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See detailEffect of zolpidem in chronic disorders of consciousness: a prospective open-label study.
Thonnard, Marie ULg; Gosseries, Olivia ULg; Demertzi, Athina ULg et al

in Functional Neurology (2014)

Zolpidem has been reported as an "awakening drug" in some patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). We here present the results of a prospective openlabel study in chronic DOC patients. Sixty ... [more ▼]

Zolpidem has been reported as an "awakening drug" in some patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). We here present the results of a prospective openlabel study in chronic DOC patients. Sixty patients (35±15 years; 18 females; mean time since insult ± SD: 4±5.5 years; 31 with traumatic etiology) with a diagnosis of vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (n=28) or minimally conscious state (n=32) were behaviorally assessed using the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) before and one hour after administration of 10 mg of zolpidem. At the group level, the diagnosis did not change after intake of zolpidem (p=0.10) and CRS-R total scores decreased (p=0.01). Twelve patients (20%) showed improved behaviors and/or CRS-R total scores after zolpidem administration but in only one patient was the diagnosis after zolpidem intake found to show a significant improvement (functional object use), which suggested a change of diagnosis. However, in this patient, a double-blind placebo-controlled trial was performed in order to better specify the effects of zolpidem, but the patient, on this trial, failed to show any clinical improvements. The present open-label study therefore failed to show any clinically significant improvement (i.e., change of Effect of zolpidem in chronic disorders of consciousness: a prospective open-label study diagnosis) in any of the 60 studied chronic DOC patients. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomated analysis of background EEG and reactivity during therapeutic hypothermia in comatose patients after cardiac arrest
Noirhomme, Quentin ULg; Lehembre, Rémy; Lugo, Zulay et al

in Clinical EEG and Neuroscience : Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS) (2014)

Visual analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) background and reactivity during therapeutic hypothermia provides important outcome information, but is time-consuming and not always consistent between ... [more ▼]

Visual analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) background and reactivity during therapeutic hypothermia provides important outcome information, but is time-consuming and not always consistent between reviewers. Automated EEG analysis may help quantify the brain damage. Forty-six comatose patients in therapeutic hypothermia, after cardiac arrest, were included in the study. EEG background was quantified with burst-suppression ratio (BSR) and approximate entropy, both used to monitor anesthesia. Reactivity was detected through change in the power spectrum of signal before and after stimulation. Automatic results obtained almost perfect agreement (discontinuity) to substantial agreement (background reactivity) with a visual score from EEG-certified neurologists. Burst-suppression ratio was more suited to distinguish continuous EEG background from burst-suppression than approximate entropy in this specific population. Automatic EEG background and reactivity measures were significantly related to good and poor outcome. We conclude that quantitative EEG measurements can provide promising information regarding current state of the patient and clinical outcome, but further work is needed before routine application in a clinical setting. [less ▲]

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See detailAntiplasmodial anthraquinones and hemisynthetic derivatives from the leaves of Tectona grandis (Verbenaceae)
Kopa, T.K.; Tchinda Tiabou, Alembert ULg; Tala, M.F. et al

in Phytochemistry Letters (2014), 8

Chemical investigation of the methanol extract of the leaves of Tectona grandis led to the isolation of one new anthraquinone derivative, grandiquinone A (3-acetoxy-8-hydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone) (1 ... [more ▼]

Chemical investigation of the methanol extract of the leaves of Tectona grandis led to the isolation of one new anthraquinone derivative, grandiquinone A (3-acetoxy-8-hydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone) (1), along with nine known compounds: 5,8-dihydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (2), hydroxysesamone (3), 3-hydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (4), quinizarine (5), betulinic acid (6), ursolic acid (7), tectograndone (8), corosolic acid (9) and sitosterol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (10). Compounds 2 and 3 were isolated for the first time from the leaves of this plant, while 5 has never been reported from the genus Tectona. Hydroxysesamone (3) and tectograndone (8) were subjected to cyclisation and acetylation reactions to afford two hemisynthetic derivatives, 6,9-dihydroxy-2,2-(dimethyldihydropyrano)-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[g]chromene-5,10-dione (11) and acetyltectograndone (12) respectively, which are reported here for the first time. The ethyl acetate-soluble portion, some of the isolated compounds and hemisynthetic derivatives were evaluated for their antiplasmodial activity against the multidrug-resistant Dd2 strain of Plasmodium falciparum. Compound 3 showed a prominent activity, while 2, 8, 9, 11 and 12 showed significant in vitro anti-malarial activity. Compound 1 was weakly active in this test. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and comparison of the data with the literature. [less ▲]

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See detailRecommandations européennes pour la prise en charge des cardiopathies congénitales complexes de l'adulte
MILTNER, Béatrice ULg; LANCELLOTTI, Patrizio ULg; SEGHAYE, Marie-Christine ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014), 69(1), 16-25

THe number of patients with Grown-Up Congenital Heart disease (GUCH) consulting adult cardiologists is steadily increasing. These patients have either a non-diagnosed congenital heart disease revealed at ... [more ▼]

THe number of patients with Grown-Up Congenital Heart disease (GUCH) consulting adult cardiologists is steadily increasing. These patients have either a non-diagnosed congenital heart disease revealed at adulthood, or a diagnosed congenital heart disease for which one or multiple interventions have possibly been performed during childhood. In this article, we summarize the recommendations of the European Society of Cardiology of 2010 for complex congenital heart disease. [less ▲]

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See detailOpen flux in Saturn's magnetosphere
Badman, Sarah; Jackman, Caitriuna; Nichols, Jonathan et al

in Icarus (2014), 231

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See detailDe l’Européanisation à la régionalisation des politiques d’intégration en Wallonie.
Martiniello, Marco ULg

in Migrations Société (2014), 26(151), 2-28

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See detailThe Silence of the Labs
Hendrickx, Kim ULg

in LIMN (2014), (4),

Is sugar a choice? Kim hendrickx explores how a sugar museum puts life and health in perspective

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See detailUnusual occurrence of cocoons in population of the saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), in Belgium
Censier, Florence ULg; Chavalle, Sandrine; Skuhravá, Marcela et al

in Journal of Insect Science [=JIS] (2014)

The saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (von Roser) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is a phytophagous species that develops in saddle-shaped galls on stems of wheat Triticum vulgare, barley Hordeum ... [more ▼]

The saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (von Roser) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is a phytophagous species that develops in saddle-shaped galls on stems of wheat Triticum vulgare, barley Hordeum sativum, rye Secale cereale and some other species of Poaceae. Only one generation develops per year. Full-grown larvae leave galls, drop onto the soil where they remain up to the springtime of the following year. Larvae do not usually spin cocoons. However, formation of cocoons by larvae was observed in populations developing in western Europe: in England in 1954, in the Netherlands in the 1960s and in Belgium in 2011. On the basis of our analysis, a part of the larval population forms cocoons as protection against unfavorable weather conditions, especially drought. [less ▲]

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See detailExtinction de l'hypothèque pour toutes créances futures par suite de la cessation de la relation bancaire ?
Biquet, Christine ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2014), (5), 223-224

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See detailHeroin-assisted Tx superior to methadone for heroin addiction
Ansseau, Marc ULg

in Medscape medical news (2014)

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See detailCreativity and entrepreneurship: Changing currents in education and public-life
Dufays, Frédéric ULg

in International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research (2014), 20(3), 297-299

Looking at how to foster creativity and innovation for economic and social value, Lynn Book and David Phillips suggest bridging arts and sciences both within the academy and with external partners as a ... [more ▼]

Looking at how to foster creativity and innovation for economic and social value, Lynn Book and David Phillips suggest bridging arts and sciences both within the academy and with external partners as a key element. In this book, they compile a series of contributions that analyse, share experiences, model such (cross-sector) partnerships. [less ▲]

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See detailStrategies to combine novel traits across countries: example of heat stress
Hammami, Hedi ULg; Vandenplas, Jérémie ULg; Carabaño, Maria Jesus et al

in Interbull Bulletin (2014), 48

Nowadays, novel traits are of great interest. However, phenotypes are siloed and mainly not shared. Heat stress is becoming problematic affecting animals’ performances and their well-being. Heat stress ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, novel traits are of great interest. However, phenotypes are siloed and mainly not shared. Heat stress is becoming problematic affecting animals’ performances and their well-being. Heat stress tolerance as a novel trait is only addressed by isolated within-country research studies. Integration and combination of local and foreign information sources is needed for better accuracy genetic evaluations. Therefore, this study was aimed to test the potential combination of sources of external information towards the evaluation of heat stress tolerance of dairy cattle. Long-term cow performances linked to environmental descriptors (weather parameters as proxy to climate change) collected over 10 years under the temperate conditions of the Walloon Region of Belgium and the hotter and warm Mediterranean conditions of Andalusia and Castile-La-Mancha Spanish regions were available. A total of 1,604,775 milk, fat, and protein test-day (TD) records linked to average daily temperature humidity (THI) values for 3-day lag before each TD were considered. Under a first strategy considering free-access to raw-data (phenotype and pedigree), a joint evaluation was firstly run using reaction norm models where production traits were considered as function of THI. A Belgian and a Spanish evaluation were also run using the same model. An alternative strategy considering only access to external information (i.e. regression coefficients for additive genetic effects (â and their associated REL)) was tested. In this case, foreign â and their REL resulting from the Spanish evaluation were first converted to the Belgian trait and thereafter integrated in the Belgian evaluation using a Bayesian approach. Rank correlations between regression coefficients, â (of the 1,104 bulls having daughters only in Spain) estimated by Belgian evaluation and â estimated by the joint evaluation were moderate (<=0.70). Corresponding rank correlations between â estimated by joint and Bayesian evaluations were significantly higher (ranging from 0.967 to 0.998), indicating that the Bayesian evaluation integrating external information was in good concordance with the joint evaluation. Results from this study indicated that the integration of external information via the Bayesian approach has a good potential to improve the genetic evaluation of sparse and siloed novel traits. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the policy implications of changing longevity
Pestieau, Pierre ULg; Ponthiere, Grégory ULg

in CESifo Ecoonmic Studies (2014), 60

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See detailThe effect of size, weight, body compartment, sex and reproductive status on the bioaccumulation of 19 trace elements in rope-grown Mytilus galloprovincialis
Richir, Jonathan ULg; Gobert, Sylvie ULg

in Ecological Indicators (2014), 36

Numerous trace elements (TEs) can be considered as potential pollutants of the environment, their mining productions and industrial uses increasing worldwide. Their monitoring can be achieved through the ... [more ▼]

Numerous trace elements (TEs) can be considered as potential pollutants of the environment, their mining productions and industrial uses increasing worldwide. Their monitoring can be achieved through the use of bioindicator species, such as the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck, 1819). That species has been widely used to monitor the chemical pollution of coastal ecosystems by Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, As, Ag and V. Conversely, environmental levels of Be, Al, Fe, Mn, Co, Se, Mo, Sn, Sb and Bi have been little or not monitored so far in mussel watch programs. Bioaccumulation processes of these 19 TEs in rope-grown M. galloprovincialis purchased from a salt pond with good chemical water quality were thus investigated in the present study. Mussels efficiently accumulated the 19 studied TEs. Bioaccumulation processes were driven by numerous mutually dependent biological parameters such as the mussel size and flesh weight, the sex and the reproductive status and the body compartment considered. TE bioaccumulation was a power function of the mussel soft body dry weight; total contents linearly increased with the shell length. Small-size mussels overall concentrated more TEs, with a high inter-individual variability, consequently influencing the modelling of their bioaccumulation in the whole rope population. Although a large range of rope-grown M. galloprovincialis sizes can be used for monitoring purposes, one will thus take care not to use extreme size individuals. The influence of gametogenesis in determining female body higher TE concentrations prior to spawning could not be neglected and varied depending on the element. TEs were preferentially accumulated in the hepatopancreas, except for Zn, Se, Cd and Mo, more concentrated in gills. Gametogenesis did not influence TE distribution between body compartments, but likely diluted their concentrations as a direct consequence of massive reproductive tissue production. So, results from the present study underline the potential use of M. galloprovincialis in the biomonitoring of numerous little studied TEs and give some insights into the decisive role played by some relevant biological parameters in bioaccumulation processes of the 19 investigated TEs in rope-grown mussels. [less ▲]

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See detailVibronic Valence and Rydberg Transitions in Geminal Chloro-Fluoro-Ethene (1,1-C2H2FCl). A Spectroscopic and Quantum Chemical Investigation.
Locht, Robert ULg; Dehareng, Dominique ULg; Leyh, Bernard ULg

in Molecular Physics (2014), 112(11), 1520-1539

The vacuum UV photoabsorption spectrum of 1,1-C2H2FCl has been examined in detail between 5 eV and 15 eV photon energy by using synchrotron radiation dispersed by three different monochromators. Quantum ... [more ▼]

The vacuum UV photoabsorption spectrum of 1,1-C2H2FCl has been examined in detail between 5 eV and 15 eV photon energy by using synchrotron radiation dispersed by three different monochromators. Quantum chemical calculations are performed to help in the analysis of the valence/Rydberg transitions region centered at 7.05 eV including the 3a”(pi)→pi* and the 3a” (pi*)→3s Rydberg transitions. Interactions between states involving transitions to the 3s, 4d and sigma* orbitals are identified. A vibrational analysis is proposed for the structures belonging to these transitions. For the pi(3a”)→pi* transition, one vibrational progression is observed with ω3=1410±50 cm-1 and its lowest excitation energy is determined at about 6.398±0.003 eV. The pi(3a”)→3s Rydberg transition is characterized by a single progression with ω3= 1410±80 cm-1 likely starting at about 6.45 eV. These vibrations are ascribed to the C=C stretching motion. The abundant structure observed in the spectrum between 7.8 eV and 10.5 eV has been analyzed in terms of vibronic transitions to ns (δ= 0.97), np (δ= 0.63 and 0.40) and nd (δ= 0.13 and -0.11) Rydberg states which belong to series converging to the 1,1-C2H2FCl+( 2A”) ionic ground state. The analysis of the vibrational structure of the individual Rydberg states has been attempted leading to average values of the wavenumbers ω3= 1 420±20 cm-1, ω7= 720±50 cm-1 and ω9= 390±50 cm-1. Between 10.5 eV and 12.5 eV nine other Rydberg states converging to the 1,1-C2H2FCl+ ( 2A') first excited state were analyzed by the same way. The vibrational structure of these Rydberg states results from the excitation of one vibrational normal mode ν7 with an average value of ω7= 520±20 cm-1 which is assigned to the C-Cl stretching vibration as inferred from quantum chemical calculations. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of Usutu virus in a bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula) and a great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos major) in north-west Europe
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Marlier, Didier ULg; Tenner-Racz, Klara et al

in Veterinary Journal (2014), 199

In October 2012, a 3-year-old bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula) held in captivity for its entire lifespan and a wild adult great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos major), both with neurological signs, were ... [more ▼]

In October 2012, a 3-year-old bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula) held in captivity for its entire lifespan and a wild adult great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos major), both with neurological signs, were found 4 km from each other and 5 days apart in the Meuse Valley, Belgium. Non-suppurative encephalitis and mild degeneration and necrosis were identified in the brain and cerebellum, and Usutu virus antigen and RNA were detected by immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR, respectively. The two cases reported here represent the most western distribution of clinical disease in birds due to Usutu virus. [less ▲]

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See detailL'inhibition des voies de signalisation est-elle une possibilité thérapeutique pour l'arthrose?
Henrotin, Yves ULg

in Revue du Rhumatisme (2014)

Les voies de signalisation sont des cibles intéressantes pour les traitements de l’arthrose car leur inhibition ou leur activation permet de réguler l’expression d’un ensemble de gènes cibles directement ... [more ▼]

Les voies de signalisation sont des cibles intéressantes pour les traitements de l’arthrose car leur inhibition ou leur activation permet de réguler l’expression d’un ensemble de gènes cibles directement impliqués dans le dysfonctionnement métabolique des tissus articulaires. Cependant, les premiers essais cliniques réalisés dans la PR ont montré que la régulation spécifique de la voie JAK/STAT induit de nombreux effets secondaires. Ce point pourrait être un facteur limitant l’utilisation d’inhibiteurs ou d’activateurs spécifiques des voies de signalisation dans l’arthrose. Dans cette maladie, le rapport risque/bénéfice doit rester le facteur clé de la décision thérapeutique, car il s’agit de traiter une maladie d’évolution lente, de sévérité modérée et associée à de nombreuses comorbidités. [less ▲]

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See detailPt/C catalyst for PEM fuel cells: Control of Pt nanoparticles characteristics through a novel plasma deposition method
Laurent-Brocq, Mathilde; Job, Nathalie ULg; Eskenazi, David ULg et al

in Applied Catalysis B : Environmental (2014), 147

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See detailMonitoring batch lipase catalyzed interesterification of palm oil and fractions by differential scanning calorimetry
Danthine, Sabine ULg; DeClercq, Nathalie; Dewettinck, Koen et al

in Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry (2014)

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See detailLight modulation of human sleep depends on a polymorphism in the clock gene PER3
Chellappa, Sarah Laxhmi ULg; Viola, Antoine; Schmidt, Christina ULg et al

in Behavioural Brain Research (2014), 271

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See detailContrasting patterns of phytoplankton communities in two coastal ecosystems in relation to environmental factors (Corsica, NW Mediterranean Sea)
Garrido, Marie; Koeck, Barbara; Goffart, Anne ULg et al

in Diversity (2014), 6

Corsica Island is a sub-basin of the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, with hydrological features typical of both oligotrophic systems and eutrophic coastal zones. Phytoplankton assemblages in two coastal ... [more ▼]

Corsica Island is a sub-basin of the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, with hydrological features typical of both oligotrophic systems and eutrophic coastal zones. Phytoplankton assemblages in two coastal ecosystems of Corsica (the deep Bay of Calvi and the shallow littoral of Bastia) show contrasting patterns over a one-year cycle. In order to determine what drives these variations, seasonal changes in littoral phytoplankton are considered together with environmental parameters. Our methodology combined a survey of the physico-chemical structure of the subsurface water with a characterization of the phytoplankton community structure. Sampling provided a detailed record of the seasonal changes and successions that occur in these two areas. Results showed that the two sampled stations presented different phytoplankton abundance and distribution patterns, notably during the winter–spring bloom period. Successions in pico-, nano-, and microphytoplankton communities appeared mainly driven by differences in the ability to acquire nutrients, and in community-specific growth rates. Phytoplankton structure and dynamics are discussed in relation to available data on the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea. These results confirm that integrated monitoring of coastal areas is a requisite for gaining a proper understanding of marine ecosystems. [less ▲]

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See detailRole of larval host plant experience and solanaceous plant volatile emissions in Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) host finding behavior
Caparros Megido, Rudy ULg; De Backer, Lara; Ettaïb, Refki et al

in Arthropod-Plant Interactions (2014)

The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepi- doptera: Gelechiidae), is considered to be a major pest that damages tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L; Solanaceae) crops in South American, European, and ... [more ▼]

The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepi- doptera: Gelechiidae), is considered to be a major pest that damages tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L; Solanaceae) crops in South American, European, and Mediterranean countries. This insect species is polyphagous (i.e., feeds on many types of food); hence, it could also develop on other cultivated host plants, principally solanaceous plants, such as potato (S. tuberosum L.; Solanaceae) and eggplant (S. melongena L.; Solanaceae). Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that host plant choice by adult T. absoluta is influenced by plant volatile organic compounds and larval host plant experience. One tomato cultivar (cv.) ‘Money- maker’ and three potato cv. ‘Charlotte’ ‘Bintje,’ and ‘Nicola’ were tested. Using a flying tunnel, we observed that females reared on tomato preferred flying toward tomato and, to a lesser extent, potato cv. ‘Charlotte.’ These preferences might be explained by the high release of terpenes by these two plants. When conducting oviposition choice assays, we found no preference between tomato and potato in the number of eggs laid by females that had been previously reared on either host plant. This study indicates that the host finding behavior of T. absoluta is mediated by solanaceous volatiles, while oviposition behavior appears to depend on additional stimuli. These results provide baseline information for use in the development of new control strategies against T. absoluta using semiochemicals and plant breeding. [less ▲]

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See detailA modified DOI-based method to statistically estimate the depth of investigation of dc resistivity surveys
Deceuster, J.; Etienne, A.; Robert, Tanguy et al

in Journal of Applied Geophysics (2014), 103

Several techniques are available to estimate the depth of investigation or to identify possible artifacts in dc resistivity surveys. Commonly, the depth of investigation (DOI) is mainly estimated by using ... [more ▼]

Several techniques are available to estimate the depth of investigation or to identify possible artifacts in dc resistivity surveys. Commonly, the depth of investigation (DOI) is mainly estimated by using an arbitrarily chosen cut-off value on a selected indicator (resolution, sensitivity or DOI index). Ranges of cut-off values are recommended in the literature for the different indicators. However, small changes in threshold values may induce strong variations in the estimated depths of investigation. To overcome this problem, we developed a new statistical method to estimate the DOI of dc resistivity surveys based on a modified DOI index approach. This method is composed of 5 successive steps. First, two inversions are performed by using different resistivity reference models for the inversion (0.1 and 10 times the arithmetic mean of the logarithm of the observed apparent resistivity values). Inversion models are extended to the edges of the survey line and to a depth range of three times the pseudodepth of investigation of the largest array spacing used. In step 2, we compute the histogram of a newly defined scaled DOI index. Step 3 consists of the fitting of the mixture of two Gaussian distributions (G1 and G2) to the cumulative distribution function of the scaled DOI index values. Based on this fitting, step 4 focuses on the computation of an interpretation index (II) defined for every cell j of the model as the relative probability density that the cell j belongs to G1, which describes the Gaussian distribution of the cells with a scaled DOI index close to 0.0. In step 5, a new inversion is performed by using a third resistivity reference model (the arithmetic mean of the logarithm of the observed apparent resistivity values). The final electrical resistivity image is produced by using II as alpha blending values allowing the visual discrimination between well-constrained areas and poorly-constrained cells. The efficiency of the proposed methodology is assessed on synthetic and field data. By using synthetic benchmark analysis, we demonstrate that the selected well-constrained cells are well-reconstructed in size and shape as well as in resistivity contrasts. Compared to the existing image appraisal tools, the proposed statistical method allows the identification of the statistically well-constrained cells of the model without using any arbitrary cut-off value. Using this statistical method in combination with the resolution, when interpreting dc resistivity surveys, provides the geophysicist valuable information to avoid over- or misinterpretation of ERT images. [less ▲]

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See detailChemical and biological evaluation of the nutritive value of Algerian green seaweed Ulva lactuca using in vitro gas production technique fior ruminant animals
Zitouni, Hind; Arhab, Rabah; Boudry, Christelle ULg et al

in International Journal of Advanced Research (2014), 2(4), 916-925

This study aimed to determine the nutritive value of seaweed Ulva lactuca collected from the Algerian coast by estimation of its chemical composition and fermentation characteristics, comparatively to ... [more ▼]

This study aimed to determine the nutritive value of seaweed Ulva lactuca collected from the Algerian coast by estimation of its chemical composition and fermentation characteristics, comparatively to vetch-oat hay (control), using in vitro gas production technique. Seaweed and control were incubated with rumen liquor taken from fistulated and non lactating cows. Gas production was recorded at: 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72h. The in vitro rumen fermentation parameters were measured after 24h and 72h of fermentation. Proteins degradability was investigated by the enzymatic technique using a protease extracted from Streptomyces griseus. The results showed a wide variation between the chemical components of seaweed and conventional fodder used as control. The main constituents in Ulva lactuca were ashes (39.1% DM), fibers (22.8 % DM) and proteins (15.3% DM). The gas production profile of seaweed during 72h of incubation showed a slow and low gas production. Cumulative gas production obtained after 24h for seaweed (42 ml/g OM) was significantly lower than control (128.4 ml/g OM) (P<0.001). pH, ammonia, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), apparent digestibility of dry matter (DDM), organic matter digestibility (OMD) and metabolizable energy (ME) were significantly different between seaweed and vetch-oat hay (6.86, 290.1 mg/ml, 1.25 mmol/g DM, 38.3%, 29.2%, 3.81MJ/Kg DM respectively for seaweed). Protein degradability measurement indicates the weak hydrolysis of seaweed crude protein which is beneficial for ruminants. This study showed that the use of Ulva lactuca as non conventional feed in ruminant nutrition can be considered under certain conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailAmantadine, Apomorphine and Zolpidem in the Treatment of Disorders of Consciousness
Gosseries, Olivia ULg; Charland-Verville, Vanessa ULg; Thonnard, Marie ULg et al

in Current Pharmaceutical Design (2014), 20

Survivors of severe brain injuries may end up in a state of 'wakeful unresponsiveness' or in a minimally conscious state. Pharmacological treatments of patients with disorders of consciousness aim to ... [more ▼]

Survivors of severe brain injuries may end up in a state of 'wakeful unresponsiveness' or in a minimally conscious state. Pharmacological treatments of patients with disorders of consciousness aim to improve arousal levels and recovery of consciousness. We here provide a systematic overview of the therapeutic effects of amantadine, apomorphine and zolpidem in patients recovering from coma. Evidence from clinical trials using these commonly prescribed pharmacological agents suggests positive changes in the neurological status in patients, leading sometimes to dramatic improvements. These findings are discussed in the context of current hypotheses of these agents' therapeutic mechanisms on cerebral function. In order to enhance our understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of these drugs, we suggest combining sensitive and specific behavioral tools with neuroimaging and electrophysiological measures in large randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled experimental designs. We conclude that the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of amantadine, apomorphine and zolpidem need further exploration to determine which treatment would provide a better neurological outcome regarding the patient's etiology, diagnosis, time since injury and overall condition. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative genomics to investigate the evolutionary development of the genus Bifidobacterium
Lugli, Gabriele; Milani, Christian; Turroni, Francesca et al

in Applied and Environmental Microbiology (2014)

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See detailAmphetamine reward in food restricted mice lacking the melanin-concentrating hormone receptor-1
Geuzaine, A; Tyhon, A; Grisar, Thierry ULg et al

in Behavioural Brain Research (2014), 262

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See detailChromatin redistribution of the DEK oncoprotein represses hTERT transcription in leukemias.
Karam, Maroun; Thenoz, Morgan; CAPRARO, Valérie ULg et al

in Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) (2014), 16(1), 21-30

Although numerous factors have been found to modulate hTERT transcription, the mechanism of its repression in certain leukemias remains unknown. We show here that DEK represses hTERT transcription through ... [more ▼]

Although numerous factors have been found to modulate hTERT transcription, the mechanism of its repression in certain leukemias remains unknown. We show here that DEK represses hTERT transcription through its enrichment on the hTERT promoter in cells from chronic and acute myeloid leukemias, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, but not acute lymphocytic leukemias where hTERT is overexpressed. We isolated DEK from the hTERT promoter incubated with nuclear extracts derived from fresh acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cells and from cells expressing Tax, an hTERT repressor encoded by the human T cell leukemia virus type 1. In addition to the recruitment of DEK, the displacement of two potent known hTERT transactivators from the hTERT promoter characterized both AML cells and Tax-expressing cells. Reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays permitted to map the region that supports the repressive effect of DEK on hTERT transcription, which was proportionate to the level of DEK-promoter association but not with the level of DEK expression. Besides hTERT repression, this context of chromatin redistribution of DEK was found to govern about 40% of overall transcriptional modifications, including those of cancer-prone genes. In conclusion, DEK emerges as an hTERT repressor shared by various leukemia subtypes and seems involved in the deregulation of numerous genes associated with leukemogenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailThe peasants in turmoil: Khmer Rouge, state formation and the control of land in northwest Cambodia
Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg; Dupuis, David

in The Journal of Peasant Studies (2014), 41(4), 445468

Over the past 15 years, northwest Cambodia has seen dramatic agrarian expansion away from the central rice plain into the peripheral uplands fuelled by peasant in-migration. Against this background, we ... [more ▼]

Over the past 15 years, northwest Cambodia has seen dramatic agrarian expansion away from the central rice plain into the peripheral uplands fuelled by peasant in-migration. Against this background, we examine the nature of relations between the peasantry and the state. We first show the historical continuities of land control processes and how the use of violence in a post-conflict neoliberal context has legitimised ex-Khmer Rouge in controlling land distribution. Three case studies show the heterogeneity of local level sovereignties, which engage the peasants in different relations with authority. We examine how these processes result in the construction of different rural territories along the agricultural frontier and argue that, in this region of Cambodia, the struggles between Khmer Rouge and neoliberal modes of land control are central to state formation processes. [less ▲]

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See detailA new oil-based formulation of Trichoderma asperellum for the biological control of cacao black pod disease caused by Phytophthora megakarya
Mbarga, J.B.; Begoude, B.A.D.; Ambang, Z. et al

in Biological Control (2014), 77

In African cacao-producing countries, control of cacao black pod disease caused by hytophthora megakarya is a priority. Introducing biological control agents as part of a P. megakarya control strategy is ... [more ▼]

In African cacao-producing countries, control of cacao black pod disease caused by hytophthora megakarya is a priority. Introducing biological control agents as part of a P. megakarya control strategy is highly desirable, especially in a perspective of pesticide reduction. Trichoderma species are among the most used biological control agents. In Cameroon, Trichoderma asperellum formulated in wettable powder has produced positive effects against this disease. However, with this type of formulation, shelf-life and persistence of conidia on pods are limited. Our study therefore sought to develop a new T. asperellum formulation that would be more effective and better suited to the conditions of field application by small-scale producers in Cameroon. We selected a soybean oil-based oil dispersion, in which the half-life of the conidia reached 22.5 weeks, versus 5 weeks in aqueous suspension. Tested on detached pods, the formulation completely inhibited the development of the disease. When sprayed in the field on cacao clones highly sensitive to P. megakarya, the formulation resulted in 90% protection of treated pods after 1 week, and 50% after 3.2 weeks. The formulations exercised a measurable effect for up to 7 weeks, versus 2 weeks in the case of an aqueous conidial suspension and 5 weeks for that of a conventional fungicide (Kocide). Trichoderma asperellum formulated in oil dispersion has therefore great potential for the control of cacao black pod disease with less recourse to synthetic fungicides. [less ▲]

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See detailCardiovascular safety of strontium ranelate: real-life assessment in clinical practice.
Donneau, Anne-Françoise ULg; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA (2014), 25

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See detailMulti-scale modeling of mycosubtilin lipopeptides at the air/water interface: structure and optical second harmonic generation
Loison, Claire; Nasir, Mehmet Nail ULg; Benichou, Emmanuel et al

in Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics [=PCCP] (2014), 16

Monolayers of the lipopeptide mycosubtilin are studied at the air/water interface. Their structure is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. All-atom models suggest that the lipopeptide is ... [more ▼]

Monolayers of the lipopeptide mycosubtilin are studied at the air/water interface. Their structure is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. All-atom models suggest that the lipopeptide is flexible and aggregates at the interface. To achieve simulation times of several microseconds, a coarse-grained (CG) model based on the MARTINI force field was also used. These CG simulations describe the formation of half-micelles at the interface for surface densities up to 1 lipopeptide per nm2. In these aggregates, the tyrosine side chain orientation is found to be constrained: on average, its main axis, as defined along the C–OH bond, aligns along the interface normal and points towards the air side. The origin of the optical second harmonic generation (SHG) from mycosubtilin monolayers at the air/water interface is also investigated. The molecular hyperpolarizability of the lipopeptide is obtained from quantum chemistry calculations. The tyrosine side chain contribution to the hyperpolarizability is found to be dominant. The orientation distribution of tyrosine, associated with a dominant hyperpolarizability component along the C–OH bond of the tyrosine, yields a ratio of the susceptibility elements χ(2)ZZZ/χ(2)ZXX consistent with the experimental measurements recently reported by M. N. Nasir et al. [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2013, 15, 19919]. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctionalization of carbon xerogels for the preparation of palladium supported catalysts applied in sugar transformations
Mager, Nathalie; Meyer, Nathalie; Léonard, Alexandre ULg et al

in Applied Catalysis B : Environmental (2014), 148-149

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See detailSurgical treatment of bicuspid aortic valve disease: Knowledge gaps and research perspectives.
Della Corte, Alessandro; Body, Simon C.; Booher, Anna M. et al

in The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery (2014)

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See detailDioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls contamination in poultry liver related to food safety - A review
Ghimpeteanu, Oana-Margarita; Militaru, Manuella; Scippo, Marie-Louise ULg

in Food Control (2014), 38

The present article reviews the most important scientific literature on dioxins and PCBs found in poultry liver and their relation with food safety and consumers’ health. Dioxins and polychlorinated ... [more ▼]

The present article reviews the most important scientific literature on dioxins and PCBs found in poultry liver and their relation with food safety and consumers’ health. Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants with high chemical stability; they are lipophilic compounds and they are not destroyed by microbial, photochemical, chemical or thermal degradation. Dioxins and PCBs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants, which are present in all marine plant and animals, birds, mammals and humans and bioaccumulate through the food chain. In the last years, there has been concern regarding food contamination with different chemical substances and their effect on food safety. More particularly, at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century, there were a series of incidents related to dioxin and PCBs, which directly affected human or contaminated the soil and accumulated in feed and then in food products, such as poultry liver. It was shown in case of dioxin incident that tetra and penta-chlorinated congeners (the most toxic ones) accumulates selectively in poultry livers. Maximal concentrations have been fixed in the European legislation for dioxins and PCBs in food from animal origin, in order to protect the consumer. Data about background poultry liver contamination are scarce and the few available show levels below the legal limit for dioxins, but data are still lacking for DL-PCBs. [less ▲]

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See detailEcosystem services of mixed species forest stands and monocultures: comparing practitioners' and scientists' perceptions with formal scientific knowledge
Carnol, Monique ULg; Baeten, Lander; Branquart, Etienne et al

in Forestry (2014)

Mixed species stands might contribute to important goals of sustainable forest management, such as higher biological diversity, more resistance and resilience to disturbances and higher carbon storage ... [more ▼]

Mixed species stands might contribute to important goals of sustainable forest management, such as higher biological diversity, more resistance and resilience to disturbances and higher carbon storage. Knowledge of stakeholders' perceptions of such ecosystem services in mixed species stands is required for effective policy development. We showed that practitioners' and scientists' perceptions of ecosystem services in mixed species stands in Belgium differed from formal scientific knowledge derived from a synthesis of published studies. The positive perception of supporting, regulating and cultural services in mixed species stands contrasted with less conclusive results from the literature, where positive, negative and neutral effects were reported. Many respondents also signified a lack of information about regulating services. Furthermore, provisioning services were perceived as equal in mixed species stands and monocultures, in contrast to higher productivity demonstrated in mixed species stands in the literature. The regional (Flanders and Wallonia) ecological and socio-economic context influenced both the perception of ecosystem services and of the importance of management objectives. Our results highlighted the need to address the lack of scientific data, to adapt communication to the ecological and socio-economic context, as well as to improve information flow on regulating services and productivity. [less ▲]

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See detailA combinatorial branch-and-bound algorithm for box search
Mathieu, Sébastien ULg; Louveaux, Quentin ULg

in Discrete Optimization (2014), 13

Considering a set of points in a multi-dimensional space with an associated real value for each point, we want to find the box with the maximum sum of the values of the included points. This problem has ... [more ▼]

Considering a set of points in a multi-dimensional space with an associated real value for each point, we want to find the box with the maximum sum of the values of the included points. This problem has applications in data mining and can be formulated as a mixed-integer linear program. We propose a branch-and-bound algorithm where the bounding is obtained by combinatorial arguments instead of the traditional linear relaxation. Computational experiments show that this approach competes with current state of the art mixed-integer solvers. The algorithm proposed in this paper may be seen as a simple and dependence-free method to solve the box search problem. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of Sensory Characteristics of Green Tea Produced in Thai Nguyen and Phu Tho Province, Vietnam
Dang, Thi Minh Luyen ULg; Ha Duyen, Tu; Lebailly, Philippe ULg et al

in Journal of Food Science and Engineering (2014), 4(2/February 2014 (Serial Number 31)), 104-114

Green tea is a popular product with a high consumption in Vietnam. Moreover, green tea produced in Tan Cuong commune, Thai Nguyen province, has long been recognized for its superior quality to those ... [more ▼]

Green tea is a popular product with a high consumption in Vietnam. Moreover, green tea produced in Tan Cuong commune, Thai Nguyen province, has long been recognized for its superior quality to those coming from other regions of the country. This study aims at comparing the tea from Thai Nguyen and Phu Tho and finding out if the difference can be identified through sensory analysis. Two products picked from Tan Cuong, Thai Nguyen province, and two others from Phu Ho district, Phu Tho province were evaluated by a trained panel of 12 judges (11 women and 1 man). The sensory evaluation of the dry tea (11 descriptors) was carried out separately from the brewed tea (21 descriptors) and brewed leaf (five descriptors) using an unstructured intensity scale (10 cm). Statistic analyses have shown differences between regions in all three groups of attributes: dry leaf, liquor and brewed leaf. [less ▲]

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See detailRelationships between rapid changes in local aromatase activity and estradiol concentrations in male and female quail brain.
Dickens, M. J.; de Bournonville, C.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg et al

in Hormones and behavior (2014), 65(2), 154-164

Estradiol-17beta (E2) synthesized in the brain plays a critical role in the activation of sexual behavior in many vertebrate species. Because E2 concentrations depend on aromatization of testosterone ... [more ▼]

Estradiol-17beta (E2) synthesized in the brain plays a critical role in the activation of sexual behavior in many vertebrate species. Because E2 concentrations depend on aromatization of testosterone, changes in aromatase enzymatic activity (AA) are often utilized as a proxy to describe E2 concentrations. Utilizing two types of stimuli (sexual interactions and acute restraint stress) that have been demonstrated to reliably alter AA within minutes in opposite directions (sexual interactions=decrease, stress=increase), we tested in Japanese quail whether rapid changes in AA are paralleled by changes in E2 concentrations in discrete brain areas. In males, E2 in the pooled medial preoptic nucleus/medial portion of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (POM/BST) positively correlated with AA following sexual interactions. However, following acute stress, E2 decreased significantly (approximately 2-fold) in the male POM/BST despite a significant increase in AA. In females, AA positively correlated with E2 in both the POM/BST and mediobasal hypothalamus supporting a role for local, as opposed to ovarian, production regulating brain E2 concentrations. In addition, correlations of individual E2 in POM/BST and measurements of female sexual behavior suggested a role for local E2 synthesis in female receptivity. These data demonstrate that local E2 in the male brain changes in response to stimuli on a time course suggestive of potential non-genomic effects on brain and behavior. Overall, this study highlights the complex mechanisms regulating local E2 concentrations including rapid stimulus-driven changes in production and stress-induced changes in catabolism. [less ▲]

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See detailUncertainty assessment of ephemeral gully identification, characteristics and topographic threshold when using aerial photographs in agricultural settings
Maugnard, Alexandre; Cordonnier, Hélène; Degré, Aurore ULg et al

in EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS (2014)

Manual digitizing on aerial photographs is still commonly used for characterizing gully erosion over large areas. Even when automated detection procedures are implemented, manual digitizing is frequently ... [more ▼]

Manual digitizing on aerial photographs is still commonly used for characterizing gully erosion over large areas. Even when automated detection procedures are implemented, manual digitizing is frequently being resorted to in order to constitute reference datasets used for training and validation. In both cases, manual digitizing entails some subjective decisions on behalf of the operator, which introduces uncertainty into the resulting datasets. To assess the magnitude of this uncertainty, 11 experienced operators were asked to digitize and classify ephemeral gullies (EGs) on cropland following a standardized methodology. The resulting 11 datasets were compared in terms of number, type and location of EGs. Furthermore, for EGs located on a welldefined runoff flow concentration axis, the slope versus contributing area topographic thresholds required for initiating gully channels were assessed using four thresholding methods, and compared across the 11 datasets. The operators identified 259 different EGs. However, the number (52–139) and sum total length (8.9–23.7 km) of EGs varied widely across operators. Only 34% of the EGs were digitized by more than half of the operators, and 7% were identified by all. Identification of EGs located on a well-defined flow concentration axis proved least subjective. The longer the EG and the more fields the EG crossed, the larger the number of operators that were able to identify it. EGs were also most easily identified when located in sugar beet fields as compared to other crops. EG classification and topographic threshold lines were also found to be strongly operator-dependent. Quantile regression appeared to be one of the most robust thresholding methods. Operator subjectivity when digitizing EGs on orthophotographs introduces uncertainty that should be taken into account in future remote sensing-based studies of EG erosion whenever they rely, in part or in full, on manual photograph interpretation. [less ▲]

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See detailCD36: linking lipids to the NLRP3 inflammasome, atherogenesis and atherothrombosis
Oury, Cécile ULg

in Cellular & Molecular Immunology (2014), 11

Uptake of the atherogenic lipid mediator oxLDL by CD36 results in the formation of intracellular cholesterol crystals that caused lyso¬somal destabilization and NLRP3 activation. oxLDL not only primes ... [more ▼]

Uptake of the atherogenic lipid mediator oxLDL by CD36 results in the formation of intracellular cholesterol crystals that caused lyso¬somal destabilization and NLRP3 activation. oxLDL not only primes, via a NF-κB-dependent pathway, but also activates NLRP3. CD36-mediated inflammasome activation provides an early pathogenic pathway that links cholesterol accumulation to the chronic inflammatory process of atherosclerosis. During atherogenesis, activated or injured endothelial cells, leucocytes and platelets release ATP that acts in a paracrine manner to transduce sterile inflammatory signals. Among these signals, P2X7 receptors mediate K+ efflux leading to NLRP3 activation. Since ATP assembles ASC complexes in oxLDL-treated macrophages, P2X7 receptors and CD36 may cooperate in vivo to activate NLRP3 inflammasome, contributing to plaque formation. Besides macrophages, CD36 is expressed on platelets where it mediates oxLDL-dependent platelet activation and potentially further IL-1β release. P2X7 receptors contributes to protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) tissue factor-dependent thrombosis. Consequently, both CD36 and P2X7 receptors may be involved in atherothrombosis upon plaque rupture. [less ▲]

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See detailBone forming agents for the management of osteoporosis
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Neuprez, A.; Beaudart, Charlotte ULg et al

in Panminerva medica (2014), 56(2), 97-114

Osteoporotic fractures are a major cause of morbidity in the population. Anti-resorptive agents have been, for more than 15 years, the mainstay of osteoporosis treatment worldwide. However, these ... [more ▼]

Osteoporotic fractures are a major cause of morbidity in the population. Anti-resorptive agents have been, for more than 15 years, the mainstay of osteoporosis treatment worldwide. However, these medications provide only limited fracture reduction and may be linked to skeletal and non-skeletal long-term safety concerns. Therefore, some patients are considered candidates for bone-forming agents because they remain severely osteoporotic or because they failed antiresorptive therapy. Over the last decade, a particular interest was shown in the developmentofmedicationsabletoincreaseosteoblastsnumber,lifespan or activity, hence stimulating bone formation Peptides from the parathyroid hormone family and strontium ranelate were shown to significantly reduce fracture rates but strontium ranelate is no longer an option for treating osteoporosis because of its safety profile. New therapeutic options, including monoclonal antibodies against sclerostin seem to be promising but their role in the armamentarium of osteoporosis will depend on the results of the current phase 3 studies, assessing antifracture efficacy and long-term safety. [less ▲]

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See detailPeripheral T-cell lymphoma with t(6;14)(p25;q11.2) translocation presenting with massive splenomegaly.
SOMJA, Joan ULg; Bisig, B.; de Leval, L. et al

in Virchows Archiv : An International Journal of Pathology (2014)

Recurrent chromosomal translocations associated to peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL) are rare. Here, we report a case of PTCL, not otherwise specified (NOS) with the karyotype 46,Y,add(X)(p22),t(6;14 ... [more ▼]

Recurrent chromosomal translocations associated to peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL) are rare. Here, we report a case of PTCL, not otherwise specified (NOS) with the karyotype 46,Y,add(X)(p22),t(6;14)(p25;q11) and FISH-proved breakpoints in the IRF4 and TCRAD loci, leading to juxtaposition of both genes. A 64-year-old male patient presented with mild cytopenias and massive splenomegaly. Splenectomy showed diffuse red pulp involvement by a pleomorphic medium- to large-cell T-cell lymphoma with a CD2+ CD3+ CD5− CD7− CD4+ CD8+/− CD30− TCRbeta-F1+ immunophenotype, an activated cytotoxic profile, and strong MUM1 expression. The clinical course was marked by disease progression in the bone marrow under treatment and death at 4 months. In contrast with two t(6;14)(p25;q11.2)-positive lymphomas previously reported to be cytotoxic PTCL, NOS with bone marrow and skin involvement, this case was manifested by massive splenomegaly, expanding the clinical spectrum of PTCLs harboring t(6;14)(p25;q11.2) and supporting consideration of this translocation as a marker of biological aggressiveness. [less ▲]

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See detailVie et intériorité dans La Vie d'Adèle - le parti pris de l'extériorité
Hagelstein, Maud ULg; Janvier, Antoine ULg

in Cahiers du GRM (2014), 5

(Introduction) Mais pourquoi « la vie » d’Adèle ? À l’évidence, Kechiche ne nous en montre qu’une période limitée. Pourquoi alors La Vie d’Adèle, et pas : L’adolescence d’Adèle, La passion d’Adèle, Adèle ... [more ▼]

(Introduction) Mais pourquoi « la vie » d’Adèle ? À l’évidence, Kechiche ne nous en montre qu’une période limitée. Pourquoi alors La Vie d’Adèle, et pas : L’adolescence d’Adèle, La passion d’Adèle, Adèle et Emma, ou Les amours d’Adèle ? Le spectateur est prévenu depuis longtemps, on le lui a assez dit : le film met en scène l’histoire d’une adolescente qui cherche sa vérité intime. Et quoi de plus intime qu’une passion amoureuse ? Kechiche ne manque pas d’exposer au regards les séquences les plus privées d’une telle passion, dans de longues scènes qui ont tant fait parler d’elles. Le cadre interprétatif est là, tout prêt : Adèle éprouve les aléas de la recherche incertaine de soi ; elle fait l’épreuve de ce rite initiatique des sociétés modernes qui est en même temps le moment privilégié d’expérimentation et de construction du sujet. La Vie d’Adèle, Bildungsroman d’une jeune lilloise du 21ème siècle testant différentes configurations amoureuses avant d’approcher la vérité de son désir : d’abord un garçon, puis une copine de lycée, puis Emma, puis d’autres aventures, et pour finir, peut-être, un jeune homme. Sauf que cette « formation » ne débouche sur aucune forme subjective achevée. Adèle se cherche-t-elle vraiment ? Et surtout : est-ce là le sujet réel du film (au double sens du terme : aussi bien le thème choisi par le cinéaste que la subjectivité autour de laquelle tourne La Vie d’Adèle) ? [less ▲]

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See detailCurrent impact and future directions of high throughput sequencing in plant virus diagnostics.
Massart, Sébastien ULg; Olmos, Antonio; Jijakli, Haissam ULg et al

in Virus Research (2014), 188

The ability to provide a fast, inexpensive and reliable diagnostic for any given viral infection is a key parameter in efforts to fight and control these ubiquitous pathogens. The recent developments of ... [more ▼]

The ability to provide a fast, inexpensive and reliable diagnostic for any given viral infection is a key parameter in efforts to fight and control these ubiquitous pathogens. The recent developments of highthroughput sequencing (also called Next Generation Sequencing – NGS) technologies and bioinformatics have drastically changed the research on viral pathogens. It is now raising a growing interest for virus diagnostics. This review provides a snapshot vision on the current use and impact of high throughput sequencing approaches in plant virus characterization. More specifically, this review highlights the potential of these new technologies and their interplay with current protocols in the future of molecular diagnostic of plant viruses. The current limitations that will need to be addressed for a wider adoption of high-throughput sequencing in plant virus diagnostics are thoroughly discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailLa recette commentée sur la toile: un genre renouvelé?
Meunier, Deborah ULg; Rosier, Laurence

in Arena Romanistica (2014), 14

The principle of procedurality, as well as the practice of transmission, define culinary discourse in the form of recipes, a sub-genre of emblematic discourse. Electronic tools have permitted a renewal of ... [more ▼]

The principle of procedurality, as well as the practice of transmission, define culinary discourse in the form of recipes, a sub-genre of emblematic discourse. Electronic tools have permitted a renewal of the recipe’s very form, which was initially a case of linear transmission in a chronological sense, towards a dialogal and polyphonic form in which the original posted recipe becomes recipe only when it is enlivened with commentaries which complete and perform it. Our contribution aims to show this discursive co-construction. From the point of view of genres, we will also see that those genres which are known as monologal or fixed can evolve towards dialogal and dialogical forms. [less ▲]

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See detailRediscovery of the forgotten de Ryckholt Collection (gastropods, bivalves, worms; Late Cretaceous, Belgium)
Denayer, Julien ULg; Fischer, Valentin ULg; Mottequin, Bernard ULg

in Cretaceous Research (2014), 47

A significant part of the collection of mid- and Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian, Campanian and Maastrichtian) gastropods, bivalves and worms described and/or illustrated by de Ryckholt in his seminal work ... [more ▼]

A significant part of the collection of mid- and Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian, Campanian and Maastrichtian) gastropods, bivalves and worms described and/or illustrated by de Ryckholt in his seminal work Mélanges paléontologiques between 1854 and 1862, has recently been retraced in the historical collections at Liège University. Of the original collection, more than 206 specimens, including 196 nominal types (lectotypes and genotypes), all considered lost, are now available. The genotypes of the gastropod genera Tudicula de Ryckholt, 1862a and Prosopostoma de Ryckholt, 1862a are photographically illustrated for the first time. Prosopostoma bucculans, from the Cenomanian Bernissart Formation (formerly ‘Tourtia de Tournai’), is here chosen as the type species of the genus Prosopostoma, a possible stromboid. We also reassess the stratigraphic age of the type localities under the revised stratigraphic framework of Belgium and a detailed account on the research history of this material, in order to provide a thorough scientific background for future study of this formidable collection. [less ▲]

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See detailInterdisciplinary approaches to the phenomenology of auditory verbal hallucinations
Woods, A; Jones, N; Bernini, M et al

in Schizophrenia Bulletin (2014), 40

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See detailType I error inflation in DIF identification with Mantel-Haenszel: an explanation and a solution
Magis, David ULg; De Boeck, Paul

in Educational & Psychological Measurement (2014), 74

It is known that sum score-based methods for the identification of differential item functioning (DIF), such as the Mantel-Haenszel (MH) approach, can be affected by Type I error inflation in the absence ... [more ▼]

It is known that sum score-based methods for the identification of differential item functioning (DIF), such as the Mantel-Haenszel (MH) approach, can be affected by Type I error inflation in the absence of any DIF effect. This may happen when the items differ in discrimination and when there is item impact. On the other hand, outlier DIF methods have been developed that are robust against this Type I error inflation, while they are still based on the MH DIF statistic. The present paper gives an explanation for why the common MH method is indeed vulnerable to the inflation effect while the outlier DIF versions are not. In a simulation study we were able to produce the Type I error inflation by inducing item impact and item differences in discrimination. At the same time and in parallel with the Type I error inflation the dispersion of the DIF statistic across items was increased. As expected, the outlier DIF methods did not seem sensitive to impact and differences in item discrimination. [less ▲]

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See detailMagritte y Wittgenstein : acuerdo y desacuerdo
Badir, Sémir ULg

in Tópicos del Seminario (2014), 30

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See detailThe impact of expertise on the capture of sketched intentions: perspectives for remote cooperative design
Sutera, Jennifer; Yang, Maria C.; Elsen, Catherine ULg

in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (2014), 8683

The paper describes the way expertise and field-knowledge can impact the transfer of graphical intentions during architectural cooperative design. The analysis of 28 controlled experiments reveals what ... [more ▼]

The paper describes the way expertise and field-knowledge can impact the transfer of graphical intentions during architectural cooperative design. The analysis of 28 controlled experiments reveals what matters in transmitting architectural intents and more specifically underlines how novices’ intuitive, deductive processes based on previous and embodied experiences interestingly complement experts’ knowledge of the architectural field and its semantics. The results directly inform how we, as researchers, designers and engineers, should take advantage of both novices’ and experts’ strategies to develop tools, methods or interfaces to support next generation cooperative design. [less ▲]

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See detailNormal reference ranges for echocardiography: do we really need more?
Lancellotti, Patrizio ULg

in European heart journal cardiovascular Imaging (2014), 15(3), 253-4

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See detailInfluence of cement and aggregate type on thaumasite formation in concrete
Nielsen, peter; Sven, Nicolai; Darimont, Anne ULg et al

in Cement & Concrete Composites (2014), 53

In this study the influence of binder type on the formation of thaumasite in mortars made with expanded clay lightweight aggregates (LWA) was examined. For this purpose mortar prisms (20x20x160mm) were ... [more ▼]

In this study the influence of binder type on the formation of thaumasite in mortars made with expanded clay lightweight aggregates (LWA) was examined. For this purpose mortar prisms (20x20x160mm) were made with different binders and expanded clay lightweight aggregate or quartz sand, which after 28 days of curing in water were exposed to a 2.37 % Na2SO4 solution. The length and weight change of the prisms was recorded in triplicate as a function of time of exposure to dry-wet cycles in the sulphate solution or deionised water, at a temperature of 5 ± 1°C. The influence of the binder type on the expansion of the prisms in the 2.37 % Na2SO4 solution with dry and wet cycling can be ordered from strong to weak as follows: (1) CEM I + limestone filler, (2) CEM I, (3) CEM I + fly ash, (4) CEM III. The use of specific cements or cement blends can clearly inhibit the formation of thaumasite (and/or ettringite). The influence of the aggregate type (quartz versus LWA) on the sulphate reaction is more difficult to determine because the porosity of LWA can accommodate the growing sulphate crystals. All the mortar prisms made with quartz aggregate were bent or broken after 21 to 24 weeks exposure to the sulphate solution, while most mortar prisms made with expanded clay aggregate were still intact. The only exception being the mortar prisms containing limestone filler. The latter disintegrated between 24 and 34 weeks of exposure to the sulphate solution. The expansion of the prisms made with CEM I and CEM I + fly ash levelled off between 50 and 100 weeks of exposure to the sulphate solution. The prisms made with CEM III showed minimal expansion (≤ 0.1 %) after 3 years of exposure. The prisms exposed to demineralised water showed no or minimal expansion. The presence and mineralogy of secondary sulphate phases in the mortars was checked by XRD analysis and SEM-EDS analysis of (degraded) mortar prisms. In most cases a solid solution of ettringite-thaumasite was observed. Based on the composition, treatment and expansion of the different mortar prisms, key factors controlling the formation of thaumasite or a solid solution of thaumasite-ettringite are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailInositol trisphosphate 3-kinase B is increased in human Alzheimer brain and exacerbates mouse Alzheimer pathology
Stygelbout, V.; Leroy, K.; Pouillon, V. et al

in Brain : A Journal of Neurology (2014), 137

S. Schurmans and J.-P. Brion contributed equally to this work Corresponding author: S. Schurmans, Laboratoire de Génétique Fonctionnelle, GIGA-Research Centre, Building 34, Université de Liège, rue de ... [more ▼]

S. Schurmans and J.-P. Brion contributed equally to this work Corresponding author: S. Schurmans, Laboratoire de Génétique Fonctionnelle, GIGA-Research Centre, Building 34, Université de Liège, rue de l’Hôpital 1, 4000-Liège, Belgium. Abstract: Inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate 3-kinase B phosphorylates inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate into inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate and controls signal transduction in various hematopoietic cells. Surprisingly, it has been reported that Inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate 3-kinase B mRNA level is significantly increased in the cerebral cortex of Alzheimer patients, compared to control subjects. Since Extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 activation is increased in Alzheimer brain and since Inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate 3-kinase B is a regulator of Extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 activation in some hematopoietic cells, we tested whether this increased activation in Alzheimer’s disease might be related to an increased activity of Inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate 3-kinase B. We show here that Inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate 3-kinase B protein level was 3 fold increased in the cerebral cortex of most Alzheimer patients, compared to control subjects, and accumulated in dystrophic neurites associated to amyloid plaques. In mouse Neuro-2a neuroblastoma cells, Inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate 3-kinase B overexpression was associated with increased cell apoptosis and increased β-secretase 1 activity leading to amyloid-β peptides overproduction. In this cellular model, an inhibitor of Mitogen-activated kinase kinases 1/2 completely prevented amyloid-β peptides overproduction. Transgenic overexpression of Inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate 3-kinase B in mouse forebrain neurons was not sufficient to induce amyloid plaques formation or TAU hyperphosphorylation. However, in the 5X Familial Alzheimer’s Disease mouse model, neuronal Inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate 3-kinase B overexpression significantly increased Extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 activation and β-secretase 1 activity, resulting in exacerbated Alzheimer pathology as shown by increased astrogliosis, amyloid-β40 peptide production and TAU hyperphosphorylation. No impact on pathology was observed in the 5X Familial Alzheimer’s Disease mouse model when a catalytically inactive Inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate 3-kinase B protein was overexpressed. Together, our results point to the Inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate 3-kinase B /Inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate/Extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 signaling pathway as an important regulator of neuronal cell apoptosis, Amyloid precursor protein processing and TAU phosphorylation in Alzheimer’s disease, and suggest that Inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate 3-kinase B could represent a new target for reducing pathology in human AD patients with increased cortical Inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate 3-kinase B expression. [less ▲]

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See detailClosure to “Parapet Wall Effect on Piano Key Weir Efficiency”
Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Machiels, Olivier; Pirotton, Michel ULg et al

in Journal of Irrigation & Drainage Engineering (2014)

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See detailAging Reduces the Stimulating Effect of Blue Light on Cognitive Brain Functions
Daneault, Véronique; Hébert, Marc; Albouy, Geneviève et al

in Sleep (2014)

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See detailAppropriateness criteria for cardiovascular imaging use in clinical practice: a position statement of the ESC/EACVI taskforce.
Garbi, Madalina; Habib, Gilbert; Plein, Sven et al

in European heart journal cardiovascular Imaging (2014), 15(5), 477-182

There is a growing interest from the scientific community in the appropriate use of cardiovascular imaging techniques for diagnosis and decision making in Europe. To develop appropriateness criteria for ... [more ▼]

There is a growing interest from the scientific community in the appropriate use of cardiovascular imaging techniques for diagnosis and decision making in Europe. To develop appropriateness criteria for cardiovascular imaging use in clinical practice in Europe, a dedicated taskforce has been appointed by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI). The present paper describes the appropriateness criteria development process. [less ▲]

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See detailA Novel Strategy to Translate the Biomechanical Rupture Risk of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms to their Equivalent Diameter Risk: Method and Retrospective Validation.
Gasser, T. C.; Nchimi, A.; Swedenborg, J. et al

in European journal of vascular and endovascular surgery : the official journal of the European Society for Vascular Surgery (2014)

OBJECTIVE: To translate the individual abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patient's biomechanical rupture risk profile to risk-equivalent diameters, and to retrospectively test their predictability in ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To translate the individual abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patient's biomechanical rupture risk profile to risk-equivalent diameters, and to retrospectively test their predictability in ruptured and non-ruptured aneurysms. METHODS: Biomechanical parameters of ruptured and non-ruptured AAAs were retrospectively evaluated in a multicenter study. General patient data and high resolution computer tomography angiography (CTA) images from 203 non-ruptured and 40 ruptured aneurysmal infrarenal aortas. Three-dimensional AAA geometries were semi-automatically derived from CTA images. Finite element (FE) models were used to predict peak wall stress (PWS) and peak wall rupture index (PWRI) according to the individual anatomy, gender, blood pressure, intra-luminal thrombus (ILT) morphology, and relative aneurysm expansion. Average PWS diameter and PWRI diameter responses were evaluated, which allowed for the PWS equivalent and PWRI equivalent diameters for any individual aneurysm to be defined. RESULTS: PWS increased linearly and PWRI exponentially with respect to maximum AAA diameter. A size-adjusted analysis showed that PWS equivalent and PWRI equivalent diameters were increased by 7.5 mm (p = .013) and 14.0 mm (p < .001) in ruptured cases when compared to non-ruptured controls, respectively. In non-ruptured cases the PWRI equivalent diameters were increased by 13.2 mm (p < .001) in females when compared with males. CONCLUSIONS: Biomechanical parameters like PWS and PWRI allow for a highly individualized analysis by integrating factors that influence the risk of AAA rupture like geometry (degree of asymmetry, ILT morphology, etc.) and patient characteristics (gender, family history, blood pressure, etc.). PWRI and the reported annual risk of rupture increase similarly with the diameter. PWRI equivalent diameter expresses the PWRI through the diameter of the average AAA that has the same PWRI, i.e. is at the same biomechanical risk of rupture. Consequently, PWRI equivalent diameter facilitates a straightforward interpretation of biomechanical analysis and connects to diameter-based guidelines for AAA repair indication. PWRI equivalent diameter reflects an additional diagnostic parameter that may provide more accurate clinical data for AAA repair indication. [less ▲]

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See detailPEGylation of antibody fragments greatly increases their local residence time following delivery to the respiratory tract.
Koussoroplis, Salome Juliette; Paulissen, Geneviève ULg; Tyteca, Donatienne et al

in Journal of Controlled Release (2014), sous presse

Inhalation aerosols offer a targeted therapy for respiratory diseases. However, the therapeutic efficacy of inhaled biopharmaceuticals is limited by the rapid clearance of macromolecules in the lungs. The ... [more ▼]

Inhalation aerosols offer a targeted therapy for respiratory diseases. However, the therapeutic efficacy of inhaled biopharmaceuticals is limited by the rapid clearance of macromolecules in the lungs. The aim of this research was to study the effects of the PEGylation of antibody fragments on their local residence time after administration to the respiratory tract. We demonstrate that the conjugation of a two-armed 40-kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG) chain to anti-interleukin-17A (IL-17A) F(ab')2 and anti-IL-13 Fab' greatly prolonged the presence of these fragments within the lungs of mice. The content of PEGylated antibody fragments within the lungs plateaued up to 4hours post-delivery, whereas clearance of unconjugated proteins started immediately after administration. Forty-eight hours post-delivery, F(ab')2 and Fab' content in the lungs had decreased to 10 and 14 % of the dose initially deposited, respectively. However, this value was 40 % for both PEG40-F(ab')2 and PEG40-Fab'. The prolonged pulmonary residency of the anti-IL-17A PEG40-F(ab')2 translated into an improved efficacy in reducing lung inflammation in a murine model of house dust mite-induced lung inflammation. We demonstrate that PEGylated proteins were principally retained within the lung lumen rather than the nasal cavities or lung parenchyma. In addition, we report that PEG increased pulmonary retention of antibody fragments through mucoadhesion and escape from alveolar macrophages rather than increased hydrodynamic size or improved enzymatic stability. The PEGylation of proteins might find broad application in the local delivery of therapeutic proteins to diseased airways. [less ▲]

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See detailAider à vivre, aider à mourir
Jamoulle, Marc ULg

in Pratiques : les Cahiers de la Médecine Utopique (2014), 66

Aider à vivre et aider à mourir ne sont pas tellement éloignés l’un de l’autre en médecine de famille. Au quotidien, la différence est tranchée et la limite claire. Il y a les vivants et il y a les morts ... [more ▼]

Aider à vivre et aider à mourir ne sont pas tellement éloignés l’un de l’autre en médecine de famille. Au quotidien, la différence est tranchée et la limite claire. Il y a les vivants et il y a les morts. Pas si sûr. Entre vie et mort, le fil est parfois ténu. [less ▲]

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See detailQUELLE EST LA PLACE DE L’HUMAIN AU SEIN DES RECOMMANDATIONS, DES CONCERTATIONS ONCOLOGIQUES
BARTHELEMY, Nicole ULg; BOGA, Deniz ULg; PRINCEN, Fabienne ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014), 69(Supp 1), 9-12

Le patient atteint de cancer bénéficie à l’heure actuelle d’une médecine très technique, de plus en plus ciblée et individualisée. Et l’Homme dans tout cela ? Divers outils ont été développés afin d’aider ... [more ▼]

Le patient atteint de cancer bénéficie à l’heure actuelle d’une médecine très technique, de plus en plus ciblée et individualisée. Et l’Homme dans tout cela ? Divers outils ont été développés afin d’aider les médecins et l’ensemble des soignants à concilier la médecine contemporaine et les droits fondamentaux du patient. Parmi ceux-ci, on trouve les Concertations Oncologiques Multidisciplinaires (COM) ainsi que les recommandations de traitement publiées par les socié - tés scientifiques nationales ou internationales. La prise en charge des patients doit être interdisciplinaire et basée sur une médecine factuelle. Ce processus de prise de décisions parta - gée doit, au final, être en accord avec les souhaits du patient. Cette approche doit lui permettre de conserver son autonomie et d’être l’acteur principal dans les prises de décision. [less ▲]

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See detailLes lipopeptides d’origine microbienne, des agents de biocontrôle aux multiples facettes
Jacques, P.; Deravel, J.; Coutte, F. et al

in Phytoma (2014), 672

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See detailHigh Prevalence of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Patients with Three-vessel Coronary Artery Disease.
Durieux, R.; VAN DAMME, Hendrik ULg; Labropoulos, N. et al

in European journal of vascular and endovascular surgery : the official journal of the European Society for Vascular Surgery (2014)

OBJECTIVES: Currently, the prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and the correlation between CAD severity and AAA prevalence are not clearly known ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: Currently, the prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and the correlation between CAD severity and AAA prevalence are not clearly known. We conducted a prospective study to determine the prevalence of AAA in patients undergoing coronary angiography and to determine the risk factors and a coronary profile associated with AAA. METHODS: Over an 18-month period, abdominal aortic ultrasound was performed on 1,000 patients undergoing coronary angiography for suspected or known CAD, or prior to valve surgery. Clinical characteristics and coronary profile were collected from the patients. RESULTS: The overall number of previously repaired, already diagnosed, and new cases of AAA in the study population was 42, yielding a prevalence of 4.2%. Among the patients with newly detected AAAs, only two had an AAA diameter of >54 mm and were therefore treated surgically. In men aged >/=65 years, the prevalence reached 8.6%, while in men with three-vessel CAD it was 14.4%. Multivariate analysis showed that age >/=65 years (p = .003), male gender (p = .003), family history of AAA (p = .01), current smoking (p = .002), and three-vessel CAD (p < .001) were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of AAA. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of AAA was high in men aged >/=65 years and in those with three-vessel CAD regardless of age. While our findings do not prove the cost-effectiveness of screening for AAA in these high risk patients, they do support the usefulness of a quick ultrasound examination of the abdominal aorta during routine transthoracic echocardiography in such patients. [less ▲]

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See detailSarapis et Neôtera élus parmi les dieux
Veymiers, Richard ULg

in Revue Archéologique (2014), (1), 37-56

One of the bronze plates formerly in the Bianchini collection, which entered the Cabinet des Médailles (Paris) at the end of the 18th century, bears a text and an image, supposedly unintelligible and ... [more ▼]

One of the bronze plates formerly in the Bianchini collection, which entered the Cabinet des Médailles (Paris) at the end of the 18th century, bears a text and an image, supposedly unintelligible and therefore thought to be of a magic nature. A new examination of this artefact, actually the main part of a bracelet, shows that it depicts an assembly of twenty-eight divinities, illustrating the religious landscape of Egypt in the 2nd-3rd century, and that it is inscribed with two short acclamations. The first one exalts the greatness of the name of Sarapis, the second that of Neôtera the invincible. The identity of this goddess is difficult to define, but she often seems to correspond to a form of Isis assimilated to Korè. The glorifying invocation of these two gods, depicted with their pantheon, may be considered to be an expression of what is today called “megatheism”. [less ▲]

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See detailBayesian methods for predicting LAI and soil water content
Mansouri, Majdi ULg; Dumont, Benjamin ULg; Leemans, Vincent ULg et al

in Precision Agriculture (2014), 15(2), 184-201

LAI of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and soil water content of the topsoil (200 mm) and of the subsoil (500 mm) were considered as state variables of a dynamic soil-crop system. This system was ... [more ▼]

LAI of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and soil water content of the topsoil (200 mm) and of the subsoil (500 mm) were considered as state variables of a dynamic soil-crop system. This system was assumed to progress according to a Bayesian probabilistic state space model, in which real values of LAI and soil water content were daily introduced in order to correct the model trajectory and reach better future evolution. The chosen crop model was mini STICS which can reduce the computing and execution times while ensuring the robustness of data processing and estimation. To predict simultaneously state variables and model parameters in this non-linear environment, three techniques were used: Extended Kalman Filtering (EKF), Particle Filtering (PF), and Variational Filtering (VF). The significantly improved performance of the VF method when compared to EKF and PF is demonstrated. The variational filter has a low computational complexity and the convergence speed of states and parameters estimation can be adjusted independently. Detailed case studies demonstrated that the root mean square error (RMSE) of the three estimated states (LAI and soil water content of two soil layers) was smaller and that the convergence of all considered parameters was ensured when using VF. Assimilating measurements in a crop model allows accurate prediction of LAI and soil water content at a local scale. As these biophysical properties are key parameters in the crop-plant system characterization, the system has the potential to be used in precision farming to aid farmers and decision makers in developing strategies for site-specific management of inputs, such as fertilizers and water irrigation. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Structure and Thermal Stability of Amylose−Lipid Complexes: A Case Study on Amylose−Glycerol Monostearate
Goderis, Bart; Putseys, Joke; Gommes, Cédric ULg et al

in Journal of Crystal Growth (2014)

Three different crystalline amylose−glycerol monostearate (GMS) complexes with increasing thermal stability can be distinguished: type I, type IIa, and type IIb. All complexes consist of GMS-loaded ... [more ▼]

Three different crystalline amylose−glycerol monostearate (GMS) complexes with increasing thermal stability can be distinguished: type I, type IIa, and type IIb. All complexes consist of GMS-loaded amylose helices that pack hexagonally into lamellar habits. The complex melting points are proportional to the thickness of the lamellae and depend on the amount of water in the system. For type I complexes, SAXS experiments reveal folded amylose chains and a lamellar thickness governed by the presence of two stretched lipid molecules per amylose helix. In the conversion from type I to type IIa complexes, the short amylose chains unfold and assume a stretched conformation, which increases the number of aligned lipid molecules within the helices to four. In type IIb complexes, another pair of lipid molecules is added. The derived quantitative relation between crystal layer thickness, water content and melting point for amylose−GMS complexes also predicts the melting points of other amylose−monoacyl glycerol complexes. [less ▲]

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See detailTissue Proteomics for the Next Decade? Towards a Molecular Dimension in Histology
Longuespée, Rémi ULg; Fléron, Maximilien; Pottier, Charles et al

in OMICS : A Journal of Integrative Biology (2014)

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See detailEnergies et minerais.Des ressources sous tension
Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULg

in La Documentation Photographique (2014), 8089

Les ressources non renouvelables sont sans conteste une clé de lecture de notre monde contemporain, de ses tensions et de ses défis. Ces ressources sont « sous tension » car leur demande est en forte ... [more ▼]

Les ressources non renouvelables sont sans conteste une clé de lecture de notre monde contemporain, de ses tensions et de ses défis. Ces ressources sont « sous tension » car leur demande est en forte croissance. Leur géopolitique ne cesse d’évoluer. Ainsi, le pétrole et le gaz de schiste américains bouleversent les équilibres mondiaux, alors que le charbon fait un retour en force. L’enjeu est aussi environnemental et sociétal. [less ▲]

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See detailPatients' preferences for osteoporosis drug treatment: a discrete-choice experiment.
Hiligsmann, Mickaël ULg; Dellaert, Benedict G.; Dirksen, Carmen D. et al

in Arthritis research & therapy (2014), 16(1), 36

INTRODUCTION: The patient's perspective is becoming increasingly important in clinical and policy decisions. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the preferences of patients with, or at risk of ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: The patient's perspective is becoming increasingly important in clinical and policy decisions. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the preferences of patients with, or at risk of, osteoporosis for medication attributes, and to establish how patients trade between these attributes. METHODS: A discrete choice experiment survey was designed and patients were asked to choose between two hypothetical unlabelled drug treatments (and an opt-out option) that vary in five attributes: efficacy in reducing the risk of fracture, type of potential common side-effects, mode and frequency of administration and out-of-pocket costs. An efficient experimental design was used to construct the treatment option choice sets and a mixed logit panel data model was used to estimate patients' preferences and trade-offs between attributes. RESULTS: A total of 257 patients with, or at risk of, osteoporosis completed the experiment. As expected, patients preferred treatment with higher effectiveness and lower cost. They also preferred either an oral monthly tablet or 6-month subcutaneous injection above weekly oral tablets, 3-month subcutaneous, 3-month intravenous or yearly intravenous injections. Patients disliked being at risk of gastro-intestinal disorders more than being at risk of skin reactions and flu-like symptoms. There was significant variation in preferences across the sample for all attributes except subcutaneous injection. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that osteoporotic patients preferred 6-month subcutaneous injection and oral monthly tablet, and disliked gastro-intestinal disorders. Moreover, patients were willing to pay a personal contribution or to trade treatment efficacy for better levels of other attributes. Preferences for treatment attributes varied across patients and this highlights the importance of clinical decision-making taking individual preferences into account to improve osteoporosis care. [less ▲]

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See detailReproductive ecology of Coula edulis Baill., source of a valuable non-timber forest product
Moupela, Christian ULg; Doucet, Jean-Louis ULg; Daïnou, Kasso ULg et al

in Tropical Ecology (2014), 55(3), 327-338

The reproductive ecology of Coula edulis (Olacaceae), source of a highly valuable non-timber product for African populations, has been investigated on a large tree sample size in a Gabonese forest for a 3 ... [more ▼]

The reproductive ecology of Coula edulis (Olacaceae), source of a highly valuable non-timber product for African populations, has been investigated on a large tree sample size in a Gabonese forest for a 3-year period, in order to propose options for its domestication. Reproduction is annual and the minimum tree diameter for flowering was 10.6 cm while the diameter for regular fructification was 23 cm. The annual diameter increment (ADI; mean = 0.22 cm year-1) was affected by crown exposure, but not by initial tree diameter or fruit production. Tree diameter influenced fruiting frequency and fruit production. There was a strong correlation between fruit production of 2011 and 2012 (Pearson's r = 0.85; P < 0.001), suggesting a high heritability of that trait. Phenotypical selection should be performed prior to any propagation activity. Moreover, as most of C. edulis fruits were sterile (64 %), we propose that sylvicultural strategies should be based on vegetative propagation. [less ▲]

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See detailRemote sensing of colour, temperature and salinity – new challenges and opportunities
Alvera Azcarate, Aïda ULg; Ruddick, Kevin; Minnett, Peter

in Remote Sensing of Environment (2014), 146

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See detailThe Dimethylsulfide Cycle in the Eutrophied Southern North Sea: A Model Study Integrating Phytoplankton and Bacterial Processes
Gypens, N; Borges, Alberto ULg; Speeckaert, Gaëlle ULg et al

in Plos One (2014), 9(1)(e85862 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085862),

We developed a module describing the dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and dimethylsulfide (DMS) dynamics, including biological transformations by phytoplankton and bacteria, and physico-chemical ... [more ▼]

We developed a module describing the dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and dimethylsulfide (DMS) dynamics, including biological transformations by phytoplankton and bacteria, and physico-chemical processes (including DMS air-sea exchange). This module was integrated in the MIRO ecological model and applied in a 0D frame in the Southern North Sea (SNS). The DMS(P) module is built on parameterizations derived from available knowledge on DMS(P) sources, transformations and sinks, and provides an explicit representation of bacterial activity in contrast to most of existing models that only include phytoplankton process (and abiotic transformations). The model is tested in a highly productive coastal ecosystem (the Belgian coastal zone, BCZ) dominated by diatoms and the Haptophyceae Phaeocystis, respectively low and high DMSP producers. On an annual basis, the particulate DMSP (DMSPp) production simulated in 1989 is mainly related to Phaeocystis colonies (78%) rather than diatoms (13%) and nanoflagellates (9%). Accordingly, sensitivity analysis shows that the model responds more to changes in the sulfur:carbon (S:C) quota and lyase yield of Phaeocystis. DMS originates equally from phytoplankton and bacterial DMSP-lyase activity and only 3% of the DMS is emitted to the atmosphere. Model analysis demonstrates the sensitivity of DMS emission towards the atmosphere to the description and parameterization of biological processes emphasizing the need of adequately representing in models both phytoplankton and bacterial processes affecting DMS(P) dynamics. This is particularly important in eutrophied coastal environments such as the SNS dominated by high non-diatom blooms and where empirical models developed from data-sets biased towards open ocean conditions do not satisfactorily predict the timing and amplitude of the DMS seasonal cycle. In order to predict future feedbacks of DMS emissions on climate, it is needed to account for hotspots of DMS emissions from coastal environments that, if eutrophied, are dominated not only by diatoms. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence-based practice: fondements et réflexions sur l’apport en clinique.
Maillart, Christelle ULg; Durieux, Nancy ULg

in Langage et Pratiques (2014), 53

L’evidence-based practice ou pratique basée sur les preuves est une approche de plus en plus encouragée en logopédie au niveau international. Cet article présente les principaux composants en détaillant ... [more ▼]

L’evidence-based practice ou pratique basée sur les preuves est une approche de plus en plus encouragée en logopédie au niveau international. Cet article présente les principaux composants en détaillant la nature des preuves liées aux trois piliers de l’EBP (preuves externes, preuves internes ou préférences du patient). La démarche de l’EBP est brièvement discutée ainsi que les freins et les bénéfices attendus en clinique. [less ▲]

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See detailSystème à tous les étages
Badir, Sémir ULg

in Signata. Annales des Sémiotiques = Annals of Semiotics (2014), 4/2013

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See detailInsights into oxygen transport and net community production in sea ice from oxygen, nitrogen and argon concentrations
Zhou, Jiayun ULg; Delille, Bruno ULg; Brabant, F. et al

in Biogeosciences (2014), 11

We present the evolution of O2 standing stocks, saturation levels and concentrations in landfast sea ice, collected in Barrow (Alaska), from February to June 2009. The comparison of the standing stocks ... [more ▼]

We present the evolution of O2 standing stocks, saturation levels and concentrations in landfast sea ice, collected in Barrow (Alaska), from February to June 2009. The comparison of the standing stocks and saturation levels of O2 against those of N2 and Ar suggests that the dynamic of O2 in sea ice strongly depends on physical processes (gas incorporation and subsequent transport). We then discuss on the use of O2 / Ar and O2 / N2 to correct for the physical contribution and to determine the biological contribution (NCP) to O2 supersaturations. We conclude that O2 / Ar suits better than O2 / N2, because O2 / N2 is more sensitive due to the relative abundance of O2, N2 and Ar, and less biased when gas bubble formation and gas diffusion are maximized. We further estimate the NCP in the impermeable layers during ice growth and in the permeable layers during ice decay. Our results indicate that NCP contributed to a~release of carbon to the atmosphere in the upper ice layers, but to an uptake of carbon at sea ice bottom. Overall, seawater (rather than the atmosphere) may be the main supplier of carbon for sea ice microorganisms. [less ▲]

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See detailSeasonal and depth-related biodiversity of leaf epiphytic Cheilostome Bryozoa in a Mediterranean Posidonia oceanica meadow
Lepoint, Gilles ULg; Balancier, Boris; Gobert, Sylvie ULg

in Cahiers de Biologie Marine (2014), 55(1),

: Epiphytes living fixed on Posidonia oceanica L. (Delile) are important faunal and floral components of seagrass meadow ecosystems. They are involved as main actors in trophic web and major ecosystem ... [more ▼]

: Epiphytes living fixed on Posidonia oceanica L. (Delile) are important faunal and floral components of seagrass meadow ecosystems. They are involved as main actors in trophic web and major ecosystem processes of this endangered coastal habitat. This paper aims to assess the seasonality and the bathymetric variability of epiphytic Bryozoa which are the most important animal group in terms of both diversity and abundance living on P. oceanica leaves. Posidonia shoots were collected from the Revellata Bay (Corsica, France) in four seasons from 7 to 30 m depth. Colony densities reached more than 87000 colonies. m-2 at 10 m depth in spring. The bryozoan species distribution and abundance changed substantially according to seasons and depths, being maximum in spring and minimal in winter. Dominant colony morphotypes change according to depth, probably in relation with water motion gradient. This confirms that there are bathymetric and seasonal variability for different epiphytic organisms colonizing the Posidonia leaves. This enlightens the importance to protect Posidonia meadow on its full depth extension and in its connectivity with other habitats to conserve optimal epiphytic biodiversity and functions. [less ▲]

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See detaildivand-1.0: n-dimensional variational data analysis for ocean observations
Barth, Alexander ULg; Beckers, Jean-Marie ULg; Troupin, Charles ULg et al

in Geoscientific Model Development (2014), 7

A tool for multidimensional variational analysis (divand) is presented. It allows the interpolation and analysis of observations on curvilinear orthogonal grids in an arbitrary high dimensional space by ... [more ▼]

A tool for multidimensional variational analysis (divand) is presented. It allows the interpolation and analysis of observations on curvilinear orthogonal grids in an arbitrary high dimensional space by minimizing a cost function. This cost function penalizes the deviation from the observations, the deviation from a first guess and abruptly varying fields based on a given correlation length (potentially varying in space and time). Additional constraints can be added to this cost function such as an advection constraint which forces the analysed field to align with the ocean current. The method decouples naturally disconnected areas based on topography and topology. This is useful in oceanography where disconnected water masses often have different physical properties. Individual elements of the a priori and a posteriori error covariance matrix can also be computed, in particular expected error variances of the analysis. A multidimensional approach (as opposed to stacking 2-dimensional analysis) has the benefit of providing a smooth analysis in all dimensions, although the computational cost is increased. Primal (problem solved in the grid space) and dual formulations (problem solved in the observational space) are implemented using either direct solvers (based on Cholesky factorization) or iterative solvers (conjugate gradient method). In most applications the primal formulation with the direct solver is the fastest, especially if an a posteriori error estimate is needed. However, for correlated observation errors the dual formulation with an iterative solver is more efficient. The method is tested by using pseudo observations from a global model. The distribution of the observations is based on the position of the ARGO floats. The benefit of the 3-dimensional analysis (longitude, latitude and time) compared to 2-dimensional analysis (longitude and latitude) and the role of the advection constraint are highlighted. The tool divand is free software, and is distributed under the terms of the GPL license (http://modb.oce.ulg.ac.be/mediawiki/index.php/divand). [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluating SGLT2 inhibitors for type 2 diabetes: pharmacokinetic and toxicological considerations.
Scheen, André ULg

in Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology (2014)

Introduction: Inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2), which increase urinary glucose excretion independently of insulin, are proposed as a novel approach for the management of type 2 ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2), which increase urinary glucose excretion independently of insulin, are proposed as a novel approach for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Areas covered: An extensive literature search was performed to analyze the pharmacokinetic characteristics, toxicological issues and safety concerns of SGLT2 inhibitors in humans. This review focuses on three compounds (dapagliflozin, canagliflozin, empagliflozin) with results obtained in healthy volunteers (including drug-drug interactions), patients with T2DM (single dose and multiple doses) and special populations (those with renal or hepatic impairment). Expert opinion: The three pharmacological agents share an excellent oral bioavailability, long half-life allowing once-daily administration, low accumulation index and renal clearance, the absence of active metabolites and a limited propensity to drug-drug interactions. No clinically relevant changes in pharmacokinetic parameters were observed in T2DM patients or in patients with mild/moderate renal or hepatic impairment. Adverse events are a slightly increased incidence of mycotic genital and rare benign urinary infections. SGLT2 inhibitors have the potential to reduce several cardiovascular risk factors, and cardiovascular outcome trials are currently ongoing. The best positioning of SGLT2 inhibitors in the armamentarium for treating T2DM is still a matter of debate. [less ▲]

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See detailSimultaneous determination of some phthalate metabolites, parabens and benzophenone-3 in urine by ultra high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry
Dewalque, Lucas ULg; PIRARD, Catherine ULg; DUBOIS, Nathalie ULg et al

in Journal of Chromatography. B : Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical & Life Sciences (2014), 949-950

Phthalates, parabens and 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone or benzophone-3 are thought to act as endocrine disrupting chemicals, being able to disrupt the endocrine balance and therefore able to lead to ... [more ▼]

Phthalates, parabens and 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone or benzophone-3 are thought to act as endocrine disrupting chemicals, being able to disrupt the endocrine balance and therefore able to lead to some hormonal diseases. Numerous large-scale biomonitoring studies have detected the biomarkers of these compounds in more than 75% of the general population. To assess the exposure to these chemicals, we developed an analytical method based on a Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) prior to ultra high pressure liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous measurement of seven phthalate metabolites (monobenzyl phthalate, mono-n-butyl phthalate, mono-iso-butyl phthalate, mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate, mono-2- ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate, monoethyl phthalate), four parabens (methyl paraben, ethyl paraben, n-propyl paraben, n-butyl parabens) and benzophenone-3 in human urine. The distinction between unconjugated, glucuro- and sulfoconjugated forms was achieved using different enzymatic hydrolyses. The whole procedure was validated according to the total error approach, and was demonstrated to be linear (regression coefficient ranging from 0.987 to 0.998) and accurate (inter and intra assay precision <17.71%, relative bias <5.87%) in the dosing range of concentrations. The limits of quantification (LOQs) obtained ranged between 0.30 and 1.23 ng/ml depending on the analyte. The reliability of the method was proven in passing successfully the German External Quality Assessment Scheme (G-EQUAS). Moreover, the urine from 25 volunteers were analyzed for the determination of glucuro-, sulfo- and free species separately. Phthalate metabolites, parabens and benzophenone-3 were positively detected in almost all urine samples, with detection rates ranging from 40 to 100%. Levels measured ranged from <LOQ to 2207 ng/ml varying widely depending on the compound and the individual. In our small participating population, most of the phthalate metabolites were excreted predominately as glucuroconjugated forms while parabens and benzophenone-3 were detected as glucuro- and sulfoconjugated species in variable proportions according to the target compound. [less ▲]

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See detailNear-to-Surface properties affecting bond strength in concrete repair
Courard, Luc ULg; Piotrowski, Tomasz; Garbacz, Andrzej

in Cement and Concrete Composites (2014), 46

One of the main processes for repairing concrete structures is patch repair. Efficiency and durability of a repaired system depends on the bond between concrete substrate and repair material. By ... [more ▼]

One of the main processes for repairing concrete structures is patch repair. Efficiency and durability of a repaired system depends on the bond between concrete substrate and repair material. By increasing the surface roughness, the surface treatment of concrete substrate can promote mechanical interlocking that is one of the basic mechanisms of adhesion. Nevertheless, some problems may arise from “co-lateral” effects of the treatment, especially due to the development of microcracks inside the substrate. In the presented paper, the effect of concrete substrate surface preparation has been characterized by roughness measurement, description of microcracking in the near-to-surface layer and a pull-off cohesion test. After repair, pull-off bond strength has been evaluated. It is concluded that selection of a suitable surface treatment technique should be preceded by the analysis of its aggressiveness in relation to the concrete substrate strength. A procedure for bond strength estimation using multiple regression approach, based on parameters describing surface quality really generated from various roughening techniques, is then proposed. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrochemical Investigation of Nitinol/Tantalum Hybrid Surfaces Modified by Alkylphosphonic Self-Assembled Monolayers
Maho, Anthony ULg; Kanoufi, Frédéric; Combellas, Catherine et al

in Electrochimica Acta (2014), 116(0), 78-88

The surface characteristics of bare and modified nickel-titanium samples (NiTi) are investigated by spectroscopic, microscopic and electrochemical techniques. The successful electrodeposition of a ... [more ▼]

The surface characteristics of bare and modified nickel-titanium samples (NiTi) are investigated by spectroscopic, microscopic and electrochemical techniques. The successful electrodeposition of a tantalum coating on NiTi and the effective grafting of 1-dodecylphosphonic acid SAMs on both pristine and Ta-covered NiTi surfaces are evidenced and quantified by XPS and SEM. Cyclic voltammetry performed on the different NiTi-based electrodes highlights their specificities regarding electron transfer to a redox probe present in solution (here ruthenium(III) hexamine). Finally, the samples electrochemical characteristics at a local scale are investigated by scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). The impact of the surface modifications on mass transport of the redox probe is analyzed through approach curves in the feedback mode, while the recording of current maps in feedback as well as in substrate-generation/tip-collection modes leads to the qualitative identification of electrochemically-active areas corresponding to precursor pitting corrosion sites. [less ▲]

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See detailMorpho-histology and genotype dependence of in vitro morphogenesis in mature embryo cultures of wheat.
Delporte, Fabienne; Pretova, Anna; du Jardin, Patrick ULg et al

in Protoplasma (2014)

Cellular totipotency is one of the basic principles of plant biotechnology. Currently, the success of the procedure used to produce transgenic plants is directly proportional to the successful insertion ... [more ▼]

Cellular totipotency is one of the basic principles of plant biotechnology. Currently, the success of the procedure used to produce transgenic plants is directly proportional to the successful insertion of foreign DNA into the genome of suitable target tissue/cells that are able to regenerate plants. The mature embryo (ME) is increasingly recognized as a valuable explant for developing regenerable cell lines in wheat biotechnology. We have previously developed a regeneration procedure based on fragmented ME in vitro culture. Before we can use this regeneration system as a model for molecular studies of the morphogenic pathway induced in vitro and investigate the functional links between regenerative capacity and transformation receptiveness, some questions need to be answered. Plant regeneration from cultured tissues is genetically controlled. Factors such as age/degree of differentiation and physiological conditions affect the response of explants to culture conditions. Plant regeneration in culture can be achieved through embryogenesis or organogenesis. In this paper, the suitability of ME tissues for tissue culture and the chronological series of morphological data observed at the macroscopic level are documented. Genetic variability at each step of the regeneration process was evaluated through a varietal comparison of several elite wheat cultivars. A detailed histological analysis of the chronological sequence of morphological events during ontogeny was conducted. Compared with cultures of immature zygotic embryos, we found that the embryogenic pathway occurs slightly earlier and is of a different origin in our model. Cytological, physiological, and some biochemical aspects of somatic embryo formation in wheat ME culture are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-scale optimal interpolation: application to DINEOF analysis spiced with a local optimal interpolation
Beckers, Jean-Marie ULg; Barth, Alexander ULg; Tomazic, Igor ULg et al

in Ocean Science Discussions (2014), 11

We present a method in which the optimal interpolation of multi-scale processes can be untangled into a succession of simpler interpolations. First, we prove how the optimal analysis of a superposition of ... [more ▼]

We present a method in which the optimal interpolation of multi-scale processes can be untangled into a succession of simpler interpolations. First, we prove how the optimal analysis of a superposition of two processes can be obtained by different mathematical formulations involving iterations and analysis focusing on a single process. From the 5 different mathematical equivalent formulations we then select the most efficient ones by analyzing the behavior of the different possibilities in a simple and well controlled test case. The clear guidelines deduced from this experiment are then applied in a real situation in which we combine large-scale analysis of hourly SEVIRI satellite images using DINEOF with a local optimal interpolation using a Gaussian covariance. It is 10 shown that the optimal combination indeed provides the best reconstruction and can therefore be exploited to extract the maximum amount of useful information from the original data [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional adaptations of the bacterial chaperone trigger factor to extreme environmental temperatures
Godin-Roulling, Amandine ULg; Schmidpeter, P.A.M.; Schmid, F.X. et al

in Environmental Microbiology (2014)

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See detailInteractions of subunits Asa2, Asa4 and Asa7 in the peripheral stalk of the mitochondrial ATP synthase of the chlorophycean alga Polytomella sp.
Miranda-Astudillo, Hector; Cano-Estrada, Araceli; Vazquez-Acevedo, Miriam et al

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-Bioenergetics (2014), 1837

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See detailThe role of the youth in community forestry in Gabon
Boldrini, Sylvie; Meunier, Quentin; Gillet, Pauline ULg et al

in Nature et Faune (2014), 28(1), 56-59

In the wake of the creation of the first community forests in Gabon, the village associations in charge of these forests are handicapped by their own working capacity. Affected by rural exodus ... [more ▼]

In the wake of the creation of the first community forests in Gabon, the village associations in charge of these forests are handicapped by their own working capacity. Affected by rural exodus, communities however rarely integrate the youth (between the ages of 16 to 24) who reside permanently in the village in village associations. The youth are generally excluded from the decision making process of elders. In fact, the youth that reside permanently in the village do not generally hold any diploma and have no professional qualification. Consequently, they are hardly respected by the people around them and their opinions are not taken into account. They are left out of any activity conducted by the associations unless these activities are remunerated. However, the involvement of the youth in village associations is necessary, not only to increase the work capacity, but also to ensure the perpetuation of interventions since the youth will be the first and future beneficiaries of the community forest. [less ▲]

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See detailModeling and Simulation of Heat and Mass Transfer During Convective Drying of Wastewater Sludge with Introduction of Shrinkage Phenomena
Bennamoun, Lyes ULg; Fraikin, Laurent ULg; Léonard, Angélique ULg

in Drying Technology (2014), 32(1), 13-22

Wastewater sludge is dried in a convective dryer using air temperatures varying from 80°C to 200°C, velocities changing from 1 m · s−1 to 2 m · s−1, and humidities ranging from . The convective dryer is ... [more ▼]

Wastewater sludge is dried in a convective dryer using air temperatures varying from 80°C to 200°C, velocities changing from 1 m · s−1 to 2 m · s−1, and humidities ranging from . The convective dryer is equipped with a camera and an infrared pyrometer to follow respectively the external surface and the temperature of the product. The experimental results show that drying kinetic can be divided into three phases: two short first phases, called adaptation and constant drying phases, and a long third phase, called falling drying rate phase. As the moisture content decreases, the camera confirms simultaneous shrinkage effect with the volume reduction of the product of about 30–45% of the initial volume. Moreover, an increase of the product temperature towards air temperature was measured with the infrared pyrometer. In a second step of this study, the experimental results are modeled and simulated using heat and mass balances applied to the product and the heated air. The drying curve is rightly expressed with fourth-degree polynomial model with a correlation coefficient that approximates the unity and with low calculated errors. An outstanding determination of the heat transfer coefficient has permitted calculating the product temperature with good agreement with experimental results. The heat transfer coefficient expressed by means of Nusselt number is presented as a function of Reynolds and Prandlt numbers, changeable with air and product characteristics taking into account shrinkage effect. Moreover, as the applied air temperatures are sufficiently high, transfer by radiation is not neglected and is introduced in the mathematical model. [less ▲]

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See detailProblème de la Mode
Badir, Sémir ULg

in Actes Sémiotiques (2014), 117

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See detailHearing capacities and otolith size in two ophidiiform species (Ophidion rochei and Carapus acus)
Kever, Loïc ULg; Colleye, Orphal ULg; Herrel, Anthony et al

in Journal of Experimental Biology (2014), 217

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (2 ULg)