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See detailTime related effects on functional brain connectivity after serotonergic and cholinergic neuromodulation.
Klaassens, Bernadet L.; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; Winkler, Anderson ULg et al

in Human Brain Mapping (2017), 38(1), 308-325

Psychopharmacological research, if properly designed, may offer insight into both timing and area of effect, increasing our understanding of the brain's neurotransmitter systems. For that purpose, the ... [more ▼]

Psychopharmacological research, if properly designed, may offer insight into both timing and area of effect, increasing our understanding of the brain's neurotransmitter systems. For that purpose, the acute influence of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram (30 mg) and the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor galantamine (8 mg) was repeatedly measured in 12 healthy young volunteers with resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI). Eighteen RS-fMRI scans were acquired per subject during this randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Within-group comparisons of voxelwise functional connectivity with 10 functional networks were examined (P < 0.05, FWE-corrected) using a non-parametric multivariate approach with cerebrospinal fluid, white matter, heart rate, and baseline measurements as covariates. Although both compounds did not change cognitive performance on several tests, significant effects were found on connectivity with multiple resting state networks. Serotonergic stimulation primarily reduced connectivity with the sensorimotor network and structures that are related to self-referential mechanisms, whereas galantamine affected networks and regions that are more involved in learning, memory, and visual perception and processing. These results are consistent with the serotonergic and cholinergic trajectories and their functional relevance. In addition, this study demonstrates the power of using repeated measures after drug administration, which offers the chance to explore both combined and time specific effects. Hum Brain Mapp 38:308-325, 2017. (c) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailCaryl Phillips’s The Lost Child: A Story of Loss and Connection
Ledent, Bénédicte ULg; O'Callaghan, Evelyn

in Ariel : A Review of International English Literature (2017)

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See detailCounting the number of non-zero coefficients in rows of generalized Pascal triangles
Leroy, Julien ULg; Rigo, Michel ULg; Stipulanti, Manon ULg

in Discrete Mathematics (2017), 340

This paper is about counting the number of distinct (scattered) subwords occurring in a given word. More precisely, we consider the generalization of the Pascal triangle to binomial coefficients of words ... [more ▼]

This paper is about counting the number of distinct (scattered) subwords occurring in a given word. More precisely, we consider the generalization of the Pascal triangle to binomial coefficients of words and the sequence (S(n))n≥0 counting the number of positive entries on each row. By introducing a convenient tree structure, we provide a recurrence relation for (S(n))n≥0. This leads to a connection with the 2-regular Stern–Brocot sequence and the sequence of denominators occurring in the Farey tree. Then we extend our construction to the Zeckendorf numeration system based on the Fibonacci sequence. Again our tree structure permits us to obtain recurrence relations for and the F-regularity of the corresponding sequence. [less ▲]

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See detailThe use of oxytocin to improve feeding and social skills in infants with Prader-Willi syndrome
Tauber, Maïthé; Boulanouar, Kader; Gwenaelle, Diene et al

in Pediatrics (2017), 139(2),

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients with Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) display poor feeding and social skills as infants and fewer hypothalamic oxytocin (OXT)-producing neurons were documented in adults ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients with Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) display poor feeding and social skills as infants and fewer hypothalamic oxytocin (OXT)-producing neurons were documented in adults. Animal data demonstrated that early treatment with OXT restores sucking after birth. Our aim is to reproduce these data in infants with PWS. METHODS: We conducted a phase 2 escalating dose study of a short course (7 days) of intranasal OXT administration. We enrolled 18 infants with PWS under 6 months old (6 infants in each step) who received 4 IU of OXT either every other day, daily, or twice daily. We investigated the tolerance and the effects on feeding and social skills and changes in circulating ghrelin and brain connectivity by functional MRI. RESULTS: No adverse events were reported. No dose effect was observed. Sucking assessed by the Neonatal Oral-Motor Scale was abnormal in all infants at baseline and normalized in 88% after treatment. The scores of Neonatal Oral-Motor Scale and videofluoroscopy of swallowing significantly decreased from 16 to 9 (P < .001) and from 18 to 12.5 (P < .001), respectively. Significant improvements in Clinical Global Impression scale scores, social withdrawal behavior, and mother–infant interactions were observed. We documented a significant increase in acylated ghrelin and connectivity of the right superior orbitofrontal network that correlated with changes in sucking and behavior. CONCLUSIONS: OXT is well tolerated in infants with PWS and improves feeding and social skills. These results open perspectives for early treatment in neurodevelopment diseases with feeding problems. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease
GREGOIRE, Céline ULg; Louis, Edouard ULg; BRIQUET, Alexandra ULg et al

in The Biology and Therapeutic Application of Mesenchymal Cells (2017)

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See detailSampling only ten microliters of whole blood for the quantification of poorly soluble drugs: Itraconazole as case study
Thiry, Justine ULg; Evrard, Brigitte ULg; Nys, Gwenaël ULg et al

in Journal of Chromatography. A (2017), 1479

Nowadays in animal studies, it is important to comply with the so-called Three Rs rule by replacing or reducing the number of tested animals. Volumetric absorptive microsampling (VAMS) can be used to ... [more ▼]

Nowadays in animal studies, it is important to comply with the so-called Three Rs rule by replacing or reducing the number of tested animals. Volumetric absorptive microsampling (VAMS) can be used to collect small quantities (10 or 20 µL) of whole blood, thereby limiting the amount of animals needed. In this study, a quantitative method was developed and subsequently validated for the poorly soluble drug itraconazole (ITZ) using VAMS and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS). A proof of concept study showed that the optimized method is applicable to test the bioavailability of drug formulations containing ITZ. Using VAMS, smaller blood volumes can be taken per sampling point (10-20 µL instead of the conventional 0.2-0.5 mL) avoiding the sacrifice of animals. Moreover, the same rats can be used to compare different drug formulations which strengthens the validity of the results. In long-term bioavailability studies, it is necessary to guarantee the stability of the tested drugs supported on VAMS devices. In this study, we show that ITZ was only stable for 24 hours after collection with VAMS, but for at least two weeks by the storage of extracted samples at -80°C. [less ▲]

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See detailIterated local search for the capacitated vehicle routing problem with sequence-based pallet loading and axle weight constraints
Pollaris, Hanne; Braekers, Kris; Caris, An et al

in Network (2017)

In this article an Iterated Local Search algorithm for the capacitated vehicle routing problem with sequence-based pallet loading and axle weight constraints is presented. Axle weight limits impose a ... [more ▼]

In this article an Iterated Local Search algorithm for the capacitated vehicle routing problem with sequence-based pallet loading and axle weight constraints is presented. Axle weight limits impose a great challenge for transportation companies. Yet, the literature on the incorporation of axle weight constraints in vehicle routing models is very scarce. The effect of introducing axle weight constraints in a CVRP on total routing cost is analyzed. Results show that integrating axle weight constraints does not lead to a large cost increase. However, not including axle weight constraints in the planning process may induce major axle weight violations. [less ▲]

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See detailCorn stover as feedstock for the production of ethanol: chemical composition of different anatomical fractions and varieties
Berchem, Thomas ULg; Roiseux, Olivier; Vanderghem, Caroline et al

in Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining (2017)

The available grain corn stover produced in Belgium is estimated at 290 000 dry tons, a suffi cient amount to supply a biorefi nery. Differences regarding size, prematurity, and drying speed have been ... [more ▼]

The available grain corn stover produced in Belgium is estimated at 290 000 dry tons, a suffi cient amount to supply a biorefi nery. Differences regarding size, prematurity, and drying speed have been observed among the cultivated grain corn varieties in Wallonia (Belgium). This study aims to evaluate the variation in composition of different anatomical fractions (stalks, leaves, cobs, and husks) of three Walloon varieties of grain corn stover (SyMultitop, Padrino, and Alduna) with significant production volumes. In addition, the Padrino variety was assessed for variation in chemical composition at three harvesting times. Walloon grain corn stover contains large amounts of polysaccharides (33.4% to 41.3% of glucans and 13.9% to 28.2% of xylans) and lignin (10.4% to 15.3%). Some différences were noted between varieties and anatomical fractions. Depending on how the feedstock is harvested, it is possible to produce between 79 and 81 M liters of ethanol per year without adversely affecting soil sustainability. [less ▲]

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See detailPlasticity and convergence in the evolution of short-necked plesiosaurs
Fischer, Valentin ULg; Benson, Roger B. J.; Zverkov, Nikolai G. et al

in Current Biology (2017), 27

Plesiosaurs were the longest-surviving group of secondarily marine tetrapods, comparable in diversity to today’s cetaceans. During their long evolutionary history, which spanned the Jurassic and the ... [more ▼]

Plesiosaurs were the longest-surviving group of secondarily marine tetrapods, comparable in diversity to today’s cetaceans. During their long evolutionary history, which spanned the Jurassic and the Cretaceous (201 to 66 Ma), plesiosaurs repeatedly evolved long- and short-necked body plans [1,2]. Despite this postcranial plasticity, short-necked plesiosaur clades have traditionally been regarded as being highly constrained to persistent and clearly distinct ecological niches: advanced members of Pliosauridae (ranging from the Middle Jurassic to the early Late Cretaceous) have been characterised as apex predators [2–5], whereas members of the distantly related clade Polycotylidae (middle–Late Cretaceous) were thought to have been fast-swimming piscivores [1,5–7]. We report a new, highly unusual pliosaurid from the Early Cretaceous of Russia that shows close convergence with the cranial structure of polycotylids: Luskhan itilensis gen. et sp. nov. Using novel cladistic and ecomorphological data, we show that pliosaurids iteratively evolved polycotylid-like cranial morphologies from the Early Jurassic until the Early Cretaceous. This underscores the ecological diversity of derived pliosaurids and reveals a more complex evolutionary history than their iconic representation as gigantic apex predators of Mesozoic marine ecosystems suggests. Collectively, these data demonstrate an even higher degree of morphological plasticity and convergence in the evolution of plesiosaurs than previously thought, and suggest the existence of an optimal ecomorphology for short-necked piscivorous plesiosaurs through time and across phylogeny. [less ▲]

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See detailPolyurethane coatings in 20th century outdoor painted sculptures. Part I: Comparative study of various systems by means of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy
Defeyt, Catherine ULg; Langenbacher, Julia; Rivenc, Rachel

in Heritage Science (2017), 5

Like acrylics and alkyds, polyurethanes (PUs) represent an important class of industrial paints adopted by 20th and 21st artists; primarily by those creating outdoor painted sculptures (OPS). Because PU ... [more ▼]

Like acrylics and alkyds, polyurethanes (PUs) represent an important class of industrial paints adopted by 20th and 21st artists; primarily by those creating outdoor painted sculptures (OPS). Because PU coatings offer a compromise between aesthetic and performance expectations, unachievable with other types of paints, they are commonly recognized as the most appropriate option for painted artworks intended for an outdoor setting. However, the PU class includes various systems and subgroups possessing very different properties. Through the FTIR-ATR study of 137 PU coating references from the Getty Conservation Institute (GCI) reference collection, this paper outlines the differences and the similarities existing, in terms of the composition, of two package solvent-borne, two package water-borne, one package water-borne and fluoropolymer polyurethanes. The comparison of the obtained FTIR-ATR results allowed determining markers helpful to discriminate specific PU subgroups by means of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. The goals of this paper are to provide to the conservation professionals a better understanding of the versatility and diversity of PU coatings and to facilitate the identification of the various types initially used by the artists. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreased expression of bacterial amoA during an N2O emission peak in an agricultural field
Theodorakopoulos, Nicolas ULg; Lognoul, Margaux ULg; Degrune, Florine ULg et al

in Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment (2017), 236

Levels of N-cycle gene transcripts (nirK, nirS, nosZ, amoA) were measured during an N2O emission peak in an agricultural soil. Automated dynamic closed chambers were used to monitor an N2O emission peak ... [more ▼]

Levels of N-cycle gene transcripts (nirK, nirS, nosZ, amoA) were measured during an N2O emission peak in an agricultural soil. Automated dynamic closed chambers were used to monitor an N2O emission peak on a maize crop after a natural rainfall. The peak occurred rapidly after the rainfall began. Spatial and temporal variability in N2O emission was observed between chambers. An analysis of N-cycle gene transcript levels revealed an increase in bacterial amoA gene transcripts (but not in archaeal amoA transcripts), correlating strongly with N2O emission. This suggests the involvement of nitrification enzymes, despite a high water-filled pore space (80%). Reverse transcription of bacterial 16S rRNA followed by partial sequencing of the resulting cDNAs revealed few rainfall-induced changes in the potentially active bacterial community, and notably no significant change in the relative abundance of 16S rRNAs from the nitrifier genus Nitrosospira. Expression of the amoA gene appears as a possible proxy for monitoring the N2O emission peak. To our knowledge, this is the first experiment to evaluate the expression of N-cycle genes during an N2O emission peak on an agricultural field. [less ▲]

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See detailEditor's Choice - Management of Descending Thoracic Aorta Diseases: Clinical Practice Guidelines of the European Society for Vascular Surgery (ESVS).
Riambau, V.; Bockler, D.; Brunkwall, J. et al

in European journal of vascular and endovascular surgery : the official journal of the European Society for Vascular Surgery (2017), 53(1), 4-52

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See detailRegional sea level changes for the 20th and the 21st century induced by the regional variability in Greenland ice sheet surface mass loss
Meyssignac, B.; Fettweis, Xavier ULg; Chevrier, R. et al

in Journal of Climate (2017), online

Surface mass balance (SMB) variations of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) has been identified as an important contributor to contemporary and projected global mean sea level variations but their impact on ... [more ▼]

Surface mass balance (SMB) variations of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) has been identified as an important contributor to contemporary and projected global mean sea level variations but their impact on the regional sea level change pattern is still poorly known. This study provides for the first time, consistent estimates (i.e. computed with the same models over the past -1900-2015- and over the future -2015-2100-) of GrIS SMB over 1900-2100 based on the output of 32 atmospheric-ocean General Circulation Models and Earth system models involved in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). It is based on a downscaling technique calibrated against the MAR regional climate model in order to calculate an ensemble of 32 Greenland SMB estimates at regional scale. Because the GrIS SMB does not respond uniformly to greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. the southern part of the GrIS is more sensitive to climate warming. This study shows that it should be in imbalance in the 21st century sooner that the northern part. This regional variability affects significantly the associated relative sea level pattern over the entire ocean and particularly along the eastern coast of US and the northern coast of Europe. This highlights the necessity of taking into account GrIS regional SMB changes to evaluate accurately relative sea level changes in future projections. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of the potential probiotic strain Lactobacillus salivarius SMXD51 to control Campylobacter jejuni in broilers.
Saint-Cyr, Manuel Jimmy; Haddad, Nabila; Taminiau, Bernard ULg et al

in International Journal of Food Microbiology (2017)

Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported zoonotic disease in humans in the EU since 2005. As chicken meat is the main source of contamination, reducing the level of Campylobacter in broiler ... [more ▼]

Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported zoonotic disease in humans in the EU since 2005. As chicken meat is the main source of contamination, reducing the level of Campylobacter in broiler chicken will lower the risk to consumers. The aim of this project was to evaluate the ability of Lactobacillus salivarius SMXD51 to control Campylobacter jejuni in broilers and to investigate the mechanisms that could be involved. Thirty broilers artificially contaminated with C. jejuni were treated by oral gavage with MRS broth or a bacterial suspension (107CFU) of Lb. salivarius SMXD51 (SMXD51) in MRS broth. At 14 and 35days of age, Campylobacter and Lb. salivarius loads were assessed in cecal contents. The impact of the treatment on the avian gut microbiota at day 35 was also evaluated. At day 14, the comparison between the control and treated groups showed a significant reduction (P<0.05) of 0.82 log. After 35days, a significant reduction (P<0.001) of 2.81 log in Campylobacter loads was observed and 73% of chickens treated with the culture exhibited Campylobacter loads below 7log10CFU/g. Taxonomic analysis revealed that SMXD51 treatment induced significant changes (P<0.05) in a limited number of bacterial genera of the avian gut microbiota and partially limited the impact of Campylobacter on Anaerotruncus sp. decrease and Subdoligranulum sp. increase. Thus, SMXD51 exhibits an anti-Campylobacter activity in vivo and can partially prevent the impact of Campylobacter on the avian gut microbiota. [less ▲]

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See detailHyperinsulinemia and elevated systolic blood pressure independently predict white matter hyperintensities with associated cognitive decrement in the middle-aged offspring of dementia patients.
Hawkins, Keith A.; Emadi, Nazli; Pearlson, Godfrey D. et al

in Metabolic Brain Disease (2017)

Cerebrovascular disease is an independent risk factor for dementia that may also be synergistic with Alzheimer's disease. In recent years attention has switched from cerebral infarcts to microvascular ... [more ▼]

Cerebrovascular disease is an independent risk factor for dementia that may also be synergistic with Alzheimer's disease. In recent years attention has switched from cerebral infarcts to microvascular disease as the primary cause of cerebrovascular cognitive decline, with damage to the white matter the primary mechanism. Uncertainties remain regarding the risks posed by different types vascular threat, the extent to which cerebrovascular damage occurs in middle age, and whether relatively "normal" amounts of white matter damage are accompanied by meaningful degrees of cognitive decline. We explored these issues via laboratory, cardiovascular, cognitive, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data in 67 middle-aged cognitively normal offspring of dementia patients. The sample was enriched for vascular risk. Plasma insulin, 24-h systolic blood pressure, body mass index, age, and % small dense LDL cholesterol were the strongest correlates of MRI white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume. With shared variance controlled for, 24 h systolic BP, plasma insulin, and age remained as significant predictors of WMH volume. An interaction variable (24 h BP * insulin) did not improve the prediction of WMH. WMH volume correlated negatively with cognition. No evidence for an ApoE epsilon4 effect emerged for either WMH or cognition. Hypertension and hyperinsulinemia appear to pose independent, consequential threats to the cerebral small vessel vasculature in middle age, reflected in the presence of areas of WMH on MRI scans. Our data show that even modest WMH volumes in middle age are associated with cognitive decrement, underscoring the importance of aggressive treatment and lifestyle modifications to address vascular risk throughout adulthood. [less ▲]

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See detailLa « personnalité antisociale », antithèse de la psychopathologie
Englebert, Jérôme ULg; Adam, Christophe

in Déviance et Société (2017), 41(1), 3-28

L’article propose une réflexion critique et clinique sur la notion de « personnalité antisociale », largement usitée dans le domaine de la nosographie des troubles mentaux et des pratiques « psy- » au ... [more ▼]

L’article propose une réflexion critique et clinique sur la notion de « personnalité antisociale », largement usitée dans le domaine de la nosographie des troubles mentaux et des pratiques « psy- » au sein du système de justice pénale. Notre réflexion débutera par une généalogie du vocable dans différentes versions de la classification psychiatrique, depuis les années cinquante jusqu’aujourd’hui, et plus particulièrement celle faisant autorité du Manuel statistique et diagnostique des troubles mentaux (DSM). L’absence de raisonnement sociologique dans l’usage d’une notion impliquant pourtant la référence au « social » sera discutée ainsi que ses évolutions historiques. Ensuite, la démonstration de l’antithèse que cette notion constitue pour une perspective psychopathologique digne de ce nom – dynamique, compréhensive et phénoménologique – sera développée en six arguments majeurs et plurivoques, tantôt empiriques et cliniques, tantôt théoriques. [less ▲]

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See detailLa géographie linguistique au nord du domaine d'oïl
Baiwir, Esther ULg

in Bien Dire et Bien Aprandre : Bulletin du Centre d'Etudes Médiévales et Dialectales de l'Université de Lille III (2017), 32

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See detailCapillary electrophoresis in the context of drug discovery.
Farcas, Elena ULg; Pochet, Lionel; Crommen, Jacques ULg et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2017)

Capillary Electrophoresis is a very efficient and resolutive separation technique used for many years in the analytical field. Despite all its assets, CE remains poorly used in drug discovery. This can be ... [more ▼]

Capillary Electrophoresis is a very efficient and resolutive separation technique used for many years in the analytical field. Despite all its assets, CE remains poorly used in drug discovery. This can be explained by the relatively low number of experienced CE practitioners, the maturity of HPLC in the pharmaceutical industry and some intrinsic limitations of the technique. The objective of this review is to focus our attention on recent developments of this technique in three different drug discovery areas: bioassays, drug-plasma interactions and drug metabolism studies. These developments were based on two important abilities of CE: the capacity to measure non-covalent interactions in solution and the ability to use a portion of the capillary as a reactor while the rest of the capillary is used for the separation of the product of the reaction. [less ▲]

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See detailStein's method for comparison of univariate distributions
Ley, Christophe; Reinert, Gesine; Swan, Yvik ULg

in Probability Surveys (2017), 14

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See detailLes Partenariats Public-Privé : fondement théorique et analyse économique
Maatala, Nassreddine ULg; Benabdellah, Majid; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

in Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires (2017), 5(2 (Mai 2017)),

The Public-Private Partnership (PPP) is globally recognized as a common style of management, especially in the following sectors: transportation, public services and community facilities. The interests of ... [more ▼]

The Public-Private Partnership (PPP) is globally recognized as a common style of management, especially in the following sectors: transportation, public services and community facilities. The interests of this partnership approach reside in the off-budget financing for the public partner, in the private partners’ high rate of return, in the reduced completion deadlines of the projects, and finally in the availability and quality of the public service provided. The economic theory sees in PPPs many advantages and disadvantages related not only to the partnership, but also to the nature of the public-private relationship that is considered as a particular relationship. In this article, we analyze in the first part the main theoretical foundations in which the Public Private Partnership (PPP) is inserted, then, we present the assumptions and the principles of each theory. In the second part, we present an economic analysis of this partnership approach while going through its advantages, disadvantages, and potential paths to address its limitations. [less ▲]

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See detailThe lipid 5-phoshatase SHIP2 controls renal brush border ultrastructure and function by regulating ERM proteins activation
Sayyed, Sufyan Ali ULg; JOURET, François ULg; Vermeersch, Marjorie et al

in Kidney International (2017)

The microvillus brush border on the renal proximal tubule epithelium allows the controlled reabsorption of solutes that are filtered through the glomerulus and thus participates in general body ... [more ▼]

The microvillus brush border on the renal proximal tubule epithelium allows the controlled reabsorption of solutes that are filtered through the glomerulus and thus participates in general body homeostasis. Here, using the lipid 5-phosphatase Ship2 global knock-out mice, proximal tubule-specific Ship2 knock-out mice and a proximal tubule cell model where SHIP2 is inactivated, we show that SHIP2 is a negative regulator of microvilli formation, thereby controlling solute reabsorption by the proximal tubule. We found increased PtdIns(4,5)P2 substrate and decreased PtdIns4P product when SHIP2 was inactivated, associated with hyperactivated Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin proteins and increased Rho-GTP. Thus, inactivation of SHIP2 leads to increased microvilli formation and solute reabsorption by the renal proximal tubule. This may represent an innovative therapeutic target for renal Fanconi syndromes characterized by decreased reabsorption of solutes by this nephron segment. [less ▲]

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See detailA look at Intact Forest Landscapes and their relevance in Central African forest policy
Haurez, Barbara ULg; Daïnou, Kasso ULg; Vermeulen, Cédric ULg et al

in Forest Policy and Economics (2017), 80

Tropical forests are major providers of natural resources and ecosystem services but their ecological functions are at threat, due to increasing human pressure linked to economic development. The ... [more ▼]

Tropical forests are major providers of natural resources and ecosystem services but their ecological functions are at threat, due to increasing human pressure linked to economic development. The identification of priority areas for conservation is crucial for land use planning to ensure the protection of biodiversity and ecological function. Intact Forest Landscapes (IFLs), as defined by Greenpeace and World Resources Institute (WRI), are areas of the forest ecosystems not subjected to human activities. They have beenidentified by mapping human disturbances through remote sensing. Contrary to similar global-scale concepts, IFLs have been integrated into the standards of the certification body Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and therefore have practical implications for forest management policies. The Motion 65, approved in the general assembly of FSC in 2014, mandates the protection of IFLs located in FSC certified logging concessions. Until the implementation of national standards, forestry operations are banished from 80% of the IFL area within each forest management unit. To trace the history and evaluate the suitability of IFLs in the Central African context, we searched for documents related to the IFL method, and related approaches focusing on the identification of areas devoid of human disturbances. The IFL method is simple and cost-effective and allows for a global assessment of the influence of human infrastructures and industrial exploitation on forests However, the method does not consider the situation below the canopy and those forest components not visible by satellites. For example, hunting, one of the main threats faced by wildlife in Central African forests today, cannot be detected with satellite imagery. On the other hand, other anthropogenic activities which remote sensing may detect may be compatible with forest ecosystem conservation. To better tailor the IFL approach to Central African forests, we recommend (i) the consideration of wildlife communities in the intactness analysis, (ii) a thorough evaluation of the impacts of human activities on forest ecosystems, and (iii) the integration of local stakeholders and governments in the design of land management strategies to respond to social, economic and environmental needs [less ▲]

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See detailComputerized adaptive testing with R: Recent updates of the package catR
Magis, David ULg; Barrada, Juan Ramon

in Journal of Statistical Software (2017), 76(1), 1-19

The purpose of this paper is to list the recent updates of the R package catR. This package allows for generating response patterns under a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) framework with underlying ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this paper is to list the recent updates of the R package catR. This package allows for generating response patterns under a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) framework with underlying item response theory (IRT) models. Among the most important updates, well-known polytomous IRT models are now supported by catR; several item selection rules have been added; and it is now possible to perform post-hoc simulations. Some functions were also rewritten or withdrawn to improve the usefulness and performances of the package. [less ▲]

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See detailContribution of past and future self-defining event networks to personal identity
Demblon, Julie; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg

in Memory (2017), 25

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See detailResting-state test–retest reliability of a priori defined canonical networks over different preprocessing steps
Varikuti, Deepthi; Hoffstaedter, Felix; Genon, Sarah ULg et al

in Brain Structure & Function (2017), 222(3), 1447-1468

Resting-state functional connectivity analysis has become a widely used method for the investigation of human brain connectivity and pathology. The measurement of neuronal activity by functional MRI ... [more ▼]

Resting-state functional connectivity analysis has become a widely used method for the investigation of human brain connectivity and pathology. The measurement of neuronal activity by functional MRI, however, is impeded by various nuisance signals that reduce the stability of functional connectivity. Several methods exist to address this predicament, but little consensus has yet been reached on the most appropriate approach. Given the crucial importance of reliability for the development of clinical applications, we here investigated the effect of various confound removal approaches on the test–retest reliability of functional connectivity estimates in two previously defined functional brain networks. Our results showed that gray matter masking improved the reliability of connectivity estimates, whereas denoising based on principal components analysis reduced it. We additionally observed that refraining from using any correction for global signals provided the best test–retest reliability, but failed to reproduce anti-correlations between what have been previously described as antagonistic networks. This suggests that improved reliability can come at the expense of potentially poorer biological validity. Consistent with this, we observed that reliability was proportional to the retained variance, which presumably included structured noise, such as reliable nuisance signals (for instance, noise induced by cardiac processes). We conclude that compromises are necessary between maximizing test–retest reliability and removing variance that may be attributable to non-neuronal sources. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a chromatographic similarity index to establish localised Quantitative Structure-Retention Relationships for retention prediction. II Use of Tanimoto similarity index in ion chromatography
Park, S. H.; Talebi, M.; Amos, R. I. J. et al

in Journal of Chromatography. A (2017)

Quantitative Structure-Retention Relationships (QSRR) are used to predict retention times of compounds based only on their chemical structures encoded by molecular descriptors. The main concern in QSRR ... [more ▼]

Quantitative Structure-Retention Relationships (QSRR) are used to predict retention times of compounds based only on their chemical structures encoded by molecular descriptors. The main concern in QSRR modelling is to build models with high predictive power, allowing reliable retention prediction for the unknown compounds across the chromatographic space. With the aim of enhancing the prediction power of the models, in this work, our previously proposed QSRR modelling approach called "federation of local models" is extended in ion chromatography to predict retention times of unknown ions, where a local model for each target ion (unknown) is created using only structurally similar ions from the dataset. A Tanimoto similarity (TS) score was utilised as a measure of structural similarity and training sets were developed by including ions that were similar to the target ion, as defined by a threshold value. The prediction of retention parameters (a- and b-values) in the linear solvent strength (LSS) model in ion chromatography, log k = a - blog[eluent], allows the prediction of retention times under all eluent concentrations. The QSRR models for a- and b-values were developed by a genetic algorithm-partial least squares method using the retention data of inorganic and small organic anions and larger organic cations (molecular mass up to 507) on four Thermo Fisher Scientific columns (AS20, AS19, AS11HC and CS17). The corresponding predicted retention times were calculated by fitting the predicted a- and b-values of the models into the LSS model equation. The predicted retention times were also plotted against the experimental values to evaluate the goodness of fit and the predictive power of the models. The application of a TS threshold of 0.6 was found to successfully produce predictive and reliable QSRR models (Qext(F2) 2 >. 0.8 and Mean Absolute Error. <. 0.1), and hence accurate retention time predictions with an average Mean Absolute Error of 0.2. min. © 2017. [less ▲]

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See detailHow does forest cover impact water flows and ecosystem services? Insights from real-life catchments in Wallonia (Belgium)
Brogna, Delphine; Vincke, Caroline; Brostaux, Yves ULg et al

in Ecological Indicators (2017), 72

While planet boundaries are being crossed and ecosystems degraded, the Ecosystem Service (ES) conceptrepresents a potential decision-making tool for improved natural resources management. The main aimof ... [more ▼]

While planet boundaries are being crossed and ecosystems degraded, the Ecosystem Service (ES) conceptrepresents a potential decision-making tool for improved natural resources management. The main aimof this paper is to assess the impact of forest cover on water related ES in Wallonia (Belgium) in termsof quantity and timing. We developed an approach based on easily accessible data, monitored in severalcountries and using straightforward statistical methods. This led us to study ES at “real-life” catchmentsscale: 22 catchments – from 30 to 250 km2– with mixed land covers were studied. We approached thewater supply and flood protection services through 5 indicators extracted from 10 hydrological years(2005–2014) discharge data series. These were computed annually and seasonally (vegetation periodfrom March to September and “non-vegetation” period the rest of the year). The water supply wasassessed through the specific volume Vs, the baseflow index BFI and the specific discharge exceeded95% of the time Q95s whereas the flood protection service was approached through the specific dis-charge exceeded 5% of the time Q05s and the flashiness index FI. Our study gives two main insights. First,statistical analyses show that forest cover negatively impact water supply when studying annual and“non-vegetation” period flows in general (Vs) but positively when studying low flows (Q95s). Regardingflood protection a slightly negative impact of forest cover on high flows (Q05s) was highlighted in the“non-vegetation” period. Results also show a negative impact of forests annually and in the vegetationperiod on the flashy behaviour of the catchment thus a positive impact on the flood protection ES. The“year” effect is overall highly significant testifying the importance of climatic factors. Rainfall is oftensignificant and can be considered as a main driver of these ES. Secondly, analyzing the quality of themodels produced and the results overall we assume that other variables characterizing the catchmentssuch as topography or soil types do play a significant role in the delivery of these ES. This questions theuse of land cover proxies in assessing and mapping of hydrological ES at a complex landscape scale. Wethus recommend further research to keep improving land cover proxies if they are used. [less ▲]

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See detailReduced specificity and enhanced subjective experience of future thinking in ageing: The influence of avoidance and emotion-regulation strategies
Jumentier, Sabrina; Barsics, Catherine ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in Memory (2017)

Future thinking in older adults is characterised by a lack of specificity of imagined events and by an equal or even higher subjective experience, compared to younger adults. We considered whether this ... [more ▼]

Future thinking in older adults is characterised by a lack of specificity of imagined events and by an equal or even higher subjective experience, compared to younger adults. We considered whether this lack of specificity stemmed partly from the avoidance of a somewhat disturbing future and then examined the extent to which certain types of emotion-regulation strategies, namely positive reappraisal and positive refocusing, contributed to the subjective experience of future thinking. Middle-aged and older adults completed an adapted version of the AMT, in which temporal distance and cue word valence were manipulated, thus resulting in future conditions assumed to represent varying degrees of discomfort. Results indicate that distant future and negative cues restricted both the specificity and the subjective experience of future thinking. In addition, the use of avoidance strategies predicted the nature of future thoughts in the context of a supposed uncomfortable future (i.e., a distant future induced by negative cues), although it followed quite different age-related patterns. Together with the findings that positive reappraisal and positive refocusing (to a lesser extent) contributed to the subjective experience of future thinking, this study indicates that how individuals imagine their personal future also relies on affect- and emotion-regulation strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailRectal cancer treatment in a teaching hospital
Verdin, Vanessa; Weerts, Joseph; Francart, David et al

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (2017), 117

Background: Rectal adenocarcinomas surgery morbidity and mortality might be impaired by neoadjuvant therapy. We performed this retropsective study to be compared with the PROCARE study running afterwards ... [more ▼]

Background: Rectal adenocarcinomas surgery morbidity and mortality might be impaired by neoadjuvant therapy. We performed this retropsective study to be compared with the PROCARE study running afterwards. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of 95 patients operated on for rectal denocarcinoma in a single institution during the period 2007-2009. We used logistic regression to estimate the relationship between possible predictive parameters of AL. Results: The laparoscopic approach is favored in 63.1% of the cases with a conversion rate of 11.6%, mainly in man (6 out of 7). For low rectal cancer though, laparotomy was the first choice (92.3%). From a carcinological point of view, laparoscopy allowed a complete tumor resection according to the PME (n=27) and TME (n=26) standards. Multivariate analysis revealed that women, lower BMI, lower rectum tumor, laparoscopic surgery, neoadjuvant treatment and anal suture were associated with higher risk of AL. The mean hospital stay was 15.4 days (3 – 46 days). In-hospital mortality was 3.1%. Adjuvant chemotherapy was completed in 42.1% of the patients. Despite these treatments, we registered a recurrence rate of 26.6%. Of these, 72% were distally localized and 12% exclusively locally. Among the patients operated on by laparoscopy, there was one local recurrence and one local with distant metastases (3.7%). The one- and three-years survival rates were 91.5% and 80.4% respectively. Conclusions: Our study showed a higher rate of AL than expected (18%). In our series recorded in PROCARE-Home, our leak rate has dropped to 10%. It may be indicating a positive effect of PROCARE. [less ▲]

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See detailPerformance-Based Financing in the heath sector in low- and middle-income countries: Is there anything whereof it may be said, See, this is new?
Paul, Elisabeth ULg; Renmans, Dimitri

in International Journal of Health Planning and Management (2017)

Whereas performance‐based financing (PBF) is nowdeveloping fast in the health sector in low‐ and middle‐income countries and is presented an innovative approach—concomitantly, subject to a separate ... [more ▼]

Whereas performance‐based financing (PBF) is nowdeveloping fast in the health sector in low‐ and middle‐income countries and is presented an innovative approach—concomitantly, subject to a separate research stream—it sharesmany features of the “managing for results” (MfR) and performance‐based budgeting (PBB) currents that have existed for decades. In this paper, we first argue that PBF as currently developed in the health sector in low‐ and middle‐income countries shares many features and thus can be viewed as an avatar of MfR andmore precisely PBB. Secondly,we drawlessons fromthe literature on MfR and PBB so as to (1) better apprehend PBF conceptually and (2) avoid pitfalls and better design PBF schemes in practice. We argue that the lessons from the theoretical and empirical literature on MfR and PBB offer interesting insights to feed into a “theory of change” of PBF, enabling to analyse critical aspects and better design PBF schemes. Moreover, it is hoped that just like MfR processes have been demonstrated as having the potential to boost individual performance not only through links with financial incentives but also through acting on other sources of motivation, one can demonstrate more accurately by which mechanisms the various elements of the PBF package can help improve health sector results. [less ▲]

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See detailSpatiotemporal variation of drought characteristics in the Huang- Huai-Hai Plain, China under the climate change scenario
Li, Xiangxiang; Ju, Hui; Garré, Sarah ULg et al

in Journal of Integrative Agriculture (2017)

Understanding the potential drought characteristics under climate change is essential to reduce vulnerability and establish adaptation strategies, especially in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain (3H Plain), which ... [more ▼]

Understanding the potential drought characteristics under climate change is essential to reduce vulnerability and establish adaptation strategies, especially in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain (3H Plain), which is the grain production base in China. In this paper, we investigated the variations in drought characteristics (drought event frequency, duration, severity, and intensity) for the past 50 years (1961–2010) and under future scenarios (2010–2099), based on the observed meteorological data and the RCP 8.5 scenario, respectively. First, we compared the applicability of three climatic drought indices: the standardized precipitation index (SPI), the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index based on the Penman-Monteith equation (SPEI-PM) and the Thornthwaite equation (SPEI-TH) to trace the recorded agricultural drought areas. Then, we analyzed the drought characteristics using “run theory” for both historical observations and future RCP 8.5 scenario based on proper index. Correlation analyses between drought indices and agricultural drought areas showed that SPEI-PM performed better than SPI and SPEI-TH in the 3H Plain. Based on the results of SPEI-PM, the past 50 years have experienced reduced drought of shorter duration, and of weaker severity and intensity. However, under the future RCP 8.5 scenario, drought is expected to rise in frequency, duration, severity, and intensity from 2010–2099, although drought components during the 2010–2039 are predicted to be milder compared with the historical conditions. This study highlights that the estimations for atmospheric evaporative demand would bring in differences in the prediction of long-term drought trends by different drought indices. The results of this study can help inform researchers and local policy makers to establish drought management strategies [less ▲]

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See detailCarbonated miscanthus mineralized aggregates for reducing environmental impact of lightweight concrete blocks
Courard, Luc ULg; Parmentier, Véronique

in Sustainable Buildings (2017), 2(3),

At a time when the cement industry is largely responsible for the production of CO2 in the construction sector, it is useful to make this production a reverse phenomenon: that is CO2 capture. The CO2 ... [more ▼]

At a time when the cement industry is largely responsible for the production of CO2 in the construction sector, it is useful to make this production a reverse phenomenon: that is CO2 capture. The CO2 absorption process called carbonation, improves specific properties of the concrete during the conversion of carbon dioxide CO2 into calcium carbonate CaCO3. Current environmental concerns motivate the study of carbonation in order to maximize the absorption of carbon dioxide. Moreover, lightweight concrete with biobased products knows an interesting development in the construction field, especially as thermal insulation panels for walls in buildings. Before identifying and quantifying the basic physical characteristics of concrete made from miscanthus, it is necessary to optimize the composition of the product. The long-term stability as well as the reinforcement may be obtained by means of a mineralization process of the natural product: a preparation with a lime and/or cement-based material is necessary to reinforce the cohesion of the bio-based product. Mineralization process is described as well as the way of producing blocks for CO2 capture by means of accelerated carbonation. Finally, concrete blocks produced with miscanthus mineralized aggregates offer interesting mechanical properties and minimal environmental impact. [less ▲]

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See detailDrought, conflict and children’s undernutrition in Ethiopia 2000–2013: a meta-analysis
Delbiso, Tefera Darge; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose Manuel; Donneau, Anne-Françoise ULg et al

in Bulletin of the World Health Organization (2017), 95

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See detailRIP3 antagonizes a TSC2-mediated pro-survival pathway in glioblastoma cell death.
Fettweis, Grégory ULg; Di Valentin, Emmanuel ULg; L'homme, Laurent et al

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (2017)

Glioblastomas are the deadliest type of brain cancer and are frequently associated with poor prognosis and a high degree of recurrence despite removal by surgical resection and treatment by chemo- and ... [more ▼]

Glioblastomas are the deadliest type of brain cancer and are frequently associated with poor prognosis and a high degree of recurrence despite removal by surgical resection and treatment by chemo- and radio-therapy. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment well known to induce mainly necrotic and apoptotic cell death in solid tumors. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-based PDT was recently shown to sensitize human glioblastoma cells (LN-18) to a RIP3 (Receptor Interacting Protein 3)-dependent cell death which is counter-acted by activation of autophagy. These promising results led us to investigate the pathways involved in cell death and survival mechanisms occurring in glioblastoma following PDT. In the present study, we describe a new TSC2 (Tuberous Sclerosis 2)-dependent survival pathway implicating MK2 (MAPKAPK2) kinase and 14-3-3 proteins which conducts to the activation of a pro-survival autophagy. Moreover, we characterized a new RIP3/TSC2 complex where RIP3 is suggested to promote cell death by targeting TSC2-dependent survival pathway. These results highlight (i) a new role of TSC2 to protect glioblastoma against PDT-induced cell death and (ii) TSC2 and 14-3-3 as new RIP3 partners. [less ▲]

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See detailAccuracy and performance of continuous glucose monitors in athletes
Thomas, Felicity Louise ULg; Pretty, Christopher; Signal, Matthew et al

in Biomedical Signal Processing and Control (2017)

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See detailPerinatal programming of depressive-like behavior by inflammation in adult offspring mice whose mothers were fed polluted eels: Gender selective effects
Soualed, Nidhal; Dridi, Imen; Eppe, Gauthier ULg et al

in Brain, Behavior & Immunity (2017), 63

Several lines of evidence indicate that early-life inflammation may predispose to mental illness, including depression, in later-life. We investigated the impact of perinatal exposure to polluted eels on ... [more ▼]

Several lines of evidence indicate that early-life inflammation may predispose to mental illness, including depression, in later-life. We investigated the impact of perinatal exposure to polluted eels on neonatal, postnatal, and adult brain inflammation, and on the resignation behavior of male and female adult offspring mice. The effects of maternal standard diet (laboratory food) were compared to the same diet enriched with low, intermediate, or highly polluted eels. Brain inflammatory markers including cytokines were assessed in offspring mice on the day of birth (i.e., on the postnatal day–PND 1), upon weaning (PND 21) and at adulthood (PND 100). Plasma myeloperoxidase and corticosterone levels were evaluated at PND 100. Immobility behavior of offspring was assessed in adulthood (i.e., at PNDs 95–100), using the tail suspension and forced swimming tests. Chronic brain inflammation was found in male and female offspring mice compared to controls, as assessed at PNDs 1, 21, and 100. The level of myeloperoxidase was found to be significantly higher in both adult males and females vs. control offspring. However, high corticosterone levels were only found in male offspring mice that were perinatally exposed to eels, suggesting a gender-selective dysregulation of the adult hypothalamicpituitaryadrenal (HPA) axis. Gender-specific differences were also detected in adulthood in regard to offspring resignation behavior. Thus, compared to controls, males, but not females, whose mothers were fed eels during pregnancy and lactation exhibited a depressive-like behavior in adult age in both behavioral models of depression. Depressive symptoms were more pronounced in male mice perinatally exposed to either intermediate or highly polluted eels than those exposed to only lowly polluted eels. Our results indicate that early-life inflammatory insult is a plausible causative factor that induce the depressive phenotype exhibited by male adult offspring mice, most likely through a gender-specific HPA axis enhanced activation. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrostructural and functional correlates of glutamate concentration in the posterior cingulate cortex.
Arrubla Martinez, Jorge Andres ULg; Farrher, Ezequiel; Strippelmann, Johanna et al

in Journal of Neuroscience Research (2017)

Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the human brain and has a central role in both intrinsic and stimulus-induced activity. We conducted a study in a cohort of healthy, male volunteers ... [more ▼]

Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the human brain and has a central role in both intrinsic and stimulus-induced activity. We conducted a study in a cohort of healthy, male volunteers in which glutamate levels were measured in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) using 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3T. The advantages of simultaneous electroencephalography and magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-MRI) were exploited and the subjects were measured in the same session and under the same physiological conditions. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), functional MRI (fMRI) and EEG were measured in order to investigate the functional and microstructural correlates of glutamate. The concentration of glutamate (institute units) was calculated and those values were tested for correlation with the metrics of resting state fMRI, DTI, and EEG electrical sources. Our results showed that the concentration of glutamate in the PCC had a significant negative correlation with the tissue mean diffusivity in the same area. The analysis of resting state networks did not show any relationship between the concentration of glutamate and the intrinsic activity of the resting state networks. The concentration of glutamate showed a positive correlation with the electrical generators of alpha-1 frequency and a negative correlation with the generators of alpha-2 and beta-1 electrical generators. (c) 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental validation of footprint models for eddy covariance CO2 flux measurements above grassland by means of natural and artificial tracers
Arriga, Nicola; Rannik, Üllar; Aubinet, Marc ULg et al

in Agricultural and Forest Meteorology (2017), 242

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See detailDepth-speci c Fluctuations of gene expression and protein abundance modulate the photophysiology in the seagrass Posidonia oceanica
Procaccini, Gabriele; Ruocco, Miriam; Marin-Guirao, Lazaro et al

in Scientific Reports (2017), 7(42890), 1-14

We present the results of a multiple organizational level analysis conceived to identify acclimative/ adaptive strategies exhibited by the seagrass Posidonia oceanica to the daily uctuations in the light ... [more ▼]

We present the results of a multiple organizational level analysis conceived to identify acclimative/ adaptive strategies exhibited by the seagrass Posidonia oceanica to the daily uctuations in the light environment, at contrasting depths. We assessed changes in photophysiological parameters, leaf respiration, pigments, and protein and mRNA expression levels. The results show that the diel oscillations of P. oceanica photophysiological and respiratory responses were related to transcripts and proteins expression of the genes involved in those processes and that there was a response asynchrony between shallow and deep plants probably caused by the strong di erences in the light environment. The photochemical pathway of energy use was more e ective in shallow plants due to higher light availability, but these plants needed more investment in photoprotection and photorepair, requiring higher translation and protein synthesis than deep plants. The genetic di erentiation between deep and shallow stands suggests the existence of locally adapted genotypes to contrasting light environments. The depth-speci c diel rhythms of photosynthetic and respiratory processes, from molecular to physiological levels, must be considered in the management and conservation of these key coastal ecosystems. [less ▲]

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See detailChemical composition of essential oils and hydrosols of three Eucalyptus species from Senegal: Eucalyptus alba Renv, Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh and Eucalyptus tereticornis Hook
Barka Ndiaye, El Hadji; Talla Gueye, Momar; Ndiaye, Ibrahima et al

in American Journal of Essential Oils and Natural Products (2017), 5(1), 1-7

The leaves of three eucalyptus species Eucalyptus Alba, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and ucalyptus tereticornis were collected in Kaolack (Senegal) and were extracted by steam distillation after 3, 7, 14 and ... [more ▼]

The leaves of three eucalyptus species Eucalyptus Alba, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and ucalyptus tereticornis were collected in Kaolack (Senegal) and were extracted by steam distillation after 3, 7, 14 and 21 days of drying. The volatile components of aqueous distillates (hydrosols) were obtained by liquid–liquid extraction using n-hexane. The different extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Essential oils yields obtained range from 0.3 to 1.6%. E. camaldulensis had the higher yield. Forty four compounds were characterized in E. camaldulensis essential oils. These lasts were dominated by 1.8-cineole (47.54 to 52.47%), limonene (16.5 to 19.1%), α-pinene (7.3 to 11.2%) and p-cymene (6.0 to 8.8%). Fifty compounds were identified in E. Alba oils with 1.8-cineole (36.0-38.3%) α-pinene (19.0-26.4%), limonene (5.7- 8.3%), trans-pinocarveol (3.5 -5.0%) β-pinene (1.9 to 4.6%) as major compounds. In E. tereticornis oils, fifty two compounds were identified. Their composition were dominated by p-cymene (42.49 to 48.51%) followed by 1.8-cineole (21.3- 24.5%), limonene (4.8- 5.9%) and α-pinene (1.9 to 6.7%). The analyzed hydrosols were composed by oxygenated molecules whose major part was found in oils. As essential oils, all corresponding hydrosols hade high rate of 1.8-cineole. E. alba hydrosol contains mainly 1.8-cineole (39.1%), trans-pinocarveol (19.3%), pinocarvone (6.8%). E. camaldulensis hydrosol was dominated by 1.8-cineole (52.6%), α-terpineol (6.6%), cis-p-mentha-1-(7)-8-dien-2ol (5.1%). The major compounds of E. tereticornis hydrolat were: 1.8-cineole (30.7%), α-terpineol (8.8%), trans-pinocarveol (7.6%), carvacrol (7.0%). The results showed that although 1.8-cineole was the main component of the hydrosols of all eucalyptus species, but its relative content was higher in E. camaldulensis. [less ▲]

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See detailPEGylated and Functionalized Aliphatic Polycarbonate Polyplex Nanoparticles for Intravenous Administration of HDAC5 siRNA in Cancer Therapy
Frère, Antoine ULg; Baroni, Alexandra; Hendrick, Elodie ULg et al

in ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces (2017), 25(9(3)), 2181-2195

Guanidine and morpholine functionalized aliphatic polycarbonate polymers are able to efficiently deliver histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) siRNA into the cytoplasm of cancer cells in vitro leading to a ... [more ▼]

Guanidine and morpholine functionalized aliphatic polycarbonate polymers are able to efficiently deliver histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) siRNA into the cytoplasm of cancer cells in vitro leading to a decrease of cell proliferation were previously developed. To allow these biodegradable and biocompatible polyplex nanoparticles to overcome the extracellular barriers and be effective in vivo after an intravenous injection, polyethylene glycol chains (PEG750 or PEG2000) were grafted on the polymer structure. These nanoparticles, showed an average size of about 150 nm and a slightly positive zeta potential with complete siRNA complexation. Behavior of PEGylated and non-PEGylated polyplexes were investigated in the presence of serum, in terms of siRNA complexation (Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy), size (Dynamic Light Scattering and Single-Particle Tracking), interaction with proteins (Isothermal Titration Calorimetry) and cellular uptake. Surprisingly, both PEGylated and non-PEGylated formulations presented relatively good behavior in the presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS). Hemocompatibility tests showed no effect of these polyplexes on hemolysis and coagulation. In vivo biodistribution in mice was performed and showed a better siRNA accumulation at the tumor site for PEGylated polyplexes. However, cellular uptake in protein-rich conditions showed that PEGylated polyplex lost their ability to interact with biological membranes and enter into cells, showing the importance to perform in vitro investigations in physiological conditions closed to in vivo situation. In vitro, the efficiency of PEGylated nanoparticles decreases compared to non-PEGylated particles, leading to the loss of the antiproliferative effect on cancer cells. [less ▲]

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See detailT2-weighted MRI signal intensity as a predictor of hormonal and tumoral responses to somatostatin receptor ligands in acromegaly: a perspective.
Potorac, Iulia ULg; Beckers, Albert ULg; BONNEVILLE, Jean-François ULg

in Pituitary (2017), 20(1), 116-120

T2-weighted MRI signal intensity of GH-secreting pituitary adenomas is gaining recognition as a marker of disease characteristics and may be a predictor of response to treatment of acromegaly. Adenomas ... [more ▼]

T2-weighted MRI signal intensity of GH-secreting pituitary adenomas is gaining recognition as a marker of disease characteristics and may be a predictor of response to treatment of acromegaly. Adenomas that are T2-hypointense are more common, are smaller and are less likely to invade the cavernous sinus compared to the T2-iso and hyperintense tumors. T2-hypointense tumors are also accompanied by higher IGF1 values at baseline. When presurgical somatostatin receptor ligand (SRL) therapy is administered, T2-hypointense adenomas have better hormonal responses and have greater tumor shrinkage. Adjuvant SRL therapy of patients with T2-hypointense tumors that are uncured by surgery is also associated with a better hormonal response. We review the studies that have dealt with the T2-weighted signal intensity of GH-secreting pituitary tumors and elaborate on the details and nuances of this promising avenue of research. [less ▲]

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See detailNovel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume.
Hibar, Derrek P.; Adams, Hieab H. H.; Jahanshad, Neda et al

in Nature Communications (2017), 8

The hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are ... [more ▼]

The hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpinnings of hippocampal structure here we perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 33,536 individuals and discover six independent loci significantly associated with hippocampal volume, four of them novel. Of the novel loci, three lie within genes (ASTN2, DPP4 and MAST4) and one is found 200 kb upstream of SHH. A hippocampal subfield analysis shows that a locus within the MSRB3 gene shows evidence of a localized effect along the dentate gyrus, subiculum, CA1 and fissure. Further, we show that genetic variants associated with decreased hippocampal volume are also associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (rg=-0.155). Our findings suggest novel biological pathways through which human genetic variation influences hippocampal volume and risk for neuropsychiatric illness. [less ▲]

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See detailInteractive effects of ultraviolet radiation and thermal stress on two reef-building corals
Courtial, Lucile; Roberty, Stéphane ULg; Shick, Malcom et al

in Limnology and Oceanography (2017)

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See detailPostoperative care in endoscopic sinus surgery: a critical review.
Eloy, Philippe; Andrews, Peter; POIRRIER, Anne-Lise ULg

in Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head & Neck Surgery (2017), 25(1), 35-42

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic rhinosinusitis with and without nasal polyps is a common disease affecting people all over the world. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) has become the gold standard ... [more ▼]

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic rhinosinusitis with and without nasal polyps is a common disease affecting people all over the world. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) has become the gold standard treatment for medically refractive disease. Postoperative care is recommended by international leaders as an important part of the patient's management. This article is a critical review and discussion focusing on postoperative care, which is based on expert opinion, clinical studies, randomized controlled trials and meta-analysis studies. RECENT FINDINGS: Postoperative care including nasal rinsing, topical corticosteroids, antibiotics and avoidance of nasal packing are unanimously considered to be the cornerstone of best practice following FESS. However, the effectiveness of in-office nasal debridement is still under debate. SUMMARY: There is a lack of consensus regarding the necessity of performing in-office nasal debridement and the majority of clinicians carry out their postoperative care according to experience and their own preference. This is often determined by the extent of surgery performed, the severity of the postoperative inflammation, as well as being dependent on the patient's discomfort, the time constraints associated with postoperative care and the costs associated with additional appointments. Ideally, nasal debridement should be performed by the operating surgeon under endoscopic control both gently and atraumatically. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiple myeloma bone disease: from mechanisms to next generation therapy
Heusschen, Roy ULg; Muller, Joséphine ULg; WITHOFS, Nadia ULg et al

in Belgian Journal of Hematology (2017)

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See detailAn Analysis of the Interaction Effect between Employee Technical and Emotional Competencies in Emotionally Charged Service Encounters
Delcourt, Cécile ULg; Gremler, Dwayne; De Zanet, Fabrice ULg et al

in Journal of Service Management (2017), 28(1), 85-106

Purpose—Customers often experience negative emotions during service experiences. The ways that employees manage customers’ emotions and impressions about whether the service provider is concerned for them ... [more ▼]

Purpose—Customers often experience negative emotions during service experiences. The ways that employees manage customers’ emotions and impressions about whether the service provider is concerned for them in such emotionally charged service encounters (ECSEs) is crucial, considering the criticality of the encounter. Drawing on cognitive appraisal theory, this study proposes that two key competencies—employee emotional competence (EEC) and employee technical competence (ETC)—affect negative customer emotions and customer satisfaction with employee response in ECSEs. Design/methodology—This study relies on a video-based experiment that depicts a customer involved in an ECSE as a service provider delivers bad news to him. The hypothesis tests use a two-way independent analysis of covariance. Results—Both emotional and technical competencies must be displayed to improve the customer experience in an ECSE. When EEC is low, ETC does not decrease negative customer emotions or increase customer satisfaction with employee response. When EEC is high, ETC instead has a significant impact on both customer outcomes. Practical implications—Managers must train employees to develop both technical and emotional competencies. Employees who demonstrate only one type cannot temper customers’ emotions or enhance their perceptions of the employees’ response as well as can those strong in both competencies. Originality/value—Using a video-based experiment, this study examines the moderating role of EEC in the relationship between ETC and two key aspects of the customer experience in an ECSE (negative customer emotions and customer satisfaction with employee responses) following the delivery of bad news. [less ▲]

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See detailA new, challenging benchmark for nonlinear system identification
Tiso, Paolo; Noël, Jean-Philippe ULg

in Mechanical Systems & Signal Processing (2017), 84

The progress accomplished during the past decade in nonlinear system identi fication in structural dynamics is considerable. The objective of the present paper is to consolidate this progress by ... [more ▼]

The progress accomplished during the past decade in nonlinear system identi fication in structural dynamics is considerable. The objective of the present paper is to consolidate this progress by challenging the community through a new benchmark structure exhibiting complex nonlinear dynamics. The proposed structure consists of two o ffset cantilevered beams connected by a highly flexible element. For increasing forcing amplitudes, the system sequentially features linear behaviour, localised nonlinearity associated with the buckling of the connecting element, and distributed nonlinearity resulting from large elastic deformations across the structure. A finite element-based code with time integration capabilities is made available at http://sem.org/TDIV-Nonlin.asp. This code permits the numerical simulation of the benchmark dynamics in response to arbitrary excitation signals. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation of the added mass method for seismic design of lock gates
Buldgen, Loïc ULg; Le Sourne, Hervé; Caprace, Jean-David ULg et al

in Engineering Structures (2017)

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See detailEmployee perspectives on safety citizenship behaviors and safety violations
Chmiel, Nik; Laurent, Julie ULg; Hansez, Isabelle ULg

in Safety Science (2017), 93

Two studies investigate whether employees viewing discretionary safety activities as part of their job role (termed safety citizenship role definitions, SCRDs) plays an important part in predicting two ... [more ▼]

Two studies investigate whether employees viewing discretionary safety activities as part of their job role (termed safety citizenship role definitions, SCRDs) plays an important part in predicting two types of safety violation: routine violations conceptualized as related to an individual’s available cognitive energy or ‘effort’; and situational violations, which are those provoked by the organization (Reason, 1990). Study 1 showed SCRDs predicted situational violations only, and partially mediated the relationships between Perceived Management Commitment to Safety (PMCS) and work engagement with situational violations. These findings add to those by Hansez and Chmiel (2010), showing that routine and situational violations have predictors that differ. Study 1 findings also extend research reported by Turner et al. (2005), by showing that the effect of Job Control on SCRDs was mediated by both PMCS and work engagement. In study 2, participation in discretionary safety activities (safety participation) mediated the relationship between SCRDs and situational violations. Similar to study 1 The link between SCRDs and routine violations was non-significant and, strikingly, so was the link between safety participation and routine violations. These results support the view that processes involving SCRDs and safety participation are not cognitive-energetical in nature. In addition, study 2 findings extend previous work by Neal and Griffin (2006) by showing that SCRDs and safety knowledge partially mediated relationships between safety motivation and safety participation, whereas the direct effect of safety motivation on safety participation was non-significant. The results from both studies support the view that SCRDs are important in predicting situational violations. In study 2 SCRDs were shown to partially mediate the relationship between safety motivation and selfreported participation in discretionary safety activities (Safety Participation) which, in turn, related to situational violations. Interestingly there was no significant direct link between SCRDs and situational violations. These findings support the view that the effect of SCRDs on situational violations is fully mediated by participation in discretionary safety activities. [less ▲]

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See detailNew computational method of the ball/race contacts transverse loads of high speed ball bearings without race control hypothesis
Servais, Christophe ULg; Bozet, Jean-Luc ULg

in Tribology International (2017)

Some hypotheses are still necessary in order to access the ball bearing Newtonian equilibrium with quasi-static methods. Among these hypotheses are the values of the transverse loads within ball/race ... [more ▼]

Some hypotheses are still necessary in order to access the ball bearing Newtonian equilibrium with quasi-static methods. Among these hypotheses are the values of the transverse loads within ball/race contacts. Those loads are due to the gyroscopic torques. Nowadays, the transverse loads are estimated without any equilibrium criterion by the specialized literature. Moreover, the race control assumption is often employed in addition to the hypotheses made about the transverse loads. The paper describes a new method to compute the transverse loads without using the race control assumption. Then, a correlation between the ball bearing kinematics and the transverse loads is established. It leads to an accurate and efficient computational method to access the Newtonian equilibrium of high speed ball bearings. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of metabolic profiles and bioactivities of the leaves of three edible Congolese Hibiscus species
Kapepula, Paulin Mutwale; Kabamba Ngombe, Nadege; Tshisekedi Tshibangu, Pascal et al

in Natural Product Research (2017), 6419(March), 1--8

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See detailObjective assessment of visual pursuit in patients with disorders of consciousness: an exploratory study.
Wannez, Sarah ULg; Hoyoux, Thomas; Langohr, Thomas et al

in Journal of Neurology (2017)

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See detailPhase-change materials and rigidity
Piarristeguy, A.; Pradel, A.; Raty, Jean-Yves ULg

in MRS Bulletin (2017), 42(1), 45-49

Rigidity theory is an extraordinary tool to understand glasses. This article demonstrates how this model can help in understanding the link between structure, dynamics, and subtler properties such as ... [more ▼]

Rigidity theory is an extraordinary tool to understand glasses. This article demonstrates how this model can help in understanding the link between structure, dynamics, and subtler properties such as drift and aging, in particular, in phase-change materials (PCMs). First, a map of flexible/rigid regions in the Ge-(Sb)-Te system is drawn on the basis of atomistic structures modeled either by ab initio or reverse Monte Carlo techniques. A clear link between the flexible/rigid nature of the glass and its aging behavior is shown through resistivity drift as a function of composition measurements in amorphous GexTe100-x. In the particular case of amorphous GeTe, application of rigidity theory indicates that the average number of mechanical constraints decreases during aging, making the glass less stressed-rigid. Finally, the stability of PCMs also depends on the topology of the materials. The increasing number of constraints in GeTe when doped with C or N results in increased stability of the PCM. © 2017 Materials Research Society. [less ▲]

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See detailHost DNA released by NETosis promotes rhinovirus-induced type-2 allergic asthma exacerbation.
Toussaint, Marie; Jackson, David J.; Swieboda, Dawid et al

in Nature Medicine (2017)

Respiratory viral infections represent the most common cause of allergic asthma exacerbations. Amplification of the type-2 immune response is strongly implicated in asthma exacerbation, but how virus ... [more ▼]

Respiratory viral infections represent the most common cause of allergic asthma exacerbations. Amplification of the type-2 immune response is strongly implicated in asthma exacerbation, but how virus infection boosts type-2 responses is poorly understood. We report a significant correlation between the release of host double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) following rhinovirus infection and the exacerbation of type-2 allergic inflammation in humans. In a mouse model of allergic airway hypersensitivity, we show that rhinovirus infection triggers dsDNA release associated with the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), known as NETosis. We further demonstrate that inhibiting NETosis by blocking neutrophil elastase or by degrading NETs with DNase protects mice from type-2 immunopathology. Furthermore, the injection of mouse genomic DNA alone is sufficient to recapitulate many features of rhinovirus-induced type-2 immune responses and asthma pathology. Thus, NETosis and its associated extracellular dsDNA contribute to the pathogenesis and may represent potential therapeutic targets of rhinovirus-induced asthma exacerbations. [less ▲]

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See detailIconic virtues of diagrams. Peirce on ampliative reasoning
Leclercq, Bruno ULg

in Signata. Annales des Sémiotiques = Annals of Semiotics (2017)

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See detailMethylglyoxal-Mediated Stress Correlates with High Metabolic Activity and Promotes Tumor Growth in Colorectal Cancer.
Chiavarina, Barbara ULg; Nokin, Marie-Julie ULg; Bellier, Justine ULg et al

in International Journal of Molecular Sciences (2017), 18(1),

Cancer cells generally rely on aerobic glycolysis as a major source of energy. Methylglyoxal (MG), a dicarbonyl compound that is produced as a side product during glycolysis, is highly reactive and ... [more ▼]

Cancer cells generally rely on aerobic glycolysis as a major source of energy. Methylglyoxal (MG), a dicarbonyl compound that is produced as a side product during glycolysis, is highly reactive and induces the formation of advanced glycation end-products that are implicated in several pathologies including cancer. All mammalian cells have an enzymatic defense against MG composed by glyoxalases GLO1 and GLO2 that converts MG to d-lactate. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most frequently occurring cancers with high morbidity and mortality. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry to examine the level of MG protein adducts, in a series of 102 CRC human tumors divided into four clinical stages. We consistently detected a high level of MG adducts and low GLO1 activity in high stage tumors compared to low stage ones suggesting a pro-tumor role for dicarbonyl stress. Accordingly, GLO1 depletion in CRC cells promoted tumor growth in vivo that was efficiently reversed using carnosine, a potent MG scavenger. Our study represents the first demonstration that MG adducts accumulation is a consistent feature of high stage CRC tumors. Our data point to MG production and detoxification levels as an important molecular link between exacerbated glycolytic activity and CRC progression. [less ▲]

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See detailLes droits d'enregistrement
Bourgeois, Marc ULg; Douny, Raphaël ULg; Chauvin, N. et al

in Chronique de Droit à l'Usage du Notariat (2017), 65

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See detailComparison of Indium Tin Oxide and Indium Tungsten Oxide as Transparent Conductive Substrates for WO3-Based Electrochromic Devices
Maho, Anthony ULg; Nicolay, Sylvain; Manceriu, Laura ULg et al

in Journal of the Electrochemical Society (2017), 164(2), 25-31

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See detailAuroral streamer and its role in driving wave-like pre-onset aurora
Yao, Zhonghua ULg; Pu, Z. Y.; Rae, I. J. et al

in Geoscience Letters (2017), 4(1), 8

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See detailFactors controlling spatial and temporal patterns of multiple pesticide compounds in groundwater (Hesbaye chalk aquifer, Belgium)
Hakoun, Vivien; Orban, Philippe ULg; Dassargues, Alain ULg et al

in Environmental Pollution (2017)

Factors governing spatial and temporal patterns of pesticide compounds (pesticides and metabolites) concentrations in chalk aquifers remain unclear due to complex flow processes and multiple sources. To ... [more ▼]

Factors governing spatial and temporal patterns of pesticide compounds (pesticides and metabolites) concentrations in chalk aquifers remain unclear due to complex flow processes and multiple sources. To uncover which factors govern pesticide compound concentrations in a chalk aquifer, we develop a methodology based on time series analyses, uni- and multivariate statistics accounting for concentrations below detection limits. The methodology is applied to long records (1996–2013) of a restricted compound (bentazone), three banned compounds (atrazine, diuron and simazine) and two metabolites (deethylatrazine (DEA) and 2,6–dichlorobenzamide (BAM)) sampled in the Hesbaye chalk aquifer in Belgium. In the confined area, all compounds had non-detects fractions >80%. By contrast, maximum concentrations exceeded EU’s drinking-water standard (100 ngL-1) in the unconfined area. This contrast confirms that recent recharge and polluted water did not reach the confined area, yet. Multivariate analyses based on variables representative of the hydrogeological setting revealed higher diuron and simazine concentrations in the southeast of the unconfined area, where urban activities dominate land use and where the aquifer lacks protection from a less permeable layer of hardened chalk. At individual sites, positive correlations (up to τ =0,48 for bentazone) between pesticide compound concentrations and multi-annual groundwater level fluctuations confirm occurrences of remobilization. A downward temporal trend of atrazine concentrations likely reflects decreasing use of this compound over the last 28 years. However, the lack of a break in concentrations time series and maximum concentrations of atrazine, simazine, DEA and BAM exceeding EU’s standard post-ban years provide evidence of persistence. Contrasting upward trends in bentazone concentrations show that a time lag is required for restriction measures to be efficient. These results shed light on factors governing pesticide compound concentrations in chalk aquifers. The developed methodology is not restricted to chalk aquifers, it could be transposed to study other pollutants with concentrations below detection limits. Several factors govern pesticide compounds concentrations in the chalk: hydrogeological setting, land use, groundwater level fluctuations and persistence. [less ▲]

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See detailA water retention model for compacted bentonites
Dieudonné, Anne-Catherine ULg; Della Vecchia, Gabriele; Charlier, Robert ULg

in Canadian Geotechnical Journal (2017)

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See detailThe diplomacy of practitioners: for an ecology of practices about the problem of the coexistence of wind farms and red kites
Melard, François ULg; Stassart, Pierre M ULg

in Environmental Education Research (2017)

Gathering information, comparing points of view, and designing actions in and about problematic situations are no longer purely academic activities. Learning about complex state of a airs is becoming an ... [more ▼]

Gathering information, comparing points of view, and designing actions in and about problematic situations are no longer purely academic activities. Learning about complex state of a airs is becoming an increasingly widely- distributed necessity and practice, including within civil society. We propose to give rst-hand information – as practitioners and members of a citizens’ wind energy co-operative in Belgium – about the problematic and highly controversial coexistence between wind farms and red kite (Milvus milvus). Will be reported the implementation of a community-based management scheme involving active, original practices of collaboration between citizens with local knowledge and skills and experts or scientists in order to produce research and intervention questions, methods, and results that are claimed to be more sustainable. The sustainability challenges are to design and set up in context a local space for collaboration and learning that departs from traditional public regulatory procedures (i.e. impact studies, public information meetings, etc.). However, the outcomes of this collaborative approach remain fragile. We shall argue in this regard that both the Transdisciplinary Environmental Research and the art of diplomacy may be central to the emergence of re exive governance within transition processes that strive to be sustainable. [less ▲]

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See detailRationalising vitamin B6 biofortification in crop plants.
Fudge, Jared; Mangel, Nathalie; Gruissem, Wilhelm et al

in Current Opinion in Biotechnology (2017), 44

Vitamin B6 encompasses a group of related compounds (vitamers) that can only be biosynthesised de novo by plants and microorganisms. Enzymatic cofactor and antioxidant functions for vitamin B6 are ... [more ▼]

Vitamin B6 encompasses a group of related compounds (vitamers) that can only be biosynthesised de novo by plants and microorganisms. Enzymatic cofactor and antioxidant functions for vitamin B6 are established in all kingdoms. Human vitamin B6 dietary insufficiency or genetic defects in B6 vitamer interconversion result in various neurological and inflammatory pathologies with several populations at-risk or marginal for vitamin B6 status. Three (rice, wheat and cassava) of the world's top five staple crops do not meet the recommended dietary allowance for vitamin B6, when consumed as a major proportion of the diet. In addition, controlled enhancement of the appropriate B6 vitamer in crops has the potential to confer stress resistance. Thus, crop biofortification strategies represent an opportunity to reduce the risk of deficiency in populations with limited diet diversity and quality, as well as improving stress tolerance. [less ▲]

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See detailA Large and Consistent Phylogenomic Dataset Supports Sponges as the Sister Group to All Other Animals.
Simion, Paul; Philippe, Herve; Baurain, Denis ULg et al

in Current Biology (2017)

Resolving the early diversification of animal lineages has proven difficult, even using genome-scale datasets. Several phylogenomic studies have supported the classical scenario in which sponges (Porifera ... [more ▼]

Resolving the early diversification of animal lineages has proven difficult, even using genome-scale datasets. Several phylogenomic studies have supported the classical scenario in which sponges (Porifera) are the sister group to all other animals ("Porifera-sister" hypothesis), consistent with a single origin of the gut, nerve cells, and muscle cells in the stem lineage of eumetazoans (bilaterians + ctenophores + cnidarians). In contrast, several other studies have recovered an alternative topology in which ctenophores are the sister group to all other animals (including sponges). The "Ctenophora-sister" hypothesis implies that eumetazoan-specific traits, such as neurons and muscle cells, either evolved once along the metazoan stem lineage and were then lost in sponges and placozoans or evolved at least twice independently in Ctenophora and in Cnidaria + Bilateria. Here, we report on our reconstruction of deep metazoan relationships using a 1,719-gene dataset with dense taxonomic sampling of non-bilaterian animals that was assembled using a semi-automated procedure, designed to reduce known error sources. Our dataset outperforms previous metazoan gene superalignments in terms of data quality and quantity. Analyses with a best-fitting site-heterogeneous evolutionary model provide strong statistical support for placing sponges as the sister-group to all other metazoans, with ctenophores emerging as the second-earliest branching animal lineage. Only those methodological settings that exacerbated long-branch attraction artifacts yielded Ctenophora-sister. These results show that methodological issues must be carefully addressed to tackle difficult phylogenetic questions and pave the road to a better understanding of how fundamental features of animal body plans have emerged. [less ▲]

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See detailRetention prediction of low molecular weight anions in ion chromatography based on quantitative structure-retention relationships applied to the linear solvent strength model
Park, S. H.; Haddad, P. R.; Talebi, M. et al

in Journal of Chromatography. A (2017), 1486

Quantitative Structure-Retention Relationships (QSRRs) represent a popular technique to predict the retention times of analytes, based on molecular descriptors encoding the chemical structures of the ... [more ▼]

Quantitative Structure-Retention Relationships (QSRRs) represent a popular technique to predict the retention times of analytes, based on molecular descriptors encoding the chemical structures of the analytes. The linear solvent strength (LSS) model relating the retention factor, k to the eluent concentration (log k = a − blog [eluent]), is a well-known and accurate retention model in ion chromatography (IC). In this work, QSRRs for inorganic and small organic anions were used to predict the regression parameters a and b in the LSS model (and hence retention times) for these analytes under a wide range of eluent conditions, based solely on their chemical structures. This approach was performed on retention data of inorganic and small organic anions from the “Virtual Column” software (Thermo Fisher Scientific). These retention data were recalibrated via a “porting” methodology on three columns (AS20, AS19, and AS11HC), prior to the QSRR modeling. This provided retention data more applicable on recently produced columns which may exhibit changes of column behavior due to batch-to-batch variability. Molecular descriptors for the analytes were calculated with Dragon software using the geometry-optimized molecular structures, employing the AM1 semi-empirical method. An optimal subset of molecular descriptors was then selected using an evolutionary algorithm (EA). Finally, the QSRR models were generated by multiple linear regression (MLR). As a result, six QSRR models with good predictive performance were successfully derived for a- and b-values on three columns (R2 > 0.98 and RMSE < 0.11). External validation showed the possibility of using the developed QSRR models as predictive tools in IC (Qext(F3) 2 > 0.7 and RMSEP < 0.4). Moreover, it was demonstrated that the obtained QSRR models for the a- and b-values can predict the retention times for new analytes with good accuracy and predictability (R2 of 0.98, RMSE of 0.89 min, Qext(F3) 2 of 0.96 and RMSEP of 1.18 min). © 2016 Elsevier B.V. [less ▲]

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See detailLooking beyond general metrics for model comparison – lessons from an international model intercomparison study
de Boer-Euser, Tanja; Bouaziz, Laurène; De Niel, Jan et al

in Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (2017), 21

International collaboration between research institutes and universities is a promising way to reach consensus on hydrological model development. Although comparative studies are very valuable for ... [more ▼]

International collaboration between research institutes and universities is a promising way to reach consensus on hydrological model development. Although comparative studies are very valuable for international cooperation, they do often not lead to very clear new insights regarding the relevance of the modelled processes. We hypothesise that this is partly caused by model complexity and the comparison methods used, which focus too much on a good overall performance instead of focusing on specific events. In this study, we use an approach that focuses on the evaluation of specific events and characteristics. Eight international research groups calibrated their hourly model on the Ourthe catchment in Belgium and carried out a validation in time for the Ourthe catchment and a validation in space for nested and neighbouring catchments. The same protocol was followed for each model and an ensemble of best performing parameter sets was selected. Although the models showed similar performances based on general metrics (i.e. Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency), clear differences could be observed for specific events. The results illustrate the relevance of including a very quick flow reservoir preceding the root zone storage to model peaks during low flows and including a slow reservoir in parallel with the fast reservoir to model the recession for the Ourthe catchment. This intercomparison enhanced the understanding of the hydrological functioning of the catchment and, above all, helped to evaluate each model against a set of alternative models. [less ▲]

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See detailInterleukin 13-mediated colitis in the absence of IL-4Rα signalling
Hoving, Jennifer C; Cutler, Antony J; Leeto, Mosiuoa et al

in Gut (2017)

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See detailPrevalence of coma-recovery scale-revised signs of consciousness in patients in minimally conscious state
Wannez, Sarah ULg; Gosseries, Olivia ULg; Azzolini, Deborah et al

in Neuropsychological Rehabilitation (2017)

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See detailIntegration of Gene Expression and Methylation to unravel Biological Networks in Glioblastoma Patients
Bessonov, Kyrylo ULg; Gadaleta, Francesco; Van Steen, Kristel ULg

in Genetic Epidemiology (2017)

The vast amount of heterogeneous omics data, encompassing a broad range of biomolecular information, requires novel methods of analysis, including those that integrate the available levels of information ... [more ▼]

The vast amount of heterogeneous omics data, encompassing a broad range of biomolecular information, requires novel methods of analysis, including those that integrate the available levels of information. In this work we describe Regression2Net, a computational approach that is able to integrate gene expression and genomic or methylome data in two steps. First, penalized regressions are used to build Expression-Expression (EEnet) and Expression-Genome or –Methylome (EMnet) networks. Second, network theory is used to highlight important communities of genes. When applying our approach Regression2Net to gene expression and methylation profiles for individuals with glioblastoma multiforme, we identified respectively 284 and 447 potentially interesting genes in relation to glioblastoma pathology. These genes showed at least one connection in the integrated networks ANDnet and XORnet derived from aforementioned EEnet and EMnet networks. Whereas the edges in ANDnet occur in both EEnet and EMnet, the edges in XORnet occur in EMnet but not in EEnet. In-depth biological analysis of connected genes in ANDnet and XORnet revealed genes that are related to energy metabolism, cell cycle control (AATF), immune system response and several cancer types. Importantly, we observed significant over-representation of cancer related pathways including glioma, especially in the XORnet network, suggesting a non-ignorable role of methylation in glioblastoma multiforma. In the ANDnet, we furthermore identified potential glioma suppressor genes ACCN3 and ACCN4 linked to the NBPF1 neuroblastoma breakpoint family, as well as numerous ABC transporter genes (ABCA1, ABCB1) suggesting drug resistance of glioblastoma tumors. [less ▲]

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See detailLe commun à l'épreuve du conflit : médiation esthétique et expérience de la communauté
Servais, Christine ULg

in Recherches en Communication (2017)

Cet article propose une conception de la médiation culturelle où la notion de médiation est lestée d’un rapport complexe au tiers, rapport susceptible de prendre en compte le conflit que peut constituer ... [more ▼]

Cet article propose une conception de la médiation culturelle où la notion de médiation est lestée d’un rapport complexe au tiers, rapport susceptible de prendre en compte le conflit que peut constituer la prise de position du destinataire auquel s’adressent les dispositifs de médiation. Cette approche de la médiation conserve la distinction entre passage et forçage, ce qui la situe dans un cadre politique. [less ▲]

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See detailMetamemory Following Childhood Brain Injury: A Consequence of Executive Impairment
Geurten, Marie ULg; Chevignard, Mathilde; Kerrouche, Bernadette et al

in Child Neuropsychology : A Journal on Normal & Abnormal Development in Childhood & Adolescence (2017), 23(1), 67-82

In this study, we investigated the influence of children’s level of executive functioning on two types of metamemory knowledge following a traumatic brain injury (TBI). For this purpose, 22 children (aged ... [more ▼]

In this study, we investigated the influence of children’s level of executive functioning on two types of metamemory knowledge following a traumatic brain injury (TBI). For this purpose, 22 children (aged 7 to 14 years) who had sustained a moderate to severe TBI and 44 typically developing children were recruited. Children with TBI were divided into two groups according to the severity of their executive impairment. Injury severity was determined by the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score on admission or by the duration of unconsciousness. All children were then tested on both their knowledge of general memory functioning and their level of memory self-awareness, respectively assessed using total number of correct responses on an adapted version of Kreutzer et al.’s metamemory interview and a self-other discrepancy score on a questionnaire evaluating everyday memory abilities. Data analyses revealed that participants with TBI who suffered impaired executive functions demonstrated less general metamemory knowledge, and underestimated the frequency of their memory problems, compared with children with TBI who had preserved executive functions and with control participants. Considering the well-established effect of metamemory knowledge on people’s spontaneous implementation of strategies, the interest and the importance of these findings on both theoretical and clinical grounds are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailPotential contribution of progesterone receptors to the development of sexual behavior in male and female mice.
Desroziers, Elodie; Brock, Olivier; Bakker, Julie ULg

in Hormones and Behavior (2017)

We previously showed that estradiol can have both defeminizing and feminizing effects on the developing mouse brain. Pre- and early postnatal estradiol defeminized the ability to show lordosis in ... [more ▼]

We previously showed that estradiol can have both defeminizing and feminizing effects on the developing mouse brain. Pre- and early postnatal estradiol defeminized the ability to show lordosis in adulthood, whereas prepubertal estradiol feminized this ability. Furthermore, we found that estradiol upregulates progesterone receptors (PR) during development, inducing both a male-and female-typical pattern of PR expression in the mouse hypothalamus. In the present study, we took advantage of a newly developed PR antagonist (ZK 137316) to determine whether PR contributes to either male- or female-typical sexual differentiation. Thus groups of male and female C57Bl/6j mice were treated with ZK 137316 or oil as control: males were treated neonatally (P0-P10), during the critical period for male sexual differentiation, and females were treated prepubertally (P15-P25), during the critical period for female sexual differentiation. In adulthood, mice were tested for sexual behavior. In males, some minor effects of neonatal ZK treatment on sexual behavior were observed: latencies to the first mount, intromission and ejaculation were decreased in neonatally ZK treated males; however, this effect disappeared by the second mating test. By contrast, female mice treated with ZK during the prepubertal period showed significantly less lordosis than OIL-treated females. Mate preferences were not affected in either males or females treated with ZK during development. Taken together, these results suggest a role for PR and thus perhaps progesterone in the development of lordosis behavior in female mice. By contrast, no obvious role for PR can be discerned in the development of male sexual behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailPhytotoxic activity and chemical composition of Cassia absus seeds and aerial parts
Zribi, Ines; Sbai, H.; Ghezal, N. et al

in Natural Product Research (2017)

The present study was conducted to assess the phytotoxic potential and the phytochemical composition of Cassia absus. Aqueous extracts caused significant reduction of root growth of Lactuca sativa. Seed ... [more ▼]

The present study was conducted to assess the phytotoxic potential and the phytochemical composition of Cassia absus. Aqueous extracts caused significant reduction of root growth of Lactuca sativa. Seed extract was more effective than aerial part extract. Successive extractions of this plant were performed using solvents with increasing polarities. The methanolic seed extract exerted strong phytotoxic effect on seedling growth, followed by petroleum ether extract of the aerial part. The phytochemical investigation showed that among the organic extracts, methanol extracts of seeds and aerial parts contained the highest amounts of total phenolics and proanthocyanidins. Seeds were rich in linoleic acid followed by palmitic acids. Palmitic, stearic and arachidic acids were the major fatty acids in aerial parts. HPLC-DAD analysis of the methanolic extracts revealed the presence of luteolin in C. absus aerial parts. [less ▲]

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See detailProteomic response of Macrobrachium rosenbergii hepatopancreas exposed to chlordecone: Identification of endocrine disruption biomarkers?
Lafontaine, Anne ULg; Baiwir, Dominique ULg; Joaquim-Justo, Célia ULg et al

in Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety (2017)

The present work is the first study investigating the impacts of chlordecone, an organochlorine insecticide, on the proteome of the decapod crustacean Macrobrachium rosenbergii, by gel-free proteomic ... [more ▼]

The present work is the first study investigating the impacts of chlordecone, an organochlorine insecticide, on the proteome of the decapod crustacean Macrobrachium rosenbergii, by gel-free proteomic analysis of the hepatopancreas protein expression variations in organisms exposed to three environmental relevant concentrations of chlordecone (i.e. 0.2, 2 and 20 μg/L). Results revealed that 62 proteins were significantly up- or down-regulated in exposed prawns compared to controls. Most of these proteins are involved in important physiological processes such as ion transport, defense mechanisms and immune system, cytoskeleton dynamics, or protein synthesis and degradation. Moreover, it appears that 6% of the deregulated protein are involved in the endocrine system and in the hormonal control of reproduction or development processes of M. rosenbergii (e.g. vitellogenin, farnesoic acid omethyltransferase). These results indicate that chlordecone is potentially an endocrine disruptor compound for decapods, as already observed in vertebrates. These protein modifications could lead to disruptions of growth and reproduction of M. rosenbergii, and therefore of the fitness population on the long-term. Besides, these disrupted proteins could be suggested as biomarkers of exposure for endocrine disruptions in invertebrates. However, further investigations are needed to complete understanding of action mechanisms of chlordecone on proteome and endocrine system of crustaceans. [less ▲]

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See detailA test field for Gaia. Radial velocity catalogue of stars in the South Ecliptic Pole
Frémat, Y.; Altmann, M.; Pancino, E. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2017), 597

Context. Gaia is a space mission that is currently measuring the five astrometric parameters, as well as spectrophotometry of at least 1 billion stars to G = 20.7 mag with unprecedented precision. The ... [more ▼]

Context. Gaia is a space mission that is currently measuring the five astrometric parameters, as well as spectrophotometry of at least 1 billion stars to G = 20.7 mag with unprecedented precision. The sixth parameter in phase space (i.e., radial velocity) is also measured thanks to medium-resolution spectroscopy that is being obtained for the 150 million brightest stars. During the commissioning phase, two fields, one around each ecliptic pole, have been repeatedly observed to assess and to improve the overall satellite performances, as well as the associated reduction and analysis software. A ground-based photometric and spectroscopic survey was therefore initiated in 2007, and is still running to gather as much information as possible about the stars in these fields. This work is of particular interest to the validation of the radial velocity spectrometer outputs. <BR /> Aims: The paper presents the radial velocity measurements performed for the Southern targets in the 12-17 R magnitude range on high- to mid-resolution spectra obtained with the GIRAFFE and UVES spectrographs. <BR /> Methods: Comparison of the South Ecliptic Pole (SEP) GIRAFFE data to spectroscopic templates observed with the HERMES (Mercator in La Palma, Spain) spectrograph enabled a first coarse characterisation of the 747 SEP targets. Radial velocities were then obtained by comparing the results of three different methods. <BR /> Results: In this paper, we present an initial overview of the targets to be found in the 1 sq. deg SEP region that was observed repeatedly by Gaia ever since its commissioning. In our representative sample, we identified one galaxy, six LMC S-stars, nine candidate chromospherically active stars, and confirmed the status of 18 LMC Carbon stars. A careful study of the 3471 epoch radial velocity measurements led us to identify 145 RV constant stars with radial velocities varying by less than 1 km s[SUP]-1[/SUP]. Seventy-eight stars show significant RV scatter, while nine stars show a composite spectrum. As expected, the distribution of the RVs exhibits two main peaks that correspond to Galactic and LMC stars. By combining [Fe/H] and log g estimates, and RV determinations, we identified 203 members of the LMC, while 51 more stars are candidate members. <BR /> Conclusions: This is the first systematic spectroscopic characterisation of faint stars located in the SEP field. During the coming years, we plan to continue our survey and gather additional high- and mid-resolution data to better constrain our knowledge on key reference targets for Gaia. Tables 1-3, 5, 7, and 8 are only available at the CDS via anonym- ous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (<A href="http://130.79.128.5">http://130.79.128.5</A>) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/597/A10">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/597/A10</A>Based on data taken with the VLT-UT2 of the European Southern Observatory, programmes 084.D-0427(A), 086.D-0295(A), and 088.D-0305(A).Based on data obtained from the ESO Science Archive Facility under request number 84886.Based on data obtained with the HERMES spectrograph, installed at the Mercator Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma by the Flemish Community, at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias and supported by the Fund for Scientific Research of Flanders (FWO), Belgium, the Research Council of KU Leuven, Belgium, the Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique (F.R.S.-FNRS), Belgium, the Royal Observatory of Belgium, the Observatoire de Genève, Switzerland and the Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Germany. [less ▲]

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See detailAb initio study of hydrogenic effective mass impurities in Si nanowires
Peelaers, Hartwin; Durgun, Engin; Partoens, Bart et al

in Journal of Physics : Condensed Matter (2017), 29

The effect of B and P dopants on the band structure of Si nanowires is studied using electronic structure calculations based on density functional theory. At low concentrations a dispersionless band is ... [more ▼]

The effect of B and P dopants on the band structure of Si nanowires is studied using electronic structure calculations based on density functional theory. At low concentrations a dispersionless band is formed, clearly distinguishable from the valence and conduction bands. Although this band is evidently induced by the dopant impurity, it turns out to have purely Si character. These results can be rigorously analyzed in the framework of effective mass theory. In the process we resolve some common misconceptions about the physics of hydrogenic shallow impurities, which can be more clearly elucidated in the case of nanowires than would be possible for bulk Si. We also show the importance of correctly describing the effect of dielectric confinement, which is not included in traditional electronic structure calculations, by comparing the obtained results with those of G0W0 calculations. [less ▲]

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See detailVulnerability evaluation of millet and sorghum cropping system to climate change and adoption of new technologies in Mali
Sissoko, Penda ULg; Aune, Jens B.; Senneväg, Gry et al

in Asian Journal of Science and Technology (2017), 8(1), 4176-4182

This study analyzes the vulnerability of agricultural cropping systems based on millet and sorghum and the adoption of new technologies in Sahelian and Sudano - Sahelian areas in Mali (West Africa). Semi ... [more ▼]

This study analyzes the vulnerability of agricultural cropping systems based on millet and sorghum and the adoption of new technologies in Sahelian and Sudano - Sahelian areas in Mali (West Africa). Semi-structured interviews (ISS) using questionnaires addressed to the chiefs of family farm (FAE) were used for the collection of data. The descriptive statistics and matrices were realized for the data analysis using the following softwares: EXCEL and SPSS20.The results of the surveys conducted in 2014 among 360 farms in Sahelian and Sudano-Sahelian areas, shows that agricultural producers are aware of the main factors affecting the productivity of their cropping system and food security of agricultural holdings. Rainfall variability, characterized by failure and irregularity of rains is the main constraint of cropping systems based on millet and sorghum as stated by 97% of surveyed producers, followed by soil poverty 81%, and the lack of agricultural equipment 47%. The impacts of these factors at the farms level are translated by a decrease in the crops yields and on the frequency of the shortages in foodstuffs which are observed by 98% of the farms every year and more than 50% every 3 years. To reduce vulnerabilities, practices and innovations were adopted by farms as strategies. The main concern fertilizer micro dosing technics, seed soaking, improved varieties, organic and mineral fertilization, soils and water management technics, mechanical sowing, and agro forestry were adopted as strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailShip collision analysis on Offshore Wind Turbine monopile foundations
Bela, Andreea ULg; Le Sourne, Hervé; Buldgen, Loïc ULg et al

in Marine Structures (2017), 51

An offshore wind farm covers a large maritime area and the site can be located close to traffic lanes of commercial and passenger ships, which may lead to possible collision events. The work presented in ... [more ▼]

An offshore wind farm covers a large maritime area and the site can be located close to traffic lanes of commercial and passenger ships, which may lead to possible collision events. The work presented in this paper aimed to understand both the crushing behavior and the nacelle dynamics of a predefined monopile offshore wind turbine when impacted by a ship. Another objective was to deeply investigate the influence of various parameters like ship impact velocity and location, wind direction, soil stiffness and deformability of the striking ship. First, nonlinear numerical simulations of ship - Offshore Wind Turbine (OWT) collisions have been carried out with a rigid striking ship for a better understanding of the OWT’s structural behaviour during collision. Different configurations for the wind turbine’s structure have been used in order to highlight the modifications in behaviour induced by changing the soil conditions or the loading scenario. The resulting resistant force and internal energies have been compared as well as the tower top (nacelle) displacements and accelerations. Then, another series of simulations have been performed with a deformable ship in order to investigate the influence of the deformability of the striking ship on the OWT’s behaviour. It is worth noting that all these numerical results will further serve to fix the hypotheses for the development of a simplified tool based on analytical formulations. [less ▲]

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See detailInstitutional pedagogy for an autonomous society: Castoriadis & Lapassade
Wustefeld, Sophie ULg

in Educational Philosophy & Theory (2017)

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See detailAbondance et diversité des communautés lombriciennes dans la Réserve et Domaine de Chasse de Bombo-Lumene (Kinshasa)
Milau Empwal, Fils; Lemtiri, Aboulkacem ULg; KIFUKIETO MANZANZA, Carmel et al

in Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci (2017)

Les vers de terre sont des espèces importantes des écosystèmes édaphiques dotées des capacités de transformer leur biotope et même parfois de créer de nouveaux habitats pour d’autres organismes. En effet ... [more ▼]

Les vers de terre sont des espèces importantes des écosystèmes édaphiques dotées des capacités de transformer leur biotope et même parfois de créer de nouveaux habitats pour d’autres organismes. En effet, ils modifient la morphologie, la structure et la composition du sol par leur action à la fois physique, chimique et biologique. Ils ont ainsi une implication intéressante dans la fertilité et le cycle des nutriments du sol. Cette étude a été effectuée dans la Réserve et Domaine de Chasse de Bombo-Lumene (RDCBL) à Kinshasa. Elle avait pour objectif d’évaluer l’effet de l’occupation du sol sur la composition et la structure des communautés lombriciennes. Dix-huit parcelles regroupées en 6 biotopes ont été échantillonnées: les forêts denses semi décidues, les galeries forestières, les recrûs forestiers, les savanes arborescentes, les savanes herbeuses, et les sols sous culture. Au total, 10 espèces de vers de terre ont été identifiées. Elles appartiennent aux deux grandes familles tropicales : celle des Acanthodrilidae et celle des Eudrilidae. Les biotopes naturels sont les plus riches en termes de richesse d’espèces comparés aux biotopes les plus anthropisés. Dans cette étude, le type d’occupation du sol affecte considérablement la diversité des vers de terre. [less ▲]

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See detailScale-dependent diffusion anisotropy in nanoporous silicon
Kondrashova, D; Lauerer, A; Mehlhorn, D et al

in Scientific Reports (2017), 7

Nanoporous silicon produced by electrochemical etching of highly B-doped p-type silicon wafers can be prepared with tubular pores imbedded in a silicon matrix. Such materials have found many technological ... [more ▼]

Nanoporous silicon produced by electrochemical etching of highly B-doped p-type silicon wafers can be prepared with tubular pores imbedded in a silicon matrix. Such materials have found many technological applications and provide a useful model system for studying phase transitions under con nement. This paper reports a joint experimental and simulation study of di usion in such materials, covering displacements from molecular dimensions up to tens of micrometers with carefully selected probe molecules. In addition to mass transfer through the channels, di usion (at much smaller rates) is also found to occur in directions perpendicular to the channels, thus providing clear evidence of connectivity. With increasing displacements, propagation in both axial and transversal directions is progressively retarded, suggesting a scale-dependent, hierarchical distribution of transport resistances (“constrictions” in the channels) and of shortcuts (connecting “bridges”) between adjacent channels. The experimental evidence from these studies is con rmed by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation in the range of atomistic displacements and rationalized with a simple model of statistically distributed “constrictions” and “bridges” for displacements in the micrometer range via dynamic Monte Carlo (DMC) simulation. Both ranges are demonstrated to be mutually transferrable by DMC simulations based on the pore space topology determined by electron tomography. [less ▲]

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See detailMetabolomic and molecular signatures of Mascarene Aloes using a multidisciplinary approach
Govinden-Soulange, J.; Lobine, D.; Frederich, Michel ULg et al

in South African Journal of Botany (2017), 108

In this research a multidisciplinary approach was used to unveil the genetic, metabolic uniqueness and relationships of endemic Mascarene Aloes (Aloe macra, Aloe purpurea, Aloe tormentorii) with respect ... [more ▼]

In this research a multidisciplinary approach was used to unveil the genetic, metabolic uniqueness and relationships of endemic Mascarene Aloes (Aloe macra, Aloe purpurea, Aloe tormentorii) with respect to Aloe vera. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, DNA sequencing and antioxidant profiles of these Aloes were studied. Principal component analysis following 1H NMR revealed the specificity of the Mascarene Aloes relative to Aloe vera. The superior free radical scavenging ability of A. purpurea, A. macra and A. tormentorii as compared to other Aloes was also unveiled. Phylogenetic analyses of chloroplast genes and ITS region sequences of these Mascarene Aloes were done using maximum parsimony and Bayesian analysis. Mascarene Aloes clustered within one clade separate from Aloe vera confirming their relative recent emergence in this genus. Results from this study showed that there is sufficient evidence at the metabolomic and molecular level to distinguish between Aloe ​purpurea from Mauritius and that of Reunion. © 2016 SAAB [less ▲]

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See detailPhotoreversibility and biocompatibility of polydimethylsiloxane-coumarin as adjustable intraocular lens material
Jellali, Rachid; Bertrand, Virginie ULg; Alexandre, Michaël et al

in Macromolecular Bioscience (2017)

Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) constitutes an interesting material for a variety of biomed- ical applications, especially as intraocular lenses (IOLs), for its excellent transparency. In this work, a ... [more ▼]

Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) constitutes an interesting material for a variety of biomed- ical applications, especially as intraocular lenses (IOLs), for its excellent transparency. In this work, a photoreversible PDMS-coumarin network, whose shape and properties can be adjusted postoperatively in a noninvasive manner, is developed. The synthesis of PDMS-cou- marin is achieved by amidation of a coumarin acid chloride derivative with amine-function- alized PDMSs. Under exposure of λ > 300 nm, these polymers can be cured by dimerization of coumarin. The cured polymers can be uncrosslinked via photocleavage of cyclobutane dimers upon illumination at λ < 290 nm. The diffusion of linear PDMSs in a crosslinked network and the controlled shape modification are studied, which demonstrate that these polymers are good candidates for adjustable IOL application. IOL disks prepared from these materials show high hydrophobicity and good transparency. In vitro cytotoxicity, lens epithelial cell adhesion assays, and rabbit host reaction against implanted disks demonstrate the biocompatibility of the polymer. [less ▲]

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See detailMapping the functional connectome traits of levels of consciousness
Amico, Enrico; Marinazzo, Daniele; Di Perri, Carol ULg et al

in NeuroImage (2017)

Examining task-free functional connectivity (FC) in the human brain offers insights on how spontaneous integration and segregation of information relate to human cognition, and how this organization may ... [more ▼]

Examining task-free functional connectivity (FC) in the human brain offers insights on how spontaneous integration and segregation of information relate to human cognition, and how this organization may be altered in different conditions, and neurological disorders. This is particularly relevant for patients in disorders of consciousness (DOC) following severe acquired brain damage and coma, one of the most devastating conditions in modern medical care. We present a novel data-driven methodology, connICA, which implements Independent Component Analysis (ICA) for the extraction of robust independent FC patterns (FC-traits) from a set of individual functional connectomes, without imposing any a priori data stratification into groups. We here apply connICA to investigate associations between network-traits derived from task-free FC and cognitive features that define levels of consciousness. Three main independent FC-traits were identified and linked to consciousness-related clinical features. The first one represents the functional configuration of an "awake resting" brain, and is associated to the level of arousal. The second FC-trait reflects the disconnection of the visual and sensory-motor connectivity patterns and relates to the ability of communicating with the external environment. The third FC-trait isolates the connectivity pattern encompassing the fronto-parietal and the default-mode network areas as well as the interaction between left and right hemisphere, which are also associated to the awareness of the self and its surroundings. Each FC-trait represents a distinct functional process with a role in the degradation of conscious states in functional brain networks, shedding further light on the functional subcircuits that get disrupted in severe brain-damage. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of emergence times and quality between isoflurane and sevoflurane in rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) undergoing neurosurgical procedure
Bertrand, Henri ULg; Springer, Svenja; Burnside, Wesley et al

in Laboratory Animals (2017)

Volatile agents for anaesthesia are widely used for anaesthetizing laboratory primates, and isoflurane is one of the most frequently used agents. Sevoflurane has been shown to offer a more rapid recovery ... [more ▼]

Volatile agents for anaesthesia are widely used for anaesthetizing laboratory primates, and isoflurane is one of the most frequently used agents. Sevoflurane has been shown to offer a more rapid recovery than iso- flurane in a number of species, but no comparisons have been made in non-human primates. This study compared the recovery characteristics of isoflurane and sevoflurane in rhesus macaques undergoing experi- mental neurosurgery. Twelve primates (7 males and 5 females) were randomly allocated to the treatment groups. They were sedated with ketamine (10 mg/kg) and anaesthesia was induced with propofol (usually 8 mg/kg intravenously [IV]). Anaesthesia was maintained with either sevoflurane (SEVO) (2.2 0.4%) or iso- flurane (ISO) (1.2 0.2%) and alfentanil (0.2–0.5 mg/kg/min IV) for 332–592 min. Animals were mechanically ventilated. Meloxicam (0.3mg/kg) and methylprednisolone infusion (5.4mg/kg/h) were also administered. Time to extubation after cessation of anaesthesia was significantly shorter with sevoflurane (ISO: 7.0 1.8 min; SEVO: 3.6 1.5; *P 1⁄4 0.005) as was the time to the animal sitting unaided (ISO: 15.7 8.2 min; SEVO: 7.1 1.7min; *P1⁄40.004). No significant difference in the quality of recovery following isoflurane or sevoflurane anaesthesia was found. In conclusion, isoflurane and sevoflurane are both suitable volatile agents for the maintenance of general anaesthesia in rhesus macaques undergoing experimental neurosur- gical procedures. The two volatile agents presented a similar emergence quality profile, however sevoflurane anaesthesia was associated with a faster recovery, offering the possibility of conducting earlier post-operative neurological assessment. [less ▲]

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See detailChemical profiling of the major components in natural waxes to elucidate their role in liquid oil structuring
Doan, Chi Diem; To, Chak Ming; De Vrieze, Mike et al

in Food Chemistry (2017), 214

Elucidating the composition of waxes is of utmost importance to explain their behavior in liquid oil structuring. The chemical components (hydrocarbons – HCs, free fatty acids – FFAs, free fatty alcohols ... [more ▼]

Elucidating the composition of waxes is of utmost importance to explain their behavior in liquid oil structuring. The chemical components (hydrocarbons – HCs, free fatty acids – FFAs, free fatty alcohols – FALs and wax esters – WEs) of natural waxes were analyzed using HPLC–ELSD and GC–MS followed by evaluation of their oil structuring properties. The gel strength, including the average storage modulus and oscillation yield stress, displayed a negative correlation with FALs and a positive correlation with HCs, FFAs and WEs. The components dictating the gel strength are HCs, FFAs and WEs in a descending order of importance. The consistency of the oleogels increased with the increasing amount of FFAs and HCs and the decreasing amount of WEs and FALs. The presence of more WEs results in a strong but brittle gel with a high initial flow yield stress. We believe these results might be useful in selecting the right waxes to combine in certain fat-based food products. [less ▲]

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See detailPitfalls in supermatrix phylogenomics
Philippe, Hervé; Vienne, Damien M. De; Ranwez, Vincent et al

in European Journal of Taxonomy (2017), 283

In the mid-2000s, molecular phylogenetics turned into phylogenomics, a development that improved the resolution of phylogenetic trees through a dramatic reduction in stochastic error. While some then ... [more ▼]

In the mid-2000s, molecular phylogenetics turned into phylogenomics, a development that improved the resolution of phylogenetic trees through a dramatic reduction in stochastic error. While some then predicted “the end of incongruence”, it soon appeared that analysing large amounts of sequence data without an adequate model of sequence evolution amplifies systematic error and leads to phylogenetic artefacts. With the increasing flood of (sometimes low-quality) genomic data resulting from the rise of high-throughput sequencing, a new type of error has emerged. Termed here “data errors”, it lumps together several kinds of issues affecting the construction of phylogenomic supermatrices (e.g., sequencing and annotation errors, contaminant sequences). While easy to deal with at a single-gene scale, such errors become very difficult to avoid at the genomic scale, both because hand curating thousands of sequences is prohibitively time-consuming and because the suitable automated bioinformatics tools are still in their infancy. In this paper, we first review the pitfalls affecting the construction of supermatrices and the strategies to limit their adverse effects on phylogenomic inference. Then, after discussing the relative non-issue of missing data in supermatrices, we briefly present the approaches commonly used to reduce systematic error. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison between sedation and general anesthesia for high resolution computed tomographic characterization of canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in west highland white terriers
Roels, Elodie ULg; Couvreur, Thierry; Farnir, Frédéric ULg et al

in Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound (2017)

Canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (CIPF) is a progressive interstitial lung disease mainly affecting West Highland white terriers (WHWTs). Thoracic high-resolution computed tomographic (T-HRCT ... [more ▼]

Canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (CIPF) is a progressive interstitial lung disease mainly affecting West Highland white terriers (WHWTs). Thoracic high-resolution computed tomographic (T-HRCT) findings for CIPF acquired under general anesthesia have been described previously. However, the use of general anesthesia may be contraindicated for some affected dogs. Sedation may allow improved speed and safety, but it is unknown whether sedation would yield similar results in identification and grading of CIPF lesions. The aim of this prospective, observational, method-comparison, case-control study was to compare findings from T-HRCT images acquired under sedation versus general anesthesia for WHWTs affected with CIPF (n=11) and age-matched controls (n=9), using the glossary of terms of the Fleischner Society and a scoring system. Ground-glass opacity (GGO) was identified in all affected WHWTs for both sedation and general anesthesia acquisitions, although the GGO extent varied significantly between the two acquisitions (P<0.001). Ground-glass opacity was the sole lesion observed in control dogs (n=6), but was less extensive compared with affected WHWTs. Identification and grading of a mosaic attenuation pattern differed significantly between acquisitions (P<0.001). Identification of lesions such as consolidations, nodules, parenchymal and subpleural bands, bronchial wall thickening, and bronchiectasis did not differ between acquisitions. The present study demonstrated that T-HRCT obtained under sedation may provide different information than T-HRCT obtained under general anesthesia for identification and grading of some CIPF lesions, but not all of them. These differences should be taken into consideration when general anesthesia is contraindicated and sedation is necessary for evaluating WHWTs with CIPF. [less ▲]

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See detailJupiter's magnetosphere and aurorae observed by the Juno spacecraft during its first polar orbits
Connerney, J. E. P.; Adriani, A.; Allegrini, F. et al

in Science (2017), 356(6340), 826--832

Jupiter is the largest and most massive planet in our solar system. NASA\textquoterights Juno spacecraft arrived at Jupiter on 4 July 2016 and made its first close pass on 27 August 2016. Bolton et al ... [more ▼]

Jupiter is the largest and most massive planet in our solar system. NASA\textquoterights Juno spacecraft arrived at Jupiter on 4 July 2016 and made its first close pass on 27 August 2016. Bolton et al. present results from Juno\textquoterights flight just above the cloud tops, including images of weather in the polar regions and measurements of the magnetic and gravitational fields. Juno also used microwaves to peer below the visible surface, spotting gas welling up from the deep interior. Connerney et al. measured Jupiter\textquoterights aurorae and plasma environment, both as Juno approached the planet and during its first close orbit.Science, this issue p. 821, p. 826The Juno spacecraft acquired direct observations of the jovian magnetosphere and auroral emissions from a vantage point above the poles. Juno\textquoterights capture orbit spanned the jovian magnetosphere from bow shock to the planet, providing magnetic field, charged particle, and wave phenomena context for Juno\textquoterights passage over the poles and traverse of Jupiter\textquoterights hazardous inner radiation belts. Juno\textquoterights energetic particle and plasma detectors measured electrons precipitating in the polar regions, exciting intense aurorae, observed simultaneously by the ultraviolet and infrared imaging spectrographs. Juno transited beneath the most intense parts of the radiation belts, passed about 4000 kilometers above the cloud tops at closest approach, well inside the jovian rings, and recorded the electrical signatures of high-velocity impacts with small particles as it traversed the equator. [less ▲]

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See detailNew directions in hypnosis research: strategies for advancing the cognitive and clinical neuroscience of hypnosis
Jensen, Mark P; Jamieson, Graham A; Lutz, Antoine et al

in Neuroscience of Consciousness (2017), 3(1), 1-14

In August of 2015, the International Society of Hypnosis and Confederation Francophone d’hypnose et Therapies Breves co-sponsored a 1-day meeting among hypnosis researchers, just before the International ... [more ▼]

In August of 2015, the International Society of Hypnosis and Confederation Francophone d’hypnose et Therapies Breves co-sponsored a 1-day meeting among hypnosis researchers, just before the International Congress of Hypnosis in Paris, France. One of the goals of the meeting was to discuss the state-of-the- science of hypnosis research from the purview of clinical and cognitive neuroscience. The purpose of this article is to summarize the key issues that were raised during the discussions, including the points of agreement and disagreement among the participants (all of whom are authors on this article). Here we first briefly summarize what we view as (i) the most important research findings and developments in the field during the past two decades and (ii) the most salient challenges facing contemporary hypnosis research. Next, we summarize our discussion concerning directions for future hypnosis research and collaborative endeavors that could expand upon recent advances, ad- dress emerging challenges, and facilitate a reemergence of hypnosis research as a vital field within cognitive and clinical neuroscience. [less ▲]

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