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See detailSolid–fluid transition modelling in geomaterials and application to a mudflow interacting with an obstacle
Prime, Noémie ULg; Dufour, Frédéric; Darve, Félix

in International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics (2014)

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See detailA New Look at Ichthyosaur Long Bone Microanatomy and Histology: Implications for Their Adaptation to an Aquatic Life
Houssaye, Alexandra; Scheyer, Torsten; Kolb, Christian et al

in PLoS ONE (2014), 9(4), 95637

Background Ichthyosaurs are Mesozoic reptiles considered as active swimmers highly adapted to a fully open-marine life. They display a wide range of morphologies illustrating diverse ecological grades ... [more ▼]

Background Ichthyosaurs are Mesozoic reptiles considered as active swimmers highly adapted to a fully open-marine life. They display a wide range of morphologies illustrating diverse ecological grades. Data concerning their bone microanatomical and histological features are rather limited and suggest that ichthyosaurs display a spongious, “osteoporotic-like” bone inner structure, like extant cetaceans. However, some taxa exhibit peculiar features, suggesting that the analysis of the microanatomical and histological characteristics of various ichthyosaur long bones should match the anatomical diversity and provide information about their diverse locomotor abilities and physiology. Methodology/Principal Findings The material analyzed for this study essentially consists of mid-diaphyseal transverse sections from stylopod bones of various ichthyosaurs and of a few microtomographic (both conventional and synchrotron) data. The present contribution discusses the histological and microanatomical variation observed within ichthyosaurs and the peculiarities of some taxa (Mixosaurus, Pessopteryx). Four microanatomical types are described. If Mixosaurus sections differ from those of the other taxa analyzed, the other microanatomical types, characterized by the relative proportion of compact and loose spongiosa of periosteal and endochondral origin respectively, seem to rather especially illustrate variation along the diaphysis in taxa with similar microanatomical features. Our analysis also reveals that primary bone in all the ichthyosaur taxa sampled (to the possible exception of Mixosaurus) is spongy in origin, that cyclical growth is a common pattern among ichthyosaurs, and confirms the previous assumptions of high growth rates in ichthyosaurs. Conclusions/Significance The occurrence of two types of remodelling patterns along the diaphysis, characterized by bone mass decrease and increase respectively is described for the first time. It raises questions about the definition of the osseous microanatomical specializations bone mass increase and osteoporosis, notably based on the processes involved, and reveals the difficulty in determining the true occurrence of these osseous specializations in ichthyosaurs. [less ▲]

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See detailIs dolphin morbillivirus virulent for white-beaked dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris)?
van Elk, N.; van de Bildt, M.; Jauniaux, Thierry ULg et al

in Veterinary Pathology (2014)

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See detailMultifactorial Relationship Between 18F-Fluoro-Deoxy-Glucose Positron Emission Tomography Signaling and Biomechanical Properties in Unruptured Aortic Aneurysms
NCHIMI LONGANG, Alain ULg; CHERAMY-BIEN, Jean-Paul ULg; Gasser, T. Christian et al

in Circulation. Cardiovascular imaging (2014), 7

BACKGROUND: -The relationship between biomechanical properties and biological activities in aortic aneurysms was investigated with finite element simulations (FES) and 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: -The relationship between biomechanical properties and biological activities in aortic aneurysms was investigated with finite element simulations (FES) and 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). METHODS AND RESULTS: -The study included 53 patients (45 males) with aortic aneurysms, 47 infrarenal (AAA) and 6 thoracic (TAA), who had at least one 18F-FDG PET/computed tomography. Over a 30-month period, more clinical events occurred in patients with increased 18F-FDG uptake on their last examination than in those without (5/18 (28%) vs. 2/35 (6%); P=0.03). Wall stress and stress/strength index computed by FES and 18F-FDG uptake were evaluating a total of 68 examinations. 25 (38%) examinations demonstrated at least one aneurysm wall area of increased 18F-FDG uptake. The mean number of these areas per examination was 1.6 (18/11) in TAAs vs. 0.25 (14/57) in AAAs, while the mean number of increased uptake areas co-localizing with highest wall stress and stress/strength index areas was 0.55 (6/11) and 0.02 (1/57), respectively. Quantitatively, 18F-FDG PET uptake correlated positively with both wall stress and stress/strength index (P<0.05). 18F-FDG uptake was particularly high in subjects with personal history of angina pectoris and familial aneurysm. CONCLUSIONS: -Increased 18F-FDG PET uptake in aortic aneurysms is strongly related to aneurysm location, wall stress as derived by FES and patient's risk factors such as acquired and inherited susceptibilities. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthese bibliographique de l'influence du procédé d'extraction et de purification sur les caractéristiques et les propriétés d'une gomme de caroube
Gillet, Sébastien ULg; Simon, mathilde; Paquot, Michel ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(1),

The carob tree is a species cultivated, in mediterranean countries, for its seeds. These seeds contain an endosperm rich in galactomannans used by the food industry for its texturing properties. After ... [more ▼]

The carob tree is a species cultivated, in mediterranean countries, for its seeds. These seeds contain an endosperm rich in galactomannans used by the food industry for its texturing properties. After harvesting, the seeds pass through a decutilation and a degermination. Cleaned endosperms are then milled to give crude locust bean gum. The purification step consists in a flour solubilization and then a precipitation of the galactomannans. Purification influences the characteristics of the resulting gum. The solubilization temperature is the parameter that affects the most on the final characteristics of the product. If it is hot or cold, galactomannans with different structural characteristics (and thus very different physical properties in aqueous solutions) will be selected. [less ▲]

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See detailDe la nullité des décisions de l’assemblée générale des sociétés coopératives
Léonard, Laura ULg; Caprasse, Olivier ULg

in Le droit des affaires = Het ondernemingsrecht (2014), 109

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See detailSustainable intensification in Benin: myth or realiy? Lessons from organic cotton and cotton made in Africa systems of production.
Assogba, Sonagnon Claude-Gervais ULg; Tossou, Cocou Rigobert; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

in International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research (2014), 2(5), 694-704

In agriculture, the concept of sustainable development emergence and its omnipresence in political discourses suggests that farming systems move toward systems considered as more environment-friendly and ... [more ▼]

In agriculture, the concept of sustainable development emergence and its omnipresence in political discourses suggests that farming systems move toward systems considered as more environment-friendly and human health-friendly. In Benin, cotton is one of the most sectors concerned by this transformation. Indeed, in spite of the importance of cotton in the economy of Benin, its sustainable production is nowadays threatened by conventional production approach. Various alternatives of production are developed and considered as more environment-friendly than the conventional production approach. This article analyses the sustainability of organic and cotton made in Africa (CmiA) production systems from the sustainable agricultural intensification theoretical perspective. Structured and non-structured interviews with individuals and focus groups were used to collect data from 90 organic cotton farmers of the municipality of Kandi, and 100 CmiA farmers of the municipality of Pehunco, one of the largest areas of cotton production in the North of Benin. Data were analyzed with methods of normative and relativist comparison, descriptive statistics and analysis of variance. Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test was used to verify the normality conditions and in some cases, logarithmic transformation was done to test the variance homogeneity. The comparison of means was done with the test of Least Significant Difference. It appears from the results that in the current condition of implementation, the alternatives system to conventional cotton production approach are not intensively sustainable. Soils fertility and pests’ management face enormous constraints and do not allow improvement of yields, economic performances, and environment protection. So, the sustainability of the alternative systems of cotton production is not guaranteed and can hardly become a reality if additional relevant conditions are not created [less ▲]

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See detailContrasting patterns of phytoplankton communities in two coastal ecosystems in relation to environmental factors (Corsica, NW Mediterranean Sea)
Garrido, Marie; Goffart, Anne ULg; Collignon, Amandine ULg et al

in Diversity (2014), 6

Corsica Island is a sub-basin of the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, with hydrological features typical of both oligotrophic systems and eutrophic coastal zones. Phytoplankton assemblages in two coastal ... [more ▼]

Corsica Island is a sub-basin of the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, with hydrological features typical of both oligotrophic systems and eutrophic coastal zones. Phytoplankton assemblages in two coastal ecosystems of Corsica (the deep Bay of Calvi and the shallow littoral of Bastia) show contrasting patterns over a one-year cycle. In order to determine what drives these variations, seasonal changes in littoral phytoplankton are considered together with environmental parameters. Our methodology combined a survey of the physico-chemical structure of the subsurface water with a characterization of the phytoplankton community structure. Sampling provided a detailed record of the seasonal changes and successions that occur in these two areas. Results showed that the two sampled stations presented different phytoplankton abundance and distribution patterns, notably during the winter–spring bloom period. Successions in pico-, nano-, and microphytoplankton communities appeared mainly driven by differences in the ability to acquire nutrients, and in community-specific growth rates. Phytoplankton structure and dynamics are discussed in relation to available data on the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea. These results confirm that integrated monitoring of coastal areas is a requisite for gaining a proper understanding of marine ecosystems. [less ▲]

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See detailTranscranial magnetic stimulation combined with high density EEG in alered state of consciousness
Napolitani, M.; Bodart, Olivier ULg; Canali, P. et al

in Brain injury : [BI] (2014), xx(x), -

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See detailÉduquer à la démocratie : Protagoras et la question de l’égalité
Gavray, Marc-Antoine ULg

in MethIS : Méthodes et Interdisciplinarité en Sciences Humaines (2014)

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See detailHow Does Pollen Chemistry Impact Development and Feeding Behaviour of Polylectic Bees?
Vanderplanck, Maryse; Moerman, Romain; Rasmont, Pierre et al

in PLoS ONE (2014), 9(1), 9

Larvae and imagos of bees rely exclusively on floral rewards as a food source but host-plant range can vary greatly among bee species. While oligolectic species forage on pollen from a single family of ... [more ▼]

Larvae and imagos of bees rely exclusively on floral rewards as a food source but host-plant range can vary greatly among bee species. While oligolectic species forage on pollen from a single family of host plants, polylectic bees, such as bumblebees, collect pollen from many families of plants. These polylectic species contend with interspecific variability in essential nutrients of their host-plants but we have only a limited understanding of the way in which chemicals and chemical combinations influence bee development and feeding behaviour. In this paper, we investigated five different pollen diets (Calluna vulgaris, Cistus sp., Cytisus scoparius, Salix caprea and Sorbus aucuparia) to determine how their chemical content affected bumblebee colony development and pollen/syrup collection. Three compounds were used to characterise pollen content: polypeptides, amino acids and sterols. Several parameters were used to determine the impact of diet on micro-colonies: (i) Number and weight of larvae (total and mean weight of larvae), (ii) weight of pollen collected, (iii) pollen efficacy (total weight of larvae divided by weight of the pollen collected) and (iv) syrup collection. Our results show that pollen collection is similar regardless of chemical variation in pollen diet while syrup collection is variable. Micro-colonies fed on S. aucuparia and C. scoparius pollen produced larger larvae (i.e. better mates and winter survivors) and fed less on nectar compared to the other diets. Pollen from both of these species contains 24-methylenecholesterol and high concentrations of polypeptides/total amino acids. This pollen nutritional “theme” seems therefore to promote worker reproduction in B. terrestris micro-colonies and could be linked to high fitness for queenright colonies. As workers are able to selectively forage on pollen of high chemical quality, plants may be evolutionarily selected for their pollen content, which might attract and increase the degree of fidelity of generalist pollinators, such as bumblebees. [less ▲]

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See detailRevisiting the Palaeolithic site of Kulbulak (Uzbekistan): First results from luminescence dating
Vandenberghe, D.A.G.; Flas, Damien ULg; De Dapper, Morgan et al

in Quaternary International (2014), 324

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See detailInitial uncertainty in Pavlovian reward prediction persistently elevates incentive salience and extends sign-tracking to normally unattractive cues
Robinson, Mike J.F.; Anselme, Patrick ULg; Fischer, Adam M. et al

in Behavioural Brain Research (2014), 266

Uncertainty is a component of many gambling games and may play a role in incentive motivation and cue attraction. Uncertainty can increase the attractiveness for predictors of reward in the Pavlovian ... [more ▼]

Uncertainty is a component of many gambling games and may play a role in incentive motivation and cue attraction. Uncertainty can increase the attractiveness for predictors of reward in the Pavlovian procedure of autoshaping, visible as enhanced sign-tracking (or approach and nibbles) by rats of a metal lever whose sudden appearance acts as a conditioned stimulus (CS+) to predict sucrose pellets as an unconditioned stimulus (UCS). Here we examined how reward uncertainty might enhance incentive salience as sign-tracking both in intensity and by broadening the range of attractive CS+s. We also examined whether initially-induced uncertainty enhancements of CS+ attraction can endure beyond uncertainty itself, and persist even when Pavlovian prediction becomes 100% certain. Our results show that uncertainty can broaden incentive salience attribution to make CS cues attractive that would otherwise not be (either because they are too distal from reward or too risky to normally attract sign-tracking). In addition, uncertainty enhancement of CS+ incentive salience, once induced by initial exposure, persisted even when Pavlovian CS-UCS correlations later rose toward 100% certainty in prediction. Persistence suggests an enduring incentive motivation enhancement potentially relevant to gambling, which in some ways resembles incentive-sensitization. Higher motivation to uncertain CS+s leads to more potent attraction to these cues when they predict the delivery of uncertain rewards. In humans, those cues might possibly include the sights and sounds associated with gambling, which contribute a major component of the play immersion experienced by problematic gamblers. [less ▲]

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See detailUncertainty assessment of ephemeral gully identification, characteristics and topographic threshold when using aerial photographs in agricultural settings
Maugnard, Alexandre; Cordonnier, Hélène; Degré, Aurore ULg et al

in EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS (2014)

Manual digitizing on aerial photographs is still commonly used for characterizing gully erosion over large areas. Even when automated detection procedures are implemented, manual digitizing is frequently ... [more ▼]

Manual digitizing on aerial photographs is still commonly used for characterizing gully erosion over large areas. Even when automated detection procedures are implemented, manual digitizing is frequently being resorted to in order to constitute reference datasets used for training and validation. In both cases, manual digitizing entails some subjective decisions on behalf of the operator, which introduces uncertainty into the resulting datasets. To assess the magnitude of this uncertainty, 11 experienced operators were asked to digitize and classify ephemeral gullies (EGs) on cropland following a standardized methodology. The resulting 11 datasets were compared in terms of number, type and location of EGs. Furthermore, for EGs located on a welldefined runoff flow concentration axis, the slope versus contributing area topographic thresholds required for initiating gully channels were assessed using four thresholding methods, and compared across the 11 datasets. The operators identified 259 different EGs. However, the number (52–139) and sum total length (8.9–23.7 km) of EGs varied widely across operators. Only 34% of the EGs were digitized by more than half of the operators, and 7% were identified by all. Identification of EGs located on a well-defined flow concentration axis proved least subjective. The longer the EG and the more fields the EG crossed, the larger the number of operators that were able to identify it. EGs were also most easily identified when located in sugar beet fields as compared to other crops. EG classification and topographic threshold lines were also found to be strongly operator-dependent. Quantile regression appeared to be one of the most robust thresholding methods. Operator subjectivity when digitizing EGs on orthophotographs introduces uncertainty that should be taken into account in future remote sensing-based studies of EG erosion whenever they rely, in part or in full, on manual photograph interpretation. [less ▲]

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See detailQuand le savoir s'emmêle... La construction discursive de la norme chez les locuteurs non experts
Meunier, Deborah ULg; Rosier, Laurence

in Carnets du Cediscor (2014), 12

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See detailPore-filling of Spiro-OMeTAD determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in templated TiO2 photoelectrodes
Dewalque, Jennifer ULg; Colson, Pierre ULg; Thalluri, Venkata Visveswara Gopala Kris ULg et al

in Organic Electronics (2014), 15

Liquid-state dye-sensitized solar cells can suffer from electrolyte evaporation and leakage. Therefore solid-state hole transporting materials are investigated as alternative electrolyte materials ... [more ▼]

Liquid-state dye-sensitized solar cells can suffer from electrolyte evaporation and leakage. Therefore solid-state hole transporting materials are investigated as alternative electrolyte materials. However, in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells, optimal TiO2 films thickness is limited to a few microns allowing the adsorption of only a low quantity of photoactive dye and thus leading to poor light harvesting and low conversion efficiency. In order to overcome this limitation, high surface area templated films are investigated as alternative to nanocrystalline films prepared by doctor-blade or screen-printing. Moreover, templating is expected to improve the pore accessibility what would promote the solid electrolyte penetration inside the porous network, making possible efficient charge transfers. In this study, films prepared from different structuring agents are discussed in terms of microstructural properties (porosity, crystallinity) as well as impact on the dye loading and Spiro-OMeTAD (2,2',7,7'-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)9,9'-spirobifluorene) solid electrolyte filling. We first report Rutherford backscattering spectrometry as an innovative non-destructive tool to characterize the hole transporting materials infiltration. Templated films show dye loading more than two times higher than nanocrystalline films prepared by doctor-blade or screen-printing and solid electrolyte infiltration up to 88%. [less ▲]

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See detailCompte rendu de Han BALTUSSEN, Michael ATKINSON, Michael SHARE, Ian MUELLER (trad.), Simplicius: On Aristotle Physics 1.5-9
Gavray, Marc-Antoine ULg

in International Journal of the Platonic Tradition (2014), 8(1), 115-117

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See detailA note on abelian returns in rotation words
Rampersad, Narad; Rigo, Michel ULg; Salimov, Pavel ULg

in Theoretical Computer Science (2014), 528

Pursuing the study started by Rigo, Salimov and Vandomme, we use elementary number-theoretic techniques to characterize rotation words having a finite set of abelian returns to all prefixes. We also make ... [more ▼]

Pursuing the study started by Rigo, Salimov and Vandomme, we use elementary number-theoretic techniques to characterize rotation words having a finite set of abelian returns to all prefixes. We also make the connection between the three gap theorem and the number of semi-abelian returns for Sturmian words, simplifying some arguments developed by Puzynina and Zamboni. [less ▲]

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See detailEssai de synthèse de rôles de l'élevage pastoral au Sahel et en Afrique de l'Ouest
Laouali, Abdoulkadri ULg; Yamba, Boubacar; Chabi Toko, Roukayath et al

in Annales de l'Université Abdou Moumouni de Niamey, Série B Lettres et Sciences Humaines (2014), Numéro spécial

Throughout the world, livestock plays an important role in socio-economic life and dietary balance of the population especially in the Sahel and West Africa countries characterized by extensive pastoral ... [more ▼]

Throughout the world, livestock plays an important role in socio-economic life and dietary balance of the population especially in the Sahel and West Africa countries characterized by extensive pastoral farming. Across the literature, this activity appears to be subjected to various controversies including its contribution to the degradation of the environment; greenhouse gas emissions; its low economic performance; etc. This article attempts to state the debate through a literature review showing the importance of pastoral livestock in the economics of the Sahel and West Africa countries as well as in household alimentation and the fight against poverty. Also, it noticed the importance and efficiency of pastoral practice in a precariously natural environment such as the Sahel area [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of Usutu virus in a bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula) and a great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos major) in north-west Europe
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Marlier, Didier ULg; Tenner-Racz, Klara et al

in Veterinary Journal (2014), 199

In October 2012, a 3-year-old bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula) held in captivity for its entire lifespan and a wild adult great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos major), both with neurological signs, were ... [more ▼]

In October 2012, a 3-year-old bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula) held in captivity for its entire lifespan and a wild adult great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos major), both with neurological signs, were found 4 km from each other and 5 days apart in the Meuse Valley, Belgium. Non-suppurative encephalitis and mild degeneration and necrosis were identified in the brain and cerebellum, and Usutu virus antigen and RNA were detected by immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR, respectively. The two cases reported here represent the most western distribution of clinical disease in birds due to Usutu virus. [less ▲]

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See detailThe value of disturbance-tolerant cercopithecine monkeys as seed dispersers in degraded habitats
Albert, Aurélie; McConkey, Kim; Savini, Tommaso ULg et al

in Biological Conservation (2014), 170

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See detailIdentification of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins and alpha-fetoprotein in fallow deer (Dama dama) placenta
Bériot, Mathilde ULg; Tchimbou Njanjo, Aline Flora ULg; Barbato, Olimpia et al

in Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica (2014), 56(4), 1-11

Background: This paper describes the isolation and characterization of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) from fetal cotyledonary tissue (FCT) and maternal caruncular tissue (MCT) collected from ... [more ▼]

Background: This paper describes the isolation and characterization of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) from fetal cotyledonary tissue (FCT) and maternal caruncular tissue (MCT) collected from fallow deer (Dama dama) pregnant females. Proteins issued from FCT and MCT were submitted to affinity chromatographies by using Vicia villosa agarose (VVA) or anti-bovine PAG-2 (R#438) coupled to Sepharose 4B gel. Finally, they were characterized by SDSPAGE and N-terminal microsequencing. Results: Four distinct fallow deer PAG (fdPAG) sequences were identified and submitted to Swiss-Prot database. Comparison of fdPAG with PAG sequences identified in other ruminant species exhibited 64 to 83% identity. Additionally, alpha-fetoprotein was identified in fetal and maternal tissues. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate the efficacy of VVA and bovine PAG-2 affinity chromatographies for the isolation of PAG molecules expressed in deer placenta. This is the first report giving four specific amino acid sequences of PAG isolated from feto-maternal junction (FCT and MCT) in the Cervidae family. [less ▲]

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See detailPatients' preferences for osteoporosis drug treatment: a discrete-choice experiment.
Hiligsmann, Mickaël ULg; Dellaert, Benedict G.; Dirksen, Carmen D. et al

in Arthritis research & therapy (2014), 16(1), 36

INTRODUCTION: The patient's perspective is becoming increasingly important in clinical and policy decisions. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the preferences of patients with, or at risk of ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: The patient's perspective is becoming increasingly important in clinical and policy decisions. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the preferences of patients with, or at risk of, osteoporosis for medication attributes, and to establish how patients trade between these attributes. METHODS: A discrete choice experiment survey was designed and patients were asked to choose between two hypothetical unlabelled drug treatments (and an opt-out option) that vary in five attributes: efficacy in reducing the risk of fracture, type of potential common side-effects, mode and frequency of administration and out-of-pocket costs. An efficient experimental design was used to construct the treatment option choice sets and a mixed logit panel data model was used to estimate patients' preferences and trade-offs between attributes. RESULTS: A total of 257 patients with, or at risk of, osteoporosis completed the experiment. As expected, patients preferred treatment with higher effectiveness and lower cost. They also preferred either an oral monthly tablet or 6-month subcutaneous injection above weekly oral tablets, 3-month subcutaneous, 3-month intravenous or yearly intravenous injections. Patients disliked being at risk of gastro-intestinal disorders more than being at risk of skin reactions and flu-like symptoms. There was significant variation in preferences across the sample for all attributes except subcutaneous injection. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that osteoporotic patients preferred 6-month subcutaneous injection and oral monthly tablet, and disliked gastro-intestinal disorders. Moreover, patients were willing to pay a personal contribution or to trade treatment efficacy for better levels of other attributes. Preferences for treatment attributes varied across patients and this highlights the importance of clinical decision-making taking individual preferences into account to improve osteoporosis care. [less ▲]

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See detailInositol trisphosphate 3-kinase B is increased in human Alzheimer brain and exacerbates mouse Alzheimer pathology
Stygelbout, V.; Leroy, K.; Pouillon, V. et al

in Brain : A Journal of Neurology (2014), 137

S. Schurmans and J.-P. Brion contributed equally to this work Corresponding author: S. Schurmans, Laboratoire de Génétique Fonctionnelle, GIGA-Research Centre, Building 34, Université de Liège, rue de ... [more ▼]

S. Schurmans and J.-P. Brion contributed equally to this work Corresponding author: S. Schurmans, Laboratoire de Génétique Fonctionnelle, GIGA-Research Centre, Building 34, Université de Liège, rue de l’Hôpital 1, 4000-Liège, Belgium. Abstract: Inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate 3-kinase B phosphorylates inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate into inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate and controls signal transduction in various hematopoietic cells. Surprisingly, it has been reported that Inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate 3-kinase B mRNA level is significantly increased in the cerebral cortex of Alzheimer patients, compared to control subjects. Since Extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 activation is increased in Alzheimer brain and since Inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate 3-kinase B is a regulator of Extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 activation in some hematopoietic cells, we tested whether this increased activation in Alzheimer’s disease might be related to an increased activity of Inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate 3-kinase B. We show here that Inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate 3-kinase B protein level was 3 fold increased in the cerebral cortex of most Alzheimer patients, compared to control subjects, and accumulated in dystrophic neurites associated to amyloid plaques. In mouse Neuro-2a neuroblastoma cells, Inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate 3-kinase B overexpression was associated with increased cell apoptosis and increased β-secretase 1 activity leading to amyloid-β peptides overproduction. In this cellular model, an inhibitor of Mitogen-activated kinase kinases 1/2 completely prevented amyloid-β peptides overproduction. Transgenic overexpression of Inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate 3-kinase B in mouse forebrain neurons was not sufficient to induce amyloid plaques formation or TAU hyperphosphorylation. However, in the 5X Familial Alzheimer’s Disease mouse model, neuronal Inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate 3-kinase B overexpression significantly increased Extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 activation and β-secretase 1 activity, resulting in exacerbated Alzheimer pathology as shown by increased astrogliosis, amyloid-β40 peptide production and TAU hyperphosphorylation. No impact on pathology was observed in the 5X Familial Alzheimer’s Disease mouse model when a catalytically inactive Inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate 3-kinase B protein was overexpressed. Together, our results point to the Inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate 3-kinase B /Inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate/Extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 signaling pathway as an important regulator of neuronal cell apoptosis, Amyloid precursor protein processing and TAU phosphorylation in Alzheimer’s disease, and suggest that Inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate 3-kinase B could represent a new target for reducing pathology in human AD patients with increased cortical Inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate 3-kinase B expression. [less ▲]

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See detailVol vaderlands leven en volksgezind streven: Het Kinkergenootschap te Luik (1886-ca. 1913)
Steyaert, Kris ULg

in Negentiende Eeuw (2014)

The Kinker Association was founded in 1886 for the benefit of the many Dutch-speaking Flemings living and working in francophone Liège. Organizing lectures on a variety of subjects, the Association ... [more ▼]

The Kinker Association was founded in 1886 for the benefit of the many Dutch-speaking Flemings living and working in francophone Liège. Organizing lectures on a variety of subjects, the Association attempted to exert an emancipatory influence. Not only did it set up an extensive Dutch library but it also provided access to medical care and insurance. Above all, the Kinker Association wanted to boost the presence of Dutch-related cultural activities in the city. With its liberal sympathies and close links to the Willems Fonds, the Association met with opposition from various quarters, not least from the Catholic Church. This article looks in detail at the genesis, and rise and fall of the Association, its membership and its place and appeal within the wider socio-cultural context of late-nineteenth-century Wallonia. [less ▲]

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See detailHair Mercury and urinary cadmium levels in Belgian children and their mothers within the framework of the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES projects
PIRARD, Catherine ULg; Koppen, Gudrun; De Cremer, Koen et al

in Science of the Total Environment (2014), 472

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See detailImprovement of fermentative biohydrogen production by Clostridium butyricum CWBI1009 in sequenced-batch, horizontal fixed bed and biodisc-like anaerobic reactors with biomass retention
Hiligsmann, Serge ULg; Beckers, Laurent; Masset, Julien et al

in International Journal of Hydrogen Energy (2014), (0),

A horizontal tubular fixed bed bioreactor (HFBR) and an anaerobic biodisc-like reactor (AnBDR) were designed to both fix Clostridium biomass and enable rapid transfer of the hydrogen produced to gas phase ... [more ▼]

A horizontal tubular fixed bed bioreactor (HFBR) and an anaerobic biodisc-like reactor (AnBDR) were designed to both fix Clostridium biomass and enable rapid transfer of the hydrogen produced to gas phase in order to decrease the strong effect of H2 partial pressure and H2 supersaturation on the performances of Clostridium strains. The highest H2 production rate (703 mL H2/L.h) and yield (302 mL/g glucose consumed i.e. 2.4 mol/mol) with the pure culture were recorded in the AnBDR with 300 mL culture medium (total volume 2.3 L) at pH 5.2 and a glucose loading rate of 2.87 g/L.h. These results are about 2.3 and 1.3-fold higher than those achieved in the same bioreactor with 500 mL liquid medium and with the same glucose consumption rate. Therefore, our experimentations and a short review of the literature reported in this paper emphasize the relevance of performing bioreactors with high L/G transfer. [less ▲]

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See detailReprésentation du couvert forestier dans la modélisation hydrologique : Comparaison de dix modèles
Deraedt, Deborah ULg; Colinet, Gilles ULg; Claessens, Hugues ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(1), 83-96

There are many hydrological models, some of which can be used for forested environments. This review aims to compare ten of them (BILJOU, EPIC, BROOK90, SWAT, RHESSys, MIKE SHE, SHETRAN, WaSiM ETH, DHSVM ... [more ▼]

There are many hydrological models, some of which can be used for forested environments. This review aims to compare ten of them (BILJOU, EPIC, BROOK90, SWAT, RHESSys, MIKE SHE, SHETRAN, WaSiM ETH, DHSVM et Hydrus) to guide the choice. The compared fluxes are the interception, the transpiration and the root water uptake, the root distribution, the undercover effect, the tree growth and the model validation. The review underlines that each model deals with the forest fluxes in different ways. Most of the time, interception is similarly dealt by the models and the root distribution is used in the process of root water uptake. Understory and growth are seldom considered. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh Prevalence of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Patients with Three-vessel Coronary Artery Disease.
Durieux, R.; VAN DAMME, Hendrik ULg; Labropoulos, N. et al

in European journal of vascular and endovascular surgery : the official journal of the European Society for Vascular Surgery (2014)

OBJECTIVES: Currently, the prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and the correlation between CAD severity and AAA prevalence are not clearly known ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: Currently, the prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and the correlation between CAD severity and AAA prevalence are not clearly known. We conducted a prospective study to determine the prevalence of AAA in patients undergoing coronary angiography and to determine the risk factors and a coronary profile associated with AAA. METHODS: Over an 18-month period, abdominal aortic ultrasound was performed on 1,000 patients undergoing coronary angiography for suspected or known CAD, or prior to valve surgery. Clinical characteristics and coronary profile were collected from the patients. RESULTS: The overall number of previously repaired, already diagnosed, and new cases of AAA in the study population was 42, yielding a prevalence of 4.2%. Among the patients with newly detected AAAs, only two had an AAA diameter of >54 mm and were therefore treated surgically. In men aged >/=65 years, the prevalence reached 8.6%, while in men with three-vessel CAD it was 14.4%. Multivariate analysis showed that age >/=65 years (p = .003), male gender (p = .003), family history of AAA (p = .01), current smoking (p = .002), and three-vessel CAD (p < .001) were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of AAA. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of AAA was high in men aged >/=65 years and in those with three-vessel CAD regardless of age. While our findings do not prove the cost-effectiveness of screening for AAA in these high risk patients, they do support the usefulness of a quick ultrasound examination of the abdominal aorta during routine transthoracic echocardiography in such patients. [less ▲]

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See detailHighly dispersed Pt/C catalysts prepared by the Charge Enhanced DryImpregnation method
Cao Chongjiang; Yang Guang; Dubau Laetitia et al

in Applied Catalysis B : Environmental (2014), 150-151

tAn efficient method to synthesize highly dispersed Pt/carbon xerogel catalysts for Proton ExchangeMembrane fuel cell applications is described. The synthesis proceeds via the Charge Enhanced ... [more ▼]

tAn efficient method to synthesize highly dispersed Pt/carbon xerogel catalysts for Proton ExchangeMembrane fuel cell applications is described. The synthesis proceeds via the Charge Enhanced DryImpregnation method (CEDI), which combines dry impregnation with the Strong Electrostatic Adsorp-tion technique (SEA). The samples prepared via CEDI or SEA techniques were dried and reduced underhydrogen to obtain supported Pt nanoparticles. In order to increase the Pt mass fraction up to 10 wt.%,two successive impregnation-drying-reduction cycles were performed. The synthesized Pt nanoparticlesare homogeneously distributed on the carbon support and highly dispersed (mean Pt nanoparticle sizeof ca. 2 nm). The CEDI method is ideally suited to avoid Pt losses during the catalyst preparation. [less ▲]

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See detailChromera velia, Endosymbioses and the Rhodoplex Hypothesis - Plastid Evolution in Cryptophytes, Alveolates, Stramenopiles and Haptophytes (CASH Lineages)
Petersen, Jörn; Ludewig, Ann-Kathrin; Michael, Victoria et al

in Genome Biology and Evolution (2014)

The discovery of Chromera velia, a free-living photosynthetic relative of apicomplexan pathogens, has provided an unexpected opportunity to study the algal ancestry of malaria parasites. In this work we ... [more ▼]

The discovery of Chromera velia, a free-living photosynthetic relative of apicomplexan pathogens, has provided an unexpected opportunity to study the algal ancestry of malaria parasites. In this work we compared the molecular footprints of a eukaryote-to-eukaryote endosymbiosis in C. velia to their equivalents in peridinin-containing dinoflagellates (PCD) to re- evaluate recent claims in favor of a common ancestry of their plastids. To this end, we established the draft genome and a set of full-length cDNA sequences from C. velia via next- generation sequencing. We documented the presence of a single coxI gene in the mitochondrial genome, which thus represents the genetically most reduced aerobic organelle identified so far, but focused our analyses on five “lucky genes” of the Calvin cycle. These were selected because of their known support for a common origin of complex plastids from cryptophytes, alveolates (represented by PCDs), stramenopiles and haptophytes (CASH) via a single secondary endosymbiosis with a red alga. As expected, our broadly sampled phylogenies of the nuclear- encoded Calvin cycle markers support a rhodophycean origin for the complex plastid of Chromera. However, they also suggest an independent origin of apicomplexan and dinophycean (PCD) plastids via two eukaryote-to-eukaryote endosymbioses. Although at odds with the current view of a common photosynthetic ancestry for alveolates, this conclusion is nonetheless in line with the deviant plastome architecture in dinoflagellates and the morphological paradox of four versus three plastid membranes in the respective lineages. Further support for independent endosymbioses is provided by analysis of five additional markers, four of them involved in the plastid protein import machinery. Finally, we introduce the “rhodoplex hypothesis” as a convenient way to designate evolutionary scenarios where CASH plastids are ultimately the product of a single secondary endosymbiosis with a red alga, but were subsequently horizontally spread via higher-order eukaryote-to-eukaryote endosymbioses. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative study of alkaline extraction process of hemicelluloses from pear pomace
Rabetafika, Holy-Nadia ULg; Bchir, Brahim ULg; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

in Biomass & Bioenergy (2014), 61

Hemicelluloses were produced from pear pomace using direct alkaline extraction (sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide) and two-step extraction with delignification pre-treatment (acidified sodium ... [more ▼]

Hemicelluloses were produced from pear pomace using direct alkaline extraction (sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide) and two-step extraction with delignification pre-treatment (acidified sodium chlorite/sodium hydroxide). The aim of the study was to compare the extraction yield, composition and physicochemical characteristics of isolated hemicelluloses by size exclusion chromatography, FTIR and thermogravimetric analyses. Solid residues were analysed in order to evaluate the effect of processes on co-products (lignins and cellulose). Delignification of material (up to 995.4 g kg−1 of original lignins) during the direct alkaline hydrogen peroxide and two-step acidified sodium chlorite/sodium hydroxide processes improved the hemicellulose extraction yield attaining up to 945.3 g kg−1. Hemicelluloses were mainly composed of xylans (xylose/glucose ratio of 4.6–16.2) and had low lignin content (53.5–61.0 g kg−1 dry matter). Those from direct sodium hydroxide extraction were composed of xylans and glucans (xylose/glucose ratio of 1.5) with high content of lignins (149.3 g kg−1 dry matter). All isolated fractions were a mixture of polymers and oligomers with a molecular mass ranging from 1710 g mol−1 to 8 870 000 g mol−1. The two-step process gave the most pure cellulose residue (799.2 g kg−1 dry matter). According to results, the direct alkaline extraction with hydrogen peroxide was a promising process for the production of pure xylose-rich hemicelluloses from pear pomace solubilizing 802.2 g kg−1 of the original hemicelluloses but induced fragmentation of hemicelluloses. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh Diversity in Cretaceous Ichthyosaurs from Europe Prior to Their Extinction
Fischer, Valentin ULg; Bardet, Nathalie; Guiomar, Myette et al

in PLoS ONE (2014), 9(1), 84709

Background: Ichthyosaurs are reptiles that inhabited the marine realm during most of the Mesozoic. Their Cretaceous representatives have traditionally been considered as the last survivors of a group ... [more ▼]

Background: Ichthyosaurs are reptiles that inhabited the marine realm during most of the Mesozoic. Their Cretaceous representatives have traditionally been considered as the last survivors of a group declining since the Jurassic. Recently, however, an unexpected diversity has been described in Upper Jurassic–Lower Cretaceous deposits, but is widely spread across time and space, giving small clues on the adaptive potential and ecosystem control of the last ichthyosaurs. The famous but little studied English Gault Formation and ‘greensands’ deposits (the Upper Greensand Formation and the Cambridge Greensand Member of the Lower Chalk Formation) offer an unprecedented opportunity to investigate this topic, containing thousands of ichthyosaur remains spanning the Early–Late Cretaceous boundary. Methodology/Principal findings: To assess the diversity of the ichthyosaur assemblage from these sedimentary bodies, we recognized morphotypes within each type of bones. We grouped these morphotypes together, when possible, by using articulated specimens from the same formations and from new localities in the Vocontian Basin (France); a revised taxonomic scheme is proposed. We recognize the following taxa in the ‘greensands’: the platypterygiines ‘Platypterygius’ sp. and Sisteronia seeleyi gen. et sp. nov., indeterminate ophthalmosaurines and the rare incertae sedis Cetarthrosaurus walkeri. The taxonomic diversity of late Albian ichthyosaurs now matches that of older, well-known intervals such as the Toarcian or the Tithonian. Contrasting tooth shapes and wear patterns suggest that these ichthyosaurs colonized three distinct feeding guilds, despite the presence of numerous plesiosaur taxa. Conclusion/Significance: Western Europe was a diversity hot-spot for ichthyosaurs a few million years prior to their final extinction. By contrast, the low diversity in Australia and U.S.A. suggests strong geographical disparities in the diversity pattern of Albian–early Cenomanian ichthyosaurs. This provides a whole new context to investigate the extinction of these successful marine reptiles, at the end of the Cenomanian. [less ▲]

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See detailAmantadine, Apomorphine and Zolpidem in the Treatment of Disorders of Consciousness
Gosseries, Olivia ULg; Charland-Verville, Vanessa ULg; Thonnard, Marie ULg et al

in Current Pharmaceutical Design (2014), 20

Survivors of severe brain injuries may end up in a state of 'wakeful unresponsiveness' or in a minimally conscious state. Pharmacological treatments of patients with disorders of consciousness aim to ... [more ▼]

Survivors of severe brain injuries may end up in a state of 'wakeful unresponsiveness' or in a minimally conscious state. Pharmacological treatments of patients with disorders of consciousness aim to improve arousal levels and recovery of consciousness. We here provide a systematic overview of the therapeutic effects of amantadine, apomorphine and zolpidem in patients recovering from coma. Evidence from clinical trials using these commonly prescribed pharmacological agents suggests positive changes in the neurological status in patients, leading sometimes to dramatic improvements. These findings are discussed in the context of current hypotheses of these agents' therapeutic mechanisms on cerebral function. In order to enhance our understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of these drugs, we suggest combining sensitive and specific behavioral tools with neuroimaging and electrophysiological measures in large randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled experimental designs. We conclude that the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of amantadine, apomorphine and zolpidem need further exploration to determine which treatment would provide a better neurological outcome regarding the patient's etiology, diagnosis, time since injury and overall condition. [less ▲]

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See detailInflorescence development in tomato: gene functions within a zigzag model.
Périlleux, Claire ULg; Lobet, Guillaume ULg; Tocquin, Pierre ULg

in Frontiers in Plant Science (2014), 5

Tomato is a major crop plant and several mutants have been selected for breeding but also for isolating important genes that regulate flowering and sympodial growth. Besides, current research in ... [more ▼]

Tomato is a major crop plant and several mutants have been selected for breeding but also for isolating important genes that regulate flowering and sympodial growth. Besides, current research in developmental biology aims at revealing mechanisms that account for diversity in inflorescence architectures. We therefore found timely to review the current knowledge of the genetic control of flowering in tomato and to integrate the emerging network into modeling attempts. We developped a kinetic model of the tomato inflorescence development where each meristem was represented by its ‘vegetativeness’ (V), reflecting its maturation state towards flower initiation. The model followed simple rules: maturation proceeded continuously at the same rate in every meristem (dV); floral transition and floral commitment occurred at threshold levels of V; lateral meristems were initiated with a gain of V (ΔV) relative to the V level of the meristem from which they derived. This last rule created a link between successive meristems and gave to the model its zigzag shape. We next exploited the model to explore the diversity of morphotypes that could be generated by varying dV and ΔV and matched them with existing mutant phenotypes. This approach, focused on the development of the primary inflorescence, allowed us to elaborate on the genetic regulation of the kinetic model of inflorescence development. We propose that the lateral inflorescence meristem fate in tomato is closer to an immature flower meristem than to the inflorescence meristem of Arabidopsis. In the last part of our paper, we extend our thought to spatial regulators that should be integrated in a next step for unraveling the relationships between the different meristems that participate to sympodial growth. [less ▲]

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See detailThe EU and the shifts of power in the international order: challenges and responses
Santander, Sébastian ULg

in European Foreign Affairs Review (2014), 19(1), 65-82

This article revisits the debate about the place of Europe on the international stage. Faced with the growing power of emerging countries, what place can the European Union (EU) hope to occupy? In other ... [more ▼]

This article revisits the debate about the place of Europe on the international stage. Faced with the growing power of emerging countries, what place can the European Union (EU) hope to occupy? In other words, is the world in the process of developing outside Europe, or is Europe positioning itself as one of the principal centres of the international order? In attempting to answer this vast and complex question, the article will examine three points.The first will look at the distribution of global power through the rise of emerging powers. Second, it will examine Europe in the light of changes affecting the international order. There are opposing interpretations.The vision of a Europe in decline is contrasted with arguments that present the Union of twenty-eight Member States as one of the leading poles of the new, emerging international order.The exaggerated nature of these visions persuaded us to favour a third way – that of a European player with relative influence, but ‘under construction’. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of the youth in community forestry in Gabon
Boldrini, Sylvie; Meunier, Quentin; Gillet, Pauline et al

in Nature et Faune (2014), 28(1), 56-59

In the wake of the creation of the first community forests in Gabon, the village associations in charge of these forests are handicapped by their own working capacity. Affected by rural exodus ... [more ▼]

In the wake of the creation of the first community forests in Gabon, the village associations in charge of these forests are handicapped by their own working capacity. Affected by rural exodus, communities however rarely integrate the youth (between the ages of 16 to 24) who reside permanently in the village in village associations. The youth are generally excluded from the decision making process of elders. In fact, the youth that reside permanently in the village do not generally hold any diploma and have no professional qualification. Consequently, they are hardly respected by the people around them and their opinions are not taken into account. They are left out of any activity conducted by the associations unless these activities are remunerated. However, the involvement of the youth in village associations is necessary, not only to increase the work capacity, but also to ensure the perpetuation of interventions since the youth will be the first and future beneficiaries of the community forest. [less ▲]

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See detailLA RADIOTHÉRAPIE DANS LE CANCER DU RECTUM : quand, comment et pourquoi ?
MARTINIVE, Philippe ULg; VAN DAELE, Daniel ULg; LENNERTS, Evelyne ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014), 69(Supp 1), 37-46

Depuis plusieurs décades, la radiothérapie préopératoire ou postopératoire joue un rôle important dans le contrôle local de l’adénocarcinome du rectum. Cette dernière décennie, avec la systématisation de ... [more ▼]

Depuis plusieurs décades, la radiothérapie préopératoire ou postopératoire joue un rôle important dans le contrôle local de l’adénocarcinome du rectum. Cette dernière décennie, avec la systématisation de la chirurgie d’exérèse en totalité du mésorectum (TME), le profil de récidive locale du cancer du rectum a été fortement modifié. Dans un tel contexte, la place de la radiothérapie doit être réévaluée en tenant compte de ces modifications. Dans cet article, nous proposons de faire la revue des différentes grandes études concernant les techniques et les indications d’un traitement de radiothérapie pré- ou post opératoire dans le contexte d’une chirurgie rectale TME. [less ▲]

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See detailSpatial patterns and morphology of termite ( Macrotermes falciger ) mounds in the Upper Katanga, D.R. Congo
Mujinjya, Baile Baziraké; Adam, Marielle; Mees, Florias et al

in Catena (2014), 114

This study examines the spatial distribution patterns and morphological characteristics of Macrotermes falciger mounds in the peri-urban zone of Lubumbashi, D.R. Congo. Spatial patterns of mounds were ... [more ▼]

This study examines the spatial distribution patterns and morphological characteristics of Macrotermes falciger mounds in the peri-urban zone of Lubumbashi, D.R. Congo. Spatial patterns of mounds were assessed using high-resolution satellite images for 24 plots of variable size (3 to 27 ha). Soil morphological features were described for five termite-mound profiles of 5 to 9 m depth/height. A mean areal number density of 2.9 ± 0.4 mounds ha−1 is estimated for the degraded miombo woodland of the study area. Spatial statistical analyses document that termite mounds are regularly distributed in all studied plots. The overall mean nearest-neighbour distance between termite mounds is 44.6 ± 0.6 m. The high relative number of inactive mounds in the region, with regular distribution patterns, suggests that current termite mound occurrences are largely relict features.There are no clear indications for an impact of the nature of the parent material on the spatial distribution of the mounds. One aspect of differences in morphology between the studied mounds is that the stone layer occurs at greater depth in topographic low areas than at crest and slope positions. This is interpreted as being mainlyconditionedbyerosion.Mn–Fe oxideconcentrationsoccurringinallstudiedtermite moundprofiles reflect a seasonally high perched water table beneath the mound, which is more pronounced at lower landscape positions. In summary, mound positions in the habitat are consistent with intraspecific competition rather than soil and substrate characteristics as controlling factor, whereas variation in morphological characteristics between termite-mound profiles appears to be a function of the parent material [less ▲]

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See detailThe Dimethylsulfide Cycle in the Eutrophied Southern North Sea: A Model Study Integrating Phytoplankton and Bacterial Processes
Gypens, N; Borges, Alberto ULg; Speeckaert, Gaëlle ULg et al

in Plos One (2014), 9(1)(e85862 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085862),

We developed a module describing the dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and dimethylsulfide (DMS) dynamics, including biological transformations by phytoplankton and bacteria, and physico-chemical ... [more ▼]

We developed a module describing the dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and dimethylsulfide (DMS) dynamics, including biological transformations by phytoplankton and bacteria, and physico-chemical processes (including DMS air-sea exchange). This module was integrated in the MIRO ecological model and applied in a 0D frame in the Southern North Sea (SNS). The DMS(P) module is built on parameterizations derived from available knowledge on DMS(P) sources, transformations and sinks, and provides an explicit representation of bacterial activity in contrast to most of existing models that only include phytoplankton process (and abiotic transformations). The model is tested in a highly productive coastal ecosystem (the Belgian coastal zone, BCZ) dominated by diatoms and the Haptophyceae Phaeocystis, respectively low and high DMSP producers. On an annual basis, the particulate DMSP (DMSPp) production simulated in 1989 is mainly related to Phaeocystis colonies (78%) rather than diatoms (13%) and nanoflagellates (9%). Accordingly, sensitivity analysis shows that the model responds more to changes in the sulfur:carbon (S:C) quota and lyase yield of Phaeocystis. DMS originates equally from phytoplankton and bacterial DMSP-lyase activity and only 3% of the DMS is emitted to the atmosphere. Model analysis demonstrates the sensitivity of DMS emission towards the atmosphere to the description and parameterization of biological processes emphasizing the need of adequately representing in models both phytoplankton and bacterial processes affecting DMS(P) dynamics. This is particularly important in eutrophied coastal environments such as the SNS dominated by high non-diatom blooms and where empirical models developed from data-sets biased towards open ocean conditions do not satisfactorily predict the timing and amplitude of the DMS seasonal cycle. In order to predict future feedbacks of DMS emissions on climate, it is needed to account for hotspots of DMS emissions from coastal environments that, if eutrophied, are dominated not only by diatoms. [less ▲]

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See detailRepublished: Value of biomarkers in osteoarthritis: current status and perspectives.
Lotz, M.; Martel-Pelletier, J.; Christiansen, C. et al

in Postgraduate Medical Journal (2014), 90(1061), 171-8

Osteoarthritis affects the whole joint structure with progressive changes in cartilage, menisci, ligaments and subchondral bone, and synovial inflammation. Biomarkers are being developed to quantify joint ... [more ▼]

Osteoarthritis affects the whole joint structure with progressive changes in cartilage, menisci, ligaments and subchondral bone, and synovial inflammation. Biomarkers are being developed to quantify joint remodelling and disease progression. This article was prepared following a working meeting of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis convened to discuss the value of biochemical markers of matrix metabolism in drug development in osteoarthritis. The best candidates are generally molecules or molecular fragments present in cartilage, bone or synovium and may be specific to one type of joint tissue or common to them all. Many currently investigated biomarkers are associated with collagen metabolism in cartilage or bone, or aggrecan metabolism in cartilage. Other biomarkers are related to non-collagenous proteins, inflammation and/or fibrosis. Biomarkers in osteoarthritis can be categorised using the burden of disease, investigative, prognostic, efficacy of intervention, diagnostic and safety classification. There are a number of promising candidates, notably urinary C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type II and serum cartilage oligomeric protein, although none is sufficiently discriminating to differentiate between individual patients and controls (diagnostic) or between patients with different disease severities (burden of disease), predict prognosis in individuals with or without osteoarthritis (prognostic) or perform so consistently that it could function as a surrogate outcome in clinical trials (efficacy of intervention). Future avenues for research include exploration of underlying mechanisms of disease and development of new biomarkers; technological development; the 'omics' (genomics, metabolomics, proteomics and lipidomics); design of aggregate scores combining a panel of biomarkers and/or imaging markers into single diagnostic algorithms; and investigation into the relationship between biomarkers and prognosis. [less ▲]

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See detailPhotic memory for executive brain responses
Chellappa*, Sarah Laxhmi ULg; Ly*, Julien ULg; Meyer, Christelle ULg et al

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2014), Epub ahead of print

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See detailEndocrine disruptors: A relevant issue for neuroendocrinology also!
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Levine, Jon E.

in Frontiers in neuroendocrinology (2014), 35(1), 1

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See detailDevice-based controlled local delivery of anastrozol into peritoneal cavity: in vitro and in vivo evaluation
Krier, Fabrice ULg; Riva, Raphaël ULg; Defrère, Sylvie et al

in Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology [=JDDST] (2014), 24(2), 198-204

Local treatment using drug loaded implants allows decreasing seric concentrations of the active ingredient with the purpose of limiting side effects and reaching perfect observance. Nowadays, some ... [more ▼]

Local treatment using drug loaded implants allows decreasing seric concentrations of the active ingredient with the purpose of limiting side effects and reaching perfect observance. Nowadays, some diseases are already treated with implants, but generally, by subcutaneous or intra vaginal implantation. In this work, a new implant device dedicated to the intra-peritoneal cavity was developed. For this purpose, a core-membrane polymer implant was selected. We propose an original method to determine the most appropriate membrane to control the release based on the use of Franz cells. The ability of the implant to release a constant quantity of an active ingredient will be assessed by testing implants in vitro. Finally, intra peritoneal cavity and subcutaneous in vivo implantation has been achieved in order to confirm the controlled and local release of the active ingredient. [less ▲]

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See detailBrominated and phosphorus flame retardants in White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla nestlings: Bioaccumulation and associations with dietary proxies (δ13C, δ15N and δ34S)
Eulaers, Igor; Jaspers, Veerle; Halley, Duncan et al

in Science of the Total Environment (2014), 478

Very little is known on the exposure of high trophic level species to current-use brominated (BFRs) and phosphorus flame retardants (PFRs), although observations on their persistence, bioaccumulation ... [more ▼]

Very little is known on the exposure of high trophic level species to current-use brominated (BFRs) and phosphorus flame retardants (PFRs), although observations on their persistence, bioaccumulation potential, and toxicity have been made. We investigated the accumulation of BFRs and PFRs, and their associations with dietary proxies (δ13C, δ15N and δ34S), in plasma and feathers of White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla nestlings from Trøndelag, Norway. In addition to accumulation of a wide range of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in both plasma and feathers, all non-PBDE BFRs and PFRs could be measured in feathers, while in plasma only two of six PFRs, i.e. tris-(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and tris-(2,3-dichloropropyl) phosphate (TDCPP) were detected. PFR concentrations in feathers (0.95-3,000 ng g-1) were much higher than selected organochlorines (OCs), such as polychlorinated biphenyl 153 (CB 153; 2.3-15 ng g-1) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p’-DDE; 2.3-21 ng g-1), PBDEs (0.03-2.3 ng g-1) and non-PBDE BFRs (0.03-1.5 ng g-1). Non-significant associations of PFR concentrations in feathers with those in plasma (P≥0.74), and their similarity to reported atmospheric PFR concentrations, may suggest atmospheric PFR deposition on feathers. Most OCs and PBDEs, as well as tris(chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(phenyl) phosphate (TPHP) and tri-(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) were associated to δ15N and/or δ13C (all P≤0.02). Besides δ15N enrichment, δ34S was depleted in nestlings from fjords, inherently close to an urbanised centre. As such, both may have been a spatial proxy for anthropogenic disturbance, possible confounding their use as dietary proxy. [less ▲]

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See detailError rate for imputation from the Illumina BovineSNP50 chip to the Illumina BovineHD chip.
Schrooten, Chris; Dassonneville, Romain; Ducrocq, Vincent et al

in Genetics, selection, evolution : GSE (2014), 46(1), 10

BACKGROUND: Imputation of genotypes from low-density to higher density chips is a cost-effective method to obtain high-density genotypes for many animals, based on genotypes of only a relatively small ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Imputation of genotypes from low-density to higher density chips is a cost-effective method to obtain high-density genotypes for many animals, based on genotypes of only a relatively small subset of animals (reference population) on the high-density chip. Several factors influence the accuracy of imputation and our objective was to investigate the effects of the size of the reference population used for imputation and of the imputation method used and its parameters. Imputation of genotypes was carried out from 50 000 (moderate-density) to 777 000 (high-density) SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms). METHODS: The effect of reference population size was studied in two datasets: one with 548 and one with 1289 Holstein animals, genotyped with the Illumina BovineHD chip (777 k SNPs). A third dataset included the 548 animals genotyped with the 777 k SNP chip and 2200 animals genotyped with the Illumina BovineSNP50 chip. In each dataset, 60 animals were chosen as validation animals, for which all high-density genotypes were masked, except for the Illumina BovineSNP50 markers. Imputation was studied in a subset of six chromosomes, using the imputation software programs Beagle and DAGPHASE. RESULTS: Imputation with DAGPHASE and Beagle resulted in 1.91% and 0.87% allelic imputation error rates in the dataset with 548 high-density genotypes, when scale and shift parameters were 2.0 and 0.1, and 1.0 and 0.0, respectively. When Beagle was used alone, the imputation error rate was 0.67%. If the information obtained by Beagle was subsequently used in DAGPHASE, imputation error rates were slightly higher (0.71%). When 2200 moderate-density genotypes were added and Beagle was used alone, imputation error rates were slightly lower (0.64%). The least imputation errors were obtained with Beagle in the reference set with 1289 high-density genotypes (0.41%). CONCLUSIONS: For imputation of genotypes from the 50 k to the 777 k SNP chip, Beagle gave the lowest allelic imputation error rates. Imputation error rates decreased with increasing size of the reference population. For applications for which computing time is limiting, DAGPHASE using information from Beagle can be considered as an alternative, since it reduces computation time and increases imputation error rates only slightly. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of multi-walled carbon nanotube dispersion in resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogel
Haghgoo, Majid; Yousefi, Ali Akbar; Zohouriaan Mehr, Mohammad Jalal et al

in Microporous & Mesoporous Materials (2014), 184

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See detailSECOND ORDER SYMMETRIES OF THE CONFORMAL LAPLACIAN
Michel, Jean-Philippe ULg; Radoux, Fabian ULg; Silhan, Josef

in Symmetry, Integrability and Geometry: Methods and Applications [=SIGMA] (2014), 10(016), 26

Let (M,g) be an arbitrary pseudo-Riemannian manifold of dimension at least 3. We determine the form of all the conformal symmetries of the conformal (or Yamabe) Laplacian on (M,g), which are given by ... [more ▼]

Let (M,g) be an arbitrary pseudo-Riemannian manifold of dimension at least 3. We determine the form of all the conformal symmetries of the conformal (or Yamabe) Laplacian on (M,g), which are given by differential operators of second order. They are constructed from conformal Killing 2-tensors satisfying a natural and conformally invariant condition. As a consequence, we get also the classification of the second order symmetries of the conformal Laplacian. Our results generalize the ones of Eastwood and Carter, which hold on conformally flat and Einstein manifolds respectively. We illustrate our results on two families of examples in dimension three. [less ▲]

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See detailDorsomedial prefrontal metabolism and unawareness of current characteristics of personality traits in Alzheimer’s disease
Jedidi, Haroun ULg; Feyers, Dorothée ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg et al

in Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience (2014)

Anosognosia is a complex symptom corresponding to a lack of awareness of one’s current clinical status. Anosognosia for cognitive deficits has frequently been described in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), while ... [more ▼]

Anosognosia is a complex symptom corresponding to a lack of awareness of one’s current clinical status. Anosognosia for cognitive deficits has frequently been described in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), while unawareness of current characteristics of personality traits has rarely been considered. We used a well-established questionnaire-based method in a group of 37 AD patients and in healthy controls to probe self- and hetero-evaluation of patients’ personality and we calculated differential scores between each participant’s and his/her relative’s judgments. A brain-behavior correlation was performed using FDG-PET images. The behavioral data showed that AD patients presented with anosognosia for current characteristics of their personality and their anosognosia was primarily explained by impaired third perspective taking. The brain-behavior correlation analysis revealed a negative relationship between anosognosia for current characteristics of personality and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dMPFC) activity. Behavioral and neuroimaging data are consistent with the view that impairment of different functions subserved by the dMPFC (self-evaluation, inferences regarding complex enduring dispositions of self and others, confrontation of perspectives in interpersonal scripts) plays a role in anosognosia for current characteristics of personality in AD patients. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of varying antigens and adjuvant systems on the immunogenicity and safety of investigational tetravalent human oncogenic papillomavirus vaccines: Results from two randomized trials.
Van Damme, Pierre; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Simon, Philippe et al

in Vaccine (2014)

BACKGROUND: A prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine targeting oncogenic HPV types in addition to HPV-16 and -18 may broaden protection against cervical cancer. Two Phase I/II, randomized ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: A prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine targeting oncogenic HPV types in addition to HPV-16 and -18 may broaden protection against cervical cancer. Two Phase I/II, randomized, controlled studies were conducted to compare the immunogenicity and safety of investigational tetravalent HPV L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines, containing VLPs from two additional oncogenic genotypes, with the licensed HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (control) in healthy 18-25 year-old women. METHODS: In one trial (NCT00231413), subjects received control or one of 6 tetravalent HPV-16/18/31/45 AS04 vaccine formulations at months (M) 0,1,6. In a second trial (NCT00478621), subjects received control or one of 5 tetravalent HPV-16/18/33/58 vaccines formulated with different adjuvant systems (AS04, AS01 or AS02), administered on different schedules (M0,1,6 or M0,3 or M0,6). RESULTS: One month after the third injection (Month 7), there was a consistent trend for lower anti-HPV-16 and -18 geometric mean antibody titers (GMTs) for tetravalent AS04-adjuvanted vaccines compared with control. GMTs were statistically significantly lower for an HPV-16/18/31/45 AS04 vaccine containing 20/20/10/10mug VLPs for both anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 antibodies, and for an HPV-16/18/33/58 AS04 vaccine containing 20/20/20/20mug VLPs for anti-HPV-16 antibodies. There was also a trend for lower HPV-16 and -18-specific memory B-cell responses for tetravalent AS04 vaccines versus control. No such trends were observed for CD4+ T-cell responses. Immune interference could not always be overcome by increasing the dose of HPV-16/18 L1 VLPs or by using a different adjuvant system. All formulations had acceptable reactogenicity and safety profiles. Reactogenicity in the 7-day post-vaccination period tended to increase with the introduction of additional VLPs, especially for formulations containing AS01. CONCLUSIONS: HPV-16 and -18 antibody responses were lower when additional HPV L1 VLPs were added to the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine. Immune interference is a complex phenomenon that cannot always be overcome by changing the antigen dose or adjuvant system. [less ▲]

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See detailMonitoring batch lipase catalyzed interesterification of palm oil and fractions by differential scanning calorimetry
Danthine, Sabine ULg; DeClercq, Nathalie; Dewettinck, Koen et al

in Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry (2014)

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See detailLateral Magnetic Near-Field Imaging of Plasmonic Nanoantennas With Increasing Complexity
Denkova, D.; Verellen, N.; Silhanek, Alejandro ULg et al

in Small : Nano Micro (2014)

The design of many promising, newly emerging classes of photonic metamaterials and subwavelength confinement structures requires detailed knowledge and understanding of the electromagnetic near-field ... [more ▼]

The design of many promising, newly emerging classes of photonic metamaterials and subwavelength confinement structures requires detailed knowledge and understanding of the electromagnetic near-field interactions between their building blocks. While the electric field distributions and, respectively, the electric interactions of different nanostructures can be routinely measured, for example, by scattering near-field microscopy, only recently experimental methods for imaging the magnetic field distributions became available. In this paper, we provide direct experimental maps of the lateral magnetic near-field distributions of variously shaped plasmonic nanoantennas by using hollow-pyramid aperture scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM). We study both simple plasmonic nanoresonators, such as bars, disks, rings and more complex antennas. For the studied structures, the magnetic near-field distributions of the complex resonators have been found to be a superposition of the magnetic near-fields of the individual constituting elements. These experimental results, explained and validated by numerical simulations, open new possibilities for engineering and characterization of complex plasmonic antennas with increased functionality. [less ▲]

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See detailLa primauté de l'intentionnalité et ses conséquences épistémologiques
Boccaccini, Federico ULg

in Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique (2014)

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See detailScreening for malnutrition in lung cancer patients undergoing therapy
BARTHELEMY, Nicole ULg; Streel, Sylvie ULg; Donneau, Anne-Françoise ULg et al

in Supportive Care in Cancer (2014)

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See detailA modified DOI-based method to statistically estimate the depth of investigation of dc resistivity surveys
Deceuster, J.; Etienne, A.; Robert, Tanguy et al

in Journal of Applied Geophysics (2014), 103

Several techniques are available to estimate the depth of investigation or to identify possible artifacts in dc resistivity surveys. Commonly, the depth of investigation (DOI) is mainly estimated by using ... [more ▼]

Several techniques are available to estimate the depth of investigation or to identify possible artifacts in dc resistivity surveys. Commonly, the depth of investigation (DOI) is mainly estimated by using an arbitrarily chosen cut-off value on a selected indicator (resolution, sensitivity or DOI index). Ranges of cut-off values are recommended in the literature for the different indicators. However, small changes in threshold values may induce strong variations in the estimated depths of investigation. To overcome this problem, we developed a new statistical method to estimate the DOI of dc resistivity surveys based on a modified DOI index approach. This method is composed of 5 successive steps. First, two inversions are performed by using different resistivity reference models for the inversion (0.1 and 10 times the arithmetic mean of the logarithm of the observed apparent resistivity values). Inversion models are extended to the edges of the survey line and to a depth range of three times the pseudodepth of investigation of the largest array spacing used. In step 2, we compute the histogram of a newly defined scaled DOI index. Step 3 consists of the fitting of the mixture of two Gaussian distributions (G1 and G2) to the cumulative distribution function of the scaled DOI index values. Based on this fitting, step 4 focuses on the computation of an interpretation index (II) defined for every cell j of the model as the relative probability density that the cell j belongs to G1, which describes the Gaussian distribution of the cells with a scaled DOI index close to 0.0. In step 5, a new inversion is performed by using a third resistivity reference model (the arithmetic mean of the logarithm of the observed apparent resistivity values). The final electrical resistivity image is produced by using II as alpha blending values allowing the visual discrimination between well-constrained areas and poorly-constrained cells. The efficiency of the proposed methodology is assessed on synthetic and field data. By using synthetic benchmark analysis, we demonstrate that the selected well-constrained cells are well-reconstructed in size and shape as well as in resistivity contrasts. Compared to the existing image appraisal tools, the proposed statistical method allows the identification of the statistically well-constrained cells of the model without using any arbitrary cut-off value. Using this statistical method in combination with the resolution, when interpreting dc resistivity surveys, provides the geophysicist valuable information to avoid over- or misinterpretation of ERT images. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative evaluation of existing and new methods for correcting ocular artifacts in electroencephalographic recordings
Kirkove, Murielle ULg; François, Clémentine ULg; Verly, Jacques ULg

in Signal Processing (2014), 98(C), 102-120

EEG signals are often contaminated by ocular artifacts (OAs), in particular when they are recorded for a subject that is, in principle, awake, such as in a study of drowsiness. It is generally desirable ... [more ▼]

EEG signals are often contaminated by ocular artifacts (OAs), in particular when they are recorded for a subject that is, in principle, awake, such as in a study of drowsiness. It is generally desirable to detect and/or correct these OAs before interpreting the EEG signals. We have identified 11 existing methods for dealing with OAs. Their study allowed us to create 16 new methods. We performed a comparative performance evaluation of the resulting 27 distinct methods using a common set of data and a common set of metrics. The data was recorded during a driving task of about two hours in a driving simulator. This led to a ranking of all methods, with five emerging clear winners, comprising two existing methods and three new ones. [less ▲]

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See detailDensity estimates and nesting-site selection in chimpanzees of the Nimba Mountains, Côte d'Ivoire and Guinea
Granier, Nicolas ULg; Hambuckers, Alain ULg; Matsuzawa et al

in American Journal of Primatology (2014)

We investigated nesting behavior of non habituated chimpanzees populating the Nimba Mountains to document their abundance and their criterions of nesting-site selection. During a 19-month study we walked ... [more ▼]

We investigated nesting behavior of non habituated chimpanzees populating the Nimba Mountains to document their abundance and their criterions of nesting-site selection. During a 19-month study we walked 80 km of transects and recces each month, and recorded 764 nests (mean group size = 2.23 nests) along with characteristics of vegetation structure and composition, topography and seasonality. Population density estimated with two nest count methods ranged between 0.14 and 0.65 chimpanzee/km2. These values are lower than previous estimates, emphasizing the necessity of protecting remaining wild ape populations. Chimpanzees built nests in 108 tree species out of 437 identified, but 2.3% of total species comprised 52% of nests. Despite they preferred nesting in trees of 25-29 cm DBH and at a mean height of 8.02 m, we recorded an important proportion of terrestrial nests (8.2%) that may reflect a cultural trait of Nimba chimpanzees. A logistic model of nest presence formulated as a function of 12 habitat variables revealed preference for gallery and mountain forests rather than lowland forest, and old-growth forest rather than secondary forests. They nested more frequently in the study area during the dry season (December-April). The highest probability of observing nests was at 770 m altitude, particularly in steep locations (mean ground declivity = 15.54%). Several of the reported nest characteristics combined with the existence of 2 geographically separated clusters of nest, suggest that the study area constitutes the non-overlapping peripheral areas of 2 distinct communities. This nest-based study led us to findings on the behavioral ecology of Nimba chimpanzees, which constitute crucial knowledge to implement efficient and purpose-built conservation. [less ▲]

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See detailExciton dissociation at donor-acceptor heterojunctions: Dynamics using the collective effective mode representation of the spin-boson model
Chenel, Aurélie; Mangaud, Etienne; Burghardt, Irène et al

in Journal of Chemical Physics (2014), 140

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See detailHigher Symmetries of the Laplacian via Quantization
Michel, Jean-Philippe ULg

in Annales de l'Institut Fourier (2014), 64

We develop a new approach, based on quantization methods, to study higher symmetries of invariant di erential operators. We focus here on conformally invariant powers of the Laplacian over a conformally ... [more ▼]

We develop a new approach, based on quantization methods, to study higher symmetries of invariant di erential operators. We focus here on conformally invariant powers of the Laplacian over a conformally at manifold and recover results of Eastwood, Leistner, Gover and ilhan. In particular, conformally equivariant quantization establishes a correspondence between the algebra of Hamiltonian symmetries of the null geodesic ow and the algebra of higher symmetries of the conformal Laplacian. Combined with a symplectic reduction, this leads to a quantization of the minimal nilpotent coadjoint orbit of the conformal group. The star-deformation of its algebra of regular functions is isomorphic to the algebra of higher symmetries of the conformal Laplacian. Both identify with the quotient of the universal envelopping algebra by the Joseph ideal. [less ▲]

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See detailEstimation of the error density in a semiparametric transformation model
Colling, Benjamin; Heuchenne, Cédric ULg; Samb, Rawane et al

in Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics (2014)

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See detailValidity and Reliability of the French version of the STarT Back Screening Tool for patients with low back pain.
Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Demoulin, Maryline; Beaudart, Charlotte ULg et al

in Spine (2014), 39(2), 123-128

Study Design. Observational prospective study.Objective. Our objective was to assess the reliability and validity of the French version of the Keele STarT Back Screening Tool (SBST).Summary of Background ... [more ▼]

Study Design. Observational prospective study.Objective. Our objective was to assess the reliability and validity of the French version of the Keele STarT Back Screening Tool (SBST).Summary of Background Data. The SBST is a recently validated tool developed to identify subgroups of patients with low back pain (LBP) to guide early secondary prevention in primary care.Methods. Outpatients with LBP aged 18 years or more, attending a rehabilitation centre, a back school, a private physiotherapy unit or a fitness centre were included. Patients were assessed through the SBST, Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), Orebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire (OMPSQ), Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire, and a pain visual analogic scale (VAS). Test-retest reliability was assessed with Kappa score or the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), internal consistency of the psychological subscale with the Cronbach alpha coefficient, construct validity with the Spearman's correlation coefficient, and floor and ceiling effects by percentage frequency of lowest or highest possible score achieved by respondents.Results. 108 patients with LBP were included. The test-retest reliability of the SBST total score was excellent with an ICC of 0.90 (0.81-0.95). The Cronbach alpha coefficient was 0.73 showing a good internal consistency for the psychological subscale. High Spearman's correlation coefficients of 0.74 between SBST and RMDQ, and 0.74 between the SBST and OMPSQ were observed. As expected, low to moderate correlations were observed between the SBST total score and some dissimilar measures of the SF-36. The lowest possible SBST score was observed for 8 patients (7.4%) whereas only three patients (2.8%) had the highest possible SBST score.Conclusion. The French version of the SBST is a reliable and valid questionnaire consistent with the original English version. Therefore, this new version may help French-speaking clinicians and scientists to stratify patients with LBP. [less ▲]

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See detailChâteau fort d’Ecaussinnes-Lalaing (Hainaut) : de nouveaux matériaux pour une chronologie du bâti
Maggi, Christophe ULg; Blain, Sophie ULg; Bavay, Gérard et al

in Bulletin de la Commission royale des Monuments, Sites et Fouilles (2014), 25

Situé dans le Hainaut, dominant le vallon de la Senette, le château-fort d’Écaussinnes a fait l’objet de diverses monographies. Pourtant, bien des études du bâti restent à faire, dans la foulée de la plus ... [more ▼]

Situé dans le Hainaut, dominant le vallon de la Senette, le château-fort d’Écaussinnes a fait l’objet de diverses monographies. Pourtant, bien des études du bâti restent à faire, dans la foulée de la plus récente que l’on doit à Philippe Sosnowska. En mars 2012, une étude typologique et dendrochronologique des charpentes, à l’occasion de travaux de restauration aux toitures, apporte quelques éléments nouveaux. L’analyse porte sur les charpentes de toiture de la chapelle et des ailes ouest et nord. Elle a été demandée par les architectes Paul Delaisse et Michel Micciche dans le cadre de la restauration des toitures. [less ▲]

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See detailLA RADIOTHÉRAPIE DANS LE CANCER DU RECTUM CHEZ LA PERSONNE ÂGÉE: Quel bénéfice pour le traitement ?
MARTINIVE, Philippe ULg; ALLEPAERTS, Sophie ULg; VAN DAELE, Daniel ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014), 69(Supp 1), 47-52

Dans les années à venir, nous serons de plus en plus amenés à prendre en charge des patients âgés en oncologie. Dans ce contexte, quelles sont les évidences scientifiques à notre disposition qui nous ... [more ▼]

Dans les années à venir, nous serons de plus en plus amenés à prendre en charge des patients âgés en oncologie. Dans ce contexte, quelles sont les évidences scientifiques à notre disposition qui nous permettent de prendre en charge de façon correcte cette population oncologique âgée ? Les patients âgés présentent souvent de multiples co-morbidités pouvant interférer avec le traitement oncologique rendant d’autant plus complexe leur prise en charge. Le pic d’inci - dence du cancer du rectum se situe autour des 80 ans, loin au-dessus de l’âge moyen des patients inclus dans les études cliniques. La survie globale des patients traités pour un cancer du rectum s’est améliorée au cours de la dernière décennie, essentiellement pour des patients de moins de 75 ans. Le trai - tement du cancer du rectum nécessite une approche multidis - ciplinaire. L’évaluation gériatrique en fait partie intégrante. Elle permet de définir au mieux la stratégie thérapeutique en fonction de l’état général du patient, de son contexte neuro- psychologique, fonctionnel et social. La radiothérapie joue un rôle majeur dans le traitement du rectum. Quelle est sa place chez les personnes âgées ? Bénéficient-elles également de la radiothérapie, comme la population jeune sélectionnée dans les études contrôlées ? Quel est l’impact de ce traitement sur la qualité de vie ? Voilà des questions essentielles auxquelles nous allons tenter d’apporter une réponse [less ▲]

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See detailCorrection of vitamin D insufficiency with combined strontium ranelate and vitamin D3 in osteoporotic patients.
Rizzoli, R.; Dawson-Hughes, B.; Kaufman, J.-M. et al

in European Journal of Endocrinology (2014), 170(3), 441-50

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the efficacy and safety of oral fixed-dose combination of strontium ranelate 2 g/vitamin D3 1000 IU daily vs strontium ranelate 2 g daily for correcting vitamin D ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the efficacy and safety of oral fixed-dose combination of strontium ranelate 2 g/vitamin D3 1000 IU daily vs strontium ranelate 2 g daily for correcting vitamin D insufficiency in osteoporosis. DESIGN: A 6-month international, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, phase 3 study. METHODS: A total of 518 men and postmenopausal women aged >/=50 years with primary osteoporosis (T-score </=-2.5 s.d.) and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) >22.5 nmol/l were included. Patients were allocated to strontium ranelate 2 g/vitamin D3 1000 IU daily (n=413) or strontium ranelate 2 g daily (n=105). The participants received calcium 1 g daily. The primary endpoint was serum 25(OH)D at last post-baseline evaluation during 3 months. RESULTS: Both groups were comparable at baseline. Mean baseline of 25(OH)D was 44.1+/-14.6 nmol/l. After 3 months, the percentage of patients with 25(OH)D >/=50 nmol/l was higher with strontium ranelate/vitamin D3 vs strontium ranelate (84 vs 44%, P<0.001; adjusted between-group odds ratio=6.7; 95% CI, 4.2-10.9). The efficacy of the fixed-dose combination on 25(OH)D was maintained at 6 months (86 vs 40%, P<0.001). Mean 25(OH)D was 65.1 and 49.5 nmol/l, respectively, after 3 months and 66.9 and 45.4 nmol/l after 6 months. Physical performance improved in both groups. Falls were 17 and 20% in the strontium ranelate/vitamin D3 and strontium ranelate groups respectively. Parathyroid hormone levels were inversely correlated with 25(OH)D. No clinically relevant differences in safety were observed. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the efficacy and safety of fixed-dose combination of strontium ranelate 2 g/vitamin D3 1000 IU for correction of vitamin D insufficiency in osteoporotic patients. [less ▲]

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See detailV. Van Saaze, Installation Art and the Museum : Presentation and Conservation of Changing Artworks
D'Haenens, Manon ULg

in CeROArt : Conservation, Exposition, Restauration d'Objets d'Art (2014), (9),

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See detailOsteonecrosis of the jaw in a male osteoporotic patient treated with denosumab
NEUPREZ, Audrey ULg; Coste, S; Rompen, Eric ULg et al

in Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA (2014), 25

Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a clinical condition associated with long-term exposure to inhibitors of bone resorption, mainly bisphosphonates. Denosumab (DMab) is a human monoclonal antibody of the ... [more ▼]

Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a clinical condition associated with long-term exposure to inhibitors of bone resorption, mainly bisphosphonates. Denosumab (DMab) is a human monoclonal antibody of the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand. It prevents osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and is widely prescribed for the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Whereas ONJ has already been reported in women treated with DMab, we report for the first time the development of ONJ, following tooth extraction, in a male patient treated for idiopathic osteoporosis with DMab. Due to the constant increase in DMab prescription, for the management of osteoporosis, in both genders, physicians should be made aware of this potential risk. [less ▲]

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See detailLa culture comme objet
Badir, Sémir ULg

in Semiotica (2014), 198

La culture peut-elle être un objet d’étude à part entière ? Les sciences de la culture le donnent implicitement à penser par leur intitulé même, à l’instar de ce qu’ont poursuivi, à l’égard de leurs ... [more ▼]

La culture peut-elle être un objet d’étude à part entière ? Les sciences de la culture le donnent implicitement à penser par leur intitulé même, à l’instar de ce qu’ont poursuivi, à l’égard de leurs objets respectifs, les sciences de l’homme, de la société et de la vie. Une telle objectivation, toutefois, ne va pas de soi, les caractères définitoires de la culture — à la fois comme totalité et comme singularité — dérogent à l’objectivation scientifique ordinaire. Dans un premier temps, on commence par considérer trois tentatives d’objectivation de la culture menées en sémiotique, sous le rapport de la sémiosphère (Lotman), de l’esthésie (Rastier) et de la langue. Le crédit accordé à la troisième tentative nous invite à interroger, dans un second temps, le rapport entre langue, texte et culture à partir de la distinction théorique proposée par Hjelmslev entre analyse et fragmentation. Langue, texte et culture sont fonction d’un seul objet empirique pour lesquelles différentes focalisations sont possibles. C’est une fonction restreinte et analytique qui règle le rapport des textes à la langue ; au contraire c’est une fonction extensive, fragmentée et synthétique qui laisse voir les textes comme des œuvres insérées dans les pratiques de la culture. [less ▲]

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See detailRediscovery of the forgotten de Ryckholt Collection (gastropods, bivalves, worms; Late Cretaceous, Belgium)
Denayer, Julien ULg; Fischer, Valentin ULg; Mottequin, Bernard ULg

in Cretaceous Research (2014), 47

A significant part of the collection of mid- and Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian, Campanian and Maastrichtian) gastropods, bivalves and worms described and/or illustrated by de Ryckholt in his seminal work ... [more ▼]

A significant part of the collection of mid- and Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian, Campanian and Maastrichtian) gastropods, bivalves and worms described and/or illustrated by de Ryckholt in his seminal work Mélanges paléontologiques between 1854 and 1862, has recently been retraced in the historical collections at Liège University. Of the original collection, more than 206 specimens, including 196 nominal types (lectotypes and genotypes), all considered lost, are now available. The genotypes of the gastropod genera Tudicula de Ryckholt, 1862a and Prosopostoma de Ryckholt, 1862a are photographically illustrated for the first time. Prosopostoma bucculans, from the Cenomanian Bernissart Formation (formerly ‘Tourtia de Tournai’), is here chosen as the type species of the genus Prosopostoma, a possible stromboid. We also reassess the stratigraphic age of the type localities under the revised stratigraphic framework of Belgium and a detailed account on the research history of this material, in order to provide a thorough scientific background for future study of this formidable collection. [less ▲]

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See detailRADIOTHÉRAPIE MAMMAIRE- pret-à-porter ou sur mesure ?
COUCKE, Philippe ULg; LAKOSI, Ferenc ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014), 69(Supp 1), 81-86

La radiothérapie mammaire après chirurgie conser - vatrice, pour carcinome canalaire in situ ou pour les formes invasives (carcinome canalaire infiltrant et carcinome lobu - laire infiltrant), semble très ... [more ▼]

La radiothérapie mammaire après chirurgie conser - vatrice, pour carcinome canalaire in situ ou pour les formes invasives (carcinome canalaire infiltrant et carcinome lobu - laire infiltrant), semble très bien codifiée et peut être taxée de «prêt-à-porter». Et pourtant, on est en droit de se poser la question s’il est possible de concevoir des indications de traitement «sur mesure». A ce jour, les données de la littéra - ture nous incitent à la prudence. Dans aucun cas de figure, on n’a été capable de démontrer que la radiothérapie pouvait être éliminée de l’approche thérapeutique sans pour autant risquer une augmentation significative du taux de rechute locale. Même si on considère que la radiothérapie adjuvante est une approche standard après une chirurgie conservatrice, il n’en reste pas moins qu’il persiste un certain nombre de questions ouvertes. Ces traitements actiniques pourraient être modulables en fonction des caractéristiques des patientes et des tumeurs. Idéalement, nous aimerions disposer de mar - queurs pronostiques et prédictifs robustes afin de détermi - ner qui il faut soumettre à ce traitement adjuvant. Peut-être que des signatures géniques vont permettre de sélectionner les patientes. Ces signatures géniques ne font pas l’unanimité quant à leur réelle portée clinique [less ▲]

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See detailLack of isocitrate lyase in Chlamydomonas leads to changes in carbon metabolism and in the response to oxidative stress under mixotrophic growth.
Plancke, Charlotte; Vigeolas, Hélène ULg; Hohner, Ricarda et al

in The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology (2014), 77(3), 404-417

Isocitrate lyase is a key enzyme of the glyoxylate cycle. This cycle plays an essential role in cell growth on acetate, and is important for gluconeogenesis as it bypasses the two oxidative steps of the ... [more ▼]

Isocitrate lyase is a key enzyme of the glyoxylate cycle. This cycle plays an essential role in cell growth on acetate, and is important for gluconeogenesis as it bypasses the two oxidative steps of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in which CO2 is evolved. In this paper, a null icl mutant of the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is described. Our data show that isocitrate lyase is required for growth in darkness on acetate (heterotrophic conditions), as well as for efficient growth in the light when acetate is supplied (mixotrophic conditions). Under these latter conditions, reduced acetate assimilation and concomitant reduced respiration occur, and biomass composition analysis reveals an increase in total fatty acid content, including neutral lipids and free fatty acids. Quantitative proteomic analysis by 14 N/15 N labelling was performed, and more than 1600 proteins were identified. These analyses reveal a strong decrease in the amounts of enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle and gluconeogenesis in parallel with a shift of the TCA cycle towards amino acid synthesis, accompanied by an increase in free amino acids. The decrease of the glyoxylate cycle and gluconeogenesis, as well as the decrease in enzymes involved in beta-oxidation of fatty acids in the icl mutant are probably major factors that contribute to remodelling of lipids in the icl mutant. These modifications are probably responsible for the elevation of the response to oxidative stress, with significantly augmented levels and activities of superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase, and increased resistance to paraquat. [less ▲]

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See detailAntioxidant capacity of hydrophilic food matrices: optimization and validation of ORAC assay.
Kevers, Claire ULg; Sipel, Arnaud; PINCEMAIL, Joël ULg et al

in Food Analytical Methods (2014), 7

It is widely accepted that ORAC is a useful method for assessing food extracts that contain various antioxidants. The principal aim of this study was to validate the ORAC assay. We first identified ... [more ▼]

It is widely accepted that ORAC is a useful method for assessing food extracts that contain various antioxidants. The principal aim of this study was to validate the ORAC assay. We first identified parameters that can interfere with the ORAC assay and we optimized it. Then, experiments were conducted to determine the limits of linearity and response function, to determine the accuracy profiles to circumvent some of the drawbacks of traditional validation procedures. Trueness, selectivity and limits of quantification of the method were also determined. Our objective of ORAC method validation is thus to give guarantees that most of the results generated during use of this method will be close enough to unknown true value of antioxidant capacity of food matrices. The validation results indicate that the described method will give accurate and reliable results for Trolox equivalent values ranging from 50 to 200 µmol/L. [less ▲]

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See detailBone forming agents for the management of osteoporosis
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Neuprez, A.; Beaudart, Charlotte ULg et al

in Panminerva medica (2014)

Osteoporotic fractures are a major cause of morbidity in the population. Anti-resorptive agents have been, for more than 15 years, the mainstay of osteoporosis treatment worldwide. However, these ... [more ▼]

Osteoporotic fractures are a major cause of morbidity in the population. Anti-resorptive agents have been, for more than 15 years, the mainstay of osteoporosis treatment worldwide. However, these medications provide only limited fracture reduction and may be linked to skeletal and non-skeletal long-term safety concerns. Therefore, some patients are considered candidates for bone-forming agents because they remain severely osteoporotic or because they failed antiresorptive therapy. Over the last decade, a particular interest was shown in the developmentofmedicationsabletoincreaseosteoblastsnumber,lifespan or activity, hence stimulating bone formation Peptides from the parathyroid hormone family and strontium ranelate were shown to significantly reduce fracture rates but strontium ranelate is no longer an option for treating osteoporosis because of its safety profile. New therapeutic options, including monoclonal antibodies against sclerostin seem to be promising but their role in the armamentarium of osteoporosis will depend on the results of the current phase 3 studies, assessing antifracture efficacy and long-term safety. [less ▲]

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See detailPrimary production in a tropical large lake: The role of phytoplankton composition
Darchambeau, François ULg; Sarmento, Hugo; Descy, Jean-Pierre

in Science of the Total Environment (2014), 473-474

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See detailComprehensive plasma profiling for the characterization of graft-versus-host disease biomarkers
De Bock, Muriel; BEGUIN, Yves ULg; Leprince, Pierre ULg et al

in Talanta (2014), 125

Acutegraft-versus-hostdisease(aGVHD)remainsalife-threateningcomplicationofhematopoieticstem cell transplantation(HSCT)thereforelimitingitsapplication.TooptimizethemanagementofaGVHDand reduce therapy ... [more ▼]

Acutegraft-versus-hostdisease(aGVHD)remainsalife-threateningcomplicationofhematopoieticstem cell transplantation(HSCT)thereforelimitingitsapplication.TooptimizethemanagementofaGVHDand reduce therapy-relatedtoxicity,earlyspecific markersareneeded.Themainobjectiveofthisstudywas to uncoverdiagnosticbiomarkersbycomparingplasmaproteinprofiles ofpatientsatthetimeofacute GVHDdiagnosiswiththoseofpatientsundergoingHSCTwithoutaGVHD.Additionalanalysisofsamples taken 15daysbeforeaGVHDdiagnosiswasalsoperformedtoevaluatethepotentialofournewly discoveredbiomarkersforearlydiagnosis.Togetcomplementaryinformationfromplasmasamples, we usedthreedifferentproteomicapproaches,namely2D-DIGE,SELDI-TOF-MSand2D-LC-MSE. Weidentified andconfirmed bythemeansofindependenttechniques,thedifferentialexpression of severalproteinsindicatingsignificantly increasedinflammation responseanddisturbanceinthe coagulation cascade.Thevariationoftheseproteinswasalreadyobserved15daysbeforeGVHD diagnosis, suggestingthepotentialearlydetectionofthediseasebeforesymptomsappearance. Finally,logisticregressionanalysisdeterminedacompositebiomarkerpanelcomprising fibrinogen, fragment of fibrinogenbetachain,SAA,prothrombinfragments,apolipoproteinA1andhepcidinthat optimallydiscriminatedpatientswithandwithoutGVHD.Theareaunderthereceiveroperating characteristiccurvedistinguishingthese2groupswas0.95. [less ▲]

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See detailModulating effect of COMT genotype on the brain regions underlying proactive control process during inhibition
Jaspar, Mathieu ULg; Genon, Sarah ULg; Muto, Vincenzo ULg et al

in Cortex : A Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System & Behavior (2014), 50

Introduction. Genetic variability related to the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene (Val158Met polymorphism) has received increasing attention as a possible modulator of cognitive control functions ... [more ▼]

Introduction. Genetic variability related to the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene (Val158Met polymorphism) has received increasing attention as a possible modulator of cognitive control functions. Methods. In an event-related fMRI study, a modified version of the Stroop task was administered to three groups of 15 young adults according to their COMT Val158Met genotype [Val/Val (VV), Val/Met (VM) and Met/Met (MM)]. Based on the theory of dual mechanisms of control (Braver, et al., 2007), the Stroop task has been built to induce proactive or reactive control processes according to the task context. Results. Behavioral results did not show any significant group differences for reaction times but Val allele carriers individuals are less accurate in the processing of incongruent items. fMRI results revealed that proactive control is specifically associated with increased activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in carriers of the Met allele, while increased activity is observed in the middle frontal gyrus (MFG) in carriers of the Val allele. Conclusion. These observations, in keeping with a higher cortical dopamine level in MM individuals, support the hypothesis of a COMT Val158Met genotype modulation of the brain regions underlying proactive control, especially in frontal areas as suggested by Braver et al. [less ▲]

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See detailIs Dolphin Morbillivirus Virulent for White-Beaked Dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris)?
van Elk, C. E.; van de Bildt, M. W. G.; Jauniaux, Thierry ULg et al

in Veterinary pathology (2014)

The virulence of morbilliviruses for toothed whales (odontocetes) appears to differ according to host species. In 4 species of odontocetes, morbilliviruses are highly virulent, causing large-scale ... [more ▼]

The virulence of morbilliviruses for toothed whales (odontocetes) appears to differ according to host species. In 4 species of odontocetes, morbilliviruses are highly virulent, causing large-scale epizootics with high mortality. In 8 other species of odontocetes, including white-beaked dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris), morbilliviruses have been found as an incidental infection. In these species, the virulence of morbilliviruses is not clear. Therefore, the admission of 2 white-beaked dolphins with morbillivirus infection into a rehabilitation center provided a unique opportunity to investigate the virulence of morbillivirus in this species. By phylogenetic analysis, the morbilliviruses in both animals were identified as a dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) most closely related to that detected in a white-beaked dolphin in Germany in 2007. Both animals were examined clinically and pathologically. Case No. 1 had a chronic neural DMV infection, characterized by polioencephalitis in the cerebrum and morbillivirus antigen expression limited to neurons and glial cells. Surprisingly, no nervous signs were observed in this animal during the 6 months before death. Case No. 2 had a subacute systemic DMV infection, characterized by interstitial pneumonia, leucopenia, lymphoid depletion, and DMV antigen expression in mononuclear cells and syncytia in the lung and in mononuclear cells in multiple lymphoid organs. Cause of death was not attributed to DMV infection in either animal. DMV was not detected in 2 contemporaneously stranded white-beaked dolphins. Stranding rate did not increase in the region. These results suggest that DMV is not highly virulent for white-beaked dolphins. [less ▲]

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See detailInterstitial insulin kinetic parameters for a 2-compartment insulin model with saturable clearance
Pretty, Christopher G.; Le Compte, Aaron; Penning, Sophie ULg et al

in Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine (2014)

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See detailContinuity amid change in India’s political economy: from “socialist” to “neoliberal” India.
Maiorano, Diego ULg

in Economic and Political Weekly (2014)

The aim of this paper is to show that the social coalition that benefited from India’s central government’s economic policies remained unchanged between the pre and post economic reforms periods. More ... [more ▼]

The aim of this paper is to show that the social coalition that benefited from India’s central government’s economic policies remained unchanged between the pre and post economic reforms periods. More specifically, this paper will argue that the economic policies promoted by the central government between 1980 and 2004 – irrespective of the political party heading the Cabinet – mostly benefited the middle class and the corporate sector, while the poor and the rural world were clearly relegated to a secondary position in the governments’ policy priorities. The paper will highlight six important lines of continuity in India’s economic policy and will argue that if we look at who the “winner” and the “losers” of these policy processes are, the economic reforms of the early 1990s do not separate two different phases of India’s development path. From this point of view the election of the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government in 2004 might constitute a more important break with the past. [less ▲]

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See detailUnusual occurrence of cocoons in population of the saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), in Belgium
Censier, Florence ULg; Chavalle, Sandrine; Skuhravá, Marcela et al

in Journal of Insect Science [=JIS] (2014)

The saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (von Roser) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is a phytophagous species that develops in saddle-shaped galls on stems of wheat Triticum vulgare, barley Hordeum ... [more ▼]

The saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (von Roser) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is a phytophagous species that develops in saddle-shaped galls on stems of wheat Triticum vulgare, barley Hordeum sativum, rye Secale cereale and some other species of Poaceae. Only one generation develops per year. Full-grown larvae leave galls, drop onto the soil where they remain up to the springtime of the following year. Larvae do not usually spin cocoons. However, formation of cocoons by larvae was observed in populations developing in western Europe: in England in 1954, in the Netherlands in the 1960s and in Belgium in 2011. On the basis of our analysis, a part of the larval population forms cocoons as protection against unfavorable weather conditions, especially drought. [less ▲]

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See detailFacultative paedomorphosis and the pattern of intra- and interspecific variation in cranial skeleton: lessons from European newts (Ichthyosaura alpestris and Lissotriton vulgaris)
Ivanović, Ana; Cvijanović, Milena; Denoël, Mathieu ULg et al

in Zoomorphology (2014), 133(1), 99-109

Paedomorphosis, the presence of ancestral larval and juvenile traits that occur at the descendent adult stage, is an evolutionary phenomenon that shaped morphological evolution in many vertebrate lineages ... [more ▼]

Paedomorphosis, the presence of ancestral larval and juvenile traits that occur at the descendent adult stage, is an evolutionary phenomenon that shaped morphological evolution in many vertebrate lineages, including tailed amphibians. Among salamandrid species, paedomorphic and metamorphic phenotypes can be observed within single populations (facultative paedomorphosis). Despite wide interest in facultative paedomorphosis and polymorphism produced by heterochronic changes (heterochronic polymorphism), the studies that investigate intraspecific morphological variation in facultative paedomorphic species are largely missing. By quantifying the cranium size and development (bone development and remodeling), we investigated the variation at multiple levels (i.e., between sexes, populations and species) of two facultatively paedomorphic European newt species: the alpine and the smooth newt. The pattern of variation between paedomorphs (individuals keeping larval traits at the adult stage) and metamorphs (metamorphosed adult individuals) varied between species and among populations within a single species. The patterns of variation in size and skull formation appear to be more uniform in the alpine than in the smooth newt, indicating that developmental constraints differed between species (more pronounced in alpine than in smooth newt). Our study shows that the cranial skeleton provides detailed insight in the pattern of variation and divergence in heterochronic polymorphism within and between species and open new questions related to heterochronic polymorphism and evolution of cranial skeleton. [less ▲]

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See detailNear-to-Surface properties affecting bond strength in concrete repair
Courard, Luc ULg; Piotrowski, Tomasz; Garbacz, Andrzej

in Cement and Concrete Composites (2014), 46

One of the main processes for repairing concrete structures is patch repair. Efficiency and durability of a repaired system depends on the bond between concrete substrate and repair material. By ... [more ▼]

One of the main processes for repairing concrete structures is patch repair. Efficiency and durability of a repaired system depends on the bond between concrete substrate and repair material. By increasing the surface roughness, the surface treatment of concrete substrate can promote mechanical interlocking that is one of the basic mechanisms of adhesion. Nevertheless, some problems may arise from “co-lateral” effects of the treatment, especially due to the development of microcracks inside the substrate. In the presented paper, the effect of concrete substrate surface preparation has been characterized by roughness measurement, description of microcracking in the near-to-surface layer and a pull-off cohesion test. After repair, pull-off bond strength has been evaluated. It is concluded that selection of a suitable surface treatment technique should be preceded by the analysis of its aggressiveness in relation to the concrete substrate strength. A procedure for bond strength estimation using multiple regression approach, based on parameters describing surface quality really generated from various roughening techniques, is then proposed. [less ▲]

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See detailResponse to Dr Bolland's eLetter: Strontium and cardiovascular events.
REGINSTER, Jean-Yves ULg

in Annals of the rheumatic diseases (2014), 73(2), 9

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See detailA French Translation of the Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI): Factor Structure, Reliability and Validity of This Scale in a Nonclinical Sample of Children
Stassart, Céline ULg; Etienne, Anne-Marie ULg

in Psychologica Belgica (2014)

Introduction: Anxiety sensitivity (AS) refers to the fear of anxiety-related sensations due to beliefs that these sensations will lead to catastrophic outcomes. AS plays a central role in the etiology and ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Anxiety sensitivity (AS) refers to the fear of anxiety-related sensations due to beliefs that these sensations will lead to catastrophic outcomes. AS plays a central role in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. From a clinical perspective, it therefore seems important to possess a valid scale to assess AS in children. Objective, Method: This study examines the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the French translation of the Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI) in 353 Belgian children (9 to 13 years). Result: Results show that AS can be adequately measured using the French version of the CASI and conceptualized as a hierarchical factor structure with four lower-order factors – Physical Concerns, Mental Incapacity Concerns, Social Concerns, and Losing Control Concerns – loading on a single higher-order factor, Anxiety Sensitivity. The reliability was acceptable for the total scale. Hierarchical multiple regressions show that the CASI makes a significant contribution in predicting anxiety. conclusion: The data support the relevance of the French CASI in the assessment of AS in nonclinical children. [less ▲]

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See detailStrontiohurlbutite, SrBe2(PO4)2, a new mineral from Nanping no. 31 pegmatite, Fujian Province, Southeastern China
Rao, C; Wang, R; Hatert, Frédéric ULg et al

in American Mineralogist (2014), 99

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See detailUpper airway imaging in sleep-disordered breathing.
POIRRIER, Anne-Lise ULg; Fanielle, Julien; Bruwier, Annick ULg et al

in Acta neurologica Belgica (2014)

Our understanding of sleep-disordered breathing has evolved considerably over the past three decades, and clinical techniques of evaluation have progressed tremendously. Myriad imaging techniques are now ... [more ▼]

Our understanding of sleep-disordered breathing has evolved considerably over the past three decades, and clinical techniques of evaluation have progressed tremendously. Myriad imaging techniques are now available for the physician to approach the dynamic features resulting in turbulent airflow, upper airway narrowing or collapse at different levels. Controversy exists in the choice of investigations, probably because the best evaluation should be a combination of different techniques. Physical, radiographic, endoscopic and acoustic evaluations could be integrated to understand the degree and the levels of airway reduction and/or obstruction in a given patient. This review focuses on cost-effective and easily implemented techniques in daily practice, allowing quality assessment of the dynamic anatomy of sleep-disordered breathing: cephalometry, (sleep-)endoscopy and acoustic reflectometry of the upper airway. [less ▲]

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See detailConcepts d’efficience et de productivité de l’eau (synthèse bibliographique)
Kambou, Donkora ULg; Xanthoulis, Dimitri ULg; Ouattara, Korodjouma et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(1),

Water efficiency and productivity indicators are used in many scientific disciplines, usually to account for water losses that occur during its use, or products generated per unit of water consumed. The ... [more ▼]

Water efficiency and productivity indicators are used in many scientific disciplines, usually to account for water losses that occur during its use, or products generated per unit of water consumed. The interpretation of these indicators is very diverse in the literature. However, the majority of definitions consider water efficiency as a measure of the effectiveness of irrigation, and view water productivity as a measure of the effectiveness of the physiological processes of both biomass production and crop yield formation, linked to the actual consumption of water by the crops. Thus, the consensus seems to be for water application efficiency (Ea) to be considered as the ratio of actual evapotranspiration to the water applied and productivity as the ratio of yield to actual evapotranspiration. The point of divergence relates fundamentally to the understanding of the constituent expressions of productivity (PE, product/“water consumed”) and efficiency of water application (Ea, “water consumed”/“applied water”). Indeed, the term “water consumed” is referred to variously by several authors as “actual evapotranspiration”, “gross irrigation plus rainfall”, “evapotranspiration plus water lost at the plot but beneficial to other users”, etc. Furthermore, while providing more details on the concepts of efficiency and water productivity, this review shows that the factors affecting these indicators have not yet been sufficiently elucidated. Thus, one of the axes of investigation could be to model the application efficiency of water firstly, according to water management practices and secondly, in terms of productivity levels in relation to the crop establishment period. [less ▲]

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See detailInteractions of lipases with milk fat globule membrane monolayers using a Langmuir film balance
Danthine, Sabine ULg; Blecker, Christophe ULg

in International Dairy Journal (2014), 35(1), 81-87

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See detailChoisir des cas exemplaires. La Strategic litigation face aux discriminations
Lejeune, Aude ULg; Orianne, Jean-François ULg

in Déviance et Société (2014)

Strategic litigation is one of the methods used by equal opportunity agencies in Europe to promote rights. Looking at the organizational level, this article aims to show how and under which circumstances ... [more ▼]

Strategic litigation is one of the methods used by equal opportunity agencies in Europe to promote rights. Looking at the organizational level, this article aims to show how and under which circumstances strategic litigation is deemed relevant to fight employment discrimination in Belgium and on which grounds and arguments exemplary cases are chosen. The article also highlights possible changes in the mobilizations of courts and the judicial arena. [less ▲]

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See detailBouncing dynamics of a spring
Hubert, Maxime ULg; Ludewig, François ULg; Dorbolo, Stéphane ULg et al

in Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena (2014), 272

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See detailPure and Pseudo-pure Fluid Thermophysical Property Evaluation and the Open-Source Thermophysical Property Library CoolProp
Bell, Ian ULg; Wronski, Jorrit; Quoilin, Sylvain ULg et al

in Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research (2014), 53

Article Pure and Pseudo-pure Fluid Thermophysical Property Evaluation and the Open-Source Thermophysical Property Library CoolProp ACS ActiveView PDFHi-Res Print, Annotate, Reference QuickView PDF [2027 ... [more ▼]

Article Pure and Pseudo-pure Fluid Thermophysical Property Evaluation and the Open-Source Thermophysical Property Library CoolProp ACS ActiveView PDFHi-Res Print, Annotate, Reference QuickView PDF [2027 KB] PDF w/ Links[457 KB] Full Text HTML Abstract Supporting Info -> Figures Reference QuickView Add to ACS ChemWorx Ian H. Bell *†, Jorrit Wronski *‡, Sylvain Quoilin *†, and Vincent Lemort *† † Energy Systems Research Unit, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium ‡ Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2014, 53 (6), pp 2498–2508 DOI: 10.1021/ie4033999 Publication Date (Web): January 13, 2014 Copyright © 2014 American Chemical Society OpenURL UNIV DE LIEGE *E-mail: ian.bell@ulg.ac.be., *E-mail: jowr@mek.dtu.dk., *E-mail: squoilin@ulg.ac.be., *E-mail: vincent.lemort@ulg.ac.be. ACS AuthorChoice Abstract Over the last few decades, researchers have developed a number of empirical and theoretical models for the correlation and prediction of the thermophysical properties of pure fluids and mixtures treated as pseudo-pure fluids. In this paper, a survey of all the state-of-the-art formulations of thermophysical properties is presented. The most-accurate thermodynamic properties are obtained from multiparameter Helmholtz-energy-explicit-type formulations. For the transport properties, a wider range of methods has been employed, including the extended corresponding states method. All of the thermophysical property correlations described here have been implemented into CoolProp, an open-source thermophysical property library. This library is written in C++, with wrappers available for the majority of programming languages and platforms of technical interest. As of publication, 110 pure and pseudo-pure fluids are included in the library, as well as properties of 40 incompressible fluids and humid air. The source code for the CoolProp library is included as an electronic annex. [less ▲]

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See detailL’impact de certains choix didactiques sur la performance en expression écrite et l’efficacité du feedback correctif
Noiroux, Kevin ULg; Simons, Germain ULg

in Babylonia (2014)

Many teachers use written corrective feedback, a teaching practice that consists in correcting the lexico-grammatical errors of the student’s written production. Due to its time-consuming nature for the ... [more ▼]

Many teachers use written corrective feedback, a teaching practice that consists in correcting the lexico-grammatical errors of the student’s written production. Due to its time-consuming nature for the teacher, it makes sense to strive to make corrective feedback as effective as possible. In this exploratory study, we collaborated with a high school teacher of Federation Wallonia-Brussels to create a didactic sequence that aimed at assessing the efficacy of corrective feedback in a fifth-year class. Students’ answers to a survey, as well as their written production performance, seem to point out that some pedagogical choices may have had a negative impact on the performance of corrective feedback. We underline (1) the lack of lexico-grammatical training exercises, (2) the absence of testing on lexico-grammatical knowledge, (3) the lack of work on ideas that can be transferred to the final production, (4) the lack of work on the text type and (5) the limits of formative assessment. The underlying assumption is that students’ written production performance, hence the efficacy of corrective feedback, can be improved through those didactic choices. [less ▲]

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See detailEnergies et minerais.Des ressources sous tension
Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULg

in La Documentation Photographique (2014), 8089

Les ressources non renouvelables sont sans conteste une clé de lecture de notre monde contemporain, de ses tensions et de ses défis. Ces ressources sont « sous tension » car leur demande est en forte ... [more ▼]

Les ressources non renouvelables sont sans conteste une clé de lecture de notre monde contemporain, de ses tensions et de ses défis. Ces ressources sont « sous tension » car leur demande est en forte croissance. Leur géopolitique ne cesse d’évoluer. Ainsi, le pétrole et le gaz de schiste américains bouleversent les équilibres mondiaux, alors que le charbon fait un retour en force. L’enjeu est aussi environnemental et sociétal. [less ▲]

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