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See detailMagnetosphere-ionosphere mapping at Jupiter: Quantifying the effects of using different internal field models
Vogt, Marissa; Bunce, Emma; Kivelson, Margaret et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics (2015), 120

The lack of global field models accurate beyond the inner magnetosphere (<30 RJ) makes it difficult to relate Jupiter's polar auroral features to magnetospheric source regions. We recently developed a ... [more ▼]

The lack of global field models accurate beyond the inner magnetosphere (<30 RJ) makes it difficult to relate Jupiter's polar auroral features to magnetospheric source regions. We recently developed a model that maps Jupiter's equatorial magnetosphere to the ionosphere using a flux equivalence calculation that requires equal flux at the equatorial and ionospheric ends of flux tubes. This approach is more accurate than tracing field lines in a global field model but only if it is based on an accurate model of Jupiter's internal field. At present there are three widely used internal field models—Voyager Io Pioneer 4 (VIP4), the Grodent Anomaly Model (GAM), and VIP Anomaly Longitude (VIPAL). The purpose of this study is to quantify how the choice of an internal field model affects the mapping of various auroral features using the flux equivalence calculation. We find that different internal field models can shift the ionospheric mapping of points in the equatorial plane by several degrees and shift the magnetospheric mapping to the equator by ~30 RJ radially and by less than 1 h in local time. These shifts are consistent with differences in how well each model maps the Ganymede footprint, underscoring the need for more accurate Jovian internal field models. We discuss differences in the mapping of specific auroral features and the size and location of the open/closed field line boundary. Understanding these differences is important for the continued analysis of Hubble Space Telescope images and in planning for Juno's arrival at Jupiter in 2016. [less ▲]

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See detailTensor Representation of Spin States
Giraud, Olivier; Braun, Daniel; Baguette, Dorian ULg et al

in Physical Review Letters (2015), 114

We propose a generalization of the Bloch sphere representation for arbitrary spin states. It provides a compact and elegant representation of spin density matrices in terms of tensors that share the most ... [more ▼]

We propose a generalization of the Bloch sphere representation for arbitrary spin states. It provides a compact and elegant representation of spin density matrices in terms of tensors that share the most important properties of Bloch vectors. Our representation, based on covariant matrices introduced by Weinberg in the context of quantum field theory, allows for a simple parametrization of coherent spin states, and a straightforward transformation of density matrices under local unitary and partial tracing operations. It enables us to provide a criterion for anticoherence, relevant in a broader context such as quantum polarization of light. [less ▲]

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See detailLead concentrations and isotope ratios in speleothems as proxies for atmospheric metal pollution since the Industrial Revolution
Allan, Mohammed ULg; Fagel, Nathalie ULg; Van Rampelbergh, maite et al

in Chemical Geology (2015)

Lead concentrations and isotope ratios from two speleothems from the Han-sur-Lesse cave in southern Belgium were measured in order to study the ability of speleothems to act as archives of atmospheric ... [more ▼]

Lead concentrations and isotope ratios from two speleothems from the Han-sur-Lesse cave in southern Belgium were measured in order to study the ability of speleothems to act as archives of atmospheric pollution. To address this aim we analyzed trace elemental Al and Pb compositions by LA-ICP-MS and ICP-MS as well as Pb isotopes by MC-ICP-MS. The results help to identify three intervals characterized by particularly high enrichment of Pb: from 1880 to 1905 AD, from 1945 to 1965 AD, and from 1975 to 1990 AD. The speleothem record shows similar changes as the known historical atmospheric pollution level in Belgium. Lead isotope ratios discriminate between Pb sources and confirm that coal and gasoline combustion, combined with regional metallurgical activities, were the predominant Pb pollution sources in the stalagmites during the last 250 years. This study opens possibilities to determine anthropogenic versus natural metal sources in well-dated speleothem archives. [less ▲]

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See detailRetirement age and the age of onset of Alzheimer’s disease: Results from the ICTUS study
Grotz, Catherine ULg; Letenneur, Luc; Bonsang, Eric ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2015)

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See detailPoly(vinyl ester 1,2,3-triazolium)s: a new member of the poly(ionic liquid)s family
Obadia, M. M.; Colliat-Dangus, G.; Debuigne, Antoine ULg et al

in Chemical Communications (2015), 51(16), 3332-3335

A vinyl ester monomer carrying a pendant 1,2,3-triazole group is synthesized in two steps and polymerized by cobalt-mediated radical polymerization. Subsequent alkylation with N-methyl bis ... [more ▼]

A vinyl ester monomer carrying a pendant 1,2,3-triazole group is synthesized in two steps and polymerized by cobalt-mediated radical polymerization. Subsequent alkylation with N-methyl bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide affords the corresponding poly(vinyl ester 1,2,3-triazolium). This unprecedented example of poly(vinyl ester ionic liquid) exhibits an ionic conductivity of 9.2 × 10(-7) S cm(-1) at 30 °C [less ▲]

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See detailGranular transport in driven granular gas
Noirhomme, Martial ULg; Opsomer, Eric ULg; Ludewig, François ULg et al

in European Physical Journal E -- Soft Matter (2015), 38

We numerically and theoretically investigate the behavior of a granular gas driven by asymmetric plates. The injection of energy in the dissipative system differs from one side to the opposite one. We ... [more ▼]

We numerically and theoretically investigate the behavior of a granular gas driven by asymmetric plates. The injection of energy in the dissipative system differs from one side to the opposite one. We prove that the dynamical clustering which is expected for such a system is affected by the asymmetry. As a consequence, the cluster position can be fully controlled. This property could lead to various applications in the handling of granular materials in low-gravity environment. Moreover, the dynamical cluster is characterized by natural oscillations which are also captured by a model. These oscillations are mainly related to the cluster size, thus providing an original way to probe the clustering behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailProtection of Antarctic microbial communities–‘out of sight, out of mind’
Hughes, Kevin; Cowan, Don; Wilmotte, Annick ULg

in Frontiers in Microbiology (2015), 6(151), 1-6

RecentadvancesinmolecularbiologytechniqueshaveshownthepresenceofdiversemicrobialcommunitiesandendemicspeciesinAntarctica.Endemicmicrobesmaybeapotentialsourceofnovelbiotechnologicallyimportantcompounds ... [more ▼]

RecentadvancesinmolecularbiologytechniqueshaveshownthepresenceofdiversemicrobialcommunitiesandendemicspeciesinAntarctica.Endemicmicrobesmaybeapotentialsourceofnovelbiotechnologicallyimportantcompounds,including,forexample,newantibiotics.Thus,thescientificandbiotechnologicalvalueofAntarcticterrestrialmicrobialhabitatscanbecompromisedbyhumanvisitationtoagreaterextentthanpreviouslyrealized.Theever-increasinghumanfootprintinAntarcticamakesconsiderationofthistopicmorepressing,asthenumberoflocationsknowntobepristinehabitats,whereincreasinglysophisticatedcutting-edgeresearchtechniquesmaybeusedtotheirfullpotential,declines.ExaminationoftheProtectedAreassystemoftheAntarcticTreatyshowsthatmicrobialhabitatsaregenerallypoorlyprotected.NoothercontinentonEarthisdominatedtothesamedegreebymicrobialspecies,andrealopportunitiesexisttodevelopnewwaysofconceptualizingandimplementingconservationofmicrobialbiogeographyonacontinentalscale.Herewehighlightpotentialthreatsbothtotheconservationofterrestrialmicrobialecosystems,andtofuturescientificresearchrequiringtheirstudy. [less ▲]

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See detailResonant and antiresonant bouncing droplets
Hubert, Maxime ULg; Robert, Damien; Caps, Hervé ULg et al

in Physical Review. E : Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics (2015), 91

When placed onto a vibrating liquid bath, a droplet may adopt a permanent bouncing behavior, depending on both the forcing frequency and the forcing amplitude. The relationship between the droplet ... [more ▼]

When placed onto a vibrating liquid bath, a droplet may adopt a permanent bouncing behavior, depending on both the forcing frequency and the forcing amplitude. The relationship between the droplet deformations and the bouncing mechanism is studied experimentally and theoretically through an asymmetric and dissipative bouncing spring model. Antiresonance phenomena are evidenced. Experiments and theoretical predictions show that both resonance at specific frequencies and antiresonance at Rayleigh frequencies play crucial roles in the bouncing mechanism. In particular, we show that they could be exploited for bouncing droplet size selection. [less ▲]

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See detailTwo-Photon Luminescence of Gold Nanorods Mediated by Higher Order Plasmon Modes
Verellen, Niels; Denkova, Denitza; De Clercq, Ben et al

in ACS Photonics (2015), 2

Metallic nanorod antennas can be considered as an analogue to classical half-wave dipole antennas, constituting an important tool for manipulating linear and nonlinear lightmatter interactions in ... [more ▼]

Metallic nanorod antennas can be considered as an analogue to classical half-wave dipole antennas, constituting an important tool for manipulating linear and nonlinear lightmatter interactions in nanoscale volumes. Using two-photon luminescence (TPL) scanning laser microscopy, we investigate such optical antennas beyond their fundamental dipole mode. The antenna mode dispersion is extracted from the nonlinear TPL measurement and reveals a TPL process that is dominated by plasmon-induced enhancement of the two photon absorption in the metal. Additionally, a clear signature of the mode parity is observed in the TPL images. TPL maxima are observed outside the antenna boundaries for even parity modes, whereas they are located inside for odd modes. It is concluded that for even modes the two-photon luminescence emission is strongly mediated by retardation of the excitation field, a consequence of their zero net-dipole moment. This selective excitation of different mode parities is highly relevant for nanoscale enhanced nonlinear optics, as well as plasmonic nanosensor applications and tuning of radiative properties of quantum emitters. [less ▲]

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See detailRational Development of an Attenuated Recombinant Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 Vaccine Using Prokaryotic Mutagenesis and In Vivo Bioluminescent Imaging
Boutier, Maxime ULg; Ronsmans, Maygane ULg; Ouyang, Ping et al

in PLoS Pathogens (2015), 11(2), 1004690

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV 3) is causing severe economic losses worldwide in common and koi carp industries, and a safe and efficacious attenuated vaccine compatible with mass vaccination is needed. We ... [more ▼]

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV 3) is causing severe economic losses worldwide in common and koi carp industries, and a safe and efficacious attenuated vaccine compatible with mass vaccination is needed. We produced single deleted recombinants using prokaryotic mutagenesis. When producing a recombinant lacking open reading frame 134 (ORF134), we unexpectedly obtained a clone with additional deletion of ORF56 and ORF57. This triple deleted recombinant replicated efficiently in vitro and expressed an in vivo safety/efficacy profile compatible with use as an attenuated vaccine. To determine the role of the double ORF56-57 deletion in the phenotype and to improve further the quality of the vaccine candidate, a series of deleted recombinants was produced and tested in vivo. These experiments led to the selection of a double deleted recombinant lacking ORF56 and ORF57 as a vaccine candidate. The safety and efficacy of this strain were studied using an in vivo bioluminescent imaging system (IVIS), qPCR, and histopathological examination, which demonstrated that it enters fish via skin infection similar to the wild type strain. However, compared to the parental wild type strain, the vaccine candidate replicated at lower levels and spread less efficiently to secondary sites of infection. Transmission experiments allowing water contamination with or without additional physical contact between fish demonstrated that the vaccine candidate has a reduced ability to spread from vaccinated fish to naïve sentinel cohabitants. Finally, IVIS analyses demonstrated that the vaccine candidate induces a protective mucosal immune response at the portal of entry. Thus, the present study is the first to report the rational development of a recombinant attenuated vaccine against CyHV 3 for mass vaccination of carp. We also demonstrated the relevance of the CyHV 3 carp model for studying alloherpesvirus transmission and mucosal immunity in teleost skin. [less ▲]

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See detailTransient internally driven aurora at Jupiter discovered by Hisaki and the Hubble Space Telescope
Kimura, Tomoki; Badman, Sarah; Tao, Chihiro et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2015), 42

Jupiter’s auroral emissions reveal energy transport and dissipation through the planet’s giant magnetosphere. While the main auroral emission is internally driven by planetary rotation in the steady state ... [more ▼]

Jupiter’s auroral emissions reveal energy transport and dissipation through the planet’s giant magnetosphere. While the main auroral emission is internally driven by planetary rotation in the steady state, transient brightenings are generally thought to be triggered by compression by the external solar wind. Here we present evidence provided by the new Hisaki spacecraft and the Hubble Space Telescope that shows that such brightening of Jupiter’s aurora can in fact be internally driven. The brightening has an excess power up to ~550 GW. Intense emission appears from the polar cap region down to latitudes around Io’s footprint aurora, suggesting a rapid energy input into the polar region by the internal plasma circulation process. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic Input Conductances Shape Neuronal Spiking
Drion, Guillaume ULg; Franci, Alessio ULg; Dethier, Julie ULg et al

in eNeuro (2015)

Assessing the role of biophysical parameter variations in neuronal activity is critical to the understanding of modulation, robustness and homeostasis of neuronal signaling. The paper proposes that this ... [more ▼]

Assessing the role of biophysical parameter variations in neuronal activity is critical to the understanding of modulation, robustness and homeostasis of neuronal signaling. The paper proposes that this question can be addressed through the analysis of dynamic input conductances. Those voltage-dependent curves aggregate the concomitant activity of all ion channels in distinct timescales. They are shown to shape the current-voltage dynamical relationships that determine neuronal spiking. We propose an experimental protocol to measure dynamic input conductances in neurons. In addition, we provide a computational method to extract dynamic input conductances from arbitrary conductance-based models and to analyze their sensitivity to arbitrary parameters. We illustrate the relevance of the proposed approach for modulation, compensation and robustness studies in a published neuron model based on data of the stomatogastric ganglion of the crab Cancer borealis. [less ▲]

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See detailDUSP3 Phosphatase Deficiency or Inhibition Limit Platelet Activation and Arterial Thrombosis
Musumeci, Lucia ULg; Kuijpers, Marijke; Gilio, Karen et al

in Circulation (2015), 131(7), 656-68

Background A limitation of current antiplatelet therapies is their inability to separate thrombotic events from bleeding occurrences. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to platelet ... [more ▼]

Background A limitation of current antiplatelet therapies is their inability to separate thrombotic events from bleeding occurrences. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to platelet activation is of importance for the development of improved therapies. Recently, protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) have emerged as critical regulators of platelet function. Methods and Results This is the first report implicating the dual-specificity phosphatase 3 (DUSP3) in platelet signaling and thrombosis. This phosphatase is highly expressed in human and mouse platelets. Platelets from DUSP3-deficient mice displayed a selective impairment of aggregation and granule secretion mediated through the collagen receptor glycoprotein VI (GPVI) and the C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2). DUSP3-deficient mice were more resistant to collagen- and epinephrine-induced thromboembolism, compared to wild-type mice, and showed severely impaired thrombus formation upon ferric chloride-induced carotid artery injury. Intriguingly, bleeding times were not altered in DUSP3-deficient mice. At the molecular level, DUSP3 deficiency impaired Syk tyrosine phosphorylation, subsequently reducing phosphorylation of PLCγ2 and calcium fluxes. To investigate DUSP3 function in human platelets, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of DUSP3 was developed. This compound specifically inhibited collagen and CLEC-2-induced human platelet aggregation, thereby phenocopying the effect of DUSP3 deficiency in murine cells. Conclusions DUSP3 plays a selective and essential role in collagen- and CLEC-2-mediated platelet activation and thrombus formation in vivo. Inhibition of DUSP3 may prove therapeutic for arterial thrombosis. This is the first time a PTP, implicated in platelet signaling, has been targeted with a small-molecule drug. [less ▲]

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See detailA flux extraction device to measure the magnetic moment of large samples; application to bulk superconductors
Egan, Raphael ULg; Philippe, Matthieu ULg; Wera, Laurent ULg et al

in Review of Scientific Instruments (2015), 86(2), 025107

We report the design and construction of a flux extraction device to measure the DC magnetic moment of large samples (i.e., several cm3) at cryogenic temperature. The signal is constructed by integrating ... [more ▼]

We report the design and construction of a flux extraction device to measure the DC magnetic moment of large samples (i.e., several cm3) at cryogenic temperature. The signal is constructed by integrating the electromotive force generated by two coils wound in series-opposition that move around the sample. We show that an octupole expansion of the magnetic vector potential can be used conveniently to treat near-field effects for this geometrical configuration. The resulting expansion is tested for the case of a large, permanently magnetized, type-II superconducting sample. The dimensions of the sensing coils are determined in such a way that the measurement is influenced by the dipole magnetic moment of the sample and not by moments of higher order, within user-determined upper bounds. The device, which is able to measure magnetic moments in excess of 1 Am2 (1000 emu), is validated by (i) a direct calibration experiment using a small coil driven by a known current and (ii) by comparison with the results of numerical calculations obtained previously using a flux measurement technique. The sensitivity of the device is demonstrated by the measurement of flux-creep relaxation of the magnetization in a large bulk superconductor sample at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K). [less ▲]

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See detailTen years of Martian nitric oxide nightglow observations
Stiepen, Arnaud ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Gagné, Marie-Eve et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2015)

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See detailDark anti atoms can explain DAMA
Wallemacq, Quentin ULg; Cudell, Jean-René ULg

in Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics [= JCAP] (2015)

We show that the existence of a sub-dominant form of dark matter, made of dark 'antiatoms' of a mass of 1 TeV and a size of 30 fm, can explain the results of direct detection experiments, with a positive ... [more ▼]

We show that the existence of a sub-dominant form of dark matter, made of dark 'antiatoms' of a mass of 1 TeV and a size of 30 fm, can explain the results of direct detection experiments, with a positive signal in DAMA/NaI and DAMA/LIBRA and no signal in other experiments. The signal comes from the binding of the dark anti-atoms to thallium, a dopant in DAMA, and is not present for the constituent atoms of other experiments. The dark anti-atoms are made of two particles oppositely charged under a dark U(1) symmetry and can bind to terrestrial atoms because of a kinetic mixing between the photon and the massless dark photon, such that the dark particles acquire an electric milli-charge of ± 5.10(−)(4)e. This millicharge enables them to bind to high-Z atoms via radiative capture, after they thermalize in terrestrial matter through elastic collisions. [less ▲]

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See detailHighly efficient, long life, reusable and robust photosynthetic hybrid core-shell beads for the sustainable production of high value compounds
Desmet, Jonathan; Meunier, Christophe; Danloy, Emeric et al

in Journal of Colloid & Interface Science (2015), 448

An efficient one-step process to synthesize highly porous (Ca-alginate–SiO2–polycation) shell: (Na-alginate– SiO2) core hybrid beads for cell encapsulation, yielding a reusable long-life ... [more ▼]

An efficient one-step process to synthesize highly porous (Ca-alginate–SiO2–polycation) shell: (Na-alginate– SiO2) core hybrid beads for cell encapsulation, yielding a reusable long-life photosynthetically active material for a sustainable manufacture of high-value metabolites is presented. Bead formation is based on crosslinking of an alginate biopolymer and mineralisation of silicic acid in combination with a coacervation process between a polycation and the silica sol, forming a semi-permeable external membrane. The excellent mechanical strength and durability of the monodispersed beads and the control of their porosity and textural properties is achieved by tailoring the silica and alginate loading, polycation concentration and incubation time during coacervation. This process has led to the formation of a remarkably robust hybrid material that confers exceptional protection to live cells against sheer stresses and contamination in a diverse range of applications. Dunaliella tertiolecta encapsulated within this hybrid core–shell system display high photosynthetic activity over a long duration (>1 year). This sustainable biotechnology could find use in high value chemical harvests and biofuel cells to photosynthetic solar cells (energy transformation, electricity production, water splitting technologies). Furthermore the material can be engineered into various forms from spheres to variable thickness films, broadening its potential applications. 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis and anticancer activities of a novel class of mono- and di-metallic Pt(II)(salicylaldiminato)- (DMSO or Picolino)Cl complexes
Faiz-Ur Rahman; Ali, Amjad ULg; Rong Guo et al

in Dalton Transactions (2015)

A series of novel Pt(II) complexes [cis- and trans-Pt(II)(salicylaldimine)(DMSO)Cl (C-1), trans-Pt(II)(salicylaldimine)( 4-picoline)Cl (C-2), Pt(II)(salicylaldimine)Cl (C-3), trans- and cis/trans-Pt2(II ... [more ▼]

A series of novel Pt(II) complexes [cis- and trans-Pt(II)(salicylaldimine)(DMSO)Cl (C-1), trans-Pt(II)(salicylaldimine)( 4-picoline)Cl (C-2), Pt(II)(salicylaldimine)Cl (C-3), trans- and cis/trans-Pt2(II)(salicylaldimine) (DMSO)2Cl2 (C-4), trans-Pt2(II)(salicylaldimine)(4-picoline)2Cl2 (C-5) was synthesized and characterized. The structures of C-1-cis, C-1-trans and C-3 were determined using a single crystal X-ray analysis. This class of Pt(II) complexes has been studied for their in vitro cytotoxicity in multiple human cancer cell lines, including breast (MCF-7), liver (HepG2), lung (A549), colon (HCT116) and cervical (Hela) cancers. C-1- trans, C-2 and C-4-trans showed significant cytotoxicity to these cancer cells comparable to cisplatin. A time- and dose-dependent MTT assay revealed that these complexes can suppress cell viability and cell proliferation. Mechanistically these complexes induced pro-apoptotic gene expression such as BAX, PUMA and NOXA and thereby enhanced apoptosis. Moreover, PARP cleavage in a dose-dependent manner indicated their cytotoxic effect against cancer cells. Apoptosis of cancer cells occurred through apoptotic pathways as explained by the cytometry analysis. The DNA unwinding properties of these active Pt(II) complexes were studied by gel electrophoresis using pBR322 plasmid DNA as a target. Changes in the morphology of cancer cells were also observed upon the addition of C-1-trans, C-2 and C-4-trans. [less ▲]

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See detailMethionine-derived Schiff base as selective fluorescent “turn-on”chemosensor for Zn2+in aqueous medium and its application in livingcells imaging
Faiz-Ur-Rahman; Ali, Amjad ULg; Rong Guo et al

in Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical (2015)

tWe describe the quantitative synthesis of a Schiff base derived from methionine and salicylaldehyde(SMSB) which displayed turn-on selective fluorescent chemo-sensing properties for Zn2+in bufferedCH3CN ... [more ▼]

tWe describe the quantitative synthesis of a Schiff base derived from methionine and salicylaldehyde(SMSB) which displayed turn-on selective fluorescent chemo-sensing properties for Zn2+in bufferedCH3CN/H2O (1:1) solution. In physiological pH (7.2 buffered) SMSB exhibited high selectivity and sen-sitivity toward Zn2+over the other selected metal ions. Upon the addition of Zn2+33 folds of emissionenhancement was observed in SMSB and limit of detection (CL) for Zn2+was found to be 5.0 × 10−7M. Thisbinding phenomenon was studied by1H NMR and HR-MS analysis. Mass spectrometry analysis revealedthat SMSB interacts with Zn2+and form a 1:1 complex, also confirmed by Job’s plot. This probe wascompletely retrieved by adding EDTANa2solution, exhibited a fluorescent quenching effect by removingZn2+from the sensor. SMSB was observed to have a good tolerance for fluorescence detection of Zn2+in pH range 6–10. Furthermore it is successfully investigated for living cells imaging using MCF-7 cells.Combine experimental results indicated SMSB to be a useful and powerful chemosensing probe for Zn2+in water as well as in living cells. [less ▲]

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See detailIn situ investigation of scCO2 assisted impregnation of drug into polymer by high pressure FTIR micro-spectroscopy
Champeau, Mathilde ULg; Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg; Jérôme, Christine ULg et al

in Analyst (2015), 140(3), 869-879

An original experimental set-up combining a FTIR microscope with a high pressure cell has been built in order to analyze in-situ the impregnation of solute into microscopic polymer samples, such as fibers ... [more ▼]

An original experimental set-up combining a FTIR microscope with a high pressure cell has been built in order to analyze in-situ the impregnation of solute into microscopic polymer samples, such as fibers or films, subjected to supercritical CO2. Thanks to this experimental set-up, key factors governing the impregnation process can be simultaneously followed such as the swelling of the polymeric matrix, the CO2 sorption, the kinetic of impregnation and the drug loading into the matrix. Moreover, the solute/polymer interactions and the speciation of the solute can be analyzed. We have monitored in situ the impregnation of aspirin and ketoprofen into PEO (Polyethylene Oxide) platelets at T=40°C and P=5; 10 and 15 MPa. The kinetic of impregnation of aspirin was quicker than the one of ketoprofen and the final drug loading was also higher in case of aspirin. Whereas the CO2 sorption and the PEO swelling remain constant when PEO is just subjected to CO2 under isobaric conditions, we noticed that both parameters can increase while the drug impregnates PEO. Coupling these results with DSC measurements, we underlined the plasticizing effect of the drug that also leads to decrease the crystallinity of PEO in situ thus favoring the sorption of CO2 molecules into the matrix and the swelling of the matrix. The plasticizing effect increases with the drug loading. Finally, the speciation of drug was investigated considering the shift of the carboxyl bands of the drugs. Both drugs were found to be mainly homogeneously dispersed into PEO. [less ▲]

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See detailSingle Wavelength Coarse Phasing In Segmented Telescopes
Simar, Juan Felipe ULg

in Applied Optics (2015), 54

Space observations of fainter and more distant astronomical objects constantly require telescope primary mirrors with a larger size. The diameter of monolithic primary mirrors is limited to 10 m because ... [more ▼]

Space observations of fainter and more distant astronomical objects constantly require telescope primary mirrors with a larger size. The diameter of monolithic primary mirrors is limited to 10 m because of manufacturing limitations. For space telescopes, the primary mirrors are limited to less than 5 m due to fairing capacity. Segmented primary mirrors thus constitute an alternative solution to deal with the steadily increase of the primary mirror size. The optical path di erence between the individual segments must be close to zero (few nm) in order to be di raction limited. We propose in this paper a new inter-segment piston sensor based on coherence measurement of a star image. This sensor is intended to be used in the co-phasing system of future segmented mirrors. [less ▲]

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See detailRevisiting the SN1987A gamma-ray limit on ultralight axion-like particles
Payez, Alexandre ULg; Evoli, Carmelo; Fischer, Tobias et al

in Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics [= JCAP] (2015), 2015(02), 006

We revise the bound from the supernova SN1987A on the coupling of ultralight axion-like particles (ALPs) to photons. In a core-collapse supernova, ALPs would be emitted via the Primakoff process, and ... [more ▼]

We revise the bound from the supernova SN1987A on the coupling of ultralight axion-like particles (ALPs) to photons. In a core-collapse supernova, ALPs would be emitted via the Primakoff process, and eventually convert into gamma rays in the magnetic field of the Milky Way. The lack of a gamma-ray signal in the GRS instrument of the SMM satellite in coincidence with the observation of the neutrinos emitted from SN1987A therefore provides a strong bound on their coupling to photons. Due to the large uncertainty associated with the current bound, we revise this argument, based on state-of-the-art physical inputs both for the supernova models and for the Milky-Way magnetic field. Furthermore, we provide major amendments, such as the consistent treatment of nucleon-degeneracy effects and of the reduction of the nuclear masses in the hot and dense nuclear medium of the supernova. With these improvements, we obtain a new upper limit on the photon-ALP coupling: g_{a\gamma} < 5.3 x 10^{-12} GeV^{-1}, for m_a < 4.4 x 10^{-10} eV, and we also give its dependence at larger ALP masses. Moreover, we discuss how much the Fermi-LAT satellite experiment could improve this bound, should a close-enough supernova explode in the near future. [less ▲]

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See detail18F-FPRGD2 PET/CT imaging of integrin αvβ3 in renal carcinomas: Correlation with histopathology
WITHOFS, Nadia ULg; SIGNOLLE, NICOLAS; SOMJA, Joan ULg et al

in Journal of Nuclear Medicine (The) (2015)

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See detailQuaternary prevention, an answer of family doctors to overmedicalization
Jamoulle, Marc ULg

in International Journal of Health Policy and Management (2015), 4((X)), 1-4

In response to the questioning of Health Policy and Management (HPAM) by colleagues on the role of rank and file family physicians in the same journal, the author, a family physician in Belgium, is trying ... [more ▼]

In response to the questioning of Health Policy and Management (HPAM) by colleagues on the role of rank and file family physicians in the same journal, the author, a family physician in Belgium, is trying to highlight the complexity and depth of the work of his colleagues and their contribution to the understanding of the organization and economy of healthcare. It addresses, in particular, the management of health elements throughout the ongoing relationship of the family doctor with his/her patients. It shows how the three dimensions of prevention, clearly included in the daily work, are complemented with the fourth dimension, quaternary prevention or prevention of medicine itself, whose understanding could help to control the economic and human costs of healthcare [less ▲]

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See detailChallenges for imaging and therapy of musculoskeletal tumours
COOK, GARY; HUSTINX, Roland ULg

in Clinical and Translational Imaging (2015)

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See detailContribution to the Macrophytic Typology of Belgian Reference Watercourses
Galoux, Daniel; Cherot, Frédéric; Rosillon, Francis ULg et al

in Advances in Botany (2015), Volume 2015, Article ID 651369

The objective of the study is to create a typology of macrophytes for the reference watercourses of the Meuse River catchment ... [more ▼]

The objective of the study is to create a typology of macrophytes for the reference watercourses of the Meuse River catchment basininWalloniaasasteptowardstheimplementationoftheEuropeanWaterFrameworkDirective.The50sitesstudiedarethe objectofaphysicochemicalandenvironmentalcharacterizationfollowedbyafloristicsurvey(phanerogams,mosses,liverworts, andmacroalgae).Sixclustersofwatercourseswiththeircharacteristicspeciesarehighlightedbytwo-wayclusteringandindicator species. The abundance of phanerogams in some watercourses of the Arden region is not only linked to light intensity but also dependsonthedegreeofslopeandthenatureofthegeologicalsubstrate [less ▲]

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See detailEstimation of the Time Interval between the Administration of Heroin and the Sampling of Blood in Chronic Inhalers
DUBOIS, Nathalie ULg; HALLET, Claude ULg; SEIDEL, Laurence ULg et al

in Journal of Analytical Toxicology (2015)

To develop a model for estimating the time delay between last heroin consumption and blood sampling in chronic drug users. Eleven patients, all heroin inhalers undergoing detoxification, were included in ... [more ▼]

To develop a model for estimating the time delay between last heroin consumption and blood sampling in chronic drug users. Eleven patients, all heroin inhalers undergoing detoxification, were included in the study. Several plasma samples were collected during the detoxification procedure and analyzed for the heroin metabolites 6-acetylmorphine (6AM), morphine (MOR), morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) and morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G), according to a UHPLC/MSMS method. The general linear mixed model was applied to time-related concentrations and a pragmatic four-step delay estimation approach was proposed based on the simultaneous presence of metabolites in plasma. Validation of the model was carried out using the jackknife technique on the 11 patients, and on a group of 7 test patients. Quadratic equations were derived for all metabolites except 6AM. The interval delay estimation was 2–4 days when only M3G present in plasma, 1–2 days when M6G and M3G were both present, 0–1 day when MOR, M6G and M3G were present and <2 h for all metabolites present. The ‘jackknife’ correlation between declared and actual estimated delays was 0.90. The overall precision of the delay estimates was 8–9 h. The delay between last heroin consumption and blood sampling in chronic drug users can be satisfactorily predicted from plasma heroin metabolites. [less ▲]

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See detailMagnetic shielding of an inhomogenous magnetic field source by a bulk superconducting tube
Hogan, Kevin ULg; Fagnard, Jean-François ULg; Wera, Laurent ULg et al

in Superconductor Science and Technology (2015), 28(3), 035011

Bulk type-II irreversible superconductors can act as excellent passive magnetic shields, with a strong attenuation of low frequency magnetic fields. Up to now, the performances of superconducting magnetic ... [more ▼]

Bulk type-II irreversible superconductors can act as excellent passive magnetic shields, with a strong attenuation of low frequency magnetic fields. Up to now, the performances of superconducting magnetic shields have mainly been studied in a homogenous magnetic field, considering only immunity problems, i.e. when the field is applied outside the tube and the inner field should ideally be zero. In this paper, we aim to investigate experimentally and numerically the magnetic response of a high-Tc bulk superconducting hollow cylinder at 77 K in an emission problem, i.e. when subjected to the non-uniform magnetic field generated by a source coil placed inside the tube. A bespoke 3-D mapping system coupled with a 3-axis Hall probe is used to measure the magnetic flux density distribution outside the superconducting magnetic shield. A finite element model is developed to understand how the magnetic field penetrates into the superconductor and how the induced superconducting shielding currents flow inside the shield in the case where the emitting coil is placed coaxially inside the tube. The finite element modelling is found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental data. Results show that a concentration of the magnetic flux lines occurs between the emitting coil and the superconducting screen. This effect is observed both with the modelling and the experiment. In the case of a long tube, we show that the main features of the field penetration in the superconducting walls can be reproduced with a simple analytical 1D model. This model is used to estimate the maximum flux density of the emitting coil that can be shielded by the superconductor. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential Performance between Two Timber Species in Forest Logging Gaps and in Plantations in Central Africa
Fayolle, Adeline ULg; Ouedraogo, Dakis-Yaoba ULg; Ligot, Gauthier ULg et al

in Forests (2015), 6(2), 380-394

To develop silvicultural guidelines for high-value timber species of Central African moist forests, we assessed the performance of the pioneer Milicia excelsa (iroko, Moraceae), and of the non-pioneer ... [more ▼]

To develop silvicultural guidelines for high-value timber species of Central African moist forests, we assessed the performance of the pioneer Milicia excelsa (iroko, Moraceae), and of the non-pioneer light demander Pericopsis elata (assamela, Fabaceae) in logging gaps and in plantations in highly degraded areas in south-eastern Cameroon. The survival and size of each seedling was regularly monitored in the silvicultural experiments. Differences in performance and allometry were tested between species in logging gaps and in plantations. The two species performance in logging gaps was significantly different from plantations and concurred with the expectations of the performance trade-off hypothesis but not with the expectations of species light requirements. The pioneer M. excelsa survived significantly better in logging gaps while the non-pioneer P. elata grew significantly faster in plantations. The high mortality and slow growth of M. excelsa in plantations is surprising for a pioneer species but could be explained by herbivory (attacks from a gall-making psyllid). Identifying high-value native timber species (i) with good performance in plantations such as P. elata is of importance to restore degraded areas; and (ii) with good performance in logging gaps such as M. excelsa is of importance to maintain timber resources and biodiversity in production forests. [less ▲]

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See detailThe non-convex shape of (234) Barbara, the first Barbarian
Tanga, Paolo; Carry, B.; Colas, F. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2015)

Asteroid (234) Barbara is the prototype of a category of asteroids that has been shown to be extremely rich in refractory inclusions, the oldest material ever found in the Solar System. It exhibits ... [more ▼]

Asteroid (234) Barbara is the prototype of a category of asteroids that has been shown to be extremely rich in refractory inclusions, the oldest material ever found in the Solar System. It exhibits several peculiar features, most notably its polarimetric behavior. In recent years other objects sharing the same property (collectively known as ”Barbarians”) have been discovered. Interferometric observations in the mid-infrared with the ESO VLTI suggested that (234) Barbara might have a bi-lobated shape or even a large companion satellite. We use a large set of 57 optical lightcurves acquired between 1979 and 2014, together with the timings of two stellar occultations in 2009, to determine the rotation period, spin-vector coordinates, and 3-D shape of (234) Barbara, using two different shape reconstruction algorithms. By using the lightcurves combined to the results obtained from stellar occultations, we are able to show that the shape of (234) Barbara exhibits large concave areas. Possible links of the shape to the polarimetric properties and the object evolution are discussed. We also show that VLTI data can be modeled without the presence of a satellite [less ▲]

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See detailNew spectroscopic and polarimetric observations of the A0 supergiant HD 92207
Hubrig, S.; Kholtygin, A. F.; Schöller, M. et al

in Astronomische Nachrichten (2015), 336

Our recent search for the presence of a magnetic field in the bright early A-type supergiant HD 92207 using FORS 2 in spectropolarimetric mode revealed the presence of a longitudinal magnetic field of the ... [more ▼]

Our recent search for the presence of a magnetic field in the bright early A-type supergiant HD 92207 using FORS 2 in spectropolarimetric mode revealed the presence of a longitudinal magnetic field of the order of a few hundred Gauss. However, the definite confirmation of the magnetic nature of this object remained pending due to the detection of short-term spectral variability probably affecting the position of line profiles in left- and right-hand polarized spectra. We present new magnetic field measurements of HD 92207 obtained on three different epochs in 2013 and 2014 using FORS 2 in spectropolarimetric mode. A 3σ detection of the mean longitudinal magnetic field using the entire spectrum, <B_z>_all=104±34 G, was achieved in observations obtained in 2014 January. At this epoch, the position of the spectral lines appeared stable. Our analysis of spectral line shapes recorded in opposite circularly polarized light, i.e. in light with opposite sense of rotation, reveals that line profiles in the light polarized in a certain direction appear slightly split. The mechanism causing such a behaviour in the circularly polarized light is currently unknown. Trying to settle the issue of short-term variability, we searched for changes in the spectral line profiles on a time scale of 8-10 min using HARPS polarimetric spectra and on a time scale of 3-4 min using time series obtained with the CORALIE spectrograph. No significant variability was detected on these time scales during the epochs studied. Based on observations collected with the CORALIE echelle spectrograph mounted on the 1.2-m Swiss telescope at La Silla Observatory, data obtained at the European Southern Observatory (ESO Prg. 092.D-0209(A), and data obtained from the ESO Science Archive Facility under request MSCHOELLER 102067). [less ▲]

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See detailEconomics of a decision-support system for managing the main fungal diseases of winter wheat in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; Kouadio, Louis; Beyer, Marco et al

in Field Crops Research (2015), 172(2), 32-41

We evaluated the cost effectiveness of a decision-support system (DSS) developed for assessing in real time the risk of progression of the main fungal diseases (i.e., Septoria leaf blotch, powdery mildew ... [more ▼]

We evaluated the cost effectiveness of a decision-support system (DSS) developed for assessing in real time the risk of progression of the main fungal diseases (i.e., Septoria leaf blotch, powdery mildew, leaf rusts and Fusarium head blight) of winter wheat in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (GDL). The study was conducted in replicated field experiments located in four agricultural locations (representative of the main agro-ecological regions of the country) over a 10-year period (2003-2012). Three fungicide spray strategies were compared: a single DSS-based system and two commonly used spray practices in the GDL, a double- (2T)- and a triple- spray (3T) spray treatment; there was also a non-treated control. In years with a high disease pressure, the DSS-based recommendation resulted in protection of the three upper leaves comparable to that achieved with the 2T and 3T treatments, with significant grain yield increases (P > 0.05) compared to the control (a 4 to 42% increase, depending on the site and year). Overall, the financial gain in treated plots compared with the control ranged from 3 to 16% at the study sites. Furthermore, in seasons when dry weather conditions precluded epidemic development, no the DSS-basedDSS recommended no fungicide spray was recommended, reducing use of fungicide, and thus saving the cost of the product. The gain in yield for the 2T and 3T plots (compared with control) did not necessarily result in a financial gain during the duration of the experiment. This study demonstrates the potential advantages and profitability of using a DSS -based approach for disease management. [less ▲]

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See detailSelf-assembly of a triblock terpolymer mediated by hydrogen-bonded complexes
Guerlain, Claire; Piogé, Sandie; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg et al

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry (2015), 53(3), 459-467

A poly(methyl methacrylate)-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine)-block-polystyrene (PMMA-b-P4VP-b-PS) triblock terpolymer is synthesized by ATRP to study its self-assembly with PAA in organic solvents. The self ... [more ▼]

A poly(methyl methacrylate)-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine)-block-polystyrene (PMMA-b-P4VP-b-PS) triblock terpolymer is synthesized by ATRP to study its self-assembly with PAA in organic solvents. The self-assembly behavior of this system is compared with the one of a mixture of two diblocks, namely polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) and poly(methyl methacrylate)-block-poly(methacrylic acid) (PMMA-b-PMAA). For both systems, formation of hydrogen-bonded complexes between the P4VP and PMAA or PAA blocks occurs. These complexes become insoluble in the solvent used and micelles with a P4VP/P(M)AA complexes core surrounded by PS and PMMA coronal chains are obtained in both cases. These micelles are analyzed by DLS and TEM. Spherical micelles are formed for both systems but the hydrodynamic radii obtained for the two types of micelles are different. Indeed, the micelles formed by the PMMA-b-P4VP-b-PS + PAA system are smaller than those observed for the PS-b-P4VP + PMMA-b-PMAA system. Finally, the effect of the molar ratio of the P4VP/PMAA complexing blocks is investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailThe summer 2012 Greenland heat wave: in situ and remote sensing observations of water vapour isotopic composition during an atmospheric river event†
Bonne, JL; Steen-Larsen, HC; Risi, C. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres (2015)

During July 7-12, 2012, extreme moist and warm conditions occurred over Greenland, leading to widespread surface melt. To investigate the physical processes during the atmospheric moisture transport of ... [more ▼]

During July 7-12, 2012, extreme moist and warm conditions occurred over Greenland, leading to widespread surface melt. To investigate the physical processes during the atmospheric moisture transport of this event, we study the water vapour isotopic composition using surface in situ observations in Bermuda Island, South Greenland coast (Ivittuut) and Northwest Greenland ice sheet (NEEM), as well as remote sensing observations (IASI instrument on-board MetOp-A), depicting propagation of similar surface and mid-tropospheric humidity and δD signals. Simulations using Lagrangian moisture source diagnostic and water tagging in a regional model showed that Greenland was affected by an atmospheric river transporting moisture from the western subtropical North Atlantic Ocean, which is coherent with observations of snow pit impurities deposited at NEEM. At Ivittuut, surface air temperature, humidity and δD increases are observed. At NEEM, similar temperature increase is associated with a large and long-lasting ~100 δD enrichment and ~15 deuterium excess decrease, thereby reaching Ivittuut level. We assess the simulation of this event in two isotope-enabled atmospheric general circulation models (LMDz-iso and ECHAM5-wiso). LMDz-iso correctly captures the timing of propagation for this event identified in IASI data but depict too gradual variations when compared to surface data. Both models reproduce the surface meteorological and isotopic values during the event but underestimate the background deuterium excess at NEEM. Cloud liquid water content parametrization in LMDz-iso poorly impacts the vapour isotopic composition. Our data demonstrate that during this atmospheric river event the deuterium excess signal is conserved from the moisture source to Northwest Greenland. [less ▲]

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See detailA comparison between visual estimates and image analysis measurements to determine Septoria leaf blotch severity in winter wheat
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; Kouadio, Louis; Mackels, Christophe et al

in Plant Pathology (2015)

Methods to estimate disease severity vary in accuracy, reliability, ease of use and cost. Severity of Septoria leaf blotch (SLB, caused by Zymoseptoria graminicola) was estimated by four raters and by ... [more ▼]

Methods to estimate disease severity vary in accuracy, reliability, ease of use and cost. Severity of Septoria leaf blotch (SLB, caused by Zymoseptoria graminicola) was estimated by four raters and by image analysis (assumed actual values) on individual leaves of winter wheat in order to explore accuracy and reliability of estimates, and to ascertain whether there were any general characteristics of error. Specifically, (i) we determined the accuracy and reliability of visual assessments of SLB over the full range of severity from 0 to 100%, and we investigated (ii) whether certain 10% ranges in actual disease severity between 0 and 100% were more prone to estimation error compared with others, and (iii) whether leaf position affected accuracy within those ranges. Lin's concordance correlation analysis of all severities (0 to 100%) demonstrated that all raters had estimates close to the actual values (agreement: ρc = 0.92-0.99). However, agreement between actual SLB severities and estimates by raters was less good when compared over short 10% subdivisions within the 0-100% range (ρc = -0.12 to 0.99). Despite common rater imprecision at estimating low and high SLB severities, individual raters differed considerably in their accuracy over the short 10% subdivisions. There was no effect of leaf position on accuracy or precision of severity estimate on separate leaves (L1-L3). Pursuing efforts in understanding error in disease estimation should aid in improving the accuracy of assessments, making visual estimates of disease severity more useful for research and applied purposes. [less ▲]

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See detailTRAPPIST monitoring of comet C/2012 F6 (Lemmon)
Opitom, Cyrielle ULg; Jehin, Emmanuel ULg; Manfroid, Jean ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2015), 574

We report the results of the long-term narrowband photometry and imaging monitoring of comet C/2012 F6 (Lemmon) with the robotic TRAPPIST telescope (La Silla Observatory). Observations covered 52 nights ... [more ▼]

We report the results of the long-term narrowband photometry and imaging monitoring of comet C/2012 F6 (Lemmon) with the robotic TRAPPIST telescope (La Silla Observatory). Observations covered 52 nights pre- and post-perihelion between December 11, 2012, and June 11, 2013 (perihelion: 24 March, 2013). We followed the evolution of the OH, NH, CN, C[SUB]3[/SUB], and C[SUB]2[/SUB] production rates computed with the Haser model as well as the evolution of the A(θ)fρ parameter as a proxy for the dust production. All five gas species display similar slopes for the heliocentric dependence. An asymmetry about perihelion is observed, the rate of brightening being steeper than the rate of fading. The chemical composition of the comet's coma changes slightly along the orbit: the relative abundance of C[SUB]2[/SUB] to CN increases with the heliocentric distance (r) below -1.4 au and decreases with r beyond 1.4 au while the C[SUB]3[/SUB]-to-CN ratio is constant during our observations. The behavior of the dust is different from that of the gas, the slope of the heliocentric dependence becoming steeper in early February, correlated to a change in the visual lightcurve slope. However, the dust color does not vary during the observations. The application of several enhancement techniques on the images revealed structures in the CN, C[SUB]3[/SUB], and C[SUB]2[/SUB] images. These features imply the existence of one or several active zone(s) on the comet nucleus. The shape of the structures is similar in these three filters and changes from a roughly hourglass shape in December and January to a corkscrew shape in February and March. The structures in the continuum filters (sampling the dust) are not correlated to those observed for the gas. During several full nights in February, we observed changes in the CN and C[SUB]2[/SUB] structures that repeated periodically because of the nucleus rotation, our derived rotational period being of 9.52 ± 0.05 h. Full Tables 2, 4, 6 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/574/A38">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/574/A38</A> [less ▲]

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See detailA Review of Pharmaceutical Extrusion: Critical Process Parameters and Scaling-up
Thiry, Justine ULg; Krier, Fabrice ULg; Evrard, Brigitte ULg

in International Journal of Pharmaceutics (2015), 479(1), 227-240

Hot melt extrusion has been a widely used process in the pharmaceutical area for three decades. In this field, it is important to optimize the formulation in order to meet specific requirements. However ... [more ▼]

Hot melt extrusion has been a widely used process in the pharmaceutical area for three decades. In this field, it is important to optimize the formulation in order to meet specific requirements. However, the process parameters of the extruder should be as much investigated as the formulation since they have a major impact on the final product characteristics. Moreover, a design space should be defined in order to obtain the expected product within the defined limits. This gives some freedom to operate as long as the processing parameters stay within the limits of the design space. Those limits can be investigated by varying randomly the process parameters but it is recommended to use design of experiments. An examination of the literature is reported in this review to summarize the impact of the variation of the process parameters on the final product properties. Indeed, the homogeneity of the mixing, the state of the drug (crystalline or amorphous), the dissolution rate, the residence time, can be influenced by variations in the process parameters. In particular, the impact of the following process parameters: temperature, screw design, screw speed and feeding, on the final product, has been reviewed. [less ▲]

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See detailEpidémiologie de la lithiase urinaire sur base d'une analyse morpho-constitutionnelle
Castiglione, Vincent ULg; JOURET, François ULg; Bruyère, Olivier ULg et al

in Néphrologie & Thérapeutique (2015), 11

Urolithiasis is a common condition, with a prevalence of 10% and a male/female ratio above 1 according to large national series. Various types of urinary stones have been described upon their mineral ... [more ▼]

Urolithiasis is a common condition, with a prevalence of 10% and a male/female ratio above 1 according to large national series. Various types of urinary stones have been described upon their mineral content and/or their morphology. Hence, a combined morpho-constitutional (M-C) classification has been proposed. In order to detail the prevalence of urolithiasis in general and of each M-C type in particular upon age and gender in Belgium, we retrospectively studied the database of a reference center for urolithiasis analysis. Between 2010 and 2013, 2195 stones were characterized. We excluded 45 nonbiological stones and 281 stones, which originated from outside the study zone. Among 1869 stones,1293 (69.2%) affected men. Prevalence peak of urolithiasis was observed between 50–60 years of age in both genders. The M-C analysis was available for 1854 stones (99.2%): multiple morphological types were concomitantly identified in 49.3%. In the whole population, the main mineral constituent was whewellite (54.4%), mainly organized as type Ia (94%). Weddellite was found in 19.8%, with an equal distribution between types IIa and IIb. Uric acid was the 3rd most frequent constituent in man, with a similar distribution between IIIa and IIIb. Phosphate was uncommon in man (8.2%), but frequent in woman (26.6%) with a type IVa1 organization. Prevalence of M-C types changes with aging, i.e. decrease of weddellite and increase of whewellite and uric acid in both genders. This retrospective analysis of a single-center database of urinary stones helps characterize the M-C epidemiology of urolithiasis in Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreased tree-growth synchronization of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in response to climate change in northwestern Europe
Latte, Nicolas ULg; Lebourgeois, François; Claessens, Hugues ULg

in Dendrochronologia (2015), 33

To better understand how the radial growth of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) high forests has responded to climate change, we selected 12 sites (137 trees) with optimal growing conditions along a W − E ... [more ▼]

To better understand how the radial growth of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) high forests has responded to climate change, we selected 12 sites (137 trees) with optimal growing conditions along a W − E altitudinal gradient (67–590 m) in Belgium. We evaluated temporal changes in growth response to climate by using pointer year analysis, moving mean sensitivities (1860–2011), and moving bootstrapped correlation coefficients (1952–2011). The strongest driving climatic variables were identified by using the partial least squares method. The common patterns of growth trends, pointer years, and mean sensitivities among sites provided evidences for the impact of environmental changes operating at a regional scale. The results of growth–climate analysis indicated that these changes were strongly influenced by the climatic conditions of the previous year. The climate sensitivity of beech increased progressively in response to more frequent and intense heat waves and warming-related droughts, especially during recent decades, leading to remarkable inter-site synchronization. The changes were much more pronounced for sites located in lowlands (<300 m). The differences in growth responses along the altitudinal gradient and the consequences of warming for beech growth and physiology are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailHow to Assess Data Availability, Accessibility and Format for Risk Analysis?
Humblet, Marie-France ULg; Vandeputte, Sébastien; Mignot, Clémence et al

in Transboundary and Emerging Diseases (2015), doi: 10.1111/tbed.12328

Risk assessments are mostly carried out based on available data, which do not reflect all data theoretically required by experts to answer them. This study aimed at developing a methodology to assess data ... [more ▼]

Risk assessments are mostly carried out based on available data, which do not reflect all data theoretically required by experts to answer them. This study aimed at developing a methodology to assess data availability, accessibility and format, based on a scoring system and focusing on two diseases: Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE), still exotic to Europe, and alveolar echinococcosis, caused by Echinococcus multilocularis (EM), endemic in several Member States (MSs). After reviewing 36 opinions of the EFSA-AHAW Panel on risk assessment of animal health questions, a generic list of needed data was elaborated. The methodology consisted, first, in implementing a direct and an indirect survey to collect the data needed for both case studies: the direct survey consisted in a questionnaire sent to contact points of three European MSs (Belgium, France and the Netherlands), and the organization of a workshop gathering experts on both diseases. The indirect survey, focusing on the three MSs involved in the direct survey plus Spain, relied on web searches. Secondly, a scoring system with reference to data availability, accessibility and format was elaborated, to, finally, compare both diseases and data between MSs. The accessibility of data was generally related to their availability. Web searches resulted in more data available for VEE compared to EM, despite its current exotic status in the European Union. Hypertext markup language and portable document files were the main formats of available data. Data availability, accessibility and format should be improved for research scientists/assessors. The format of data plays a key role in the feasibility and rapidness of data management and analysis, through a prompt compilation, combination and aggregation in working databases. Harmonization of data collection process is encouraged, according to standardized procedures, to provide useful and reliable data, both at the national and the international levels for both animal and human health; it would allow assessing data gaps through comparative studies. The present methodology is a good way of assessing the relevance of data for risk assessment, as it allows integrating the uncertainty linked to the quality of data used. Such an approach could be described as transparent and traceable and should be performed systematically. [less ▲]

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See detailA revised DR Congo mining code could lead to a decrease in Chinese investment in the country
Wintgens, Sophie ULg

in Africa at LSE (2015)

As China shows indications of being willing to fall in line with international standards on procuring conflict minerals, this article examines the strategic issues facing China as DR Congo seeks to revise ... [more ▼]

As China shows indications of being willing to fall in line with international standards on procuring conflict minerals, this article examines the strategic issues facing China as DR Congo seeks to revise its mining code. [less ▲]

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See detailOn modular decompositions of system signatures
Marichal, Jean-Luc; Mathonet, Pierre ULg

in Journal of Multivariate Analysis (2015), 134

Considering a semicoherent system made up of $n$ components having i.i.d. continuous lifetimes, Samaniego defined its structural signature as the $n$-tuple whose $k$-th coordinate is the probability that ... [more ▼]

Considering a semicoherent system made up of $n$ components having i.i.d. continuous lifetimes, Samaniego defined its structural signature as the $n$-tuple whose $k$-th coordinate is the probability that the $k$-th component failure causes the system to fail. This $n$-tuple, which depends only on the structure of the system and not on the distribution of the component lifetimes, is a very useful tool in the theoretical analysis of coherent systems. It was shown in two independent recent papers how the structural signature of a system partitioned into two disjoint modules can be computed from the signatures of these modules. In this work we consider the general case of a system partitioned into an arbitrary number of disjoint modules organized in an arbitrary way and we provide a general formula for the signature of the system in terms of the signatures of the modules. The concept of signature was recently extended to the general case of semicoherent systems whose components may have dependent lifetimes. The same definition for the $n$-tuple gives rise to the probability signature, which may depend on both the structure of the system and the probability distribution of the component lifetimes. In this general setting, we show how under a natural condition on the distribution of the lifetimes, the probability signature of the system can be expressed in terms of the probability signatures of the modules. We finally discuss a few situations where this condition holds in the non-i.i.d. and nonexchangeable cases and provide some applications of the main results. [less ▲]

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See detailBLUES ALL DAY LONG- The Jimmy Rogers story - compte rendu
Sacré, Robert ULg

in ABS Magazine (2015), (45 Février 2015), 15

Biographie de Jimmy Rogers par Wayne Everett Goins

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See detailSystematic qualitative review of randomised trials conducted in nonsmall cell lung cancer with a noninferiority or equivalence design
Paesmans, Marianne; Grigoriu, Bogdan; Ocak, Sebahat et al

in European Respiratory Journal (2015), 45(2), 511-524

The use of noninferiority randomised trials for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer has emerged during the past 10–15 years but has raised some issues related to their justification and ... [more ▼]

The use of noninferiority randomised trials for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer has emerged during the past 10–15 years but has raised some issues related to their justification and methodology. The present systematic review aimed to assess trial characteristics and methodological aspects. All randomised clinical trials with a hypothesis of noninferiority/equivalence, published in English, were identified. Several readers extracted a priori defined methodological information. A qualitative analysis was then performed. We identified 20 randomised clinical trials (three phase II and 17 phase III), 11 of them being conducted in strong collaboration with industry. We highlighted some deficiencies in the reports like the lack of justification for both the noninferiority assumption and the definition of the noninferiority margin, as well as inconsistencies between the results and the authors’ conclusions. CONSORT guidelines were better followed for general items than for specific items (p<0.001). Improvement in the reporting of the meth"odology of noninferiority/equivalence trials is needed to avoid misleading interpretation and to allow readers to be fully aware of the assumptions underlying the trial designs. They should be restricted to limited specific situations with a strong justification why a noninferiority hypothesis is acceptable. [less ▲]

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See detailStandardisation of milk mid-infrared spectra from a European dairy network
Grelet, Clément ULg; Fernandez Pierna, Juan Antonio; Dardenne, Pierre et al

in Journal of Dairy Science (2015), 98

http://www.journalofdairyscience.org/article/S0022-0302(15)00091-0/abstract

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See detailManagement and systemic treatment of clear cell metastatic renal cell carcinoma: BSMO expert panel recommendations
El Ali, Z; Van Brummelen, D; Wolter, P et al

in Belgian Journal of Medical Oncology [=BJMO] (2015), 9(1),

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See detailChylothorax et pseudochylothorax: contraste a partir de deux observations.
Berg, J.; GUIOT, Julien ULg; HEINEN, Vincent ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2015), 70(2), 73-7

We report two cases of lipidic pleural effusion: an arthritis-associated pseudochylothorax and a chylous pleural effusion in a HIV seropositive patient. The incidence of lipidic pleural effusions is low ... [more ▼]

We report two cases of lipidic pleural effusion: an arthritis-associated pseudochylothorax and a chylous pleural effusion in a HIV seropositive patient. The incidence of lipidic pleural effusions is low, especially for pseudochylothorax. We review their clinical characteristics and management. [less ▲]

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See detailB fields in OB stars (BOB): on the detection of weak magnetic fields in the two early B-type stars beta CMa and epsilon CMa
Fossati, L.; Castro, N.; Morel, Thierry ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2015), 574

Within the context of the "B fields in OB stars (BOB)" collaboration, we used the HARPSpol spectropolarimeter to observe the early B-type stars beta CMa (HD44743; B1 II/III) and epsilon CMa (HD52089; B1.5 ... [more ▼]

Within the context of the "B fields in OB stars (BOB)" collaboration, we used the HARPSpol spectropolarimeter to observe the early B-type stars beta CMa (HD44743; B1 II/III) and epsilon CMa (HD52089; B1.5 II). For both stars, we consistently detected the signature of a weak (<30 G in absolute value) longitudinal magnetic field. We determined the physical parameters of both stars and characterise their X-ray spectrum. For beta CMa, our mode identification analysis led to determining a rotation period of 13.6+/-1.2 days and of an inclination angle of the rotation axis of 57.6+/-1.7 degrees, with respect to the line of sight. On the basis of these measurements and assuming a dipolar field geometry, we derived a best fitting obliquity of ~22 degrees and a dipolar magnetic field strength (Bd) of ~100 G (60<Bd<230 G within 1 sigma), below what is typically found for other magnetic massive stars. For epsilon CMa we could only determine a lower limit on the dipolar magnetic field strength of 13 G. For this star, we determine that the rotation period ranges between 1.3 and 24 days. Both stars are expected to have a dynamical magnetosphere. We also conclude that both stars are most likely core hydrogen burning and that they have spent more than 2/3 of their main sequence lifetime. A histogram of the distribution of the dipolar magnetic field strength for the magnetic massive stars known to date does not show the magnetic field "desert" observed instead for intermediate-mass stars. The biases involved in the detection of (weak) magnetic fields in massive stars with the currently available instrumentation and techniques imply that weak fields might be more common than currently observed. Our results show that, if present, even relatively weak magnetic fields are detectable in massive stars and that more observational effort is probably still needed to properly access the magnetic field incidence. [less ▲]

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See detailPlace de la vitamine D native en dialyse
DELANAYE, Pierre ULg; BOUQUEGNEAU, Antoine ULg; KRZESINSKI, Jean-Marie ULg et al

in Néphrologie & Thérapeutique (2015), 11(1), 5-15

Chronic kidney disease is frequent and usually responsible of mineral and bone disorder. These abnormalities lead to increased morbidity and mortality. To become active, native vitamin D needs a first ... [more ▼]

Chronic kidney disease is frequent and usually responsible of mineral and bone disorder. These abnormalities lead to increased morbidity and mortality. To become active, native vitamin D needs a first hydroxylation in the liver, and a second one in the kidney. Next to its action on bone metabolism, vitamin D also possesses pleiotropic actions on cardiovascular, immune and neurological systems as well as antineoplastic activities. End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is also associated with a decrease in vitamin D activity by mechanisms including the increase of plasma phosphate concentration, secretion of FGF- 23 and decrease in 1a-hydroxylase activity. The prevalence of 25 hydroxy-vitamin D deficiency depends on the chosen cut-off value to define this lack. Currently it is well established that a patient has to be substituted when 25 hydroxy-vitamin D level is under 30 ng/mL. The use and monitoring of 1.25 hydroxy-vitamin D is still not recommended in routine practice. The goals of vitamin D treatment in case of ESRD are to substitute the deficiency and to prevent or treat hyperparathyroidism. Interest of native vitamin D in first intention is now well demonstrated. This review article describes the vitamin D metabolism and physiology and also the treatment for vitamin D deficiency in ESRD population. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of roughness and circularity-defect on bridge cables stability
Benidir, Adel; Flamand, Olivier; Gaillet, Laurent et al

in Journal of Wind Engineering & Industrial Aerodynamics (2015), 137

The stay cables on cable-stayed bridges have been the subject of considerable research in order to understand the origins of the dry galloping phenomenon. Surface irregularity is one of the last ... [more ▼]

The stay cables on cable-stayed bridges have been the subject of considerable research in order to understand the origins of the dry galloping phenomenon. Surface irregularity is one of the last parameters that have not been thoroughly examined. This paper focuses on static wind tunnel tests on original High Density Polyethylene cable covers in a range of Reynolds numbers from the sub-critical regime to the critical, corresponding to values ranging from Re = 9.6x104 to Re = 3.3x105. The experiment consists in testing cable covers of various diameters in order to investigate the effect of surface irregularity (roughness and circularity defect) on the mechanism of dry galloping excitation. Previous studies reported that dry galloping is caused by the appearance of a negative pressure bubble on one side of the circular cylinder at the critical Reynolds number range, leading to a rapid drop in the drag coefficient and the appearance of a non-negligible lift force. The results of the present investigation demonstrate that there is a clear correlation between the single bubble pressure pattern and the circularity defect along the tube. They further show that surface roughness has little effect on the location of the bubble. The paper also treats the spatial and temporal correlation of the instantaneous pressure pattern along the tube with respect to the circularity defect. [less ▲]

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See detailWasabi, de Alan Pauls. Una lectura alegórica en clave autoficcional.
Vanden Berghe, Kristine ULg

in Pasavento. Revista de Estudios Hispánicos. (2015)

Se lee Wasabi (Alan Pauls, 1994, 2005) como una novela neofantástica emparentada con La metamorfosis de Kafka y ciertos cuentos de Cortázar. Asimismo, se procede a una lectura de la novela en clave ... [more ▼]

Se lee Wasabi (Alan Pauls, 1994, 2005) como una novela neofantástica emparentada con La metamorfosis de Kafka y ciertos cuentos de Cortázar. Asimismo, se procede a una lectura de la novela en clave alegórica, atendiendo a una serie de metáforas (quiste, narcolepsias, wasabi) que aluden a las relaciones entre literatura y vida. En este sentido, se aborda el texto como una alegoría primero de la autoficción y luego de la creación literaria en general. A esta lectura alegórica la apoyan la recurrencia de la cifra siete en la novela así como la relación intertitular que esta tiene con Fils, novela autoficcional que Serge Doubrovsky escribiera en 1977. [less ▲]

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See detailStochastic modelling of reservoir sedimentation in a semi-arid watershed
Adam, Nicolas; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in Water Resources Management (2015), 29(3), 785-800

Sedimentation in large reservoirs is a major concern in semi-arid regions characterized by severe seasonal water scarcity. As a contribution to improved sediment management, this study analyses the real ... [more ▼]

Sedimentation in large reservoirs is a major concern in semi-arid regions characterized by severe seasonal water scarcity. As a contribution to improved sediment management, this study analyses the real case of the reservoir of Sidi Yacoub in the north of Algeria. First, a dynamic model of the reservoir was set up and used to estimate past water and sediment inflows (period 1990-2010) based on data recorded by the dam operator and measurements at a gauging station located downstream of the reservoir. Second, in a stochastic framework using the statistical characteristics of inflow and outflow discharges, a projection of future sedimentation was performed until 2030, assuming stationarity of the statistical distributions. Third, the model was used to investigate the influence of possible climate change and to quantify the positive effects of soil conservation measures upstream. [less ▲]

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See detailNonlinear generalization of Den Hartog׳s equal-peak method
Habib, Giuseppe ULg; Detroux, Thibaut ULg; Viguié, Régis et al

in Mechanical Systems & Signal Processing (2015), 52-53

This study addresses the mitigation of a nonlinear resonance of a mechanical system. In view of the narrow bandwidth of the classical linear tuned vibration absorber, a nonlinear absorber, termed the ... [more ▼]

This study addresses the mitigation of a nonlinear resonance of a mechanical system. In view of the narrow bandwidth of the classical linear tuned vibration absorber, a nonlinear absorber, termed the nonlinear tuned vibration absorber (NLTVA), is introduced in this paper. An unconventional aspect of the NLTVA is that the mathematical form of its restoring force is tailored according to the nonlinear restoring force of the primary system. The NLTVA parameters are then determined using a nonlinear generalization of Den Hartog׳s equal-peak method. The mitigation of the resonant vibrations of a Duffing oscillator is considered to illustrate the proposed developments. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of low dose endosulfan exposure on brain neurotransmitter levels in the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis
Preud'Homme, Valérie; Milla, Sylvain; Gillardin, Virginie et al

in Chemosphere (2015), 120(2), 357-364

Understanding the impact of pesticides in amphibians is of growing concern to assess the causes of their decline. Among pesticides, endosulfan belongs to one of the potential sources of danger because of ... [more ▼]

Understanding the impact of pesticides in amphibians is of growing concern to assess the causes of their decline. Among pesticides, endosulfan belongs to one of the potential sources of danger because of its wide use and known effects, particularly neurotoxic, on a variety of organisms. However, the effect of endosulfan was not yet evaluated on amphibians at levels encompassing simultaneously brain neurotransmitters and behavioural endpoints. In this context, tadpoles of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis were submitted to four treatments during 27 d: one control, one ethanol control, and two low environmental concentrations of endosulfan (0.1 and 1 μg L−1). Endosulfan induced a significant increase of brain serotonin level at both concentrations and a significant increase of brain dopamine and GABA levels at the lower exposure but acetylcholinesterase activity was not modified by the treatment. The gene coding for the GABA transporter 1 was up-regulated in endosulfan contaminated tadpoles while the expression of other genes coding for the neurotransmitter receptors or for the enzymes involved in their metabolic pathways was not significantly modified by endosulfan exposure. Endosulfan also affected foraging, and locomotion in links with the results of the physiological assays, but no effects were seen on growth. These results show that low environmental concentrations of endosulfan can induce adverse responses in X. laevis tadpoles. At a broader perspective, this suggests that more research using and linking multiple markers should be used to understand the complex mode of action of pollutants. [less ▲]

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See detailSignes et jouabilité : l’interface comme outil de ludicisation
Barnabé, Fanny ULg

in Interfaces Numériques (2015), 4(1),

As shown by the recent works on the subject (Rao, 2008 ; Simonnot, 2008 ; all papers presented at the symposium Game and playability in the digital age), researchers now seem to agree on the fact that the ... [more ▼]

As shown by the recent works on the subject (Rao, 2008 ; Simonnot, 2008 ; all papers presented at the symposium Game and playability in the digital age), researchers now seem to agree on the fact that the digital has an intrinsic playability (it is “ludogenic” according to Vial, 2012) and that this property is not uninvolved with the current spread of the “gamification” or “ludification” (Genvo, 2011) phenomenons. Following these considerations, this paper aims to examine a specific angle of this privileged relationship between digital and game, namely the fundamental role played by the interfaces (both graphical and physical). We will try to demonstrate through various examples the deeply playable nature (I.e suitable to set off a playful attitude) of the different kinds of interface, but also to examine its causes: is there a structural basis that could explain this affinity with the play? With this aim in mind, theories of game (playful attitude) will be intersected with interface theories in order to demonstrate the existence of many similarities. The hypothesis that guides this work is that this transitional device’s playability owes more to its semiotic nature than to its belonging to digital. Indeed, as a system of signs, the interface has two characteristics that make it fit to generate a playful attitude in the user: the metaphoric distance and the increase of possible actions. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis versus synthesis for trending gas-path measurement time series
Borguet, Sébastien ULg; Léonard, Olivier ULg; Dewallef, Pierre ULg

in Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines & Power (2015), 137

Gas-path measurements used to assess the health condition of an engine are corrupted by noise. Generally, a data cleaning step occurs before proceeding with fault detection and isolation. Classical linear ... [more ▼]

Gas-path measurements used to assess the health condition of an engine are corrupted by noise. Generally, a data cleaning step occurs before proceeding with fault detection and isolation. Classical linear filters such as the EWMA filter are traditionally used for noise removal. Unfortunately, these low-pass filters distort trend shifts indicative of faults, which increases the detection delay. The present paper investigates two new approaches to nonlinear filtering of time series. On the one hand, the synthesis approach reconstructs the signal as a combination of elementary signals chosen from a predefined library. On the other hand, the analysis approach imposes a constraint on the shape of the signal (e.g., piecewise constant). Both approaches incorporate prior information about the signal in a different way, but they lead to trend filters that are very capable at noise removal while preserving at the same time sharp edges in the signal. This is highlighted through the comparison with a classical linear filter on a batch of synthetic data representative of typical engine fault profiles. [less ▲]

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See detailA one-step short-time synthesis of Ag@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles
Lismont, Marjorie ULg; Pàez Martinez, Carlos ULg; Dreesen, Laurent ULg

in Journal of Colloid & Interface Science (2015)

A performance of shell-thickness precise control in silver-silica coating core-shell nanoparticles is presented. 60 nm sized citrate-stabilized silver nanoparticles are directly silica coated using a ... [more ▼]

A performance of shell-thickness precise control in silver-silica coating core-shell nanoparticles is presented. 60 nm sized citrate-stabilized silver nanoparticles are directly silica coated using a modified Stöber process. Tetraethyl orthosilicate is used as a silica precursor and ammonium hydroxide as catalyst in an alcoholic solvent to promote the seeded silica growth. By simply varying the synthesis reaction time from 4 to 60 minutes, the silica shell thickness is increased from 5.1 nm to 76.4 nm. This well-controlled synthesis is then transposed to 40, 80 and 100 nm sized silver cores in order to show the independence of the silica shell growth on the nanoparticle core size. Optical properties, i.e. localized surface plasmon resonance, of the produced silver-silica core-shell are also investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailDe- and Re-Institutionalizing Technology Assessment in Contemporary Knowledge-Based Economies
Delvenne, Pierre ULg; Charlier, Nathan ULg; Rosskamp, Benedikt ULg et al

in Technikfolgenabschätzung - Theorie und Praxis (2015), 24(1), 130

This article illuminates the potential role of technology assessment (TA) in knowl- edge-driven science, technology and inno- vation (STI) regimes by providing a compar- ative review of Flemish and ... [more ▼]

This article illuminates the potential role of technology assessment (TA) in knowl- edge-driven science, technology and inno- vation (STI) regimes by providing a compar- ative review of Flemish and Walloon TA. It draws critical attention to the ways in which TA actors and institutes in Flanders and Wal- lonia position themselves, or are positioned, in relation to dominant innovation policies and large-scale political transformations, notably the convergence of STI around the knowledge-based economy (KBE) and the regionalization of STI policy in Belgium. The article’s findings shed light on the Flemish government’s recent decision to close its parliamentary TA institute and the institution- al expansion of TA in Wallonia and elsewhere in Europe. It argues that TA has politics, as TA in Flanders and Wallonia aligns with the advent of strategic science and is also affil- iated to specific political parties. As these considerations run counter to the dominant representation of TA as a neutral governance tool that serves the needs of all STI decision makers, they draw into question the viability and utility of TA within contemporary KBEs. [less ▲]

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See detailTotal Error-Based Validation Including the Experimental Design-Based Robustness Evaluation of a Stability-Indicating Method for the Simultaneous Quantification of Hydrochlorothiazide and Valsartan in Tablet Formulations
ELKARBANE, M; AMOOD AL-KAMARANY, M; BOUCHAFRA, H et al

in Acta Chromatographica (2015), 27(2), 1-20

A gradient reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RPHPLC) method with ultraviolet (UV) detection to analyze hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) and valsartan (VS) simultaneously in a tablet ... [more ▼]

A gradient reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RPHPLC) method with ultraviolet (UV) detection to analyze hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) and valsartan (VS) simultaneously in a tablet formulation during forced degradation studies was developed. This method was validated using a novel approach, namely, the accuracy profile or total errors approach. The robustness of the method was evaluated using a Plackett–Burman design for eight factors. The algorithm of Dong was applied to determine the significant factor effects. The validation results showed that the method is precise (RSD: 1.14% for HCT and 0.43% for VS) and accurate (mean recovery: 99.90% for HCT and 99.98% for VS). On the other hand, the results of the robustness study showed that the type of column was the important factor which affects a number of responses, namely, the asymmetry factor (AF), retention time (RT), and resolution (RS). However, the assay results were not affected; therefore, the method can be considered robust. Finally, the method was applied to study the stability of HCT and VS under forced conditions. Significant results were obtained with basic hydrolysis, oxidation, and thermal stress, while the accelerated and acidic conditions did not affect the stability of HCT or VS. [less ▲]

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See detailLittérature et sémiotique: histoire et épistémologie
Provenzano, François ULg; Bertrand, Jean-Pierre ULg; Stienon, Valérie ULg

in Signata. Annales des Sémiotiques = Annals of Semiotics (2015), 5(2014), 384

La question des liens entre sémiotique et littérature amène à poser un regard rétrospectif sur une période qui paraît aujourd’hui révolue. L’émergence de la sémiotique comme discipline institutionnalisée ... [more ▼]

La question des liens entre sémiotique et littérature amène à poser un regard rétrospectif sur une période qui paraît aujourd’hui révolue. L’émergence de la sémiotique comme discipline institutionnalisée est en effet contemporaine d’un profond changement de paradigme dans les approches du texte littéraire. Au cours de la décennie 1960, la rencontre entre sémiotique et littérature produit, en un temps très bref, un nombre considérable de concepts et d’instruments d’analyse, qui vont de la théorie du dialogisme et de la polyphonie à la sémanalyse en passant par la narratologie et la sémantique structurale. L'objectif de ce dossier est de saisir cette rencontre dans la perspective d’une histoire des idées, en éclairant ce qui, dans la conjoncture des années 1960, a pu favoriser la convergence, avant de la rendre caduque ou obsolète. Une place est également réservée aux témoignages pour laisser entendre, dans un souci d'historicisation, la voix d'acteurs importants de ces années sémio-littéraires: Philippe Hamon, le groupe Mu, Marc Angenot [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of iron nanoparticles synthesized by a sol-gel process on Rhodococcus erythropolis T902.1 for biphenyl degradation
Wannoussa, Wissal ULg; Masy, Thibaut ULg; Lambert, Stéphanie ULg et al

in Journal of Water Resource and Protection (2015), 7

Nanoparticles (NPS) are considered as a new generation of compounds to improve environmental remediation and biological processes. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of iron NPS ... [more ▼]

Nanoparticles (NPS) are considered as a new generation of compounds to improve environmental remediation and biological processes. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of iron NPS encapsulated in porous silica (SiO2) on the biphenyl biodegradation by Rhodococcus erythropolis T902.1 (RT902.1). The iron NPS (major iron oxide FexOy form) were dispersed in the porosity of a SiO2 support synthesized by sol-gel process. These Fe/SiO2 NPS offer a stimulating effect on the biodegradation rate of biphenyl, an organic pollutant that is very stable and water-insoluble. This positive impact of NPS on the microbial biodegradation was found to be dependent on the NPS concentration ranging from 10−6 M to 10−4 M. After 18 days of incubation the cultures containing NPS at a concentration of 10−4 M of iron improved RT902.1 growth and degraded 35% more biphenyl than those without NPS (positive control) or with the sole SiO2 particles. Though the microorganism could not interact directly with the insoluble iron NPS, the results show that about 10% and 35% of the initial 10−4 M iron NPS encapsulated in the SiO2 matrix would be incorporated inside or adsorbed on the cell surface respectively and 35% would be released in the supernatant. These results suggest that RT902.1 would produce siderophore-like molecules to attract iron from the porous silica matrix. [less ▲]

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See detailLa thermoplastie bronchique dans le traitement de l'asthme sévère de l'adulte.
Chanez, P.; Boulet, L.-P.; Brillet, P.-Y. et al

in Revue des maladies respiratoires (2015), 32

Bronchial thermoplasty is a recent endoscopic technique for the treatment of severe asthma. It is an innovative treatment whose clinical efficacy and safety are beginning to be better understood. Since ... [more ▼]

Bronchial thermoplasty is a recent endoscopic technique for the treatment of severe asthma. It is an innovative treatment whose clinical efficacy and safety are beginning to be better understood. Since this is a device-based treatment, the evaluation procedure of risks and benefits is different that for pharmaceutical products; safety aspects, regulatory requirements, study design and the assessment of the magnitude of effects may all be different. The mechanism of action and optimal patient selection need to be assessed further in rigorous clinical and scientific studies. This technique is in harmony with the development of personalised medicine in the 21st century. It should be developed further in response to the numerous challenges and needs not yet met in the management of severe asthma. [less ▲]

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See detailLes états spatio-temporels d'existence et de présence
Hallot, Pierre ULg; Stewart, Kathleen; Billen, Roland ULg

in Revue Internationale de Géomatique = International Journal of Geomatics and Spatial Analysis (2015), 25(2), 173-196

This paper addresses a new approach to formalize the spatiotemporal relationships between geographical objects that do not exist or that are not present at the time of the analysis. We propose first an ... [more ▼]

This paper addresses a new approach to formalize the spatiotemporal relationships between geographical objects that do not exist or that are not present at the time of the analysis. We propose first an analysis of the spatiotemporal states of existence and presence for a geographical object. Then, we combine the spatiotemporal states to define a comprehensive set of life and motion configuration. The proposed model serves as formal basis to perform spatiotemporal queries by retrieving selected patterns in the life and motion configurations. The research is applied to the organization of a scientific conference, in doing so we are able to define the relationships that exist between an event located in space and time and mobiles objects evolving within the space, i.e. the conference participants. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring new dimensions in cadaveric decomposition odour analysis
Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues ULg; Perrault, Katelynn; Lloyd, Rebecca et al

in Analytical Methods (2015), 7

This study demonstrates the first documented use of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography – high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-HRTOFMS) for volatile organic compound ... [more ▼]

This study demonstrates the first documented use of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography – high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-HRTOFMS) for volatile organic compound analysis in the forensic sciences. High-resolution mass spectral data provided higher confidence in analyte identification. GC×GC-HRTOFMS will be valuable for future studies of decomposition odour and other complex volatile matrices. [less ▲]

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See detailConsommation de pornographie à l’adolescence : quelles représentations de la sexualité et de la pornographie, pour quelle sexualité ?
Puglia, Rosa ULg; Glowacz, Fabienne ULg

in Neuropsychiatrie de l'Enfance et de l'Adolescence (2015)

Cette recherche, réalisée sur une population de 319 adolescents (150 filles et 169 garçons) âgés de 15 à 19 ans, présente deux grands objectifs. Premièrement, elle vise à évaluer l’impact de ... [more ▼]

Cette recherche, réalisée sur une population de 319 adolescents (150 filles et 169 garçons) âgés de 15 à 19 ans, présente deux grands objectifs. Premièrement, elle vise à évaluer l’impact de l’accessibilité et de la visualisation de la pornographie au niveau des représentations de ce média et de la sexualité. Deuxièmement, elle vise à évaluer l’influence de la consommation pornographique au niveau du développement psycho-sexuel des adolescents. Un protocole comprenant plusieurs dimensions telles que les relations sentimentales, la sexualité, la pornographie, et les représentations a été administré aux participants de manière groupale et anonyme. Il en ressort que les adolescents consommateurs de pornographie soulignent davantage les effets positifs associés à la pornographie, qu’ils reconnaissent une influence de ce média sur leur vie sexuelle et qu’ils adoptent des pratiques sexuelles plus diversifiées que celles de leurs pairs non-consommateurs. En revanche, consommateurs et non-consommateurs soulignent de manière identique les effets négatifs associés à ce média. Cette conscientisation des effets négatifs aurait un effet modérateur sur l’influence de la pornographie. Actuellement, la consommation de pornographie est un comportement expérimenté par une majorité d’adolescents ; elle pourrait s’inscrire dans un processus développemental adolescentaire et se comprendre comme une conduite exploratoire répondant à diverses fonctions dont la recherche de repères au niveau de la sexualité. [less ▲]

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See detailReprésentations et expérience des pères « primipares » de l’allaitement maternel : lien avec la durée de l’allaitement
Noirhomme-Renard, Florence ULg; Michèle, Close; Gosset, Christiane ULg

in Journal de Pédiatrie et de Puériculture (2015), 28(1), 7-15

ntroduction. — This study aim to investigate fathers experiences and representations in regard to breastfeeding. Methods. — Two groups of fathers were recruited in the year following the birth of their ... [more ▼]

ntroduction. — This study aim to investigate fathers experiences and representations in regard to breastfeeding. Methods. — Two groups of fathers were recruited in the year following the birth of their child: a group whose child was breastfed less than three months (n = 16), and the other whose child was breastfed more than 6months (n=17). They were interviewed by semi-structured interviews and completed a questionnaire of attitudes toward child feeding (IIFAS). Results. — Although the representation that had fathers of breastfeeding during pregnancy dif- fered somewhat between the two groups, medical and social factors are primarily associated with a short AM: medical complications in the mother or the child, social vulnerabilities, early breastfeeding difficulties. The involvement of health professionals has been mentioned by many fathers when breastfeeding difficulties, but it has, in most cases, led to the failure of AM in time. Increased fathers take place in the triad, sometimes modulated by their partner, and their emo- tional involvement and practice in breastfeeding are associated with long AM. Fathers whose baby was breastfed for more than 6 months have a score more in favor of breastfeeding on the scale IIFAS. Conclusion. — The inclusion of fathers in the comprehensive model of the determinants of breastfeeding provides further insight to the factors already identified. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of Water Resources Quality in Sabodala Gold Mining Region and Its Surrounding Area (Senegal)
Mall, Ibrahima; Diaw, Moctar; Dieng, Ndeye Maguette ULg et al

in Journal of Water Resource and Protection (2015), 7(3), 247-263

Geochemical and Geostatistical tools were used to assess: 1) the chemical quality and, geochemical processes in crystalline rock aquifers in Sabodala (Eastern Senegal) and its surroundings and 2) the ... [more ▼]

Geochemical and Geostatistical tools were used to assess: 1) the chemical quality and, geochemical processes in crystalline rock aquifers in Sabodala (Eastern Senegal) and its surroundings and 2) the impact of mining activities on their quality. A total of 26 water samples collected at boreholes, dug wells and stream, were analyzed to determine major and trace elements concentration focused on elements that represent more threats on human health. Boxplots define chemical characteristics of water for each aquifer formation compared to surface waters. Geostatistical analysis show two sources of water mineralization with regard to major elements: a first natural source characterized by Ca-Mg-HCO3 water type from boreholes and unpolluted surface water and a second group characterized by polluted water by nitrates with Na-NO3-Cl type mainly observed in upper weathered aquifers. However, considering trace element, geostatistical analysis showed three water groups: water with very low trace element concentrations encountered in boreholes and unpolluted surface waters, and waters with relatively high trace element concentrations such as Al observed in areas affected by gold mining activities and finally, polluted waters by Ni, Co, Mn and Cr observed at Sabodala. Results show that in eastern Senegal well waters are vulnerable and often affected by pollution. [less ▲]

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See detailLa cardiomyopathie du cirrhotique : un bref aperçu
MARCHETTA, Stella ULg; DELWAIDE, Jean ULg; LANCELLOTTI, Patrizio ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2015), 2

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See detailLe dosage de la vitamine D: considérations pré-analytiques et analytiques
LE GOFF, Caroline ULg; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Delvin, Edgard et al

in Annales de Biologie Clinique (2015), 73(1), 79-92

The constantly increasing requests for the measurement of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D over the last years has led reagent manufacturers to market different automated and semi-automated methods, that being ... [more ▼]

The constantly increasing requests for the measurement of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D over the last years has led reagent manufacturers to market different automated and semi-automated methods, that being unfortunately not fully harmonized, yield different results. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry has more recently been introduced. This approach allows the distinction between the two forms of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and to measure other metabolites. This approach also requires harmonization to curtail the differences between the different analytical methods. To meet this requirement, the American national institutes of health (NIH), the CDC (Center for disease control and prevention) in Atlanta, the NIST (National institute of standards and technology) and the vitamin D Reference laboratory of Ghent University have pooled their expertise to develop a standardization program. This article reviews the main elements and the difficulties of the automated and semi-automated methods for 25-hydroxyvitamin D, from sample preparation to the analytical phase, as well as those related to mass spectrometry. It also addresses the issues related to the clinical decision thresholds and the possibility of measurements in different biological liquids. [less ▲]

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See detailLe rythme vidéoludique comme mouvement : "Second Sight" et la ritournelle
Dupont, Bruno ULg

in Interval(le)s (2015), 7

Dans cet article, Bruno Dupont part de la constatation que la notion de rythme est omnipré- sente dans les descriptions et analyses de jeux vidéo, sans pour autant qu'il ait été tenté jusqu'ici de ... [more ▼]

Dans cet article, Bruno Dupont part de la constatation que la notion de rythme est omnipré- sente dans les descriptions et analyses de jeux vidéo, sans pour autant qu'il ait été tenté jusqu'ici de développer un concept de rythme qui soit adapté à la recherche. Partant de l'article bien connu de Benveniste sur l'étymologie du rythmos, de même que de la conception nonbinaire du rythme chez Deleuze et Guattari, exposée dans le chapitre de Mille plateaux consacré à la ritournelle, l'auteur souhaite fournir les prolégomènes d'un tel concept. En guise de support à sa démonstration, il utilise le jeu Second Sight sur Playstation 2 (2004). Cette contribution souligne qu'une théorie du rythme suppose l'analyse des séquences de mouvements produites par l'interaction entre jeu et joueur, ainsi que de la gestion du temps qui en découle. Dans le cas de Second Sight, en raison de la double appartenance générique du jeu (action et aventure), deux séquences motrices hétérogènes se trouvent coordonnées au sein d'un seul et même jeu, de sorte que naît une zone de friction, – que Dupont décrit à la suite de Deleuze/Guattari comme „entre-deux“ – dans laquelle le rythme spécifique au jeu, mais également au genre, se réalise par l'échange permanent entre deux modes spatio-temporels. En conclusion, l'auteur propose une définition du rythme vidéoludique qui place la machine et le joueur dans un contexte d'interaction et de négociation dynamique. [less ▲]

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See detailStructural, functional, and ACE inhibitory properties of water-solublepolysaccharides from chickpea flours
Mokni Ghribi, abir; Sila, Assaâd; Maklouf Gafsi, Ines et al

in International Journal of Biological Macromolecules (2015), 75

tThe present study aimed to characterize and investigate the functional and angiotensin-I convertingenzyme (ACE) inhibition activities of chickpea water-soluble polysaccharides (CPWSP). Physico ... [more ▼]

tThe present study aimed to characterize and investigate the functional and angiotensin-I convertingenzyme (ACE) inhibition activities of chickpea water-soluble polysaccharides (CPWSP). Physico-chemicalcharacteristics were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis, and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Functional properties (waterholding capacity: WHC, water solubility index: WSI, swelling capacity: SC, oil holding capacity: OHC,foaming, and emulsion properties) and ACE activities were also investigated using well-established pro-cedures. The FT-IR spectra obtained for the CPWSP revealed two significant peaks, at about 3500 and500 cm−1, which corresponded to the carbohydrate region and were characteristic of polysaccharides.All spectra showed the presence of a broad absorption between 1500 and 670 cm−1, which could beattributed to C−H, C−O, and O−H bands in the polysaccharides. CPWSP had an XRD pattern that wastypical for a semi-crystalline polymer with a major crystalline reflection at 19.6◦C. They also displayedimportant techno-functional properties (SWC, WSI, WHC, and OHC) that can be modulated accordingto temperature. The CPWSP were also noted to display good anti-hypertensive activities. Overall, theresults indicate that CPWSP have attractive chemical, biological, and functional properties that makethem potential promising candidates for application as alternative additives in various food, cosmetic,and pharmaceutical preparations. [less ▲]

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See detailActivation of the calcium-sensing receptor before renal ischemia/reperfusion exacerbates kidney injury
WEEKERS, Laurent ULg; De Tullio, Pascal ULg; BOVY, Christophe ULg et al

in American Journal of Translational Research (2015), 7(1), 128-138

Activation of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) favours apoptosis in cardiomyocytes, hepatocytes and neurons. Its role in renal I/R is unknown. We investigated the impact ... [more ▼]

Activation of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) favours apoptosis in cardiomyocytes, hepatocytes and neurons. Its role in renal I/R is unknown. We investigated the impact of pharmacological preactivation of the CaSR on kidney structure and function in a murine model of bilateral renal 30-min ischemia and 48-hour reperfusion, and in a 6-year cohort of kidney transplant recipients (KTR). C57BL/6J mice were administered daily with CaSR agonist, R-568, or with vehicle for 48 hours. Evaluation of serum urea and creatinine levels, renal histology and urine metabolome by nuclear magnetic resonance showed that R-568 was not nephrotoxic per se. Following I/R, serum urea and creatinine levels increased higher in R-568-treated animals than in controls. Jablonski’s score was significantly greater in R-568-treated kidneys, which showed a higher rate of cell proliferation and apoptosis in comparison to controls. Next, we retrospectively identified 36 patients (10.7% of our cohort) who were treated by CaSR agonist, cinacalcet, at the time of kidney transplantation (KTx). After matching these to 61 KTR upon type of donor, cold ischemic time, residual diuresis, and donor age, we observed that delayed graft function, i.e. need for dialysis in the first week after KTx, occurred in 42 and 23% of cinacalcet-treated and control groups, respectively (p≤0.05). These data suggest that pharmacological preactivation of the CaSR before renal I/R exacerbates kidney injury. [less ▲]

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See detailValidating the use of an ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method to quantify equol in cow's milk
Daems, Frédéric ULg; Jasselette, Christophe; Romnee, Jean-Michel et al

in Dairy Science & Technology (2015)

Cow’s milk can be used as a potential source of equol in the human diet. In order to study human intake, however, it is necessary to develop a reliable and sensitive analytical method. This paper reports ... [more ▼]

Cow’s milk can be used as a potential source of equol in the human diet. In order to study human intake, however, it is necessary to develop a reliable and sensitive analytical method. This paper reports on the validation of an analytical method using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a tandem mass spectrometry detector to quantify the equol in commercial milks (raw, whole, semi-skimmed, and skimmed milk). The equol was initially released using enzymatic hydrolysis, and it was then extracted using a double liquid/liquid extraction. The analytical method produced a linear calibration curve with a high correlation coefficient (R 2 ≥ 0.996) between 5 and 1,000 ng.mL−1. Good intra- and inter-day precision (≤5.3% and ≤ 5.2%, respectively) and accuracy (≤8.6%) were achieved. The recovery rate differed slightly among the different types of milk, ranging between 60.6 ± 1.09% and 82.3 ± 5.21%. Good method repeatability was observed (<15%). There was neither matrix effect nor carry-over effect, and the sample extracts were stable for at least 7 days of storage at −21 °C and 5 °C. The method proved to be specific, sensitive, precise, and accurate and was used for the first time to quantify the equol content in Belgian commercial cow’s milk. In all the samples analyzed, equol was present at a concentration ≥10 ng.mL−1 and had a significantly higher content in organic than in conventional milk. The study also found that the mean concentrations of equol were similar for each type of commercial conventional cow’s milk. [less ▲]

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See detailHow Tightly Linked Are Pericopsis elata (Fabaceae) Patches to Anthropogenic Disturbances in Southeastern Cameroon?
Bourland, Nils; Cerisier, François; Daïnou, Kasso ULg et al

in Forests (2015), 6(2), 293-310

While most past studies have emphasized the relationships between specific forest stands and edaphic factors, recent observations in Central African moist forests suggested that an increase of slash-and ... [more ▼]

While most past studies have emphasized the relationships between specific forest stands and edaphic factors, recent observations in Central African moist forests suggested that an increase of slash-and-burn agriculture since 3000–2000 BP (Before Present) could be the main driver of the persistence of light-demanding tree species. In order to examine anthropogenic factors in the persistence of such populations, our study focused on Pericopsis elata, an endangered clustered timber species. We used a multidisciplinary approach comprised of botanical, anthracological and archaeobotanical investigations to compare P. elata patches with surrounding stands of mixed forest vegetation (“out-zones”). Charcoal samples were found in both zones, but were significantly more abundant in the soils of patches. Eleven groups of taxa were identified from the charcoals, most of them also present in the current vegetation. Potsherds were detected only inside P. elata patches and at different soil depths, suggesting a long human presence from at least 2150 to 195 BP, as revealed by our charcoal radiocarbon dating. We conclude that current P. elata patches most likely result from shifting cultivation that occurred ca. two centuries ago. The implications of our findings for the dynamics and management of light-demanding tree species are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailTransfer of communication skills to the workplace: Impact of a 38-hour communication skills training program designed for radiotherapy teams
Merckaert, Isabelle; Delevallez, France; Gibon, Anne-Sophie et al

in Journal of Clinical Oncology (2015)

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See detailTargeting osteopontin suppresses glioblastoma stem-like cell character and tumorigenicity in vivo
Lamour, Virginie; Henry, Aurélie ULg; Kroonen, Jerome et al

in International Journal of Cancer = Journal International du Cancer (2015)

Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted protein involved in most aspects of tumor progression and metastasis development. Elevated OPN expression has been reported in multiple types of cancer including ... [more ▼]

Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted protein involved in most aspects of tumor progression and metastasis development. Elevated OPN expression has been reported in multiple types of cancer including glioblastoma (GBM), the highest grade and most aggressive brain tumor. GBMs contain a subpopulation of glioma-initiating cells (GICs) implicated in progression, therapeutic resistance and recurrence. We have previously demonstrated that OPN silencing inhibited GBM cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, activation of CD44 signaling upon OPN ligation has been recently implicated in the acquisition of a stem cell phenotype by GBM cells. The present study is aimed to explore OPN autocrine function using shRNA silencing strategy in GICs enriched from GBM cell lines and a human primary GBM grown in EGF and bFGF defined medium. The removal of these growth factors and addition of serum induced a significant loss of OPN expression in GICs. We showed that OPN-silenced GICs were unable to grow as spheres and this capacity was restored by exogenous OPN. Importantly, the expression of Sox2, Oct3/4 and Nanog, key stemness transcription factors, was significantly decreased in GICs upon OPN targeting. We identified Akt/mTOR/p70S6K as the main signaling pathway triggered following OPN-mediated EGFR activation in GICs. Finally, in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model, the tumorigenic potential of U87-MG sphere cells was completely abrogated upon OPN silencing. Our demonstration of endogenous OPN major regulatory effects on GICs stemness phenotype and tumorigenicity implies a greater role than anticipated for OPN in GBM pathogenesis from initiation and progression to probable recurrence. [less ▲]

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See detailA novel sub-phylum method discriminates better the impact of crop management on soil microbial community
Degrune, Florine ULg; Dufrêne, Marc ULg; Colinet, Gilles ULg et al

in Agronomy for Sustainable Development (2015)

Soil microorganisms such as mycorrhizae and plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria have beneficial effects on crop productivity. Agricultural practices are known to impact soil microbial communities, but ... [more ▼]

Soil microorganisms such as mycorrhizae and plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria have beneficial effects on crop productivity. Agricultural practices are known to impact soil microbial communities, but past studies examining this impact have focused mostly on one or two taxonomic levels, such as phylum and class, thus missing potentially relevant information from lower levels. Therefore we propose here an original, sub-phylum method for studying how agricultural practices modify microbial communities. This method involves exploiting the available sequence information at the lowest taxonomic level attainable for each operational taxonomic unit. In order to validate this novel method we assessed microbial community composition using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S and 28S rRNA genes, then we compared the results with results of a phylum-level analysis. Agricultural practices included conventional tillage, reduced tillage, residue removal and residue retention. Results show that, at the lowest taxonomic level attainable, tillage is the main factor influencing both bacterial community composition, accounting for 13% of the variation, and fungal community composition, accounting for 18% of the variation. Whereas phylum-level analysis failed to reveal any effect of soil practice on bacterial community composition, and missed the fact that different members of the same phylum responded differently to tillage practice. For instance, the fungal phylum Chytridiomycota showed no impact of soil treatment, while sub-phylum-level analysis revealed an impact of tillage practice on the Chytridiomycota sub-groups Gibberella, which includes a notorious wheat pathogen, and Trichocomaceae. This clearly demonstrates the necessity of exploiting the information obtainable at sub-phylum level when assessing the effects of agricultural practice on microbial communities. [less ▲]

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See detailMucoadhesive cellulosic derivative sponges as drug delivery system for vaginal application
Furst, Tania ULg; Piette, Marie ULg; Lechanteur, Anna ULg et al

in European Journal of Pharmaceutics & Biopharmaceutics (2015)

Vaginal delivery of active drugs has been largely studied for local and systemic applications. It is well known that vagina is a complex route, due to physiological and non-physiological changes ... [more ▼]

Vaginal delivery of active drugs has been largely studied for local and systemic applications. It is well known that vagina is a complex route, due to physiological and non-physiological changes. Therefore, in order to achieve a prolonged local effect, these variations have to be considered. The aim of this study was to formulate and to characterize a solid system, called sponges, obtained by lyophilization of cellulosic derivative (HEC 250M) hydrogels. These sponges have to meet particular criteria to be adapted for vaginal application: they have to adhere to the vaginal cavity and to be rehydrated by the small amount of vaginal fluids. Moreover, they have to be easily manipulated and to be stable. Three freezing temperatures have been tested to prepare sponges ( 15 C, 25 C, 35 C). By SE analyzes, it was observed that the pores into the sponges were smaller and numerous as the freezing temperature decreases. However, this temperature did not have any influence on the rehydration speed that was rather influenced by the HEC concentration. Viscosity and mucoadhesive strength of hydrogels and corresponding sponges were also measured. It appeared that these parameters are mainly dépendent on the HEC concentration. These mucoadhesive sponges can be considered as potential drug delivery systems intended for vaginal application. [less ▲]

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See detailThe VLTI/PIONIER near-infrared interferometric survey of southern T Tauri stars. I. First results
Anthonioz, F.; Menard, F.; Pinte, C. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2015), 574

Context. The properties of the inner disks of bright Herbig AeBe stars have been studied with near-infrared (NIR) interferometry and high resolution spectroscopy. The continuum (dust) and a few molecular ... [more ▼]

Context. The properties of the inner disks of bright Herbig AeBe stars have been studied with near-infrared (NIR) interferometry and high resolution spectroscopy. The continuum (dust) and a few molecular gas species have been studied close to the central star; however, sensitivity problems limit direct information about the inner disks of the fainter T Tauri stars. <BR /> Aims: Our aim is to measure some of the properties (inner radius, brightness profile, shape) of the inner regions of circumstellar disk surrounding southern T Tauri stars. <BR /> Methods: We performed a survey with the VLTI/PIONIER recombiner instrument at H-band of 21 T Tauri stars. The baselines used ranged from 11 m to 129 m, corresponding to a maximum resolution of ~3 mas (~0.45 au at 150 pc). <BR /> Results: Thirteen disks are resolved well and the visibility curves are fully sampled as a function of baseline in the range 45-130 m for these 13 objects. A simple qualitative examination of visibility profiles allows us to identify a rapid drop-off in the visibilities at short baselines(<10 Mlambda) in 8 resolved disks. This is indicative of a significant contribution from an extended (R> 3 au, at 150 pc) contribution of light from the disk. We demonstrate that this component is compatible with scattered light, providing strong support to an earlier prediction. The amplitude of the drop-off and the amount of dust thermal emission changes from source to source suggesting that each disk is different. A by-product of the survey is the identification of a new milli-arcsec separation binary: WW Cha. Spectroscopic and interferometric data of AK Sco have also been fitted with a binary + disk model. <BR /> Conclusions: The visibility data are reproduced well when thermal emission and scattering from dust are fully considered. The inner radii measured are consistent with the expected dust sublimation radii. The modelling of AK Sco suggests a likely coplanarity between the disk and the binary's orbital plane. [less ▲]

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See detailThe potential impact of animal protein intake on global and central obesity: evidence from the ORISCAV-LUX study
Alkerwi, A.; Sauvageot, Nicolas ULg; Buckley, J.D. et al

in Public Health Nutrition (2015)

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See detailMicromechanics-Based Damage Analysis of Fracture in Ti5553 Alloy with Application to Bolted Sectors
Ben Bettaïeb, Mohamed; Van Hoof, Thibault; Minnebo, Hans et al

in Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance (2015), 24

A physics-based, uncoupled damage model is calibrated using cylindrical notched round tensile specimens made of Ti5553 and Ti-6Al-4V alloys. The fracture strain of Ti5553 is lower than for Ti-6Al-4V in ... [more ▼]

A physics-based, uncoupled damage model is calibrated using cylindrical notched round tensile specimens made of Ti5553 and Ti-6Al-4V alloys. The fracture strain of Ti5553 is lower than for Ti-6Al-4V in the full range of stress triaxiality. This lower ductility originates from a higher volume fraction of damage sites. By proper heat treatment, the fracture strain of Ti5553 increases by almost a factor of two, as a result of a larger damage nucleation stress. This result proves the potential for further optimization of the damage resistance of the Ti5553 alloy. The damage model is combined with an elastoviscoplastic law in order to predict failure in a wide range of loading conditions. In particular, a specific application involving bolted sectors is addressed in order to determine the potential of replacing the Ti-6Al-4V by the Ti5553 alloy. [less ▲]

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See detailThe reliability of isoinertial force-velocity-power profiling and maximal strength assessment in youth.
Meylan, César; Cronin, John; Oliver, Jon et al

in Sports Biomechanics (2015)

The purpose of this study was to quantify the inter-session reliability of force-velocity-power profiling and estimated maximal strength in youth. Thirty-six males (11-15 years old) performed a ballistic ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this study was to quantify the inter-session reliability of force-velocity-power profiling and estimated maximal strength in youth. Thirty-six males (11-15 years old) performed a ballistic supine leg press test at five randomized loads (80%, 100%, 120%, 140%, and 160% body mass) on three separate occasions. Peak and mean force, power, velocity, and peak displacement were collected with a linear position transducer attached to the weight stack. Mean values at each load were used to calculate different regression lines and estimate maximal strength, force, velocity, and power. All variables were found reliable (change in the mean [CIM] = - 1 to 14%; coefficient of variation [CV] = 3-18%; intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.74-0.99), but were likely to benefit from a familiarization, apart from the unreliable maximal force/velocity ratio (CIM = 0-3%; CV = 23-25%; ICC = 0.35-0.54) and load at maximal power (CIM = - 1 to 2%; CV = 10-13%; ICC = 0.26-0.61). Isoinertial force-velocity-power profiling and maximal strength in youth can be assessed after a familiarization session. Such profiling may provide valuable insight into neuromuscular capabilities during growth and maturation and may be used to monitor specific training adaptations. [less ▲]

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See detailFighting Poor Quality Medicines: Develop-ment, Transfer and Validation of Generic HPLC Methods for Analyzing two WHO Recommended Antimalarial Tablets
Mbinze Kindenge, Jérémie; Yemoa, Achille; Lebrun, Pierre ULg et al

in American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (2015), 6

As serious but neglected public health problems, poor quality medicines, i.e. for antimalarial medicines, urged to be fought. One of the approaches is to consider the analytical chemistry and separative ... [more ▼]

As serious but neglected public health problems, poor quality medicines, i.e. for antimalarial medicines, urged to be fought. One of the approaches is to consider the analytical chemistry and separative techniques. In this study, a generic liquid chromatographic method was firstly devel-oped for the purpose of screening 8 antimalarial active ingredients, namely amodiaquine (AQ), piperaquine (PPQ), sulfalene (SL), pyrimethamine (PM), lumefantrine (LF), artesunate (AS), artemether (AM) and dihydroartemisinine (DHA) by applying DoE/DS optimization strategy. Since the method was not totally satisfying in terms of peak separation, further experiments were undergone applying the same development strategy while splitting the 8 ingredients into five groups. Excellent prediction was observed prior to correlation between retention times of predicted and observed separation conditions. Then, a successful geometric transfer was realized to reduce the analysis time focusing on the simultaneous quantification of two WHO's recommended ACTs in anti-malarial fixed-dose combination (AM-LF and AS-AQ) in tablets. The optimal separation was achieved using an isocratic elution of methanol-ammonium formate buffer (pH 2.8; 10mM) (82.5: 17.5, v/v) at 0.6ml/min through a C18 column (100mm×3.5mm, 3.5 μm) thermostated at 25°C. After a successful validation stage based on the total error approach, the method was applied to determine the content of AM/LF or AS/AQ in seven brands of antimalarial tablets currently marketed in West, Central and East Africa. Satisfying results were obtained compared to the claimed contents. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of Total Error Strategy in Validation of Affordable and Accessible UV-Visible Spectrophotometric Methods for Quality Control of Poor Medicines
Mbinze, Kingenge; Nsangu Mpasi, Jean; Maghe, Elza et al

in American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (2015), 6

In the framework of fighting against the poor quality medicines sold in developing countries using classical analytical methods easily accessible in those countries, four UV-Visible spectrophotometric ... [more ▼]

In the framework of fighting against the poor quality medicines sold in developing countries using classical analytical methods easily accessible in those countries, four UV-Visible spectrophotometric methods for one antimalarial (quinine) and two antibiotics (amoxicillin and metronidazole) have been developed and validated according to the total error strategy using the accuracy profiles as a decision tool. The dosing range was 2-10µg/mL (for quinine sulfate in tablet), 4-12µg/mL (for quinine bichlorhydrate in oral drop - metronidazole benzaote in oral suspension) and 15-35µg/mL (for amoxicillin trihydrate in capsule). The validated methods were then applied in determining the content of some analogous medicines sold in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Thus, the proposed UV-Visible spectrophotometric methods are simple and suitable to quantify quinine, amoxicillin and metronidazole in different pharmaceutical forms. [less ▲]

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See detailBiodistribution and radiation dosimetry for the novel SV2A radiotracer [18F]UCB-H: First-in-human study.
Bretin, Florian ULg; Bahri, Mohamed Ali ULg; BERNARD, Claire ULg et al

in Molecular Imaging & Biology (2015), 17

Abstract- [18F]UCB-H is a novel radiotracer with a high affinity for SV2A, a protein expressed in synaptic vesicles. SV2A is the binding site of levetiracetam, a “first in class” antiepileptic drug with a ... [more ▼]

Abstract- [18F]UCB-H is a novel radiotracer with a high affinity for SV2A, a protein expressed in synaptic vesicles. SV2A is the binding site of levetiracetam, a “first in class” antiepileptic drug with a distinct but still poorly understood mechanism of action. The objective of this study was to determine the biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of [18F]UCB-H in a human clinical trial and to establish injection limits according to biomedical research guidelines. Additionally, the clinical radiation dosimetry results were compared to estimations in previously published preclinical data. Dynamic whole body PET/CT imaging was performed over approximately 110 minutes on five healthy male volunteers after injection of 144.5 ± 7.1 MBq (range, 139.1 – 156.5 MBq) of [18F]UCB-H. Major organs were delineated on CT images and time-activity curves were obtained from co-registered dynamic PET emission scans. Time-integrated activity coefficients were calculated as area under the curve using trapezoidal numerical integration. Urinary excretion data based on PET-activities including voiding was simulated using the dynamic bladder module of OLINDA/EXM. The radiation dosimetry was calculated using OLINDA/EXM. The effective dose to the OLINDA/EXM 70 kg standard male was 1.54E-02 ± 6.84E-04 mSv/MBq, with urinary bladder wall, gallbladder wall and the liver receiving the highest absorbed dose. The brain, the tracer’s main organ of interest, received an absorbed dose of 1.89E-02 ± 2.32E-03 mGy/MBq. This first human dosimetry study of [18F]UCB-H indicated that the tracer shows similar radiation burdens to widely used common clinical tracers. Single injections of at maximum 672 MBq for USA practice and 649 MBq for European practice keep radiation exposure below recommended limits. Recently published preclinical dosimetry data extrapolated from mice provided satisfactory prediction of total body and effective dose, but showed significant differences in organ absorbed doses compared to human data. [less ▲]

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See detailPurinergic control of inflammation and thrombosis: Role of P2X1 receptors
Oury, Cécile ULg; LECUT, Christelle ULg; Hego, Alexandre ULg et al

in Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal (2015), 13

Inflammation shifts the hemostatic mechanisms in favor of thrombosis. Upon tissue damage or infection, a sudden increase of extracellular ATP occurs, that might contribute to the crosstalk between ... [more ▼]

Inflammation shifts the hemostatic mechanisms in favor of thrombosis. Upon tissue damage or infection, a sudden increase of extracellular ATP occurs, that might contribute to the crosstalk between inflammation and thrombosis. On platelets, P2X1 receptors act to amplify platelet activation and aggregation induced by other platelet agonists. These receptors critically contribute to thrombus stability in small arteries. Besides platelets, studies by our group indicate that these receptors are expressed by neutrophils. They promote neutrophil chemotaxis, both in vitro and in vivo. In a laser-induced injury mouse model of thrombosis, it appears that neutrophils are required to initiate thrombus formation and coagulation activation on inflamed arteriolar endothelia. In thismodel, by using P2X1−/−mice,we recently showed that P2X1 receptors, expressed on platelets and neutrophils, play a key role in thrombus growth and fibrin generation. Intriguingly, in a model of endotoxemia, P2X1−/−mice exhibited aggravated oxidative tissue damage, along with exacerbated thrombocytopenia and increased activation of coagulation, which translated into higher susceptibility to septic shock. Thus, besides its ability to recruit neutrophils and platelets on inflamed endothelia, the P2X1 receptor also contributes to limit the activation of circulating neutrophils under systemic inflammatory conditions. Taken together, these data suggest that P2X1 receptors are involved in the interplay between platelets, neutrophils and thrombosis. We propose that activation of these receptors by ATP on neutrophils and platelets represents a new mechanism that regulates thrombo-inflammation. [less ▲]

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See detailHYDRODYNAMICS IN A DISPOSABLE RECTANGULAR PARALLELEPIPED STIRRED BIOREACTOR WITH ELLIPTIC PENDULUM MOTION PADDLE
Collignon, Marie-Laure ULg; Droissart, Laurent; Delafosse, Angélique ULg et al

in Biochemical Engineering Journal (2015), 93

Stainless steel bioreactors increasingly fall behind to their disposable counterparts in pharma research as they do not require cleaning or sterilization. This led company ATMI LifeSciences to develop the ... [more ▼]

Stainless steel bioreactors increasingly fall behind to their disposable counterparts in pharma research as they do not require cleaning or sterilization. This led company ATMI LifeSciences to develop the “Nucleo™”. Original in design, this disposable bioreactor comprises a rectangular parallelepiped plastic bag stirred by a paddle revolving in elliptic pendulum motion. Studies covering this bioreactor showed good homogeneity of culture medium as well as good productivity for animal cell cultures. To further explain these good performances, the flow inside the “Nucleo™” had to be resolved. This paper focuses on the mean flow description, computed from stereo-PIV measurements performed in 20 verticals covering the whole volume of a 50 dm3 Nucleo™ bioreactor. As the flow is already turbulent in the chosen agitation conditions, its dimensionless mean velocity field does not vary with the paddle rotational speed. Mean flow pattern exhibits an axial symmetry – same flow is observed in opposite quarters of the tank – and can be described as a three-dimensional helix coiled on itself to form a distorted horizontal torus which covers the whole tank volume. Mean velocity value is on average doubled in the cone swept by the paddle, and its two horizontal components are twice higher than its vertical ones. However, mean velocity remains significant everywhere and, in particular, no stagnant area is observed in tank corners. Our results thus confirm previous studies observations. [less ▲]

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See detailLow molecular weight poly (2-dimethylamino ethylmethacrylate) polymers with controlled positioned fluorescent labeling: Synthesis, characterization and in vitro interaction with human endothelial cells.
Flebus, Luca ULg; Lombart, François ULg; Sevrin, Chantal et al

in International journal of pharmaceutics (2015), 478(1), 278-287

Poly (2-dimethylamino ethylmethacrylate) (PDMAEMA) is an attractive non-degradable polymer studied as nonviral vector for gene delivery but it can be also adopted for delivery of other biopharmaceutical ... [more ▼]

Poly (2-dimethylamino ethylmethacrylate) (PDMAEMA) is an attractive non-degradable polymer studied as nonviral vector for gene delivery but it can be also adopted for delivery of other biopharmaceutical drugs. As a parenteral carrier, the PDMAEMA free form (FF) might interact with tissues and cells. Few data are available on its selective internalization and efflux from cells, while the majority of studies published have followed the distribution of DNA complexed with PDMAEMA. In order to address polycation safety, the first aim was to synthesize by atom transfer radical polymerisation (ATRP) fluorescent labeled PDMAEMA of low molecular weight (Mw) (below 15kDa), controlling the position and density of fluorescein. The second goal was to analyze the possible difference in uptake and subcellular distribution of this labeled FF polycation between human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and hCMEC/D3 cells. These two cell lines have been chosen in order to detect selectivity towards the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In both cases, polycation was detected along the plasma membrane followed by progressive migration to the peri-nuclear region, where it overlapped with lysosomal structures. The analysis by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) of the PDMAEMA uptake by hCMEC/D3 cells showed a significant (p<0.05) inhibition (40%) in presence of 2-dexoxy-d-glucose inhibitor, a result supporting an energy-dependence mechanism(s). Cytotoxicity study showed that low Mw PDMAEMA (10kDa) lead to a minor cytotoxicity compared to the higher ones. As main conclusion this study highlights the similitude in cell trafficking of FF PDMAEMA and data previously reported for PDMAEMA/DNA complexes. [less ▲]

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See detail(Tissue PET) Vascular metabolic imaging and peripheral plasma biomakers in the evolution of chronic arotic dissections
SAKALIHASAN, Natzi ULg; NIENABER, Christoph; HUSTINX, Roland ULg et al

in European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging (2015)

Enhanced FDG uptake may be considered as a complementary imaging marker associated with secondary complications in type B dissections. During follow-up, aneurysmal progression is related to PET/CT and ... [more ▼]

Enhanced FDG uptake may be considered as a complementary imaging marker associated with secondary complications in type B dissections. During follow-up, aneurysmal progression is related to PET/CT and biomarkers of thrombus renewal and lysis. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst-light LBT Nulling Interferometric Observations: Warm Exozodiacal Dust Resolved within a Few AU of eta Crv
Defrere, D.; Hinz, P. M.; Skemer, A. J. et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2015), 799

We report on the first nulling interferometric observations with the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI), resolving the N' band (9.81-12.41 μm) emission around the nearby main-sequence star η ... [more ▼]

We report on the first nulling interferometric observations with the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI), resolving the N' band (9.81-12.41 μm) emission around the nearby main-sequence star η Crv (F2V, 1-2 Gyr). The measured source null depth amounts to 4.40% ± 0.35% over a field-of-view of 140 mas in radius (~2.6 AU for the distance of η Crv) and shows no significant variation over 35° of sky rotation. This relatively low null is unexpected given the total disk to star flux ratio measured by the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS; ~23% across the N' band), suggesting that a significant fraction of the dust lies within the central nulled response of the LBTI (79 mas or 1.4 AU). Modeling of the warm disk shows that it cannot resemble a scaled version of the solar zodiacal cloud unless it is almost perpendicular to the outer disk imaged by Herschel. It is more likely that the inner and outer disks are coplanar and the warm dust is located at a distance of 0.5-1.0 AU, significantly closer than previously predicted by models of the IRS spectrum (~3 AU). The predicted disk sizes can be reconciled if the warm disk is not centrosymmetric, or if the dust particles are dominated by very small grains. Both possibilities hint that a recent collision has produced much of the dust. Finally, we discuss the implications for the presence of dust for the distance where the insolation is the same as Earth's (2.3 AU). [less ▲]

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See detailCOPPER LEACHING FROM WASTE ELECTRIC CABLES BY BIOHYDROMETALLURGY
Lambert, Fanny ULg; Bastin, David ULg; Gaydardzhiev, Stoyan ULg et al

in Minerals Engineering (2015)

This study examines the leaching of copper from waste electric cables by chemical leaching and leaching catalysed by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in terms of leaching kinetics and reagents consumption ... [more ▼]

This study examines the leaching of copper from waste electric cables by chemical leaching and leaching catalysed by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in terms of leaching kinetics and reagents consumption. Operational parameters such as the nature of the oxidant (Fe3+, O2), the initial ferric iron concentration (0-10 g/L) and the temperature (21-50°C) were identified to have an important influence on the degree of copper solubilisation. At optimal process conditions, copper extraction above 90% was achieved in both leaching systems, with a leaching duration of 1 day. The bacterial leaching system slightly outperformed the chemical one but the positive effect of regeneration of Fe3+ was limited. It appears that the Fe2+ bio-oxidation is not sufficiently optimised. Best results in terms of copper solubilisation kinetics were obtained for the abiotic test at 50°C and for the biotic test at 35°C. Moreover, the study showed that in same operating conditions, a lower acid consumption was recorded for the biotic test than for the abiotic test. [less ▲]

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See detailNuclear Magnetic Resonance, Thermogravimetric and Differential Scanning Calorimetry for Monitoring Changes of Sponge Cakes During Storage at 20 °C and 65 % Relative Humidity
Botosoa, Eliot Patrick; Chèné, Christine; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

in Food and Bioprocess Technology (2015), 8

This paper presents a study on sponge cakes produced at the pilot scale and monitored during ageing (i.e. 1, 3, 6, 9, 16 and 20 day(s)) by different analytical techniques: nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a study on sponge cakes produced at the pilot scale and monitored during ageing (i.e. 1, 3, 6, 9, 16 and 20 day(s)) by different analytical techniques: nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results from NMR showed that the spin–lattice relaxation time (T1), measured on the crumb part, decreased from day 1 to day 16 while the spin–spin relaxation time (T2) increased throughout the whole storage time (i.e. 1 to 20 day(s)). Based on the analysis of the state of water, TGA allowed to establishing a kinetic profile of retrogradation degree of starch contained in sponge cakes. This approach evidenced that the evolution of the sponge cakes freshness and staling closely depends on the dynamic of the water in the crumb during ageing. These results were supported by DSC thermograms exhibiting a variation of three main endotherms detected in sponge cakes at −15, +5 and +45 °C throughout ageing. The enthalpy changes of these endotherms reflected the evolution of chemical and physical reactions occurring in the sponge cakes during storage. The analysis of the endotherm enthalpy change at 45 °C allowed to determine the time τ (i.e. τ≈9 days) corresponding to the apparition of amylopectin crystallites that could be considered as a reference time to separate fresh sponge cakes from the aged ones. [less ▲]

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See detailSimulation of a two-slope pyramid made by SPIF using an adaptive remeshing method with solid-shell finite element
Velosa De Sena, José ULg; Guzmán Inostroza, Carlos Felipe ULg; Duchene, Laurent ULg et al

in International Journal of Material Forming (2015)

Single point incremental forming (SPIF) is an emerging application in sheet metal prototyping and small batch production, which enables dieless production of sheet metal parts. This research area has ... [more ▼]

Single point incremental forming (SPIF) is an emerging application in sheet metal prototyping and small batch production, which enables dieless production of sheet metal parts. This research area has grown in the last years, both experimentally and numerically. However, numerical investigations into SPIF process need further improvement to predict the formed shape correctly and faster than current approaches. The current work aims the use of an adaptive remeshing technique, originally developed for shell and later extended to 3D “brick” elements, leading to a Reduced Enhanced Solid-Shell formulation. The CPU time reduction is a demanded request to perform the numerical simulations. A two-slope pyramid shape is used to carry out the numerical simulation and modelling. Its geometric difficulty on the numerical shape prediction and the through thickness stress behaviour are the main analysis targets in the present work. This work confirmed a significant CPU time reduction and an acceptable shape prediction accuracy using an adaptive remeshing method combined with the selected solid-shell element. The stress distribution in thickness direction revealed the occurrence of bending/unbending plus stretching and plastic deformation in regions far from the local deformation in the tool vicinity. [less ▲]

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See detailSymmetry breaking patterns in 3HDM
Ivanov, Igor ULg; Nishi, Celso

in Journal of High Energy Physics [=JHEP] (2015), 15

An attractive feature of New Physics models with multiple Higgs fields is that they are equipped with discrete symmetry groups in the Higgs and flavour sectors. These symmetry groups are often broken at ... [more ▼]

An attractive feature of New Physics models with multiple Higgs fields is that they are equipped with discrete symmetry groups in the Higgs and flavour sectors. These symmetry groups are often broken at the global minimum of the Higgs potential, either completely or to a proper subgroup, with certain phenomenological consequences. Here, we systematically explore these symmetry breaking patterns in the scalar sector of the three-Higgs-doublet model (3HDM). We use the full list of discrete symmetry groups allowed in 3HDM, and for each group we find all possible ways it can break by the Higgs vacuum expectation value alignment. We also discuss the interplay between these symmetry groups and various forms of CP-violation in the scalar sector of 3HDM. Not only do our results solve the problem for 3HDM, but they also hint at several general features in multi-scalar sectors. [less ▲]

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See detailRecent summer Arctic atmospheric circulation anomalies in a historical perspective
Belleflamme, Alexandre ULg; Fettweis, Xavier ULg; Erpicum, Michel ULg

in Cryosphere (The) (2015), 9

A significant increase in the summertime occurrence of a high pressure area over the Beaufort Sea, the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, and Greenland has been observed since the beginning of the 2000s, and ... [more ▼]

A significant increase in the summertime occurrence of a high pressure area over the Beaufort Sea, the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, and Greenland has been observed since the beginning of the 2000s, and particularly between 2007 and 2012. These circulation anomalies are likely partly responsible for the enhanced Greenland ice sheet melt as well as the Arctic sea ice loss observed since 2007. Therefore, it is interesting to analyse whether similar conditions might have happened since the late 19th century over the Arctic region. We have used an atmospheric circulation type classification based on daily mean sea level pressure and 500 hPa geopotential height data from five reanalysis data sets (ERA-Interim, ERA-40, NCEP/NCAR, ERA-20C, and 20CRv2) to put the recent circulation anomalies in perspective with the atmospheric circulation variability since 1871. We found that circulation conditions similar to 2007–2012 have occurred in the past, despite a higher uncertainty of the reconstructed circulation before 1940. For example, only ERA-20C shows circulation anomalies that could explain the 1920–1930 summertime Greenland warming, in contrast to 20CRv2. While the recent anomalies exceed by a factor of 2 the interannual variability of the atmospheric circulation of the Arctic region, their origin (natural variability or global warming) remains debatable. [less ▲]

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