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See detailFish consumption patterns and hair mercury levels in children and their mothers in 17 EU countries
Castano, Argelia; Cutanda, Francisco; Esteban, Marta et al

in Environmental Research (2015), 141

The toxicity of methylmercury (MeHg) in humans is well established and the main source of exposure is via the consumption of large marine fish and mammals. Of particular concern are the potential ... [more ▼]

The toxicity of methylmercury (MeHg) in humans is well established and the main source of exposure is via the consumption of large marine fish and mammals. Of particular concern are the potential neurodevelopmental effects of early life exposure to low-​levels of MeHg. Therefore, it is important that pregnant women, children and women of childbearing age are, as far as possible, protected from MeHg exposure. Within the European project DEMOCOPHES, we have analyzed mercury (Hg) in hair in 1799 mother-​child pairs from 17 European countries using a strictly harmonized protocol for mercury anal. Parallel, harmonized questionnaires on dietary habits provided information on consumption patterns of fish and marine products. After hierarchical cluster anal. of consumption habits of the mother-​child pairs, the DEMOCOPHES cohort can be classified into two branches of approx. similar size: one with high fish consumption (H) and another with low consumption (L)​. All countries have representatives in both branches, but Belgium, Denmark, Spain, Portugal and Sweden have twice as many or more mother-​child pairs in H than in L. For Switzerland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovenia and Slovakia the situation is the opposite, with more representatives in L than H. There is a strong correlation (r=0.72) in hair mercury concn. between the mother and child in the same family, which indicates that they have a similar exposure situation. The clustering of mother-​child pairs on basis of their fish consumption revealed some interesting patterns. One is that for the same sea fish consumption, other food items of marine origin, like seafood products or shellfish contribute significantly to the mercury levels in hair. We conclude that addnl. studies are needed to assess and quantify exposure to mercury from seafood products, in particular. The cluster anal. also showed that 95​% of mothers who consume once per wk fish only, and no other marine products, have mercury levels 0.55 μg​/g. Thus, the 95th percentile of the distribution in this group is only around half the US-​EPA recommended threshold of 1 μg​/g mercury in hair. Consumption of freshwater fish played a minor role in contributing to mercury exposure in the studied cohort. The DEMOCOPHES data shows that there are significant differences in MeHg exposure across the EU and that exposure is highly correlated with consumption of fish and marine products. Fish and marine products are key components of a healthy human diet and are important both traditionally and culturally in many parts of Europe. Therefore, the communication of the potential risks of mercury exposure needs to be carefully balanced to take into account traditional and cultural values as well as the potential health benefits from fish consumption. European harmonized human biomonitoring programs provide an addnl. dimension to national HMB programs and can assist national authorities to tailor mitigation and adaptation strategies (dietary advice, risk communication, etc.) to their country's specific requirements. [less ▲]

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See detailPharmacists' role in handling problems with prescriptions for atithrombotic medication in Belgian community pharmacies
Desmaele; De Wulf, I; Dupont, AG et al

in International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy [=IJCP] (2015), 37(4), 656-668

Background Community pharmacists have an important task in the follow-up of patients treated with antithrombotics. When delivering these medicines, pharmacists can encounter drug–related problems (DRPs ... [more ▼]

Background Community pharmacists have an important task in the follow-up of patients treated with antithrombotics. When delivering these medicines, pharmacists can encounter drug–related problems (DRPs) with substantial clinical and economic impact. Objective To investigate the amount and type of antithrombotic related DRPs as well as how community pharmacists handled these DRPs. Setting Belgian community pharmacies. Methods MSc pharmacy students of six Belgian universities collected data about all DRPs encountered by a pharmacist during ten half days of their pharmacy internship. Data were registered about DRPs detected at delivery and in an a posteriori setting, when consulting the medical history of the patient. Classification of the DRP, cause of the DRP, intervention and result of the intervention were registered. Main outcome measure Amount and type of antotrombitocs related DRPs occurring in community pharmacies, as well as how community pharmacists handled these DRPs. Results 3.1 % of the 15,952 registered DRPs concerned antithrombotics. 79.3 % of these DRPs were detected at delivery and 20.7 % were detected a posteriori. Most antithrombotic-related DRPs concerned problems with the choice of the drug (mainly because of drug–drug interactions) or concerned logistic problems. Almost 80 % of the antithrombotic-related DRPs were followed by an intervention of the pharmacist, mainly at the patient’s level, resulting in 90.1 % of these DRPs partially or totally solved. Conclusion Different DRPs with antithrombotic medication occurred in Belgian community pharmacies. About 20 % was detected in an a posteriori setting, showing the benefit of medication review. Many of the encountered DRPs were of technical nature (60.7 %). These DRPs were time-consuming for the pharmacist to resolve and should be prevented. Most of the DRPs could be solved, demonstrating the added value of the community pharmacist as first line healthcare provider. [less ▲]

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See detailA study of composite laminates failure using an anisotropic gradient-enhanced damage mean-field homogenization model
Wu, Ling ULg; Sket, Federico; Molina-Aldareguia, Jon M et al

in Composite Structures (2015), 126

The failure of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy laminates is studied using an anisotropic gradient-enhanced continuum damage model embedded in a mean-field homogenization scheme. In each ply, a homogenized ... [more ▼]

The failure of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy laminates is studied using an anisotropic gradient-enhanced continuum damage model embedded in a mean-field homogenization scheme. In each ply, a homogenized material law is used to capture the intra-laminar failure. The anisotropy of the homogenized material model results from the homogenization method and from the reformulation of the non-local continuum damage theory to account for the material anisotropy. As a result the damage propagation direction in each ply is predicted with accuracy as compared to the experimental results, while the problems of losing uniqueness and strain localization, which occur in classical finite element simulations when strain softening of materials is involved, can be avoided. To model the delamination process, the hybrid discontinuous Galerkin/extrinsic cohesive law method is introduced at the ply interfaces. This hybrid method avoids the need to propagate topological changes in the mesh with the propagation of the delamination while it preserves the consistency and stability in the un-cracked interfaces. As a demonstration, open-hole coupons with different stacking sequences are studied numerically and experimentally. Both the intra- and inter-laminar failure patterns are shown to be well captured by the computational framework. [less ▲]

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See detailOpérations militaires : entre prise de risque, solidarité, souveraineté et "entrée en premier"
Dumoulin, André ULg

in Sécurité & Stratégie (2015), (201),

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See detailCharacterizing activity sequences using Profile Hidden Markov Models
Liu, Feng; Janssens, Davy; Cui, JianXun et al

in Expert Systems with Applications (2015), 42(13), 57055722

In literature, activity sequences, generated from activity-travel diaries, have been analyzed and classified into clusters based on the composition and ordering of the activities using Sequence Alignment ... [more ▼]

In literature, activity sequences, generated from activity-travel diaries, have been analyzed and classified into clusters based on the composition and ordering of the activities using Sequence Alignment Methods (SAM). However, using these methods, only the frequent activities in each cluster are extracted and qualitatively described; the infrequent activities and their related travel episodes are disregarded. Thus, to quantify the occurrence probabilities of all the daily activities as well as their sequential orders, we develop a novel process to build multiple alignments of the sequences and subsequently derive profile Hidden Markov Models (pHMMs). This process consists of 4 major steps. First, activity sequences are clustered based on a pre-defined scheme. The frequent activities along with their sequential orders are then identified in each cluster, and they are subsequently used as a template to guide the construction of a multiple alignment of the cluster of sequences. Finally, a pHMM is employed to convert the multiple alignment into a position-specific scoring system, representing the probability of each frequent activity at each important position of the alignment as well as the probabilities of both insertion and deletion of infrequent activities. By applying the derived pHMMs to a set of activity-travel diaries collected in Belgium as well as a group of mobile phone call location data recorded in Switzerland, the potential and effectiveness of the models in capturing the sequential features of each cluster and distinguishing them from those of other clusters, are demonstrated. The proposed method can also be utilized to improve activity-based transportation model validation and travel survey designs. Furthermore, it offers a wide application in characterizing a group of any related sequences, particularly sequences varying in length and with a high frequency of short sequences that are typically present in human behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailRupture post-traumatique de l’isthme aortique : perspectives modernes de prise en charge
BRULS, Samuel ULg; GOFFIN, Pierre ULg; Sakalihasan, Natzi ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2015), 70(9), 415-22

Traumatic aortic rupture of the thoracic aorta (usually at the isthmus) is frequently associated with concomitant life-threatening injuries. Historically, the conventional care consisted of surgical ... [more ▼]

Traumatic aortic rupture of the thoracic aorta (usually at the isthmus) is frequently associated with concomitant life-threatening injuries. Historically, the conventional care consisted of surgical repair of the lesion performed as soon as possible. However, in spite of constant technical improvements the morbi-mortality remains high because of these associated lesions. In addition, their management can have priority and delay aortic surgery. The endovascular approach has been shown to be a feasible and efficient technique and currently represents a valuable alternative to open surgery for patients with multiple traumas. We report a patient presenting with a traumatic aortic rupture of the aortic isthmus, which was successfully treated by delayed combined endovascular (thoracic aortic stentgrafting) and open approach (hemi-aortic arch debranching). [less ▲]

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See detailDigestibility of solvent-treated Jatropha curcas kernel by broiler chickens in Senegal
Nesseim, Thierry Daniel Tamsir; Dieng, Abdoulaye; Mergeai, Guy ULg et al

in Tropical Animal Health and Production (2015)

Jatropha curcas is a drought-resistant shrub belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family. The kernel contains approximately 60 % lipid in dry matter, and the meal obtained after oil extraction could be an ... [more ▼]

Jatropha curcas is a drought-resistant shrub belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family. The kernel contains approximately 60 % lipid in dry matter, and the meal obtained after oil extraction could be an exceptional source of protein for family poultry farming, in the absence of curcin and, especially, some diterpene derivatives phorbol esters that are partially lipophilic. The nutrient digestibility of J. curcas kernel meal (JKM), obtained after partial physicochemical deoiling was thus evaluated in broiler chickens. Twenty broiler chickens, 6 weeks old, were maintained in individual metabolic cages and divided into four groups of five animals, according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design where deoiled JKM was incorporated into grinded corn at 0, 4, 8, and 12 % levels (diets 0, 4, 8, and 12 J), allowing measurement of nutrient digestibility by the differential method. The dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) digestibility of diets was affected to a low extent by JKM (85 and 86 % in 0 J and 81 % in 12 J, respectively) in such a way that DM and OM digestibility of JKM was estimated to be close to 50 %. The ether extract (EE) digestibility of JKM remained high, at about 90 %, while crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF) digestibility were largely impacted by JKM, with values closed to 40 % at the highest levels of incorporation. J. curcas kernel presents various nutrient digestibilities but has adverse effects on CP and CF digestibility of the diet. The effects of an additional heat or biological treatment on JKM remain to be assessed. [less ▲]

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See detailLe monopole de la légitimité démocratique
Debras, François ULg

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2015), 2

Loin d’être le résultat de facteurs externes, la contestation du régime démocratique semble être avant tout le résultat d’une critique inhérente au système. Différents indicateurs mesurables viennent ... [more ▼]

Loin d’être le résultat de facteurs externes, la contestation du régime démocratique semble être avant tout le résultat d’une critique inhérente au système. Différents indicateurs mesurables viennent étayer ce que certains auteurs qualifient de « syndrome de fatigue démocratique » ou encore de « corruption du régime constitutionnel pluraliste », tels que l’augmentation de l’abstentionnisme durant les périodes électorales, une volatilité et une instabilité croissante de l’électorat et une baisse des adhésions aux organisations collectives. Fait tout aussi significatif, il semblerait que les jeunes démocraties dans les pays de l’ex-Union soviétique, d’Asie ou d’Amérique latine n’échappent pas non plus à ces phénomènes. Cette situation illustre-t-elle une perte de légitimité démocratique, une crise démocratique ou ne correspond-elle pas plutôt à une volonté citoyenne de transformer nos démocraties en élargissant et en approfondissant certaines de ses dynamiques et procédures qui lui sont propres ? Pour répondre à cette question, nous proposons de nous concentrer sur trois éléments distincts, mais étroitement liés au sein de nos démocraties européennes au XXIe siècle : le lien représentant/représenté (la représentation), la reconnaissance des libertés individuelles vis-à-vis de l’organisation collective de la société (les citoyens) et l’action du pouvoir étatique (l’État). [less ▲]

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See detailPerformance, robustness and sensitivity analysis of the nonlinear tuned vibration absorber
Detroux, Thibaut ULg; Habib, Giuseppe ULg; Masset, Luc ULg et al

in Mechanical Systems & Signal Processing (2015), 60-61

The nonlinear tuned vibration absorber (NLTVA) is a recently developed nonlinear absorber which generalizes Den Hartog׳s equal peak method to nonlinear systems. If the purposeful introduction of ... [more ▼]

The nonlinear tuned vibration absorber (NLTVA) is a recently developed nonlinear absorber which generalizes Den Hartog׳s equal peak method to nonlinear systems. If the purposeful introduction of nonlinearity can enhance system performance, it can also give rise to adverse dynamical phenomena, including detached resonance curves and quasiperiodic regimes of motion. Through the combination of numerical continuation of periodic solutions, bifurcation detection and tracking, and global analysis, the present study identifies boundaries in the NLTVA parameter space delimiting safe, unsafe and unacceptable operations. The sensitivity of these boundaries to uncertainty in the NLTVA parameters is also investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailLe Parc National Sahamalaza - Iles Radama serait-il l’ultime refuge pour certaines espèces de lémuriens du nord-ouest de Madagascar ?
Wilmet, Leslie ULg; Beudels-Jamar, Roseline C.; Schwitzer, Christoph et al

in Tropicultura (2015)

Depuis des millions d’années, la faune et la flore terrestre de Madagascar ont évolué dans un espace isolé. Suite à cette situation, le niveau d’endémisme y est très élevé et l’ensemble de l’île ... [more ▼]

Depuis des millions d’années, la faune et la flore terrestre de Madagascar ont évolué dans un espace isolé. Suite à cette situation, le niveau d’endémisme y est très élevé et l’ensemble de l’île représente un des plus importants hotspot de biodiversité. Madagascar fait aussi partie des pays les plus touchés en termes de destruction des habitats naturels ; 90 % de la végétation d’origine est aujourd’hui perdue. La déforestation et la fragmentation des habitats forestiers menace particulièrement les primates de l’île, les lémuriens. L’île est considérée par de nombreuses organisations internationales comme une priorité pour la conservation de la nature, autant dans le domaine zoologique que botanique. Les premières aires protégées de Madagascar ont été établies en 1927 et l’île en compte aujourd’hui 47. Cet article reprend l’historique et fait l’état des lieux du parc national Sahamalaza-Ile Radama, situé au nord-ouest de Madagascar. Nous nous intéressons spécifiquement à deux espèces de lémuriens emblématiques du parc ; Eulemur flavifrons et Lepilemur sahamalazensis ainsi qu’aux menaces qui pèsent sur leur écosystème. Différentes mesures ont été proposées dans le cadre d’un Plan d’Action de Conservation afin d’en améliorer la gestion et assurer la survie de ces espèces. [less ▲]

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See detailL’action du FDF dans les Régions et Communautés (1971-2014). I. Le Parlement de la Communauté française et le Parlement flamand
Lanneau, Catherine ULg

in Courrier Hebdomadaire du CRISP (2015), (2258-2259), 60

Depuis sa création, le FDF poursuit un triple objectif au plan institutionnel : assurer la solidarité entre Wallons et Bruxellois francophones, garantir les droits linguistiques des francophones de ... [more ▼]

Depuis sa création, le FDF poursuit un triple objectif au plan institutionnel : assurer la solidarité entre Wallons et Bruxellois francophones, garantir les droits linguistiques des francophones de Flandre (en particulier dans la périphérie) et bâtir une Région bruxelloise forte (avec si possible un territoire élargi). Pour promouvoir ses idées, le FDF a porté son combat non seulement sur le terrain communal et national, mais également dans les Régions et les Communautés. Le présent Courrier hebdomadaire retrace les principales lignes de force de l’action du FDF dans les organes des entités fédérées où il a été présent au cours des cinquante dernières années : le Parlement de la Communauté française, le Parlement flamand et les institutions bruxelloises. Quel rôle le FDF a-t-il joué à la Communauté française ? Quelle a été l’action de son député au Parlement flamand ? Comment s’est articulée la lutte du parti pour l’institutionnalisation d’une Région bruxelloise et, une fois celle-ci créée en 1989, dans quelle mesure y a-t-il appliqué son programme ? Le FDF a-t-il réussi à dépasser son image de parti focalisé sur les thématiques linguistiques pour se positionner en mouvement « urbain et culturel » se définissant comme « réformateur social » ? L’attention se porte sur la pratique du parti tant agissant seul qu’évoluant en partenariat avec le Rassemblement wallon ou, plus récemment, avec les libéraux. [less ▲]

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See detailShort-term responses of glass eels transported from UK to small Belgian streams
Ovidio, Michaël ULg; Tarrago-Bes, Frédérique; Nzau Matondo, Billy ULg

in Annales de Limnologie = International Journal of Limnology (2015), 51(3), 219-226

Restocking of inland waters with glass eels is one of the recovery options to prevent the decline of European eel Anguilla anguilla (L.) populations. We studied the growth, dispersion, density and habitat ... [more ▼]

Restocking of inland waters with glass eels is one of the recovery options to prevent the decline of European eel Anguilla anguilla (L.) populations. We studied the growth, dispersion, density and habitat preferences in the imported glass eels from United-Kingdom and stocked in three typologically different small Belgian streams, using electrofishing surveys around the single release point, 1 year following stocking. Our results clearly support that the recaptured individuals stocked in our streams farther from the sea, survived, grew, dispersed upstream and downstream. Elvers exploited the complete transversal section of stream, with preference for the sheltered microhabitats near the banks with slower water velocity and low depth. Length-weight relationship was different between streams in terms of allometric coefficient (b). We assume that microhabitats and food availabilities lead to contrasted results in terms of growth and absolute occurrence. Restocking of glass eels in small middle-land streams was found to be an interesting and unconventional option that requires adequate stream and habitat selection. [less ▲]

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See detailDesign, Modeling, and Performance Optimization of a Reversible Heat Pump/Organic Rankine Cycle System for Domestic Application
Quoilin, Sylvain ULg; Dumont, Olivier ULg; Harley Hansen, Kristian et al

in Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power (2015)

In this paper, an innovative system combining a heat pump (HP) and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) process is proposed. This system is integrated with a solar roof, which is used as a thermal source to ... [more ▼]

In this paper, an innovative system combining a heat pump (HP) and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) process is proposed. This system is integrated with a solar roof, which is used as a thermal source to provide heat in winter months (HP mode) and electricity in summer months (ORC mode) when an excess irradiation is available on the solar roof. The main advantage of the proposed unit is its similarity with a traditional HP: the HP/ORC unit only requires the addition of a pump and four-way valves compared to a simple HP, which can be achieved at a low cost. A methodology for the optimal sizing and design of the system is proposed, based on the optimization of both continuous parameters such as heat exchanger size or discrete variables such as working fluid. The methodology is based on yearly simulations, aimed at optimizing the system performance (the net yearly power generation) over its whole operating range instead of just nominal sizing operating conditions. The simulations allow evaluating the amount of thermal energy and electricity generated throughout the year, yielding a net electric power output of 3496 kWh throughout the year. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrical characterization of p-GeSn/n-Ge diodes with interface traps under dc and ac regimes
Baert, Bruno ULg; Gupta, Somya; Gencarelli, Federica et al

in Solid-State Electronics (2015), 110

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See detailChallenges for Scale-Up of Batch Separations
Pfennig, Andreas ULg; Becker, Karsten; Bach, S. et al

in Chemie Ingenieur Technik (2015), 87(8), 1051

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See detailChemical spying in coral reef fish larvae at recruitment
Roux, Natacha; Brooker, Rohan M.; Lecellier, Gaël et al

in Comptes Rendus Biologies (2015), 338

When fish larvae recruit back to a reef, chemical cues are often used to find suitable habitat or to find juvenile or adult conspecifics. We tested if the chemical information used by larvae was ... [more ▼]

When fish larvae recruit back to a reef, chemical cues are often used to find suitable habitat or to find juvenile or adult conspecifics. We tested if the chemical information used by larvae was intentionally produced by juvenile and adult conspecifics already on the reef (communication process) or whether the cues used result from normal biochemical processes with no active involvement by conspecifics (‘‘spying’’ behavior by larvae). Conspecific chemical cues attracted the majority of larvae (four out of the seven species tested); although while some species were equally attracted to cues from adults and juveniles (Chromis viridis, Apogon novemfasciatus), two exhibited greater sensitivity to adult cues (Pomacentrus pavo, Dascyllus aruanus). Our results indicate also that spying cues are those most commonly used by settling fishes (C. viridis, P. pavo, A. novemfasciatus). Only one species (D. aruanus) preferred the odour of conspecifics that had had visual contact with larvae (communication). [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization of composite structures with curved fiber trajectories
Lemaire, Etienne; Zein, Samih; Bruyneel, Michaël ULg

in Composite Structures (2015), 131

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See detailA simple approach for ultrasensitive detection of bisphenols by multiplexed surface-enhanced Raman scattering
De Bleye, Charlotte ULg; Dumont, Elodie ULg; Hubert, Cédric ULg et al

in Analytica Chimica Acta (2015), 888

Bisphenol A (BPA) is well known for its use in plastic manufacture and thermal paper production despite its risk of health toxicity as an endocrine disruptor in humans. Since the publication of new ... [more ▼]

Bisphenol A (BPA) is well known for its use in plastic manufacture and thermal paper production despite its risk of health toxicity as an endocrine disruptor in humans. Since the publication of new legislation regarding the use of BPA, manufacturers have begun to replace BPA with other phenolic molecules such as bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol B (BPB), but there are no guarantees regarding the health safety of these compounds at this time. In this context, a very simple, cheap and fast surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) method was developed for the sensitive detection of these molecules in spiked tap water solutions. Silver nanoparticles were used as SERS substrates. An original strategy was employed to circumvent the issue of the affinity of bisphenols for metallic surfaces and the silver nanoparticles surface was functionalized using pyridine in order to improve again the sensitivity of the detection. Semi-quantitative detections were performed in tap water solutions at a concentrations range from 0.25 to 20 µg L-1 for BPA and BPB and from 5 to 100 µg L-1 for BPF. Moreover, a feasibility study for performing a multiplex-SERS detection of these molecules was also performed before successfully implementing the developed SERS method on real samples. [less ▲]

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See detailA Simple Laparoscopic Procedure to Restore a Normal Vaginal Length After Colpohysterectomy With Large Upper Colpectomy for Cervical and/or Vaginal Neoplasia.
Leblanc, Eric; Bresson, L.; Merlot, B. et al

in Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology (2015)

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See detailSystematic analysis of site-specific yield distributions resulting from nitrogen management and climatic variability interactions
Dumont, Benjamin ULg; Basso, Bruno; Leemans, Vincent ULg et al

in Precision Agriculture (2015), 16(4), 361-384

At the plot level, crop simulation models such as STICS have the potential to evaluate risk associated with management practices. In nitrogen (N) management, however, the decision-making process is ... [more ▼]

At the plot level, crop simulation models such as STICS have the potential to evaluate risk associated with management practices. In nitrogen (N) management, however, the decision-making process is complex because the decision has to be taken without any knowledge of future weather conditions. The objective of this paper is to present a general methodology for assessing yield variability linked to climatic uncertainty and variable N rate strategies. The STICS model was coupled with the LARS-Weather Generator. The Pearson system and coefficients were used to characterise the shape of yield distribution. Alternatives to classical statistical tests were proposed for assessing the normality of distributions and conducting comparisons (namely, the Jarque-Bera and Wilcoxon tests, respectively). Finally, the focus was put on the probability risk assessment, which remains a key point within the decision process. The simulation results showed that, based on current N application practice among Belgian farmers (60 60 60 kgN ha-1), yield distribution was very highly significantly non normal, with the highest degree of asymmetry characterised by a skewness value of -1.02. They showed that this strategy gave the greatest probability (60%) of achieving yields that were superior to the mean (10.5 t ha-1) of the distribution. [less ▲]

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See detailPredictions of Daily Milk and Fat Yields, Major Groups of Fatty Acids, and C18:1 cis-9 from Single Milking Data without a Milking Interval
Arnould, Valérie ULg; Reding, Romain; Bormann, Jeanne et al

in Animals (2015), 5(3), 643-661

Reducing the frequency of milk recording would help reduce the costs of official milk recording. However, this approach could also negatively affect the accuracy of predicting daily yields. This problem ... [more ▼]

Reducing the frequency of milk recording would help reduce the costs of official milk recording. However, this approach could also negatively affect the accuracy of predicting daily yields. This problem has been investigated in numerous studies. In addition, published equations take into account milking intervals (MI), and these are often not available and/or are unreliable in practice. The first objective of this study was to propose models in which the MI was replaced by a combination of data easily recorded by dairy farmers. The second objective was to further investigate the fatty acids (FA) present in milk. Equations to predict daily yield from AM or PM data were based on a calibration database containing 79,971 records related to 51 traits [milk yield (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily); fat content (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily); fat yield (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily; g/day); levels of seven different FAs or FA groups (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily; g/dL milk), and the corresponding FA yields for these seven FA types/groups (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily; g/day)]. These equations were validated using two distinct external datasets. The results obtained from the proposed models were compared to previously published results for models which included a MI effect. The corresponding correlation values ranged from 96.4% to 97.6% when the daily yields were estimated from the AM milkings and ranged from 96.9% to 98.3% when the daily yields were estimated from the PM milkings. The simplicity of these proposed models should facilitate their use by breeding and milk recording organizations. [less ▲]

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See detailWhen it is not inflammatory bowel disease: differential diagnosis
Louis, Edouard ULg

in Current Opinion in Gastroenterology (2015)

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See detailSpeed limit to the Abrikosov lattice in mesoscopic superconductors
Grimaldi, Gaia; Leo, Antonio; Sabatino, P. et al

in Physical Review. B : Condensed Matter (2015), 92

We study the instability of the superconducting state in a mesoscopic geometry for the low pinning material Mo3Ge characterized by a large Ginzburg-Landau parameter. We observe that in the current driven ... [more ▼]

We study the instability of the superconducting state in a mesoscopic geometry for the low pinning material Mo3Ge characterized by a large Ginzburg-Landau parameter. We observe that in the current driven switching to the normal state from a nonlinear region of the Abrikosov flux flow, the mean critical vortex velocity reaches a limiting maximum velocity as a function of the applied magnetic fi eld. Based on time dependent Ginzburg-Landau simulations we argue that the observed behavior is owed to the high velocity vortex dynamics confi ned on a mesoscopic scale. We build up a general phase diagram which includes all possible dynamic confi gurations of Abrikosov lattice in a mesoscopic superconductor. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison between observed and simulated aeolian snow mass fluxes in Adélie Land, East Antarctica
Amory, Charles; Trouvillez, A.; Gallée, H. et al

in Cryosphere (The) (2015), 9

The regional climate model MAR including a coupled snow pack/aeolian snow transport parameterisation is compared with aeolian snow mass fluxes at a fine spatial resolution (5 km horizontally and 2 m ... [more ▼]

The regional climate model MAR including a coupled snow pack/aeolian snow transport parameterisation is compared with aeolian snow mass fluxes at a fine spatial resolution (5 km horizontally and 2 m vertically) and at a fine temporal resolution (30 min) over 1 month in Antarctica. Numerous feedbacks are taken into account in the MAR including the drag partitioning caused by the roughness elements. Wind speed is correctly simulated with a positive value of the Nash test (0.60 and 0.37) but the wind speeds above 10 m s−1 are underestimated. The aeolian snow transport events are correctly reproduced with a good temporal resolution except for the aeolian snow transport events with a particles' maximum height below 1 m. The simulated threshold friction velocity, calculated without snowfall, is overestimated. The simulated aeolian snow mass fluxes between 0 to 2 m have the same variations but are underestimated compared to the second-generation FlowCapt values and so is the simulated relative humidity at 2 m. This underestimation is not entirely due to the underestimation of the simulated wind speed. The MAR underestimates the aeolian snow quantity that pass through the first two meters by a factor ten compared to the second-generation FlowCapt value (13 990 kg m−1 and 151 509 kg m−1 respectively). It will conduct the MAR, with this parametrisation, to underestimate the effect of the aeolian snow transport on the Antarctic surface mass balance. [less ▲]

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See detailMonitoring surface water content using visible and short-wave infrared SPOT-5 data of wheat plots in irrigated semi-arid regions
Benabdelouahab, Tarik ULg; Balaghi, Riad; Hadria, Rachid et al

in International Journal of Remote Sensing (2015), 36(15), 4018-4036

Irrigated agriculture is an important strategic sector in arid and semi-arid regions. Given the large spatial coverage of irrigated areas, operational tools based on satellite remote sensing can ... [more ▼]

Irrigated agriculture is an important strategic sector in arid and semi-arid regions. Given the large spatial coverage of irrigated areas, operational tools based on satellite remote sensing can contribute to their optimal management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of two spectral indices, calculated from SPOT-5 high-resolution visible (HRV) data, to retrieve the surface water content values (from bare soil to completely covered soil) over wheat fields and detect irrigation supplies in an irrigated area. These indices are the normalized difference water index (NDWI) and the moisture stress index (MSI), covering the main growth stages of wheat. These indices were compared to corresponding in situ measurements of soil moisture and vegetation water content in 30 wheat fields in an irrigated area of Morocco, during the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 cropping seasons. NDWI and MSI were highly correlated with in situ measurements at both the beginning of the growing season (sowing) and at full vegetation cover (grain filling). From sowing to grain filling, the best correlation (R2 = 0.86; p < 0.01) was found for the relationship between NDWI values and observed soil moisture values. These results were validated using a k-fold cross-validation methodology; they indicated that NDWI can be used to estimate and map surface water content changes at the main crop growth stages (from sowing to grain filling). NDWI is an operative index for monitoring irrigation, such as detecting irrigation supplies and mitigating wheat water stress at field and regional levels in semi-arid areas. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of blood concentration levels of psychotrope medications in Rwandan patients
Hahirwa, Innocent; DENOOZ, Raphael ULg; Karangwa, Charles et al

in Acta Clinica Belgica (2015)

OBJECTIVES: In Rwanda, no therapeutic monitoring of psychotropic drugs is done. This results in difficult treatment optimisation and exposition to a high risk of toxicity and drug ineffectiveness for ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: In Rwanda, no therapeutic monitoring of psychotropic drugs is done. This results in difficult treatment optimisation and exposition to a high risk of toxicity and drug ineffectiveness for patients under treatment. This study aimed to determine blood concentration levels of psychotropic drugs in Rwandan patients and identify problems associated with the lack of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of these drugs. METHODS: The analysis was performed on 1 ml of serum sample using prazepam as internal standard. Regarding the step of sample preparation, we used a liquid-liquid extraction with a mixture of organic solvents: diethyl ether/dichloromethane/hexane/n-amyl alcohol (50/30/20/0.5:V/V). A Waters Alliance 2695 was used for analysis. The chromatography was run on a Symmetry C8 column and as mobile phase acetonitrile and phosphate buffer (pH 3.8) were used. RESULTS: Concerning the results, serum samples from 128 patients were analysed. Twenty-one different psychotropic drugs belonging to various pharmacological classes were detected and quantified. Analytical results were put into three categories based upon therapeutic reference ranges (TRR) of various drugs: subtherapeutic, therapeutic and supratherapeutic. For a total of 237 analyses, results within TRR represented 46% while 47 and 8% of results were, respectively, below and above TRR. CONCLUSION: It was therefore concluded that patients under psychotropic treatment in Rwanda are exposed to both the risk of drug ineffectiveness and the risk of toxicity (54%) with only 46% of results within the TRR. Consequently, TDM is needed to optimise psychotropic treatment in Rwandan patients. [less ▲]

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See detailSpatio‑temporal dynamics of β‑tubulin isotypes during the development of the sensory auditory organ in rat
Renauld, Justine ULg; Johnen, Nicolas; Thelen, Nicolas ULg et al

in Histochemistry & Cell Biology (2015)

There are different β-tubulin isoforms in microtubules of vertebrate tissues. However, their functional significance is still largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the localization of ... [more ▼]

There are different β-tubulin isoforms in microtubules of vertebrate tissues. However, their functional significance is still largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the localization of five β-tubulin isotypes (β1– 5) within the hearing organ during development in rat. By using confocal microscopy, we showed that with the exception of the β3-tubulin isoform that was specific to nerve fibres, all the different β-tubulin isoforms were mainly present in the supporting cells. Contrary to β1–4-tubulins, we also found that the β5-tubulin isoform appeared only at a key stage of the post-natal development in specific cell types (pillar cells and Deiters’ cells). By using transmission electron microscopy, we revealed further that this developmental stage coincided with the formation of two separate bundles of microtubules from a unique one in these supporting cells. Together, these results suggest that the β5-tubulin isoform might be involved in the generation of new microtubule bundles from a pre-existing one. [less ▲]

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See detailAn EG-VEGF-dependent decrease in homeobox gene NKX3.1 contributes to cytotrophoblast dysfunction: a possible mechanism in human fetal growth restriction
Murthi, P; Brouillet, S; Pratt, A et al

in Molecular Medicine (2015)

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See detailGlobally significant greenhouse-gas emissions from African inland waters
Borges, Alberto ULg; Darchambeau, François ULg; Teodoru, Cristian R. et al

in Nature Geoscience (2015), advance online publication

Carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere from inland waters[mdash]streams, rivers, lakes and reservoirs[mdash]are nearly equivalent to ocean and land sinks globally. Inland waters can be an important ... [more ▼]

Carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere from inland waters[mdash]streams, rivers, lakes and reservoirs[mdash]are nearly equivalent to ocean and land sinks globally. Inland waters can be an important source of methane and nitrous oxide emissions as well, but emissions are poorly quantified, especially in Africa. Here we report dissolved carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide concentrations from 12 rivers in sub-Saharan Africa, including seasonally resolved sampling at 39 sites, acquired between 2006 and 2014. Fluxes were calculated from published gas transfer velocities, and upscaled to the area of all sub-Saharan African rivers using available spatial data sets. Carbon dioxide-equivalent emissions from river channels alone were about 0.4 Pg carbon per year, equivalent to two-thirds of the overall net carbon land sink previously reported for Africa. Including emissions from wetlands of the Congo river increases the total carbon dioxide-equivalent greenhouse-gas emissions to about 0.9 Pg carbon per year, equivalent to about one quarter of the global ocean and terrestrial combined carbon sink. Riverine carbon dioxide and methane emissions increase with wetland extent and upland biomass. We therefore suggest that future changes in wetland and upland cover could strongly affect greenhouse-gas emissions from African inland waters. [less ▲]

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See detailAn echographic study of follicular growth during induced estrus in female Azawak zebu in Niger
Moussa Garba, Mahamadou; Moumouni, Issa; Hamani, Marichatou et al

in Tropical Animal Health and Production (2015), 47

An echographic study of follicular growth up to ovulation was carried out on 42 lactating Azawakh cows (Bos indicus) after estrus induction by means of a PGF2α or a procedure involving the administration ... [more ▼]

An echographic study of follicular growth up to ovulation was carried out on 42 lactating Azawakh cows (Bos indicus) after estrus induction by means of a PGF2α or a procedure involving the administration of progesterone vaginally (PRID® DELTA: Progesterone-releasing intravaginal device) for a ten-day period and the injection of a PGF2α and an eCG (400 and 800 IU) on withdrawal. All the animals treated in this way were inseminated 12 and 24 hrs after the onset of estrus. The percentage of estrus induced was not significantly different between the two groups of animals (81%). The average time delay before the onset of estrus was significantly longer after injection of a PGF2α (84.8 ± 26.0 hrs) than after withdrawal of the PRID® (59.2 ± 5.8 hrs). The average duration of the estrus was significantly shorter after its induction by PGF2α (12.6 ± 2.6 hrs) than after induction by progesterone (22.9 ± 2.7 hrs). There was not a significant difference in the interval between the beginning of estrus and ovulation in animals treated by PGF2α (30.3 hrs) and progesterone (28.4 hrs). Injection of a PGF2α was accompanied by a significantly lower rate of gestation than that obtained after treatment of animals by progesterone (31.2% vs 54.5 %). These results confirm the necessity to adapt an insemination policy to hormonal treatment for estrus induction in Bos indicus. [less ▲]

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See detailImmune Recovery after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation following Flu-TBI versus TLI-ATG Conditioning
HANNON, Muriel ULg; BEGUIN, Yves ULg; Ehx, Grégory ULg et al

in Clinical Cancer Research : An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research (2015), 21(14), 3131-9

Purpose: A conditioning regimen for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) combining total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) plus anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) has been develop to induce graft ... [more ▼]

Purpose: A conditioning regimen for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) combining total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) plus anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) has been develop to induce graft-versus-tumor effects without graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Experimental Design: We compared immune recovery in 53 patients included in a phase II randomized study comparing nonmyeloablative HCT following either fludarabine plus 2 Gy total body irradiation (TBI arm, n=28) or 8 Gy TLI plus anti-thymocyte globulin (TLI arm, n=25). Results: In comparison to TBI patients, TLI patients had a similarly low 6-month incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD, a lower incidence of moderate/severe chronic GVHD (P=0.02), a higher incidence of CMV reactivation (P<0.001), and a higher incidence of relapse (P=0.01). While recovery of total CD8+ T cells was similar in the two groups, with median CD8+ T cell counts reaching the normal values 40-60 days after allo-HCT, TLI patients had lower percentages of naïve CD8 T cells. Median CD4+ T cell counts did not reach the lower limit of normal values the first year after allo-HCT in the two groups. Further, CD4+ T cell counts were significantly lower in TLI than in TBI patients the first 6 months after transplantation. Interestingly, while median absolute regulatory T cell (Treg) counts were comparable in TBI and TLI patients, Treg/naïve CD4+ T cell ratios were significantly higher in TLI than in TBI patients the 2 first years after transplantation. Conclusions: Immune recovery differs substantially between these two conditioning regimens possibly explaining the different clinical outcomes observed (NCT00603954). [less ▲]

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See detailDrug loading of polymer implants by supercritical CO2 assisted impregnation: a review
Champeau, Mathilde; Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg; Tassaing, Thierry et al

in Journal of Controlled Release (2015), 209

Drug loaded implants also called drug-eluting implants have proven their benefits over simple implants. Among the developed manufacturing processes, the supercritical CO2 (scCO2) assisted impregnation has ... [more ▼]

Drug loaded implants also called drug-eluting implants have proven their benefits over simple implants. Among the developed manufacturing processes, the supercritical CO2 (scCO2) assisted impregnation has attracted growing attention to load Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients into polymer implants since it enables to recover a final implant free of any solvent residue and to operate under mild temperature which is suitable for processing with thermosensitive drugs. This paper is a review of the state-of-the-art and the application of the scCO2 assisted impregnation process to prepare drug-eluting implants. It introduces the process and presents its advantages for biomedical applications. The influences of the characteristics of the implied binary systems and of the experimental conditions on the drug loading are described. Then, the various current applications of this process for manufacturing drug-eluting implants are reviewed. Finally, the new emerging variations of this process are described. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment, validation and comparison of NIR and Raman methods for the identification and assay of poor-quality oral quinine drops.
Mbinze Kidenge, Jérémie; Sacre, Pierre-Yves ULg; Yemoa, Achille et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2015), 111

Poor quality antimalarial drugs are one of the public’s major health problems in Africa. The depth of this problem may be explained in part by the lack of effective enforcement and the lack of efficient ... [more ▼]

Poor quality antimalarial drugs are one of the public’s major health problems in Africa. The depth of this problem may be explained in part by the lack of effective enforcement and the lack of efficient local drug analysis laboratories. To tackle part of this issue, two spectroscopic methods with the ability to detect and to quantify quinine dihydrochloride in children’s oral drops formulations were developed and validated. Raman and Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy were selected for the drug analysis due to their low cost, non-destructive and rapid characteristics. Both of the methods developed were successfully validated using the total error approach in the range of 50-150% of the target concentration (20% W/V) within the 10% acceptance limits. Samples collected on the Congolese pharmaceutical market were analyzed by both techniques to detect potentially substandard drugs. After a comparison of the analytical performance of both methods, it has been decided to implement the method based on NIR spectroscopy to perform the routine analysis of quinine oral drop samples in the Quality Control Laboratory of Drugs at the University of Kinshasa (DRC). [less ▲]

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See detailAn ecosystem-scale perspective of the net land methanol flux: synthesis of micrometeorological flux measurements
Wohlfahrt, G.; Amelynck, C.; Ammann, C. et al

in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (2015), (15), 7413-7427

Methanol is the second most abundant volatile organic compound in the troposphere and plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. While there is consensus about the dominant role of living plants ... [more ▼]

Methanol is the second most abundant volatile organic compound in the troposphere and plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. While there is consensus about the dominant role of living plants as the major source and the reaction with OH as the major sink of methanol, global methanol budgets diverge considerably in terms of source/sink estimates, reflecting uncertainties in the approaches used to model and the empirical data used to separately constrain these terms. Here we compiled micrometeorological methanol flux data from eight different study sites and reviewed the corresponding literature in order to provide a first cross-site synthesis of the terrestrial ecosystem-scale methanol exchange and present an independent data-driven view of the land–atmosphere methanol exchange. Our study shows that the controls of plant growth on production, and thus the methanol emission magnitude, as well as stomatal conductance on the hourly methanol emission variability, established at the leaf level, hold across sites at the ecosystem level. Unequivocal evidence for bi-directional methanol exchange at the ecosystem scale is presented. Deposition, which at some sites even exceeds methanol emissions, represents an emerging feature of ecosystem-scale measurements and is likely related to environmental factors favouring the formation of surface wetness. Methanol may adsorb to or dissolve in this surface water and eventually be chemically or biologically removed from it. Management activities in agriculture and forestry are shown to increase local methanol emission by orders of magnitude; however, they are neglected at present in global budgets. While contemporary net land methanol budgets are overall consistent with the grand mean of the micrometeorological methanol flux measurements, we caution that the present approach of simulating methanol emission and deposition separately is prone to opposing systematic errors and does not allow for full advantage to be taken of the rich information content of micrometeorological flux measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailCompte rendu de Sagaert (Claudine), Histoire de la laideur féminine
Duchesne, Caroline ULg

in Lectures (2015)

Parcourant les successives perceptions de la laideur féminine de l’Antiquité à nos jours, l’étude que propose Claudine Sagaert, docteur en sociologie, adopte une approche pluridisciplinaire que vient ... [more ▼]

Parcourant les successives perceptions de la laideur féminine de l’Antiquité à nos jours, l’étude que propose Claudine Sagaert, docteur en sociologie, adopte une approche pluridisciplinaire que vient soutenir un riche corpus empruntant à la philosophie, à l’anthropologie, aux sciences médicales et encore à la littérature. [less ▲]

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See detailModes of Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Transmission, Replication and Persistence
Carpentier, Alexandre ULg; Barez, Pierre-Yves ULg; Hamaïdia, Malik ULg et al

in Viruses (2015), 7

Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that causes cancer (Adult T cell Leukemia, ATL) and a spectrum of inflammatory diseases (mainly HTLV-associated myelopathy—tropical spastic ... [more ▼]

Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that causes cancer (Adult T cell Leukemia, ATL) and a spectrum of inflammatory diseases (mainly HTLV-associated myelopathy—tropical spastic paraparesis, HAM/TSP). Since virions are particularly unstable, HTLV-1 transmission primarily occurs by transfer of a cell carrying an integrated provirus. After transcription, the viral genomic RNA undergoes reverse transcription and integration into the chromosomal DNA of a cell from the newly infected host. The virus then replicates by either one of two modes: (i) an infectious cycle by virus budding and infection of new targets and (ii) mitotic division of cells harboring an integrated provirus. HTLV-1 replication initiates a series of mechanisms in the host including antiviral immunity and checkpoint control of cell proliferation. HTLV-1 has elaborated strategies to counteract these defense mechanisms allowing continuous persistence in humans. [less ▲]

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See detailManagement of demented patients with urinary incontinence: A case study
de Codt, Aloïse; Grotz, Catherine ULg; Degaute, Marie-France et al

in Clinical Neuropsychologist (The) (2015), 29

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See detailShedding Light on the b to s Anomalies
Aristizabal Sierra, Diego ULg; Vicente, Avelino ULg; Staub, Florian

in Physical Review. D, Particles, Fields, Gravitation, and Cosmology (2015), 92(015001),

The LHCb collaboration has recently reported on some anomalies in b→s transitions. In addition to discrepancies with the Standard Model (SM) predictions in some angular observables and branching ratios ... [more ▼]

The LHCb collaboration has recently reported on some anomalies in b→s transitions. In addition to discrepancies with the Standard Model (SM) predictions in some angular observables and branching ratios, an intriguing hint for lepton universality violation was found. Here we propose a simple model that extends the SM with a dark sector charged under an additional U(1) gauge symmetry. The spontaneous breaking of this symmetry gives rise to a massive Z′ boson, which communicates the SM particles with a valid dark matter candidate, while solving the b→s anomalies with contributions to the relevant observables. [less ▲]

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See detailL’importance aux yeux de Strasbourg de l’effectivité des recours indemnitaires et préventifs en cas de dépassement du délai raisonnable
Michiels, Olivier ULg; Falque, Géraldine ULg

in Revue Trimestrielle des Droits de l'Homme (2015), (2015/103), 741-758

The Belgian Government, on whom the burden of proof lies, has not shown that this compensatory remedy is garanteed in practice by the courts in the context of criminal proceedings. Accordingly, the remedy ... [more ▼]

The Belgian Government, on whom the burden of proof lies, has not shown that this compensatory remedy is garanteed in practice by the courts in the context of criminal proceedings. Accordingly, the remedy as currently organised in Belgium cannot be regarded as an effective means of complaining about the length of the criminal judicial investigation. The preventive remedies cannot, therefore, be regarded as effective in the present case. In fact, the Court noted that none of the measures in question was specifically directed at the delay which was the object of complaint. [less ▲]

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See detailThree WASP-South Transiting Exoplanets: WASP-74b, WASP-83b, and WASP-89b
Hellier, Coel; Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A. et al

in Astronomical Journal (The) (2015), 150

We report the discovery of three new transiting hot Jupiters by WASP-South together with the TRAPPIST photometer and the Euler/CORALIE spectrograph. WASP-74b orbits a star of V = 9.7, making it one of the ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery of three new transiting hot Jupiters by WASP-South together with the TRAPPIST photometer and the Euler/CORALIE spectrograph. WASP-74b orbits a star of V = 9.7, making it one of the brighter systems accessible to southern telescopes. It is a 0.95M[SUB]Jup[/SUB] planet with a moderately bloated radius of 1.5 {R}[SUB]{Jup[/SUB]} in a 2 day orbit around a slightly evolved F9 star. WASP-83b is a Saturn-mass planet at 0.3 {M}[SUB]{Jup[/SUB]} with a radius of 1.0 {R}[SUB]{Jup[/SUB]}. It is in a 5 day orbit around a fainter (V = 12.9) G8 star. WASP-89b is a 6 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB] planet in a 3 day orbit with an eccentricity of e = 0.2. It is thus similar to massive, eccentric planets such as XO-3b and HAT-P-2b, except that those planets orbit F stars whereas WASP-89 is a K star. The V = 13.1 host star is magnetically active, showing a rotation period of 20.2 days, while star spots are visible in the transits. There are indications that the planet’s orbit is aligned with the stellar spin. WASP-89 is a good target for an extensive study of transits of star spots. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantitatively mimicking wet colloidal suspensions with dry granular media
Messina, René; Aljawhari, Sarah; Bécu, Lydiane et al

in Scientific Reports (2015)

Athermal two-dimensional granular systems are exposed to external mechanical noise leading to Brownian-like motion. Using tunable repulsive interparticle interaction, it is shown that the same ... [more ▼]

Athermal two-dimensional granular systems are exposed to external mechanical noise leading to Brownian-like motion. Using tunable repulsive interparticle interaction, it is shown that the same microstructure as that observed in colloidal suspensions can be quantitatively recovered at a macroscopic scale. To that end, experiments on granular and colloidal systems made up of magnetized particles as well as computer simulations are performed and compared. Excellent agreement throughout the range of the magnetic coupling parameter Γ is found for the pair distribution as well as the bond-orientational correlation functions. This finding opens new ways to efficiently and very conveniently explore phase transitions, crystallization, nucleation, etc in confined geometries. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom the ocean to a reef habitat: How do the larvae of coral reef fishes find their way home? A state of art on the latest advances
Barth, P; Berenshtein, I; Besson, M et al

in Vie et Milieu (2015), 65(2), 91-100

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See detailErratum: Rotation, spectral variability, magnetic geometry and magnetosphere of the Of?p star CPD -28° 2561
Wade, G. A.; Barbá, R. H.; Grunhut, J. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2015), 450

Not Available

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See detailFodder Biomass Monitoring in Sahelian Rangelands Using Phenological Metrics from FAPAR Time Series
Diouf, Abdoul Aziz; Brandt, Martin; Verger, Aleixandre et al

in Remote sensing (2015), 7(9122-9148),

Timely monitoring of plant biomass is critical for the management of forage resources in Sahelian rangelands. The estimation of annual biomass production in the Sahel is based on a simple relationship ... [more ▼]

Timely monitoring of plant biomass is critical for the management of forage resources in Sahelian rangelands. The estimation of annual biomass production in the Sahel is based on a simple relationship between satellite annual Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and in situ biomass data. This study proposes a new methodology using multi-linear models between phenological metrics from the SPOT-VEGETATION time series of Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR) and in situ biomass. A model with three variables—large seasonal integral (LINTG), length of growing season, and end of season decreasing rate—performed best (MAE = 605 kg·DM/ha; R2 = 0.68) across Sahelian ecosystems in Senegal (data for the period 1999–2013). A model with annual maximum (PEAK) and start date of season showed similar performances (MAE = 625 kg·DM/ha; R2 = 0.64), allowing a timely estimation of forage availability. The subdivision of the study area in ecoregions increased overall accuracy (MAE = 489.21 kg·DM/ha; R2 = 0.77), indicating that a relation between metrics and ecosystem properties exists. LINTG was the main explanatory variable for woody rangelands with high leaf biomass, whereas for areas dominated by herbaceous vegetation, it was the PEAK metric. The proposed approach outperformed the established biomass NDVI-based product (MAE = 818 kg·DM/ha and R2 = 0.51) and should improve the operational monitoring of forage resources in Sahelian rangelands. [less ▲]

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See detailWASP-80b has a dayside within the T-dwarf range
Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.; Gillon, Michaël ULg; Ehrenreich, David et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2015), 450

WASP-80b is a missing link in the study of exoatmospheres. It falls between the warm Neptunes and the hot Jupiters and is amenable for characterization, thanks to its host star's properties. We observed ... [more ▼]

WASP-80b is a missing link in the study of exoatmospheres. It falls between the warm Neptunes and the hot Jupiters and is amenable for characterization, thanks to its host star's properties. We observed the planet through transit and during occultation with Warm Spitzer. Combining our mid-infrared transits with optical time series, we find that the planet presents a transmission spectrum indistinguishable from a horizontal line. In emission, WASP-80b is the intrinsically faintest planet whose dayside flux has been detected in both the 3.6 and 4.5 μm Spitzer channels. The depths of the occultations reveal that WASP-80b is as bright and as red as a T4 dwarf, but that its temperature is cooler. If planets go through the equivalent of an L-T transition, our results would imply that this happens at cooler temperatures than for brown dwarfs. Placing WASP-80b's dayside into a colour-magnitude diagram, it falls exactly at the junction between a blackbody model and the T-dwarf sequence; we cannot discern which of those two interpretations is the more likely. WASP-80b's flux density is as low as GJ 436b at 3.6 μm; the planet's dayside is also fainter, but bluer than HD 189733Ab's nightside (in the [3.6] and [4.5]Spitzer bands). Flux measurements on other planets with similar equilibrium temperatures are required to establish whether irradiated gas giants, such as brown dwarfs, transition between two spectral classes. An eventual detection of methane absorption in transmission would also help lift that degeneracy. We obtained a second series of high-resolution spectra during transit, using HARPS. We reanalyse the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. The data now favour an aligned orbital solution and a stellar rotation nearly three times slower than stellar line broadening implies. A contribution to stellar line broadening, maybe macroturbulence, is likely to have been underestimated for cool stars, whose rotations have therefore been systematically overestimated. [less ▲]

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See detailBiomechanical Analysis of Abdominal Injury in Tennis Serves. A Case Report
Tubez, François ULg; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg et al

in Journal of Sports Science & Medicine (2015), 14

The serve is an important stroke in any high level tennis game. A well-mastered serve is a substantial advantage for players. However, because of its repeatability and its intensity, this stroke is ... [more ▼]

The serve is an important stroke in any high level tennis game. A well-mastered serve is a substantial advantage for players. However, because of its repeatability and its intensity, this stroke is potentially deleterious for upper limbs, lower limbs and trunk. The trunk is a vital link in the production and transfer of energy from the lower limbs to the upper limbs; therefore, kin-ematic disorder could be a potential source of risk for trunk injury in tennis. This research studies the case of a professional tennis player who has suffered from a medical tear on the left rectus abdominis muscle after tennis serve. The goal of the study is to understand whether the injury could be explained by an inappropriate technique. For this purpose, we analyzed in three dimensions the kinematic and kinetic aspects of the serve. We also performed isokinetic tests of the player’s knees. We then compared the player to five other professional players as refer-ence. We observed a possible deficit of energy transfer because of an important anterior pelvis tilt. Some compensation made by the player during the serve could be a possible higher abdominal contraction and a larger shoulder external rotation. These partic-ularities could induce an abdominal overwork that could explain the first injury and may provoke further injuries. [less ▲]

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See detailVersion française de la Distress Tolerance Scale et de la Discomfort Intolerance Scale
Wagener, Aurélie ULg; Blairy, Sylvie ULg

in Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science = Revue Canadienne des Sciences du Comportement (2015), 3(47),

The perceived perspective of the distress tolerance refers to the perceived ability to experience and to withstand negative emotional states and/or other aversive sensations (e.g. physical discomfort ... [more ▼]

The perceived perspective of the distress tolerance refers to the perceived ability to experience and to withstand negative emotional states and/or other aversive sensations (e.g. physical discomfort). Two scales were developed to assess this construct: the Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS) and the Discomfort Intolerance Scale (DIS). The objective of this investigation is to present the validation of these two scales in French. 488 non-clinical adults completed an online survey assessing the distress tolerance and emotional regulation strategies. Factor analyses were performed to determine the factor structures of the French versions of these scales. CFA highlighted a four-factor solution (tolerance, absorption, appraisal, regulation) with one higher-order factor (general distress tolerance) as being the better fit for the DTS. CFA highlighted a two-factor solution (intolerance and avoidance) with one higher-order factor (general discomfort intolerance) as being the better fit for the DIS. Intern and extern validity were assessed and demonstrated good properties. [less ▲]

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See detailPolarization alignments of quasars from the JVAS/CLASS 8.4-GHz surveys
Pelgrims, Vincent ULg; Hutsemekers, Damien ULg

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2015), 450

We test the hypothesis that the polarization vectors of flat-spectrum radio sources (FSRSs) from the JVAS/CLASS 8.4-GHz surveys are randomly oriented in the sky. A sample with robust polarization ... [more ▼]

We test the hypothesis that the polarization vectors of flat-spectrum radio sources (FSRSs) from the JVAS/CLASS 8.4-GHz surveys are randomly oriented in the sky. A sample with robust polarization measurements is made with 4155 objects. Redshift information is known for 1531 of them. We performed two statistical analyses: one in two dimensions and the other in three dimensions when distance is available. We find significant large-scale alignments of polarization vectors for samples containing only quasars among the varieties of FSRS. While these correlations prove difficult to explain either by a physical effect or by biases in the data set, that the quasars that have significantly aligned polarization vectors are found in regions of the sky where optical polarization alignments were previously found is striking. [less ▲]

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See detailHousing Quality as Environmental Inequality: The Case of Wallonia, Belgium
Lejeune, Zoé ULg; Xhignesse, Guillaume ULg; Kryvobokov, Marko et al

in Journal of Housing and the Built Environment (2015)

First in the USA and then in many other countries, scholarship on environmental inequality has sought to shed light on the unequal environmental conditions borne by poor people and ethnic minorities, and ... [more ▼]

First in the USA and then in many other countries, scholarship on environmental inequality has sought to shed light on the unequal environmental conditions borne by poor people and ethnic minorities, and to challenge public policies and their unjust impacts on those target groups. Housing quality, especially the indoor characteristics of homes, offers an innovative perspective in this field of research. In previous research on environmental inequality in the Walloon context, housing quality has been proven to be a major determinant of quality of life and environmental well-being. This paper analyses housing quality through a twofold approach: through indoor characteristics on the one hand, and outdoor subjective and objective externalities on the other. It reveals the disparities between the most deprived and the wealthiest segments of the population. The evidence for this study is based on a housing quality survey carried out in 2012 and 2013 on 6,018 households in Wallonia (Belgium). The key findings are that poor people are found to live in housing of lower quality, in densely populated neighbourhoods and those with mixed use, with compensating amenities provided at the local level. Moreover, consistent with environmental inequality scholarship, deprived households are found to bear the burden of environmental degradation outside the home. People live in areas with poorer air quality, but are found to benefit from greater access to green spaces. The results of the survey reveal an interesting point concerning the environmental inequality literature; the interior features of housing are found to differ more widely between deprived and wealthier people than the surrounding environment does. [less ▲]

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See detailSize effects and temperature dependence on strain-hardening mechanisms in some face centered cubic materials
HUG, E.; DUBOS, P.A.; keller, C. et al

in Mechanics of Materials (2015), 91

The mechanical behaviour of face centered cubic metals is deeply affected when specimen dimensions decrease from a few The millimeters to a few micrometers. At room temperature, a critical thickness (t ... [more ▼]

The mechanical behaviour of face centered cubic metals is deeply affected when specimen dimensions decrease from a few The millimeters to a few micrometers. At room temperature, a critical thickness (t) to grain size (d) ratio (t/d)c, was previously highlighted, under which the sofiening of mechanical properties became very pronounced both in terms of Hall-Petch relation and work hardening mechanisms. In this work, new experimental results are provided concerning the influence of temperature on this size effect for copper, nickel and Ni-20wt.%Cr, representative of a wide range of deformation mechanisms (i.e. dislocation slip character). It is shown that multicrystalline samples (t/d < (t/d)c) are not deeply affected by an increase in temperature, independently of the planar or wavy character of dislocation glide. For pronounced wavy slip character metals, surface effects in polycrystals (t/d > (t/d)c) are not significant enough to reduce the gap between polycrystal and multierystal mechanical behaviour when the temperature increases. However, a transition from wavy slip to planar glide mechanisms induces a modification ofthe polycrystalline behaviour which tends tovard multicrystalline one with a moderate increase in temperature. This work demonstrates that surface effects and grain size influence can be successfully disassociated for the three studied materials using an analysis supported by the Kooks- Mecking formalism. All these results are supported by microscopic investigations of dislocation substructures and compared to numerical simulations using a stress gradient plasticity model. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Sequence of Cyclophosphamide and Myeloablative Total Body Irradiation in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Patients with Acute Leukemia
Holter-Chakrabarty, Jennifer; Pierson, Namali; Zhang, Mei-Jie et al

in Biology of Blood & Marrow Transplantation (2015), 21(7), 1251-7

Limited clinical data are available to assess whether the sequencing of cyclophosphamide (Cy) and total body irradiation (TBI) changes outcomes. We evaluated the sequence in 1769 (CyTBI, n ¼ 948; TBICy, n ... [more ▼]

Limited clinical data are available to assess whether the sequencing of cyclophosphamide (Cy) and total body irradiation (TBI) changes outcomes. We evaluated the sequence in 1769 (CyTBI, n ¼ 948; TBICy, n ¼ 821) recipients of related or unrelated hematopoietic cell transplantation who received TBI (1200 to 1500 cGY) for acute leukemia from 2003 to 2010. The 2 cohorts were comparable for median age, performance score, type of leukemia, first complete remission, Philadelphia chromosomeepositive acute lymphoblastic leukemia, HLAmatched siblings, stem cell source, antithymocyte globulin use, TBI dose, and type of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. The sequence of TBI did not significantly affect transplantation-related mortality (24% versus 23% at 3 years, P ¼.67; relative risk, 1.01; P ¼.91), leukemia relapse (27% versus 29% at 3 years, P ¼ .34; relative risk, .89, P ¼.18), leukemia-free survival (49% versus 48% at 3 years, P ¼.27; relative risk, .93; P ¼ .29), chronic GVHD (45% versus 47% at 1 year, P ¼.39; relative risk, .9; P ¼ .11), or overall survival (53% versus 52% at 3 years, P ¼.62; relative risk, .96; P ¼.57) for CyTBI and TBICy, respectively. Corresponding cumulative incidences of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome were 4% and 6% at 100 days (P ¼ .08), respectively. This study demonstrates that the sequence of Cy and TBI does not impact transplantation outcomes and complications in patients with acute leukemia undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation with myeloablative conditioning. [less ▲]

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See detailA radio-map of the colliding winds in the very massive binary system HD93129A
Benaglia, Paula; Marcote, Benito; Moldon, Javier et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2015), 579

Radio observations are an effective tool to discover particle acceleration regions in colliding-wind binaries, through detection of synchrotron radiation; these regions are natural laboratories for the ... [more ▼]

Radio observations are an effective tool to discover particle acceleration regions in colliding-wind binaries, through detection of synchrotron radiation; these regions are natural laboratories for the study of relativistic particles.Wind-collision region (WCR) models can reproduce the radio continuum spectra of massive binaries that contain both thermal and non-thermal radio emission; however, key constraints for models come from high-resolution imaging. Only five WCRs have been resolved to date at radio frequencies at milliarcsec (mas) angular scales. The source HD93129A, prototype of the very few known O2 I stars, is a romising target for study: recently, a second massive, early-type star about 50 mas away was discovered, and a non-thermal radio source detected in the region. Preliminary long-baseline array data suggest that a significant fraction of the radio emission from the system comes from a putative WCR. We sought evidence that HD93129A is a massive binary system with colliding stellar winds that produce non-thermal radiation, through spatially resolved images of the radio emitting regions. Methods.We completed observations with the Australian Long Baseline Array (LBA) to resolve the system at mas angular resolutions and reduced archival Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) data to derive the total radio emission. We also compiled optical astrometric data of the system in a homogeneous way. We reduced historical Hubble Space Telescope data and obtained absolute and relative astrometry with milliarcsec accuracy. The astrometric analysis leads us to conclude that the two stars in HD93129A form a gravitationally bound system. The LBA data reveal an extended arc-shaped non-thermal source between the two stars, indicative of a WCR. The wind momentum-rate ratio of the two stellar winds is estimated. The ATCA data show a point source with a change in flux level between 2003-4 and 2008-9, that is modeled with a non-thermal power-law spectrum with spectral indices of - 1:03 +/- 0:09 and -1:21 +/- 0:03 respectively. The mass-loss rates derived from the deduced thermal radio emission and from the characteristics of the WCR are consistent with estimates derived by other authors. [less ▲]

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See detailReinforcement Learning of Heuristic EV Fleet Charging in a Day-Ahead Electricity Market
Vandael, Stijn; Claessens, Bert; Ernst, Damien ULg et al

in IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid (2015), 6(4), 1795-1805

This paper addresses the problem of defining a day-ahead consumption plan for charging a fleet of electric vehicles (EVs), and following this plan during operation. A challenge herein is the beforehand ... [more ▼]

This paper addresses the problem of defining a day-ahead consumption plan for charging a fleet of electric vehicles (EVs), and following this plan during operation. A challenge herein is the beforehand unknown charging flexibility of EVs, which depends on numerous details about each EV (e.g., plug-in times, power limitations, battery size, power curve, etc.). To cope with this challenge, EV charging is controlled during opertion by a heuristic scheme, and the resulting charging behavior of the EV fleet is learned by using batch mode reinforcement learning. Based on this learned behavior, a cost-effective day-ahead consumption plan can be defined. In simulation experiments, our approach is benchmarked against a multistage stochastic programming solution, which uses an exact model of each EVs charging flexibility. Results show that our approach is able to find a day-ahead consumption plan with comparable quality to the benchmark solution, without requiring an exact day-ahead model of each EVs charging flexibility. [less ▲]

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See detailHepatozoonosis in cats : ABCD guidelines on prevention and management
Lloret, A.; Addie, D.D.; Boucraut-Baralon, C. et al

in Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery (2015), 17

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See detailIdesbald Goddeeris, La Grande Emigration polonaise en Belgique (1831-1870). Elites et masses en exil à l’époque romantique, Francfort-sur-le-Main, P.I.E. Peter Lang, 2013, 552 p.
Genin, Vincent ULg

in Bulletin d'Information de l'Association Belge d'Histoire Contemporaine = Mededelingenblad van de Belgische Vereniging voor Nieuwste Geschiedenis (2015), XXXVII(2), 18-19

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See detailDetection of decomposition volatile organic compounds in soil following removal of remains from a surface deposition site
Perrault, Katelynn A.; Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues ULg; Stuart, Barbara H. et al

in Forensic Science, Medicine & Pathology (2015), 11(3), 376-387

Purpose Cadaver-detection dogs use volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to search for human remains including those deposited on or beneath soil. Soil can act as a sink for VOCs, causing loading of ... [more ▼]

Purpose Cadaver-detection dogs use volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to search for human remains including those deposited on or beneath soil. Soil can act as a sink for VOCs, causing loading of decomposition VOCs in the soil following soft tissue decomposition. The objective of this study was to chemically profile decomposition VOCs from surface decomposition sites after remains were removed from their primary location. Methods Pig carcasses were used as human analogues and were deposited on a soil surface to decompose for 3 months. The remains were then removed from each site and VOCs were collected from the soil for 7 months & Katelynn A. Perrault katelynn.perrault@uts.edu.au thereafter and analyzed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography–time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC9GC–TOFMS). Results Decomposition VOCs diminished within 6 weeks and hydrocarbons were the most persistent compound class. Decomposition VOCs could still be detected in the soil after 7 months using Principal Component Analysis. Conclusions This study demonstrated that the decompo- sition VOC profile, while detectable by GC9GC–TOFMS in the soil, was considerably reduced and altered in com- position upon removal of remains. Chemical reference data is provided by this study for future investigations of canine alert behavior in scenarios involving scattered or scav- enged remains. [less ▲]

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See detailOne-year follow-up of platelet-rich plasma infiltration to treat chronic proximal patellar tendinopathies
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg et al

in Acta Orthopaedica Belgica (2015), 81(2), 251-256

Infiltration of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) may be considered as a recent therapeutic option for chronic tendinopathies. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical status and the return to sports ... [more ▼]

Infiltration of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) may be considered as a recent therapeutic option for chronic tendinopathies. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical status and the return to sports activities in patients with chronic proximal patellar tendinopathies. Twenty subjects with chronic proximal patellar tendinopathy benefited from 1 infiltration of PRP coupled with a standardized eccentric rehabilitation. The follow-up (up to 1 year) was assessed by means of a Visual Anologue Scale (VAS), the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) form and the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment (VISA-P) score. Moreover, subjects had to answer an information questionnaire concerning their life and sports activities. Seventy percents of the patients reported a favourable evolution with decrease of pain, and returned to sports activities. With time, VAS dropped significantly and both IKDC and VISA-P scores improved also significantly. This study confirms that a local injection of PRP coupled with a program of eccentric rehabilitation for treating a chronic jumper’s knee, improves pain symptoms and the functionaliti [less ▲]

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See detailLa justification des inégalités électorales en droits allemand, belge et britannique
Bouhon, Frédéric ULg

in Revue internationale de droit comparé (2015), 2015/2

Cet article constitue un résumé de la thèse de doctorat de l'auteur intitulée "Droit électoral et principe d'égalité. L'élection des assemblées législatives nationales en droits allemand, belge et ... [more ▼]

Cet article constitue un résumé de la thèse de doctorat de l'auteur intitulée "Droit électoral et principe d'égalité. L'élection des assemblées législatives nationales en droits allemand, belge et britannique". [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of process water recycling during flotation of copper and cobalt oxidised ores from Luiswishi deposit in the Democratic Republic of Congo
Shengo, Michel; Gaydardzhiev, Stoyan ULg; Kalenga, Pierre

in Desalination and Water Treatment (2015), 55(7), 117

Laboratory flotation tests with copper–cobalt oxidized ore from the Luiswishi deposit in the Katanga province were done using process water being recycled to different degrees. Grade and recovery of ... [more ▼]

Laboratory flotation tests with copper–cobalt oxidized ore from the Luiswishi deposit in the Katanga province were done using process water being recycled to different degrees. Grade and recovery of copper and cobalt were followed by 10, 20 and 80% process to fresh water addition with the results from these conditions being compared to those without water recycling. When process water was recycled at 10%, 83.7% copper and 84.1% cobalt were recovered at the rougher stage bringing the cleaner stage to a concentrate with recovery of 53 and 60% for copper and cobalt, respectively. However, recycling process water, up to 20 and 80%, has reduced the recovery of copper in the final concentrate to 23 and 6%, respectively, and of cobalt to 46 and 27%, respectively. Monitoring of dissolved oxygen content, pulp pH and Es potential during flotation, coupled with thermodynamic estimation of the predominant chemical compounds in the system, has enabled to evaluate the effects on flotation from the undesirable compounds’ formation during process water recycling. DRIFT spectroscopy was used to identify the nature of the chemical compounds formed on malachite and heterogenite surface during their sulphidisation in the presence of thiosulphate ions. Thiosulphate ions depending on their concentration could promote or hinder malachite and heterogenite flotation by inducing changes in pulp physicochemical parameters or by altering mineral surface properties. [less ▲]

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See detailShould ABO-incompatible deceased liver transplantation be reconsidered?
Detry, Olivier ULg

in Transplant international : official journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation (2015), 28(7), 788-9

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See detailCytauxzoonosis in cats : ABCD guidelines on prevention and management
Lloret, A.; Addie, D.D.; Boucraut-Baralon, C. et al

in Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery (2015), 17

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See detailWest Nile virus infection in cats : ABCD guidelines on prevention and management
Egberink, H.; Addie, D.D.; Boucraut-Baralon et al

in Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery (2015), 17

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See detailStructural optimization of multibody system components described using level set techniques
Tromme, Emmanuel ULg; Tortorelli, Daniel; Bruls, Olivier ULg et al

in Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization (2015)

The structural optimization of the components in multibody systems is performed using a fully coupled optimization method. The design’s predicted response is obtained from a flexible multibody system ... [more ▼]

The structural optimization of the components in multibody systems is performed using a fully coupled optimization method. The design’s predicted response is obtained from a flexible multibody system simulation under various service conditions. In this way, the resulting optimization process enhances most existing studies which are limited to weakly coupled (quasi-) static or frequency domain loading conditions. A level set description of the component geometry is used to formulate a generalized shape optimization problem which is solved via efficient gradient-based optimization methods. Gradients of cost and constraint functions are obtained from a sensitivity analysis which is revisited in order to facilitate its implementation and retain its computational efficiency. The optimizations of a slider-crank mechanism and a 2-dof robot are provided to exemplify the procedure. [less ▲]

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See detailHPAEC-PAD profiles of maltooligosaccharide produced by hydrolysis of sorghum starches using amylases from various sources
Boudries, Nadia; Sindic, Marianne ULg; Belhaneche-Bensemra, Naima et al

in International Journal of Biotechnology and Food Science (2015), 3 (4)

Starches isolated from white and pigmented sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) were used to determine enzymatic activity of starch hydrolysis by fungal (Aspergillus Oryzae) and bacterial (Bacillus ... [more ▼]

Starches isolated from white and pigmented sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) were used to determine enzymatic activity of starch hydrolysis by fungal (Aspergillus Oryzae) and bacterial (Bacillus Subtilis) α-amylase and oligosaccharides profiles of hydrolysate was determinate in same conditions by High Performance Exchange Anion Chromatography with Pulsed Amperometric Detection (HPEAC-PAD). Pure starches from potato, amylose and amylopectin were used for comparison. Oligosaccharide compositions ranging from glucose (DP1) to maloheptaose (DP7) as well as the significantly effect of α-amylase source and starch structure were determined. [less ▲]

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See detailVitesse ou précipitation ? La question du temps dans le traitement des affaires pénales en France et en Belgique
Bastard, Benoit; Delvaux, David ULg; Mouhanna, Christian et al

in Droit et Société (2015), 90

Le temps a changé de valeur dans le fonctionnement des institutions pénales. La réponse instantanée à toute sollicitation est devenue l’objectif prioritaire dans le travail des parquets. L’efficacité de ... [more ▼]

Le temps a changé de valeur dans le fonctionnement des institutions pénales. La réponse instantanée à toute sollicitation est devenue l’objectif prioritaire dans le travail des parquets. L’efficacité de la réponse pénale impose de rapprocher autant que possible le temps de la sanction de celui de l’infraction. Les normes de bonne gestion publique passent par la quantification des affaires et la réduction des délais de traitement. Cette tendance générale est observée ici dans une perspective comparative : France et Belgique. Alors que, dans les deux pays, les discours tenus mettent uniformément l’accent sur l’efficacité accrue des services, les comparaisons effectuées font ressortir des décalages importants dans les modalités du traitement rapide. Une réflexion générale peut alors être engagée sur les régimes de changement qui prévalent au sein de l’institution judiciaire dans les deux pays. [less ▲]

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See detailAn XFEM/CZM implementation for massively parallel simulations of composites fracture
Vigueras, Guillermo; Sket, Federico; Samaniego, Cristobal et al

in Composite Structures (2015), 125

Because of their widely spread use in many industries, composites are the subject of many research campaigns. More particularly, the development of both accurate and flexible numerical models able to ... [more ▼]

Because of their widely spread use in many industries, composites are the subject of many research campaigns. More particularly, the development of both accurate and flexible numerical models able to capture their intrinsically multiscale modes of failure is still a challenge. The standard finite element method typically requires intensive remeshing to adequately capture the geometry of the cracks and high accuracy is thus often sacrificed in favor of scalability, and vice versa. In an effort to preserve both properties, we present here an extended finite element method (XFEM) for large scale composite fracture simulations. In this formulation, the standard FEM formulation is partially enriched by use of shifted Heaviside functions with special attention paid to the scalability of the scheme. This enrichment technique offers several benefits, since the interpolation property of the standard shape function still holds at the nodes. Those benefits include (i) no extra boundary condition for the enrichment degree of freedom, and (ii) no need for transition/blending regions; both of which contribute to maintain the scalability of the code. Two different cohesive zone models (CZM) are then adopted to capture the physics of the crack propagation mechanisms. At the intralaminar level, an extrinsic CZM embedded in the XFEM formulation is used. At the interlaminar level, an intrinsic CZM is adopted for predicting the failure. The overall framework is implemented in ALYA, a mechanics code specifically developed for large scale, massively parallel simulations of coupled multi-physics problems. The implementation of both intrinsic and extrinsic CZM models within the code is such that it conserves the extremely efficient scalability of ALYA while providing accurate physical simulations of computationally expensive phenomena. The strong scalability provided by the proposed implementation is demonstrated. The model is ultimately validated against a full experimental campaign of loading tests and X-ray tomography analyses for a chosen very large scale. [less ▲]

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See detailQuelle faute l'anglais a-t-il donc commise pour qu'il soit interdit de traduire en anglais?
Dor, Juliette ULg

in Cahiers de Recherches Médiévales et Humanistes = Journal of Medieval and Humanistic Studies (2015), 29(1), 181-198

John Trevisa a fait précéder sa traduction anglaise du Polychronicon d’un petit dialogue (vers 1387) opposant le commanditaire de la traduction et le clerc chargé de l’exécuter. Ce débat se fait l’écho de ... [more ▼]

John Trevisa a fait précéder sa traduction anglaise du Polychronicon d’un petit dialogue (vers 1387) opposant le commanditaire de la traduction et le clerc chargé de l’exécuter. Ce débat se fait l’écho de la violente polémique concernant la traduction de textes scientifiques et religieux. La présence de deux vernaculaires se complique alors de mutations socioculturelles au cours desquelles, d’une part, le français devient une sorte de latin bis, et, d’autre part, soucieux de légitimer le parler maternel, d’aucuns veulent élargir le lectorat aux couches de la population devenues anglophones. Pour défendre le principe d’une traduction, le commanditaire s’appuie essentiellement sur le prestige de leur langue avant la normandisation et sur l’historique de la translatio studii, et use d’arguments souvent proches de ceux des milieux wyclifiens [less ▲]

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See detailLe remplacement des F-16 belges : la dimension nucléaire
Dumoulin, André ULg

in Revue Défense Nationale (2015)

l'article aborde la question du remplacement des F-16 belges avec ou sans le critère d'emport des armes nucléaires aéroportées B-61 américaines

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See detailSound production by dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus at spawning aggregation sites
Bertucci, Frédéric; Lejeune, Pierre; Payrot, J et al

in Journal of Fish Biology (2015), 87(2), 400-421

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See detailDisinfectant choices in veterinary practices, shelters and households : ABCD guidelines on safe and effective disinfection for feline environments
Addie, D.D.; Boucraut-Baralon, C.; Egberink, H. et al

in Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery (2015), 17

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See detailFlora and fauna from a new Famennian (Upper Devonian) locality at Becco, eastern Belgium
Olive, Sébastien; Clément, Gaël; Denayer, Julien ULg et al

in Geologica Belgica (2015), 18(2-4), 92-101

The Becco locality (Liège province), belongs to the Theux tectonic window and represents a proximal, probably fluvial, environment corresponding to a channel infill. We present here a preliminary report ... [more ▼]

The Becco locality (Liège province), belongs to the Theux tectonic window and represents a proximal, probably fluvial, environment corresponding to a channel infill. We present here a preliminary report of the fossil assemblage discovered at the locality. The Becco site has yielded a diverse flora of early seed plants including Moresnetia zalesskyi, Dorinnotheca streeli and Condrusia sp. This assemblage, characteristic of the Belgian Famennian, highlights the diversity of early spermatophytes in the country. Becco has also delivered a rich vertebrate fauna with antiarch, groenlandaspid and phyllolepid placoderms, diplacanthiform acanthodians, as well as actinopterygians and various sarcopterygians. The fossiliferous assemblage of Becco resembles those of several Devonian tetrapod- bearing localities, including that of Strud in Belgium, and could therefore provide a favorable palaeoecological setting in the search for early tetrapods. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of the characteristic function to evaluate and compare analytical variability in an external quality assessment scheme for serum ethanol
Coucke, Wim; Charlier, Corinne ULg; Lambert, Willy et al

in Clinical Chemistry (2015), 61

As a cornerstone of quality management in the laboratory, External Quality Assessment (EQA) schemes are used to assess laboratory and analytical method performance. The characteristic function is used to ... [more ▼]

As a cornerstone of quality management in the laboratory, External Quality Assessment (EQA) schemes are used to assess laboratory and analytical method performance. The characteristic function is used to describe the relation between the target concentration and the EQA standard deviation, which is an essential part of the evaluation process. The characteristic function is also used to compare the variability of different analytical methods. We fitted the characteristic function to data from the Belgian External Quality Assessment program for serum ethanol. Data included results from headspace gas chromatography and the enzymatic methods of Abbott, Roche, Siemens, and Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics. We estimated the characteristic function with weighted nonlinear regression. By introducing dummy variables, we rewrote the original formula of the characteristic function to assess statistical inference for comparing the variability of the different analytical methods. The characteristic function fitted the data precisely. Comparison between methods showed that there was little difference between the estimated variability for low concentrations, and that the increase in SD with increasing target concentration was slower for Abbott and Roche than for the other methods. The characteristic function can successfully be introduced in clinical schemes, although its applicability to fit the data should always be assessed. Because of its easy parameterization, it can be used to assess differences in performance between analytical methods and to assess laboratory performance. The characteristic function also offers an alternative framework for coefficients of variation to describe variability of analytical methods. [less ▲]

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See detailComparaison de l’effet du guidage échographique sur les ponctions de liquide céphalo-rachidien entre les localisations cisternales et lombaires chez le chien : une étude ex vivo
Etienne, Anne-Laure ULg; Peeters, Dominique ULg; Busoni, Valeria ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2015), 158

RÉSUMÉ : Le placement échoguidé de l’aiguille spinale pour les ponctions cisternale et lombaire chez le chien a été décrit. L’objectif de ce travail était de comparer l’effet du guidage échographique pour ... [more ▼]

RÉSUMÉ : Le placement échoguidé de l’aiguille spinale pour les ponctions cisternale et lombaire chez le chien a été décrit. L’objectif de ce travail était de comparer l’effet du guidage échographique pour la ponction de liquide céphalo-rachidien entre les ponctions cisternale et lombaire. Quatre-vingt-trois opérateurs ont participé à l’étude. Ils étaient divisés en quatre groupes selon leur expérience. Après une formation théorique courte, chaque opérateur a réalisé une ponction cisternale et lombaire en aveugle et sous contrôle échographique sur des cadavres tirés au sort. L’échoguidage lombaire était direct alors que celui cisternal était indirect. Après chaque procédure, les opérateurs ont rempli un questionnaire sur leur expérience, leur performance et leur confiance en soi. L’échoguidage augmentait significativement le taux de réussite global de la ponction (comparée à la méthode en aveugle) mais plus clairement avec la localisation lombaire. Le guidage échographique cisternal améliorait significativement le nombre de tentatives, le temps et la confiance en soi chez les opérateurs inexpérimentés et expérimentés. La première cause d’échec citée était différente selon la localisation de la ponction et était liée à la nature de l’échoguidage. Cette étude démontre que les opérateurs inexpérimentés sont capables de réaliser des ponctions échoguidées après une formation théorique courte, justifiant l’utilité du guidage échographique à des fins pédagogiques. [less ▲]

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See detailQuels critères utiliser pour questionner la qualité pédagogique des stages cliniques ?
Vierset, Viviane ULg; Frenay, Mariane; Bédard, Denis

in Revue Internationale de Pédagogie de l'Enseignement Supérieur (2015), 31-2

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See detailBorna disease virus infection in cats : ABCD guidelines on prevention and mangement
Lutz, H.; Addie, D.D.; Boucraut-Baralon, C. et al

in Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery (2015), 17

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See detailSelective top-down control of epiphytic biomass by amphipods from Posidonia oceanica meadows: implications for ecosystem functioning
Michel, Loïc ULg; Dauby, Patrick ULg; Dupont, Alessandra et al

in Belgian Journal of Zoology (2015), 145(2), 83-93

Mediterranean Posidonia oceanica meadows shelter an important biomass and biodiversity of amphipod crustaceans that graze on epiphytes. However, their actual significance for ecosystem functional ... [more ▼]

Mediterranean Posidonia oceanica meadows shelter an important biomass and biodiversity of amphipod crustaceans that graze on epiphytes. However, their actual significance for ecosystem functional processes is hard to estimate, due to the lack of adequate data. Here, a field microcosm-based inclusion experiment was used to test if three of the dominant taxa of the amphipod community (Apherusa chiereghinii, Dexamine spiniventris and Gammarus spp.) could exert top-down control on seagrass leaf epiphytes. Influence of amphipod activity on nutrient availability for the host species was also investigated. All grazer taxa significantly reduced biomasses of erect macroalgae and erect sessile animals present on leaves. None of them consumed encrusting epiflora or epifauna. This selective top-down control could have important implications for the structure of the epiphytic community of P. oceanica leaves, which is one of the most diverse and abundant of all seagrass species. Grazing activity of all taxa caused higher N content of seagrass leaves, likely through amphipod excretion and/or sloppy feeding. Since P. oceanica meadows often grow in oligotrophic zones where plant growth can be nutrient-limited, this N enrichment could enhance seagrass production. Overall, the ecological interaction between P. oceanica and amphipods could be seen as a facultative mutualistic relationship. Our results suggest that amphipod mesograzers are key-elements in some of the functional processes regulating these complex and yet endangered ecosystems, which are essential components of Mediterranean coastal zones. [less ▲]

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See detailFeline injection-site sarcoma : ABCD guidelines on prevention and management
Hartmann, K.; Day, M.J.; Thiry, Etienne ULg et al

in Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery (2015), 17

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See detailInfluence of thermal expansion mismatch on residual stress profile in veneering ceramic layered on zirconia: Measurement by hole-drilling.
Mainjot, Amélie ULg; Najjar, Achref; Jakubowicz-Kohen, Boris D. et al

in Dental materials : official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials (2015)

OBJECTIVES: Mismatch in thermal expansion coefficient between core and veneering ceramic (Deltaalpha=alphacore-alphaveneer, ppm/ degrees C) is reported as a crucial parameter influencing veneer fractures ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: Mismatch in thermal expansion coefficient between core and veneering ceramic (Deltaalpha=alphacore-alphaveneer, ppm/ degrees C) is reported as a crucial parameter influencing veneer fractures with Yttria-tetragonal-zirconia-polycrystal (Y-TZP) prostheses, which still constitutes a misunderstood problem. However, the common positive Deltaalpha concept remains empirical. The objective of this study is to investigate the Deltaalpha dependence of residual stress profiles in veneering ceramic layered on Y-TZP frameworks. METHODS: The stress profile was measured with the hole-drilling method in bilayered disc samples of 20mm diameter with a 0.7mm thick Y-TZP framework and a 1.5mm thick veneer layer. 3 commercial and 4 experimental veneering ceramics (n=3 per group) were used to obtain different Deltaalpha varying from -1.3ppm/ degrees C to +3.2ppm/ degrees C, which were determined by dilatometric analyses. RESULTS: Veneer fractures were observed in samples with Deltaalpha>/=+2.3 or </=-0.3ppm/ degrees C. Residual stress profiles measured in other groups showed compressive stresses in the surface, these stresses decreasing with depth and then becoming more compressive again near the interface. Small Deltaalpha variations were shown to induce significant changes in residual stress profiles. Compressive stress near the framework was found to decrease inversely to Deltaalpha. SIGNIFICANCE: Veneer CTE close to Y-TZP (+0.2ppm/ degrees C Deltaalpha) gived the most favorable stress profile. Yet, near the framework, Deltaalpha-induced residual stress varied inversely to predictions. This could be explained by the hypothesis of structural changes occurrence within the Y-TZP surface. Consequently, the optimum Deltaalpha value cannot be determined before understanding Y-TZP's particular behavior when veneered. [less ▲]

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See detailStreptococcal infections in cats : ABCD guidelines on prevention and management
Frymus, T.; Addie, D.D.; Boucraut-Baralon, C. et al

in Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery (2015), 17

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See detailHealth screening to identify opportunities to improve preventive medicine in cats and dogs
Diez, Marianne ULg; Picavet, Philippe; Ricci, Rebecca et al

in Journal of Small Animal Practice (2015), 56

OBJECTIVES: To describe the results of a prevention campaign in terms of participation and pet health status and to identify opportunities to improve preventive medicine in cats and dogs. METHODS:An ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: To describe the results of a prevention campaign in terms of participation and pet health status and to identify opportunities to improve preventive medicine in cats and dogs. METHODS:An awareness campaign was designed to highlight the role of veterinarians and emphasise the benefits of a veterinary visit. Owners were invited to make an appointment for a free pet health check in a voluntarily participating veterinary clinic. Observations recorded by the veterinarians were entered in a database and subsequently analysed using simple descriptive statistics. RESULTS:A total of 5305 completed health check forms were analysed. The percentages of overweight and obese dogs and cats were 34 and 36%, respectively; this was the most common finding, followed by dental calculus (31% in dogs, 21% in cats). In total 67% of cats did not undergo flea control and 59% were not vaccinated. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Opportunities for increased quality of care are numerous given the high percentage of intact, unvaccinated or non-permanently identified pets and the low level of worm and flea control. Animal health should benefit from preventive measures, and improved management can be undertaken after early detection of diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of soft ferromagnetic sections on the magnetic flux density profile of a large grain, bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductor
Philippe, Matthieu ULg; Ainslie, Mark D; Wera, Laurent ULg et al

in Superconductor Science and Technology (2015), 28

Bulk, high temperature superconductors have significant potential for use as powerful permanent magnets in a variety of practical applications due to their ability to trap record magnetic fields. In this ... [more ▼]

Bulk, high temperature superconductors have significant potential for use as powerful permanent magnets in a variety of practical applications due to their ability to trap record magnetic fields. In this paper, soft ferromagnetic sections are combined with a bulk, large grain Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) high temperature superconductor to form superconductor/ferromagnet (SC/FM) hybrid structures. We study how the ferromagnetic sections influence the shape of the profile of the trapped magnetic induction at the surface of each structure and report the surface magnetic flux density measured by Hall probe mapping. These configurations have been modelled using a 2D axisymmetric finite element method based on the H-formulation and the results show excellent qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental measurements. The model has also been used to study the magnetic flux distribution and predict the behaviour for other constitutive laws and geometries. The results show that the ferromagnetic material acts as a magnetic shield, but the flux density and its gradient are enhanced on the face opposite to the ferromagnet. The thickness and saturation magnetization of the ferromagnetic material are important and a characteristic ferromagnet thickness d* is derived: below d*, saturation of the ferromagnet occurs, and above d*, a weak thickness-dependence is observed. The influence of the ferromagnet is observed even if its saturation magnetization is lower than the trapped flux density of the superconductor. Conversely, thin ferromagnetic discs can be driven to full saturation even though the outer magnetic field is much smaller than their saturation magnetization. [less ▲]

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See detailLe syndrome tarsien antérieur
MILANTS, Christophe ULg; WANG, François-Charles ULg; Gomulinski, Léon et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2015), 70(7-8), 400-404

The anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome is a rare entrapment neuropathy of the deep peroneal nerve beneath the inferior extensor retinaculum of the ankle. It is unrecognized and may lead to misdiagnosis and ... [more ▼]

The anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome is a rare entrapment neuropathy of the deep peroneal nerve beneath the inferior extensor retinaculum of the ankle. It is unrecognized and may lead to misdiagnosis and delayed treatment. We report the case of a 77 years old patient complaining of anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome’s symptoms with neuropathic pain located at the dorsal part of the foot without any sensorimotor loss. The electroneuromyography was in favour of the motor impairment of the deep peroneal nerve. MRI exploration of the ankle showed a millimetric bony overgrowth of the upper pole of the navicular irritative to the deep peroneal nerve. Infiltration at overgrowth of the navicular provided a partial and temporary decrease in pain symptoms. Surgical nerve decompression was then considered. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental and numerical study of the flight of geese
Dimitriadis, Grigorios ULg; Gardiner, James; Tickle, Peter et al

in Aeronautical Journal (2015), 119(1217), 1-30

The flight of barnacle geese at airspeeds representing high-speed migrating flight is investigated using experiments and simulations. The experimental part of the work involved the filming of three ... [more ▼]

The flight of barnacle geese at airspeeds representing high-speed migrating flight is investigated using experiments and simulations. The experimental part of the work involved the filming of three barnacle geese (Branta Leucopsis) flying at different airspeeds in a wind tunnel. The video footage was analysed in order to extract the wing kinematics. Additional information, such as wing geometry and camber was obtained from a 3D scan of a dried wing. An unsteady vortex lattice method was used to simulate the aerodynamics of the measured flapping motion. The simulations were used in order to successfully reproduce the measured body motion and thus obtain estimates of the aerodynamic forces acting on the wings. It was found that the mean of the wing pitch angle variation with time has the most significant effect on lift while the difference in the durations of the upstroke and downstroke has the major effect on thrust. The power consumed by the aerodynamic forces was also estimated; it was found that increases in aerodynamic power correspond very closely to climbing motion and vice versa. Root-mean-square values of the power range from 100 W to 240 W. Finally, it was observed that tandem flying can be very expensive for the trailing bird. [less ▲]

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See detailSemiótica de la acción: textualización y notación
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg

in Tópicos del seminario (2015), 33

Our essay focuses on some methodological issues concerning the semiotic analysis of practice. We will initially retrace the debate about the epistemological relationship between text and action, outlining ... [more ▼]

Our essay focuses on some methodological issues concerning the semiotic analysis of practice. We will initially retrace the debate about the epistemological relationship between text and action, outlining the forms of enunciative praxis through different levels of pertinence analysis. Secondly, we propose the concept of ‘textualization’ as a mediation between text and action: textualizations (photographs, videos, notes) organize and represent practices which are in themselves ephemeral and elusive. Finally, we will consider the textual diagrammatization that we call ‘notation’: this analytical form of mediation between text and practice does not have the same status of in-vivo textualisations, but it works like an ex-post reconstruction which highlights the main gestures and exchanges while performing their grammaticalization. A more general aim of this essay is an enquiry into the legitimate objects of textual semiotics: what are the objects that it can analyze without betraying its principle of immanence, but also without being confined to it and, as a consequence, being unable to analyze practices and respond to topical questions on social issues and on the research in the human sciences? [less ▲]

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See detailCorporate Disclosures, Information Asymmetry and Stock-Market Liquidity in France
Sougné, Danielle ULg; Ajina, Aymen; Lakhal, Faten

in Journal of Applied Business Research (2015), Vol 31(4), 1223-1238

This paper aims at studying the effect of corporate disclosures on information asymmetry and stock-market liquidity in France. Specifically, the purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of ... [more ▼]

This paper aims at studying the effect of corporate disclosures on information asymmetry and stock-market liquidity in France. Specifically, the purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of information included in the annual reports on investor’s behavior. This is proxied by the information asymmetry component of the bid-ask spread and stock market liquidity. Our sample includes 196 French listed firms over a period ranging from 2004 to 2007. We opt for an explanatory study using OLS regressions to examine the nature of the relationship between information disclosed in annual reports and bid-ask spreads a proxy for information asymmetry and stock market liquidity. The results show that the extent of corporate disclosures in annual reports positively influences the liquidity of the French market and negatively affects the adverse selection component of the bid-ask spread. This effect is further confirmed by the commitment to IFRS by French-listed firms from 2005. The decomposition of the total score in the sub-indices shows that non-financial and financial information are important in trading decisions while strategic information may be attractive only for long-term positions [less ▲]

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See detailSpectroscopic survey of Kepler stars. I. HERMES/Mercator observations of A- and F-type stars
Niemczura, E.; Murphy, S. J.; Smalley, B. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2015), 450

The Kepler space mission provided near-continuous and high-precision photometry of about 207,000 stars, which can be used for asteroseismology. However, for successful seismic modelling it is equally ... [more ▼]

The Kepler space mission provided near-continuous and high-precision photometry of about 207,000 stars, which can be used for asteroseismology. However, for successful seismic modelling it is equally important to have accurate stellar physical parameters. Therefore, supplementary ground-based data are needed. We report the results of the analysis of high-resolution spectroscopic data of A- and F-type stars from the Kepler field, which were obtained with the HERMES spectrograph on the Mercator telescope. We determined spectral types, atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances for a sample of 117 stars. Hydrogen Balmer, Fe I, and Fe II lines were used to derive effective temperatures, surface gravities, and microturbulent velocities. We determined chemical abundances and projected rotational velocities using a spectrum synthesis technique. The atmospheric parameters obtained were compared with those from the Kepler Input Catalogue (KIC), confirming that the KIC effective temperatures are underestimated for A stars. Effective temperatures calculated by spectral energy distribution fitting are in good agreement with those determined from the spectral line analysis. The analysed sample comprises stars with approximately solar chemical abundances, as well as chemically peculiar stars of the Am, Ap, and Lambda Boo types. The distribution of the projected rotational velocity, Vsini, is typical for A and F stars and ranges from 8 to about 280 km/s, with a mean of 134 km/s. [less ▲]

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See detailConnections between the design tool, design attributes, and user preferences in early stage design
Häggman, Anders; Tsai, Geoff; Elsen, Catherine ULg et al

in Journal of Mechanical Design (2015), 137(7), 13

Gathering user feedback on provisional design concepts early in the design process has the potential to reduce time-to-market and create more satisfying products. Among the parameters that shape user ... [more ▼]

Gathering user feedback on provisional design concepts early in the design process has the potential to reduce time-to-market and create more satisfying products. Among the parameters that shape user response to a product, this paper investigates how design experts use sketches, physical prototypes, and computer-aided design (CAD) to generate and represent ideas, as well as how these tools are linked to design attributes and multiple measures of design quality. Eighteen expert designers individually addressed a 2 hr design task using only sketches, foam prototypes, or CAD. It was found that prototyped designs were generated more quickly than those created using sketches or CAD. Analysis of 406 crowdsourced responses to the resulting designs showed that those created as prototypes were perceived as more novel, more aesthetically pleasing, and more comfortable to use. It was also found that designs perceived as more novel tended to fare poorly on all other measured qualities. [less ▲]

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See detailBlood transfusion in cats : ABCD guidelines for minimising risks of infectious iatrogenic complications
Pennisi, M.G.; Hartmann, K.; Addie, D.D. et al

in Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery (2015), 17

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See detailLa Belgique ‘officielle’ face à l’OAS (1961-1964). Cas d’une adaptation de Bruxelles à la politique du général De Gaulle
Genin, Vincent ULg

in Revue du Nord (2015), 406 (octobre-décembre 2014)(96), 917-935

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See detailLong-term XMM-Newton investigation of two particle-accelerating colliding-wind binaries in NGC6604: HD168112 and HD167971
De Becker, Michaël ULg

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2015), 451(1), 5589-5599

The long-term (over more than one decade) X-ray emission from two massive stellar systems known to be particle accelerators is investigated using XMM-Newton. Their X-ray properties are interpreted taking ... [more ▼]

The long-term (over more than one decade) X-ray emission from two massive stellar systems known to be particle accelerators is investigated using XMM-Newton. Their X-ray properties are interpreted taking into account recent information about their multiplicity and orbital parameters. The two targets, HD168112 and HD167971 appear to be overluminous in X-rays, lending additional support to the idea that a significant contribution of the X-ray emission comes from colliding-wind regions. The variability of the X-ray flux from HD168112 is interpreted in terms of varying separation expected to follow the 1/D rule for adiabatic shocked winds. For HD167971, marginal decrease of the X-ray flux in September 2002 could tentatively be explained by a partial wind eclipse in the close pair. No long-term variability could be demonstrated despite the significant difference of separation between 2002 and 2014. This suggests the colliding-wind region in the wide orbit does not contribute a lot to the total X-ray emission, with a main contribution coming from the radiative shocked winds in the eclipsing pair. The later result provides evidence that shocks in a colliding-wind region may be efficient particle accelerators even in the absence of bright X-ray emission, suggesting particle acceleration may operate in a wide range of conditions. Finally, in hierarchical triple O-type systems, thermal X-rays do not necessarily constitute an efficient tracer to detect the wind-wind interaction in the long period orbit. [less ▲]

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See detailTravelling-wave ion mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometry as an alternative strategy for screening of multi-class pesticides in fruits and vegetables
Goscinny, Séverine ULg; Joly, Laure; De Pauw, Edwin ULg et al

in Journal of Chromatography. A (2015), 1405

This paper reports a novel approach to screening multi-class pesticides by ion mobility timeof- flight mass spectrometry detection. Nitrogen was selected as mobility gas. After optimization of the ... [more ▼]

This paper reports a novel approach to screening multi-class pesticides by ion mobility timeof- flight mass spectrometry detection. Nitrogen was selected as mobility gas. After optimization of the different ion mobility parameters, determination of matrix effect on the drift times was conducted using different matrix extracts. The results showed that drift time values are not influenced by the matrix and also are independent of the concentration within the working range for 100 pesticides tested, making drift time a powerful additional identification tool. Based on statistics, 2% variation criteria provides a good fit for all the pesticides targeted, and could be considered as a maximum acceptable criteria associated with the drift time parameter for identification purpose. This 2% value is in agreement with already reported criteria, for instance, for GC or LC retention time in European documents. Finally, the well-known feature of mobility to separate complex mixtures was also tested to obtain purified extracted mass spectra of pesticides in fruit extract. [less ▲]

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See detailImpacts of climate change on future flood damage on the river Meuse, with a distributed uncertainty analysis
Detrembleur, Sylvain; Stilmant, Frédéric ULg; Dewals, Benjamin ULg et al

in Natural Hazards (2015), 77(3), 1533-1549

Flood-risk assessments are an objective and quantitative basis for implementing harmonized flood mitigation policies at the basin scale. However, the generated results are subject to different sources of ... [more ▼]

Flood-risk assessments are an objective and quantitative basis for implementing harmonized flood mitigation policies at the basin scale. However, the generated results are subject to different sources of uncertainty arising from underlying assumptions, data availability and the random nature of the phenomenon. These sources of uncertainty are likely to bias conclusions because they are irregularly distributed in space. Therefore, this paper addresses the question of the influence of local features on the expected annual damage in different municipalities. Based on results generated in the frame of a transnational flood-risk-assessment project for the river Meuse (Western Europe) taking climate change into account, the paper presents an analysis of the relative contributions of different sources of uncertainty within one single administrative region (the Walloon region in Belgium, i.e. a river reach of approximately 150 km). The main sources of uncertainty are not only found to vary both from one municipality to the other and in time, but also to induce opposite effects on the computed damage. Nevertheless, practical conclusions for policy-makers can still be drawn. [less ▲]

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See detailL'éveil de la matrix-gla-protéine sonnera le glas des calcifications vasculaires
DELANAYE, Pierre ULg; Liabeuf, Sophie; BOUQUEGNEAU, Antoine ULg et al

in Néphrologie & Thérapeutique (2015), 11(4), 191-200

La matrix-gla-protéine (MGP) est principalement sécrétée par les chondrocytes et les cellules musculaires lisses des parois vasculaires. Son rôle est d’inhiber localement le développement des ... [more ▼]

La matrix-gla-protéine (MGP) est principalement sécrétée par les chondrocytes et les cellules musculaires lisses des parois vasculaires. Son rôle est d’inhiber localement le développement des calcifications vasculaires. MGP doit bénéficier de deux processus post-transcriptionnels avant d’être pleinement active : une phosphorylation de résidus sérine et une carboxylation de résidus glutamate. Cette carboxylation ne peut se faire qu’en présence de quantité suffisante de vitamine K. Plusieurs formes de MGP circulent donc dans le plasma, certaines étant totalement inactives (la MGP déphosphorylée et décarboxylée), d’autres possédant une activité biologique variable en fonction du nombre de sites carboxylés ou phosphorylés. Il existe un lien théorique étroit entre MGP, vitamine K, calcifications vasculaires et maladies cardiovasculaires et ce, particulièrement chez les patients souffrant d’insuffisance rénale chronique, a fortiori s’ils sont dialysés. Si l’existence de ce lien a été démontrée via de nombreuses et solides données fondamentales, les données cliniques restent, à ce jour, observationnelles et doivent donc être interprétées avec prudence. Mesurer une fraction de MGP dans le plasma pour estimer le degré de calcification d’un patient donné n’est pas encore d’actualité . La forme inactive pourrait être utile pour juger des réserves en vitamine K au niveau vasculaire. Dans cet article de revue, nous reviendrons sur les bases théoriques du rôle de MGP dans le processus de calcification vasculaire, sur le défi analytique que représente sa détermination dans le plasma, ainsi que sur les liens entre MGP, vitamine K et calcifications vasculaires en population géne´ rale et chez les patients insuffisants rénaux. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Geoarchaeology of Utica, Tunisia: The Paleogeography of the Mejerda Delta and Hypotheses Concerning the Location of the Ancient Harbor
Delile, Hugo; Abichou; Gadhoum, Ahmed et al

in Geoarchaeology (2015), 30(4), 291-306

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See detailHybrid inventory, gravimetry and altimetry (HIGA) mass balance product for Greenland and the Canadian Arctic
Colgan, W.; Abdalati, W.; Citterio, M. et al

in Remote Sensing of Environment (2015), 168

We present a novel inversion algorithm that generates a mass balance field that is simultaneously consistent with independent observations of glacier inventory derived from optical imagery, cryosphere ... [more ▼]

We present a novel inversion algorithm that generates a mass balance field that is simultaneously consistent with independent observations of glacier inventory derived from optical imagery, cryosphere-attributed mass trends derived from satellite gravimetry, and ice surface elevation trends derived from airborne and satellite altimetry. We use this algorithm to assess mass balance across Greenland and the Canadian Arctic over the Sep-2003 to Oct- 2009 period at 26 km resolution. We evaluate local algorithm-inferred mass balance against forty in situ point observations. This evaluation yields an RMSE of 0.15 mWE/a, and highlights a paucity of in situ observations from regions of high dynamic mass loss and peripheral glaciers. We assess mass losses of 212 ± 67 Gt/a to the Greenland ice sheet proper, 38 ± 11 Gt/a to peripheral glaciers in Greenland, and 42 ± 11 Gt/a to glaciers in the Canadian Arctic. These magnitudes of mass loss are dependent on the gravimetry-derived spherical harmonic mass trend we invert. We spatially partition the transient glacier continuity equation by differencing algorithm-inferred mass balance from modeled surface mass balance, in order to solve the horizontal divergence of ice flux as a residual. This residual ice dynamic field infers flux divergence (or submergent flow) in the ice sheet accumu- lation area and at tidewater margins, and flux convergence (or emergent flow) in land-terminating ablation areas, which is consistent with continuum mechanics theory. [less ▲]

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See detailIn vitro approach to study the synergistic effects of tobramycin and clarithromycin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms using prokaryotic or eukaryotic culture media
Thellin, Olivier ULg; Zorzi, Willy ULg; Jolois, Olivier et al

in International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents Corresponding (2015), 46

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See detailCerebral functional connectivity periodically (de)synchronizes with anatomical constraints
Liegeois, Raphaël ULg; Ziegler, Erik; Bahri, Mohamed Ali ULg et al

in Brain Structure and Function (2015)

This paper studies the link between resting-state functional connectivity (FC), measured by the correlations of the fMRI BOLD time courses, and structural connectivity (SC), estimated through fiber ... [more ▼]

This paper studies the link between resting-state functional connectivity (FC), measured by the correlations of the fMRI BOLD time courses, and structural connectivity (SC), estimated through fiber tractography. Instead of a static analysis based on the correlation between SC and the FC averaged over the entire fMRI time series, we propose a dynamic analysis, based on the time evolution of the correlation between SC and a suitably windowed FC. Assessing the statistical significance of the time series against random phase permutations, our data show a pronounced peak of significance for time window widths around 20-30 TR (40-60 sec). Using the appropriate window width, we show that FC patterns oscillate between phases of high modularity, primarily shaped by anatomy, and phases of low modularity, primarily shaped by inter-network connectivity. Building upon recent results in dynamic FC, this emphasizes the potential role of SC as a transitory architecture between different highly connected resting state FC patterns. Finally, we show that networks implied in consciousness-related processes, such as the default mode network (DMN), contribute more to these brain-level fluctuations compared to other networks, such as the motor or somatosensory networks. This suggests that the fluctuations between FC and SC are capturing mind-wandering effects. [less ▲]

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