References of "Scientific journals"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMerging multi-camera data to reduce motion analysis instrumental errors using Kalman filters
Schwartz, Cédric ULg; Denoël, Vincent ULg; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg et al

in Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering (2015), 18(9), 952-960

In motion capture systems, markers are often seen by multiple cameras. All cameras do not measure the position of the markers with the same reliability because of environmental factors such as the ... [more ▼]

In motion capture systems, markers are often seen by multiple cameras. All cameras do not measure the position of the markers with the same reliability because of environmental factors such as the position of the marker in the field of view or the light intensity received by the cameras. Kalman filters offer a general framework to take the reliability of the various cameras into account and consequently improve the estimation of the marker position. The proposed process can be applied to both passive and active systems. Several reliability models of the cameras are compared for the Codamotion active system, which is considered as a specific illustration. The proposed method significantly reduces the noise in the signal, especially at long range distances. Therefore, it improves the confidence of the positions at the limits of the field of view. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 41 (13 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe course of anaemia in children and adolescents with Crohn's disease included in a prospective registry.
Van Biervliet, Stephanie; Smets, Francoise; Hofmann, Ilse et al

in International journal of colorectal disease (2015), 30(1), 51-6

AIM: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and evolution of anaemia in prospectively followed children and adolescents diagnosed with Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS: The BELCRO registry ... [more ▼]

AIM: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and evolution of anaemia in prospectively followed children and adolescents diagnosed with Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS: The BELCRO registry (inclusion May 2008-April 2010), describing current clinical treatment practice of children diagnosed with CD, provided data on age, height, body mass index (BMI), paediatric Crohn's disease activity index (PCDAI), therapy and haemoglobin (Hb) at diagnosis 12 and 24 months follow-up. Anaemia was defined as Hb < -2 sd, while severe anaemia was defined as Hb < -4 sd. Patients were classified as child </=13 and adolescent >13 years of age. RESULT: Ninety-six were included, 13 dropped out due to insufficient Hb data (37 females/46 males; median age 13.3 years, range 2.2-17.8 years). At diagnosis, the median Hb sd was -2.66 (-8.4; 1.07) and was correlated with the PCDAI (p = 0.013). At diagnosis, 51/83 (61 %) were anaemic and all had active disease. Hb z-score significantly improved (p < 0.0001) but 26/68 (38 %) remained anaemic at 12 months and 29/76 (38 %) at 24 months of follow-up. The correlation to the PCDAI disappeared. At 24 months, children were more likely to be anaemic. There was no difference in iron dose nor duration of iron supplements between children and adolescents. Iron treatment was more readily given to patients presenting with anaemia. Hb did not differ between patients with (n = 28) or without iron supplements. Half of the patients with persisting anaemia were given iron supplements, of which, only three were given intravenously. CONCLUSION: Anaemia remains an important extra-intestinal manifestation of CD in children. Physicians, lacking optimal treatment strategies, undertreat their patients. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 7 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPharmacodynamics, Efficacy and Safety of Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter Type 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Scheen, André ULg

in Drugs (2015), 75(1), 33-59

Inhibitors of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) are proposed as a novel approach for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Several compounds are already available in many countries ... [more ▼]

Inhibitors of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) are proposed as a novel approach for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Several compounds are already available in many countries (dapagliflozin, canagliflozin, empagliflozin and ipragliflozin) and some others are in a late phase of development. The available SGLT2 inhibitors share similar pharmacokinetic characteristics, with a rapid oral absorption, a long elimination half-life allowing once-daily administration, an extensive hepatic metabolism mainly via glucuronidation to inactive metabolites, the absence of clinically relevant drug-drug interactions and a low renal elimination as parent drug. SGLT2 co-transporters are responsible for reabsorption of most (90 %) of the glucose filtered by the kidneys. The pharmacological inhibition of SGLT2 co-transporters reduces hyperglycaemia by decreasing renal glucose threshold and thereby increasing urinary glucose excretion. The amount of glucose excreted in the urine depends on both the level of hyperglycaemia and the glomerular filtration rate. Results of numerous placebo-controlled randomised clinical trials of 12-104 weeks duration have shown significant reductions in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), resulting in a significant increase in the proportion of patients reaching HbA1c targets, and a significant lowering of fasting plasma glucose when SGLT2 inhibitors were administered as monotherapy or in addition to other glucose-lowering therapies including insulin in patients with T2DM. In head-to-head trials of up to 2 years, SGLT2 inhibitors exerted similar glucose-lowering activity to metformin, sulphonylureas or sitagliptin. The durability of the glucose-lowering effect of SGLT2 inhibitors appears to be better; however, this remains to be more extensively investigated. The risk of hypoglycaemia was much lower with SGLT2 inhibitors than with sulphonylureas and was similarly low as that reported with metformin, pioglitazone or sitagliptin. Increased renal glucose elimination also assists weight loss and could help to reduce blood pressure. Both effects were very consistent across the trials and they represent some advantages for SGLT2 inhibitors when compared with other oral glucose-lowering agents. The pharmacodynamic response to SGLT2 inhibitors declines with increasing severity of renal impairment, and prescribing information for each SGLT2 inhibitor should be consulted regarding dosage adjustments or restrictions in moderate to severe renal dysfunction. Caution is also recommended in the elderly population because of a higher risk of renal impairment, orthostatic hypotension and dehydration, even if the absence of hypoglycaemia represents an obvious advantage in this population. The overall effect of SGLT2 inhibitors on the risk of cardiovascular disease is unknown and will be evaluated in several ongoing prospective placebo-controlled trials with cardiovascular outcomes. The impact of SGLT2 inhibitors on renal function and their potential to influence the course of diabetic nephropathy also deserve more attention. SGLT2 inhibitors are generally well-tolerated. The most frequently reported adverse events are female genital mycotic infections, while urinary tract infections are less commonly observed and generally benign. In conclusion, with their unique mechanism of action that is independent of insulin secretion and action, SGLT2 inhibitors are a useful addition to the therapeutic options available for the management of T2DM at any stage in the natural history of the disease. Although SGLT2 inhibitors have already been extensively investigated, further studies should even better delineate the best place of these new glucose-lowering agents in the already rich armamentarium for the management of T2DM. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA new species of Groenlandaspis Heintz, 1932 (Placodermi, Arthrodira) from the Famennian (Late Devonian) of Belgium
Olive, Sébastien ULg; Prestianni, Cyrille; Dupret, Vincent

in Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology (2015), 35(5),

A new species of the phlyctaeniid arthrodire genus Groenlandaspis from the upper Famennian of Belgium is described. The remains of Groenlandaspis potyi sp. nov. consist of dissociated thoracic armor ... [more ▼]

A new species of the phlyctaeniid arthrodire genus Groenlandaspis from the upper Famennian of Belgium is described. The remains of Groenlandaspis potyi sp. nov. consist of dissociated thoracic armor elements, but the specimen designed to be the holotype displays the median dorsal, anterior and posterior dorsolateral plates in connection. Though incomplete, the new species is characterized by an equilateral triangle-shaped median dorsal plate, a protruding posterodorsal apron of the posterior dorsolateral plate behind the overlap area for the median dorsal plate, and an overall lack of ornamentation. Groenlandaspis potyi sp. nov. constitutes the second occurrence of a Groenlandaspis species in continental Europe after the description of Groenlandaspis thorezi from upper Famennian quarries of Belgium. Another probable new species of Groenlandaspis is also described, though of unknown locality and horizon; it can however be deduced from the upper Famennian of Belgium without more precision. Together with some unpublished material of groenlandaspidids from the Famennian tetrapod-bearing locality of Strud, this material highlights the richness of the Groenlandaspididae diversity in Belgium. The discovery of Groenlandaspis potyi sp. nov. in Belgium reinforces the Famennian global distribution of this widespread genus during this period. Also, since those organisms have possibly been considered as non-marine indicators, this material is another argument pleading for close relationships between Euramerica and Gondwana around the Frasnian-Famennian boundary. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 41 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailRestoring testosterone levels by adding dehydroepiandrosterone to a drospirenone containing combined oral contraceptive: I. Endocrine effects.
Zimmerman, Y.; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg; Pintiaux, Axelle ULg et al

in Contraception (2015), 91(2), 127-33

OBJECTIVES: Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) decrease testosterone (T) levels. This study investigated restoration of T and other androgen concentrations during COC use by 'co-administration' of ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) decrease testosterone (T) levels. This study investigated restoration of T and other androgen concentrations during COC use by 'co-administration' of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). STUDY DESIGN: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 99 new COC starters (18-35 years old with body mass index range 18-34kg/m(2)), a COC containing 30mcg ethinylestradiol (EE) and 3mg drospirenone (DRSP) was used for 3cycles, followed by 6cycles of the same COC combined with either 50mg/day DHEA or placebo. Total T, albumin, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), DHEA-sulfate (DHEA-S), Delta4-androstenedione (AD), 3alpha-androstanediol glucuronide (ADG) and estradiol (E2) were measured, whereas free T and the free T index (FTI) were calculated. Assessments took place at baseline (no COC use), after the run-in period (COC use alone) and during the treatment period (DHEA or placebo). RESULTS: During COC use alone, androgen levels decreased, especially total T by 62% and free T by 86%, and SHBG increased by 243%. Total T increased with DHEA compared to placebo (change from end of run-in period to end of treatment period - 1.3+/-1.2nmol/L vs. 0.0+/-0.4nmol/L; p<.0001) - and was restored to baseline levels. Free T and the FTI increased significantly (p<.0001), but the free T level was still 53% below baseline levels. DHEA-S, AD and ADG increased significantly to levels above baseline (p<.0001 for each). DHEA had no effect on SHBG, albumin and E2. CONCLUSIONS: An EE/DRSP containing COC strongly suppressed endogenous androgen concentrations in all users. The addition of 50mg DHEA to a COC regimen containing EE/DRSP restored total T to baseline levels, but free T levels were restored by only 47% as most of the T remains bound to SHBG. IMPLICATIONS: When using a COC that increases SHBG considerably, a daily dose of 50mg DHEA is insufficient to normalize free T levels completely. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 4 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailOleuropein or rutin consumption decreases the spontaneous development of osteoarthritis in the Hartley guinea pig.
Horcajada, M.-N.; Sanchez, Christelle ULg; Membrez Scalfo et al

in Osteoarthritis and cartilage / OARS, Osteoarthritis Research Society (2015), 23(1), 94-102

OBJECTIVE: To assess the potential protective effects of three polyphenols oleuropein, rutin and curcumin, on joint ageing and osteoarthritis (OA) development. DESIGN: Sixty 4-week-old Dunkin-Hartley ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To assess the potential protective effects of three polyphenols oleuropein, rutin and curcumin, on joint ageing and osteoarthritis (OA) development. DESIGN: Sixty 4-week-old Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs were randomized into four groups and received daily during 31 weeks either standard guinea pig diet (control group) or a standard guinea pig diet enriched with oleuropein (0.025%), rutin (0.5%) or rutin/curcumin (0.5%/0.25%) association. Biomarkers of OA (Coll2-1, Coll2-1NO2, Fib3-1, Fib3-2, ARGS), as well as inflammation (PGE2) were quantified in the serum. Histological assessments of knee cartilage and synovial membrane were performed at week 4 (five young reference guinea pigs) and week 35. RESULTS: At week 35, guinea pigs in the control group spontaneously developed significant cartilage lesions with mild synovial inflammation. The histological scores of cartilage lesions and synovitis were well correlated with the increased level of serum biomarkers. Histologically, all treatments significantly reduced the cartilage degradation score (P < 0.01), but only oleuropein significantly decreased the synovial histological score (P < 0.05) and serum PGE2 levels (P < 0.01) compared to the control group. Coll2-1 was decreased by rutin and the combination of rutin/curcumin, Fib3-1 and Fib3-2 were only decreased by the rutin/curcumin mixture, while Coll2-1NO2 was significantly decreased by all treatments (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Oleuropein and rutin +/- curcumin significantly slowed down the progression of spontaneous OA lesions in guinea pigs. While no additive effect was seen in the curcumin + rutin group, the differential effects of oleuropein and rutin on inflammatory and cartilage catabolic markers suggest an interesting combination for future studies in OA protection. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA Membrane-Type-1 Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) - Discoidin Domain Receptor 1 Axis Regulates Collagen-Induced Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells.
Assent, Delphine; Bourgot, Isabelle ULg; Hennuy, Benoît ULg et al

in PloS one (2015), 10(3), 0116006

During tumour dissemination, invading breast carcinoma cells become confronted with a reactive stroma, a type I collagen-rich environment endowed with anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic properties. To ... [more ▼]

During tumour dissemination, invading breast carcinoma cells become confronted with a reactive stroma, a type I collagen-rich environment endowed with anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic properties. To develop metastatic capabilities, tumour cells must acquire the capacity to cope with this novel microenvironment. How cells interact with and respond to their microenvironment during cancer dissemination remains poorly understood. To address the impact of type I collagen on the fate of tumour cells, human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells were cultured within three-dimensional type I collagen gels (3D COL1). Using this experimental model, we have previously demonstrated that membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), a proteinase overexpressed in many aggressive tumours, promotes tumour progression by circumventing the collagen-induced up-regulation of BIK, a pro-apoptotic tumour suppressor, and hence apoptosis. Here we performed a transcriptomic analysis to decipher the molecular mechanisms regulating 3D COL1-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. Control and MT1-MMP expressing MCF-7 cells were cultured on two-dimensional plastic plates or within 3D COL1 and a global transcriptional time-course analysis was performed. Shifting the cells from plastic plates to 3D COL1 activated a complex reprogramming of genes implicated in various biological processes. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a 3D COL1-mediated alteration of key cellular functions including apoptosis, cell proliferation, RNA processing and cytoskeleton remodelling. By using a panel of pharmacological inhibitors, we identified discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1), a receptor tyrosine kinase specifically activated by collagen, as the initiator of 3D COL1-induced apoptosis. Our data support the concept that MT1-MMP contributes to the inactivation of the DDR1-BIK signalling axis through the cleavage of collagen fibres and/or the alteration of DDR1 receptor signalling unit, without triggering a drastic remodelling of the transcriptome of MCF-7 cells. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 3 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailVISMODEGIB ET CARCINOMES BASOCELLULAIRES LOCALEMENT AVANCES
LEBAS, Eglantine ULg; RORIVE, Andrée ULg; EL HAYDERI, Lara ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2015)

Basal cell carcinoma is the most frequent skin cancer. Even though metastases are exceptional, these cancers may be locally highly aggressive. The Hedgehog signaling pathway plays a significant role in ... [more ▼]

Basal cell carcinoma is the most frequent skin cancer. Even though metastases are exceptional, these cancers may be locally highly aggressive. The Hedgehog signaling pathway plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of basal cell carcinoma. Vismodegib is a selective inhibitor of this pathway and may be administered orally. Its main indication is locally advanced basal cell carcinoma, when other therapeutic options have failed or are contra-indicated. Vismodegib can also be used as prophylactic therapy in the Gorlin syndrome or basal cell nevomatosis. Its principal adverse effects are muscle spasms, alopecia and altered taste. They are frequent, but often moderate in intensity; they sometimes restrict continuation of treatment. Two clinical cases are presented, relating the efficacity and tolerance of this new therapeutic option. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailFamilial Isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) and mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene
Daly, Adrian ULg; Beckers, Albert ULg

in Endocrinology & Metabolism Clinics of North America (2015), 44

Detailed reference viewed: 5 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAntidiabetic agents: Potential anti-inflammatory activity beyond glucose control.
Scheen, André ULg; Esser, N.; Paquot, Nicolas ULg

in Diabetes & metabolism (2015)

A growing body of evidence is emerging to show that abdominal obesity, the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and microvascular diabetic complications are intimately related to ... [more ▼]

A growing body of evidence is emerging to show that abdominal obesity, the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and microvascular diabetic complications are intimately related to chronic inflammation. These observations pave the way to the development of new pharmacological strategies that aim to reduce silent inflammation. However, besides specific anti-inflammatory agents, glucose-lowering medications may also exert anti-inflammatory effects that could contribute to improved outcomes in diabetic patients. Most studies have used metformin, an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, and thiazolidinediones (TZDs), which act as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) agonists. Both pharmacological classes (considered insulin-sparing agents or insulin sensitizers) appear to have greater anti-inflammatory activity than insulin-secreting agents such as sulphonylureas or glinides. In particular, TZDs have shown the widest range of evidence of lowered tissue (visceral fat and liver) and serum inflammation. In contrast, despite reducing postprandial hyperglycaemia, the effect of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors on inflammatory markers appears rather modest, whereas dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (gliptins) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists appear more promising in this respect. These incretin-based therapies exert pleiotropic effects, including reports of anti-inflammatory activity. No human data are available so far regarding sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. Although they may have indirect effects due to reduced glucotoxicity, their specific mode of action in the kidneys does not suggest systemic anti-inflammatory activity. Also, in spite of the complex relationship between insulin and atherosclerosis, exogenous insulin may also exert anti-inflammatory effects. Nevertheless, for all these glucose-lowering agents, it is essential to distinguish between anti-inflammatory effects resulting from better glucose control and potential anti-inflammatory effects related to intrinsic actions of the pharmacological class. Finally, it would also be of major clinical interest to define what role the anti-inflammatory effects of these glucose-lowering agents may play in the prevention of macrovascular and microvascular diabetic complications. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 9 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDevelopment of novel SOlid Materials for high power Li polymer BATteries (SOMABAT). Recyclability of components.
Zubizarreta, Leire; Gil-Agusti, Mayte; Garcia. et al

in Lecture notes on Mobility (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 35 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA quality by design approach for longitudinal quality attributes
Lebrun, Pierre ULg; Giacoletti, Katherine; Scherder, Tara et al

in Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics (2015), 25

The concept of quality by design (QbD) as published in ICH-Q8 is currently one of the most recurrent topics in the pharmaceutical literature. This guideline recommends the use of information and prior ... [more ▼]

The concept of quality by design (QbD) as published in ICH-Q8 is currently one of the most recurrent topics in the pharmaceutical literature. This guideline recommends the use of information and prior knowledge gathered during pharmaceutical development studies to provide a scientific rationale for the manufacturing process of a product and provide guarantee of future quality. This poses several challenges from a statistical standpoint and requires a shift in paradigm from traditional statistical practices. First, to provide “assurance of quality” of future lots implies the need to make predictions regarding the quality given past evidence and data. Second, the quality attributes described in the Q8 guidelines are not always a set of unique, independent measurements. In many cases, these criteria are com- plicated longitudinal data with successive acceptance criteria over a defined period of time. A common example is a dissolution profile for a modified or extended-release solid dosage form that must fall within acceptance limits at several time points. A Bayesian approach for longitudinal data obtained in various conditions of a design of experiment is provided to elegantly address the ICH-Q8 recommendation to provide assurance of quality and derive a scientifically sound design space. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA Low-Cost Digital Image Correlation Technique for Characterising the Shear Deformation of Fabrics for Draping Studies
Pierce, R. S.; Falzon, B. G.; Thompson, M. C. et al

in Strain (2015)

A novel digital image correlation (DIC) technique has been developed to track changes in textile yarn orientations during shear characterisation experiments, requiring only low-cost digital imaging ... [more ▼]

A novel digital image correlation (DIC) technique has been developed to track changes in textile yarn orientations during shear characterisation experiments, requiring only low-cost digital imaging equipment. Fabric shear angles and effective yarn strains are calculated and visualised using this new DIC technique for bias extension testing of an aerospace grade, carbon-fibre reinforcement material with a plain weave architecture. The DIC results are validated by direct measurement, and the use of a wide bias extension sample is evaluated against a more commonly used narrow sample. Wide samples exhibit a shear angle range 25% greater than narrow samples and peak loads which are 10 times higher. This is primarily due to excessive yarn slippage in the narrow samples; hence, the wide sample configuration is recommended for characterisation of shear properties which are required for accurate modelling of textile draping [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 4 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailTooling Materials and Solutions for Thixoforming: A key to the process industrialization
Rassili, Ahmed ULg; Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline ULg

in Solid State Phenomena (2015), 217-218

Investigations on steel thixoforming started in the early 90's and many developments were carried out, mainly driven by the industrialization of the process. After a series of basic investigations on ... [more ▼]

Investigations on steel thixoforming started in the early 90's and many developments were carried out, mainly driven by the industrialization of the process. After a series of basic investigations on adapted steels and materials as well as near-net shaping investigations, the issue of mass production raised and thus induced some other challenges mainly on die life and process automation and cycling. High working temperatures and components complexity were then the main locks to mass productions. In most of reported literature, none of the involved research group reached or real production and industrialization criteria. The euro group holds most of these research investigations [1]. We have reported many of these results in previous communications and this paper presents a continuity of what have already been presented. Some advanced tooling materials and solutions are presented and applied to a real complex industrial component. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 10 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEstetrol is a weak estrogen antagonizing estradiol-dependent mammary gland proliferation.
Gérard, Céline ULg; Blacher, Silvia ULg; Communal, Laudine et al

in Journal of Endocrinology (2015), 224(1), 86-95

Estetrol (E4) is a natural estrogen produced exclusively by the human fetal liver during pregnancy. Its physiological activity remains unknown. In contrast to ethinyl estradiol (EE) and estradiol (E2), E4 ... [more ▼]

Estetrol (E4) is a natural estrogen produced exclusively by the human fetal liver during pregnancy. Its physiological activity remains unknown. In contrast to ethinyl estradiol (EE) and estradiol (E2), E4 has a minimal impact on liver cells activity and could provide a better safety profile in contraception or hormone therapy. The aim of this study was to delineate if E4 exhibits an activity profile distinct from that of E2 on mammary gland. Compared to E2, E4 acted as a low affinity estrogen in both, human in vitro and murine in vivo, models. E4 was 100 times less potent than E2 to stimulate the proliferation of human breast epithelial (HBE) cells and murine mammary gland in vitro and in vivo, respectively. This effect was prevented by fulvestrant and by tamoxifen supporting the notion that ERalpha is the main mediator of the estrogenic effect of E4 on the breast. Interestingly, when E4 was administered along with E2, it significantly antagonized the strong stimulatory effect of E2 on HBE cells proliferation and on the growth of mammary ducts. This study characterizes for the first time the impact of E4 on mammary gland. Our results highlight that E4 is less potent than E2 and exhibits antagonistic properties towards the proliferative effect of E2 on breast epithelial cells. These data support E4 as a potential new estrogen for clinical use with a reduced impact on breast proliferation. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (7 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailUsing local second gradient model and shear strain localisation to model the excavation damaged zone in unsaturated claystone
Pardoen, Benoît ULg; Levasseur, Séverine ULg; Collin, Frédéric ULg

in Rock Mechanics & Rock Engineering (2015), 48(2), 691-714

The drilling of galleries induces damage propagation in the surrounding medium and creates, around them, the excavation damaged zone (EDZ). The prediction of the extension and fracture structure of this ... [more ▼]

The drilling of galleries induces damage propagation in the surrounding medium and creates, around them, the excavation damaged zone (EDZ). The prediction of the extension and fracture structure of this zone remains a major issue, especially in the context of underground nuclear waste storage. Experimental studies on geomaterials indicate that localised deformation in shear band mode usually appears prior to fractures. Thus, the excavation damaged zone can be modelled by considering the development of shear strain localisation bands. In the classical finite element framework, strain localisation suffers a mesh-dependency problem. Therefore, an enhanced model with a regularisation method is required to correctly model the strain localisation behaviour. Among the existing methods, we choose the coupled local second gradient model. We extend it to unsaturated conditions and we include the solid grain compressibility. Furthermore, air ventilation inside underground galleries engenders a rock– atmosphere interaction that could influence the damaged zone. This interaction has to be investigated in order to predict the damaged zone behaviour. Finally, a hydromechanical modelling of a gallery excavation in claystone is presented and leads to a fairly good representation of the EDZ. The main objectives of this study are to model the fractures by considering shear strain localisation bands, and to investigate if an isotropic model accurately reproduces the in situ measurements. The numerical results provide information about the damaged zone extension, structure and behaviour that are in very good agreement with in situ measurements and observations. For instance, the strain localisation bands that develop in chevron pattern during the excavation and rock desaturation, due to air ventilation, are observed close to the gallery. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 34 (7 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSmall Angle X-ray Scattering Insights into the Architecture-Dependent Emulsifying Properties of Amphiphilic Copolymers in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
Alaimo, David ULg; Hermida Merino, Daniel; Grignard, Bruno ULg et al

in Journal of Physical Chemistry B (2015), 119

The supramolecular assembly of a series of copolymers combining a PEO-rich hydrophilic and fluorinated CO2-philic sequences is analysed by synchrotron small-angle xray scattering (SAXS) in supercritical ... [more ▼]

The supramolecular assembly of a series of copolymers combining a PEO-rich hydrophilic and fluorinated CO2-philic sequences is analysed by synchrotron small-angle xray scattering (SAXS) in supercritical CO2, as well as in water/CO2 emulsions. These copolymers were designed to have the same molecular weight and composition, and to differ only by their macromolecular architecture. The investigated copolymers have random, block, and palm-tree architectures. Besides, thermo-responsive copolymer is also analysed, having a hydrophilic sequence becoming water-insoluble around 41 °C, i.e. just above the critical point of CO2. At the length scale investigated by SAXS, only the random copolymer appears to self-assemble in pure CO2, in the form of a disordered microgel-like network. The random, block and thermo-responsive copolymers are all able to stabilize water/CO2 emulsions but not the copolymer with the palm-tree architecture, pointing at the importance of macromolecular architecture for the emulsifying properties. A modelling of the SAXS data shows that the block and the thermo-responsive copolymers form spherical micelle-like structures containing about 70 % water and 30 % polymer. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 52 (11 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLa copie d’expression écrite en langue étrangère : un support équitable ?
Noiroux, Kevin ULg; Simons, Germain ULg

in Spirale (2015), 55

Summative writing assessment is an evaluative practice that aims, at least theoretically, to inform each student about his performance in that skill at a given time, and to help him to understand his ... [more ▼]

Summative writing assessment is an evaluative practice that aims, at least theoretically, to inform each student about his performance in that skill at a given time, and to help him to understand his errors so that he can make progress in his learning. In this article, we analyse summative writing assessment through various prisms. At the macro level, we discuss the reforms of the education system pertaining to assessment ; at the meso level, we target the assessment tools offered by the same education system, as well as the attention that may or may not be paid to remediation ; at the micro level, we deal with the issue of corrective feedback which students receive on their written production. By crossing these different sources (legal provisions, interviews, surveys, analysis of students’ annotated written production, etc.), we conclude that this practice may present major risks of inequality. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (10 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAssessment of contaminant levels and trophic relations at a World Heritage Site by measurements in a characteristic shorebird species
Schwemmer, Philipp; Covaci, Adrian; Das, Krishna ULg et al

in Environmental Research (2015), 136

The River Elbe is responsible for influxes of contaminants into the Wadden Sea World Heritage Site. We investigated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), oxychlordane (OxC), hexachlorobenzene (HCB ... [more ▼]

The River Elbe is responsible for influxes of contaminants into the Wadden Sea World Heritage Site. We investigated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), oxychlordane (OxC), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (α-, β-, γ-HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in blood and feathers from Eurasian oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus; n=28) at the Elbe and compared it with a non-riverine site about 90 km further north. (1) Mean levels of all contaminants in feathers and serum were significantly higher at the river (ƩPCBs: 27.6 ng/g feather, 37.0 ng/ml serum; ƩDDTs: 5.3 ng/g feather, 4.4 ng/ml serum) compared with the non-riverine site (ƩPCBs: 6.5 ng/g feather, 1.2 ng/ml serum; ƩDDTs: 1.4 ng/g feather, 0.5 ng/ml serum). Mean ƩHCH and HCB levels were <1.8 ng/g in feather and <1.8 ng/ml in serum at both sites. (2) Levels of most detectable compounds in serum and feathers were significantly related, but levels were not consistently higher in either tissue. (3) There was no significant relationship between trophic level in individual oystercatchers (expressed as δ15N) or the degree of terrestrial feeding (expressed as δ13C) and contaminant loads. (4) PBDEs were not detected in significant amounts at either site. The results of this study indicate that the outflow from one of Europe’s largest river systems is associated with significant historical contamination, reflected by the accumulation of contaminants in body tissues in a coastal benthivore predator. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 38 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe Innate Immune Response of Equine Bronchial Epithelial Cells is Altered by Training
Frellstedt, Linda ULg; Gosset, Philippe; Kervoaze, Gwenola et al

in Veterinary Research (2015), 46(3), 1-12

Respiratory diseases, including inflammatory airway disease (IAD), viral and bacterial infections, are common problems in exercising horses. The airway epithelium constitutes a major physical barrier ... [more ▼]

Respiratory diseases, including inflammatory airway disease (IAD), viral and bacterial infections, are common problems in exercising horses. The airway epithelium constitutes a major physical barrier against airborne infections and plays an essential role in the lung innate immune response mainly through toll-like receptor (TLR) activation. The aim of this study was to develop a model for the culture of equine bronchial epithelial cells (EBEC) in vitro and to explore EBEC innate immune responses in trained horses. Bronchial epithelial biopsies were taken from 6 adult horses during lower airway endoscopy. EBEC were grown in vitro by an explant method. The innate immune response of EBEC was evaluated in vitro by treatment with TLR ligands. TLR3 is the most strongly expressed TLR at the mRNA level in EBEC and stimulation of EBEC with Poly(I:C), an analog of viral dsRNA, triggers a strong secretion of IFN-β, TNF-α, IL-6 and CXCL8. We further evaluated the EBEC innate immune response in horses that underwent a 4-month-training program. While training had no effect on TLR mRNA expression in EBEC as well as in bronchial biopsies, it increased the production of IFN-β after stimulation with a TLR3 ligand and decreased the secretion of TNF-α and IL-6 after stimulation with a TLR2 and TLR3 ligand. These findings may be implicated in the increased risk for viral and bacterial infections observed in sport horses. Altogether, we report a successful model for the culture of EBEC that can be applied to the investigation of pathophysiologic conditions in longitudinal studies. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 8 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCompte rendu de 'Mutations et déterminisme chez Bourdieu'
Saint-Amand, Denis ULg

in Lectures (2015)

En définitive, il aurait sans doute mieux valu resserrer le propos sous la forme d’un article critique qui aurait pu trouver place dans une revue spécialisée : ne se donnant par les moyens de ses trop ... [more ▼]

En définitive, il aurait sans doute mieux valu resserrer le propos sous la forme d’un article critique qui aurait pu trouver place dans une revue spécialisée : ne se donnant par les moyens de ses trop hautes ambitions, l’ouvrage se révèle trop léger en plus de se distinguer par le manque de soin apporté à sa réalisation [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLa magie et la sorcellerie des visages comme socle anthropologique de la philosophie sartrienne
Englebert, Jérôme ULg

in Etudes Sartriennes (2015), 17

L’« émotion » est la possibilité d’une « anthropologie de la relation ». Énoncer une telle proposition nécessite de définir les deux blocs qu’elle relie. Nous réaliserons cette entreprise en recourant à ... [more ▼]

L’« émotion » est la possibilité d’une « anthropologie de la relation ». Énoncer une telle proposition nécessite de définir les deux blocs qu’elle relie. Nous réaliserons cette entreprise en recourant à un troisième axe, intermédiaire : celui du visage ou, plutôt, des visages. La thèse de ce court essai tient à considérer que la phénoménologie sartrienne a déjà réalisé ce travail de fond qui requiert, pour le rendre explicite, articulation simple et ordonnancement. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 59 (15 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailUncertainties in Models of Stellar Structure and Evolution
Noels-Grötsch, Arlette ULg; Bragaglia, Angela

in Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings (2015), 39

Numerous physical aspects of stellar physics have been presented in Session 2 and the underlying uncertainties have been tentatively assessed. We try here to highlight some specific points raised after ... [more ▼]

Numerous physical aspects of stellar physics have been presented in Session 2 and the underlying uncertainties have been tentatively assessed. We try here to highlight some specific points raised after the talks and during the general discussion at the end of the session and eventually at the end of the workshop. A table of model uncertainties is then drawn with the help of the participants in order to give the state of the art in stellar modeling uncertainties as of July 2013. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 3 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPulmonary Hypertension in Valvular Disease: A Comprehensive Review on Pathophysiology to Therapy From the HAVEC Group.
Magne, Julien; Pibarot, Philippe; Sengupta, Partho P. et al

in JACC. Cardiovascular imaging (2015), 8(1), 83-99

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a classic pathophysiological consequence of left-sided valvular heart disease (VHD). However, as opposed to other forms of PH, there are relatively few published data on the ... [more ▼]

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a classic pathophysiological consequence of left-sided valvular heart disease (VHD). However, as opposed to other forms of PH, there are relatively few published data on the prevalence, impact on outcome, and management of PH with VHD. The objective of this paper is to present a systematic review of PH in patients with VHD. PH is found in 15% to 60% of patients with VHD and is more frequent among symptomatic patients. PH is associated with higher risk of cardiac events under conservative management, during valve replacement or repair procedures, and even following successful corrective procedures. In addition to its usefulness in assessing the presence and severity of VHD, Doppler echocardiography is a key tool in diagnosis of PH and assessment of its repercussion on right ventricular function. Assessment of pulmonary arterial pressure during exercise stress echocardiography may provide additional prognostic information beyond resting evaluation. Cardiac magnetic resonance is also useful for assessing right ventricular geometry and function, which provide additional prognostic information in patients with VHD and PH. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 7 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAdventitious organogenesis induced in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) var. "half-blood" maltese: morphogenetic and histological study
Benmahmoud, Kaouther; Jedidi, Zmna; Najar, Asma et al

in International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (2015), 6(2), 1-7

Tunisian citrus crops are faced to several abiotic and biotic constraints among which virus and virus-like diseases are incurable. The production of virus-free plants systematically needs the use of in ... [more ▼]

Tunisian citrus crops are faced to several abiotic and biotic constraints among which virus and virus-like diseases are incurable. The production of virus-free plants systematically needs the use of in vitro techniques. In this context, somatic embryogenesis and further plantlet regeneration of the Tunisian “half-blood” Maltese orange were obtained using explants consisting in style/stigma collected from unopened flowers. Somatic embryos were induced on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 13.3 µM 6-benzylaminopurine and 500 mg.l-1 malt extract, but their germination was obtained on hormone free-medium. Somatic embryogenesis was induced indirectly from intermediate friable callus initiated at the basal part of the style. Somatic embryos exhibited central procambial cells and were surrounded by a protoderm isolating them from the callus. These embryos had bipolar structure confirmed by the presence of shoot and root apices at cotyledonary stage. The use of cotyledon excised from those embryos failed to regenerate somatic embryos, but gave rise to direct organogenesis in two forms, true buds and protuberances both evolved in shoots after transfer in hormone-free medium. According to histological observations, protuberances are induced from epidermal and subepidermal cells of the cotyledon explant and remain closely attached to their mother tissue even at the shoot stage. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA plastic-damage model for concrete in fire: Applications in structural fire engineering
Gernay, Thomas ULg; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

in Fire Safety Journal (2015), 71

The research aims at developing a new multiaxial constitutive model for concrete in the fire situation. In addition to validity at the material level, a crucial feature of a constitutive model is the ... [more ▼]

The research aims at developing a new multiaxial constitutive model for concrete in the fire situation. In addition to validity at the material level, a crucial feature of a constitutive model is the applicability at the structural level; yet for concrete in fire there remains a serious lack of models combining reliability and robustness. The theoretical aspects and validation of the new model, which rely on a plastic-damage formulation, have been the subject of a former publication; they are briefly summarized here. This paper explores the capabilities of the concrete model for being used in a performance-based structural fire engineering framework. Several examples of numerical simulations by non-linear finite element method are discussed, with emphasis on practical applications that are demanding for the material model. In particular, it is shown that the simulations using the new concrete model succeed in capturing, at ambient temperature, the crack pattern in a plain concrete specimen and the influence of the loading path on reinforced concrete (RC) slabs. At high temperature, the presented applications include a RC slab subjected to furnace fire and a large-scale composite steel–concrete structure subjected to natural fire. In the numerical analyses, no parameter calibration was required on the particular concrete type, except for the uniaxial strengths and tensile crack energy which are to be defined case-by-case. The results illustrate the reliability and numerical robustness of the model. Also, they suggest that satisfactory prediction of structural behavior in fire can be obtained when no additional data is available on the specific properties of the particular concrete mix that is used in the project, as is often the case in practice, by using standard values of parameters. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 43 (14 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe Chemical compositions and the Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of the Essential Oil of Rosemary Leaves from Eastern Morocco
Tahri, Mustapha; Imelouane, Bouchra; Amhamdi, Hassan et al

in Journal of Materials and Environmental Science (2015), 6(3), 666-672

The essential oils compositions of Rosmarinus. tournefortii wild plant, Rosmarinus. tournefortii domesticated plant, and Rosmarinus officinalis.L wild plant growing in different bio climates from eastern ... [more ▼]

The essential oils compositions of Rosmarinus. tournefortii wild plant, Rosmarinus. tournefortii domesticated plant, and Rosmarinus officinalis.L wild plant growing in different bio climates from eastern Morocco, was determined by GC-FID and GC–MS. Oils were assessed for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. A variation of chemical compositions attributed to varieties rather than to bio climates was revealed. α-Pinene (0.637% ; 44.22% ; 5.74%), Camphene (11.62% ; 6.52% ; 2.21%), ß-Pinene (14.72% ; 1.14% ; 3.71%), 1,8-Cineole (10.1% ; not identifying ; 56.51%) and Camphor (39.27% ; 7.64% ; 13.56%) were identified as the main constituents of R. tournefortii wild plant, R. tournefortii domesticated plant, and R. officinalis. L wild plant respectively. This study is based on the determination of the diameter of inhibition to moderate antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of oils revealed to be against eight bacteria tested. This was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The highest antimicrobial and antioxidant activities were found in oils from Rosmarinus. tournefortii domesticated plant. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 9 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailComplex dynamics of a nonlinear aerospace structure: numerical continuation and normal modes
Renson, Ludovic ULg; Noël, Jean-Philippe ULg; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg

in Nonlinear Dynamics (2015), 79(2), 1293-1309

This paper investigates the dynamics of a real-life aerospace structure possessing a strongly nonlinear component with multiple mechanical stops. A full-scale finite element model is built for gaining ... [more ▼]

This paper investigates the dynamics of a real-life aerospace structure possessing a strongly nonlinear component with multiple mechanical stops. A full-scale finite element model is built for gaining additional insight into the nonlinear dynamics that was observed experimentally, but also for uncovering additional nonlinear phenomena, such as quasiperiodic regimes of motion. Forced/unforced, damped/undamped numerical simulations are carried out using advanced techniques and theoretical concepts such as numerical continuation and nonlinear normal modes. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAllogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for T-prolymphocytic leukemia: a report from the French society for stem cell transplantation (SFGM-TC)
Guillaume, Thierry; Beguin, Yves ULg; Tabrizi, Reza et al

in European Journal of Haematology (2015), 94

T-prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL), a rare aggressive mature T-cell disorder, remains frequently resistant to conventional chemotherapy. Studies have suggested that allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell ... [more ▼]

T-prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL), a rare aggressive mature T-cell disorder, remains frequently resistant to conventional chemotherapy. Studies have suggested that allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) might possibly serve to consolidate the response to initial chemotherapy. The current report summarizes the outcome of 27 T-PLL cases identified in the registry in French Society for stem cell transplantation (SFGM-TC). Prior to HSCT, 14 patients were in complete remission (CR), 10 in partial response, three refractory, or in progression. Following HSCT, 21 patients achieved CR as best response. With a median follow-up for surviving patients of 33 (range, 6–103) months, 10 patients are still alive in continuous CR. Overall survival and progression-free survival estimates at 3 yr were 36% (95% CI: 17–54%) and 26% (95% CI: 14–45%), respectively. The relapse incidence after HSCT was 47% occurring at a median of 11.7 (range, 2–24) months. Overall cumulative incidence of transplant-related mortality was 31% at 3 yr. These results suggest that HSCT may allow long-term survival in patients with T-PLL following induction treatment; however, it is associated with a significant rate of toxicity. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 5 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailRetour au sport après plastie du ligament croisé antérieur : critères utilisés dans les cubs professionnels de football
Delvaux, François ULg; Rochcongar, P; Bruyère, Olivier ULg et al

in Science et Sports (2015), 30

Résumé Objectifs Analyser la démarche suivie par les médecins de clubs professionnels de football lorsqu’ils décident, en pratique quotidienne, d’autoriser le retour compétitif après plastie du ligament ... [more ▼]

Résumé Objectifs Analyser la démarche suivie par les médecins de clubs professionnels de football lorsqu’ils décident, en pratique quotidienne, d’autoriser le retour compétitif après plastie du ligament croisé antérieur chez un footballeur. Matériels et méthodes Trente-sept médecins responsables de clubs professionnels de football français et belges (Ligue 1, n = 15 ; Ligue 2, n = 14 ; Division 1 belge, n = 8) ont rempli un questionnaire à choix multiple concernant : (1) les critères utilisés afin de déterminer si un joueur est apte à reprendre la compétition après plastie du ligament croisé antérieur ; (2) l’importance relative de chacun de ces critères ; (3) le rôle éventuel d’intervenants spécifiques (kinésithérapeute…) dans cette décision. Résultats Plus de 80 % des médecins interrogés ont déclaré utiliser au moins huit critères (sur 17 proposés) afin d’évaluer la capacité d’un footballeur à reprendre la compétition après plastie du ligament croisé antérieur. Les trois critères considérés comme les plus déterminants étaient, par ordre d’importance : la stabilité dynamique du genou lors d’un exercice spécifique au football, la force musculaire et la récupération complète ou quasi complète d’amplitudes articulaires de flexion et d’extension de genou. Pour certains de ces critères (notamment la force musculaire), nous constatons cependant un manque de consensus sur les modalités pratiques d’évaluation, sur les paramètres ainsi que sur les valeurs-limites tolérées afin de garantir un retour sur terrain sécurisé. La prise en compte de l’avis du kinésithérapeute et du préparateur physique par une très nette majorité de médecins souligne l’importance d’un travail pluridisciplinaire. Conclusion L’utilisation de différents critères objectifs afin d’autoriser le retour compétitif après plastie du ligament croisé antérieur semble être une réalité dans le football professionnel. Des études supplémentaires devraient cependant contribuer à préciser les modalités des épreuves ainsi que des valeurs-seuils. ________________________________________ Summary Purpose To analyze how sport physicians decide, in their daily practice, when a professional soccer player with a reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament is able to get back to competitive activities. Materials and methods Thirty-seven physicians for professional French and Belgian soccer teams filled in a specific questionnaire dedicated to: (1) return-to-play criteria after anterior cruciate reconstruction; (2) the importance they assigned to each of these criteria in the return-to-play decision; (3) the potential role of professionals, such as physiotherapists or physical coaches in this decision. Results More than 80% of the respondents declared to use at least eight criteria in order to assess the player's ability to return to competitive soccer after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The most important ones were (in order of importance): dynamic knee stability during a specific soccer exercise, muscle strength performance and normalization of knee flexion and extension ranges of motion. For most of these criteria (notably muscle strength), there was a lack of consensus about the choice of assessment parameters and the limit values allowing physicians to authorize or forbid the return-to-competition. A large majority of participants stated to take into consideration advices from physiotherapists or physical coaches for the return-to-play decision. Conclusion Sport physicians of professional soccer teams use relevant criteria to assess players’ ability to return to full sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Further studies are required to determine the choice of assessment parameters and the limit values to assist physicians in return-to-play decisions. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 48 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailChemical characterisation and in vitro assessment of the nutritive value of co-products yield from the corn wet-milling process
Malumba Kamba, Paul ULg; Boudry, Christelle ULg; Roiseux, Olivier et al

in Food Chemistry (2015), 166

The chemical characteristics of co-products recovered during a laboratory-scale wet milling procedure as well as that of whole corn flour were characterised and their digestibility and fermentability ... [more ▼]

The chemical characteristics of co-products recovered during a laboratory-scale wet milling procedure as well as that of whole corn flour were characterised and their digestibility and fermentability value determined using a 2 steps in vitro digestibility and fermentation model of the pig digestive tract. Five co-products differing in their chemical composition were collected and analysed. These co-products differed in their in vitro dry matter Digestibility and in their kinetic of fermentation. High coefficients of digestibility were observed for starchy samples, while low coefficients of digestibility were observed for samples rich in lignocellulosic components. Fermentation patterns of samples analysed were different as well as the profile of volatile fatty acids produced during the fermentation. The production of straight-chain fatty acids produced was significantly correlated with the proportion of starch in the sample, while branched-chain fatty acids were correlated to proteins concentration of samples. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (10 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailImportance of structural damping in the dynamic analysis of compliant deployable structures
Dewalque, Florence ULg; Rochus, Pierre ULg; Bruls, Olivier ULg

in Acta Astronautica (2015), 111

Compliant mechanisms such as tape springs are often used on satellites to deploy appendices, e.g. solar panels, antennas, telescopes and solar sails. Their main advantage comes from the fact that their ... [more ▼]

Compliant mechanisms such as tape springs are often used on satellites to deploy appendices, e.g. solar panels, antennas, telescopes and solar sails. Their main advantage comes from the fact that their motion results from the elastic deformation of structural components, unlike usual hinges or prismatic joints, the motion of which is dictated by contact surfaces. No actuators or external energy sources are required and the deployment is purely passive, which appears as a decisive feature for the design of low-cost missions with small satellites or cubesats. The mechanical behaviour of a tape spring is intrinsically complex and nonlinear involving buckling, hysteresis and self-locking phenomena. High-fidelity mechanical models are then needed to get a detailed understanding of the deployment process, improve the design and predict the actual behaviour in the space 0-g environment. In the majority of the previous works, dynamic simulations were performed without any physical representation of the structural damping. These simulations could be successfully achieved because of the presence of numerical damping in the transient solver. However, in this case, the dynamic response turns out to be quite sensitive to the amount of numerical dissipation, so that the predictive capabilities of the model are questionable. In this work based on numerical case studies, we show that the dynamic simulation of a tape spring can be made less sensitive to numerical parameters when the structural dissipation is taken into account. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailRethinking Vulnerability Analysis and Governance with Emphasis on a Participatory Approach
Rossignol, Nicolas ULg; Delvenne, Pierre ULg; Turcanu, Catrinel

in Risk Analysis : An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis (2015), 35(1), 129-141

This paper draws on vulnerability analysis as it emerged as a complement to classical risk analysis, and it aims at exploring its ability of nurturing risk and vulnerability governance actions. An ... [more ▼]

This paper draws on vulnerability analysis as it emerged as a complement to classical risk analysis, and it aims at exploring its ability of nurturing risk and vulnerability governance actions. An analysis of the literature on vulnerability analysis allows us to formulate a threefold critique: first, vulnerability analysis has been treated separately in the natural and the technological hazards fields. This separation prevents vulnerability to unleash the full range of its potential, as it constraints appraisals into artificial categories and thus already closes down the outcomes of the analysis. Second, vulnerability analysis focused on assessment tools that are mainly quantitative, whereas qualitative appraisal is a key to assessing vulnerability in a comprehensive way and to informing policy-making. Third, a systematic literature review of case studies reporting on participatory approaches to vulnerability analysis allows us to argue that participation has been important to address the above, but it remains too closed down in its approach and would benefit from embracing a more open, encompassing perspective. Therefore, we suggest rethinking vulnerability analysis as one part of a dynamic process between opening-up and closing-down strategies, in order to support a vulnerability governance framework. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 57 (22 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPrevalence and prognosis of Alzheimer’s disease at the mild cognitive impairment stage
Vos; VERHEY, F.; Frölich, L. et al

in Brain : A Journal of Neurology (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 43 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThorough characterization of a Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System with Raman hyperspectral imaging: A case study.
Sacre, Pierre-Yves ULg; Netchacovitch, Lauranne ULg; De Bleye, Charlotte ULg et al

in International Journal of Pharmaceutics (2015), 484

Newly developed drugs often have poor bioavailability due to their poor water solubility (BCS class 2 drugs). It is therefore necessary to develop new strategies to enhance their solubility and their ... [more ▼]

Newly developed drugs often have poor bioavailability due to their poor water solubility (BCS class 2 drugs). It is therefore necessary to develop new strategies to enhance their solubility and their activity, among which, Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SEDDS). The efficacy of the drugs contained in these preparations is mainly affected by the solid state and the particle size of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). However, it is quite complex, long and expensive to characterize these parameters with classical techniques such as X-Ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry or hot stage microscopy. The present article presents, through a case study, the advantages of the Raman hyperspectral imaging in the characterization of such formulations. Indeed, Raman chemical imaging may fully characterize SEDDS with single equipment and operator in a non-destructive way allowing the follow-up of the formulation during stability studies. Raman imaging is therefore a tool of choice in the PAT framework since it increases the knowledge of the formulation and the process. A quantitative multivariate method using Raman hyperspectral imaging to assay the API in the lipid based formulation has been developed and fully validated following the “total error” approach. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (12 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCombining mesoporosity and Ti-doping in hematite films for water splitting
Toussaint, Caroline ULg; Tran, Hoang Son ULg; Colson, Pierre ULg et al

in Journal of Physical Chemistry C (2015), 119(4), 1642-1650

(Graph Presented). In this study, we report the synthesis of Ti-doped mesoporous hematite films by soft-templating for application as photoanodes in the photoelectrolysis of water (water splitting ... [more ▼]

(Graph Presented). In this study, we report the synthesis of Ti-doped mesoporous hematite films by soft-templating for application as photoanodes in the photoelectrolysis of water (water splitting). Because the activation of the dopant requires a heat treatment at high temperature (≥800°C), it usually results in the collapse of the mesostructure. We have overcome this obstacle by using a temporary SiO2 scaffold to hinder crystallite growth and thereby maintain the mesoporosity. The beneficial effect of the activated dopant has been confirmed by comparing the photocurrent of doped and undoped films treated at different temperatures. The role of the mesostructure was investigated by comparing dense, collapsed, and mesoporous films heated at different temperatures and characterized under front and back illumination. It turns out that the preservation of the mesotructure enables a better penetration of the electrolyte into the film and therefore reduces the distance that the photogenerated holes have to travel to reach the electrolyte. As a result, we found that mesoporous films with dopant activation at 850°C perform better than comparable dense and collapsed films. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPituitary MRI characteristics in 297 acromegaly patients based on T2-weighted sequences.
Potorac, Iulia ULg; PETROSSIANS, Patrick ULg; Daly, Adrian ULg et al

in Endocrine-related cancer (2015)

Context: Responses of GH-secreting adenomas to multimodal management of acromegaly varies widely between patients. Understanding the behavioral patterns of GH-secreting adenomas by identifying predictive ... [more ▼]

Context: Responses of GH-secreting adenomas to multimodal management of acromegaly varies widely between patients. Understanding the behavioral patterns of GH-secreting adenomas by identifying predictive factors of their evolution is a research priority. Objective: To clarify the relationship between adenoma T2-weighted signal on diagnostic MRI in acromegaly and clinical and biological features at diagnosis. Design: International, multicenter, retrospective analysis. Setting: 10 endocrine tertiary referral centers. Patients: 297 acromegalic recently diagnosed patients with available diagnostic MRI evaluations were included in the study. Main outcome measure: Clinical, biochemical characteristics and MRI signal findings. Results: T2-hypointense adenomas represented 52.9% of the series, were smaller than their T2-hyper- and isointense counterparts (p<0.0001), were associated with higher IGF1 levels (p=0.0001), invaded the cavernous sinus less frequently (p=0.0002) and rarely caused optic chiasm compression (p<0.0001). Acromegalic men tended to be younger at diagnosis than women (p=0.067) and presented higher IGF1 values (p=0.01). Although in total, adenomas had a predominantly inferior extension in 45.8% of cases, in men this was more frequent (p<0.0001), whereas in women optic chiasm compression of macroadenomas occurred more often (p=0.0067). Most adenomas (45.1%) measured between 11-20mm in maximal diameter and bigger adenomas were diagnosed at younger ages (p=0.0001). Conclusions: T2-weighted signal differentiates GH-secreting adenomas into subgroups with particular behaviors. This raises the question of whether T2-weighted signal could represent a factor in the classification of acromegalic patients in future studies. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEditorial. Un regard pluriel sur l’évaluation offert aux scientifiques francophones et construit par eux
Demeuse, Marc; Fagnant, Annick ULg; Dupriez, Vincent

in Evaluer. Journal international de recherche en éducation et formation (2015), 1(1), 5-10

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailVehicle routing problems with loading constraints: State-of-the-art and future directions
Pollaris, Hanne; Braekers, Kris; Caris, An et al

in OR Spectrum (2015), 37(Issue 2), 297-330

Distributors are faced with loading constraints in their route planning, e.g.,multi-dimensional packing constraints, unloading sequence constraints, stability constraints and axle weight limits. Ignoring ... [more ▼]

Distributors are faced with loading constraints in their route planning, e.g.,multi-dimensional packing constraints, unloading sequence constraints, stability constraints and axle weight limits. Ignoring these constraints impairs planning and induces last-minute changes resulting in additional costs. Developing vehicle routing models incorporating loading constraints is critical to more efficient route planning. The last couple of years has seen a huge increase of contributions to this field of research with almost 60 % of these being published after 2009. Our contribution is twofold. First, we overview the recent developments in the literature on all vehicle types in which loading constraints play a key role (trucks, airplanes, ships, and automated guided vehicles), using a state-of-the-art classification scheme to identify the loading constraints considered in each article. Second, we identify research gaps and opportunities for future research. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 32 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailRestoring testosterone levels by adding dehydroepiandrosterone to a drospirenone containing combined oral contraceptive: II. Clinical effects.
Zimmerman, Y.; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg; Pintiaux, Axelle ULg et al

in Contraception (2015), 91(2), 134-42

OBJECTIVES: Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) decrease androgen levels, including testosterone (T), which may be associated with sexual dysfunction and mood complaints in some women. We have shown that ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) decrease androgen levels, including testosterone (T), which may be associated with sexual dysfunction and mood complaints in some women. We have shown that 'co-administration' of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to a drospirenone (DRSP)-containing COC restored total T levels to baseline and free T levels by 47%. Here we describe the effects on sexual function, mood and quality of life of such an intervention. STUDY DESIGN: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 99 healthy COC starters. A COC containing 30mcg ethinylestradiol (EE) and 3mg DRSP was used for three cycles, followed by six cycles of the same COC combined with 50mg/day DHEA or placebo. Subjects completed the Moos Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ), the McCoy Female Sexuality Questionnaire and the short form of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q). Safety and tolerability, including effects on skin, were evaluated. RESULTS: The addition of DHEA induced small but significant improvements compared to placebo in the MDQ score for autonomic reactions during the menstrual (-2.0 vs. 0.71; p=0.05) and the premenstrual phase (-3.1 vs. 2.9; p=0.01) and for behavior during the intermenstrual phase (-1.4 vs. 3.6; p=0.02). A significant difference was found in the MDQ score for arousal during the premenstrual phase in favor of placebo (-5.0 vs. 1.0; p=0.01). There were no statistically significant differences between groups for the MSFQ and Q-LES-Q scores. DHEA 'co-administration' resulted in an acceptable safety profile. DHEA negated the beneficial effect of the COC on acne according to the subjects' self-assessment. CONCLUSIONS: 'Co-administration' with DHEA did not result in consistent improvements in sexual function, mood and quality of life indicators in women taking EE/DRSP. Retrospectively, the 50 mg dose of DHEA may be too low for this COC. IMPLICATIONS: A well-balanced judgment of the clinical consequences of normalizing androgens during COC use may require complete normalization of free T. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 4 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMicrowave-assisted thermochemical and primary hydrolytic conversions of lignocellulosic resources: a review
Richel, Aurore ULg; Jacquet, Nicolas ULg

in Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery (2015), 5(1), 115-124

Faced with the inevitable depletion of fossil resources, agricultural productions have rapidly emerged as promising renewable alternatives. Particularly, the conversion of lignocellulosic materials has ... [more ▼]

Faced with the inevitable depletion of fossil resources, agricultural productions have rapidly emerged as promising renewable alternatives. Particularly, the conversion of lignocellulosic materials has nowadays opened new vistas for the production of energy, biofuels and chemicals. In this literature review, microwave technology is described as an original heating source either for the thermochemical conversions (at temperatures up to 400°C) of lignocellulose into biofuels or the pretreatment (below 400°C) and further hydrolysis of lignocellulose into bioethanol and other valuable chemicals. Advantages of microwave approaches include a commonly observed acceleration in reaction rate and improved selectivities and yields. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 41 (19 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailNovel magneto-electric multiferroics from first-principles calculations
Varignon, Julien ULg; Bristowe, Nicholas ULg; Bousquet, Eric ULg et al

in Comptes Rendus Physique (2015), 16

Interest in first-principles calculations within the multiferroic community has been rapidly on the rise over the last decade. Initially considered as a powerful support to explain experimentally observed ... [more ▼]

Interest in first-principles calculations within the multiferroic community has been rapidly on the rise over the last decade. Initially considered as a powerful support to explain experimentally observed behaviours, the trend has evolved and, nowadays, density functional theory calculations have become also an essential predicting tool for identifying original rules to achieve multiferroism and design new magneto-electric compounds. This chapter aims at highlighting the key advances in the field of multiferroics, to which first-principles methods have contributed significantly. The essential theoretical developments that made this research possible are also briefly presented. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDéveloppements récents de l'assurance construction en droit européen
Kohl, Benoît ULg

in Revue trimestrielle de droit immobilier (2015), 1

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe aerodynamic cost of head morphology in bats: maybe not as bad as it seems
Vanderelst, Dieter; Peremans, Herbert; Abdul Razak, Norizham et al

in PLoS ONE (2015), 10(3), 0118545

At first sight, echolocating bats face a difficult trade-off. As flying animals, they would benefit from a streamlined geometric shape to reduce aerodynamic drag and increase flight efficiency. However ... [more ▼]

At first sight, echolocating bats face a difficult trade-off. As flying animals, they would benefit from a streamlined geometric shape to reduce aerodynamic drag and increase flight efficiency. However, as echolocating animals, their pinnae generate the acoustic cues necessary for navigation and foraging. Moreover, species emitting sound through their nostrils often feature elaborate noseleaves that help in focussing the emitted echolocation pulses. Both pinnae and noseleaves reduce the streamlined character of a bat’s morphology. It is generally assumed that by compromising the streamlined charactered of the geometry, the head morphology generates substantial drag, thereby reducing flight efficiency. In contrast, it has also been suggested that the pinnae of bats generate lift forces counteracting the detrimental effect of the increased drag. However, very little data exist on the aerodynamic properties of bat pinnae and noseleaves. In this work, the aerodynamic forces generated by the heads of seven species of bats, including noseleaved bats, are measured by testing detailed 3D models in a wind tunnel. Models of Myotis daubentonii, Macrophyllum macrophyllum, Micronycteris microtis, Eptesicus fuscus, Rhinolophus formosae, Rhinolophus rouxi and Phyllostomus discolor are tested. The results confirm that non-streamlined facial morphologies yield considerable drag forces but also generate substantial lift. The net effect is a slight increase in the lift-to-drag ratio. Therefore, there is no evidence of high aerodynamic costs associated with the morphology of bat heads [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (7 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSome considerations concerning the artificially colored aquarium fish trade
Eşanu, Valentin O.; Gavriloaie, Claudiu; Oroian, Ioan G. et al

in Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation (2015), 8(1), 116-121

Humans kept ornamental fish in their homes from ancient times. During time, the ornamental fish industry became a profitable enterprise. Color, size and shape are important traits when we describe a fish ... [more ▼]

Humans kept ornamental fish in their homes from ancient times. During time, the ornamental fish industry became a profitable enterprise. Color, size and shape are important traits when we describe a fish as a phenotypically uniform line, strain or breed; a standardized color, shape and size describe better a fish population and thus it is promoted better on the market. Several varieties of fish are being artificially colored to improve marketability. Painted, dyed or tattooed fish are terms for a new variety of pet fish whose scales have been transformed from monochrome silver into vivid pigmentations using artificial colors or lasers. These practices produce many health problems for fish. We should not to put money above the life and welfare of any living thing. Education of the customers is a very important thing, because artificially colored fish continue to exist because of demand. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSingle-Walled Metal–Organic Nanotube Built from a Simple Synthon
Adarsh, Nayarassery; Dirtu, Marinela; Naik, Anil et al

in Chemistry : A European Journal (2015), 21

Detailed reference viewed: 10 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLe genre Guibourtia Benn., un taxon à haute valeur commerciale et sociétale (synthèse bibliographique)
Tosso, Dji-ndé Félicien ULg; Daïnou, Kasso ULg; Hardy, J. Olivier et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2015), 19(1),

Known as a genus of great socio-cultural and economical importance, Guibourtia Benn. includes morphologically very similar multipurpose sister species, found in various habitats with different climate and ... [more ▼]

Known as a genus of great socio-cultural and economical importance, Guibourtia Benn. includes morphologically very similar multipurpose sister species, found in various habitats with different climate and soil conditions. In many places, Guibourtia is subject to local overexploitation by forest companies and local communities. As the population density of Guibourtia species is generally very low, it may be necessary to conduct scientific investigations that will provide valuable information for the management of the populations concerned. This paper is based on an extensive literature review and summarizes the available information on the genus Guibourtia, in terms of botany, ecology, genetics, forestry and ethnobotany. Our review provided evidence that, to date, ecological and silvicultural knowledge regarding Guibourtia species is lacking and that it is very difficult to morphologically differentiate very similar sister species. In addition, we provide a new determination key for the genus Guibourtia. Based on the available information, it is difficult to assess the conservation status of these taxa. Further investigations are needed to suggest appropriate management strategies for Guibourtia. Moreover, species diversity within this genus and its distribution in various tropical biomes make it an excellent biological model for understanding the historical, biological and environmental mechanisms that explain the diversity of tropical moist forests. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 9 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailModeling of cobalt and copper speciation in metalliferous soils from Katanga (Democratic Republic of Congo)
Pourret, Olivier; Lange, Bastien; Houben, David et al

in Journal of Geochemical Exploration (2015), 149

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDevelopment and validation of the French version of a tool assessing patient's expectations in lower limb osteoarthritis
NEUPREZ, Audrey ULg; Delcour, JP; Fatemi, F et al

in Journal of Orthopaedics (2015), 12

Detailed reference viewed: 49 (29 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailNylon flocked swab severely reduces Hexagon Obti sensibility
Frippiat, Christophe; De Roy, Gilbert; Fontaine, Louis-Marie et al

in Forensic Science International (2015), 247(0), 126-129

Abstract Hexagon Obti immunological blood test and flocked swab are widely used in forensic laboratories. Nevertheless, up to now, no compatibility tests have been published between sampling with the ... [more ▼]

Abstract Hexagon Obti immunological blood test and flocked swab are widely used in forensic laboratories. Nevertheless, up to now, no compatibility tests have been published between sampling with the ethylene oxide treated flocked swab and the Hexagon Obti blood detection strip. In this study, we investigated this compatibility. Our work shows that sampling with ethylene oxide treated flocked swab reduces by a factor of at least 100 the detection threshold of blood using the Hexagon Obti immunological test. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailWithdrawal of Immunomodulators After Co-treatment Does Not Reduce Trough Level of Infliximab in Patients With Crohn's Disease.
Drobne, David; Bossuyt, Peter; Breynaert, Christine et al

in Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association (2015), 13(3), 514-5214

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The addition of immunomodulators increases the efficacy of maintenance therapy with infliximab for up to 1 year in patients with Crohn's disease who have not been previously treated ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The addition of immunomodulators increases the efficacy of maintenance therapy with infliximab for up to 1 year in patients with Crohn's disease who have not been previously treated with immunomodulators. However, there are questions about the effect of withdrawing immunomodulator therapy from these patients. We studied the effects of treatment with infliximab and immunomodulators (co-treatment) and then immunomodulator withdrawal on long-term outcomes of patients, as well as trough levels of infliximab and formation of anti-infliximab antibodies (ATI). METHODS: In a retrospective study with the median follow-up period of 34 months (interquartile range, 19-58 months), we analyzed data from 223 patients treated for Crohn's disease between May 1999 and December 2010 at the University Hospitals, Leuven, Belgium (65 received infliximab monotherapy, 158 received infliximab and an immunomodulator). Trough levels of infliximab and levels of ATI were measured in blood samples collected from 117 patients throughout co-treatment, as well as the time of immunomodulator withdrawal and after withdrawal. RESULTS: Patients receiving co-treatment had higher trough levels of infliximab (adjusted mean increase, 1.44-fold) than those receiving infliximab monotherapy (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.92; P = .02). A smaller percentage of patients receiving co-treatment developed ATI (35 of 158, 22%) than those receiving infliximab monotherapy (25 of 65, 38%; P = .01). Among co-treated patients, levels of infliximab remained stable after immunomodulators were withdrawn (before: 3.2 mug/mL; 95% CI, 1.6-5.8 mug/mL and after: 3.7 mug/mL; 95% CI, 1.3-6.3 mug/mL; P = .70). After withdrawal of immunomodulators, 45 of 117 patients (38%) required increasing doses of infliximab, and 21 of 117 (18%) discontinued infliximab. At the time of immunomodulator withdrawal, trough levels of infliximab and C-reactive protein were most strongly associated with response to infliximab thereafter. CONCLUSIONS: In a retrospective analysis, we confirmed that withdrawal of immunomodulators after at least 6 months (median, 13 months) of co-treatment with infliximab does not reduce the trough levels of infliximab in patients with Crohn's disease. Detectable trough levels of infliximab at the time of immunomodulator withdrawal are associated with long-term response. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 6 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailOn the necessity and biological significance of threshold-free regulon prediction outputs
Rigali, Sébastien ULg; Nivelle, Renaud; Tocquin, Pierre ULg

in Molecular Biosystems (2015), 11

The in silico prediction of cis-acting elements in a genome is an efficient way to quickly obtain an overview of the biological processes controlled by a trans-acting factor, and connections between ... [more ▼]

The in silico prediction of cis-acting elements in a genome is an efficient way to quickly obtain an overview of the biological processes controlled by a trans-acting factor, and connections between regulatory networks. Several regulon prediction web tools are available, designed to identify DNA motifs predicted to be bound by transcription factors using position weight matrix-based algorithms. In this paper we expose and discuss the conflicting objectives of software creators (bioinformaticians) and software users (biologists), who aim for reliable and exhaustive prediction outputs, respectively. Software makers, concerned with providing tools that minimise the number of false positive hits, often impose a stringent threshold score for a sequence to be included in the list of the putative cis-acting sites. This rigidity eventually results in the identification of strongly reliable but largely straightforward sites, i.e. those associated with genes already anticipated to be targeted by the studied transcription factor. Importantly, this biased identification of strongly bound sequences contrasts with the biological reality where, in many circumstances, a weak DNA-protein interaction is required for the appropriate gene's expression. We show here a series of transcriptionally controlled systems involving weakly bound cis-acting elements that could never have been discovered because of the policy of preventing software users from modifying the screening parameters. Proposing only trustworthy prediction outputs thus prevents biologists from fully utilising their knowledge background and deciding to analyse statistically irrelevant hits that could nonetheless be potentially involved in subtle, unexpected, though essential cis-trans relationships. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (11 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAllogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in solid organ transplant recipients: a retrospective, multicenter study of the EBMT
Basak, GW.; Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W.; Labopin, M. et al

in American Journal of Transplantation (2015), 15

We conducted a questionnaire survey of the 565 European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation centers to analyze the outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) in ... [more ▼]

We conducted a questionnaire survey of the 565 European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation centers to analyze the outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) in recipients of solid organ transplantation (SOT). We investigated 28 patients with malignant (N=22) or nonmalignant diseases (N=6), who underwent 31 alloSCT procedures: 12 after kidney, 13 after liver, and three after heart transplantation. The incidence of solid organ graft failure at 60 months after first alloSCT was 33% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16–51%) for all patients, 15% (95% CI, 2–40%) for liver recipients, and 50% (95% CI, 19–75%) for kidney recipients (p = 0.06). The relapse rate after alloSCT (22%) was low following transplantation for malignant disorders, despite advanced stages of malignancy. Overall survival at 60 months after first alloSCT was 40% (95% CI, 19–60%) for all patients, 51% (95% CI, 16–86%) for liver recipients, and 42% (95% CI, 14–70%) for kidney recipients (p = 0.39). In summary, we show that selected SOT recipients suffering from hematologic disorders may benefit from alloSCT and experience enhanced long-term survival without loss of organ function. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailVers une généralisation des quartiers durables ? Présentation du référentiel d’aide à la conception et à l’évaluation développé en Wallonie et analyse prospective de douze quartiers.
Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg; Delbar, Caroline; Loiseau, Véronique ULg et al

in Urbia (2015)

Un référentiel a été développé en Wallonie, à la demande du Ministre de l’Environnement, de l’Aménagement du Territoire et de la Mobilité, pour opérationnaliser le concept de « quartier durable » en ... [more ▼]

Un référentiel a été développé en Wallonie, à la demande du Ministre de l’Environnement, de l’Aménagement du Territoire et de la Mobilité, pour opérationnaliser le concept de « quartier durable » en objectivant les critères minimum à respecter pour inscrire un quartier dans une vision transversale de développement durable. Ce référentiel constitue un cadre général qui régira les projets de quartiers durables menés en Wallonie (Belgique). Les 5 thématiques et les 25 critères qui constituent ce référentiel sont présentés. La grille de critères est ensuite appliquée à douze quartiers de façon à identifier les invariants communs aux processus de conception de ces quartiers et les freins à l’intégration des principes transversaux du développement durable dans les opérations de ce type. Si les critères relatifs aux performances énergétiques des bâtiments ont percolé dans un grand nombre de cas, la mixité des logements et leur accessibilité, la mixité sociale et la participation restent peu abordés. Le référentiel est disponible depuis début 2014 pour tous les acteurs de l’architecture et de l’urbanisme. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 126 (17 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSafety and efficacy of azacitidine in Belgian patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes, acute myeloid leukaemia, or chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia: results of a real-life, non-interventional post-marketing survey
Beguin, Yves ULg; Selleslag, Dominik; Meers, Stef et al

in Acta Clinica Belgica (2015), 70

Objectives: We evaluated azacitidine (VidazaH) safety and efficacy in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), and chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (CMML), in a real ... [more ▼]

Objectives: We evaluated azacitidine (VidazaH) safety and efficacy in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), and chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (CMML), in a real-life setting. Treatment response, dose, and schedule were assessed. Methods: This non-interventional, post-marketing survey included 49/50 patients receiving azacitidine at 14 Belgian haematology centres from 2010–2012. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs), including treatment-related TEAEs, and serious TEAEs (TESAEs) were recorded throughout the study. Treatment response [complete response (CR), partial response (PR), haematological improvement (HI), stable disease (SD), treatment failure (TF)) and transfusion-independence (TI) were evaluated at completion of a 1-year observation period (1YOP) or at treatment discontinuation, and overall survival (OS), at study conclusion. Results: The median age of patients was 74.7 (range: 43.9–87.8) years; 69.4% had MDS, 26.5% had primary or secondary AML, and 4.1% had CMML. Treatment-related TEAEs, grade 3–4 TEAEs, and TESAEs were reported in 67.3%, 28.6%, and 18.4% of patients, respectively. During 1YOP, patients received a median of 7 (1–12) treatment cycles. Treatment response was assessed for 38/49 patients. Among MDS and CMML patients (n529), 41.4% had CR, PR, or HI, 41.4% had SD, and 17.2% had TF. Among AML patients (n59), 44.4% had CR or PR, 33.3% had SD, and 22.2% had TF. TI was observed in 14/32 (43.8%) patients who were transfusion-dependent at baseline. Median (95% confidence interval) OS was 490 (326–555) days; 1-year OS estimate was 0.571 (0.422–0.696). Conclusions: Our data support previous findings that azacitidine has a clinically acceptable safety profile and shows efficacy. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 7 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMagnetic shielding performances of YBa2Cu3O7−δ -coated silver tubes obtained by electrophoretic deposition
Devendra Kumar, N; Closset, Raphaël ULg; Wera, Laurent ULg et al

in Superconductor Science and Technology (2015), 28

We report a complete procedure to achieve multilayer YBCO thick films by electrophoretic deposition on silver tubes using a suspension of YBCO powder in butanol. With the aim to optimize the magnetic ... [more ▼]

We report a complete procedure to achieve multilayer YBCO thick films by electrophoretic deposition on silver tubes using a suspension of YBCO powder in butanol. With the aim to optimize the magnetic shielding performances of the coatings, we have carried out an extensive investigation of the influence of the deposition parameters, the multilayer deposition sequence and the intermediate/final heat treatments on the coating microstructure. Using the optimized conditions, a 24-layer YBCO coating has been successfully prepared on an 80 mm long Ag tube: the melt growth processed multilayered YBCO thick film thus obtained can shield an applied magnetic field of 1.9 mT at 77 K, the highest value per thickness unit reported so far in the literature for these materials. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 39 (9 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailFe–Ti–V–P ore deposits associated with Proterozoic massif-type anorthosites and related rocks
Charlier, Bernard ULg; Namur, Olivier; Bolle, Olivier ULg et al

in Earth-Science Reviews (2015), 141(0), 56-81

Magmatic rocks containing economic concentrations of iron, titanium, vanadium and phosphorous are commonly associated with massif-type anorthosites and related rocks. This rock association is part of the ... [more ▼]

Magmatic rocks containing economic concentrations of iron, titanium, vanadium and phosphorous are commonly associated with massif-type anorthosites and related rocks. This rock association is part of the anorthosite–mangerite–charnockite–(rapakivi-)granite suites that are restricted to the Proterozoic. Understanding the geochemistry and emplacement mechanisms of ilmenite, magnetite and apatite ore deposits is crucial for exploration, efficient mining operations and ore processing. This review discusses the controlling factors on the grade of an ore, its mineralogy, and its major and trace element distribution. We present petrogenetic models of currently mined deposits (Lac Tio, Tellnes, Damiao) and discuss the characteristics of minor ore bodies from anorthosite provinces worldwide (Grenville, North China Craton, East European Craton, Rogaland, Laramie). Models of formation of anorthosite and related rocks are presented, as well as the nature of the possible parental magmas of the suite. A mineralogical classification of Fe–Ti ores is proposed: (1) Gabbro-noritic ilmenite ore ± apatite ± magnetite; (2) Ti-magnetite-dominated ore; (3) Nelsonite (Fe–Ti oxides + apatite); and (4) Rutile-ilmenite ore. The stability of ilmenite and magnetite is then critically reviewed and the influence of various factors, particularly oxygen fugacity and crystallization pressure, is examined. We discuss liquidus compositions of Fe–Ti oxides and the behavior of important trace elements such as Cr and V, both of which are sensitive to fO2 variations. Post-cumulus evolution of both oxides can occur due to re-equilibration with trapped liquid, re-equilibration with ferromagnesian silicates, exsolution, oxidation, reaction between ilmenite and magnetite, and metamorphic overprinting. These various processes are described and their effects on the oxide geochemistry are emphasized. Several potential ore-forming processes have been invoked and can explain the formation of huge concentration of ilmenite, ± magnetite, ± apatite. Fractional crystallization can be combined with crystal sorting and plagioclase buoyancy to produce relative enrichment of dense ore minerals. Silicate liquid immiscibility can segregate conjugate Si-rich and Fe-rich melts, the latter being enriched in Fe–Ti–P. Magma mixing can produce hybrid magmas located in a single-phase field of the phase diagram and precipitate a pure ilmenite cumulate. Alternative processes are also described, such as ejection of Fe–Ti-enriched residual melts by filter-pressing and compaction, solid-state remobilization of ilmenite in veins, and hydrothermal transport of Fe and Ti from the host anorthosite followed by concentration in veins and lenticular ore bodies. The magnetic properties of Fe–Ti ore deposits present contrasting signatures, depending on whether the natural remanent magnetization is dominated by hemo-ilmenite or multi-domain magnetite. Micro- and macro-scale deformation features of ore rocks are intimately correlated with magma emplacement, and with ballooning of the anorthosite diapir associated with gravitational sagging of dense ore bodies. Exploration perspectives show that oxide-apatite gabbronorites are interesting targets because ilmenite in these rocks is poorer in Cr and Mg, and because the Ti-resource may be combined with apatite and vanadiferous magnetite. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSolutrean and Magdalenian ferruginous rocks heat-treatment: accidental and/or deliberate action?
Salomon, Hélène ULg; Vignaud, Colette; Lahlil, Sophia et al

in Journal of Archaeological Science (2015), 55

Heating of prehistoric coloring materials can induce radical changes in color indicative of structural matter transformation. For instance, the structure of the yellow iron oxide-rich mineral, goethite ... [more ▼]

Heating of prehistoric coloring materials can induce radical changes in color indicative of structural matter transformation. For instance, the structure of the yellow iron oxide-rich mineral, goethite, changes into the red iron oxide-rich mineral, hematite, when it is heated to around 250-300°C. For a long time, heating has been thought to be the reason for the high frequencies of red rocks used in camp sites and the red pigments in rock art paintings. However, records of heat-treatment of coloring materials are usually not well documented; the contextual information is not clear enough to confirm intentional heating. Two Solutrean camp sites (the flint workshop Les Maîtreaux and the hunting site Combe Saunière I) and one middle Magdalenian cave with rock art (Grotte Blanchard, La Garenne) allow us to study the heating process of ferruginous rocks. All three sites, which have been excavated relatively recently, have well-defined archaeological records and strong associations between the ferruginous rocks and other artifacts. With the use of X-ray diffraction and electron µ-diffraction for identifying structural modification and SEM-FEG and TEM-FEG for detecting dehydration nano-pores, we have strong evidence for intentional heat-treatment of yellow goethite-rich materials in two archaeological contexts and one site for unintentional heating, where rocks were only partially transformed. Intentional heating to obtain red hematite from primary goethite would have required ingenious methods of temperature control in fireplace settings and purpose-built ground ovens. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA new ent-clerodane diterpenoid from Crassocephalum bauchiense Huch. (Asteraceae).
Tchinda, Alembert T.; Mouokeu, Simplice R.; Ngono, Rosalie A. N. et al

in Natural product research (2015)

A phytochemical investigation of the whole plant of Crassocephalum bauchiense Huch. resulted in the isolation of a new clerodane diterpenoid, ent-2beta,18,19-trihydroxycleroda-3,13-dien-16,15-olide (1 ... [more ▼]

A phytochemical investigation of the whole plant of Crassocephalum bauchiense Huch. resulted in the isolation of a new clerodane diterpenoid, ent-2beta,18,19-trihydroxycleroda-3,13-dien-16,15-olide (1), together with two known flavonoids 3',5-dihydroxy-4',5',6,7,8-pentamethoxyflavone (2) and 4',5-dihydroxy-3',5',6,7,8-pentamethoxyflavone (3). The compounds were tested against the chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strain of Plasmodium falciparum. Compound 2 showed weak activity (IC50 = 10.1 g/mL) whilst compounds 1 and 3 were inactive. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by using detailed spectral analyses, especially 1H and 13C NMR, 1H-1H COSY, NOESY, HMBC and HR-ESI-MS. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 4 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPositive cooperativity between acceptor and donor sites of the peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase.
Bury, Daniel; Dahmane, Ismahene ULg; Derouaux, Adeline ULg et al

in Biochemical pharmacology (2015), 93(2), 141-50

The glycosyltransferases of family 51 (GT51) catalyze the polymerization of lipid II to form linear glycan chains, which, after cross linking by the transpeptidases, form the net-like peptidoglycan ... [more ▼]

The glycosyltransferases of family 51 (GT51) catalyze the polymerization of lipid II to form linear glycan chains, which, after cross linking by the transpeptidases, form the net-like peptidoglycan macromolecule. The essential function of the GT makes it an attractive antimicrobial target; therefore a better understanding of its function and its mechanism of interaction with substrates could help in the design and the development of new antibiotics. In this work, we have used a surface plasmon resonance Biacore((R)) biosensor, based on an amine derivative of moenomycin A immobilized on a sensor chip surface, to investigate the mechanism of binding of substrate analogous inhibitors to the GT. Addition of increasing concentrations of moenomycin A to the Staphylococcus aureus MtgA led to reduced binding of the protein to the sensor chip as expected. Remarkably, in the presence of low concentrations of the most active disaccharide inhibitors, binding of MtgA to immobilized moenomycin A was found to increase; in contrast competition with moenomycin A occurred only at high concentrations. This finding suggests that at low concentrations, the lipid II analogs bind to the acceptor site and induce a cooperative binding of moenomycin A to the donor site. Our results constitute the first indication of the existence of a positive cooperativity between the acceptor and the donor sites of peptidoglycan GTs. In addition, our study indicates that a modification of two residues (L119N and F120S) within the hydrophobic region of MtgA can yield monodisperse forms of the protein with apparently no change in its secondary structure content, but this is at the expense of the enzyme function. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA New Approach to the 2-Regularity of the ℓ-Abelian Complexity of 2-Automatic Sequences
Parreau, Aline; Rigo, Michel ULg; Rowland, Eric ULg et al

in The Electronic Journal of Combinatorics (2015), 22(1), 127

We prove that a sequence satisfying a certain symmetry property is 2-regular in the sense of Allouche and Shallit, i.e., the Z-module generated by its 2-kernel is finitely generated. We apply this theorem ... [more ▼]

We prove that a sequence satisfying a certain symmetry property is 2-regular in the sense of Allouche and Shallit, i.e., the Z-module generated by its 2-kernel is finitely generated. We apply this theorem to develop a general approach for studying the l-abelian complexity of 2-automatic sequences. In particular, we prove that the period-doubling word and the Thue--Morse word have 2-abelian complexity sequences that are 2-regular. Along the way, we also prove that the 2-block codings of these two words have 1-abelian complexity sequences that are 2-regular. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCatalogue of the types and illustrated specimens recovered from the ‘black marble’ of Denée, a marine conservation-Lagerstätte from the Mississippian of southern Belgium
Mottequin, Bernard ULg; Poty, Edouard; Prestianni, Cyrille

in Geologica Belgica (2015)

The Viséan ‘black marble’ of Denée is one of the best preserved Mississippian fossil assemblages. This Lagerstätte is famous for the exceptional preservation of several groups of macro-organisms (fishes ... [more ▼]

The Viséan ‘black marble’ of Denée is one of the best preserved Mississippian fossil assemblages. This Lagerstätte is famous for the exceptional preservation of several groups of macro-organisms (fishes, echinoids, graptolites). However, only a part of the fauna has received attention from specialists and most of the phyla may benefit from a modern revision based on new investigative techniques such as 3D imagery and CT-scanning. Almost all the specimens illustrated in the literature have been traced and we present here a comprehensive catalogue of this material. Representatives of several minor groups are photographically illustrated for the first time as well as five emblematic specimens of the styracopterid genus Benedenius (Pisces). For purposes of nomenclatural formality, the lectotypes of Benedenius deneensis Traquair (in de Koninck, 1878), B. soreili Fraipont, 1890, Oligoporus soreili Fraipont, 1904, Taeniaster? fournieri Fraipont, 1904, and Scaphiocrinus longicaudatus Fraipont, 1904 are here selected. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailImpairment of age estimation from faces in Alzheimer’s disease
Moyse, Evelyne ULg; Bastin, Christine ULg; Salmon, Eric ULg et al

in Journal of Alzheimer's Disease [=JAD] (2015), 45

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEducation et formation en médecine gériatrique en Europe : challenge du futur?
ROLLER, REGINA ELISABETH; PETERMANS, Jean ULg

in Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAcoustic monitoring of O2 production of a seagrass meadow
Felisberto, Paulo; Jesus, Sérgio M.; Zabel, Friedrich et al

in Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology (2015), 464(0), 75-87

Acoustic data were acquired in October 2011 over a Posidonia oceanica meadow in the Bay of la Revellata, Calvi, Corsica. The purpose was to develop an acoustic system for monitoring the oxygen (O2 ... [more ▼]

Acoustic data were acquired in October 2011 over a Posidonia oceanica meadow in the Bay of la Revellata, Calvi, Corsica. The purpose was to develop an acoustic system for monitoring the oxygen (O2) production of an entire seagrass meadow. In a shallow water area (b38 m), densely covered by P. oceanica, a sound source transmitted signals in 3 different bands (400–800 Hz, 1.5–3.5 kHz and 6.5–8.5 kHz) toward three self-recording hydrophones at a distance of 100 m, over the period of oneweek. The data showa high correlation between the diel cycle of the acoustic signals' energy received by the hydrophones and the temporal changes in water column O2 concentration as measured by optodes. The results thus show that a simple acoustic acquisition system can be used to monitor the O2-based productivity of a seagrass meadow at the ecosystem level with high temporal resolution. The finding of a significant production of O2 as bubbles in seagrass ecosystems suggests that net primary production is underestimated by methods that rely on the mass balance of dissolved O2 measurements. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 38 (18 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAphid species and associated natural enemies in field crops: what about the invasive ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)?
Vandereycken, Axel ULg; Durieux, Delphine ULg; Joie, Emilie ULg et al

in Entomologie Faunistique = Faunistic Entomology (2015), 68

Following the introduction in the 80's of the invasive coccinellid species Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) in Europe, several studies have begun to focus on the interactions with other aphid predator species ... [more ▼]

Following the introduction in the 80's of the invasive coccinellid species Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) in Europe, several studies have begun to focus on the interactions with other aphid predator species. In this study, aphids and associated predators were sampled to determine their relative abundance in four agricultural crops (broad bean, corn, potato, and wheat) in Belgium during 2010 and 2011. The Moericke trap was used to quantify the mean number of aphids and aphid predators from May to September in both years. A total of 28 aphid species and 21 aphidophagous species were observed. In both years, H. axyridis was among the most abundant aphidophagous predators in all four crops, and was the second most abundant coccinellid species after Coccinella septempunctata L. The community of aphidophagous species was similar across all four inventoried crops. However, the highest population densities of this alien species were recorded in broad bean and potato crops, which also hosted the highest aphid population densities. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the communities of aphid predators are highly diversified in the agroecosystems, despite the high occurrence of H. axyridis, an introduced predator that has become well established in this environment. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 10 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailBayesian inference for transportation origin–destination matrices: the Poisson–inverse Gaussian and other Poisson mixtures
Perrakis, Konstantinos; Karlis, Dimitris; Cools, Mario ULg et al

in Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A Statistics in Society (2015), 178(1), 271-296

Transportation origin–destination analysis is investigated through the use of Poisson mixtures by introducing covariate-based models which incorporate different transport modelling phases and also allow ... [more ▼]

Transportation origin–destination analysis is investigated through the use of Poisson mixtures by introducing covariate-based models which incorporate different transport modelling phases and also allow for direct probabilistic inference on link traffic based on Bayesian predictions. Emphasis is placed on the Poisson–inverse Gaussian model as an alternative to the commonly used Poisson–gamma and Poisson–log-normal models. We present a first full Bayesian formulation and demonstrate that the Poisson–inverse Gaussian model is particularly suited for origin–destination analysis because of its desirable marginal and hierarchical properties. In addition, the integrated nested Laplace approximation is considered as an alternative to Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling and the two methodologies are compared under specific modelling assumptions. The case-study is based on 2001 Belgian census data and focuses on a large, sparsely distributed origin–destination matrix containing trip information for 308 Flemish municipalities. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (7 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAnti-inflammatory agents to treat or prevent type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease.
Esser, Nathalie ULg; Paquot, Nicolas ULg; Scheen, André ULg

in Expert opinion on investigational drugs (2015), 24(3), 283-307

Introduction: There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that chronic silent inflammation is a key feature in abdominal obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease ... [more ▼]

Introduction: There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that chronic silent inflammation is a key feature in abdominal obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). These observations suggest that pharmacological strategies, which reduce inflammation, may be therapeutically useful in treating obesity, type 2 diabetes and associated CVD. Area covered: The article covers novel strategies, using either small molecules or monoclonal antibodies. These strategies include: approaches targeting IKK-b-NF-kB (salicylates, salsalate), TNF-alpha (etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab), IL-1beta (anakinra, canakinumab) and IL-6 (tocilizumab), AMP-activated protein kinase activators, sirtuin-1 activators, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors and C-C motif chemokine receptor 2 antagonists. Expert opinion: The available data supports the concept that targeting inflammation improves insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function; it also ameliorates glucose control in insulin-resistant patients with inflammatory rheumatoid diseases as well in patients with metabolic syndrome or T2DM. Although promising, the observed metabolic effects remain rather modest in most clinical trials. The potential use of combined anti-inflammatory agents targeting both insulin resistance and insulin secretion appears appealing but remains unexplored. Large-scale prospective clinical trials are underway to investigate the safety and efficacy of different anti-inflammatory drugs. Further evidence is needed to support the concept that targeting inflammation pathways may represent a valuable option to tackle the cardiometabolic complications of obesity. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAnalytical Procedure Validation and the Quality by Design Paradigm
Rozet, Eric ULg; Lebrun, Pierre ULg; Michiels, Jean-François et al

in Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics (2015), 25

Since the adoption of the ICH Q8 document concerning the development of pharmaceutical processes following a quality by design (QbD) approach, there have been many discussions on the opportunity for ... [more ▼]

Since the adoption of the ICH Q8 document concerning the development of pharmaceutical processes following a quality by design (QbD) approach, there have been many discussions on the opportunity for analytical procedure developments to follow a similar approach. While development and optimization of analytical procedure following QbD principles have been largely discussed and described, the place of analytical procedure validation in this framework has not been clarified. This article aims at showing that analytical procedure validation is fully integrated into the QbD paradigm and is an essential step in developing analytical procedures that are effectively fit for purpose. Adequate statistical methodologies have also their role to play: such as design of experiments, statistical modelling, and probabilistic statements. The outcome of analytical procedure validation is also an analytical procedure design space, and from it, control strategy can be set. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailWhen Children’s Knowledge of Memory Improves Children’s Performance in Memory
Geurten, Marie ULg; Catale, Corinne ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

in Applied Cognitive Psychology (2015), 29

One of the strongest hypotheses in the field of metacognition research involves the positive effect of metamemory on memory performance. However, due to the lack of appropriate instruments to appraise ... [more ▼]

One of the strongest hypotheses in the field of metacognition research involves the positive effect of metamemory on memory performance. However, due to the lack of appropriate instruments to appraise knowledge of memory, few studies have examined this effect among children. This study was conducted to create and validate an instrument to assess children’s metamemory knowledge and link this knowledge with their memory performance and strategy use. A sample of 166 children was given a new three-factor metamemory interview, and its psychometric properties were investigated. Regression analyses were carried out to investigate the link between metamemory and memory performance in a subgroup of 128 children from the validation study. Results confirmed the scale’s good psychometric properties and revealed its ability to predict children’s memory performance. However, none of the scale’s factors could predict children’s use of memory strategies. Implications for the study of children’s metamemory development are discussed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAvoiding 2-binomial squares and cubes
Rao, Michaël; Rigo, Michel ULg; Salimov, Pavel

in Theoretical Computer Science (2015), 572

Two finite words $u,v$ are $2$-binomially equivalent if, for all words $x$ of length at most $2$, the number of occurrences of $x$ as a (scattered) subword of $u$ is equal to the number of occurrences of ... [more ▼]

Two finite words $u,v$ are $2$-binomially equivalent if, for all words $x$ of length at most $2$, the number of occurrences of $x$ as a (scattered) subword of $u$ is equal to the number of occurrences of $x$ in $v$. This notion is a refinement of the usual abelian equivalence. A $2$-binomial square is a word $uv$ where $u$ and $v$ are $2$-binomially equivalent. In this paper, considering pure morphic words, we prove that $2$-binomial squares (resp. cubes) are avoidable over a $3$-letter (resp. $2$-letter) alphabet. The sizes of the alphabets are optimal. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 7 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMyzus persicae feeding on water stressed Arabidopsis affects the emission profile of plant volatile organic compounds
Truong, Dieu-Hien; Delaplace, Pierre ULg; Brostaux, Yves ULg et al

in Journal of Environment and Ecology (2014), 5(2),

Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by water-controlled or water-stressed Arabidopsis thaliana infested or not infested with Myzus persicae were evaluated by headspace solid phase ... [more ▼]

Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by water-controlled or water-stressed Arabidopsis thaliana infested or not infested with Myzus persicae were evaluated by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The infestations were maintained for 0–24 h, 24–48 h, and 48–72 h, and the emission profile for each time period was determined. Under these controlled conditions, the proportion of 4-methylpentyl isothiocyanate and dimethyl disulfide emitted by aphid-infested, water-stressed Arabidopsis was greater than that for aphid-infested water-controlled Arabidopsis over the 48–72 h sampling period. The proportion of terpene emitted by aphid-infested water-stressed plants also significantly increased compared with the other treatments over the three assayed sampling periods. In contrast, the proportion of 2-ethylhexanal (the only detected aldehyde) and ketones for the water-controlled plants generally remained high following aphid infestation. Taken together, these original data ascertain that abiotic factors can greatly interact to biotic stresses to alter the VOC emission profiles of plants. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCaractéristiques et performances de reproduction du Zebu. Le cas du Niger.
Moussa Garba, Mahamadou; Issa, M; Hanzen, Christian ULg

in Revue Africaine de Santé et de Productions Animales [=RASPA] (2014), 12(3-4), 135-141

This review presents an overview of the physiological and anatomical but also reproductive performance of African zebu characteristics. It is a first step to increase his milk and and meat potential by ... [more ▼]

This review presents an overview of the physiological and anatomical but also reproductive performance of African zebu characteristics. It is a first step to increase his milk and and meat potential by using more intensively artificial insemination (AI). The use of AI depends on the use of hormonal protocols to induce and synchronize oestrus. Actually, pregnancy rates obtained are between 31.4 and 46.6% respectively after use of PGF2a or progestagens. In Niger, the average pregnancy rates after artificial insemination is 29.9%. It is higher after in natural heat (43.4%) than induced heat (25.6%); It is also considerably lower after use of PGF2a (8.4%) than progestogens (23.4 to 39.5%). Improvement requires a better understanding of the effect of dietary factors, livestock or pathological responsible for fertility and fecundity. It is therefore important to continue and intensify field trials on more substantial numbers of animals. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 63 (7 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMinimal anomaly-free chiral fermion sets and gauge coupling unification
Ceboa, Luis; Emmanuel-Costa, David; González Felipe, Ricardo et al

in Physical Review. D, Particles, Fields, Gravitation, and Cosmology (2014)

We look for minimal chiral sets of fermions beyond the standard model that are anomaly free and, simultaneously, vectorlike particles with respect to color SU(3) and electromagnetic U(1). We then study ... [more ▼]

We look for minimal chiral sets of fermions beyond the standard model that are anomaly free and, simultaneously, vectorlike particles with respect to color SU(3) and electromagnetic U(1). We then study whether the addition of such particles to the standard model particle content allows for the unification of gauge couplings at a high energy scale, above 5.0 × 1015 GeV so as to be safely consistent with proton decay bounds. The possibility to have unification at the string scale is also considered. Inspired in grand unified theories, we also search for minimal chiral fermion sets that belong to SU(5) multiplets, restricted to representations up to imension 50. It is shown that, in various cases, it is possible to achieve gauge unification provided that some of the extra fermions decouple at relatively high intermediate scales. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailBacterial Community Composition in Three Freshwater Reservoirs of Different Alkalinity and Trophic Status
Llirós, Marc; Inceoğlu, Özgul; García-Armisen, Tamara et al

in PLoS ONE (2014)

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailRapid dynamic activation of a marine-based Arctic ice cap
McMillan, M; Shepherd, A; Gourmelen, N et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2014), 41(24), 89028909

We use satellite observations to document rapid acceleration and ice loss from a formerly slow-flowing, marine-based sector of Austfonna, the largest ice cap in the Eurasian Arctic. During the past two ... [more ▼]

We use satellite observations to document rapid acceleration and ice loss from a formerly slow-flowing, marine-based sector of Austfonna, the largest ice cap in the Eurasian Arctic. During the past two decades, the sector ice discharge has increased 45-fold, the velocity regime has switched from predominantly slow (~ 101 m/yr) to fast (~ 103 m/yr) flow, and rates of ice thinning have exceeded 25 m/yr. At the time of widespread dynamic activation, parts of the terminus may have been near floatation. Subsequently, the imbalance has propagated 50 km inland to within 8 km of the ice cap summit. Our observations demonstrate the ability of slow-flowing ice to mobilize and quickly transmit the dynamic imbalance inland; a process that we show has initiated rapid ice loss to the ocean and redistribution of ice mass to locations more susceptible to melt, yet which remains poorly understood. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 5 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEarly history of extended irreversible thermodynamics (1953-1983): an exploration beyond local equilibrium and classical transport theory
Lebon, Georgy ULg; Jou, david

in European Physical Journal H. Historical Perspectives on Contemporary Physics (2014), 5(23),

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDetection of response to command using voluntary control of breathing in disorders of consciousness
Charland-Verville, Vanessa ULg; Lesenfants, Damien; Sela, Lee et al

in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (2014), 8(1020),

BACKGROUND: Detecting signs of consciousness in patients in a vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS/VS) or minimally conscious state (MCS) is known to be very challenging. Plotkin et al ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Detecting signs of consciousness in patients in a vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS/VS) or minimally conscious state (MCS) is known to be very challenging. Plotkin et al. (2010) recently showed the possibility of using a breathing-controlled communication device in patients with locked in syndrome. We here aim to test a breathing-based "sniff controller" that could be used as an alternative diagnostic tool to evaluate response to command in severely brain damaged patients with chronic disorders of consciousness (DOC). METHODS: Twenty-five DOC patients were included. Patients' resting breathing-amplitude was measured during a 5 min resting condition. Next, they were instructed to end the presentation of a music sequence by sniffing vigorously. An automated detection of changes in breathing amplitude (i.e., >1.5 SD of resting) ended the music and hence provided positive feedback to the patient. RESULTS: None of the 11 UWS/VS patients showed a sniff-based response to command. One out of 14 patients with MCS was able to willfully modulate his breathing pattern to answer the command on 16/19 trials (accuracy 84%). Interestingly, this patient failed to show any other motor response to command. DISCUSSION: We here illustrate the possible interest of using breathing-dependent response to command in the detection of residual cognition in patients with DOC after severe brain injury. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (0 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailLa thermoplastie bronchique dans le traitement de l'asthme sévère de l'adulte.
Chanez, P.; Boulet, L.-P.; Brillet, P.-Y. et al

in Revue des maladies respiratoires (2014)

Bronchial thermoplasty is a recent endoscopic technique for the treatment of severe asthma. It is an innovative treatment whose clinical efficacy and safety are beginning to be better understood. Since ... [more ▼]

Bronchial thermoplasty is a recent endoscopic technique for the treatment of severe asthma. It is an innovative treatment whose clinical efficacy and safety are beginning to be better understood. Since this is a device-based treatment, the evaluation procedure of risks and benefits is different that for pharmaceutical products; safety aspects, regulatory requirements, study design and the assessment of the magnitude of effects may all be different. The mechanism of action and optimal patient selection need to be assessed further in rigorous clinical and scientific studies. This technique is in harmony with the development of personalised medicine in the 21st century. It should be developed further in response to the numerous challenges and needs not yet met in the management of severe asthma. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDrivers of inorganic carbon dynamics in first-year sea ice: A model study.
Moreau, Sebastien; Vancoppenolle, Martin; Delille, Bruno ULg et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Oceans (2014)

Sea ice is an active source or a sink for carbon dioxide (CO2), although to what extent is not clear. Here, we analyze CO2 dynamics within sea ice using a one-dimensional halo-thermodynamic sea ice model ... [more ▼]

Sea ice is an active source or a sink for carbon dioxide (CO2), although to what extent is not clear. Here, we analyze CO2 dynamics within sea ice using a one-dimensional halo-thermodynamic sea ice model including gas physics and carbon biogeochemistry. The ice-ocean fluxes and vertical transport of total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) are represented using fluid transport equations. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEtude des facteurs influençant la visite des oiseaux dans les champs de riz
Nasasagare, Régine-Pacis; Ntakimazi, Gaspard; Libois, Roland ULg

in Bulletin scientifique de l'Institut national pour l'environnement et la conservation de la nature (2014), 13

This study was conducted in order to show pest bird species on rice in Burundi. An exhaustive ornithologic inventory was done in 45 fields in the plain of Rusizi and 30 in Ngozi fields were randomly ... [more ▼]

This study was conducted in order to show pest bird species on rice in Burundi. An exhaustive ornithologic inventory was done in 45 fields in the plain of Rusizi and 30 in Ngozi fields were randomly chosen and classified in 3 categories for Rusizi plain (2 for Ngozi): fully guarded plots, partially guarded plots and not guarded plots. There were no fields partially guarded for Ngozi. Resultats revealed a list of bird species that have a real impact on rice production in Burundi. The current study also allowed to put in evidence factors of the motivation of their visit. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCyclovirus CyCV-VN species distribution is not limited to Vietnam and extends to Africa
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Hagen, Ralf Mathias; Frickmann, Hagen et al

in Scientific Reports (2014), 4

Cycloviruses, small ssDNA viruses of the Circoviridae family, have been identified in the cerebrospinal fluid from symptomatic human patients. One of these species, cyclovirus-Vietnam (CyCV-VN), was shown ... [more ▼]

Cycloviruses, small ssDNA viruses of the Circoviridae family, have been identified in the cerebrospinal fluid from symptomatic human patients. One of these species, cyclovirus-Vietnam (CyCV-VN), was shown to be restricted to central and southern Vietnam. Here we report the detection of CyCV-VN species in stool samples from pigs and humans from Africa, far beyond their supposed limited geographic distribution. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMapping Gene Regulatory Networks in Drosophila Eye Development by Large-Scale Transcriptome Perturbations and Motif Inference
Potier, Delphine; Davie, Kristofer; Hulselmans, Gert et al

in Cell Reports (2014), 9(6), 2290-2303

Genome control is operated by transcription factors (TFs) controlling their target genes by binding to promoters and enhancers. Conceptually, the interactions between TFs, their binding sites, and their ... [more ▼]

Genome control is operated by transcription factors (TFs) controlling their target genes by binding to promoters and enhancers. Conceptually, the interactions between TFs, their binding sites, and their functional targets are represented by gene regulatory networks (GRNs). Deciphering in vivo GRNs underlying organ development in an unbiased genome-wide setting involves identifying both functional TF-gene interactions and physical TF-DNA interactions. To reverse engineer the GRNs of eye development in Drosophila, we performed RNA-seq across 72 genetic perturbations and sorted cell types and inferred a coexpression network. Next, we derived direct TF-DNA interactions using computational motif inference, ultimately connecting 241 TFs to 5,632 direct target genes through 24,926 enhancers. Using this network, we found network motifs, cis-regulatory codes, and regulators of eye development. We validate the predicted target regions of Grainyhead by ChIP-seq and identify this factor as a general cofactor in the eye network, being bound to thousands of nucleosome-free regions. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEffets de deux associations culturales à base de blé sur les populations de pucerons (Homoptera: Aphididae) et d’auxiliaires aphidiphages: étude préliminaire menée en Chine
Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULg; Bosquée, Emilie ULg; Honba, David et al

in Entomologie Faunistique = Faunistic Entomology (2014), 67

Crop associations have several advantages when plant species and crop production methods, including harvesting, are well selected. This preliminary study was conducted in the Shandong province (China) to ... [more ▼]

Crop associations have several advantages when plant species and crop production methods, including harvesting, are well selected. This preliminary study was conducted in the Shandong province (China) to better characterize the effect of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)/oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and wheat/pea (Pisum sativum L.) associations on the aphid and aphidophagous beneficial populations. Aphids observed on wheat tillers were significantly more abundant in the pure stand of wheat during the two weeks prior to their population peak, compared with crop associations. Considering the aphidophagous beneficials, significantly more ladybirds were observed in the associations, compared with the pure stand during their abundance peak. Yellow pan traps were also used to assess the diversity and abundance of adult beneficial species. The parasitoid species Aphidius gifuensis (Ashmead) was prevalent. Among predators, Propylea japonica (Thunberg) and Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) were the most abundant species. This study contributes to better understand the potential of crop associations with wheat as a sustainable method to control aphid populations in this region of China. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 57 (24 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailFirst Evidence of a Volatile Sex Pheromone in Lady Beetles
Fassotte, Bérénice ULg; Fischer, Christophe ULg; Durieux, Delphine ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2014)

To date, volatile sex pheromones have not been identified in the Coccinellidae family; yet, various studies have suggested that such semiochemicals exist. Here, we collected volatile chemicals released by ... [more ▼]

To date, volatile sex pheromones have not been identified in the Coccinellidae family; yet, various studies have suggested that such semiochemicals exist. Here, we collected volatile chemicals released by virgin females of the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), which were either allowed or not allowed to feed on aphids. Virgin females in the presence of aphids, exhibited “calling behavior”, which is commonly associated with the emission of a sex pheromone in several Coleoptera species. These calling females were found to release a blend of volatile compounds that is involved in the remote attraction (i.e., from a distance) of males. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses revealed that (–)-β-caryophyllene was the major constituent of the volatile blend (ranging from 80 to 86%), with four other chemical components also being present; β-elemene, methyl-eugenol, α-humulene, and α-bulnesene. In a second set of experiments, the emission of the five constituents identified from the blend was quantified daily over a 9-day period after exposure to aphids. We found that the quantity of all five chemicals significantly increased across the experimental period. Finally, we evaluated the activity of a synthetic blend of these chemicals by performing bioassays which demonstrated the same attractive effect in males only. The results confirm that female H. axyridis produce a volatile sex pheromone. These findings have potential in the development of more specific and efficient biological pest-control management methods aimed at manipulating the behavior of this invasive lady beetle. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (19 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLa mémoire du génocide des Juifs chez les jeunes. Connaissances, émotions et évaluations
Grandjean, Geoffrey ULg

in Questions de mémoire et de représentation (2014)

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSound production in Onuxodon fowleri (Carapidae) and its amplification by the host shell
Kever, Loïc ULg; Colleye, Orphal ULg; Lugli, Marco et al

in Journal of Experimental Biology (2014), 217

Onuxodon species are well known for living inside pearl oysters. As in other carapids, their anatomy highlights their ability to make sounds but sound production has never been documented in Onuxodon ... [more ▼]

Onuxodon species are well known for living inside pearl oysters. As in other carapids, their anatomy highlights their ability to make sounds but sound production has never been documented in Onuxodon. This paper describes sound production in Onuxodon fowleri as well as the anatomy of the sound production apparatus. Single-pulsed sounds and multiple-pulsed sounds that sometimes last more than 3 s were recorded in the field and in captivity (Makemo Island, French Polynesia). These pulses are characterized by a broadband frequency spectrum from 100 to 1000 Hz. Onuxodon fowleri is mainly characterized by its ability to modulate the pulse period, meaning that this species can produce pulsed sounds and tonal-like sounds using the same mechanism. In addition, the sound can be remarkably amplified by the shell cavity (peak gain can exceed 10 dB for some frequencies). The sonic apparatus of O. fowleri is characterized by a rocker bone in front of the swimbladder, modified vertebrae and epineurals, and two pairs of sonic muscles, one of which (primary sonic muscle) inserts on the rocker bone. The latter structure, which is absent in other carapid genera, appears to be sexually dimorphic suggesting differences in sound production in males and females. Sound production in O. fowleri could be an example of adaptation where an animal exploits features of its environment to enhance communication. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (9 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailHepatitis C Virus Life Cycle and Lipid Metabolism
Popescu, Costin-Ioan; Riva, Laura ULg; Vlaicu, Ovidiu et al

in Biology (2014), 3

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMeasuring the Effect of Stochastic Perturbation Component in Cellular Automata Urban Growth Model
El Saeid Mustafa, Ahmed Mohamed ULg; Saadi, Ismaïl ULg; Cools, Mario ULg et al

in Procedia Environmental Sciences (2014), 22(Winter), 156168

Urban environments are complex dynamic systems whose prediction of the future states cannot exclusively rely on deterministic rules. Although several studies on urban growth were carried out using ... [more ▼]

Urban environments are complex dynamic systems whose prediction of the future states cannot exclusively rely on deterministic rules. Although several studies on urban growth were carried out using different modelling approaches, the measurement of uncertainties was commonly neglected in these studies. This paper investigates the effect of uncertainty in urban growth models by introducing a stochastic perturbation method. A cellular automaton is used to simulate predicted urban growth. The effect of stochastic perturbation is addressed by comparing series of urban growth simulations based on different degree of stochastic perturbation randomness with the original urban growth simulation, obtained with the sole cellular automata neighbouring effects. These simulations are evaluated using cell-to-cell location agreement and a number of spatial metrics. The model framework has been applied to the Ourthe river basin in Belgium. The results show that the accuracy of the model is increased by introducing a stochastic perturbation component with a limited degree of randomness, in the cellular automata urban growth model. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 232 (116 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDetection of small amounts of human adenoviruses in stools: comparison of a new immuno real-time PCR assay with classical tools.
Bonot, Sebastian; Ogorzaly, Leslie; Elmoualij, Benaïssa ULg et al

in Clinical Microbiology & Infection (2014), 20(12), 1-7

The detection of low virus concentrations in biological matrices, especially stool samples, is facing significant limitations as far as common diagnostic methods (enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA ... [more ▼]

The detection of low virus concentrations in biological matrices, especially stool samples, is facing significant limitations as far as common diagnostic methods (enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR)) are considered. Here the development of a new immuno real-time PCR (iPCR) is described and its performance in the detection of human adenoviruses (HAdVs) in spiked stools is compared with those of ELISA and qPCR assays. For the iPCR, detection of the sandwich formed by the complexation of capture antibody-antigen-detection antibody was performed by qPCR thanks to the substitution of peroxydase by a chimeric DNA. This modification increased the detection sensitivity 200-fold compared to ELISA. The direct qPCR results revealed that only 0.3–9.5% of the spiked HAdV were detectable, resulting from important losses of DNA occurring at the extraction step. This step was not necessary in the iPCR workflow, avoiding this drawback. The losses of viral particles occurred at the elution step from the stool only. The recovery rate of the iPCR was thus better and ranged between 21 and 54%. As a result, iPCR enabled the detection of lower virus concentrations in stool samples compared to those detected by ELISA and qPCR. The iPCR could be considered as a ‘hyper sensitive ELISA’ for early detection of HAdV infections, especially in the case of immunocompromised patients after haematopoietic stem cell transplant. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 8 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAssessing spatio-temporal variability and trends in modelled and measured Greenland Ice Sheet albedo (2000–2013)
Alexander, P.; Tedesco, M.; Fettweis, Xavier ULg et al

in Cryosphere (The) (2014), 8

Accurate measurements and simulations of Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) surface albedo are essential, given the role of surface albedo in modulating the amount of absorbed solar radiation and meltwater ... [more ▼]

Accurate measurements and simulations of Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) surface albedo are essential, given the role of surface albedo in modulating the amount of absorbed solar radiation and meltwater production. In this study, we assess the spatio-temporal variability of GrIS albedo during June, July, and August (JJA) for the period 2000–2013. We use two remote sensing products derived from data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), as well as outputs from the Modèle Atmosphérique Régionale (MAR) regional climate model (RCM) and data from in situ automatic weather stations. Our results point to an overall consistency in spatio-temporal variability between remote sensing and RCM albedo, but reveal a difference in mean albedo of up to ~0.08 between the two remote sensing products north of 70° N. At low elevations, albedo values simulated by the RCM are positively biased with respect to remote sensing products by up to ~0.1 and exhibit low variability compared with observations. We infer that these differences are the result of a positive bias in simulated bare ice albedo. MODIS albedo, RCM outputs, and in situ observations consistently indicate a decrease in albedo of −0.03 to −0.06 per decade over the period 2003–2013 for the GrIS ablation area. Nevertheless, satellite products show a decline in JJA albedo of −0.03 to −0.04 per decade for regions within the accumulation area that is not confirmed by either the model or in situ observations. These findings appear to contradict a previous study that found an agreement between in situ and MODIS trends for individual months. The results indicate a need for further evaluation of high elevation albedo trends, a reconciliation of MODIS mean albedo at high latitudes, and the importance of accurately simulating bare ice albedo in RCMs. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 34 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailRGD surface functionalization of the hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens material to control posterior capsular opacification
Huang, Yi-Shiang ULg; Bertrand, Virginie ULg; Bozukova, Dimitriya et al

in PLoS ONE (2014), 9(12), 32

Posterior Capsular Opacification (PCO) is the capsule fibrosis developed on implanted IntraOcular Lens (IOL) by the de-differentiation of Lens Epithelial Cells (LECs) undergoing Epithelial Mesenchymal ... [more ▼]

Posterior Capsular Opacification (PCO) is the capsule fibrosis developed on implanted IntraOcular Lens (IOL) by the de-differentiation of Lens Epithelial Cells (LECs) undergoing Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT). Literature has shown that the incidence of PCO is multifactorial including the patient’s age or disease, surgical technique, and IOL design and material. Reports comparing hydrophilic and hydrophobic acrylic IOLs have shown that the former has more severe PCO. On the other hand, we have previously demonstrated that the adhesion of LECs is favored on hydrophobic compared to hydrophilic materials. By combining these two facts and contemporary knowledge in PCO development via the EMT pathway, we propose a biomimetically inspired strategy to promote LEC adhesion without de-differentiation to reduce the risk of PCO development. By surface grafting of a cell adhesion molecule (RGD peptide) onto the conventional hydrophilic acrylic IOL material, the surface-functionalized IOL can be used to reconstitute a capsule-LEC-IOL sandwich structure, which has been considered to prevent PCO formation in literature. Our results show that the innovative biomaterial improves LEC adhesion, while also exhibiting similar optical (light transmittance, optical bench) and mechanical (haptic compression force, IOL injection force) properties compared to the starting material. In addition, compared to the hydrophobic IOL material, our bioactive biomaterial exhibits similar abilities in LEC adhesion, morphology maintenance, and EMT biomarker expression, which is the crucial pathway to induce PCO. The in vitro assays suggest that this biomaterial has the potential to reduce the risk factor of PCO development. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (8 ULg)