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See detailINFLUENCE OF JUMPING STRATEGY ON KINETIC PARAMETERS
Jidovtseff, Boris ULg; Quievre, Jacques; Harris Nigel et al

in Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness (2014), 54

Aim: Different jumping strategies can be used during plyometric training. Understanding how manipulating variables such as the counter-movement, flexion amplitude, the drop and the load could influence ... [more ▼]

Aim: Different jumping strategies can be used during plyometric training. Understanding how manipulating variables such as the counter-movement, flexion amplitude, the drop and the load could influence neuromuscular adaptation would be beneficial for coaches and athletes. The purpose of this study was to analyze how these variations in the vertical jump influenced kinematic and kinetic parameters as measured by a force platform. Methods: Ten male subjects performed, eight kinds of vertical jumps on a force platform : (1) squat jump (SJ); (2) shallow counter-movement jump (S-CMJ); (3) natural counter-movement jump (N-CMJ); (4) deep counter-movement jump (D-CMJ); (5) loaded (20kg) counter-movement jump (20-CMJ); (6) shallow drop jump (S-DJ); (7) deep drop jump (D-DJ); (8) six consecutive jump test (6CJ). Customised Labview software was used to calculate time, displacement, velocity, acceleration, force, power, impulse and stiffness. After statistical analysis, jumping variables were grouped to achieve spécific training objectives. Results: The mechanical parameters were largely influenced by the jump strategy, all the deep jumps produced superior jump heights and concentric velocities as compared to the shallow jumps. The exercises associated with greater power outputs were the S-DJ (5386±1095w) and 6CJ (5795±1365w) that involved short impulse durations and very high accelerations. The greatest values of muscle stiffness were not recorded during the highest vertical jumps, meaning that stiffness is not critical for jumping high. Conclusion: This study gives an overview of what is changing when we manipulate jumping variables and instructions given to the athletes. Plyometric exercises should be carefully selected according to the sport and specific individual needs. [less ▲]

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See detailLes enjeux stratégiques de l’Union européenne et de la Turquie dans les Balkans occidentaux
Lika, Liridon ULg

in Interventions Economiques = Papers in Political Economy (2014)

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See detailProduction écrite en langue étrangère, feedback correctif et révision assistée: une étude de cas
Noiroux, Kevin ULg; Simons, Germain ULg

in Babylonia (2014)

Corrective feedback, which consists in informing the student that he has made a linguistic error, is a teaching practice that is often used by second language teachers. Written corrective feedback takes ... [more ▼]

Corrective feedback, which consists in informing the student that he has made a linguistic error, is a teaching practice that is often used by second language teachers. Written corrective feedback takes different forms that range from the approximate localization of the error to the explanation of the rule that underlies the error that the student committed. In this case study, we wanted to compare the types of written corrective feedback that research has identified to those used by a foreign language teacher working in a French speaking secondary school. We also wanted to determine the quantity of errors that the students corrected while revising their written production with the help of the teacher, the researcher, their schoolmate and reference books. The results show, on the one hand, that the teacher mainly uses corrective feedback that can be rapidly delivered and, on the other hand, that the students manage to correct most errors, whatever the type of corrective feedback may be. These encouraging results may be attributed to the teaching activity, which allowed the teacher and the researcher to explain part of the corrective feedback that the students could not have understood by themselves. [less ▲]

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See detailSpectrometric monitoring of atmospheric carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) above the Jungfraujoch station since 1989: evidence of continued increase but at a slowing rate
Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg; Zander, Rodolphe ULg; Toon, G. C. et al

in Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (2014), 7

The long-term evolution of the vertical column abundance of carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) above the high-altitude Jungfraujoch station (Swiss Alps, 46.5° N, 8.0° E, 3580 m a.s.l.) has been derived from the ... [more ▼]

The long-term evolution of the vertical column abundance of carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) above the high-altitude Jungfraujoch station (Swiss Alps, 46.5° N, 8.0° E, 3580 m a.s.l.) has been derived from the spectrometric analysis of Fourier transform infrared solar spectra recorded at that site between 1989 and 2012. The investigation is based on a multi-microwindow approach, two encompassing pairs of absorption lines belonging to the R-branch of the strong ν3 band of CF4 centered at 1283 cm−1, and two additional ones to optimally account for weak but overlapping HNO3 interferences. The analysis reveals a steady accumulation of the very long-lived CF4 above the Jungfraujoch at mean rates of (1.38 ± 0.11) × 1013 molec cm−2 yr−1 from 1989 to 1997, and (0.98 ± 0.02) × 1013 molec cm−2 yr−1 from 1998 to 2012, which correspond to linear growth rates of 1.71 ± 0.14 and 1.04 ± 0.02% yr−1 respectively referenced to 1989 and 1998. Related global CF4 anthropogenic emissions required to sustain these mean increases correspond to 15.8 ± 1.3 and 11.1 ± 0.2 Gg yr−1 over the above specified time intervals. Findings reported here are compared and discussed with respect to relevant northern mid-latitude results obtained remotely from space and balloons as well as in situ at the ground, including new gas chromatography mass spectrometry measurements performed at the Jungfraujoch since 2010. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of uncertainty in surface mass balance–elevation feedback on projections of the future sea level contribution of the Greenland ice sheet
Edwards, T.; Fettweis, Xavier ULg; Gagliardini, O. et al

in Cryosphere (The) (2014), 8

We apply a new parameterisation of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) feedback between surface mass balance (SMB: the sum of surface accumulation and surface ablation) and surface elevation in the MAR ... [more ▼]

We apply a new parameterisation of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) feedback between surface mass balance (SMB: the sum of surface accumulation and surface ablation) and surface elevation in the MAR regional climate model (Edwards et al., 2014) to projections of future climate change using five ice sheet models (ISMs). The MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional: Fettweis, 2007) climate projections are for 2000–2199, forced by the ECHAM5 and HadCM3 global climate models (GCMs) under the SRES A1B emissions scenario. The additional sea level contribution due to the SMB–elevation feedback averaged over five ISM projections for ECHAM5 and three for HadCM3 is 4.3% (best estimate; 95% credibility interval 1.8–6.9%) at 2100, and 9.6% (best estimate; 95% credibility interval 3.6–16.0%) at 2200. In all results the elevation feedback is significantly positive, amplifying the GrIS sea level contribution relative to the MAR projections in which the ice sheet topography is fixed: the lower bounds of our 95% credibility intervals (CIs) for sea level contributions are larger than the "no feedback" case for all ISMs and GCMs. Our method is novel in sea level projections because we propagate three types of modelling uncertainty – GCM and ISM structural uncertainties, and elevation feedback parameterisation uncertainty – along the causal chain, from SRES scenario to sea level, within a coherent experimental design and statistical framework. The relative contributions to uncertainty depend on the timescale of interest. At 2100, the GCM uncertainty is largest, but by 2200 both the ISM and parameterisation uncertainties are larger. We also perform a perturbed parameter ensemble with one ISM to estimate the shape of the projected sea level probability distribution; our results indicate that the probability density is slightly skewed towards higher sea level contributions. [less ▲]

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See detailÀ la Chandeleur, la crêpe reprend vigueur
Frankinet, Baptiste ULg; Lempereur, Françoise ULg

in Culture, le Magazine Culturel de l'Université de Liège (2014)

Entretien avec Françoise Lempereur autour de l’origine de cette fête et des multiples coutumes qui y sont liées

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See detailOn transvaginal endoscopy for elucidating pathogenesis and treatment of ovarian endometria
Nisolle, Michelle ULg

in Gynecological Surgery (2014), 11(1),

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See detailProbabilistic parameterisation of the surface mass balance–elevation feedback in regional climate model simulations of the Greenland ice sheet
Edwards, T.; Fettweis, Xavier ULg; Gagliardini, O. et al

in Cryosphere (The) (2014), 8

We present a new parameterisation that relates surface mass balance (SMB: the sum of surface accumulation and surface ablation) to changes in surface elevation of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) for the ... [more ▼]

We present a new parameterisation that relates surface mass balance (SMB: the sum of surface accumulation and surface ablation) to changes in surface elevation of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) for the MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional: Fettweis, 2007) regional climate model. The motivation is to dynamically adjust SMB as the GrIS evolves, allowing us to force ice sheet models with SMB simulated by MAR while incorporating the SMB–elevation feedback, without the substantial technical challenges of coupling ice sheet and climate models. This also allows us to assess the effect of elevation feedback uncertainty on the GrIS contribution to sea level, using multiple global climate and ice sheet models, without the need for additional, expensive MAR simulations. We estimate this relationship separately below and above the equilibrium line altitude (ELA, separating negative and positive SMB) and for regions north and south of 77° N, from a set of MAR simulations in which we alter the ice sheet surface elevation. These give four "SMB lapse rates", gradients that relate SMB changes to elevation changes. We assess uncertainties within a Bayesian framework, estimating probability distributions for each gradient from which we present best estimates and credibility intervals (CI) that bound 95% of the probability. Below the ELA our gradient estimates are mostly positive, because SMB usually increases with elevation: 0.56 (95% CI: −0.22 to 1.33) kg m−3 a−1 for the north, and 1.91 (1.03 to 2.61) kg m−3 a−1 for the south. Above the ELA, the gradients are much smaller in magnitude: 0.09 (−0.03 to 0.23) kg m−3 a−1 in the north, and 0.07 (−0.07 to 0.59) kg m−3 a−1 in the south, because SMB can either increase or decrease in response to increased elevation. [less ▲]

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See detailLes aventures du corps et de l’identité dans la photographie de mode
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg

in Nouveaux Actes Sémiotiques (2014), 117

L’objectif de ce travail est d’explorer certaines caractéristiques de la photographie de mode : en premier lieu, les façons dont elle se met en scène en tant que photo de mode, et en second lieu, les ... [more ▼]

L’objectif de ce travail est d’explorer certaines caractéristiques de la photographie de mode : en premier lieu, les façons dont elle se met en scène en tant que photo de mode, et en second lieu, les manières dont elle-même théorise le fonctionnement plus général de l’univers de la mode. [less ▲]

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See detailUntangling spatial and temporal trends in the variability of the Black Sea Cold Intermediate Layer and mixed Layer Depth using the DIVA detrending procedure
Capet, Arthur ULg; Troupin, Charles ULg; Cartensen, Jacob et al

in Ocean Dynamics (2014), 64(3), 315-324

Current spatial interpolation products may be biased by uneven distribution of measurements in time. This manuscript presents a detrending method that recognizes and eliminates this bias. The method ... [more ▼]

Current spatial interpolation products may be biased by uneven distribution of measurements in time. This manuscript presents a detrending method that recognizes and eliminates this bias. The method estimates temporal trend components in addition to the spatial structure and has been implemented within the Data Interpolating Variational Analysis (DIVA) analysis tool. The assets of this new detrending method are illustrated by producing monthly and annual climatologies of two vertical properties of the Black Sea while recognizing their seasonal and interannual variabilities : the mixed layer depth, and the cold content of its Cold Intermediate Layer (CIL). The temporal trends, given as by-products of the method, are used to analyze the seasonal and interannual variability of these variables over the past decades (1955-2011). In particular, the CIL interannual variability is related to the cumulated winter air temperature anomalies, explaining 88\% of its variation. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of a liquid chromatographic method for thesimultaneous quantification of curcumin, -arteether,tetrahydrocurcumin and dihydroartemisinin. Application to lipid-based formulations
Memvanga Bondo, Patrick; Mbinze Kindenge, Jérémie ULg; Rozet, Eric ULg et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2014), 88(-), 447-456

A liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous separation of curcumin, B-arteether, tetrahydrocurcumin and dihydroartemisinin based on the design of experiments and the design space ... [more ▼]

A liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous separation of curcumin, B-arteether, tetrahydrocurcumin and dihydroartemisinin based on the design of experiments and the design space methodology. The influence of the percentage of organic modifier, flow rate of the mobile phase and column temperature on the analytes separation was investigated. The optimal chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column (125 mm × 4 mm, 5 µm) using an isocratic elution with a mobile phase consisting of methanol:ammonium acetate (pH 4; 10 mM) (80/20, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.45 ml/min and a column temperature of 32.5◦C. This method was then validated for simultaneous quantification of curcumin and B -arteether contained in lipid-based formulations taking into account the B -expectation tolerance interval for the total error measurement. Finally, the suitability of the proposed liquid chromatographic method for routine analysis of curcumin and B -arteether loaded in lipid-based formulations has been proven. [less ▲]

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See detailImprovement of a stability-indicating method by Quality-by-Design versus Quality-by-Testing: A case of a learning process
Hubert, Cédric ULg; Lebrun, Pierre ULg; Houari, Sabah ULg et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2014), 88

The understanding of the method is a major concern when developing a stability-indicating method and even more so when dealing with impurity assays from complex matrices. In the presented case study, a ... [more ▼]

The understanding of the method is a major concern when developing a stability-indicating method and even more so when dealing with impurity assays from complex matrices. In the presented case study, a Quality-by-Design approach was applied in order to optimize a routinely used method. An analytical issue occurring at the last stage of a long-term stability study involving unexpected impurities perturbing the monitoring of characterized impurities needed to be resolved. A compliant Quality-by-Design (QbD) methodology based on a Design of Experiments (DoE) approach was evaluated within the framework of a Liquid Chromatography (LC) method. This approach allows the investigation of Critical Process Parameters (CPPs), which have an impact on Critical Quality Attributes (CQAs) and, consequently, on LC selectivity. Using polynomial regression response modeling as well as Monte Carlo simulations for error propagation, Design Space (DS) was computed in order to determine robust working conditions for the developed stability-indicating method. This QbD compliant development was conducted in two phases allowing the use of the Design Space knowledge acquired during the first phase to define the experimental domain of the second phase, which constitutes a learning process. The selected working condition was then fully validated using accuracy profiles based on statistical tolerance intervals in order to evaluate the reliability of the results generated by this LC/ESI-MS stability-indicating method. A comparison was made between the traditional Quality-by-Testing (QbT) approach and the QbD strategy, highlighting the benefit of this QbD strategy in the case of an unexpected impurities issue. On this basis, the advantages of a systematic use of the QbD methodology were discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailMetallothioneins pattern during ontogeny of coastal dolphin, Pontoporia blainvillei, from Argentina
Polizzi, P.S.; Romero, M.B.; Chiodi Boudet, L.N. et al

in Marine Pollution Bulletin (2014)

Metallothioneins are signals of metal exposure and widely used in biomonitoring. Franciscana dolphin is an endemic cetacean from the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean, classified as Vulnerable A3d by the IUCN ... [more ▼]

Metallothioneins are signals of metal exposure and widely used in biomonitoring. Franciscana dolphin is an endemic cetacean from the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean, classified as Vulnerable A3d by the IUCN. Metallothionein, copper and zinc in Franciscana were assessed in two geographic groups; one inhabits La Plata River estuary, anthropogenically impacted, and the other inhabits marine coastal ecosystems, with negligible pollution. Despite the environment, hepatic and renal MT concentrations were similar, but there was a declining trend from early to later developmental stages. Metallothionein K/L, Cu and Zn levels corresponded to normal reported ranges. MT was not related with Cd. Fetal concentrations were higher than its mother. These results and the health status of dolphins are suggesting that MT correspond to physiological ranges for the species, and they are closely to homeostasis of Zn and Cu, according to its ontogenetic changes. The information constitutes the first MT information on Franciscana dolphin and can be considered as baseline for the species conservation. [less ▲]

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See detailClassification of periodic orbits of two-dimensional homogeneous granular crystals with no pre-compression
Detroux, Thibaut ULg; Starosvetsky, Yuli; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg et al

in Nonlinear Dynamics (2014), 76(April 2014), 673-696

In the present study we classify the periodic orbits of a squarely packed, uncompressed and undamped, homogeneous granular crystal, assuming that all elastic granules oscillate with the same frequency (i ... [more ▼]

In the present study we classify the periodic orbits of a squarely packed, uncompressed and undamped, homogeneous granular crystal, assuming that all elastic granules oscillate with the same frequency (i.e., under condition of 1:1 resonance); this type of Hamiltonian periodic orbits have been labeled as nonlinear normal modes. To this end we formulate an auxiliary system which consists of a two-dimensional, vibro-impact lattice composed of non-uniform “effective particles” oscillating in an anti-phase fashion. The analysis is based on the idea of balancing linear momentum in both horizontal and vertical directions for separate, groups of particles, whereby each such a group is represented by the single effective particle of the auxiliary system. It is important to emphasize that the auxiliary model can be defined for general finite, squarely packed granular crystals composed of n rows and m columns. The auxiliary model is successful in predicting the total number of such periodic orbits, as well as the amplitude ratios for different periodic regimes including strongly localized ones. In fact this methodology enables one to systematically study the generation of mode localization in these strongly nonlinear, highly degenerate dynamical systems. Good correspondence between the results of the theoretical model and direct numerical simulations is observed. The results presented herein can be further extended to study the intrinsic dynamics of the more complex granular materials, such as heterogeneous two-dimensional and three-dimensional granular crystals and multi-layered structures. [less ▲]

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See detailMilli-Interacting Dark Matter Interpretation of the Direct-Search Experiments
Wallemacq, Quentin ULg

in Advances in High Energy Physics (2014), 2014

We reinterpret the results of the direct searches for dark matter in terms of milli-interacting dark particles. The model reproduces the positive results from DAMA/LIBRA and CoGeNT and is consistent with ... [more ▼]

We reinterpret the results of the direct searches for dark matter in terms of milli-interacting dark particles. The model reproduces the positive results from DAMA/LIBRA and CoGeNT and is consistent with the absence of signal in the XENON100, CDMS-II/Ge, and LUX detectors. Dark atoms, interacting with standard atoms through a kinetic mixing between photons and dark photons and a mass mixing of sigma mesons with dark scalars, diffuse elastically in terrestrial matter where they deposit all their energy. Reaching underground detectors through gravity at thermal energies, they form bound states with nuclei of the active medium by radiative capture, which causes the emission of photons that produce the observed signals. The parameter space of the model is explored and regions reproducing the results at the 2 sigma level are obtained for each experiment. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of decreased glomerular filtration rate in intensive care units: serum cystatin C versus serum creatinine
DELANAYE, Pierre ULg; CAVALIER, Etienne ULg; Morel, Jérôme et al

in BMC Nephrology (2014), 15(9), 1471-2369

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See detailWASP-103b: a new planet at the edge of tidal disruption
Gillon, Michaël ULg; Anderson, D. R.; Collier-Cameron, A. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014)

We report the discovery of WASP-103b, a new ultra-short-period planet (P=22.2 hr) transiting a 12.1 V-magnitude F8-type main-sequence star (1.22+-0.04 Msun, 1.44-0.03+0.05 Rsun, Teff = 6110+-160 K). WASP ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery of WASP-103b, a new ultra-short-period planet (P=22.2 hr) transiting a 12.1 V-magnitude F8-type main-sequence star (1.22+-0.04 Msun, 1.44-0.03+0.05 Rsun, Teff = 6110+-160 K). WASP-103b is significantly more massive (1.49+-0.09 Mjup) and larger (1.53-0.07+0.05 Rjup) than Jupiter. Its large size and extreme irradiation (around 9 10^9 erg/s/cm^2) make it an exquisite target for a thorough atmospheric characterization with existing facilities. Furthermore, its orbital distance is less than 20% larger than its Roche radius, meaning that it might be significantly distorted by tides and might experience mass loss through Roche-lobe overflow. It thus represents a new key object for understanding the last stage of the tidal evolution of hot Jupiters. [less ▲]

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See detailWind collisions in three massive stars of Cygnus OB2
Cazorla, Constantin ULg; Nazé, Yaël ULg; Rauw, Grégor ULg

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 561

Aims. We wish to study the origin of the X-ray emission of three massive stars in the CygOB2 association: CygOB2#5, Cyg OB2 #8A, and Cyg OB2 #12. Methods. To this aim, dedicated X-ray observations from ... [more ▼]

Aims. We wish to study the origin of the X-ray emission of three massive stars in the CygOB2 association: CygOB2#5, Cyg OB2 #8A, and Cyg OB2 #12. Methods. To this aim, dedicated X-ray observations from XMM-Newton and Swift are used, as well as archival ROSAT and Suzaku data. Results. Our results on Cyg OB2 #8A improve the phase coverage of the orbit and confirm previous studies: the signature of a wind- wind collision is conspicuous. In addition, signatures of a wind-wind collision are also detected in Cyg OB2 #5, but the X-ray emission appears to be associated with the collision between the inner binary and the tertiary component orbiting it with a 6.7 yr period, without a putative collision inside the binary. The X-ray properties strongly constrain the orbital parameters, notably allowing us to discard some proposed orbital solutions. To improve the knowledge of the orbit, we revisit the light curves and radial velocity of the inner binary, looking for reflex motion induced by the third star. Finally, the X-ray emission of Cyg OB2 #12 is also analyzed. It shows a marked decrease in recent years, compatible with either a wind-wind collision in a wide binary or the aftermath of a recent eruption. [less ▲]

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See detailOrigin and evolution of metal P-type ATPases in Plantae (Archaeplastida)
Hanikenne, Marc ULg; Baurain, Denis ULg

in Frontiers in Plant Science (2014), 4

Metal ATPases are a subfamily of P-type ATPases involved in the transport of metal cations across biological membranes. They all share an architecture featuring eight transmembrane domains in pairs of two ... [more ▼]

Metal ATPases are a subfamily of P-type ATPases involved in the transport of metal cations across biological membranes. They all share an architecture featuring eight transmembrane domains in pairs of two and are found in prokaryotes as well as in a variety of Eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, eight metal P-type ATPases have been described, four being specific to copper transport and four displaying a broader metal specificity, including zinc, cadmium and possibly copper and calcium. So far, few efforts have been devoted to elucidating the origin and evolution of these proteins in Eukaryotes. In this work, we use large-scale phylogenetics to show that metal P-type ATPases form a homogenous group among P-type ATPases and that their specialisation into either monovalent (Cu) or divalent (Zn, Cd…) metal transport stems from a gene duplication that took place early in the evolution of Life. Then, we demonstrate that the four subgroups of plant metal ATPases all have a different evolutionary origin and a specific taxonomic distribution, only one tracing back to the cyanobacterial progenitor of the chloroplast. Finally, we examine the subsequent evolution of these proteins in green plants and conclude that the genes thoroughly characterised in model organisms are often the result of lineage-specific gene duplications, which calls for caution when attempting to infer function from sequence similarity alone in non-model organisms. [less ▲]

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See detailCheckpoints modulation by the Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 Tax protein
Carpentier, Alexandre ULg; Barez, Pierre-Yves ULg; Boxus, Mathieu et al

in Retrovirology (2014), 11(S1), 90

HTLV-1 is responsible for two main diseases, Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma and HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis, for which there is currently no satisfactory treatment. Among the ... [more ▼]

HTLV-1 is responsible for two main diseases, Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma and HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis, for which there is currently no satisfactory treatment. Among the proteins encoded by HTLV-1, Tax appears to play an important role in the mechanisms leading to pathogenicity. We are interested in the mechanisms of cell transformation by Tax and more particularly in the interplay between the viral Tax oncoprotein and the DNA damage response (DDR). We demonstrated that transient expression of Tax results in DNA damage, cell cycle arrest and activation of the DDR. In fibroblasts, cell cycle arrest occurs at the G1 and G2 phases depending on the p53 background. Although Tax induces apoptosis and senescence in fibroblasts, HTLV-1 infected lymphocytes proliferate continuously and appear to be adapted to the checkpoint control. This mechanism allows infected lymphocytes to proliferate despite the presence of genomic lesions. With these observations, we propose a novel therapeutic approach based on the principle of synthetic lethality. [less ▲]

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See detailReversibly crosslinked thermo- and redox-responsive nanogels for controlled drug release
Liu, Ji ULg; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Hurtgen, Marie ULg et al

in Polymer Chemistry (2014), 5(1), 77-88

Reversibly crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) PVOH-b-PNVCL nanogels were prepared by using a redox-responsive crosslinking agent, 3,30-dithiodipropionic acid (DPA), to crosslink ... [more ▼]

Reversibly crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) PVOH-b-PNVCL nanogels were prepared by using a redox-responsive crosslinking agent, 3,30-dithiodipropionic acid (DPA), to crosslink the PVOH corona, above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the PNVCL block. The stability of the as-prepared nanogels against heating and diluting with water was studied by dynamic light scattering (DLS) to follow the evolution of the hydrodynamic diameter and size distribution. Stability under reductive conditions was also studied by DLS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after exposure to dithiothreitol (DTT) buffer solutions at different pH. The reversibility of the crosslinking was evaluated by treating the de-crosslinked nanogels with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) above the LCST. As a hydrophobic drug model, Nile red (NR) was loaded into the nanogels, and triggered release behaviours were studied after exposure to the same DTT buffer solutions. Moreover, two PVOH-b-PNVCL copolymers with different compositions and LCST were used to evaluate the effect of the LCST on the release behaviours of the nanogels. The cytotoxicity of the nanogels against a mouse fibroblast-like L929 cell line was assessed via the MTS assay, and preliminary studies on cellular uptake of the nanogels within human melanoma MEL-5 cells were also carried out by fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Tax protein and the minichromosome maintenance protein complex MCM2-7 affect cell replication and viral transcription
Barez, Pierre-Yves ULg; Carpentier, Alexandre ULg; Boxus, Mathieu et al

in Retrovirology (2014), 11(S1), 96

The Tax oncoprotein plays a key role in the mechanisms of transformation, viral persistence and pathogenicity. Recently, we showed that Tax interacts with the minichromosome maintenance MCM2-7 helicase ... [more ▼]

The Tax oncoprotein plays a key role in the mechanisms of transformation, viral persistence and pathogenicity. Recently, we showed that Tax interacts with the minichromosome maintenance MCM2-7 helicase and binds to origins of DNA replication (Boxus et al, 2012 Blood 119:151). In fact, Tax modulates the spatiotemporal program of origin activation during the S phase of cell cycle. By this mechanism, Tax accelerates S phase progression through early firing of late replication origins. By interacting with the 5’ LTR, the MCM2-7 complex also modulates Tax transactivation. Together, our data thus demonstrates that interaction between Tax and MCM2-7 modulates reprogramming of replication origins as well as viral transcription. [less ▲]

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See detailHeat-triggered drug release systems based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles filled with a maghemite core and phase-change molecules as gatekeepers
Liu, Ji ULg; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; De Pauw-Gillet, Marie-Claire ULg et al

in Journal of Materials Chemistry B (2014), 2(1), 59-70

Core–shell nanoparticlesmade of a maghemite core and a mesoporous silica shell were developed as drug delivery systems (DDS). Doxorubicin® (DOX, DNA intercalating drug) was loaded within the mesoporous ... [more ▼]

Core–shell nanoparticlesmade of a maghemite core and a mesoporous silica shell were developed as drug delivery systems (DDS). Doxorubicin® (DOX, DNA intercalating drug) was loaded within the mesoporous cavities, while phase-change molecules (PCMs), e.g. 1-tetradecanol (TD) with a melting temperature (Tm) of 39 °C, were introduced as gatekeepers to regulate the release behaviours. An overall loading amount of ca. 20 wt% (TD/DOX ca. 50/50 wt/wt) was confirmed. Heat-triggered release of DOX evidenced a “zero premature release” (<3% of the entire payload in 96 h release) under physiological conditions (37°C), and however, a sustainable release (ca. 40% of the entire payload in 96 h) above Tm of TD (40 °C). It also demonstrated the possibility to deliver drug payloads in small portions (pulsatile release mode) via multiple heating on/off cycles, due to the reversible phase change of the PCMs. In vitro heattriggered release of DOX within cell culture of the MEL-5 melanoma cell line was also tested. It was found that DOX molecules were trapped efficiently within the mesopores even after internalization within the cytoplasm of MEL-5 cells at 37 °C, with the potential toxicity of DOX strongly quenched (>95% viability after 72 h incubation). However, continuous cell apoptosis was detected at cell culture temperature above Tm of TD, due to the heat-triggered release of DOX (<50% viability after 72 h incubation at 40 °C). Moreover, due to the presence of a maghemite core within the DDS, T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging performance was also confirmed. These as-designed core–shell nanoparticles are envisaged to become promising DDS for “on-demand” heat-triggered release. [less ▲]

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See detailHyper-replicative bovine leukemia virus by mutation of an envelope N-linked glycosylation site
De Brogniez, Alix ULg; Bouzar, Amel-Baya; Jacques, Jean-Rock ULg et al

in Retrovirology (2014), 11(1), 141

Reverse genetics can be used in the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) system to characterize mechanisms of viral persistence and pathogenesis. The question addressed here pertains to the role of glycans bound ... [more ▼]

Reverse genetics can be used in the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) system to characterize mechanisms of viral persistence and pathogenesis. The question addressed here pertains to the role of glycans bound to the BLV envelope glycoprotein (SU). A commonly accepted hypothesis is that addition of carbohydrates to the SU protein potentially creates a structure called « glycan shield » that confers resistance to the virus against the host immune response. On the other hand, glycosylation can also modulate attachment of the virus to the cell membrane. To unravel the role of SU glycosylation, three complementary strategies were developed: pharmacological inhibition of different glycosylation pathways, interference with glycan attachment and site-directed mutagenesis of N-glycosylation sites in an infectious BLV provirus. The different approaches show that glycosylation is required for cell fusion, as expected. Simultaneous mutation of all 8 potential N-glycosylation sites destroys infectivity. Surprisingly, mutation of the asparagine residue at position 230 creates a virus having an increased capacity to form syncytia in vitro. Compared to wild-type BLV, mutant N230 also replicates at accelerated rates in vivo. Collectively, this data thus illustrates an example of a N-glycosylation site that restricts viral replication, contrasting with the hypothesis supported by glycan shield model. [less ▲]

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See detailBi-directional Modulation of Somatosensory Mismatch Negativity with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: An event Related Potential Study
Chen, Jui-Cheng; Hammerer, Dorothea; D'Ostilio, Kevin ULg et al

in The journal of Physiology (2014)

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See detailExpanding the scope of controlled radical polymerization via cobalt–tellurium radical exchange reaction
Kermagoret, Anthony ULg; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Bourguignon, Maxime et al

in ACS Macro Letters (2014), 3(1), 114-118

Cobalt-mediated radical polymerization (CMRP) and tellurium-mediated radical polymerization (TERP) were combined for the first time, offering new perspectives in the precision design of macromolecular ... [more ▼]

Cobalt-mediated radical polymerization (CMRP) and tellurium-mediated radical polymerization (TERP) were combined for the first time, offering new perspectives in the precision design of macromolecular structures. In particular, the present work highlights the benefits of this strategy for the synthesis of novel poly(vinyl acetate)-based block copolymers. A range of well-defined poly(vinyl acetate)s (PVAc) were first produced via CMRP using the bis(acetylacetonato)cobalt(II) complex (Co(acac)2) as a regulating agent. Substitution of a methyltellanyl moiety for Co(acac)2 at the ω-chain end of the precursor was then achieved upon treatment with dimethylditelluride. In contrast to the PVAc prepared by TERP, the ones produced by sequential CMRP and Co/Te exchange reaction almost exclusively consist of regular head-to-tail-TeMe chain-end species that can be activated by TERP. Ultimately, a series of monomers problematic in Co(acac)2-mediated radical polymerization including N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM), 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl acrylate (ADAME), n-butyl acrylate (BA), isoprene (IP), and vinylimidazole (NVIm) were polymerized by TERP from the PVAc–TeMe macroinitiators leading to novel diblock copolymers that cannot be made by each technique used separately. [less ▲]

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See detailRelationships between mind-wandering and attentional control abilities in young adults and adolescents
Stawarczyk, David ULg; Majerus, Steve ULg; Catale, Corinne ULg et al

in Acta Psychologica (2014), 148

Recent findings suggest that mind-wandering—the occurrence of thoughts that are both stimulus-independent and task-unrelated—corresponds to temporary failures in attentional control processes involved in ... [more ▼]

Recent findings suggest that mind-wandering—the occurrence of thoughts that are both stimulus-independent and task-unrelated—corresponds to temporary failures in attentional control processes involved in maintaining constant task-focused attention. Studies supporting this proposal are, however, limited by a possible confound between mind-wandering episodes and other kinds of conscious experiences, such as external distractions (i.e., interoceptive sensations and exteroceptive perceptions). In the present study, we addressed this issue by examining, in adolescents and young adults, the relations between tasks measuring attentional control abilities and a measure of mind-wandering that is distinct from external distractions. We observed (1) that adolescents experienced more frequent external distractions, but not more mind-wandering, than young adults during the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) and (2) that, in young adults, the influence of external distractions on SART performance was fully accounted for by attentional control abilities, whereas mind-wandering was associated with decreases in SART performance above and beyond what was explained by attentional control abilities. These results show that mind-wandering cannot be entirely reduced to failures in the ability to maintain one’s attention focused on task, and suggest that external distractions rather than mind-wandering are due to attentional control failures. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effect of surface orientation on spray retention
Massinon, Mathieu ULg; Boukhalfa, Hassina dite Hafida ULg; Lebeau, Frédéric ULg

in Precision Agriculture (2014)

Research in precision spraying investigates the means to reduce the amount of herbicide applied by directing droplets more accurately towards the weeds. The trend in the development of spot spraying ... [more ▼]

Research in precision spraying investigates the means to reduce the amount of herbicide applied by directing droplets more accurately towards the weeds. The trend in the development of spot spraying equipment is an increase of the spatial resolution and new actuators that are able to target very small areas. However, there is a lack of methods for assigning rates of herbicides relating target to optimal droplet features. A wide range of droplet impact angles occurs during the spray application process because of droplet trajectories and the variability of leaf orientation. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to highlight the effect of surface orientation on droplet impact outcomes (adhesion, rebound or splashing) on two very difficult-to-wet surfaces: an artificial surface with a regular roughness pattern and an excised black-grass leaf with an anisotropic roughness pattern. Measurements were performed for different surface orientations with a high-speed camera coupled with backlighting LED. Droplets of two formulations (distilled water and distilled water + a surfactant) were produced with a moving flat-fan hydraulic nozzle to obtain a wide range of droplet sizes and velocities, which were measured by image analysis. Increasing surface angle reduces surface area available for droplet capture. Droplet impact behaviors are then modified since surface tilt induces a tangential velocity component at impact and, consequently, a reduction of the normal component. Impact modifications have also been observed due to the anisotropic roughness pattern of a black-grass leaf. The integration of droplet-surface interaction information offers a significant way to further improve the precision spraying efficiency by considering the optimal droplet size, speed and ejection angle depending on the target surface and architecture. [less ▲]

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See detailTwo spotted and magnetic early B-type stars in the young open cluster NGC2264 discovered by MOST and ESPaDOnS
Fossati, L.; Zwintz, K.; Castro, N. et al

in ArXiv e-prints (2014), 1401

Star clusters are known as superb tools for understanding stellar evolution. In a quest for understanding the physical origin of magnetism and chemical peculiarity in about 7% of the massive main-sequence ... [more ▼]

Star clusters are known as superb tools for understanding stellar evolution. In a quest for understanding the physical origin of magnetism and chemical peculiarity in about 7% of the massive main-sequence stars, we analysed two of the ten brightest members of the ~10 Myr old Galactic open cluster NGC 2264, the early B-dwarfs HD47887 and HD47777. We find accurate rotation periods of 1.95 and 2.64 days, respectively, from MOST photometry. We obtained ESPaDOnS spectropolarimetric observations, through which we determined stellar parameters, detailed chemical surface abundances, projected rotational velocities, and the inclination angles of the rotation axis. Because we found only small (<5 km/s) radial velocity variations, most likely caused by spots, we can rule out that HD47887 and HD47777 are close binaries. Finally, using the least-squares deconvolution technique, we found that both stars possess a large-scale magnetic field with an average longitudinal field strength of about 400 G. From a simultaneous fit of the stellar parameters we determine the evolutionary masses of HD47887 and HD47777 to be 9.4+/-0.7 M0 and 7.6+/-0.5 M0. Interestingly, HD47777 shows a remarkable helium underabundance, typical of helium-weak chemically peculiar stars, while the abundances of HD47887 are normal, which might imply that diffusion is operating in the lower mass star but not in the slightly more massive one. Furthermore, we argue that the rather slow rotation, as well as the lack of nitrogen enrichment in both stars, can be consistent with both the fossil and the binary hypothesis for the origin of the magnetic field. However, the presence of two magnetic and apparently single stars near the top of the cluster mass-function may speak in favour of the latter. [less ▲]

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See detailToward a Unique Nitrogen Isotopic Ratio in Cometary Ices
Rousselot, Philippe; Pirali, Olivier; Jehin, Emmanuel ULg et al

in Astrophysical Journal Letters (2014), 780

Determination of the nitrogen isotopic ratios in different bodies of the solar system provides important information regarding the solar system's origin. We unambiguously identified emission lines in ... [more ▼]

Determination of the nitrogen isotopic ratios in different bodies of the solar system provides important information regarding the solar system's origin. We unambiguously identified emission lines in comets due to the [SUP]15[/SUP]NH[SUB]2[/SUB] radical produced by the photodissociation of [SUP]15[/SUP]NH[SUB]3[/SUB]. Analysis of our data has permitted us to measure the [SUP]14[/SUP]N/[SUP]15[/SUP]N isotopic ratio in comets for a molecule carrying the amine (-NH) functional group. This ratio, within the error, appears similar to that measured in comets in the HCN molecule and the CN radical, and lower than the protosolar value, suggesting that N[SUB]2[/SUB] and NH[SUB]3[/SUB] result from the separation of nitrogen into two distinct reservoirs in the solar nebula. This ratio also appears similar to that measured in Titan's atmospheric N[SUB]2[/SUB], supporting the hypothesis that, if the latter is representative of its primordial value in NH[SUB]3[/SUB], these bodies were assembled from building blocks sharing a common formation location. [less ▲]

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See detailA search for pulsations in the HgMn star HD 45975 with CoRoT photometry and ground-based spectroscopy
Morel, Thierry ULg; Briquet, Maryline ULg; Auvergne, M. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 561

The existence of pulsations in HgMn stars is still being debated. To provide the first unambiguous observational detection of pulsations in this class of chemically peculiar objects, the bright star HD ... [more ▼]

The existence of pulsations in HgMn stars is still being debated. To provide the first unambiguous observational detection of pulsations in this class of chemically peculiar objects, the bright star HD 45975 was monitored for nearly two months by the CoRoT satellite. Independent analyses of the light curve provide evidence of monoperiodic variations with a frequency of 0.7572 d[SUP]-1[/SUP] and a peak-to-peak amplitude of ~2800 ppm. Multisite, ground-based spectroscopic observations overlapping the CoRoT observations show the star to be a long-period, single-lined binary. Furthermore, with the notable exception of mercury, they reveal the same periodicity as in photometry in the line moments of chemical species exhibiting strong overabundances (e.g., Mn and Y). In contrast, lines of other elements do not show significant variations. As found in otherHgMn stars, the pattern of variability consists in an absorption bump moving redwards across the line profiles. We argue that the photometric and spectroscopic changes are more consistent with an interpretation in terms of rotational modulation of spots at the stellar surface. In this framework, the existence of pulsations producing photometric variations above the ~50 ppm level is unlikely in HD 45975. This provides strong constraints on the excitation/damping of pulsation modes in this HgMn star. The CoRoT space mission was developed and is operated by the French space agency CNES, with participation of ESA's RSSD and Science Programmes, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Germany, and Spain. This work is based on observations collected at La Silla and Paranal Observatories, ESO (Chile), with the HARPS and UVES spectrographs at the 3.6-m and very large telescopes, under programmes LP185.D-0056 and 287.D-5066. It is also based on observations made with the Mercator Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma by the Flemish Community, at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. Based on observations obtained with the HERMES spectrograph, which is supported by the Fund for Scientific Research of Flanders (FWO), Belgium, the Research Council of K.U. Leuven, Belgium, the Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS), Belgium, the Royal Observatory of Belgium, the Observatoire de Genève, Switzerland, and the Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Germany. [less ▲]

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See detailLes datacenters, métaphore du capitalisme
Thoreau, François ULg

in Politique : Revue de Débats (2014), 83(1), 66-73

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See detailOpen flux in Saturn's magnetosphere
Badman, Sarah; Jackman, Caitriuna; Nichols, Jonathan et al

in Icarus (2014), 231

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See detailThe 24-h recall instrument for home nursing to measure the activity profile of home nurses:development and psychometric testing
De Vliegher, Kristel; Aaertgeerts, Bert; Declercq, Anja et al

in Primary Health Care Research & Development (2014)

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See detailModelling argon dynamics in first-year sea ice
Moreau, S.; Vancoppenolle, M; Zhou, Jiayun ULg et al

in Ocean Modelling (2014), 73

Abstract: Focusing on physical processes, we aim at constraining the dynamics of argon (Ar), a biogeochemically inert gas, within first year sea ice, using observation data and a one-dimensional halo ... [more ▼]

Abstract: Focusing on physical processes, we aim at constraining the dynamics of argon (Ar), a biogeochemically inert gas, within first year sea ice, using observation data and a one-dimensional halo-thermodynamic sea ice model, including parameterization of gas physics. The incorporation and transport of dissolved Ar within sea ice and its rejection via gas-enriched brine drainage to the ocean, are modeled following fluid transport equations through sea ice. Gas bubbles nucleate within sea ice when Ar is above saturation and when the total partial pressure of all three major atmospheric gases (N2, O2 and Ar) is above the brine hydrostatic pressure. The uplift of gas bubbles due to buoyancy is allowed when the brine network is connected with a brine volume above a given threshold. Ice-atmosphere Ar fluxes are formulated as a diffusive process proportional to the differential partial pressure of Ar between brine inclusions and the atmosphere. Two simulations corresponding to two case studies that took place at Point Barrow (Alaska, 2009) and during an ice-tank experiment (INTERICE IV, Hamburg, Germany, 2009) are presented. Basal entrapment and vertical transport due to brine motion enable a qualitatively sound representation of the vertical profile of the total Ar (i.e. the Ar dissolved in brine inclusions and contained in gas bubbles; TAr). Sensitivity analyses suggest that gas bubble nucleation and rise are of most importance to describe gas dynamics within sea ice. Ice-atmosphere Ar fluxes and the associated parameters do not drastically change the simulated TAr. Ar dynamics are dominated by uptake, transport by brine dynamics and bubble nucleation in winter and early spring; and by an intense and rapid release of gas bubbles to the atmosphere in spring. Important physical processes driving gas dynamics in sea ice are identified, pointing to the need for further field and experimental studies. [less ▲]

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See detailRisk Taking of Executives under Different Incentive Contracts: Experimental Evidence
Lefebvre, Mathieu ULg; Vieider, Ferdinand

in Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization (2014), 97

Classic financial agency theory recommends compensation through stock options rather than shares to counteract excessive risk aversion in agents. In a setting where any kind of risk taking is suboptimal ... [more ▼]

Classic financial agency theory recommends compensation through stock options rather than shares to counteract excessive risk aversion in agents. In a setting where any kind of risk taking is suboptimal for shareholders, we show that excessive risk taking may occur for one of two reasons: risk preferences or incentives. Even when compensated through restricted company stock, experimental CEOs take large amounts of excessive risk. This contradicts classical financial theory, but can be explained through risk preferences that are not uniform over the probability and outcome spaces, and in particular, risk seeking for small probability gains and large probability losses. Compensation through options further increases risk taking as expected. We show that this effect is driven mainly by the personal asset position of the experimental CEO, thus having deleterious effects on company performance. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of zolpidem in chronic disorders of consciousness: a prospective open-label study.
Thonnard, Marie ULg; Gosseries, Olivia ULg; Demertzi, Athina ULg et al

in Functional Neurology (2014)

Zolpidem has been reported as an "awakening drug" in some patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). We here present the results of a prospective openlabel study in chronic DOC patients. Sixty ... [more ▼]

Zolpidem has been reported as an "awakening drug" in some patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). We here present the results of a prospective openlabel study in chronic DOC patients. Sixty patients (35±15 years; 18 females; mean time since insult ± SD: 4±5.5 years; 31 with traumatic etiology) with a diagnosis of vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (n=28) or minimally conscious state (n=32) were behaviorally assessed using the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) before and one hour after administration of 10 mg of zolpidem. At the group level, the diagnosis did not change after intake of zolpidem (p=0.10) and CRS-R total scores decreased (p=0.01). Twelve patients (20%) showed improved behaviors and/or CRS-R total scores after zolpidem administration but in only one patient was the diagnosis after zolpidem intake found to show a significant improvement (functional object use), which suggested a change of diagnosis. However, in this patient, a double-blind placebo-controlled trial was performed in order to better specify the effects of zolpidem, but the patient, on this trial, failed to show any clinical improvements. The present open-label study therefore failed to show any clinically significant improvement (i.e., change of Effect of zolpidem in chronic disorders of consciousness: a prospective open-label study diagnosis) in any of the 60 studied chronic DOC patients. [less ▲]

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See detailRecommandations européennes pour la prise en charge des cardiopathies congénitales complexes de l'adulte
MILTNER, Béatrice ULg; LANCELLOTTI, Patrizio ULg; SEGHAYE, Marie-Christine ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014), 69(1), 16-25

THe number of patients with Grown-Up Congenital Heart disease (GUCH) consulting adult cardiologists is steadily increasing. These patients have either a non-diagnosed congenital heart disease revealed at ... [more ▼]

THe number of patients with Grown-Up Congenital Heart disease (GUCH) consulting adult cardiologists is steadily increasing. These patients have either a non-diagnosed congenital heart disease revealed at adulthood, or a diagnosed congenital heart disease for which one or multiple interventions have possibly been performed during childhood. In this article, we summarize the recommendations of the European Society of Cardiology of 2010 for complex congenital heart disease. [less ▲]

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See detailA stable inversion method for feedforward control of constrained flexible multibody systems
Bruls, Olivier ULg; Bastos, Guaraci Jr.; Seifried, Robert

in Journal of Computational and Nonlinear Dynamics (2014), 9(1), 011014

The inverse dynamics of flexible multibody systems is formulated as a two-point boundary value problem for an index-3 differential-algebraic equation (DAE). This DAE represents the equation of motion with ... [more ▼]

The inverse dynamics of flexible multibody systems is formulated as a two-point boundary value problem for an index-3 differential-algebraic equation (DAE). This DAE represents the equation of motion with kinematic and trajectory constraints. For so-called nonminimum phase systems, the remaining dynamics of the inverse model is unstable. Therefore, boundary conditions are imposed not only at the initial time but also at the final time in order to obtain a bounded solution of the inverse model. The numerical solution strategy is based on a reformulation of the DAE in index-2 form and a multiple shooting algorithm, which is known for its robustness and its ability to solve unstable problems. The paper also describes the time integration and sensitivity analysis methods that are used in each shooting phase. The proposed approach does not require a reformulation of the problem in input-output normal form known from nonlinear control theory. It can deal with serial and parallel kinematic topology, minimum phase and nonminimum phase systems, and rigid and flexible mechanisms. [less ▲]

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See detailGold nanorods with phase-changing polymer corona for remotely near-infrared-triggered drug release
Liu, Ji ULg; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Grignard, Bruno ULg et al

in Chemistry : An Asian Journal (2014), 9(1), 275-288

Herein, we report a new drug-delivery system (DDS) that is comprised of a near-infrared (NIR)- light-sensitive gold-nanorod (GNR) core and a phase-changing poly(e-caprolactone)- b-poly(ethylene glycol ... [more ▼]

Herein, we report a new drug-delivery system (DDS) that is comprised of a near-infrared (NIR)- light-sensitive gold-nanorod (GNR) core and a phase-changing poly(e-caprolactone)- b-poly(ethylene glycol) polymer corona (GNR@PCL-b-PEG). The underlying mechanism of the drugloading and triggered-release behaviors involves the entrapment of drug payloads among the PCL crystallites and a heat-induced phase change, respectively. A low premature release of the pre-loaded doxorubicin was observed in PBS buffer (pH 7.4) at 37 °C (<10% of the entire payload after 48 h). However, release could be activated within 30 min by conventional heating at 50 °C, above the Tm of the crystalline PCL domain (43.5 °C), with about 60% release over the subsequent 42 h at 37 °C. The NIR-induced heating of an aqueous suspension of GNR@PCL-b- PEG under NIR irradiation (802 nm) was investigated in terms of the irradiation period, power, and concentrationdependent heating behavior, as well as the NIR-induced shape-transformation of the GNR cores. Remotely NIR-triggered release was also explored upon NIR irradiation for 30 min and about 70% release was achieved in the following 42 h at 37°C, with a mild warming (<4 °C) of the surroundings. The cytotoxicity of GNR@PCL-b-PEG against the mouse fibroblastic-like L929 cell-line was assessed by MTS assay and good compatibility was confirmed with a cell viability of over 90% after incubation for 72 h. The cellular uptake of GNR@PCL-b-PEG by melanoma MEL-5 cells was also confirmed, with an averaged uptake of 1250 ( ± 110) particles cell-1 after incubation for 12 h (50 mg mL-1). This GNR@PCL-b-PEG DDS is aimed at addressing the different requirements for therapeutic treatments and is envisaged to provide new insights into DDS targeting for remotely triggered release by NIR activation. [less ▲]

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See detailArrêt Essent c. Pays-Bas: l'interdiction absolue de privatisation à l'épreuve de la libre circulation des capitaux
Demoulin, Iris ULg; Sibony, Anne-Lise ULg

in Journal de Droit Européen [=JDE] (2014), 1

La prévention des conflits d’intérêts dans les industries de réseau peut rendre légitimes des mesures antiprivatisation. De telles mesures peuvent être justifiées par la poursuite d’objectifs d’intérêt ... [more ▼]

La prévention des conflits d’intérêts dans les industries de réseau peut rendre légitimes des mesures antiprivatisation. De telles mesures peuvent être justifiées par la poursuite d’objectifs d’intérêt général. [less ▲]

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See detailMyocardial cardiotrophin-1 is differentially induced in congenital cardiac defects depending on hypoxemia.
Heying, Ruth; Qing, Ma; SCHUMACHER, Katharina ULg et al

in Future cardiology (2014), 10(1), 53-62

Aim: Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) is upregulated by hypoxemia and hemodynamic overload and is characterized by potent hypertrophic and protective properties on cardiac cells. This study aimed to investigate ... [more ▼]

Aim: Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) is upregulated by hypoxemia and hemodynamic overload and is characterized by potent hypertrophic and protective properties on cardiac cells. This study aimed to investigate whether CT-1 is differentially induced in the myocardium of infants with congenital cardiac defects depending on hypoxemia. Methods & results: Infants with Tetralogy of Fallot (n = 8) or with large nonrestrictive ventricular septal defect (n = 8) undergoing corrective surgery were investigated. Expression of CT-1 was assessed at mRNA and protein levels in the right atrial and ventricular myocardium. The activation of the STAT-3 and VEGF were measured. Degradation of cardiac troponin-I served as a marker of myocardial damage. CT-1 was detected in all patients with levels negatively correlating to the arterial oxygen saturation. Higher CT-1 expression in Tetralogy of Fallot patients was associated with activation of the JAK/STAT pathway and higher cardiac troponin-I degradation. Conclusion: CT-1 may mediate myocardial hypertrophy and dysfunction in infants with congenital cardiac defects, particularly in those with hypoxemia. [less ▲]

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See detailIsocinétisme : aspects spécifiques chez le sportif
Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg et al

in Kinésithérapie Scientifique (2014), 550

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See detailVulvar Skin Disorders throughout Lifetime: About Some Representative Dermatoses
DOYEN, Jean ULg; Demoulin, Stéphanie ULg; DELBECQUE, Katty ULg et al

in BioMed Research International (2014)

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See detailQuantitative analysis using near infrared spectroscopy, application to tablet content uniformity test, II
Ginot, Y.-M.; Bernard-Moulin, P.; Boiret, M. et al

in STP Pharma Pratiques (2014), 24(1), 3-36

The first part of this article [1] described the methodology to follow to develop a technique for the quantitative analysis of active substance in a solid tablet type formulation using near infrared ... [more ▼]

The first part of this article [1] described the methodology to follow to develop a technique for the quantitative analysis of active substance in a solid tablet type formulation using near infrared spectroscopy. It seems appropriate to complete this description by detailing the different steps involved through illustrated examples and by proposing useful guidelines for new users. The quantitative analysis example chosen is that of content uniformity (CU) of tablet type solid forms (cf. Ph. Eur. 2.9.6/2.9.40) [2], a test required in the pharmaceutical industry and for which this alternative quantitative analysis could offer substantial gains. It should be noted that the approach described applies to other types of quantitative analysis (mean assay, water content in raw materials, polymorph assay within a tablet, etc.). [less ▲]

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See detailLimestone fillers cement-based composites: effects of blast furnace slags on fresh and hardened properties
Courard, Luc ULg; Michel, Frédéric ULg

in Construction and Building Materials (2014), 51

Limestone filler is a raw material that is already used in several applications like paints, bricks, bituminous mixtures…etc. Moreover, and particularly in Belgium, classical additions for concrete like ... [more ▼]

Limestone filler is a raw material that is already used in several applications like paints, bricks, bituminous mixtures…etc. Moreover, and particularly in Belgium, classical additions for concrete like fly ashes and granulated blast furnace slags are becoming rare; there is a need for new additions that could have a positive effect on the properties of the fresh and hardened cementitous composites. Substitution of limestone filler in Portland cement and Granulated blast furnace slag cement has been realized between 15 and 27 % in mass. In addition to the characterization of the powder itself – specific mass, specific surface and laser granulometry – the problem of the water demand has been analysed: it seems that it remains constant with the substitution rate. Electric conductivity has also been performed in order to study the evolution of the “dormant” period. Tests on hardened mortars were performed with regard to mechanical properties and evolution of the porosity. Test results indicate that the porosity seems to be finer in the case of granulated blast furnace slags cements, partially due to a very low diameter of the slags particles. Oxygen permeability doesn’t seem to be influenced by the filler while capillary absorption increases with substitution rate. Finally, carbonation rate, sulphate resistance and chloride penetration show quite interesting behaviours, leading to the conclusion that limestone fillers maybe a good substitution material. [less ▲]

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See detailDe quoi sont faits les systèmes sémiotiques
Badir, Sémir ULg

in Actes Sémiotiques (2014), 117

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See detailNew Evidence of Human Activities during the Holocene in the Lowland Forests of the Northern Congo Basin
Morin-Rivat, Julie ULg; Fayolle, Adeline ULg; Gillet, Jean-François et al

in Radiocarbon (2014), 56(1), 209-220

In the last decade, the myth of the pristine tropical forest has been seriously challenged. In central Africa, there is a growing body of evidence for past human settlements along the Atlantic forests ... [more ▼]

In the last decade, the myth of the pristine tropical forest has been seriously challenged. In central Africa, there is a growing body of evidence for past human settlements along the Atlantic forests, but very little information is available about human activities further inland. In this study, we aimed at determining the temporal and spatial patterns of human activities in an archaeologically unexplored area of 110,000 km² located in the northern Congo Basin and currently covered by dense forest. Fieldwork involving archaeology as well as archaeobotany was undertaken in 36 sites located in southeastern Cameroon and in the northern Republic of Congo. Evidence of past human activities through either artifacts or charred botanical remains was observed in all excavated test pits across the study area. The set of 43 radiocarbon dates extending from 15,000 BP to the present time showed a bimodal distribution in the Late Holocene which was interpreted as two phases of human expansion with an intermediate phase of depopulation. The 2300–1300 BP phase is correlated with the migrations of supposed farming populations from northwestern Cameroon. Between 1300 and 670 BP, less material could be dated. This is in agreement with the population collapse already reported for central Africa. Following this, the 670–20 BP phase corresponds to a new period of human expansion known as the Late Iron Age. These results bring new and extensive evidence of human activities in the northern Congo Basin and support the established chronology for human history in central Africa. [less ▲]

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See detailQu'apportent les nouvelles recommandations américaines à propos de la prise en charge des dyslipidémies en prévention cardiovasculaire ? Comparaison avec les recommandations européennes et belges
Descamps, O; Rietzschel, E; Langlois, M et al

in Louvain Medical (2014), 133(1), 26-35

Les dernières recommandations américaines concernant la prise en charge des dyslipidémies en prévention cardiovasculaire ont soulevé de nombreuses questions par leurs différences avec nos approches ... [more ▼]

Les dernières recommandations américaines concernant la prise en charge des dyslipidémies en prévention cardiovasculaire ont soulevé de nombreuses questions par leurs différences avec nos approches habituelles. Entre autres, elles ont éradiqué la nécessité de « cible » de LDL-C à atteindre en fonction du niveau de risque cardiovasculaire et ont proposé plutôt une stratégie basée sur l’intensité de la réduction relative du LDL-C. L’examen critique et la comparaison des recommandations font apparaitre, toutefois, plus de similitudes que de différences, tout en encourageant à repenser certains aspects de notre pratique et à raviver notre motivation pour le plus grand bien des patients. [less ▲]

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See detailLa gestion communautaire des ressources naturelles à l’Est de la R.D.Congo : expérience de l’UGADEC
Mukulumanya, Magnant; Vermeulen, Cédric ULg; Kalinda, A et al

in Parcs & Réserves (2014), 68(4), 11-15

Les provinces du Nord Kivu et du Maniema, à l’est de la R.D.Congo sont confrontés à la destruction de l’environnement, particulièrement dans les parties des territoires de Walikale, Lubero, Punia et ... [more ▼]

Les provinces du Nord Kivu et du Maniema, à l’est de la R.D.Congo sont confrontés à la destruction de l’environnement, particulièrement dans les parties des territoires de Walikale, Lubero, Punia et Lubutu. Alors que les forêts riches en biodiversité sont importantes tant pour l’Etat du fait de leur valeur économique que pour les communautés locales pour leur développement, les menaces qui pèsent sur ces dernières sont légions. Les plus importantes sont les mines, les guerres, le foncier, la légitimité et la légalité, etc. Face à cette situation, en 1998 les communautés locales de ces territoires ont décidé d’initier un nouveau modèle de gestion communautaire des ressources naturelles par la création de réserves gérées par les populations locales. L’objectif de ce modèle est la gestion de biodiversité associée au développement endogène, conduite par une l’Union des Associations de Conservation de Gorilles pour le Développement Communautaire à l’Est de la R.D.Congo (UGADEC). Quinze ans après le début de cette initiative les résultats sont prometteurs. Des actions de conservation ont été mises en place et un développement rural amorcé. Cependant, pour que la gestion communautaire devienne une réalité, il importe qu’un partenariat durable soit établi entre les différents acteurs liés à la gestion des réserves communautaires de l’est. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of Lactobacillus strains isolated from Algerian children faeces for their probiotic properties
Bahri, F.; Lejeune, Annick ULg; Dubois-Dauphin, R. et al

in African Journal of Microbiology Research [=AJMR] (2014), 8(3), 297-303

Lactic acid bacteria termed probiotics have preventive as well as curative effects on several types of diarrhoea of different aetiologies. The main objective of this study was to screen lactobacilli ... [more ▼]

Lactic acid bacteria termed probiotics have preventive as well as curative effects on several types of diarrhoea of different aetiologies. The main objective of this study was to screen lactobacilli strains having probiotic traits, isolated from Algerian healthy children faeces on the purpose of using them further in children diarrheal illnesses. One hundred and twenty (120) lactic acid bacteria isolates were selected from faecal samples of healthy Algerian children aged between five and ten years. Gram positive rods and catalase negative bacteria (52 isolates) were screened, in vitro, for their probiotic potential properties including ability to survive in simulated gastro-intestinal conditions, adherence to Caco-2 cells and their antimicrobial activity. The results show that only five strains resisted in simulated gastric juice at pH 1.5 and pepsin. Four of them were resistant to simulated intestinal conditions at pH 8 and pancreatin and have a good adherence. In the end, three of them were retained as they display interesting probiotic profiles characterized by a strong antimicrobial effect against some intestinal pathogenic bacteria. They were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Lactobacillus plantarum F12, Lactobacillus brevis G6 and Lactobacillus paracasei B13. [less ▲]

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See detailL'écosystème d'innovation universitaire de Aalto : une contribution au repérage des acteurs impliqués lors de la phase d'émergence
Froehlicher, Thomas ULg; Barès, Franck

in Management International = International Management = Gestión Internacional (2014), 18(1), 153-165

The aim of this article is to better under- stand how the innovation ecosystem of Aalto University, in Helsinki, Finland, was structured in the early 2000s. Relying on an analysis of secondary data as ... [more ▼]

The aim of this article is to better under- stand how the innovation ecosystem of Aalto University, in Helsinki, Finland, was structured in the early 2000s. Relying on an analysis of secondary data as well as on the principles of a structural analy- sis of the network, we located the actors and their connections over the emergence period of this ecosystem. The results show the coexistence of two spaces organized as socio-cognitive networks able to interact and reinforce each other. A territorialized space, focused on an innovation dynamic built on the convergence strategy of the three university rectors involved at Aalto; and a deterritorialized space built by a community of actors focused on the affir- mation of proposals and ideas to imple- ment new innovation governance practices. [less ▲]

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See detailWhere are the politics in responsible innovation? European governance, technology assessments, and beyond
Van Oudheusden, Michiel ULg

in Journal of Responsible Innovation (2014), 1(1), 67-86

Responsible innovation (RI) is founded on the idea that present modes of innovating with science and technology fail because they insufficiently take into account societal needs and values. Hence ... [more ▼]

Responsible innovation (RI) is founded on the idea that present modes of innovating with science and technology fail because they insufficiently take into account societal needs and values. Hence, proponents of RI solicit society's opinions in an attempt to render science and technology developments, institutions, and policies more socially responsive. This article asks how the RI concept is taken up and elaborated, based on accounts developed on the EU policy level and on a Flemish, technology assessment level. It finds that, notwithstanding important differences between these two deliberative frameworks, neither one leaves much room for politics, understood as the constitution and contestation of power. Rather, these frameworks largely ignore questions about the politics in and of deliberation, the authoritative allocation of values, and the institutional uptake of deliberative engagements. The article's aim is to provide constructive criticism of the RI paradigm by rendering these political issues explicit and proposing ways of taking them into account. [less ▲]

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See detailPrix de transfert des biens incorporels : état des lieux
Schleck, Daniel ULg

in Comptabilité et Fiscalité Pratiques (2014), 1

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See detailAutograph/Holograph and Authorial Manuscripts in Arabic Script [Conference Review]
Franssen, Elise ULg

in Comparative Oriental Manuscript Studies Newsletter (2014), 7

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See detailLa transposition didactique en français langue étrangère et seconde
Bento, Margaret; Defays, Jean-Marc ULg; Meunier, Deborah ULg

in Français dans le Monde. Revue Internationale et Francophone des Professeurs de Français. Recherches et Applications (2014), 55

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See detailA review on simulation-based optimization methods applied to building performance analysis
Nguyen, Anh Tuan ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg; Rigo, Philippe ULg

in Applied Energy (2014), 113

Recent progress in computer science and stringent requirements of the design of “greener” buildings put forwards the research and applications of simulation-based optimization methods in the building ... [more ▼]

Recent progress in computer science and stringent requirements of the design of “greener” buildings put forwards the research and applications of simulation-based optimization methods in the building sector. This paper provides an overview on this subject, aiming at clarifying recent advances and outlining potential challenges and obstacles in building design optimization. Key discussions are focused on handling discontinuous multi-modal building optimization problems, the performance and selection of optimization algorithms, multi-objective optimization, the application of surrogate models, optimization under uncertainty and the propagation of optimization techniques into real-world design challenges. This paper also gives bibliographic information on the issues of simulation programs, optimization tools, efficiency of optimization methods, and trends in optimization studies. The review indicates that future researches should be oriented towards improving the efficiency of search techniques and approximation methods (surrogate models) for large-scale building optimization problems; and reducing time and effort for such activities. Further effort is also required to quantify the robustness in optimal solutions so as to improve building performance stability. [less ▲]

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See detailSensitivity analysis for multibody systems formulated on a Lie group
Sonneville, Valentin ULg; Bruls, Olivier ULg

in Multibody System Dynamics (2014), 31

A direct differentiation method and an adjoint variable method are proposed for the efficient semi-analytical evaluation of the sensitivities of multibody systems formulated in a matrix Lie group ... [more ▼]

A direct differentiation method and an adjoint variable method are proposed for the efficient semi-analytical evaluation of the sensitivities of multibody systems formulated in a matrix Lie group framework. These methods rely on the linearization of the equations of motion and/or of the time integration procedure. The simpler structure of the equations of motion in the Lie group formalism appears as an advantage for that purpose. Lie bracket contributions and the non-linearity of the exponential map need to be taken into account in the sensitivity algorithms. Nevertheless, essential characteristics of formulations of the direct differentiation method and the adjoint variable method on linear spaces are recovered. Some implementation issues are discussed and two relevant examples illustrate the properties of these methods. [less ▲]

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See detailLa qualité d'accueil fait débat
Pirard, Florence ULg

in Revue [Petite] Enfance (2014), 113

La qualité des services d'accueil et d'éducation des jeunes enfants constitue un enjeu sociétal d'actualité, mais peut faire l'objet d'interprétations multiples. Fondé sur les résultats d'une recherche ... [more ▼]

La qualité des services d'accueil et d'éducation des jeunes enfants constitue un enjeu sociétal d'actualité, mais peut faire l'objet d'interprétations multiples. Fondé sur les résultats d'une recherche menée dans une démarche de théorisation ancrée, cet article donne de manière synthétique une grille de lecture de différentes manières de considérer la qualité des services d'accueil et d'éducation des jeunes enfants dans un cadre professionnel. [less ▲]

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See detailSensitivity analysis for multibody systems formulated on a Lie group
Sonneville, Valentin ULg; Bruls, Olivier ULg

in Multibody System Dynamics (2014), 31

A direct differentiation method and an adjoint variable method are proposed for the efficient semi-analytical evaluation of the sensitivities of multibody systems formulated in a matrix Lie group ... [more ▼]

A direct differentiation method and an adjoint variable method are proposed for the efficient semi-analytical evaluation of the sensitivities of multibody systems formulated in a matrix Lie group framework. These methods rely on the linearization of the equations of motion and/or of the time integration procedure. The simpler structure of the equations of motion in the Lie group formalism appears as an advantage for that purpose. Lie bracket contributions and the non-linearity of the exponential map need to be taken into account in the sensitivity algorithms. Nevertheless, essential characteristics of formulations of the direct differentiation method and the adjoint variable method on linear spaces are recovered. Some implementation issues are discussed and two relevant examples illustrate the properties of these methods. [less ▲]

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See detailHollow Cylinder Tests on Boom Clay: Modelling of Strain Localization in the Anisotropic Excavation Damaged Zone
François, B; Labiouse, V; Dizier, A et al

in Rock Mechanic and Rock Engineering (2014), 47(1), 71-86

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See detailDoes comfort therapy during controlled donation after circulatory death shorten the life of potential donors?
LEDOUX, Didier ULg; DELBOUILLE, Marie-Hélène ULg; DE ROOVER, Arnaud ULg et al

in Clinical transplantation (2014), 28(1), 47-51

INTRODUCTION: Controlled donation after circulatory death (DCD) remains ethically controversial. The authors developed a controlled DCD protocol in which comfort therapy is regularly used. The aim of this ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: Controlled donation after circulatory death (DCD) remains ethically controversial. The authors developed a controlled DCD protocol in which comfort therapy is regularly used. The aim of this study was to determine whether this policy shortens the DCD donors' life. METHODS: The authors retrospectively analyzed prospectively collected data on patients proposed for DCD at the University Hospital of Liege, Belgium, over a 56-month period. The survival duration of these patients, defined as duration between the time of proposal for DCD and the time of circulatory arrest, was compared between patients who actually donated organs and those who did not. RESULTS: About 128 patients were considered for controlled DCD and 54 (43%) became donors. Among the 74 non-donor patients, 34 (46%) objected to organ donation, 38 patients (51%) were denied by the transplant team for various medical reasons, and two potential DCD donors did not undergo procurement due to logistical and organizational reasons. The survival durations were similar in the DCD donor and non-donor groups. No non-donor patient survived. CONCLUSIONS: Survival of DCD donors is not shortened when compared with non-donor patients. These data support the ethical and respectful approach to potential DCD donors in the authors' center, including regular comfort therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailDIRECTED INFORMATION TRANSFER IN SCALP ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC RECORDINGS: INSIGHTS ON DISORDERS OF CONSCIOUSNESS
Marinazzo, Daniele; Gosseries, Olivia ULg; Boly, Mélanie ULg et al

in Clinical EEG and Neuroscience : Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS) (2014)

Introduction: The neural mechanisms underlying electrophysiological changes observed in patients with disorders of consciousness following a coma remain poorly understood. The aim of this article is to ... [more ▼]

Introduction: The neural mechanisms underlying electrophysiological changes observed in patients with disorders of consciousness following a coma remain poorly understood. The aim of this article is to investigate the mechanisms underlying the differences in spontaneous electroencephalography between patients in vegetative/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, minimally conscious state, emergence of the minimally conscious state and age-matched healthy control subjects. <br />Methods: Forty recording of spontaneous scalp electroencephalography were performed in 27 patients who were comatose on admission, and on healthy controls. Multivariate Granger Causality and Transfer Entropy were applied on the data. <br />Results: Distinctive patterns of putative bottlenecks of information were associated to each conscious state. Healthy controls are characterized by a greater amount of synergetic contributions from duplets of variables. <br />Conclusion: A novel set of measures was tested to get a novel insight on the pattern of information transfer in a network of scalp electrodes in patients with disorders of consciousness. [less ▲]

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See detailA More Than 20% Increase in Deceased-Donor Organ Procurement and Transplantation Activity After the Use of Donation After Circulatory Death.
Le Dinh, H.; MONARD, Josée ULg; DELBOUILLE, Marie-Hélène ULg et al

in Transplantation proceedings (2014), 46(1), 9-13

BACKGROUND: Organ procurement and transplant activity from controlled donation after circulatory death (DCD) was evaluated over an 11-year period to determine whether this program influenced the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Organ procurement and transplant activity from controlled donation after circulatory death (DCD) was evaluated over an 11-year period to determine whether this program influenced the transplant and donation after brain death (DBD) activities. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Deceased donor (DD) procurement and transplant data were prospectively collected in a local database for retrospective review. RESULTS: There was an increasing trend in the potential and actual DCD numbers over time. DCD accounted for 21.9% of the DD pool over 11 years, representing 23.7% and 24.2% of the DD kidney and liver pool, respectively. The DBD retrieval and transplant activity increased during the same time period. Mean conversion rate turning potential into effective DCD donors was 47.3%. Mean DCD donor age was 54.6 years (range, 3-83). Donors >/=60 years old made up 44.1% of the DCD pool. Among referred donors, reasons for nondonation were medical contraindications (33.7%) and family refusals (19%). Mean organ yield per DCD donor was 2.3 organs. Mean total procurement warm ischemia time was 19.5 minutes (range, 6-39). In 2012, 17 DCD and 37 DBD procurements were performed in the Liege region, which has slightly >1 million inhabitants. CONCLUSIONS: This DCD program implementation enlarged the DD pool and did not compromise the development of DBD programs. The potential DCD pool might be underused and seems to be a valuable organ donor source. [less ▲]

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See detailLombostat au long cours versus école du dos périodique
Tomasella, Marco ULg; Demoulin, Christophe ULg; Vanderthommen, Marc ULg et al

in Revue Belge du dommage corporel et de médecine légale (2014), 41ème année(2014/1), 3-12

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See detailDe l’Européanisation à la régionalisation des politiques d’intégration en Wallonie.
Martiniello, Marco ULg

in Migrations Société (2014), 26(151), 2-28

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See detailPolitique budgétaire et décision politique: gérer un système fédéral complexe
Piron, Damien ULg

in Revue Nouvelle (2014), 69(1), 61-71

En Belgique, la décision politique repose depuis la fin du XIXème siècle sur le modèle consociatif: des compromis sont conclus entre les "piliers" issus des clivages philosophique et économique. L ... [more ▼]

En Belgique, la décision politique repose depuis la fin du XIXème siècle sur le modèle consociatif: des compromis sont conclus entre les "piliers" issus des clivages philosophique et économique. L'intégration européenne et la fédéralisation redessinent néanmoins cette méthode de gouvernement, ainsi que le montre la comparaison des politiques d'assainissement des finances publiques conduites par les gouvernements Dehaene Ier et Di Rupo. Le modèle fédéral engendre en effet une multiplication du nombre d'acteurs impliqués dans la prise de décision, ce qui complique l'élaboration de compromis. Il appartient donc aux acteurs politiques de maintenir le système belge gouvernable en imaginant des procédures adaptées à cette nouvelle réalité. [less ▲]

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See detailPas de culture de sécurité sans un leadership totalement convaincu, impliqué et moteur dans la démarche
COUCKE, Philippe ULg

in Healthcare Executive (2014)

La culture de sécurité en santé publique a 40 ans de retard Le rapport de l’IOM (Institute of Medicine), publié en 1999, met le doigt sur les risques auxquels les patients s’exposent en rentrant dans un ... [more ▼]

La culture de sécurité en santé publique a 40 ans de retard Le rapport de l’IOM (Institute of Medicine), publié en 1999, met le doigt sur les risques auxquels les patients s’exposent en rentrant dans un secteur hospitalier. Ces nombres éloquents ne sont pas l’apanage d’un système de santé publique particulier, par ailleurs fortement décrié et propre aux Etats Unis d’Amérique. Les statistiques dans d’autres systèmes de santé sont identiques et l’OMS clame aujourd’hui que, lorsque vous êtes admis dans un hôpital, vous avez 10% de risque d’en sortir moins bien qu’à l’entrée (European Union Network for Patient Safety). Et pourtant, tous les acteurs du terrain se gargarisent avec le slogan «priorité à la sécurité». Malheureusement, il s’agit là souvent simplement d’un slogan qui ne se reflète pas dans nos pratiques journalières. Et c’est là que le secteur de la santé se différencie singulièrement des autres domaines d’activités industrielles dits à haut risque (aviation civile, centrales atomiques, industrie alimentaire), qui ont depuis longue date un «management du risque opérationnel» organisé, structuré et prospectif. Un des principes de base du management du risque est la mesure: dans les écoles managériales on apprend que l’on ne peut manager ce que l’on ne mesure pas. Mesurons-nous les risques en santé publique? Avons-nous des indicateurs fiables, reproductibles, transparents qui nous donnent une idée de la sécurité et de la qualité de nos pratiques? L’incidence des risques systémiques – et je préfère utiliser ce terme plutôt que celui d’«erreur médicale» – est certainement sous-estimée, car il n’y pas en santé publique une culture de sécurité qui prône la déclaration spontanée et transparente de tous les événements, qu’ils soient indésirables (sans effet délétère pour le patient) ou greffés d’effet mineur (incident) ou majeur (accident). [less ▲]

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See detailRobust method optimization strategy – a useful tool for method transfer: the case of SFC
Dispas, Amandine ULg; Lebrun, Pierre ULg; Andri, Bertyl ULg et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2014), 88

The concept of Quality by Design (QbD) is now well established in pharmaceutical industry and should be applied to the development of any analytical methods. In this context, the key concept of Design ... [more ▼]

The concept of Quality by Design (QbD) is now well established in pharmaceutical industry and should be applied to the development of any analytical methods. In this context, the key concept of Design Space (DS) was introduced in the field of analytical method optimization. In chromatographic words, the DS is the space of chromatographic conditions that will ensure the quality of peaks separation, thus DS is a zone of robustness. In the present study, the interest of robust method optimization strategy was investigated in the context of direct method transfer from sending to receiving laboratory. The benefit of this approach is to speed up the method life cycle by performing only one quantitative validation step in the final environment of method use. A Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC) method previously developed was used as a case study in this work. Moreover, the interest of geometric transfer was investigated simultaneously in order to stress a little bit more the transfer exercise and, by the way, emphasize the additional benefit of DS strategy in this particular context. Three successful transfers were performed on two column geometries. In order to compare original and transferred methods, the observed relative retention times (RT) were modelled as a function of the predicted relative RT and of the method type (original or transferred). The observed relative RT of the original and transferred methods are not statistically different and thus the method transfer is successfully achieved thanks to the robust optimization strategy. Furthermore, the analytical method was improved considering analysis time (reduced five times) and peak capacity (increased three times). To conclude, the advantage of using a DS strategy implemented for the optimization and transfer of SFC method was successfully demonstrated in this work. [less ▲]

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See detailLa voix n'est pas infatigable
Tréger, Isabelle; Remacle, Angélique ULg

in L'Orthophoniste (2014), 335

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See detailConsciousness and Unconsciousness: An EEG Perspective
Noirhomme, Quentin ULg; Laureys, Steven ULg

in Clinical EEG and Neuroscience (2014), 45

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See detailMarket Power in the Credit Rating Industry: State of Play and Proposal for Reforms
Candelon, Bertrand; Gautier, Axel ULg; Petit, Nicolas ULg

in CPI Antitrust Chronicle (2014), 2

In recent years, the Credit Rating Agencies (“CRAs”) have been in the eye of the storm. Some argue that CRA rating errors—symptomatized by rating inflation or deflation—originate in excessive competition ... [more ▼]

In recent years, the Credit Rating Agencies (“CRAs”) have been in the eye of the storm. Some argue that CRA rating errors—symptomatized by rating inflation or deflation—originate in excessive competition. This paper argues that the low level of competition in credit rating is a better explanation for rating this phenomenon. [less ▲]

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See detailA 660-Kb Deletion with Antagonistic Effects on Fertility and Milk Production Segregates at High Frequency in Nordic Red Cattle: Additional Evidence for the Common Occurrence of Balancing Selection in Livestock
Kumar Kadri, Naveen; Sahana, Goutam; Charlier, Carole ULg et al

in PLoS Genetics (2014), 10(1), 1004049

In dairy cattle, the widespread use of artificial insemination has resulted in increased selection intensity, which has led to spectacular increase in productivity. However, cow fertility has ... [more ▼]

In dairy cattle, the widespread use of artificial insemination has resulted in increased selection intensity, which has led to spectacular increase in productivity. However, cow fertility has concomitantly severely declined. It is generally assumed that this reduction is primarily due to the negative energy balance of high-producing cows at the peak of lactation. We herein describe the fine-mapping of a major fertility QTL in Nordic Red cattle, and identify a 660-kb deletion encompassing four genes as the causative variant. We show that the deletion is a recessive embryonically lethal mutation. This probably results from the loss of RNASEH2B, which is known to cause embryonic death in mice. Despite its dramatic effect on fertility, 13%, 23% and 32% of the animals carry the deletion in Danish, Swedish and Finnish Red Cattle, respectively. To explain this, we searched for favorable effects on other traits and found that the deletion has strong positive effects on milk yield. This study demonstrates that embryonic lethal mutations account for a non-negligible fraction of the decline in fertility of domestic cattle, and that associated positive effects on milk yield may account for part of the negative genetic correlation. Our study adds to the evidence that structural variants contribute to animal phenotypic variation, and that balancing selection might be more common in livestock species than previously appreciated. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction d’approches socioconstructivistes dans le cours d’éducation physique. Avis des acteurs sur l’utilisation de fiches d’observation et du débat d’idées
Cloes, Marc ULg; Derome, Stéphane; Bonvoisin, Pierre-Henry

in e Journal de la Recherche sur l'Intervention en Éducation Physique et Sport (2014), 31

Two specific teaching approaches respecting the socioconstructivist principles (observation cards and students verbal exchanges) have been implemented in three secondary PE school classes during short ... [more ▼]

Two specific teaching approaches respecting the socioconstructivist principles (observation cards and students verbal exchanges) have been implemented in three secondary PE school classes during short teaching volleyball units. The study examines the opinions of the teachers and students about their experience. Both kind of actors were positively surprised by these original teaching approaches. PE teachers had some difficulties to share the leadership with their students but were impressed by the behavior of their students. The latter underlined that they appreciated to have the opportunity to learn by themselves. More resources should be developed to help the PE teachers to adopt such teaching approaches. [less ▲]

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See detailEnzymatic creatinine assays allowestimation of glomerular filtration rate in stages 1 and 2 chronic kidney disease using CKD-EPI equation
Kuster, Nils; Cristol, Jean-Paul; CAVALIER, Etienne ULg et al

in Clinica Chimica Acta (2014), 428

The National Kidney Disease Education Program group demonstrated that MDRD equation is sensitive to creatinine measurement error, particularly at higher glomerular filtration rates. Thus, MDRD-based eGFR ... [more ▼]

The National Kidney Disease Education Program group demonstrated that MDRD equation is sensitive to creatinine measurement error, particularly at higher glomerular filtration rates. Thus, MDRD-based eGFR above 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 should not be reported numerically. However, little is known about the impact of analytical error on CKD-EPI-based estimates. This study aimed at assessing the impact of analytical characteristics (bias and imprecision) of 12 enzymatic and 4 compensated Jaffe previously characterized creatinine assays on MDRD and CKD-EPI eGFR. In a simulation study, the impact of analytical error was assessed on a hospital population of 24 084 patients. Ability using each assay to correctly classify patients according to chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages was evaluated. For eGFR between 60 and 90 mL/min/1.73 m2, both equations were sensitive to analytical error. Compensated Jaffe assays displayed high bias in this range and led to poorer sensitivity/specificity for classification according to CKD stages than enzymatic assays. As compared to MDRD equation, CKD-EPI equation decreases impact of analytical error in creatinine measurement above 90 mL/min/1.73 m2. Compensated Jaffe creatinine assays lead to important errors in eGFR and should be avoided. Accurate enzymatic assays allow estimation of eGFR until 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 with MDRD and 120 mL/min/1.73 m2 with CKD-EPI equation. [less ▲]

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See detailSubjective Evaluation of the Audiovisual Spatial Congruence in the Case of Stereoscopic-3D Video and Wave Field Synthesis
André, Cédric ULg; Corteel, Etienne; Embrechts, Jean-Jacques ULg et al

in International Journal of Human-Computer Studies (2014), 72(1), 23-32

While 3D cinema is becoming increasingly established, little effort has focused on the general problem of producing a 3D sound scene spatially coherent with the visual content of a stereoscopic-3D (s-3D ... [more ▼]

While 3D cinema is becoming increasingly established, little effort has focused on the general problem of producing a 3D sound scene spatially coherent with the visual content of a stereoscopic-3D (s-3D) movie. The perceptual relevance of such spatial audiovisual coherence is of significant interest. In this paper, a subjective experiment is carried out where an angular error between an s-3D video and a spatially accurate sound reproduced through Wave Field Synthesis (WFS) is simulated. The psychometric curve is measured with the method of constant stimuli, and the threshold for bimodal integration is estimated. The impact of the presence of background noise is also investigated. A comparison is made between the case without any background noise and the case with an SNR of 4 dB(A). Estimates of the thresholds and the slopes, as well as their confidence intervals, are obtained for each level of background noise. When background noise was present, the point of subjective equality (PSE) was higher (19.4° instead of 18.3°) and the slope was steeper (-0.077 instead of -0.062 per degree). Because of the overlap between the confidence intervals, however, it was not possible to statistically differentiate between the two levels of noise. The implications for the sound reproduction in a cinema theater are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailContribution to the macrophytic typology of the Belgian reference watercourses
Galoux, Daniel; Chérot, Frédéric; Rosillon, Francis ULg et al

in International Journal of Water Sciences (2014)

The objective of the study is to create a typology of macrophytes for the reference watercourses of the Meuse River catchment basin in Wallonia, as a step towards the implementation of the European Water ... [more ▼]

The objective of the study is to create a typology of macrophytes for the reference watercourses of the Meuse River catchment basin in Wallonia, as a step towards the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive. The 50 sites studied are the object of a physicochemical and environmental characterisation followed by a floristic survey (phanerogams, mosses, liverworts, and macroalgae). Six clusters of watercourses with their characteristic species are highlighted by two-way clustering and indicator species. The abundance of phanerogams in some watercourses of the Arden region is not only linked to light intensity but also depends on the degree of slope and the nature of the geological substrate. [less ▲]

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See detailToward genomic prediction from whole-genome sequence data: impact of sequencing design on genotype imputation and accuracy of predictions.
Druet, Tom ULg; Macleod, I. M.; Hayes, B. J.

in Heredity (2014), 112(1), 39-47

Genomic prediction from whole-genome sequence data is attractive, as the accuracy of genomic prediction is no longer bounded by extent of linkage disequilibrium between DNA markers and causal mutations ... [more ▼]

Genomic prediction from whole-genome sequence data is attractive, as the accuracy of genomic prediction is no longer bounded by extent of linkage disequilibrium between DNA markers and causal mutations affecting the trait, given the causal mutations are in the data set. A cost-effective strategy could be to sequence a small proportion of the population, and impute sequence data to the rest of the reference population. Here, we describe strategies for selecting individuals for sequencing, based on either pedigree relationships or haplotype diversity. Performance of these strategies (number of variants detected and accuracy of imputation) were evaluated in sequence data simulated through a real Belgian Blue cattle pedigree. A strategy (AHAP), which selected a subset of individuals for sequencing that maximized the number of unique haplotypes (from single-nucleotide polymorphism panel data) sequenced gave good performance across a range of variant minor allele frequencies. We then investigated the optimum number of individuals to sequence by fold coverage given a maximum total sequencing effort. At 600 total fold coverage (x 600), the optimum strategy was to sequence 75 individuals at eightfold coverage. Finally, we investigated the accuracy of genomic predictions that could be achieved. The advantage of using imputed sequence data compared with dense SNP array genotypes was highly dependent on the allele frequency spectrum of the causative mutations affecting the trait. When this followed a neutral distribution, the advantage of the imputed sequence data was small; however, when the causal mutations all had low minor allele frequencies, using the sequence data improved the accuracy of genomic prediction by up to 30%.Heredity advance online publication, 3 April 2013; doi:10.1038/hdy.2013.13. [less ▲]

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See detailEntre permis forestier et permis minier, la diff icile émergence des forêts communautaires au Gabon
Morin, Amélie; Meunier, Quentin; Moumbogou et al

in Parcs et Réserves (2014), 68(4), 16-22

A l’heure de l’attribution des premières forêts communautaires au Gabon, de multiples questions surgissent et attendent de manière urgente une réponse de la part de l’Etat. Le présent article se penche ... [more ▼]

A l’heure de l’attribution des premières forêts communautaires au Gabon, de multiples questions surgissent et attendent de manière urgente une réponse de la part de l’Etat. Le présent article se penche sur l’une d’entre elles, à savoir la superposition des permis d’exploitation (minier, forestier) avec l’espace utilisé traditionnellement par les communautés locales et candidates à l’obtention d’une forêt communautaire. Quelques situations rencontrées sur le terrain sont présentées et discutées. Il est urgent qu’un réel aménagement du territoire voie le jour au Gabon, qui détermine la place de chaque activité, hiérarchise l’affectation de l’espace et détermine le cas échéant les conditions de « cohabitation » de plusieurs permis. [less ▲]

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See detailLe droit pour le prévenu de comparaître personnellement devant les juridictions répressives
Michiels, Olivier ULg

in Revue de Droit Pénal et de Criminologie (2014), 1/2014(janvier), 113-119

La note rappelle les règles belges relatives à la comparution du prévenu personne physique devant les juridictions répressives en les mettant en parallèle avec la jurisprudence de la Cour européenne des ... [more ▼]

La note rappelle les règles belges relatives à la comparution du prévenu personne physique devant les juridictions répressives en les mettant en parallèle avec la jurisprudence de la Cour européenne des droits de l'homme. Elle s'attache ensuite à examiner la question de l'incapacité pour une partie d'être présente à son procès. [less ▲]

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See detailA vibrotactile P300-based BCI for consciousness detection and communication
Lugo, Zulay; Rodriguez, Javi; Lechner, Alexander et al

in Clinical EEG and Neuroscience : Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS) (2014)

Brain–computer interface (BCI) has been used for many years for communication in severely disabled patients. BCI based on electrophysiological signals has enabled communication, using auditory or visual ... [more ▼]

Brain–computer interface (BCI) has been used for many years for communication in severely disabled patients. BCI based on electrophysiological signals has enabled communication, using auditory or visual stimuli to elicit event-related potentials (ERPs). The aim of this study was to determine whether patients with locked-in syndrome (LIS) could elicit a P300 wave, using a vibrotactile oddball paradigm for establishing somatosensory BCI-based communication. Six chronic LIS patients performed 2electroencephalography (EEG)-based vibrotactile P300 oddball tasks. After a simple mental counting task of the target stimuli, participants were instructed to answer 5 questions by counting the vibration on either the right wrist for “yes” or the left wrist for “no.” All participants were able to elicit a P300 wave using the vibrotactile oddball paradigm BCI task. In the counting task, 4 patients got accuracies of 100% (average above chance). In the communication task, one patient achieved 100% accuracy (average above chance). We have shown the feasibility of eliciting a P300 response using vibrotactile stimulation in patients with LIS. The present study provides evidence that this approach can be used for EEG-based BCI communications in this patient group. This is the first study to prove the feasibility of a BCI based on somatosensory (vibratory) stimulation in a group of braininjured patients. Furthermore, this approach could be used for the detection of consciousness in non-communicating patients due to severe brain injuries. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantifying cortical EEG responses to TMS in (un)consciousness
Sarasso, S; Rosanova, M; Casali, A.G et al

in Clinical EEG and Neuroscience : Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS) (2014)

We normally assess another individual's level of consciousness based on her or his ability to interact with the surrounding environment and communicate. Usually, if we observe purposeful behavior ... [more ▼]

We normally assess another individual's level of consciousness based on her or his ability to interact with the surrounding environment and communicate. Usually, if we observe purposeful behavior, appropriate responses to sensory inputs, and, above all, appropriate answers to questions, we can be reasonably sure that the person is conscious. However, we know that consciousness can be entirely within the brain, even in the absence of any interaction with the external world; this happens almost every night, while we dream. Yet, to this day, we lack an objective, dependable measure of the level of consciousness that is independent of processing sensory inputs and producing appropriate motor outputs. Theoretically, consciousness is thought to require the joint presence of functional integration and functional differentiation, otherwise defined as brain complexity. Here we review a series of recent studies in which Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation combined with electroencephalography (TMS/EEG) has been employed to quantify brain complexity in wakefulness and during physiological (sleep), pharmacological (anesthesia) and pathological (brain injury) loss of consciousness. These studies invariably show that the complexity of the cortical response to TMS collapses when consciousness is lost during deep sleep, anesthesia and vegetative state following severe brain injury, while it recovers when consciousness resurges in wakefulness, during dreaming, in the minimally conscious state or locked-in syndrome. The present paper will also focus on how this approach may contribute to unveiling the pathophysiology of disorders of consciousness affecting brain-injured patients. Finally, we will underline some crucial methodological aspects concerning TMS/EEG measurements of brain complexity. [less ▲]

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See detailA Management Control Perspective of Sustainability Reporting in Higher Education: In Search of a Holistic View
Ceulemans, Kim; Van Caillie, Didier ULg; Molderez, Ingrid et al

in ACRN Journal of Entrepreneurship Perspectives (2014), III(1), 1-17

Higher education institutions have been actively attempting to integrate sustainability in their curricula, research, operations, and outreach activities over the last decades. Despite the efforts ... [more ▼]

Higher education institutions have been actively attempting to integrate sustainability in their curricula, research, operations, and outreach activities over the last decades. Despite the efforts undertaken, it is currently still challenging for their internal and external stakeholders to assess an institution’s sustainability-related activities and the extent of their implementation within the different activities of higher education. Since sustainability reporting in higher education is currently still in its early stages, and because a holistic view of sustainability integration in higher education on a management level is often lacking, this paper researches possible contributions of management control to sustainability reporting and the sustainability integration process in higher education. The paper adheres to a management control approach by applying Simons’ (1995) Levers of Control Framework to the field of sustainability in higher education, in search for a theoretical framework for reporting and integrating sustainability on a strategic level into higher education institutions. The research stresses the need for a holistic approach and for further in-depth study into certain aspects of the control framework, i.e., practical implementation of vision and mission statements, the concept of materiality, staff development, diagnostic indicator development, and the study of stakeholder engagement processes in higher education [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of PSII antenna size heterogeneity of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during state transitions
de Marchin, Thomas ULg; Ghysels, Bart ULg; Nicolay, Samuel ULg et al

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-Bioenergetics (2014), 1837(1), 121-130

PSII antenna size heterogeneity has been intensively studied in the past. Based on DCMU fluorescence rise kinetics, multiple types of photosystems with different properties were described. However, due to ... [more ▼]

PSII antenna size heterogeneity has been intensively studied in the past. Based on DCMU fluorescence rise kinetics, multiple types of photosystems with different properties were described. However, due to the complexity of fluorescence signal analysis, multiple questions remain unanswered. The number of different types of PSII is still debated as well as their degree of connectivity. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii we found that PSIIα possesses a high degree of connectivity and an antenna 2-3 times larger than PSIIβ, as described previously. We also found some connectivity for PSIIβ in contrast with the majority of previous studies. This is in agreement with biochemical studies which describe PSII mega-, super- and core- complexes in Chlamydomonas. In these studies, the smallest unit of PSII in vivo would be a dimer of two core complexes hence allowing connectivity. We discuss the possible relationships between PSIIα and PSIIβ and the PSII mega-, super- and core- complexes. We also showed that strain and medium dependent variations in the half-time of the fluorescence rise can be explained by variations in the proportions of PSIIα and PSIIβ. When analyzing the state transition process in vivo, we found that this process induces an inter-conversion of PSIIα and PSIIβ. During a transition from state 2 to state 1, DCMU fluorescence rise kinetics are satisfactorily fitted by considering two PSII populations with constant kinetic parameters. We discuss our findings about PSII heterogeneity during state transitions in relation with recent results on the remodeling of the pigment-protein PSII architecture during this process. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing consciousness in coma and related states using transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography.
Gosseries, Olivia ULg; Thibaut, Aurore ULg; Boly, Mélanie ULg et al

in Annales Françaises d'Anesthésie et de Réanimation (2014)

Thanks to advances in medical care, an increased number of patients recover from coma. However, some remain in vegetative/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome or in a minimally conscious state. Detection of ... [more ▼]

Thanks to advances in medical care, an increased number of patients recover from coma. However, some remain in vegetative/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome or in a minimally conscious state. Detection of awareness in severely brain-injured patients is challenging because it relies on behavioral assessments, which can be affected by motor, sensory and cognitive impairments of the patients. Other means of evaluation are needed to improve the accuracy of the diagnosis in this challenging population. We will here review the different altered states of consciousness occurring after severe brain damage, and explain the difficulties associated with behavioral assessment of consciousness. We will then describe a non-invasive technique, transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with high-density electroencephalography (TMS-EEG), which has allowed us to detect the presence or absence of consciousness in different physiological, pathological and pharmacological states. Some potential underlying mechanisms of the loss of consciousness will then be discussed. In conclusion, TMS-EEG is highly promising in identifying markers of consciousness at the individual level and might be of great value for clinicians in the assessment of consciousness. [less ▲]

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See detailDescription of a standardized rehabilitation program based on sub-maximal eccentric following a platelet-rich plasma infiltration for jumper’s knee.
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg; NAMUROIS, Marie-Hélène ULg et al

in Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal (2014), 4(1), 85-89

Introduction: Different series emphasized the necessity of rehabilitation program after infiltration of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in case of tendinopathy. However, most of them describe only briefly the ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Different series emphasized the necessity of rehabilitation program after infiltration of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in case of tendinopathy. However, most of them describe only briefly the reeducation protocol and these programs vary. Our aim was to extensively describe a specific standardized rehabilitation program. Methods: After a review of literature of post-PRP infiltration protocols, we had developed a standardized rehabilitation protocol. This protocol was evaluated by 30 subjects with chronic jumper’s knee who. A a standardised progressive sub-maximal eccentric program supervised by a physical therapist for 6 weeks was started 1 week post-infiltration. The patient benefited also from electromyostimulation, isometric strengthening and stretching of the quadriceps, cycloergometer and cryotherapy. After the supervised program, the patient had to make an auto-reeducation added to the reathletisation protocol for 6 more weeks which was followed by maintenance exercises up to 1 year. The assessments were made using a VAS, IKDC and VISA-P scores. Results: The VAS , IKDC and VISA-P scores decreased very significantly with time. The compliance to auto-reeducation was good. Conclusion: We proposed a simple and efficient protocol based on sub-maximal eccentric reeducation to add to PRP infiltrations in case of patellar tendinopathy. [less ▲]

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See detailWater soluble exo-polysaccharide from Syncephalastrum racemosum, a strong inducer of plant defence reactions
Valepyn, Emmanuel ULg; Cabrera, Juan-Carlos; Richel, Aurore ULg et al

in Carbohydrate Polymers (2014), 101

This study examines the production, characterization and bioactivity on plant cell cultured in vitro of exopolysaccharides (EPS) from Syncephalastrum racemosum CBS 443.59. Firstly, the influence of the ... [more ▼]

This study examines the production, characterization and bioactivity on plant cell cultured in vitro of exopolysaccharides (EPS) from Syncephalastrum racemosum CBS 443.59. Firstly, the influence of the fungus culture condition in shake flasks (pH, temperature and different carbon and nitrogen sources) on EPS and biomass production were evaluated. In order to enhance EPS production, a new protocol based on two-stage pH fermentation in a 3 L stirred fermentor was developed. Under this condition, EPS production increased by 3.55 times, compared to a constant pH process, reaching a maximal EPS concentration of 2.62 g/L. Structurally, the EPS contains a polyglucuronic acid backbone, linked essentially with mannose and fucose units and some galactose and glucose units. The bioactivity of EPS as inducer of defence reactions in plant suspension-cultured cells was also studied. Our results show, for first time, that EPS from S. racemosum CBS 443.59 induces, depending on the concentration, PAL activation and H2O2 synthesis in Arabidospsis thaliana cell suspensions. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomated analysis of background EEG and reactivity during therapeutic hypothermia in comatose patients after cardiac arrest
Noirhomme, Quentin ULg; Lehembre, Rémy; Lugo, Zulay et al

in Clinical EEG and Neuroscience : Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS) (2014)

Visual analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) background and reactivity during therapeutic hypothermia provides important outcome information, but is time-consuming and not always consistent between ... [more ▼]

Visual analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) background and reactivity during therapeutic hypothermia provides important outcome information, but is time-consuming and not always consistent between reviewers. Automated EEG analysis may help quantify the brain damage. Forty-six comatose patients in therapeutic hypothermia, after cardiac arrest, were included in the study. EEG background was quantified with burst-suppression ratio (BSR) and approximate entropy, both used to monitor anesthesia. Reactivity was detected through change in the power spectrum of signal before and after stimulation. Automatic results obtained almost perfect agreement (discontinuity) to substantial agreement (background reactivity) with a visual score from EEG-certified neurologists. Burst-suppression ratio was more suited to distinguish continuous EEG background from burst-suppression than approximate entropy in this specific population. Automatic EEG background and reactivity measures were significantly related to good and poor outcome. We conclude that quantitative EEG measurements can provide promising information regarding current state of the patient and clinical outcome, but further work is needed before routine application in a clinical setting. [less ▲]

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See detailLe canon littéraire au crible des Physiologies
Stienon, Valérie ULg

in Revue d'Histoire Littéraire de la France (2014), 1

Gustave Lanson considérait les productions mineures comme le tissu conjonctif de l’histoire littéraire. Un tel point de vue peut rapidement faire apparaître les Physiologies parisiennes des années 1830 ... [more ▼]

Gustave Lanson considérait les productions mineures comme le tissu conjonctif de l’histoire littéraire. Un tel point de vue peut rapidement faire apparaître les Physiologies parisiennes des années 1830-1845 comme le laboratoire de bien des esthétiques modernes, ce corpus étant d’autant plus inventif qu’il procède pour une grande part des poétiques d’écriture hybrides et expansives de la presse. Parce qu'elles sont enclines à traiter du personnel, des lieux et des pratiques littéraires à partir d'une fraction symboliquement réprouvée, sinon marginale, de la production littéraire, les Physiologies peuvent assumer tout à la fois une fonction de régulation et de révélation des processus de légitimation. L'article met en évidence ce double rôle d'élucidation et d'observation participante manifestée par ces textes. [less ▲]

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See detailVascular Endothelial Growth Factor-111 (VEGF-111) and tendon healing: preliminary results in a rat model of tendon injury
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Janssen, Lauriane ULg; Drion, Pierre ULg et al

in Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal (2014), 4(1), 25-28

Tendon lesions are among the most frequent musculoskeletal pathologies. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to regulate angiogenesis. VEGF-111, a biologically active and proteolysis ... [more ▼]

Tendon lesions are among the most frequent musculoskeletal pathologies. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to regulate angiogenesis. VEGF-111, a biologically active and proteolysis-resistant splice variant of this family, was recently identified. This study aimed at evaluating whether VEGF-111 could have a therapeutic interest in tendon pathologies. Surgical section of one Achilles tendon of rats was performed before a local injection of either saline or VEGF-111. After 5, 15 and 30 days, the Achilles tendons of 10 rats of both groups were sampled and submitted to a biomechanical tensile test. The force necessary to induce tendon rupture was greater for tendons of the VEGF-111 group (p<0.05) while the section areas of the tendons were similar. The mechanical stress was similar at 5 and 15 days in the both groups but was improved for the VEGF-111 group at day 30 (p <0.001). No difference was observed in the mRNA expression of collagen III, tenomodulin and MMP-9. In conclusion, we observed that a local injection of VEGF-111 improves the early phases of the healing process of rat tendons after a surgical section. Further confirmatory experimentations are needed to consolidate our results. [less ▲]

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See detailA climate analysis tool for passive heating and cooling strategies in hot humid climate based on Typical Meteorological Year data sets
Nguyen, Anh Tuan ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Energy & Buildings (2014), 68(Part C), 756-763

Through a newly developed climate analysis tool, this paper examines the potential of improving thermal comfort under the climates of Vietnam thanks to passive strategies. A Building climatic chart for ... [more ▼]

Through a newly developed climate analysis tool, this paper examines the potential of improving thermal comfort under the climates of Vietnam thanks to passive strategies. A Building climatic chart for Vietnamese was proposed based on Fanger’s theory [1] and the comfort zone of this chart was then extended by calculating the effects of passive heating and cooling strategies. Typical Meteorological Year weather data are used for extracting and graphically printing of hourly environmental parameters on the psychrometric chart and for climate analysis, subsequently. The limitation and the scope of this method are also specified. The climates of three climatic regions in Vietnam have been used as case studies using all year, seasonal and monthly analysis. The results show that natural ventilation is an effective cooling solution as thermal comfort improvement varies with the climatic zones, increasing from 24.8% in Hanoi, 22.1% in Danang to 32.0% in Hochiminh city. Meanwhile, passive solar heating is only effective under the climate of Hanoi. Direct evaporative cooling also shows great cooling potential for comfort improvement but probable elevated humidity is not expected. Total possible comfort in a year of each location indicates that further climate modification methods are inevitable to achieve comfort during extreme weather conditions, especially in Hanoi. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Silence of the Labs
Hendrickx, Kim ULg

in LIMN (2014), (4),

Is sugar a choice? Kim hendrickx explores how a sugar museum puts life and health in perspective

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See detailDétermination des propriétés de couches dans le béton à l'aide d'un géoradar commercial à hautes fréquences: approche pic-à-pic et analyse fréquentielle du coefficient de réflexion
Van der Wielen, Audrey ULg; Nguyen, Frédéric ULg; Courard, Luc ULg

in Annales du Bâtiment et des Travaux Publics (2014)

The Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is an efficient tool for the non-destructive inspection of concrete structures. It is widely used for the detection of rebars or humid zones or for evaluating the ... [more ▼]

The Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is an efficient tool for the non-destructive inspection of concrete structures. It is widely used for the detection of rebars or humid zones or for evaluating the thickness of elements. But when an element contains a thin layer, the radar waves are submitted to multiple reflections on the interfaces and the layer appears in the radargram as a single reflection, whose detailed analysis can allow determining the thickness and the permittivity of the thin layer. Two approaches were considered in this paper. In the first one, the analysis is based on the peak-to-peak reflection amplitude. The second approach uses a frequency analysis of the reflection coefficient, whose amplitude and phase can then be calculated for several frequencies. With this method, the thickness and permittivity of the layer can in theory be simultaneously determined. Both methods were numerically validated through finite difference simulations and experimentally tested on concrete samples containing an air layer of variable thickness. We showed that the frequency analysis allowed to reach a higher precision in the parameters estimation for a limited additional computing cost. The method efficiency depends on the conditions and is optimal for layers with a high permittivity presenting a large contrast with the matrix. [less ▲]

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See detailGeometrically exact beam finite element formulated on the special Euclidean group SE(3)
Sonneville, Valentin ULg; Cardona, Alberto; Bruls, Olivier ULg

in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics & Engineering (2014), 268

This paper describes a dynamic formulation of a straight beam finite element in the setting of the special Euclidean group SE(3). First, the static and dynamic equilibrium equations are derived in this ... [more ▼]

This paper describes a dynamic formulation of a straight beam finite element in the setting of the special Euclidean group SE(3). First, the static and dynamic equilibrium equations are derived in this framework from variational principles. Then, a non-linear interpolation formula using the exponential map is introduced. It is shown that this framework leads to a natural coupling in the interpolation of the position and rotation variables. Next, the discretized internal and inertia forces are developed. The semi-discrete equations of motion take the form of a second-order ordinary differential equation on a Lie group, which is solved using a Lie group time integration scheme. It is remarkable that no parameterization of the nodal variables needs to be introduced and that the proposed Lie group framework leads to a compact and easy-to-implement formulation. Some important numerical and theoretical aspects leading to a computationally efficient strategy are highlighted and discussed. For instance, the formulation leads to invariant tangent stiffness and mass matrices under rigid body motions and a locking free element. The proposed formulation is successfully tested in several numerical static and dynamic examples. [less ▲]

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