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See detailCharacterization and modeling of a scroll expander with air and ammonia as working fluid
Mendoza, Luis Carlos; Navarro-Esbrí; Bruno, Joan Carles et al

in Applied Thermal Engineering (2014), 70

This paper presents the experimental characterization and modeling of a scroll expander. The expander used here is a scroll compressor modified to work as an expander. It is characterized in two ... [more ▼]

This paper presents the experimental characterization and modeling of a scroll expander. The expander used here is a scroll compressor modified to work as an expander. It is characterized in two experimental setups using air and ammonia as working fluids. The paper studies how the main operating variables (supply pressure and temperature, pressure ratio, rotational speed and lubrication) influence the performance of the scroll expander. A semi-empirical model is proposed to determine the scroll expander performance. This model uses some semi-empirical parameters (such as built-in volume ratio, leakage area and mechanical losses), obtained through experimentation, to calculate the mechanical power, supply mass flow rate and exhaust temperature. Using this semi-empirical model, the deviations in the calculated mechanical power, exhaust temperature and supply mass flow rate are ±9%, ±4 K and ±5% Hz. [less ▲]

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See detailA one phase thermomechanical model for the numerical simulation of semi-solid material behavior. Application to thixoforming
Koeune, Roxane; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg

in International Journal of Plasticity (2014), 58

This work deals with the development of an appropriate constitutive model for semi-solid thixoforming processes of metallic alloys. These processes rely on a very specific material behavior called ... [more ▼]

This work deals with the development of an appropriate constitutive model for semi-solid thixoforming processes of metallic alloys. These processes rely on a very specific material behavior called thixotropy that can be displayed by some metallic alloys heated up to their semi-solid state. It is a particular evolutionary behavior which is characterized by a solidlike behavior at rest and a liquid flow during shearing, thus by a decrease of the viscosity and of the resistance to deformation while sheared. An original one-phase thermo-elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model has been developed. The basic idea is to extend the classical isotropic hardening and viscosity models beyond the solid state by considering two more non-dimensional internal scalar parameters. The semi-solid state is treated as a particular case, and one of the main features of the proposed constitutive model is that it remains valid over a wide range of temperatures, starting from room temperature to above the liquidus in a continuous manner, thus allowing a continuous transition between classical solid and fluid behavior. Another feature is that, after the forming step, it is possible to simulate the cooling down of the component back to room temperature using the elastic–viscoplastic model. So it is possible to estimate residual stresses, something that is definitely impossible while using a fluid-like model or a rigid viscoplastic approach. The presented model is illustrated and validated by means of representative numerical applications, as two different extrusion tests are carried out and the computed predictions are compared to experimental results. [less ▲]

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See detailChallenges for the Development of Bone-Forming Agents in Europe.
Kanis, John A.; Rizzoli, Rene; Cooper, Cyrus et al

in Calcified tissue international (2014), 94

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See detailDe la nullité des décisions de l’assemblée générale des sociétés coopératives
Léonard, Laura ULg; Caprasse, Olivier ULg

in Le droit des affaires = Het ondernemingsrecht (2014), 109

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See detailBiological nitrate utilization in south Siberian lakes (Baikal and Hovsgol) during the last glacial period: the influence of climate changes on primary productivity
Watanabe Nara, F.; Watanabe, T.; Kakegawa, T. et al

in Quaternary Science Reviews (2014), 90

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See detailIdentification of a microRNA landscape targeting the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in inflammation-induced colorectal carcinogenesis
JOSSE, Claire ULg; Bouznad, Nassim ULg; Geurts, Pierre ULg et al

in American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology (2014), 306

Inflammation can contribute to tumor formation; however, markers that predict progression are still lacking. In the present study, the well-established azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS ... [more ▼]

Inflammation can contribute to tumor formation; however, markers that predict progression are still lacking. In the present study, the well-established azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse model of colitis-associated cancer was used to analyze microRNA (miRNA) modulation accompanying inflammation-induced tumor development and to determine whether inflammation-triggered miRNA alterations affect the expression of genes or pathways involved in cancer. A miRNA microarray experiment was performed to establish miRNA expression profiles in mouse colon at early and late time points during inflammation and/or tumor growth. Chronic inflammation and carcinogenesis were associated with distinct changes in miRNA expression. Nevertheless, prediction algorithms of miRNA-mRNA interactions and computational analyses based on ranked miRNA lists consistently identified putative target genes that play essential roles in tumor growth or that belong to key carcinogenesis-related signaling pathways. We identified PI3K/Akt and the insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) as major pathways being affected in the AOM/DSS model. DSS-induced chronic inflammation downregulates miR-133a and miR-143/145, which is reportedly associated with human colorectal cancer and PI3K/Akt activation. Accordingly, conditioned medium from inflammatory cells decreases the expression of these miRNA in colorectal adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells. Overexpression of miR-223, one of the main miRNA showing strong upregulation during AOM/DSS tumor growth, inhibited Akt phosphorylation and IGF-1R expression in these cells. Cell sorting from mouse colons delineated distinct miRNA expression patterns in epithelial and myeloid cells during the periods preceding and spanning tumor growth. Hence, cell-type-specific miRNA dysregulation and subsequent PI3K/Akt activation may be involved in the transition from intestinal inflammation to cancer. [less ▲]

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See detailBiostratigraphic significance of brachiopods near the Devonian–Carboniferous boundary
Mottequin, Bernard ULg; Brice, Denise; Legrand-Blain, Marie

in Geological Magazine (2014), 151

The biostratigraphic significance of selected uppermost Famennian (Upper Devonian) and lower Tournaisian (Mississippian) brachiopod genera, belonging to the orders Rhynchonellida (e.g. Araratella ... [more ▼]

The biostratigraphic significance of selected uppermost Famennian (Upper Devonian) and lower Tournaisian (Mississippian) brachiopod genera, belonging to the orders Rhynchonellida (e.g. Araratella), Spiriferida (e.g. Sphenospira, Prospira), Spiriferinida (Syringothyris) and Productida (except Chonetidina), is discussed. Owing to the difficulties of identifying productidine and strophalosiidine genera, in contrast to rhynchonellides and spiriferides, the biostratigraphic potential of the former has generally been overlooked. Brachiopods flourished in neritic environments that were unfavourable for conodonts and ammonoids. In the absence of the latter traditional marker fossils, they are potentially important for locating the Devonian–Carboniferous boundary in shallow water depositional settings in conjunction with rugose corals and foraminifers. On a worldwide scale, further work is required to reach a better assessment of the aftermath of the Hangenberg biological Crisis on brachiopods, notably in revising the faunas from the classical areas of the Famennian and Tournaisian stages in Western Europe. [less ▲]

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See detailÉDITORIAL : Augmenter la visibilité de la radiothérapie
COUCKE, Philippe ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014), 69(Supp 1), 1-2

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See detailCreativity and entrepreneurship: Changing currents in education and public-life
Dufays, Frédéric ULg

in International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research (2014), 20(3), 297-299

Looking at how to foster creativity and innovation for economic and social value, Lynn Book and David Phillips suggest bridging arts and sciences both within the academy and with external partners as a ... [more ▼]

Looking at how to foster creativity and innovation for economic and social value, Lynn Book and David Phillips suggest bridging arts and sciences both within the academy and with external partners as a key element. In this book, they compile a series of contributions that analyse, share experiences, model such (cross-sector) partnerships. [less ▲]

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See detailÉvaluation du potentiel de dix accessions de Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) au Niger
Abdoul Habou, Zakari; Katkore, Boubacar; Abasse, Tougiani et al

in Journal of Applied Biosciences (2014), 77

Objective: A trial of the ten accessions for J curcas was carried out at regional Agricultural Research Center of Maradi in Niger, with aim to evaluate the performance of Jatropha curcas accessions ... [more ▼]

Objective: A trial of the ten accessions for J curcas was carried out at regional Agricultural Research Center of Maradi in Niger, with aim to evaluate the performance of Jatropha curcas accessions. Methodology and results: Each accession was represented by two rows and each row has 15 plant trees of J. curcas. Data on the rate of survival and growth parameters of each tree were collected. Results revealed that there is no significant difference between accessions tested for height and diameter. Accessions Katil 13 and GB 14 respectively originated from Mali and Bisseau Guinea were best adapted for the Niger conditions. The yield value of 511 and 445 kg per hectare respectively obtained from Katil 13 and GB 14 in 2012.Conclusion and application of results: The Government of Niger has drawn attention to this crop and has launched a J. curcas plantation for seed production of 150 ha at Guessalbodi. National Research Institution. NGOs are also involved in J. curcas plantation for biofuel use. [less ▲]

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See detailUncertainty assessment of ephemeral gully identification, characteristics and topographic threshold when using aerial photographs in agricultural settings
Maugnard, Alexandre; Cordonnier, Hélène; Degré, Aurore ULg et al

in EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS (2014)

Manual digitizing on aerial photographs is still commonly used for characterizing gully erosion over large areas. Even when automated detection procedures are implemented, manual digitizing is frequently ... [more ▼]

Manual digitizing on aerial photographs is still commonly used for characterizing gully erosion over large areas. Even when automated detection procedures are implemented, manual digitizing is frequently being resorted to in order to constitute reference datasets used for training and validation. In both cases, manual digitizing entails some subjective decisions on behalf of the operator, which introduces uncertainty into the resulting datasets. To assess the magnitude of this uncertainty, 11 experienced operators were asked to digitize and classify ephemeral gullies (EGs) on cropland following a standardized methodology. The resulting 11 datasets were compared in terms of number, type and location of EGs. Furthermore, for EGs located on a welldefined runoff flow concentration axis, the slope versus contributing area topographic thresholds required for initiating gully channels were assessed using four thresholding methods, and compared across the 11 datasets. The operators identified 259 different EGs. However, the number (52–139) and sum total length (8.9–23.7 km) of EGs varied widely across operators. Only 34% of the EGs were digitized by more than half of the operators, and 7% were identified by all. Identification of EGs located on a well-defined flow concentration axis proved least subjective. The longer the EG and the more fields the EG crossed, the larger the number of operators that were able to identify it. EGs were also most easily identified when located in sugar beet fields as compared to other crops. EG classification and topographic threshold lines were also found to be strongly operator-dependent. Quantile regression appeared to be one of the most robust thresholding methods. Operator subjectivity when digitizing EGs on orthophotographs introduces uncertainty that should be taken into account in future remote sensing-based studies of EG erosion whenever they rely, in part or in full, on manual photograph interpretation. [less ▲]

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See detailPhase Ib study of Buparlisib plus Trastuzumab in patients with HER2-positive advanced or metastatic breast cancer that has progressed on Trastuzumab-based therapy.
Saura, Cristina; Bendell, Johanna; Jerusalem, Guy ULg et al

in Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research (2014), 20(7), 1935-45

PURPOSE: Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mTOR pathway activation in patients with HER2-positive (HER2(+)) breast cancer has been implicated in de novo and acquired trastuzumab resistance. The purpose ... [more ▼]

PURPOSE: Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mTOR pathway activation in patients with HER2-positive (HER2(+)) breast cancer has been implicated in de novo and acquired trastuzumab resistance. The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical activity of the PI3K inhibitor buparlisib (BKM120) in patients with HER2(+) advanced/metastatic breast cancer resistant to trastuzumab-based therapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In the dose-escalation portion of this phase I/II study, patients with trastuzumab-resistant locally advanced or metastatic HER2(+) breast cancer were treated with daily oral doses of buparlisib and weekly intravenous trastuzumab (2 mg/kg). Dose escalation was guided by a Bayesian logistic regression model with overdose control. RESULTS: Of 18 enrolled patients, 17 received buparlisib. One dose-limiting toxicity of grade 3 general weakness was reported at the 100-mg/day dose level (the single-agent maximum tolerated dose) and this dose level was declared the recommended phase II dose (RP2D) of buparlisib in combination with trastuzumab. Common (>25%) adverse events included rash (39%), hyperglycemia (33%), and diarrhea (28%). The pharmacokinetic profile of buparlisib was not affected by its combination with trastuzumab. At the RP2D, there were two (17%) partial responses, 7 (58%) patients had stable disease (>/=6 weeks), and the disease control rate was 75%. Pharmacodynamic studies showed inhibition of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and RAS/MEK/ERK pathways. CONCLUSIONS: In this patient population, the combination of buparlisib and trastuzumab was well tolerated, and preliminary signs of clinical activity were observed. The phase II portion of this study will further explore the safety and efficacy of this combination at the RP2D. Clin Cancer Res; 20(7); 1935-45. (c)2014 AACR. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effect of size, weight, body compartment, sex and reproductive status on the bioaccumulation of 19 trace elements in rope-grown Mytilus galloprovincialis
Richir, Jonathan ULg; Gobert, Sylvie ULg

in Ecological Indicators (2014), 36

Numerous trace elements (TEs) can be considered as potential pollutants of the environment, their mining productions and industrial uses increasing worldwide. Their monitoring can be achieved through the ... [more ▼]

Numerous trace elements (TEs) can be considered as potential pollutants of the environment, their mining productions and industrial uses increasing worldwide. Their monitoring can be achieved through the use of bioindicator species, such as the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck, 1819). That species has been widely used to monitor the chemical pollution of coastal ecosystems by Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, As, Ag and V. Conversely, environmental levels of Be, Al, Fe, Mn, Co, Se, Mo, Sn, Sb and Bi have been little or not monitored so far in mussel watch programs. Bioaccumulation processes of these 19 TEs in rope-grown M. galloprovincialis purchased from a salt pond with good chemical water quality were thus investigated in the present study. Mussels efficiently accumulated the 19 studied TEs. Bioaccumulation processes were driven by numerous mutually dependent biological parameters such as the mussel size and flesh weight, the sex and the reproductive status and the body compartment considered. TE bioaccumulation was a power function of the mussel soft body dry weight; total contents linearly increased with the shell length. Small-size mussels overall concentrated more TEs, with a high inter-individual variability, consequently influencing the modelling of their bioaccumulation in the whole rope population. Although a large range of rope-grown M. galloprovincialis sizes can be used for monitoring purposes, one will thus take care not to use extreme size individuals. The influence of gametogenesis in determining female body higher TE concentrations prior to spawning could not be neglected and varied depending on the element. TEs were preferentially accumulated in the hepatopancreas, except for Zn, Se, Cd and Mo, more concentrated in gills. Gametogenesis did not influence TE distribution between body compartments, but likely diluted their concentrations as a direct consequence of massive reproductive tissue production. So, results from the present study underline the potential use of M. galloprovincialis in the biomonitoring of numerous little studied TEs and give some insights into the decisive role played by some relevant biological parameters in bioaccumulation processes of the 19 investigated TEs in rope-grown mussels. [less ▲]

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See detailLA PHYSIQUE DES RADIATIONS IONISANTES POUR LES NEOPHYTES
LENAERTS, Eric ULg; COUCKE, Philippe ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014), 69(Supp 1), 13-15

Le développement clinique, à visée diagnostique et thérapeutique, des radiations ionisantes a nécessité une com - préhension de la physique. L’exploitation de ces connaissances a mené à des progrès ... [more ▼]

Le développement clinique, à visée diagnostique et thérapeutique, des radiations ionisantes a nécessité une com - préhension de la physique. L’exploitation de ces connaissances a mené à des progrès majeurs en radiothérapie, visant à l’op - timisation de la distribution de la dose sur la cible et à l’exclu - sion, dans la mesure du possible, de l’irradiation des tissus sains avoisinants. Le développement de nouvelles modalités de traitement, telle l’utilisation des hadrons, est le reflet du développement de cette science. Aux confins de cette radio- physique se trouve la radiobiologie, et l’ensemble des connais - sances dans ces deux domaines permet une optimisation de la prescription médicale [less ▲]

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See detailContrasting patterns of phytoplankton communities in two coastal ecosystems in relation to environmental factors (Corsica, NW Mediterranean Sea)
Garrido, Marie; Koeck, Barbara; Goffart, Anne ULg et al

in Diversity (2014), 6

Corsica Island is a sub-basin of the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, with hydrological features typical of both oligotrophic systems and eutrophic coastal zones. Phytoplankton assemblages in two coastal ... [more ▼]

Corsica Island is a sub-basin of the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, with hydrological features typical of both oligotrophic systems and eutrophic coastal zones. Phytoplankton assemblages in two coastal ecosystems of Corsica (the deep Bay of Calvi and the shallow littoral of Bastia) show contrasting patterns over a one-year cycle. In order to determine what drives these variations, seasonal changes in littoral phytoplankton are considered together with environmental parameters. Our methodology combined a survey of the physico-chemical structure of the subsurface water with a characterization of the phytoplankton community structure. Sampling provided a detailed record of the seasonal changes and successions that occur in these two areas. Results showed that the two sampled stations presented different phytoplankton abundance and distribution patterns, notably during the winter–spring bloom period. Successions in pico-, nano-, and microphytoplankton communities appeared mainly driven by differences in the ability to acquire nutrients, and in community-specific growth rates. Phytoplankton structure and dynamics are discussed in relation to available data on the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea. These results confirm that integrated monitoring of coastal areas is a requisite for gaining a proper understanding of marine ecosystems. [less ▲]

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See detailHair Mercury and urinary cadmium levels in Belgian children and their mothers within the framework of the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES projects
PIRARD, Catherine ULg; Koppen, Gudrun; De Cremer, Koen et al

in Science of the Total Environment (2014), 472

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See detailLE CYBERKNIFE AIME LES DEFIS ! Aperçu d'indications pour la radiothérapie extracrânienne robotisée
JANVARY, Zsolt Levente ULg; JANSEN, Nicolas ULg; COUCKE, Philippe ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014), 69(Supp 1), 87-93

Toute l’histoire de la radiothérapie illustre la quête continue vers une distribution de dose la plus haute possible sur la cible tumorale, tout en réduisant au maximum l’irra - diation des tissus sains ... [more ▼]

Toute l’histoire de la radiothérapie illustre la quête continue vers une distribution de dose la plus haute possible sur la cible tumorale, tout en réduisant au maximum l’irra - diation des tissus sains. La radiothérapie en conditions stéréo - taxiques est la suite logique de cette évolution tant au niveau de la précision d’exécution du traitement qu’au niveau de la concentration de la dose, et donc de l’efficacité du traitement. Cette technique a d’abord été mise en application clinique pour des lésions intra-crâniennes. Une radiothérapie de haute précision ne peut être sensible aux mouvements incontrôlés de la cible. Vu la nécessité en clinique d’aborder les mêmes concepts de précision et d’efficacité pour des cibles extra-crâ - niennes, il a fallu développer des solutions qui permettent de tenir compte du mouvement de la cible. Les solutions infor - matiques et robotiques ont été combinées dans le concept du CyberKnife ® . Nous présentons cette technique particulière d’irradiation et voulons faire part de l’expérience des deux premières années acquise au CHU de Liège. Nous voulons également revoir les indications potentielles de cette radiothé - rapie de très haute précision [less ▲]

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See detailL’evidence-based practice à portée des orthophonistes : intérêt des recommandations pour la pratique clinique
Maillart, Christelle ULg; Durieux, Nancy ULg

in Rééducation Orthophonique (2014), 257

La démarche evidence-based practice (EBP) littéralement « pratique basée sur des preuves », a pour objectif d’aider le clinicien à optimiser ses choix thérapeutiques en s’appuyant sur des données ... [more ▼]

La démarche evidence-based practice (EBP) littéralement « pratique basée sur des preuves », a pour objectif d’aider le clinicien à optimiser ses choix thérapeutiques en s’appuyant sur des données objectives issues de la recherche tout en tenant compte de la situation clinique. Néanmoins, la méthodologie complète de récolte et d’analyse des données est complexe et chronophage, ce qui est un frein réel pour son application en clinique. Pour remédier à cela, des synthèses scientifiquement motivées, appelées des recommandations de pratique clinique (RPC) ou guidelines, se développent et jouent alors un rôle essentiel pour l’actualisation des connaissances des professionnels. Cet article s’intéresse particulièrement aux recommandations pour la pratique clinique et au rôle qu’elles peuvent jouer dans la sensibilisation des cliniciens au recours à une démarche EBP. [less ▲]

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See detailEFSA's scientific activities and achievements on the risk assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) during its first decade of existence: looking back and ahead.
Devos, Yann; Aguilera, Jaime; Diveki, Zoltan et al

in Transgenic research (2014), 23(1), 1-25

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and derived food and feed products are subject to a risk analysis and regulatory approval before they can enter the market in the European Union (EU). In this risk ... [more ▼]

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and derived food and feed products are subject to a risk analysis and regulatory approval before they can enter the market in the European Union (EU). In this risk analysis process, the role of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which was created in 2002 in response to multiple food crises, is to independently assess and provide scientific advice to risk managers on any possible risks that the use of GMOs may pose to human and animal health and the environment. EFSA's scientific advice is elaborated by its GMO Panel with the scientific support of several working groups and EFSA's GMO Unit. This review presents EFSA's scientific activities and highlights its achievements on the risk assessment of GMOs for the first 10 years of its existence. Since 2002, EFSA has issued 69 scientific opinions on genetically modified (GM) plant market registration applications, of which 62 for import and processing for food and feed uses, six for cultivation and one for the use of pollen (as or in food), and 19 scientific opinions on applications for marketing products made with GM microorganisms. Several guidelines for the risk assessment of GM plants, GM microorganisms and GM animals, as well as on specific issues such as post-market environmental monitoring (PMEM) were elaborated. EFSA also provided scientific advice upon request of the European Commission on safeguard clause and emergency measures invoked by EU Member States, annual PMEM reports, the potential risks of new biotechnology-based plant breeding techniques, evaluations of previously assessed GMOs in the light of new scientific publications, and the use of antibiotic resistance marker genes in GM plants. Future challenges relevant to the risk assessment of GMOs are discussed. EFSA's risk assessments of GMO applications ensure that data are analysed and presented in a way that facilitates scientifically sound decisions that protect human and animal health and the environment. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of Usutu virus in a bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula) and a great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos major) in north-west Europe
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Marlier, Didier ULg; Tenner-Racz, Klara et al

in Veterinary Journal (2014), 199

In October 2012, a 3-year-old bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula) held in captivity for its entire lifespan and a wild adult great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos major), both with neurological signs, were ... [more ▼]

In October 2012, a 3-year-old bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula) held in captivity for its entire lifespan and a wild adult great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos major), both with neurological signs, were found 4 km from each other and 5 days apart in the Meuse Valley, Belgium. Non-suppurative encephalitis and mild degeneration and necrosis were identified in the brain and cerebellum, and Usutu virus antigen and RNA were detected by immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR, respectively. The two cases reported here represent the most western distribution of clinical disease in birds due to Usutu virus. [less ▲]

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See detailL’éjaculation précoce : une revue de questions
Kempeneers, Philippe ULg; ANDRIANNE, Robert ULg; Lequeux, Armand et al

in Revue Francophone de Clinique Comportementale et Cognitive (2014), 19(2), 35-60

Premature ejaculation (PE) is a disorder characterized by three components: (1) a rapid ejaculation, (2), a feeling of lack of control upon ejaculation, (3) and a distress related to this condition. The ... [more ▼]

Premature ejaculation (PE) is a disorder characterized by three components: (1) a rapid ejaculation, (2), a feeling of lack of control upon ejaculation, (3) and a distress related to this condition. The criterion of rapidity appears to be most controversial: some authors refer only to subjects’ judgment, while other ones set a maximum ejaculatory latency. Although it focused some criticisms related to a lack of objective latency criteria, the definition of PE propounded by the DSM-IV(-TR) remains most currently used. PE affects about 15 to 30% of the male population. However, the estimations can vary widely depending on populations and methodologies. Several factors contribute to the occurrence of the disorder: one may very probably charge bio-constitutional risks, learning factors, cultural and cognitive influences and the role of anxiety. No robust data allow to implicate personality factors other than anxiety. The influence of the age remains a controversial topic. Cognitive-behavioral techniques appear to be quite efficient in the treatment of PE. However the success rates are variable, and the precise nature of the therapeutic active process remains unclear. Serotonergic drugs and local anesthetics are also efficient, but their action remains strictly symptomatic. The usefulness of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors is disputed. Combining psychological and pharmacological approaches might be promising. Unfortunately, there is a lack of clinical trials in this field. Although effective treatments do exist, only a few affected people appear to use them satisfactorily. Efforts have still to be made in order to train adequately heath practitioners and to make the treatments more accessible to the public. [less ▲]

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See detailStrategies to combine novel traits across countries: example of heat stress
Hammami, Hedi ULg; Vandenplas, Jérémie ULg; Carabaño, Maria Jesus et al

in Interbull Bulletin (2014), 48

Nowadays, novel traits are of great interest. However, phenotypes are siloed and mainly not shared. Heat stress is becoming problematic affecting animals’ performances and their well-being. Heat stress ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, novel traits are of great interest. However, phenotypes are siloed and mainly not shared. Heat stress is becoming problematic affecting animals’ performances and their well-being. Heat stress tolerance as a novel trait is only addressed by isolated within-country research studies. Integration and combination of local and foreign information sources is needed for better accuracy genetic evaluations. Therefore, this study was aimed to test the potential combination of sources of external information towards the evaluation of heat stress tolerance of dairy cattle. Long-term cow performances linked to environmental descriptors (weather parameters as proxy to climate change) collected over 10 years under the temperate conditions of the Walloon Region of Belgium and the hotter and warm Mediterranean conditions of Andalusia and Castile-La-Mancha Spanish regions were available. A total of 1,604,775 milk, fat, and protein test-day (TD) records linked to average daily temperature humidity (THI) values for 3-day lag before each TD were considered. Under a first strategy considering free-access to raw-data (phenotype and pedigree), a joint evaluation was firstly run using reaction norm models where production traits were considered as function of THI. A Belgian and a Spanish evaluation were also run using the same model. An alternative strategy considering only access to external information (i.e. regression coefficients for additive genetic effects (â and their associated REL)) was tested. In this case, foreign â and their REL resulting from the Spanish evaluation were first converted to the Belgian trait and thereafter integrated in the Belgian evaluation using a Bayesian approach. Rank correlations between regression coefficients, â (of the 1,104 bulls having daughters only in Spain) estimated by Belgian evaluation and â estimated by the joint evaluation were moderate (<=0.70). Corresponding rank correlations between â estimated by joint and Bayesian evaluations were significantly higher (ranging from 0.967 to 0.998), indicating that the Bayesian evaluation integrating external information was in good concordance with the joint evaluation. Results from this study indicated that the integration of external information via the Bayesian approach has a good potential to improve the genetic evaluation of sparse and siloed novel traits. [less ▲]

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See detailDepths and type of substrate influence the ability of Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to encounter host
Frederickx, Christine ULg; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica ULg; Verheggen, François ULg et al

in Journal of Insect Science [=JIS] (2014)

The foraging behaviour of a parasitoid insect species includes the host’s habitat and subsequent location of the host. Habitats-substrate, substrate moisture and light levels can affect the host location ... [more ▼]

The foraging behaviour of a parasitoid insect species includes the host’s habitat and subsequent location of the host. Habitats-substrate, substrate moisture and light levels can affect the host location made by different species of parasitoids. However, the depth at which parasitoids concentrate their search effort is an another important ecological characteristic and play an important role on the host location. Here, we have investigated the ability of a pupal parasitoid, Nasonia vitripennis Walker, to penetrate and kill fly pupae located at different depth of the substrate. Three different types of substrate were tested: loam soil, compost and vermiculite substrate. In both loam soil and compost, all of the parasitism activity was restricted to pupae placed directly on the surface. Parasitism activity in vermiculite showed that the average number of pupae parasitized was decreased with depth. These results suggest that fly pupae situated deeper in the substrate are less subjected to parasitism by N. vitripennis. [less ▲]

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See detailSpecial volume of the Journal of Cleaner Production on “Integrating corporate sustainability performance measurement, management control and reporting”
Maas, Karen; Crutzen, Nathalie ULg; Schaltegger, Stefan

in Journal of Cleaner Production (2014), 65

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See detailEvidence-based practice: fondements et réflexions sur l’apport en clinique.
Maillart, Christelle ULg; Durieux, Nancy ULg

in Langage et Pratiques (2014), 53

L’evidence-based practice ou pratique basée sur les preuves est une approche de plus en plus encouragée en logopédie au niveau international. Cet article présente les principaux composants en détaillant ... [more ▼]

L’evidence-based practice ou pratique basée sur les preuves est une approche de plus en plus encouragée en logopédie au niveau international. Cet article présente les principaux composants en détaillant la nature des preuves liées aux trois piliers de l’EBP (preuves externes, preuves internes ou préférences du patient). La démarche de l’EBP est brièvement discutée ainsi que les freins et les bénéfices attendus en clinique. [less ▲]

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See detailInflorescence development in tomato: gene functions within a zigzag model.
Périlleux, Claire ULg; Lobet, Guillaume ULg; Tocquin, Pierre ULg

in Frontiers in Plant Science (2014), 5

Tomato is a major crop plant and several mutants have been selected for breeding but also for isolating important genes that regulate flowering and sympodial growth. Besides, current research in ... [more ▼]

Tomato is a major crop plant and several mutants have been selected for breeding but also for isolating important genes that regulate flowering and sympodial growth. Besides, current research in developmental biology aims at revealing mechanisms that account for diversity in inflorescence architectures. We therefore found timely to review the current knowledge of the genetic control of flowering in tomato and to integrate the emerging network into modeling attempts. We developped a kinetic model of the tomato inflorescence development where each meristem was represented by its ‘vegetativeness’ (V), reflecting its maturation state towards flower initiation. The model followed simple rules: maturation proceeded continuously at the same rate in every meristem (dV); floral transition and floral commitment occurred at threshold levels of V; lateral meristems were initiated with a gain of V (ΔV) relative to the V level of the meristem from which they derived. This last rule created a link between successive meristems and gave to the model its zigzag shape. We next exploited the model to explore the diversity of morphotypes that could be generated by varying dV and ΔV and matched them with existing mutant phenotypes. This approach, focused on the development of the primary inflorescence, allowed us to elaborate on the genetic regulation of the kinetic model of inflorescence development. We propose that the lateral inflorescence meristem fate in tomato is closer to an immature flower meristem than to the inflorescence meristem of Arabidopsis. In the last part of our paper, we extend our thought to spatial regulators that should be integrated in a next step for unraveling the relationships between the different meristems that participate to sympodial growth. [less ▲]

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See detailLate Quaternary evolution of sediment provenances in the Central
Fagel, Nathalie ULg; Not, Christelle; Gueibe, Jonathan et al

in Quaternary Science Reviews (2014), 92

Mineral assemblage, trace element content and Nd and Pb isotope signatures were analysed on the fine fraction (<20 mm) of sedimentary records from the Northern Mendeleev Ridge in the Central Arctic Ocean ... [more ▼]

Mineral assemblage, trace element content and Nd and Pb isotope signatures were analysed on the fine fraction (<20 mm) of sedimentary records from the Northern Mendeleev Ridge in the Central Arctic Ocean. Our aimwas to identify the detrital particle provenance and to interpret the changes over the past w250 ka in the relative contribution of the different source-areas in relation to paleoenvironmental conditions. The clay mineral assemblage and the Nd and Pb isotope signatures depict systematic changes over the Late Quaternary. The bulk mineralogy exhibits increases in the relative contribution of carbonate minerals vs. silicates in interglacial/deglacial intervals. In glacial intervals, the mineral assemblage of the <20 mm fraction is characterised by an enrichment in kaolinite, counterbalanced by a decrease in illite. The Nd and Pb isotope signatures of <20 mm fraction are interpreted using a three end-member mixing model, involving crustal supplies from North America and Canada, from the Siberian margin and some from volcanic material. A compilation of geochemical signatures of geological terraines surrounding the Arctic Ocean allowed each end-member to be assigned a representative signature, averaging the signal of the eroded terraines. The Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) of the MacKenzie River represents an average signature of the sedimentary supplies delivered from the North American platform and Canadian margin. The SPM of the Lena River reflects the mean sedimentary signature of the Siberian platform. The Okhotsh-Chukotka province from the Eastern border of Siberia is identified as the most probable volcanic source. Late Quaternary evolution of the estimated relative contribution of the three end-members confirms that the sediment provenances in the Central Arctic Ocean remain close to the current conditions during past interglacials/deglacials MIS1e3, MIS5/TII and MIS7/TIII. In contrast, glacial conditions (MIS4 and MIS6) record minimum supplies from the American margin, associated with increased volcanic contribution, to the Mendeleev Ridge core location suggesting a different sea-ice circulation associated with a low sea-level and reduced shelf area. [less ▲]

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See detailAmphetamine reward in food restricted mice lacking the melanin-concentrating hormone receptor-1
Geuzaine, A; Tyhon, A; Grisar, Thierry ULg et al

in Behavioural Brain Research (2014), 262

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See detailLa lumière comme stimulant de l’activité cognitive cérébrale
Vandewalle, Gilles ULg

in Medecine Sciences : M/S (2014), In press

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See detailA note on abelian returns in rotation words
Rampersad, Narad; Rigo, Michel ULg; Salimov, Pavel ULg

in Theoretical Computer Science (2014), 528

Pursuing the study started by Rigo, Salimov and Vandomme, we use elementary number-theoretic techniques to characterize rotation words having a finite set of abelian returns to all prefixes. We also make ... [more ▼]

Pursuing the study started by Rigo, Salimov and Vandomme, we use elementary number-theoretic techniques to characterize rotation words having a finite set of abelian returns to all prefixes. We also make the connection between the three gap theorem and the number of semi-abelian returns for Sturmian words, simplifying some arguments developed by Puzynina and Zamboni. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Rank Minrelation Coefficient
Meyer, Patrick ULg

in Quality Technology & Quantitative Management (2014), 11

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See detailReprint of: Policy decisions on endocrine disruptors should be based on science across disciplines: A response to Dietrich, et al.
Gore, A. C.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Bikle, D. et al

in Frontiers in neuroendocrinology (2014), 35(1), 2-5

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See detailBrains creating stories of selves: the neural basis of autobiographical reasoning.
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Cassol, Helena; Phillips, Christophe ULg et al

in Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience (2014), 9

Personal identity critically depends on the creation of stories about the self and one's life. The present study investigates the neural substrates of autobiographical reasoning, a process central to the ... [more ▼]

Personal identity critically depends on the creation of stories about the self and one's life. The present study investigates the neural substrates of autobiographical reasoning, a process central to the construction of such narratives. During fMRI scanning, participants approached a set of personally significant memories in two different ways: on some trials, they remembered the concrete content of the events (autobiographical remembering), whereas on other trials they reflected on the broader meaning and implications of their memories (autobiographical reasoning). Relative to remembering, autobiographical reasoning recruited a left-lateralized network involved in conceptual processing (including the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), inferior frontal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, and angular gyrus). The ventral MPFC-an area that may function to generate personal/affective meaning-was not consistently engaged during autobiographical reasoning across participants but, interestingly, the activity of this region was modulated by individual differences in interest and willingness to engage in self-reflection. These findings support the notion that autobiographical reasoning and the construction of personal narratives go beyond mere remembering in that they require deriving meaning and value from past experiences. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative study of alkaline extraction process of hemicelluloses from pear pomace
Rabetafika, Holy-Nadia ULg; Bchir, Brahim ULg; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

in Biomass & Bioenergy (2014), 61

Hemicelluloses were produced from pear pomace using direct alkaline extraction (sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide) and two-step extraction with delignification pre-treatment (acidified sodium ... [more ▼]

Hemicelluloses were produced from pear pomace using direct alkaline extraction (sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide) and two-step extraction with delignification pre-treatment (acidified sodium chlorite/sodium hydroxide). The aim of the study was to compare the extraction yield, composition and physicochemical characteristics of isolated hemicelluloses by size exclusion chromatography, FTIR and thermogravimetric analyses. Solid residues were analysed in order to evaluate the effect of processes on co-products (lignins and cellulose). Delignification of material (up to 995.4 g kg−1 of original lignins) during the direct alkaline hydrogen peroxide and two-step acidified sodium chlorite/sodium hydroxide processes improved the hemicellulose extraction yield attaining up to 945.3 g kg−1. Hemicelluloses were mainly composed of xylans (xylose/glucose ratio of 4.6–16.2) and had low lignin content (53.5–61.0 g kg−1 dry matter). Those from direct sodium hydroxide extraction were composed of xylans and glucans (xylose/glucose ratio of 1.5) with high content of lignins (149.3 g kg−1 dry matter). All isolated fractions were a mixture of polymers and oligomers with a molecular mass ranging from 1710 g mol−1 to 8 870 000 g mol−1. The two-step process gave the most pure cellulose residue (799.2 g kg−1 dry matter). According to results, the direct alkaline extraction with hydrogen peroxide was a promising process for the production of pure xylose-rich hemicelluloses from pear pomace solubilizing 802.2 g kg−1 of the original hemicelluloses but induced fragmentation of hemicelluloses. [less ▲]

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See detailResidence time vs influence time
Delhez, Eric ULg; de Brye, Bejamin; de Brauwere, Anouk et al

in Journal of Marine Systems (2014), 132

The concepts of age, residence time, exposure time and influence time provide space and time dependent quantitative measures of the rate at which watermasses and pollutants enter and/or leave a control ... [more ▼]

The concepts of age, residence time, exposure time and influence time provide space and time dependent quantitative measures of the rate at which watermasses and pollutants enter and/or leave a control domain. To help avoid confusion between these concepts, this paper provides clear definitions of the residence time and the influence time. The similarities and differences between them are illustrated using both a simplified 1D advection–diffusion model and a realistic two-dimensional model of the Scheldt Estuary (Belgium and the Netherlands). The residence time of a water parcel in a control domain is the time taken by this parcel to leave the control domain for the first time. The influence time is the time required to replace the water in the domain of interest by renewing water. For steady flows, the influence time is numerically identical to the age of the renewing water, but the two timescales differ for unsteady flows. The residence timemeasures the influence of a hypothetical point discharge on a control domain. In environmental studies, it provides a measure of the effectiveness of hydrodynamic processes at helping a semi-enclosed basin to recover froma local pollution event. The influence time quantifies the local influence of a tracer that would be uniformly distributed in the control domain at the initial time. It is therefore a relevant diagnostic tool in impact studies focusing on the local persistence of a pollution problem. [less ▲]

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See detailPore-filling of Spiro-OMeTAD determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in templated TiO2 photoelectrodes
Dewalque, Jennifer ULg; Colson, Pierre ULg; Thalluri, Venkata Visveswara Gopala Kris ULg et al

in Organic Electronics (2014), 15

Liquid-state dye-sensitized solar cells can suffer from electrolyte evaporation and leakage. Therefore solid-state hole transporting materials are investigated as alternative electrolyte materials ... [more ▼]

Liquid-state dye-sensitized solar cells can suffer from electrolyte evaporation and leakage. Therefore solid-state hole transporting materials are investigated as alternative electrolyte materials. However, in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells, optimal TiO2 films thickness is limited to a few microns allowing the adsorption of only a low quantity of photoactive dye and thus leading to poor light harvesting and low conversion efficiency. In order to overcome this limitation, high surface area templated films are investigated as alternative to nanocrystalline films prepared by doctor-blade or screen-printing. Moreover, templating is expected to improve the pore accessibility what would promote the solid electrolyte penetration inside the porous network, making possible efficient charge transfers. In this study, films prepared from different structuring agents are discussed in terms of microstructural properties (porosity, crystallinity) as well as impact on the dye loading and Spiro-OMeTAD (2,2',7,7'-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)9,9'-spirobifluorene) solid electrolyte filling. We first report Rutherford backscattering spectrometry as an innovative non-destructive tool to characterize the hole transporting materials infiltration. Templated films show dye loading more than two times higher than nanocrystalline films prepared by doctor-blade or screen-printing and solid electrolyte infiltration up to 88%. [less ▲]

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See detailMobilisation of lipophilic pollutants from blubber in northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris) during the post-weaning fast
Louis, Caroline; Dirtu, Alin C.; Stas, Marie et al

in Environmental Research (2014), 132

Northern elephant seals (NES) (Mirounga angustirostris) from the Año Nuevo State Reserve (CA, USA) were longitudinally sampled during the post-weaning fast in order to study the mobilisation and ... [more ▼]

Northern elephant seals (NES) (Mirounga angustirostris) from the Año Nuevo State Reserve (CA, USA) were longitudinally sampled during the post-weaning fast in order to study the mobilisation and redistribution of various classes of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) between blubber and blood. Inner and outer blubber layers were analysed separately. Organohalogenated compounds were detected in all blubber samples in the decreasing order of their concentrations: p,p′-DDE>PCBs⪢HCB>PBDEs. The concentrations of all studied compounds were homogeneously distributed in the blubber layer at early fast, since the concentrations of POPs were statistically not different in the inner and outer layers. With the progression of the fast, the concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs and p,p′-DDE increased more sharply in inner blubber than in outer blubber. As a result, their levels became significantly higher in inner blubber as compared to outer blubber at late fast. The rise of pollutant concentrations in blubber might result from a less efficient mobilisation than triglycerides and/or a reuptake by adipocytes of some of the pollutants released into the circulation. The mobilisation of pollutants from blubber was higher at late fast. An increase of pollutant concentrations was observed in serum between early and late fast. Lower halogenated congeners (i.e. tetra-CBs) were present in higher proportions in serum, whereas the higher halogenated congeners (i.e. hepta-CBs) were mainly found in the inner and outer blubber layers. The transfer ratios of both PBDEs and PCBs from inner blubber to serum decreased with the number of chlorine and bromine atoms. In addition, the distribution of both types of compounds between serum and blubber was strongly influenced by their lipophilic character (log Kow values), with more lipophilic compounds being less efficiently released from blubber to serum. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of land use on pollution status and risk of fish endocrine disruption in small farmland ponds
Mandiki; Gillardin; Martens et al

in Hydrobiologia (2014), 723

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See detailThe appropriate and justified use of medical radiation in cardiovascular imaging: a position document of the ESC Associations of Cardiovascular Imaging, Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions and Electrophysiology.
Picano, Eugenio; Vano, Eliseo; Rehani, Madan M. et al

in European heart journal (2014), 35(10), 665-72

The benefits of cardiac imaging are immense, and modern medicine requires the extensive and versatile use of a variety of cardiac imaging techniques. Cardiologists are responsible for a large part of the ... [more ▼]

The benefits of cardiac imaging are immense, and modern medicine requires the extensive and versatile use of a variety of cardiac imaging techniques. Cardiologists are responsible for a large part of the radiation exposures every person gets per year from all medical sources. Therefore, they have a particular responsibility to avoid unjustified and non-optimized use of radiation, but sometimes are imperfectly aware of the radiological dose of the examination they prescribe or practice. This position paper aims to summarize the current knowledge on radiation effective doses (and risks) related to cardiac imaging procedures. We have reviewed the literature on radiation doses, which can range from the equivalent of 1-60 milliSievert (mSv) around a reference dose average of 15 mSv (corresponding to 750 chest X-rays) for a percutaneous coronary intervention, a cardiac radiofrequency ablation, a multidetector coronary angiography, or a myocardial perfusion imaging scintigraphy. We provide a European perspective on the best way to play an active role in implementing into clinical practice the key principle of radiation protection that: 'each patient should get the right imaging exam, at the right time, with the right radiation dose'. [less ▲]

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See detailSkin viscoelasticity in incipient gravitational syndrome.
Pierard, Gérald ULg; Paquet, Philippe; Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine ULg

in Journal of cosmetic dermatology (2014), 13(1), 52-5

BACKGROUND: The gravitational syndrome resulting from venous pressure elevation occasionally develops on the legs during pregnancy. The limb tends to enlarge and become stiffer. The body contours are ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The gravitational syndrome resulting from venous pressure elevation occasionally develops on the legs during pregnancy. The limb tends to enlarge and become stiffer. The body contours are altered. AIMS: To assess incipient gravitational edema due to chronic venous insufficiency using measurements of the skin tensile strength. METHOD: A total of 21 women aged 28-37 years were enrolled in the study. Evaluations were made twice in each subject following an alternate use and avoidance of daytime elastic contention. Skin viscoelasticity was measured on the mid portion of the calves using a computerized suction device. RESULTS: The discretely increased consistency of skin showing abnormal rheological characteristics at the site of incipient gravitational edema was significantly improved by contention therapy. Under progressive suction measurements, both skin distensibility, biologic elasticity and hysteresis were increased after wearing tight stockings. The biologic elasticity appears to be the most sensitive parameter pointing to the diagnosis of gravitational syndrome. CONCLUSION: Noninvasive measurements of the skin viscoelasticity, particularly the biologic elasticity, represent an objective assessment of both early gravitational edema and its control by contention therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of lexical frequency on sentence comprehension in children with specific language impairment
Leclercq, Anne-Lise ULg; Majerus, Steve ULg; Jacob, Laura et al

in Research in Developmental Disabilities (2014), 35

Children with SLI generally exhibit poor sentence comprehension skills. We examined the specific impact of grammatical complexity and lexical frequency on comprehension performance, yielding contrasting ... [more ▼]

Children with SLI generally exhibit poor sentence comprehension skills. We examined the specific impact of grammatical complexity and lexical frequency on comprehension performance, yielding contrasting results. The present study sheds new light on sentence comprehension in children with SLI by investigating a linguistic factor which has attracted little research interest: the impact of the lexical frequency of known words on sentence comprehension. We also examined the impact of grammatical complexity and sentence length by independently varying these two factors. Fifteen children with SLI, 15 age- and IQ-matched controls, and 15 controls matched on lexical and grammatical skills, performed sentence comprehension tasks in which three linguistic factors were manipulated: lexical frequency (sentences containing words of either low or high lexical frequency), grammatical complexity (sentence containing either a subject relative clause or an object relative clause) and sentence length (either short or long sentences). Results indicated that children with SLI performed more poorly overall compared to age- and IQmatched children and to lexical and morphosyntactic age-matched children. However, their performance was not more affected by either sentence length or clause type than that of control children. Only lexical frequency affected sentence comprehension to a greater extent in children with SLI relative to the control groups, revealing that SLI children’s sentence comprehension abilities are particularly affected by the presence of lowfrequency but familiar words. [less ▲]

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See detailIn Vitro and In Vivo Antiplasmodial Activity of Three Rwandan Medicinal Plants and Identification of Their Active Compounds
Muganga, Raymond; Angenot, Luc ULg; Tits, Monique ULg et al

in Planta Medica (2014), 80(6), 482-489

In our previous study, we reported the interesting in vitro antiplasmodial activity of some Rwandan plant extracts. This gave rise to the need for these extracts to also be evaluated in vivo and to ... [more ▼]

In our previous study, we reported the interesting in vitro antiplasmodial activity of some Rwandan plant extracts. This gave rise to the need for these extracts to also be evaluated in vivo and to identify the compounds responsible for their antiplasmodial activity. The aim of our study was, on the one hand, to evaluate the antiplasmodial activity in vivo and the safety of the selected Rwandan medicinal plants used in the treatment of malaria, with the objective of promoting the development of improved traditional medicines and, on the other hand, to identify the active ingredients in the plants. Plant extracts were selected according to their selectivity index. The in vivo antiplasmodial activity of aqueous, methanolic, and dichloromethane extracts was then evaluated using the classical 4-day suppressive test on Plasmodium berghei infected mice. The activity of the plant extracts was estimated by measuring the percentage of parasitemia reduction, and the survival of the experimental animals was recorded. A bioguided fractionation was performed for the most promising plants, in terms of antiplasmodial activity, in order to isolate active compounds identified by means of spectroscopic and spectrometric methods. The highest level of antiplasmodial activity was observed with the methanolic extract of Fuerstia africana (> 70 %) on days 4 and 7 post-treatment after intraperitoneal injection and on day 7 using oral administration. After oral administration, the level of parasitemia reduction observed on day 4 post-infection was 44 % and 37 % with the aqueous extract of Terminalia mollis and Zanthoxylum chalybeum, respectively. However, the Z. chalybeum extract presented a high level of toxicity after intraperitoneal injection, with no animals surviving on day 1 post-treatment. F. africana, on the other hand, was safer with 40 % mouse survival on day 20 post-treatment. Ferruginol is already known as the active ingredient in F. Africana, and ellagic acid (IC50 = 175 ng/mL) and nitidine (IC50 = 77.5 ng/mL) were identified as the main active constituents of T. mollis and Z. chalybeum, respectively. F. africana presented very promising antiplasmodial activity in vivo. Although most of the plants tested showed some level of antiplasmodial activity, some of these plants may be toxic. This study revealed for the first time the role of ellagic acid and nitidine as the main antimalarial compounds in T. mollis and Z. chalybeum, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailMultitasking capacities in persons diagnosed with schizophrenia: A preliminary examination of their neurocognitive underpinnings and ability to predict real world functioning
Laloyaux, Julien ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Levaux, Marie-Noëlle ULg et al

in Psychiatry Research (2014), 217

Difficulties in everyday life activities are core features of persons diagnosed with schizophrenia and in particular during multitasking activities. However, at present, patients' multitasking capacities ... [more ▼]

Difficulties in everyday life activities are core features of persons diagnosed with schizophrenia and in particular during multitasking activities. However, at present, patients' multitasking capacities have not been adequately examined in the literature due to an absence of suitable assessment strategies. We thus recently developed a computerized real-life activity task designed to take into account the complex and multitasking nature of certain everyday life activities where participants are required to prepare a room for a meeting. Twenty-one individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and 20 matched healthy controls completed the computerized task. Patients were also evaluated with a cognitive battery, measures of symptomatology and real world functioning. To examine the ecological validity, 14 other patients were recruited and were given the computerized version and a real version of the meeting preparation task. Results showed that performance on the computerized task was significantly correlated with executive functioning, pointing to the major implication of these cognitive processes in multitasking situations. Performance on the computerized task also significantly predicted up to 50% of real world functioning. Moreover, the computerized task demonstrated good ecological validity. These findings suggest the importance of evaluating multitasking capacities in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia in order to predict real world functioning. [less ▲]

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See detailThe tumbling spin state of (99942) Apophis
Pravec, P; Scheirich, P; Ďurech, J et al

in Icarus (2014), 233

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See detailMultitasking capacities in persons diagnosed with schizophrenia: A preliminary examination of their neurocognitive underpinnings and ability to predict real world functioning
Laloyaux, Julien ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Levaux, Marie-Noëlle ULg et al

in Psychiatry Research (2014), 217

Difficulties in everyday life activities are core features of persons diagnosed with schizophrenia and in particular during multitasking activities. However, at present, patients' multitasking capacities ... [more ▼]

Difficulties in everyday life activities are core features of persons diagnosed with schizophrenia and in particular during multitasking activities. However, at present, patients' multitasking capacities have not been adequately examined in the literature due to an absence of suitable assessment strategies. We thus recently developed a computerized real-life activity task designed to take into account the complex and multitasking nature of certain everyday life activities where participants are required to prepare a room for a meeting. Twenty-one individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and 20 matched healthy controls completed the computerized task. Patients were also evaluated with a cognitive battery, measures of symptomatology and real world functioning. To examine the ecological validity, 14 other patients were recruited and were given the computerized version and a real version of the meeting preparation task. Results showed that performance on the computerized task was significantly correlated with executive functioning, pointing to the major implication of these cognitive processes in multitasking situations. Performance on the computerized task also significantly predicted up to 50% of real world functioning. Moreover, the computerized task demonstrated good ecological validity. These findings suggest the importance of evaluating multitasking capacities in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia in order to predict real world functioning. [less ▲]

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See detailTuning the Properties of Pd Nanoclusters by Ligand Coatings: Electronic Structure Computations on Phosphine, Thiol, and Mixed PhosphineThiol Ligand Shells
Fresch, Barbara ULg; Remacle, Françoise ULg

in Journal of Physical Chemistry C (2014)

Tuning the properties of Palladium nanoparticles using different protecting ligand shells is an important step toward the application-orientated design of nanoparticles for nano-electronics and catalysis ... [more ▼]

Tuning the properties of Palladium nanoparticles using different protecting ligand shells is an important step toward the application-orientated design of nanoparticles for nano-electronics and catalysis. We present a density functional theoretical characterization of Pd13 and Pd55 metal cores protected by only-thiol, only-phosphine and mixed phosphine-thiol ligand shells. We analyze the ligand contributions to the frontier orbitals and the charge redistribution between the ligand shell and the metal core and show that these properties control the values of the charging energy and the catalytic activity. The charge transfer character of the metal-ligand interaction is influenced by the presence of other ligands in the capping system indicating a cooperative effect in the ligand induced charge redistribution. Because of the interplay between the stabilization of the frontier orbital due to the contribution of the sulfur and the charge donation by the phosphine, the charging energy of the mixed phosphine-thiol protected cluster is larger than that of the only-phosphine and the only-thiol systems. The complementary point of view is adopted for rationalizing the catalytic properties of the clusters by analyzing the effect of the interaction with the metallic core on the properties of the ligand. The impact of solvation on the electronic structure of the ligand capped Pd13 cluster is investigated by including explicitly a layer of water molecules in the model system. [less ▲]

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See detailDental occlusion influences knee muscular performances in asymptomatic females.
GROSDENT, Stéphanie ULg; O'Thanh, Roseline; Domken, Olivier et al

in Journal of strength and conditioning research / National Strength & Conditioning Association (2014), 28(2), 492498

Some authors claim that occlusal appliances can enhance athletic performance. Therefore this study investigated the influence of dental occlusion on knee muscle strength performance. Twelve healthy female ... [more ▼]

Some authors claim that occlusal appliances can enhance athletic performance. Therefore this study investigated the influence of dental occlusion on knee muscle strength performance. Twelve healthy female subjects (mean age 24.1 +/- 3.1 years) without temporomandibular joint dysfunction participated in this study. Isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring strength were assessed in relation to three randomized jaw conditions: mouth closed in maximum intercuspidation without splint, mouth closed on a balanced splint which optimized contact over the dental arch, mouth closed on a piece of resin of 1 mm which created an imbalanced occlusion. Tests were performed at 60 degrees /s and 240 degrees /s in concentric and 30 degrees /s in eccentric exertions. Concentric performances did not show any significant difference between the 3 jaw conditions (p > 0.05). By contrast, in the eccentric trials related to quadriceps performance, significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed between the resin condition and the two other modalities (without splint or with a balanced splint). The imbalanced occlusion created by the resin component corresponded to an average decrease of 9% in eccentric peak torque. The eccentric hamstring peak torques also showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) between measurements with splint and with resin (7% decrease when occlusion was imbalanced). In conclusion, among asymptomatic females, artificial imbalanced occlusion induces immediate and significant alteration of knee eccentric muscle performances. Therefore, occlusion examination should be undertaken on a regular and frequent basis for high-level athletes. Moreover, for athletes using mouthguards, muscular performance assessments should be planned with and without the dental protection. [less ▲]

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See detailConcomitant manipulation of NMDA- and AMPA-receptors to produce pro-cognitive drug effects
Vignisse, Julie ULg; Steinbusch, Harry W.M.; Grigoriev, Vladimir et al

in European Neuropsychopharmacology (2014), 24

Bifunctional drug therapy targeting distinct receptor signaling systems can generate increased efficacy at lower concentrations compared to monofunctional therapy. Non-competitive blockade of the NMDA ... [more ▼]

Bifunctional drug therapy targeting distinct receptor signaling systems can generate increased efficacy at lower concentrations compared to monofunctional therapy. Non-competitive blockade of the NMDA receptors or the potentiation of AMPA receptors is well documented to result in memory enhancement. Here, we compared the efficacy of the low-affinity NMDA receptor blocker memantine or the positive modulator of AMPA receptor QXX (in C57BL/6J at 1 or 5 mg/kg, ip) with new derivatives of isothiourea (0.5-1 mg/kg, ip) that have bifunctional efficacy. Low-affinity NMDA blockade by these derivatives was achieved by introducing greater flexibility into the molecule, and AMPA receptor stimulation was produced by a sulfamide-containing derivative of isothiourea. Contextual learning was examined in a step-down avoidance task and extinction of contextual memory was studied in a fear-conditioning paradigm. Memantine enhanced contextual learning while QXX facilitated memory extinction; both drugs were effective at 5 mg/kg. The new derivative IPAC-5 elevated memory scores in both tasks at the dose 0.5 mg/Kg and exhibited the lowest IC50 values of NMDA receptor blockade and highest potency of AMPA receptor stimulation. Thus, among the new drugs tested, IPAC-5 plicated the properties of memantine and QXX in one administration with increased potency. Our data suggest that a concomitant manipulation of NMDA- and AMPA-receptors results in pro-cognitive effects and supports the concept bifunctional drug therapy as a promising strategy to replace monofunctional therapies with greater efficacy and improved compliance. [less ▲]

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See detailLes indicateurs de la pression du cerf élaphe sur la végétation du sous-bois en forêts feuillues tempérées : synthèse bibliographique
Lehaire, François ULg; Ligot, Gauthier ULg; Morelle, Kevin ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(2), 262-272

During the last decades, the populations of large herbivores have increased. Consequently, their pressure on forest vegetation has been exacerbated and has reached in some forests levels that reduced the ... [more ▼]

During the last decades, the populations of large herbivores have increased. Consequently, their pressure on forest vegetation has been exacerbated and has reached in some forests levels that reduced the diversity of forest ecosystem services. Assessing the balance between timber production and hunting remains a crucial question for forest users (foresters, hunters) and requires reliable tools such as ecological indicators. This paper reviews the ecological indicators that characterize the pressure of red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) on understory vegetation in temperate deciduous forest. Such indicators monitor the cover, height, stem density, biomass and species diversity of different indicator plant groups. These plant groups embrace species belonging to herbaceous stratum, forest regeneration or particular species such as bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and bramble (Rubus fruticosus L.). The choice of indicator plants, as it affects considerably the performance of the ecological indicator of deer pressure on understory vegetation, must be carried out with caution taking into account plant abundance and palatability. The reviewed indicators help to understand the relationships between biodiversity, carrying capacity and deer populations. They are intended to forest managers that would like to monitor red deer pressure in regards to forest management goals and forest sustainability. [less ▲]

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See detailUpdated standards and processes for accreditation of echocardiographic laboratories from The European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging.
Popescu, Bogdan A.; Stefanidis, Alexandros; Nihoyannopoulos, Petros et al

in European heart journal cardiovascular Imaging (2014)

Standards for echocardiographic laboratories were proposed by the European Association of Echocardiography (now the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging) 7 years ago in order to raise standards ... [more ▼]

Standards for echocardiographic laboratories were proposed by the European Association of Echocardiography (now the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging) 7 years ago in order to raise standards of practice and improve the quality of care. Criteria and requirements were published at that time for transthoracic, transoesophageal, and stress echocardiography. This paper reassesses and updates the quality standards to take account of experience and the technical developments of modern echocardiographic practice. It also discusses quality control, the incentives for laboratories to apply for accreditation, the reaccreditation criteria, and the current status and future prospects of the laboratory accreditation process. [less ▲]

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See detailCardiac concerns associated with strontium ranelate.
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in Expert opinion on drug safety (2014), 13(9), 1-5

Introduction: Strontium ranelate is proven to reduce vertebral and non-vertebral fracture risk in osteoporosis. Concerns about cardiac safety have led to a new contraindication to strontium ranelate in ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Strontium ranelate is proven to reduce vertebral and non-vertebral fracture risk in osteoporosis. Concerns about cardiac safety have led to a new contraindication to strontium ranelate in patients with uncontrolled hypertension and/or current or past history of ischaemic heart disease, peripheral arterial disease and/or cerebrovascular disease. Areas covered: A literature search was performed; data were also collected from the European Medicines Agency website. Randomised controlled trial (RCT) data indicate a higher incidence of non-adjudicated myocardial infarction (MI) with strontium ranelate versus placebo (1.7 vs 1.1%; odds ratio [OR]: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.07 - 2.38; p = 0.020) (Mantel-Haenzel estimate of the OR). There was no increase in cardiovascular mortality. MI risk was mitigated by excluding patients with cardiovascular contraindications (OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.48 - 2.04; p = 0.988). Three observational studies performed in the context of real-life medical practice in the UK and Denmark did not report a signal. Expert opinion: The increased risk for cardiac events with strontium ranelate has been detected in RCTs but not in real life. Excluding patients with cardiovascular contraindications appears to be an effective measure for controlling the risk of MI. Strontium ranelate remains a useful therapeutic alternative in patients with severe osteoporosis without cardiovascular contraindications who are unable to take another osteoporosis treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailInitial uncertainty in Pavlovian reward prediction persistently elevates incentive salience and extends sign-tracking to normally unattractive cues
Robinson, Mike J.F.; Anselme, Patrick ULg; Fischer, Adam M. et al

in Behavioural Brain Research (2014), 266(1), 119-130

Uncertainty is a component of many gambling games and may play a role in incentive motivation and cue attraction. Uncertainty can increase the attractiveness for predictors of reward in the Pavlovian ... [more ▼]

Uncertainty is a component of many gambling games and may play a role in incentive motivation and cue attraction. Uncertainty can increase the attractiveness for predictors of reward in the Pavlovian procedure of autoshaping, visible as enhanced sign-tracking (or approach and nibbles) by rats of a metal lever whose sudden appearance acts as a conditioned stimulus (CS+) to predict sucrose pellets as an unconditioned stimulus (UCS). Here we examined how reward uncertainty might enhance incentive salience as sign-tracking both in intensity and by broadening the range of attractive CS+s. We also examined whether initially-induced uncertainty enhancements of CS+ attraction can endure beyond uncertainty itself, and persist even when Pavlovian prediction becomes 100% certain. Our results show that uncertainty can broaden incentive salience attribution to make CS cues attractive that would otherwise not be (either because they are too distal from reward or too risky to normally attract sign-tracking). In addition, uncertainty enhancement of CS+ incentive salience, once induced by initial exposure, persisted even when Pavlovian CS-UCS correlations later rose toward 100% certainty in prediction. Persistence suggests an enduring incentive motivation enhancement potentially relevant to gambling, which in some ways resembles incentive-sensitization. Higher motivation to uncertain CS+s leads to more potent attraction to these cues when they predict the delivery of uncertain rewards. In humans, those cues might possibly include the sights and sounds associated with gambling, which contribute a major component of the play immersion experienced by problematic gamblers. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of two PBDE congeners on the moulting enzymes of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex
Gismondi, Eric ULg; Thomé, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Environmental Pollution (2014), 191

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are abundant in aquatic environment. However, only few studies have investigated their impacts on freshwater invertebrates. This work aimed to study the effects of ... [more ▼]

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are abundant in aquatic environment. However, only few studies have investigated their impacts on freshwater invertebrates. This work aimed to study the effects of BDE-47 and BDE-99 congeners on the chitobiase and chitinolytic enzymes activities of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex, according to gender, PBDE concentration and time of exposure. In addition, the bioaccumulation of BDE-47 and BDE-99 were measured. Results revealed that females have bioaccumulated more PBDE than males, and BDE-99 was more accumulated than BDE-47. PBDE exposures for 96hrs have caused chitobiase and chitinolytic enzymes inhibition. This study not only indicate the importance of taking into account various confounding factors (gender, congeners, concentration) to understand PBDE effects, but underline also disruptions of molting enzymes activities. These disturbances suggest effects on the gammarid development and reproduction, and consequently effects on the gammarid population, and on a larger scale, a dysfunction of the ecosystem. [less ▲]

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See detailNormal reference ranges for echocardiography: do we really need more?
Lancellotti, Patrizio ULg

in European heart journal cardiovascular Imaging (2014), 15(3), 253-4

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See detailIndian Institutions in the Early 1980s: The Pre-history of the Great Transformation
Maiorano, Diego ULg

in Modern Asian Studies (2014)

In 1989 India’s political system underwent a process of profound change which affected the entire institutional setup of the country. Power was radically redistributed, as it began to flow from the ... [more ▼]

In 1989 India’s political system underwent a process of profound change which affected the entire institutional setup of the country. Power was radically redistributed, as it began to flow from the central government to the states, and from the Prime Minister Office to the other institutions of the state. The paper seeks to show how things worked on the eve of such a redrawing of India’s institutional setup, by analysing the sever institutional crisis which occurred during Mrs Gandhi’s final term in office as India’s Prime Minister. In addition, an effort is made to link the working of India’s institutions to the configuration of the party system, thus stressing the importance of political dynamics in the functioning of parliamentary democracies. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrostructure and Mechanical Properties of a Mixed Si-Al TRIP-Assisted Steel Subjected to Continuous Galvanizing Heat Treatments
Mertens, Anne ULg; Bellhouse, Erika M.; McDermid, Joseph R.

in Materials Science & Engineering : A (2014), 608

Heat treatments with an isothermal bainitic transformation temperature of 465°C compatible with the continuous galvanizing process were performed on a 0.2C-1.5Mn-1.0Si-0.5Al (wt%) TRIP-assisted steel. The ... [more ▼]

Heat treatments with an isothermal bainitic transformation temperature of 465°C compatible with the continuous galvanizing process were performed on a 0.2C-1.5Mn-1.0Si-0.5Al (wt%) TRIP-assisted steel. The effect of intercritical annealing temperature and isothermal bainitic transformation (IBT) time at 465C on mechanical properties and microstructure were determined. The best combination of strength and ductility was obtained for the lower intercritical annealing temperature of 750°C for an isothermal bainitic transformation time of 90 s at 465°C. However, after intercritical annealing at a higher temperature of 797°C, optimum mechanical properties were obtained for a shorter isothermal bainitic transformation time of 60 s at 465°C, likely due to the lower C content of the intercritical austenite bringing about faster transformation kinetics. It was concluded that varying the intercritical temperature and IBT time can play an important role in the development of a suitable process window to obtain the desired mechanical properties in low alloy TRIP-assisted steels given the constraints associated with the continuous galvanizing process. [less ▲]

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See detailLéopold Auguste Warnkönig et François Laurent Pionniers des Universités de Liège et Gand
Gerkens, Jean-François ULg

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2014), (1), 157-171

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See detailLa Radiothérapie: le parcours du patient, de l’information au traitement
LENNERTS, Eric ULg; COUCKE, Philippe ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014), 69(Supp 1), 3-8

La radiothérapie fait partie intégrante de l’arsenal thérapeutique en oncologie et on estime que deux tiers des patients cancéreux vont bénéficier d’une radiothérapie à un moment ou un autre de leur prise ... [more ▼]

La radiothérapie fait partie intégrante de l’arsenal thérapeutique en oncologie et on estime que deux tiers des patients cancéreux vont bénéficier d’une radiothérapie à un moment ou un autre de leur prise en charge. Le parcours d’un patient en radiothérapie est pourtant souvent méconnu du corps médical et le but de cet article est de retracer celui- ci. De la prise de décision de réaliser de la radiothérapie en concertation multidisciplinaire à la délivrance des rayons par les accélérateurs linéaires, il y a la première rencontre avec le radiothérapeute, la simulation, la délimitation des volumes et la planification du traitement. La mise en route d’un trai - tement de radiothérapie demande du temps et beaucoup de précision à chaque étape. Les technologies évoluent constam - ment et la recherche en matière d’amélioration du traitement est une priorité. Le but est d’arriver à adapter individuelle - ment le traitement de radiothérapie. [less ▲]

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See detailINDICATIONS D’UN TRAITEMENT DE RADIOTHERAPIE LOCALE APRES PROSTATECTOMIE RADICALE
HERMESSE, Johanne ULg; WERENNE, Xavier ULg; PHILIPPI, Sven ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014), 69(Supp 1), 29-31

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See detailDrug-Drug Interactions with Sodium-Glucose Cotransporters Type 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors, New Oral Glucose-Lowering Agents for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Scheen, André ULg

in Clinical pharmacokinetics (2014)

Inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2) reduce hyperglycaemia by decreasing renal glucose threshold and thereby increasing urinary glucose excretion. They are proposed as a novel ... [more ▼]

Inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2) reduce hyperglycaemia by decreasing renal glucose threshold and thereby increasing urinary glucose excretion. They are proposed as a novel approach for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. They have proven their efficacy in reducing glycated haemoglobin, without inducing hypoglycaemia, as monotherapy or in combination with various other glucose-lowering agents, with the add-on value of promoting some weight loss and lowering arterial blood pressure. As they may be used concomitantly with many other drugs, we review the potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) regarding the three leaders in the class (dapagliglozin, canagliflozin and empagliflozin). Most of the available studies were performed in healthy volunteers and have assessed the pharmacokinetic interferences with a single administration of the SGLT2 inhibitor. The exposure [assessed by peak plasma concentrations (C max) and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)] to each SGLT2 inhibitor tested was not significantly influenced by the concomitant administration of other glucose-lowering agents or cardiovascular agents commonly used in patients with type 2 diabetes. Reciprocally, these medications did not influence the pharmacokinetic parameters of dapagliflozin, canagliflozin or empagliflozin. Some modest changes were not considered as clinically relevant. However, drugs that could specifically interfere with the metabolic pathways of SGLT2 inhibitors [rifampicin, inhibitors or inducers of uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)] may result in significant changes in the exposure of SGLT2 inhibitors, as shown for dapagliflozin and canagliflozin. Potential DDIs in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving chronic treatment with an SGLT2 inhibitor deserve further attention, especially in individuals treated with several medications or in more fragile patients with hepatic and/or renal impairment. [less ▲]

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See detailA new insight in the structure, composition and functioning of central African moist forests
Fayolle, Adeline ULg; Picard, Nicolas; Doucet, Jean-Louis ULg et al

in Forest Ecology & Management (2014), (329), 195-205

The greater part of the semi-deciduous moist forests of the Congo basin has been given to logging companies for exploitation. In the next decades, very few of these forests will remain intact. In this ... [more ▼]

The greater part of the semi-deciduous moist forests of the Congo basin has been given to logging companies for exploitation. In the next decades, very few of these forests will remain intact. In this paper, we aimed to identify large-scale variations in the structure, composition and functioning of African moist forests that could serve as a baseline for both management and conservation purposes. Commercial forest inventory data were assembled for 49,711 0.5-ha plots, covering an area of more than six million hectares, crossing the borders of Cameroon, Central African Republic and Republic of Congo. Floristic composition was analyzed for a subset of 176 genera reliably identified in the field. Three key functional traits of tropical trees: regeneration guild, leaf phenology, and wood specific gravity, were collected at the species level from various sources, and assigned at the genus level. We first investigated the main variations in forest structure and composition, and identified seven forest types based on these variations. Differences in the percentage of pioneer and deciduous stems, and mean wood specific gravity were tested between forest types. Most of the study area was composed of a mosaic of the structural variations of the forests characterized by the occurrence of Celtis (Ulmaceae) species, which are mostly composed of frequent and abundant genera that formed the common floristic pool of the region. Secondary Musanga (Moraceae) forest is located in repeatedly disturbed areas, along roads and around main cities; mixed Manilkara (Sapotaceae) forest covers a huge area in the southern Central African Republic and in the northern Republic of Congo; and monodominant Gilbertiodendron (Fabaceae) forest is sparsely distributed along rivers. The contrasted structure, composition, and functioning of the forest types imply pronounced differences in population and ecosystem processes, and call for adapted management and conservation strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailSHIP2 signaling in normal and pathological situations: Its impact on cell proliferation.
Elong Edimo, W; Schurmans, Stéphane ULg; Roger, PP et al

in Advances in Biological Regulation (2014), 54

Phosphoinositide 5-phosphatases are critical enzymes in modulating the concentrations of PI(3,4,5)P3, PI(4,5)P2 and PI(3,5)P2. The SH2 domain containing inositol 5-phosphatases SHIP1 and SHIP2 belong to ... [more ▼]

Phosphoinositide 5-phosphatases are critical enzymes in modulating the concentrations of PI(3,4,5)P3, PI(4,5)P2 and PI(3,5)P2. The SH2 domain containing inositol 5-phosphatases SHIP1 and SHIP2 belong to this family of enzymes that dephosphorylate the 5 position of PI(3,4,5)P3 to produce PI(3,4)P2. Data obtained in zebrafish and in mice have shown that SHIP2 is critical in development and growth. Exome sequencing identifies mutations in the coding region of SHIP2 as a cause of opsismodysplasia, a severe but rare chondrodysplasia in human. SHIP2 has been reported to have both protumorigenic and tumor suppressor function in human cancer very much depending on the cell model. This could be linked to the relative importance of PI(3,4)P2 (a product of SHIP2 phosphatase activity) which is also controlled by the PI 4-phosphatase and tumor suppressor INPP4B. In the glioblastoma cell line 1321 N1, that do not express PTEN, lowering SHIP2 expression has an impact on the levels of PI(3,4,5)P3, cell morphology and cell proliferation. It positively stimulates cell proliferation by decreasing the expression of key regulatory proteins of the cell cycle such as p27. Together the data point out to a role of SHIP2 in development in normal cells and at least in cell proliferation in some cancer derived cells. [less ▲]

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See detailComment comprendre l’influence au sein de groupes d’adolescents ? Le conflit socio-cognitif en appui de la théorie de l’apprentissage social
Mathys, Cécile ULg; Vitaro, Frank; Born, Michel ULg

in Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science = Revue Canadienne des Sciences du Comportement (2014), 46(2), 289-230

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See detailLong-term fracture rates seen with continued ibandronate treatment : pooled analysis of DIVA and MOBILE long-term extension studies
Miller, PD; Recker, RR; Harris, S et al

in Osteoporosis International (2014), 25(1), 349-357

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See detailAttaques massives de simulies et mort brutale
Caron, Yannick ULg; Losson, Bertrand ULg

in Veterinaria (Bruxelles) : Bulletin d’Information de l’Union Syndicale Vétérinaire Belge (2014)

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See detailAnalysis of collagen preservation in bones recovered in archaeological contexts using NIR Hyperspectral Imaging
Vincke, Damien; Miller, Rebecca ULg; Stassart, Edith ULg et al

in Talanta (2014), 125

The scope of this article is to propose an innovative method based on Near Infrared Hyperspectral Chemical Imaging (NIR-HCI) to rapidly and non-destructively evaluate the relative degree of collagen ... [more ▼]

The scope of this article is to propose an innovative method based on Near Infrared Hyperspectral Chemical Imaging (NIR-HCI) to rapidly and non-destructively evaluate the relative degree of collagen preservation in bones recovered from archaeological contexts. This preliminary study has allowed the evaluation of the potential of the method using bone samples from the Early Upper Palaeolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic periods at the site of Trou Al'Wesse in Belgium. NIR-HCI, combined with chemometric tools, has identified specific spectral bands characteristic of collagen. A chemometric model has been built using Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) to identify bones with and without collagen. This enables the evaluation of the degree of collagen preservation and homogeneity in bones within and between different strata, which has direct implications for archaeological applications (e.g., taphonomic analyses, assemblage integrity) and sample selection for sub- sequent analyses requiring collagen. Two archaeological applications are presented: comparison between sub-layers in an Early Upper Palaeolithic unit, and evaluation of the range of variability in collagen preservation within a single Holocene stratum. [less ▲]

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See detailPharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of empagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor.
Scheen, André ULg

in Clinical pharmacokinetics (2014), 53(3), 213-25

Empagliflozin is an orally active, potent and selective inhibitor of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2), currently in clinical development to improve glycaemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes ... [more ▼]

Empagliflozin is an orally active, potent and selective inhibitor of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2), currently in clinical development to improve glycaemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). SGLT2 inhibitors, including empagliflozin, are the first pharmacological class of antidiabetes agents to target the kidney in order to remove excess glucose from the body and, thus, offer new options for T2DM management. SGLT2 inhibitors exert their effects independently of insulin. Following single and multiple oral doses (0.5-800 mg), empagliflozin was rapidly absorbed and reached peak plasma concentrations after approximately 1.33-3.0 h, before showing a biphasic decline. The mean terminal half-life ranged from 5.6 to 13.1 h in single rising-dose studies, and from 10.3 to 18.8 h in multiple-dose studies. Following multiple oral doses, increases in exposure were dose-proportional and trough concentrations remained constant after day 6, indicating a steady state had been reached. Oral clearance at steady state was similar to corresponding single-dose values, suggesting linear pharmacokinetics with respect to time. No clinically relevant alterations in pharmacokinetics were observed in mild to severe hepatic impairment, or in mild to severe renal impairment and end-stage renal disease. Clinical studies did not reveal any relevant drug-drug interactions with several other drugs commonly prescribed to patients with T2DM, including warfarin. Urinary glucose excretion (UGE) rates were higher with empagliflozin versus placebo and increased with dose, but no relevant impact on 24-h urine volume was observed. Increased UGE resulted in proportional reductions in fasting plasma glucose and mean daily glucose concentrations. [less ▲]

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See detailLa gouvernance environnementale au Sud : regard sur un projet de conservation des tortues au Sri Lanka
Rosillon, Caroline ULg

in ethnographiques.org (2014), 27

Les régions rurales du Sud du Sri Lanka sont soumises aujourd'hui à des tensions croissantes entre un développement économique précipité et la conservation des ressources naturelles qui participent à la ... [more ▼]

Les régions rurales du Sud du Sri Lanka sont soumises aujourd'hui à des tensions croissantes entre un développement économique précipité et la conservation des ressources naturelles qui participent à la renommée de l'île. Dans ce contexte, l'article se penche sur la question des initiatives locales de protection de la biodiversité à travers une étude de cas portant sur un projet de conservation des tortues de mer dans le district d'Hambantota (l'ONG-T). Dans une perspective d'anthropologie politique, l'analyse met en lumière la manière dont ce type de projet s'intègre et influence les structures sociopolitiques dans la société locale. Après avoir brièvement présenté quelques données contextuelles et historiques sur le village de pêcheurs dans laquelle est implantée l'ONG, l'étude de cas révèle les nouvelles formes d'interactions, les enjeux de pouvoirs et les conflits que peut susciter localement l'implantation de ce type de projet. [less ▲]

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See detailUn complexe d’espèces d’Afzelia des forêts africaines d’intérêt économique et écologique (synthèse bibliographique)
Donkpegan, Segbedji ULg; Hardy, J. Olivier; Lejeune, Philippe ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(2),

The purpose of this review is to provide a knowledge update and a comprehensive literature review of the genus Afzelia, a complex of sister species exploited for their timber in Central Africa. The ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this review is to provide a knowledge update and a comprehensive literature review of the genus Afzelia, a complex of sister species exploited for their timber in Central Africa. The distribution of Afzelia species in Africa suggests that the tree has made various adaptations due to ecological factors. However, on the basis of only vegetative criteria, it is difficult to distinguish species in forest inventory, and this could compromise the sustainable management approach promoted by the populations of Central African countries. We show that the genus remains generally understudied, although some of its species are considered by the IUCN as being under threat. Therefore, the ecological and genetic aspects of our investigations should prove relevant to the future cultivation of Afzelia. [less ▲]

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See detailA methodological evaluation of volumetric measurement techniques including three-dimensional imaging in breast surgery
HOEFFELIN, Harry; JACQUEMIN, Denise ULg; Defaweux, Valérie ULg et al

in BioMed Research International (2014), 2014

Breast surgery currently remains very subjective and each intervention depends on the ability and experience of the operator. To date, no objective measurement of this anatomical region can codify surgery ... [more ▼]

Breast surgery currently remains very subjective and each intervention depends on the ability and experience of the operator. To date, no objective measurement of this anatomical region can codify surgery. In this light, we wanted to compare and validate a new technique for 3D scanning (LifeViz 3D) and its clinical application. Materials and methods. - We tested the use of the 3D LifeViz system (Quantificare) to perform volumetric calculations in various settings ("in situ" in cadaveric dissection, of control prostheses and in clinical patients) and we compared this system to other techniques (CT scanning and Archimedes' principle) under the same conditions. Results. - We were able to identify the benefits (feasibility, safety, portability, low patient stress) and limitations (underestimation of the “in situ” volume, subjectivity of contouring, and patient selection) of the LifeViz 3D system, concluding that the results are comparable with other measurement techniques. Conclusion. - The prospects of this technology seem promising in numerous applications in clinical practice to limit the subjectivity of breast surgery. [less ▲]

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See detailRecension: "Invloed van het Europese recht op het Belgisch privaatrecht"
Kohl, Benoît ULg

in Droit de la Consommation = Consumentenrecht [= DCCR] (2014), (102), 139-142

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See detailCaractéristiques de reproduction de la femelle trypanotolérante de race N’Dama.
Okouyi, Marcel; Kamga Waladjo, Alain; Diarra, S et al

in Revue Africaine de Santé et de Productions Animales [=RASPA] (2014), 12(1), 3-7

Knowledge about the reproductive N’Dama remain old and very general, observations have been most often performed on a limited number of animals and in different contexts. This inventory confirms the need ... [more ▼]

Knowledge about the reproductive N’Dama remain old and very general, observations have been most often performed on a limited number of animals and in different contexts. This inventory confirms the need to continue and intensify so as federated possible studies to further clarify the characteristcs and reproductive performance of this important development potential of cattle that represents the N’Dama to Africa. [less ▲]

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See detailAppropriateness criteria for cardiovascular imaging use in clinical practice: a position statement of the ESC/EACVI taskforce.
Garbi, Madalina; Habib, Gilbert; Plein, Sven et al

in European heart journal cardiovascular Imaging (2014), 15(5), 477-182

There is a growing interest from the scientific community in the appropriate use of cardiovascular imaging techniques for diagnosis and decision making in Europe. To develop appropriateness criteria for ... [more ▼]

There is a growing interest from the scientific community in the appropriate use of cardiovascular imaging techniques for diagnosis and decision making in Europe. To develop appropriateness criteria for cardiovascular imaging use in clinical practice in Europe, a dedicated taskforce has been appointed by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI). The present paper describes the appropriateness criteria development process. [less ▲]

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See detailA modified DOI-based method to statistically estimate the depth of investigation of dc resistivity surveys
Deceuster, J.; Etienne, A.; Robert, Tanguy et al

in Journal of Applied Geophysics (2014), 103

Several techniques are available to estimate the depth of investigation or to identify possible artifacts in dc resistivity surveys. Commonly, the depth of investigation (DOI) is mainly estimated by using ... [more ▼]

Several techniques are available to estimate the depth of investigation or to identify possible artifacts in dc resistivity surveys. Commonly, the depth of investigation (DOI) is mainly estimated by using an arbitrarily chosen cut-off value on a selected indicator (resolution, sensitivity or DOI index). Ranges of cut-off values are recommended in the literature for the different indicators. However, small changes in threshold values may induce strong variations in the estimated depths of investigation. To overcome this problem, we developed a new statistical method to estimate the DOI of dc resistivity surveys based on a modified DOI index approach. This method is composed of 5 successive steps. First, two inversions are performed by using different resistivity reference models for the inversion (0.1 and 10 times the arithmetic mean of the logarithm of the observed apparent resistivity values). Inversion models are extended to the edges of the survey line and to a depth range of three times the pseudodepth of investigation of the largest array spacing used. In step 2, we compute the histogram of a newly defined scaled DOI index. Step 3 consists of the fitting of the mixture of two Gaussian distributions (G1 and G2) to the cumulative distribution function of the scaled DOI index values. Based on this fitting, step 4 focuses on the computation of an interpretation index (II) defined for every cell j of the model as the relative probability density that the cell j belongs to G1, which describes the Gaussian distribution of the cells with a scaled DOI index close to 0.0. In step 5, a new inversion is performed by using a third resistivity reference model (the arithmetic mean of the logarithm of the observed apparent resistivity values). The final electrical resistivity image is produced by using II as alpha blending values allowing the visual discrimination between well-constrained areas and poorly-constrained cells. The efficiency of the proposed methodology is assessed on synthetic and field data. By using synthetic benchmark analysis, we demonstrate that the selected well-constrained cells are well-reconstructed in size and shape as well as in resistivity contrasts. Compared to the existing image appraisal tools, the proposed statistical method allows the identification of the statistically well-constrained cells of the model without using any arbitrary cut-off value. Using this statistical method in combination with the resolution, when interpreting dc resistivity surveys, provides the geophysicist valuable information to avoid over- or misinterpretation of ERT images. [less ▲]

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See detailLA RADIOTHÉRAPIE DANS LE CANCER DU RECTUM CHEZ LA PERSONNE ÂGÉE: Quel bénéfice pour le traitement ?
MARTINIVE, Philippe ULg; ALLEPAERTS, Sophie ULg; VAN DAELE, Daniel ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014), 69(Supp 1), 47-52

Dans les années à venir, nous serons de plus en plus amenés à prendre en charge des patients âgés en oncologie. Dans ce contexte, quelles sont les évidences scientifiques à notre disposition qui nous ... [more ▼]

Dans les années à venir, nous serons de plus en plus amenés à prendre en charge des patients âgés en oncologie. Dans ce contexte, quelles sont les évidences scientifiques à notre disposition qui nous permettent de prendre en charge de façon correcte cette population oncologique âgée ? Les patients âgés présentent souvent de multiples co-morbidités pouvant interférer avec le traitement oncologique rendant d’autant plus complexe leur prise en charge. Le pic d’inci - dence du cancer du rectum se situe autour des 80 ans, loin au-dessus de l’âge moyen des patients inclus dans les études cliniques. La survie globale des patients traités pour un cancer du rectum s’est améliorée au cours de la dernière décennie, essentiellement pour des patients de moins de 75 ans. Le trai - tement du cancer du rectum nécessite une approche multidis - ciplinaire. L’évaluation gériatrique en fait partie intégrante. Elle permet de définir au mieux la stratégie thérapeutique en fonction de l’état général du patient, de son contexte neuro- psychologique, fonctionnel et social. La radiothérapie joue un rôle majeur dans le traitement du rectum. Quelle est sa place chez les personnes âgées ? Bénéficient-elles également de la radiothérapie, comme la population jeune sélectionnée dans les études contrôlées ? Quel est l’impact de ce traitement sur la qualité de vie ? Voilà des questions essentielles auxquelles nous allons tenter d’apporter une réponse [less ▲]

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See detailCarriage and acquisition rates of Clostridium difficile in hospitalized horses, including molecular characterization, multilocus sequence typing and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates
Rodriguez Diaz, Cristina ULg; Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Brévers, Bastien et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (2014)

lostridium difficile has been identified as a significant agent of diarrhoea and enterocolitis in both foals and adult horses. Hospitalization, antibiotic therapy or changes in diet may contribute to the ... [more ▼]

lostridium difficile has been identified as a significant agent of diarrhoea and enterocolitis in both foals and adult horses. Hospitalization, antibiotic therapy or changes in diet may contribute to the development of C. difficile infection. Horses admitted to a care unit are therefore at greater risk of being colonized. The aim of this study was to investigate the carriage of C. difficile in hospitalized horses and the possible influence of some risk factors in colonization. During a seven-month period, faecal samples and data relating the clinical history of horses admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital were collected. C. difficile isolates were characterized through toxin profiles, cytotoxicity activity, PCR-ribotyping, antimicrobial resistance and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Ten isolates were obtained with a total of seven different PCR-ribotypes, including PCR-ribotype 014. Five of them were identified as toxinogenic. A high resistance to gentamicin, clindamycin and ceftiofur was found. MLST revealed four different sequencing types (ST), which included ST11, ST26, ST2 and ST15, and phylogenetic analysis showed that most of the isolates clustered in the same lineage. Clinical history suggests that horses frequently harbour toxigenic and non-toxigenic C. difficile and that in most cases they are colonized regardless of the reason for hospitalization; the development of diarrhoea is more unusual. [less ▲]

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See detailWomen's skin throughout lifetime.
PIERARD, Gérald ULg; CHARLIER, Corinne ULg; Delvenne, Philippe ULg et al

in BioMed Research International (2014), 2014

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See detailPolitical Participation of Latin American Migrants in Andalusia: Opportunities and Constraints
Bermudez Torres, Anastasia ULg; Escriva, Angeles; Moraes, Natalia

in Migraciones Internacionales (2014), 7(3), 73-98

The main purpose of this article is to present the results of a research project on the political participation of Latin American migrants in Andalusia (mainly in the cities of Seville and Huelva). The ... [more ▼]

The main purpose of this article is to present the results of a research project on the political participation of Latin American migrants in Andalusia (mainly in the cities of Seville and Huelva). The project uses a broad concept of what political participation constitutes, including both civic practices and activities associated with conventional politics, and adopts a transnational perspective. It is based on 45 semi-structured interviews with politically active migrants and members of political parties and other institutions. The article highlights some of the main findings of the research, including the importance of taking into account migrants’ previous political experiences, as well as the role played by migrant associations in order to better understand their political practices. [less ▲]

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See detailDeconsecrating a doctrinal monument: Raymond M. Lemaire and the revisions of the Venice Charter
Houbart, Claudine ULg

in Change Over Time (2014), (fall),

Considering himself as the “main author” of the charter, Raymond M. Lemaire has been one of the first, together with Piero Gazzola, to plead for a revision of the document. As early as 1971, the two men ... [more ▼]

Considering himself as the “main author” of the charter, Raymond M. Lemaire has been one of the first, together with Piero Gazzola, to plead for a revision of the document. As early as 1971, the two men, respectively first Secretary General and President of ICOMOS, tended to launch a debate in favour of a better consideration of the social value of heritage, and the development of specific principles for historical cities conservation, to be included in the Venice charter. Lemaire’s recent experience in that field had indeed convinced him that, contrary to the assertion of article 14, “a literal application of principles valid for monuments, considered as such, is not always possible, nor desirable, for the ensembles”. The adoption of the Amsterdam declaration didn’t put an end to his efforts. Despite his unsuccessful attempt to get a revised version approved by the ICOMOS General assembly in Moscow (1978), R.M.Lemaire always remained critical towards the charter and the application of its principles in the field, underlining, in the eighties, its shortcomings in terms of cultural diversity and, in one of his last texts, in 1996, the negative effect of article 9, leading to the idea that “the mere essence of a conservation operation is a modernist intervention on the edifice or neighbourhood”. Beyond its interest for conservation history, the awareness of Lemaire’s early critical position towards the Venice Charter should inspire the current debates and help us overcome our reluctance to challenge the sacred principles of what we consider a doctrinal monument. [less ▲]

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See detailResistance of through-plate component in beam-to-column joints with circular hollow columns
Hoang, Van Long ULg; Demonceau, Jean-François ULg; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Journal of Constructional Steel Research (2014), 92

A configuration of beam-to-column joint with circular hollow section columns is proposed. A vertical plate, called through-plate, passing through the column is used to support the beams. In order to ... [more ▼]

A configuration of beam-to-column joint with circular hollow section columns is proposed. A vertical plate, called through-plate, passing through the column is used to support the beams. In order to facilitate connecting the beams, two horizontal plates, each side of the column, are welded to the upper side of the through-plate. The lower flanges of the steel beams are connected to the horizontal plates by bolts, and the upper flanges are attached to the concrete slab by shear connections. The joint is considered as hinges in the construction phase while semi-rigid and partial strength can be adopted for the joint behaviour during the exploitation time. A development on the through-plate component of the joint is presented in this paper. Global behaviour of the joint under hogging moment and shear force is analysed leading to a mechanical model of the through-plate component. Using the elastic buckling theory of plates, the analytical formulas for critical stresses of the through-plate are obtained. The coefficients taking into account boundary conditions, material plasticity and geometrical imperfection are determined by finite element analysis. The proposed model is validated by experimental results showing a good accuracy. The design guideline for the component is finally provided for the practical purpose. [less ▲]

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See detailSnijders’ correction of Infit and Outfit indexes with estimated ability level : an analysis with the Rasch model
Magis, David ULg; Béland, Sébastien; Raîche, Gilles

in Journal of Applied Measurement (2014), 15

The Infit mean square W and the Outfit mean square U are commonly used person fit indexes under Rasch measurement. However, they suffer from two major weaknesses. First, their asymptotic distribution is ... [more ▼]

The Infit mean square W and the Outfit mean square U are commonly used person fit indexes under Rasch measurement. However, they suffer from two major weaknesses. First, their asymptotic distribution is usually derived by assuming that the true ability levels are known. Second, such distributions are even not clearly stated for indexes U and W. Both issues can seriously affect the selection of an appropriate cut-score for person fit identification. Snijders (2001) proposed a general approach to correct some person fit indexes when specific ability estimators are used. The purpose of this paper is to adapt this approach to U and W indexes. First, a brief sketch of the methodology and its application to U and W is proposed. Then, the corrected indexes are compared to their classical versions through a simulation study. The suggested correction yields controlled Type I errors against both conservatism and inflation, while the power to detect specific misfitting response patterns gets significantly increased. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociative learning of Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to methyldisulfanylmethane
Frederickx, Christine ULg; Verheggen, François ULg; Brostaux, Yves ULg et al

in Journal of Forensic Sciences (2014)

Traditional methods of volatile detection used by police typically consist of reliance on canine olfaction. However, dogs have some limitations such as cost of training and time of conditioning. The ... [more ▼]

Traditional methods of volatile detection used by police typically consist of reliance on canine olfaction. However, dogs have some limitations such as cost of training and time of conditioning. The possibility of using parasitic wasps for detecting explosives and narcotics has been developed. Moreover, wasps are cheap to produce and can be conditioned with impressive speed for a specific chemical-detection task. We examined the ability of Nasonia vitripennis Walker to learn and respond to methydisulfanylmethane (DMDS), a volatile discriminator of cadaver. The training aimed to form an association between an unconditioned stimulus (pupae) and the conditioned stimulus (odor source). After the training, the time spent of conditioned wasps in the DMDS chamber was measured. Statistical analysis showed that the increasing concentrations involved an increase in the time spent in the chamber containing DMDS. This study indicates that N. vitripennis can respond to DMDS, which provide further support for its development as a biological sensor. [less ▲]

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See detailEchocardiographic reference ranges for normal cardiac chamber size: results from the NORRE study.
Kou, Seisyou; Caballero, Luis; Dulgheru, Raluca et al

in European heart journal cardiovascular Imaging (2014), 15(6), 680-690

AIMS: Availability of normative reference values for cardiac chamber quantitation is a prerequisite for accurate clinical application of echocardiography. In this study, we report normal reference ranges ... [more ▼]

AIMS: Availability of normative reference values for cardiac chamber quantitation is a prerequisite for accurate clinical application of echocardiography. In this study, we report normal reference ranges for cardiac chambers size obtained in a large group of healthy volunteers accounting for gender and age. Echocardiographic data were acquired using state-of-the-art cardiac ultrasound equipment following chamber quantitation protocols approved by the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging. METHODS: A total of 734 (mean age: 45.8 +/- 13.3 years) healthy volunteers (320 men and 414 women) were enrolled at 22 collaborating institutions of the Normal Reference Ranges for Echocardiography (NORRE) study. A comprehensive echocardiographic examination was performed on all subjects following pre-defined protocols. There were no gender differences in age or cholesterol levels. Compared with men, women had significantly smaller body surface areas, and lower blood pressure. Quality of echocardiographic data sets was good to excellent in the majority of patients. Upper and lower reference limits were higher in men than in women. The reference values varied with age. These age-related changes persisted for most parameters after normalization for the body surface area. CONCLUSION: The NORRE study provides useful two-dimensional echocardiographic reference ranges for cardiac chamber quantification. These data highlight the need for body size normalization that should be performed together with age-and gender-specific assessment for the most echocardiographic parameters. [less ▲]

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See detailIncrease in dimethylsulfide (DMS) emissions due to eutrophication of coastal waters offsets their reduction due to ocean acidification
Gypens, N; Borges, Alberto ULg

in Frontiers in Marine Science - Marine Ecosystem Ecology (2014), 1(4),

Available information from manipulative experiments suggested that the emission of dimethylsulfide (DMS) would decrease in response to the accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean (ocean ... [more ▼]

Available information from manipulative experiments suggested that the emission of dimethylsulfide (DMS) would decrease in response to the accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean (ocean acidification). However, in coastal environments, the carbonate chemistry of surface waters was also strongly modified by eutrophication and related changes in biological activity (increased primary production and change in phytoplankton dominance) during the last 50 years. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DMS emissions in marine coastal environments also strongly responded to eutrophication in addition to ocean acidification at decadal timescales. We used the R-MIRO-BIOGAS model in the eutrophied Southern Bight of the North Sea characterized by intense blooms of Phaeocystis that are high producers of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), the precursor of DMS. We showed that, for the period from 1951 to 2007, eutrophication actually led to an increase of DMS emissions much stronger than the response of DMS emissions to ocean acidification. [less ▲]

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See detailDisease management patterns for postmenopausal women in Europe with hormone-receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 negative advanced breast cancer.
Andre, Fabrice; Neven, Patrick; Marinsek, Nina et al

in Current medical research and opinion (2014)

Abstract Background: International guidelines for hormone-receptor-positive (HR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 negative (HER2-) advanced breast cancer (BC) recommend sequential lines of ... [more ▼]

Abstract Background: International guidelines for hormone-receptor-positive (HR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 negative (HER2-) advanced breast cancer (BC) recommend sequential lines of hormonal therapy (HT), and only recommend chemotherapy for patients with extensive visceral involvement or rapidly progressive disease. This study evaluated actual physician-reported treatments for advanced BC in Europe. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 355 postmenopausal women with HR+, HER2- advanced BC who progressed on >/=1 line of HT (adjuvant or advanced) and completed >/=1 line of chemotherapy (advanced). Treatment choice was evaluated for each line of therapy. Results: Of 355 patients, 111 (31%) received first-line chemotherapy, whereas 218 (61%) and 26 (7%) switched from HT to chemotherapy in second and third line, respectively. More patients receiving first-line HT had bone metastases (73% vs 27% chemotherapy). Patients treated with first-line chemotherapy had more brain (12% vs 3% HT) or extensive liver (13% vs 6% HT) metastases. Subgroup analysis of 188 patients who received first-line HT and had de novo advanced BC or relapsed/recurrent disease more than 1 year after adjuvant therapy found that the majority (89%; n = 167) of these patients switched to chemotherapy in second line. However, among these 167 patients, 27% had no significant changes in metastases between first and second line. Among the 73% of patients who had significant changes in metastases, 20% had no brain metastases or extensive visceral disease. Conclusions: Our study suggests that the guideline-recommended use of multiple HT lines is open to interpretation and that optimal treatment for European postmenopausal women with HR+, HER2- advanced BC who responded to HT may not be achieved. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh Prevalence of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Patients with Three-vessel Coronary Artery Disease.
Durieux, R.; VAN DAMME, Hendrik ULg; Labropoulos, N. et al

in European journal of vascular and endovascular surgery : the official journal of the European Society for Vascular Surgery (2014)

OBJECTIVES: Currently, the prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and the correlation between CAD severity and AAA prevalence are not clearly known ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: Currently, the prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and the correlation between CAD severity and AAA prevalence are not clearly known. We conducted a prospective study to determine the prevalence of AAA in patients undergoing coronary angiography and to determine the risk factors and a coronary profile associated with AAA. METHODS: Over an 18-month period, abdominal aortic ultrasound was performed on 1,000 patients undergoing coronary angiography for suspected or known CAD, or prior to valve surgery. Clinical characteristics and coronary profile were collected from the patients. RESULTS: The overall number of previously repaired, already diagnosed, and new cases of AAA in the study population was 42, yielding a prevalence of 4.2%. Among the patients with newly detected AAAs, only two had an AAA diameter of >54 mm and were therefore treated surgically. In men aged >/=65 years, the prevalence reached 8.6%, while in men with three-vessel CAD it was 14.4%. Multivariate analysis showed that age >/=65 years (p = .003), male gender (p = .003), family history of AAA (p = .01), current smoking (p = .002), and three-vessel CAD (p < .001) were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of AAA. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of AAA was high in men aged >/=65 years and in those with three-vessel CAD regardless of age. While our findings do not prove the cost-effectiveness of screening for AAA in these high risk patients, they do support the usefulness of a quick ultrasound examination of the abdominal aorta during routine transthoracic echocardiography in such patients. [less ▲]

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See detailNear-to-Surface properties affecting bond strength in concrete repair
Courard, Luc ULg; Piotrowski, Tomasz; Garbacz, Andrzej

in Cement and Concrete Composites (2014), 46

One of the main processes for repairing concrete structures is patch repair. Efficiency and durability of a repaired system depends on the bond between concrete substrate and repair material. By ... [more ▼]

One of the main processes for repairing concrete structures is patch repair. Efficiency and durability of a repaired system depends on the bond between concrete substrate and repair material. By increasing the surface roughness, the surface treatment of concrete substrate can promote mechanical interlocking that is one of the basic mechanisms of adhesion. Nevertheless, some problems may arise from “co-lateral” effects of the treatment, especially due to the development of microcracks inside the substrate. In the presented paper, the effect of concrete substrate surface preparation has been characterized by roughness measurement, description of microcracking in the near-to-surface layer and a pull-off cohesion test. After repair, pull-off bond strength has been evaluated. It is concluded that selection of a suitable surface treatment technique should be preceded by the analysis of its aggressiveness in relation to the concrete substrate strength. A procedure for bond strength estimation using multiple regression approach, based on parameters describing surface quality really generated from various roughening techniques, is then proposed. [less ▲]

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See detailChemical composition, cytotoxicity and in vitro antitrypanosomal and antiplasmodial activity of the essential oils of four Cymbopogon species from Benin.
Kpoviessi, Salome; Bero, Joanne; Agbani, Pierre et al

in Journal of ethnopharmacology (2014), 151

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cymbopogon species are largely used in folk medicine for the treatment of many diseases some of which related to parasitical diseases as fevers and headaches. As part of ... [more ▼]

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cymbopogon species are largely used in folk medicine for the treatment of many diseases some of which related to parasitical diseases as fevers and headaches. As part of our research on antiparasitic essential oils from Beninese plants, we decided to evaluate the in vitro antiplasmodial and antitrypanosomal activities of essential oils of four Cymbopogon species used in traditional medicine as well as their cytotoxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The essential oils of four Cymbopogon species Cymbopogon citratus (I), Cymbopogon giganteus (II), Cymbopogon nardus (III) and Cymbopogon schoenantus (IV) from Benin obtained by hydrodistillation were analysed by GC/MS and GC/FID and were tested in vitro against Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Plasmodium falciparum respectively for antitrypanosomal and antiplasmodial activities. Cytotoxicity was evaluated in vitro against Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells and the human non cancer fibroblast cell line (WI38) through MTT assay to evaluate the selectivity. RESULTS: All tested oils showed a strong antitrypanosomal activity with a good selectivity. Sample II was the most active against Trypanosoma brucei brucei and could be considered as a good candidate. It was less active against Plasmodium falciparum. Samples II, III and IV had low or no cytotoxicity, but the essential oil of Cymbopogon citraus (I), was toxic against CHO cells and moderately toxic against WI38 cells and needs further toxicological studies. Sample I (29 compounds) was characterised by the presence as main constituents of geranial, neral, beta-pinene and cis-geraniol; sample II (53 compounds) by the presence of trans-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol, trans-carveol, trans-p-mentha-2,8-dienol, cis-p-mentha-2,8-dienol, cis-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol, limonene, cis-carveol and cis-carvone; sample III (28 compounds) by beta-citronellal, nerol, beta-citronellol, elemol and limonene and sample IV (41 compounds) by piperitone, (+)-2-carene, limonene, elemol and beta-eudesmol. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that essential oils of Cymbopogon genus can be a good source of antitrypanosomal agents. This is the first report on the activity of these essential oils against Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Plasmodium falciparum and analysis of their cytotoxicity. [less ▲]

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See detailQualité de vie de l’enfant avec antécédents oncologiques et adaptation parentale : étude exploratoire
Tilkin, Caroline; Toucheque, Malorie ULg; Missotten, Pierre ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014)

Cette étude envisage la qualité de vie (QV) de l’enfant avec antécédents oncologiques et celle de ses parents ainsi que la relation entre l’adaptation parentale et la QV de l’enfant. Deux groupes ont été ... [more ▼]

Cette étude envisage la qualité de vie (QV) de l’enfant avec antécédents oncologiques et celle de ses parents ainsi que la relation entre l’adaptation parentale et la QV de l’enfant. Deux groupes ont été créés : un groupe expérimental composé d’enfants avec antécédents oncologiques et leurs parents et un groupe contrôle composé d’enfants tout-venant appariés et de leurs parents. Les enfants ont rempli un questionnaire de QV; les parents ont complété des questionnaires évaluant les stratégies de coping, les représentations de la maladie, le stress parental et la QV. Les résultats montrent que la QV du groupe expérimental est satisfaisante et similaire à celle observée au sein du groupe contrôle. Les représentations des parents (menace et contrôle personnel), ainsi que les stratégies qu’ils mettent en place pour maintenir l’intégration familiale sont significativement liées à la QV de leur enfant. Cette étude met en évidence le besoin d’évaluer l’adaptation des parents d’enfant avec antécédents oncologiques et de développer des interventions ciblant leurs représentations et leurs stratégies de coping. [less ▲]

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See detailCardiovascular imaging.
Lancellotti, Patrizio ULg; Habib, Gilbert; Negila, Danilo et al

in European heart journal (2014), 35(18), 1161-2

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