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See detailInfluence of sugar beet pulp on feeding behavior, growth performance, carcass quality and gut health of fattening pigs.
Laitat, Martine ULg; Antoine, Nadine ULg; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2015), 19(1), 20-31

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See detailImplausibility of the vibrational theory of olfaction.
Block, Eric; Jang, Seogjoo; Matsunami, Hiroaki et al

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2015)

The vibrational theory of olfaction assumes that electron transfer occurs across odorants at the active sites of odorant receptors (ORs), serving as a sensitive measure of odorant vibrational frequencies ... [more ▼]

The vibrational theory of olfaction assumes that electron transfer occurs across odorants at the active sites of odorant receptors (ORs), serving as a sensitive measure of odorant vibrational frequencies, ultimately leading to olfactory perception. A previous study reported that human subjects differentiated hydrogen/deuterium isotopomers (isomers with isotopic atoms) of the musk compound cyclopentadecanone as evidence supporting the theory. Here, we find no evidence for such differentiation at the molecular level. In fact, we find that the human musk-recognizing receptor, OR5AN1, identified using a heterologous OR expression system and robustly responding to cyclopentadecanone and muscone, fails to distinguish isotopomers of these compounds in vitro. Furthermore, the mouse (methylthio)methanethiol-recognizing receptor, MOR244-3, as well as other selected human and mouse ORs, responded similarly to normal, deuterated, and 13C isotopomers of their respective ligands, paralleling our results with the musk receptor OR5AN1. These findings suggest that the proposed vibration theory does not apply to the human musk receptor OR5AN1, mouse thiol receptor MOR244-3, or other ORs examined. Also, contrary to the vibration theory predictions, muscone-d30 lacks the 1,380- to 1,550-cm-1 IR bands claimed to be essential for musk odor. Furthermore, our theoretical analysis shows that the proposed electron transfer mechanism of the vibrational frequencies of odorants could be easily suppressed by quantum effects of nonodorant molecular vibrational modes. These and other concerns about electron transfer at ORs, together with our extensive experimental data, argue against the plausibility of the vibration theory. [less ▲]

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See detailComplete analytical procedure to assess the response of a frame submitted to a column loss
Huvelle, Clara; Hoang, Van Long ULg; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg et al

in Engineering Structures (2015), 86

The present paper gives a global overview on recent developments performed at the University of Liege on structural robustness of buildings for the specific scenario ‘‘loss of a column’’. In particular, a ... [more ▼]

The present paper gives a global overview on recent developments performed at the University of Liege on structural robustness of buildings for the specific scenario ‘‘loss of a column’’. In particular, a complete analytical method to assess the response of a 2D frame losing statically one of its columns is presented in details. This method is based on the development of alternative load paths in the damaged structure and takes into account the couplings between the different parts of the structure which are differently affected by the column loss. Also, the validation of the developed method through comparison to experimental and numerical evidences is presented. [less ▲]

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See detailCan we identify patients with high risk of osteoarthritis progression who will respond to treatment ? A focus on epidemiology and phenotype of osteoarthritis
Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Cooper, C; Arden, N et al

in Drugs & Aging (2015), 32(3), 179-187

Osteoarthritis is a syndrome affecting a variety of patient profiles. A European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis and the European Union Geriatric Medicine ... [more ▼]

Osteoarthritis is a syndrome affecting a variety of patient profiles. A European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis and the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society working meeting explored the possibility of identifying different patient profiles in osteoarthritis. The risk factors for the development of osteoarthritis include systemic factors (e.g., age, sex, obesity, genetics, race, and bone density) and local biomechanical factors (e.g., obesity, sport, joint injury, and muscle weakness); most also predict disease progression, particularly joint injury, malalignment, and synovitis/effusion. The characterization of patient profiles should help to better orientate research, facilitate trial design, and define which patients are the most likely to benefit from treatment. There are a number of profile candidates. Generalized, polyarticular osteoarthritis and local, monoarticular osteoarthritis appear to be two different profiles; the former is a feature of osteoarthritis comorbid with inflammation or the metabolic syndrome, while the latter is more typical of post-trauma osteoarthritis, especially in cases with severe malalignment. Other biomechanical factors may also define profiles, such as joint malalignment, loss of meniscal function, and ligament injury. Early- and late-stage osteoarthritis appear as separate profiles, notably in terms of treatment response. Finally, there is evidence that there are two separate profiles related to lesions in the subchondral bone, which may determine benefit from bone-active treatments. Decisions on appropriate therapy should be made considering clinical presentation, underlying pathophysiology, and stage of disease. Identification of patient profiles may lead to more personalized healthcare, with more targeted treatment for osteoarthritis. [less ▲]

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See detailPositive cooperativity between acceptor and donor sites of the peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase.
Bury, Daniel; Dahmane, Ismahene ULg; Derouaux, Adeline ULg et al

in Biochemical pharmacology (2015), 93(2), 141-50

The glycosyltransferases of family 51 (GT51) catalyze the polymerization of lipid II to form linear glycan chains, which, after cross linking by the transpeptidases, form the net-like peptidoglycan ... [more ▼]

The glycosyltransferases of family 51 (GT51) catalyze the polymerization of lipid II to form linear glycan chains, which, after cross linking by the transpeptidases, form the net-like peptidoglycan macromolecule. The essential function of the GT makes it an attractive antimicrobial target; therefore a better understanding of its function and its mechanism of interaction with substrates could help in the design and the development of new antibiotics. In this work, we have used a surface plasmon resonance Biacore((R)) biosensor, based on an amine derivative of moenomycin A immobilized on a sensor chip surface, to investigate the mechanism of binding of substrate analogous inhibitors to the GT. Addition of increasing concentrations of moenomycin A to the Staphylococcus aureus MtgA led to reduced binding of the protein to the sensor chip as expected. Remarkably, in the presence of low concentrations of the most active disaccharide inhibitors, binding of MtgA to immobilized moenomycin A was found to increase; in contrast competition with moenomycin A occurred only at high concentrations. This finding suggests that at low concentrations, the lipid II analogs bind to the acceptor site and induce a cooperative binding of moenomycin A to the donor site. Our results constitute the first indication of the existence of a positive cooperativity between the acceptor and the donor sites of peptidoglycan GTs. In addition, our study indicates that a modification of two residues (L119N and F120S) within the hydrophobic region of MtgA can yield monodisperse forms of the protein with apparently no change in its secondary structure content, but this is at the expense of the enzyme function. [less ▲]

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See detailTHERAPY OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Outcomes in patients with Cushing's disease undergoing transsphenoidal surgery: systematic review assessing criteria used to define remission and recurrence.
Petersenn, Stephan; Beckers, Albert ULg; Ferone, Diego et al

in European journal of endocrinology / European Federation of Endocrine Societies (2015), 172(6), 227-239

Objective: A number of factors can influence the reported outcomes of transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) for Cushing's disease - including different remission and recurrence criteria, for which there is no ... [more ▼]

Objective: A number of factors can influence the reported outcomes of transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) for Cushing's disease - including different remission and recurrence criteria, for which there is no consensus. Therefore, a comparative analysis of the best treatment options and patient management strategies is difficult. In this review, we investigated the clinical outcomes of initial TSS in patients with Cushing's disease based on definitions of and assessments for remission and recurrence. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed and identified 44 studies with clear definitions of remission and recurrence. When data were available, additional analyses by time of remission, tumour size, duration of follow-up, surgical experience, year of study publication, and adverse events related to surgery were performed. Results: Of the 44 articles selected, only one reported endoscopic TSS. Data from a total of 6,400 patients who received microscopic TSS were extracted and analysed. A variety of definitions of remission and recurrence of Cushing's disease after initial microscopic TSS was used, giving broad ranges of remission (42.0-96.6%; median, 77.9%) and recurrence (3.1-47.4%; median, 11.5%). Better remission and recurrence outcomes were achieved for micro- versus macroadenomas; however, no correlations were found with other parameters, other than improved safety with longer surgical experience. Conclusions: The variety of methodologies used in clinical evaluation of TSS for Cushing's disease strongly support the call for standardization and optimization of studies to inform clinical practice and maximize patient outcomes. Clinically significant rates of failure of initial TSS highlight the need for effective second-line treatments. [less ▲]

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See detailMagnetic shielding performances of YBa2Cu3O7−δ -coated silver tubes obtained by electrophoretic deposition
Devendra Kumar, N; Closset, Raphaël ULg; Wera, Laurent ULg et al

in Superconductor Science and Technology (2015), 28

We report a complete procedure to achieve multilayer YBCO thick films by electrophoretic deposition on silver tubes using a suspension of YBCO powder in butanol. With the aim to optimize the magnetic ... [more ▼]

We report a complete procedure to achieve multilayer YBCO thick films by electrophoretic deposition on silver tubes using a suspension of YBCO powder in butanol. With the aim to optimize the magnetic shielding performances of the coatings, we have carried out an extensive investigation of the influence of the deposition parameters, the multilayer deposition sequence and the intermediate/final heat treatments on the coating microstructure. Using the optimized conditions, a 24-layer YBCO coating has been successfully prepared on an 80 mm long Ag tube: the melt growth processed multilayered YBCO thick film thus obtained can shield an applied magnetic field of 1.9 mT at 77 K, the highest value per thickness unit reported so far in the literature for these materials. [less ▲]

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See detailOptical collimation of an atomic beam using a white light molasses
Glover, Rohan ULg; Bastin, Thierry ULg

in Journal of the Optical Society of America. B, Optical Physics (2015), 32(5), 1-10

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See detailThe finite index basis property
Berthé, Valérie; De Felice, Clelia; Dolce, Francesco et al

in Journal of Pure and Applied Algebra (2015), 219(7), 25212537

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See detailDeficiency in mouse hyaluronidase 2: a new mechanism of chronic thrombotic microangiopathy.
Onclinx, Cecile; Dogne, Sophie; Jadin, Laurence et al

in Haematologica (2015)

Hyaluronan is a major component of the extracellular matrix and glycocalyx. Its main somatic degrading enzymes are the hyaluronidases 1 and 2, none of which is active in the bloodstream. We generated ... [more ▼]

Hyaluronan is a major component of the extracellular matrix and glycocalyx. Its main somatic degrading enzymes are the hyaluronidases 1 and 2, none of which is active in the bloodstream. We generated hyaluronidase 2 deficient mice. They suffer from mild chronic anemia and thrombocytopenia, in parallel with a 10-fold increase in plasma hyaluronan concentration. The current study explores the mechanism of these hematological anomalies. The decreased erythrocyte and platelet counts were assigned to peripheral consumption. The erythrocyte half-life was reduced from 25 to 8 days without signs of premature aging. Hyaluronidase 2 deficient platelets were functional. Major intrinsic defects in erythrocyte membrane or stability, as well as detrimental effects of high hyaluronan levels on erythrocytes, were ruled out in vitro. Normal erythrocytes transfused into hyaluronidase 2 deficient mice were quickly destroyed but neither splenectomy nor anti-C5 administration prevented from chronic hemolysis. Schistocytes were present in hyaluronidase 2 deficient smears at a level of 1 to 6%, while virtually absent in control mice. Hyaluronidase 2 deficient mice had increased markers of endothelial damage and microvascular fibrin deposition, without renal failure, accumulation of ultra-large multimers of von Willebrand factor, deficiency of A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase with ThromboSpondin type 1 motifs, member 13 (ADAMTS13), or hypertension. There was no sign of structural damage in hepatic or splenic sinusoids, or in any other microvessels. We conclude that hyaluronidase 2 deficiency induces chronic thrombotic microangiopathy with hemolytic anemia in mice. The link between this uncommon condition and hyaluronidase 2 remains to be explored in man. [less ▲]

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See detailAcoustic monitoring of O2 production of a seagrass meadow
Felisberto, Paulo; Jesus, Sérgio M.; Zabel, Friedrich et al

in Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology (2015), 464(0), 75-87

Acoustic data were acquired in October 2011 over a Posidonia oceanica meadow in the Bay of la Revellata, Calvi, Corsica. The purpose was to develop an acoustic system for monitoring the oxygen (O2 ... [more ▼]

Acoustic data were acquired in October 2011 over a Posidonia oceanica meadow in the Bay of la Revellata, Calvi, Corsica. The purpose was to develop an acoustic system for monitoring the oxygen (O2) production of an entire seagrass meadow. In a shallow water area (b38 m), densely covered by P. oceanica, a sound source transmitted signals in 3 different bands (400–800 Hz, 1.5–3.5 kHz and 6.5–8.5 kHz) toward three self-recording hydrophones at a distance of 100 m, over the period of oneweek. The data showa high correlation between the diel cycle of the acoustic signals' energy received by the hydrophones and the temporal changes in water column O2 concentration as measured by optodes. The results thus show that a simple acoustic acquisition system can be used to monitor the O2-based productivity of a seagrass meadow at the ecosystem level with high temporal resolution. The finding of a significant production of O2 as bubbles in seagrass ecosystems suggests that net primary production is underestimated by methods that rely on the mass balance of dissolved O2 measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailWestern lowland gorilla seed dispersal: Are seeds adapted to long gut retention times?
Petre, Charles-Albert ULg; Tagg, Nikki; Beudels-Jamar, Roseline et al

in Acta Oecologica: International Journal of Ecology (2015)

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See detailL'image et le temps. Une poétique du récit historien chez Alphonse Dupront.
Servais, Amandine ULg

in Phantasia (2015), 1

Par l’étude d’un cas – Alphonse Dupront (particulièrement son texte « Itinéraire », in Du sacré. Croisades et pèlerinages. Images et langages) – j’entends éprouver l’hypothèse selon laquelle l’image ... [more ▼]

Par l’étude d’un cas – Alphonse Dupront (particulièrement son texte « Itinéraire », in Du sacré. Croisades et pèlerinages. Images et langages) – j’entends éprouver l’hypothèse selon laquelle l’image détermine des modalités inédites du savoir historien. Dupront ne produit pas, sur les images, un discours en surplomb ni un texte où l’image est prétextuelle. Il réalise une expérience : son texte est à la fois le lieu d’une pratique et l’endroit où se réfléchit cette pratique. Le récit de Dupront constitue un métadiscours et c’est par l’image que le récit historien est contraint de s’engager dans l’autoréflexivité. Chez Dupront, les catégories du temps et de l’image sont étroitement intriquées. Cette intrication des catégories vient de ce que la définition du temps (longue durée) engendre une conception de l’événement (le vécu qu’étudie l’historien) s’accordant à une certaine définition de l’image (l’image entendue comme agrégat d’hétérogènes et, par-là, possédant un potentiel d’actualisation). Dès lors, événement et image partagent une même propriété, celle d’être actualisables. Cette contiguïté catégorielle fonde le système dupronien. En cela, l’image occupe une place prépondérante ; elle détermine des modalités inédites du savoir historique et questionne le dispositif historique dans son ensemble. Ainsi, la marge où se tient Dupront révèle quelque chose de fort qui œuvre au sein de la pratique. [less ▲]

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See detailAntidiabétiques oraux dans le traitement du diabète de type 2 : perspectives historique et médico-économique
SCHEEN, André ULg

in Médecine des Maladies Métaboliques (2015), 9(2), 186-197

Oral therapy of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is becoming increasingly complex during the last decade, with first the launch of glitazones, then that of gliptins and finally, very recently, that of gliflozins ... [more ▼]

Oral therapy of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is becoming increasingly complex during the last decade, with first the launch of glitazones, then that of gliptins and finally, very recently, that of gliflozins. However, the two oral glucose-lowering agents developed more than 50 years ago, metformin and sulfonylureas, still remain the leaders in the market. After failure of metformin monotherapy, the choice of antidiabetic medications is difficult and should be made taking into account the benefit-risk balance, with a special attention to cost of therapy and a focus on a patient-centered approach. This strategy is recommended in the recently updated joint ADA-EASD position statement, in January 2015. If the main principles of T2D therapy are universal, particularities should probably be discussed regarding regional situations, and the African continent obviously presents specificities in this respect. [less ▲]

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See detailAcyclic, connected and tree sets
Berthé, Valérie; De Felice, Clelia; Dolce, Francesco et al

in Monatshefte für Mathematik (2015), 176(4), 521550

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See detailRevisiting the origin and diversification of vascular plants through a comprehensive Bayesian analysis of the fossil record
Silvestro, Daniel; Cascales - Miñana, Borja ULg; Bacon, Christine D. et al

in New Phytologist (2015), 207

Plants have a long evolutionary history, during which mass extinction events dramatically affected Earth’s ecosystems and its biodiversity. The fossil record can shed light on the diversi- fication ... [more ▼]

Plants have a long evolutionary history, during which mass extinction events dramatically affected Earth’s ecosystems and its biodiversity. The fossil record can shed light on the diversi- fication dynamics of plant life and reveal how changes in the origination–extinction balance have contributed to shaping the current flora. We use a novel Bayesian approach to estimate origination and extinction rates in plants throughout their history. We focus on the effect of the ‘Big Five’ mass extinctions and on estimating the timing of origin of vascular plants, seed plants and angiosperms. Our analyses show that plant diversification is characterized by several shifts in origination and extinction rates, often matching the most important geological boundaries. The estimated origin of major plant clades predates the oldest macrofossils when considering the uncertainties associated with the fossil record and the preservation process. Our findings show that the commonly recognized mass extinctions have affected each plant group differently and that phases of high extinction often coincided with major floral turnovers. For instance, after the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary we infer negligible shifts in diversification of non-flowering seed plants, but find significantly decreased extinction in spore-bearing plants and increased origination rates in angiosperms, contributing to their current ecological and evolutionary dominance. [less ▲]

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See detailCatalogue of the types and illustrated specimens recovered from the ‘black marble’ of Denée, a marine conservation-Lagerstätte from the Mississippian of southern Belgium
Mottequin, Bernard ULg; Poty, Edouard; Prestianni, Cyrille

in Geologica Belgica (2015)

The Viséan ‘black marble’ of Denée is one of the best preserved Mississippian fossil assemblages. This Lagerstätte is famous for the exceptional preservation of several groups of macro-organisms (fishes ... [more ▼]

The Viséan ‘black marble’ of Denée is one of the best preserved Mississippian fossil assemblages. This Lagerstätte is famous for the exceptional preservation of several groups of macro-organisms (fishes, echinoids, graptolites). However, only a part of the fauna has received attention from specialists and most of the phyla may benefit from a modern revision based on new investigative techniques such as 3D imagery and CT-scanning. Almost all the specimens illustrated in the literature have been traced and we present here a comprehensive catalogue of this material. Representatives of several minor groups are photographically illustrated for the first time as well as five emblematic specimens of the styracopterid genus Benedenius (Pisces). For purposes of nomenclatural formality, the lectotypes of Benedenius deneensis Traquair (in de Koninck, 1878), B. soreili Fraipont, 1890, Oligoporus soreili Fraipont, 1904, Taeniaster? fournieri Fraipont, 1904, and Scaphiocrinus longicaudatus Fraipont, 1904 are here selected. [less ▲]

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See detailGenome-Wide Analysis of In Vivo Binding of the Master Regulator DasR in Streptomyces coelicolor Identifies Novel Non-Canonical Targets
Świątek-Połatyńska, MA; Bucca, G; Laing, E et al

in PLoS ONE (2015)

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See detailSolutrean and Magdalenian ferruginous rocks heat-treatment: accidental and/or deliberate action?
Salomon, Hélène ULg; Vignaud, Colette; Lahlil, Sophia et al

in Journal of Archaeological Science (2015), 55

Heating of prehistoric coloring materials can induce radical changes in color indicative of structural matter transformation. For instance, the structure of the yellow iron oxide-rich mineral, goethite ... [more ▼]

Heating of prehistoric coloring materials can induce radical changes in color indicative of structural matter transformation. For instance, the structure of the yellow iron oxide-rich mineral, goethite, changes into the red iron oxide-rich mineral, hematite, when it is heated to around 250-300°C. For a long time, heating has been thought to be the reason for the high frequencies of red rocks used in camp sites and the red pigments in rock art paintings. However, records of heat-treatment of coloring materials are usually not well documented; the contextual information is not clear enough to confirm intentional heating. Two Solutrean camp sites (the flint workshop Les Maîtreaux and the hunting site Combe Saunière I) and one middle Magdalenian cave with rock art (Grotte Blanchard, La Garenne) allow us to study the heating process of ferruginous rocks. All three sites, which have been excavated relatively recently, have well-defined archaeological records and strong associations between the ferruginous rocks and other artifacts. With the use of X-ray diffraction and electron µ-diffraction for identifying structural modification and SEM-FEG and TEM-FEG for detecting dehydration nano-pores, we have strong evidence for intentional heat-treatment of yellow goethite-rich materials in two archaeological contexts and one site for unintentional heating, where rocks were only partially transformed. Intentional heating to obtain red hematite from primary goethite would have required ingenious methods of temperature control in fireplace settings and purpose-built ground ovens. [less ▲]

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See detailValidation and Psychometric Properties of the French Versions of the Environmental Reward Observation Scale and of the Reward Probability Index
Wagener, Aurélie ULg; Blairy, Sylvie ULg

in Psychologica Belgica (2015)

Background: Low levels of environmental rewards have been related to depression on a number of occasions in the scientific literature. Two scales have been created to assess environmental rewards: the ... [more ▼]

Background: Low levels of environmental rewards have been related to depression on a number of occasions in the scientific literature. Two scales have been created to assess environmental rewards: the Environmental Reward Observation Scale (EROS) and the Reward Probability Index (RPI). This study aims to validate the French versions of these two scales. Method: 466 non-clinical adults completed an online survey assessing environmental rewards, depression, anxiety, activation, avoidance and behavioural systems. Confirmatory factor analyses were performed to assess the factorial structures of the French EROS and RPI. Results: A one-factor solution for the EROS and a two-factor solution for the RPI best fitted the data. High levels of internal consistency were found for both the EROS and the RPI. Convergent validity was also examined, revealing that high environmental rewards appear to be related to activation and behavioural activation system. Conclusion: The French versions of the EROS and the RPI appear to be reliable assessments of environmental rewards. [less ▲]

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See detailGalectin expression in cancer diagnosis and prognosis: a systematic review
Thijssen, Victor; Heusschen, Roy ULg; CAERS, Jo ULg et al

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Reviews on Cancer (2015)

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See detailDes chiffres de la politique à la politique du chiffre Le cas des réformes du financement de la recherche dans les universités belge francophones.
Fallon, Catherine ULg

in Reflets et Perspectives de la Vie Economique (2015)

“Governing by numbers” is a trend on the increase in public action. Numbers tend to pervade the politico-administrative space without questioning neither the quantification processes which produce them ... [more ▼]

“Governing by numbers” is a trend on the increase in public action. Numbers tend to pervade the politico-administrative space without questioning neither the quantification processes which produce them nor the conditions of their utilization in government. And yet the use of numbers and data in political arguments contribute to transform the terms of the debate: politics can transform data and indicators, but one should not neglect how numbers affect policymaking. This article proposes as case study the analysis of some recent transformations of public research funding mechanism in universities in French speaking Belgium. It questions the systemic effects of the use of performance indicators in public management in this sector and it proposes some starting points for a discussion of their impact on the quality of the political debate. [less ▲]

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See detailHow to define nativeness in organisms with high dispersal capacities ? A comment on Essl et al.
Patino, J; Vanderpoorten, Alain ULg

in Journal of Biogeography (2015), 42

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See detailOn Water Transfer and Hydraulic Connection Layer During the Convective Drying of Rigid Porous Material
Prime, Noémie; Housni, Z; Fraikin, Laurent ULg et al

in Transport in Porous Media (2015), 106(1), 47-72

The convective drying of a natural porous material, limestone, is investigated in this study, with both experimental and numerical approaches. The first experimental campaign, which focuses on the ... [more ▼]

The convective drying of a natural porous material, limestone, is investigated in this study, with both experimental and numerical approaches. The first experimental campaign, which focuses on the influence of samples’ slenderness, suggests the presence of a hydraulic connection layer between the porous water and the external environment, in spite of the very fine pore structure of the material. This hydraulic transfer enables the fast water evaporation at the beginning of the drying test, when external conditions drive the kinetics. Furthermore, the results show that this layer does not exceed 30 mm deep from the external surface, given the drying conditions of the test. A second experimental campaign aims to analyse, by mean of an X-ray tomography tool, the internal water content during the drying. It confirms that water transfer takes place within the limestone in two distinct stages. The first stage being faster than the second one with a homogeneous desaturation along the sample, it is consistent with the hypothesis of the hydraulic connection layer. Finally, the finite element modelling makes possible to identify the main mechanisms of water transfer, namely liquid convection and vapour diffusion. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht [less ▲]

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See detailLetter to the Editor.
Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism (2015), 44(5), 15

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See detailDesign of Pt/carbon xerogel catalysts for PEM fuel cells
Job, Nathalie ULg; Lambert, Stéphanie ULg; Zubiaur, Anthony ULg et al

in Catalysts (2015), 5

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See detailFunctional analysis of the three HMA4 copies of the metal hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri
Nouet, Cécile ULg; Charlier, Jean-Benoit; Carnol, Monique ULg et al

in Journal of Experimental Botany (2015), in press

In Arabidopsis halleri, the AhHMA4 gene has an essential function in Zn/Cd hypertolerance and hyperaccumulation by mediating root to shoot translocation of metals. Constitutive high expression of AhHMA4 ... [more ▼]

In Arabidopsis halleri, the AhHMA4 gene has an essential function in Zn/Cd hypertolerance and hyperaccumulation by mediating root to shoot translocation of metals. Constitutive high expression of AhHMA4 results from a tandem triplication and cis-activation of the promoter of all three copies. The three AhHMA4 copies possess divergent promoter sequences, but highly conserved coding sequences, and display identical expression profiles in the root and shoot vascular system. Here, we expressed an AhHMA4::GFP fusion under the control of each three A. halleri HMA4 promoters in a hma2hma4 double mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana to individually examine the function of each A. halleri AhHMA4 copy. The protein localized non-polarly at the plasma membrane of the root pericycle cells of both A. thaliana and A. halleri. The expression of each AhHMA4::GFP copy complemented the severe Zn deficiency phenotype of the hma2hma4 mutant by restoring root-to-shoot translocation of zinc. However, each copy had different impact on metal homeostasis in the A. thaliana genetic background: AhHMA4 copies 2 and 3 were more highly expressed and provided higher Zn tolerance in roots and accumulation in shoots than copy 1, whereas AhHMA4 copy 3 also increased Cd tolerance in roots. Our data suggest a certain extent of functional differentiation among the three A. halleri HMA4 copies, stemming from differences in expression levels rather than in expression profile. HMA4 is a key node of the Zn homeostasis network and small changes in expression level can have major impact on Zn allocation to root or shoot tissues. [less ▲]

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See detailNot on my network! App exclusion and the net neutrality debate
Broos, Sébastien ULg; Gautier, Axel ULg

in LCII Policy Brief (2015), (2015/1),

The net neutrality debate is at its peak. On January 27, the Dutch Authority for Competition and Markets (DACM) fined KPN and Vodafone for the first violation of the Dutch net neutrality law ever.i On ... [more ▼]

The net neutrality debate is at its peak. On January 27, the Dutch Authority for Competition and Markets (DACM) fined KPN and Vodafone for the first violation of the Dutch net neutrality law ever.i On February 26, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) approved new regulations for broadband internet, preserving the net neutrality.ii In brief, the net neutrality proponents seem to be winning the debate. In a recent economic paper, Sébastien Broos and Axel Gautier analyze whether this toughened stance of regulatory authorities is the best way forward. [less ▲]

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See detailA linear accelerator for levitated micro-objects
Sari, Ibrahim; Kraft, Michael ULg

in Sensors and Actuators. A, Physical (2015)

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See detail3D zero-thickness coupled interface finite element: Formulation and application
Cerfontaine, Benjamin ULg; Dieudonné, Anne-Catherine ULg; Radu, Jean-Pol ULg et al

in Computers and Geotechnics (2015)

In many fields of geotechnical engineering, the modelling of interfaces requires special numerical tools. This paper presents the formulation of a 3D fully coupled hydro-mechanical finite element of ... [more ▼]

In many fields of geotechnical engineering, the modelling of interfaces requires special numerical tools. This paper presents the formulation of a 3D fully coupled hydro-mechanical finite element of interface. The element belongs to the zero-thickness family and the contact constraint is enforced by the penalty method. Fluid flow is discretised through a three-node scheme, discretising the inner flow by additional nodes. The element is able to reproduce the contact/loss of contact between two solids as well as shearing/sliding of the interface. Fluid flow through and across the interface can be modelled. Opening of a gap within the interface influences the longitudinal transmissivity as well as the storage of water inside the interface. Moreover the computation of an effective pressure within the interface, according to the Terzaghi’s principle creates an additional hydro-mechanical coupling. The uplifting simulation of a suction caisson embedded in a soil layer illustrates the main features of the element. Friction is progressively mobilised along the shaft of the caisson and sliding finally takes place. A gap is created below the top of the caisson and filled with water. It illustrates the storage capacity within the interface and the transversal flow. Longitudinal fluid flow is highlighted between the shaft of the caisson and the soil. The fluid flow depends on the opening of the gap and is related to the cubic law. [less ▲]

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See detailA note on the equivalence between observed and expected information functions with polytomous IRT models
Magis, David ULg

in Journal of Educational & Behavioral Statistics (2015), 40

The purpose of this note is to study the equivalence of observed and expected (Fisher) information functions with polytomous item response theory (IRT) models. It is established that observed and expected ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this note is to study the equivalence of observed and expected (Fisher) information functions with polytomous item response theory (IRT) models. It is established that observed and expected information functions are equivalent for the class of divide-by-total models (including partial credit, generalized partial credit, rating scale and nominal response models), but not for the class of difference models (including the graded response and modified graded response models). Yet, observed information function remains positive in both classes. Straightforward connections with dichotomous IRT models and further implications are outlined. [less ▲]

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See detailImproving the sunlight-to-biomass conversion efficiency in microalgal biofactories
Wobbe, Lutz; Remacle, Claire ULg

in Journal of Biotechnology (2015), 201

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See detailRuthenium catalysts bearing a benzimidazolylidene ligand for the metathetical ring-closure of tetrasubstituted cycloolefins
Borguet, Yannick; Zaragoza, Guillermo; Demonceau, Albert ULg et al

in Dalton Transactions (2015), 44

Deprotonation of 1,3-di(2-tolyl)benzimidazolium tetrafluoroborate with a strong base afforded 1,3-di(2-tolyl)benzimidazol-2-ylidene (BTol), which dimerized progressively into the corresponding ... [more ▼]

Deprotonation of 1,3-di(2-tolyl)benzimidazolium tetrafluoroborate with a strong base afforded 1,3-di(2-tolyl)benzimidazol-2-ylidene (BTol), which dimerized progressively into the corresponding dibenzotetraazafulvalene. The complexes [RhCl(COD)(BTol)] (COD is 1,5-cyclooctadiene) and cis-[RhCl(CO)2(BTol)] were synthesized to probe the steric and electronic parameters of BTol. Comparison of the percentage of buried volume (%VBur) and of the Tolman electronic parameter (TEP) of BTol with those determined previously for 1,3-dimesitylbenzimidazol-2-ylidene (BMes) revealed that the two N-heterocyclic carbenes displayed similar electron donicities, yet the 2-tolyl substituents took a slightly greater share of the rhodium coordination sphere than the mesityl groups, due to a more pronounced tilt. The anti,anti conformation adopted by BTol in the molecular structure of [RhCl(COD)(BTol)] ensured nonetheless a remarkably unhindered access to the metal center, as evidenced by steric maps. Second-generation ruthenium-benzylidene and isopropoxybenzylidene complexes featuring the BTol ligand were obtained via phosphine exchange from the first generation Grubbs and Hoveyda-Grubbs catalysts, respectively. The atropisomerism of the 2-tolyl substituents within [RuCl2([double bond, length as m-dash]CHPh)(PCy3)(BTol)] was investigated by using variable temperature NMR spectroscopy, and the molecular structures of all four possible rotamers of [RuCl2([double bond, length as m-dash]CH-o-OiPrC6H4)(BTol)] were determined by X-ray crystallography. Both complexes were highly active at promoting the ring-closing metathesis (RCM) of model [small alpha],[small omega]-dienes. The replacement of BMes with BTol was particularly beneficial to achieve the ring-closure of tetrasubstituted cycloalkenes. More specifically, the stable isopropoxybenzylidene chelate enabled an almost quantitative RCM of two challenging substrates, viz., diethyl 2,2-bis(2-methylallyl)malonate and N,N-bis(2-methylallyl)tosylamide, within a few hours at 60 °C. [less ▲]

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See detailThe EChO science case
Tinetti, Giovanna; Drossart, Pierre; Eccleston, Paul et al

in ArXiv e-prints (2015), 1502

The discovery of almost 2000 exoplanets has revealed an unexpectedly diverse planet population. Observations to date have shown that our Solar System is certainly not representative of the general ... [more ▼]

The discovery of almost 2000 exoplanets has revealed an unexpectedly diverse planet population. Observations to date have shown that our Solar System is certainly not representative of the general population of planets in our Milky Way. The key science questions that urgently need addressing are therefore: What are exoplanets made of? Why are planets as they are? What causes the exceptional diversity observed as compared to the Solar System? EChO (Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory) has been designed as a dedicated survey mission for transit and eclipse spectroscopy capable of observing a large and diverse planet sample within its four-year mission lifetime. EChO can target the atmospheres of super-Earths, Neptune-like, and Jupiter-like planets, in the very hot to temperate zones (planet temperatures of 300K-3000K) of F to M-type host stars. Over the next ten years, several new ground- and space-based transit surveys will come on-line (e.g. NGTS, CHEOPS, TESS, PLATO), which will specifically focus on finding bright, nearby systems. The current rapid rate of discovery would allow the target list to be further optimised in the years prior to EChO's launch and enable the atmospheric characterisation of hundreds of planets. Placing the satellite at L2 provides a cold and stable thermal environment, as well as a large field of regard to allow efficient time-critical observation of targets randomly distributed over the sky. A 1m class telescope is sufficiently large to achieve the necessary spectro-photometric precision. The spectral coverage (0.5-11 micron, goal 16 micron) and SNR to be achieved by EChO, thanks to its high stability and dedicated design, would enable a very accurate measurement of the atmospheric composition and structure of hundreds of exoplanets. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrofluidic Enzymatic Biosensing Systems: a Review
Mross, Stefan; Pierrat, Sebastien; Zimmermann, Tom et al

in Biosensors & Bioelectronics (2015), 70

Microfluidic biosensing systems with enzyme-based detection have been extensively studied in the last years owing to features such as high specificity, a broad range of analytes and a high degree of ... [more ▼]

Microfluidic biosensing systems with enzyme-based detection have been extensively studied in the last years owing to features such as high specificity, a broad range of analytes and a high degree of automation. This review gives an overview of the most important factors associated with these systems. In the first part, frequently used immobilization protocols such as physisorption and covalent bonding and detection techniques such as amperometry and fluorescence measurements are discussed with respect to effort, lifetime and measurement range. The Michaelis–Menten model describing the kinetics of enzymatic reactions, the role of redox mediators and the limitations of the linear measurement range of enzymatic sensors are introduced. Several possibilities of extending the linear measurement range in microfluidic systems such as diffusion-limiting membranes and the flow injection setup are presented. Regarding the integration of enzymes into microfluidic systems during the fabrication process, the constraints imposed by the biomolecules due to the limited usage of high temperatures and solvents are addressed. In the second part, the most common forms of enzyme integration into microfluidic systems, i.e. in channels and on electrodes, on microparticles, on paper and thread and as injected enzyme solutions, are reviewed, focusing on fabrication, applications and performance. [less ▲]

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See detailFamilial Isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) and mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene
Daly, Adrian ULg; Beckers, Albert ULg

in Endocrinology & Metabolism Clinics of North America (2015), 44

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See detailDiversity patterns of the vascular plant group Zosterophyllopsida in relation to Devonian palaeogeography
Cascales - Miñana, Borja ULg; Meyer-Berthaud, Brigitte

in Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (2015), 423

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See detailPredicting biomass and grain protein content using Bayesian methods
Mansouri, Majdi ULg; Destain, Marie-France ULg

in Stochastic Environmental Research & Risk Assessment (2015)

This paper deals with the problem of predicting biomass and grain protein content using improved particle filtering (IPF) based on minimizing the Kullback–Leibler divergence. The performances of IPF are ... [more ▼]

This paper deals with the problem of predicting biomass and grain protein content using improved particle filtering (IPF) based on minimizing the Kullback–Leibler divergence. The performances of IPF are compared with those of the conventional particle filtering (PF) in two comparative studies. In the first one, we apply IPF and PF at a simple dynamic crop model with the aim to predict a single state variable, namely the winter wheat biomass, and to estimate several model parameters. In the second study, the proposed IPF and the PF are applied to a complex crop model (AZODYN) to predict a winter-wheat quality criterion, namely the grain protein content. The results of both comparative studies reveal that the IPF method provides a better estimation accuracy than the PF method. The benefit of the IPF method lies in its ability to provide accuracy related advantages over the PF method since, unlike the PF which depends on the choice of the sampling distribution used to estimate the posterior distribution, the IPF yields an optimum choice of this sampling distribution, which also utilizes the observed data. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated in terms of estimation accuracy, root mean square error, mean absolute error and execution times. [less ▲]

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See detailLa médecine personnalisée : aspects pharmacoéconomiques
Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Ethgen, Olivier ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2015), 70(5-6), 339-342

Personalized medicine : pharmacoeconomic aspects Summary : The development and establishment of personalized medicine should allow the improvement of the quality of the care services as well as of the ... [more ▼]

Personalized medicine : pharmacoeconomic aspects Summary : The development and establishment of personalized medicine should allow the improvement of the quality of the care services as well as of the development of new and adapted therapeutic solutions. In a society, whose resources for health care are not endless, the issue of costs and economic effectiveness of personalized medicine is important. Numerous pharmacoeconomic studies have been conducted and many of them suggest that personalized medicine leads to better health, but at higher cost. However, the pharmacoeconomic methods developed over recent years will have to be adapted to better take into account the complexity of the problem, especially the capacity and the reliability of tests to best target patients, and also the whole care process of patients. [less ▲]

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See detailSeasonal changes in the neuroendocrine system: Introduction to the special issue.
Ball, Gregory F.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg

in Frontiers in neuroendocrinology (2015), 37

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See detailModeling of cobalt and copper speciation in metalliferous soils from Katanga (Democratic Republic of Congo)
Pourret, Olivier; Lange, Bastien; Houben, David et al

in Journal of Geochemical Exploration (2015), 149

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See detailCionodendron and related lithostrotionid genera from the Mississippian of eastern Australia: systematics, stratigraphy and evolution
Denayer, Julien ULg; Webb, Gregory E.

in Alcheringa : An Australasian Journal of Paleontology (2015), 39

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See detailThe range of validity of sorption kinetic models
Douven, Sigrid ULg; Pàez Martinez, Carlos ULg; Gommes, Cédric ULg

in Journal of Colloid & Interface Science (2015), 448

Several hundred papers are published yearly reporting liquid-phase adsorption kinetics data. In general the data is analyzed using a variety of standard models such as the pseudo first- and second-order ... [more ▼]

Several hundred papers are published yearly reporting liquid-phase adsorption kinetics data. In general the data is analyzed using a variety of standard models such as the pseudo first- and second-order models and the Intraparticle-Diffusion model. The validity of these models is often assessed empirically via their ability to fit the data, independently of their physicochemical soundness. The aim of the present paper is to rationalize the analysis of liquid-phase adsorption kinetics data, and to investigate experimental factors that influence the adsorption kinetics, in addition to the characteristics of the adsorbent material itself. For that purpose we use a simple Langmuir adsorption–diffusion model, which enables us to identify three dimensionless numbers that characterize the working regime of any batch adsorption experiment: an adsorption Thiele modulus, a saturation modulus, and a loading modulus. The standard models are found to be particular cases of the general adsorption–diffusion model for specific values of the dimensionless numbers. This provides sound physicochemical criteria for the validity of the models. Based on our modeling, we also propose a general yet simple data analysis procedure to practically estimate the diffusion coefficient in adsorbent pellets starting from adsorption halftimes. [less ▲]

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See detailClimate-controlled palynofacies and miospore biostratigraphy of the Early Devonian Jauf Formation, northern Saudi Arabia
Breuer, Pierre; Leszczynski, S.; Miller, M.A. et al

in Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology (2015), 212

The Jauf Formation miospore succession is synthesized in terms of paleoenvironments and sequence stratigraphy. The data set for this study is obtained from four overlapping, continuously cored, and ... [more ▼]

The Jauf Formation miospore succession is synthesized in terms of paleoenvironments and sequence stratigraphy. The data set for this study is obtained from four overlapping, continuously cored, and extensively sampled, boreholes that for a 940 ft composite section. The Jauf Formation ranges in age from late Pragian to latest Emsian. The palynological assemblages, recognized herein, provide the basis for recognizing depositional environments present in the Early Devonian of northern Saudi Arabia. Transgressive – regressive cycles are indicated, not only by lithology but by marked changes in the marine to terrestrially dominated palynological assemblages. Flooding events are recognized by the replacement of spore dominated assemblages by organic-walled microphytoplankton. The maximum flooding interval for the Jauf is reinterpreted based on a correlative event consisting of diverse acritarchs and abundant chitinozoans. [Add details on the paly and sequence stratigraphy here. No.cycles and order.] The new northern Gondwanan biozonation developed by Breuer and Steemans (2012) and used here allows a high-resolution regional biozonation for the Arabian Plate and more intercontinental [?] correlation of the Jauf Formation with other Gondwanan and Euramerican localities. One new spore genus (Zonohilates) and four spore species (Insculptospora maxima, Camarozonotriletes alruwailii, Devonomonoletes crassus and Zonohilates vulneratus) are newly proposed. [less ▲]

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See detailEducation et formation en médecine gériatrique en Europe : challenge du futur?
ROLLER, REGINA ELISABETH; PETERMANS, Jean ULg

in Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement (2015)

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See detailCombining mesoporosity and Ti-doping in hematite films for water splitting
Toussaint, Caroline ULg; Tran, Hoang Son ULg; Colson, Pierre ULg et al

in Journal of Physical Chemistry C (2015), 119(4), 1642-1650

(Graph Presented). In this study, we report the synthesis of Ti-doped mesoporous hematite films by soft-templating for application as photoanodes in the photoelectrolysis of water (water splitting ... [more ▼]

(Graph Presented). In this study, we report the synthesis of Ti-doped mesoporous hematite films by soft-templating for application as photoanodes in the photoelectrolysis of water (water splitting). Because the activation of the dopant requires a heat treatment at high temperature (≥800°C), it usually results in the collapse of the mesostructure. We have overcome this obstacle by using a temporary SiO2 scaffold to hinder crystallite growth and thereby maintain the mesoporosity. The beneficial effect of the activated dopant has been confirmed by comparing the photocurrent of doped and undoped films treated at different temperatures. The role of the mesostructure was investigated by comparing dense, collapsed, and mesoporous films heated at different temperatures and characterized under front and back illumination. It turns out that the preservation of the mesotructure enables a better penetration of the electrolyte into the film and therefore reduces the distance that the photogenerated holes have to travel to reach the electrolyte. As a result, we found that mesoporous films with dopant activation at 850°C perform better than comparable dense and collapsed films. [less ▲]

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See detailBifix codes and interval exchanges
Berthé, Valérie; De Felice, Clelia; Dolce, Francesco et al

in Journal of Pure and Applied Algebra (2015), 219(7), 27812798

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See detailConservation research presence protects: a case study of great ape abundance in the Dja region, Cameroon
Tagg, Nikki; Willie, Jacob; Duarte, Jesus et al

in Animal Conservation (2015)

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See detailTiO2 Macroscopic Fibers with Enhanced Photocatalytic Properties Obtained through a Scale-Up Semi-Industrial Process
Kinadjian, Natacha; Le Bechec, Mickael; Henrist, Catherine ULg et al

in Advanced Engineering Materials (2015), 17(1), 36-44

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See detailClinical significance of dynamic pulmonary vascular resistance in two populations at risk of pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Gabriels, Charlien; Lancellotti, Patrizio ULg; Van De Bruaene, Alexander et al

in European heart journal cardiovascular Imaging (2015), 16

AIMS: Patients at risk of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) may present with abnormal dynamic pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) during exercise. However, its clinical significance remains unclear ... [more ▼]

AIMS: Patients at risk of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) may present with abnormal dynamic pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) during exercise. However, its clinical significance remains unclear. The present study aimed at analysing the meaning of dynamic PVR in two populations at risk of PAH: secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) and systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS AND RESULTS: Adult patients with corrected ASD were consecutively selected from the database of Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease of the University Hospitals Leuven. Patients with SSc were consecutively selected from the rheumatology database of the University Hospital Liege. At inclusion, all underwent a rest and bicycle stress echocardiography to obtain baseline right heart characteristics and dynamic PVR. Routine follow-up echocardiography was performed. Twenty-eight patients with corrected ASD (mean age 41 +/- 17 years, 79% female) were followed for a median time of 3.7 [inter-quartile range (IQR) 2.9-4.1] years. No patient developed PAH. Dynamic PVR was significantly associated with right atrial dilatation at latest follow-up (Spearman's rho 0.51, P = 0.013). Forty-five SSc patients (mean age 54 +/- 13 years, 76% female) were followed for a median time of 2.4 (IQR 0.8-2.9) years. Thirteen patients (30%) developed PAH. Dynamic PVR was the only independent predictor of PAH (hazards ratio 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.47). No significant right heart morphometric changes occurred. CONCLUSION: Dynamic PVR predicted PAH development in patients with SSc, whereas dynamic PVR was associated with right heart morphometric changes after ASD closure. The predictive role of dynamic PVR might depend on the underlying disease type. Larger studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis. [less ▲]

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See detailGiven to a Deity? Religious and Social Reappraisal of Human Consecrations in the Hellenistic and Roman East
Caneva, Stefano ULg; Delli Pizzi, Aurian ULg

in Classical Quarterly (2015), 65(1), 167-191

Various cases of human beings ‘dedicated’ to deities are attested in Greek epigraphic evidence. Are these kinds of offerings comparable to the dedication of inanimate objects? Besides, does the fact that ... [more ▼]

Various cases of human beings ‘dedicated’ to deities are attested in Greek epigraphic evidence. Are these kinds of offerings comparable to the dedication of inanimate objects? Besides, does the fact that someone is said to be ‘sacred’ to a specific deity necessarily involve that he went through a process of dedication? This article aims at providing a global picture of different situations in which processes of dedications took place. Among the several issues that are tackled, the cornerstone of this article consists of two questions: for what purposes did some people decide to consecrate a human being to a deity and what were the consequences for the consecrated individuals on religious and social levels? Different categories of persons will be contrasted, in terms of processes through which they acquire their new status but also in terms of the freedom/lack of freedom which is conveyed by this new status. It will also be shown that, as far as method is concerned, it is necessary to complete a lexical analysis with a contextual perspective for a deeper understanding of the problem. [less ▲]

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See detailAvoiding 2-binomial squares and cubes
Rao, Michaël; Rigo, Michel ULg; Salimov, Pavel

in Theoretical Computer Science (2015), 572

Two finite words $u,v$ are $2$-binomially equivalent if, for all words $x$ of length at most $2$, the number of occurrences of $x$ as a (scattered) subword of $u$ is equal to the number of occurrences of ... [more ▼]

Two finite words $u,v$ are $2$-binomially equivalent if, for all words $x$ of length at most $2$, the number of occurrences of $x$ as a (scattered) subword of $u$ is equal to the number of occurrences of $x$ in $v$. This notion is a refinement of the usual abelian equivalence. A $2$-binomial square is a word $uv$ where $u$ and $v$ are $2$-binomially equivalent. In this paper, considering pure morphic words, we prove that $2$-binomial squares (resp. cubes) are avoidable over a $3$-letter (resp. $2$-letter) alphabet. The sizes of the alphabets are optimal. [less ▲]

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See detailLipopeptides as main ingredients for inhibition of fungal phytopathogens by Bacillus subtilis/amyloliquefaciens
Cawoy, H.; Debois, Delphine ULg; Franzil, Laurent ULg et al

in Microbial Biotechnology (2015), 8(2), 281-295

Summary: Some isolates of the Bacillus subtilis/amyloliquefaciens species are known for their plant protective activity against fungal phytopathogens. It is notably due to their genetic potential to form ... [more ▼]

Summary: Some isolates of the Bacillus subtilis/amyloliquefaciens species are known for their plant protective activity against fungal phytopathogens. It is notably due to their genetic potential to form an impressive array of antibiotics including non-ribosomal lipopeptides (LPs). In the work presented here, we wanted to gain further insights into the relative role of these LPs in the global antifungal activity of B.subtilis/amyloliquefaciens. To that end, a comparative study was conducted involving multiple strains that were tested against four different phytopathogens. We combined various approaches to further exemplify that secretion of those LPs is a crucial trait in direct pathogen ward off and this can actually be generalized to all members of these species. Our data illustrate that for each LP family, the fungitoxic activity varies in function of the target species and that the production of iturins and fengycins is modulated by the presence of pathogens. Our data on the relative involvement of these LPs in the biocontrol activity and modulation of their production are discussed in the context of natural conditions in the rhizosphere. © 2014 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology. [less ▲]

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See detailThe multi-modality cardiac imaging approach to the Athlete's heart: an expert consensus of the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging.
Galderisi, Maurizio; Cardim, Nuno; D'Andrea, Antonello et al

in European heart journal cardiovascular Imaging (2015)

The term 'athlete's heart' refers to a clinical picture characterized by a slow heart rate and enlargement of the heart. A multi-modality imaging approach to the athlete's heart aims to differentiate ... [more ▼]

The term 'athlete's heart' refers to a clinical picture characterized by a slow heart rate and enlargement of the heart. A multi-modality imaging approach to the athlete's heart aims to differentiate physiological changes due to intensive training in the athlete's heart from serious cardiac diseases with similar morphological features. Imaging assessment of the athlete's heart should begin with a thorough echocardiographic examination. Left ventricular (LV) wall thickness by echocardiography can contribute to the distinction between athlete's LV hypertrophy and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). LV end-diastolic diameter becomes larger (>55 mm) than the normal limits only in end-stage HCM patients when the LV ejection fraction is <50%. Patients with HCM also show early impairment of LV diastolic function, whereas athletes have normal diastolic function. When echocardiography cannot provide a clear differential diagnosis, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging should be performed. With CMR, accurate morphological and functional assessment can be made. Tissue characterization by late gadolinium enhancement may show a distinctive, non-ischaemic pattern in HCM and a variety of other myocardial conditions such as idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy or myocarditis. The work-up of athletes with suspected coronary artery disease should start with an exercise ECG. In athletes with inconclusive exercise ECG results, exercise stress echocardiography should be considered. Nuclear cardiology techniques, coronary cardiac tomography (CCT) and/or CMR may be performed in selected cases. Owing to radiation exposure and the young age of most athletes, the use of CCT and nuclear cardiology techniques should be restricted to athletes with unclear stress echocardiography or CMR. [less ▲]

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See detailGeneration of Isogenic Human iPS Cell Line Precisely Corrected by Genome Editing Using the CRISPR/Cas9 System.
Grobarczyk, Benjamin ULg; Franco, Bénédicte ULg; Hanon, Kevin et al

in Stem cell reviews (2015)

Genome engineering and human iPS cells are two powerful technologies, which can be combined to highlight phenotypic differences and identify pathological mechanisms of complex diseases by providing ... [more ▼]

Genome engineering and human iPS cells are two powerful technologies, which can be combined to highlight phenotypic differences and identify pathological mechanisms of complex diseases by providing isogenic cellular material. However, very few data are available regarding precise gene correction in human iPS cells. Here, we describe an optimized stepwise protocol to deliver CRISPR/Cas9 plasmids in human iPS cells. We highlight technical issues especially those associated to human stem cell culture and to the correction of a point mutation to obtain isogenic iPS cell line, without inserting any resistance cassette. Based on a two-steps clonal isolation protocol (mechanical picking followed by enzymatic dissociation), we succeed to select and expand corrected human iPS cell line with a great efficiency (more than 2 % of the sequenced colonies). This protocol can also be used to obtain knock-out cell line from healthy iPS cell line by the NHEJ pathway (with about 15 % efficiency) and reproduce disease phenotype. In addition, we also provide protocols for functional validation tests after every critical step. [less ▲]

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See detailVISMODEGIB ET CARCINOMES BASOCELLULAIRES LOCALEMENT AVANCES
LEBAS, Eglantine ULg; RORIVE, Andrée ULg; EL HAYDERI, Lara ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2015)

Basal cell carcinoma is the most frequent skin cancer. Even though metastases are exceptional, these cancers may be locally highly aggressive. The Hedgehog signaling pathway plays a significant role in ... [more ▼]

Basal cell carcinoma is the most frequent skin cancer. Even though metastases are exceptional, these cancers may be locally highly aggressive. The Hedgehog signaling pathway plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of basal cell carcinoma. Vismodegib is a selective inhibitor of this pathway and may be administered orally. Its main indication is locally advanced basal cell carcinoma, when other therapeutic options have failed or are contra-indicated. Vismodegib can also be used as prophylactic therapy in the Gorlin syndrome or basal cell nevomatosis. Its principal adverse effects are muscle spasms, alopecia and altered taste. They are frequent, but often moderate in intensity; they sometimes restrict continuation of treatment. Two clinical cases are presented, relating the efficacity and tolerance of this new therapeutic option. [less ▲]

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See detailAgricultural Land Conversion Drivers in Northeast Iran: Application of Structural Equation Model
Azadi, Hossein ULg; Barati, Ali Akbar; Rafiaani, Parisa et al

in Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy (2015)

Identifying driving forces behind agricultural land conversion (ALC) remains one of the most difficult challenges that agricultural and environmental scientists must continually deal with. The difficulty ... [more ▼]

Identifying driving forces behind agricultural land conversion (ALC) remains one of the most difficult challenges that agricultural and environmental scientists must continually deal with. The difficulty emerges from the fact that in ALC, multiple actions and interactions between different factors (i.e., economic, political, environmental, biophysical, institutional, and cultural) exist and make it difficult to understand the function of the processes behind the changes. The phenomenon of ALC in different countries is varied in terms of intensity, trends and drivers. The main goal of this study was to understand these drivers in Northeast Iran through applying structural equation model (SEM). Using multi-stage stratified random sampling, 101 executive officers participated in the study. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire. A multi-stakeholder analysis and a mixed-method (qualitative and quantitative) approach were applied. Results revealed that not only from the policy makers’ perspective but also based on the SEM, "economic", "political", "technological", "social" and "environmental" factors should respectively be the five major drivers of ALC. The results also showed that among other drivers, "more profitability of non-agriculture sectors", "excessive rising of land prices", "farmers’ income instability", "land fragmentation", "urban sprawl" and "inheritance laws" are the main six causes of ALC. Hence, it can be concluded that policy-makers and planners need to take these drivers and subsidiaries more into consideration in order to properly respond to ALC. [less ▲]

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See detailLa copie d’expression écrite en langue étrangère : un support équitable ?
Noiroux, Kevin ULg; Simons, Germain ULg

in Spirale (2015), 55

Summative writing assessment is an evaluative practice that aims, at least theoretically, to inform each student about his performance in that skill at a given time, and to help him to understand his ... [more ▼]

Summative writing assessment is an evaluative practice that aims, at least theoretically, to inform each student about his performance in that skill at a given time, and to help him to understand his errors so that he can make progress in his learning. In this article, we analyse summative writing assessment through various prisms. At the macro level, we discuss the reforms of the education system pertaining to assessment ; at the meso level, we target the assessment tools offered by the same education system, as well as the attention that may or may not be paid to remediation ; at the micro level, we deal with the issue of corrective feedback which students receive on their written production. By crossing these different sources (legal provisions, interviews, surveys, analysis of students’ annotated written production, etc.), we conclude that this practice may present major risks of inequality. [less ▲]

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See detailThe retirement of the migrant labor force: pension portability and beyond
Jousten, Alain ULg

in CESifo Economic Studies (2015), 61(2), 416-437

The specificities of the workforce with a migrant background are often neglected in studies of retirement. Similarly, many studies of migration’s impact on pensions often focus on aggregate outcomes – ... [more ▼]

The specificities of the workforce with a migrant background are often neglected in studies of retirement. Similarly, many studies of migration’s impact on pensions often focus on aggregate outcomes – system sustainability or distributive characteristics. The present paper provides a fresh look at the nexus between these two literatures. It discusses the impact of the European social security coordination mechanisms on individual decision-making and on the functioning of social security systems – with a focus on retirement. The paper argues that such effects are non-negligible and are likely to have major policy consequences. [less ▲]

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See detailPrevalence and prognosis of Alzheimer’s disease at the mild cognitive impairment stage
Vos; VERHEY, F.; Frölich, L. et al

in Brain : A Journal of Neurology (2015), 138

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See detailSurveillance systems evaluation: a systematic review of the existing approaches
Calba, C; Goutard, FL; Hoinville, L et al

in BMC Public Health (2015), 15

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See detailImpairment of age estimation from faces in Alzheimer’s disease
Moyse, Evelyne ULg; Bastin, Christine ULg; Salmon, Eric ULg et al

in Journal of Alzheimer's Disease [=JAD] (2015), 45

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See detailUse of wheat bran arabinoxylans in chitosan-based films: Effect on physicochemical properties
Costa, Maria J.; Cerqueira, Miguel A.; Ruiz, Héctor A. et al

in Industrial Crops and Products (2015), 66

tThe aim of this work was to evaluate physicochemical properties of chitosan-based films with differentfractions of arabinoxylans (AXs). Five fractions composed by AXs or mixtures of AXs and arabino-xylo ... [more ▼]

tThe aim of this work was to evaluate physicochemical properties of chitosan-based films with differentfractions of arabinoxylans (AXs). Five fractions composed by AXs or mixtures of AXs and arabino-xylo-oligosaccharides (AXOS) obtained through three different processes were added to chitosan-based films.These films were obtained by solvent casting and characterized in terms of water vapor permeability(WVP), opacity, thickness, moisture content and mechanical properties (i.e., tensile strength – TS andelongation at break – EB), being the chemical interactions evaluated by FTIR.Moisture content values ranged between 20 and 30% for all five studied films being the lowest valueobserved for chitosan films with the fraction F1 of AX/AXOS (21.1%). The films with incorporation of F3a,F3b and F4 AXs fraction were more opaque (>10%) than the other studied films. Regarding mechanicalproperties CH films presented EB and TS values of 31.26% and 8.25 MPa, respectively, both these valuesremain statistically equal with the incorporation of AX/AXOS except for films containing the fractionF1 and F2. For films with the F2 fraction were obtained higher values of EB (41.31%) while for CH filmscontaining the F1 fraction the TS values (13.07 MPa) increased.In conclusion, wheat bran AXs can be successfully incorporated into chitosan-based edible films pro-viding, together with chitosan, an extra functional value to films, due their health benefits. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of Enzymatic Remediation on Compositional and Thermal Properties of Palm Oil and Palm Oleins from Dry Fractionation
Maes, J; Kodali, S; Danthine, Sabine ULg et al

in Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society (2015), 92

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See detailThermophilic and cellulolytic consortium isolated from composting plants improves anaerobic digestion of cellulosic biomass: toward a microbial resource management approach
Kinet, Romain ULg; Destain, Jacqueline ULg; Hiligsmann, Serge ULg et al

in Bioresource Technology (2015)

A cellulolytic consortium was isolated from a composting plant in order to boost the initial hydrolysis step encountered in anaerobic digestion. Improvement of the cellulose degradation, as well as biogas ... [more ▼]

A cellulolytic consortium was isolated from a composting plant in order to boost the initial hydrolysis step encountered in anaerobic digestion. Improvement of the cellulose degradation, as well as biogas production, was observed for the cultures inoculated with the exogenous consortium. Metagenomics analyses pointed out a weak richness (related to the number of OTUs) of the exogenous consortium induced by the selective pressure (cellulose as sole carbon source) met during the initial isolation steps. Main microbial strains determined were strictly anaerobic and belong to the Clostridia class. During cellulose anaerobic degradation, pH drop induced a strong modification of the microbial population. Despite the fact that richness and evenness were very weak, the exogenous consortium was able to adapt and to maintain the cellulolytic degradation potential. This important result point out the fact that simplified microbial communities could be used in order to increase the robustness of mixed cultures involved in environmental biotechnology. [less ▲]

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See detailRecommendations for cardiac chamber quantification by echocardiography in adults: an update from the American Society of Echocardiography and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging.
Lang, Roberto M.; Badano, Luigi P.; Mor-Avi, Victor et al

in European heart journal cardiovascular Imaging (2015), 16(3), 233-70

The rapid technological developments of the past decade and the changes in echocardiographic practice brought about by these developments have resulted in the need for updated recommendations to the ... [more ▼]

The rapid technological developments of the past decade and the changes in echocardiographic practice brought about by these developments have resulted in the need for updated recommendations to the previously published guidelines for cardiac chamber quantification, which was the goal of the joint writing group assembled by the American Society of Echocardiography and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging. This document provides updated normal values for all four cardiac chambers, including three-dimensional echocardiography and myocardial deformation, when possible, on the basis of considerably larger numbers of normal subjects, compiled from multiple databases. In addition, this document attempts to eliminate several minor discrepancies that existed between previously published guidelines. [less ▲]

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See detailEstetrol is a weak estrogen antagonizing estradiol-dependent mammary gland proliferation.
Gérard, Céline ULg; Blacher, Silvia ULg; Communal, Laudine et al

in Journal of Endocrinology (2015), 224(1), 86-95

Estetrol (E4) is a natural estrogen produced exclusively by the human fetal liver during pregnancy. Its physiological activity remains unknown. In contrast to ethinyl estradiol (EE) and estradiol (E2), E4 ... [more ▼]

Estetrol (E4) is a natural estrogen produced exclusively by the human fetal liver during pregnancy. Its physiological activity remains unknown. In contrast to ethinyl estradiol (EE) and estradiol (E2), E4 has a minimal impact on liver cells activity and could provide a better safety profile in contraception or hormone therapy. The aim of this study was to delineate if E4 exhibits an activity profile distinct from that of E2 on mammary gland. Compared to E2, E4 acted as a low affinity estrogen in both, human in vitro and murine in vivo, models. E4 was 100 times less potent than E2 to stimulate the proliferation of human breast epithelial (HBE) cells and murine mammary gland in vitro and in vivo, respectively. This effect was prevented by fulvestrant and by tamoxifen supporting the notion that ERalpha is the main mediator of the estrogenic effect of E4 on the breast. Interestingly, when E4 was administered along with E2, it significantly antagonized the strong stimulatory effect of E2 on HBE cells proliferation and on the growth of mammary ducts. This study characterizes for the first time the impact of E4 on mammary gland. Our results highlight that E4 is less potent than E2 and exhibits antagonistic properties towards the proliferative effect of E2 on breast epithelial cells. These data support E4 as a potential new estrogen for clinical use with a reduced impact on breast proliferation. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid combined to 6-Benzylaminopurine on callus induction, total phenolic and ascorbic acid production, and antioxidant activities in leaf tissue cultures of Crataegus azarolus L. var. aronia
Chaabani, Ghaya; Tabart, Jessica; Kevers, Claire ULg et al

in Acta Physiologiae Plantarum (2015), 37

The present research work describes the effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)/6-Benzylamino-purine (BAP) ratio on callus induction, total phenols and ascorbic acid production and antioxidant ... [more ▼]

The present research work describes the effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)/6-Benzylamino-purine (BAP) ratio on callus induction, total phenols and ascorbic acid production and antioxidant activities in leaf-derived calli of Crataegus azarolus (hawthorn). The supplementation of 1.0 mg/L 2,4-D and 1.0 mg/L BAP to MS medium was found to be the most efficient for callus induction (as percentage and fresh weigh). The results of biochemical analysis showed that the highest total phenols contents were obtained in callus cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L 2,4-D and 1.0 mg/L BAP (52 ± 0.56 mg GAE/g DM) and were significantly lower than those of intact leaves (76 ± 1.72 mg GAE/g DM). However, the highest ascorbic acid contents were found in callus cultured on MS supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 2,4-D and 0.5 mg/L BAP (0.96 ± 0.13 mg AAE/g DM) and these amounts were statistically similar to those found in leaves tissues (0.74 ± 0.07 mg AAE/g DM). Antioxidant activities of callus extracts were determined using two TEAC assays and results showed that extract of callus cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L 2,4-D and 1.0 mg/L BAP have the greatest antiradical activities against DPPH (124 ± 2.92 mg TE/g DM) and ABTS (0.19 ± 0.02 mg TE/g DM) compared to the leaves of field-grown plant. Thus, the use of high level of 2,4-D over BAP can be suitable to enhance the quality more than the quantity of bioactive compounds in leaf callus culture of hawthorn. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing zero-inlated models to predict the relative distribution and abundance of roe deer over very large spatial scales
Bouyer, Yaëlle ULg; Rigot, Thibaud; Panzacchi, Manuela et al

in Annales Zoologici Fennici (2015), 52

In Norway, recovering populations of large carnivores commonly prey on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Understanding predator habitat use and ecology requires fine-scaled information on prey distribution ... [more ▼]

In Norway, recovering populations of large carnivores commonly prey on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Understanding predator habitat use and ecology requires fine-scaled information on prey distribution and abundance. However, the massive spatial scales at which large carnivores use the landscape presents many practical and statistical challenges for developing functional prey distribution models. Pellet-count data from >1000 km of transects gathered across southeastern Norway from 2005 to 2011 were used to derive a map of relative prey abundance for roe deer. These data were modeled using zero-inflated hurdle models using both environmental and anthropogenic variables. Snow depth and agricultural fields were the most significant variables in explaining both presence and abundance. Internal k-cross validation of the model showed medium accuracy (Spearman r = 0.35), whereas external evaluation carried out on the basis of independently collected snow-tracking data (Spearman r = 0.37) and hunting statistics (Spearman r = 0.88) showed high accuracy. The map generated can facilitate both the study of broad scale processes linking predators and prey as well as roe deer management in southeastern Norway. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferences in dung beetle activity at western gorilla defecation sites in south-east Cameroon: implications for establishment of Uapaca spp. seedlings
Petre, Charles-Albert ULg; Zinque, Marie-Hélène; Tagg, Nikki et al

in Journal of Tropical Ecology (2015)

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See detailExploratory Study of Depressed Adolescents’ Life Narratives
Boulard, Aurore ULg

in Psychologica Belgica (2015), 55(2), 87-100

The aim of this study was to explore the life stories of depressive adolescents and compare them with non-clinical adolescents’ life stories.

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See detailHeat can erase epigenetic marks of vernalization in Arabidopsis
Bouché, Frédéric ULg; Detry, Nathalie ULg; Périlleux, Claire ULg

in Plant Signaling & Behavior (2015), 10(3), 990799

Vernalization establishes a memory of winter that must be maintained for weeks or months in order to promote flowering the following spring. The stability of the vernalized state varies among plant ... [more ▼]

Vernalization establishes a memory of winter that must be maintained for weeks or months in order to promote flowering the following spring. The stability of the vernalized state varies among plant species and depends on the duration of cold exposure. In Arabidopsis thaliana, winter leads to epigenetic silencing of the floral repressor gene FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) and the duration of cold is measured through the dynamics of chromatin modifications during and after cold. The growing conditions encountered post-vernalization are thus critical for the maintenance of the vernalized state. We reported that high temperature leads to devernalization and, consistently, to FLC reactivation in Arabidopsis seedlings. Here we show that the repressive epigenetic mark H3K27me3 decreases at the FLC locus when vernalized seedlings are grown at 30°C, unless they were first exposed to a stabilizing period at 20°C. Ambient temperature thus controls the epigenetic memory of winter. [less ▲]

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See detailLe medicament du mois. L'albiglutide (Eperzan): nouvel agoniste des recepteurs du glucagon-like peptide-1 en injection hebdomadaire.
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue medicale de Liege (2015), 70(4), 207-14

Albiglutide (Eperzan) is a new once-weekly agonist of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors that is indicated in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Two doses are available, 30 mg and 50 mg, to be ... [more ▼]

Albiglutide (Eperzan) is a new once-weekly agonist of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors that is indicated in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Two doses are available, 30 mg and 50 mg, to be injected subcutaneously once a week. It has been extensively evaluated in the HARMONY programme of eight large randomised controlled trials that were performed at different stages of type 2 diabetes, in comparison with placebo or an active comparator. The endocrine and metabolic effects of albiglutide are similar to those of other GLP-1 receptor agonists: stimulation of insulin secretion (incretin effect) and inhibition of glucagon secretion, both in a glucose-dependent manner, retardation of gastric emptying and increase of satiety. These effects lead to a reduction in glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) levels, combined with a weight reduction. The overall tolerance profile is good. Albiglutide is currently reimbursed in Belgium after failure (HbA(1c) > 7.5%) of and in combination with a dual therapy with metformin and a sulfonylurea as well as in combination with a basal insulin (with or without oral antidiabetic drugs). To avoid hypoglycaemia, a reduction in the dose of sulfonylurea or insulin may be recommended. A once-weekly administration should increase patient's acceptance of injectable therapy and improve compliance. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetically modified crops : towards agricultural growth, agricultural development or agricultural sustainability ?
Azadi, Hossein ULg; Ghanian, Mansour; Ghoochani, Omid M. et al

in Food Reviews International (2015)

This paper presents the main potentials and challenges of the GM crops in approaching agricultural growth, development, and sustainability. Accordingly, the paper will first discuss briefly the ... [more ▼]

This paper presents the main potentials and challenges of the GM crops in approaching agricultural growth, development, and sustainability. Accordingly, the paper will first discuss briefly the differences between agricultural growth, development, and sustainability. Then, the main potentials and challenges of these crops in approaching agricultural growth, development, and sustainability will be discussed. Finally, a conclusion will be drawn to let policy makers understand, based on which circumstances, GM crops may lead to sustainable agriculture. [less ▲]

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See detailAnti-inflammatory agents to treat or prevent type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease.
Esser, Nathalie ULg; Paquot, Nicolas ULg; Scheen, André ULg

in Expert opinion on investigational drugs (2015), 24(3), 283-307

Introduction: There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that chronic silent inflammation is a key feature in abdominal obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease ... [more ▼]

Introduction: There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that chronic silent inflammation is a key feature in abdominal obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). These observations suggest that pharmacological strategies, which reduce inflammation, may be therapeutically useful in treating obesity, type 2 diabetes and associated CVD. Area covered: The article covers novel strategies, using either small molecules or monoclonal antibodies. These strategies include: approaches targeting IKK-b-NF-kB (salicylates, salsalate), TNF-alpha (etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab), IL-1beta (anakinra, canakinumab) and IL-6 (tocilizumab), AMP-activated protein kinase activators, sirtuin-1 activators, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors and C-C motif chemokine receptor 2 antagonists. Expert opinion: The available data supports the concept that targeting inflammation improves insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function; it also ameliorates glucose control in insulin-resistant patients with inflammatory rheumatoid diseases as well in patients with metabolic syndrome or T2DM. Although promising, the observed metabolic effects remain rather modest in most clinical trials. The potential use of combined anti-inflammatory agents targeting both insulin resistance and insulin secretion appears appealing but remains unexplored. Large-scale prospective clinical trials are underway to investigate the safety and efficacy of different anti-inflammatory drugs. Further evidence is needed to support the concept that targeting inflammation pathways may represent a valuable option to tackle the cardiometabolic complications of obesity. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantity and spatial distribution of seeds dispersed by a western lowland gorilla population in south-east Cameroon
Petre, Charles-Albert ULg; Tagg, Nikki; Beudels-Jamar et al

in Journal of Tropical Ecology (2015)

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See detailLe trésor des reliques de la chartreuse de Liège
George, Philippe ULg

in analecta cartusiana (2015), 306

Etude critique et édition du trésor des reliques de la chartreuse retrouvé grâce à une source d'archive de 1905

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See detailPharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Clinical Use of SGLT2 Inhibitors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Chronic Kidney Disease.
Scheen, André ULg

in Clinical pharmacokinetics (2015), 54

Inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2) are proposed as a novel approach for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. SGLT2 cotransporters are responsible for reabsorption of 90 % of ... [more ▼]

Inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2) are proposed as a novel approach for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. SGLT2 cotransporters are responsible for reabsorption of 90 % of the glucose filtered by the kidney. The glucuretic effect resulting from SGLT2 inhibition contributes to reduce hyperglycaemia and also assists weight loss and blood pressure reduction. Several SGLT2 inhibitors are already available in many countries (dapagliflozin, canagliflozin, empagliflozin) and in Japan (ipragliflozin, tofogliflozin). These SGLT2 inhibitors share similar pharmacokinetic characteristics with a rapid oral absorption, a long elimination half-life allowing once-daily administration, an extensive hepatic metabolism mainly via glucuronidation to inactive metabolites and a low renal elimination as a parent drug. Pharmacokinetic parameters are slightly altered in the case of chronic kidney disease (CKD). While no dose adjustment is required in the case of mild CKD, SGLT2 inhibitors may not be used or only at a lower daily dose in patients with moderate CKD. Furthermore, the pharmacodynamic response to SGLT2 inhibitors as assessed by urinary glucose excretion declines with increasing severity of renal impairment as assessed by a reduction in the estimated glomerular filtration rate. Nevertheless, the glucose-lowering efficacy and safety of SGLT2 inhibitors are almost comparable in patients with mild CKD as in patients with normal kidney function. In patients with moderate CKD, the efficacy tends to be dampened and safety concerns may occur. In patients with severe CKD, the use of SGLT2 inhibitors is contraindicated. Thus, prescribing information should be consulted regarding dosage adjustments or restrictions in the case of renal dysfunction for each SGLT2 inhibitor. The clinical impact of SGLT2 inhibitors on renal function and their potential to influence the course of diabetic nephropathy deserve attention because of preliminary favourable results in animal models. [less ▲]

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See detailThe influence of various reef sounds on coral-fish larvae behaviour
Parmentier, Eric ULg; Berten, Laetitia; Rigo, Pierre ULg et al

in Journal of Fish Biology (2015)

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See detailZebrafish bone and general physiology are differently affected by hormones or changes in gravity.
Aceto, Jessica ULg; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, Rasoul; Marée, Raphaël ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2015), 10(6), 1-42

Teleost fish such as zebrafish (Danio rerio) are increasingly used for physiological, genetic and developmental studies. Our understanding of the physiological consequences of altered gravity in an entire ... [more ▼]

Teleost fish such as zebrafish (Danio rerio) are increasingly used for physiological, genetic and developmental studies. Our understanding of the physiological consequences of altered gravity in an entire organism is still incomplete. We used altered gravity and drug treatment experiments to evaluate their effects specifically on bone formation and more generally on whole genome gene expression. By combining morphometric tools with an objective scoring system for the state of development for each element in the head skeleton and specific gene expression analysis, we confirmed and characterized in detail the decrease or increase of bone formation caused by a 5 day treatment (from 5dpf to 10 dpf) of, respectively parathyroid hormone (PTH) or vitamin D3 (VitD3). Microarray transcriptome analysis after 24 hours treatment reveals a general effect on physiology upon VitD3 treatment, while PTH causes more specifically developmental effects. Hypergravity (3g from 5dpf to 9 dpf) exposure results in a significantly larger head and a significant increase in bone formation for a subset of the cranial bones. Gene expression analysis after 24 hrs at 3g revealed differential expression of genes involved in the development and function of the skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine and cardiovascular systems. Finally, we propose a novel type of experimental approach, the "Reduced Gravity Paradigm", by keeping the developing larvae at 3g hypergravity for the first 5 days before returning them to 1g for one additional day. 5 days exposure to 3g during these early stages also caused increased bone formation, while gene expression analysis revealed a central network of regulatory genes (hes5, sox10, lgals3bp, egr1, edn1, fos, fosb, klf2, gadd45ba and socs3a) whose expression was consistently affected by the transition from hyper- to normal gravity. [less ▲]

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See detailAvoiding misidentification of bands in planetary Raman spectra
Harris, Liam; McHugh, Melissa; Hutchinson, Ian B. et al

in Journal of Raman Spectroscopy (2015)

Raman spectroscopy has been identified as a powerful tool for astrobiology and remote robotic planetary exploration. It can be used to identify and characterise rock matrices, mineral inclusions and ... [more ▼]

Raman spectroscopy has been identified as a powerful tool for astrobiology and remote robotic planetary exploration. It can be used to identify and characterise rock matrices, mineral inclusions and organic molecules and is demonstrablyeffective at identifying biomarkers, or indicators of biological activity. The ExoMars rover, jointly operated by the European and Russian Federal Space Agencies, will carry the first Raman spectrometer into space when it launches in 2018 and two further Raman instruments have recently been announced as part of the payload onboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Mars 2020 rover. Each of these spectrometers however will, by necessity, have poorer resolution than the most sophisticated laboratory instruments because of mass, volume and power constraints and the space readiness of the requisite technologies. As a result, it is important to understand the minimum instrument specification requiredto achieve the scientific objectives of a mission, in terms of parameters such as spectral resolution and laser footprint size. This requires knowledge of the target minerals and molecules between which there may be ambiguity when identifying bands in spectra from geological samples. Here, we present spectra from a number of Mars analogue samples that include a range of such molecules, highlighting where such confusion may occur and identifying the most useful bands for differentiation. It is recommended that a Ramanspectrometer achieves a resolution of at least 3 cm-1 and covers a spectral range from 100 to 4000 cm-1 in order to differentiate between all of the target molecules presented here. [less ▲]

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See detailAllogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for T-prolymphocytic leukemia: a report from the French society for stem cell transplantation (SFGM-TC)
Guillaume, Thierry; Beguin, Yves ULg; Tabrizi, Reza et al

in European Journal of Haematology (2015), 94

T-prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL), a rare aggressive mature T-cell disorder, remains frequently resistant to conventional chemotherapy. Studies have suggested that allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell ... [more ▼]

T-prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL), a rare aggressive mature T-cell disorder, remains frequently resistant to conventional chemotherapy. Studies have suggested that allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) might possibly serve to consolidate the response to initial chemotherapy. The current report summarizes the outcome of 27 T-PLL cases identified in the registry in French Society for stem cell transplantation (SFGM-TC). Prior to HSCT, 14 patients were in complete remission (CR), 10 in partial response, three refractory, or in progression. Following HSCT, 21 patients achieved CR as best response. With a median follow-up for surviving patients of 33 (range, 6–103) months, 10 patients are still alive in continuous CR. Overall survival and progression-free survival estimates at 3 yr were 36% (95% CI: 17–54%) and 26% (95% CI: 14–45%), respectively. The relapse incidence after HSCT was 47% occurring at a median of 11.7 (range, 2–24) months. Overall cumulative incidence of transplant-related mortality was 31% at 3 yr. These results suggest that HSCT may allow long-term survival in patients with T-PLL following induction treatment; however, it is associated with a significant rate of toxicity. [less ▲]

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See detailIntratumoral heterogeneity and consequences for targeted therapies
Turtoi, Andrei ULg; Blomme, Arnaud ULg; Castronovo, Vincenzo ULg

in Bulletin du Cancer (2015), 102(1), 17-23

According to the clonal model and Darwinian evolution, cancer cell evolves through new mutations helping it to proliferate, migrate, invade and metastasize. Recent genetic studies have clearly shown that ... [more ▼]

According to the clonal model and Darwinian evolution, cancer cell evolves through new mutations helping it to proliferate, migrate, invade and metastasize. Recent genetic studies have clearly shown that tumors, when diagnosed, consist of a large number of mutations distributed in different cells. This heterogeneity translates in substantial genetic plasticity enabling cancer cells to adapt to any hostile environment. As targeted therapy focuses only on one pathway or protein, there will always be a cell with the "right" genetic background to survive the treatment and cause tumor relapse. Because today's targeted therapies never took tumor heterogeneity into account, nearly all novel drugs fail to provide patients with a considerable improvement of the survival. However, emerging proteomic studies guided by the idea that Darwinian selection is governed by the phenotype and not genotype, show that heterogeneity at the protein level is much less complex, then it could be expected from genetic studies. This information together with the recent trend to switch from functional to cytotoxic targeting may offer an entirely new strategy to efficiently combat cancer. [less ▲]

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See detailInvited review: overview of new traits and phenotyping strategies in dairy cattle with a focus on functional traits
Egger-Danner, C.; Cole, J. B.; Pryce, J. E. et al

in animal (2015), 9

ABSTRACT For several decades, breeding goals in dairy cattle focussed on increased milk production. However, many functional traits have negative genetic correlations with milk yield, and reductions in ... [more ▼]

ABSTRACT For several decades, breeding goals in dairy cattle focussed on increased milk production. However, many functional traits have negative genetic correlations with milk yield, and reductions in genetic merit for health and fitness have been observed. Herd management has been challenged to compensate for these effects and to balance fertility, udder health and metabolic diseases against increased production to maximize profit without compromising welfare. Functional traits, such as direct information on cow health, have also become more important because of growing concern about animal well-being and consumer demands for healthy and natural products. There are major concerns about the impact of drugs used in veterinary medicine on the spread of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria that can negatively impact human health. Sustainability and efficiency are also increasingly important because of the growing competition for high-quality, plant-based sources of energy and protein. Disruptions to global environments because of climate change may encourage yet more emphasis on these traits. To be successful, it is vital that there be a balance between the effort required for data recording and subsequent benefits. The motivation of farmers and other stakeholders involved in documentation and recording is essential to ensure good data quality. To keep labour costs reasonable, existing data sources should be used as much as possible. Examples include the use of milk composition data to provide additional information about the metabolic status or energy balance of the animals. Recent advances in the use of mid-infrared spectroscopy to measure milk have shown considerable promise, and may provide cost-effective alternative phenotypes for difficult or expensive-to-measure traits, such as feed efficiency. There are other valuable data sources in countries that have compulsory documentation of veterinary treatments and drug use. Additional sources of data outside of the farm include, for example, slaughter houses (meat composition and quality) and veterinary labs (specific pathogens, viral loads). At the farm level, many data are available from automated and semi-automated milking and management systems. Electronic devices measuring physiological status or activity parameters can be used to predict events such as oestrus, and also behavioural traits. Challenges concerning the predictive biology of indicator traits or standardization need to be solved. To develop effective selection programmes for new traits, the development of large databases is necessary so that high-reliability breeding values can be estimated. For expensive-to-record traits, extensive phenotyping in combination with genotyping of females is a possibility. [less ▲]

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See detailBespreking Hof van Justitie 4 juli 2013
Peeters, Bart ULg

in Rechtskundig Weekblad (2015), 2014-2015

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See detailMolécules issues de la valorisation de la lignine
Wertz, Jean-Luc; Richel, Aurore ULg; Gérin, Patrick

in ValBiom (2015), (Mars), 1-37

La valorisation de la lignine, dans le cadre de la bioraffinerie lignocellulosique du futur, est une thématique particulièrement prometteuse. En effet, la lignine est la principale matière première ... [more ▼]

La valorisation de la lignine, dans le cadre de la bioraffinerie lignocellulosique du futur, est une thématique particulièrement prometteuse. En effet, la lignine est la principale matière première renouvelable composée de motifs aromatiques. Ce polymère est le plus souvent valorisé uniquement par combustion dans les papeteries pour la production d’énergie. La mise en route de bioraffineries destinées à convertir la biomasse lignocellulosique en carburants de transport générera en général plus de lignine que nécessaire pour alimenter l’installation en énergie2. Dès lors, des efforts sont en cours pour transformer la lignine en produits à valeur ajoutée. Sa valorisation en composés aromatiques de bas poids moléculaires (tels que benzène, toluène, xylènes: BTX) permettrait une plus-value considérable dans la mesure où les BTX sont des molécules de base de la pétrochimie et représentent en 2015 un marché de 100 milliards de dollars3. On estime généralement que l’étude de la valorisation de la cellulose en particulier en éthanol a eu lieu il y a 20 ans, celle de la valorisation des hémicelluloses il y a 10 ans et celle de la valorisation de la lignine a lieu actuellement. [less ▲]

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See detailIncentive salience attribution under reward uncertainty: A Pavlovian model
Anselme, Patrick ULg

in Behavioural Processes (2015), 111(1), 6-18

There is a vast literature on the behavioural effects of partial reinforcement in Pavlovian conditioning. Compared with animals receiving continuous reinforcement, partially rewarded animals typically ... [more ▼]

There is a vast literature on the behavioural effects of partial reinforcement in Pavlovian conditioning. Compared with animals receiving continuous reinforcement, partially rewarded animals typically show (a) a slower development of the conditioned response (CR) early in training and (b) a higher asymptotic level of the CR later in training. This phenomenon is known as the partial reinforcement acquisition effect (PRAE). Learning models of Pavlovian conditioning fail to account for it. In accordance with the incentive salience hypothesis, it is here argued that incentive motivation (or ‘wanting’) plays a more direct role in controlling behaviour than does learning, and reward uncertainty is shown to have an excitatory effect on incentive motivation. The psychological origin of that effect is discussed and a computational model integrating this new interpretation is developed. Many features of CRs under partial reinforcement emerge from this model. [less ▲]

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See detailTax evasion and social information: an experiment in Belgium, France, and the Netherlands
Pestieau, Pierre ULg

in International Tax and Public Finance (2015), 22

We experimentally study how receiving information about tax compliance of others affects individuals’ occupational choices and subsequent evading decisions. In one treatment individuals receive ... [more ▼]

We experimentally study how receiving information about tax compliance of others affects individuals’ occupational choices and subsequent evading decisions. In one treatment individuals receive information about the highest tax evasion rates of others in past experimental sessions with no such social information; in another treatment they receive information about the lowest tax evasion rates observed in the past sessions with no such social information. We observe an asymmetric effect of social information on tax compliance. Whereas examples of high compliance do not have any disciplining effect, we find evidence that examples of low compliance significantly increase tax evasion for certain audit probabilities. No major differences are found across countries [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a genotype-based approach for a patient-centered pharmacologic therapy of type 2 diabetes.
Scheen, André ULg

in Annals of translational medicine (2015), 3(Suppl 1), 36

The recent data reported by Tang and colleagues in Science Translational Medicine suggest that alpha-2 adrenoceptors (alpha2AAR) genetic heterogeneity may explain diverging results regarding the effects ... [more ▼]

The recent data reported by Tang and colleagues in Science Translational Medicine suggest that alpha-2 adrenoceptors (alpha2AAR) genetic heterogeneity may explain diverging results regarding the effects of alpha2AAR antagonists on insulin secretion and glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes. They first confirmed that the risk variant for rs553668 (the A allele for a single-nucleotide polymorphism in ADRA2A) is likely to cause defective insulin secretion in human pancreatic islets. Second they showed that blocking alpha2AAR with yohimbine dose-dependently improves the reduced insulin secretion during an oral glucose tolerance test in patients with the risk variant. The successful translation of genomic information into clinical intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes provides proof of concept for the feasibility of individualized treatment based on genotype. [less ▲]

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See detailBehavior of various types of seeds of two species of yams tuber (Dioscorea cayenensis Lam. and Dioscorea rotundata Poir.) in Gabon
Ondo Ovono, Paul; Kevers, Claire ULg; Dommes, Jacques ULg

in International Research Journal of Agricultural Science and Soil Science (2015), 5

Low multiplication ratio of yam and scarcity of planting materials are major constraints militating against sustainable yam production. In order to evaluate the behavior of the four various types of seeds ... [more ▼]

Low multiplication ratio of yam and scarcity of planting materials are major constraints militating against sustainable yam production. In order to evaluate the behavior of the four various types of seeds of two species of yams Dioscorea cayenensis and Dioscorea rotundata, cultivated on the experimental ground of the Higher National Institute of Agronomy and Biotechnology (INSAB), a test was realized in a randomized complete block design with six replications. The samples were cut and three levels of each tuber were used :proximal, medial and distal parts of the tuber. The fragments of tuber and the whole tuber represent the various types of seed used in this work. The results showed significant (P<0.05) differences in number of plants emerged and time of emergence in a mixture of 40% soil and 60% sand three months and half after planting. For all species, the proximal parts sprouted earlier than the medium parts and then the distal parts. The fragmentation of tubers in 3 parts can show the existence of a gradient alone the tuber in its potential for sprouting and growth. There was a highly significant (P<0.05) difference between yield performances after 9 months of culture. This technique improves the production of tubers in both species. [less ▲]

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See detailMutation of the iron-sulfur cluster assembly gene IBA57 causes fatal infantile leukodystrophy.
DEBRAY, François-Guillaume ULg; Stumpfig, Claudia; Vanlander, Arnaud V. et al

in Journal of inherited metabolic disease (2015)

Leukodystrophies are a heterogeneous group of severe genetic neurodegenerative disorders. A multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome was found in an infant presenting with a progressive ... [more ▼]

Leukodystrophies are a heterogeneous group of severe genetic neurodegenerative disorders. A multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome was found in an infant presenting with a progressive leukoencephalopathy. Homozygosity mapping, whole exome sequencing, and functional studies were used to define the underlying molecular defect. Respiratory chain studies in skeletal muscle isolated from the proband revealed a combined deficiency of complexes I and II. In addition, western blotting indicated lack of protein lipoylation. The combination of these findings was suggestive for a defect in the iron-sulfur (Fe/S) protein assembly pathway. SNP array identified loss of heterozygosity in large chromosomal regions, covering the NFU1 and BOLA3, and the IBA57 and ABCB10 candidate genes, in 2p15-p11.2 and 1q31.1-q42.13, respectively. A homozygous c.436C > T (p.Arg146Trp) variant was detected in IBA57 using whole exome sequencing. Complementation studies in a HeLa cell line depleted for IBA57 showed that the mutant protein with the semi-conservative amino acid exchange was unable to restore the biochemical phenotype indicating a loss-of-function mutation of IBA57. In conclusion, defects in the Fe/S protein assembly gene IBA57 can cause autosomal recessive neurodegeneration associated with progressive leukodystrophy and fatal outcome at young age. In the affected patient, the biochemical phenotype was characterized by a defect in the respiratory chain complexes I and II and a decrease in mitochondrial protein lipoylation, both resulting from impaired assembly of Fe/S clusters. [less ▲]

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See detailThorough characterization of a Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System with Raman hyperspectral imaging: A case study.
Sacre, Pierre-Yves ULg; Netchacovitch, Lauranne ULg; De Bleye, Charlotte ULg et al

in International Journal of Pharmaceutics (2015), 484

Newly developed drugs often have poor bioavailability due to their poor water solubility (BCS class 2 drugs). It is therefore necessary to develop new strategies to enhance their solubility and their ... [more ▼]

Newly developed drugs often have poor bioavailability due to their poor water solubility (BCS class 2 drugs). It is therefore necessary to develop new strategies to enhance their solubility and their activity, among which, Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SEDDS). The efficacy of the drugs contained in these preparations is mainly affected by the solid state and the particle size of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). However, it is quite complex, long and expensive to characterize these parameters with classical techniques such as X-Ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry or hot stage microscopy. The present article presents, through a case study, the advantages of the Raman hyperspectral imaging in the characterization of such formulations. Indeed, Raman chemical imaging may fully characterize SEDDS with single equipment and operator in a non-destructive way allowing the follow-up of the formulation during stability studies. Raman imaging is therefore a tool of choice in the PAT framework since it increases the knowledge of the formulation and the process. A quantitative multivariate method using Raman hyperspectral imaging to assay the API in the lipid based formulation has been developed and fully validated following the “total error” approach. [less ▲]

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