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See detailDécider ensemble ou vivre ensemble. Quelques pas de danse sur un air de tango
Bouhon, Frédéric ULg

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2017), 2017/1

Il s'agit de la version publiée de la leçon inaugurale prononcée le 10 novembre 2016.

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See detailGardez votre carte d'identité en poche
Bouhon, Frédéric ULg

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2017), 2017/1

Dans cette brève contribution, nous abordons la question de l'utilisation de la carte d'identité en Begique et les problèmes que cela soulève en matière de gestion des données à caractère personnel. À ... [more ▼]

Dans cette brève contribution, nous abordons la question de l'utilisation de la carte d'identité en Begique et les problèmes que cela soulève en matière de gestion des données à caractère personnel. À cette fin, nous revenons d’abord sur l’obligation de porter une carte d’identité et sur les raisons d’être de ce document. Nous essayons ensuite de mesurer l’ampleur des risques qu’implique le traitement des données liées à la carte, avant de nous focaliser sur certains usages particuliers de cette dernière. [less ▲]

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See detailEnonciation et modes d'existence
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg

in Nouveaux Actes Sémiotiques (2017), 120

Cet article aborde les relations entre sémiotique et philosophie latourienne à partir de la théorie de l’énonciation, cette dernière se situant tant aux fondements du projet disciplinaire de la sémiotique ... [more ▼]

Cet article aborde les relations entre sémiotique et philosophie latourienne à partir de la théorie de l’énonciation, cette dernière se situant tant aux fondements du projet disciplinaire de la sémiotique francophone contemporaine qu’à la base de la réflexion de Bruno Latour, des années 1970 jusqu’à présent . Notre propos se déploie en deux moments : dans un premier temps, nous revenons sur l’article "Petite Philosophie de l’énonciation" (1998), et nous en suivons le développement dans l’Enquête sur les modes d’existence (2012). Dans un second temps, nous réalisons une rapide archéologie de la théorie de l’énonciation dans la sémiotique contemporaine, afin de mettre en lumière les liens entre différentes traditions sémiotiques et la théorie latourienne. Plus précisément, nous nous attachons aux propositions récentes de Jacques Fontanille et de Claudio Paolucci, en prenant également en considération les contributions d’Umberto Eco et Patrizia Violi. Il s’agit de voir comment les sémioticiens peuvent tirer profit de la théorie latourienne des modes d’existence et vice versa. [less ▲]

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See detailReconstructing the Holocene depositional environments along the northern coast of Sfax (Tunisia): Mineralogical and sedimentological approaches
Lamourou, Ali ULg; Touir, Jamel; Fagel, Nathalie ULg

in Journal of African Earth Sciences (2017), 129C

A sedimentological and mineralogical study of sedimentary cores allows reconstructing the evolution of depositional environments along the Northern coast of Sfax (Tunisia). The aim is identifying the ... [more ▼]

A sedimentological and mineralogical study of sedimentary cores allows reconstructing the evolution of depositional environments along the Northern coast of Sfax (Tunisia). The aim is identifying the factors controlling the sedimentation from the Holocene to the Present. Three 30-m sediment cores collected by drilling at 30 meter water depth were analyzed for their color, magnetic susceptibility signal, grain size by laser diffraction, organic matter content by loss of ignition, carbonate content by calcimetry and mineralogy by X-ray diffraction on bulk powder and clay < 2 m. The three cores broadly present the same sedimentological and mineralogical features. Microscopical observations of petrographic slides allow to identifying six main sedimentary facies. Bulk mineralogical assemblages comprise clay minerals, quartz, calcite, gypsum and K-feldspars. The main change concerns the carbonate content that mimics the bioclaste abundance and dilute the detrital minerals (clay minerals, quartz and feldspars). The gypsum mainly occurs in the lower sedimentary columns (SC12 and SC9) and in the upper/middle of core SC6. The clay fraction is made of a mixture of kaolinite, illite, smectite and palygorskite with no clear variation through core depth. Both grain-size parameters and magnetic susceptibility profile indicates a sharp transition in the upper 2 to 5 m of the sedimentological columns. Coarse, sandy to gravely, sediments characterized by a low magnetic susceptibility signal are replaced by fine bioclastic-rich clayey sediments. The analysis of vertical succession of depositional facies showed a fluvial depositional environment (coastal plain) basically marked by fluvial channels and inundation plains at the bottom of all cores. Core-top sediments, however, record a littoral marine environment characterized by sand depositions rich in gastropods, lamellibranches and algæ. Depositional facies, sedimentological and mineralogical parameters are consistent with a transition from a continental, fluviatile, depositional environment, with some emersion phases marked by the gypsum precipitation to a marine littoral environment. Such evolution is consistent with a relative sea-level rise which flooded the fluvial system at the coastal plain during the Holocene, in agreement with sea-level fluctuations in southeast Tunisia during the Holocene. [less ▲]

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See detailSeasonal variations in drag coefficient over a sastrugi-covered snowfield in coastal East Antarctica
Amory, Charles ULg; Gallee, Hubert; Naaim-Bouvet, Florence et al

in Boundary-Layer Meteorology (2017)

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See detailL'énonciation d'une synthèse
Badir, Sémir ULg

in Nouveaux Actes Sémiotiques (2017)

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See detailInteractions between groundwater and the cavity of an old slate mine used as lower reservoir of an UPSH (Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity): A modelling approach
Bodeux, Sarah ULg; Pujades, Estanislao ULg; Orban, Philippe ULg et al

in Engineering Geology (2017), 217

In the actual evolving energy context, characterized by an increasing part of intermittent renewable sources, the development of energy storage technologies are required, such as pumped storage ... [more ▼]

In the actual evolving energy context, characterized by an increasing part of intermittent renewable sources, the development of energy storage technologies are required, such as pumped storage hydroelectricity (PSH). While new sites for conventional PSH plants are getting scarce, it is proposed to use abandoned underground mines as lower reservoirs for Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (UPSH). However, the hydrogeological consequences produced by the cyclic solicitations (continuous pumpings and injections) have been poorly investigated. Therefore, in this work, groundwater interactions with the cyclically fill and empty cavity were numerically studied considering a simplified description of a slate mine. Two pumping/injection scenarios were considered, both for a reference slate rock case and for a sensitivity analysis of variations of aquifer hydraulic conductivity value. Groundwater impacts were assessed in terms of oscillations of piezometric heads and mean drawdown around the cavity. The value of the hydraulic conductivity clearly influences the magnitude of the aquifer response. Studying interactions with the cavity highlighted that seepage into the cavity occurs over time. The volume of seeped water varies depending on the hydraulic conductivity and it could become non-negligible in the UPSH operations. These preliminary results allow finally considering first geological feasibility aspects, which could vary conversely according to the hydraulic conductivity value and to the considered groundwater impacts. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Evolution of PhD Education in Spain: A Chronological Review of Supra-national and National Actions
Aliaga Isla, Rocio ULg

in Higher Education Teaching and Learning (2017), 7

PhD education in Spain has changed; the current conception of the PhD is different from its initial concept. PhD education policy in Spain has experienced changes in its objectives and structure. Since ... [more ▼]

PhD education in Spain has changed; the current conception of the PhD is different from its initial concept. PhD education policy in Spain has experienced changes in its objectives and structure. Since its membership into the European Community, institutional policies at supra-national and national level have shaped and conditioned such changes. Therefore, how have PhD education policies changed over a long time in Spain? To answer this question, a chronological review has been conducted under the light of institutional theory. Several legal documents enacted at supra-national level are reviewed to frame the changes of PhD education policy at a national level. Moreover, national legal documents are reviewed to follow the evolution of PhD education in Spain. This study shows that PhD education in Spain has experienced rapid changes, which are congruent to some extent with the supra-national policies that have emerged from the social and economic change in the European Union. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Update on Aptamer-Based Multiplex System Approaches for the Detection of Common Foodborne Pathogens
Mukama, Omar; Rwibasira, Peter ULg; Sinumvayo, Jean Paul et al

in Food Analytical Methods (2017)

Food borne ailments constitute a public health challenge and pose an incredible economic burden in healthcare system around the globe. This dilemma has urged authorities and other entities working in ... [more ▼]

Food borne ailments constitute a public health challenge and pose an incredible economic burden in healthcare system around the globe. This dilemma has urged authorities and other entities working in field of food quality control and supply chain to play a pivotal role in ensuring food safety. Analytical strategies have been developed using numerous systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) methods to assure food safety. High-affinity and high-sensitivity ssDNA and RNA aptamers against pathogens have emerged as a novel strategy, as compared to the more resource-demanding and complicated biochemical test-based approaches. Thus, this review aims to focus on some methods used in the selection of specific bare, modified, and conjugated aptamers and on the further analysis of selected aptamers using flow cytometer or post-SELEX modifications for enhanced detection of frequently diagnosed foodborne bacteria such as Bacillus sp., Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia sp., Salmonella sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella sp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Streptococcus pyogenes and/or targeting their cell components towards attaining fast, sensitive, and selective methods for the detection of pathogens in food(s) or other sources. [less ▲]

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See detailReactive and physical extraction of bio-based diamines from fermentation media
Bednarz, Andreas; Spieß, Antje C; Pfennig, Andreas ULg

in Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology (2017), 92

BACKGROUND: The production of polymers constitutes the major mass flow in the chemical industry. The foreseeable future change from fossil to renewable resources leads to the demand for more production ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The production of polymers constitutes the major mass flow in the chemical industry. The foreseeable future change from fossil to renewable resources leads to the demand for more production routes based on biotechnological conversions. These routes preferably require biocompatible components and possess certain limitations of temperature and pH value for the corresponding downstream processing, which can be met by liquid–liquid extraction. This study investigates the extraction of the monomers hexane-1,6-diamine and butane-1,4-diamine from fermentation media using bis(2-ethylhexyl) hydrogen phosphate and isostearic acid as reactive extractants and kerosene as well as oleyl alcohol as diluents. RESULTS: As expected, the degree of extraction strongly depends on the pH-value but only weakly on the diluents. A higher diluent polarity leads to a slightly higher degree of extraction at a given pH value. The fraction of reactive extractant can be used to adjust theminimal pH value to reach the desired degree of extraction. No significant influence of fermentationmedium, buffer, presence of an E. coli microorganism, or temperature was detected. CONCLUSION: Reactive extraction of bio-based diamines with organic acids is feasible. The degree of extraction can be adjusted by the fraction of reactive extractant. [less ▲]

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See detailBeech wood Fagus sylvatica dilute-acid hydrolysate as a feedstock to support Chlorella sorokiniana biomass, fatty acid and pigment production
Miazek, Krystian ULg; Remacle, Claire ULg; Richel, Aurore ULg et al

in Bioresource Technology (2017), 230(April 2017), 122131

This work evaluates the possibility of using beech wood (Fagus sylvatica) dilute-acid (H2SO4) hydrolysate as a feedstock for Chlorella sorokiniana growth, fatty acid and pigment production. Neutralized ... [more ▼]

This work evaluates the possibility of using beech wood (Fagus sylvatica) dilute-acid (H2SO4) hydrolysate as a feedstock for Chlorella sorokiniana growth, fatty acid and pigment production. Neutralized wood acid hydrolysate, containing organic and mineral compounds, was tested on Chlorella growth at different concentrations and compared to growth under phototrophic conditions. Chlorella growth was improved at lower loadings and inhibited at higher loadings. Based on these results, a 12% neutralized wood acid hydrolysate (Hyd12%) loading was selected to investigate its impact on Chlorella growth, fatty acid and pigment production. Hyd12% improved microalgal biomass, fatty acid and pigment productivities both in light and in dark, when compared to photoautotrophic control. Light intensity had substantial influence on fatty acid and pigment composition in Chlorella culture during Hyd12%-based growth. Moreover, heterotrophic Chlorella cultivation with Hyd12% also showed that wood hydrolysate can constitute an attractive feedstock for microalgae cultivation in case of lack of light. [less ▲]

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See detailRecent uptake of intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine is associated with increased prevalence of Pfdhfr mutations in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso
Cisse, Mamoudou; Awandare, Gordon; Soulama, Alamissa et al

in Malaria Journal (2017), 16

Background: The impact of sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine (SP) used as intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp-SP) on mutant parasite selection has been poorly documented in Burkina Faso. This ... [more ▼]

Background: The impact of sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine (SP) used as intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp-SP) on mutant parasite selection has been poorly documented in Burkina Faso. This study sought first to explore the relationship between IPTp-SP and the presence of mutant parasites. Second, to assess the Relationship between the mutant parasites and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Methods: From September to December 2010, dried blood spots (DBS) were collected during antenatal care visits and at delivery from 109 pregnant women with microscopically confirmed falciparum malaria infection. DBS were analysed by PCR–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) for the polymorphisms at codons 51, 59, 108 and 164 of the Pfdhfr gene and codons 437 and 540 in the Pfdhps gene. Results: Both the Pfdhfr and Pfdhps genes were successfully genotyped in 92.7% (101/109) of the samples. The prevalence of Pfdhfr mutations N51I, C59R and S108N was 71.3, 42.6 and 64.4%, respectively. Overall, 80.2% (81/101) of samples carried the Pfdhps A437G mutation. None of the samples had the Pfdhfr I164L and the Pfdhps K540E mutations. The prevalence of the triple mutation N51I + C59R + S108N was 25.7% (26/101). The use of IPTp-SP was associated with a threefold increased odds of Pfdhfr C59R mutation [crude OR 3.29; 95% CI (1.44–7.50)]. Pregnant women with recent uptake of IPTp-SP were at higher odds of both the Pfdhfr C59R mutation [adjusted OR 4.26; 95% CI (1.64–11.07)] and the Pfdhfr intermediate-to-high resistance, i.e., ≥ 2 Pfdhfr mutations [adjusted OR 3.45; 95% CI (1.18–10.07)]. There was no statistically significant association between the presence of the Pfdhfr intermediate-tohigh resistance and parasite densities or both maternal haemoglobin level and anaemia. Conclusion: The data indicate that despite the possibility that IPTp-SP contributes to the selection of resistant parasites, it did not potentiate pregnancy-associated malaria morbidity, suggesting the continuation of SP use as IPTp in Burkina Faso. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanotransductive cascade of Myo-II-dependent mesoderm and endoderm invaginations in embryo gastrulation
Mitrossilis, Démosthène; Röper, Jens-Christian; Roy, Damien Le et al

in Nature Communications (2017), 8

Animal development consists of a cascade of tissue differentiation and shape change. Associated mechanical signals regulate tissue differentiation. Here we demonstrate that endogenous mechanical cues also ... [more ▼]

Animal development consists of a cascade of tissue differentiation and shape change. Associated mechanical signals regulate tissue differentiation. Here we demonstrate that endogenous mechanical cues also trigger biochemical pathways, generating the active morphogenetic movements shaping animal development through a mechanotransductive cascade of Myo-II medio-apical stabilization. To mimic physiological tissue deformation with a cell scale resolution, liposomes containing magnetic nanoparticles are injected into embryonic epithelia and submitted to time-variable forces generated by a linear array of micrometric soft magnets. Periodic magnetically induced deformations quantitatively phenocopy the soft mechanical endogenous snail-dependent apex pulsations, rescue the medio-apical accumulation of Rok, Myo-II and subsequent mesoderm invagination lacking in sna mutants, in a Fog-dependent mechanotransductive process. Mesoderm invagination then activates Myo-II apical accumulation, in a similar Fog-dependent mechanotransductive process, which in turn initiates endoderm invagination. This reveals the existence of a highly dynamic self-inductive cascade of mesoderm and endoderm invaginations, regulated by mechano-induced medio-apical stabilization of Myo-II. [less ▲]

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See detailPhotocleavable stabilizer for the preparation of PHEMA nanogels by dispersion polymerization in supercritical carbon dioxide
Alaimo, David; Grignard, Bruno ULg; Kuppan, Chandrasekar et al

in Polymer Chemistry (2017), 8(3), 581-591

A new photo-sensitive diblock copolymer composed of a hydrophilic sequence of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) linked to a CO2-philic sequence of poly(1H,1H,2H,2H-heptadecafluorodecyl acrylate) (PFDA) by a ... [more ▼]

A new photo-sensitive diblock copolymer composed of a hydrophilic sequence of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) linked to a CO2-philic sequence of poly(1H,1H,2H,2H-heptadecafluorodecyl acrylate) (PFDA) by a light sensitive o- nitrobenzyl group was successfully synthesized by RAFT polymerization and used as stabilizer for the free radical polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) in dispersion in ?,?,?-trifluorotoluene and supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). Thanks to this fluorinated stabilizer, well-defined particles of PHEMA down to 350 nm of diameter were produced in scCO2. Advantageously, the photocleavable group at the block junction of the stabilizer could be cleaved by exposing the particles to UV light so that the fluorinated block could be extracted in TFT or scCO2. As supported by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, up to 80 % of the fluorinated block of the stabilizer can be removed, leading to efficient swelling and dispersion of the resulting PHEMA nanogels in water. [less ▲]

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See detailTropospheric water vapour isotopologue data (H216O, H218O and HD16O) as obtained from NDACC/FTIR solar absorption spectra
Barthlott, Sabine; Schneider, Matthias; Hase, Frank et al

in Earth System Science Data (2017), 9

We report on the ground-based FTIR (Fourier Transform InfraRed) tropospheric water vapour isotopologue remote sensing data that have been recently made available via the database of NDACC (Network for the ... [more ▼]

We report on the ground-based FTIR (Fourier Transform InfraRed) tropospheric water vapour isotopologue remote sensing data that have been recently made available via the database of NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change; ftp://ftp.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/ndacc/MUSICA/) and via doi:10.5281/zenodo.48902. Currently, data are available for 12 globally distributed stations. They have been centrally retrieved and quality filtered in the framework of the MUSICA project (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water). We explain particularities of retrieving the water vapour isotopologue state (vertical distribution of H162O, H182O and HD16O) and reveal the need for a new meta-data template for archiving FTIR isotopologue data. We describe the format of different data components and give recommendations for correct data usage. Data are provided as two data types. The first type is best-suited for tropospheric water vapour distribution studies disregarding different isotopologues (comparison with radiosonde data, analyses of water vapour variability and trends, etc.). The second type is needed for analysing moisture pathways by means of {H2O,delta-D}-pair distributions. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of Various Indices of Energy Metabolism in Recumbent and Healthy Dairy Cows
Guyot, Hugues ULg; Detilleux, Johann ULg; Lebreton, Pascal et al

in PLoS ONE (2017), 12(1), 1-11

BACKGROUND: Downer cow syndrome (DCS) is often diagnosed in dairy cattle during the early post-partum period. The etiology of this condition is not completely understood, as it can be related to the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Downer cow syndrome (DCS) is often diagnosed in dairy cattle during the early post-partum period. The etiology of this condition is not completely understood, as it can be related to the energetic or electrolyte metabolism, as well as to infectious diseases or to trauma. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to compare energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity indices and various biochemical parameters between recumbent and healthy dairy cows. ANIMALS: A prospective study has been undertaken on 361 recumbent and 80 healthy Holstein cows. METHODS: Plasmatic glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) were assayed in all cows in order to calculate the insulin sensitivity indices but also minerals (Calcium, Phosphorous and Magnesium), thyroxin and creatine kinase. Body Condition Scores (BCS) was assessed. RESULTS: Significant differences in NEFA, and the glucose and insulin sensitivity indices ("Homeostasis Model Assessment" HOMA, "Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index" RQUICKI, RQUICKI-BHB) were observed between healthy and recumbent cows in the early post-parturient period indicating disturbances of glucose and insulin homeostasis in the recumbent cows. In the same manner, mineral concentrations were significantly different between healthy and recumbent cows. Glucose, insulin NEFA, and HOMA, were different between early post-partum downer cows and the DCS-affected cows later in lactation. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Results indicate disturbances in energy homeostasis in DCS-affected dairy cows. Further research should determine a prognostic value of the indices in cows suffering from recumbency of metabolic origin [less ▲]

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See detailHigh-throughput expression of animal venom toxins in Escherichia coli to generate a large library of oxidized disulphide-reticulated peptides for drug discovery
Turchetto; Sequeira, Ana Filipa; Ramond, Laurie et al

in Microbial Cell Factories (2017), 16(6), 1-15

Animal venoms are complex molecular cocktails containing a wide range of biologically active disulphide-reticulated peptides that target, with high selectivity and efficacy, a variety of membrane ... [more ▼]

Animal venoms are complex molecular cocktails containing a wide range of biologically active disulphide-reticulated peptides that target, with high selectivity and efficacy, a variety of membrane receptors. Disulphide-reticulated peptides have evolved to display improved specificity, low immunogenicity and to show much higher resistance to degradation than linear peptides. These properties make venom peptides attractive candidates for drug development. However, recombinant expression of reticulated peptides containing disulphide bonds is challenging, especially when associated with the production of large libraries of bioactive molecules for drug screening. To date, as an alternative to artificial synthetic chemical libraries, no comprehensive recombinant libraries of natural venom peptides are accessible for high-throughput screening to identify novel therapeutics. RESULTS: In the accompanying paper an efficient system for the expression and purification of oxidized disulphide-reticulated venom peptides in Escherichia coli is described. Here we report the development of a high-throughput automated platform, that could be adapted to the production of other families, to generate the largest ever library of recombinant venom peptides. The peptides were produced in the periplasm of E. coli using redox-active DsbC as a fusion tag, thus allowing the efficient formation of correctly folded disulphide bridges. TEV protease was used to remove fusion tags and recover the animal venom peptides in the native state. Globally, within nine months, out of a total of 4992 synthetic genes encoding a representative diversity of venom peptides, a library containing 2736 recombinant disulphide-reticulated peptides was generated. The data revealed that the animal venom peptides produced in the bacterial host were natively folded and, thus, are putatively biologically active. CONCLUSIONS: Overall this study reveals that high-throughput expression of animal venom peptides in E. coli can generate large libraries of recombinant disulphide-reticulated peptides of remarkable interest for drug discovery programs. [less ▲]

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See detailDiversity and carbon storage across the tropical forest biome
Sullivan, Martin J.P.; Talbot, Joey; Lewis, Simon L. et al

in Scientific Reports (2017), 7(39102),

Tropical forests are global centres of biodiversity and carbon storage. Many tropical countries aspire to protect forest to fulfil biodiversity and climate mitigation policy targets, but the conservation ... [more ▼]

Tropical forests are global centres of biodiversity and carbon storage. Many tropical countries aspire to protect forest to fulfil biodiversity and climate mitigation policy targets, but the conservation strategies needed to achieve these two functions depend critically on the tropical forest tree diversity-carbon storage relationship. Assessing this relationship is challenging due to the scarcity of inventories where carbon stocks in aboveground biomass and species identifications have been simultaneously and robustly quantified. Here, we compile a unique pan-Tropical dataset of 360 plots located in structurally intact old-growth closed-canopy forest, surveyed using standardised methods, allowing a multi-scale evaluation of diversity-carbon relationships in tropical forests. Diversity-carbon relationships among all plots at 1 ha scale across the tropics are absent, and within continents are either weak (Asia) or absent (Amazonia, Africa). A weak positive relationship is detectable within 1 ha plots, indicating that diversity effects in tropical forests may be scale dependent. The absence of clear diversity-carbon relationships at scales relevant to conservation planning means that carbon-centred conservation strategies will inevitably miss many high diversity ecosystems. As tropical forests can have any combination of tree diversity and carbon stocks both require explicit consideration when optimising policies to manage tropical carbon and biodiversity. [less ▲]

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See detailPresent-day central African forest is a legacy of the 19th century human history
Morin, Julie ULg; Fayolle, Adeline ULg; Favier, Charly et al

in eLife (2017)

The populations of light-demanding trees that dominate the canopy of central African forests are now aging. Here, we show that the lack of regeneration of these populations began ca. 165 ya (around 1850 ... [more ▼]

The populations of light-demanding trees that dominate the canopy of central African forests are now aging. Here, we show that the lack of regeneration of these populations began ca. 165 ya (around 1850) after major anthropogenic disturbances ceased. Since 1885, less itinerancy and disturbance in the forest has occurred because the colonial administrations concentrated people and villages along the primary communication axes. Local populations formerly gardened the forest by creating scattered openings, which were sufficiently large for the establishment of light-demanding trees. Currently, common logging operations do not create suitable openings for the regeneration of these species, whereas deforestation degrades landscapes. Using an interdisciplinary approach, which included paleoecological, archaeological, historical, and dendrological data, we highlight the long-term history of human activities across central African forests and assess the contribution of these activities to present-day forest structure and composition. The conclusions of this sobering analysis present challenges to current silvicultural practices and to those of the future. [less ▲]

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See detailCryopreservation of chicken primordial germ cells by vitrification and slow-freezing: a comparative study
Tonus, Céline ULg; Connan, Delphine ULg; Waroux, Olivier ULg et al

in Theriogenology (2017), 88

In the present study, we compare a classical slow freezing method and an aseptic vitrification technique to cryopreserve a stable Primordial Gem Cells (PGCs) line issued from the Ardennaise chicken breed ... [more ▼]

In the present study, we compare a classical slow freezing method and an aseptic vitrification technique to cryopreserve a stable Primordial Gem Cells (PGCs) line issued from the Ardennaise chicken breed. Viability immediately after warming was close to 80% and did not differ between the two cryopreservation methods. Proliferation tended to be slower for both cryopreservation methods compared to controls, but the difference was significant only for vitrification. No difference was found between the two methods after flow cytometry analysis of SSEA-1 expression and RT-PCR on several factors related to PGCs phenotype. After one week in culture, all cryopreserved cells reached controls main morphological and expanding (viability/proliferation) features. However, slow freezing generated more unwanted cells clusters than vitrification. After injection of the PGCs into recipient embryos, vitrified PGCs showed a clear, yet not significant, tendency to colonize the gonad at a higher rate than slow frozen PGCs. Slow freezing in cryovials remains simple, inexpensive and less technically demanding than vitrification. Nevertheless, the intrinsic advantages of our aseptic vitrification method and the present study suggest that this should be considered as safer than classical slow freezing for cryopreserving chicken PGCs. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy on reproductive performance of Holstein x Lai Sind crossbred heifers and cows at smallholdings in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
Nguyen-Kien, Cuong; Nguyen, Van Khanh; Hanzen, Christian ULg

in Tropical Animal Health and Production (2017), 49

The reproductive performance of Holstein x Lai Sind crossbred dairy heifers and cows was evaluated at small-holdings in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC). The data of 232 heifers and 244 cows (261 lactations) from ... [more ▼]

The reproductive performance of Holstein x Lai Sind crossbred dairy heifers and cows was evaluated at small-holdings in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC). The data of 232 heifers and 244 cows (261 lactations) from 35 small dairy farms was collected over a 2-year period, from 2013 to 2014. The overall mean for age at first service (AFS), days between first and last service (DFLS), and age at conception (AC) of heifers was 479 (±80), 38 (±80), and 517 (±114) days, respectively. Average number of services per conception (NSC), conception rate (CR), and conception rate at first ser-vice (CRFS) was 1.8 (±1.4), 55, and 58%, respectively. The overall mean for the waiting period (WP), DFLS, and days open (DO) of cows was 109 (±52), 133 (±114), and 242 (±129) days, respectively. The mean for NSC, CR, and CRFS was 4.3 (±2.7), 23, and 14%, respectively. A very sig- nificant decrease in AFS and AC according to the year of birth, and a significant increase in AFS according to body weight at first insemination (>320 kg) were observed. The CRFS of heifers inseminated in 2013 was significantly higher than in 2014. Monthly mean CR in heifers and cows was negatively correlated with THI. The WP, DFLS, DO, and NSC of cows significantly decreased according to the year of calving. Cows that calved in rainy season had a significant-ly longer WP than in dry season. The occurrence of postpar-tum (PP) diseases was accompanied by an increase in WP, DO, and NSC. A decrease in body condition score (BCS) between calving and 60th day (C60) and also between 60th and 120th day of lactation resulted in a significant increase in WP and DO. A decrease in BCS between C60 was also ac-companied by a considerable reduction in CRFS of cows. Season and BCS at insemination had a significant effect on NSC and CR of cows. Reproductive performance was satis-factory for heifers, but poor for cows. Losses of BCS during the first months of lactation and at insemination were the major risk factors for this poor performance. Moreover, the season had a more negative effect on fertility in cows than in heifers. [less ▲]

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See detailStability-based validation of dietary patterns obtained by cluster analysis
Sauvageot, Nicolas ULg; Schritz, Anna; Alkerwi, Ala'a et al

in Nutrition Journal (2017), 16(3),

Abstract Background Cluster analysis is a data-driven method used to create clusters of individuals sharing similar dietary habits. However, this method requires specific choices from the user which have ... [more ▼]

Abstract Background Cluster analysis is a data-driven method used to create clusters of individuals sharing similar dietary habits. However, this method requires specific choices from the user which have an influence on the results. Therefore, there is a need of an objective methodology helping researchers in their decisions during cluster analysis. The objective of this study was to use such a methodology based on stability of clustering solutions to select the most appropriate clustering method and number of clusters for describing dietary patterns in the NESCAV study (Nutrition, Environment and Cardiovascular Health), a large population-based cross-sectional study in the Greater Region (N = 2298). Methods Clustering solutions were obtained with K-means, K-medians and Ward’s method and a number of clusters varying from 2 to 6. Their stability was assessed with three indices: adjusted Rand index, Cramer’s V and misclassification rate. Results The most stable solution was obtained with K-means method and a number of clusters equal to 3. The “Convenient” cluster characterized by the consumption of convenient foods was the most prevalent with 46% of the population having this dietary behaviour. In addition, a “Prudent” and a “Non-Prudent” patterns associated respectively with healthy and non-healthy dietary habits were adopted by 25% and 29% of the population. The “Convenient” and “Non-Prudent” clusters were associated with higher cardiovascular risk whereas the “Prudent” pattern was associated with a decreased cardiovascular risk. Associations with others factors showed that the choice of a specific dietary pattern is part of a wider lifestyle profile. Conclusion This study is of interest for both researchers and public health professionals. From a methodological standpoint, we showed that using stability of clustering solutions could help researchers in their choices. From a public health perspective, this study showed the need of targeted health promotion campaigns describing the benefits of healthy dietary patterns. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrobiological load of edible insects found in Belgium
Caparros Megido, Rudy ULg; Desmedt, Sandrine; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

in Insects (2017)

Edible insects are gaining more and more attention as a sustainable source of animal protein for food and feed in the future. In Belgium, some insect products can be found on the market, and consumers are ... [more ▼]

Edible insects are gaining more and more attention as a sustainable source of animal protein for food and feed in the future. In Belgium, some insect products can be found on the market, and consumers are sourcing fresh insects from fishing stores or towards traditional markets to find exotic insects that are illegal and not sanitarily controlled. From this perspective, this study aims to characterize the microbial load of edible insects found in Belgium (i.e., fresh mealworms and house crickets from European farms and smoked termites and caterpillars from a traditional Congolese market) and to evaluate the efficiency of different processing methods (blanching for all species and freeze-drying and sterilization for European species) in reducing microorganism counts. All untreated insect samples had a total aerobic count higher than the limit for fresh minced meat (6.7 log cfu/g). Nevertheless, a species-dependent blanching step has led to a reduction of the total aerobic count under this limit, except for one caterpillar species. Freeze-drying and sterilization treatments on European species were also effective in reducing the total aerobic count. Yeast and mold counts for untreated insects were above the Good Manufacturing Practice limits for raw meat, but all treatments attained a reduction of these microorganisms under this limit. These results confirmed that fresh insects, but also smoked insects from non-European trades, need a cooking step (at least composed of a first blanching step) before consumption. Therefore, blanching timing for each studied insect species is proposed and discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat is the use of shaping a tang? Tool use and hafting of tanged tools in the Aterian of Northern Africa
Tomasso, Sonja ULg; Rots, Veerle ULg

in Archaeological and Anthropological sciences (2017)

We present the results of detailed microscopic examination of tanged tools from the site of Ifri n'Ammar. The rock shelter has a particularly rich and well-preserved stratigraphy that has yielded a large ... [more ▼]

We present the results of detailed microscopic examination of tanged tools from the site of Ifri n'Ammar. The rock shelter has a particularly rich and well-preserved stratigraphy that has yielded a large variety of tanged tools, thus offering a possibility to test hypotheses on the possible links between tangs and hafting. Earlier methodological work has demonstrated that patterned wear forms on the non-active part of the tool as the result of hafted tool use, and that the characteristics of the wear traces depend on the exact hafting arrangement used. In the present study, wear analyses were combined with further experiments that involved the hafting of tanged tools with various materials and arrangements and aimed at understanding the development of this important morphological innovation. We suggest that functional data are needed to understand the relevance of the "Aterian tang" for hafting (or use), and whether this innovation was triggered by functional, cultural or environmental factors. [less ▲]

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See detailAtypical composition and structure of the mitochondrial dimeric ATP synthase from Euglena gracilis
Yadav, K.N. Sathish; Miranda Astudillo, Héctor Vicente ULg; Colina-Tenorio, Lili et al

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-Bioenergetics (2017), 1858(4), 267-275

Mitochondrial respiratory-chain complexes from Euglenozoa comprise classical subunits described in other eukaryotes (i.e. mammals and fungi) and subunits that are restricted to Euglenozoa (e.g. Euglena ... [more ▼]

Mitochondrial respiratory-chain complexes from Euglenozoa comprise classical subunits described in other eukaryotes (i.e. mammals and fungi) and subunits that are restricted to Euglenozoa (e.g. Euglena gracilis and Trypanosoma brucei). Here we studied the mitochondrial F1FO-ATP synthase (or Complex V) from the photosynthetic eukaryote E. gracilis in detail. The enzyme was purified by a two-step chromatographic procedure and its subunit composition was resolved by a three-dimensional gel electrophoresis (BN/SDS/SDS). Twenty-two different subunits were identified by mass-spectrometry analyses among which the canonical alpha, beta, gamma, delta, epsilon and OSCP subunits, and at least seven subunits previously found in Trypanosoma. The ADP/ATP carrier was also associated to the ATP synthase into a dimeric ATP synthasome. Single-particle analysis by transmission electron microscopy of the dimeric ATP synthase indicated that the structures of both the catalytic and central rotor parts are conserved while other structural features are original. These new features include a large membrane-spanning region joining the monomers, an external peripheral stalk and a structure that goes through the membrane and reaches the inter membrane space below the c-ring, the latter having not been reported for any mitochondrial F-ATPase. [less ▲]

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See detailPrevalence, location and concurrent diseases of ultrasonographic cyst-like lesions of abdominal lymph nodes in dogs.
Liotta, Annalisa Pia; Billen, Frédéric ULg; Heimann, Marianne et al

in The Veterinary record (2017)

Lymph nodal cyst-like lesions are occasionally identified during abdominal ultrasound in dogs. However, a study evaluating their prevalence and clinical significance is lacking. The aim of this ... [more ▼]

Lymph nodal cyst-like lesions are occasionally identified during abdominal ultrasound in dogs. However, a study evaluating their prevalence and clinical significance is lacking. The aim of this observational cross-sectional study was to evaluate prevalence, most common location and concurrent diseases of cyst-like lymph nodes detected during abdominal ultrasound. Affected lymph nodes, patient signalment and concurrent diseases of dogs with cyst-like lymph nodal lesions having undergone abdominal ultrasound over a one-year period were recorded. Twenty-three affected lymph nodes were observed in 17/553 dogs (prevalence=3 per cent). The most commonly affected was the lumbar lymphocenter (7/23), followed by the coeliac (6/23), the cranial mesenteric (5/23) and the iliosacral (5/23). Twenty-three concurrent diseases were diagnosed in 17 dogs, among which 16/23 were non-neoplastic (70 per cent). The most common concurrent disease was renal insufficiency (8/23), followed by neoplasia (7/23), gastroenteropathy (3/23), benign prostatic disease (2/23), pancreatitis (1/23), peritonitis (1/23) and neurological disease (1/23). No statistical correlation existed between cyst-like lymph nodal lesion and a specific neoplastic or non-neoplastic disease. In conclusion, in the present study, cyst-like lymph nodal lesions have a low prevalence, involve different lymphocenters and were found in dogs affected by different diseases, including both non-neoplastic and neoplastic aetiologies. [less ▲]

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See detailElevated carbon dioxide concentration reduces alarm signaling in aphids
Boullis, Antoine ULg; Fassotte, Bérénice ULg; Sarles, Landry ULg et al

in Journal of Chemical Ecology (2017), 43

Insects often rely on olfaction to communicate with surrounding conspecifics. While the chemical language of insects has been deciphered in recent decades, few studies have assessed how changes in ... [more ▼]

Insects often rely on olfaction to communicate with surrounding conspecifics. While the chemical language of insects has been deciphered in recent decades, few studies have assessed how changes in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations will impact pheromonal communication by insects. Here, we hypothesize that changes in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) affect the whole dynamics of alarm signaling in aphids, including: (1) the production of the active compound (E)-β-farnesene (Eβf), (2) emission behavior when under attack, (3) perception by the olfactory apparatus, and (4) the escape response. We reared two strains of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum under ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations for several generations. We found that an increase in CO2 concentration reduced the production (i.e., individual content) and emission of Eβf (released under predation events). While no difference in Eβf neuronal perception was observed, we found that an increase in CO2 strongly reduces the escape behavior expressed by an aphid colony following exposure to natural doses of the alarm pheromone. In conclusion, our results confirm that changes to greenhouse gases do impact chemical communication in insects, and could potentially have a cascade effect on interactions with higher trophic levels. [less ▲]

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See detailFermi-LAT kills dark matter interpretations of AMS-02 data. Or not?
Belotsky, Konstantin; Budaev, Ruslan; Kirillov, Alexander et al

in Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics (2017)

A number of papers attempt to explain the positron anomaly in cosmic rays, observed by PAMELA and AMS-02, in terms of dark matter (DM) decays or annihilations. However, the recent progress in cosmic gamma ... [more ▼]

A number of papers attempt to explain the positron anomaly in cosmic rays, observed by PAMELA and AMS-02, in terms of dark matter (DM) decays or annihilations. However, the recent progress in cosmic gamma-ray studies challenges these attempts. Indeed, as we show, any rational DM model explaining the positron anomaly abundantly produces final state radiation and Inverse Compton gamma rays, which inevitably leads to a contradiction with Fermi-LAT isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background measurements. Furthermore, the Fermi-LAT observation of Milky Way dwarf satellites, supposed to be rich in DM, revealed no significant signal in gamma rays. We propose a generic approach in which the major contribution to cosmic rays comes from the dark matter disc and prove that the tension between the DM origin of the positron anomaly and the cosmic gamma-ray observations can be relieved. We consider both a simple model, in which DM decay/annihilate into charged leptons, and a model-independent minimal case of particle production, and we estimate the optimal thickness of DM disk. Possible mechanisms of formation and its properties are briefly discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailApprentissage d'auto-hypnose/self-care en oncologie. Pour qui? Comment? Pour quel intérêt?
Charland-Verville, Vanessa ULg; FAYMONVILLE, Marie-Elisabeth ULg; VANHAUDENHUYSE, Audrey ULg et al

in Psycho-Oncologie (2017), 11

Les symptômes physiques les plus fréquemment liés au cancer et à ses traitements sont la douleur, les nausées et la fatigue. Ils peuvent influencer négativement la qualité de vie. Les interventions de ... [more ▼]

Les symptômes physiques les plus fréquemment liés au cancer et à ses traitements sont la douleur, les nausées et la fatigue. Ils peuvent influencer négativement la qualité de vie. Les interventions de groupe visant l’apprentissage de l’autohypnose, associé ou non à l’autobienveillance, ont démontré l’amélioration de l’adaptation des patients oncologiques. Le but de cette revue est de relever l’efficacité de l’hypnose dans la gestion des symptômes liés à la maladie et de mieux comprendre les mécanismes de la technique. [less ▲]

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See detailSimultaneous anionic ring-opening and condensation reactions for the synthesis of aliphatic–N-alkyl aromatic copolyamides
Bakkali-Hassani, Camille; Tunc, Deniz; Roos, Kevin et al

in Macromolecules (2017), 50(1), 175-181

The copolymerization of ε-caprolactam with ethyl 4-(butylamino)benzoate was shown to occur in the presence of sodium salts and an acyllactam as activator in a one-step bulk reaction. The mechanism is ... [more ▼]

The copolymerization of ε-caprolactam with ethyl 4-(butylamino)benzoate was shown to occur in the presence of sodium salts and an acyllactam as activator in a one-step bulk reaction. The mechanism is based on the deprotonation of the two monomers yielding activated species able to attack an acyllactam or an ester group at the polymer chain ends. Novel copolyamides with different percentages of aromatic/aliphatic units were synthesized in a one-step bulk copolymerization within a few minutes at 140 °C and characterized by NMR spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography, and thermal analysis (DSC). This methodology, combining simultaneous anionic ring-opening and condensation reactions, affords a new synthetic pathway to introduce an aromatic unit in an aliphatic polyamide backbone, and more specifically a polyamide 6 containing about 20 mol % of N-alkyl aromatic amides was prepared. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of extraction pH on techno-functional properties of crude extracts from wild cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) flowers
Ben Amira, Amal ULg; Makhlouf, Ines; Petrut, Raul Flaviu et al

in Food Chemistry (2017), 225

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See detailBiocompatibility of polymer-infiltrated-ceramicnetwork (PICN) materials with Human Gingival Keratinocytes (HGKs)
GRENADE, Charlotte ULg; Gillet, Marie-Claire ULg; PIRARD, Catherine ULg et al

in Dental Materials (2017), 33

Objective. Biocompatibility of polymer-infiltrated-ceramic-network (PICN) materials, a new class of CAD–CAM composites, is poorly explored in the literature, in particular, no data are available regarding ... [more ▼]

Objective. Biocompatibility of polymer-infiltrated-ceramic-network (PICN) materials, a new class of CAD–CAM composites, is poorly explored in the literature, in particular, no data are available regarding Human Gingival Keratinocytes (HGK). The first objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro biocompatibility of PICNs with HGKs in comparison with other materials typically used for implant prostheses. The second objective was to correlate results with PICN monomer release and indirect cytotoxicity. Methods. HGK attachment, proliferation and spreading on PICN, grade V titanium (Ti), yttrium zirconia (Zi), lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (eM) and polytetrafluoroethylene (negative control) discs were evaluated using a specific insert-based culture system. For PICN and eM samples, monomer release in the culture medium was quantified by high performance liquid chromatography and indirect cytotoxicity tests were performed. Results. Ti and Zi exhibited the best results regarding HGK viability, number and coverage. eM showed inferior results while PICN showed statistically similar results to eM but also to Ti regarding cell number and to Ti and Zi regarding cell viability. No monomer release from PICN discs was found, nor indirect cytotoxicity, as for eM. Significance. The results confirmed the excellent behavior of Ti and Zi with gingival cells. Even if polymer based, PICN materials exhibited intermediate results between Ti–Zi and eM. These promising results could notably be explained by PICN high temperature–high pressure (HT–HP) innovative polymerization mode, as confirmed by the absence of monomer release and indirect cytotoxicity [less ▲]

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See detailFirst scattered-light images of the gas-rich debris disk around 49 Ceti
Choquet, É.; Milli, J.; Wahhaj, Z. et al

in Astrophysical Journal Letters (2017), 834(2), 12

We present the first scattered-light images of the debris disk around 49 ceti, a ~40 Myr A1 main sequence star at 59 pc, famous for hosting two massive dust belts as well as large quantities of atomic and ... [more ▼]

We present the first scattered-light images of the debris disk around 49 ceti, a ~40 Myr A1 main sequence star at 59 pc, famous for hosting two massive dust belts as well as large quantities of atomic and molecular gas. The outer disk is revealed in reprocessed archival Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS F110W images, as well as new coronagraphic H band images from the Very Large Telescope SPHERE instrument. The disk extends from 1.1" (65 AU) to 4.6" (250 AU), and is seen at an inclination of 73degr, which refines previous measurements at lower angular resolution. We also report no companion detection larger than 3 M_Jup at projected separations beyond 20 AU from the star (0.34"). Comparison between the F110W and H-band images is consistent with a grey color of 49 ceti's dust, indicating grains larger than >2microns. Our photometric measurements indicate a scattering efficiency / infrared excess ratio of 0.2-0.4, relatively low compared to other characterized debris disks. We find that 49 ceti presents morphological and scattering properties very similar to the gas-rich HD 131835 system. From our constraint on the disk inclination we find that the atomic gas previously detected in absorption must extend to the inner disk, and that the latter must be depleted of CO gas. Building on previous studies, we propose a schematic view of the system describing the dust and gas structure around 49 ceti and hypothetic scenarios for the gas nature and origin. [less ▲]

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See detailRe-emergence of the Schmallenberg virus associated triad hydranencephaly-micromyelia-arthrogryposis in a newborn calf in Belgium, 2016
Bayrou, Calixte ULg; Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Cassart, Dominique ULg et al

in Veterinary Record Case Reports (2017), 4(1), 000342

Schmallenberg virus (SBV) emerged in Germany in 2011, then spread rapidly across Europe, causing an epizootic outbreak of abortion, stillbirth and birth at term of lambs, kids and calves with neurological ... [more ▼]

Schmallenberg virus (SBV) emerged in Germany in 2011, then spread rapidly across Europe, causing an epizootic outbreak of abortion, stillbirth and birth at term of lambs, kids and calves with neurological signs and/or musculo-skeletal malformations. SBV-associated disease in newborns disappeared in Belgium in 2013. Here, we describe a SBV genomic RNA-positive malformed calf born in May 2016. It reveals the return of SBV circulation during the fall 2015 in the said area. [less ▲]

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See detailThe soundscape of Arctic Charr spawning grounds in lotic and lentic environments: can passive acoustic monitoring be used to detect spawning activities?
Bolgan, Marta ULg; O'Brien, Joanne; Chorazyczewska, Emilia et al

in Bioacoustics (2017)

The aims of this study were to (i) assess the efficacy of passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) for detecting Arctic Charr at their spawning grounds and (ii) characterize the overall acoustic soundscape of ... [more ▼]

The aims of this study were to (i) assess the efficacy of passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) for detecting Arctic Charr at their spawning grounds and (ii) characterize the overall acoustic soundscape of these sites. PAM was carried out over three Arctic Charr spawning grounds in the UK, one lotic and two lentic. 24-h cycles of recordings were collected prior to and during the Arctic Charr spawning season, which was determined from data returns by simultaneous net monitoring. Acoustic analysis consisted of manual quantification of sound sources, Acoustic Complexity Index (ACI) calculation and spectral analysis in 1/3 octave band (SPL; dB re 1 μPa). In the lotic spawning ground, prior to the beginning of Arctic Charr spawning, SPL and ACI showed a restricted range of variation throughout the 24-h, while during spawning the night values of SPL and ACI were found to significantly increase, concurrently with the rate of gravel noise induced by fish spawning activities and fish air passage sounds. Both prior to and during the Arctic Charr run, the lentic soundscape was characterized by diel variation due to the daytime presence of anthropogenic noise and the night-time presence of insect calls, while only a few occurrences of fish air passage sounds and gravel noise were recorded. These findings suggest that PAM over Arctic Charr spawning grounds could provide meaningful information to be used in developing management plans for this threatened species, such as determining the location and time of arrival, diel pattern and length of spawning activities. [less ▲]

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See detailFlow boiling heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of R134a, R1234yf and R1234ze in a plate heat exchanger for organic Rankine cycle units
Zhang, Ji; Desideri, Adriano ULg; Ryhl Kaern, Martin et al

in International Journal of Heat & Mass Transfer (2017), 108

The optimal design of the evaporator is one of the key issues to improve the efficiency and economics of organic Rankine cycle units. The first step in studying the evaporator design is to understand the ... [more ▼]

The optimal design of the evaporator is one of the key issues to improve the efficiency and economics of organic Rankine cycle units. The first step in studying the evaporator design is to understand the thermal- hydraulic performance of the working fluid in the evaporator of organic Rankine cycles. This paper is aimed at obtaining flow boiling heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics in a plate heat exchanger under the working conditions prevailing in the evaporator of organic Rankine cycle units. Two hydroflu- oroolefins R1234yf and R1234ze, and one hydrofluorocarbon R134a, were selected as the working fluids. The heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops of the three working fluids were measured with varying saturation temperatures, mass fluxes, heat fluxes and outlet vapour qualities, which range from 60 C to 80 C, 86 kg/m2 s to 137 kg/m2 s, 9.8 kW/m2 to 36.8 kW/m2 and 0.5 to 1, respectively. The working con- ditions covered relatively high saturation temperatures (corresponding reduced pressures of 0.35–0.74), which are prevailing in organic Rankine cycles yet absent in the open literature. The experimental data were compared with existing correlations, and new correlations were developed that are more suitable for evaporation in organic Rankine cycles. The experimental results indicate that heat transfer coefficients are strongly dependent upon the heat flux and saturation temperature. Moreover, the results suggest bet- ter thermal-hydraulic performance for R1234yf than the other two working fluids at the same saturation temperatures. With the new heat transfer and pressure drop correlations, agreements within ±25% were obtained for experimental data in similar experiments with high saturation temperatures. [less ▲]

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See detailPollen nutrients better explain bumblebee colony development than pollen diversity
Moerman, Romain; Vanderplanck, Maryse ULg; Fournier, Denis et al

in Insect Conservation and Diversity (2017)

1. Bumblebees are valuable pollinators of numerous wild and cultivated plants. They can forage on variable pollen resources. As some pollen species lack particular nutrients or have global low nutritional ... [more ▼]

1. Bumblebees are valuable pollinators of numerous wild and cultivated plants. They can forage on variable pollen resources. As some pollen species lack particular nutrients or have global low nutritional quality, it has been suggested that bumblebees mix their pollen incomes to ensure a global balanced diet. The hypothesis that a mixed pollen diet better supports bumblebee colony development than a single pollen diet has been poorly explored. 2. We compared the impact of mono-, di- and trifloral diets on microcolony development of Bombus terrestris using three pollen resources with different nutrient contents (Cytisus scoparius, Erica sp. and Sorbus aucuparia) as well as their mixes. Nine parameters (e.g. pollen efficacy: total weight of larvae/total weight of pollen collection) were used to compare the microcolony performances. Moreover, we measured the influence of the pollen diversity and nutritional composition on relevant parameters. 3. We showed that microcolonies can potentially better develop on mixed pollen diets, but single pollen diet can also be as good as mixed pollen diet. Moreover, the sterol concentration appeared as a key factor to establish the impact of a pollen diet on the bumblebee colony development. 4. This study reveals that diverse pollen diet does not necessary equate with good colony development and supports the importance of selecting floral resources by considering their nutrient contents for bee conservation management. [less ▲]

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See detailStromal Modulators of TGF-β in Cancer
Costanza, Brunella ULg; Umelo, Ijeoma ULg; Bellier, Justine ULg et al

in Journal of clinical Medicine (2017)

Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is an intriguing cytokine exhibiting dual activities in malignant disease. It is an important mediator of cancer invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis, on the one hand ... [more ▼]

Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is an intriguing cytokine exhibiting dual activities in malignant disease. It is an important mediator of cancer invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis, on the one hand, while it exhibits anti-tumor functions on the other hand. Elucidating the precise role of TGF-β in malignant development and progression requires a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in its tumor suppressor to tumor promoter switch. One important aspect of TGF-β function is its interaction with proteins within the tumor microenvironment. Several stromal proteins have the natural ability to interact and modulate TGF-β function. Understanding the complex interplay between the TGF-β signaling network and these stromal proteins may provide greater insight into the development of novel therapeutic strategies that target the TGF-β axis. The present review highlights our present understanding of how stroma modulates TGF-β activity in human cancers [less ▲]

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See detailSodium vanadium (III) fluorophosphate/carbon nanotubes composite (NVPF/CNT) prepared by spray-drying: good electrochemical performance thanks to well-dispersed CNT network within NVPF particles
Eshraghi, Nicolas ULg; Caes, Sebastien; Mahmoud, Abdelfattah ULg et al

in Electrochimica Acta (2017), 228

We successfully prepared NASICON-type Na3V2(PO4)2F3 (NVPF) and a Na3V2(PO4)2F3/carbon nanotubes (CNT) composite by spray-drying followed by heat treatment in argon for 2 hours at 600 °C. The addition of ... [more ▼]

We successfully prepared NASICON-type Na3V2(PO4)2F3 (NVPF) and a Na3V2(PO4)2F3/carbon nanotubes (CNT) composite by spray-drying followed by heat treatment in argon for 2 hours at 600 °C. The addition of CNT in the spray-drying solution creates a CNT network within the NVPF particles. After grinding, the smaller NVPF particles remain linked by CNT. Thanks to this conducting network, the composite powder displays competitive electrochemical performance when cycled against lithium in hybrid-ion batteries (2–4.6 V vs. Li+/Li) with specific capacities of 125 mAh.g−1 at C/10, 103 mAh.g−1 at 1C and 91 mAh.g−1 at 4C, together with 97.5% capacity retention at 1C over 100 cycles with coulombic efficiency of 99.4%. These results demonstrate that sodium vanadium (III) fluorophosphate electrode material can be obtained in a time-efficient way using the easily up-scalable spray-drying method. [less ▲]

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See detailA Framework for the Evaluation of Biosecurity, Commercial, Regulatory, and Scientific Impacts of Plant Viruses and Viroids Identified by NGS Technologies
Massart, Sebastien; Candresse, Thierry; Gil, Jose et al

in Frontiers in Microbiology (2017), 8(45),

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See detailCompte rendu de Lavocat (Françoise), Fait et fiction, Paris, Seuil, "Poétique", 2016, 618p.
Huppe, Justine ULg

in COnTEXTES : Revue de Sociologie de la Littérature (2017)

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See detailImage quality in Coronary CT Angiography: Challenges and technical solutions.
Ghekiere, Olivier; Salgado, Rodrigo; Buls, Nico et al

in British Journal of Radiology (2017)

Multidetector CT angiography has become a widely accepted examination for non-invasive evaluation of the heart and coronary arteries. Despite its ongoing success and worldwide clinical implementation, it ... [more ▼]

Multidetector CT angiography has become a widely accepted examination for non-invasive evaluation of the heart and coronary arteries. Despite its ongoing success and worldwide clinical implementation, it remains an often-challenging procedure in which image quality, and hence diagnostic value, is determined by both technical and patient-related factors. Thorough knowledge of these factors is important to obtain high quality examinations. In this review, we discuss several key elements that may adversely affect coronary CT angiography image quality as well as potential measures that can be taken to mitigate their impact. In addition, several recent vendor-specific advances and future directions to improve image quality are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailSegregation and pattern formation in dilute granular media under microgravity conditions
Opsomer, Eric ULg; Noirhomme, Martial ULg; Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg et al

in NPJ Microgravity (2017), 3

Space exploration and exploitation face a major challenge: the handling of granular materials in low-gravity environments. Indeed, grains behave quite differently in space than on Earth, and the ... [more ▼]

Space exploration and exploitation face a major challenge: the handling of granular materials in low-gravity environments. Indeed, grains behave quite differently in space than on Earth, and the dissipative nature of the collisions between solid particles leads to clustering. Within poly-disperse materials, the question of segregation is highly relevant but has not been addressed so far in microgravity. From parabolic flight experiments on dilute binary granular media, we show that clustering can trigger a segregation mechanism, and we observe, for the first time, the formation of layered structures in the bulk. [less ▲]

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See detailThe W. M. Keck Observatory infrared vortex coronagraph and a first image of HIP79124 B
Serabyn, Eugene; Huby, Elsa ULg; Matthews, Keith et al

in Astronomical Journal (The) (2017), 153(1), 43

An optical vortex coronagraph has been implemented within the NIRC2 camera on the Keck II telescope and used to carry out on-sky tests and observations. The development of this new L'-band observational ... [more ▼]

An optical vortex coronagraph has been implemented within the NIRC2 camera on the Keck II telescope and used to carry out on-sky tests and observations. The development of this new L'-band observational mode is described, and an initial demonstration of the new capability is presented: a resolved image of the low-mass companion to HIP79124, which had previously been detected by means of interferometry. With HIP79124 B at a projected separation of 186.5 mas, both the small inner working angle of the vortex coronagraph and the related imaging improvements were crucial in imaging this close companion directly. Due to higher Strehl ratios and more relaxed contrasts in L' band versus H band, this new coronagraphic capability will enable high-contrast small-angle observations of nearby young exoplanets and disks on a par with those of shorter-wavelength extreme adaptive optics coronagraphs. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of the inner disk around HD 141569 A from Keck/NIRC2 L-band vortex coronagraphy
Mawet, Dimitri; Choquet, Élodie; Absil, Olivier ULg et al

in Astronomical Journal (The) (2017), 153(1), 44

HD 141569 A is a pre-main sequence B9.5 Ve star surrounded by a prominent and complex circumstellar disk, likely still in a transition stage from protoplanetary to debris disk phase. Here, we present a ... [more ▼]

HD 141569 A is a pre-main sequence B9.5 Ve star surrounded by a prominent and complex circumstellar disk, likely still in a transition stage from protoplanetary to debris disk phase. Here, we present a new image of the third inner disk component of HD 141569 A made in the L' band (3.8 micron) during the commissioning of the vector vortex coronagraph recently installed in the near-infrared imager and spectrograph NIRC2 behind the W.M. Keck Observatory Keck II adaptive optics system. We used reference point spread function subtraction, which reveals the innermost disk component from the inner working distance of $\simeq 23$ AU and up to $\simeq 70$ AU. The spatial scale of our detection roughly corresponds to the optical and near-infrared scattered light, thermal Q, N and 8.6 micron PAH emission reported earlier. We also see an outward progression in dust location from the L'-band to the H-band (VLT/SPHERE image) to the visible (HST/STIS image), likely indicative of dust blowout. The warm disk component is nested deep inside the two outer belts imaged by HST NICMOS in 1999 (respectively at 406 and 245 AU). We fit our new L'-band image and spectral energy distribution of HD 141569 A with the radiative transfer code MCFOST. Our best-fit models favor pure olivine grains, and are consistent with the composition of the outer belts. While our image shows a putative very-faint point-like clump or source embedded in the inner disk, we did not detect any true companion within the gap between the inner disk and the first outer ring, at a sensitivity of a few Jupiter masses. [less ▲]

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See detailPaleogenetic study of ancient DNA suggestive of X-Linked acrogigantism
Beckers, Albert ULg; Fernandes, Daniel; Fina, Frederic et al

in Endocrine-Related Cancer (2017)

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See detailHow should proxies of Cognitive Reserve be evaluated in a population of healthy older adults?
Grotz, Catherine ULg; Seron, Xavier; Van Wissen, Marie et al

in International Psychogeriatrics (2017), 29(1), 123-136

Background: While some tools have been developed to estimate an individual’s cognitive reserve (CR), no study has assessed the adequacy of the method used for assessing these CR proxy indicators ... [more ▼]

Background: While some tools have been developed to estimate an individual’s cognitive reserve (CR), no study has assessed the adequacy of the method used for assessing these CR proxy indicators. Therefore, we aimed to determine the most appropriate method to estimate CR by comparing two approaches: 1) the common assessment of CR proxies in the literature (e.g., years of education) and 2) the calculation of a comprehensive index based on most significant parameters used in the estimation of CR. Methods: Data on CR proxies: (i.e., education, occupation and leisure activities) were obtained in a sample of 204 older adults. Regression analyses were used to develop the two indices of CR (i.e., ICR-standard and ICR-detailed) and to determine which index best represented the level of one’s CR. Results: The ICR-standard was calculated using a combination of the three most common measures of reserve in the literature: number of schooling years, complexity of the primary occupation and amount of current participation in stimulating activities. The ICR-detailed was calculated using the most significant parameters (established in initial analyses) of CR: highest level of education combined with the number of training courses, last occupation and amount of current participation in social and intellectual activities. The comparison of both indices showed that higher levels of ICR-standard and ICR-detailed were associated with a greater minimization of the effects of age on cognition. However, the ICR-detailed was more strongly associated to this minimization than the ICR-standard, suggesting that the ICR-detailed best reflect one’s CR. Conclusion: This study is the first to show that it is of great importance to question methods measuring CR proxies in order to develop a clinical tool allowing a comprehensive and accurate estimation of CR. [less ▲]

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See detailThe EACVI Echo Handbook.
Nchimi Longang, Alain ULg

in European Heart Journal (2017)

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See detailRossiter-McLaughlin models and their effect on estimates of stellar rotation, illustrated using six WASP systems
Brown, D. J. A.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Doyle, A. P. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 464

We present new measurements of the projected spin--orbit angle $\lambda$ for six WASP hot Jupiters, four of which are new to the literature (WASP-61, -62, -76, and -78), and two of which are new analyses ... [more ▼]

We present new measurements of the projected spin--orbit angle $\lambda$ for six WASP hot Jupiters, four of which are new to the literature (WASP-61, -62, -76, and -78), and two of which are new analyses of previously measured systems using new data (WASP-71, and -79). We use three different models based on two different techniques: radial velocity measurements of the Rossiter--McLaughlin effect, and Doppler tomography. Our comparison of the different models reveals that they produce projected stellar rotation velocities ($v \sin I_{\rm s}$) measurements often in disagreement with each other and with estimates obtained from spectral line broadening. The Bou\'e model for the Rossiter--McLaughlin effect consistently underestimates the value of $v\sin I_{\rm s}$ compared to the Hirano model. Although $v \sin I_s$ differed, the effect on $\lambda$ was small for our sample, with all three methods producing values in agreement with each other. Using Doppler tomography, we find that WASP-61\,b ($\lambda=4^\circ.0^{+17.1}_{-18.4}$), WASP-71\,b ($\lambda=-1^\circ.9^{+7.1}_{-7.5}$), and WASP-78\,b ($\lambda=-6^\circ.4\pm5.9$) are aligned. WASP-62\,b ($\lambda=19^\circ.4^{+5.1}_{-4.9}$) is found to be slightly misaligned, while WASP-79\,b ($\lambda=-95^\circ.2^{+0.9}_{-1.0}$) is confirmed to be strongly misaligned and has a retrograde orbit. We explore a range of possibilities for the orbit of WASP-76\,b, finding that the orbit is likely to be strongly misaligned in the positive $\lambda$ direction. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of the variability of Nova V5668 Sgr, based on high-resolution spectroscopic monitoring
Jack, D.; Robles Pérez, J. De J.; De Gennaro Aquino, I. et al

in Astronomische Nachrichten (2017), 338

We present results of our dense spectroscopic monitoring of Nova V5668 Sgr. Starting on March 19 in 2015, only a few days after discovery, we have obtained a series of spectra with the TIGRE telescope and ... [more ▼]

We present results of our dense spectroscopic monitoring of Nova V5668 Sgr. Starting on March 19 in 2015, only a few days after discovery, we have obtained a series of spectra with the TIGRE telescope and its HEROS echelle spectrograph which offers a resolution of R = 20,000 and covers the optical wavelength range from 3800 to 8800 {\AA}. We performed a line identification of the discernible features for four spectra which are representative for the respective phases in the light curve evolution of that nova. By simultaneously analysing the variations in the visual light curve and the corresponding spectra of Nova V5668 Sgr, we found that during the declining phases of the nova the absorption features in all hydrogen and many other lines had shifted to higher expansion velocities of -2000 km s^-1. Conversely, during the rise towards the following maximum, these observed absorption features had returned to lower expansion velocities.We found that the absorption features of some Fe II lines displayed the same behaviour, but in addition disappeared for a few days during some declining phases. Features of several N I lines also disappeared while new N II lines appeared in emission for a few days during some of the declining phases of the light curve of Nova V5668 Sgr. The shape of the emission features is changing during the evolution and shows a clear double peak structure after the deep minimum. [less ▲]

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See detailThe discovery of a planetary candidate around the evolved low-mass Kepler giant star HD 175370
Hrudková, M.; Hatzes, A.; Karjalainen, R. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 464

We report on the discovery of a planetary companion candidate with a minimum mass M sin i = 4.6 ± 1.0 M[SUB]Jupiter[/SUB] orbiting the K2 III giant star HD 175370 (KIC 007940959). This star was a target ... [more ▼]

We report on the discovery of a planetary companion candidate with a minimum mass M sin i = 4.6 ± 1.0 M[SUB]Jupiter[/SUB] orbiting the K2 III giant star HD 175370 (KIC 007940959). This star was a target in our programme to search for planets around a sample of 95 giant stars observed with Kepler. This detection was made possible using precise stellar radial velocity measurements of HD 175370 taken over five years and four months using the coudé echelle spectrograph of the 2-m Alfred Jensch Telescope and the fibre-fed echelle spectrograph High Efficiency and Resolution Mercator Echelle Spectrograph of the 1.2-m Mercator Telescope. Our radial velocity measurements reveal a periodic (349.5 ± 4.5 d) variation with a semi-amplitude K = 133 ± 25 m s[SUP]- 1[/SUP], superimposed on a long-term trend. A low-mass stellar companion with an orbital period of ˜88 yr in a highly eccentric orbit and a planet in a Keplerian orbit with an eccentricity e = 0.22 are the most plausible explanation of the radial velocity variations. However, we cannot exclude the existence of stellar envelope pulsations as a cause for the low-amplitude radial velocity variations and only future continued monitoring of this system may answer this uncertainty. From Kepler photometry, we find that HD 175370 is most likely a low-mass red giant branch or asymptotic giant branch star. [less ▲]

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See detailWater loss from terrestrial planets orbiting ultracool dwarfs: implications for the planets of TRAPPIST-1
Bolmont, E.; Selsis, F.; Owen, J. E. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 464

Ultracool dwarfs (UCD; $T_{\rm eff}<\sim3000~$K) cool to settle on the main sequence after $\sim$1 Gyr. For brown dwarfs, this cooling never stops. Their habitable zone (HZ) thus sweeps inward at least ... [more ▼]

Ultracool dwarfs (UCD; $T_{\rm eff}<\sim3000~$K) cool to settle on the main sequence after $\sim$1 Gyr. For brown dwarfs, this cooling never stops. Their habitable zone (HZ) thus sweeps inward at least during the first Gyr of their lives. Assuming they possess water, planets found in the HZ of UCDs have experienced a runaway greenhouse phase too hot for liquid water prior to entering the HZ. It has been proposed that such planets are desiccated by this hot early phase and enter the HZ as dry worlds. Here we model the water loss during this pre-HZ hot phase taking into account recent upper limits on the XUV emission of UCDs and using 1D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations. We address the whole range of UCDs but also focus on the planets recently found around the $0.08~M_\odot$ dwarf TRAPPIST-1. Despite assumptions maximizing the FUV-photolysis of water and the XUV-driven escape of hydrogen, we find that planets can retain significant amounts of water in the HZ of UCDs, with a sweet spot in the $0.04$-$0.06~M_\odot$ range. We also studied the TRAPPIST-1 system using observed constraints on the XUV-flux. We find that TRAPPIST-1b and c may have lost as much as 15 Earth Oceans and planet d -- which might be inside the HZ -- may have lost less than 1 Earth Ocean. Depending on their initial water contents, they could have enough water to remain habitable. TRAPPIST-1 planets are key targets for atmospheric characterization and could provide strong constraints on the water erosion around UCDs. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscovery of a low-mass companion inside the debris ring surrounding the F5V star HD 206893
Milli, J.; Hibon, P.; Christiaens, Valentin ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2017), 597

<BR /> Aims: Uncovering the ingredients and the architecture of planetary systems is a very active field of research that has fuelled many new theories on giant planet formation, migration, composition ... [more ▼]

<BR /> Aims: Uncovering the ingredients and the architecture of planetary systems is a very active field of research that has fuelled many new theories on giant planet formation, migration, composition, and interaction with the circumstellar environment. We aim at discovering and studying new such systems, to further expand our knowledge of how low-mass companions form and evolve. <BR /> Methods: We obtained high-contrast H-band images of the circumstellar environment of the F5V star HD 206893, known to host a debris disc never detected in scattered light. These observations are part of the SPHERE High Angular Resolution Debris Disc Survey (SHARDDS) using the InfraRed Dual-band Imager and Spectrograph (IRDIS) installed on VLT/SPHERE. <BR /> Results: We report the detection of a source with a contrast of 3.6 × 10[SUP]-5[/SUP] in the H-band, orbiting at a projected separation of 270 milliarcsec or 10 au, corresponding to a mass in the range 24 to 73 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB] for an age of the system in the range 0.2 to 2 Gyr. The detection was confirmed ten months later with VLT/NaCo, ruling out a background object with no proper motion. A faint extended emission compatible with the disc scattered light signal is also observed. <BR /> Conclusions: The detection of a low-mass companion inside a massive debris disc makes this system an analog of other young planetary systems such as β Pictoris, HR 8799 or HD 95086 and requires now further characterisation of both components to understand their interactions. [less ▲]

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See detailHot-Melt Extrusion as a Continuous Manufacturing Process to Form Ternary Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes
Thiry, Justine ULg; Krier, Fabrice; Ratwatte, Shenelka et al

in European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (2017), 96

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See detailFirst limits on the occurrence rate of short-period planets orbiting brown dwarfs
He, Matthias Y.; Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.; Gillon, Michaël ULg

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 464

Planet formation theories predict a large but still undetected population of short-period terrestrial planets orbiting brown dwarfs. Should specimens of this population be discovered transiting relatively ... [more ▼]

Planet formation theories predict a large but still undetected population of short-period terrestrial planets orbiting brown dwarfs. Should specimens of this population be discovered transiting relatively bright and nearby brown dwarfs, the Jupiter-size and the low luminosity of their hosts would make them exquisite targets for detailed atmospheric characterisation with JWST and future ground-based facilities. The eventual discovery and detailed study of a significant sample of transiting terrestrial planets orbiting nearby brown dwarfs could prove to be useful not only for comparative exoplanetology but also for astrobiology, by bringing us key information on the physical requirements and timescale for the emergence of life. In this context, we present a search for transit-signals in archival time-series photometry acquired by the Spitzer Space Telescope for a sample of 44 nearby brown dwarfs. While these 44 targets were not particularly selected for their brightness, the high precision of their Spitzer light curves allows us to reach sensitivities below Earth-sized planets for 75% of the sample and down to Europa-sized planets on the brighter targets. We could not identify any unambiguous planetary signal. Instead, we could compute the first limits on the presence of planets on close-in orbits. We find that within a 1.28 day orbit, the occurrence rate of planets with a radius between 0.75 and 3.25 R$_\oplus$ is {\eta} < 67 $\pm$ 1%. For planets with radii between 0.75 and 1.25 R$_\oplus$, we place a 95% confident upper limit of {\eta} < 87 $\pm$ 3%. If we assume an occurrence rate of {\eta} = 27% for these planets with radii between 0.75 and 1.25 R$_\oplus$, as the discoveries of the Kepler-42b and TRAPPIST-1b systems would suggest, we estimate that 175 brown dwarfs need to be monitored in order to guarantee (95%) at least one detection. [less ▲]

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See detailInvited Commentary
Lancellotti, Patrizio ULg; Nchimi Longang, Alain ULg

in Annals of Thoracic Surgery (2017), 103(1), 81-82

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See detailUsutu virus, Belgium, 2016
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Linden, Annick ULg; Gilliaux, Gautier ULg et al

in Infection, Genetics and Evolution : Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics of Infectious Diseases (2017), 48(1), 116-119

During late summer 2016, in a northwest European region extending over Belgium, the Netherlands and the eastern border of the German state of North Rhine Westphalia, an outbreak of wild bird deaths ... [more ▼]

During late summer 2016, in a northwest European region extending over Belgium, the Netherlands and the eastern border of the German state of North Rhine Westphalia, an outbreak of wild bird deaths occurred similar to those reported on the continent since 1996. Dead birds were necropsied and examined by complementary methods. Pathologic and immunohistological investigations strongly suggested an infection by Usutu virus. Subsequently, genomic segments of the said virus were detected, the virus was isolated and its complete genome was sequenced. The strain, designated Usutu-LIEGE, is a close phylogenetic relative of those isolated in Germany which form a distinct group within the USUV phylogeny, the so-called Europe_3 lineage. Should this outbreak recapitulate the characteristics of those in southwest Germany in 2011 and in/around Vienna (Austria) in 2001, it is expected that specific avian populations in the affected area will face a significant reduction in size for a few years. [less ▲]

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See detailCoordinated Supervisory Control of Multi-Terminal HVDC Grids: a Model Predictive Control Approach
Papangelis, Lampros ULg; Debry, Marie-Sophie; Panciatici, Patrick et al

in IEEE Transactions on Power Systems (2017)

A coordinated supervisory control scheme for future multi-terminal High-Voltage Direct-Current (HVDC) grids is proposed. The purpose is to supervise the grid and take appropriate actions to ensure power ... [more ▼]

A coordinated supervisory control scheme for future multi-terminal High-Voltage Direct-Current (HVDC) grids is proposed. The purpose is to supervise the grid and take appropriate actions to ensure power balance and prevent or remove voltage or current limit violations. First, using DC current and voltage measurements, the power references of the various Voltage Sources Converters (VSC) are updated according to participation factors. Next, the setpoints of the converters are smoothly adjusted to track those power references, while avoiding or correcting limit violations. The latter function resorts to Model Predictive Control and a sensitivity model of the system. The efficiency of the proposed scheme has been tested through dynamic simulations of a five-terminal HVDC grid interconnecting two asynchronous AC areas and a wind farm. [less ▲]

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See detailTracing Migrant-Mothers’ ‘Return’ Narratives in the Mexico-U.S and Peru-Belgium Migratory Circuits.
Vivas Romero, Maria ULg; Sanchez-Martinez, Anabela

in Travaux et recherches dans les amériques du centre (2017)

How do contemporary migrant mothers strategize return to their home countries? And how does the social protections available for their bi-national children in sending and destination countries factor in ... [more ▼]

How do contemporary migrant mothers strategize return to their home countries? And how does the social protections available for their bi-national children in sending and destination countries factor in the decision to return? Through this contribution, we aimed to tackle these questions. We draw from the analysis of two longitudinal migratory careers and argue that our participant’s return decisions were influenced both by their children’s effective access to social protection and their subjective perceptions of ‘good-motherhood’. This Trans-Atlantic comparison shows how different situated-institutional-contexts, cultures of care and motherhood resulted into different patterns of mobility for these women and their families. [less ▲]

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See detailEuropean consensus-based (S2k) Guideline on the Management of Herpes Zoster - guided by the European Dermatology Forum (EDF) in cooperation with the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology (EADV), Part 1: Diagnosis
WERNER R. N.; NIKKELS, Arjen ULg; MARINOVIC B. et al

in Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology & Venereology (2017), 31

Herpes zoster (HZ, shingles) is a frequent medical condition which may severely impact the quality of life of affected patients. Different therapeutic approaches to treat acute HZ are available. The aim ... [more ▼]

Herpes zoster (HZ, shingles) is a frequent medical condition which may severely impact the quality of life of affected patients. Different therapeutic approaches to treat acute HZ are available. The aim of this European project was the elaboration of a consensus-based guideline on the management of patients who present with HZ, considering different patient populations and different localizations. This interdisciplinary guideline aims at an improvement of the outcomes of the acute HZ management concerning disease duration, acute pain and quality of life of the affected patients and at a reduction of the incidence of postherpetic neuralgia and other complications. The guideline development followed a structured and predefined process, considering the quality criteria for guidelines development as suggested by the AGREE II instrument. The steering group was responsible for the planning and the organization of the guideline development process (Division of Evidence based Medicine, dEBM). The expert panel was nominated by virtue of clinical expertise and/or scientific experience and included experts from the fields of dermatology, virology/infectiology, ophthalmology, otolaryngology, neurology and anaesthesiology. Recommendations for clinical practice were formally consented during the consensus conference, explicitly considering different relevant aspects. The guideline was approved by the commissioning societies after an extensive internal and external review process. In this first part of the guideline, diagnostic means have been evaluated. The expert panel formally consented recommendations for the management of patients with (suspected) HZ, referring to the assessment of HZ patients, considering various specific clinical situations. Users of the guideline must carefully check whether the recommendations are appropriate for the context of intended application. In the setting of an international guideline, it is generally important to consider different national approaches and legal circumstances with regard to the regulatory approval, availability and reimbursement of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-approach analysis to assess diet of harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena in the southern North Sea
Mahfouz, C.; Meziane, T.; Henry, F. et al

in Marine Ecology. Progress Series (2017), 563

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See detailWork–Home Interface and Well-Being: A Cross-Lagged Analysis
Babic, Audrey ULg; Stinglhamber, Florence; Bertrand, Françoise ULg et al

in Journal of Personnel Psychology (2017), 16

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See detailMethane balance of an intensively grazed pasture and estimation of the enteric methane emissions from cattle
Dumortier, Pierre ULg; Aubinet, Marc ULg; Beckers, Yves ULg et al

in Agricultural and Forest Meteorology (2017), 232

The methane turbulent fluxes of an intensively grazed pasture were measured continuously from June 2012 to December 2013 at the Dorinne Terrestrial Observatory (DTO) in Belgium. During grazing periods ... [more ▼]

The methane turbulent fluxes of an intensively grazed pasture were measured continuously from June 2012 to December 2013 at the Dorinne Terrestrial Observatory (DTO) in Belgium. During grazing periods, the fluxes were dominated by enteric fermentation and were found to be strongly related to cow stocking density. In 2013, total emission from the pasture was found between 9 and 11 g CH4 m−2, 97% of which being emitted during grazing periods. Emission per LU (livestock unit) was estimated in a non-invasive way by integrating eddy covariance fluxes over large periods and by assuming a homogeneous average cattle disposition on the pasture. This estimate was compared to the one obtained during confinement periods, where cows were confined in a small part of the pasture. The emission per LU varied between 104 and 134 g CH4 LU−1 day−1 (13 and 17 g CH4 kg DMI−1), depending on the dataset and the computation method used. Diel course was characterized by two emission peaks, one in the morning and a larger one in the afternoon. For rest periods (no cattle on the pasture), small emissions were observed (median and mean values of 0.5 and 1.5 mg CH4 m−2 day−1, respectively). [less ▲]

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See detailNo copper required for germination of an endangered endemic species from the Katangan Copperbelt (Katanga, DR Congo): Diplolophium marthozianum
Boisson, Sylvain ULg; Ortmans, William ULg; Maréchal, Justine et al

in Tropical Ecology (2017), 58(1), 193-198

Two hypotheses were tested with respect to the germination of Diplolophium marthozianum, an endemic plant species of the copper-cobalt outcrops in Katanga, Democratic Republic of Congo: (1) germination of ... [more ▼]

Two hypotheses were tested with respect to the germination of Diplolophium marthozianum, an endemic plant species of the copper-cobalt outcrops in Katanga, Democratic Republic of Congo: (1) germination of copper-endemics is limited by fungal infection in the absence of pathogen control and (2) the germination success of this copper-endemic species is copper-dependent. Seed lots of twenty seeds were weighed, soaked in different disinfection treatments and then placed in a germination medium containing four distinct copper concentrations for 30 days. Seed viability was measured at the beginning and at the end of the experiment by a cut test. Final germination percentage (15.2 ± 8.2 %) and seed viability (24.2 ± 10.3 %) were not affected by copper concentration or disinfection treatments. D. marthozianum is able to germinate in a substrate without added copper, despite pervasive fungal infection. However, seed mass had a significant positive effect on seed germination suggesting that selecting the largest seeds may ensure the highest germination success in ex situ conservation programs. [less ▲]

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See detailEstrogen-dependent effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan on cortical spreading depression in rat: Modelling the serotonin-ovarian hormone interaction in migraine aura.
Chauvel, Virginie; Multon, Sylvie ULg; Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2017)

Background: Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is the likely culprit of the migraine aura. Migraine is sexually dimorphic and thought to be a ‘‘low 5-HT’’ condition. We sought to decipher the ... [more ▼]

Background: Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is the likely culprit of the migraine aura. Migraine is sexually dimorphic and thought to be a ‘‘low 5-HT’’ condition. We sought to decipher the interrelation between serotonin, ovarian hormones and cortical excitability in a model of migraine aura. Methods: Occipital KCl-induced CSDs were recorded for one hour at parieto-occipital and frontal levels in adult male (n 1⁄4 16) and female rats (n 1⁄4 64) one hour after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) or NaCl. Sixty-five oophorectomized females were treated with estradiol- (E2) or cholesterol- (Chol) filled capsules. Two weeks later we recorded CSDs after 5-HTP/NaCl injections before or 20 hours after capsule removal. Results: 5-HTP had no effect in males, but decreased CSD frequency in cycling females, significantly so during estrus, at parieto-occipital (􏰀3.5CSD/h, p<0.001) and frontal levels (􏰀2.5CSD/h, p1⁄40.014). In oophorectomized rats, CSD susceptibility increased during E2 treatment at both recording sites (þ5CSD/h, p1⁄40.001 and þ3CSD/h, p<0.01), but decreased promptly after E2 withdrawal (􏰀4.7CSD/h, p < 0.001 and 􏰀1.7CSD/h, p 1⁄4 0.094). The CSD inhibitory effect of 5-HTP was significant only in E2-treated rats (􏰀3.4CSD/h, p 1⁄4 0.006 and 􏰀1.8CSD/h, p 1⁄4 0.029). Neither the estrous cycle phase, nor E2 or 5-HTP treatments significantly modified CSD propagation velocity. Conclusion: 5-HTP decreases CSD occurrence in the presence of ovarian hormones, suggesting its potential efficacy in migraine with aura prophylaxis in females. Elevated E2 levels increase CSD susceptibility, while estrogen withdrawal decreases CSD. In a translational perspective, these findings may explain why migraine auras can appear during pregnancy and why menstrual-related migraine attacks are rarely associated with an aura. [less ▲]

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See detailLooking for phosphate-accumulating bacteria in activated sludge processes : a multidisciplinary approach
Tarayre, Cédric ULg; Charlier, Raphaëlle; Delepierre, Anissa ULg et al

in Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2017)

Over the past decades, an increasing need in renewable resources has progressively appeared. This trend concerns not only fossil fuels but also mineral resources. Wastewater and sewage sludge contain ... [more ▼]

Over the past decades, an increasing need in renewable resources has progressively appeared. This trend concerns not only fossil fuels but also mineral resources. Wastewater and sewage sludge contain significant concentrations in phosphate and can be considered as a fertilizer source of the utmost importance. In wastewater treatment plants, the biological uptake of phosphate is performed by a specific microbiota: the phosphate-accumulating organisms. These microorganisms are recovered in sewage sludge. Here, we aimed to investigate the occurrence of phosphate accumulators in four wastewater treatment plants. A 16S metagenetic analysis identified the main bacterial phyla extracted from the aerobic treatment: α-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, and Sphingobacteria. An enrichment stage was performed to stimulate the specific growth of phosphate-accumulating bacteria in an acetate medium. An analysis of metabolic activities of sulfur and phosphorus highlighted strong modifications related to phosphorus and much less distinguishable effects with sulfur. A solid acetate medium containing 5-Br-4-Cl-3-indolyl phosphate was used to select potential phosphate-accumulating bacteria from the enriched consortia. The positive strains have been found to belong in the genera Acinetobacter, Corynebacterium, and Pseudomonas. Finally, electron microscopy was applied to the strains and allowed to confirm the presence of polyphosphate granules. Some of these bacteria contained granules the size of which exceeded 100 nm. [less ▲]

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See detailPrésentation
Dubouclez, Olivier ULg; Pelletier, Arnaud

in Etudes Philosophiques (Les) (2017), n°1(2017), 3-5

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See detailAssessment of vitamin D status - a changing landscape.
Herrmann, Markus; Farrell, Christopher-John L.; Pusceddu, Irene et al

in Clinical Chemistry & Laboratory Medicine (2017)

In recent years it has been shown that vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased incidence as well as the progression of a broad range of diseases including osteoporosis, rickets ... [more ▼]

In recent years it has been shown that vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased incidence as well as the progression of a broad range of diseases including osteoporosis, rickets, cardiovascular disease, autoimmune disease, multiple sclerosis and cancer. Consequently, requests for the assessment of vitamin D status have increased dramatically. Despite significant progress in the analysis of vitamin D metabolites and an expansion of our pathophysiological knowledge of vitamin D, the assessment of vitamin D status remains a challenging and partially unresolved issue. Current guidelines from scientific bodies recommend the measurement of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD) in blood as the preferred test. However, growing evidence indicates significant limitations of this test, including analytical aspects and interpretation of results. In addition, the relationships between 25-OHD and various clinical indices, such as bone mineral density and fracture risk, are rather weak and not consistent across races. Recent studies have systematically investigated new markers of vitamin D status including the vitamin D metabolite ratio (VMR) (ratio between 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxy vitamin D), bioavailable 25-OHD [25-OHD not bound to vitamin D binding protein (DBP)], and free 25-OHD [circulating 25-OHD bound to neither DBP nor albumin (ALB)]. These parameters may potentially change how we will assess vitamin D status in the future. Although these new biomarkers have expanded our knowledge about vitamin D metabolism, a range of unresolved issues regarding their measurement and the interpretation of results prevent their use in daily practice. It can be expected that some of these issues will be overcome in the near future so that they may be considered for routine use (at least in specialized centers). In addition, genetic studies have revealed several polymorphisms in key proteins of vitamin D metabolism that affect the circulating concentrations of vitamin D metabolites. The affected proteins include DBP, 7-dehydrocholesterol synthase and the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Here we aim to review existing knowledge regarding the biochemistry, physiology and measurement of vitamin D. We will also provide an overview of current and emerging biomarkers for the assessment of vitamin D status, with particular attention methodological aspects and their usefulness in clinical practice. [less ▲]

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See detailBioclimatism in Architecture : an evolutionary perspective
Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in International Journal of Design and Nature and Ecodynamics (2017), 12(1), 16-29

Fundamentals of vernacular architecture have been used in bioclimatic architecture which has gradually become the inspiration of various movements in contemporary architecture. The study points out that ... [more ▼]

Fundamentals of vernacular architecture have been used in bioclimatic architecture which has gradually become the inspiration of various movements in contemporary architecture. The study points out that the development of bioclimatism in architecture has followed the pattern of a natural evolutionary process in which “natural selection” is likely motivated by several factors, including resources and environment problems, and driven by different mechanisms including novel building design concepts and methods, new standards and codes, discoveries in building science and construction costs. This study is an effort aimed to clarify the evolution process of the bioclimatic approach in architecture over time and its influences on contemporary movements in architecture. The paper shows also that the evolutionary theory generated new scientific tools able to improve building design thanks to simulation-based optimization methods applied to building performances. Finally, this study investigates new motivations in the era of climate change whose effects are expected to introduce more challenges as well as more trends towards a sustainable built environment through the new concept of Eco-adaptive architecture. [less ▲]

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See detailLe castor, porte-parole d'une rivière vivante
Denayer, Dorothée ULg; Semal, Nathalie ULg

in Mille Lieux (2017), 4

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See detailEtude rétrospective du bilan thyroïdien: définition de valeurs de référence pédiatriques
LADANG, Aurélie ULg; VRANKEN, Laura ULg; LUYCKX, Françoise ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2017)

Defining reference range is an essential tool for diagnostic. Age and sexe influences on thyroid hormone levels have been already discussed. In this study, we are defining a new pediatric reference range ... [more ▼]

Defining reference range is an essential tool for diagnostic. Age and sexe influences on thyroid hormone levels have been already discussed. In this study, we are defining a new pediatric reference range for TSH, FT3 and FT4 for Cobas C6000 analyzer. To do so, we have taken in account 0 to 18 year old outclinic patients. During the first year of life, thyroid hormone levels change dramatically before getting stabilized around 3 years old. We also compared our results to those obtained in a Canadian large-scale prospective study (the CALIPER initiative). [less ▲]

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See detailSpatial variation in the accumulation of POPs and mercury in bottlenose dolphins of the Lower Florida Keys and the coastal Everglades (South Florida)
Damseaux, France ULg; Kiszka, J.; Heithaus, M.R. et al

in Environmental Pollution (2017), 220

The bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) is an upper trophic level predator and the most common cetacean species found in nearshore waters of southern Florida, including the Lower Florida Keys (LFK ... [more ▼]

The bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) is an upper trophic level predator and the most common cetacean species found in nearshore waters of southern Florida, including the Lower Florida Keys (LFK) and the Florida Coastal Everglades (FCE). The objective of this study was to assess contamination levels of total mercury (T-Hg) in skin and persistent organic pollutants (PCBs, PBDEs, DDXs, HCHs, HCB, Σ PCDD/Fs and Σ DL-PCBs) in blubber samples of bottlenose dolphins from LFK (n = 27) and FCE (n = 24). PCBs were the major class of compounds found in bottlenose dolphin blubber and were higher in individuals from LFK (Σ 6 PCBs LFK males: 13421 ± 7730 ng.g-1 lipids, Σ 6 PCBs LFK females: 9683 ± 19007 ng.g-1 lipids) than from FCE (Σ 6 PCBs FCE males: 5638 ng.g-1 ± 3627 lipids, Σ 6 PCBs FCE females: 1427 ± 908 ng.g-1 lipids). These levels were lower than previously published data from the southeastern USA. The Σ DL-PCBs were the most prevalent pollutants of dioxin and dioxin like compounds (Σ DL-PCBs LFK: 739 ng.g-1 lipids, Σ DL-PCBs FCE: 183 ng.g-1 lipids) since PCDD/F concentrations were low for both locations (mean 0.1 ng.g-1 lipids for LFK and FCE dolphins). The toxicity equivalences of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs expressed as TEQ in LFK and FCE dolphins is mainly expressed by DL-PCBs (81% LFK - 65% FCE). T-Hg concentrations in skin were significantly higher in FCE (FCE median 9314 ng.g-1 dw) compared to LFK dolphins (LFK median 2941 ng.g-1 dw). These bottlenose dolphins concentrations are the highest recorded in the southeastern USA, and may be explained, at least partially, by the biogeochemistry of the Everglades and mangrove sedimentary habitats that create favourable conditions for the retention of mercury and make it available at high concentrations for aquatic predators. [less ▲]

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See detailH.M. Enzensberger contre l'amertume du vieillard. Des "groupes vidéos" à Youtube (et retour).
Hamers, Jérémy ULg

in Cahier Louis-Lumière (2017), 10

By interrelating several texts on the editing and juxtaposition of heterogeneous images by the German essayist and media theorist Hans Magnus Enzensberger, this article brings up to date an aesthetic link ... [more ▼]

By interrelating several texts on the editing and juxtaposition of heterogeneous images by the German essayist and media theorist Hans Magnus Enzensberger, this article brings up to date an aesthetic link between various past and contemporary media devices. The identification of this link makes it possible to free theoretical critique of the evolutionary paradigm of failure and progress (technological and political), opening it up to a set of reciprocal and non-linear insights. In this context, the use of Enzensberger texts also goes beyond any form of periodisation. By engaging a dialogue with his “Jeu de construction pour une théorie des medias” / Constituents of a Theory of the Media (1970), several essays gathered in Médiocrité et folie / Mediocrity and Madness (1988), as well as his recent autobiographical interview Erinnerungen an einen Tumult (2014), this text shows how criticism by the German writer, while constantly revitalised by the emergence of “new” objects (tabloid press, mobile video, television, Internet, smartphones), invites us to overcome any technological determinism to simultaneously consider the political potential of the first activist video groups and platforms dominating the Internet today. [less ▲]

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See detailHabitat selection by marine larvae in changing chemical environments
Lecchini, David; Dixson, Danielle L.; Lecellier, Gael et al

in Marine Pollution Bulletin (2017), 114

The replenishment and persistence of marine species is contingent on dispersing larvae locating suitable habitat and surviving to a reproductive stage. Pelagic larvae rely on environmental cues to make ... [more ▼]

The replenishment and persistence of marine species is contingent on dispersing larvae locating suitable habitat and surviving to a reproductive stage. Pelagic larvae rely on environmental cues to make behavioural decisions with chemical information being important for habitat selection at settlement. We explored the sensory world of crustaceans and fishes focusing on the impact anthropogenic alterations (ocean acidification, red soil, pesticide) have on conspecific chemical signals used by larvae for habitat selection. Crustacean (Stenopus hispidus) and fish (Chromis viridis) larvae recognized their conspecifics via chemical signals under control conditions. In the presence of acidified water, red soil or pesticide, the ability of larvae to chemically recognize conspecific cues was altered. Our study highlights that recruitment potential on coral reefs may decrease due to anthropogenic stressors. If so, populations of fishes and crustaceans will continue their rapid decline; larval recruitment will not replace and sustain the adult populations on degraded reefs. [less ▲]

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See detailSilicate mineralogy at the surface of Mercury
Namur, Olivier ULg; Charlier, Bernard ULg

in Nature Geoscience (2017)

NASA’s MESSENGER spacecraft has revealed geochemical diversity across Mercury’s volcanic crust. Near-infrared to ultraviolet spectra and images have provided evidence for the Fe2+-poor nature of silicate ... [more ▼]

NASA’s MESSENGER spacecraft has revealed geochemical diversity across Mercury’s volcanic crust. Near-infrared to ultraviolet spectra and images have provided evidence for the Fe2+-poor nature of silicate minerals, magnesium sulfide minerals in hollows and a darkening component attributed to graphite, but existing spectral data is insufficient to build a mineralogical map for the planet. Here we investigate the mineralogical variability of silicates in Mercury’s crust using crystallization experiments on magmas with compositions and under reducing conditions expected for Mercury. We find a common crystallization sequence consisting of olivine, plagioclase, pyroxenes and tridymite for all magmas tested. Depending on the cooling rate, we suggest that lavas on Mercury are either fully crystallized or made of a glassy matrix with phenocrysts. Combining the experimental results with geochemical mapping, we can identify several mineralogical provinces: the Northern Volcanic Plains and Smooth Plains, dominated by plagioclase, the High-Mg province, strongly dominated by forsterite, and the Intermediate Plains, comprised of forsterite, plagioclase and enstatite. This implies a temporal evolution of the mineralogy from the oldest lavas, dominated by mafic minerals, to the youngest lavas, dominated by plagioclase, consistent with progressive shallowing and decreasing degree of mantle melting over time. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of food type on respiration, fractionation and turnover of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in the marine amphipod Gammarus aequicauda (Martynov, 1931).
Remy, François ULg; Darchambeau, François ULg; Melchior, Aurélie et al

in Journal of Experimental Marine Biology & Ecology (2017), 486

This study experimentally determined the impact of food source type on turnover rate and trophic enrichment factors (TEFs or ∆) of δ13C and δ15N, as well as on respiration rate, in captive populations of ... [more ▼]

This study experimentally determined the impact of food source type on turnover rate and trophic enrichment factors (TEFs or ∆) of δ13C and δ15N, as well as on respiration rate, in captive populations of the marine amphipod Gammarus aequicauda. Gammarus aequicauda (318 individuals) were fed ad libitum with three food sources animal, algae, and dead Posidonia oceanica leaves (also called “litter”), varying in palatability, digestibility, nutritional qualities and isotopic compositions, for between four and six weeks in a controlled feeding experiment. The resulting death rate was lower for the amphipods fed with animal treatment (30.9%) than for individuals fed with algal (65.9%) or litter treatment (64.4%), indicating a better fitness of the individuals fed with the animal food source. Respiration rates also differed highly among the treatments. Animal treatment showed higher respiration rates than algal and litter treatments, potentially due to the toxicity of the algae and the very low nutritional quality of the litter. Amphipods fed with these treatments might have entered in a “low activity state” to cope with these unsuitable food sources, inducing low respiration rates. Due to the very low assimilation and toxicity of the algae source, turnover rate for δ13C was impossible to determine. Turnover rate for δ13C was much faster (half-life = 12.55 days) for amphipods fed with the animal food source than for amphipods fed with litter (half-life = 51.62 days), showing the faster assimilation of the most nutritionally optimal food sources by G. aequicauda. Turnover for δ15N was impossible to determine because the amphipods were already at isotopic equilibrium at the beginning of the experiment. Despite the detritus feeder status of Gammarus aequicauda, TEFs for the animal treatments were in accordance with values generally found for carnivorous organisms (∆13C = 0.9 ± 0.7‰; ∆15N = 2.9 ± 0.6‰). TEFs for the litter treatment were in accordance with values generally corresponding to detritivorous organisms (∆13C = 1.2‰; ∆15N = 1.0 ± 0.4‰). SIAR mixing model outputs obtained with these new TEF values were more constrained and coherent than outputs obtained with general literature TEFs. This study thus demonstrated the non-negligible impact of the food source on Gammarus aequicauda physiological status, fitness and turnover rates, but also on TEFs—highlighting the importance of TEF experimental calculations for every potential food source of a given organism to ensure more robust isotopic data interpretation. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of Intra-Articular Hyaluronic Acid in the Management of Knee Osteoarthritis in Clinical Practice
Cooper, Cyrus; Rannou, François; Richette, Pascal et al

in Arthritis Care and Research (2017), EPub ahead of print

This review emphasizes the safety profile of intra-articular hyaluronic acid treatment of knee osteoarthritis, as well as its moderate but real efficacy on symptoms, which is in the same range than other ... [more ▼]

This review emphasizes the safety profile of intra-articular hyaluronic acid treatment of knee osteoarthritis, as well as its moderate but real efficacy on symptoms, which is in the same range than other pharmacological modalities used in this indication. Effectiveness of intraarticular hyaluronic acid has also been highlighted based on ‘real-life’ data, together with the clinical benefit of systematic repeated treatment cycles, and the influence of the molecular weight of hyaluronic acid on treatment outcome. These aspects should be particularly helpful to clinicians when making personalized care decisions. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection, isolation and characterization of Fusobacterium gastrosuis sp. nov. colonizing the stomach of pigs
De Witte, C.; Flahou, B.; Ducatelle, R. et al

in Systematic & Applied Microbiology (2017), 40(1), 42-50

Nine strains of a novel Fusobacterium sp. were isolated from the stomach of 6-8 months old and adult pigs. The isolates were obligately anaerobic, although they endured 2 hours exposure to air ... [more ▼]

Nine strains of a novel Fusobacterium sp. were isolated from the stomach of 6-8 months old and adult pigs. The isolates were obligately anaerobic, although they endured 2 hours exposure to air. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and gyrase B genes demonstrated that the isolates showed high sequence similarity with Fusobacterium mortiferum, Fusobacterium ulcerans, Fusobacterium varium, Fusobacterium russii and Fusobacterium necrogenes, but formed a distinct lineage in the genus Fusobacterium. Comparative analysis of the genome of the type strain of this novel Fusobacterium sp. confirmed that it is different from other recognized Fusobacterium spp. DNA-DNA hybridization, fingerprinting and genomic %GC determination further supported the conclusion that the isolates belong to a new, distinct species. The isolates were also distinguishable from these and other Fusobacterium spp. by phenotypical characterization. The strains produced indole and exhibited proline arylamidase and glutamic acid decarboxylase activity. They did not hydrolyse esculin, did not exhibit pyroglutamic acid arylamidase, valine arylamidase, α-galactosidase, β-galactosidase, β-galactosidase-6-phosphate or α-glucosidase activity nor produced acid from cellobiose, glucose, lactose, mannitol, mannose, maltose, raffinose, saccharose, salicin or trehalose. The major fatty acids were C16 : 0 and C18 : 1ω9c. The name Fusobacterium gastrosuis sp. nov. is proposed for the novel isolates with the type strain CDW1(T) (= DSM 101753(T) = LMG 29236(T)). We also demonstrated that Clostridium rectum and Fusobacterium mortiferum represent the same species, with nomenclatural priority for the latter. [less ▲]

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See detailLinking pollutant exposure of humpback whales breeding in the Indian Ocean to their feeding habits and feeding areas off Antarctica
Das, Krishna ULg; Malarvannan, Govindan; Dirtu, Alin et al

in Environmental Pollution (2017), 220

Humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, breeding off la Reunion Island (Indian Ocean) undergo large-scale seasonal migrations between summer feeding grounds near Antarctica and their reproductive winter ... [more ▼]

Humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, breeding off la Reunion Island (Indian Ocean) undergo large-scale seasonal migrations between summer feeding grounds near Antarctica and their reproductive winter grounds in the Indian Ocean. The main scope of the current study was to investigate chemical exposure of humpback whales breeding in the Indian Ocean by providing the first published data on this breeding stock concerning persistent organic pollutants (POPs), namely polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs). Analyses of stable isotopes δ13C and δ15N in skin resulted in further insight in their feeding ecology, which was in agreement with a diet focused mainly on low trophic level prey species, such as krill from Antarctica. POPs were measured in all humpback whales in the order of HCB > DDTs > CHLs > HCHs > PCBs > PBDEs > MeO-BDEs. HCB (median: 24 ng.g-1 lw) and DDTs (median: 7.7 ng.g-1 lw) were the predominant compounds in all whale biopsies. Among DDT compounds, p,p’-DDE was the major organohalogenated pollutant, reflecting its long-term accumulation in humpback whales. Significantly lower concentrations of HCB and DDTs were found in females than in males (p<0.001). Other compounds were similar between the two genders (p>0.05). Differences in the HCB and DDTs suggested gender-specific transfer of some compounds to the offspring. POP concentrations were lower than previously reported results for humpback whales sampled near the Antarctic Peninsula, suggesting potential influence of their nutritional status and may indicate different exposures of the whales according to their feeding zones. Further investigations are required to assess exposure of southern humpback whales throughout their feeding zones. [less ▲]

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See detailOral contraceptive and acute intestinal ischemia with mesenteric venous thrombosis: a case report
BELIARD, Aude ULg; VERRETH, Lucie; GRANDJEAN, Pascale

in Open Access Journal of Contraception (2017), 8

Background: Venous thrombosis is a serious complication of combined contraceptive. However, mesenteric venous thrombosis and intestinal necrosis are infrequently seen in women using oral contraceptives ... [more ▼]

Background: Venous thrombosis is a serious complication of combined contraceptive. However, mesenteric venous thrombosis and intestinal necrosis are infrequently seen in women using oral contraceptives and diagnosis is often delayed. Case presentation: We report a case of a 38-year-old obese female patient who presented with acute abdominal pain. A bowel infection was first diagnosed and treated with antibiotics. Contrast-enhanced tomography of the abdomen revealed diffuse ischemia of small intestine with superior mesenteric thrombosis. Laparotomy with segmental resection of both small and large bowel was performed. No predisposing factor of mesenteric venous thrombosis was demonstrated except association of combined contraceptive with obesity. Conclusion: This report highlights the need for clinicians to suspect venous mesenteric thrombosis in women of reproductive age with acute abdominal pain with poor physical findings. Detailed personal history including prescriptions should help to quickly and accurately determine the problem. [less ▲]

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See detailGoat breeding in the rural district of Chemini (Algeria)
Moula, Nassim ULg; Ait Kaki, Asma; Touazi, Leghel et al

in Nature & Technology (2017), n° 16/Janvier

The Kabyle goat breed represents 10.52% of the total Algerian market (3.8 million heads). A survey of 69 farmers has been carried out in order to characterize it and its breeding in the District of ... [more ▼]

The Kabyle goat breed represents 10.52% of the total Algerian market (3.8 million heads). A survey of 69 farmers has been carried out in order to characterize it and its breeding in the District of Chemini. The questions focused on household agricultural activities, including breeding of goats, cattle, sheep, rabbits, chicken, turkeys, honeybees and the production of olive oil and figs. The goat morpho-biometric characterization was based on 18 corporal measurements. The Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) of the farm structures defined four groups of farms, variance between groups accounting for 55.7% of total variability. The average number of goats in groups 1 to 4 was 7.2±2.8, 11.1±3.5, 22.3±1.4 and 3.4±1.0, respectively. Group 3 (n=6), showed the greatest number; it consists of older farmers (67 years old or over) not practicing arboriculture. They also have the largest numbers of sheep (48.67), rabbits (50.83), chicken (48.33) and turkeys (42). Group 4 (n=9), with the lowest number of goats, was the group of young farmers (39 years old or less), more dedicated to cattle breeding (~52 heads) and the production of olive oil (~207 trees) and figs (~47 trees). The 18 morpho-biometric variables were significantly higher in males than in females (p<0.05). The Kabyle goat is small (Height at withers: male: 68.23±0.97cm and female: 65.41±0.55cm) with long hair (male: 12.24±0.51cm, and female: 9.51±0.29cm). Its ears are drooping, its convex profile has a slightly pronounced nasal split and its dress color ranges from dark brown to black. This adapted genetic resource should be key in the development of a local production, based on a strong commitment of farmers inside a breed association, for the production of specimens corresponding to a standard, to be determined collectively. [less ▲]

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See detailLa «Health Literacy»,un moyen pour réduire les inégalités sociales de santé
Bragard, Isabelle ULg; COUCKE, Philippe ULg; Pétré, Benoît ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2017), 72(1),

Health literacy (HL) is defined as ‘the knowledge, motivation, and competences to access, understand, appraise and apply health information in order to make judgments and take decisions in everyday life ... [more ▼]

Health literacy (HL) is defined as ‘the knowledge, motivation, and competences to access, understand, appraise and apply health information in order to make judgments and take decisions in everyday life concerning health care, disease prevention and health promotion to maintain or improve quality of life’. This concept begins to be recognized as a priority area for action at political level in Belgium. Indeed, a limited HL may affect health by leading, by example, with poorer management of chronic diseases, more hospital admissions and premature deaths. This paper addresses the question of HL evaluation, improvement interventions as well as the many challenges that remain in this area. HL seems fundamental to the development of better health management. It would allow patients to play a more active role in health care, to involve all health stakeholders, and to contribute to a more sustainable health system. Improving HL could allow better equal access to health care. [less ▲]

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See detailPost-embryonic development of sheepshead minnow Cyprinodon variegatus: a staging tool based on externally visible anatomical traits
Schnitzler, Joseph ULg; Dussenne, Mélanie ULg; Frederich, Bruno ULg et al

in Ichthyological Research (2017), 64

The sheepshead minnow Cyprinodon variegatus has become a favoured model for laboratory studies because of their small size, rapid development, and tolerance of laboratory conditions. Here, we analyse ... [more ▼]

The sheepshead minnow Cyprinodon variegatus has become a favoured model for laboratory studies because of their small size, rapid development, and tolerance of laboratory conditions. Here, we analyse sheepshead minnow post-embryonic development with the goal of providing a generally useful method for staging fish after embryogenesis. Groups of three females and two males were placed in breeding chambers designed for this experiment. More than 100 eggs were collected and maintained in seawater. Embryos were selected under a dissection microscope and placed in incubation dishes (50 per dish) at 26 °C. On day six, embryos hatched and larvae were transferred to 1 L beakers. To define a simplified normalization table for sheepshead minnow development, we measured each fish for its standard length and examined the fish for four externally evident traits: pigmentation pattern, caudal fin morphology, anal fin morphology, and dorsal fin morphology. The four traits were chosen, because they are easily visualized with standard laboratory equipment such as the stereomicroscope and camera. We have provided criteria for staging sheepshead minnows in studies of post-embryonic development. Our data suggest that dorsal and anal fin morphology may serve as a useful phenotype for defining metamorphic climax stages throughout post-embryonic development in C. variegatus. The staging systems we propose should facilitate detailed anatomical and developmental analyses in relation to ecotoxicological studies on potential disruption of the thyroid axis by xenobiotics and endocrine-disrupting compounds. [less ▲]

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See detailLa gestion des ressources publiques : acteurs, enjeux et processus
Piron, Damien ULg; Weerts, Audrey ULg; Wintgens, Sophie ULg

in Pyramides : Revue du Laboratoire d'Etudes et de Recherches en Administration Publique (2017), 28

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See detailFirst Report of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum Associated with the Psyllid Bactericera trigonica Hodkinson on Carrots in Northern Africa
Tahzima, R.; Massart, Sébastien ULg; Achbani, E.H. et al

in Plant Disease (2017), 101(1), 242

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See detailInfluence of the balls kinematics of axially loaded ball bearings on Coulombic frictional dissipations
Bozet, Jean-Luc ULg; Servais, Christophe ULg

in Journal of Tribology (2017), 139(1),

Ball bearings have been used for a long time. Nevertheless, the description of their behavior remains incomplete in spite of the large number of surveys dedicated to ball bearings. Particularly, the exact ... [more ▼]

Ball bearings have been used for a long time. Nevertheless, the description of their behavior remains incomplete in spite of the large number of surveys dedicated to ball bearings. Particularly, the exact balls kinematics has still to be addressed in depth. This paper proposes a new way to calculate the balls kinematics by using a simplified quasi-static approach for dry lubricated and axially loaded ball bearings. This method does not use the classical restrictive race control assumptions. More specifically, the role played by the balls kinematics is emphasized by means of the power dissipated within contacts between balls and races. The need for a correct evaluation of the balls behavior is illustrated by using an example, viz. a ball bearing of cryogenic engine turbopump. Indeed, the dissipated power is one of the main concerns in this particular case. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphology of the filtration apparatus of three planktivorous fishes and relation with ingested anthropogenic particles
Collard, France ULg; Gilbert, Bernard ULg; Eppe, Gauthier ULg et al

in Marine Pollution Bulletin (2017)

Anthropogenic particles (APs), including microplastics, are ingested by a wide variety of marine organisms. Exposure of Clupeiformes (e.g. herrings, anchovies, sardines) is poorly studied despite their ... [more ▼]

Anthropogenic particles (APs), including microplastics, are ingested by a wide variety of marine organisms. Exposure of Clupeiformes (e.g. herrings, anchovies, sardines) is poorly studied despite their economic and ecological importance. This study aims to describe the morphology of the filtration apparatus of three wild-caught Clupeiformes (Sardina pilchardus, Clupea harengus and Engraulis encrasicolus) and to relate the results to ingested APs. Consequently, the species with the more efficient filtration apparatus will be more likely to ingest APs. We hypothesized that sardines were the most exposed species. The filtration area and particle retention threshold were determined in the three species, with sardines displaying the highest filtration area and the closest gill rakers. Sardines ingested more fibers and smaller fragments, confirming that it is the most efficient filtering species. These two results lead to the conclusion that, among the three studied, the sardine is the species most exposed to APs. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring Metacognition as Support for Learning Transfer
Scharff, Lauren; Draeger, John; Verpoorten, Dominique ULg et al

in Teaching & Learning Inquiry: The ISSoTL Journal (2017), 5(1),

The ability to transfer learning to new situations lies at the heart of lifelong learning and the employability of university graduates. Because students are often unaware of the importance of learning ... [more ▼]

The ability to transfer learning to new situations lies at the heart of lifelong learning and the employability of university graduates. Because students are often unaware of the importance of learning transfer and staff do not always explicitly articulate this expectation, this article explores the idea that metacognition (intentional awareness and the use of that awareness) might enhance the development of learning transfer. Our exploratory study includes results from a survey of 74 staff and 118 students from five institutions in Australia, Belgium, UK, and USA. Our data indicate that many staff and a majority of students do not have a clear understanding of what learning transfer entails, and that there are many mismatches between staff and student perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors regarding learning transfer. This helps explain why learning transfer does not occur as often as it could. We found significant positive correlations between thinking about transfer and thinking about learning processes and the likelihood to use awareness of metacognition to guide practice. Our findings suggest a positive relationship between metacognition and learning transfer. Implications for scholarship of teaching and learning are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailLa polémique marxiste comme pouvoir de praxis : le rôle des revues dans la radicalisation d'un imaginaire politique
Franck, Thomas ULg

in Dacoromania Litteraria (2017), 3

On the basis of Antonio Gramsci’s praxis philosophy, taken up by André Tosel, and Cornelius Castoriadis’ works on radical imaginary, this article analyses the debate about Marxism, during the year 1946 ... [more ▼]

On the basis of Antonio Gramsci’s praxis philosophy, taken up by André Tosel, and Cornelius Castoriadis’ works on radical imaginary, this article analyses the debate about Marxism, during the year 1946, between two intellectual reviews: Les Temps Modernes and Critique. If the creation of those reviews is deeply related to a social context and an interdiscourse influenced by the political and ideological rise of extreme left – particularly the French Communist Party –, their project consists in a critical questioning of communist discourses, returning to Marx’s and Hegel’s texts. References to these philosophies induce different rhetorical and argumentative particularities that we intend to study in order to understand the complex relations between the rhetoric of a sociohistorical interdiscourse and his ideological substructure. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamics and emissions of N2O in groundwater: A review
Jurado Elices, Anna ULg; Borges, Alberto ULg; Brouyère, Serge ULg

in Science of the Total Environment (2017), 584-585C

This work reviews the concentrations, the dynamics and the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) in groundwater. N2O is an important greenhouse gas (GHG) and the primary stratospheric ozone depleting substance ... [more ▼]

This work reviews the concentrations, the dynamics and the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) in groundwater. N2O is an important greenhouse gas (GHG) and the primary stratospheric ozone depleting substance. The major anthropogenic source that contributes to N2O generation in aquifers is agriculture because the use of fertilizers has led to the widespread groundwater contamination by inorganic nitrogen (N) (mainly nitrate, NO3−). Once in the aquifer, this inorganic N is transported and affected by several geochemical processes that produce and consume N2O. An inventory of dissolved N2O concentrations is presented and the highest dissolved concentration is about 18.000 times higher than air-equilibrated water (up to 4004 μg N L-1). The accumulation of N2O in groundwater is mainly due to denitrification and to lesser extent to nitrification. Their occurrence depend on the geochemical (e.g., NO3−, dissolved oxygen, ammonium and dissolved organic carbon) as well as hydrogeological parameters (e.g., groundwater table fluctuations and aquifer permeability). The coupled understanding of both parameters is necessary to gain insight on the dynamics and the emissions of N2O in groundwater. Overall, groundwater indirect N2O emissions seem to be a minor component of N2O emissions to the atmosphere. Further research might be devoted to evaluate the groundwater contribution to the indirect emissions of N2O because this will help to better constraint the N2O global budget and, consequently, the N budget. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of discrete choice experiment to assess farmers’ willingness to report swine diseases in the Red River Delta region, Vietnam
Pham Thi Thanh, Hoa; Peyre, Marisa; Quang Trinh, Tuyen et al

in Preventive Veterinary Medicine (2017), 138

A discrete choice experiment (DCE) is carried out to value socio-economic factors influencing the farmer’s decision to report swine diseases and to assess the willingness of farmers to report swine ... [more ▼]

A discrete choice experiment (DCE) is carried out to value socio-economic factors influencing the farmer’s decision to report swine diseases and to assess the willingness of farmers to report swine diseases. Data were collected between March and July 2015 in two provinces in the Red River Delta, Northern Vietnam, from 196 pig producers by face-to face interview. A conditional logit model is used to measure the relative importance of the socio-economic factors and calculate the expected probability of disease reporting under changes of levels of these factors. Results of the study indicated that the likelihood of compensation and the type of culling implemented (all or only unrecovered pigs) are the two most important factors influencing farmer reporting. Compensation level, movement restriction and delay in compensation payment also have significant impacts on farmer’s decision to report animal disease but they are not as important as the above factors. Three different scenarios including changes in six different factors (attributes) are tested to predict probability of animal disease reporting. Under the current situation (uncertainty of being compensated), only 4% of the farmers would report swine disease outbreak to the official surveillance system if the culling policy involves all pigs in affected farms. This number is increased to 26% if culling in affected farms is restricted to unrecovered pigs only. Ensuring certainty of compensation increases reporting probability by up to 50% and 90% if all or only unrecovered pigs are destroyed, respectively. The results of this study are important for improving the performance and sustainability of swine disease surveillance system in Vietnam. [less ▲]

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See detailLessons learned from the virus indexing of Musa germplasm: insights from a multiyear collaboration
De Clerck, Caroline ULg; Crew, Kathy; Van den Houwe, Ines et al

in Annals of Applied Biology (2017)

The Bioversity International Transit Center (ITC) for banana hosts more than 1500 accessions largely covering the genetic diversity of the genus Musa. Its objective is to conserve this genetic diversity ... [more ▼]

The Bioversity International Transit Center (ITC) for banana hosts more than 1500 accessions largely covering the genetic diversity of the genus Musa. Its objective is to conserve this genetic diversity and to supply plant materials to users worldwide. All the Musa accessions must be tested for virus presence and, if infected, virus elimination must be attempted, to enable the supply of virus-free plant material. An international collaborative effort launched under the auspices of Bioversity International (2007–2013) finally led to the implementation of a two-step process to test the accessions. The first step, called pre-indexing, involved only molecular tests and was designed as a pre-screen of new germplasm lines or existing accessions to reduce the need for post-entry virus therapy and repeated virus indexing. The second step, called full indexing, was performed on either older existing accessions or newer accessions which tested negative during pre-indexing, and involvedmolecular tests, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and symptom observation. In total, 270 germplasm lines (434 samples) were pre-indexed; while full indexing was carried out on 243 accessions (68 of which had been pre-indexed). A significant proportion of the samples tested during pre-indexing was infected with at least one virus (68%), showing the utility of this early pre-screening step. Banana streak OL virus and Banana mild mosaic virus were the most commonly detected viruses during both pre- and full indexing. For 22 accessions, viral particles were observed by TEM in full indexing while the molecular tests were negative, underlining the importance of combining various detection techniques. After full indexing, viruses were not detected in 166 accessions, which were then released for international distribution from the ITC. This publication exemplifies how the practical application of diagnostic protocols can raise fundamental questions related to their appropriate use in routine practice and the need for their continuous monitoring and improvement after their first publication. [less ▲]

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See detailL’accès des filles à l’enseignement supérieur au Burkina Faso : choix parentaux, parcours d’étudiantes et défis
Wouango, Joséphine ULg

in International Review of Education (2017), 63(2),

Qu'est-ce qui motive les parents des milieux moins aisés à investir dans une scolarisation prolongée de leurs filles ? Qu'est-ce qui amène les filles issues de ces milieux à se maintenir dans le système ... [more ▼]

Qu'est-ce qui motive les parents des milieux moins aisés à investir dans une scolarisation prolongée de leurs filles ? Qu'est-ce qui amène les filles issues de ces milieux à se maintenir dans le système scolaire jusqu'à l'université ? De nombreuses recherches sur le système éducatif burkinabé montrent qu'il existe encore des disparités entre filles et garçons à tous les niveaux, avec une aggravation de l'écart à mesure que le niveau d'études augmente. Dans ces conditions, la perspective pour des filles issues de familles moins aisées de poursuivre des études supérieures est moins certaine. Pourtant, on remarque une relative présence de filles issues de ces milieux à l'université de Ouagadougou. À partir d'une enquête qualitative auprès d'étudiantes et de leurs parents, cet article met en exergue les logiques sociales qui expliquent le parcours scolaire particulier de ces filles. Le niveau de scolarisation des aînés, la place de la fille dans la fratrie ou le souci d'équité sont des facteurs à l'origine du choix de certains parents de scolariser leurs filles. Les parents se réfèrent à plusieurs formes de justification en faveur des études universitaires des filles, parmi lesquelles la logique de fidélité des filles dans le retour de l’aide revient à de multiples reprises. Quant aux étudiantes, elles évoquent des motivations diverses pour expliquer leur parcours scolaire et universitaire, souvent émaillé de difficultés, notamment la volonté d’aider leurs parents. L’article montre en outre l’importance du soutien familial dans l’entrée des filles à l’école et à l’université, ainsi que dans la poursuite et la réussite de leurs études. [less ▲]

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See detailOpinion Statement ECJ-TF 2/2016 on the Decision of the Court of Justice of the European Union of 13 July 2016 in Brisal and KBC Finance Ireland (Case C-18/15), on the Admissibility of Gross Withholding Tax of Interest
Richelle, Isabelle ULg; Prats, Alfredo Garcia; Haslehner, Werner et al

in European Taxation (2017), 2017

This Opinion Statement of the CFE ECJ Task Force analyses the ECJ’ s decision in Brisal and KBC Finance Ireland (Case C-18/15) of 13 July 2016. Following a Portuguese reference for a preliminary ruling ... [more ▼]

This Opinion Statement of the CFE ECJ Task Force analyses the ECJ’ s decision in Brisal and KBC Finance Ireland (Case C-18/15) of 13 July 2016. Following a Portuguese reference for a preliminary ruling, the Court’ s decision provides further clarification on the permissibility of withholding taxation within the European Union. In relation to interest, the Court held that non-resident taxpayers may be subject to withholding taxes (even if comparable residents pursuing the same activity are not) but that non-residents may nevertheless not be taxed on gross income (when comparable residents are taxed on net profits) and are, therefore, entitled to deduct expenses directly connected to their business activity [less ▲]

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See detailThe design and study of new Li-ion full cells of LiCo2/3Ni1/6Mn1/6O2 positive electrode paired with MnSn2 and Li4Ti5O12 negative electrodes
Mahmoud, Abdelfattah ULg; Saadoune, Ismael; Lippens, Pierre-Emmanuel et al

in Solid State Ionics (2017), 300

We report evidence for the electrochemical performances of two Li-ion full cells, built up by the combination of LiCo2/3Ni1/6Mn1/6O2 cathode material with MnSn2 intermetallic and Li4Ti5O12 spinel as the ... [more ▼]

We report evidence for the electrochemical performances of two Li-ion full cells, built up by the combination of LiCo2/3Ni1/6Mn1/6O2 cathode material with MnSn2 intermetallic and Li4Ti5O12 spinel as the anode materials, respectively. MnSn2 and Li4Ti5O12 electrode materials illustrate different working voltage versus the redox couple Li+/Li0 and different reactionmechanisms during lithiuminsertion/deinsertion cycles. The structure,morphological characteristics and the electrochemical properties of the studied materialswere investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical techniques. The two full-cell configurations showed different electrochemical behaviors. The MnSn2//LiCo2/3Ni1/6Mn1/6O2 configuration exhibits high working voltage (~3.5 V) and specific capacity (~200 mAh/gcathode) but suffers from high irreversible capacity loss during the first cycles and capacity fading during cycling. The Li4Ti5O12//LiCo2/3Ni1/6Mn1/6O2 cell demonstrated excellent cycling properties at different C-rates with 100% capacity retention after 150 cycles at 1 C. Although the working voltage (~2.2 V) and the specific capacity (~140 mAh/gcathode) are lower than those of the MnSn2//LiCo2/3Ni1/6Mn1/6O2 configuration, the other measured electrochemical properties suggest that the Li4Ti5O12//LiCo2/3Ni1/6Mn1/6O2 full cell is a potential candidate for battery application due to its excellent cycling performance and improved safety. [less ▲]

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See detailA Machine Learning-Based Approximation of Strong Branching
Marcos Alvarez, Alejandro ULg; Louveaux, Quentin ULg; Wehenkel, Louis ULg

in INFORMS Journal on Computing (2017), 29(1), 185-195

We present in this paper a new generic approach to variable branching in branch-and-bound for mixed- integer linear problems. Our approach consists in imitating the decisions taken by a good branching ... [more ▼]

We present in this paper a new generic approach to variable branching in branch-and-bound for mixed- integer linear problems. Our approach consists in imitating the decisions taken by a good branching strategy, namely strong branching, with a fast approximation. This approximated function is created by a machine learning technique from a set of observed branching decisions taken by strong branching. The philosophy of the approach is similar to reliability branching. However, our approach can catch more complex aspects of observed previous branchings in order to take a branching decision. The experiments performed on randomly generated and MIPLIB problems show promising results. [less ▲]

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