References of "Scientific journals"      in Complete repository Arts & humanities   Archaeology   Art & art history   Classical & oriental studies   History   Languages & linguistics   Literature   Performing arts   Philosophy & ethics   Religion & theology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Business & economic sciences   Accounting & auditing   Production, distribution & supply chain management   Finance   General management & organizational theory   Human resources management   Management information systems   Marketing   Strategy & innovation   Quantitative methods in economics & management   General economics & history of economic thought   International economics   Macroeconomics & monetary economics   Microeconomics   Economic systems & public economics   Social economics   Special economic topics (health, labor, transportation…)   Multidisciplinary, general & others Engineering, computing & technology   Aerospace & aeronautics engineering   Architecture   Chemical engineering   Civil engineering   Computer science   Electrical & electronics engineering   Energy   Geological, petroleum & mining engineering   Materials science & engineering   Mechanical engineering   Multidisciplinary, general & others Human health sciences   Alternative medicine   Anesthesia & intensive care   Cardiovascular & respiratory systems   Dentistry & oral medicine   Dermatology   Endocrinology, metabolism & nutrition   Forensic medicine   Gastroenterology & hepatology   General & internal medicine   Geriatrics   Hematology   Immunology & infectious disease   Laboratory medicine & medical technology   Neurology   Oncology   Ophthalmology   Orthopedics, rehabilitation & sports medicine   Otolaryngology   Pediatrics   Pharmacy, pharmacology & toxicology   Psychiatry   Public health, health care sciences & services   Radiology, nuclear medicine & imaging   Reproductive medicine (gynecology, andrology, obstetrics)   Rheumatology   Surgery   Urology & nephrology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Law, criminology & political science   Civil law   Criminal law & procedure   Criminology   Economic & commercial law   European & international law   Judicial law   Metalaw, Roman law, history of law & comparative law   Political science, public administration & international relations   Public law   Social law   Tax law   Multidisciplinary, general & others Life sciences   Agriculture & agronomy   Anatomy (cytology, histology, embryology...) & physiology   Animal production & animal husbandry   Aquatic sciences & oceanology   Biochemistry, biophysics & molecular biology   Biotechnology   Entomology & pest control   Environmental sciences & ecology   Food science   Genetics & genetic processes   Microbiology   Phytobiology (plant sciences, forestry, mycology...)   Veterinary medicine & animal health   Zoology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Physical, chemical, mathematical & earth Sciences   Chemistry   Earth sciences & physical geography   Mathematics   Physics   Space science, astronomy & astrophysics   Multidisciplinary, general & others Social & behavioral sciences, psychology   Animal psychology, ethology & psychobiology   Anthropology   Communication & mass media   Education & instruction   Human geography & demography   Library & information sciences   Neurosciences & behavior   Regional & inter-regional studies   Social work & social policy   Sociology & social sciences   Social, industrial & organizational psychology   Theoretical & cognitive psychology   Treatment & clinical psychology   Multidisciplinary, general & others     Showing results 801 to 900 of 54282     4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14     P.Bour. 1 (P.Sorb. inv. 826 = MP³ 2643) : reconstruction codicologiqueCarlig, Nathan in Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik (2016), 198Based on the autopsy of the 11 folios of P.Bour. 1, the article identifies the original form of this school book, that is a series of 4 biniones, of which only the 1st and the 3rd are entirely kept. The ... [more ▼]Based on the autopsy of the 11 folios of P.Bour. 1, the article identifies the original form of this school book, that is a series of 4 biniones, of which only the 1st and the 3rd are entirely kept. The survey was pursued with the study of rests of binding and of the state os preservation of each folio. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (3 ULg) Newt life after fish introduction: extirpation of paedomorphosis in a mountain fish lake and newt use of satellite poolsDenoël, Mathieu ; Scime, Patrick; Zambelli, Nicolain Current Zoology (2016), 62(1), 61-69Fish introduction is one of the main causes of amphibian decline worldwide. It affects particularly rare aquatic phenotypes such as paedomorphs, which retain gills during the adult stage. In this context ... [more ▼]Fish introduction is one of the main causes of amphibian decline worldwide. It affects particularly rare aquatic phenotypes such as paedomorphs, which retain gills during the adult stage. In this context, we determined whether small wetlands, such as pools surrounding fished and fishless lakes, could sustain paedomorphic and metamorphic newts. To this end, we surveyed lakes known historically to sustain Alpine newts (Ichthyosaura alpestris) as well as 35 nearby pools. On the basis of the published records, the only known population exhibiting paedomorphosis in the Swiss Alps was found to be extirpated by salmonid introductions. However, the metamorphs persisted in peripheral pools, paedomorphosis was discovered at a new locality, and overwintering larvae were still present in one of the lakes. These results show the importance of conserving varied aquatic habitats such as pools in mountainous environments where the main resources can become unsuitable for amphibians because of fish introductions. Pools may also function as reservoirs in maintaining newt populations until programs to remove fish from lakes can be carried out. It is not known if paedomorphs could reappear after fish removal. However, the combined resilience of amphibians after fish removal and the genetic basis for paedomorphosis highlighted in other taxa by previous studies suggest that there is the potential to maintain this intraspecific case of diversity even after its disappearance. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 195 (27 ULg) Yellow nail syndrome after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in two patients with multiple myelomaGrégoire, Céline ; GUIOT, Julien ; Vertenoeil, Gaëlle et alin Acta Clinica Belgica (2016)Objective and Importance: Yellow nail syndrome (YNS) is a rare disorder of unknown aetiology characterized by the triad of yellow nails, lymphoedema and respiratory manifestations. About 200 cases have ... [more ▼]Objective and Importance: Yellow nail syndrome (YNS) is a rare disorder of unknown aetiology characterized by the triad of yellow nails, lymphoedema and respiratory manifestations. About 200 cases have been reported, but a lot of patients probably elude proper diagnosis because of both variability of symptoms and ignorance of this syndrome by many physicians. The pathogenesis remains unclear, and could involve functional lymphatic abnormalities, microvasculopathy or lymphocyte deficiency, but none of these hypotheses seems fully satisfactory. Clinical Presentation: We report for the first time two cases of YNS associated with multiple myeloma relapsing after non-myeloablative haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). In these two cases, onset or worsening of YNS symptoms followed graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) manifestations. Intervention: Corticosteroids given to treat GvHD also improved YNS manifestations. Conclusion: YNS after HCT might be a microvascular manifestation of endothelial GvHD and corticosteroids might be an effective treatment. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 13 (3 ULg) Constraints on the structure of 16 Cygni A and 16 Cygni B using inversion techniquesBuldgen, Gaël ; Reese, Daniel; Dupret, Marc-Antoine in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016)Abstract Constraining mixing processes and chemical composition is a central problem in stellar physics as their impact on stellar age determinations leads to biases in our studies of stellar evolution ... [more ▼]Abstract Constraining mixing processes and chemical composition is a central problem in stellar physics as their impact on stellar age determinations leads to biases in our studies of stellar evolution, galactic history and exoplanetary systems. In two previous papers, we showed how seismic inversion techniques could offer strong constraints on such processes by pointing out weaknesses in theoretical models. We now apply our technique to the solar analogues 16CygA and 16CygB, being amongst the best targets in the Kepler field to test the diagnostic potential of seismic inversions. The combination of various seismic indicators helps to provide more constrained and accurate fundamendal parameters for these stars. We use the latest seismic, spectroscopic and interferometric observational constraints in the litterature for this system to determine reference models independently for both stars. We carry out seismic inversions of the acoustic radius, the mean density and a core conditions indicator. We note that a degeneracy exists for the reference models. Namely, changing the diffusion coefficient or the chemical composition within the observational values leads to 5% changes in mass, 3% changes in radius and up to 8% changes in age. We use acoustic radius and mean density inversions to improve our reference models then carry out inversions for a core conditions indicator. Thanks to its sensitivity to microscopic diffusion and chemical composition mismatches, we are able to reduce the mass dispersion to 2%, namely [0.96, 1.0] M_sun, the radius dispersion to 1%, namely [1.188, 1.200] R_sun and the age dispersion to 3%, namely [7.0, 7.4] Gy, for 16CygA. For 16CygB, we can check the consistency of the models but not reduce independently the age dispersion. Nonetheless, assuming consistency with the age of 16CygA helps to further constrain its mass and radius. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (3 ULg) Decitabine improves progression-free survival in older high-risk MDS patients with multiple autosomal monosomies: results of a subgroup analysis of the randomized phase III study 06011 of the EORTC Leukemia Cooperative Group and German MDS Study GroupLübbert, Michael; Suciu, Stefan; Hagemeijer, Anne et alin Annals of Hematology (2016), 95In a study of elderly AML patients treated with the hypomethylating agent decitabine (DAC), we noted a surprisingly favorable outcome in the (usually very unfavorable) subgroup with two or more autosomal ... [more ▼]In a study of elderly AML patients treated with the hypomethylating agent decitabine (DAC), we noted a surprisingly favorable outcome in the (usually very unfavorable) subgroup with two or more autosomal monosomies (MK2+) within a complex karyotype (Lübbert et al., Haematologica 97:393-401, 2012). We now analyzed 206 myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients (88 % of 233 patients randomized in the EORTC/GMDSSG phase III trial 06011, 61 of them with RAEBt, i.e. AML by WHO) with cytogenetics informative for MK status.. Endpoints are the following: complete/partial (CR/PR) and overall response rate (ORR) and progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Cytogenetic subgroups are the following: 63 cytogenetically normal (CN) patients, 143 with cytogenetic abnormalities, 73 of them MKnegative (MK−), and 70 MK-positive (MK+). These MK+ patients could be divided into 17 with a single autosomal monosomy (MK1) and 53 with at least two monosomies (MK2+). ORR with DAC in CN patients: 36.1 %, in MK−patients: 16.7 %, in MK+ patients: 43.6 % (MK1: 44.4 %, MK2+ 43.3 %). PFS was prolonged by DAC compared to best supportive care (BSC) in the CN (hazard ratio (HR) 0.55, 99 % confidence interval (CI), 0.26; 1.15, p=0.03) and MK2+ (HR 0.50; 99%CI, 0.23; 1.06, p=0.016) but not in the MK−, MK+, and MK1 subgroups. OS was not improved by DAC in any subgroup. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time in a randomized phase III trial that high-risk MDS patients with complex karyotypes harboring two or more autosomal monosomies attain encouraging responses and have improved PFS with DAC treatment compared to BSC. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 5 (1 ULg) Royseux: a palaeobiodiversity hotspot in the Late Viséan (Carboniferous) of BelgiumDenayer, Julien ; Aretz, Markus; Poty, Edouard et alin Geologica Belgica (2016), 19(1-2), 7-20Detailed reference viewed: 20 (0 ULg) Production of New Cotton Interspecific Hybrids with Enhanced Fiber FinenessNacoulima, L.N.; Diouf, F.H.; Konan, N.O. et alin Journal of Agricultural Science (2016), 8(2), 46-56To improve cotton fiber fineness, the (Gossypium hirsutum L. × Gossypium longicalyx Hutch. & Lee)² allohexaploid and the [(Gossypium hirsutum L. × Gossypium thurberi To d . ) ² × G. longicalyx ... [more ▼]To improve cotton fiber fineness, the (Gossypium hirsutum L. × Gossypium longicalyx Hutch. & Lee)² allohexaploid and the [(Gossypium hirsutum L. × Gossypium thurberi To d . ) ² × G. longicalyx] allotetraploid were backcrossed to G. hirsutum to produce introgressed genetic stocks. The ribbon width (RW) of 600 swelled fibers produced by the hybrids, their parents, and their backcross progeny were analyzed for each compared genotype using an optical microscope. The RWs varied between 6.41±2.15 µm for G. longicalyx to 17.45±2.98 µm for the G. hirsutum parent cultivar C2. Fibers produced by the trispecific hybrids and their progeny were finer than the bispecific hybrid material. For the introgressed stocks, the lowest RWs were observed for the trispecific hybrid (10.79±2.14 µm) and certain backcross progenies (between 11.98±1.27 µm to 12.71±1.61 µm). The allohexaploid RW was 13.58±1.41 µm. One of its tetraploid progeny produced approximately the same value (13.94±2.48 µm). These results show that G. longicalyx is a potential genetic stock for cotton fiber fineness improvement. The genetic stocks produced are valuable materials for improve the fineness of cotton fiber. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 16 (4 ULg) Viruses within animal genomeDe Brogniez, Alix ; Willems, Luc in Revue scientifique et technique - Office international des épizooties (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 8 (1 ULg) Revealing the formation of copper nanoparticles from a homogeneous solid precursor by electron microscopyVan den Berg, Roy; Elkjaer, Christian; Gommes, Cédric et alin Journal of the American Chemical Society (2016)The understanding of processes leading to the formation of nanometer-sized particles is important for tailoring of their size, shape and location. The growth mechanisms and kinetics of nanoparticles from ... [more ▼]The understanding of processes leading to the formation of nanometer-sized particles is important for tailoring of their size, shape and location. The growth mechanisms and kinetics of nanoparticles from solid precursors are, however, often poorly described. Here we employ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to examine the formation of copper nanoparticles on a silica support during the reduction by H2 of homogeneous copper phyllosilicate plates, as a prototype precursor for a co-precipitated catalyst. Specifically, time-lapsed TEM image series acquired of the material during the reduction provide a direct visualization of the growth dynamics of an ensemble of individual nanoparticles and enable a quantitative evaluation of the nucleation and growth of the nanoparticles. This quantitative information is compared with kinetic models and found to be best described by a nucleation-and-growth scenario involving autocatalytic reduction of the copper phyllosilicate followed by diffusion-limited or reaction-limited growth of the copper nanoparticles. The plate-like structure of the precursor restricted the diffusion of copper and the autocatalytic reduction limited the probability for secondary nucleation. The combination of a uniform size of precursor particles and the autocatalytic reduction thus offers means to synthesize nanoparticles with well-defined sizes in large amounts. In this way, in situ observations made by electron microscopy provide mechanistic and kinetic insights into the formation of metallic nanoparticles, essential for the rational design of nanomaterials. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 74 (9 ULg) Le concevable et l'imaginable. Analyse conceptuelle et intuition éidétiqueLeclercq, Bruno in le Cercle herméneutique (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg) LA PARTICIPATION DES USAGERS COMME LEVIER DE L’INNOVATION DANS LES SERVICES PUBLICS : LE CAS DE LA GÉOMATIQUE WALLONNEFallon, Catherine ; Calay, Vincentin Pyramides : Revue du Laboratoire d'Etudes et de Recherches en Administration Publique (2016), 26/27La numérisation des données géographiques est une de ces techniques récentes qui transforment à la fois la structure politico-administrative et la construction des politiques elles-mêmes en transformant ... [more ▼]La numérisation des données géographiques est une de ces techniques récentes qui transforment à la fois la structure politico-administrative et la construction des politiques elles-mêmes en transformant le réseau d’action publique. Ces données peuvent être utilisées dans la plupart des politiques, pourvu que les questions de distribution territoriales y soient pertinentes : on parle en ce sens d’une « géomatisation » de l’action publique. Le cadre européen avec la directive INSPIRE a donné l’impulsion et définit le cadre de référence pour une refonte des processus de production et de diffusion des données géographiques numériques. Les états doivent chacun établir une infrastructure de données géographiques numériques pour assurer l’interopérabilité entre bases de données et faciliter la diffusion, la disponibilité, l'utilisation et la réutilisation de l’information géographique au niveau de leur territoire et en Europe. En Belgique, ce sont les régions - et le niveau fédéral pour ses compétences - qui ont hérité de cette responsabilité : leurs données doivent être mises à disposition des utilisateurs, qu’ils soient décideurs ou citoyens dans des formats harmonisés afin d'en faciliter l'utilisation par tous et il faut aussi définir les principes d’échange, de tarification et les conditions d’utilisation propres à faciliter l’accès aux données et aux services en ligne. Les données géographiques numérisées ont ceci de particulier qu’elles sont produites de façon décentralisées par des acteurs publics mais aussi privés, lesquels cherchent à peser sur les choix stratégiques des autorités régionales. Au niveau de la Région wallonne a été mis en place récemment un ensemble de structure de coopération avec les usagers, les entreprises, et les autorités locales. L’administration a créé en son sein des groupes de travail transversaux pour améliorer l’intégration entre les approches thématiques contrôlées par les différentes directions. Le projet d’article trouve son origine dans l’accompagnement assuré par le SPIRAL au Département de la géomatique de la Région wallonne dans le cadre de la rédaction du plan stratégique et du plan opérationnel de la géomatique wallonne (2013-2015). L’article prendra appui sur les principes de la sociologie de la traduction (Callon, 1986) pour proposer une analyse des lieux et des processus qui contribuent à mettre en place une « gouvernance en réseau » mobilisant une logique d’innovation publique (Sørensen et al. 2011), sans suspendre pour autant les formes de coordination hiérarchiques et contractuelles. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 40 (1 ULg) Volcanic eruptions boost tropical Pacific biological productivityChikamoto, Megumi O.; Timmermann, Axel; Yoshimori, Masakazu et alin Geophysical Research Letters (2016), 43Detailed reference viewed: 5 (0 ULg) Environmental and economic beneﬁts of variable rate nitrogen fertilization in a nitrate vulnerable zoneBasso, Bruno; Dumont, Benjamin ; Cammarano, Davide et alin Science of the Total Environment (2016), 545/546Agronomic input and management practices have traditionally been applied uniformly on agricultural ﬁelds despite the presence of spatial variability of soil properties and landscape position. When spatial ... [more ▼]Agronomic input and management practices have traditionally been applied uniformly on agricultural ﬁelds despite the presence of spatial variability of soil properties and landscape position. When spatial variability is ignored, uniform agronomic management can be both economically and environmentally inefﬁcient. The objectives of this study were to: i) identify optimal N fertilizer rates using an integrated spatio-temporal analysis of yield and site-speciﬁc N rate response; ii) test the sensitivity of site speciﬁc N management to nitrate leaching in response to different N rates; and iii) demonstrate the environmental beneﬁts of variable rate N fertilizer in a Nitrate Vulnerable Zone. This study was carried out on a 13.6 ha ﬁeld near the Venice Lagoon, northeast Italy over four years (2005–2008). We utilized a validated crop simulation model to evaluate crop response to different N rates at speciﬁc zones in the ﬁeld based on localized soil and landscape properties under rainfed conditions. The simulated rates were: 50 kg N ha -1 applied at sowing for the entire study area and increasing fractions, ranging from 150 to 350 kg N ha -1 applied at V6 stage. Based on the analysis of yield maps from previous harvests and soil electrical resistivity data, three management zones were deﬁned. Two N rates were applied in each of these zones, one suggested by our simulation analysis and the other with uniform N fertilization as normally applied by the producer. N leaching was lower and net revenue was higher in the zones where variable rates of N were applied when compared to uniform N fertilization. This demonstrates the efﬁcacy of using crop models to determine variable rates of N fertilization within a ﬁeld and the application of variable rate N fertilizer to achieve higher proﬁt and reduce nitrate leaching. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 29 (1 ULg) Influence of COMT Genotype on Antero-Posterior Cortical Functional Connectivity Underlying Interference ResolutionJaspar, Mathieu ; Manard, Marine ; DIDEBERG, Vinciane et alin Cerebral Cortex (2016), 26Genetic variability related to the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene (Val158Met) has received increasing attention as a possible modulator of executive functioning and its neural correlates ... [more ▼]Genetic variability related to the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene (Val158Met) has received increasing attention as a possible modulator of executive functioning and its neural correlates. However, this attention has generally centred on the prefrontal cortices because of the well-known direct impact of COMT enzyme on these cerebral regions. In this study, we were interested in the modulating effect of COMT genotype on anterior and posterior brain areas underlying interference resolution during a Stroop task. More specifically, we were interested in the functional connectivity between the right inferior frontal operculum (IFop), an area frequently associated with inhibitory efficiency, and posterior brain regions involved in reading/naming processes (the two main non-executive determinants of the Stroop effect). The Stroop task was administered during fMRI scanning to three groups of 15 young adults divided according to their COMT Val158Met genotype [Val/Val (VV), Val/Met (VM) and Met/Met (MM)]. Results indicate greater activity in the right IFop and the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG) in homozygous VV individuals than in Met allele carriers. In addition, the VV group exhibited stronger positive functional connectivity between these two brain regions and stronger negative connectivity between the right IFop and left lingual gyrus. These results confirm the impact of COMT genotype on frontal function. They also strongly suggest that differences in frontal activity influence posterior brain regions related to a non-executive component of the task. Especially, changes in functional connectivity between anterior and posterior brain areas might correspond to compensatory processes for performing the task efficiently when the available dopamine level is low. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 54 (27 ULg) GPR101 mutations are not a frequent cause of congenital isolated growth hormone deficiencyCastinetti, F; Daly, Adrian ; Stratakis, CA et alin Hormone & Metabolic Research (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 22 (4 ULg) Differential Expression of Genes and DNA Methylation associated with Prenatal Protein Undernutrition by Albumen Removal in an avian modelWillems, E.; Guerrero-Bosagna, C.; Decuypere, E. et alin Scientific Reports (2016), 6Previously, long-term effects on body weight and reproductive performance have been demonstrated in the chicken model of prenatal protein undernutrition by albumen removal. Introduction of such persistent ... [more ▼]Previously, long-term effects on body weight and reproductive performance have been demonstrated in the chicken model of prenatal protein undernutrition by albumen removal. Introduction of such persistent alterations in phenotype suggests stable changes in gene expression. Therefore, a genomewide screening of the hepatic transcriptome by RNA-Seq was performed in adult hens. The albumendeprived hens were created by partial removal of the albumen from eggs and replacement with saline early during embryonic development. Results were compared to sham-manipulated hens and non-manipulated hens. Grouping of the differentially expressed (DE) genes according to biological functions revealed the involvement of processes such as 'embryonic and organismal development' and 'reproductive system development and function'. Molecular pathways that were altered were 'amino acid metabolism', 'carbohydrate metabolism' and 'protein synthesis'. Three key central genes interacting with many DE genes were identified: UBC, NR3C1, and ELAVL1. The DNA methylation of 9 DE genes and 3 key central genes was examined by MeDIP-qPCR. The DNA methylation of a fragment (UBC-3) of the UBC gene was increased in the albumen-deprived hens compared to the nonmanipulated hens. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that prenatal protein undernutrition by albumen removal leads to long-term alterations of the hepatic transcriptome in the chicken. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 5 (1 ULg) Reconstruction of the Evolutionary History and Dispersal of Usutu Virus, a Neglected Emerging Arbovirus in Europe and Africa.Engel, Dimitri; Jost, Hanna; Wink, Michael et alin mBio (2016), 7(1), Usutu virus (USUV), one of the most neglected Old World encephalitic flaviviruses, causes epizootics among wild and captive birds and sporadic infection in humans. The dynamics of USUV spread and ... [more ▼]Usutu virus (USUV), one of the most neglected Old World encephalitic flaviviruses, causes epizootics among wild and captive birds and sporadic infection in humans. The dynamics of USUV spread and evolution in its natural hosts are unknown. Here, we present the phylogeny and evolutionary history of all available USUV strains, including 77 newly sequenced complete genomes from a variety of host species at a temporal and spatial scaled resolution. The results showed that USUV can be classified into six distinct lineages and that the most recent common ancestor of the recent European epizootics emerged in Africa at least 500 years ago. We demonstrated that USUV was introduced regularly from Africa into Europe in the last 50 years, and the genetic diversity of European lineages is shaped primarily by in situ evolution, while the African lineages have been driven by extensive gene flow. Most of the amino acid changes are deleterious polymorphisms removed by purifying selection, with adaptive evolution restricted to the NS5 gene and several others evolving under episodic directional selection, indicating that the ecological or immunological factors were mostly the key determinants of USUV dispersal and outbreaks. Host-specific mutations have been detected, while the host transition analysis identified mosquitoes as the most likely origin of the common ancestor and birds as the source of the recent European USUV lineages. Our results suggest that the major migratory bird flyways could predict the continental and intercontinental dispersal patterns of USUV and that migratory birds might act as potential long-distance dispersal vehicles. IMPORTANCE: Usutu virus (USUV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis virus antigenic group, caused massive bird die-offs, mostly in Europe. There is increasing evidence that USUV appears to be pathogenic for humans, becoming a potential public health problem. The emergence of USUV in Europe allows us to understand how an arbovirus spreads, adapts, and evolves in a naive environment. Thus, understanding the epidemiological and evolutionary processes that contribute to the emergence, maintenance, and further spread of viral diseases is the sine qua non to develop and implement surveillance strategies for their control. In this work, we performed an expansive phylogeographic and evolutionary analysis of USUV using all published sequences and those generated during this study. Subsequently, we described the genetic traits, reconstructed the potential pattern of geographic spread between continents/countries of the identified viral lineages and the drivers of viral migration, and traced the origin of outbreaks and transition events between different hosts. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 10 (1 ULg) Sequential treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and deacetylase inhibitors reactivates HIV-1.Bouchat, Sophie; Delacourt, Nadege; Kula, Anna et alin EMBO molecular medicine (2016)Reactivation of HIV gene expression in latently infected cells together with an efficient cART has been proposed as an adjuvant therapy aimed at eliminating/decreasing the reservoir size. Results from HIV ... [more ▼]Reactivation of HIV gene expression in latently infected cells together with an efficient cART has been proposed as an adjuvant therapy aimed at eliminating/decreasing the reservoir size. Results from HIV clinical trials using deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) question the efficiency of these latency-reversing agents (LRAs) used alone and underline the need to evaluate other LRAs in combination with HDACIs. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of a demethylating agent (5-AzadC) in combination with clinically tolerable HDACIs in reactivating HIV-1 from latency first in vitro and next ex vivo. We showed that a sequential treatment with 5-AzadC and HDACIs was more effective than the corresponding simultaneous treatment both in vitro and ex vivo. Interestingly, only two of the sequential LRA combinatory treatments tested induced HIV-1 particle recovery in a higher manner than the drugs alone ex vivo and at concentrations lower than the human tolerable plasmatic concentrations. Taken together, our data reveal the benefit of using combinations of 5-AzadC with an HDACI and, for the first time, the importance of treatment time schedule for LRA combinations in order to reactivate HIV. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 8 (5 ULg) Fuel cell electrodes from organometallic platinum precursors: an easy atmospheric plasma approachMerche, Delphine; Dufour., Thierry; Baneton, Joffrey et alin Plasma Processes and Polymers (2016), 13Detailed reference viewed: 52 (8 ULg) Long-term analysis of rainfall and temperature data in Burkina Faso (1950–2013)De Longueville, Florence; Hountondji, Yvon-Carmen; Kindo, Issa et alin International Journal of Climatology (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 29 (3 ULg) Insight into SUCNR1 (GPR91) structure and functionGilissen, Julie ; Jouret, François ; Pirotte, Bernard et alin Pharmacology & Therapeutics (2016)SUCNR1 (or GPR91) belongs to the family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), which represents the largest group of membrane proteins in human genome. The majority of marketed drugs targets GPCRs ... [more ▼]SUCNR1 (or GPR91) belongs to the family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), which represents the largest group of membrane proteins in human genome. The majority of marketed drugs targets GPCRs, directly or indirectly. SUCNR1 has been classified as an orphan receptor until a landmark study paired it with succinate, a citric acid cycle intermediate. According to the current paradigm, succinate triggers SUCNR1 signaling pathways to indicate local stress that may affect cellular metabolism. SUCNR1 implication has been well documented in renin-induced hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion injury, inflammation and immune response, platelet aggregation and retinal angiogenesis. In addition, the SUCNR1-induced increase of blood pressure may contribute to diabetic nephropathy or cardiac hypertrophy. The understanding of SUCNR1 activation, signaling pathways and functions remains largely elusive, which calls for deeper investigations. SUCNR1 shows a high potential as an innovative drug target and is probably an important regulator of basic physiology. In order to achieve the full characterization of this receptor,more specific pharmacological tools such as small-molecules modulators will represent an important asset. In this review, we describe the structural features of SUCNR1, its current ligands and putative binding pocket. We give an exhaustive overview of the known and hypothetical signaling partners of the receptor in different in vitro and in vivo systems. The link between SUCNR1 intracellular pathways and its pathophysiological roles are also extensively discussed. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 27 (10 ULg) La correction de l’expression écrite en langue étrangère et son exploitation pédagogique. Expliciter l’implicite ?Noiroux, Kevin ; Simons, Germain in Les cahiers de l’Association des chercheurs et enseignants didacticiens des langues étrangères (acedle) (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 57 (20 ULg) Delayed neuroendocrine sexual maturation in female rats after a very low dose of Bisphenol A through altered GABAergic neurotransmission and opposing effects of a high dose.Franssen, Delphine ; GERARD, Arlette ; HENNUY, Benoit et alin Endocrinology (2016)Rat sexual maturation is preceded by a reduction of the interpulse interval (IPI) of gonadotropinreleasing hormone (GnRH) neurosecretion. This work aims at studying disruption of that neuroendocrine event ... [more ▼]Rat sexual maturation is preceded by a reduction of the interpulse interval (IPI) of gonadotropinreleasing hormone (GnRH) neurosecretion. This work aims at studying disruption of that neuroendocrine event in females after early exposure to a very low dose of Bisphenol A (BPA), a ubiquitous endocrine disrupting chemical. Female rats were exposed to vehicle or BPA 25 ng/kg.day, 25 g/kg.day, or 5 mg/kg.day from postnatal day (PND) 1 to 5 or 15. Exposure to 25 ng/kg.day of BPA for 5 or 15 days was followed by a delay in developmental reduction of GnRH IPI studied ex vivo on PND 20. After 15 days of exposure to that low dose of BPA, vaginal opening tended to be delayed. In contrast, exposure to BPA 5 mg/kg.day for 15 days resulted in a premature reduction inGnRHIPI and a trend toward early vaginal opening. RNAseq analysis on PND20 indicated that exposure to BPA resulted in opposing dose effectsonthemRNAexpression of hypothalamic genes involved inGABAA neurotransmission. The study of GnRH secretion in vitro in the presence of GABAA receptor agonist/antagonist confirmed an increased or a reduced GABAergic tone after in vivo exposure to the very low or the high dose of BPA, respectively. Overall, we show for the first time that neonatal exposure to BPA leads to opposing dose-dependent effects on the neuroendocrine control of puberty in the female rat. A very low and environmentally relevant dose of BPA delays neuroendocrine maturation related to puberty through increased inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmission. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (4 ULg) Hidden Markov Model-based population synthesisSaadi, Ismaïl ; El Saeid Mustafa, Ahmed Mohamed ; Teller, Jacques et alin Transportation Research. Part B : Methodological (2016), 90Micro-simulation travel demand and land use models require a synthetic population, which consists of a set of agents characterized by demographic and socio-economic attributes. Two main families of ... [more ▼]Micro-simulation travel demand and land use models require a synthetic population, which consists of a set of agents characterized by demographic and socio-economic attributes. Two main families of population synthesis techniques can be distinguished: (a) fitting methods (iterative proportional fitting, updating) and (b) combinatorial optimization methods. During the last few years, a third outperforming family of population synthesis procedures has emerged, i.e., Markov process-based methods such as Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) simulations. In this paper, an extended Hidden Markov Model (HMM)-based approach is presented, which can serve as a better alternative than the existing methods. The approach is characterized by a great flexibility and efficiency in terms of data preparation and model training. The HMM is able to reproduce the structural configuration of a given population from an unlimited number of micro-samples and a marginal distribution. Only one marginal distribution of the considered population can be used as a boundary condition to “guide” the synthesis of the whole population. Model training and testing are performed using the Survey on the Workforce of 2013 and the Belgian National Household Travel Survey of 2010. Results indicate that the HMM method captures the complete heterogeneity of the micro-data contrary to standard fitting approaches. The method provides accurate results as it is able to reproduce the marginal distributions and their corresponding multivariate joint distributions with an acceptable error rate (i.e., SRSME=0.54 for 6 synthesized attributes). Furthermore, the HMM outperforms IPF for small sample sizes, even though the amount of input data is less than that for IPF. Finally, simulations show that the HMM can merge information provided by multiple data sources to allow good population estimates. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 12 (5 ULg) La pensée future épisodique : entre simulation et contexte autobiographiqueD'Argembeau, Arnaud in Revue de Neuropsychologie (2016), 8Detailed reference viewed: 16 (5 ULg) Molecular detection of six (endo-) symbiotic bacteria in Belgian mosquitoes: first step towards the selection of appropriate paratransgenesis candidatesRaharimalala, Fara Nantenaina; Boukraa, Slimane ; Bawin, Thomas et alin Parasitology Research (2016)Actually, the use of symbiotic bacteria is one of alternative solution to avoid vector resistance to pesticides. In Belgium, among 31 identified mosquito species, 10 were considered as potential vectors ... [more ▼]Actually, the use of symbiotic bacteria is one of alternative solution to avoid vector resistance to pesticides. In Belgium, among 31 identified mosquito species, 10 were considered as potential vectors. Given to introduction risks of arbovirosis, the purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of symbiosis bacteria in potential mosquito vectors. Eleven species caught from 12 sites in Belgium were used: Culex pipiens s.l., Culex torrentium, Culex hortensis, Anopheles claviger, Anopheles maculipennis s.l., Anopheles plumbeus, Culiseta annulata, Ochlerotatus geniculatus, Ochlerotatus dorsalis, Aedes albopictus, and Coquillettidia richiardii. Six genera of symbiotic bacteria were screened: Wolbachia sp., Comamonas sp, Delftia sp., Pseudomonas sp., Acinetobacter sp., and Asaia sp.Atotal of 173 mosquito individuals (144 larvae and 29 adults) were used for the polymerase chain reaction screening. Wolbachia was not found in any Anopheles species nor Cx. torrentium. A total absence of Comamonas and Delftia was observed in all species. Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, and Asaia were found in most of species with a high prevalence for Pseudomonas. These results were discussed to develop potential strategy and exploit the variable occurrence of symbiotic bacteria to focus on them to propose biological ways of mosquito control. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 37 (8 ULg) L’épandage d’engrais de ferme avant le semis d’une culture intermédiaire (CIPAN) présente-t-il un risque important de lixiviation de nitrate ?Vandenberghe, Christophe ; De Toffoli, Marc; Lambert, Richard et alin Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2016), 20(2), Description of the subject. The implementation of the Nitrates Directives in the Walloon region (in the south of Belgium) allows the summer spreading of any kind of manure on soils in preparation for the ... [more ▼]Description of the subject. The implementation of the Nitrates Directives in the Walloon region (in the south of Belgium) allows the summer spreading of any kind of manure on soils in preparation for the sowing of a catch crop. Objectives. This paper aims to assess whether the spreading of a manure before sowing a catch crop is more risky for groundwater quality than planting a cereal followed by another crop without any action being implemented between the harvesting of the cereal and the sowing (winter or spring) of the next crop. Method. This study is based on measurements of the nitrate nitrogen content of soils, at the beginning of the leaching period, performed on reference parcels and on controlled parcels. Results. Three thousand six hundred soil analyses performed in relation to controlled parcels between 2008 and 2013 showed that the presence of a catch crop (information about the possible application of a manure was not known) led to a nitrate nitrogen content (median) lower (with a very highly significant difference) than in a situation where no action was implemented between the two main crops. For the same period, the analysis of 600 results in reference parcels led to the same conclusion. Moreover, no significant difference was found between the two kinds of manure (“fast action”, such as pig slurry or “low action”, such as bovine manure). Conclusions. After the harvesting of a cereal, the spreading of a manure before sowing a catch crop creates no higher risk for water quality than the succession of a cereal by a crop sowed in the autumn. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 25 (5 ULg) Pas d'obstacle constitutionnel pour les sanctions administratives communalesMichiels, Olivier in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2016), (2016/1), 79-99Le législateur, lors de l’instauration du système des sanctions administratives communales, a entendu combattre les incivilités. Cette notiond’«incivilité» vise des comportements dans l’espace public qui ... [more ▼]Le législateur, lors de l’instauration du système des sanctions administratives communales, a entendu combattre les incivilités. Cette notiond’«incivilité» vise des comportements dans l’espace public qui s’écartent de ce qui est convenable dans la vie en société. En veillant à définir les «incivilités» comme les formes les plus légères de trouble de l’ordre public, de la sécurité, de la santé et de la propreté, qui sont dégradants ou incommodants et qui dépassent les contraintes normales de la vie sociale, le législateur a satisfait aux exigences du principe de légalité.Le droit à une bonne administration de la justice tel qu’il est garanti par l’article 6 de la Convention européenne des droits de l’homme, n’exclut pas qu’une sanction administrative soit infligée par un fonctionnaire, à condition qu’un juge indépendant et impartial puisse exercer un contrôle de pleine juridic-tion sur cette décision administrative. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 39 (2 ULg) COMPARISON OF ULTRASOUND-GUIDED VS. STANDARD LANDMARK TECHNIQUES FOR TRAINING NOVICE OPERATORS IN PLACING NEEDLES INTO THE LUMBAR SUBARACHNOID SPACE OF CANINE CADAVERSEtienne, Anne-Laure ; Delguste, Catherine ; Busoni, Valeria in Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound (2016)The standard technique for placing a needle into the canine lumbar subarachnoid space is primarily based on palpation of anatomic landmarks and use of probing movements of the needle, however, this ... [more ▼]The standard technique for placing a needle into the canine lumbar subarachnoid space is primarily based on palpation of anatomic landmarks and use of probing movements of the needle, however, this technique can be challenging for novice operators. The aim of the current observational, prospective, ex vivo, feasibility study was to compare ultrasound-guided vs. standard anatomic landmark approaches for novices performing needle placement into the lumbar subarachnoid space using dog cadavers. Eight experienced operators validated the canine cadaver model as usable for training landmark and ultrasound-guided needle placement into the lumbar subarachnoid space based on realistic anatomy and tissue consistency. With informed consent, 67 final year veterinary students were prospectively enrolled in the study. Students had no prior experience in needle placement into the lumbar subarachnoid space or use of ultrasound. Each student received a short theoretical training about each technique before the trial and then attempted blind landmark-guided and ultrasound-guided techniques on randomized canine cadavers. After having performed both procedures, the operators completed a self-evaluation questionnaire about their performance and self-confidence. Total success rates for students were 48% and 77% for the landmark- and ultrasound-guided techniques, respectively. Ultrasound guidance significantly increased total success rate when compared to the landmark-guided technique and significantly reduced the number of attempts. With ultrasound guidance self-confidence was improved, without bringing any significant change in duration of the needle placement procedure. Findings indicated that use of ultrasound guidance and cadavers are feasible methods for training novice operators in needle placement into the canine lumbar subarachnoid space. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (3 ULg) Thermal properties of Ti-doped Cu–Zn soft ferrites used as thermally actuated material for magnetizing superconductorsStachowiak, Piotr; Mucha, Jan; Szewczyk, Daria et alin Journal of Physics : D Applied Physics (2016), 49A great majority of widely used ferrite ceramics exhibit a relatively high temperature of order–disorder phase transition in their magnetic subsystem. For applications related to the magnetization process ... [more ▼]A great majority of widely used ferrite ceramics exhibit a relatively high temperature of order–disorder phase transition in their magnetic subsystem. For applications related to the magnetization process of superconductors, however, a low value of Tc is required. Here we report and analyze in detail the thermal properties of bulk Ti-doped Cu–Zn ferrite ceramics Cu0.3Zn0.7Ti0.04Fe1.96O4 and Mg0.15Cu0.15Zn0.7Ti0.04Fe1.96O4. They are characterized by a Curie temperature in the range 120–170 K and a maximum DC magnetic susceptibility exceeding 20 for the Cu0.3Zn0.7Ti0.04Fe1.96O4 material. The temperature dependence of both the specific heat Cp and of the thermal conductivity κ, determined between 2 and 300 K, are found not to exhibit any peculiar feature at the magnetic transition temperature. The low-temperature dependence of both κ and the mean free path of phonons suggests a mesoscopic fractal structure of the grains. From the measured data, the characteristics of thermally actuated waves are estimated. The low magnetic phase transition temperature and suitable thermal parameters make the investigated ferrite ceramics applicable as magnetic wave producers in devices designed for magnetization of high-temperature superconductors. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 26 (12 ULg) Breast cancer in a male to female transsexual patient with a BRCA2 mutationCORMAN, Vinciane ; Potorac, Iulia ; Manto, Florence et alin Endocrine-Related Cancer (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 24 (6 ULg) Efficient standard error formulas of ability estimators with dichotomous item response modelsMagis, David in Psychometrika (2016), 81This paper focuses on the computation of asymptotic standard errors (ASE) of ability estimators with dichotomous item response models. A general framework is considered and ability estimators are defined ... [more ▼]This paper focuses on the computation of asymptotic standard errors (ASE) of ability estimators with dichotomous item response models. A general framework is considered and ability estimators are defined from a very restricted set of assumptions and formulas. This approach encompasses most standard methods such as maximum likelihood, weighted likelihood, maximum a posteriori and robust estimators. A general formula for the ASE is derived from the theory of M-estimation. Well-known results are found back as particular cases for the maximum and robust estimators, while new ASE proposals for the weighted likelihood and maximum a posteriori estimators are presented. These new formulas are compared to traditional ones by means of a simulation study under Rasch modeling. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (6 ULg) Investigation on possible transmission of monkeys' Plasmodium to human in a populations living in the equatorial rainforest of the Democratic republic of CongoMVUMBI, Dieudonné; BOBANGA, Thierry; UMESUMBU, Solange et alin International Journal for Parasitology: parasites and wild life (2016), 5Plasmodiums are protozoa that may infect various hosts. Only five species are now recognized as naturally parasitizing humans: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ... [more ▼]Plasmodiums are protozoa that may infect various hosts. Only five species are now recognized as naturally parasitizing humans: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium knowlesi. This fifth species, P. knowlesi, previously identified as naturally parasitizing the monkey Macaca fascicularis, has been microscopically confused for a long time with P. malariae or P. falciparum and it was not possible to correctly differentiate them until the advent of molecular biology. To date, natural human infections with P. knowlesi only occur in Southeast Asia and a similar phenomenon of natural transmission of simian plasmodium to humans has not been reported elsewhere. This study was conducted to investigate a possible transmission of African small monkey's plasmodium to humans in populations living near the rainforest of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) where several species of non-human primates are living. Two successive real-time PCRs were identified in the literature and used in combination for purpose. Only P. falciparum was found in this study. However, studies with larger samples and with more advanced techniques should be conducted. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 31 (5 ULg) Les droits fondamentaux, au coeur de la pluralité des sources et de la pluralité des juges: vers une "dématérialisation" des droits fondamentaux?Rosoux, Géraldine in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2016)L'article contient un résumé de la thèse de doctorat de l'auteur, publiée chez Bruylant en 2015.Detailed reference viewed: 18 (1 ULg) Parsimonious time series clustering using P-splinesIorio, Carmela; Frasso, Gianluca ; D’Ambrosio, Antonio et alin Expert Systems with Applications (2016)Abstract We introduce a parsimonious model-based framework for clustering time course data. In these applications the computational burden becomes often an issue due to the large number of available ... [more ▼]Abstract We introduce a parsimonious model-based framework for clustering time course data. In these applications the computational burden becomes often an issue due to the large number of available observations. The measured time series can also be very noisy and sparse and an appropriate model describing them can be hard to define. We propose to model the observed measurements by using P-spline smoothers and then to cluster the functional objects as summarized by the optimal spline coefficients. According to the characteristics of the observed measurements, our proposal can be combined with any suitable clustering method. In this paper we provide applications based on non-hierarchical clustering algorithms. We evaluate the accuracy and the efficiency of our proposal by simulations and by analyzing two real data examples. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 10 (1 ULg) Effet inflammatoire des extraits de Cupressus sempervirens planté dans l’Est de l’Algérie : du modèle murin à la stimulation des cellules BEAS-2B par l’allergène majeur Cup s 1Bouguenoun, Imene; De Pauw-Gillet, Marie-Claire ; Bensakhri, Z et alin Revue Française d'Allergologie (2016), 56Cupressus sempervirens est l’une des espèces les plus répandues en Algérie ayant une capacité allergénique très élevée. Nous avons étudié,d’abord, comment l’instillation nasale des différentes fractions ... [more ▼]Cupressus sempervirens est l’une des espèces les plus répandues en Algérie ayant une capacité allergénique très élevée. Nous avons étudié,d’abord, comment l’instillation nasale des différentes fractions de l’extrait pollinique de cette espèce peut moduler la réponse immunitaire chez les souris, et, ensuite, la stimulation des cellules épithéliales bronchiques humaines (BEAS-2B) par l’allergène majeur, identifié par spectrométrie de masse et purifié par chromatographie échangeuse d’ions. La sensibilisation des souris a révélé, d’une part, une diminution du nombre de neutrophiles et une augmentation des éosinophiles, et, d’autre part, une augmentation significative du total cellulaire dans le liquide du lavage bronchoalvéolaire.L’étude histologique des poumons a montré une présence d’infiltrat inflammatoire et d’oedème péri-bronchique. La spectrométrie de masse nous a permis de mettre en évidence la présence de l’allergène majeur Cup s 1 dans toutes les fractions avec une présence spécifique du Cup s 3 et Cupa 1 dans la fraction 4. Cet allergène avait le potentiel pour stimuler la libération de l’IL-8 et l’IL-6 par la ligné cellulaire, BEAS-2B, in vitro d’une manière dose-dépendante [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 31 (3 ULg) Bovine Herpesvirus 4 Modulates Its beta-1,6-N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferase Activity through Alternative Splicing.Lété, Céline ; Markine-Goriaynoff, Nicolas; Machiels, Bénédicte et alin Journal of virology (2016), 90(4), 2039-51Carbohydrates play major roles in host-virus interactions. It is therefore not surprising that, during coevolution with their hosts, viruses have developed sophisticated mechanisms to hijack for their ... [more ▼]Carbohydrates play major roles in host-virus interactions. It is therefore not surprising that, during coevolution with their hosts, viruses have developed sophisticated mechanisms to hijack for their profit different pathways of glycan synthesis. Thus, the Bo17 gene of Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) encodes a homologue of the cellular core 2 protein beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-mucin type (C2GnT-M), which is a key player for the synthesis of complex O-glycans. Surprisingly, we show in this study that, as opposed to what is observed for the cellular enzyme, two different mRNAs are encoded by the Bo17 gene of all available BoHV-4 strains. While the first one corresponds to the entire coding sequence of the Bo17 gene, the second results from the splicing of a 138-bp intron encoding critical residues of the enzyme. Antibodies generated against the Bo17 C terminus showed that the two forms of Bo17 are expressed in BoHV-4 infected cells, but enzymatic assays revealed that the spliced form is not active. In order to reveal the function of these two forms, we then generated recombinant strains expressing only the long or the short form of Bo17. Although we did not highlight replication differences between these strains, glycomic analyses and lectin neutralization assays confirmed that the splicing of the Bo17 gene gives the potential to BoHV-4 to fine-tune the global level of core 2 branching activity in the infected cell. Altogether, these results suggest the existence of new mechanisms to regulate the activity of glycosyltransferases from the Golgi apparatus. IMPORTANCE: Viruses are masters of adaptation that hijack cellular pathways to allow their growth. Glycans play a central role in many biological processes, and several studies have highlighted mechanisms by which viruses can affect glycosylation. Glycan synthesis is a nontemplate process regulated by the availability of key glycosyltransferases. Interestingly, bovine herpesvirus 4 encodes one such enzyme which is a key enzyme for the synthesis of complex O-glycans. In this study, we show that, in contrast to cellular homologues, this virus has evolved to alternatively express two proteins from this gene. While the first one is enzymatically active, the second results from the alternative splicing of the region encoding the catalytic site of the enzyme. We postulate that this regulatory mechanism could allow the virus to modulate the synthesis of some particular glycans for function at the location and/or the moment of infection. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 17 (4 ULg) Na2FePO4F/multi-walled carbon nanotubes for lithium-ion batteries: Operando Mössbauer study of spray-dried compositesBrisbois, Magali; Caes, Sébastien ; Sougrati, M.T. et alin Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells (2016), 148In order to favor electronic conductivity in sodium iron fluorophosphate electrodes for lithium- or sodium-ion batteries, composites of Na2FePO4F with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared by ... [more ▼]In order to favor electronic conductivity in sodium iron fluorophosphate electrodes for lithium- or sodium-ion batteries, composites of Na2FePO4F with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared by pilot-scale spray drying. Addition of multi-walled CNTs in the solution results in an excellent dispersion of the CNTs within the volume of Na2FePO4F and not only at the surface of the particles. Following a heat treatment at 600°C in argon in order to reach crystallization, X-ray diffraction and ex situ Mössbauer spectroscopy revealed the presence of significant amounts of Fe(III) and maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) in the powder. However, Na2FePO4F/CNTs composites exhibit good electrochemical performance when cycling against lithium, with a discharge capacity of 104mAhg-1 at C/10 rate and 90mAhg-1 at 1C rate. Therefore, operando 57Fe transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy analyses were carried out in order to investigate the evolution of the iron oxidation state during cycling. During the first discharge, all the Fe(III) is reduced to Fe(II), explaining the good electrochemical performance. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 61 (17 ULg) The role of diet and exercise and of glucosamine sulfate in the prevention of knee osteoarthritis: Further results from the PRevention of knee Osteoarthritis in Overweight Females (PROOF) study.Runhaar, J.; DEROISY, Rita ; van Middelkoop, M. et alin Seminars in Arthritis & Rheumatism (2016), 45(4 Suppl), 42-48Background and objectives: The PRevention of knee Osteoarthritis in Overweight Females(PROOF) study (ISRCTN42823086) described a trend for a decrease in the incidence of kneeo steoarthritis (OA) by a ... [more ▼]Background and objectives: The PRevention of knee Osteoarthritis in Overweight Females(PROOF) study (ISRCTN42823086) described a trend for a decrease in the incidence of kneeo steoarthritis (OA) by a tailored diet and exercise program (DEP)or by oral glucosamine sulfate in women at risk for the disease, using a composite clinical and/or radiological outcome. The aim of this updated post-hoc analysis was to re-assess the results according to more precise techniques and take advantage of the 2 x 2 factorial design. Methods: A total of 407 overweight( BMI > or egal 27kg/m2) women of 50–60 years of age with no diagnosis of knee OA were randomized to: (1) noDEP + placebo(Control, N = 102), (2) DEP + placebo (DEP, N = 101), (3) glucosamine sulfate + no DEP (GS, N = 102), and (4) DEP + glucosamine sulfate (DEP + GS, N = 102) and followed for 2.5 years, with standardized postero-anterior, semiflexed (MTP) view knee radiographs at baseline and end of the study. DEP consisted of a tailored low fat and/or low caloric diet and easy to implement physical activities. Glucosamine was given as oral crystalline glucosamine sulfate 1500 mg once daily ,double-blinded vs. placebo. Incident knee OA was defined as radiographic progression of >1mm minimum joint space narrowing (mJSN)in the medial tibiofemoral compartment, as previously assessed by the visual (manual) technique and by a new semi-automated method. Logistic regression analysis was used t ocalculate the odds ratio for the effect of the interventions. Results: After 2.5 years, 11.8% of control subjects developed knee OA. This incidence was decreased with glucosamine sulfate, either alone or in combination with the DEP, but not by the DEP alone. Since there was no statistical interaction between treatments, the 2x2 factorial design allowed analysis of patients receiving glucosamine sulfate (N = 204) vs. those not receiving it (N= 203), similarly for those on the DEP (N = 203) or not (N = 204). Glucosamine sulfate significantly decreased the risk of developing knee OA: odds ratio (OR) = 0.41(95% CI: 0.20–0.85, P = 0.02) by the manual JSN assessment method and OR = 0.42 (95% CI:0.20–0.92, P =0.03) by the semi-automated technique. Conversely, there was no decrease in risk with the DEP. Conclusions: Glucosamine sulfate decreased the risk of developing radiographic knee OA over 2.5 years in overweight, middle-aged women at risk, as determined by medial mJSN progression. Conversely a tailored diet and exercise program exerted no preventive effect, possibly because of the lower than expected effect on weigh tloss. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 29 (7 ULg) In vitro and in vivo evaluation of drug-eluting microspheres designed for transarterial chemoembolization therapyWang, Y.; Molin, D.; Sevrin, Chantal et alin International Journal of Pharmaceutics (2016), 503Detailed reference viewed: 20 (3 ULg) Long term-cultured and cryopreserved primordial germ cells from various chicken breeds retain high proliferative potential and gonadal colonisation competencyTonus, Céline ; Cloquette, Karine; Ectors, Fabien et alin Reproduction, Fertility and Development (2016), 28(5), 628-639Detailed reference viewed: 127 (71 ULg) Effects of Dairy Products Consumption on Health: Benefits and Beliefs-A Commentary from the Belgian Bone Club and the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases.Rozenberg, Serge; Body, Jean-Jacques; Bruyère, Olivier et alin Calcified Tissue International (2016), 98(1), 1-17Dairy products provide a package of essential nutrients that is difficult to obtain in low-dairy or dairy-free diets, and for many people it is not possible to achieve recommended daily calcium intakes ... [more ▼]Dairy products provide a package of essential nutrients that is difficult to obtain in low-dairy or dairy-free diets, and for many people it is not possible to achieve recommended daily calcium intakes with a dairy-free diet. Despite the established benefits for bone health, some people avoid dairy in their diet due to beliefs that dairy may be detrimental to health, especially in those with weight management issues, lactose intolerance, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or trying to avoid cardiovascular disease. This review provides information for health professionals to enable them to help their patients make informed decisions about consuming dairy products as part of a balanced diet. There may be a weak association between dairy consumption and a possible small weight reduction, with decreases in fat mass and waist circumference and increases in lean body mass. Lactose intolerant individuals may not need to completely eliminate dairy products from their diet, as both yogurt and hard cheese are well tolerated. Among people with arthritis, there is no evidence for a benefit to avoid dairy consumption. Dairy products do not increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, particularly if low fat. Intake of up to three servings of dairy products per day appears to be safe and may confer a favourable benefit with regard to bone health. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 32 (20 ULg) Migration, prostitution and the representation of the black female subject in Nigerian video films about ItalyJedlowski, Alessandro in Journal of Italian Cinema and Media Studies (2016), 4(1), 9-23Much contemporary images of black women in Italian media are marked by the legacy of colonialist propaganda and tend to perpetuate a representation of black women as passive eroticized objects of the ... [more ▼]Much contemporary images of black women in Italian media are marked by the legacy of colonialist propaganda and tend to perpetuate a representation of black women as passive eroticized objects of the white male gaze. In this sense, Ponzanesi’s call for ‘new and less biased representations, which could help to assess the multiple subject positions that black identities now occupy’ (2005: 179) is still relevant. This article responds to this call by analyzing two Nigerian video films that thematize migration and prostitution trafficking in Italy. By highlighting the complexity of the processes of ‘subjectivation’ taking place throughout the migratory process, these videos invite their viewers to look at the postcolonial subject’s responsibility in shaping the world in which s/he lives, and offer a representation of the black female subject able to go beyond the voyeuristic attitude that characterize much of the existing contemporary Italian visual culture about this topic. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 95 (2 ULg) Cheatgrass is favored by warming but not CO2 enrichment in a semi-arid grasslandBlumenthal, Dana; Kray, Julie; Ortmans, William et alin Global Change Biology (2016), Early viewElevated CO2 and warming may alter terrestrial ecosystems by promoting invasive plants with strong community and ecosystem impacts. Invasive plant responses to elevated CO2 and warming are difficult to ... [more ▼]Elevated CO2 and warming may alter terrestrial ecosystems by promoting invasive plants with strong community and ecosystem impacts. Invasive plant responses to elevated CO2 and warming are difficult to predict, however, because of the many mechanisms involved, including modification of phenology, physiology, and cycling of nitrogen and water. Understanding the relative and interactive importance of these processes requires multifactor experiments under realistic field conditions. Here, we test how free-air CO2 enrichment (to 600 ppmv) and infrared warming (+1.5 °C day/3 °C night) influence a functionally and phenologically distinct invasive plant in semi-arid mixed-grass prairie. Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass), a fast-growing Eurasian winter annual grass, increases fire frequency and reduces biological diversity across millions of hectares in western North America. Across 2 years, we found that warming more than tripled B. tectorum biomass and seed production, due to a combination of increased recruitment and increased growth. These results were observed with and without competition from native species, under wet and dry conditions (corresponding with tenfold differences in B. tectorum biomass), and despite the fact that warming reduced soil water. In contrast, elevated CO2 had little effect on B. tectorum invasion or soil water, while reducing soil and plant nitrogen (N). We conclude that (1) warming may expand B. tectorum's phenological niche, allowing it to more successfully colonize the extensive, invasion-resistant northern mixed-grass prairie, and (2) in ecosystems where elevated CO2 decreases N availability, CO2 may have limited effects on B. tectorum and other nitrophilic invasive species. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (1 ULg) Surface Constrained Elastic Rods with Application to the SphereHuynen, Alexandre ; Detournay, Emmanuel; Denoël, Vincent in Journal of Elasticity (2016)The unilateral contact between an elastic rod and a rigid surface is encountered in numerous biological and engineering applications. Along continuous contacts, the centerline of the rod reflects the ... [more ▼]The unilateral contact between an elastic rod and a rigid surface is encountered in numerous biological and engineering applications. Along continuous contacts, the centerline of the rod reflects the geometry of the constraining surface. This restriction of the rod axis to surface bound configurations enters its local equilibrium through a reaction pressure which ensures the compatibility between the deformation and the restraint geometry. The classic equations governing the static equilibrium of elastic rods are particularized to surface bound configurations by (i) specifying the location of the rod axis in terms of its coordinates in the parameter space associated with the constraining surface parameterization, and (ii) characterizing the orientation of its material frame through its rotation with respect to the surface normal. This formulation, which emphasizes the relations between the rod configuration and the geometry of the constraint, also leads to an expression for the reaction pressure. This approach is then validated on a spherical surface by comparing with known solutions for elastic curves, i.e., inextensible and twist free rods. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 44 (9 ULg) Genetic diversity, Population structure, parentage analysis, and construction of core collections in the French apple germplasm based on SSR markersLassois, Ludivine ; Denancé, Caroline; Ravon, Elisa et alin Plant Molecular Biology Reporter (2016)In-depth characterization of apple genetic resources is a prerequisite for genetic improvement and for germplasm management. In this study, we fingerprinted a very large French collection of 2163 ... [more ▼]In-depth characterization of apple genetic resources is a prerequisite for genetic improvement and for germplasm management. In this study, we fingerprinted a very large French collection of 2163 accessions with 24 SSR markers in order to evaluate its genetic diversity, population structure and genetic relationships, to link these features with cultivar selection date or usage (old or modern, dessert or cider cultivars), and to construct core collections. Most markers were highly discriminating and powerful for varietal identification, with a probability of identity P(ID) over the 21 retained SSR loci close to 10-28. Pairwise comparisons revealed 34% redundancy and 18.5% putative triploids. The results showed that the germplasm is highly diverse with an expected heterozygosity He of 0.82 and observed heterozygosity Ho of 0.83. A Bayesian model-based clustering approach revealed a weak but significant structure in three subgroups (FST = 0.014-0.048) corresponding, albeit approximately, to the three subpopulations defined beforehand (Old Dessert, Old Cider and Moderncultivars). Parentage analyses established already known and yet unknown relationships, notably between old cultivars, with the frequent occurrence of cultivars such as ‘King of Pippin’ and ‘Calville Rouge d’Hiver’ as founders. Finally, core collections based on allelic diversity were constructed. A large dessert core collection of 278 cultivars contained 90% of the total dessert allelic diversity, whereas a dessert sub-core collection of 48 cultivars contained 71% of diversity. For cider apples, a 48-cultivars core collection contained 83% of the total cider allelic diversity. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 24 (6 ULg) Fossil Biogeography: A new model to infer dispersal, extinction and sampling from paleontological dataSilvestro, Daniele; Zizka, Alexander; Bacon, Christine D. et alin Philosophical Transactions : Biological Sciences (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 65 (3 ULg) Importance of the reconciliation method to handle experimental data in refrigeration and power cycle: application to a reversible heat pump/organic Rankine cycle unit integrated in a positive energy buildingDumont, Olivier ; Quoilin, Sylvain ; Lemort, Vincent in International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 9 (1 ULg) Structured carbons as supports for hydrogenation hybrid catalysts prepared by the immobilization of a Rh diamine complexGheorghiu, Cristina; Garcia-Bordeje, Enrique; Job, Nathalie et alin Chemical Engineering Journal (2016), 291Detailed reference viewed: 49 (8 ULg) Compte-rendu de l'ouvrage Cluny. Les moines et la société au premier age féodalGeorge, Philippe in Revue d'Histoire Ecclésiastique (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 22 (1 ULg) Interactions of sugar-based bolaamphiphiles with biomimetic systems of plasma membranesNasir, Mehmet Nail ; Crowet, Jean-Marc ; Lins, Laurence et alin Biochimie (2016), In PressGlycolipids constitute a class of molecules with various biological activities. Among them, sugar-based bolaamphiphiles characterized by their biocompatibility, biodegradability and lower toxicity, became ... [more ▼]Glycolipids constitute a class of molecules with various biological activities. Among them, sugar-based bolaamphiphiles characterized by their biocompatibility, biodegradability and lower toxicity, became interesting for the development of efficient and low cost lipid-based drug delivery systems. Their activity seems to be closely related to their interactions with the lipid components of the plasma membrane of target cells. Despite many works devoted to the chemical synthesis and characterization of sugar-based bolaamphiphiles, their interactions with plasma membrane have not been completely elucidated. In this work, two sugar-based bolaamphiphiles differing only at the level of their sugar residues were chemically synthetized. Their interactions with membranes have been investigated using model membranes containing or not sterol and with in silico approaches. Our findings indicate that the nature of sugar residues has no significant influence for their membrane interacting properties, while the presence of sterol attenuates the interactions of both bolaamphiphiles with the membrane systems. The understanding of this distinct behavior of bolaamphiphiles towards sterol-containing membrane systems could be useful for their applications as drug delivery systems. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 16 (4 ULg) Peripheral blood stem cell graft compared to bone marrow after reduced intensity conditioning regimens for acute leukemia–A report from the ALWP of the EBMTSavani, Bipin N.; Labopin, Myriam; Blaise, Didier et alin Haematologica (2016)Increasing numbers of patients are receiving reduced-intensity-conditioning regimen allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. We hypothesized that the use of bone-marrow graft might decrease the ... [more ▼]Increasing numbers of patients are receiving reduced-intensity-conditioning regimen allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. We hypothesized that the use of bone-marrow graft might decrease the risk of graft-versus-host-disease compared to peripheral-blood after reduced-intensity-conditioning regimens without compromising graft-versus-leukemia effects. Patients who underwent reduced-intensity-conditioning regimen allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation from 2000-2012 for acute leukemia and reported to the acute-leukemia-working-party of the EBMT were included in the study. Eight hundred thirty-seven patients receiving bone-marrow grafts were compared with 9011 peripheral-blood transplant recipients after reduced-intensity conditioning regimen. Median follow-up of surviving patients was 27 months. Cumulative incidence of engraftment (neutrophil≥0.5x109/L at day 60) was lower in bonemarrow recipients, 88 vs. 95% (p<0.0001). Grade II to IV acute graft-versus-hostdisease was lower in bone-marrow recipients, 19% vs. 24% for peripheral-blood (p=0.005). In multivariate analysis, after adjusting for differences between both groups, overall survival (HR 0.90; p=0.05) and leukemia-free-survival (HR 0.88; p=0.01) were higher in patients transplanted with peripheral-blood compared to bone-marrow grafts. Furthermore, peripheral-blood graft was also associated with decreased risk of relapse (HR 0.78; p=0.0001). Non-relapse-mortality was not significantly different between recipients of bone-marrow and peripheral-blood grafts, and chronic graft-versus-host-disease was significantly higher after peripheral blood grafts (HR 1.38; p<0.0001). Despite the limitation of a retrospective registry based study, we found that peripheral-blood grafts after reduced-intensity-conditioning regimens had better overall and leukemia-free survival than bone-marrow grafts. However, there is an increase in chronic graft-versus-host-disease after peripheral-blood grafts. Long-term follow-up is needed to clarify if chronic graft-versus-host-disease related deaths might increase the risk of late morbidity and mortality. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (2 ULg) Clarifying the Socio-Economic Dimensions of Agroecology: Between Principles and PracticesDumont, Antoinette M.; Vanloqueren, Gaëtan; Stassart, Pierre M et alin Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems (2016), 1(1), 24-47AbstractThe concept of agroecology is being mobilized increasingly. However, its socio-economic dimensions receive little attention from academia. This study helps to clarify the socio-economic principles ... [more ▼]AbstractThe concept of agroecology is being mobilized increasingly. However, its socio-economic dimensions receive little attention from academia. This study helps to clarify the socio-economic principles of agroecology by first identifying a list of principles in popular and scientific literature and, as a second step, by putting the principles to the test of a qualitative study of two Belgian organizations. Agribio is a grain cooperative, and Les Grosses L√©gumes is a network of consumers, farmers, and the members of an association set up to organize the production and distribution of vegetable boxes. Semi-directed interviews of the various actors linked to these organizations were conducted and then analyzed through an approach inspired by the convention theory in order to reveal the principles that the stakeholders have adopted. The main findings are then made explicit by analysis of four strong agreements (which concern the two organizations? marketing schemes, a Participatory Guarantee System set up by Les Grosses L√©gumes and Agribio?s flour mill). The two case studies show the gap that exists between the principles that describe the horizon of agroecology and the principles that are actually put into practice by the parties in the field through various transition pathways. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 71 (13 ULg) Prevalence and determinants of direct and generative modes of production of episodic future thoughts in the word cueing paradigmJeunehomme, Olivier ; D'Argembeau, Arnaud in Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology (2016), 69Detailed reference viewed: 58 (6 ULg) [18F]FPRGD2 PET/CT imaging of integrin αvβ3 levels in patients with locally advanced rectal carcinomaWITHOFS, Nadia ; Martinive, Philippe ; VANDERICK, Jean et alin European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging (2016)PURPOSE: Our primary objective was to determine if [18F]FPRGD2 PET/CT performed at baseline and/or after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) could predict tumour regression grade (TRG) in locally advanced rectal ... [more ▼]PURPOSE: Our primary objective was to determine if [18F]FPRGD2 PET/CT performed at baseline and/or after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) could predict tumour regression grade (TRG) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Secondary objectives were to compare baseline [18F]FPRGD2 and [18F]FDG uptake, to evaluate the correlation between posttreatment [18F]FPRGD2 uptake and tumour microvessel density (MVD) and to determine if [18F]FPRGD2 and FDG PET/CT could predict disease-free survival. METHODS: Baseline [18F]FPRGD2 and FDG PET/CT were performed in 32 consecutive patients (23 men, 9 women; mean age 63 +/- 8 years) with LARC before starting any therapy. A posttreatment [18F]FPRGD2 PET/CT scan was performed in 24 patients after the end of CRT (median interval 7 weeks, range 3 - 15 weeks) and before surgery (median interval 4 days, range 1 - 15 days). RESULTS: All LARC showed uptake of both [18F]FPRGD2 (SUVmax 5.4 +/- 1.5, range 2.7 - 9) and FDG (SUVmax 16.5 +/- 8, range 7.1 - 36.5). There was a moderate positive correlation between [18F]FPRGD2 and FDG SUVmax (Pearson's r = 0.49, p = 0.0026). There was a moderate negative correlation between baseline [18F]FPRGD2 SUVmax and the TRG (Spearman's r = -0.37, p = 0.037), and a [18F]FPRGD2 SUVmax of >5.6 identified all patients with a complete response (TRG 0; AUC 0.84, 95 % CI 0.68 - 1, p = 0.029). In the 24 patients who underwent a posttreatment [18F]FPRGD2 PET/CT scan the response index, calculated as [(SUVmax1 - SUVmax2)/SUVmax1] x 100 %, was not associated with TRG. Post-treatment [18F]FPRGD2 uptake was not correlated with tumour MVD. Neither [18F]FPRGD2 nor FDG uptake predicted disease-free survival. CONCLUSION: Baseline [18F]FPRGD2 uptake was correlated with the pathological response in patients with LARC treated with CRT. However, the specificity was too low to consider its clinical routine use. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (4 ULg) The internal consistency of the North Sea carbonate systemSalt, Lesley A.; Thomas, Helmuth; Bozec, Yann et alin Journal of Marine Systems (2016), 157Abstract In 2002 (February) and 2005 (August), the full suite of carbonate system parameters (total alkalinity (AT), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), pH, and partial pressure of \{CO2\} (pCO2) were ... [more ▼]Abstract In 2002 (February) and 2005 (August), the full suite of carbonate system parameters (total alkalinity (AT), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), pH, and partial pressure of \{CO2\} (pCO2) were measured on two re-occupations of the entire North Sea basin, with three parameters (AT, DIC, pCO2) measured on four additional re-occupations, covering all four seasons, allowing an assessment of the internal consistency of the carbonate system. For most of the year, there is a similar level of internal consistency, with \{AT\} being calculated to within ± 6 μmol kg− 1 using \{DIC\} and pH, \{DIC\} to ± 6 μmol kg− 1 using \{AT\} and pH, pH to ± 0.008 using \{AT\} and pCO2, and pCO2 to ± 8 μatm using \{DIC\} and pH, with the dissociation constants of Millero et al. (2006). In spring, however, we observe a significant decline in the ability to accurately calculate the carbonate system. Lower consistency is observed with an increasing fraction of Baltic Sea water, caused by the high contribution of organic alkalinity in this water mass, not accounted for in the carbonate system calculations. Attempts to improve the internal consistency by accounting for the unconventional salinity–borate relationships in freshwater and the Baltic Sea, and through application of the new North Atlantic salinity–boron relationship (Lee et al., 2010), resulted in no significant difference in the internal consistency. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 24 (0 ULg) 2015 ESC Guidelines for the management of infective endocarditis.Habib, Gilbert; LANCELLOTTI, Patrizio ; Antunes, Manuel J. et alin Revista espanola de cardiologia (English ed.) (2016), 69(1), 69Detailed reference viewed: 17 (2 ULg) De la grammaire pure logique à la grammaire philosophique. La grammaire des concepts chez WittgensteinGauvry, Charlotte in Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 17 (0 ULg) Core Outcome Measure Index for low back patients: do we miss anxiety and depression?Cedraschi, C; Marty, M; Courvoisier, DS et alin European Spine Journal (2016), 25Detailed reference viewed: 8 (1 ULg) Capitalizing in fine milk composition for breeding and management of dairy cowsGengler, Nicolas ; Soyeurt, Hélène ; Dehareng, Fréderic et alin Journal of Dairy Science (2016), 99The challenge of managing and breeding dairy cows is permanently adapting to changing production circumstances under socio-economic constraints. If managing and breeding address different timeframes of ... [more ▼]The challenge of managing and breeding dairy cows is permanently adapting to changing production circumstances under socio-economic constraints. If managing and breeding address different timeframes of action, both need relevant phenotypes that allow for precise monitoring of the status of the cows, and their health, behavior, and well-being as well as their environmental impact and the quality of their products (i.e., milk and subsequently dairy products). Milk composition has been identified as an important source of information because it could reflect, at least partially, all these elements. Major conventional milk components such as fat, protein, urea, and lactose contents are routinely predicted by mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometry and have been widely used for these purposes. But, milk composition is much more complex and other nonconventional milk components, potentially predicted by MIR, might be informative. Such new milk-based phenotypes should be considered given that they are cheap, rapidly obtained, usable on a large scale, robust, and reliable. In a first approach, new phenotypes can be predicted from MIR spectra using techniques based on classical prediction equations. This method was used successfully for many novel traits (e.g., fatty acids, lactoferrin, minerals, milk technological properties, citrate) that can be then useful for management and breeding purposes. An innovation was to consider the longitudinal nature of the relationship between the trait of interest and the MIR spectra (e.g., to predict methane from MIR). By avoiding intermediate steps, prediction errors can be minimized when traits of interest (e.g., methane, energy balance, ketosis) are predicted directly from MIR spectra. In a second approach, research is ongoing to detect and exploit patterns in an innovative manner, by comparing observed with expected MIR spectra directly (e.g., pregnancy). All of these traits can then be used to define best practices, adjust feeding and health management, improve animal welfare, improve milk quality, and mitigate environmental impact. Under the condition that MIR data are available on a large scale, phenotypes for these traits will allow genetic and genomic evaluations. Introduction of novel traits into the breeding objectives will need additional research to clarify socio-economic weights and genetic correlations with other traits of interest. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 27 (13 ULg) Bott type periodicity for the higher octonionsKreusch, Marie in Journal of Noncommutative Geometry (2016), 9(4), 1041-1393We study the series of complex nonassociative algebras $\bbO_n$ and real nonassociative algebras $\bbO_{p,q}$ introduced in~\cite{MGO2011}. These algebras generalize the classical algebras of octonions ... [more ▼]We study the series of complex nonassociative algebras $\bbO_n$ and real nonassociative algebras $\bbO_{p,q}$ introduced in~\cite{MGO2011}. These algebras generalize the classical algebras of octonions and Clifford algebras. The algebras $\bbO_{n}$ and $\bbO_{p,q}$ with $p+q=n$ have a natural $\Z_2^n$-grading, and they are characterized by cubic forms over the field $\Z_2$. We establish a periodicity for the algebras~$\bbO_{n}$ and $\bbO_{p,q}$ similar to that of the Clifford algebras $\mathrm{Cl}_{n}$ and~$\mathrm{Cl}_{p,q}$. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 144 (48 ULg) The Rexinoids LG100268 and LG101506 Inhibit Inflammation and Suppress Lung Carcinogenesis in A/J Mice.Cao, Martine ; Royce, Darlene B.; Risingsong, Renee et alin Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.) (2016), 9(1), 105-14LG101506 was originally synthesized to overcome some of the undesirable side effects of rexinoids. We compared the anticarcinogenic action of LG101506 and LG100268 and for the first time showed that both ... [more ▼]LG101506 was originally synthesized to overcome some of the undesirable side effects of rexinoids. We compared the anticarcinogenic action of LG101506 and LG100268 and for the first time showed that both drugs are useful for prevention of lung cancer in A/J mice. These molecules markedly reduced tumor number, tumor size, and total tumor burden, when chronically administered to A/J mice that had been initiated with the mutagenic carcinogen, vinyl carbamate. Moreover, LG100268 synergized with the histone deacetylase inhibitor, vorinostat, for prevention of experimental lung cancer and enhanced the effect of carboplatin/paclitaxel for treatment of experimental lung cancer. Both rexinoids diminished the percentage of high-grade, highly malignant adenocarcinomas found at autopsy. In cell culture studies, the rexinoids exhibited potent anti-inflammatory properties at nanoMolar concentrations. These drugs suppressed the ability of lipopolysaccharide to stimulate the synthesis and secretion of nitric oxide and inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, such as IL6, IL1beta, CXCL2, and CSF3, in macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. The present results suggest that LG100268, LG101506, or a related rexinoid may have useful clinical applications in the field of oncology. Cancer Prev Res; 9(1); 105-14. (c)2015 AACR. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 21 (1 ULg) Simultaneous multi-scale and multi-instrument observations of Saturn's aurorae during the 2013 observing campaignMelin, H.; Badman, S.; Stallard, T. et alin Icarus (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 7 (0 ULg) Linseed oil presents different patterns of oxidation in real-time and accelerated aging assaysDouny, Caroline ; Razanakolona, Rina; Ribonnet, Laurence et alin Food Chemistry (2016), 208This study aimed at verifying if the hypothesis that one day at 60 °C is equivalent to one month at 20 °C could be confirmed during linseed oil aging for 6 months at 20 °C and 6 days at 60 °C using the ... [more ▼]This study aimed at verifying if the hypothesis that one day at 60 °C is equivalent to one month at 20 °C could be confirmed during linseed oil aging for 6 months at 20 °C and 6 days at 60 °C using the “Schaal oven stability test”. Tests were conducted with linseed oil supplemented or not with myricetin or butyl-hydroxytoluene as antioxidants. Oxidation was evaluated with the peroxide and p-anisidine values, as well as the content in conjugated dienes and aldehydes. All four indicators of oxidation showed very different kinetic behaviors at 20 and 60 °C. The hypothesis is thus not verified for linseed oil, supplemented or not with antioxidant. In the control oil, the conjugated dienes and the peroxide value observed were respectively of 41.8 ± 0.8 Absorbance Unit (AU)/g oil and 254.3 ± 5.8 meq. O2/kg oil after 6 months at 20 °C. These values were of 18.2 ± 1.3 AU/g oil and 65.2 ± 20.3 meq. O2/kg after 6 days at 60 °C. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 31 (6 ULg) Will delayed release metformin provide better management of diabetes type 2?Scheen, André in Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy (2016), 17(5), 627-30Detailed reference viewed: 13 (1 ULg) Polylactide-based microspheres prepared using solid-state copolymerized chitosan and D,L-lactideDemina, Tatiana; Akopova, T.A.; Vladimirov, L.V. et alin Materials Science and Engineering: A (2016), C59Detailed reference viewed: 18 (2 ULg) Doped sol–gel films vs. powders TiO2: On the positive effect induced by the presence of a substrateLéonard, Géraldine ; Malengreaux, Charline; Melotte, Quentin et alin Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering (2016), 4SiO2 and Ag–SiO2 doped TiO2 films and powders have been produced using a controlled sol–gel process. The dopant has been introduced using an alkoxysilane-functionalized ligand, with or without complexed ... [more ▼]SiO2 and Ag–SiO2 doped TiO2 films and powders have been produced using a controlled sol–gel process. The dopant has been introduced using an alkoxysilane-functionalized ligand, with or without complexed silver ions. The influence of dopants on physico-chemical properties of the catalysts is studied by XRD, TEM–EDX, DRUV–vis analyses in the case of powders, while GIXRD, XPS, profilometry, UV–vis absorption analyses have been used for thin films. The photocatalytic activity has been evaluated from the degradation of methylene blue under UV-A light in the presence of the different catalysts over a period of 24 h. The detailed comparison between powders and films highlights a surprising positive effect in the case of films due to the presence of the substrate. In the case of photocatalytic powders, the presence of SiO2 or Ag–SiO2 into the TiO2 matrix has a detrimental effect on the photocatalytic activity while the opposite tendency is observed in the case of films, with best activities obtained with Ag–SiO2 doping. Different factors, in particular crystallinity modification between powders and films, have been studied to explain these opposite behaviors. In the case of powders, crystallization is hindered by SiO2 and Ag particles incorporation into the TiO2 matrix, leading to a decrease of the photocatalytic activity. In the case of thin films, probably because of the presence of a substrate, crystallization is not influenced by the presence of SiO2 and Ag particles. Therefore, the latter ones can fully play their role of electron traps leading to an enhanced photocatalytic activity. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 44 (10 ULg) Review of dietary supplements for the management of osteoarthritis in dogs in studies from 2004 to 2014Comblain, Fanny ; Serisier, Samuel; Barthelemy, Nicolas et alin Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology & Therapeutics (2016), 39Detailed reference viewed: 136 (7 ULg) Production, purification and characterization of a novel cold-active superoxide dismutase from the Antarctic strain Aspergillus glaucus 363Abrashev, R.; Feller, Georges ; Kostadinova, N. et alin Fungal Biology (2016), 120Detailed reference viewed: 9 (1 ULg) Tropical moss floras: a homogeneous assemblage of highly mobile species? Insights from their spatial patterns of beta diversityNik Norhazrina Binti Nik Mohd Kamil, ; Jairo, Patiño; Laurens, Geffert et alin Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society (2016)The biotic poverty of tropical Africa has been interpreted in terms of massive extinctions caused by historical climate shifts. While recolonisation has been hampered in tropical angiosperms that are ... [more ▼]The biotic poverty of tropical Africa has been interpreted in terms of massive extinctions caused by historical climate shifts. While recolonisation has been hampered in tropical angiosperms that are characterized by low dispersal capacities, tropical bryophytes exhibit high dispersal syndromes. Using tropical mosses as a model, we test here the hypotheses that (i) species-turnover is higher within than among continents and (ii) in tropical Africa, extant distribution patterns are better explained by variation in environmental conditions (species turnover) than by the ordered loss of species along gradients of recolonisation from putative refugia (species nestedness). Global beta diversity was slightly, but significantly higher among than within tropical regions, suggesting that geographic isolation rather than regional environmental variation shapes macroecological patterns of moss species distributions. Species turnover was, however, systematically higher than nestedness within each tropical region, and nestedness in tropical Africa was not significantly higher than in other tropical regions. The results therefore do not support the hypothesis of an ordered loss of species due to delays in the recolonisation of formerly savanna areas from refugia. Rather, the low species richness in Africa is interpreted in terms of shifts towards specialized, but species-poor communities along sharp ecological gradients. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 31 (4 ULg) A consensus statement on the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) algorithm for the management of knee osteoarthritis - From evidence-based medicine to the real-life setting.Bruyère, Olivier ; Cooper, C.; Pelletier, J.P. et alin Seminars in Arthritis & Rheumatism (2016), 45(4 Suppl), 3-11The European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis(ESCEO) published a treatment algorithm for the management of knee osteoarthritis (OA) in 2014,which provides ... [more ▼]The European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis(ESCEO) published a treatment algorithm for the management of knee osteoarthritis (OA) in 2014,which provides practical guidance for the prioritization of interventions. Further analysis of real-world data for OA provides additional evidence in support of pharmacological interventions,in terms of management of OA pain and function, avoidance of adverse events, disease-modifying effects and long-term outcomes, e.g., delay of total joint replacement surgery, and pharmacoeconomic factors such as reduction in healthcare resource utilization. This article provides an updated assessment of the literature for selected interventions in OA, focusing on real-life data, with the aim of providing easy-to-follow advice on how to establish a treatment flow in patients with knee OA in primary care clinical practice, in support of the clinicians’ individualized assessment of the patient. In step 1, background maintenance therapy with symptomatic slow-acting drugs for osteoarthritis (SYSADOAs) is recommended, for which high-quality evidence is provided only for the prescription formulations of patented crystalline glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate. Paracetamol may be added for rescue analgesia only,due to limited efficacy and increasing safety signals. Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may provide additional symptomatic treatment with the same degree of efficacy as oral NSAIDs without the systemic safety concerns. Oral NSAIDs maintain a central role in step2 Advanced management of persistent symptoms. However, oral NSAIDs are highly heterogeneous in terms of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular safety profile, and patient stratification with careful treatment selection is advocated to maximize the risk: benefit ratio. Intra-articular hyaluronic acid as a next step provides sustained clinical benefit with effects lasting up to 6 months after a short-course of weekly injections. As a last step before surgery, thes low titration of sustained-release tramadol, aweak opioid, affords sustained analgesia with improved tolerability. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 23 (12 ULg) Investigation of a suitable in vitro dissolution test for itraconazole-based solid dispersionsThiry, Justine ; Broze, Guy ; Pestieau, Aude et alin European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 71 (30 ULg) Defining multiplication in some additive expansions of polynomial ringsPoint, Françoise; Rigo, Michel ; Waxweiler, Laurentin Communications in Algebra (2016), 44Adapting a result of R. Villemaire on expansions of Presburger arithmetic, we show how to define multiplication in some expansions of the additive reduct of certain Euclidean rings. In particular, this ... [more ▼]Adapting a result of R. Villemaire on expansions of Presburger arithmetic, we show how to define multiplication in some expansions of the additive reduct of certain Euclidean rings. In particular, this applies to polynomial rings over a finite field. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (3 ULg) Origin of dc voltage in type II superconducting flux pumps: field, field rate of change, and current density dependence of resistivityGeng, J.; Matsuda, K.; Fu, L. et alin Journal of Physics : D Applied Physics (2016), 49(11), 1101Superconducting flux pumps are the kind of devices which can generate direct current into superconducting circuit using external magnetic field. The key point is how to induce a dc voltage across the ... [more ▼]Superconducting flux pumps are the kind of devices which can generate direct current into superconducting circuit using external magnetic field. The key point is how to induce a dc voltage across the superconducting load by ac fields. Giaever (1966 IEEE Spectr . 3 [http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MSPEC.1966.5217702] 117 ) pointed out flux motion in superconductors will induce a dc voltage, and demonstrated a rectifier model which depended on breaking superconductivity. van de Klundert et al (1981 Cryogenics 21 [http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0011-2275(81)90195-8] 195, 267 ) in their review(s) described various configurations for flux pumps all of which relied on inducing the normal state in at least part of the superconductor. In this letter, following their work, we reveal that a variation in the resistivity of type II superconductors is sufficient to induce a dc voltage in flux pumps and it is not necessary to break superconductivity. This variation in resistivity is due to the fact that flux flow is influenced by current density, field intensity, and field rate of change. We propose a general circuit analogy for travelling wave flux pumps, and provide a mathematical analysis to explain the dc voltage. Several existing superconducting flux pumps which rely on the use of a travelling magnetic wave can be explained using the analysis enclosed. This work can also throw light on the design and optimization of flux pumps. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 13 (5 ULg) Characterization of saccharides released during an in vitro pepsin-pancreatin digestion of corn flour using HPAEC-PADOdjo, Djosse Psijus Sylvanus ; Bera, François ; Jacquet, Nicolas et alin Stärke = Starch (2016), 68Saccharides released after an in vitro pepsin-pancreatin digestion of corn flour were quantified and characterized using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography coupled with a pulsed amperometric ... [more ▼]Saccharides released after an in vitro pepsin-pancreatin digestion of corn flour were quantified and characterized using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography coupled with a pulsed amperometric detector (HPAEC-PAD) and two colorimetric approaches (glucose oxidase/ peroxidase assay and the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid assay). HPAEC-PAD revealed five major saccharides as the result of in vitro pepsin-pancreatin digestion of corn grain: glucose, isomaltose, maltose, maltotriose, and glucosyl-maltotriose. Concentrations of glucose released as measured by the three methods assessed are similar when the in vitro pepsin-pancreatin digestion is followed by post incubation with amyloglucosidase. This post incubation unfortunately leads to a loss of information about the degree of polymerization of oligosaccharides that can impact their absorption through intestinal tract. HPAEC-PAD gives both qualitative and quantitative information and then seems more suitable for a nutritional appreciation of the digestion of starchy feedstuffs. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 10 (6 ULg) Persistent low levels of serum hCG due to heterophilic mouse antibodies: an unrecognized pitfall in the diagnosis of trophoblastic disease.Gonzalez Aguilera, B.; Syrios, P.; Gadisseur, R et alin Gynecological endocrinology : the official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology (2016)Phantom hCG refers to persistent mild elevations of hCG, leading physicians to unnecessary treatments whereas neither a true hCG nor a trophoblastic disease is present. We report the case of a 23-year-old ... [more ▼]Phantom hCG refers to persistent mild elevations of hCG, leading physicians to unnecessary treatments whereas neither a true hCG nor a trophoblastic disease is present. We report the case of a 23-year-old woman with persistent low levels of serum hCG detected one month after miscarriage. As choriocarcinoma was suspected, a chemotherapy trial of methotrexate was prescribed, without any hCG reduction. Subsequently, laparoscopy ruled out a trophoblastic residue and the patient was referred to the Endocrine Unit for further investigations. While low levels of hCG were still detected in serum, no hCG was detected in the urine. In addition, when serum was processed in a HBT tube for revealing heterophilic antibodies, hCG was no longer detected. Such finding indicated the presence of phantom hCG due to heterophilic mouse antibodies interaction. This case raises the need of clinico-biological discussion to avoid inappropriate therapeutic decisions. Based on this case experience and after review of the literature, we suggest that current gynecological protocols for the diagnosis and treatment of trophoblastic disease should consider the inclusion of urinary hCG and/or a test for serum heterophilic antibodies when appropriate. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 26 (9 ULg) Supplementation of transport and freezing media with anti-apoptotic drugs improves ovarian cortex survivalHENRY, Laurie ; Fransolet, Maïté ; LABIED, Soraya et alin Journal of Ovarian Research (2016)Background: Ovarian tissue preservation is proposed to patients at risk of premature ovarian failure, but this procedure still needs to be optimized. To limit injury during ovarian tissue cryopreservation ... [more ▼]Background: Ovarian tissue preservation is proposed to patients at risk of premature ovarian failure, but this procedure still needs to be optimized. To limit injury during ovarian tissue cryopreservation, anti-apoptotic drugs were added to the transport and freezing media of ovarian cortex tissue. Methods: Sheep ovaries were transported, prepared and frozen in solutions containing vehicle or anti-apoptotic drugs (Z-VAD-FMK, a pan-caspase inhibitor, or sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive lipid). After the tissue was thawed, the ovarian cortex was cultured for 2 or 6 days. Follicular quantification and morphological and proliferation analyses were performed on histological sections. Results: After 2 days of culture, S1P improved the quality of primordial follicles; higher densities of morphologically normal and proliferative primordial follicles were found. Z-VAD-FMK displayed similar effects by preserving global primordial follicular density, but this effect was evident after 6 days of culture. This drug also improved cell proliferation after 2 and 6 days of culture. Conclusions: Our results showed that the addition of S1P or Z-VAD-FMK to the transport and freezing media prior to ovarian tissue cryopreservation improves primordial follicular quality and therefore improves global tissue survival. This should ultimately lead to improved fertility restoration after auto-transplantation. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 17 (1 ULg) Permanence de l'utilitarisme - évolution des politiques d'immigration et d'intégration en Belgique-Bousetta, Hassan ; Lafleur, Jean-Michel ; Martiniello, Marco in Politique : Revue de Débats (2016), 94(mars-avril2016), 28-31Depuis 1974, la Belgique ne dispose plus d’une politique d’immigration proactive basée sur l’admission et le recrutement de travailleurs étrangers. Est-ce à dire que la Belgique n’a pas de politique ... [more ▼]Depuis 1974, la Belgique ne dispose plus d’une politique d’immigration proactive basée sur l’admission et le recrutement de travailleurs étrangers. Est-ce à dire que la Belgique n’a pas de politique d’immigration comme on l’entend parfois ? Pas si vite... [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 52 (6 ULg) Efficacy and safety of hyaluronic acid in the management of osteoarthritis : Evidence from real-life setting trials and surveys.Maheu, E.; Rannou, F.; Reginster, Jean-Yves in Seminars in Arthritis & Rheumatism (2016), 45(4 Suppl), 28-33The European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) treatment algorithm recommends intra-articular (IA) hyaluronic acid (HA) for management of knee ... [more ▼]The European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) treatment algorithm recommends intra-articular (IA) hyaluronic acid (HA) for management of knee osteoarthritis (OA) as second-line treatment in patients who remain symptomatic despite use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). This recommendation is based upon accumulating evidence that IA HA provides a significant benefit in knee OA. There is good evidence that IA HA injections reduce pain and increase function in knee OA, and the benefits are long-lasting as compared with IA corticosteroids. Evidence from real-life studies of repeat courses of IA HA demonstrates an improvement in pain or function lasting up to 40 months (12 months after the last injection cycle), a reduction in use of concomitant analgesia by up to 50%, and suggests that there may be a delay in the need for total knee replacement (TKR) of around 2 years. The clinical benefit of IA HA on knee OA may be 2-fold: (i) mechanical viscosupplementation of the joint (allowing lubrication and shock absorption) and (ii) the re-establishment of joint homeostasis through induction of endogenous HA production, which continues long after the exogenous injection has left the joint.The magnitude of the clinical effect may be different for different HA products, but this has not been proven so far and requires further investigation. IA HA injections are generally considered to be safe,although a slightly higher number of cases of local reactions and post-injection non-septic arthritis has been reported with high molecular weight cross-linked HAs. The use of IA HA in knee OA patients with mild–moderate disease, and for more severe patients wishing to delay TKR surgery,is recommended by the ESCEO taskforce. Further investigation into the OA patient types most likely to benefit from IA HA is warranted. Viscosupplementation with IA HA is a safe and effective component of the multi-modal management of knee OA. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 19 (6 ULg) Improvement of malignant pleural mesothelioma immunotherapy by epigenetic modulatorsHamaïdia, Malik ; Staumont, Bernard ; DUYSINX, Bernard et alin Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry (2016), 16In the absence of a satisfactory treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), novel therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. Among these, immunotherapy offers a series of advantages such as tumor ... [more ▼]In the absence of a satisfactory treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), novel therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. Among these, immunotherapy offers a series of advantages such as tumor specificity and good tolerability. Unfortunately, MPM immunotherapy is frequently limited by incomplete cell differentiation or feedback loop regulatory mechanisms. In this review, we describe different components of the innate immune system and discuss strategies to improve MPM immunotherapy by using epigenetic modulators. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 66 (17 ULg) compte rendu de : Stefano Valente, The Antiatticist. Introduction and Critical Edition, Berlin/Boston, De Gruyter. 2015.Rochette, Bruno in Anzeiger für die Altertumswissenschaft (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 6 (0 ULg) Loadbearing capacity criteria in fire resistance testingDumont, Fabien ; Wellens, Eric ; Gernay, Thomas et alin Materials and Structures (2016)The European system for fire testing and classification of loadbearing building elements lacks consistency because the two standards that have to be applied prescribe different criteria for assessing the ... [more ▼]The European system for fire testing and classification of loadbearing building elements lacks consistency because the two standards that have to be applied prescribe different criteria for assessing the loadbearing performance. This article analyzes the implications of the present conflict between the standard for testing and the standard for classification. The prescribed criteria for loadbearing performance are related to the exceedance of deflection and rate of deflection thresholds. A database of 46 fire resistance tests performed at the University of Liege is collected that contains the time at which these thresholds are reached in fire tests with different typologies of elements (walls, floors, columns and beams). Then, the loadbearing performance (and hence the fire resistance rating) can be derived according to the two standards. The evolutions of deflection and rate of deflection during the tests are also analyzed to gain a better understanding of the adequacy of the standards. The selection of one or the other standard affects the time at which “failure” is deemed to occur in fire tests. Statistically speaking, the difference in terms of failure time that results from using one or the other standard has a 25% probability to exceed 10%. In certain cases, this results in a difference in fire resistance rating; this was observed for 3 of the analyzed tests. The apparent contradiction in two codes in application has potential practical implications and therefore needs to be solved. The article suggests some guidelines for defining homogenized and consistent criteria. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (10 ULg) Continuous-Flow N-Heterocyclic Carbene Generation and OrganocatalysisDi Marco, Lorenzo; Hans, Morgan; Delaude, Lionel et alin Chemistry : A European Journal (2016), 22Two methods were assessed for the generation of common N heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) from stable imidazol(in)¬ium precursors using convenient and straightforward continuous-flow setups with either a ... [more ▼]Two methods were assessed for the generation of common N heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) from stable imidazol(in)¬ium precursors using convenient and straightforward continuous-flow setups with either a heterogeneous inorganic base (Cs2CO3 or K3PO4) or a homoge¬neous organic base (KN(SiMe3)2). In-line quenching with carbon disulfide revealed that the homogeneous strategy was most efficient for the preparation of a small library of NHCs. The generation of free nucleophilic carbenes was next telescoped with two benchmark NHC-catalyzed reactions, namely, the transesterification of vinyl acetate with benzyl alcohol and the amidation of N-Boc-glycine methyl ester with ethanolamine. Both organocatalytic transfor¬ma¬tions proceeded with total conversion and excellent yields were achieved after extraction, showcasing the first examples of continuous-flow organocatalysis with NHCs. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 42 (11 ULg) DSIMA: A testbed for the quantitative analysis of interaction models within distribution networksMathieu, Sébastien ; Louveaux, Quentin ; Ernst, Damien et alin Sustainable Energy, Grids and Networks (2016), 5This article proposes an open-source testbed to simulate interaction models governing the exchange of flexibility services located within a distribution network. The testbed is an agent-based system in ... [more ▼]This article proposes an open-source testbed to simulate interaction models governing the exchange of flexibility services located within a distribution network. The testbed is an agent-based system in which the distribution system operator, the transmission system operator, producers and retailers make their decisions based on mixed-integer linear programs. This testbed helps to highlight the characteristics of an interaction model, the benefits for the agents and eases the detection of unwanted or abusive behaviors which decreases the welfare. The testbed is implemented in Python and the optimization problems are encoded in the modeling language ZIMPL. A web interface is coupled with an instance generator using macroscopic parameters of the system such as the total power production. This testbed is, therefore, well suited to test the implemented interaction models on various scenarios and to extend the implementation to other models. Five interaction models developed with industrial partners are simulated over a year on a 75-bus test system. Simulations show that interaction models relying on active network management, as they have been developed, lead to substantial welfare even though they suffer from a lack of coordination between the DSO and the TSO. A conservative interaction model restricting grid users to an access range that is computed ahead of time to prevent any congestion, avoids shedding distributed generation but considerably restrains the amount of distributed production. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 416 (34 ULg) De la matérialisation de quelques concepts phénoménologiques.Frère, Bruno in SociologieS (2016)Résumé : Ce article suggère une réflexion sur les rapports qu’entretiennent sociologie et philosophie. Il entend montrer qu’établir des ponts entre les deux disciplines a non seulement toujours été ... [more ▼]Résumé : Ce article suggère une réflexion sur les rapports qu’entretiennent sociologie et philosophie. Il entend montrer qu’établir des ponts entre les deux disciplines a non seulement toujours été d’usage mais s’avère aujourd’hui urgent. En effet, faisant l’économie d’une considération sérieuse de la prise que lui offre la sociologie sur le monde, la philosophie risque d’échouer à penser les transformations politiques et économiques des société contemporaines. A l’inverse, une certaine tendance positiviste semble menacer la sociologie qui se débarrasserait de toutes connaissances philosophiques. Afin de rappeler l’intérêt que l’une et l’autre se doivent réciproquement, cet article voudrait montrer comment il peut être utile à la sociologie de donner corps à certains concepts philosophiques lorsqu’elle s’avère confrontée à certaines difficultés. Afin d’illustrer le propos, nous nous référerons à un exemple puisé au sein de l’économie solidaire. Ici en effet, c’est en acceptant que se matérialise dans l’enquête le concept d’état d’esprit intentionnel que la philosophie phénoménologique vient à point nommé pour aider la sociologie pragmatique de la critique à se représenter les contradictions qui peuvent apparaître entre action et justification. Et ce sans pour autant renoncer à « prendre les gens aux sérieux » et s’en retourner vers une traditionnelle sociologie du dévoilement qui expliquerait ces contradictions par le décalage qui existerait entre habitus (ou sens pratique) d’une part et illusions réflexives des acteurs d’autre part. Mots clefs : phénoménologie, états d’esprit intentionnel, philosophie, sociologie pragmatique, économie solidaire. Summary : This article is a reflexion about the relationship between sociology and philosophy. It will show that building bridges between the two disciplines, whilst recurrent, is more urgent now than ever. On the one hand, philosophy will be unable to contribute meaningfully to discussions about the major political and economic transformations experienced by contemporary societies without engaging with Sociology. On the other hand without philosophical insights Sociology risks drifting towards positivistic trends. In this article we propose to show how each discipline can benefit from cross-fertilisations and in particular how Sociology can appropriate philosophical concepts to address certain challenges. Drawing on a specific example from solidary economy, we will show that the concept of intentional mindset borrowed from phenomenological philosophy enables pragmatic sociology to account for the gaps which are liable to emerge between action and justification. This concept fulfills the key tenet of pragmatic sociology that to take social actors seriously we must eschew a type of sociological approach which would consist of revealing that the gaps between action and justification arise from social actors’ illusory apprehension of their habitus. Key words: phénoménology, mindset, states of mind, philosophy, pragmatic sociology, solidarity economy. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 21 (0 ULg) The Medium is the Message. Olivier Schrauwen's ‘Arsène Schrauwen’ Beyond Expectations of Autobiography, Colonial History and the Graphic NovelCrucifix, Benoît ; Meesters, Gertin European Comic Art (2016), 9(1), This article proposes a close reading of Olivier Schrauwen's Arsène Schrauwen, focusing on the various cultural discourses that it engages with, and particularly its ironical self-positioning within the ... [more ▼]This article proposes a close reading of Olivier Schrauwen's Arsène Schrauwen, focusing on the various cultural discourses that it engages with, and particularly its ironical self-positioning within the field of comics. First of all, Schrauwen playfully questions the entrenchment of autobiography in the contemporary graphic novel by presenting a wholly fantasized adventure as biographical family history. This play with generic expectations is continued through Schrauwen’s reliance on the tropes of the adventure story and its figuration of the voyage. Arsène Schrauwen also draws on stereotypical images of both Belgium and the Belgian Congo and integrates them into a grotesque narrative so as to question the supposed unicity of the individual and colonial bodies. Last but not least, the book displays a highly self-reflexive approach to comics storytelling, building on a legacy from Flemish comics in order to play with reading conventions, graphic enunciation and abstraction, thereby thematising the perception of the main character. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 28 (5 ULg) L’impact des activités non agricoles sur la pauvreté et l’inégalité rurales dans les groupements Bugorhe et Irhambi-Katana (Territoire de Kabare, Province du Sud-Kivu)Furaha Mirindi, Germaine ; Namegabe Mastaki, Jean Luc; Lebailly, Philippe in JOURNAL OF ORIENTAL AND AFRICAN STUDIES (2016), 25Using a survey on the socio-economic situation of households in 2012, the study analyses the effect of non farm income on inequality and poverty alleviation in a rural area of the Democratic Republic of ... [more ▼]Using a survey on the socio-economic situation of households in 2012, the study analyses the effect of non farm income on inequality and poverty alleviation in a rural area of the Democratic Republic of Congo, by comparing a group of households practicing agriculture only and another group which combines agriculture and nonfarm activities. The approach used considers non farm income as an exogenous transfer which completes the whole household income, and analyses the contribution of different sources of income on the inequality in using the Gini index. The results show that inequality increases when a segment of the population does not have access to non-agricultural income. In this case, non farm income is not a substitute of farm income, rather the complement. The poverty analysis is based on the Congolese rural threshold poverty in terms of basic needs to calculate the rate, depth and severity of poverty indexes in using of Foster- Greer-Thorbecke. The results show that households practicing agriculture only are poorer. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 40 (6 ULg) Aggressive tumor growth and clinical evolution in a patient with X-linked acro-gigantism syndrome.Naves, Luciana A.; Daly, Adrian Francis ; Dias, Luiz Augusto et alin Endocrine (2016)X-linked acro-gigantism (X-LAG) syndrome is a newly described disease caused by microduplications on chromosome Xq26.3 leading to copy number gain of GPR101. We describe the clinical progress of a ... [more ▼]X-linked acro-gigantism (X-LAG) syndrome is a newly described disease caused by microduplications on chromosome Xq26.3 leading to copy number gain of GPR101. We describe the clinical progress of a sporadic male X-LAG syndrome patient with an Xq26.3 microduplication, highlighting the aggressive natural history of pituitary tumor growth in the absence of treatment. The patient first presented elsewhere aged 5 years 8 months with a history of excessive growth for >2 years. His height was 163 cm, his weight was 36 kg, and he had markedly elevated GH and IGF-1. MRI showed a non-invasive sellar mass measuring 32.5 x 23.9 x 29.1 mm. Treatment was declined and the family was lost to follow-up. At the age of 10 years and 7 months, he presented again with headaches, seizures, and visual disturbance. His height had increased to 197 cm. MRI showed an invasive mass measuring 56.2 x 58.1 x 45.0 mm, with compression of optic chiasma, bilateral cavernous sinus invasion, and hydrocephalus. His thyrotrope, corticotrope, and gonadotrope axes were deficient. Surgery, somatostatin analogs, and cabergoline did not control vertical growth and pegvisomant was added, although vertical growth continues (currently 207 cm at 11 years 7 months of age). X-LAG syndrome is a new genomic disorder in which early-onset pituitary tumorigenesis can lead to marked overgrowth and gigantism. This case illustrates the aggressive nature of tumor evolution and the challenging clinical management in X-LAG syndrome. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 25 (11 ULg) Targeted control of the saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (von Roser) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), and the benefits of good control of this pest to winter wheat yieldCensier, Florence ; Chavalle, Sandrine ; San Martin y Gomez, Gilles et alin Pest Management Science (2016)BACKGROUND: Since 2010, there has been a resurgence of the saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (von Roser), in Belgium and several other European countries, with this pest sometimes causing severe ... [more ▼]BACKGROUND: Since 2010, there has been a resurgence of the saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (von Roser), in Belgium and several other European countries, with this pest sometimes causing severe damage in cereals. In 2012 and 2013, field trials were conducted in heavily infested fields to assess its impact on winter wheat crops and to determine efficient ways of dealing with severe infestations. RESULTS: Crop exposure to H. marginata varied with the different protection methods tried. These methods included one to four successive applications of lambda-cyhalothrin. Yield losses were significant, reaching 6% in 2012 and as high as 15% in 2013, and these losses were linearly related to the number of galls on stems. CONCLUSION: The trials showed that insecticide applications needed to be synchronized with H. marginata flight peaks and to target the egg hatching period. They also revealed that insecticides applied to coincide with the first flight could, in humid conditions, also reach the larvae close to the soil surface, prior to their pupation. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 35 (9 ULg) Phenolic profile, antibacterial and cytotoxic properties of second grade date extract from Tunisian cultivars (Phoenix dactylifera L.)Kchaou, Wissal; Abbès, Fatma; Ben Mansour, Riadh et alin Food Chemistry (2016), (194), 1048-1055The present study aimed to investigate the phenolic profile of second grade date extracts and evaluate their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities with regard to some pathogenic microorganisms. Phenolic ... [more ▼]The present study aimed to investigate the phenolic profile of second grade date extracts and evaluate their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities with regard to some pathogenic microorganisms. Phenolic content was analyzed by HPLC. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the agar disk diffusion method, and in vitro cytotoxic activity was examined by cell proliferation assay. The results revealed that second grade dates presented three benzoic acids, five cinnamic acids and two flavonoids, with the predominance of q-coumaric acid (1998.80 lg/100 g). The antimicrobial activities showed that the date extracts were active against Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria, showing marked activity against Escherichia coli with an inhibition zone of 25 mm. Cytotoxicity assays showed that the date extracts were able to inhibit the proliferation of HeLa cell lines. The results confirmed that the date extracts were rich in biologically active compounds that are highly valued in the functional food and nutraceutical industries. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (0 ULg) Assessment of the entering stock, migration dynamics and fish pass fidelity of european eel in the belgian meuse riverNzau Matondo, Billy ; Benitez, Jean-Philippe ; Dierckx, Arnaud et alin River Research & Applications (2016)Migration dynamics of incoming eels in Belgium via Lixhe in the Meuse River were investigated using two fish passes with different configurations— net traps and automatic detection stations—as tools to ... [more ▼]Migration dynamics of incoming eels in Belgium via Lixhe in the Meuse River were investigated using two fish passes with different configurations— net traps and automatic detection stations—as tools to distinguish resident and migrating eels. From April to September 2013, 435 eels (P50 length, 403 mm; range, 196–836 mm) were caught (daily maxima catch, 90 eels per day), 90% between 13 June and 1 August (50 days) and P50 on 19 July. Eels migrated mostly at 19–26 °C (P50, 24.4 °C), river discharge 65–314m3 s 1 (P50, 84m3 s 1), during the dark at 00:00–05:00 h and during both the waxing and waning phases of moonlight. From 396 eels tagged and released 0.3 km downstream of the Lixhe dam, 6.8% of them were recaptured, and 37.4% were detected. Migration flux was estimated at 7184 eels (0.863 t) using the markrecapture method and decreased to 1156 eels (0.139 t) using automatic transponder detection. Most eels probably migrated through a sluice located downstream of Lixhe to reach the upper Meuse via the Albert Canal. Eels moved almost independently to the configuration of the fish passes and their location, but most eels displayed fidelity to the fish pass where they were captured. Migrant eels showed a wide range of size and life stages, with a higher proportion of eels (80%) belonging to the yellow eel stage. A lower proportion of eels (6%) had a larger size and presented an advanced continental silvering process corresponding to the migrating stage before their transatlantic migration. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (2 ULg) Physical, functional and structural characterization of the cell wall fractions from baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiaeBorchani, C.; Fonteyn, F.; Jamin, G. et alin Food Chemistry (2016), 194The yeast cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important source of β-D-glucan, a glucose homopolymer with many functional, nutritional and human health benefits. In the present study, the yeast ... [more ▼]The yeast cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important source of β-D-glucan, a glucose homopolymer with many functional, nutritional and human health benefits. In the present study, the yeast cell wall fractionation process involving enzymatic treatments (savinase and lipolase enzymes) affected most of the physical and functional characteristics of extracted fractions. Thus, the fractionation process showed that β-D-glucan fraction F4 had significantly higher swelling power and fat binding capacity compared to other fractions (F1, F2 and F3). It also exhibited a viscosity of 652.12 mPa s and a high degree of brightness of extracted β-D-glucan fraction. Moreover, the fractionation process seemed to have an effect on structural and thermal properties of extracted fractions. Overall, results showed that yeast β-D-glucan had good potential for use as a prebiotic ingredient in food, as well as medicinal and pharmaceutical products. © 2015, Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 92 (0 ULg) Combined chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine for painful knee osteoarthritis: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, non-inferiority trial versus celecoxibHochberg, M. C.; Martel-Pelletier, J.; Monfort, J. et alin Ann Rheum Dis (2016), 75(1), 37-44OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and safety of chondroitin sulfate plus glucosamine hydrochloride (CS+GH) versus celecoxib in patients with knee osteoarthritis and severe pain. METHODS: Double-blind ... [more ▼]OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and safety of chondroitin sulfate plus glucosamine hydrochloride (CS+GH) versus celecoxib in patients with knee osteoarthritis and severe pain. METHODS: Double-blind Multicentre Osteoarthritis interVEntion trial with SYSADOA (MOVES) conducted in France, Germany, Poland and Spain evaluating treatment with CS+GH versus celecoxib in 606 patients with Kellgren and Lawrence grades 2-3 knee osteoarthritis and moderate-to-severe pain (Western Ontario and McMaster osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) score >/=301; 0-500 scale). Patients were randomised to receive 400 mg CS plus 500 mg GH three times a day or 200 mg celecoxib every day for 6 months. The primary outcome was the mean decrease in WOMAC pain from baseline to 6 months. Secondary outcomes included WOMAC function and stiffness, visual analogue scale for pain, presence of joint swelling/effusion, rescue medication consumption, Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials and Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OMERACT-OARSI) criteria and EuroQoL-5D. RESULTS: The adjusted mean change (95% CI) in WOMAC pain was -185.7 (-200.3 to -171.1) (50.1% decrease) with CS+GH and -186.8 (-201.7 to -171.9) (50.2% decrease) with celecoxib, meeting the non-inferiority margin of -40: -1.11 (-22.0 to 19.8; p=0.92). All sensitivity analyses were consistent with that result. At 6 months, 79.7% of patients in the combination group and 79.2% in the celecoxib group fulfilled OMERACT-OARSI criteria. Both groups elicited a reduction >50% in the presence of joint swelling; a similar reduction was seen for effusion. No differences were observed for the other secondary outcomes. Adverse events were low and similarly distributed between groups. CONCLUSIONS: CS+GH has comparable efficacy to celecoxib in reducing pain, stiffness, functional limitation and joint swelling/effusion after 6 months in patients with painful knee osteoarthritis, with a good safety profile. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01425853. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg) Optimizing the management of osteoarthritis-Transitioning evidence-based guidelines into practical guidance for real-world clinical practiceReginster, Jean-Yves ; Cooper, C.in Seminars in Arthritis & Rheumatism (2016), 45(4 Suppl), 1-2Detailed reference viewed: 22 (10 ULg) Competing effects of volume change and water uptake on the water retention behaviour of a compacted MX-80 bentonite/sand mixtureGatabin, Claude; Talandier, Jean; Collin, Frédéric et alin Applied Clay Science (2016), 121-122Bentonite-based materials have been studied as potential barriers for the geological disposal of radioactive waste. In this context, the hydro-mechanical behaviour of the engineered barrier is first ... [more ▼]Bentonite-based materials have been studied as potential barriers for the geological disposal of radioactive waste. In this context, the hydro-mechanical behaviour of the engineered barrier is first characterized by free swelling conditions (as a consequence of the progressive filling of technological gaps) followed by constant volume conditions. This paper presents an experimental study conducted in order to characterize the water retention behaviour of a compacted MX-80 bentonite/sand mixture. The water retention properties upon wetting were investigated under both free swelling and constant volume conditions. In the high suction range, the water content was not influenced by the imposed volume constraints. On the contrary, swelling significantly affected the water retention behaviour at low suctions, and the quantity of water stored was higher under free swelling conditions than it was under prevented swelling. In this case, competing effects between bentonite swelling and water uptake did not lead to an increase of the degree of saturation upon wetting, as it was observed for samples wetted under constant volume conditions. The influence of the very strong hydro-mechanical coupling is further discussed. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 53 (8 ULg) Small-Angle Scattering Analysis of Empty or Loaded Hierarchical Porous MaterialsGommes, Cédric ; Prieto, Gonzalo; de Jongh, Petrain Journal of Physical Chemistry C (2016), 120(3), 14881506Small-angle scattering of x-rays (SAXS) or neutrons (SANS) is one of the few experimental methods that can in principle be used for the in situ study at the mesoscopic scale of physicochemical phenomena ... [more ▼]Small-angle scattering of x-rays (SAXS) or neutrons (SANS) is one of the few experimental methods that can in principle be used for the in situ study at the mesoscopic scale of physicochemical phenomena occurring inside nanoporous solids. However, the potential of the method is often limited by the lack of suitable data analysis methods to convert scattering data into real-space structural information. This is notably the case for most porous materials of practical interest, which exhibit a hierarchical structure with micro, meso, and macropores, with often a secondary material confined in the pores, such as in supported catalysts, as well as fuel-cell and battery materials. In the present contribution, we propose a general analysis of x-ray scattering by this type of material. Assuming that each structural level is statistically independent from the others and has a distinct characteristic length scale, compact mathematical expressions are derived for the scattering of the entire hierarchical structure. The results are particularised to the SAXS analysis of SBA-15 ordered mesoporous silica loaded with copper nitrate as well as to supported catalysts obtained after heat treatment of that material. The SAXS data analysis shows that the nitrate fills both the micro and mesopores of the material, while the metallic copper obtained after heat treatment is found only in the mesopores. Moreover, the mesoscopic-scale spatial distribution of the metal depends on the heat treatment, in line with earlier electron tomography studies. The main ideas underlying the SAXS data analysis were presented in an recent Communication [Gommes et al., Angew. Chem. Intl. Ed. 54 (2015) 11804-11808]. Here we generalise the approach and we provide a comprehensive discussion of how any level in a hierarchical structure contributes to its overall scattering pattern. The results, as well as the general modelling methodology, will be of interest to anyone interested in the quantitative analysis of small-angle scattering data of empty or loaded porous solids, and more generally of any type of hierarchical material. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 86 (16 ULg) The terrestrialization process: A palaeobotanical and palynological perspective.Meyer-Berthaud, Brigitte; Servais, Thomas; Vecoli, Marco et alin Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology (2016), 224(Part 1), 1-3Detailed reference viewed: 53 (2 ULg) De la perversion au pervers ; du sexuel à l’adaptatifEnglebert, Jérôme in Psychosomatique Relationnelle (2016), 5(1), Detailed reference viewed: 99 (24 ULg) Bi-objective Road and Pipe Network Design for Crude Oil Transport in the Sfax Region in TunisiaBelaid, Emna ; Limbourg, Sabine ; Mostert, Martine et alin Procedia Engineering (2016), 142In this paper, we examine a bi-objective road and pipe network design for crude oil transport in the Sfax region in Tunisia. In particular, we search for the minimum spanning trees (MST) that connect the ... [more ▼]In this paper, we examine a bi-objective road and pipe network design for crude oil transport in the Sfax region in Tunisia. In particular, we search for the minimum spanning trees (MST) that connect the different oil fields with the port of La Skhirra. In the determination of the minimum spanning trees, two objectives are taken into account, i.e. accident risk and construction costs. By using an improved ɛ-constraint resolution technique, the Pareto optimal combinations of risk and cost are found. Results indicate that the network solutions by pipe outperform the solutions by road. When the minimum spanning trees for the two extremes on the Pareto curves, i.e. the cost minimum and risk minimum, are compared, one could note considerable differences in the links that form the MST. This implies that policy makers have an important role in deliberating between costs and risks. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 34 (6 ULg) Fluorodeoxyglucose F Positron Emission Tomography Coupled With Computed Tomography in Suspected Acute Renal Allograft Rejection.Lovinfosse, P.; Weekers, L.; Bonvoisin, C. et alin American Journal of Transplantation (2016)Management of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) with suspected acute rejection (AR) ultimately relies on kidney biopsy; however, noninvasive tests predicting nonrejection would help avoid unnecessary ... [more ▼]Management of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) with suspected acute rejection (AR) ultimately relies on kidney biopsy; however, noninvasive tests predicting nonrejection would help avoid unnecessary biopsy. AR involves recruitment of leukocytes avid for fluorodeoxyglucose F18 (18 F-FDG), thus 18 F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) coupled with computed tomography (CT) may noninvasively distinguish nonrejection from AR. From January 2013 to February 2015, we prospectively performed 32 18 F-FDG PET/CT scans in 31 adult KTRs with suspected AR who underwent transplant biopsy. Biopsies were categorized into four groups: normal (n = 8), borderline (n = 10), AR (n = 8), or other (n = 6, including 3 with polyoma BK nephropathy). Estimated GFR was comparable in all groups. PET/CT was performed 201 +/- 18 minutes after administration of 3.2 +/- 0.2 MBq/kg of 18 F-FDG, before any immunosuppression change. Mean standard uptake values (SUVs) of both upper and lower renal poles were measured. Mean SUVs reached 1.5 +/- 0.2, 1.6 +/- 0.3, 2.9 +/- 0.8, and 2.2 +/- 1.2 for the normal, borderline, AR, and other groups, respectively. One-way analysis of variance demonstrated a significant difference of mean SUVs among groups. A positive correlation between mean SUV and acute composite Banff score was found, with r2 = 0.49. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.93, with 100% sensitivity and 50% specificity using a mean SUV threshold of 1.6. In conclusion, 18 F-FDG PET/CT may help noninvasively prevent avoidable transplant biopsies in KTRs with suspected AR. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 41 (14 ULg)