration of cold is measured through the dynamics of chromatin modifications during and after cold. The growing conditions encountered post-vernalization are thus critical for the maintenance of the vernalized state. We reported that high temperature leads to devernalization and, consistently, to FLC reactivation in Arabidopsis seedlings. Here we show that the repressive epigenetic mark H3K27me3 decreases at the FLC locus when vernalized seedlings are grown at 30°C, unless they were first exposed to a stabilizing period at 20°C. Ambient temperature thus controls the epigenetic memory of winter. [less ▲]

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See detailMerging multi-camera data to reduce motion analysis instrumental errors using Kalman filters
Schwartz, Cédric ULg; Denoël, Vincent ULg; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg et al

in Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering (2015), 18(9), 952-960

In motion capture systems, markers are often seen by multiple cameras. All cameras do not measure the position of the markers with the same reliability because of environmental factors such as the ... [more ▼]

In motion capture systems, markers are often seen by multiple cameras. All cameras do not measure the position of the markers with the same reliability because of environmental factors such as the position of the marker in the field of view or the light intensity received by the cameras. Kalman filters offer a general framework to take the reliability of the various cameras into account and consequently improve the estimation of the marker position. The proposed process can be applied to both passive and active systems. Several reliability models of the cameras are compared for the Codamotion active system, which is considered as a specific illustration. The proposed method significantly reduces the noise in the signal, especially at long range distances. Therefore, it improves the confidence of the positions at the limits of the field of view. [less ▲]

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See detailCombining tree-based and dynamical systems for the inference of gene regulatory networks
Huynh-Thu, Vân Anh ULg; Sanguinetti, Guido

in Bioinformatics (2015), 31(10), 1614-1622

Motivation: Reconstructing the topology of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) from time series of gene expression data remains an important open problem in computational systems biology. Existing GRN ... [more ▼]

Motivation: Reconstructing the topology of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) from time series of gene expression data remains an important open problem in computational systems biology. Existing GRN inference algorithms face one of two limitations: model-free methods are scalable but suffer from a lack of interpretability and cannot in general be used for out of sample predictions. On the other hand, model-based methods focus on identifying a dynamical model of the system. These are clearly interpretable and can be used for predictions; however, they rely on strong assumptions and are typically very demanding computationally. Results: Here, we propose a new hybrid approach for GRN inference, called Jump3, exploiting time series of expression data. Jump3 is based on a formal on/off model of gene expression but uses a non-parametric procedure based on decision trees (called "jump trees") to reconstruct the GRN topology, allowing the inference of networks of hundreds of genes. We show the good performance of Jump3 on in silico and synthetic networks and applied the approach to identify regulatory interactions activated in the presence of interferon gamma. Availability and implementation: Our MATLAB implementation of Jump3 is available at http:// homepages.inf.ed.ac.uk/vhuynht/software.html. [less ▲]

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See detailRecognition of Personally Familiar Faces and Functional Connectivity in Alzheimer’s Disease
Kurth, Sophie ULg; Moyse, Evelyne ULg; Bahri, Mohamed Ali ULg et al

in Cortex : A Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System & Behavior (2015), 67

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See detailA Stereocontrolled Synthesis of the Hydrophobic Moiety of Rhamnolipids
Menhour, Boudjema; Mayon, Patrick; Plé, Karen et al

in Tetrahedron Letters (2015), 56

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See detailDe la territorialisation des controverses : métropolisation, déterritorialisation et (re)territorialisation à Beyrouth
Farah, Jihad; Teller, Jacques ULg

in Métropoles (2015), 16

This article deals with modalities of deterritorialisation and reterritorialisation in cities undergoing metropolisation processes. In these cities, territorial evolution is becoming less related to ... [more ▼]

This article deals with modalities of deterritorialisation and reterritorialisation in cities undergoing metropolisation processes. In these cities, territorial evolution is becoming less related to logics of centrality linking the city and its hinterlands. It is more affected by competition logics between different centralities anchored in different local and international actors and place networks, leading to the “deterritorialisation” of the city. This evolution represents a considerable political challenge for urban citizens as well as for institutions in charge of urban regulation. The main answers to this challenge usually aim to bring back coherence through efforts of “reterritorialisation”. This reterritorialisation builds on territorial governance strategies that may deploy on three different scales : metropolitan, regional or local. Through the case of Beirut, this article stresses that, though of different or even opposing nature, these three forms of territorial governance may be simultaneously operating in the same urban context. The article also asserts that focusing on the development of controversies linked to the organization and use of urban space, and mainly to large urban projects, could serve as a framework for understanding the articulation, tension and mutual development of these governances. Controversies push actors to position themselves, build or redefine networks and engage in projects that would transform urban space, resulting in various modalities of reterritorialisation of the city. [less ▲]

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See detailCorrelation between ethanol behavioral sensitization and midbrain dopamine neuron reactivity to ethanol
Didone, Vincent ULg; Masson, Sébastien; Quoilin, Caroline et al

in Addiction Biology (2015)

Repeated ethanol injections lead to a sensitization of its stimulant effects in mice. Some recent results argue against a role for ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons in ethanol behavioral ... [more ▼]

Repeated ethanol injections lead to a sensitization of its stimulant effects in mice. Some recent results argue against a role for ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons in ethanol behavioral sensitization. The aim of the present study was to test whether in vivo ethanol locomotor sensitization correlates with changes in either basal- or ethanol evoked firing rates of dopamine neurons in vitro. Female Swiss mice were daily injected with 2.5 g/kg ethanol (or saline in the control group) for 7 days and their locomotor activity was recorded. At the end of the sensitization procedure, extracellular recordings were made from dopaminergic neurons in midbrain slices from these mice. Significantly higher spontaneous basal firing rates of dopamine neurons were recorded in ethanol-sensitized mice relative to control mice, but without correlations with the behavioral effects. The superfusion of sulpiride, a dopamine D2 antagonist, induced a stronger increase of dopamine neuron firing rates in ethanol-sensitized mice. This shows that the D2 feedback in dopamine neurons is preserved after chronic ethanol administration and argues against a reduced D2 feedback as an explanation for the increased dopamine neuron basal firing rates in ethanol-sensitized mice. Finally, ethanol superfusion (10–100 mM) significantly increased the firing rates of dopamine neurons and this effect was of higher magnitude in ethanol-sensitized mice. Furthermore, there were significant correlations between such a sensitization of dopamine neuron activity and ethanol behavioral sensitization. These results support the hypothesis that changes in brain dopamine neuron activity contribute to the behavioral sensitization of the stimulant effects of ethanol. [less ▲]

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See detailLe "Gate fever" : cristallisation et fossilisation de l’univers carcéral
Englebert, Jérôme ULg

in Psychosomatique Relationnelle (2015), 4

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See detailBlood alcohol concentration in drivers of Liege aera (Belgium) : a 5-year analysis
DEVILLE, Marine ULg; Charlier, Corinne ULg

in Acta Clinica Belgica (2015), 00

Objectives: The objective of the present study was to describe the results of the blood alcohol determinations made on drivers from the Liege area between July 2007 and December 2012. Methods: The results ... [more ▼]

Objectives: The objective of the present study was to describe the results of the blood alcohol determinations made on drivers from the Liege area between July 2007 and December 2012. Methods: The results were interpreted according to the sex, to the age, to the circumstances and temporal variation of the blood test. Statistical analysis was performed using R® software. Results: During this 5-years period, 2725 determinations were done, mainly in the context of road crashes. The mean blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was 1.69 g/L, and 2132 drivers were above the legal threshold. A large majority of offenders (77%) were men, but the mean BAC did not differ significantly between men (1.69 g/L) and women (1.67 g/L). A statistically significant correlation between age and mean BAC can be observed, if we only consider the positive cases. Concerning the temporal variation of the results, lowest mean BACs are observed during the daytime while highest mean BACs are measured during the night. In both cases, no statistically significant difference can be observed if we compare the week and the weekend. Finally, no statistically significant difference in BAC was observed over years. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of thermal comfort models for various climatic zones of North-East India
Singh, Manoj Kumar; Mahapatra, Sadhan; Teller, Jacques ULg

in Sustainable Cities and Society (2015), 14

Thermal comfort study provides crucial information about thermal performance of naturally ventilated buildings. Humphreys and Auliciems comfort model uses indoor and outdoor temperatures to predict ... [more ▼]

Thermal comfort study provides crucial information about thermal performance of naturally ventilated buildings. Humphreys and Auliciems comfort model uses indoor and outdoor temperatures to predict comfort temperatures. It is found that the comfort temperatures obtained by using these methods do not take into account the occupant behavioral adaptability to a particular climatic zone. This demands development of new set of comfort models based on local environmental parameters, socio-cultural setup and behavioral action. Analysis shows that four major variables like indoor and outdoor temperature, relative humidity and clothing pattern plays an important role in defining comfort and greatly influence the occupant’s perception and acceptance on thermal comfort. In this study, comfort models are developed based on these variables. The computed neutral temperatures based on the models are compared with the comfort temperatures obtained through comfort survey. The models are developed using the measured data of January and July months and validated with the measured data of April and October months. This study also concludes that it is not possible to obtain a generalized thermal comfort model for all climatic zone because adaptation process, expectation and perception of people are region specific and governed by local socio-cultural requirement. [less ▲]

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See detailAbsence of female-typical pheromone-induced hypothalamic neural responses and kisspeptin neuronal activity in alpha-fetoprotein knockout female mice.
Taziaux, Mélanie ULg; Bakker, Julie ULg

in Endocrinology (2015)

Pheromones induce sexually dimorphic neuroendocrine responses, such as LH secretion. However, the neuronal network by which pheromones are converted into signals that will initiate and modulate endocrine ... [more ▼]

Pheromones induce sexually dimorphic neuroendocrine responses, such as LH secretion. However, the neuronal network by which pheromones are converted into signals that will initiate and modulate endocrine changes remains unclear. We asked whether two sexually dimorphic populations in the anteroventral periventricular and periventricular nuclei (AVPV/PeN) that express kisspeptin and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) are potential candidates that will transduce the olfactory signal to the neuroendocrine system. Furthermore, we assessed whether this transduction is sensitive to perinatal actions of estradiol by using female mice deficient in alpha-fetoprotein (AfpKO), which lack the protective actions of Afp against maternal estradiol. Wild-type (WT) and AfpKO male and female mice were exposed to same- versus opposite-sex odors and the expression of c-Fos was analyzed along the olfactory projection pathways as well as whether kisspeptin, TH and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are responsive to opposite-sex odors. Male odors induced a female-typical Fos expression in target forebrain sites of olfactory inputs involved in reproduction in WT, but not in AfpKO females, whereas female odors induced a male-typical Fos expression in males of both genotypes. In WT females, opposite-sex odors induced Fos in kisspeptin and TH neurons, whereas in AfpKO females and WT males, only a lower, but still significant, Fos expression was observed in TH, but not in kisspeptin neurons. Finally, opposite-sex odors did not induce any significant Fos expression in GnRH neurons of both sexes or genotypes. Our results strongly suggest a role for fetal estrogen in the sexual differentiation of neural responses to sex-related olfactory cues. [less ▲]

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See detailThermophilic and cellulolytic consortium isolated from composting plants improves anaerobic digestion of cellulosic biomass: toward a microbial resource management approach
Kinet, Romain ULg; Destain, Jacqueline ULg; Hiligsmann, Serge ULg et al

in Bioresource Technology (2015)

A cellulolytic consortium was isolated from a composting plant in order to boost the initial hydrolysis step encountered in anaerobic digestion. Improvement of the cellulose degradation, as well as biogas ... [more ▼]

A cellulolytic consortium was isolated from a composting plant in order to boost the initial hydrolysis step encountered in anaerobic digestion. Improvement of the cellulose degradation, as well as biogas production, was observed for the cultures inoculated with the exogenous consortium. Metagenomics analyses pointed out a weak richness (related to the number of OTUs) of the exogenous consortium induced by the selective pressure (cellulose as sole carbon source) met during the initial isolation steps. Main microbial strains determined were strictly anaerobic and belong to the Clostridia class. During cellulose anaerobic degradation, pH drop induced a strong modification of the microbial population. Despite the fact that richness and evenness were very weak, the exogenous consortium was able to adapt and to maintain the cellulolytic degradation potential. This important result point out the fact that simplified microbial communities could be used in order to increase the robustness of mixed cultures involved in environmental biotechnology. [less ▲]

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See detailBayesian inversions of a dynamic vegetation model at four European grassland sites
Minet, Julien ULg; Laloy, Eric; Tychon, Bernard ULg et al

in Biogeosciences (2015), 12(9), 2809--2829

Eddy covariance data from four European grassland sites are used to probabilistically invert the CARAIB (CARbon Assimilation In the Biosphere) dynamic vegetation model (DVM) with 10 unknown parameters ... [more ▼]

Eddy covariance data from four European grassland sites are used to probabilistically invert the CARAIB (CARbon Assimilation In the Biosphere) dynamic vegetation model (DVM) with 10 unknown parameters, using the DREAM(ZS) (DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis) Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampler. We focus on comparing model inversions, considering both homoscedastic and heteroscedastic eddy covariance residual errors, with variances either fixed a priori or jointly inferred together with the model parameters. Agreements between measured and simulated data during calibration are comparable with previous studies, with root mean square errors (RMSEs) of simulated daily gross primary productivity (GPP), ecosystem respiration (RECO) and evapotranspiration (ET) ranging from 1.73 to 2.19, 1.04 to 1.56 g C m−2 day−1 and 0.50 to 1.28 mm day−1, respectively. For the calibration period, using a homoscedastic eddy covariance residual error model resulted in a better agreement between measured and modelled data than using a heteroscedastic residual error model. However, a model validation experiment showed that CARAIB models calibrated considering heteroscedastic residual errors perform better. Posterior parameter distributions derived from using a heteroscedastic model of the residuals thus appear to be more robust. This is the case even though the classical linear heteroscedastic error model assumed herein did not fully remove heteroscedasticity of the GPP residuals. Despite the fact that the calibrated model is generally capable of fitting the data within measurement errors, systematic bias in the model simulations are observed. These are likely due to model inadequacies such as shortcomings in the photosynthesis modelling. Besides the residual error treatment, differences between model parameter posterior distributions among the four grassland sites are also investigated. It is shown that the marginal distributions of the specific leaf area and characteristic mortality time parameters can be explained by site-specific ecophysiological characteristics. [less ▲]

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See detailQuels medecins pour quelle medecine?
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue medicale de Liege (2015), 70(1), 1-4

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See detailImportance of wavenumber dependence of Biot numbers in one-sided models of evaporative Marangoni instability: horizontal layer and spherical droplet
Machrafi, Hatim ULg; Rednikov, Alexey; Colinet, Pierre et al

in Physical Review. E : Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics (2015)

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See detailThe emergence of metabolomics as a key discipline in the drug discovery process
Fillet, Marianne ULg; Frederich, Michel ULg

in Drug Discovery Today: Technologies (2015)

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See detailTargeting cholesterol homeostasis to fight hearing loss: a new perspective.
Malgrange, Brigitte ULg; Varela-Nieto, Isabel; de Medina, Philippe et al

in Frontiers in aging neuroscience (2015), 7

Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is a major pathology of the inner ear that affects nearly 600 million people worldwide. Despite intensive researches, this major health problem remains without ... [more ▼]

Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is a major pathology of the inner ear that affects nearly 600 million people worldwide. Despite intensive researches, this major health problem remains without satisfactory solutions. The pathophysiological mechanisms involved in SNHL include oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, inflammation, and ischemia, resulting in synaptic loss, axonal degeneration, and apoptosis of spiral ganglion neurons. The mechanisms associated with SNHL are shared with other neurodegenerative disorders. Cholesterol homeostasis is central to numerous pathologies including neurodegenerative diseases and cholesterol regulates major processes involved in neurons survival and function. The role of cholesterol homeostasis in the physiopathology of inner ear is largely unexplored. In this review, we discuss the findings concerning cholesterol homeostasis in neurodegenerative diseases and whether it should be translated into potential therapeutic strategies for the treatment of SNHL. [less ▲]

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See detailBespreking Hof van Justitie 4 juli 2013
Peeters, Bart ULg

in Rechtskundig Weekblad (2015), 2014-2015

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See detailThe prediction of fund failure through performance diagnostics
Cogneau, Philippe ULg; Hübner, Georges ULg

in Journal of Banking and Finance (2015), 50

Using an international database featuring 1624 mutual funds over 15 years, this paper analyses the joint abilities of performance measures to predict subsequent fund failure. We examine the probability of ... [more ▼]

Using an international database featuring 1624 mutual funds over 15 years, this paper analyses the joint abilities of performance measures to predict subsequent fund failure. We examine the probability of disappearance over a time window, and expected fund survival time, and study the circumstances of a fund’s disappearance, its currency and domicile. By combining relevant measures, fund failure appears to a significant extent predictable, more than with single classical measures. Survivorship predictability has significant economic value. Such evidence suggests that past performance does not only influence investors’ perception of fund quality, but also reflects managers’ ability to sustain performance. [less ▲]

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See detailClimate Change and Tritrophic Interactions: Will Modifications to Greenhouse Gas Emissions Increase the Vulnerability of Herbivorous Insects to Natural Enemies?
Boullis, Antoine ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg; Verheggen, François ULg

in Environmental Entomology (2015)

Insects are highly dependent on odor cues released into the environment to locate conspecifics or food sources. This mechanism is particularly important for insect predators that rely on kairomones ... [more ▼]

Insects are highly dependent on odor cues released into the environment to locate conspecifics or food sources. This mechanism is particularly important for insect predators that rely on kairomones released by their prey to detect them. In the context of climate change and, more specifically, modifications in the gas composition of the atmosphere, chemical communication-mediating interactions between phytophagous insect pests, their host plants, and their natural enemies is likely to be impacted. Several reports have indicated that modifications to plants caused by elevated carbon dioxide and ozone concentrations might indirectly affect insect herbivores, with community-level modifications to this group potentially having an indirect influence on higher trophic levels. The vulnerability of agricultural insect pests toward their natural enemies under elevated greenhouse gases concentrations has been frequently reported, but conflicting results have been obtained. This literature review shows that the higher levels of carbon dioxide, as predicted for the coming century, do not enhance the abundance or efficiency of natural enemies to locate hosts or prey in most published studies. Increased ozone levels lead to modifications in herbivore-induced volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by damaged plants, which may impact the attractiveness of these herbivores to the third trophic level. Furthermore, other oxidative gases (such as SO2 and NO2) tend to reduce the abundance of natural enemies. The impact of changes in atmospheric gas emissions on plant–insect and insect–insect chemical communication has been under-documented, despite the significance of these mechanisms in tritrophic interactions. We conclude by suggesting some further prospects on this topic of research yet to be investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailLow back pain-related meta-analysis: Caution is needed when interpreting published research results
Demoulin, Christophe ULg; Bruyère, Olivier ULg; SOMVILLE, Pierre-René ULg et al

in World Journal of Meta-Analysis (2015), 26(3(2)), 93-96

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See detailAn automated statistical shape model developmental pipeline: application to the human scapula and humerus
Mutsvangwa, Tinashe; Burdin, Valérie; Schwartz, Cédric ULg et al

in IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering (2015), 62(4), 1098-1107

This work presents development of statistical shape models based on robust and rigid-groupwise registration followed by pointset non-rigid registration. The main advantages of the pipeline include ... [more ▼]

This work presents development of statistical shape models based on robust and rigid-groupwise registration followed by pointset non-rigid registration. The main advantages of the pipeline include automation in that the method does not rely on manual landmarks or a regionalization step; there is no bias in the choice of reference during the correspondence steps and the use of the Probabilistic Principal Component Analysis framework increases the domain of the shape variability. A comparison between the widely used Expectation Maximization- Iterative Closest Point algorithm and a recently reported groupwise method on publicly available data (hippocampus) using the well-known criteria of generality, specificity and compactness is also presented. The proposed method gives similar values but the curves of generality and specificity are superior to those of the other two methods. Finally the method is applied to the human scapula, which is a known difficult structure, and the human humerus. [less ▲]

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See detailCompte rendu de 'Mutations et déterminisme chez Bourdieu'
Saint-Amand, Denis ULg

in Lectures (2015)

En définitive, il aurait sans doute mieux valu resserrer le propos sous la forme d’un article critique qui aurait pu trouver place dans une revue spécialisée : ne se donnant par les moyens de ses trop ... [more ▼]

En définitive, il aurait sans doute mieux valu resserrer le propos sous la forme d’un article critique qui aurait pu trouver place dans une revue spécialisée : ne se donnant par les moyens de ses trop hautes ambitions, l’ouvrage se révèle trop léger en plus de se distinguer par le manque de soin apporté à sa réalisation [less ▲]

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See detailBespreking Hof van justitie
Peeters, Bart ULg

in Rechtskundig Weekblad (2015), 2014-2015

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See detailTrebananib (AMG 386) plus weekly paclitaxel with or without bevacizumab as first-line therapy for HER2-negative locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer: A phase 2 randomized study.
Dieras, Veronique; Wildiers, Hans; Jassem, Jacek et al

in Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland) (2015), 24

INTRODUCTION: This phase 2 randomized study evaluated trebananib (AMG 386), a peptide-Fc fusion protein that inhibits angiogenesis by neutralizing the interaction of angiopoietin-1 and -2 with Tie2, in ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: This phase 2 randomized study evaluated trebananib (AMG 386), a peptide-Fc fusion protein that inhibits angiogenesis by neutralizing the interaction of angiopoietin-1 and -2 with Tie2, in combination with paclitaxel with or without bevacizumab in previously untreated patients with HER2-negative locally recurrent/metastatic breast cancer. METHODS: Patients received paclitaxel 90 mg/m2 once weekly (3-weeks-on/1-week-off) and were randomly assigned 1:1:1:1 to also receive blinded bevacizumab 10 mg/kg once every 2 weeks plus either trebananib 10 mg/kg once weekly (Arm A) or 3 mg/kg once weekly (Arm B), or placebo (Arm C); or open-label trebananib 10 mg/kg once a week (Arm D). Progression-free survival was the primary endpoint. RESULTS: In total, 228 patients were randomized. Median estimated progression-free survival for Arms A, B, C, and D was 11.3, 9.2, 12.2, and 10 months, respectively. Hazard ratios (95% CI) for Arms A, B, and D versus Arm C were 0.98 (0.61-1.59), 1.12 (0.70-1.80), and 1.28 (0.79-2.09), respectively. The objective response rate was 71% in Arm A, 51% in Arm B, 60% in Arm C, and 46% in Arm D. The incidence of grade 3/4/5 adverse events was 71/9/4%, 61/14/5%, 62/16/3%, and 52/4/7% in Arms A/B/C/D. In Arm D, median progression-free survival was 12.8 and 7.4 months for those with high and low trebananib exposure (AUCss >/= 8.4 versus < 8.4 mg.h/mL), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There was no apparent prolongation of estimated progression-free survival with the addition of trebananib to paclitaxel and bevacizumab at the doses tested. Toxicity was manageable. Exposure-response analyses support evaluation of combinations incorporating trebananib at doses > 10 mg/kg in this setting. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00511459. [less ▲]

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See detailHistoire et expérience fondatrice dans Sein und Zeit
Zincq, Aurélien ULg

in Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique (2015)

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See detailSmall Angle X-ray Scattering Insights into the Architecture-Dependent Emulsifying Properties of Amphiphilic Copolymers in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
Alaimo, David ULg; Hermida Merino, Daniel; Grignard, Bruno ULg et al

in Journal of Physical Chemistry B (2015), 119

The supramolecular assembly of a series of copolymers combining a PEO-rich hydrophilic and fluorinated CO2-philic sequences is analysed by synchrotron small-angle xray scattering (SAXS) in supercritical ... [more ▼]

The supramolecular assembly of a series of copolymers combining a PEO-rich hydrophilic and fluorinated CO2-philic sequences is analysed by synchrotron small-angle xray scattering (SAXS) in supercritical CO2, as well as in water/CO2 emulsions. These copolymers were designed to have the same molecular weight and composition, and to differ only by their macromolecular architecture. The investigated copolymers have random, block, and palm-tree architectures. Besides, thermo-responsive copolymer is also analysed, having a hydrophilic sequence becoming water-insoluble around 41 °C, i.e. just above the critical point of CO2. At the length scale investigated by SAXS, only the random copolymer appears to self-assemble in pure CO2, in the form of a disordered microgel-like network. The random, block and thermo-responsive copolymers are all able to stabilize water/CO2 emulsions but not the copolymer with the palm-tree architecture, pointing at the importance of macromolecular architecture for the emulsifying properties. A modelling of the SAXS data shows that the block and the thermo-responsive copolymers form spherical micelle-like structures containing about 70 % water and 30 % polymer. [less ▲]

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See detailMutation of a Single Envelope N-linked Glycosylation Site Enhances the Pathogenicity of Bovine Leukemia Virus
De Brogniez, Alix ULg; Bouzar, Amel-Baya; Jacques, Jean-Rock ULg et al

in Journal of Virology (2015), 89(17),

Viruses have co-evolved with their host to ensure efficient replication and transmission without inducing excessive pathogenicity that would indirectly impair their persistence. This is exemplified by the ... [more ▼]

Viruses have co-evolved with their host to ensure efficient replication and transmission without inducing excessive pathogenicity that would indirectly impair their persistence. This is exemplified by the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) system in which lymphoproliferative disorders develop in ruminants after latency periods of several years. In principle, the equilibrium reached between the virus and its host could be disrupted by emergence of more pathogenic strains. Intriguingly but fortunately, such a hyperpathogenic BLV strain was never observed in the field nor designed in vitro. In this study, we aimed at understanding the role of envelope N-linked glycosylation with the hypothesis that this posttranslational modification could either favor BLV infection by allowing viral entry or allow immune escape by using glycans as a shield. Using reverse genetics of an infectious molecular provirus, we have identified a N-linked envelope glycosylation site (N230) that limits viral replication and pathogenicity. Indeed, mutation N230E unexpectedly leads to enhanced fusogenicity and protein stability. Occurrence of this mutation may thus represent a potential threat associated with emergence of hyperpathogenic BLV strains and possibly of new variants of the related primate T-lymphotropic viruses. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of novel SOlid Materials for high power Li polymer BATteries (SOMABAT). Recyclability of components.
Zubizarreta, Leire; Gil-Agusti, Mayte; Garcia. et al

in Lecture notes on Mobility (2015)

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See detailDer Standesunterschied als Prüfstein. Zur Frauenfreundschaft zwischen Elisa von der Recke und Sophie Becker
Leyh, Valérie ULg

in Recherches Germaniques (2015), 45

L’amitié joue un rôle central dans la vie et l’oeuvre d’Elisa von der Recke (1754-1833), écrivaine issue de la noblesse courlandaise. A côté de ses nombreux contacts avec des personnalités masculines ... [more ▼]

L’amitié joue un rôle central dans la vie et l’oeuvre d’Elisa von der Recke (1754-1833), écrivaine issue de la noblesse courlandaise. A côté de ses nombreux contacts avec des personnalités masculines, elle entretenait en effet des amitiés profondes avec des femmes de son temps, en particulier avec Sophie Becker, aux origines bourgeoises. Sur la base des écrits littéraires de ces deux femmes, l’article étudie cette amitié exceptionnelle en la confrontant au culte de l’amitié caractéristique du XVIIIe siècle et en montrant dans quelle mesure la différence de rang social défie l’idéal égalitaire des Lumières. Dans l’amitié avec Sophie, cette différence sociale apparaît très clairement, mais en se positionnant comme intellectuelle des Lumières et en s’appropriant le discours de l’amitié, Elisa von der Recke l’ignore et la considère comme insignifiante. Sophie, au contraire, ne peut s’empêcher de s’en apercevoir et questionne les fondements économiques de l’égalité au sein de l’amitié. Sa pensée pragmatique l’incite en effet à confronter les modèles littéraires avec la réalité et, dès lors, à constater que l’inégalité sociale est loin d’avoir disparu. [less ▲]

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See detailThe enfranchisement of citizens abroad: variations and explanations
Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULg

in Democratization (2015)

Today, a large majority of states allow at least some of their emigrants to take part in home country elections from abroad. This article first looks at the diffusion of external voting laws and shows ... [more ▼]

Today, a large majority of states allow at least some of their emigrants to take part in home country elections from abroad. This article first looks at the diffusion of external voting laws and shows that over the past 25 years they have become widely-adopted and are no longer limited to specific professional categories of citizens. Second, the article explains the international diffusion of external voting by discussing the “norm- internationalization hypothesis” and the “electoral-competition hypothesis.” Third, the article attempts to demonstrate that these hypotheses cannot explain why, in a democratic context, states continue to implement a series of hurdles that deter emigrants from using their newly gained rights. Looking at recent developments in Latin America and the Middle East and North Africa, it concludes that the diffusion and variations of external voting laws result from transnational negotiation processes in a context of democratic transformation among various actors whose interests are strongly affected by the inclusion or exclusion of these new voters. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Compounds from Allium gramineum Flowers
Mskhiladze, Lasha; Chincharadze, David; Tits, Monique ULg et al

in International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research (2015), 7

The present study evaluates the in vitro anticancer, antiplasmodial and antioxidant activity of the ethanolic crude extract from the flowers of Allium gramineum growing in Georgia and of one flavonol and ... [more ▼]

The present study evaluates the in vitro anticancer, antiplasmodial and antioxidant activity of the ethanolic crude extract from the flowers of Allium gramineum growing in Georgia and of one flavonol and two steroidal glycosides which were isolated from this plant. The flowers were extracted with ethanol and this total extract was subjected to successive bioguided fractionations to provide glycosides 1-3. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR and ESI-MS spectrometric data in comparison with the existing literature and have been identified as: isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), diosgenin-3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (Prosapogenin A of dioscin) (2), diosgenin-3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-]-β-D-glucopyranoside (Deltonine) (3). The ethanolic extract has been shown to strongly inhibit the growth of breast adenocarcinoma cell lines, with an IC50 of 4.5 ± 0.7μg/mL for MDAMB-231 and 4.8 ± 0.9μg/mL for MCF-7 cells. The cytotoxic activity was related to 2 and 3 which exhibited potent cytotoxicity, with an IC50 of ± 3μM. Concerning antiplasmodial activities, only weak activities were observed using the ethanolic extract and the two saponins. The flavonoid was almost inactive. Finally, the radical-scavenging activity of the ethanolic extract was tested in presence of ABTS·+ solution. A decrease of the absorbance intensity was observed, with an IC50 value of 22.1 ± 0.6μg/mLwhile trolox, used as Standard drug, showed a pronounced activity (IC50 = 12.7±0.5μM). The glycoside 1 showed the lowest IC50 value of 20.1 ± 0.8μM while both 2 and 3 exhibited very weak radical scavenging activity. [less ▲]

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See detailUncertainties in Models of Stellar Structure and Evolution
Noels-Grötsch, Arlette ULg; Bragaglia, Angela

in Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings (2015), 39

Numerous physical aspects of stellar physics have been presented in Session 2 and the underlying uncertainties have been tentatively assessed. We try here to highlight some specific points raised after ... [more ▼]

Numerous physical aspects of stellar physics have been presented in Session 2 and the underlying uncertainties have been tentatively assessed. We try here to highlight some specific points raised after the talks and during the general discussion at the end of the session and eventually at the end of the workshop. A table of model uncertainties is then drawn with the help of the participants in order to give the state of the art in stellar modeling uncertainties as of July 2013. [less ▲]

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See detailRegional volumes and spatial volumetric distribution of gray matter in the gender dysphoric brain.
Hoekzema, Elseline; Schagen, Sebastian E. E.; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P. C. et al

in Psychoneuroendocrinology (2015), 55C

The sexual differentiation of the brain is primarily driven by gonadal hormones during fetal development. Leading theories on the etiology of gender dysphoria (GD) involve deviations herein. To examine ... [more ▼]

The sexual differentiation of the brain is primarily driven by gonadal hormones during fetal development. Leading theories on the etiology of gender dysphoria (GD) involve deviations herein. To examine whether there are signs of a sex-atypical brain development in GD, we quantified regional neural gray matter (GM) volumes in 55 female-to-male and 38 male-to-female adolescents, 44 boys and 52 girls without GD and applied both univariate and multivariate analyses. In girls, more GM volume was observed in the left superior medial frontal cortex, while boys had more volume in the bilateral superior posterior hemispheres of the cerebellum and the hypothalamus. Regarding the GD groups, at whole-brain level they differed only from individuals sharing their gender identity but not from their natal sex. Accordingly, using multivariate pattern recognition analyses, the GD groups could more accurately be automatically discriminated from individuals sharing their gender identity than those sharing their natal sex based on spatially distributed GM patterns. However, region of interest analyses indicated less GM volume in the right cerebellum and more volume in the medial frontal cortex in female-to-males in comparison to girls without GD, while male-to-females had less volume in the bilateral cerebellum and hypothalamus than natal boys. Deviations from the natal sex within sexually dimorphic structures were also observed in the untreated subsamples. Our findings thus indicate that GM distribution and regional volumes in GD adolescents are largely in accordance with their respective natal sex. However, there are subtle deviations from the natal sex in sexually dimorphic structures, which can represent signs of a partial sex-atypical differentiation of the brain. [less ▲]

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See detailAdventitious organogenesis induced in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) var. "half-blood" maltese: morphogenetic and histological study
Benmahmoud, Kaouther; Jedidi, Zmna; Najar, Asma et al

in International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (2015), 6(2), 1-7

Tunisian citrus crops are faced to several abiotic and biotic constraints among which virus and virus-like diseases are incurable. The production of virus-free plants systematically needs the use of in ... [more ▼]

Tunisian citrus crops are faced to several abiotic and biotic constraints among which virus and virus-like diseases are incurable. The production of virus-free plants systematically needs the use of in vitro techniques. In this context, somatic embryogenesis and further plantlet regeneration of the Tunisian “half-blood” Maltese orange were obtained using explants consisting in style/stigma collected from unopened flowers. Somatic embryos were induced on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 13.3 µM 6-benzylaminopurine and 500 mg.l-1 malt extract, but their germination was obtained on hormone free-medium. Somatic embryogenesis was induced indirectly from intermediate friable callus initiated at the basal part of the style. Somatic embryos exhibited central procambial cells and were surrounded by a protoderm isolating them from the callus. These embryos had bipolar structure confirmed by the presence of shoot and root apices at cotyledonary stage. The use of cotyledon excised from those embryos failed to regenerate somatic embryos, but gave rise to direct organogenesis in two forms, true buds and protuberances both evolved in shoots after transfer in hormone-free medium. According to histological observations, protuberances are induced from epidermal and subepidermal cells of the cotyledon explant and remain closely attached to their mother tissue even at the shoot stage. [less ▲]

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See detailHeterogeneity of systemic oxidative stress profiles in COPD : a potential role of gender
Maury, Jonathan; Gouzi, Fares; De Rigal, Philippe et al

in Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity (2015)

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See detailA novel form of ficin from Ficus carica latex: Purification and characterization
Baeyens-Volant, Danielle; Matagne, André ULg; El Mahyaoui, Rachida et al

in Phytochemistry (2015), 117

A novel ficin form, named ficin E, was purified from fig tree latex by a combination of cation-exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose Fast Flow, Thiopropyl Sepharose 4B and fplc-gel filtration ... [more ▼]

A novel ficin form, named ficin E, was purified from fig tree latex by a combination of cation-exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose Fast Flow, Thiopropyl Sepharose 4B and fplc-gel filtration chromatography. The new ficin appeared not to be sensitive to thiol derivatization by a polyethylene glycol derivative, allowing its purification. The protease is homogeneous according to PAGE, SDS–PAGE, mass spectrometry, N-terminal micro-sequencing analyses and E-64 active site titration. N-terminal sequencing of the first ten residues has shown high identity with the other known ficin (iso)forms. The molecular weight was found to be (24,294 ± 10) Da by mass spectrometry, a lower value than the apparent molecular weight observed on SDS–PAGE, around 27 kDa. Far-UV CD data revealed a secondary structure content of 22% a-helix and 26% b-sheet. The protein is not glycosylated as shown by carbohydrate analysis. pH and temperature measurements indicated maxima activity at pH 6.0 and 50 °C, respectively. Preliminary pH stability analyses have shown that the protease conserved its compact structure in slightly acidic, neutral and alkaline media but at acidic pH (<3), the formation of some relaxed or molten state was evidenced by 8-anilino-1-naphtalenesulfonic acid binding characteristics. Comparison with the known ficins A, B, C, D1 and D2 (iso)forms revealed that ficin E showed activity profile that looked like ficin A against two chromogenic substrates while it resembled ficins D1 and D2 against three fluorogenic substrates. Enzymatic activity of ficin E was not affected by Mg2+, Ca2+ and Mn2+ at a concentration up to 10 mM. However, the activity was completely suppressed by Zn2+ at a concentration of 1 mM. Inhibitory activity measurements clearly identified the enzyme as a cysteine protease, being unaffected by synthetic (Pefabloc SC, benzamidine) and by natural proteinaceous (aprotinin) serine proteases inhibitors, by aspartic proteases inhibitors (pepstatin A) and by metallo-proteases inhibitors (EDTA, EGTA). Surprisingly, it was well affected by the metallo-protease inhibitor o-phenanthroline. The enzymatic activity was however completely blocked by cysteine proteases inhibitors (E-64, iodoacetamide), by thiol-blocking compounds (HgCl2) and by cysteine/serine proteases inhibitors (TLCK and TPCK). This is a novel ficin form according to peptide mass fingerprint analysis, specific amidase activity, SDS–PAGE and PAGE electrophoretic mobility, N-terminal sequencing and unproneness to thiol pegylation. [less ▲]

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See detailWeight Management in Type 2 Diabetes: Current and Emerging Approaches to Treatment.
Van Gaal, Luc; Scheen, André ULg

in Diabetes care (2015), 38(6), 1161-1172

Diabetes is a growing global health concern, as is obesity. Diabetes and obesity are intrinsically linked: obesity increases the risk of diabetes and also contributes to disease progression and ... [more ▼]

Diabetes is a growing global health concern, as is obesity. Diabetes and obesity are intrinsically linked: obesity increases the risk of diabetes and also contributes to disease progression and cardiovascular disease. Although the benefits of weight loss in the prevention of diabetes and as a critical component of managing the condition are well established, weight reduction remains challenging for individuals with type 2 diabetes due to a host of metabolic and psychological factors. For many patients, lifestyle intervention is not enough to achieve weight loss, and alternative options, such as pharmacotherapy, need to be considered. However, many traditional glucose-lowering medications may lead to weight gain. This article focuses on the potential of currently available pharmacological strategies and on emerging approaches in development to support the glycemic and weight-loss goals of individuals with type 2 diabetes. Two pharmacotherapy types are considered: those developed primarily for blood glucose control that have a favorable effect on body weight and those developed primarily to induce weight loss that have a favorable effect on blood glucose control. Finally, the potential of combination therapies for the management of obese patients with type 2 diabetes is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailTernary DNA computing using 3 x 3 multiplication matrices
Orbach, Ron; Lilienthal, Sivan; Klein, Michael et al

in Chemical Science (2015), 6

Non-Boolean computations implementing operations on multi-valued variables beyond base 2 allow enhanced computational complexity. We introduce DNA as a functional material for ternary computing, and in ... [more ▼]

Non-Boolean computations implementing operations on multi-valued variables beyond base 2 allow enhanced computational complexity. We introduce DNA as a functional material for ternary computing, and in particular demonstrate the use of three-valued oligonucleotide inputs to construct a 3 [times] 3 multiplication table. The system consists of two three-valued inputs of -1; 0; +1 and a fluorophore/quencher functional hairpin acting as computational and reporter module. The interaction of the computational hairpin module with the different values of the inputs yields a 3 [times] 3 multiplication matrix consisting of nine nanostructures that are read out by three distinct fluorescence intensities. By combining three different hairpin computational modules, each modified with a different fluorophore/quencher pair, and using different sets of inputs, the parallel operation of three multiplication tables is demonstrated. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of arsenic (III) at a nano gold modified solid carbon paste electrode
Sakira, Abdoul Karim; Somé, Issa Touridomon; Ziemons, Eric ULg et al

in Electroanalysis (2015), 27

A selective and sensitive electroanalytical method was developed for arsenic determination based on a nanogold (AuNP) modified solid carbon paste work- ing electrode (SCPE) modified in two steps (i ... [more ▼]

A selective and sensitive electroanalytical method was developed for arsenic determination based on a nanogold (AuNP) modified solid carbon paste work- ing electrode (SCPE) modified in two steps (i) physisorp- tion and (ii) additional electrodeposition of nanogold par- ticles in the presence of iodide. Copper(II) interference was solved by covering the gold layer by a self assembled mono layer (SAM) of glutathione. Using DPASV a linear response of the signal was obtained as a function of As(III) in the concentration range 0.05–20mM (4– 1498 ppb) with a limit of detection of 0.01 mM (0.9 ppb). Sample stirring and degassing were not needed. Applica- tion to the determination of arsenic(III) and (V) in un- derground water samples from Burkina Faso was success- fully achieved. [less ▲]

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See detailChallenge with lipopolysaccharides or Freund's adjuvant? What is the best option to trigger acute phase protein production in broilers?
Koppenol, A.; Everaert, Nadia ULg; Buyse, J. et al

in Research in Veterinary Science (2015), 99

Broilers were injected at 10 days of age with either Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or with Freund's adjuvants (FA) to investigate its triggering effect on the acute phase reaction (APR ... [more ▼]

Broilers were injected at 10 days of age with either Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or with Freund's adjuvants (FA) to investigate its triggering effect on the acute phase reaction (APR). First the kinetics of certain APP was studied by sampling blood 4 h, 8 h, 12 h and 24 h post injection with LPS. Ovotransferrin (OVT) and ?-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentration increased with time post injection (PI) with LPS to reach a plateau at 12 and 24 h PI. Caeruloplasmin (CP) did not increase with time PI. Compared to injection with phosphate buffered saline, OVT concentrations were higher when injecting chicks with LPS at all time points PI. At 24 h PI, LPS injection resulted in higher OVT and AGP concentration compared to injection with FA. It is recommended to use LPS instead of FA to trigger the APR. The best time point to sample blood for APP determination is 24 h PI. � 2015 Elsevier Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of the lemann index to assess digestive tract damage in patients with Crohn's disease.
Pariente, Benjamin; Mary, Jean-Yves; Danese, Silvio et al

in Gastroenterology (2015), 148(1), 52-63

BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is a need for a scoring system that provides a comprehensive assessment of structural bowel damage, including stricturing lesions, penetrating lesions, and surgical resection, for ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is a need for a scoring system that provides a comprehensive assessment of structural bowel damage, including stricturing lesions, penetrating lesions, and surgical resection, for measuring disease progression. We developed the Lemann Index and assessed its ability to measure cumulative structural bowel damage in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS: We performed a prospective, multicenter, international, cross-sectional study of patients with CD evaluated at 24 centers in 15 countries. Inclusions were stratified based on CD location and duration. All patients underwent clinical examination and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging analyses. Upper endoscopy, colonoscopy, and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging analyses were performed according to suspected disease locations. The digestive tract was divided into 4 organs and subsequently into segments. For each segment, investigators collected information on previous operations, predefined strictures, and/or penetrating lesions of maximal severity (grades 1-3), and then provided damage evaluations ranging from 0.0 (no lesion) to 10.0 (complete resection). Overall level of organ damage was calculated from the average of segmental damage. Investigators provided a global damage evaluation (from 0.0 to 10.0) using calculated organ damage evaluations. Predicted organ indexes and Lemann Index were constructed using a multiple linear mixed model, showing the best fit with investigator organ and global damage evaluations, respectively. An internal cross-validation was performed using bootstrap methods. RESULTS: Data from 138 patients (24, 115, 92, and 59 with upper tract, small bowel, colon/rectum, and anus CD location, respectively) were analyzed. According to validation, the unbiased correlation coefficients between predicted indexes and investigator damage evaluations were 0.85, 0.98, 0.90, 0.82 for upper tract, small bowel, colon/rectum, anus, respectively, and 0.84 overall. CONCLUSIONS: In a cross-sectional study, we assessed the ability of the Lemann Index to measure cumulative structural bowel damage in patients with CD. Provided further successful validation and good sensitivity to change, the index should be used to evaluate progression of CD and efficacy of treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailSingle-Walled Metal–Organic Nanotube Built from a Simple Synthon
Adarsh, Nayarassery; Dirtu, Marinela; Naik, Anil et al

in Chemistry : A European Journal (2015), 21

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See detailDiabetes is a risk factor for knee osteoarthritis progression
Eymard, F; Parsons, C; Edwards, M et al

in Osteoarthritis and Cartilage (2015), 23

Purpose Recent studies have suggested that metabolic factors (obesity, diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia) and their clustering in metabolic syndrome (MetS) might be involved in the pathophysiology ... [more ▼]

Purpose Recent studies have suggested that metabolic factors (obesity, diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia) and their clustering in metabolic syndrome (MetS) might be involved in the pathophysiology of knee osteoarthritis (OA). We investigated their impact on radiographic progression by an annualised measure of the joint space narrowing (JSN) of the medial tibiofemoral compartment. Methods 559 patients older than 50 years with symptomatic knee OA were recruited for the placebo arm of the SEKOIA trial. The presence of diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia was determined at baseline interview. BMI was calculated, obesity was considered >30 kg/m2. MetS was defined by the sum of metabolic factors ≥3. Minimal medial tibiofemoral joint space on plain radiographs was measured by an automated method at baseline and then annually for up to 3 years. Results The mean age of patients was 62.8 [62.2-63.4] years; 392 were women. A total of 43.8% was obese, 6.6% had type 2 diabetes, 45.1% hypertension, 27.6% dyslipidemia and 13.6% MetS. Mean annualised JSN was greater for patients with type 2 diabetes than without diabetes (0.26 [-0.35 - -0.17] vs. 0.14 [-0.16 - -0.12] mm; p=0.001). This association remained significant after adjustment for sex, age, BMI, hypertension and dyslipidemia (p=0.018). In subgroup analysis, type 2 diabetes was a significant predictor of JSN in males but not females. The other metabolic factors and MetS were not associated with annualised JSN. Conclusion Type 2 diabetes was a predictor of joint space reduction in men with established knee OA. No relationships were found between MetS or other metabolic factors and radiographic progression. [less ▲]

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See detailChemostratigraphy of the late devonian Frasnian-Famennian transition in western Canada and Southern China: implications for carbon and nutrient cycling and mass extinction
Whalen; Sliwinski; Payne et al

in Special Publication - Geological Society of London (2015), 414

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See detailSedimentology and magnetic susceptibility of recent sediments from New Caledonia
Jadot, Hélène ULg; Boulvain, Frédéric ULg

in Special Publication - Geological Society of London (2015), 414

The interpretation of the primary origin of the minerals carrying the magnetic susceptibility (MS) signal from ancient rocks suffers notably from the scarcity of studies on Recent sediments. To bring new ... [more ▼]

The interpretation of the primary origin of the minerals carrying the magnetic susceptibility (MS) signal from ancient rocks suffers notably from the scarcity of studies on Recent sediments. To bring new data, a study of tropical coastal sediments of New Caledonia was undertaken. This island is surrounded by a nearly uninterrupted reef barrier, isolating a wide lagoon from the open ocean. The erosion of extremely varied rocks (from mantle rocks to laterites) produces different types of detrital sediments, which are mixed with the indigenous precipitated carbonates. This generates different types of coastal sediments, detrital- or carbonate-dominated or mixed. More than 300 samples were analysed for grain size, nature of sediment, MS and geochemistry (major elements). The first results show that: (a) carbonate sands and carbonate silts are characterized by lower MS than detrital sediments; (b) the MS signal of mixed sediments is mostly influenced by the proportion of detrital sediments; (c) MS is directly correlated with Mn and Fe content; (d) beachrocks are characterized by lower MS than equivalent loose sediment; (e) the MS signal of carbonate sediments is locally positively correlated with granulometry; (f) there is no MS change between surface and 20 cm deep samples; and (g) when the subsurface sediment is reducing, the MS is higher than that from surface sediment. [less ▲]

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See detailImportance of structural damping in the dynamic analysis of compliant deployable structures
Dewalque, Florence ULg; Rochus, Pierre ULg; Bruls, Olivier ULg

in Acta Astronautica (2015), 111

Compliant mechanisms such as tape springs are often used on satellites to deploy appendices, e.g. solar panels, antennas, telescopes and solar sails. Their main advantage comes from the fact that their ... [more ▼]

Compliant mechanisms such as tape springs are often used on satellites to deploy appendices, e.g. solar panels, antennas, telescopes and solar sails. Their main advantage comes from the fact that their motion results from the elastic deformation of structural components, unlike usual hinges or prismatic joints, the motion of which is dictated by contact surfaces. No actuators or external energy sources are required and the deployment is purely passive, which appears as a decisive feature for the design of low-cost missions with small satellites or cubesats. The mechanical behaviour of a tape spring is intrinsically complex and nonlinear involving buckling, hysteresis and self-locking phenomena. High-fidelity mechanical models are then needed to get a detailed understanding of the deployment process, improve the design and predict the actual behaviour in the space 0-g environment. In the majority of the previous works, dynamic simulations were performed without any physical representation of the structural damping. These simulations could be successfully achieved because of the presence of numerical damping in the transient solver. However, in this case, the dynamic response turns out to be quite sensitive to the amount of numerical dissipation, so that the predictive capabilities of the model are questionable. In this work based on numerical case studies, we show that the dynamic simulation of a tape spring can be made less sensitive to numerical parameters when the structural dissipation is taken into account. [less ▲]

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See detailAgricultural Land Conversion Drivers in Northeast Iran: Application of Structural Equation Model
Azadi, Hossein ULg; Barati, Ali Akbar; Rafiaani, Parisa et al

in Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy (2015)

Identifying driving forces behind agricultural land conversion (ALC) remains one of the most difficult challenges that agricultural and environmental scientists must continually deal with. The difficulty ... [more ▼]

Identifying driving forces behind agricultural land conversion (ALC) remains one of the most difficult challenges that agricultural and environmental scientists must continually deal with. The difficulty emerges from the fact that in ALC, multiple actions and interactions between different factors (i.e., economic, political, environmental, biophysical, institutional, and cultural) exist and make it difficult to understand the function of the processes behind the changes. The phenomenon of ALC in different countries is varied in terms of intensity, trends and drivers. The main goal of this study was to understand these drivers in Northeast Iran through applying structural equation model (SEM). Using multi-stage stratified random sampling, 101 executive officers participated in the study. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire. A multi-stakeholder analysis and a mixed-method (qualitative and quantitative) approach were applied. Results revealed that not only from the policy makers’ perspective but also based on the SEM, "economic", "political", "technological", "social" and "environmental" factors should respectively be the five major drivers of ALC. The results also showed that among other drivers, "more profitability of non-agriculture sectors", "excessive rising of land prices", "farmers’ income instability", "land fragmentation", "urban sprawl" and "inheritance laws" are the main six causes of ALC. Hence, it can be concluded that policy-makers and planners need to take these drivers and subsidiaries more into consideration in order to properly respond to ALC. [less ▲]

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See detailReversing song behavior phenotype: Testosterone driven induction of singing and measures of song quality in adult male and female canaries (Serinus canaria)
Madison, Farrah N.; Rouse, Melvin L. Jr; Balthazart, Jacques ULg et al

in General and comparative endocrinology (2015), 215

In songbirds, such as canaries (Serinus canaria), the song control circuit has been shown to undergo a remarkable change in morphology in response to exogenous testosterone (T). It is also well ... [more ▼]

In songbirds, such as canaries (Serinus canaria), the song control circuit has been shown to undergo a remarkable change in morphology in response to exogenous testosterone (T). It is also well established that HVC, a telencephalic nucleus involved in song production, is significantly larger in males than in females. T regulates seasonal changes in HVC volume in males, and exposure to exogenous T in adult females increases HVC volume and singing activity such that their song becomes more male-like in frequency and structure. However, whether there are sex differences in the ability of T to modulate changes in the song system and song behavior has not been investigated in canaries. In this study, we compared the effects of increasing doses of T on singing and song control nuclei volumes in adult male and female American Singer canaries exposed to identical environmental conditions. Males were castrated and all birds were placed on short days (8L:16D) for 8weeks. Males and females were implanted either with a 2, 6 or 12mm long Silastic implant filled with crystalline T or an empty 12mm implant as control. Birds were then housed individually in sound-attenuated chambers. Brains were collected from six birds from each group after 1week or 3weeks of treatment. Testosterone was not equally effective in increasing singing activity in both males and females. Changes in song quality and occurrence rate took place after a shorter latency in males than in females; however, females did undergo marked changes in a number of measures of song behavior if given sufficient time. Males responded with an increase in HVC volume at all three doses. In females, T-induced changes in HVC volume only had limited amplitude and these volumes never reached male-typical levels, suggesting that there are sex differences in the neural substrate that responds to T. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of nonlinear normal modes of engineering structures under broadband forcing
Noël, Jean-Philippe ULg; Renson, Ludovic ULg; Grappasonni, Chiara ULg et al

in Mechanical Systems & Signal Processing (2015)

The objective of the present paper is to develop a two-step methodology integrating system identification and numerical continuation for the experimental extraction of nonlinear normal modes (NNMs) under ... [more ▼]

The objective of the present paper is to develop a two-step methodology integrating system identification and numerical continuation for the experimental extraction of nonlinear normal modes (NNMs) under broadband forcing. The first step processes acquired input and output data to derive an experimental state-space model of the structure. The second step converts this state-space model into a model in modal space from which NNMs are computed using shooting and pseudo-arclength continuation. The method is demonstrated using noisy synthetic data simulated on a cantilever beam with a hardening-softening nonlinearity at its free end. [less ▲]

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See detailRetour au sport après plastie du ligament croisé antérieur : critères utilisés dans les cubs professionnels de football
Delvaux, François ULg; Rochcongar, P; Bruyère, Olivier ULg et al

in Science et Sports (2015), 30

Résumé Objectifs Analyser la démarche suivie par les médecins de clubs professionnels de football lorsqu’ils décident, en pratique quotidienne, d’autoriser le retour compétitif après plastie du ligament ... [more ▼]

Résumé Objectifs Analyser la démarche suivie par les médecins de clubs professionnels de football lorsqu’ils décident, en pratique quotidienne, d’autoriser le retour compétitif après plastie du ligament croisé antérieur chez un footballeur. Matériels et méthodes Trente-sept médecins responsables de clubs professionnels de football français et belges (Ligue 1, n = 15 ; Ligue 2, n = 14 ; Division 1 belge, n = 8) ont rempli un questionnaire à choix multiple concernant : (1) les critères utilisés afin de déterminer si un joueur est apte à reprendre la compétition après plastie du ligament croisé antérieur ; (2) l’importance relative de chacun de ces critères ; (3) le rôle éventuel d’intervenants spécifiques (kinésithérapeute…) dans cette décision. Résultats Plus de 80 % des médecins interrogés ont déclaré utiliser au moins huit critères (sur 17 proposés) afin d’évaluer la capacité d’un footballeur à reprendre la compétition après plastie du ligament croisé antérieur. Les trois critères considérés comme les plus déterminants étaient, par ordre d’importance : la stabilité dynamique du genou lors d’un exercice spécifique au football, la force musculaire et la récupération complète ou quasi complète d’amplitudes articulaires de flexion et d’extension de genou. Pour certains de ces critères (notamment la force musculaire), nous constatons cependant un manque de consensus sur les modalités pratiques d’évaluation, sur les paramètres ainsi que sur les valeurs-limites tolérées afin de garantir un retour sur terrain sécurisé. La prise en compte de l’avis du kinésithérapeute et du préparateur physique par une très nette majorité de médecins souligne l’importance d’un travail pluridisciplinaire. Conclusion L’utilisation de différents critères objectifs afin d’autoriser le retour compétitif après plastie du ligament croisé antérieur semble être une réalité dans le football professionnel. Des études supplémentaires devraient cependant contribuer à préciser les modalités des épreuves ainsi que des valeurs-seuils. ________________________________________ Summary Purpose To analyze how sport physicians decide, in their daily practice, when a professional soccer player with a reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament is able to get back to competitive activities. Materials and methods Thirty-seven physicians for professional French and Belgian soccer teams filled in a specific questionnaire dedicated to: (1) return-to-play criteria after anterior cruciate reconstruction; (2) the importance they assigned to each of these criteria in the return-to-play decision; (3) the potential role of professionals, such as physiotherapists or physical coaches in this decision. Results More than 80% of the respondents declared to use at least eight criteria in order to assess the player's ability to return to competitive soccer after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The most important ones were (in order of importance): dynamic knee stability during a specific soccer exercise, muscle strength performance and normalization of knee flexion and extension ranges of motion. For most of these criteria (notably muscle strength), there was a lack of consensus about the choice of assessment parameters and the limit values allowing physicians to authorize or forbid the return-to-competition. A large majority of participants stated to take into consideration advices from physiotherapists or physical coaches for the return-to-play decision. Conclusion Sport physicians of professional soccer teams use relevant criteria to assess players’ ability to return to full sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Further studies are required to determine the choice of assessment parameters and the limit values to assist physicians in return-to-play decisions. [less ▲]

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See detailComputational benchmarking for ultrafast electron dynamics: wavefunction methods vs density functional theory
Oliveira, Micael J. T.; Mignolet, Benoît ULg; Kus, Tomasz et al

in Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation (2015), 11

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See detailL’innovation et ses territoires
Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULg

in Cahiers d'Economie et Gestion (2015), Mars-Mai

Analysis of innovation at three spatial scales: the world, countries and regional and local areas. Observation of the predominance of a center-periphery model

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See detailThe impact of oregano (Origanum heracleoticum) essential oil and carvacrol on virulence gene transcription by Escherichia coli O157:H7
Mith, Hasika; Clinquart, Antoine ULg; Zhiri, Abdesselam et al

in FEMS Microbiology Letters (2015), 362

The aim of the current study was to determine, via reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis, the effect of oregano essential oil (Origanum heracleoticum) and ... [more ▼]

The aim of the current study was to determine, via reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis, the effect of oregano essential oil (Origanum heracleoticum) and carvacrol, its major component, on the expression of virulence-associated genes in enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 ATCC strain 35150. Both oregano oil and carvacrol demonstrated their efficacy firstly, by inhibiting the transcription of the ler gene involved in up regulation of the LEE2, LEE3 and LEE4 promoters and of attaching and effacing lesions and secondly by decreasing both Shiga toxin and fliC genes expression. In addition, a decrease in luxS gene transcription involved in quorum sensing was observed. These results were dose dependent and showed a specific effect of O. heracleoticum and carvacrol in downregulating the expression of virulence genes in EHEC O157:H7. These findings suggest that oregano oil and carvacrol have the potential to mitigate the adverse health effects caused by virulence gene expression in EHEC O157: [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of mouse strain on ovarian tissue recovery after engraftment with angiogenic factor.
Fransolet, Maïté ULg; Henry, Laurie ULg; Labied, Soraya et al

in Journal of Ovarian Research (2015), 8(1), 14

BACKGROUND: For women facing gonadotoxic treatment, cryopreservation of ovarian tissue with subsequent retransplantation during remission is a promising technique for fertility preservation. However ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: For women facing gonadotoxic treatment, cryopreservation of ovarian tissue with subsequent retransplantation during remission is a promising technique for fertility preservation. However, follicle loss within grafted ovarian tissue can be caused by ischemia and progressive revascularization. Several xenograft models using different immunodeficient rodent lines are suitable for studying ovarian tissue survival and follicular viability after frozen-thawed ovarian cortex transplantation. SCID mice, which are deficient for functional B and T cells, are the most commonly used mice for ovarian xenograft studies. However, due to incomplete immunosuppression, NOD-SCID mice displaying low NK cell function and an absence of circulating complement might be more appropriate. The present study aims to define the most appropriate immunodeficient mouse strain for ovarian tissue xenotransplantation by comparing ovarian graft recovery in SCID and NOD-SCID mice following engraftment in the presence of isoform 111 of vascular endothelial growth factor. METHODS: Sheep ovarian cortex fragments were embedded in a collagen matrix, with or without VEGF111, before being stitched onto the ovaries of SCID and NOD-SCID mice. Transplants were recovered after 3 days to study early revascularization or after 3 weeks to evaluate follicle preservation and tissue fibrosis through histological analyses. RESULTS: At day 3, vessels were largely reorganized in the ovarian grafts of both mouse strains. After 3 weeks, the cortical tissue was clearly identifiable in SCID mice but not in NOD-SCID mice. Upon VEGF111 treatment, vascularization was significantly improved 3 days after transplantation in SCID mice. This increase in vessel density was correlated with better follicular preservation in SCID mice 3 weeks after transplantation. Fibrosis was not decreased by VEGF treatment in either mouse strain. CONCLUSIONS: Tissue architecture and follicular morphology were better preserved in ovarian tissues grafted in SCID mice in comparison with NOD-SCID mice. Moreover, tissue revascularization was improved in SCID mice by VEGF111 graft treatment. Thus, we consider SCID mice to be the best murine model for studying ovarian tissue xenografts. [less ▲]

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See detailUpdate on the role of extracorporeal CO2 removal
MORIMONT, Philippe ULg; BATCHINSKY, Andriy; LAMBERMONT, Bernard ULg

in Critical Care (2015)

This article is one of ten reviews selected from the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine 2015 and co-published as a series in Critical Care. Other articles in the series can be found ... [more ▼]

This article is one of ten reviews selected from the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine 2015 and co-published as a series in Critical Care. Other articles in the series can be found online at http://ccforum.com/series/annualupdate2015. Further information about the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine is available from http://www.springer.com/series/8901. [less ▲]

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See detailDéveloppements récents de l'assurance construction en droit européen
Kohl, Benoît ULg

in Revue trimestrielle de droit immobilier (2015), 1

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See detailPharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Clinical Use of SGLT2 Inhibitors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Chronic Kidney Disease.
Scheen, André ULg

in Clinical pharmacokinetics (2015), 54

Inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2) are proposed as a novel approach for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. SGLT2 cotransporters are responsible for reabsorption of 90 % of ... [more ▼]

Inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2) are proposed as a novel approach for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. SGLT2 cotransporters are responsible for reabsorption of 90 % of the glucose filtered by the kidney. The glucuretic effect resulting from SGLT2 inhibition contributes to reduce hyperglycaemia and also assists weight loss and blood pressure reduction. Several SGLT2 inhibitors are already available in many countries (dapagliflozin, canagliflozin, empagliflozin) and in Japan (ipragliflozin, tofogliflozin). These SGLT2 inhibitors share similar pharmacokinetic characteristics with a rapid oral absorption, a long elimination half-life allowing once-daily administration, an extensive hepatic metabolism mainly via glucuronidation to inactive metabolites and a low renal elimination as a parent drug. Pharmacokinetic parameters are slightly altered in the case of chronic kidney disease (CKD). While no dose adjustment is required in the case of mild CKD, SGLT2 inhibitors may not be used or only at a lower daily dose in patients with moderate CKD. Furthermore, the pharmacodynamic response to SGLT2 inhibitors as assessed by urinary glucose excretion declines with increasing severity of renal impairment as assessed by a reduction in the estimated glomerular filtration rate. Nevertheless, the glucose-lowering efficacy and safety of SGLT2 inhibitors are almost comparable in patients with mild CKD as in patients with normal kidney function. In patients with moderate CKD, the efficacy tends to be dampened and safety concerns may occur. In patients with severe CKD, the use of SGLT2 inhibitors is contraindicated. Thus, prescribing information should be consulted regarding dosage adjustments or restrictions in the case of renal dysfunction for each SGLT2 inhibitor. The clinical impact of SGLT2 inhibitors on renal function and their potential to influence the course of diabetic nephropathy deserve attention because of preliminary favourable results in animal models. [less ▲]

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See detailSome considerations concerning the artificially colored aquarium fish trade
Eşanu, Valentin O.; Gavriloaie, Claudiu; Oroian, Ioan G. et al

in Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation (2015), 8(1), 116-121

Humans kept ornamental fish in their homes from ancient times. During time, the ornamental fish industry became a profitable enterprise. Color, size and shape are important traits when we describe a fish ... [more ▼]

Humans kept ornamental fish in their homes from ancient times. During time, the ornamental fish industry became a profitable enterprise. Color, size and shape are important traits when we describe a fish as a phenotypically uniform line, strain or breed; a standardized color, shape and size describe better a fish population and thus it is promoted better on the market. Several varieties of fish are being artificially colored to improve marketability. Painted, dyed or tattooed fish are terms for a new variety of pet fish whose scales have been transformed from monochrome silver into vivid pigmentations using artificial colors or lasers. These practices produce many health problems for fish. We should not to put money above the life and welfare of any living thing. Education of the customers is a very important thing, because artificially colored fish continue to exist because of demand. [less ▲]

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See detailNeuromodulation in migraine: state of the art and perspectives.
MAGIS, Delphine ULg

in Expert review of medical devices (2015)

Migraine is a highly prevalent and disabling disease. The drugs prescribed for migraine prophylaxis can have intolerable side effects or can be ineffective. Neuromodulation techniques are increasingly ... [more ▼]

Migraine is a highly prevalent and disabling disease. The drugs prescribed for migraine prophylaxis can have intolerable side effects or can be ineffective. Neuromodulation techniques are increasingly used in neurology. Transcutaneous supraorbital nerve stimulation is effective in episodic migraine prevention, whereas vagus nerve stimulation provides interesting results in acute migraine therapy. Transcranial stimulation techniques gave variable, and sometimes contradictory, results. The visual cortex is the target of choice in migraine: studies in migraine prevention and aura acute treatment are encouraging. These noninvasive therapies appear safe with a low rate of side effects. Available studies of invasive occipital nerve stimulation in chronic migraine gave modest results; but invasive occipital nerve stimulation offers a new hope to highly disabled patients who failed to respond to any other treatment. In the future, neuromodulation will probably take an increasing place in migraine treatment, as add-on therapy or alternative to medications, especially because of its attractive safety profile. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrowave-assisted thermochemical and primary hydrolytic conversions of lignocellulosic resources: a review
Richel, Aurore ULg; Jacquet, Nicolas ULg

in Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery (2015), 5(1), 115-124

Faced with the inevitable depletion of fossil resources, agricultural productions have rapidly emerged as promising renewable alternatives. Particularly, the conversion of lignocellulosic materials has ... [more ▼]

Faced with the inevitable depletion of fossil resources, agricultural productions have rapidly emerged as promising renewable alternatives. Particularly, the conversion of lignocellulosic materials has nowadays opened new vistas for the production of energy, biofuels and chemicals. In this literature review, microwave technology is described as an original heating source either for the thermochemical conversions (at temperatures up to 400°C) of lignocellulose into biofuels or the pretreatment (below 400°C) and further hydrolysis of lignocellulose into bioethanol and other valuable chemicals. Advantages of microwave approaches include a commonly observed acceleration in reaction rate and improved selectivities and yields. [less ▲]

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See detailA Role for APPL1 in TLR3/4-dependent TBK1 and IKKe activation in macrophages
Chau, Tieu-Lan ULg; Göktuna, Serkan ULg; Rammal, Ayman et al

in Journal of Immunology (2015)

Endosomes have important roles in intracellular signal transduction as a sorting platform. Signaling cascades from TLR engagement to IRF3-dependent gene transcription rely on endosomes, yet the proteins ... [more ▼]

Endosomes have important roles in intracellular signal transduction as a sorting platform. Signaling cascades from TLR engagement to IRF3-dependent gene transcription rely on endosomes, yet the proteins that specifically recruit IRF3-activating molécules to them are poorly defined. We show that adaptor protein containing a pleckstrin-homology domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding domain, and a leucine zipper motif (APPL)1, an early endosomal protein, is required for both TRIF- and retinoic acid–inducible gene 1–dependent signaling cascades to induce IRF3 activation. APPL1, but not early endosome Ag 1, deficiency impairs IRF3 target gene expression upon engagement of both TLR3 and TLR4 pathways, as well as in H1N1-infected macrophages. The IRF3-phosphorylating kinases TBK1 and IKK« are recruited to APPL1 endosomes in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Interestingly, APPL1 undergoes proteasome-mediated degradation through ERK1/2 to turn off signaling. APPL1 degradation is blocked when signaling through the endosome is inhibited by chloroquine or dynasore. Therefore, APPL1 endosomes are critical for IRF3-dependent gene expression in response to some viral and bacterial infections in macrophages. Those signaling pathways involve the signal-induced degradation of APPL1 to prevent aberrant IRF3-dependent gene expression linked to immune diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailSedimentary development and magnetic susceptibility evolution of the Frasnian in Western Belgium (Dinant Synclinorium, La Thure section)
Pas, Damien ULg; Da Silva, Anne-Christine ULg; Develeeschouwer, Xavier et al

in Special Publication - Geological Society of London (2015), 414

Recent opening of the La Thure quarry in Western Belgium allowed the collection of new data from a poorly outcropping area of the Belgian Frasnian platform. The studied section covers an interval ... [more ▼]

Recent opening of the La Thure quarry in Western Belgium allowed the collection of new data from a poorly outcropping area of the Belgian Frasnian platform. The studied section covers an interval extending from thefalsiovalis to hassi s.l. Zones. Sedimentological analyses allowed the reconstruction of depositional settings in the northwestern part of the Dinant Synclinorium after the demise of the extended Givetian carbonate platform. Two depositional models are distinguished: (a) siliciclastic drowned platform during the Early Frasnian; and (b) a forereef depositional setting belonging to a rimmed shelf during the Middle Frasnian. Moreover, interpreted depositional settings in the northwestern part of the Dinant Synclinorium allowed to constraint the direction of the main facies belts for the Belgian Frasnian platform. Combination of MS and geochemistry demonstrates the inherent-parallel link existing between variation in MS values and proxy for terrestrial input (such as Si and Al). This observation means that, despite the remagnetization occurring within the Belgian Frasnian lithologies, the main trends in the MS signal from the La Thure section still reflect some syn-sedimentary conditions. The increase in MS and clastic input proxies recorded in distal fore-reef deposit within the punctata Zone are likely to be considered as enhanced by rapid and strong shallowing events recognized in the ‘puncataEvent’ interval. [less ▲]

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See detailHypothalamic Expression Of Oestrogen Receptor Alpha And Androgen Receptor Is Sex, Age And Region Dependent In Mice.
Brock, Olivier; Mees, Christelle De; Bakker, Julie ULg

in Journal of neuroendocrinology (2015)

Sex steroid hormones act on developing neural circuits regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and are involved in hormone-sensitive behaviours. These hormones act mainly via nuclear receptors ... [more ▼]

Sex steroid hormones act on developing neural circuits regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and are involved in hormone-sensitive behaviours. These hormones act mainly via nuclear receptors, i.e. oestrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) and androgen receptor (AR). By using immunohistochemistry, we analysed the expression level of ERalpha and AR throughout perinatal life [at embryonic (E) day 19 and postnatal (P) days 5-15-25] and in adulthood in several hypothalamic nuclei controlling reproduction in both wild-type (WT) and aromatase knockout (ArKO) (which cannot convert testosterone into oestradiol) mice to determine whether there are sex differences in hypothalamic ERalpha and AR expression and if so, whether these are established by oestradiol action. As early as E19, ERalpha immunoreactivity (-ir) was observed at same expression levels in both sexes in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPv), the medial preoptic area (MPOA), the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BnST), the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMHvl) and the arcuate nucleus (ARC). Sex differences (female > male) in ERalpha-ir were only observed during the prepubertal period in the BnST (P5 to P25) and the MPOA (P15), but also in adulthood in these two brain regions. Sex differences in AR-ir (male > female) were observed at P5 in the AVPv and ARC, and at P25 in the MPOA and ARC as well as in adulthood in all hypothalamic regions analysed. In adulthood, gonadectomy and hormonal treatment (oestradiol or dihydrotestosterone) also strongly modulated ERalpha-ir and AR, respectively. Taken together, sex differences in ERalpha-ir and AR-ir were observed in all hypothalamic regions analysed, but most likely do not reflect oestradiol actions since ArKO mice of both sexes showed very similar expression levels as WT mice throughout perinatal development. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailMethanotrophy within the water column of a large meromictic tropical lake (Lake Kivu, East Africa)
Morana, C.; Borges, Alberto ULg; Roland, Fleur ULg et al

in Biogeosciences (2015), 12(7), 2077-2088

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See detailBespreking Hof van Justitie 3 oktober 2013
Peeters, Bart ULg

in Rechtskundig Weekblad (2015), 2014-2015

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See detailHydromechanical modelling of shaft sealing for CO2 storage
Dieudonné, Anne-Catherine ULg; Cerfontaine, Benjamin ULg; Collin, Frédéric ULg et al

in Engineering Geology (2015), 193

The geological sequestration of CO2 in abandoned coal mines is a promising option to mitigate climate changes while providing sustainable use of the underground cavities. In order to certify the ... [more ▼]

The geological sequestration of CO2 in abandoned coal mines is a promising option to mitigate climate changes while providing sustainable use of the underground cavities. In order to certify the efficiency of the storage, it is essential to understand the behaviour of the shaft sealing system. The paper presents a numerical analysis of CO2 transfer mechanisms through a mine shaft and its sealing system. Different mechanisms for CO2 leakage are considered, namely multiphase flow through the different materials and flow along the interfaces between the lining and the host rock. The study focuses on the abandoned coal mine of Anderlues, Belgium, which was used for seasonal storage of natural gas. A two-dimensional hydromechanical modelling of the storage site is performed and CO2 injection into the coal mine is simulated. Model predictions for a period of 500 years are presented and discussed with attention. The role and influence of the interface between the host rock and the concrete lining are examined. In addition the impact of some uncertain model parameters on the overall performance of the sealing system is analysed through a sensitivity analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailVehicle routing problems with loading constraints: State-of-the-art and future directions
Pollaris, Hanne; Braekers, Kris; Caris, An et al

in OR Spectrum (2015), 37(Issue 2), 297-330

Distributors are faced with loading constraints in their route planning, e.g.,multi-dimensional packing constraints, unloading sequence constraints, stability constraints and axle weight limits. Ignoring ... [more ▼]

Distributors are faced with loading constraints in their route planning, e.g.,multi-dimensional packing constraints, unloading sequence constraints, stability constraints and axle weight limits. Ignoring these constraints impairs planning and induces last-minute changes resulting in additional costs. Developing vehicle routing models incorporating loading constraints is critical to more efficient route planning. The last couple of years has seen a huge increase of contributions to this field of research with almost 60 % of these being published after 2009. Our contribution is twofold. First, we overview the recent developments in the literature on all vehicle types in which loading constraints play a key role (trucks, airplanes, ships, and automated guided vehicles), using a state-of-the-art classification scheme to identify the loading constraints considered in each article. Second, we identify research gaps and opportunities for future research. [less ▲]

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See detailMaternal transfer of organohalogenated compounds in sharks and stingrays
Weijs, Liesbeth; Briels, Nathalie; Adams, Douglas et al

in Marine Pollution Bulletin (2015)

Elasmobranchs can bioaccumulate considerable amounts of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and utilize several reproductive strategies thereby influencing maternal transfer of contaminants. This study ... [more ▼]

Elasmobranchs can bioaccumulate considerable amounts of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and utilize several reproductive strategies thereby influencing maternal transfer of contaminants. This study provides preliminary data on the POP transfer from pregnant females to offspring of three species (Atlantic stingrays, bonnethead, blacktip sharks) with different reproduction modes (aplacental, placental viviparity). Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels were generally higher than any other POPs. Stingrays and blacktip shark embryos contained the lowest POP concentrations while bonnetheads and the blacktip adult female had the highest concentrations. Results suggest that are more readily transferred from the mother to the embryo compared to what is transferred to ova in stingrays. Statistically significant differences in levels of selected POPs were found between embryos from the left and right uterus within the same litter as well as between female and male embryos within the same litter for bonnetheads, but not for the blacktip sharks. [less ▲]

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See detailRoot System Markup Language: toward an unified root architecture description language
Lobet, Guillaume ULg; Pound, Michael; Diener, Julien et al

in Plant Physiology (2015)

The number of image analysis tools supporting the extraction of architectural features of root systems has increased over the last years. These tools offer a handy set of complementary facilities, yet it ... [more ▼]

The number of image analysis tools supporting the extraction of architectural features of root systems has increased over the last years. These tools offer a handy set of complementary facilities, yet it is widely accepted that none of these software tool is able to extract in an efficient way growing array of static and dynamic features for different types of images and species. . We describe the Root System Markup Language (RSML) that has been designed to overcome two major challenges: (i) to enable portability of root architecture data between different software tools in an easy and interoperable manner allowing seamless collaborative work, and (ii) to provide a standard format upon which to base central repositories which will soon arise following the expanding worldwide root phenotyping effort. RSML follows the XML standard to store 2D or 3D image metadata, plant and root properties and geometries, continuous functions along individual root paths and a suite of annotations at the image, plant or root scales, at one or several time points. Plant ontologies are used to describe botanical entities that are relevant at the scale of root system architecture. An xml-schema describes the features and constraints of RSML and open-source packages have been developed in several languages (R, Excel, Java, Python, C#) to enable researchers to integrate RSML files into popular research workflow. [less ▲]

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See detailAllogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in solid organ transplant recipients: a retrospective, multicenter study of the EBMT
Basak, GW.; Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W.; Labopin, M. et al

in American Journal of Transplantation (2015), 15

We conducted a questionnaire survey of the 565 European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation centers to analyze the outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) in ... [more ▼]

We conducted a questionnaire survey of the 565 European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation centers to analyze the outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) in recipients of solid organ transplantation (SOT). We investigated 28 patients with malignant (N=22) or nonmalignant diseases (N=6), who underwent 31 alloSCT procedures: 12 after kidney, 13 after liver, and three after heart transplantation. The incidence of solid organ graft failure at 60 months after first alloSCT was 33% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16–51%) for all patients, 15% (95% CI, 2–40%) for liver recipients, and 50% (95% CI, 19–75%) for kidney recipients (p = 0.06). The relapse rate after alloSCT (22%) was low following transplantation for malignant disorders, despite advanced stages of malignancy. Overall survival at 60 months after first alloSCT was 40% (95% CI, 19–60%) for all patients, 51% (95% CI, 16–86%) for liver recipients, and 42% (95% CI, 14–70%) for kidney recipients (p = 0.39). In summary, we show that selected SOT recipients suffering from hematologic disorders may benefit from alloSCT and experience enhanced long-term survival without loss of organ function. [less ▲]

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See detailLa correction de l’expression écrite en langue étrangère en Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles : expliciter l’implicite
Noiroux, Kevin ULg; Simons, Germain ULg

in Les cahiers de l’Association des chercheurs et enseignants didacticiens des langues étrangères (acedle) (2015)

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See detailSFX Miscellaneous Free Ejournals Target: Usage Survey among the SFX Community
Renaville, François ULg; Branse, Yosef; Chen, Xiaotian et al

in Serials Review (2015), 41(2),

The number of free or open access articles is increasing rapidly, and their retrieval with library indexes and OpenURL link resolvers has been a challenge. In June 2014, the SFX MISCELLANEOUS FREE ... [more ▼]

The number of free or open access articles is increasing rapidly, and their retrieval with library indexes and OpenURL link resolvers has been a challenge. In June 2014, the SFX MISCELLANEOUS FREE EJOURNALS target contained more than 24,000 portfolios of all kinds. The SFX Knowledge Base Advisory Board (KBAB) carried out an international survey to get an overview of the usage of this target by the SFX community and to precisely identify what could be done to improve it. The target is widely used among the community. However, many respondents complained about three major problems: (a) incorrect links, (b) full texts actually not free, and (c) incorrect or missing thresholds (years and volumes information). [less ▲]

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See detailTransposability of pedotransfer functions for estimating water retention of Algerian soils
Touil, Sami; Degré, Aurore ULg; Chabaca, Mohamed Nacer

in Desalination and Water Treatment (2015)

Testing the efficiency of a pedotransfer function (PTF) outside of its development data-set is one of the best ways for assessing its robustness. An important question which remains unanswered is how ... [more ▼]

Testing the efficiency of a pedotransfer function (PTF) outside of its development data-set is one of the best ways for assessing its robustness. An important question which remains unanswered is how transposable are PTFs to other agropedoclimatic contexts? Models developed and validated in a particular pedoclimatic context have been relatively little tested in other contexts. Particularly, no studies have been conducted until now to evaluate the PTFs for Algerian soils. In this study, eight (8) PTFs most frequently cited were considered. We used them to evaluate soil water retention at field capacity (FC) and wilting point (WP) on a set of 134 samples collected in the low Cheliff. The calculated Akaike information criterion and root mean square errors values showed that the Rawls, and Ghorbani Dashtaki et Homaee type 1 models were the best in estimation of soil water retention at FC (–709.795, 0.070 cm3 cm−3) and WP (–733.480, 0.064 cm3 cm−3). The poorer performances were presented by the PTFs developed on soils from Europe or United States where the organic matter values were much higher than the Algerian soils. However, the transposability of the PTFs formed from data spread from a wider area, produce more accurate predictions than those built from local data. [less ▲]

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See detailChemical composition and antibacterial activitiy of the essential oils of Algerian Myrtus communis L.
Hennia, Aïcha; Brada, Moussa; Nemmiche, Saïd et al

in Journal of Essential Oil Research (2015)

Myrtus communis L. leaf essential oils from Algeria were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A total of thirty-four components were identified accounting ... [more ▼]

Myrtus communis L. leaf essential oils from Algeria were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A total of thirty-four components were identified accounting for 95% of the oil. The main compounds were limonene (23.4%), linalool (15.4%), geranyl acetate (10.9%), α-pinene (10.7%), linalyl acetate (8.2%) and 1,8-cineole (6.6%).The antimicrobial evaluation showed that myrtle oil exhibited good antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis and Kleibsiella pneumonia, but differed according to the strains. Conversely, it was not active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. [less ▲]

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See detailWithdrawal of Immunomodulators After Co-treatment Does Not Reduce Trough Level of Infliximab in Patients With Crohn's Disease.
Drobne, David; Bossuyt, Peter; Breynaert, Christine et al

in Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association (2015), 13(3), 514-5214

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The addition of immunomodulators increases the efficacy of maintenance therapy with infliximab for up to 1 year in patients with Crohn's disease who have not been previously treated ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The addition of immunomodulators increases the efficacy of maintenance therapy with infliximab for up to 1 year in patients with Crohn's disease who have not been previously treated with immunomodulators. However, there are questions about the effect of withdrawing immunomodulator therapy from these patients. We studied the effects of treatment with infliximab and immunomodulators (co-treatment) and then immunomodulator withdrawal on long-term outcomes of patients, as well as trough levels of infliximab and formation of anti-infliximab antibodies (ATI). METHODS: In a retrospective study with the median follow-up period of 34 months (interquartile range, 19-58 months), we analyzed data from 223 patients treated for Crohn's disease between May 1999 and December 2010 at the University Hospitals, Leuven, Belgium (65 received infliximab monotherapy, 158 received infliximab and an immunomodulator). Trough levels of infliximab and levels of ATI were measured in blood samples collected from 117 patients throughout co-treatment, as well as the time of immunomodulator withdrawal and after withdrawal. RESULTS: Patients receiving co-treatment had higher trough levels of infliximab (adjusted mean increase, 1.44-fold) than those receiving infliximab monotherapy (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.92; P = .02). A smaller percentage of patients receiving co-treatment developed ATI (35 of 158, 22%) than those receiving infliximab monotherapy (25 of 65, 38%; P = .01). Among co-treated patients, levels of infliximab remained stable after immunomodulators were withdrawn (before: 3.2 mug/mL; 95% CI, 1.6-5.8 mug/mL and after: 3.7 mug/mL; 95% CI, 1.3-6.3 mug/mL; P = .70). After withdrawal of immunomodulators, 45 of 117 patients (38%) required increasing doses of infliximab, and 21 of 117 (18%) discontinued infliximab. At the time of immunomodulator withdrawal, trough levels of infliximab and C-reactive protein were most strongly associated with response to infliximab thereafter. CONCLUSIONS: In a retrospective analysis, we confirmed that withdrawal of immunomodulators after at least 6 months (median, 13 months) of co-treatment with infliximab does not reduce the trough levels of infliximab in patients with Crohn's disease. Detectable trough levels of infliximab at the time of immunomodulator withdrawal are associated with long-term response. [less ▲]

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