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See detailHalomethyl-cobalt(bis-acetylacetonate) for the controlled synthesis of functional polymers
Demarteau, Jérémy ULg; Kermagoret, Anthony; German, Ian et al

in Chemical Communications (2015), 51(76), 14334-14337

Novel organocobalt complexes featuring weak C–CoL2 bonds (L = acetylacetonate) are prepared and used as sources of halomethyl radicals. They permit the precision synthesis of a-halide functionalized and ... [more ▼]

Novel organocobalt complexes featuring weak C–CoL2 bonds (L = acetylacetonate) are prepared and used as sources of halomethyl radicals. They permit the precision synthesis of a-halide functionalized and telechelic polymers in organic media or in water. Substitution of halide by azide allows derivatization of polymers using the CuAAC click reaction. [less ▲]

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See detailThe K2-ESPRINT Project I: Discovery of the Disintegrating Rocky Planet K2-22b with a Cometary Head and Leading Tail
Sanchis-Ojeda, R.; Rappaport, S.; Pallé, E. et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2015), 812(2), 112

We present the discovery of a transiting exoplanet candidate in the K2 Field-1 with an orbital period of 9.1457 hr: K2-22b. The highly variable transit depths, ranging from ∼0% to 1.3%, are suggestive of ... [more ▼]

We present the discovery of a transiting exoplanet candidate in the K2 Field-1 with an orbital period of 9.1457 hr: K2-22b. The highly variable transit depths, ranging from ∼0% to 1.3%, are suggestive of a planet that is disintegrating via the emission of dusty effluents. We characterize the host star as an M-dwarf with Teff ≃ 3800 K. We have obtained ground-based transit measurements with several 1-m class telescopes and with the GTC. These observations (1) improve the transit ephemeris; (2) confirm the variable nature of the transit depths; (3) indicate variations in the transit shapes; and (4) demonstrate clearly that at least on one occasion the transit depths were significantly wavelength dependent. The latter three effects tend to indicate extinction of starlight by dust rather than by any combination of solid bodies. The K2 observations yield a folded light curve with lower time resolution but with substantially better statistical precision compared with the ground-based observations. We detect a significant “bump” just after the transit egress, and a less significant bump just prior to transit ingress. We interpret these bumps in the context of a planet that is not only likely streaming a dust tail behind it, but also has a more prominent leading dust trail that precedes it. This effect is modeled in terms of dust grains that can escape to beyond the planet's Hill sphere and effectively undergo “Roche lobe overflow,” even though the planet's surface is likely underfilling its Roche lobe by a factor of 2. [less ▲]

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See detailStroboscopic phenomena in superconductors with dynamic pinning landscape
Jelic, Zeljko ULg; Milosevic, Milorad; Van de Vondel, Joris et al

in Scientific Reports (2015), 5

Introducing artificial pinning centers is a well established strategy to trap quantum vortices and increase the maximal magnetic field and applied electric current that a superconductor can sustain ... [more ▼]

Introducing artificial pinning centers is a well established strategy to trap quantum vortices and increase the maximal magnetic field and applied electric current that a superconductor can sustain without dissipation. In case of spatially periodic pinning, a clear enhancement of the superconducting critical current arises when commensurability between the vortex configurations and the pinning landscape occurs. With recent achievements in (ultrafast) optics and nanoengineered plasmonics it has become possible to exploit the interaction of light with superconductivity, and create not only spatially periodic imprints on the superconducting condensate, but also temporally periodic ones. Here we show that in the latter case, temporal matching phenomena develop, caused by stroboscopic commensurability between the characteristic frequency of the vortex motion under applied current and the frequency of the dynamic pinning. The matching resonances persist in a broad parameter space, including magnetic field, driving current, or material purity, giving rise to unusual features such as externally variable resistance/impedance and Shapiro steps in current-voltage characteristics. All features are tunable by the frequency of the dynamic pinning landscape. These findings open further exploration avenues for using flashing, spatially engineered, and/or mobile excitations on superconductors, permitting us to achieve advanced functionalities. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics System: Enabling High-Contrast Imaging on Solar-System Scales
Jovanovic, N.; Martinache, F.; Guyon, O. et al

in Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (2015), 127

The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) instrument is a multipurpose high-contrast imaging platform designed for the discovery and detailed characterization of exoplanetary systems and ... [more ▼]

The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) instrument is a multipurpose high-contrast imaging platform designed for the discovery and detailed characterization of exoplanetary systems and serves as a testbed for high-contrast imaging technologies for ELTs. It is a multiband instrument which makes use of light from 600 to 2500 nm, allowing for coronagraphic direct exoplanet imaging of the inner 3λ/D from the stellar host. Wavefront sensing and control are key to the operation of SCExAO. A partial correction of low-order modes is provided by Subaru's facility adaptive optics system with the final correction, including high-order modes, implemented downstream by a combination of a visible pyramid wavefront sensor and a 2000-element deformable mirror. The well-corrected NIR (y-K bands) wavefronts can then be injected into any of the available coronagraphs, including but not limited to the phase-induced amplitude apodization and the vector vortex coronagraphs, both of which offer an inner working angle as low as 1λ/D. Noncommon path, low-order aberrations are sensed with a coronagraphic low-order wavefront sensor in the infrared (IR). Low noise, high frame rate NIR detectors allow for active speckle nulling and coherent differential imaging, while the HAWAII 2RG detector in the HiCIAO imager and/or the CHARIS integral field spectrograph (from mid-2016) can take deeper exposures and/or perform angular, spectral, and polarimetric differential imaging. Science in the visible is provided by two interferometric modules: VAMPIRES and FIRST, which enable subdiffraction limited imaging in the visible region with polarimetric and spectroscopic capabilities respectively. We describe the instrument in detail and present preliminary results both on-sky and in the laboratory. [less ▲]

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See detailKIC 4768731: a bright long-period roAp star in the Kepler field
Smalley, B.; Niemczura, E.; Murphy, S. J. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2015), 452

We report the identification of 61.45 d[SUP]-1[/SUP] (711.2 μHz) oscillations, with amplitudes of 62.6 μmag, in KIC 4768731 (HD 225914) using Kepler photometry. This relatively bright (V = 9.17 ... [more ▼]

We report the identification of 61.45 d[SUP]-1[/SUP] (711.2 μHz) oscillations, with amplitudes of 62.6 μmag, in KIC 4768731 (HD 225914) using Kepler photometry. This relatively bright (V = 9.17) chemically peculiar star with spectral type A5 Vp SrCr(Eu) has previously been found to exhibit rotational modulation with a period of 5.21 d. Fourier analysis reveals a simple dipole pulsator with an amplitude that has remained stable over a 4-yr time span, but with a frequency that is variable. Analysis of high-resolution spectra yields stellar parameters of T[SUB]eff[/SUB] = 8100 ± 200 K, log g = 4.0 ± 0.2, [Fe/H] = +0.31 ± 0.24 and v sin i = 14.8 ± 1.6 km s[SUP]-1[/SUP]. Line profile variations caused by rotation are also evident. Lines of Sr, Cr, Eu, Mg and Si are strongest when the star is brightest, while Y and Ba vary in antiphase with the other elements. The abundances of rare earth elements are only modestly enhanced compared to other roAp stars of similar T[SUB]eff[/SUB] and log g. Radial velocities in the literature suggest a significant change over the past 30 yr, but the radial velocities presented here show no significant change over a period of 4 yr. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence for two spatially separated UV continuum emitting regions in the Cloverleaf broad absorption line quasar
Sluse, Dominique ULg; Hutsemekers, Damien ULg; Anguita, T. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2015), 582

Testing the standard Shakura-Sunyaev model of accretion is a challenging task because the central region of quasars where accretion takes place is unresolved with telescopes. The analysis of microlensing ... [more ▼]

Testing the standard Shakura-Sunyaev model of accretion is a challenging task because the central region of quasars where accretion takes place is unresolved with telescopes. The analysis of microlensing in gravitationally lensed quasars is one of the few techniques that can test this model, yielding to the measurement of the size and of temperature profile of the accretion disc. We present spectroscopic observations of the gravitationally lensed broad absorption line quasar H1413+117, which reveal partial microlensing of the continuum emission that appears to originate from two separated regions: a microlensed region, corresponding the compact accretion disc; and a non-microlensed region, more extended and contributing to at least 30% of the total UV-continuum flux. Because this extended continuum is occulted by the broad absorption line clouds, it is not associated with the host galaxy, but rather with light scattered in the neighbourhood of the central engine. We measure the amplitude of microlensing of the compact continuum over the rest-frame wavelength range 1000-7000 Å. Following a Bayesian scheme, we confront our measurements to microlensing simulations of an accretion disc with a temperature varying as T ∝ R[SUP]-1/ν[/SUP]. We find a most likely source half-light radius of R[SUB]1/2[/SUB] = 0.61 × 10[SUP]16[/SUP]cm (i.e., 0.002 pc) at 0.18 μm, and a most-likely index of ν = 0.4. The standard disc (ν = 4/3) model is not ruled out by our data, and is found within the 95% confidence interval associated with our measurements. We demonstrate that, for H1413+117, the existence of an extended continuum in addition to the disc emission only has a small impact on the inferred disc parameters, and is unlikely to solve the tension between the microlensing source size and standard disc sizes, as previously reported in the literature. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). ESO program ID: 386.B-0337.Appendices A and B are available in electronic form at <A href="http://www.aanda.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201526832/olm">http://www.aanda.org</A> [less ▲]

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See detailTests of the Planetary Hypothesis for PTFO 8-8695b
Yu, Liang; Winn, Joshua N.; Gillon, Michaël ULg et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2015), 812

The T Tauri star PTFO 8-8695 exhibits periodic fading events that have been interpreted as the transits of a giant planet on a precessing orbit. Here we present three tests of the planet hypothesis. First ... [more ▼]

The T Tauri star PTFO 8-8695 exhibits periodic fading events that have been interpreted as the transits of a giant planet on a precessing orbit. Here we present three tests of the planet hypothesis. First, we sought evidence for the secular changes in light-curve morphology that are predicted to be a consequence of orbital precession. We observed 28 fading events spread over several years and did not see the expected changes. Instead, we found that the fading events are not strictly periodic. Second, we attempted to detect the planet's radiation, based on infrared observations spanning the predicted times of occultations. We ruled out a signal of the expected amplitude. Third, we attempted to detect the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect by performing high-resolution spectroscopy throughout a fading event. No effect was seen at the expected level, ruling out most (but not all) possible orientations for the hypothetical planetary orbit. Our spectroscopy also revealed strong, time-variable, high-velocity Hα and Ca H & K emission features. All these observations cast doubt on the planetary hypothesis, and suggest instead that the fading events represent starspots, eclipses by circumstellar dust, or occultations of an accretion hotspot. [less ▲]

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See detailKepler's first view of O-star variability: K2 data of five O stars in Campaign 0 as a proof of concept for O-star asteroseismology
Buysschaert, B.; Aerts, C.; Bloemen, S. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2015), 453

We present high-precision photometric light curves of five O-type stars observed with the refurbished Kepler satellite during its Campaign 0. For one of the stars, we also assembled high-resolution ground ... [more ▼]

We present high-precision photometric light curves of five O-type stars observed with the refurbished Kepler satellite during its Campaign 0. For one of the stars, we also assembled high-resolution ground-based spectroscopy with the HERMES spectrograph attached to the 1.2 m Mercator telescope. The stars EPIC 202060097 (O9.5V) and EPIC 202060098 (O7V) exhibit monoperiodic variability due to rotational modulation with an amplitude of 5.6 and 9.3 mmag and a rotation period of 2.63 and 5.03 d, respectively. EPIC 202060091 (O9V) and EPIC 202060093 (O9V:pe) reveal variability at low frequency but the cause is unclear. EPIC 202060092 (O9V:p) is discovered to be a spectroscopic binary with at least one multiperiodic β Cep-type pulsator whose detected mode frequencies occur in the range [0.11, 6.99] d[SUP]-1[/SUP] and have amplitudes between 0.8 and 2.0 mmag. Its pulsation spectrum is shown to be fully compatible with the ones predicted by core-hydrogen burning O-star models. Despite the short duration of some 33 d and the limited data quality with a precision near 100 μmag of these first K2 data, the diversity of possible causes for O-star variability already revealed from campaigns of similar duration by the MOST and CoRoT satellites is confirmed with Kepler. We provide an overview of O-star space photometry and give arguments why future K2 monitoring during Campaigns 11 and 13 at short cadence, accompanied by time-resolved high-precision high-resolution spectroscopy, opens up the possibility of in-depth O-star seismology. [less ▲]

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See detailThe far-ultraviolet main auroral emission at Jupiter – Part 1: Dawn–dusk brightness asymmetries
Bonfond, Bertrand ULg; Gustin, Jacques ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg et al

in Annales Geophysicae (2015), 33

The main auroral emission at Jupiter generally appears as a quasi-closed curtain centered around the magnetic pole. This auroral feature, which accounts for approximately half of the total power emitted ... [more ▼]

The main auroral emission at Jupiter generally appears as a quasi-closed curtain centered around the magnetic pole. This auroral feature, which accounts for approximately half of the total power emitted by the aurorae in the ultraviolet range, is related to corotation enforcement currents in the middle magnetosphere. Early models for these currents assumed axisymmetry, but significant local time variability is obvious on any image of the Jovian aurorae. Here we use far-UV images from the Hubble Space Telescope to further characterize these variations on a statistical basis. We show that the dusk side sector is ~ 3 times brighter than the dawn side in the southern hemisphere and ~ 1.1 brighter in the northern hemisphere, where the magnetic anomaly complicates the interpretation of the measurements. We suggest that such an asymmetry between the dawn and the dusk sectors could be the result of a partial ring current in the nightside magnetosphere. [less ▲]

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See detailEnzymatic functionalization of a nanobody using protein insertion technology
Crasson, Oscar ULg; Rhazi, Noureddine; Jacquin, Olivier et al

in Protein Engineering, Design & Selection (2015), 28(10), 451-460

Antibody-based products constitute one of the most attractive biological molecules for diagnostic, medical imagery and therapeutic purposes with very few side effects. Their development has be- come a ... [more ▼]

Antibody-based products constitute one of the most attractive biological molecules for diagnostic, medical imagery and therapeutic purposes with very few side effects. Their development has be- come a major priority of biotech and pharmaceutical industries. Recently, a growing number of modified antibody-based products have emerged including fragments, multi-specific and conjugate antibodies. In this study, using protein engineering, we have functionalized the anti-hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) camelid VHH antibody fragment (cAb-Lys3), by insertion into a solvent-exposed loop of the Bacillus licheniformis β-lactamase BlaP. We showed that the generated hybrid protein conserved its enzymatic activity while the displayed nanobody retains its ability to inhibit HEWL with a nanomolar affinity range. Then, we successfully implemented the functionalized cAb-Lys3 in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, potentiometric biosensor and drug screening assays. The hybrid protein was also expressed on the surface of phage particles and, in this context, was able to interact specifically with HEWL while the β-lactamase activity was used to monitor phage interactions. Finally, using thrombin-cleavage sites surrounding the permissive insertion site in the β-lactamase, we reported an expression system in which the nanobody can be easily separated from its carrier protein. Altogether, our study shows that insertion into the BlaP β-lactamase consti- tutes a suitable technology to functionalize nanobodies and allowsthe creation of versatile tools that can be used in innovative biotechnological assays. [less ▲]

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See detailSequential decision-making approach for quadrangular mesh generation
Johnen, Amaury ULg; Ernst, Damien ULg; Geuzaine, Christophe ULg

in Engineering with Computers (2015), 31(4), 729-735

A new indirect quadrangular mesh generation algorithm which relies on sequential decision-making techniques to search for optimal triangle recombinations is presented. In contrast to the state-of-art ... [more ▼]

A new indirect quadrangular mesh generation algorithm which relies on sequential decision-making techniques to search for optimal triangle recombinations is presented. In contrast to the state-of-art Blossom-quad algorithm, this new algorithm is a good candidate for addressing the 3D problem of recombining tetrahedra into hexahedra. [less ▲]

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See detailL’immunisation des normes législatives par le choix du constituant
Bouhon, Frédéric ULg

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2015), 2015/3

Cet article commente l'arrêt n° 81/2015 de la Cour constitutionnelle et se focalise sur la notion de 'choix du constituant' à laquelle la Cour se réfère dans cet arrêt et dans d'autres qui l'ont précédé.

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See detailGreenhouse gas emissions from livestock production in rural area of Algeria, the case of Chemini (Kabylie)
Moula, Nassim ULg; Salhi, A.; Touazi, L. et al

in Livestock Research for Rural Development (2015), 27(10),

The Algerian agricultural sector faces the challenge to meet the food needs of its population despite low agricultural capacity, resulting in increasing pressure on natural resources. This paper aims to ... [more ▼]

The Algerian agricultural sector faces the challenge to meet the food needs of its population despite low agricultural capacity, resulting in increasing pressure on natural resources. This paper aims to inventory the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to livestock sector in the rural area of Chemini (province of Bejaia), taking into account the emissions due to enteric fermentation, in the form of methane, and manure management, in the form of methane and nitrous oxide. Emissions intensity, expressed in CO2- equivalents (CO2-eq) per kg of edible protein, was included in the study. Ruminants contribute to 94% of livestock GHG emissions and to 53% of protein production, with a large share due to cattle. The main part of emissions is related to enteric fermentation. High-producing cattle present the lowest emission intensity of the ruminant category with 24 kg CO2-eq per kg protein. Chickens produce 2.7% of livestock related emissions but provide 47% of animal protein. It results in low emission intensities whereas important difference is noticed between backyard and industrialized systems (around 21 versus 1 kg CO2-eq per kg protein, respectively). Improvement of animal performance should contribute to mitigate the environmental impact of livestock production in Algeria. [less ▲]

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See detailFalciparum malaria molecular drug resistance in the Democratic Republic of Congo: a systematic review
Mvumbi, Dieudonné; Kayembe, Jean-Marie; Situakibanza, Hippolyte et al

in Malaria Journal (2015), 14

Background: Malaria cases were estimated to 207 million in 2013. One of the problems of malaria control is the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum strains that become resistant to almost all ... [more ▼]

Background: Malaria cases were estimated to 207 million in 2013. One of the problems of malaria control is the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum strains that become resistant to almost all drugs available. Monitoring drug resistance is essential for early detection and subsequent prevention of the spread of drug resistance by timely changes of treatment policy. This review was performed to gather all data available on P. falciparum molecular resistance in DR Congo, as baseline for future assessments. Methods: The search for this review was undertaken using the electronic databases PubMed and Google Scholar using the terms “malaria”, “Congo”, “resistance”, “molecular”, “antimalarial”, “efficacy”. Articles were classified based on year of collecting, year of publication, sample size and characteristics, molecular markers analysed and polymorphisms detected. Results: Thirteen articles were included and five genes have been analysed in these studies: pfcrt, pfdhps, pfdhfr, pfmdr1 and K13-propeller. The majority of studies included were not representative of the whole country. Conclusion: This systematic review demonstrates the lack of molecular resistance studies in DRC. Only 13 studies were identified in almost 15 years. The MOH must implement a national surveillance system for monitoring malaria drug resistance and this surveillance should be conducted frequently and country-representative. [less ▲]

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See detailÉcologie et gestion des espèces multi-usages du genre Erythrophleum (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae) en Afrique (synthèse bibliographique)
Gorel, Anaïs ULg; Fayolle, Adeline; Doucet, Jean-Louis ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2015), 19

Littérature. Erythrophleum ivorense, E. suaveolens, E. africanum et E. lasianthum diffèrent morphologiquement et sont présentes dans des aires climatiques distinctes. Elles sont héliophiles non pionnières ... [more ▼]

Littérature. Erythrophleum ivorense, E. suaveolens, E. africanum et E. lasianthum diffèrent morphologiquement et sont présentes dans des aires climatiques distinctes. Elles sont héliophiles non pionnières (E. ivorense et E. suaveolens) ou pionnières (E. africanum). La dispersion primaire est ballochore. Les graines présentent une période de dormance et peuvent rester plusieurs années dans le sol. La phénologie est régulière et annuelle. La croissance annuelle moyenne varie entre les espèces, de la plus élevée pour E. ivorense (0,65 cm par an) à la plus faible pour E. africanum (0,16 cm par an). Elles sont largement utilisées dans la médecine traditionnelle. Seules E. ivorense et E. suaveolens sont exploitées pour le bois d’oeuvre et soumises à des normes d’exploitation et des tests sylvicoles. Conclusions. Les données sur l’écologie des espèces du genre Erythrophleum sont globalement mieux renseignées pour E. ivorense et E. suaveolens en raison de leur importance économique. Cette synthèse a permis de mettre en évidence certains manques de connaissances notamment sur la phénologie (relation avec le climat, périodes de fructifications), les diamètres minimums de fructification et les mécanismes de levée de dormance naturelle des graines. Remédier à ces lacunes contribuerait notablement à améliorer les méthodes de gestion des populations de ces espèces. [less ▲]

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See detailCompte rendu de P. Funke, M. Haake, Greek Federal States and Their Sanctuaries
Pirenne-Delforge, Vinciane ULg

in Bryn Mawr Classical Review [=BMCR] (2015)

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See detailcompte rendu de : Claudio Faustinelli, Dall’inganno di Ulisse all’arco di Apollo. Sul testo e l’interpretazione di Lucil. 836 M.
Rochette, Bruno ULg

in Antiquité Classique : Revue Interuniversitaire d'Etudes Classiques (2015), 84

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See detailLe séisme luxembourgeois du 13 avril 1733: nouvelles recherches.
Knuts, Elisabeth ULg

in Ciel et Terre (2015), 131

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See detailRating Network Paths for Locality-Aware Overlay Construction and Routing
Du, Wei; Liao, Yongjun ULg; Tao, Narisu et al

in IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking (2015), 23(5), 1661-1673

This paper investigates the rating of network paths, i.e. acquiring quantized measures of path properties such as round-trip time and available bandwidth. Comparing to finegrained measurements, coarse ... [more ▼]

This paper investigates the rating of network paths, i.e. acquiring quantized measures of path properties such as round-trip time and available bandwidth. Comparing to finegrained measurements, coarse-grained ratings are appealing in that they are not only informative but also cheap to obtain. Motivated by this insight, we firstly address the scalable acquisition of path ratings by statistical inference. By observing similarities to recommender systems, we examine the applicability of solutions to recommender system and show that our inference problem can be solved by a class of matrix factorization techniques. A technical contribution is an active and progressive inference framework that not only improves the accuracy by selectively measuring more informative paths but also speeds up the convergence for available bandwidth by incorporating its measurement methodology. Then, we investigate the usability of rating-based network measurement and inference in applications. A case study is performed on whether locality awareness can be achieved for overlay networks of Pastry and BitTorrent using inferred ratings. We show that such coarse-grained knowledge can improve the performance of peer selection and that finer granularities do not always lead to larger improvements. [less ▲]

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See detailA classification of barycentrically associative polynomial functions
Marichal, Jean-Luc; Mathonet, Pierre ULg; Tomaschek, Jörg

in Aequationes Mathematicae (2015), 89(5), 1281-1291

We describe the class of polynomial functions which are barycentrically associative over an infinite commutative integral domain.

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See detailEyes Open on Sleep and Wake: In Vivo to In Silico Neural Networks
Vanvinckenroye, Amaury ULg; Vandewalle, Gilles ULg; Phillips, Christophe ULg et al

in Neural Plasticity (2015)

Functional and effective connectivity of cortical areas are essential for normal brain function under different behavioral states. Appropriate cortical activity during sleep and wakefulness is ensured by ... [more ▼]

Functional and effective connectivity of cortical areas are essential for normal brain function under different behavioral states. Appropriate cortical activity during sleep and wakefulness is ensured by the balanced activity of excitatory and inhibitory circuits. Ultimately, fast, millisecond cortical rhythmic oscillations shape cortical function in time and space. On a much longer time scale, brain function also depends on prior sleep-wake history and circadian processes. However,much remains to be established on how the brain operates at the neuronal level in humans during sleep and wakefulness. A key limitation of human neuroscience is the difficulty in isolating neuronal excitation/inhibition drive in vivo. Therefore, computational models are noninvasive approaches of choice to indirectly access hidden neuronal states. In this review, we present a physiologically driven in silico approach, Dynamic Causal Modelling (DCM), as a means to comprehend brain function under different experimental paradigms. Importantly, DCM has allowed for the understanding of how brain dynamics underscore brain plasticity, cognition, and different states of consciousness. In a broader perspective, noninvasive computational approaches, such as DCM, may help to puzzle out the spatial and temporal dynamics of human brain function at different behavioural states. [less ▲]

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See detailA performance indicator for structures under natural fire
Gernay, Thomas ULg; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

in Engineering Structures (2015), 100

Fires in buildings are characterized by a heating phase followed by a cooling phase, yet the effects of the latter on structures are not well covered in the current approaches to structural fire ... [more ▼]

Fires in buildings are characterized by a heating phase followed by a cooling phase, yet the effects of the latter on structures are not well covered in the current approaches to structural fire engineering. Indeed the actual requirement of non-occurrence of structural failure at peak temperature does not guarantee against a delayed failure during or after the cooling phase of a fire, which puts at risk the fire brigades and people proceeding to a building inspection after a fire. Therefore there is an urgent need to better comprehend and characterize the materials and structures behavior under decreasing temperatures. Sensitivity to delayed failure of a structural component depends on its typology and constituting materials. In particular, two structural components with the same Fire Resistance rating (R) under standardized fire may exhibit very distinct behavior under natural fire, one of them being more prone to delayed failure than the other. With the aim of quantifying this effect, a new indicator is proposed that characterizes the performance of structures under natural fire conditions. The paper presents the methodology to derive this new indicator as well as results for different typologies of structural components. Parametric analyses highlight the prime influence of constitutive material and thermal inertia of the element on the post-peak behavior. Used in conjunction with the Fire Resistance rating, it is shown how the new indicator carries additional and significant information for classifying structural systems in terms of their fire performance and propensity to delayed failure. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentifying codes in vertex-transitive graphs and strongly regular graphs
Gravier, Sylvain; Parreau, Aline; Rottey, Sara et al

in Electronic Journal of Combinatorics (2015), 22(4), 46

We consider the problem of computing identifying codes of graphs and its fractional relaxation. The ratio between the size of optimal integer and fractional solutions is between 1 and 2ln(|V|)+1 where V ... [more ▼]

We consider the problem of computing identifying codes of graphs and its fractional relaxation. The ratio between the size of optimal integer and fractional solutions is between 1 and 2ln(|V|)+1 where V is the set of vertices of the graph. We focus on vertex-transitive graphs for which we can compute the exact fractional solution. There are known examples of vertex-transitive graphs that reach both bounds. We exhibit infinite families of vertex-transitive graphs with integer and fractional identifying codes of order |V|^α with α∈{14,13,25}. These families are generalized quadrangles (strongly regular graphs based on finite geometries). They also provide examples for metric dimension of graphs. [less ▲]

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See detailLa désobéissance au droit: approche sociologique comparée
Garcia Villegas, Mauricio; Lejeune, Aude ULg

in Droit et Société (2015), 91

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See detailUsing kernels and ecological niche modeling to delineate conservation areas in an endangered patch-breeding phenotype
Denoël, Mathieu ULg; Ficetola, Francesco

in Ecological Applications (2015), 25(7), 1922-1931

Efficient delineation of conservation areas is a great challenge in maintaining biodiversity. Kernel density estimators (KDEs) are a powerful tool in this perspective, but they have not been applied at ... [more ▼]

Efficient delineation of conservation areas is a great challenge in maintaining biodiversity. Kernel density estimators (KDEs) are a powerful tool in this perspective, but they have not been applied at the population level on patch-distributed organisms. This would be particularly worthy for species that need broad habitats beyond those where they can be sampled; such as terrestrial lands for pond-breeding amphibians. The aim of this study was to compare different approaches for the identification of suitable areas for conservation: KDE, ecological niche modelling, and a combination of KDE and niche models. Paedomorphosis was chosen as a model system because this is an important form of intraspecific variation that is present in numerous taxa, but geographically localized within species and globally endangered. 277 ponds were sampled in one of the hotspots of paedomorphosis to determine the abundance and distribution of paedomorphs (i.e. individuals retaining gills at the adult stage) of the palmate newt (Lissotriton helveticus), with emphasis on the connections between the most valuable populations. KDEs gave insights into the surface areas required to balance the maintenance of certain number of connected ponds and the respective number of disjoint areas in which the whole population is divided. The inclusion of barriers in the models helped in accurately designing the limits of the areas to protect. Alone, habitat models were not able to successfully delineate the area to protect, but the integration between terrestrial suitable areas or barriers and KDE allowed an objective identification of areas required for conservation. Overall, the best performance was observed by the KDE integrating ecological barriers, and by the combination between KDE and niche modelling. In a broader perspective, KDEs are thus a pertinent tool in providing quantitative spatial measurements to delineate conservation areas based on patch-abundance data with a specific focus to connectivity. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom parents to siblings and peers: The wonderful story of social development.
Roskam, Isabelle; Stievenart, Marie ULg; Meunier, Jean-Christophe

in SAGE Open (2015)

The objective of the current research was to test the hypotheses arising from the epigenetic view of social development and from the wider perspective offered by the social network model with three ... [more ▼]

The objective of the current research was to test the hypotheses arising from the epigenetic view of social development and from the wider perspective offered by the social network model with three interactional systems, that is, child–parent, child–sibling, and child–peer. They were tested in two prospective longitudinal studies using a multi-informant and multimethod strategy. Study 1 was conducted among 83 children and their parents and Study 2 among 190 children. Attachment security with parents was assessed when the children were 4 years of age, relationships with siblings at 5 years of age, and relationships with peers at 6 years of age. Attachment to parent was found to explain a limited part of variations in later social relationships with siblings and peers. The sibling interactional system had a consistent and enduring effect on later peer relationships. With regard to the two theoretical backgrounds under consideration, neither was able to account for equivocal findings displayed in the two studies as well as in previous research. The wonderful story of social development seems to be a very complex process for which new models are needed. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalytical model for composite joints under sagging moment
Bennacer, M.A.; Berouai, A; Kriker, A et al

in Engineering Structures (2015), 101

Nowadays, modern codes and standards such as the (Eurocode 4, 2004) deal with the characterisation of steel–concrete composite joints in building structures, mainly under hogging bending moments in the ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, modern codes and standards such as the (Eurocode 4, 2004) deal with the characterisation of steel–concrete composite joints in building structures, mainly under hogging bending moments in the beam. However, in sway composite frames or when the composite structure is subjected to an accidental/exceptional event such as earthquake or column loss, the beam-to-column joint may be subjected to sagging bending moment, a loading situation which is not yet covered by the codes. This paper deals with the behaviour of composite beam-to-column external joints under sagging bending moments, mainly focusing on the specific joint component “concrete slab in compression”. Indeed, if reference is made to Eurocodes, the method recommended to characterise structural joints is the component method and the “concrete slab in compression” component has been identified as the missing component to be able to apply this method to composite joints subjected to sagging bending moment. In this article, the finite element method is used to model the slab using VecTor 2 software. Through the performed numerical simulations, the behaviour of the slab is studied in detail and an analytical model is proposed. With the proposed model, it is possible to characterise the concrete slab in compression component and so, to apply the component method to predict the mechanical properties of composite joints subjected to sagging bending moment. [less ▲]

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See detailMarchés énergétiques en transition : le cas de la Belgique
Agrell, Per; Gautier, Axel ULg

in Reflets et Perspectives de la Vie Economique (2015), LIV(1-2), 5-6

Foreword by Per Agrell and Axel Gautier

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See detailLes Mots des Maths : Trapèze
Dupont, Pascal ULg

in Losanges (2015), 30

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See detailReviews, opinions and insights for future clinical trials: an overview of PPCR journal
Thibaut, Aurore ULg

in Principles and Practice of Clinical Research (2015), 1(3),

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See detailGlobal capacity announcement of electrical distribution systems: A pragmatic approach
Cornélusse, Bertrand ULg; Vangulick, David; Glavic, Mevludin ULg et al

in Sustainable Energy, Grids and Networks (2015), 4

We propose a pragmatic procedure to facilitate the connection process of Distributed Generation (DG) with reference to the European regulatory framework where Distribution System Operators (DSOs) are ... [more ▼]

We propose a pragmatic procedure to facilitate the connection process of Distributed Generation (DG) with reference to the European regulatory framework where Distribution System Operators (DSOs) are, except in specific cases, not allowed to own their generation. The procedure is termed Global Capacity ANnouncement (GCAN) and is intended to compute the estimates of maximum generation connection amount at appropriate substations in a distribution system, to help generation connection decisions. The pragmatism of the proposed procedure stems from its reliance on the tools that are routinely used in distribution systems planning and operation, and their use such that the possibilities of network sterilization are avoided. The tools involved include: long-term load forecasting, long-term planning of network extension/reinforcement, network reconfiguration, and power flow. Network sterilizing substations are identified through repeated power flow computations. The proposed procedure is supported by results using an artificially created 5-bus test system, the IEEE 33-bus test system, and a part of real-life distribution system of ORES (a Belgian DSO serving a large portion of the Walloon region in Belgium). [less ▲]

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See detailHighlights of the 13th International Conference on Malignant Lymphoma
BONNET, Christophe ULg; BOSLY, A.

in Belgian Journal of Hematology (2015), 6(4), 173-178

A lot of interesting data were presented at the 13th International Conference on Malignant Lymphoma in Lugano, Switzerland. The authors summarise below those presentations/abstracts they found relevant ... [more ▼]

A lot of interesting data were presented at the 13th International Conference on Malignant Lymphoma in Lugano, Switzerland. The authors summarise below those presentations/abstracts they found relevant for daily practice, either now or in the near future. [less ▲]

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See detailWaldenström's macroglobulinaemia: Belgian Hematology Society guidelines
VAN HENDE, V.; BRON, D.; VAN DEN NESTE, E. et al

in Belgian Journal of Hematology (2015), 6(4), 142-151

Waldenström’s macroglobulinaemia is a B-cell disorder characterised by bone marrow infiltration with lymphoplasmacytic cells, along with demonstration of an IgM monoclonal gammopathy in the blood. This ... [more ▼]

Waldenström’s macroglobulinaemia is a B-cell disorder characterised by bone marrow infiltration with lymphoplasmacytic cells, along with demonstration of an IgM monoclonal gammopathy in the blood. This condition belongs to the lymphoplasmacytic lymphomas as defined by the World Health Organization classification (ICD-0 code 9671/3). Approximately one-fourth of patients are asymptomatic. Clinical features of the symptomatic patients are diverse and may relate to overall disease burden (such as peripheral blood cytopaenias, organomegaly and constitutional symptoms) or may be directly attributable to the IgM paraprotein. The latter include hyperviscosity syndrome, amyloidosis, peripheral neuropathy and cold haemagglutinin. Therapeutic options have traditionally involved alkylating agents, nucleoside analogues, and rituximab, either as single therapy or in combination. However, emerging new data on combination therapy as well as novel agents have shown encouraging results. This report provides the Belgian Hematology Society guidelines according to recent clinical studies. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyse exploratoire des liens entre l’interaction entraîneur-joueuses, les représentaitons mutuelles de l’entraînement et la performance sportive
Rémy, Elodie; Manfredini, Tiber ULg; Cloes, Marc ULg

in Bulletin de Psychologie (2015), 68(5), 355-366

The coach-athlete relationship is well documented in the literature. Based on an original research model, the study is focused on three female basketball clubs of the 1st regional division in Wallonia ... [more ▼]

The coach-athlete relationship is well documented in the literature. Based on an original research model, the study is focused on three female basketball clubs of the 1st regional division in Wallonia. Combining interviews, participant observation, focus groups, and perception questionnaires, it appears that the relational dynamics of the three sites differs considerably: ‘Back to back’, ‘Above-below’, ‘Inside’. In each case, the coach-players relationship does not seem suitable to the optimal use of the available resources, in order to reach a sport performance in agreement. Courses of actions are suggested for provoking some improvement of the situations. [less ▲]

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See detailTemporal variability of urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites, parabens and benzophenone-3 in a belgian adult population
DEWALQUE, Lucas ULg; PIRARD, Catherine ULg; Vandepaer, Sarah et al

in Environmental Research (2015), 142

In the present study, we investigated the temporal within-person variability of the exposure biomarker for phthalates, parabens and benzophenone-3 (BP3) in 32 Belgian adults, each providing 11 urine spots ... [more ▼]

In the present study, we investigated the temporal within-person variability of the exposure biomarker for phthalates, parabens and benzophenone-3 (BP3) in 32 Belgian adults, each providing 11 urine spots during 4 months. We calculated the intraclass coefficient correlation (ICC), the sensitivity and the specificity to assess the temporal reproducibility and to investigate the predictive ability of the spot measurements for these classes of chemicals. Additionally, we explored the temporal variability of the estimation of the cumulative risk of exposure to phthalates (hazard index; HI). We observed fair ICC ranging from 0.55 to 0.68 for parabens, monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP) and BP3, but lower ICC, from 0.20 to 0.49, for monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-2-ethyl-5-oxo-hexyl phthalate (5-oxo-MEHP) and mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxy-hexyl phthalate (5-OH-MEHP). The ICC estimated for HI (0.49) reflected a moderate reproducibility. The measurements in spot samples were moderate to good predictor of the 4-month level of exposure for parabens, MEP, MnBP, MiBP, BP3 and HI (sensitivity ranging from 0.67 to 0.77), but lower predictor for MEHP, 5-oxo-MEHP, 5-OH-MEHP and MBzP (sensitivity ranging from 0.58 to 0.63). The sensitivity could be increased when several spot urinary levels were averaged to predict the long-term level of exposure. Globally, our results indicate that a single spot measurement seems to correctly represent the long-term exposure for parabens, BP3, MEP, MiBP and HI. Additional spot samples seemed to be needed for the proper exposure assessment of the other target compounds. [less ▲]

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See detailNouveaux traitements conservateurs des tendinopathies chroniques
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2015), 70(10), 507-510

The pathophysiological mechanisms of tendinopathies integrate various intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Classic «passive» therapeutics have a limited action. Because of a better pathophysiological ... [more ▼]

The pathophysiological mechanisms of tendinopathies integrate various intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Classic «passive» therapeutics have a limited action. Because of a better pathophysiological understanding of tendinopathies, more recent treatments (injections of various compounds, infiltrations of platelet-rich plasma, stem cells) would lead to a longterm healing. In case of failure of conservative managements and depending on the anatomical site, a surgical approach may be considered. [less ▲]

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See detailLe coût de l'énergie verte en Wallonie 2003-2012
Boccard, Nicolas; Gautier, Axel ULg

in Reflets et Perspectives de la Vie Economique (2015), LIV(1-2), 71-85

In 2003, the Walloon region has installed a tradable green certificate mechanism to support the production of ‘green’ electricity. In this paper, we estimate that the total cost of the mechanism amounts ... [more ▼]

In 2003, the Walloon region has installed a tradable green certificate mechanism to support the production of ‘green’ electricity. In this paper, we estimate that the total cost of the mechanism amounts to 1,871 billion € for the period 2003-2012, corresponding to a support of 107 €/MWh produced, with important differences between production technologies, the solar photovoltaic receiving up to 588 €/MWh. International comparisons indicate that the Walloon mechanism is particularly generous. We also show that the induced carbon savings are extremely costly with an implicit price of avoided CO2 of 425 € per ton. [less ▲]

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See detailQuelle définition du concept de tangente ? Pour quelles raisons ?
Balhan, Kevin ULg; Krysinska, Marysa; Schneider-Gilot, Marguerite ULg

in Repères : Revue des Instituts de Recherche sur l'Enseignement des Mathématiques (2015), 101(Octobre 2015), 5-32

Dans le présent article, nous présentons un parcours didactique visant à faire évoluer chez les élèves le concept de tangente, de leur connaissance antérieure de tangente à un cercle comme droite ne ... [more ▼]

Dans le présent article, nous présentons un parcours didactique visant à faire évoluer chez les élèves le concept de tangente, de leur connaissance antérieure de tangente à un cercle comme droite ne coupant la courbe qu’en un seul point jusqu’à une définition formalisée au sein d’un cours d’analyse. Nous montrons ainsi qu’une définition d’un objet mathématique n’est ni définitive, ni une simple description de l’objet. Le choix d’une définition au détriment d’une autre doit se faire à la lumière d’un projet plus global relatif à l’institution à laquelle elle appartient. [less ▲]

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See detailPhotorefractive holographic camera for monitoring deformations of MEMS
Georges, Marc ULg; Thizy, Cédric ULg

in Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS (2015), 14(4), 041301

We present the development of a holographic interferometer based on dynamic hologram recording with photorefractive crystals of the sillenite family and which is adapted for the observation of MEMS. A ... [more ▼]

We present the development of a holographic interferometer based on dynamic hologram recording with photorefractive crystals of the sillenite family and which is adapted for the observation of MEMS. A compact portable system was already presented in the past and used in various metrology and nondestructive applications on large scattering objects. It was emphasized the great versatility of the instrument which allows high resolution measurements. Here we show the development and achievement of an optical module which can be easily interfaced on the basic instrument, allowing small specular objects observation. Results of deformation of electrically actuated MEMS are shown. [less ▲]

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See detailLes souvenirs définissant le soi dans le trouble dépressif majeur unipolaire : Pourquoi les évoquer durant l’entretien clinique ?
Wagener, Aurélie ULg; Boulanger, Marie ULg; PITCHOT, William ULg et al

in Acta Psychiatrica Belgica (2015), 116(2), 27-34

Unipolar depressed patients can experience a loss of sense of self-continuity. Self-defining memories which are particular autobiographical memories may consist in psychological interventions aiming at ... [more ▼]

Unipolar depressed patients can experience a loss of sense of self-continuity. Self-defining memories which are particular autobiographical memories may consist in psychological interventions aiming at reestablishing the sense of self-continuity. Working on self-defining memories may also help dealing with other psychological difficulties. This article presents the self-defining memories, their characteristics and different psychological interventions which aim is to enhance the quality of these memories. [less ▲]

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See detailBrain stimulation in patients with disorders of consciousness
Thibaut, Aurore ULg; Laureys, Steven ULg

in Principles and Practice of Clinical Research (2015), 1(3),

Background and Aim: There is a long history of brain stimulation in medical science, and it was tested for years trying to treat several neurological diseases. On the other hand, the treatment choices for ... [more ▼]

Background and Aim: There is a long history of brain stimulation in medical science, and it was tested for years trying to treat several neurological diseases. On the other hand, the treatment choices for patients with severe brain injury resulting in disorders of consciousness (DOC) are still limited and research in this field remains challenging. In the current literature, only a few techniques of brain stimulation were studied in this population of patients. This review describes noninvasive techniques, namely transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), which permit to stimulate the brain through the scalp, as well as the current status of deep brain stimulation (DBS) as treatment for patients with DOC. For each technique (i.e. TMS, tDCS and DBS) a systematic search on Pubmed was performed including the term “vegetative state” or “minimally conscious state” or “disorders of consciousness” and 16 articles matched the criteria. Conclusion: Currently, repetitive TMS (rTMS) and tDCS studies have shown encouraging results, with transient improvements of behavioral signs of consciousness in patients in minimally conscious state (MCS). DBS showed more impressive and extensive behavioral improvement after the implantation of an electrical stimulator in the thalamus. However, this procedure is riskier and the number of patients who can benefit from this intervention is limited. All these therapeutic approaches are still in their infancy. In the years to follow, controlled clinical studies on potential treatments for patients with DOC should multiply and therapeutic measures should be more accessible, controlled and effective. [less ▲]

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See detailPre-return-to-work medical consultation for low back pain workers. Good practice recommendations based on systematic review and expert consensus
PETIT, Audrey; ROZENBERG, Sylvie; FASSIER, Jean-Baptiste et al

in Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (2015), 58(5), 298-304

Objectives The pre-return-to-work medical consultation during sick leave for low back pain (LBP) aims at assessing the worker's ability to resume working without risk for his/her health, and anticipating ... [more ▼]

Objectives The pre-return-to-work medical consultation during sick leave for low back pain (LBP) aims at assessing the worker's ability to resume working without risk for his/her health, and anticipating any difficulties inherent to returning to work and job retention. This article summarizes the good practices guidelines proposed by the French Society of Occupational Medicine (SFMT) and the French National Health Authority (HAS), and published in October 2013. Methods Good practices guidelines developed by a multidisciplinary and independent task force (24 experts) and peer review committee (50 experts) based on a literature review from 1990 to 2012, according to the HAS methodology. Results According to the labour regulations, workers can request a medical consultation with their occupational physician at any time. The pre-return-to-work consultation precedes the effective return-to-work and can be requested by the employee regardless of their sick leave duration. It must be scheduled early enough to: (i) deliver reassuring information regarding risks to the lower back and managing LBP; (ii) evaluate prognostic factors of chronicity and prolonged disability in relations to LBP and its physical, social and occupational consequences in order to implement the necessary conditions for returning to work; (iii) support and promote staying at work by taking into account all medical, social and occupational aspects of the situation and ensure proper coordination between the different actors. Conclusion A better understanding of the pre-return-to-work consultation would improve collaboration and coordination of actions to facilitate resuming work and job retention for patients with LBP [less ▲]

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See detailLymphotoxin-beta receptor in microenvironmental cells promotes the development of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with cortical/mature immunophenotype.
Fernandes, Monica T.; Ghezzo, Marinella N.; Silveira, Andre B. et al

in British journal of haematology (2015)

Lymphotoxin-mediated activation of the lymphotoxin-beta receptor (LTbetaR; LTBR) has been implicated in cancer, but its role in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) has remained elusive. Here we ... [more ▼]

Lymphotoxin-mediated activation of the lymphotoxin-beta receptor (LTbetaR; LTBR) has been implicated in cancer, but its role in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) has remained elusive. Here we show that the genes encoding lymphotoxin (LT)-alpha and LTbeta (LTA, LTB) are expressed in T-ALL patient samples, mostly of the TAL/LMO molecular subtype, and in the TEL-JAK2 transgenic mouse model of cortical/mature T-ALL (Lta, Ltb). In these mice, expression of Lta and Ltb is elevated in early stage T-ALL. Surface LTalpha1 beta2 protein is expressed in primary mouse T-ALL cells, but only in the absence of microenvironmental LTbetaR interaction. Indeed, surface LT expression is suppressed in leukaemic cells contacting Ltbr-expressing but not Ltbr-deficient stromal cells, both in vitro and in vivo, thus indicating that dynamic surface LT expression in leukaemic cells depends on interaction with its receptor. Supporting the notion that LT signalling plays a role in T-ALL, inactivation of Ltbr results in a significant delay in TEL-JAK2-induced leukaemia onset. Moreover, young asymptomatic TEL-JAK2;Ltbr-/- mice present markedly less leukaemic thymocytes than age-matched TEL-JAK2;Ltbr+/+ mice and interference with LTbetaR function at this early stage delayed T-ALL development. We conclude that LT expression by T-ALL cells activates LTbetaR signalling in thymic stromal cells, thus promoting leukaemogenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailDescribing many-body bosonic waveguide scattering with the truncated Wigner method
Dujardin, Julien ULg; Engl, Thomas; Urbina, Juan Diego et al

in Annalen der Physik (2015), 527

We consider quasi-stationary scattering of interacting bosonic matter waves in one-dimensional waveguides, as they arise in guided atom lasers. We show how the truncated Wigner (tW) method, which ... [more ▼]

We consider quasi-stationary scattering of interacting bosonic matter waves in one-dimensional waveguides, as they arise in guided atom lasers. We show how the truncated Wigner (tW) method, which corresponds to the semiclassical description of the bosonic many-body system on the level of the diagonal approximation, can be utilized in order to describe such many-body bosonic scattering processes. Special emphasis is put on the discretization of space at the exact quantum level, in order to properly implement the semiclassical approximation and the tW method, as well as on the discussion of the results to be obtained in the continuous limit. [less ▲]

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See detailShear Response of Prestressed Thin-Webbed Continuous Girders
Collins, Michael; Xie, Liping; Mihaylov, Boyan ULg et al

in ACI Structural Journal (2015)

While different design codes provide similar guidance for the flexural design of prestressed thin: webbed continuous girders, the shear design provisions differ greatly. This paper investigates these ... [more ▼]

While different design codes provide similar guidance for the flexural design of prestressed thin: webbed continuous girders, the shear design provisions differ greatly. This paper investigates these discrepancies with the help of eleven experiments and a number of analytical studies. Together these provide the basis for recommendations for engineers conducting the shear design for new girders or evaluating the shear capacity of existing girders. It is shown that the traditional ACI approach of taking Vc as the smaller of Vci, flexural:shear cracking load, and Vcw, web:shear cracking load, can significantly overestimate the shear strength of such girders particularly if they are highly prestressed and contain relatively small quantities of shear reinforcement. The other codes evaluated provided more conservative predictions. It is shown that the ACI predictions can be improved significantly by taking into account the effect of flexural stresses on web shear cracking. While the ACI code uses different shear strength equations for members subjected to external axial loads versus members subjected to internal prestressing forces, the studies summarized in this paper support the idea that unification of these ACI shear provisions is possible. [less ▲]

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See detailLatex, un peu, beaucoup (9. Figures & tables)
Dupont, Pascal ULg

in Losanges (2015), 30

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See detailHigh reactive oxygen species in fibrotic and non-fibrotic skin of Patients with diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis
BOURJI, Khalil; MEYER, Alain; CHATELUS, Emmanuel et al

in Free Radical Biology & Medicine (2015), 87

Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic multisystemic connective tissue disease characterized by progressive fibrosis affecting skin and internal organs. Despite serious efforts to unveil the pathogenic ... [more ▼]

Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic multisystemic connective tissue disease characterized by progressive fibrosis affecting skin and internal organs. Despite serious efforts to unveil the pathogenic mechanisms of SSc, they are still unclear. High levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in affected patients have been shown, and ROS are suggested to play a role in fibrosis pathogenesis. In this study we evaluate ROS levels in non-fibrotic and fibrotic skin of patients with SSc and we compare them with those obtained from healthy controls. Patients and Methods We enrolled 9 SSc patients fulfilling the EULAR/ACR classification criteria and 7 healthy controls. Patients included were 4 men and 5 women with mean age of 46 ±10 yrs. Controls were matched by sex and age. All patients were affected by diffuse cutaneous form of SSc and the ANA pattern anti-Scl70. Mean disease duration was 7.5±5 yrs. Skin involvement was evaluated by modified Rodnan Skin Score (mRSS). Skin samples (4 mm punch biopsy) were taken from fibrotic skin and non-fibrotic skin of patients and from healthy controls as well. To detect ROS, specimens were analyzed immediately after sampling by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Blood samples have been drawn from all patients and controls to assess oxidative stress biomarkers. Results ROS levels (expressed as median and range, unit of measurement was nmol/l/min/mg of dry weight) were 24.7 (10.9– 47.0) in fibrotic skin, 18.7 (7.3–34.0) in non-fibrotic skin and 7.7 (3.5–13.6) in healthy controls skin. ROS levels in Fibrotic and Non-fibrotic skin of SSc patients were significantly higher than in Healthy Controls (p=0.002 and p=0.009, respectively). ROS levels in fibrotic skin were raised in comparison to non-fibrotic skin, when samples related to each patient were compared (p=0.01). ROS levels in fibrotic skin were correlated with forced vital capacity (r= -0.75, p=0.02) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (r=0.70, p=0.04). All other clinical and lab parameters showed no significant correlation. When compared to controls, blood from SSc patients showed lower ascorbate (vitamin C) levels (8 [3.8-9.8] vs. 10.5 [9-19.1] mg/L, p=0.004) and higher lipid peroxides (873.5 [342-1973] vs. 422 [105-576] μmol/L, p=0.004). Conclusion Our results indicate the presence of high oxidative stress both in non-fibrotic skin and fibrotic skin of SSc patients, but with higher tendency in the latter. Raised ROS levels in non-fibrotic skin of SSc patients might be a hint of early involvement in skin fibrogenesis. However, a longitudinal prospective study is necessary for such proof. [less ▲]

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See detailLe médicament du mois. Humalog® 200 U/ml KwikPenTM
SCHEEN, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2015), 70

Summary : Insulin lispro (Humalog®) was the first short-acting insulin analogue to be indicated for the treatment of diabetes mellitus requiring insulin therapy. After subcutaneous injection, insulin ... [more ▼]

Summary : Insulin lispro (Humalog®) was the first short-acting insulin analogue to be indicated for the treatment of diabetes mellitus requiring insulin therapy. After subcutaneous injection, insulin lispro has a more favourable pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics profile than human insulin, characterized by a faster resorption and a more rapid and less prolonged glucose-lowering activity. These properties allow a better control of postprandial hyperglycaemia and a reduction of the risk of delayed hypoglycaemia, especially at night. The patient’s quality of life is also improved because insulin lispro can be injected within the 15 minutes before meal and even possibly after meal when the amount of food intake is unpredictable. Already commercialized as Humalog® 100 U/ml, insulin lispro is now also available as Humalog® 200 U/ml. A pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics study confirmed the bioequivalence of the two formulations, based upon the analysis of both plasma free insulin concentrations and glucose infusion rates to maintain normoglycaemia. Humalog® 200 U/ml is available in a novel disposable 3 ml pen (KwikPenTM), with lower glide force and injection volume; thus this new pen is more convenient for the patient compared with the current pen used to inject Humalog® 100 U/ml. The new formulation Humalog® 200 U/ml is indicated in Europe for adult patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes who require more than 20 units of prandial insulin per day to cover their meals. [less ▲]

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See detailPrise en charge des pathients lombalgiques : les mots du thérapeute aussi importants que ses mains
Demoulin, Christophe ULg; Roussel, Nathalie; Marty, M. et al

in Axxon Exclusif (2015)

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See detailL’ÉTUDE CLINIQUE DU MOIS TECOS : confirmation de la sécurité cardiovasculaire de la sitagliptine
SCHEEN, André ULg; PAQUOT, Nicolas ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2015), 70

Summary : The cardiovascular safety of sitagliptin has been evaluated in TECOS («Trial Evaluating Cardiovascular Outcomes with Sitagliptin»). TECOS recruited patients with type 2 diabetes and a history of ... [more ▼]

Summary : The cardiovascular safety of sitagliptin has been evaluated in TECOS («Trial Evaluating Cardiovascular Outcomes with Sitagliptin»). TECOS recruited patients with type 2 diabetes and a history of cardiovascular disease who received, as add-on to their usual therapy, either sitagliptin (n = 7.257) or placebo (n = 7.266), with a median follow-up of 3 years. The primary cardiovascular outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina. Sitagliptin was noninferior to placebo for the primary composite cardiovascular outcome (hazard ratio, 0.98; 95 % confidence interval, 0.88 to 1.09; P<0.001). Rates of hospitalization for heart failure did not differ between the two groups (hazard ratio, 1.00; 95 % CI, 0.83 to 1.20; P=0.98). The cardiovascular safety of sitagliptin, which was already shown in meta-analyses of phase II-III randomised controlled trials and in observational cohort studies in real life, is now confirmed in the landmark prospective cardiovascular outcome study TECOS. [less ▲]

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See detailHeritability of milk fat composition is considerably lower for Meuse-Rhine-Yssel compared to Holstein Friesian cattle
Maurice-Van Eijndhoven, Myrthe; Veerkamp, Roel; Soyeurt, Hélène ULg et al

in Livestock Science (2015), 180

The aim of this paper is to identify differences in genetic variation of fatty acid (FA) composition in milk in different breeds. Data used included Meuse-Rhine-Yssel (MRY) and Holstein Friesian (HF ... [more ▼]

The aim of this paper is to identify differences in genetic variation of fatty acid (FA) composition in milk in different breeds. Data used included Meuse-Rhine-Yssel (MRY) and Holstein Friesian (HF) cattle breeds which were raised in the Netherlands. Both populations participated in the same milk recording system, but differed in selection history, where in the MRY there has been relatively very little emphasis on selection for high-input high-output production systems compared to HF. Differences in genetic variation were investigated by estimating breed specific additive genetic variances and heritabilities for FA contents in milk of MRY and HF. Mid Infrared Spectrometry spectra were used to predict total fat percentage and detailed FA contents in milk (14 individual FA and 14 groups of FA in g of fat/dL of milk). The dataset for MRY contained 2916 records from 2049 registered cows having at least 50% genes of MRY origin and the dataset used for HF contained 155,319 records from 96,315 registered cows having at least 50% genes of HF origin. Variance components of individual FA content in milk for the different breeds were estimated using a single trait animal model. Additive genetic variances for FA produced through de novo synthesis (short chain FA, C12:0, C14:0, and partly C16:0), C14:1 c-9 and C16:1 c-9 were significantly higher (. P<0.001) for HF compared to MRY. Heritabilities of the individual FA, C4:0 to C18:0, for HF ranged from 0.28 to 0.52 and for MRY from 0.17 to 0.34. Heritabilities of the individual C18 unsaturated FA for HF ranged from 0.11 to 0.34 and for MRY from 0.10 to 0.26. Although the mean content in milk for the FA C18:2 c-9, t-11 was low in both breeds, the additive genetic variance in our dataset was significantly higher for MRY (P<0.05) compared to HF. Heritabilities of the groups of FA for HF ranged from 0.19 to 0.53 and for MRY from 0.11 to 0.28. For the majority of the FA, the additive genetic variances for HF were significantly higher compared to MRY, except for most of the poly-unsaturated FA. The results for the poly-unsaturated FA, however, may be affected by the lower accuracy of the predictions for these FA. In conclusion, our results show that the HF breed has substantially larger genetic variance for most FA compared to MRY. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. [less ▲]

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See detailPropriété coopérative et acceptabilité sociale de l’éolien terrestre
Bauwens, Thomas ULg

in Reflets et Perspectives de la Vie Economique (2015), LIV(1-2), 59-70

Onshore wind power development in Belgium has provoked considerable opposition at the local level. To cope with this issue, wind power cooperatives seem to present important assets. This article explores ... [more ▼]

Onshore wind power development in Belgium has provoked considerable opposition at the local level. To cope with this issue, wind power cooperatives seem to present important assets. This article explores the reasons why these organizations are likely to enhance social acceptability of this technology. Then it confronts these normative assumptions with empirical data. The results of this analysis confirm the positive effect of cooperative ownership on the social acceptability of onshore wind turbines. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis of aliphatic polyamide bearing fluorinated groups from ε-caprolactam and modified cyclic lysine
Tunc, Deniz; Bouchekiv, Hassen; Améduri, Bruno et al

in European Polymer Journal (2015), 71

Aliphatic polyamide (PA) bearing fluorinated groups was synthesized in bulk with perfluorobutyryl-substituted α-amino-ε-caprolactam and ε-caprolactam by anionic ring-opening polymerization (AROP). The ... [more ▼]

Aliphatic polyamide (PA) bearing fluorinated groups was synthesized in bulk with perfluorobutyryl-substituted α-amino-ε-caprolactam and ε-caprolactam by anionic ring-opening polymerization (AROP). The fluorinated monomer was obtained by condensation between cyclic lysine (i.e. α-amino-ε-caprolactam) and perfluorobutyrylchloride. The effect of the fluorinated monomer fraction onto the AROP of ε-caprolactam was monitored by the exothermicity of this polymerization versus time. The properties and characteristics of the resulting polymers were studied by with differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry, magic angle spining NMR, FT-IR, and contact angle measurements. Polyamides bearing fluorinated groups exhibited better thermal stability than polyamide 6 (PA6) as well as a higher hydrophobic surface character as evidenced by surface tension measurements. The glass transition temperature of polyamide 6 was 53 °C and rose to 58 °C for a PA bearing fluorinated moieties, while fluorinated monomer insertion induced a decrease of the melting points from 216 to 198 °C. These copolymers displayed a maximum degradation temperature of 390 °C as compared to the 310 °C for PA6, and their surface energies decreased from 49.4 mN.cm-1 (PA6 value) to 44.1 mN.cm-1. [less ▲]

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See detailLa cécidomyie orange: repérer les blés qui lui résistent
Chavalle, Sandrine ULg; De Proft, Michel; Jacquemin, Guillaume

in Phytoma : La Défense des Végétaux (2015), 685

Mise au point d’une méthode d’évaluation en conditions contrôlées de la résistance variétale du blé tendre d’hiver à la cécidomyie orange du blé, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin).

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See detailRepenser la tarifaction de l'énergie
Gautier, Axel ULg

in Reflets et Perspectives de la Vie Economique (2015), LIV(1-2), 175-184

The distribution tariff is for historical reasons connected to the consumption level. Maintaining a tariff per KWh is in our view problematic for two reasons. First, it induces inefficient consumption or ... [more ▼]

The distribution tariff is for historical reasons connected to the consumption level. Maintaining a tariff per KWh is in our view problematic for two reasons. First, it induces inefficient consumption or production choices by consumers. Second, because of scale economies, a decrease in energy consumption leads to both a cost and a revenue decline with the latter being stronger than the former, thereby necessitating an increase in the tariff to compensate for the revenue losses and reinforcing the first effect. The distribution tariff should therefore be re-designed and de-connected, at least partially, from the consumption level. [less ▲]

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See detailA stop-gain in the laminin, alpha 3 gene causes recessive junctional epidermolysis bullosa in Belgian Blue cattle
Sartelet, Arnaud ULg; Harland, Chad ULg; Tamma, Nico ULg et al

in Animal Genetics (2015), 46(5), 566-570

Four newborn purebred Belgian Blue calves presenting a severe form of epidermolysis bullosa were recently referred to our heredo-surveillance platform. SNP array genotyping followed by autozygosity ... [more ▼]

Four newborn purebred Belgian Blue calves presenting a severe form of epidermolysis bullosa were recently referred to our heredo-surveillance platform. SNP array genotyping followed by autozygosity mapping located the causative gene in a 8.3-Mb interval on bovine chromosome 24. Combining information from (i) whole-genome sequencing of an affected calf, (ii) transcriptomic data from a panel of tissues and (iii) a list of functionally ranked positional candidates pinpointed a private G to A nucleotide substitution in the LAMA3 gene that creates a premature stop codon (p.Arg2609*) in exon 60, truncating 22% of the corresponding protein. The LAMA3 gene encodes the alpha 3 subunit of the heterotrimeric laminin-332, a key constituent of the lamina lucida that is part of the skin basement membrane connecting epidermis and dermis layers. Homozygous loss-of-function mutations in this gene are known to cause severe junctional epidermolysis bullosa in human, mice, horse, sheep and dog. Overall, our data strongly support the causality of the identified gene and mutation. [less ▲]

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See detailPreliminary assessment for the use of VORIS as a tool for rapid lava flow simulation at Goma Volcano Observatory, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Syavulisembo, A. M.; Havenith, Hans-Balder ULg; Smets, B et al

in Natural Hazards & Earth System Sciences (2015)

Assessment and management of volcanic risk are important scientific, economic, and political issues, especially in densely populated areas threatened by volcanoes. The Virunga volcanic province in the ... [more ▼]

Assessment and management of volcanic risk are important scientific, economic, and political issues, especially in densely populated areas threatened by volcanoes. The Virunga volcanic province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, with over 1 million inhabitants, has to cope permanently with the threat posed by the active Nyamulagira and Nyiragongo volcanoes. During the past century, Nyamulagira erupted at intervals of 1–4 years – mostly in the form of lava flows – at least 30 times. Its summit and flank eruptions lasted for periods of a few days up to more than 2 years, and produced lava flows sometimes reaching distances of over 20 km from the volcano. Though most of the lava flows did not reach urban areas, only impacting the forests of the endangered Virunga National Park, some of them related to distal flank eruptions affected villages and roads. In order to identify a useful tool for lava flow hazard assessment at Goma Volcano Observatory (GVO), we tested VORIS 2.0.1 (Felpeto et al., 2007), a freely available software (http://www.gvb-csic.es) based on a probabilistic model that considers topography as the main parameter controlling the lava flow propagation. We tested different parameters and digital elevation models (DEM) – SRTM1, SRTM3, and ASTER GDEM – to evaluate the sensitivity of the models to changes in input parameters of VORIS 2.0.1. Simulations were tested against the known lava flows and topography from the 2010 Nyamulagira eruption. The results obtained show that VORIS 2.0.1 is a quick, easy-to-use tool for simulating lava-flow eruptions and replicates to a high degree of accuracy the eruptions tested when input parameters are appropriately chosen. In practice, these results will be used by GVO to calibrate VORIS for lava flow path forecasting during new eruptions, hence contributing to a better volcanic crisis management. [less ▲]

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See detailDésobéissance et non-respect des normes juridiques
Garcia Villegas, Mauricio; Lejeune, Aude ULg

in Droit et Société (2015), 91

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See detailLa forma diagrammatica tra matematica e arti
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg

in Rivista Italiana di Filosofia del Linguaggio (2015), numéro spécial

This paper aims to compare the theory of diagram presented in Peirce’s philosophy of mathematics and the reflections on the work of art formulated by Henry Van Lier and René Thom. The Peircean Theory of ... [more ▼]

This paper aims to compare the theory of diagram presented in Peirce’s philosophy of mathematics and the reflections on the work of art formulated by Henry Van Lier and René Thom. The Peircean Theory of diagram states that a diagram is a configuration characterized as a totality (form) that is necessary and at the same time dynamic and experimental. In his lectures about the relation between the local and the global in art (Apologie du logos, 1990), Thom traces a theory of forms that can be compared to the conception of diagram in Peirce’s semiotics. For Thom, beauty is the result of strategies of framing and of composing parts in a dynamic totality. Van Lier’s develops the idea of a perfect totality characterized by a syntax of traits that are at the right place and that couldn’t be organized in any other way, without which the work of art would have no efficacy. For my part, I explore these conceptions of a necessary totality in the arts (aesthetic necessity) and in mathematical diagrams (the demonstration through perceptual forms) in order to describe the differences and the similarities between the theories and the domains of application. [less ▲]

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See detailMy Friend is a WWI Soldier: A Semiopragmatic Approach to Docufictions on Social Networks
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg; Bouko, Catherine

in Punctum. International Journal of Semiotics (2015), 1(1), 94-107

At the beginning of the twentieth-first century, notable for the triumph of both fiction and a taste for reality (Veyrat-Masson 2008), interactive documentary-dramas appeared on social networks. These ... [more ▼]

At the beginning of the twentieth-first century, notable for the triumph of both fiction and a taste for reality (Veyrat-Masson 2008), interactive documentary-dramas appeared on social networks. These Internet-based audiovisual productions invite semiotics to reconsider its tools in order to grasp their complex, hybrid nature, above and beyond the binary opposition of reality and fiction. After considering the semiotic systems which characterize social networks and condition enunciation (Van Dijck, 2013), we proceed to examine the Léon Vivien, Louis Castel and Little Suzon documentary-dramas from a semio-pragmatic point of view. We will examine the relationship between reality, fiction and realism on the basis of the semiopragmatic models developed by Hanot (2002) and Jost (2001) in order to analyse these audiovisual productions on four levels: profilmic, plastic, iconic and diegetic. By adapting these models to Internet, we will be able to identify the authenticating and fictional strategies employed in such online productions to make the archive images waver between the status of index and icon. [less ▲]

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See detailHyporeactivity of Alveolar Macrophages and Higher Respiratory Cell Permissivity Characterize DBA/2J Mice Infected by Influenza A Virus Hyporeactivity of Alveolar Macrophages and Higher Respiratory Cell Permissivity Characterize DBA/2J Mice Infected by Influenza A Virus.
Casanova Bustos, Tomas Ronaldo ULg; Van de Paar, Els; Desmecht, Daniel ULg et al

in JOURNAL OF INTERFERON & CYTOKINE RESEARCH (2015), 35(10), 808-820

Influenza A virus remains a major public health problem. Mouse models have been widely used to study influenza infection in mammals. DBA/2J and C57BL/6J represent extremes in terms of susceptibility to ... [more ▼]

Influenza A virus remains a major public health problem. Mouse models have been widely used to study influenza infection in mammals. DBA/2J and C57BL/6J represent extremes in terms of susceptibility to influenza A infection among inbred laboratory mouse strains. Several studies focused specifically on the factors responsible for the susceptibility of DBA/2J or the resistance of C57BL/6J and resulted in impressive lists of candidate genes or factors over- or underexpressed in one of the strains. We adopted a different phenotypical approach to identify the critical steps of the infection process accounting for the differences between DBA/2J and C57BL/6J strains. We concluded that both a dysfunction of alveolar macrophages and an increased permissivity of respiratory cells rendered DBA/2J more susceptible to influenza infection. [less ▲]

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See detailWIND-STORM: A Decision Support System for the Strategic Management of Windthrow Crises by the Forest Community
Riguelle, Simon ULg; Hebert, Jacques ULg; Jourez, Benoît ULg

in Forests (2015), 6

Storms are one of the most damaging agents for European forests and can cause huge and long-term economic impacts on the forest sector. Recent events and research have contributed to a better ... [more ▼]

Storms are one of the most damaging agents for European forests and can cause huge and long-term economic impacts on the forest sector. Recent events and research have contributed to a better understanding and management of destructive storms, but public authorities still lack appropriate decision-support tools for evaluating their strategic decisions in the aftermath of a storm. This paper presents a decision support system (DSS) that compares changes in the dynamics of the regional forest-based sector after storm events under various crisis management options. First, the development and implementation of a regional forest model is addressed; then, the potential application of the model-based DSS WIND-STORM is illustrated. The results of simulated scenarios reveal that this DSS type is useful for designing a cost-effective regional strategy for storm-damage management in the context of scarce public resources and that public strategies must encompass the whole forest-based sector to be efficient. Additional benefits of such a DSS is to bring together decision-makers and forest stakeholders for a common objective and therefore to enhance participatory approaches to crisis management. [less ▲]

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See detailDouble hydrophilic polyphosphoester containing copolymers as efficient templating agents for calcium carbonate microparticles
Ergül, Zeynep ULg; Debuigne, Antoine ULg; Calvignac, Brice et al

in Journal of Materials Chemistry B (2015), 3(36), 7227-7236

The use of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) microparticles is becoming more and more attractive in many fields especially in biomedical applications in which the fine tuning of the size, morphology and ... [more ▼]

The use of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) microparticles is becoming more and more attractive in many fields especially in biomedical applications in which the fine tuning of the size, morphology and crystalline form of the CaCO3 particles is crucial. Although some structuring compounds, like hyaluronic acid, give satisfying results, the control of the particle structure still has to be improved. To this end, we evaluated the CaCO3 structuring capacity of novel well-defined double hydrophilic block copolymers composed of poly(ethylene oxide) and a polyphosphoester segment with an affinity for calcium like poly(phosphotriester)s bearing pendent carboxylic acids or poly(phosphodiester)s with a negatively charged oxygen atom on each repeating monomer unit. These copolymers were synthesized by a combination of organocatalyzed ring opening polymerization, thiol–yne click chemistry and protection/deprotection methods. The formulation of CaCO3 particles was then performed in the presence of these block copolymers (i) by the classical chemical pathway involving CaCl2 and Na2CO3 and (ii) by a process based on supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) technology in which CO32− ions are generated in aqueous media and react with Ca2+ ions. Porous CaCO3 microspheres composed of vaterite nanocrystals were obtained. Moreover, a clear dependence of the particle size on the structure of the templating agent was emphasized. In this work, we show that the use of the supercritical process and the substitution of hyaluronic acid for a carboxylic acid containing copolymer decreases the size of the CaCO3 particles by a factor of 6 (∼1.5 μm) while preventing their aggregation. [less ▲]

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See detailMultifractality of quantum wave functions in the presence of perturbations
Dubertrand, Rémy ULg; Garcia-Mata, Ignacio; Georgeot, Bertrand et al

in Physical Review. E : Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics (2015), 92

We present a comprehensive study of the destruction of quantum multifractality in the presence of perturbations. We study diverse representative models displaying multifractality, including a ... [more ▼]

We present a comprehensive study of the destruction of quantum multifractality in the presence of perturbations. We study diverse representative models displaying multifractality, including a pseudointegrable system, the Anderson model, and a random matrix model. We apply several types of natural perturbations which can be relevant for experimental implementations. We construct an analytical theory for certain cases and perform extensive large-scale numerical simulations in other cases. The data are analyzed through refined methods including double scaling analysis. Our results confirm the recent conjecture that multifractality breaks down following two scenarios. In the first one, multifractality is preserved unchanged below a certain characteristic length which decreases with perturbation strength. In the second one, multifractality is affected at all scales and disappears uniformly for a strong-enough perturbation. Our refined analysis shows that subtle variants of these scenarios can be present in certain cases. This study could guide experimental implementations in order to observe quantum multifractality in real systems. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards understanding the variability in biospheric CO2 fluxes: using FTIR spectrometry and a chemical transport model to investigate the sources and sinks of carbonyl sulfide and its link to CO2
Wang, Y.; Deutscher, N. M.; Palm, M. et al

in Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics Discussions (2015), 15(18), 26025--26065

Understanding carbon dioxide (CO2) biospheric processes is of great importance because the terrestrial exchange drives the seasonal and inter-annual variability of CO2 in the atmosphere. Atmospheric ... [more ▼]

Understanding carbon dioxide (CO2) biospheric processes is of great importance because the terrestrial exchange drives the seasonal and inter-annual variability of CO2 in the atmosphere. Atmospheric inversions based on CO2 concentration measurements alone can only determine net biosphere fluxes, but not differentiate between photosynthesis (uptake) and respiration (production). Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) could provide an important additional constraint: it is also taken up by plants during photosynthesis but not emitted during respiration, and therefore is a potential mean to differentiate between these processes. Solar absorption Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectrometry allows for the retrievals of the atmospheric concentrations of both CO2 and OCS from measured solar absorption spectra. Here, we investigate co-located and quasi-simultaneous FTIR measurements of OCS and CO2 performed at three selected sites located in the Northern Hemisphere. These measurements are compared to simulations of OCS and CO2 using a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). The OCS simulations are driven by different land biospheric fluxes to reproduce the seasonality of the measurements. Increasing the plant uptake of Kettle et al. (2002a) by a factor of three resulted in the best comparison with FTIR measurements. However, there are still discrepancies in the latitudinal distribution when comparing with HIPPO (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations) data spanning both hemispheres. The coupled biospheric fluxes of OCS and CO2 from the simple biosphere model (SiB) are used in the study and compared to measurements. The CO2 simulation with SiB fluxes agrees with the measurements well, while the OCS simulation reproduced a weaker drawdown than FTIR measurements at selected sites, and a smaller latitudinal gradient in the Northern Hemisphere during growing season. An offset in the timing of the seasonal cycle minimum between SiB simulation and measurements is also seen. Using OCS as a photosynthesis proxy can help to understand how the biospheric processes are reproduced in models and to further understand the carbon cycle in the real world. [less ▲]

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See detailAcetylene (C2H2) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) from IASI satellite observations: global distributions, validation, and comparison with model
Duflot, V.; Wespes, C.; Clarisse, L. et al

in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (2015), 15

We present global distributions of C2H2 and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) total columns derived from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) for the years 2008–2010. These distributions are ... [more ▼]

We present global distributions of C2H2 and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) total columns derived from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) for the years 2008–2010. These distributions are obtained with a fast method allowing to retrieve C2H2 abundance globally with a 5% precision and HCN abundance in the tropical (subtropical) belt with a 10% (25 %) precision. IASI data are compared for validation purposes with ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer measurements at four selected stations. We show that there is an overall agreement between the ground-based and space measurements with correlation coefficients for daily mean measurements ranging from 0.28 to 0.81, depending on the site. Global C2H2 and subtropical HCN abundances retrieved from IASI spectra show the expected seasonality linked to variations in the anthropogenic emissions and seasonal biomass burning activity, as well as exceptional events, and are in good agreement with previous spaceborne studies. Total columns simulated by the Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4) are compared to the ground-based FTIR measurements at the four selected stations. The model is able to capture the seasonality in the two species in most of the cases, with correlation coefficients for daily mean measurements ranging from 0.50 to 0.86, depending on the site. IASI measurements are also compared to the distributions from MOZART-4. Seasonal cycles observed from satellite data are reasonably well reproduced by the model with correlation coefficients ranging from -0.31 to 0.93 for C2H2 daily means, and from 0.09 to 0.86 for HCN daily means, depending on the considered region. However, the anthropogenic (biomass burning) emissions used in the model seem to be overestimated (underestimated), and a negative global mean bias of 1% (16 %) of the model relative to the satellite observations was found for C2H2 (HCN). [less ▲]

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See detailMultimodality imaging assessment of the deleterious role of the intraluminal thrombus on the growth of abdominal aortic aneurysm in a rat model
NCHIMI LONGANG, Alain ULg; Courtois, Audrey ULg; EL HACHEMI, Mounia ULg et al

in European Radiology (2015), online

Objectives To evaluate imaging changes occurring in a rat model of elastase-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), with emphasis on the intraluminal thrombus (ILT) occurrence. Methods The post-induction ... [more ▼]

Objectives To evaluate imaging changes occurring in a rat model of elastase-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), with emphasis on the intraluminal thrombus (ILT) occurrence. Methods The post-induction growth of the AAA diameter was characterized using ultrasound in 22 rats. ILT was reported on 13 rats that underwent 14 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 2-18 days post-surgery, and on 10 rats that underwent 18 fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/microcomputed tomography examinations 2-27 days post-surgery. Logistic regressions were used to establish the evolution with time of AAA length, diameter, ILT thickness, volume, stratification, MRI and FDG PET signalling properties, and histological assessment of inflammatory infiltrates. Results All of the following significantly increased with time post-induction (p < 0.001): AAA length, AAA diameter, ILT maximal thickness, ILT volume, ILT iron content and related MRI signalling changes, quantitative uptake on FDG PET, and the magnitude of inflammatory infiltrates on histology. However, the aneurysm growth peak followed occurrence of ILT approximately 6 days after elastase infusion. Conclusion Our model emphasizes that occurrence of ILT precedes AAA peak growth. Aneurysm growth is associated with increasing levels of iron, signalling properties changes in both MRI and FDG PET, relating to its biological activities. [less ▲]

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See detailCurrent status of fasciolosis in Vietnam: an update and perspectives
Bui Thi, Dung ULg; Pham, Ngoc Doanh; Saegerman, Claude ULg et al

in Journal of Helminthology (2015)

Vietnam is recognized as endemic for fasciolosis. However, most of the available publications have not been published in international journals. This review is based on national and international ... [more ▼]

Vietnam is recognized as endemic for fasciolosis. However, most of the available publications have not been published in international journals. This review is based on national and international Vietnamese publications and highlights the current status of fasciolosis in Vietnam. It also provides some information available in neighboring countries. Updated data on responsible species, distribution, transmission and control aspects, are summarized. The Central region of Vietnam is reported as being highly endemic for fasciolosis with a high number of human patients (more than 20.000 in 2011). Fasciola gigantica is reported as the main species in Vietnam. However, hybrids between F. gigantica and F. hepatica were identified. Both human and animals are infected by the ingestion of raw vegetables and possibly contaminated drinking water. Three lymnaeid snail species (Austropeplea viridis, Radix auricularia, Radix rubiginosa) may act as intermediate host of Fasciola spp. However due to the likely misidentification of snail species and cercariae during the previous decade the critical analysis of published data is difficult. A better understanding of transmission aspects of fasciolosis would allow the implementation of preventive measures of this important neglected zoonotic disease. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of the macromolecular surfactant features and reactivity on morphology and surface properties of emulsion-templated porous polymers
Mathieu, Kevin ULg; Jérôme, Christine ULg; Debuigne, Antoine ULg

in Macromolecules (2015), 48(18), 6489-6498

This work investigates key parameters of a straightfor- ward macromolecular surfactant-assisted functionalization strategy of porous polymers produced by high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) polymerization ... [more ▼]

This work investigates key parameters of a straightfor- ward macromolecular surfactant-assisted functionalization strategy of porous polymers produced by high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) polymerization. For that purpose, a series of well-defined amphiphilic poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(styrene) (PEO-b-PS) copolymers with various compositions and molar masses were synthesized by radical addition−fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and used as macromolecular surfactants for the emulsion-templated polymerization of styrene/divinylbenzene (S/DVB). The morphology of the resulting foams, referred to as polyHIPEs, was found dependent on the PS block length and concentration of the block copolymer surfactant in the emulsion. Moreover, we determined the lowest PS block length required for preserving the anchoring of the copolymer at the surface by physical entanglement within the S/DVB cross-linked matrix leading to a PEO-coated porous material. The functionalization of the porous monoliths with PEO was evidenced by sessile drop shape analyses and water uptake experiments. The chemical anchoring of the PEO-b-PS at the surface of polyHIPEs was also explored by interfacial initiation of the HIPE polymerization from a PEO-b-PS-RAFT macroinitiator leading to porous structures with permanent PEO coatings. In this case, copolymerizing DVB with acrylate instead of styrene improved the interconnectivity of the porous monoliths. [less ▲]

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See detailCarbon dioxide fluxes from a degraded Woodland in West Arica and their responses to main environmental factors
Ago, Expédit Evariste ULg; Serça, Dominique; Agbossou, Euloge Kossi et al

in Carbon Balance and Management (2015), 10

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See detailBreakthrough in cardiac arrest: reports from the 4th Paris International Conference.
Kudenchuk, PJ; Sandroni, C; Drinhaus, HR et al

in Annals of Intensive Care (2015)

Jean-Luc Diehl The French Intensive Care Society organized on 5th and 6th June 2014 its 4th Paris International Conference in Intensive Care", whose principle is to bring together the best international ... [more ▼]

Jean-Luc Diehl The French Intensive Care Society organized on 5th and 6th June 2014 its 4th Paris International Conference in Intensive Care", whose principle is to bring together the best international experts on a hot topic in critical care medicine. The 2014 theme was "Breakthrough in cardiac arrest", with many high-quality updates on epidemiology, public health data, pre-hospital and in-ICU cares. The present review includes short summaries of the major presentations, classified into six main chapters: Epidemiology of CA Pre-hospital management Post-resuscitation management: targeted temperature management Post-resuscitation management: optimizing organ perfusion and metabolic parameters Neurological assessment of brain damages Public healthcare." [less ▲]

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See detailGrowth partitioning within beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) varies in response to summer heat waves and related droughts
Latte, Nicolas ULg; Lebourgeois, François; Claessens, Hugues ULg

in Trees (2015)

To characterize growth partitioning within the tree and its responses to climate, we studied 8 dominant beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) of a pure, even-aged 98-year-old stand in Belgium. We sampled 10 ... [more ▼]

To characterize growth partitioning within the tree and its responses to climate, we studied 8 dominant beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) of a pure, even-aged 98-year-old stand in Belgium. We sampled 10 disks along the stem from breast height to treetop and examined the inter-annual patterns of, and discrepancies between, ring-area and volume increments by performing detailed stem analysis and dendroecological investigations. Although the common inter-annual variation among all increment series was high, we observed increasing growth variability and climate sensitivity with height, leading to notable bole-crown discrepancies. Both the common inter-annual variation and bole-crown discrepancies were mainly driven by summer heat waves and related droughts of the previous year, and spring droughts of the current year. Despite these discrepancies, the radial growth at breast height can be considered a good estimate of the tree volume increment but not for the purpose of focusing on climatic effects of isolated years. Extreme climatic conditions increase the risk of inaccurate estimations. The results of the present study are discussed in relation to tree ecophysiology hypotheses. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat Darkens the Greenland Ice Sheet?
Tedesco, M; Doherty, S.; Warren, S. et al

in EOS : Transactions, American Geophysical Union (2015)

Most of the massive ice sheet that covers roughly four fifths of Greenland melts at the surface in summer. As long as the ice sheet regains its mass in the winter, this is not catastrophic. However, if ... [more ▼]

Most of the massive ice sheet that covers roughly four fifths of Greenland melts at the surface in summer. As long as the ice sheet regains its mass in the winter, this is not catastrophic. However, if the ice sheet melted entirely, sea levels would rise by more than 7 meters, with obvious and severe consequences for human civilization. Not surprisingly, scientists are working hard to determine if and when the ice sheet will transition (or if it has already transitioned) from a stable state to a net mass loss state. The impact of increasing greenhouse gas levels on the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) depends on many complex and interacting factors. One is the ice sheet’s albedo—the fraction of incoming solar radiation that is reflected from the surface of the ice sheet. Indeed, scientists have determined that net solar radiation reaching the ice is the largest contributor to the energy balance driving melting [e.g., van den Broeke et al., 2011]. Despite the crucial role of albedo in energy balance, we have yet to quantify the role of the different processes driving it. Such an understanding is crucial to determining the past behavior of the GrIS and projecting its future contribution to sea level rise. Scientists seeking to quantify how much various factors contribute to ice sheet albedo face numerous challenges. These include intrinsic limitations in current observational capabilities (e.g., spatial and radiometric resolution of currently available spaceborne sensors) and limitations on how accurately surface energy balance models handle ice sheet albedo. Moreover, the sparseness in space and time of in situ observations of quantities such as impurity concentrations, biological processes, and grain growth impedes our ability to separate their respective contributions to broadband albedo (integrated over the entire spectrum). [less ▲]

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See detailFaecal microbiota characterisation of horses using 16 rdna barcoded pyrosequencing, and carriage rate of clostridium difficile at hospital admission
Rodriguez Diaz, Cristina ULg; Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Brévers, Bastien et al

in BMC Microbiology (2015), 15

Background The equine faecal microbiota is very complex and remains largely unknown, while interspecies interactions have an important contribution to animal health. Clostridium difficile has been ... [more ▼]

Background The equine faecal microbiota is very complex and remains largely unknown, while interspecies interactions have an important contribution to animal health. Clostridium difficile has been identified as an important cause of diarrhoea in horses. This study provides further information on the nature of the bacterial communities present in horses developing an episode of diarrhoea. The prevalence of C. difficile in hospitalised horses at the time of admission is also reported. Results Bacterial diversity of the gut microbiota in diarrhoea is lower than that in non-diarrhoeic horses in terms of species richness (p-value <0.002) and in population evenness (p-value: 0.02). Statistical differences for Actinobacillus, Porphyromonas, RC9 group, Roseburia and Ruminococcaceae were revealed. Fusobacteria was found in horses with diarrhoea but not in any of the horses with non-diarrheic faeces. In contrast, Akkermansia was among the three predominant taxa in all of the horses studied. The overall prevalence of C. difficile in the total samples of hospitalised horses at admission was 3.7 % (5/134), with five different PCR-ribotypes identified, including PCR-ribotype 014. Two colonised horses displayed a decreased bacterial species richness compared to the remaining subjects studied, which shared the same Bacteroides genus. However, none of the positive animals had diarrhoea at the moment of sampling. Conclusions The abundance of some taxa in the faecal microbiota of diarrhoeic horses can be a result of microbiome dysbiosis, and therefore a cause of intestinal disease, or some of these taxa may act as equine enteric pathogens. Clostridium difficile colonisation seems to be transient in all of the horses studied, without overgrowth to trigger infection. A large proportion of the sequences were unclassified, showing the complexity of horses’ faecal microbiota. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Ant Colony System for Responsive Dynamic Vehicle Routing
Schyns, Michael ULg

in European Journal of Operational Research (2015), 245(3), 704-718

We present an algorithm based on an Ant Colony System to deal with a broad range of Dynamic Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problems with Time Windows, (partial) Split Delivery and Heterogeneous fleets ... [more ▼]

We present an algorithm based on an Ant Colony System to deal with a broad range of Dynamic Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problems with Time Windows, (partial) Split Delivery and Heterogeneous fleets (DVRPTWSD). Besides the traditional distance criterion, we address the important case of responsiveness. Responsiveness is defined here as completing a delivery as soon as possible, within the time window, such that the client or the truck may restart its activities. This is crucial for many production or service activities in different fields: express parcel deliveries, taxi services, Just in Time production, express repair services, medical care, petrol station replenishment, etc. We develop an interactive web-based solution to allow dispatchers to take new information into account in real-time. The algorithm and its parametrization were tested on real and artificial instances. We first illustrate our approach with a problem submitted by Liege Airport, the 8th biggest cargo airport in Europe. The goal is to develop a decision system to optimize the journey of the refueling trucks. We then consider some classical VRP benchmarks with extensions for more complex problems. [less ▲]

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See detailOrigin of high-frequency TEC disturbances observed by GPS over the European mid-latitude region
Wautelet, Gilles ULg; Warnant, René ULg

in Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics (2015)

High-frequency variability of the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) can strongly affect precise positioning with GNSS. The occurrence rate as well as the amplitude of such disturbances has been ... [more ▼]

High-frequency variability of the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) can strongly affect precise positioning with GNSS. The occurrence rate as well as the amplitude of such disturbances has been extensively studied over the last decade. Mainly, one can distinguish disturbances due to space-weather events and the others, qualified as “quiet-time” as they are observed during quiet geomagnetic conditions. The latter, which represent more than 75% of the total number of disturbances over mid-latitudes, are then divided into two categories: the Winter Daytime (WD) and the Summer Nighttime (SN). The first category, representing the bulk of quiet-time disturbances, corresponds to classical Medium-Scale Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (MSTIDs), that are the result of the interaction of gravity waves and the ionospheric plasma. On the other hand, SN disturbances are generally understood as non-classical MSTIDs of electrical origin. The paper investigates the origin of these two types of disturbance based on GPS measurements, ionospheric soundings and wind speed data at a tropospheric level. If one cannot exclude the solar terminator as a potential source of gravity waves responsible for WD events, it is thought that the major contribution comes from the lower atmosphere. More precisely, tropospheric jetstream is considered as the favorite candidate for daytime MSTIDs. Turning to SN disturbances, our analysis reveals that they are related to spread-F phenomenon, linked to the appearance of sporadic E-layers. The related instabilities are responsible for field-aligned irregularities in the F-region, which are thought to be responsible for noise-like fluctuations of the GPS TEC observed during SN events. [less ▲]

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See detailOccurrence and risk indicators of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw after dental extraction: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
GAUDIN, Elise ULg; SEIDEL, Laurence ULg; Bacevic, Miljana ULg et al

in Journal of Clinical Periodontology (2015)

AIMS: The primary objective was to assess the occurrence rate of Medication-Related OsteoNecrosis of the Jaw (MRONJ) after dental extraction in patients treated with Anti-Resorptive Drugs (ARD) for ... [more ▼]

AIMS: The primary objective was to assess the occurrence rate of Medication-Related OsteoNecrosis of the Jaw (MRONJ) after dental extraction in patients treated with Anti-Resorptive Drugs (ARD) for OsteoPorosis (OP) or for oncological reasons. The secondary objective was to compare the extraction techniques regarding the occurrence of MRONJ. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search in PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS databases was performed. Prospective studies considering human patients treated with ARD and providing information regarding the occurrence of MRONJ after dental extraction were selected. Meta-analysis for incidence of MRONJ at the patient level was performed. The effect of administration route and surgical technique on MRONJ was evaluated. RESULTS: The risk of MRONJ after dental extraction was significantly higher in patients treated with ARD for oncological reasons (3.2%) than in those treated with per os ARD for OP (0.15%) (p<0.0001). Dental extraction performed with adjusted extraction protocols decreased significantly MRONJ development. Potential risk indicators such as concomitant medications and pre-existing osteomyelitis were identified. CONCLUSION: The risk of MRONJ after dental extraction in patients treated with ARD exists, especially in patients treated for oncologic reasons. This risk tends to decrease with adjusted extraction protocols. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamics of hybrid switching diffusions SIRS model
Settati, Adel; Lahrouz, Aadil; El Jarroudi, Mustapha et al

in Journal of Applied Mathematics and Computing (2015)

The main aim of this paper is to study the effect of the environmental noises in the asymptotic properties of a stochastic version of the classical SIRS epidemic model. The model studied here include ... [more ▼]

The main aim of this paper is to study the effect of the environmental noises in the asymptotic properties of a stochastic version of the classical SIRS epidemic model. The model studied here include white noise and telegraph noise modeled by Markovian switching. We obtained conditions for extinction both in probability one and in pth moment. We also established the persistence of disease under different conditions on the intensities of noises, the parameters of the model and the stationary distribution of the Markov chain. The highlight point of our work is that our conditions are sufficient and almost necessary for extinction and persistence of the epidemic. The presented results are demonstrated by numerical simulations. [less ▲]

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See detailMonte Carlo simulations of the dose from imaging with GE eXplore 120 micro-CT using gate.
Bretin, Florian; Bahri, Mohamed Ali ULg; Luxen, André ULg et al

in Medical Physics (2015), 42(10), 5711-5719

Purpose: Small animals are increasingly used as translational models in preclinical imaging studies, during which the subjects can be exposed to large amounts of radiation. While the radiation levels are ... [more ▼]

Purpose: Small animals are increasingly used as translational models in preclinical imaging studies, during which the subjects can be exposed to large amounts of radiation. While the radiation levels are generally sublethal, studies have shown that low-level radiation can change physiological parameters in mice. In order to rule out any influence of radiation on the outcome of such experiments, or resulting deterministic effects in the subjects, the levels of radiation involved need to be addressed. The aim of this study was to investigate the radiation dose delivered by the GE eXplore 120 microCT non-invasively using Monte Carlo simulations in GATE and to compare results to previously obtained experimental values. Methods: Tungsten X-ray spectra were simulated at 70, 80, and 97 kVp using an analytical tool and their half-value layers were simulated for spectra validation against experimentally measured values of the physical X-ray tube. A Monte Carlo model of the microCT system was set up and four protocols that are regularly applied to live animal scanning were implemented. The computed tomography dose index (CTDI) inside a PMMA phantom was derived and multiple field of view acquisitions were simulated using the PMMA phantom, a representative mouse and rat. Results: Simulated half-value layers agreed with experimentally obtained results within a 7% error window. The CTDI ranged from 20 to 56 mGy and closely matched experimental values. Derived organ doses in mice reached 459 mGy in bones and up to 200 mGy in soft tissue organs using the highest energy protocol. Dose levels in rats were lower due to the increased mass of the animal compared to mice. The uncertainty of all dose simulations was below 14%. Conclusions: Monte Carlo simulations proved a valuable tool to investigate the 3D dose distribution in animals from microCT. Small animals, especially mice (due to their small volume), receive large amounts of radiation from the GE eXplore 120 microCT, which might alter physiological parameters in a longitudinal study setup. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh dendritic expression of Ih in the proximity of the axon origin controls the integrative properties of nigral dopamine neurons.
Engel, Dominique ULg; Seutin, Vincent ULg

in Journal of Physiology (2015), 593(22), 4905-4922

Dendrites of most neurons express voltage-gated ion channels in their membrane. In combination with passive properties, active currents confer to dendrites a high computational potential. The ... [more ▼]

Dendrites of most neurons express voltage-gated ion channels in their membrane. In combination with passive properties, active currents confer to dendrites a high computational potential. The hyperpolarization-activated cation current Ih present in the dendrites of some pyramidal neurons affects their membrane and integration properties, synaptic plasticity and higher functions such as memory. A gradient of increasing h-channel density towards distal dendrites has been found to be responsible for the location independence of excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) waveform and temporal summation in cortical and hippocampal pyramidal cells. However, reports on other cell types revealed that smoother gradients or even linear distributions of Ih can achieve homogeneous temporal summation. Although the existence of a robust, slowly activating Ih current has been repeatedly demonstrated in nigral dopamine neurons, its subcellular distribution and precise role in synaptic integration are unknown. Using cell-attached patch-clamp recordings, we find a higher Ih current density in the axon-bearing dendrite than in the soma or in dendrites without axon in nigral dopamine neurons. Ih is mainly concentrated in the dendritic membrane area surrounding the axon origin and decreases with increasing distances from this site. Single EPSPs and temporal summation are similarly affected by blockade of Ih in axon- and non-axon-bearing dendrites. The presence of Ih close to the axon is pivotal to control the integrative functions and the output signal of dopamine neurons and may consequently influence the downstream coding of movement. [less ▲]

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See detailRisk Factors and Control Measures for Bacterial Contamination in the Bovine Meat Chain: A Review on Salmonella and Pathogenic E.coli.
Niyonzima, Eugene ULg; Ongol, Martin Patrick; Kimonyo, Anastase et al

in Journal of Food Research (2015), 4(5), 98-121

Salmonella and pathogenic Escherichia coli are known to be the major bacterial agents responsible for human foodborne infections attributable to meat. A review of the specialized literature was carried ... [more ▼]

Salmonella and pathogenic Escherichia coli are known to be the major bacterial agents responsible for human foodborne infections attributable to meat. A review of the specialized literature was carried out to identify the risk factors for bovine meat contamination by these pathogens from the cattle farm to meat consumption. Animal stress during transport to the slaughterhouse and the duration of the lairage period were identified as the key factors influencing the faecal excretion of Salmonella and pathogenic E. coli as well as cattle contamination prior to slaughter. At the abattoir level, hides and visceral contents appear to be the main sources of pathogenic bacteria that contaminate carcasses along the meat production chain. Finally, temperature abuses during distribution and meat contamination by infected handlers were found to be important contributors to the post-slaughter contamination of bovine meat. The findings of this study indicate that efficient management of human food borne infections attributable to bovine meat requires an integrated application of control measures involving all actors along the meat chain, namely slaughterhouses, meat processing plants, distributors and consumers. [less ▲]

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See detailDe la maladie chronique à la multimorbidité : quel impact sur l’organisation des soins de santé ?
Belche, Jean-Luc ULg; Berrewaerts, Marie-Astrid ULg; Ketterer, Frédéric ULg et al

in Presse Médicale (2015)

Healthcare systems are concerned with the growing prevalence of chronic diseases. Single disease approach, based on the Chronic Care Model, is known to improve specific indicators for the targeted disease ... [more ▼]

Healthcare systems are concerned with the growing prevalence of chronic diseases. Single disease approach, based on the Chronic Care Model, is known to improve specific indicators for the targeted disease. However, the co-existence of several chronic disease, or multimorbidity, within a same patient is the most frequent situation. The fragmentation of care, as consequence of the single disease approach, has negative impact on the patient and healthcare professionals. A person centred approach is a method addressing the combination of health issues of each patient. The coordination and synthesis role is key to ensure continuity of care for the patient within a network of healthcare professionals from several settings of care. This function is the main characteristic of an organized first level of care. [less ▲]

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See detailPelagic photoferrotrophy and iron cycling in a modern ferruginous basin
Llirós, Marc; García–Armisen, Tamara; Darchambeau, François ULg et al

in Scientific Reports (2015), 5

Iron-rich (ferruginous) ocean chemistry prevailed throughout most of Earth’s early history. Before the evolution and proliferation of oxygenic photosynthesis, biological production in the ferruginous ... [more ▼]

Iron-rich (ferruginous) ocean chemistry prevailed throughout most of Earth’s early history. Before the evolution and proliferation of oxygenic photosynthesis, biological production in the ferruginous oceans was likely driven by photoferrotrophic bacteria that oxidize ferrous iron {Fe(II)} to harness energy from sunlight, and fix inorganic carbon into biomass. Photoferrotrophs may thus have fuelled Earth’s early biosphere providing energy to drive microbial growth and evolution over billions of years. Yet, photoferrotrophic activity has remained largely elusive on the modern Earth, leaving models for early biological production untested and imperative ecological context for the evolution of life missing. Here, we show that an active community of pelagic photoferrotrophs comprises up to 30% of the total microbial community in illuminated ferruginous waters of Kabuno Bay (KB), East Africa (DR Congo). These photoferrotrophs produce oxidized iron {Fe(III)} and biomass, and support a diverse pelagic microbial community including heterotrophic Fe(III)-reducers, sulfate reducers, fermenters and methanogens. At modest light levels, rates of photoferrotrophy in KB exceed those predicted for early Earth primary production, and are sufficient to generate Earth’s largest sedimentary iron ore deposits. Fe cycling, however, is efficient, and complex microbial community interactions likely regulate Fe(III) and organic matter export from the photic zone. [less ▲]

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See detailLow bandgap copolymers based on monofluorinated isoindigo towards efficient polymer solar cells
Tomassetti, Mirco ULg; Ouhib, Farid ULg; Wislez, Arnaud ULg et al

in Polymer Chemistry (2015), 6(33), 6040-6049

To explore the effectiveness of monofluorinated isoindigo as an electron-deficient building block in push–pull conjugated polymers for organic solar cell applications, four low bandgap copolymers are ... [more ▼]

To explore the effectiveness of monofluorinated isoindigo as an electron-deficient building block in push–pull conjugated polymers for organic solar cell applications, four low bandgap copolymers are effectively synthesized and characterized. The effects of fluorine introduction, thiophene spacer length and polymer molar mass on the general electro-optical polymer characteristics, thin film blend micro- structure and electronic performance are investigated. Isoindigo monofluorination effectively improves the power conversion efficiency from 2.8 up to 5.0% upon molar mass optimization, without using any processing additives or post-treatments. [less ▲]

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See detailPast changes in the vertical distribution of ozone – Part 3: Analysis and interpretation of trends
Harris, N. R. P.; Hassler, B.; Tummon, F. et al

in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (2015), 15(17), 9965--9982

Trends in the vertical distribution of ozone are reported and compared for a number of new and recently revised data sets. The amount of ozone-depleting compounds in the stratosphere (as measured by ... [more ▼]

Trends in the vertical distribution of ozone are reported and compared for a number of new and recently revised data sets. The amount of ozone-depleting compounds in the stratosphere (as measured by equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine – EESC) was maximised in the second half of the 1990s. We examine the periods before and after the peak to see if any change in trend is discernible in the ozone record that might be attributable to a change in the EESC trend, though no attribution is attempted. Prior to 1998, trends in the upper stratosphere (~45 km, 4 hPa) are found to be -5 to -10% per decade at mid-latitudes and closer to -5% per decade in the tropics. No trends are found in the mid-stratosphere (28 km, 30 hPa). Negative trends are seen in the lower stratosphere at mid-latitudes in both hemispheres and in the deep tropics. However, it is hard to be categorical about the trends in the lower stratosphere for three reasons: (i) there are fewer measurements, (ii) the data quality is poorer, and (iii) the measurements in the 1990s are perturbed by aerosols from the Mt Pinatubo eruption in 1991. These findings are similar to those reported previously even though the measurements for the main satellite and groundbased records have been revised. There is no sign of a continued negative trend in the upper stratosphere since 1998: instead there is a hint of an average positive trend of ~2% per decade in mid-latitudes and ~3% per decade in the tropics. The significance of these upward trends is investigated using different assumptions of the independence of the trend estimates found from different data sets. The averaged upward trends are significant if the trends derived from various data sets are assumed to be independent (as in Pawson et al., 2014) but are generally not significant if the trends are not independent. This occurs because many of the underlying measurement records are used in more than one merged data set. At this point it is not possible to say which assumption is best. Including an estimate of the drift of the overall ozone observing system decreases the significance of the trends. The significance will become clearer as (i) more years are added to the observational record, (ii) further improvements are made to the historic ozone record (e.g. through algorithm development), and (iii) the data merging techniques are refined, particularly through a more rigorous treatment of uncertainties. [less ▲]

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See detailCopy number variants in patients with intellectual disability affect the regulation of ARX transcription factor gene
ishibashi, Minaka; Manning, Elisabeth; Shoubridge, Cheryl et al

in Human Genetics (2015), 134

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See detailTrend analysis in ecological status and macrophytic characterization of watercourses: case of the Semois-Chiers basin, Belgium Wallonia
Sossey Alaoui, Khadija ULg; Rosillon, Francis ULg; Tychon, Bernard ULg

in Journal of Water Resource and Protection (2015), Vol.7 No.13 2015

In order to analyze the distribution and evolution of the aquatic vegetation and ecological status of the Semois-Chiers basin (Semois sub-basin and Chiers sub-basin), macrophyte surveys were conducted at ... [more ▼]

In order to analyze the distribution and evolution of the aquatic vegetation and ecological status of the Semois-Chiers basin (Semois sub-basin and Chiers sub-basin), macrophyte surveys were conducted at 48 sites in 2007 and 2013. Environmental parameters were also measured in order to characterize the waterbodies in terms of physico-chemical properties and anthropogenic pressure. The two-way clustering and indicator value (INDVAL) methods were used to assess groups of sites according to their macrophytic composition and species communities. The results showed a clear difference between streams in the Lorraine area (calcareous watercourses) and in the Ardennes (siliceous). Within each natural region, those with natural vegetation of high ecological status were separated from those dominated by resistant species. The Macrophytical Biological Index for Rivers (IBMR), was calculated for the sites visited in 2010 and 2013 and the results show a trend towards an increase of IBMR values of polluted sites. For the latter, the Wilcoxon test was performed to assess the significance of the difference in quality between 2010 and 2013. This showed a statistically significant difference (p-value= 0.035). Our results showed similarities with previous data, as well as some differences. The differences observed might indicate a gradual change in the composition of the vegetation in the study area, caused by changes in environmental conditions. They could also reflect a lack of information about the ecology of certain groups of plants, mainly bryophytes and macroalgae that were not considered in previous studies. Despite the measures implemented under the EU’s Water Framework Directive (WFD), the current vegetation of the Semois river differs little from that observed in 1996. There is a slight improvement in the headwaters of a Semois river, described in previous studies as polytrophic and devoid of vegetation, with the appearance of macrophytic species. In some parts of the Chiers sub-basin, however, resistant species observed in 1999 persist. [less ▲]

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See detailProgenitor potential of nkx6.1-expressing cells throughout zebrafish life and during beta cell regeneration.
Ghaye, Aurelie P.; Bergemann, David ULg; Tarifeño Saldivia, Estefania ULg et al

in BMC biology (2015), 13

BACKGROUND: In contrast to mammals, the zebrafish has the remarkable capacity to regenerate its pancreatic beta cells very efficiently. Understanding the mechanisms of regeneration in the zebrafish and ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: In contrast to mammals, the zebrafish has the remarkable capacity to regenerate its pancreatic beta cells very efficiently. Understanding the mechanisms of regeneration in the zebrafish and the differences with mammals will be fundamental to discovering molecules able to stimulate the regeneration process in mammals. To identify the pancreatic cells able to give rise to new beta cells in the zebrafish, we generated new transgenic lines allowing the tracing of multipotent pancreatic progenitors and endocrine precursors. RESULTS: Using novel bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic nkx6.1 and ascl1b reporter lines, we established that nkx6.1-positive cells give rise to all the pancreatic cell types and ascl1b-positive cells give rise to all the endocrine cell types in the zebrafish embryo. These two genes are initially co-expressed in the pancreatic primordium and their domains segregate, not as a result of mutual repression, but through the opposite effects of Notch signaling, maintaining nkx6.1 expression while repressing ascl1b in progenitors. In the adult zebrafish, nkx6.1 expression persists exclusively in the ductal tree at the tip of which its expression coincides with Notch active signaling in centroacinar/terminal end duct cells. Tracing these cells reveals that they are able to differentiate into other ductal cells and into insulin-expressing cells in normal (non-diabetic) animals. This capacity of ductal cells to generate endocrine cells is supported by the detection of ascl1b in the nkx6.1:GFP ductal cell transcriptome. This transcriptome also reveals, besides actors of the Notch and Wnt pathways, several novel markers such as id2a. Finally, we show that beta cell ablation in the adult zebrafish triggers proliferation of ductal cells and their differentiation into insulin-expressing cells. CONCLUSIONS: We have shown that, in the zebrafish embryo, nkx6.1+ cells are bona fide multipotent pancreatic progenitors, while ascl1b+ cells represent committed endocrine precursors. In contrast to the mouse, pancreatic progenitor markers nkx6.1 and pdx1 continue to be expressed in adult ductal cells, a subset of which we show are still able to proliferate and undergo ductal and endocrine differentiation, providing robust evidence of the existence of pancreatic progenitor/stem cells in the adult zebrafish. Our findings support the hypothesis that nkx6.1+ pancreatic progenitors contribute to beta cell regeneration. Further characterization of these cells will open up new perspectives for anti-diabetic therapies. [less ▲]

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See detailThe changing UV and X-ray properties of the Of?p star CPD -28°2561
Nazé, Yaël ULg; Sundqvist, Jon O.; Fullerton, Alex W. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2015), 452

The Of?p star CPD -28°2561 was monitored at high energies with XMM-Newton and HST. In X-rays, this magnetic oblique rotator displays bright and hard emission that varies by ~55 per cent with rotational ... [more ▼]

The Of?p star CPD -28°2561 was monitored at high energies with XMM-Newton and HST. In X-rays, this magnetic oblique rotator displays bright and hard emission that varies by ~55 per cent with rotational phase. These changes occur in phase with optical variations, as expected for magnetically confined winds; there are two maxima and two minima in X-rays during the 73 d rotational period of CPD -28°2561. However, contrary to previously studied cases, no significant hardness variation is detected between minima and maxima, with the exception of the second minimum which is slightly distinct from the first one. In the UV domain, broad-band fluxes remain stable while line profiles display large variations. Stronger absorptions at low velocities are observed when the magnetic equator is seen edge-on, which can be reproduced by a detailed 3D model. However, a difference in absorption at high velocities in the C IV and N V lines is also detected for the two phases where the confined wind is seen nearly pole-on. This suggests the presence of strong asymmetries about the magnetic equator, mostly in the free-flowing wind (rather than in the confined dynamical magnetosphere). [less ▲]

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See detailA stochastic computational multiscale approach; Application to MEMS resonators
Lucas, Vincent ULg; Golinval, Jean-Claude ULg; Paquay, Stéphane et al

in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics & Engineering (2015), 294

The aim of this work is to develop a stochastic multiscale model for polycrystalline materials, which accounts for the uncertainties in the micro-structure. At the finest scale, we model the micro ... [more ▼]

The aim of this work is to develop a stochastic multiscale model for polycrystalline materials, which accounts for the uncertainties in the micro-structure. At the finest scale, we model the micro-structure using a random Voronoi tessellation, each grain being assigned a random orientation. Then, we apply a computational homogenization procedure on statistical volume elements to obtain a stochastic characterization of the elasticity tensor at the meso-scale. A random field of the meso-scale elasticity tensor can then be generated based on the information obtained from the SVE simulations. Finally, using a stochastic finite element method, these meso-scale uncertainties are propagated to the coarser scale. As an illustration we study the resonance frequencies of MEMS micro-beams made of poly-silicon materials, and we show that the stochastic multiscale approach predicts results in agreement with a Monte Carlo analysis applied directly on the fine finite-element model, i.e. with an explicit discretization of the grains. [less ▲]

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See detailB fields in OB stars (BOB). Detection of a strong magnetic field in the O9.7 V star HD 54879
Castro, N.; Fossati, L.; Hubrig, S. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2015), 581

The number of magnetic stars detected among massive stars is small; nevertheless, the role played by the magnetic field in stellar evolution cannot be disregarded. Links between line profile variability ... [more ▼]

The number of magnetic stars detected among massive stars is small; nevertheless, the role played by the magnetic field in stellar evolution cannot be disregarded. Links between line profile variability, enhancements/depletions of surface chemical abundances, and magnetic fields have been identified for low-mass B-stars, but for the O-type domain this is almost unexplored. Based on FORS 2 and HARPS spectropolarimetric data, we present the first detection of a magnetic field in HD 54879, a single slowly rotating O9.7 V star. Using two independent and different techniques we obtained the firm detection of a surface average longitudinal magnetic field with a maximum amplitude of about 600 G, in modulus. A quantitative spectroscopic analysis of the star with the stellar atmosphere code fastwind results in an effective temperature and a surface gravity of 33 000 ± 1000 K and 4.0 ± 0.1 dex. The abundances of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, and magnesium are found to be slightly lower than solar, but compatible within the errors. We investigate line-profile variability in HD 54879 by complementing our spectra with spectroscopic data from other recent OB-star surveys. The photospheric lines remain constant in shape between 2009 and 2014, although Hα shows a variable emission. The Hα emission is too strong for a standard O9.7 V and is probably linked to the magnetic field and the presence of circumstellar material. Its normal chemical composition and the absence of photospheric line profile variations make HD 54879 the most strongly magnetic, non-variable single O-star detected to date. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla and Paranal observatories under programme ID 191.D-0255(C, F).Appendix A is available in electronic form at <A href="http://www.aanda.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201425354/olm">http://www.aanda.org</A> [less ▲]

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See detailLamost Observations in the Kepler Field. I. Database of Low-resolution Spectra
De Cat, P.; Fu, J. N.; Ren, A. B. et al

in Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series (2015), 220

The nearly continuous light curves with micromagnitude precision provided by the space mission Kepler are revolutionizing our view of pulsating stars. They have revealed a vast sea of low-amplitude ... [more ▼]

The nearly continuous light curves with micromagnitude precision provided by the space mission Kepler are revolutionizing our view of pulsating stars. They have revealed a vast sea of low-amplitude pulsation modes that were undetectable from Earth. The long time base of Kepler light curves allows for the accurate determination of the frequencies and amplitudes of pulsation modes needed for in-depth asteroseismic modeling. However, for an asteroseismic study to be successful, the first estimates of stellar parameters need to be known and they cannot be derived from the Kepler photometry itself. The Kepler Input Catalog provides values for the effective temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity, but not always with sufficient accuracy. Moreover, information on the chemical composition and rotation rate is lacking. We are collecting low-resolution spectra for objects in the Kepler field of view with the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (lamost, Xinglong observatory, China). All of the requested fields have now been observed at least once. In this paper, we describe those observations and provide a useful database for the whole astronomical community. ) located at the Xinglong observatory, China. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh spectral resolution monitoring of Nova V339 Delphini with TIGRE
De Gennaro Aquino, I.; Schröder, K.-P.; Mittag, M. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2015), 581

We investigate the early development of the classical nova V339 Del (Nova Delphini 2013) through high-resolution optical spectroscopy. To study the structure of the ejecta, we focus on the evolution of ... [more ▼]

We investigate the early development of the classical nova V339 Del (Nova Delphini 2013) through high-resolution optical spectroscopy. To study the structure of the ejecta, we focus on the evolution of the absorption and emission features and the changes within the line profiles. We obtained spectra with the robotic 1.2 m telescope TIGRE equipped with the HEROS spectrograph (R = 20 000, wavelength coverage from 3800 to 8800 Å). Our data set covers the outburst from 3 until 121 days after discovery. We provide a qualitative analysis of the spectra, describing the line profiles evolution and providing a rich list of identified lines. During the optically thick phase, we detected several blue-shifted absorption features from s-processed elements, whose origin is unclear. The presence of strong lines from C/O and the absence of Neon features confirm that the nature of the central white dwarf is a CO type. The later "nebular" phase spectra show evidence of the non-spherical, inhomogeneous structure of the ejecta. The detailed evolution of the line profiles and appearance of high ionization species (e.g. N III, O III, He II, [Fe VII]) are direct consequences of the re-ionization of the ejecta during the peak of the soft X-ray emission. [less ▲]

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See detailOrganocatalytic promoted coupling of carbon dioxide with epoxides: a rational investigation of the cocatalytic activity of various hydrogen bond donors
Alves, Margot ULg; Grignard, Bruno ULg; Gennen, Sandro ULg et al

in Catalysis Science & Technology (2015), 5(9), 4636-4643

A catalytic platform based on an onium salt used in combination with organic cocatalysts of various structures was developed for the efficient CO2/epoxide coupling under mild conditions. Through detailed ... [more ▼]

A catalytic platform based on an onium salt used in combination with organic cocatalysts of various structures was developed for the efficient CO2/epoxide coupling under mild conditions. Through detailed kinetic studies by in-situ FT-IR spectroscopy, a rational investigation of the efficiency of a series of commercially available hydrogen bond donors co-catalysts was realized and the influence of different parameters such as the pressure, the temperature, the catalyst loading, and the nature of the epoxide on the reaction kinetics was evaluated. Fluorinated alcohols were found to be more efficient than other hydrogen bond donor activators proposed previously in the literature under similar conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailNonlinear normal modes, modal interactions and isolated resonance curves
Kuether, Robert J.; Renson, Ludovic ULg; Detroux, Thibaut ULg et al

in Journal of Sound and Vibration (2015), 351

The objective of the present study is to explore the connection between the nonlinear normal modes of an undamped and unforced nonlinear system and the isolated resonance curves that may appear in the ... [more ▼]

The objective of the present study is to explore the connection between the nonlinear normal modes of an undamped and unforced nonlinear system and the isolated resonance curves that may appear in the damped response of the forced system. To this end, an energy balance technique is used to predict the amplitude of the harmonic forcing that is necessary to excite a specific nonlinear normal mode. A cantilever beam with a nonlinear spring at its tip serves to illustrate the developments. The practical implications of isolated resonance curves are also discussed by computing the beam response to sine sweep excitations of increasing amplitudes. [less ▲]

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See detailCivilian deaths from weapons used in the Syrian conflict
Guha-Sapir, Debarati; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose; Hicks, Madelyn et al

in British Medical Journal (2015), 351

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