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See detailLa forma diagrammatica tra matematica e arti
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg

in Rivista Italiana di Filosofia del Linguaggio (2015), numéro spécial

This paper aims to compare the theory of diagram presented in Peirce’s philosophy of mathematics and the reflections on the work of art formulated by Henry Van Lier and René Thom. The Peircean Theory of ... [more ▼]

This paper aims to compare the theory of diagram presented in Peirce’s philosophy of mathematics and the reflections on the work of art formulated by Henry Van Lier and René Thom. The Peircean Theory of diagram states that a diagram is a configuration characterized as a totality (form) that is necessary and at the same time dynamic and experimental. In his lectures about the relation between the local and the global in art (Apologie du logos, 1990), Thom traces a theory of forms that can be compared to the conception of diagram in Peirce’s semiotics. For Thom, beauty is the result of strategies of framing and of composing parts in a dynamic totality. Van Lier’s develops the idea of a perfect totality characterized by a syntax of traits that are at the right place and that couldn’t be organized in any other way, without which the work of art would have no efficacy. For my part, I explore these conceptions of a necessary totality in the arts (aesthetic necessity) and in mathematical diagrams (the demonstration through perceptual forms) in order to describe the differences and the similarities between the theories and the domains of application. [less ▲]

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See detailWIND-STORM: A Decision Support System for the Strategic Management of Windthrow Crises by the Forest Community
Riguelle, Simon ULg; Hebert, Jacques ULg; Jourez, Benoît ULg

in Forests (2015), 6

Storms are one of the most damaging agents for European forests and can cause huge and long-term economic impacts on the forest sector. Recent events and research have contributed to a better ... [more ▼]

Storms are one of the most damaging agents for European forests and can cause huge and long-term economic impacts on the forest sector. Recent events and research have contributed to a better understanding and management of destructive storms, but public authorities still lack appropriate decision-support tools for evaluating their strategic decisions in the aftermath of a storm. This paper presents a decision support system (DSS) that compares changes in the dynamics of the regional forest-based sector after storm events under various crisis management options. First, the development and implementation of a regional forest model is addressed; then, the potential application of the model-based DSS WIND-STORM is illustrated. The results of simulated scenarios reveal that this DSS type is useful for designing a cost-effective regional strategy for storm-damage management in the context of scarce public resources and that public strategies must encompass the whole forest-based sector to be efficient. Additional benefits of such a DSS is to bring together decision-makers and forest stakeholders for a common objective and therefore to enhance participatory approaches to crisis management. [less ▲]

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See detailHyporeactivity of Alveolar Macrophages and Higher Respiratory Cell Permissivity Characterize DBA/2J Mice Infected by Influenza A Virus Hyporeactivity of Alveolar Macrophages and Higher Respiratory Cell Permissivity Characterize DBA/2J Mice Infected by Influenza A Virus.
Casanova Bustos, Tomas Ronaldo ULg; Van de Paar, Els; Desmecht, Daniel ULg et al

in JOURNAL OF INTERFERON & CYTOKINE RESEARCH (2015), 35(10), 808-820

Influenza A virus remains a major public health problem. Mouse models have been widely used to study influenza infection in mammals. DBA/2J and C57BL/6J represent extremes in terms of susceptibility to ... [more ▼]

Influenza A virus remains a major public health problem. Mouse models have been widely used to study influenza infection in mammals. DBA/2J and C57BL/6J represent extremes in terms of susceptibility to influenza A infection among inbred laboratory mouse strains. Several studies focused specifically on the factors responsible for the susceptibility of DBA/2J or the resistance of C57BL/6J and resulted in impressive lists of candidate genes or factors over- or underexpressed in one of the strains. We adopted a different phenotypical approach to identify the critical steps of the infection process accounting for the differences between DBA/2J and C57BL/6J strains. We concluded that both a dysfunction of alveolar macrophages and an increased permissivity of respiratory cells rendered DBA/2J more susceptible to influenza infection. [less ▲]

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See detailMy Friend is a WWI Soldier: A Semiopragmatic Approach to Docufictions on Social Networks
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg; Bouko, Catherine

in Punctum. International Journal of Semiotics (2015), 1(1), 94-107

At the beginning of the twentieth-first century, notable for the triumph of both fiction and a taste for reality (Veyrat-Masson 2008), interactive documentary-dramas appeared on social networks. These ... [more ▼]

At the beginning of the twentieth-first century, notable for the triumph of both fiction and a taste for reality (Veyrat-Masson 2008), interactive documentary-dramas appeared on social networks. These Internet-based audiovisual productions invite semiotics to reconsider its tools in order to grasp their complex, hybrid nature, above and beyond the binary opposition of reality and fiction. After considering the semiotic systems which characterize social networks and condition enunciation (Van Dijck, 2013), we proceed to examine the Léon Vivien, Louis Castel and Little Suzon documentary-dramas from a semio-pragmatic point of view. We will examine the relationship between reality, fiction and realism on the basis of the semiopragmatic models developed by Hanot (2002) and Jost (2001) in order to analyse these audiovisual productions on four levels: profilmic, plastic, iconic and diegetic. By adapting these models to Internet, we will be able to identify the authenticating and fictional strategies employed in such online productions to make the archive images waver between the status of index and icon. [less ▲]

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See detailDouble hydrophilic polyphosphoester containing copolymers as efficient templating agents for calcium carbonate microparticles
Ergül, Zeynep ULg; Debuigne, Antoine ULg; Calvignac, Brice et al

in Journal of Materials Chemistry B (2015), 3(36), 7227-7236

The use of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) microparticles is becoming more and more attractive in many fields especially in biomedical applications in which the fine tuning of the size, morphology and ... [more ▼]

The use of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) microparticles is becoming more and more attractive in many fields especially in biomedical applications in which the fine tuning of the size, morphology and crystalline form of the CaCO3 particles is crucial. Although some structuring compounds, like hyaluronic acid, give satisfying results, the control of the particle structure still has to be improved. To this end, we evaluated the CaCO3 structuring capacity of novel well-defined double hydrophilic block copolymers composed of poly(ethylene oxide) and a polyphosphoester segment with an affinity for calcium like poly(phosphotriester)s bearing pendent carboxylic acids or poly(phosphodiester)s with a negatively charged oxygen atom on each repeating monomer unit. These copolymers were synthesized by a combination of organocatalyzed ring opening polymerization, thiol–yne click chemistry and protection/deprotection methods. The formulation of CaCO3 particles was then performed in the presence of these block copolymers (i) by the classical chemical pathway involving CaCl2 and Na2CO3 and (ii) by a process based on supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) technology in which CO32− ions are generated in aqueous media and react with Ca2+ ions. Porous CaCO3 microspheres composed of vaterite nanocrystals were obtained. Moreover, a clear dependence of the particle size on the structure of the templating agent was emphasized. In this work, we show that the use of the supercritical process and the substitution of hyaluronic acid for a carboxylic acid containing copolymer decreases the size of the CaCO3 particles by a factor of 6 (∼1.5 μm) while preventing their aggregation. [less ▲]

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See detailMultifractality of quantum wave functions in the presence of perturbations
Dubertrand, Rémy ULg; Garcia-Mata, Ignacio; Georgeot, Bertrand et al

in Physical Review. E : Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics (2015), 92

We present a comprehensive study of the destruction of quantum multifractality in the presence of perturbations. We study diverse representative models displaying multifractality, including a ... [more ▼]

We present a comprehensive study of the destruction of quantum multifractality in the presence of perturbations. We study diverse representative models displaying multifractality, including a pseudointegrable system, the Anderson model, and a random matrix model. We apply several types of natural perturbations which can be relevant for experimental implementations. We construct an analytical theory for certain cases and perform extensive large-scale numerical simulations in other cases. The data are analyzed through refined methods including double scaling analysis. Our results confirm the recent conjecture that multifractality breaks down following two scenarios. In the first one, multifractality is preserved unchanged below a certain characteristic length which decreases with perturbation strength. In the second one, multifractality is affected at all scales and disappears uniformly for a strong-enough perturbation. Our refined analysis shows that subtle variants of these scenarios can be present in certain cases. This study could guide experimental implementations in order to observe quantum multifractality in real systems. [less ▲]

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See detailFluorescent reporter libraries as useful tools for optimizing microbial cell factories: a review of the current methods and applications
Delvigne, Frank ULg; Pêcheux, Hélène; Tarayre, Cédric ULg

in Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology (2015), 3

The use of genetically encoded fluorescent reporters allows speeding up the initial optimization steps of microbial bioprocesses. These reporters can be used for determining the expression level of a ... [more ▼]

The use of genetically encoded fluorescent reporters allows speeding up the initial optimization steps of microbial bioprocesses. These reporters can be used for determining the expression level of a particular promoter, not only the synthesis of a specific protein but also the content of intracellular metabolites. The level of protein/metabolite is thus proportional to a fluorescence signal. By this way, mean expression profiles of protein/ metabolites can be determined non-invasively at a high-throughput rate, allowing the rapid identification of the best producers. Actually, different kinds of reporter systems are available, as well as specific cultivation devices allowing the on-line recording of the fluorescent signal. Cell-to-cell variability is another important phenomenon that can be integrated into the screening procedures for the selection of more efficient microbial cell factories. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards understanding the variability in biospheric CO2 fluxes: using FTIR spectrometry and a chemical transport model to investigate the sources and sinks of carbonyl sulfide and its link to CO2
Wang, Y.; Deutscher, N. M.; Palm, M. et al

in Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics Discussions (2015), 15(18), 26025--26065

Understanding carbon dioxide (CO2) biospheric processes is of great importance because the terrestrial exchange drives the seasonal and inter-annual variability of CO2 in the atmosphere. Atmospheric ... [more ▼]

Understanding carbon dioxide (CO2) biospheric processes is of great importance because the terrestrial exchange drives the seasonal and inter-annual variability of CO2 in the atmosphere. Atmospheric inversions based on CO2 concentration measurements alone can only determine net biosphere fluxes, but not differentiate between photosynthesis (uptake) and respiration (production). Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) could provide an important additional constraint: it is also taken up by plants during photosynthesis but not emitted during respiration, and therefore is a potential mean to differentiate between these processes. Solar absorption Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectrometry allows for the retrievals of the atmospheric concentrations of both CO2 and OCS from measured solar absorption spectra. Here, we investigate co-located and quasi-simultaneous FTIR measurements of OCS and CO2 performed at three selected sites located in the Northern Hemisphere. These measurements are compared to simulations of OCS and CO2 using a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). The OCS simulations are driven by different land biospheric fluxes to reproduce the seasonality of the measurements. Increasing the plant uptake of Kettle et al. (2002a) by a factor of three resulted in the best comparison with FTIR measurements. However, there are still discrepancies in the latitudinal distribution when comparing with HIPPO (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations) data spanning both hemispheres. The coupled biospheric fluxes of OCS and CO2 from the simple biosphere model (SiB) are used in the study and compared to measurements. The CO2 simulation with SiB fluxes agrees with the measurements well, while the OCS simulation reproduced a weaker drawdown than FTIR measurements at selected sites, and a smaller latitudinal gradient in the Northern Hemisphere during growing season. An offset in the timing of the seasonal cycle minimum between SiB simulation and measurements is also seen. Using OCS as a photosynthesis proxy can help to understand how the biospheric processes are reproduced in models and to further understand the carbon cycle in the real world. [less ▲]

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See detailAcetylene (C2H2) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) from IASI satellite observations: global distributions, validation, and comparison with model
Duflot, V.; Wespes, C.; Clarisse, L. et al

in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (2015), 15

We present global distributions of C2H2 and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) total columns derived from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) for the years 2008–2010. These distributions are ... [more ▼]

We present global distributions of C2H2 and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) total columns derived from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) for the years 2008–2010. These distributions are obtained with a fast method allowing to retrieve C2H2 abundance globally with a 5% precision and HCN abundance in the tropical (subtropical) belt with a 10% (25 %) precision. IASI data are compared for validation purposes with ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer measurements at four selected stations. We show that there is an overall agreement between the ground-based and space measurements with correlation coefficients for daily mean measurements ranging from 0.28 to 0.81, depending on the site. Global C2H2 and subtropical HCN abundances retrieved from IASI spectra show the expected seasonality linked to variations in the anthropogenic emissions and seasonal biomass burning activity, as well as exceptional events, and are in good agreement with previous spaceborne studies. Total columns simulated by the Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4) are compared to the ground-based FTIR measurements at the four selected stations. The model is able to capture the seasonality in the two species in most of the cases, with correlation coefficients for daily mean measurements ranging from 0.50 to 0.86, depending on the site. IASI measurements are also compared to the distributions from MOZART-4. Seasonal cycles observed from satellite data are reasonably well reproduced by the model with correlation coefficients ranging from -0.31 to 0.93 for C2H2 daily means, and from 0.09 to 0.86 for HCN daily means, depending on the considered region. However, the anthropogenic (biomass burning) emissions used in the model seem to be overestimated (underestimated), and a negative global mean bias of 1% (16 %) of the model relative to the satellite observations was found for C2H2 (HCN). [less ▲]

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See detailMultimodality imaging assessment of the deleterious role of the intraluminal thrombus on the growth of abdominal aortic aneurysm in a rat model
NCHIMI LONGANG, Alain ULg; Courtois, Audrey ULg; EL HACHEMI, Mounia ULg et al

in European Radiology (2015), online

Objectives To evaluate imaging changes occurring in a rat model of elastase-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), with emphasis on the intraluminal thrombus (ILT) occurrence. Methods The post-induction ... [more ▼]

Objectives To evaluate imaging changes occurring in a rat model of elastase-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), with emphasis on the intraluminal thrombus (ILT) occurrence. Methods The post-induction growth of the AAA diameter was characterized using ultrasound in 22 rats. ILT was reported on 13 rats that underwent 14 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 2-18 days post-surgery, and on 10 rats that underwent 18 fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/microcomputed tomography examinations 2-27 days post-surgery. Logistic regressions were used to establish the evolution with time of AAA length, diameter, ILT thickness, volume, stratification, MRI and FDG PET signalling properties, and histological assessment of inflammatory infiltrates. Results All of the following significantly increased with time post-induction (p < 0.001): AAA length, AAA diameter, ILT maximal thickness, ILT volume, ILT iron content and related MRI signalling changes, quantitative uptake on FDG PET, and the magnitude of inflammatory infiltrates on histology. However, the aneurysm growth peak followed occurrence of ILT approximately 6 days after elastase infusion. Conclusion Our model emphasizes that occurrence of ILT precedes AAA peak growth. Aneurysm growth is associated with increasing levels of iron, signalling properties changes in both MRI and FDG PET, relating to its biological activities. [less ▲]

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See detailCurrent status of fasciolosis in Vietnam: an update and perspectives
Bui Thi, Dung ULg; Pham, Ngoc Doanh; Saegerman, Claude ULg et al

in Journal of Helminthology (2015)

Vietnam is recognized as endemic for fasciolosis. However, most of the available publications have not been published in international journals. This review is based on national and international ... [more ▼]

Vietnam is recognized as endemic for fasciolosis. However, most of the available publications have not been published in international journals. This review is based on national and international Vietnamese publications and highlights the current status of fasciolosis in Vietnam. It also provides some information available in neighboring countries. Updated data on responsible species, distribution, transmission and control aspects, are summarized. The Central region of Vietnam is reported as being highly endemic for fasciolosis with a high number of human patients (more than 20.000 in 2011). Fasciola gigantica is reported as the main species in Vietnam. However, hybrids between F. gigantica and F. hepatica were identified. Both human and animals are infected by the ingestion of raw vegetables and possibly contaminated drinking water. Three lymnaeid snail species (Austropeplea viridis, Radix auricularia, Radix rubiginosa) may act as intermediate host of Fasciola spp. However due to the likely misidentification of snail species and cercariae during the previous decade the critical analysis of published data is difficult. A better understanding of transmission aspects of fasciolosis would allow the implementation of preventive measures of this important neglected zoonotic disease. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of the macromolecular surfactant features and reactivity on morphology and surface properties of emulsion-templated porous polymers
Mathieu, Kevin ULg; Jérôme, Christine ULg; Debuigne, Antoine ULg

in Macromolecules (2015), 48(18), 6489-6498

This work investigates key parameters of a straightfor- ward macromolecular surfactant-assisted functionalization strategy of porous polymers produced by high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) polymerization ... [more ▼]

This work investigates key parameters of a straightfor- ward macromolecular surfactant-assisted functionalization strategy of porous polymers produced by high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) polymerization. For that purpose, a series of well-defined amphiphilic poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(styrene) (PEO-b-PS) copolymers with various compositions and molar masses were synthesized by radical addition−fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and used as macromolecular surfactants for the emulsion-templated polymerization of styrene/divinylbenzene (S/DVB). The morphology of the resulting foams, referred to as polyHIPEs, was found dependent on the PS block length and concentration of the block copolymer surfactant in the emulsion. Moreover, we determined the lowest PS block length required for preserving the anchoring of the copolymer at the surface by physical entanglement within the S/DVB cross-linked matrix leading to a PEO-coated porous material. The functionalization of the porous monoliths with PEO was evidenced by sessile drop shape analyses and water uptake experiments. The chemical anchoring of the PEO-b-PS at the surface of polyHIPEs was also explored by interfacial initiation of the HIPE polymerization from a PEO-b-PS-RAFT macroinitiator leading to porous structures with permanent PEO coatings. In this case, copolymerizing DVB with acrylate instead of styrene improved the interconnectivity of the porous monoliths. [less ▲]

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See detailCarbon dioxide fluxes from a degraded Woodland in West Arica and their responses to main environmental factors
Ago, Expédit Evariste ULg; Serça, Dominique; Agbossou, Euloge Kossi et al

in Carbon Balance and Management (2015), 10

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See detailBreakthrough in cardiac arrest: reports from the 4th Paris International Conference.
Kudenchuk, PJ; Sandroni, C; Drinhaus, HR et al

in Annals of Intensive Care (2015)

Jean-Luc Diehl The French Intensive Care Society organized on 5th and 6th June 2014 its 4th Paris International Conference in Intensive Care", whose principle is to bring together the best international ... [more ▼]

Jean-Luc Diehl The French Intensive Care Society organized on 5th and 6th June 2014 its 4th Paris International Conference in Intensive Care", whose principle is to bring together the best international experts on a hot topic in critical care medicine. The 2014 theme was "Breakthrough in cardiac arrest", with many high-quality updates on epidemiology, public health data, pre-hospital and in-ICU cares. The present review includes short summaries of the major presentations, classified into six main chapters: Epidemiology of CA Pre-hospital management Post-resuscitation management: targeted temperature management Post-resuscitation management: optimizing organ perfusion and metabolic parameters Neurological assessment of brain damages Public healthcare." [less ▲]

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See detailGrowth partitioning within beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) varies in response to summer heat waves and related droughts
Latte, Nicolas ULg; Lebourgeois, François; Claessens, Hugues ULg

in Trees (2015)

To characterize growth partitioning within the tree and its responses to climate, we studied 8 dominant beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) of a pure, even-aged 98-year-old stand in Belgium. We sampled 10 ... [more ▼]

To characterize growth partitioning within the tree and its responses to climate, we studied 8 dominant beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) of a pure, even-aged 98-year-old stand in Belgium. We sampled 10 disks along the stem from breast height to treetop and examined the inter-annual patterns of, and discrepancies between, ring-area and volume increments by performing detailed stem analysis and dendroecological investigations. Although the common inter-annual variation among all increment series was high, we observed increasing growth variability and climate sensitivity with height, leading to notable bole-crown discrepancies. Both the common inter-annual variation and bole-crown discrepancies were mainly driven by summer heat waves and related droughts of the previous year, and spring droughts of the current year. Despite these discrepancies, the radial growth at breast height can be considered a good estimate of the tree volume increment but not for the purpose of focusing on climatic effects of isolated years. Extreme climatic conditions increase the risk of inaccurate estimations. The results of the present study are discussed in relation to tree ecophysiology hypotheses. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat Darkens the Greenland Ice Sheet?
Tedesco, M; Doherty, S.; Warren, S. et al

in EOS : Transactions, American Geophysical Union (2015)

Most of the massive ice sheet that covers roughly four fifths of Greenland melts at the surface in summer. As long as the ice sheet regains its mass in the winter, this is not catastrophic. However, if ... [more ▼]

Most of the massive ice sheet that covers roughly four fifths of Greenland melts at the surface in summer. As long as the ice sheet regains its mass in the winter, this is not catastrophic. However, if the ice sheet melted entirely, sea levels would rise by more than 7 meters, with obvious and severe consequences for human civilization. Not surprisingly, scientists are working hard to determine if and when the ice sheet will transition (or if it has already transitioned) from a stable state to a net mass loss state. The impact of increasing greenhouse gas levels on the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) depends on many complex and interacting factors. One is the ice sheet’s albedo—the fraction of incoming solar radiation that is reflected from the surface of the ice sheet. Indeed, scientists have determined that net solar radiation reaching the ice is the largest contributor to the energy balance driving melting [e.g., van den Broeke et al., 2011]. Despite the crucial role of albedo in energy balance, we have yet to quantify the role of the different processes driving it. Such an understanding is crucial to determining the past behavior of the GrIS and projecting its future contribution to sea level rise. Scientists seeking to quantify how much various factors contribute to ice sheet albedo face numerous challenges. These include intrinsic limitations in current observational capabilities (e.g., spatial and radiometric resolution of currently available spaceborne sensors) and limitations on how accurately surface energy balance models handle ice sheet albedo. Moreover, the sparseness in space and time of in situ observations of quantities such as impurity concentrations, biological processes, and grain growth impedes our ability to separate their respective contributions to broadband albedo (integrated over the entire spectrum). [less ▲]

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See detailAn Ant Colony System for Responsive Dynamic Vehicle Routing
Schyns, Michael ULg

in European Journal of Operational Research (2015), 245(3), 704-718

We present an algorithm based on an Ant Colony System to deal with a broad range of Dynamic Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problems with Time Windows, (partial) Split Delivery and Heterogeneous fleets ... [more ▼]

We present an algorithm based on an Ant Colony System to deal with a broad range of Dynamic Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problems with Time Windows, (partial) Split Delivery and Heterogeneous fleets (DVRPTWSD). Besides the traditional distance criterion, we address the important case of responsiveness. Responsiveness is defined here as completing a delivery as soon as possible, within the time window, such that the client or the truck may restart its activities. This is crucial for many production or service activities in different fields: express parcel deliveries, taxi services, Just in Time production, express repair services, medical care, petrol station replenishment, etc. We develop an interactive web-based solution to allow dispatchers to take new information into account in real-time. The algorithm and its parametrization were tested on real and artificial instances. We first illustrate our approach with a problem submitted by Liege Airport, the 8th biggest cargo airport in Europe. The goal is to develop a decision system to optimize the journey of the refueling trucks. We then consider some classical VRP benchmarks with extensions for more complex problems. [less ▲]

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See detailFaecal microbiota characterisation of horses using 16 rdna barcoded pyrosequencing, and carriage rate of clostridium difficile at hospital admission
Rodriguez Diaz, Cristina ULg; Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Brévers, Bastien et al

in BMC Microbiology (2015), 15

Background The equine faecal microbiota is very complex and remains largely unknown, while interspecies interactions have an important contribution to animal health. Clostridium difficile has been ... [more ▼]

Background The equine faecal microbiota is very complex and remains largely unknown, while interspecies interactions have an important contribution to animal health. Clostridium difficile has been identified as an important cause of diarrhoea in horses. This study provides further information on the nature of the bacterial communities present in horses developing an episode of diarrhoea. The prevalence of C. difficile in hospitalised horses at the time of admission is also reported. Results Bacterial diversity of the gut microbiota in diarrhoea is lower than that in non-diarrhoeic horses in terms of species richness (p-value <0.002) and in population evenness (p-value: 0.02). Statistical differences for Actinobacillus, Porphyromonas, RC9 group, Roseburia and Ruminococcaceae were revealed. Fusobacteria was found in horses with diarrhoea but not in any of the horses with non-diarrheic faeces. In contrast, Akkermansia was among the three predominant taxa in all of the horses studied. The overall prevalence of C. difficile in the total samples of hospitalised horses at admission was 3.7 % (5/134), with five different PCR-ribotypes identified, including PCR-ribotype 014. Two colonised horses displayed a decreased bacterial species richness compared to the remaining subjects studied, which shared the same Bacteroides genus. However, none of the positive animals had diarrhoea at the moment of sampling. Conclusions The abundance of some taxa in the faecal microbiota of diarrhoeic horses can be a result of microbiome dysbiosis, and therefore a cause of intestinal disease, or some of these taxa may act as equine enteric pathogens. Clostridium difficile colonisation seems to be transient in all of the horses studied, without overgrowth to trigger infection. A large proportion of the sequences were unclassified, showing the complexity of horses’ faecal microbiota. [less ▲]

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See detailOrigin of high-frequency TEC disturbances observed by GPS over the European mid-latitude region
Wautelet, Gilles ULg; Warnant, René ULg

in Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics (2015)

High-frequency variability of the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) can strongly affect precise positioning with GNSS. The occurrence rate as well as the amplitude of such disturbances has been ... [more ▼]

High-frequency variability of the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) can strongly affect precise positioning with GNSS. The occurrence rate as well as the amplitude of such disturbances has been extensively studied over the last decade. Mainly, one can distinguish disturbances due to space-weather events and the others, qualified as “quiet-time” as they are observed during quiet geomagnetic conditions. The latter, which represent more than 75% of the total number of disturbances over mid-latitudes, are then divided into two categories: the Winter Daytime (WD) and the Summer Nighttime (SN). The first category, representing the bulk of quiet-time disturbances, corresponds to classical Medium-Scale Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (MSTIDs), that are the result of the interaction of gravity waves and the ionospheric plasma. On the other hand, SN disturbances are generally understood as non-classical MSTIDs of electrical origin. The paper investigates the origin of these two types of disturbance based on GPS measurements, ionospheric soundings and wind speed data at a tropospheric level. If one cannot exclude the solar terminator as a potential source of gravity waves responsible for WD events, it is thought that the major contribution comes from the lower atmosphere. More precisely, tropospheric jetstream is considered as the favorite candidate for daytime MSTIDs. Turning to SN disturbances, our analysis reveals that they are related to spread-F phenomenon, linked to the appearance of sporadic E-layers. The related instabilities are responsible for field-aligned irregularities in the F-region, which are thought to be responsible for noise-like fluctuations of the GPS TEC observed during SN events. [less ▲]

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See detailOccurrence and risk indicators of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw after dental extraction: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
GAUDIN, Elise ULg; SEIDEL, Laurence ULg; Bacevic, Miljana ULg et al

in Journal of Clinical Periodontology (2015)

AIMS: The primary objective was to assess the occurrence rate of Medication-Related OsteoNecrosis of the Jaw (MRONJ) after dental extraction in patients treated with Anti-Resorptive Drugs (ARD) for ... [more ▼]

AIMS: The primary objective was to assess the occurrence rate of Medication-Related OsteoNecrosis of the Jaw (MRONJ) after dental extraction in patients treated with Anti-Resorptive Drugs (ARD) for OsteoPorosis (OP) or for oncological reasons. The secondary objective was to compare the extraction techniques regarding the occurrence of MRONJ. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search in PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS databases was performed. Prospective studies considering human patients treated with ARD and providing information regarding the occurrence of MRONJ after dental extraction were selected. Meta-analysis for incidence of MRONJ at the patient level was performed. The effect of administration route and surgical technique on MRONJ was evaluated. RESULTS: The risk of MRONJ after dental extraction was significantly higher in patients treated with ARD for oncological reasons (3.2%) than in those treated with per os ARD for OP (0.15%) (p<0.0001). Dental extraction performed with adjusted extraction protocols decreased significantly MRONJ development. Potential risk indicators such as concomitant medications and pre-existing osteomyelitis were identified. CONCLUSION: The risk of MRONJ after dental extraction in patients treated with ARD exists, especially in patients treated for oncologic reasons. This risk tends to decrease with adjusted extraction protocols. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamics of hybrid switching diffusions SIRS model
Settati, Adel; Lahrouz, Aadil; El Jarroudi, Mustapha et al

in Journal of Applied Mathematics and Computing (2015)

The main aim of this paper is to study the effect of the environmental noises in the asymptotic properties of a stochastic version of the classical SIRS epidemic model. The model studied here include ... [more ▼]

The main aim of this paper is to study the effect of the environmental noises in the asymptotic properties of a stochastic version of the classical SIRS epidemic model. The model studied here include white noise and telegraph noise modeled by Markovian switching. We obtained conditions for extinction both in probability one and in pth moment. We also established the persistence of disease under different conditions on the intensities of noises, the parameters of the model and the stationary distribution of the Markov chain. The highlight point of our work is that our conditions are sufficient and almost necessary for extinction and persistence of the epidemic. The presented results are demonstrated by numerical simulations. [less ▲]

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See detailMonte Carlo simulations of the dose from imaging with GE eXplore 120 micro-CT using gate.
Bretin, Florian; Bahri, Mohamed Ali ULg; Luxen, André ULg et al

in Medical Physics (2015), 42(10), 5711-5719

Purpose: Small animals are increasingly used as translational models in preclinical imaging studies, during which the subjects can be exposed to large amounts of radiation. While the radiation levels are ... [more ▼]

Purpose: Small animals are increasingly used as translational models in preclinical imaging studies, during which the subjects can be exposed to large amounts of radiation. While the radiation levels are generally sublethal, studies have shown that low-level radiation can change physiological parameters in mice. In order to rule out any influence of radiation on the outcome of such experiments, or resulting deterministic effects in the subjects, the levels of radiation involved need to be addressed. The aim of this study was to investigate the radiation dose delivered by the GE eXplore 120 microCT non-invasively using Monte Carlo simulations in GATE and to compare results to previously obtained experimental values. Methods: Tungsten X-ray spectra were simulated at 70, 80, and 97 kVp using an analytical tool and their half-value layers were simulated for spectra validation against experimentally measured values of the physical X-ray tube. A Monte Carlo model of the microCT system was set up and four protocols that are regularly applied to live animal scanning were implemented. The computed tomography dose index (CTDI) inside a PMMA phantom was derived and multiple field of view acquisitions were simulated using the PMMA phantom, a representative mouse and rat. Results: Simulated half-value layers agreed with experimentally obtained results within a 7% error window. The CTDI ranged from 20 to 56 mGy and closely matched experimental values. Derived organ doses in mice reached 459 mGy in bones and up to 200 mGy in soft tissue organs using the highest energy protocol. Dose levels in rats were lower due to the increased mass of the animal compared to mice. The uncertainty of all dose simulations was below 14%. Conclusions: Monte Carlo simulations proved a valuable tool to investigate the 3D dose distribution in animals from microCT. Small animals, especially mice (due to their small volume), receive large amounts of radiation from the GE eXplore 120 microCT, which might alter physiological parameters in a longitudinal study setup. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh dendritic expression of Ih in the proximity of the axon origin controls the integrative properties of nigral dopamine neurons.
Engel, Dominique ULg; Seutin, Vincent ULg

in Journal of Physiology (2015), 593(22), 4905-4922

Dendrites of most neurons express voltage-gated ion channels in their membrane. In combination with passive properties, active currents confer to dendrites a high computational potential. The ... [more ▼]

Dendrites of most neurons express voltage-gated ion channels in their membrane. In combination with passive properties, active currents confer to dendrites a high computational potential. The hyperpolarization-activated cation current Ih present in the dendrites of some pyramidal neurons affects their membrane and integration properties, synaptic plasticity and higher functions such as memory. A gradient of increasing h-channel density towards distal dendrites has been found to be responsible for the location independence of excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) waveform and temporal summation in cortical and hippocampal pyramidal cells. However, reports on other cell types revealed that smoother gradients or even linear distributions of Ih can achieve homogeneous temporal summation. Although the existence of a robust, slowly activating Ih current has been repeatedly demonstrated in nigral dopamine neurons, its subcellular distribution and precise role in synaptic integration are unknown. Using cell-attached patch-clamp recordings, we find a higher Ih current density in the axon-bearing dendrite than in the soma or in dendrites without axon in nigral dopamine neurons. Ih is mainly concentrated in the dendritic membrane area surrounding the axon origin and decreases with increasing distances from this site. Single EPSPs and temporal summation are similarly affected by blockade of Ih in axon- and non-axon-bearing dendrites. The presence of Ih close to the axon is pivotal to control the integrative functions and the output signal of dopamine neurons and may consequently influence the downstream coding of movement. [less ▲]

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See detailRisk Factors and Control Measures for Bacterial Contamination in the Bovine Meat Chain: A Review on Salmonella and Pathogenic E.coli.
Niyonzima, Eugene ULg; Ongol, Martin Patrick; Kimonyo, Anastase et al

in Journal of Food Research (2015), 4(5), 98-121

Salmonella and pathogenic Escherichia coli are known to be the major bacterial agents responsible for human foodborne infections attributable to meat. A review of the specialized literature was carried ... [more ▼]

Salmonella and pathogenic Escherichia coli are known to be the major bacterial agents responsible for human foodborne infections attributable to meat. A review of the specialized literature was carried out to identify the risk factors for bovine meat contamination by these pathogens from the cattle farm to meat consumption. Animal stress during transport to the slaughterhouse and the duration of the lairage period were identified as the key factors influencing the faecal excretion of Salmonella and pathogenic E. coli as well as cattle contamination prior to slaughter. At the abattoir level, hides and visceral contents appear to be the main sources of pathogenic bacteria that contaminate carcasses along the meat production chain. Finally, temperature abuses during distribution and meat contamination by infected handlers were found to be important contributors to the post-slaughter contamination of bovine meat. The findings of this study indicate that efficient management of human food borne infections attributable to bovine meat requires an integrated application of control measures involving all actors along the meat chain, namely slaughterhouses, meat processing plants, distributors and consumers. [less ▲]

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See detailDe la maladie chronique à la multimorbidité : quel impact sur l’organisation des soins de santé ?
Belche, Jean-Luc ULg; Berrewaerts, Marie-Astrid ULg; Ketterer, Frédéric ULg et al

in Presse Médicale (2015)

Healthcare systems are concerned with the growing prevalence of chronic diseases. Single disease approach, based on the Chronic Care Model, is known to improve specific indicators for the targeted disease ... [more ▼]

Healthcare systems are concerned with the growing prevalence of chronic diseases. Single disease approach, based on the Chronic Care Model, is known to improve specific indicators for the targeted disease. However, the co-existence of several chronic disease, or multimorbidity, within a same patient is the most frequent situation. The fragmentation of care, as consequence of the single disease approach, has negative impact on the patient and healthcare professionals. A person centred approach is a method addressing the combination of health issues of each patient. The coordination and synthesis role is key to ensure continuity of care for the patient within a network of healthcare professionals from several settings of care. This function is the main characteristic of an organized first level of care. [less ▲]

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See detailPelagic photoferrotrophy and iron cycling in a modern ferruginous basin
Llirós, Marc; García–Armisen, Tamara; Darchambeau, François ULg et al

in Scientific Reports (2015), 5

Iron-rich (ferruginous) ocean chemistry prevailed throughout most of Earth’s early history. Before the evolution and proliferation of oxygenic photosynthesis, biological production in the ferruginous ... [more ▼]

Iron-rich (ferruginous) ocean chemistry prevailed throughout most of Earth’s early history. Before the evolution and proliferation of oxygenic photosynthesis, biological production in the ferruginous oceans was likely driven by photoferrotrophic bacteria that oxidize ferrous iron {Fe(II)} to harness energy from sunlight, and fix inorganic carbon into biomass. Photoferrotrophs may thus have fuelled Earth’s early biosphere providing energy to drive microbial growth and evolution over billions of years. Yet, photoferrotrophic activity has remained largely elusive on the modern Earth, leaving models for early biological production untested and imperative ecological context for the evolution of life missing. Here, we show that an active community of pelagic photoferrotrophs comprises up to 30% of the total microbial community in illuminated ferruginous waters of Kabuno Bay (KB), East Africa (DR Congo). These photoferrotrophs produce oxidized iron {Fe(III)} and biomass, and support a diverse pelagic microbial community including heterotrophic Fe(III)-reducers, sulfate reducers, fermenters and methanogens. At modest light levels, rates of photoferrotrophy in KB exceed those predicted for early Earth primary production, and are sufficient to generate Earth’s largest sedimentary iron ore deposits. Fe cycling, however, is efficient, and complex microbial community interactions likely regulate Fe(III) and organic matter export from the photic zone. [less ▲]

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See detailLow bandgap copolymers based on monofluorinated isoindigo towards efficient polymer solar cells
Tomassetti, Mirco ULg; Ouhib, Farid ULg; Wislez, Arnaud ULg et al

in Polymer Chemistry (2015), 6(33), 6040-6049

To explore the effectiveness of monofluorinated isoindigo as an electron-deficient building block in push–pull conjugated polymers for organic solar cell applications, four low bandgap copolymers are ... [more ▼]

To explore the effectiveness of monofluorinated isoindigo as an electron-deficient building block in push–pull conjugated polymers for organic solar cell applications, four low bandgap copolymers are effectively synthesized and characterized. The effects of fluorine introduction, thiophene spacer length and polymer molar mass on the general electro-optical polymer characteristics, thin film blend micro- structure and electronic performance are investigated. Isoindigo monofluorination effectively improves the power conversion efficiency from 2.8 up to 5.0% upon molar mass optimization, without using any processing additives or post-treatments. [less ▲]

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See detailPast changes in the vertical distribution of ozone – Part 3: Analysis and interpretation of trends
Harris, N. R. P.; Hassler, B.; Tummon, F. et al

in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (2015), 15(17), 9965--9982

Trends in the vertical distribution of ozone are reported and compared for a number of new and recently revised data sets. The amount of ozone-depleting compounds in the stratosphere (as measured by ... [more ▼]

Trends in the vertical distribution of ozone are reported and compared for a number of new and recently revised data sets. The amount of ozone-depleting compounds in the stratosphere (as measured by equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine – EESC) was maximised in the second half of the 1990s. We examine the periods before and after the peak to see if any change in trend is discernible in the ozone record that might be attributable to a change in the EESC trend, though no attribution is attempted. Prior to 1998, trends in the upper stratosphere (~45 km, 4 hPa) are found to be -5 to -10% per decade at mid-latitudes and closer to -5% per decade in the tropics. No trends are found in the mid-stratosphere (28 km, 30 hPa). Negative trends are seen in the lower stratosphere at mid-latitudes in both hemispheres and in the deep tropics. However, it is hard to be categorical about the trends in the lower stratosphere for three reasons: (i) there are fewer measurements, (ii) the data quality is poorer, and (iii) the measurements in the 1990s are perturbed by aerosols from the Mt Pinatubo eruption in 1991. These findings are similar to those reported previously even though the measurements for the main satellite and groundbased records have been revised. There is no sign of a continued negative trend in the upper stratosphere since 1998: instead there is a hint of an average positive trend of ~2% per decade in mid-latitudes and ~3% per decade in the tropics. The significance of these upward trends is investigated using different assumptions of the independence of the trend estimates found from different data sets. The averaged upward trends are significant if the trends derived from various data sets are assumed to be independent (as in Pawson et al., 2014) but are generally not significant if the trends are not independent. This occurs because many of the underlying measurement records are used in more than one merged data set. At this point it is not possible to say which assumption is best. Including an estimate of the drift of the overall ozone observing system decreases the significance of the trends. The significance will become clearer as (i) more years are added to the observational record, (ii) further improvements are made to the historic ozone record (e.g. through algorithm development), and (iii) the data merging techniques are refined, particularly through a more rigorous treatment of uncertainties. [less ▲]

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See detailCopy number variants in patients with intellectual disability affect the regulation of ARX transcription factor gene
ishibashi, Minaka; Manning, Elisabeth; Shoubridge, Cheryl et al

in Human Genetics (2015), 134

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See detailLe licenciement du travailleur qui introduit une plainte pour cause de harcèlement
Linguelet, Renaud ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2015), (27), 1281-1285

Le travailleur, qui abuse des procédures internes et externes mises en place en cas de harcèlement ou de violence au travail, commet une faute, et, le cas échéant, une faute grave. Il n'y a pas d'abus de ... [more ▼]

Le travailleur, qui abuse des procédures internes et externes mises en place en cas de harcèlement ou de violence au travail, commet une faute, et, le cas échéant, une faute grave. Il n'y a pas d'abus de droit lorsque le travailleur fonde sa plainte sur des faits établis et ne poursuit pas un but étranger à la protection légale. La protection spécifique contre le licenciement du travailleur qui s'estime victime de faits de violence ou de harcèlement moral ou sexuel au travail ne s'applique pas lorsque la décision de mettre fin à la relation de travail est étrangère au dépôt de la plainte. Tel est le cas lorsque l'employeur établit que le licenciement est motivé par le refus du travailleur d'accepter une modification contractuelle proposée avant le dépôt de la plainte. [less ▲]

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See detailTrend analysis in ecological status and macrophytic characterization of watercourses: case of the Semois-Chiers basin, Belgium Wallonia
Sossey Alaoui, Khadija ULg; Rosillon, Francis ULg; Tychon, Bernard ULg

in Journal of Water Resource and Protection (2015), Vol.7 No.13 2015

In order to analyze the distribution and evolution of the aquatic vegetation and ecological status of the Semois-Chiers basin (Semois sub-basin and Chiers sub-basin), macrophyte surveys were conducted at ... [more ▼]

In order to analyze the distribution and evolution of the aquatic vegetation and ecological status of the Semois-Chiers basin (Semois sub-basin and Chiers sub-basin), macrophyte surveys were conducted at 48 sites in 2007 and 2013. Environmental parameters were also measured in order to characterize the waterbodies in terms of physico-chemical properties and anthropogenic pressure. The two-way clustering and indicator value (INDVAL) methods were used to assess groups of sites according to their macrophytic composition and species communities. The results showed a clear difference between streams in the Lorraine area (calcareous watercourses) and in the Ardennes (siliceous). Within each natural region, those with natural vegetation of high ecological status were separated from those dominated by resistant species. The Macrophytical Biological Index for Rivers (IBMR), was calculated for the sites visited in 2010 and 2013 and the results show a trend towards an increase of IBMR values of polluted sites. For the latter, the Wilcoxon test was performed to assess the significance of the difference in quality between 2010 and 2013. This showed a statistically significant difference (p-value= 0.035). Our results showed similarities with previous data, as well as some differences. The differences observed might indicate a gradual change in the composition of the vegetation in the study area, caused by changes in environmental conditions. They could also reflect a lack of information about the ecology of certain groups of plants, mainly bryophytes and macroalgae that were not considered in previous studies. Despite the measures implemented under the EU’s Water Framework Directive (WFD), the current vegetation of the Semois river differs little from that observed in 1996. There is a slight improvement in the headwaters of a Semois river, described in previous studies as polytrophic and devoid of vegetation, with the appearance of macrophytic species. In some parts of the Chiers sub-basin, however, resistant species observed in 1999 persist. [less ▲]

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See detailProgenitor potential of nkx6.1-expressing cells throughout zebrafish life and during beta cell regeneration.
Ghaye, Aurelie P.; Bergemann, David ULg; Tarifeño Saldivia, Estefania ULg et al

in BMC biology (2015), 13

BACKGROUND: In contrast to mammals, the zebrafish has the remarkable capacity to regenerate its pancreatic beta cells very efficiently. Understanding the mechanisms of regeneration in the zebrafish and ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: In contrast to mammals, the zebrafish has the remarkable capacity to regenerate its pancreatic beta cells very efficiently. Understanding the mechanisms of regeneration in the zebrafish and the differences with mammals will be fundamental to discovering molecules able to stimulate the regeneration process in mammals. To identify the pancreatic cells able to give rise to new beta cells in the zebrafish, we generated new transgenic lines allowing the tracing of multipotent pancreatic progenitors and endocrine precursors. RESULTS: Using novel bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic nkx6.1 and ascl1b reporter lines, we established that nkx6.1-positive cells give rise to all the pancreatic cell types and ascl1b-positive cells give rise to all the endocrine cell types in the zebrafish embryo. These two genes are initially co-expressed in the pancreatic primordium and their domains segregate, not as a result of mutual repression, but through the opposite effects of Notch signaling, maintaining nkx6.1 expression while repressing ascl1b in progenitors. In the adult zebrafish, nkx6.1 expression persists exclusively in the ductal tree at the tip of which its expression coincides with Notch active signaling in centroacinar/terminal end duct cells. Tracing these cells reveals that they are able to differentiate into other ductal cells and into insulin-expressing cells in normal (non-diabetic) animals. This capacity of ductal cells to generate endocrine cells is supported by the detection of ascl1b in the nkx6.1:GFP ductal cell transcriptome. This transcriptome also reveals, besides actors of the Notch and Wnt pathways, several novel markers such as id2a. Finally, we show that beta cell ablation in the adult zebrafish triggers proliferation of ductal cells and their differentiation into insulin-expressing cells. CONCLUSIONS: We have shown that, in the zebrafish embryo, nkx6.1+ cells are bona fide multipotent pancreatic progenitors, while ascl1b+ cells represent committed endocrine precursors. In contrast to the mouse, pancreatic progenitor markers nkx6.1 and pdx1 continue to be expressed in adult ductal cells, a subset of which we show are still able to proliferate and undergo ductal and endocrine differentiation, providing robust evidence of the existence of pancreatic progenitor/stem cells in the adult zebrafish. Our findings support the hypothesis that nkx6.1+ pancreatic progenitors contribute to beta cell regeneration. Further characterization of these cells will open up new perspectives for anti-diabetic therapies. [less ▲]

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See detailNonlinear normal modes, modal interactions and isolated resonance curves
Kuether, Robert J.; Renson, Ludovic ULg; Detroux, Thibaut ULg et al

in Journal of Sound and Vibration (2015), 351

The objective of the present study is to explore the connection between the nonlinear normal modes of an undamped and unforced nonlinear system and the isolated resonance curves that may appear in the ... [more ▼]

The objective of the present study is to explore the connection between the nonlinear normal modes of an undamped and unforced nonlinear system and the isolated resonance curves that may appear in the damped response of the forced system. To this end, an energy balance technique is used to predict the amplitude of the harmonic forcing that is necessary to excite a specific nonlinear normal mode. A cantilever beam with a nonlinear spring at its tip serves to illustrate the developments. The practical implications of isolated resonance curves are also discussed by computing the beam response to sine sweep excitations of increasing amplitudes. [less ▲]

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See detailA stochastic computational multiscale approach; Application to MEMS resonators
Lucas, Vincent ULg; Golinval, Jean-Claude ULg; Paquay, Stéphane et al

in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics & Engineering (2015), 294

The aim of this work is to develop a stochastic multiscale model for polycrystalline materials, which accounts for the uncertainties in the micro-structure. At the finest scale, we model the micro ... [more ▼]

The aim of this work is to develop a stochastic multiscale model for polycrystalline materials, which accounts for the uncertainties in the micro-structure. At the finest scale, we model the micro-structure using a random Voronoi tessellation, each grain being assigned a random orientation. Then, we apply a computational homogenization procedure on statistical volume elements to obtain a stochastic characterization of the elasticity tensor at the meso-scale. A random field of the meso-scale elasticity tensor can then be generated based on the information obtained from the SVE simulations. Finally, using a stochastic finite element method, these meso-scale uncertainties are propagated to the coarser scale. As an illustration we study the resonance frequencies of MEMS micro-beams made of poly-silicon materials, and we show that the stochastic multiscale approach predicts results in agreement with a Monte Carlo analysis applied directly on the fine finite-element model, i.e. with an explicit discretization of the grains. [less ▲]

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See detailLamost Observations in the Kepler Field. I. Database of Low-resolution Spectra
De Cat, P.; Fu, J. N.; Ren, A. B. et al

in Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series (2015), 220

The nearly continuous light curves with micromagnitude precision provided by the space mission Kepler are revolutionizing our view of pulsating stars. They have revealed a vast sea of low-amplitude ... [more ▼]

The nearly continuous light curves with micromagnitude precision provided by the space mission Kepler are revolutionizing our view of pulsating stars. They have revealed a vast sea of low-amplitude pulsation modes that were undetectable from Earth. The long time base of Kepler light curves allows for the accurate determination of the frequencies and amplitudes of pulsation modes needed for in-depth asteroseismic modeling. However, for an asteroseismic study to be successful, the first estimates of stellar parameters need to be known and they cannot be derived from the Kepler photometry itself. The Kepler Input Catalog provides values for the effective temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity, but not always with sufficient accuracy. Moreover, information on the chemical composition and rotation rate is lacking. We are collecting low-resolution spectra for objects in the Kepler field of view with the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (lamost, Xinglong observatory, China). All of the requested fields have now been observed at least once. In this paper, we describe those observations and provide a useful database for the whole astronomical community. ) located at the Xinglong observatory, China. [less ▲]

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See detailB fields in OB stars (BOB). Detection of a strong magnetic field in the O9.7 V star HD 54879
Castro, N.; Fossati, L.; Hubrig, S. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2015), 581

The number of magnetic stars detected among massive stars is small; nevertheless, the role played by the magnetic field in stellar evolution cannot be disregarded. Links between line profile variability ... [more ▼]

The number of magnetic stars detected among massive stars is small; nevertheless, the role played by the magnetic field in stellar evolution cannot be disregarded. Links between line profile variability, enhancements/depletions of surface chemical abundances, and magnetic fields have been identified for low-mass B-stars, but for the O-type domain this is almost unexplored. Based on FORS 2 and HARPS spectropolarimetric data, we present the first detection of a magnetic field in HD 54879, a single slowly rotating O9.7 V star. Using two independent and different techniques we obtained the firm detection of a surface average longitudinal magnetic field with a maximum amplitude of about 600 G, in modulus. A quantitative spectroscopic analysis of the star with the stellar atmosphere code fastwind results in an effective temperature and a surface gravity of 33 000 ± 1000 K and 4.0 ± 0.1 dex. The abundances of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, and magnesium are found to be slightly lower than solar, but compatible within the errors. We investigate line-profile variability in HD 54879 by complementing our spectra with spectroscopic data from other recent OB-star surveys. The photospheric lines remain constant in shape between 2009 and 2014, although Hα shows a variable emission. The Hα emission is too strong for a standard O9.7 V and is probably linked to the magnetic field and the presence of circumstellar material. Its normal chemical composition and the absence of photospheric line profile variations make HD 54879 the most strongly magnetic, non-variable single O-star detected to date. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla and Paranal observatories under programme ID 191.D-0255(C, F).Appendix A is available in electronic form at <A href="http://www.aanda.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201425354/olm">http://www.aanda.org</A> [less ▲]

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See detailHigh spectral resolution monitoring of Nova V339 Delphini with TIGRE
De Gennaro Aquino, I.; Schröder, K.-P.; Mittag, M. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2015), 581

We investigate the early development of the classical nova V339 Del (Nova Delphini 2013) through high-resolution optical spectroscopy. To study the structure of the ejecta, we focus on the evolution of ... [more ▼]

We investigate the early development of the classical nova V339 Del (Nova Delphini 2013) through high-resolution optical spectroscopy. To study the structure of the ejecta, we focus on the evolution of the absorption and emission features and the changes within the line profiles. We obtained spectra with the robotic 1.2 m telescope TIGRE equipped with the HEROS spectrograph (R = 20 000, wavelength coverage from 3800 to 8800 Å). Our data set covers the outburst from 3 until 121 days after discovery. We provide a qualitative analysis of the spectra, describing the line profiles evolution and providing a rich list of identified lines. During the optically thick phase, we detected several blue-shifted absorption features from s-processed elements, whose origin is unclear. The presence of strong lines from C/O and the absence of Neon features confirm that the nature of the central white dwarf is a CO type. The later "nebular" phase spectra show evidence of the non-spherical, inhomogeneous structure of the ejecta. The detailed evolution of the line profiles and appearance of high ionization species (e.g. N III, O III, He II, [Fe VII]) are direct consequences of the re-ionization of the ejecta during the peak of the soft X-ray emission. [less ▲]

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See detailThe changing UV and X-ray properties of the Of?p star CPD -28°2561
Nazé, Yaël ULg; Sundqvist, Jon O.; Fullerton, Alex W. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2015), 452

The Of?p star CPD -28°2561 was monitored at high energies with XMM-Newton and HST. In X-rays, this magnetic oblique rotator displays bright and hard emission that varies by ~55 per cent with rotational ... [more ▼]

The Of?p star CPD -28°2561 was monitored at high energies with XMM-Newton and HST. In X-rays, this magnetic oblique rotator displays bright and hard emission that varies by ~55 per cent with rotational phase. These changes occur in phase with optical variations, as expected for magnetically confined winds; there are two maxima and two minima in X-rays during the 73 d rotational period of CPD -28°2561. However, contrary to previously studied cases, no significant hardness variation is detected between minima and maxima, with the exception of the second minimum which is slightly distinct from the first one. In the UV domain, broad-band fluxes remain stable while line profiles display large variations. Stronger absorptions at low velocities are observed when the magnetic equator is seen edge-on, which can be reproduced by a detailed 3D model. However, a difference in absorption at high velocities in the C IV and N V lines is also detected for the two phases where the confined wind is seen nearly pole-on. This suggests the presence of strong asymmetries about the magnetic equator, mostly in the free-flowing wind (rather than in the confined dynamical magnetosphere). [less ▲]

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See detailOrganocatalytic promoted coupling of carbon dioxide with epoxides: a rational investigation of the cocatalytic activity of various hydrogen bond donors
Alves, Margot ULg; Grignard, Bruno ULg; Gennen, Sandro ULg et al

in Catalysis Science & Technology (2015), 5(9), 4636-4643

A catalytic platform based on an onium salt used in combination with organic cocatalysts of various structures was developed for the efficient CO2/epoxide coupling under mild conditions. Through detailed ... [more ▼]

A catalytic platform based on an onium salt used in combination with organic cocatalysts of various structures was developed for the efficient CO2/epoxide coupling under mild conditions. Through detailed kinetic studies by in-situ FT-IR spectroscopy, a rational investigation of the efficiency of a series of commercially available hydrogen bond donors co-catalysts was realized and the influence of different parameters such as the pressure, the temperature, the catalyst loading, and the nature of the epoxide on the reaction kinetics was evaluated. Fluorinated alcohols were found to be more efficient than other hydrogen bond donor activators proposed previously in the literature under similar conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailNetBenchmark: a bioconductor package for reproducible benchmarks of gene regulatory network inference
Bellot, Pau; Olsen, Catharina; Salembier, Philippe et al

in BMC Bioinformatics (2015)

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See detailVariation in swim bladder drumming sounds from three doradid catfish species with similar sonic morphologies
Boyle, Kelly; Riepe, Ségolène; Bolen, Géraldine ULg et al

in Journal of Experimental Biology (2015), 218

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See detailAssimilation of sea surface temperature, sea ice concentration and sea ice drift in a model of the Southern Ocean
Barth, Alexander ULg; Canter, Martin ULg; Van Schaeybroeck, Bert et al

in Ocean Modelling (2015), 93

Current ocean models have relatively large errors and biases in the Southern Ocean. The aim of this study is to provide a reanalysis from 1985 to 2006 assimilating sea surface temperature, sea ice ... [more ▼]

Current ocean models have relatively large errors and biases in the Southern Ocean. The aim of this study is to provide a reanalysis from 1985 to 2006 assimilating sea surface temperature, sea ice concentration and sea ice drift. In the following it is also shown how surface winds in the Southern Ocean can be improved using sea ice drift estimated from infrared radiometers. Such satellite observations are available since the late seventies and have the potential to improve the wind forcing before more direct measurements of winds over the ocean are available using scatterometry in the late nineties. The model results are compared to the assimilated data and to independent measurements (the World Ocean Database 2009 and the mean dynamic topography based on observations). The overall improvement of the assimilation is quantified, in particular the impact of the assimilation on the representation of the polar front is discussed. Finally a method to identify model errors in the Antarctic sea ice area is proposed based on Model Output Statistics techniques using a series of potential predictors. This approach provides new directions for model improvements. [less ▲]

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See detailDermatophytosis, Trends in Epidemiolgy and Diagnostic Approach
HAYETTE, Marie-Pierre ULg; SACHELI, Rosalie ULg

in Current Fungal Infections report (2015), 9(3), 164-179

Dermatophytes are among the common fungal agents implicated in superficial skin infections. The anthropophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum is still the most frequent causative agent worldwide but the ... [more ▼]

Dermatophytes are among the common fungal agents implicated in superficial skin infections. The anthropophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum is still the most frequent causative agent worldwide but the prevalence of several species of dermatophytes varies through different areas around the world. This review summarizes the current status of dermatophytes infection in Europe, Africa, Asia and America and gives an overview of the molecular biology laboratory methods currently available for the diagnosis of dermatomycoses. [less ▲]

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See detailPHYSICAL-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF MILK FAT GLOBULE MEMBRANE AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF ISOLATION
Malik, Priyanka ULg; Danthine, Sabine ULg; Paul, Aman ULg et al

in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies (2015), XIX

Fat globules in milk are present in form of emulsion stabilized by milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) which originates in mammary gland. Buttermilk which is rich source of MFGM finds application as an ... [more ▼]

Fat globules in milk are present in form of emulsion stabilized by milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) which originates in mammary gland. Buttermilk which is rich source of MFGM finds application as an ingredient in dairy and food industry (emulsions, infant formulas & low fat products) for its emulsifying and stabilizing properties which are associated to polar lipids. Phospholipids & some proteins have also shown some medicinal properties. So, MFGM received much attention in recent years due to its health-beneficial & technological properties. This work has been carried out with the objective to characterize MFGM at different stages of extraction. MFGM fractions were isolated from fresh cream and collected at different steps during processing to study its physical-chemical characterization. The fractions were characterized for their chemical composition to have an idea at which stage which components are isolated. The sample were also characterized for their surface properties which included study of mechanical properties of monolayer using Langmuir film balance, surface tension and zeta potential. Physical-chemical studies of fractions suggest that each fraction of MFGM have different chemical composition and surface properties which could be of interest for use in different food products depending on the requirement. The choice of these fractions could be done for their use as food additive/ingredient in food industry depending on the application. It may even have an extended application in pharmaceutical industry. [less ▲]

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See detailDeveloping biodiversity indicators on a stakeholders' opinions basis: the gypsum industry Key Performance Indicators framework.
Pitz, Carline ULg; Mahy, Grégory ULg; Vermeulen, Cédric ULg et al

in Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2015)

Aims: To establish a common Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) framework for reporting about the gypsum industry biodiversity at the European level. Methods: In order to integrate different opinions and to ... [more ▼]

Aims: To establish a common Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) framework for reporting about the gypsum industry biodiversity at the European level. Methods: In order to integrate different opinions and to reach a consensus framework, an original participatory process approach has been developed among different stakeholder groups: Eurogypsum, European and regional authorities, universities scientists, consulting offices, European and regional associations for the conservation of nature and the extractive industry. The strategy is developed around four main steps: (i) building of a maximum set of indicators to be submitted to stakeholders based on the literature (Focus Group method); (ii) evaluating the consensus about indicators through a policy Delphi survey aiming at the prioritization of indicator classes using the Analytic Hierarchy Process method (AHP) and of individual indicators; (iii) testing acceptability and feasibility through analysis of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) and visits to three European quarries; (iv) Eurogypsum final decision and communication. Results: The resulting framework contains a set of 11 indicators considered the most suitable for all the stakeholders. Conclusions: Our KPIs respond to European legislation and strategies for biodiversity. The framework aims at improving sustainability in quarries and at helping to manage biodiversity as well as to allow the creation of coherent reporting systems. The final goal is to allow for the definition of the actual biodiversity status of gypsum quarries and allow for enhancing it. The framework is adaptable to the local context of each gypsum quarry. [less ▲]

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See detailEuler–Lagrange approach to model heterogeneities in stirred tank bioreactors – Comparison to experimental flow characterization and particle tracking
Delafosse, Angélique ULg; Calvo, Sébastien ULg; Collignon, Marie-Laure ULg et al

in Chemical Engineering Science (2015), 134

The aim of this work is the validation of an Euler–Lagrange modeling approach coupling a CFD-based compartment model (Eulerian approach) and a stochastic model based on a Continuous-Time Markov Chain ... [more ▼]

The aim of this work is the validation of an Euler–Lagrange modeling approach coupling a CFD-based compartment model (Eulerian approach) and a stochastic model based on a Continuous-Time Markov Chain (Lagrangian approach). The turbulent flow structure and the mixing process in a bioreactor stirred by an axial Mixel TT impeller is characterized by PIV and tracer experiments. Comparison between experimental and numerical data shows that the CFD-based compartment model is able to reproduce accurately the spatial heterogeneities inside the bioreactor. The trajectory of a small tracer particle which perfectly follows the fluid flow is measured by optical trajectography. It is then simulated by a stochastic model which is either based on an homogeneous or on an inhomogeneous Continuous Time Markov Chain (CTMC). Comparison of residence and circulation time distributions in three zones defined inside the bioreactor shows that the inhomogeneous CTMC model predicts with an excellent accuracy the particle trajectories inside the bioreactor. The modeling approach proposed here could be an useful tool to design scale-down bioreactors in order to reproduce at lab-scale the stress levels encountered in large-scale production bioreactors and to characterize and compare different bioreactor configurations. [less ▲]

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See detailLumbopelvic motor control and low back pain in elite soccer players: a cross-sectional study
GROSDENT, Stéphanie ULg; Demoulin, Christophe ULg; Rodriguez de la Cruz, Carlos ULg et al

in Journal of Sports Sciences (2015)

This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the history of low back pain and quality of lumbopelvic motor control in soccer players. Forty-three male elite soccer players (mean age, 18.2 ± 1 ... [more ▼]

This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the history of low back pain and quality of lumbopelvic motor control in soccer players. Forty-three male elite soccer players (mean age, 18.2 ± 1.4 years) filled in questionnaires related to low back pain and attended a session to assess lumbopelvic motor control by means of five tests (the bent knee fall out test, the knee lift abdominal test, the sitting knee extension test, the waiter ’ s bow and the transversus abdominis test). A physiotherapist, blinded to the medical history of the participants, scored (0 = failed, 1 = correct) the performance of the players for each of the tests resulting in a lumbopelvic motor control score ranging from 0 to 5. Forty-seven per cent of the soccer players reported a disabling low back pain episode lasting at least two consecutive days in the previous year. These players scored worse lumbopelvic motor control than players without a history of low back pain (lumbopelvic motor control score of 1.8 vs. 3.3, P < 0.01). The between-groups difference was particularly marked for the bent knee fall out test, the knee lift abdominal test and the transversus abdominis test (P < 0.01). In conclusion, most soccer players with a history of low back pain had an altered lumbopelvic motor control. Further research should examine whether lumbopelvic motor control is etiologically involved in low back pain episodes in soccer players. [less ▲]

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See detailIon channel degeneracy enables robust and tunable neuronal firing rates.
Drion, Guillaume ULg; O'Leary, Timothy; Marder, Eve

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2015)

Firing rate is an important means of encoding information in the nervous system. To reliably encode a wide range of signals, neurons need to achieve a broad range of firing frequencies and to move ... [more ▼]

Firing rate is an important means of encoding information in the nervous system. To reliably encode a wide range of signals, neurons need to achieve a broad range of firing frequencies and to move smoothly between low and high firing rates. This can be achieved with specific ionic currents, such as A-type potassium currents, which can linearize the frequency-input current curve. By applying recently developed mathematical tools to a number of biophysical neuron models, we show how currents that are classically thought to permit low firing rates can paradoxically cause a jump to a high minimum firing rate when expressed at higher levels. Consequently, achieving and maintaining a low firing rate is surprisingly difficult and fragile in a biological context. This difficulty can be overcome via interactions between multiple currents, implying a need for ion channel degeneracy in the tuning of neuronal properties. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Petroglyphs of Huancor, Peru : Form and Meaning
Delnoÿ, David ULg; Otte, Marcel ULg

in EXPRESSION (2015), 9

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See detailAre unmanned aircraft systems (UASs) the future of wildlife monitoring? A review of accomplishments and challenges
Linchant, Julie ULg; Lisein, Jonathan ULg; Semeki, Jean et al

in Mammal Review (2015), 45

1. Regular monitoring of animal populations must be established to ensure wildlife protection, especially when pressure on animals is high. The recent development of drones or unmanned aircraft systems ... [more ▼]

1. Regular monitoring of animal populations must be established to ensure wildlife protection, especially when pressure on animals is high. The recent development of drones or unmanned aircraft systems (UASs) opens new opportunities. UASs have several advantages, including providing data at high spatial and temporal resolution, providing systematic, permanent data, having low operational costs and being low-risk for the operators. However, UASs have some constraints, such as short flight endurance. 2. We reviewed studies in which wildlife populations were monitored by using drones, described accomplishments to date and evaluated the range of possibilities UASs offer to provide new perspectives in future research. 3. We focused on four main topics: 1) the available systems and sensors; 2) the types of survey plan and detection possibilities; 3) contributions towards antipoaching surveillance; and 4) legislation and ethics. 4. We found that small fixed-wing UASs are most commonly used because these aircraft provide a viable compromise between price, logistics and flight endurance. The sensors are typically electro-optic or infrared cameras, but there is the potential to develop and test new sensors. 5. Despite various flight plan possibilities, mostly classical line transects have been employed, and it would be of great interest to test new methods to adapt to the limitations of UASs. Detection of many species is possible, but statistical approaches are unavailable if valid inventories of large mammals are the purpose. 6. Contributions of UASs to anti-poaching surveillance are not yet well documented in the scientific literature, but initial studies indicate that this approach could make important contributions to conservation in the next few years. 7. Finally, we conclude that one of the main factors impeding the use of UASs is legislation. Restrictions in the use of airspace prevent researchers from testing all possibilities, and adaptations to the relevant legislation will be necessary in future. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyse critique des traitements conservateurs classiques des tendinopathies
KAUX, Jean-François ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2015), 70(9), 456-460

Les thérapeutiques «passives» classiques (anti-inflammatoires, infiltrations de corticoïdes…) des tendinopathies, utilisées de manière relativement empirique, réduisent la douleur et l’inflammation, sans ... [more ▼]

Les thérapeutiques «passives» classiques (anti-inflammatoires, infiltrations de corticoïdes…) des tendinopathies, utilisées de manière relativement empirique, réduisent la douleur et l’inflammation, sans modifier fondamentalement la structure du tendon, expliquant leur vocable et caractère «passif». La rééducation excentrique a été appliquée aux tendinopathies chroniques, non seulement de par l’échec des traitements classiques, mais aussi en raison d’une meilleure compréhension physiopathologique des tendinopathies. Diverses études soulignent l’efficacité de la rééducation excentrique qui, après 20-30 séances, entraîne la guérison et surtout prévient le risque de chronicité. Les ondes de choc, modifiant la structure tendineuse, permettraient une guérison à plus long terme. [less ▲]

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See detailComprendre le contenu des programmes électoraux. Comparaison des méthodes d’encodage manuel et automatique
Piet, Grégory ULg; Dandoy, Régis; Joly, Jeroen

in Mots. Les Langages du Politique (2015), 108

In political science, the analysis of political documents is crucial as it helps assessing a wide range of hypotheses related to the priorities set before political actors and institutions. The most ... [more ▼]

In political science, the analysis of political documents is crucial as it helps assessing a wide range of hypotheses related to the priorities set before political actors and institutions. The most widely used and most efficient of the too many methods of assessing political documents are those carried out manually, though. And yet, automatic encoding bears fundamental advantages as well. This paper sets out to compare and contrast the results of two distinct methods applied on the same corpus of texts: one method uses manual encoding content of political documents whereas the other relies on computer-based data encoding. Electoral manifestoes of Belgian main political parties between 1987 and 2007 constitute the basis of the study. Identifying and comparing the major thematics dealt with in the corpus enable us to point out a range of differences and similarities. The paper discusses both methods of encoding so as a set of conclusions is drawn and available for future analyses of political texts. [less ▲]

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See detailSphenopalatine ganglion stimulation in neurovascular headaches
SCHOENEN, Jean ULg

in Progress in Neurological Surgery (2015), 29

Abstract The interest for the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) in neurovascular headaches dates back to 1908 when Sluder presented his work on the role of the sphenopalatine ganglion in «nasal headaches» ... [more ▼]

Abstract The interest for the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) in neurovascular headaches dates back to 1908 when Sluder presented his work on the role of the sphenopalatine ganglion in «nasal headaches» that are now part of the trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias and cluster headache (ICHD-III beta). Since then various interventions with blocking or lesional properties have targeted the SPG (transnasal injection of lidocaine and other agents, alcohol or steroid injections, radiofrequency lesions or even ganglionectomy); sucess rates varied, but benefit was usually transient. Here we briefly review some anatomo-physiological characteristics of the SPG and hypotheses about its pathophysiological role in neurovascular headaches before describing recent therapeutic results obtained with electrical stimulation of the SPG. Based on results of a prospective randomized controlled study, SPG stimulation appears to be an effective treatment option for patients with chronic cluster headaches; efficacy data indicate that acute electrical stimulation of the SPG provided significant attack pain relief and in many cases pain freedom compared to sham stimulation. Moreover, in some patients SPG stimulation was associated with a significant and clinically meaningful reduction in cluster headache attack frequency; this preventive effect of SPG stimulation warrants further investigation. For migraine attacks, the outcome of the proof-of-concept study using a temporary electrode implanted in the pterygopalatine fossa was less encouraging – but an ongoing multi-center trial evaluates the efficacy of long-term SPG stimulation against sham stimulation for acute and preventive treatment in patients with frequent migraine. [less ▲]

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See detailCoupled modeling of Excavation Damaged Zone in Boom clay: Strain localization in rock and distribution of contact pressure on the gallery’s lining
Salehnia, Fatemeh ULg; Collin, Frédéric ULg; Li, Xiang Ling et al

in Computers and Geotechnics (2015), 69

Around galleries excavated at depth in geological media, the creation of a damaged zone with significant irreversible deformation is generally unavoidable. In the case of a geological disposal system for ... [more ▼]

Around galleries excavated at depth in geological media, the creation of a damaged zone with significant irreversible deformation is generally unavoidable. In the case of a geological disposal system for high-level radioactive waste, the resulting change in the host rock properties in this damaged zone may potentially be important with respect to the long-term evolution and the performance of that system. In this context, predicting the extent of the so-called Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) and, possibly, the fractures' network topology remains a challenge. This study is aimed to simulate numerically the extension of this zone at the large scale's excavation, around the Connecting gallery (HADES URL, Mol, Belgium), in Boom clay host rock through analyzing the evolution of strain localization in shear bands mode. To realistically model the involved phenomena, the concrete lining is considered on the gallery wall highlighting its impacts on the evolution of convergence and EDZ around the gallery. The focus of the current paper is made on analyzing the coupled hydro-mechanical behavior of Boom clay host rock during and after the gallery excavation with respect to the evolution of localized shear bands around the gallery. This study is accompanied by the analysis of the contact mechanism on the interface between the clay massive and the lining. The obtained results reveal some interesting features regarding the contact phenomenon relatively to the evolution pattern of shear bands within the clay around the gallery. To assess the reliability of the proposed approach, a discussion on some in-situ observations during the gallery's construction is also performed based on which a good agreement is found between the in-situ evidence and simulated results. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence du Kinésiotape® sur les performances musculaires des ischio-jambiers
BAUVIR, Philippe ULg; Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Pondant, Laurent et al

in Journal de Traumatologie du Sport (2015), 32(3), 110-115

Objective The aim of this controlled, randomized, and double-blind study was to determine whether Kinesiotape® placed on healthy hamstrings could influence the isokinetic performances of this muscle group ... [more ▼]

Objective The aim of this controlled, randomized, and double-blind study was to determine whether Kinesiotape® placed on healthy hamstrings could influence the isokinetic performances of this muscle group and of its antagonist, the quadriceps. Methods Twelve healthy men, aged 18–30 years, were subjected to an isokinetic evaluation in 3 different conditions (without Kinesiotape®, placebo Kinesiotape® to hamstrings, facilitation Kinesiotape® to hamstrings) in randomized order. The 3 sessions assessed peak torque (N.m), work (J) and angle to peak torque (°) in concentric 60 and 240°/s for hamstrings and quadriceps, and in eccentric 30°/s for hamstrings. Results Isokinetic performances in the 3 different conditions were not significantly different (P>0.05) in particular for the hamstrings concentric and eccentric peak torques. Only the angle to peak torque for hamstrings in eccentric 30°/s was modified when comparing placebo Kinesiotape® with no Kinesiotape® condition (P<0.05). Conclusion Kinesiotape® intervention in healthy subjects’ hamstrings did not influence neither the strength of this muscular group nor the performances of its antagonist, the quadriceps. [less ▲]

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See detailA stochastic operational forecasting system of the Black Sea: Technique and validation
Vandenbulcke, Luc ULg; Barth, Alexander ULg

in Ocean Modelling (2015), 93

In this article, we present the latest version of an ensemble forecasting system of the hydrodynamics of the Black Sea, based on the GHER model. The system includes the Weakly Constrained Ensembles ... [more ▼]

In this article, we present the latest version of an ensemble forecasting system of the hydrodynamics of the Black Sea, based on the GHER model. The system includes the Weakly Constrained Ensembles algorithm to generate random, but physically balanced perturbations to initialize members of the ensemble. On top of initial conditions, the ensemble accounts also for uncertainty on the atmospheric forcing fields, and on some scalar parameters such as river flows or model diffusion coefficients. The forecasting system also includes the Ocean Assimilation Kit, a sequential data assimilation package implementing the SEEK and Ensemble Kalman filters. A novel aspect of the forecasting system is that not only our best estimate of the future ocean state is provided, but also the associated error estimated from the ensemble of models. The primary goal of this paper is to quantitatively show that the ensemble variability is a good estimation of the model error, regardless of the magnitude of the forecast errors themselves. In order for this estimation to be meaningful, the model itself should also be well validated. Therefore, we describe the model validation against general circulation patterns. Some particular aspects critical for the Black Sea circulation are validated as well: the mixed layer depth and the shelfopen sea exchanges. The model forecasts are also compared with observed sea surface temperature, and errors are compared to those of another operational model as well. [less ▲]

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See detailEffectiveness of High Intensity Radial Shock Wave Therapy in The Treatment of Chronic Plantar Fasciitis
Demoulin, Christophe ULg; Vanderthommen, Marc ULg; Fromm, Aurélien et al

in Jacobs Journal of Physical Rehabilitation Medicine (2015), 1(3), 0117

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See detailComparison of isotopic turnover dynamics in two different muscles of a coral reef fish during the settlement phase
Gajdzik, Laura ULg; Lepoint, Gilles ULg; Lecchini, David et al

in Scientia Marina (2015), 79(3), 325-333

The temporal variation in carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions (noted as δ13C and δ15N) was investigated in the convict surgeonfish (Acanthurus triostegus) at Moorea (French Polynesia). Over a period ... [more ▼]

The temporal variation in carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions (noted as δ13C and δ15N) was investigated in the convict surgeonfish (Acanthurus triostegus) at Moorea (French Polynesia). Over a period of 24 days, juveniles were reared in aquaria and subjected to two different feeding treatments: granules or algae. The dynamics of δ13C and δ15N in two muscles (the adductor mandibulae complex and the epaxial musculature) having different functions were compared. At the end of experiments, a steady-state isotopic system in each muscle tissue was not reached. Especially for the algal treatment, we found different patterns of variation in isotopic compositions over time between the two muscles. The turnovers of δ13C showed opposite trends for each muscle but differences are mitigated by starvation and by the metamorphosis. Our study highlighted that the metabolism of coral reef fish may be subjected to catabolism or anabolism of non-protein precursors at settlement, inducing variation in isotopic compositions that are not linked to diet change. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantifying Cereal-Reaping Microwear On Flint Tools: An Experimental Approach
Linton, Jimmy ULg; Monna, Fabrice; Martineau, Rémi et al

in Archaeometry (2015)

From the earliest Neolithic in the Near East to the last Chalcolithic cultures in Western Europe, certain flint tools have been used as sickles to harvest cereals. Such harvesting tools can be identified ... [more ▼]

From the earliest Neolithic in the Near East to the last Chalcolithic cultures in Western Europe, certain flint tools have been used as sickles to harvest cereals. Such harvesting tools can be identified through use-wear analyses, because cutting herbaceous plants produces specific wear-traces on the working edge of flint blades. The aim of this work is to explore harvesting-driven microwear variability and, more particularly, intensity of use as a governing factor. To achieve this objective, an experiment was designed consisting in the production of flint replicas to be used as harvesting tools, in various controlled conditions. A simple, cost-effective method of quantifying wear-traces by meas uring polish extent is developed, requiring only classical use-wear observation equipment. Polish extent shows monotonic correlation with the amount of work, expressed either in terms of time or as the quantity of cereals harvested. Polish extent measurement is therefore proposed as a reliable and powerful descriptor of use intensity. [less ▲]

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See detailEmbarrassment in the Posthumous Fiction of Janet Frame
Delrez, Marc ULg

in Journal of Postcolonial Writing (2015), 51(5), 579-90

It is generally assumed that Janet Frame suspended the publication of some of her work in her lifetime because it was felt to be deeply personal, or potentially embarrassing for people who might recognize ... [more ▼]

It is generally assumed that Janet Frame suspended the publication of some of her work in her lifetime because it was felt to be deeply personal, or potentially embarrassing for people who might recognize themselves in the portraits provided. These rationalizations fail to persuade, first because all of Frame’s published oeuvre anyway consists of a fictionalization of private existential matter, and the posthumous corpus hardly differs in this respect; and also because both Towards Another Sum- mer (2007) and In the Memorial Room (2013) feature a Kafkaesque concern with metamorphosis which serves to enhance the unrealistic tenor of the narratives, so that the novels again seem on a par with previously published self-conscious material. What is more distinctive about the new/old novels is less their allegedly embarrassing nature than their unusual degree of frontal engagement with the experience of embarrassment itself – their pondering of the pros and cons of shyness. This theme is addressed in aesthetic terms mostly. Frame’s artistic characters blush and squirm and writhe in ways which confirm the role played by embarrassment as an inadvertent recognition of, and an unwilling subscription to, an oppressive societal norm. Yet it can be shown that Frame, true to her customary dialectical mode of conceptualization, simultaneously uses embarrassment as a decentring strategy allowing the novels to work towards an exposure of so-called social normality. This exposure is achieved through a systematic policy of borrowing from, and testily reproducing, those very limited and limiting expressive codes which were found mortifying in the first place. [less ▲]

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See detailPlasma riche en plaquettes pour le traitements de lésions tendineuses
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Drion, Pierre ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg et al

in Journal de Réadaptation Médicale (2015), 35(3), 181-191

Objectives: The restorative properties of platelets, through the local release of growth factors, are used in various medical areas. This article reviews fundamental and clinical research relating to ... [more ▼]

Objectives: The restorative properties of platelets, through the local release of growth factors, are used in various medical areas. This article reviews fundamental and clinical research relating to platelet-rich plasma applied to tendinous lesions. Materials and method: Articles in French and English, published between 1 January 2012 and 30 September 2014 dealing with PRP and tendons were searched for using the Medline and Scopus data bases. Results: Forty-seven articles were identified which addressed pre-clinical and clinical studies: 27 relating to in vitro and in vivo animal studies and 20 relating to human studies. Of these, 5 addressed lateral epicondylitis, 2 addressed rotator cuff tendinopathies, 10 dealt with patellar tendinopathies and 3 looked at Achilles tendinopathies. Conclusions: The majority of pre-clinical studies show that PRP stimulates the tendon's healing process. However, clinical series remain more controversial and level 1, controlled, randomised studies are still needed. [less ▲]

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See detailCorrection of homogenized lamination stacks via a subproblem finite element method
Dular, Patrick ULg; Ferreira da Luz, Mauricio; Kuo-Peng, Patrick et al

in COMPEL (2015), 34(5), 1553-1563

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a subproblem finite element method for progressive modeling of lamination stacks in magnetic cores, from homogenized solutions up to accurate eddy current ... [more ▼]

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a subproblem finite element method for progressive modeling of lamination stacks in magnetic cores, from homogenized solutions up to accurate eddy current distributions and losses. Design/methodology/approach – The homogenization of lamination stacks, subject to both longitudinal and transversal magnetic fluxes, is first performed and is followed by local correction subproblems in certain laminations separately, surrounded by their insulating layers and the remaining laminations kept homogenized. The sources for the local corrections are originally defined via interface conditions to allow the coupling between homogenized and non-homogenized portions. Findings – The errors proper to the homogenization model, which neglects fringing effects, can be locally corrected in some selected portions via local eddy current subproblems considering the actual geometries and properties of the related laminations. The fineness of the mesh can thus be concentrated in these portions, while keeping a coupling with the rest of the laminations kept homogenized. Research limitations/implications – The method has been tested on a 2D case having linear material properties. It is however directly applicable in 3D. Its extension to the time domain with non-linear properties will be done. Originality/value – The resulting subproblem method allows accurate and efficient calculations of eddy current losses in lamination stacks, which is generally unfeasible for real applications with a single problem approach. The accuracy and efficiency are obtained thanks to a proper refined mesh for each subproblem and the reuse of previous solutions to be locally corrected only acting in interface conditions. Corrections are progressively obtained up to accurate eddy current distributions in the laminations, allowing to improve the resulting global quantities: the Joule losses in the laminations, and the resistances and inductances of the surrounding windings. [less ▲]

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See detailStress, psychosocial mediators and cognitive mediators in parents of child cancer patients and cancer survivors: Attention and working memory pathway perspectives
Vander Haegen, Marie ULg; Luminet, Olivier

in The Journal Of Psychosocial Oncology (2015), 33

Objective: This review examines stress and its consequences on attention and working memory, stress symptoms in parents of child cancer patients and survivors and long term consequences of stress on ... [more ▼]

Objective: This review examines stress and its consequences on attention and working memory, stress symptoms in parents of child cancer patients and survivors and long term consequences of stress on cognitive processing in parents of child cancer survivors. Method: Eligible studies were experimental, meta-analyses and qualitative (2000–2013) from Pubmed, Medline, the Cochrane Library, PsycArticles and Google Scholar. Results: We identified 92 eligible papers. They showed that elevated stress can impede performances on tasks requiring attention and memory patterns. In paediatric oncology, parental stress increased shortly after diagnosis involving depression and anxiety. Consequences of stress on cognitive performances were observed mainly among depressed individuals. As regards parents of child cancer survivors, female gender, low SES, innate traits of anxiety/anger predicted the development of PTSS. Conclusion: Evidence of stress on attention and working memory processes in parents of child cancer survivors is insufficient developed. [less ▲]

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See detailEstrogen Receptor β Activation Rapidly Modulates Male Sexual Motivation through the Transactivation of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 1a
Seredynski, Aurore L; Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Ball, Gregory F et al

in Journal of Neuroscience (2015), 35(38), 13110-23

In addition to the transcriptional activity of their liganded nuclear receptors, estrogens, such as estradiol (E2), modulate cell functions, and consequently physiology and behavior, within minutes ... [more ▼]

In addition to the transcriptional activity of their liganded nuclear receptors, estrogens, such as estradiol (E2), modulate cell functions, and consequently physiology and behavior, within minutes through membrane-initiated events. The membrane-associated receptors (mERs) underlying the acute effects of estrogens on behavior have mostly been documented in females where active estrogens are thought to be of ovarian origin. We determined here, by acute intracerebroventricular injections of specific agonists and antagonists, the type(s) of mERs that modulate rapid effects of brain-derived estrogens on sexual motivation in male Japanese quail. Brain aromatase blockade acutely inhibited sexual motivation. Diarylpropionitrile (DPN), an estrogen receptor β (ERβ)-specific agonist, and to a lesser extent 17α-estradiol, possibly acting through ER-X, prevented this effect. In contrast, drugs targeting ERα (PPT and MPP), GPR30 (G1 and G15), and the Gq-mER (STX) did not affect sexual motivation. The mGluR1a antagonist LY367385 significantly inhibited sexual motivation but mGluR2/3 and mGluR5 antagonists were ineffective. LY367385 also blocked the behavioral restoration induced by E2 or DPN, providing functional evidence that ERβ interacts with metabotropic glutamate receptor 1a (mGluR1a) signaling to acutely regulate male sexual motivation. Together these results show that ERβ plays a key role in sexual behavior regulation and the recently uncovered cooperation between mERs and mGluRs is functional in males where it mediates the acute effects of estrogens produced centrally in response to social stimuli. The presence of an ER-mGluR interaction in birds suggests that this mechanism emerged relatively early in vertebrate history and is well conserved. Significance statement: The membrane-associated receptors underlying the acute effects of estrogens on behavior have mostly been documented in females, where active estrogens are thought to be of ovarian origin. Using acute intracerebroventricular injections of specific agonists and antagonists following blockade of brain aromatase, we show here that brain-derived estrogens acutely facilitate male sexual motivation through the activation of estrogen receptor β interacting with the metabotropic glutamate receptor 1a. This behavioral effect occurring within minutes provides a mechanistic explanation of how an estrogen receptor not intrinsically coupled to intracellular effectors can signal from the membrane to govern behavior in a very rapid fashion. It suggests that different subtypes of estrogen receptors could regulate the motivation versus performance aspects of behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-invasive vagus nerve stimulation for PREVention and Acute treatment of chronic cluster headache (PREVA): A randomised controlled study.
Gaul, Charly; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Silver, Nicholas et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2015)

Background: Chronic cluster headache (CH) is a debilitating disorder for which few well-controlled studies demonstrate effectiveness of available therapies. Non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation (nVNS) was ... [more ▼]

Background: Chronic cluster headache (CH) is a debilitating disorder for which few well-controlled studies demonstrate effectiveness of available therapies. Non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation (nVNS) was examined as adjunctive prophylactic treatment of chronic CH. Methods: PREVA was a prospective, open-label, randomised study that compared adjunctive prophylactic nVNS (n=48) with standard of care (SoC) alone (control (n=49)). A two-week baseline phase was followed by a four-week randomised phase (SoC plus nVNS vs control) and a four-week extension phase (SoC plus nVNS). The primary end point was the reduction in the mean number of CH attacks per week. Response rate, abortive medication use and safety tolerability were also assessed. Results: During the randomised phase, individuals in the intent-to-treat population treated with SoC plus nVNS (n=45) had a significantly greater reduction in the number of attacks per week vs controls (n=48) (-5.9 vs -2.1, respectively) for a mean therapeutic gain of 3.9 fewer attacks per week (95% CI: 0.5, 7.2; p=0.02). Higher #50% response rates were also observed with SoC plus nVNS (40% (18/45)) vs controls (8.3% (4/48); p<0.001). No serious treatment-related adverse events occurred. Conclusion: Adjunctive prophylactic nVNS is a well-tolerated novel treatment for chronic CH, offering clinical benefits beyond those with SoC. [less ▲]

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See detailCivilian deaths from weapons used in the Syrian conflict
Guha-Sapir, Debarati; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose; Hicks, Madelyn et al

in British Medical Journal (2015), 351

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See detailPourquoi travailler systématiquement avec des exponentielles de base e ?
Bair, Jacques ULg; Henry, Valérie ULg; Justens, Daniel

in Tangente (2015), 166

Le nombre e est omniprésent en mathématiques: on le retrouve en analyse, en trigonométrie, en calcul des probabilités. Il apparaît dans nombre d'applications en finance, en physique, en actuariat. Nous ... [more ▼]

Le nombre e est omniprésent en mathématiques: on le retrouve en analyse, en trigonométrie, en calcul des probabilités. Il apparaît dans nombre d'applications en finance, en physique, en actuariat. Nous montrons dans cet article ce qui fait de ce nombre une base incontournable. [less ▲]

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See detailLa censure, une exception française ?
Delbrassine, Daniel ULg

in Lecture Jeune (2015), 155(Automne), 4-10

Etat de la question de la censure (au sens large) en littérature de jeunesse en France et ailleurs (RFA, USA). Avec quelques pistes quant à l'évolution du phénomène.

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See detailImplementation of a damage evolution law for dual-phase steels in Gurson-type models
Balan, Tudor; Lemoine, Xavier; Maire, eric et al

in Materials and Design (2015), (88), 1213-1222

This paper is a contribution to the phenomenological modeling of damage evolution in DP steels in the framework of Gurson’s approach. It is based on recent results of X-ray tomography in-situ tensile ... [more ▼]

This paper is a contribution to the phenomenological modeling of damage evolution in DP steels in the framework of Gurson’s approach. It is based on recent results of X-ray tomography in-situ tensile tests and subsequent one-dimensional metallurgical void nucleation models proposed in [C. Landron et al., Scripta Materialia 63 (2010) 973—976]. A macroscopic void nucleation law for DP steels is proposed, covering a wide range of stress triaxialities. The respective effects of nucleation, growth and coalescence are clearly separated. Validations with respect to experimental porosity measurements were performed for several monotonic loading cases and for two loading sequences involving large strains and strain-path changes. [less ▲]

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See detailAn enhanced version of a bone remodelling model based on the continuum damage mechanics theory.
Mengoni, Marlène ULg; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg

in Computer Methods in Biomechanics & Biomedical Engineering (2015), 18(12), 1367-1376

The purpose of this work is to propose an enhancement of Doblaré and García's internal bone remodelling model based on the continuum damage mechanics theory. In their paper, they stated that the evolution ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this work is to propose an enhancement of Doblaré and García's internal bone remodelling model based on the continuum damage mechanics theory. In their paper, they stated that the evolution of the internal variables of the bone microstructure, and its incidence on the modification of the elastic constitutive parameters, may be formulated following the principles of Continuum Damage Mechanics, although no actual damage was considered. The resorption and apposition criteria (similar to the damage criterion) were expressed in terms of a mechanical stimulus. However, the resorption criterion is lacking a dimensional consistency with the remodelling rate. We here propose an enhancement to this resorption criterion, insuring the dimensional consistency while retaining the physical properties of the original remodelling model. We then analyse the change in the resorption criterion hypersurface in the stress space for a 2D analysis. We finally apply the new formulation to analyse the structural evolution of a 2D femur. This analysis gives results consistent with the original model but with a faster and more stable convergence rate. [less ▲]

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See detailOne injection of platelet-rich plasma associated to a submaximal eccentric protocol to treat chronic jumper's knee
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Bruyère, Olivier ULg et al

in The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness (2015), 55(9), 953-61

INTRODUCTION: Jumper's knee is a frequent chronic overuse syndrome of the upper part of the patellar tendon. Platelets contain lots of growth factors which could enhance the healing process of tendons ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: Jumper's knee is a frequent chronic overuse syndrome of the upper part of the patellar tendon. Platelets contain lots of growth factors which could enhance the healing process of tendons. METHODS: Twenty patients with chronic upper patellar tendinopathy were enrolled. Assessments were made before infiltration of PRP, and 6 weeks and 3 months after the infiltration, using a 10--point Visual Analogic Scale, clinical examinations with a pressure algometer, algofunctional scores (IKDC and VISA--P), functional assessments (isokinetic and optojump evaluations) and imagery (ultrasounds and MRI). The PRP was obtained with an apheresis system (COM.TEC, Fresenius). Six millilitres of PRP were injected without local anaesthetic. One week after infiltration, patients started a standardised sub--maximal eccentric reeducation. RESULTS: Pain during daily activities significantly decreased with time. During functional evaluation, it decreased as well, but without significant functional improvement. No improvements in the imagery measurements were observed. Younger patients seemed to be more susceptible to have an improvement of pain by the PRP infiltration. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that a local infiltration of PRP associated with a submaximal eccentric protocol can improve symptoms of chronic jumper's knee in patients non--responsive to classical conservative treatments. [less ▲]

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See detailThe human NANOS3 gene contributes to lung tumour invasion by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition
Grelet, S; Andries, V; Polette, M et al

in Journal of Pathology (The) (2015), 237(1), 25-37

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See detailDesign and implementation of a MASH2-0 Electromechanical Sigma-Delta Modulator for capacitive MEMS sensors using dual quantization method
Almutairi, Bader; Alsheri, Ali; Kraft, Michael ULg

in Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems (2015)

In this paper, a new control structure based on the dual quantization technique is presented for an electromechanical sigma–delta modulator (EM-SD M) applied to a microelectromechanical system (MEMS ... [more ▼]

In this paper, a new control structure based on the dual quantization technique is presented for an electromechanical sigma–delta modulator (EM-SD M) applied to a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) accelerometer. The modulator adopts a 2-0 multistage noise shaping structure (MASH2-0), taking the advantage of the intrinsic linearity of single-bit quantization and the reduced quantization error of multibit quantization in a single modulator. The sensor system is studied by the system-level modeling and the hardware implementation based on the field-programmable gate array technology. The study shows that, MASH2-0 shares the benefits of a MASH2-2 architecture of having an inherent stability, a high overload input level, and a high dynamic range compared with single-loop EM-SD M. However, the MASH2-0 architecture benefits from a considerably simpler implementation, while achieving a higher dynamic range and a higher signal-to-noise ratio compared with a MASH2-2 and a fourth-order single-loop SDM architecture. A capacitive MEMS accelerometer was designed and employed with this control system. Within a bandwidth of 1 kHz, the sensor achieved a noise floor level of −130 dB and a bias instability as low as 20 μg at an integration time of 40 s. Simulation estimated a full scale of ±20 g acceleration. The investigation confirms the concept of the MASH2-0 structure and shows its potential as a closed-loop interface for high-performance capacitive MEMS accelerometers. [less ▲]

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See detailSolar wind interaction with the terrestrial planets
Garnier, P.; Milillo, A.; Radioti, Aikaterini ULg

in Planetary and Space Science (2015)

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See detailLes troubles phonologiques dans les troubles du langage oral.
Quémart, Pauline; MacLeod, Andrea; Maillart, Christelle ULg

in Rééducation Orthophonique (2015), 263

The aim of this article is to describe the nature of phonological disorders among children with primary language disorders. Because phonological disorders can have different origins, it is important for ... [more ▼]

The aim of this article is to describe the nature of phonological disorders among children with primary language disorders. Because phonological disorders can have different origins, it is important for clinicians to be able to determine the origin of difficulties, in order to adapt treatment accordingly. Following an overview of the development of phonological skills, the psycholinguistic model of Steakhouse and Wells (1997) will be explained. This model contribues to a precise examination of the nature of the difficulties experienced by children with primary language disorders. Finally, two studies that examined speech abilities in children with primary language disorders will be presented to illustrate the importance of an in-depth evaluation of phonological abilities for assessment and treatment planning. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of cardiac repercussions after intense and prolonged concentric isokinetic exercise in young sedentary people
LE GOFF, Caroline ULg; Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Couffignal, Vincent et al

in Clinical physiology and functional imaging (2015), 35(5), 368-375

INTRODUCTION: Cardiopathies are the world's leading cause of mortality and morbidity. Although rare, cardiovascular accidents can occur during intense and infrequent sporting activity, particularly among ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: Cardiopathies are the world's leading cause of mortality and morbidity. Although rare, cardiovascular accidents can occur during intense and infrequent sporting activity, particularly among those who are unaware of their heart condition. The development of cardiospecific biochemical markers has led to a reconsideration of the role of biology in the diagnosis of cardiovascular illnesses. The aim of this study therefore was, through the use of cardiac biomarker assays, to highlight the impact of sustained physical effort in the form of intense and prolonged concentric isokinetic exercise and to research potential cardiovascular risks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen subjects participated in a maximal concentric isokinetic exercise involving 30 knee flexion-extensions for each leg. Five blood tests were taken to study the kinetics of the cardiac biomarkers. Haemodynamic parameters were measured continuously using a Portapres, and respiratory parameters were measured using a Sensormedics Vmax 29C. RESULTS: The results showed significant increases in the creatine kinase, myoglobin, homocysteine and haemoglobin cardiac markers. Evolutionary trends were also observed for the following biomarkers: NT-proBNP, myeloperoxydase and C-reactive protein. All the physiological parameters measured presented statistically significant changes. CONCLUSION: Isokinetic effort leads to the release of cardiac markers in the blood, but these do not exceed the reference values in healthy subjects. Maximal concentric isokinetic exercise does not, therefore, lead to an increased risk of cardiovascular pathologies. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring the volatome of different cancer cell lines
Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues ULg; Pesesse, Romain ULg; Bertrand, Virginie ULg et al

in European Respiratory Journal (2015), 46(suppl 59), 3975

As reported by the American Cancer Society, lung cancers have the highest death rate, compared to other types of cancer. The main reason is the lack of early stage non-invasive screening methods. Indeed ... [more ▼]

As reported by the American Cancer Society, lung cancers have the highest death rate, compared to other types of cancer. The main reason is the lack of early stage non-invasive screening methods. Indeed, the death rate of the other most abundant cancers is decreasing due to the implementation of large-scale population screening techniques. It is believed that the death rate of lung cancer could be lowered by developing and implementing more efficient diagnostic methods1. A large number of diseases appear to have a volatile signature present in exhaled air. In practice, analytical breath profiling offers solutions for early detection of different kind of lung infections2. For example, cystic fibrosis patients show a different volatile organic compound (VOC) profile because of the bacterial colonization that localizes in their lungs. A similar behavior is observed for patient suffering from lung cancer. However, the list of recognized volatile biomarkers of lung cancer is still scarce and could be improved. In spite of this, the biological variability of exhaled air profile makes the biomarkers identification challenging. In the hope of contributing to a better understanding, we used comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time of light mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) to investigate the headspace of cancer cells. A procedure has been developed to sample cell culture headspace. After proper data treatment, univariate and multivariate statistics were compared for isolation of potential cancer biomarkers. Further tentative identification was also carried out by using high-accuracy MS analyzers as detection techniques. 1 Siegel, R. et al. Cancer statistics 2013 2 Di Francesco, F. et al. Microchemical Journal 2005 . [less ▲]

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See detailIntérêts de retard sur une dette de valeur
Biquet, Christine ULg

in Journal des Juges de Paix = Tijdschrift van de Vrederecters (2015), (9-10), 526-531

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See detailDonor Age in Liver Transplantation: Donation after Circulatory Death.
DETRY, Olivier ULg

in Journal of the American College of Surgeons (2015), 221(3), 779

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See detailOutcome and risk factor analysis of molecular subgroups in cytogenetically normal AML treated by allogeneic transplantation
SCHMID, Christoph; LABOPIN, Myriam; SOCIE, Gerard et al

in Blood (2015)

Patients with cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML) can be subdivided by molecular mutations. However, data on the influence of combinations of different aberrations on outcome after ... [more ▼]

Patients with cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML) can be subdivided by molecular mutations. However, data on the influence of combinations of different aberrations on outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is limited. Therefore, we performed a retrospective registry analysis on 702 adults with CNAML undergoing HSCT in first complete remission (CR). Patients were grouped according to presence or absence of NPM1 mutations (NPM1mut) and FLT3 internal tandem duplications (FLT3-ITD). Double negative patients were evaluated for mutations of the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α gene (CEBPα). The influence of genotypes on relapse, non-relapse mortality, leukemia-free survival (LFS) and overall survival (OS), and a prognostic classification combining NPM1/FLT3-ITD profile and classical risk factors were calculated. 2y-OS from HSCT was 81±5% in NPM1mut/FLT3wt (n=68), 75±3% in NPM1wt/FLT3wt (n=290), 66±3% in NPM1mut/FLT3-ITD (n=269) and 54±7% in NPM1wt/FLT3-ITD (n=75; p=0.003). Analysis of CEBPα among patients with NPM1wt/FLT3wt revealed excellent results both in patients with CEBPα mut (n=13, 2y-OS:100%), and with a triple negative genotype (n=138, 2y-OS:77±3%). In a Cox-model of predefined factors, older age, presence of FLT3-ITD and >1 course of chemotherapy to reach CR were associated with inferior outcome. 2y-OS/LFS were 88±3%/79±4% in patients without any, 77±2%/73±3% with one, and 53±4%/50±4 with>=2 risk factors (p=0.002 for LFS, p=0.003 for OS). Hence, FLT3-ITD proofed to be the decisive molecular marker for outcome after HSCT for CN-AML in CR1, regardless of NPM1 mutational status, variations of transplant protocols, or development of GvHD. Age, FLT3-ITD and response to induction chemotherapy allow for a prognostic risk classification. [less ▲]

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See detailSimilarities between the target and the intruder in naturally occurring repeated person naming errors
Brédart, Serge ULg; Dardenne, Benoît ULg

in Frontiers in Psychology (2015), 6(art 1474),

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See detailCompte rendu de Pardo (Céline), La poésie hors du livre (1945-1965). Le poème à l’ère de la radio et du disque
Huppe, Justine ULg

in COnTEXTES : Revue de Sociologie de la Littérature (2015)

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See detailCulture in the post-2015 development agenda: the anatomy of an international mobilisation
Vlassis, Antonios ULg

in Third World Quarterly (2015), 36(9), 1649-1662

Throughout 2012–15 several actors were advocating that culture be explicitly integrated within the post-2015 UN development agenda. My article offers an anatomy of the recent international mobilisation in ... [more ▼]

Throughout 2012–15 several actors were advocating that culture be explicitly integrated within the post-2015 UN development agenda. My article offers an anatomy of the recent international mobilisation in order to understand the cleavages and the contrasting visions. In doing so, it seeks to analyse the policy process through which the agenda is made, why and how a critical mass of actors is attempting to embrace the inclusion of culture in the post-2015 agenda and the political reactions vis-à-vis this mobilisation. The article argues, on the one hand, that the promotion of culture in the post-2015 agenda is largely based on UNESCO’s will to advance its policy agenda and enhance its position within the UN system and, on the other hand, that this mobilisation lacks political support from the most influential governments; therefore its chances of success are more than contingent. [less ▲]

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See detailPrise en charge actuelle du lymphome de la zone marginale
Bonnet, Christophe ULg; LEJEUNE, Marie ULg; VAN KEMSEKE, Catherine ULg et al

in Revue Médicale Suisse (2015)

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See detailSmart Grid Energy Flexible Buildings through the use of Heat Pumps and Building Thermal Mass as Energy Storage in the Belgian context
Masy, Gabrielle; Georges, Emeline ULg; Verhelst, Clara et al

in Science and Technology for the Built Environment (2015), 21(6), 800-811

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See detailRiver geochemistry, chemical weathering, and atmospheric CO2 consumption rates in the Virunga Volcanic Province (East Africa)
Balagizi, Charles M.; Darchambeau, François ULg; Bouillon, Steven et al

in Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems (2015), 16

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See detailDetection of anthropogenic particles in fish stomachs: an isolation method adapted to identification by Raman spectroscopy
Collard, France ULg; Gilbert, Bernard ULg; Eppe, Gauthier ULg et al

in Archives of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology (2015), 69

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See detailUltrafast and Distinct Spin Dynamics in Magnetic Alloys
Radu, I.; Stamm, C.; Eschenlohr, A. et al

in Spin (2015), 5(3), 1550004

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See detailOccupational stress among textile workers in the Democratic Republic of Congo
Panda Lukongo, Kitronza ULg; Mairiaux, Philippe ULg

in Tropical Medicine and Health (2015), Tropical Medicine and Health , 2015,(Vol. 43 No.4), 223231

Context: In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), scientific studies on occupational health are scarce. The present study aims at estimating the level of occupational stress, as well as associated ... [more ▼]

Context: In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), scientific studies on occupational health are scarce. The present study aims at estimating the level of occupational stress, as well as associated factors, in a textile company. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional survey among textile workers in DRC. Data (N= 192 subjects) were collected through a self-questionnaire validated for the assessment of stress (Karasek and Siegrist’s scale); supplemented by a medical examination. Frequencies and odds ratios (ORs) were estimated for descriptive analyses. Adjusted ORs were calculated through a logistic regression model to investigate associations between socio-demographic and organisational variable and stress. Results: Our study highlighted a high level of stress among individuals: 28% of them were suffering from stress, according to Karasek, and 22%, when applying Siegrist’s model. A 14%-isostrain was calculated when considering all workers. A statistically significant association was observed between stress and age, seniority and perceived no-adaptation to work, considering both approaches. Furthermore, when job strain was determined according to Karasek, it was related to the status of worker, the poor perception of organisation and alcohol consumption, while stress estimated by applying Siegrist’s model showed an association with education level and the occurrence of cardiac symptoms. Conclusion: The present study gives evidence of stress among individuals through both models. Several socio-professional factors are associated with stress, which determines populations at risk. The study revealed that both stress models offer complementary information, thus increasing the probability to model workers’ health more exactly and to make recommendations on prevention and management. [less ▲]

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See detailCentury-scale simulations of the response of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet to a warming climate
Cornford, S.L.; Martin, D.F.; Payne, A.J. et al

in Cryosphere (The) (2015), 9

We use the BISICLES adaptive mesh ice sheet model to carry out one, two, and three century simulations of the fast-flowing ice streams of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, deploying sub-kilometer resolution ... [more ▼]

We use the BISICLES adaptive mesh ice sheet model to carry out one, two, and three century simulations of the fast-flowing ice streams of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, deploying sub-kilometer resolution around the grounding line since coarser resolution results in substantial underestimation of the response. Each of the simulations begins with a geometry and velocity close to present-day observations, and evolves according to variation in meteoric ice accumulation rates and oceanic ice shelf melt rates. Future changes in accumulation and melt rates range from no change, through anomalies computed by atmosphere and ocean models driven by the E1 and A1B emissions scenarios, to spatially uniform melt rate anomalies that remove most of the ice shelves over a few centuries. We find that variation in the resulting ice dynamics is dominated by the choice of initial conditions and ice shelf melt rate and mesh resolution, although ice accumulation affects the net change in volume above flotation to a similar degree. Given sufficient melt rates, we compute grounding line retreat over hundreds of kilometers in every major ice stream, but the ocean models do not predict such melt rates outside of the Amundsen Sea Embayment until after 2100. Within the Amundsen Sea Embayment the largest single source of variability is the onset of sustained retreat in Thwaites Glacier, which can triple the rate of eustatic sea level rise. [less ▲]

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See detailSeeing Central African forests through their largest trees
Bastin, Jean-François ULg; Barbier, Nicolas; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime et al

in Scientific Reports (2015)

Large tropical trees and a few dominant species were recently identified as the main structuring elements of tropical forests. However, such result did not translate yet into quantitative approaches which ... [more ▼]

Large tropical trees and a few dominant species were recently identified as the main structuring elements of tropical forests. However, such result did not translate yet into quantitative approaches which are essential to understand, predict and monitor forest functions and composition over large, often poorly accessible territories. Here we show that the above-ground biomass (AGB) of the whole forest can be predicted from a few large trees and that the relationship is proved strikingly stable in 175 1-ha plots investigated across 8 sites spanning Central Africa. We designed a generic model predicting AGB with an error of 14% when based on only 5% of the stems, which points to universality in forest structural properties. For the first time in Africa, we identified some dominant species that disproportionally contribute to forest AGB with 1.5% of recorded species accounting for over 50% of the stock of AGB. Consequently, focusing on large trees and dominant species provides precise information on the whole forest stand. This offers new perspectives for understanding the functioning of tropical forests and opens new doors for the development of innovative monitoring strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailDesign of hybrid nanovehicles for remotely triggered drug release: an overview
Liu, Ji; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Mornet, Stéphane et al

in Journal of Materials Chemistry B (2015), 3(30), 6117-6147

n the past few decades, various nanovehicles have been developed as drug delivery systems, in which inorganic and organic components are integrated within a nano-object. Upon the application of remote ... [more ▼]

n the past few decades, various nanovehicles have been developed as drug delivery systems, in which inorganic and organic components are integrated within a nano-object. Upon the application of remote stimuli, e.g. alternating magnetic field, near infrared or ultrasound radiations, the release of guest molecules can be triggered in a quite controlled manner. Herein, we review different hybrid nanostructures which have already been reported for the remotely triggered release, such as those based on (1) host–guest conjugates, (2) core–corona nanoparticles, (3) polymer nanogels, (4) polymer micelles, (5) liposomes, (6) mesoporous silica particles and (7) hollow nanoparticles. Moreover, we also summarize six underlying mechanisms that govern such a kind of remotely triggered release behaviours: (1) enhanced diffusion and/or permeation, (2) thermo- or photo-labile bond cleavage, (3) fusion of phase-changed materials, (4) photo-induced isomerisation, (5) thermo-induced swelling/de-swelling of thermo-responsive polymers, and (6) destruction of the nanostructures. The ways in which different components are incorporated into an integrated hybrid nanostructure and how they contribute to the remotely triggered release behaviours are detailed. [less ▲]

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See detailInterlaboratory study to evaluate the robustness of capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry for peptide mapping
Wenz, Christian; Barbas, Coral; Lopez-Gonzalvez, Angeles et al

in Journal of Separation Science (2015)

A collaborative study on the robustness and portability of a capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry method for peptide mapping was performed by an international team, consisting of 13 independent ... [more ▼]

A collaborative study on the robustness and portability of a capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry method for peptide mapping was performed by an international team, consisting of 13 independent laboratories from academia and industry. All participants used the same batch of samples, reagents and coated capillaries to run their assays, whereas they utilized the capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry equipment available in their laboratories. The equipment used varied in model, type and instrument manufacturer. Furthermore, different types of sheath-flow capillary electrophoresis–mass spectrometry interfaces were used. Migration time, peak height and peak area of ten representative target peptides of trypsin-digested bovine serum albumin were determined by every laboratory on two consecutive days. The data were critically evaluated to identify outliers and final values for means, repeatability (precision within a laboratory) and reproducibility (precision between laboratories) were established. For relative migration time the repeatability was between 0.05 and 0.18% RSD and the reproducibility between 0.14 and 1.3% RSD. For relative peak area repeatability and reproducibility values obtained were 3–12 and 9–29% RSD, respectively. These results demonstrate that capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry is robust enough to allow a method transfer across multiple laboratories and should promote a more widespread use of peptide mapping and other capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry applications in biopharmaceutical analysis and related fields. [less ▲]

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See detailAll Poly(ionic liquid)-based block copolymers by sequential controlled radical copolymerization of vinylimidazolium monomers
Cordella, Daniela ULg; Kermagoret, Anthony; Debuigne, Antoine ULg et al

in Macromolecules (2015), 48(15), 5230-5243

The organometallic-mediated radical polymerization (OMRP) of N-vinyl-3-alkylimidazolium-type monomers, featuring the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide counteranion (Tf2N–), in the presence of Co(acac)2 as ... [more ▼]

The organometallic-mediated radical polymerization (OMRP) of N-vinyl-3-alkylimidazolium-type monomers, featuring the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide counteranion (Tf2N–), in the presence of Co(acac)2 as controlling agent, is reported. Polymerizations of monomers with methyl, ethyl, and butyl substituents are fast, reaching high monomer conversion in ethyl acetate as solvent at 30 °C, and afford structurally well-defined hydrophobic poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) of N-vinyl type. Block copolymer synthesis is also achieved by sequential OMRP of N-vinyl-3-alkylimidazolium salts carrying different alkyl chains and different counteranions (Tf2N– or Br–). These block copolymerizations are carried out at 30 °C, either under homogeneous solution in methanol or in a biphasic medium consisting of a mixture of ethyl acetate and water. Unprecedented PIL-b-PIL block copolymers are thus prepared under these conditions. However, anion exchange occurs at the early stage of the growth of the second block. Finally, diblock copolymers generated in the biphasic medium can be readily coupled by addition of isoprene, forming all PIL-based and symmetrical ABA-type triblock copolymers in a one-pot process. Such a direct block copolymerization method, involving vinylimidazolium monomers bearing different alkyl chains, thus opens new opportunities in the precision synthesis of all PIL-based block copolymers of tunable properties. [less ▲]

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