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See detailcompte rendu de : Paul Schubert, Pierre Ducrey, Pascale Derron (ed.), Les Grecs héritiers des Romains
Rochette, Bruno ULg

in Bryn Mawr Classical Review [=BMCR] (2014)

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See detailSpeciation slowing down in widespread and long-living tree taxa : insights from the tropical timber tree genus Milicia (Moraceae)
Daïnou, Kasso ULg; Mahy, Grégory ULg; Duminil, Jérôme et al

in Heredity (2014)

The long generation time and large effective size of widespread forest tree species can result in slow evolutionary rate and incomplete lineage sorting, complicating species delimitation. We addressed ... [more ▼]

The long generation time and large effective size of widespread forest tree species can result in slow evolutionary rate and incomplete lineage sorting, complicating species delimitation. We addressed this issue with the African timber tree genus Milicia that comprises two morphologically similar and often confounded species: M. excelsa, widespread from West to East Africa, and M. regia, endemic to West Africa. We combined information from nuclear microsatellites (nSSRs), nuclear and plastid DNA sequences, and morphological systematics to identify significant evolutionary units and infer their evolutionary and biogeographical history. We detected five geographically coherent genetic clusters using nSSRs and three levels of genetic differentiation. First, one West African cluster matched perfectly with the morphospecies M. regia that formed a monophyletic clade at both DNA sequences. Second, a West African M. excelsa cluster formed a monophyletic group at plastid DNA and was more related to M. regia than to Central African M. excelsa, but shared many haplotypes with the latter at nuclear DNA. Third, three Central African clusters appeared little differentiated and shared most of their haplotypes. Although gene tree paraphyly could suggest a single species in Milicia following the phylogenetic species concept, the existence of mutual haplotypic exclusivity and nonadmixed genetic clusters in the contact area of the two taxa indicate strong reproductive isolation and, thus, two species following the biological species concept. Molecular dating of the first divergence events showed that speciation in Milicia is ancient (Tertiary), indicating that long-living tree taxa exhibiting genetic speciation may remain similar morphologically. [less ▲]

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See detailImproving halva quality with dietary fibres of sesame seed coats and date pulp, enriched with emulsifier
Elleuch, Mohamed; Bedigian, Dorothea; Maazoun, Bouthaina et al

in Food Chemistry (2014), 145

Supplementation of halva with waste products of manufacturing, for example defatted sesame seed coats (testae) and date fibre concentrate, can improve its nutritional and organoleptic qualities. These ... [more ▼]

Supplementation of halva with waste products of manufacturing, for example defatted sesame seed coats (testae) and date fibre concentrate, can improve its nutritional and organoleptic qualities. These constituents provide high fibre content and technological potential for retaining water and fat. Standard halva supplemented with date fibre concentrate, defatted sesame testae and emulsifier was evaluated for oil separation, texture and colour changes, sensory qualities and acceptability to a aste panel. Addition of both fibres with an emulsifier, improved emulsion stability and increased the hardness of halva significantly. The functional properties of sesame testae and date fibres promote nutrition and health, supplying polyphenol antioxidants and laxative benefits. [less ▲]

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See detailScale-down effect on the extracellular proteome of Escherichia coli: correlation with membrane permeability and modulation according substrate heterogeneities
Brognaux, Alison ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg; Twizere, Jean-Claude ULg et al

in Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering (2014)

Protein leakage is induced in well-mixed fed-batch bioreactor by comparison with cultures carried out in scale-down conditions. This effect is attributed to a progressive increase of cell membrane ... [more ▼]

Protein leakage is induced in well-mixed fed-batch bioreactor by comparison with cultures carried out in scale-down conditions. This effect is attributed to a progressive increase of cell membrane permeability and the synthesis of several outer-membrane components allowing to cope with substrate limitation commonly found in high-cell density culture. A comparative analysis of protein leakage has thus been performed in well-mixed bioreactors and in scale-down devices. The extracellular proteome of E.coli has been investigated by 2D-gel electrophoresis and identified by subsequent MALDI-TOF analysis. On 110 picked spots, 67 proteins have been identified and the sub-localisation and the molecular function of these proteins have been determined. A majority of the extracellular proteome was composed of outer-membrane and periplasmic proteins (64%) confirming the fact that leakage is involved in high-cell density cultures. About 50% of this extracellular proteome was composed of transport and binding proteins. Furthermore, the more abundant spots on the gel corresponded to porin proteins and periplasmic transporters. In particular, the OmpC porin was found to be very abundant. Moreover, the scale-down effect on this extracellular proteome has been investigated by 2D-DIGE analysis (2-Dimensional Differential in-Gel Electrophoresis) and significant differences have been observed by comparison with culture carried out in well-mixed systems. Indeed, since substrate limitation signal is alleviated in this kind of apparatus, cell permeability was lowered as shown by flow cytometry. In scale-down conditions, protein leakage was thus less abundant. [less ▲]

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See detailScale-down effect on the extracellular proteome of Escherichia coli: correlation with membrane permeability and modulation according substrate heterogeneities
Brognaux, Alison ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg; Twizere, Jean-Claude ULg et al

in Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering (2014)

Protein leakage is induced in well-mixed fed-batch bioreactor by comparison with cultures carried out in scale-down conditions. This effect is attributed to a progressive increase of cell membrane ... [more ▼]

Protein leakage is induced in well-mixed fed-batch bioreactor by comparison with cultures carried out in scale-down conditions. This effect is attributed to a progressive increase of cell membrane permeability and the synthesis of several outer-membrane components allowing to cope with substrate limitation commonly found in high-cell density culture. A comparative analysis of protein leakage has thus been performed in well-mixed bioreactors and in scale-down devices. The extracellular proteome of E.coli has been investigated by 2D-gel electrophoresis and identified by subsequent MALDI-TOF analysis. On 110 picked spots, 67 proteins have been identified and the sub-localisation and the molecular function of these proteins have been determined. A majority of the extracellular proteome was composed of outer-membrane and periplasmic proteins (64%) confirming the fact that leakage is involved in high-cell density cultures. About 50% of this extracellular proteome was composed of transport and binding proteins. Furthermore, the more abundant spots on the gel corresponded to porin proteins and periplasmic transporters. In particular, the OmpC porin was found to be very abundant. Moreover, the scale-down effect on this extracellular proteome has been investigated by 2D-DIGE analysis (2-Dimensional Differential in-Gel Electrophoresis) and significant differences have been observed by comparison with culture carried out in well-mixed systems. Indeed, since substrate limitation signal is alleviated in this kind of apparatus, cell permeability was lowered as shown by flow cytometry. In scale-down conditions, protein leakage was thus less abundant. [less ▲]

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See detailCombining PET images and neuropsychological test data for automatic diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease
Segovia-Román, Fermín ULg; Bastin, Christine ULg; Salmon, Eric ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2014), 9(2),

In recent years, several approaches to develop computer aided diagnosis (CAD) systems for dementia have been proposed. Some of these systems analyze neurological brain images by means of machine learning ... [more ▼]

In recent years, several approaches to develop computer aided diagnosis (CAD) systems for dementia have been proposed. Some of these systems analyze neurological brain images by means of machine learning algorithms in order to find the patterns that characterize the disorder, and a few combine several imaging modalities to improve the diagnostic accuracy. However, they usually do not use neuropsychological testing data in that analysis. The purpose of this work is to measure the advantages of using not only neuroimages as data source in CAD systems for dementia but also neuropsychological scores. To this aim, we compared the accuracy rates achieved by systems that use neuropsychological scores beside the imaging data in the classification step and systems that use only one of these data sources. In order to address the small sample size problem and facilitate the data combination, a dimensionality reduction step (implemented using three different algorithms) was also applied on the imaging data. After each image is summarized in a reduced set of image features, the data sources were combined and classified using three different data combination approaches and a Support Vector Machine classifier. That way, by testing different dimensionality reduction methods and several data combination approaches, we aim not only highlighting the advantages of using neuropsychological scores in the classification, but also implementing the most accurate computer system for early dementia detention. The accuracy of the CAD systems were estimated using a database with records from 46 subjects, diagnosed with MCI or AD. A peak accuracy rate of 89% was obtained. In all cases the accuracy achieved using both, neuropsychological scores and imaging data, was substantially higher than the one obtained using only the imaging data. [less ▲]

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See detailGold nanorods coated with a thermo-responsive poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) corona as drug delivery systems for remotely near infrared-triggered release
Liu, Ji ULg; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; De Pauw, Marie-Claire ULg et al

in Polymer Chemistry (2014), 5(3), 799-813

Poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PEG-b-PNVCL) copolymers are prepared from a PEG macro-chain transfer agent in DMF at 65 °C via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT ... [more ▼]

Poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PEG-b-PNVCL) copolymers are prepared from a PEG macro-chain transfer agent in DMF at 65 °C via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The well-defined PEG114-b-PNVCL237 copolymer with a cloud point temperature of 39 °C is used for the formation of a thermo-responsive polymer corona on the surface of gold nanorods (GNRs) via a “grafting-to” approach. Thermo-responsiveness and thermo-dependent optical properties of the as-obtained GNR@PEG-b-PNVCL nanoparticles are studied with dynamic light scattering and UV/vis spectroscopy techniques. Near infrared (NIR)-induced heating of GNR@PEG-b-PNVCL is also explored in aqueous suspension under NIR laser irradiation (802 nm, up to 250 mW). The potential of these GNR@PEG-b-PNVCL nanoparticles to be used as smart drug delivery systems (DDS) is then studied. A hydrophilic drug model, Rhodamine ® B, is used to assess the guest loading capacity, and triggered release behaviours are then evaluated under conventional external heating or internal heating induced by remote NIR irradiation. Cytotoxicity evaluation of the GNR@PEG-b-PNVCL against the fibroblast-like L929 cell line is carried out via the MTS assay in order to confirm the improved biocompatibility of the GNRs after polymer coating. These thermo-responsive GNR@PEG-b-PNVCL nanoparticles are promising DDS that combine the chemotherapeutic and phototherapeutic functions. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of extraction procedures on the chemical, rheological and textural properties of ulvan from Ulva lactuca of Tunisia coast
Yaich, Hela; Garna, Haikel; Besbes, Souhail et al

in Food Hydrocolloids (2014), (40), 53-63

The impact of the extraction conditions has been studied on the yield, chemical composition, rheological and textural properties of ulvan from the green seaweed Ulva lactuca. High ulvan yield was obtained ... [more ▼]

The impact of the extraction conditions has been studied on the yield, chemical composition, rheological and textural properties of ulvan from the green seaweed Ulva lactuca. High ulvan yield was obtained after combining enzymatic and chemical extraction but the lowest yield results at the drastic conditions (pH 1.5 and 90 C). Besides, solvent acidity was an important parameter controlling the ulvan extraction efficiency. The different extraction processes affected chemical composition of ulvan extracts and in particular, sulphate, ash and sugar contents. Low proportions of galactose, glucose and protein were also found in sulphated polysaccharides. The extract, which is resulted from combined enzymatic and chemical extraction, was mainly composed of high peak molecular weight polysaccharides. Ulvan hy-drocolloids demonstrated a pseudoplastic behavior. Viscoelastic behavior was carried out at a concen-tration of 1.6% (w/v) in the presence of 7 mM sodium tetraborate and at pH 7.5. However, polysaccharides formed a gel. It was not the case for the extract at pH 1.5 and 90 C under the same conditions. The results showed that a significant effect of the conditions of extraction on the textural characteristic (firmness, springiness and adhesiveness) of ulvan gels. [less ▲]

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See detailIs dark matter made of mirror matter? Evidence from cosmological data
Ciarcelluti, Paolo; Wallemacq, Quentin ULg

in Physics Letters B (2014), 729

We present new fast numerical simulations of cosmic microwave background and large scale structure in the case in which the cosmological dark matter is made entirely or partly of mirror matter. We ... [more ▼]

We present new fast numerical simulations of cosmic microwave background and large scale structure in the case in which the cosmological dark matter is made entirely or partly of mirror matter. We consider scalar adiabatic primordial perturbations at linear scales in a flat Universe. The speed of the simulations allows us for the first time to use Markov Chain Monte Carlo analyses to constrain the mirror parameters. A Universe with pure mirror matter can fit very well the observations, equivalently to the case of an admixture with cold dark matter. In both cases, the analyses show a clear indication of the presence of a consistent amount of mirror dark matter, 0.05 < Ω_{mirror} h^2 < 0.12. [less ▲]

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See detailTransnational modelling of the Meuse District with PegOpera simulation software
Grard, Aline ULg; Everbecq, Etienne ULg; MAGERMANS, POL ULg et al

in International Journal of River Basin Management (2014)

The environmental software PEGOPERA is a new tool resulting from the coupling of the PEGASE model (Planification Et Gestion de l’ASsainissement des Eaux, French acronym for planning and management of ... [more ▼]

The environmental software PEGOPERA is a new tool resulting from the coupling of the PEGASE model (Planification Et Gestion de l’ASsainissement des Eaux, French acronym for planning and management of water purification) with a friendly Graphical User Interface. PEGASE is an integrated and physically based river/basin model and is devoted to the characterisation of the physico-chemical state of surface water, at the scale of a whole watershed or basin, including International River Basin District (IRBD). The aim of the model is to simulate non stationary scenarios at various scales (from a few km² to hundreds of thousands km²) while handling the entire river tree (hundreds to thousands of water bodies). The purpose of PEGOPERA is to provide the stakeholders - as regards to surface water management - with a tool dedicated to the deterministic calculation of water quality of the rivers taking into account pollutant loads and discharges. In the context of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, the international coordination between neighbouring states and regions is required. The PEGOPERA software is adapted to simulate the IRBD Meuse. Indeed: i. An integrated transnational database relevant to the entire district is available; ii. The software is operational: the Meuse application has been calibrated and validated independently on most of regional sub-basins of the district; iii. The software could be used to simulate historical and future scenarios to assess water quality improvement that may be expected after applying basic and supplementary measures. The results demonstrate the relevance of the use of this software in this kind of transnational modelling. Some regions of the International District of the Meuse are validated on historical situations. Other parts still need to be improved in terms of consolidating the input databases. Prospective scenarios implementing measures from the WFD are carried out at this District scale. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental investigation of meandering jets in shallow reservoirs
Peltier, Yann ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in Environmental Fluid Mechanics (2014)

Meandering flows in rectangular shallow reservoirs were experimentally investi- gated. The characteristic frequency, the longitudinal wave length and the mean lateral exten- sion of the meandering jet ... [more ▼]

Meandering flows in rectangular shallow reservoirs were experimentally investi- gated. The characteristic frequency, the longitudinal wave length and the mean lateral exten- sion of the meandering jet were extracted from the first paired modes, obtained by a proper orthogonal decomposition of the surface velocity field measured by large scale PIV. The depth-normalised characteristic lengths and the Strouhal number were then compared to the main dimensionless numbers characterizing the experiments: Froude number, friction num- ber and reservoir shape factor. The normalised wave length and mean lateral extension of the meandering jet are neither correlated with the Froude number nor with the reservoir shape factor; but a clear relationship is found with the friction number. Similarly, the Strouhal num- ber is found proportional to a negative power of the friction number. In contrast, the Froude number and the reservoir shape factor enable to predict the occurrence of a meandering flow pattern: meandering jets occur for Froude number greater than 0.21 and for a shape factor smaller than 6.2. [less ▲]

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See detailCoastal flood damage and adaptation costs under 21st century sea-level rise
Hinkel, J.; Lincke, D.; Vafeidis, A. T. et al

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2014), online

Coastal flood damage and adaptation costs under 21st century sea-level rise are assessed on a global scale taking into account a wide range of uncertainties in continental topography data, population data ... [more ▼]

Coastal flood damage and adaptation costs under 21st century sea-level rise are assessed on a global scale taking into account a wide range of uncertainties in continental topography data, population data, protection strategies, socioeconomic development and sea-level rise. Uncertainty in global mean and regional sea level was derived from four different climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5, each combined with three land-ice scenarios based on the published range of contributions from ice sheets and glaciers. Without adaptation, 0.2–4.6% of global population is expected to be flooded annually in 2100 under 25–123 cm of global mean sea-level rise, with expected annual losses of 0.3–9.3% of global gross domestic product. Damages of this magnitude are very unlikely to be tolerated by society and adaptation will be widespread. The global costs of protecting the coast with dikes are significant with annual investment and maintenance costs of US$ 12–71 billion in 2100, but much smaller than the global cost of avoided damages even without accounting for indirect costs of damage to regional production supply. Flood damages by the end of this century are much more sensitive to the applied protection strategy than to variations in climate and socioeconomic scenarios as well as in physical data sources (topography and climate model). Our results emphasize the central role of long-term coastal adaptation strategies. These should also take into account that protecting large parts of the developed coast increases the risk of catastrophic consequences in the case of defense failure. [less ▲]

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See detailA multi-method approach to radial-velocity measurement for single-object spectra
David, M.; Blomme, R.; Frémat, Y. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 562

Context. The derivation of radial velocities from large numbers of spectra that typically result from survey work, requires automation. However, except for the classical cases of slowly rotating late-type ... [more ▼]

Context. The derivation of radial velocities from large numbers of spectra that typically result from survey work, requires automation. However, except for the classical cases of slowly rotating late-type spectra, existing methods of measuring Doppler shifts require fine-tuning to avoid a loss of accuracy due to the idiosyncrasies of individual spectra. The radial velocity spectrometer (RVS) on the Gaia mission, which will start operating very soon, prompted a new attempt at creating a measurement pipeline to handle a wide variety of spectral types. <BR /> Aims: The present paper describes the theoretical background on which this software is based. However, apart from the assumption that only synthetic templates are used, we do not rely on any of the characteristics of this instrument, so our results should be relevant for most telescope-detector combinations. <BR /> Methods: We propose an approach based on the simultaneous use of several alternative measurement methods, each having its own merits and drawbacks, and conveying the spectral information in a different way, leading to different values for the measurement. A comparison or a combination of the various results either leads to a "best estimate" or indicates to the user that the observed spectrum is problematic and should be analysed manually. <BR /> Results: We selected three methods and analysed the relationships and differences between them from a unified point of view; with each method an appropriate estimator for the individual random error is chosen. We also develop a procedure for tackling the problem of template mismatch in a systematic way. Furthermore, we propose several tests for studying and comparing the performance of the various methods as a function of the atmospheric parameters of the observed objects. Finally, we describe a procedure for obtaining a knowledge-based combination of the various Doppler-shift measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh-frequency A-type pulsators discovered using SuperWASP
Holdsworth, Daniel L.; Smalley, B.; Gillon, Michaël ULg et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2014)

We present the results of a survey using the WASP archive to search for high-frequency pulsations in F-, A- and B-type stars. Over 1.5 million targets have been searched for pulsations with amplitudes ... [more ▼]

We present the results of a survey using the WASP archive to search for high-frequency pulsations in F-, A- and B-type stars. Over 1.5 million targets have been searched for pulsations with amplitudes greater than 0.5 millimagnitude. We identify over 350 stars which pulsate with periods less than 30 min. Spectroscopic follow-up of selected targets has enabled us to confirm 10 new rapidly oscillating Ap stars, 13 pulsating Am stars and the fastest known δ Scuti star. We also observe stars which show pulsations in both the high-frequency domain and the low-frequency δ Scuti range. This work shows the power of the WASP photometric survey to find variable stars with amplitudes well below the nominal photometric precision per observation. [less ▲]

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See detailAlignment in star-debris disc systems seen by Herschel
Greaves, J. S.; Kennedy, G. M.; Thureau, N. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society : Letters (2014), 438

Many nearby main-sequence stars have been searched for debris using the far-infrared Herschel satellite, within the DEBRIS, DUNES and Guaranteed-Time Key Projects. We discuss here 11 stars of spectral ... [more ▼]

Many nearby main-sequence stars have been searched for debris using the far-infrared Herschel satellite, within the DEBRIS, DUNES and Guaranteed-Time Key Projects. We discuss here 11 stars of spectral types A-M where the stellar inclination is known and can be compared to that of the spatially resolved dust belts. The discs are found to be well aligned with the stellar equators, as in the case of the Sun's Kuiper belt, and unlike many close-in planets seen in transit surveys. The ensemble of stars here can be fitted with a star-disc tilt of ≲ 10°. These results suggest that proposed mechanisms for tilting the star or disc in fact operate rarely. A few systems also host imaged planets, whose orbits at tens of au are aligned with the debris discs, contrary to what might be expected in models where external perturbers induce tilts. [less ▲]

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See detailDo Photobiont Switch and Cephalodia Emancipation Act as Evolutionary Drivers in the Lichen Symbiosis? A Case Study in the Pannariaceae (Peltigerales)
Magain, Nicolas ULg; Sérusiaux, Emmanuël ULg

in PLoS ONE (2014), 9(2), 89876

Lichen symbioses in the Pannariaceae associate an ascomycete and either cyanobacteria alone (usually Nostoc; bipartite thalli) or green algae and cyanobacteria (cyanobacteria being located in dedicated ... [more ▼]

Lichen symbioses in the Pannariaceae associate an ascomycete and either cyanobacteria alone (usually Nostoc; bipartite thalli) or green algae and cyanobacteria (cyanobacteria being located in dedicated structures called cephalodia; tripartite thalli) as photosynthetic partners (photobionts). In bipartite thalli, cyanobacteria can either be restricted to a well-delimited layer within the thallus (‘pannarioid’ thalli) or spread over the thallus that becomes gelatinous when wet (‘collematoid’ thalli). We studied the collematoid genera Kroswia and Physma and an undescribed tripartite species along with representatives of the pannarioid genera Fuscopannaria, Pannaria and Parmeliella. Molecular inferences from 4 loci for the fungus and 1 locus for the photobiont and statistical analyses within a phylogenetic framework support the following: (a) several switches from pannarioid to collematoid thalli occured and are correlated with photobiont switches; the collematoid genus Kroswia is nested within the pannarioid genus Fuscopannaria and the collematoid genus Physma is sister to the pannarioid Parmeliella mariana group; (b) Nostoc associated with collematoid thalli in the Pannariaceae are related to that of the Collemataceae (which contains only collematoid thalli), and never associated with pannarioid thalli; Nostoc associated with pannarioid thalli also associate in other families with similar morphology; (c) ancestors of several lineages in the Pannariaceae developed tripartite thalli, bipartite thalli probably resulting from cephalodia emancipation from tripartite thalli which eventually evolved and diverged, as suggested by the same Nostoc present in the collematoid genus Physma and in the cephalodia of a closely related tripartite species; Photobiont switches and cephalodia emancipation followed by divergence are thus suspected to act as evolutionary drivers in the family Pannariaceae. [less ▲]

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See detailTargeting the synovial angiogenesis as a novel treatment approach to osteoarthritis.
Henrotin, Yves ULg; Pesesse, Laurence; Lambert, Cécile ULg

in Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease (2014), 6(1), 20-34

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See detailQuasicontinuum study of the shear behavior of defective tilt grain boundaries in Cu
Péron-Lührs, Vincent ULg; Sansoz, Frédéric; Noels, Ludovic ULg

in Acta Materialia (2014), 64

Atomistic simulations using the quasicontinuum method are used to study the role of vacancy defects and angström-scale voids on the mechanical behavior of five tilt bicrystals containing grain boundaries ... [more ▼]

Atomistic simulations using the quasicontinuum method are used to study the role of vacancy defects and angström-scale voids on the mechanical behavior of five tilt bicrystals containing grain boundaries (GBs) that have been predicted to exhibit characteristic deformation processes of nanocrystalline and nanotwinned metals: GB-mediated dislocation emission, interface sliding, and shear-coupled GB migration. We demonstrate that such nanoscale defects have a profound impact on interfacial shear strength and underlying deformation mechanisms in copper GBs due to void-induced local stresses. In asymmetric high and low angle GBs, we find that voids become preferential sites for dislocation nucleation when the void size exceeds 4 Å. In symmetric 9(221) GBs prone to sliding, voids are shown to shield the local shear stress, which considerably reduces the extent of atom shuffling at the interface. In symmetric Sigma5(210) and Sigma27(115) GBs, we find that the effect of voids on shear-coupled GB migration depends on the GB tilt direction considered, as well as on the size and number of voids. Remarkably, large voids can completely abate the GB migration process in Sigma 27(115) GBs. For all GB types, the interfacial shear strength is shown to decrease linearly as the volume fraction of voids at the interface increases; however, this study also suggests that this decrease is much more pronounced in GBs deforming by sliding than by dislocation nucleation or migration, owing to larger void-induced stresses. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasurement of urinary biomarkers of parabens, benzophenone-3 and phthalates in a Belgian population
Dewalque, Lucas ULg; PIRARD, Catherine ULg; Charlier, Corinne ULg

in BioMed Research International (2014), 2014(Article ID 649314,), 1-13

Parabens, benzophenone-3 (BP3) and phthalates are commonly used as antimicrobial conservator, UV-filter and plasticizer respectively, and are thought to exhibit endocrine disrupting properties. These ... [more ▼]

Parabens, benzophenone-3 (BP3) and phthalates are commonly used as antimicrobial conservator, UV-filter and plasticizer respectively, and are thought to exhibit endocrine disrupting properties. These endocrine disrupting activities have been recently assumed to lead to cutaneous malignant melanoma. Humans are exposed to these chemicals through different sources such as food, personal care products or cosmetics. In this study we measured urinary levels of 4 parabens, BP3 and 7 metabolites of phthalates in samples collected from 261 participants living in and around Liege (Belgium). The analyses were carried out by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using isotopic dilution. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the urinary levels of these 3 classes of chemicals are reported for the same general population in Belgium. Most of the parabens, the BP3 and all the phthalate metabolites were detected in 82.8 to 100.0% of the samples. For most of these chemicals, the exposure patterns significantly differ between children and adults, but also between males and females, especially with higher concentrations of parabens and phthalate metabolites in female and children subjects respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailDe nieuwe fairness tax: EU- en verdragsconform ?
Peeters, Bart ULg

in Fiscologue International (2014), 361

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See detailA New Method for the Determination of Cyanide Ions and Their Quantification in Some Senegalese Cassava Varieties
Diallo, Younoussa; Gueye, Momar Talla; Ndiaye, Cheikh et al

in American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (2014), 5(3), 181-187

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a starchy staple food that previous researches have showed to contain cyanogenic compounds, precursors of hydrocyanic acid, undoubtedly toxic for humans. With the aim ... [more ▼]

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a starchy staple food that previous researches have showed to contain cyanogenic compounds, precursors of hydrocyanic acid, undoubtedly toxic for humans. With the aim to determine food security in cassava, this study developed a simple, fast and less expensive step for quantifying cyanide ions by using micro-diffusion with modified Conway cells. After an enzymatic degradation, the cyanide ions were quantified by electrochemical procedures. The validation of this method is estimated. The concentration of cyanide ions at different part of the samples was determined. The results showed high toxicity in some fresh Senegalese consumed cassava varieties (>100 mg HCN·kg﹣1). However, in the processed cassava products, less than 10 mg HCN·kg﹣1 was found in the different varieties studied except for the chips where the levels of CN﹣ contents were important (>49 mg HCN·kg﹣1). [less ▲]

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See detailImplementation of the ALERT algorithm, a new dispatcher-assisted telephone cardiopulmonary resuscitation protocol, in non-Advanced Medical Priority Dispatch System (AMPDS) Emergency Medical Services centres.
STIPULANTE, Samuel ULg; Tubes, Rebecca; Fassi, Mehdi El et al

in Resuscitation (2014), 85(2), 177-181

Objectives: Early bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a key factor in improving survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The ALERT (Algorithme Liegeois d'Encadrement a la ... [more ▼]

Objectives: Early bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a key factor in improving survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The ALERT (Algorithme Liegeois d'Encadrement a la Reanimation par Telephone) algorithm has the potential to help bystanders initiate CPR. This study evaluates the effectiveness of the implementation of this protocol in a non-Advanced Medical Priority Dispatch System area. Methods: We designed a before and after study based on a 3-month retrospective assessment of victims of OHCA in 2009, before the implementation of the ALERT protocol in Liege emergency medical communication centre (EMCC), and the prospective evaluation of the same 3 months in 2011, immediately after the implementation. Results: At the moment of the call, dispatchers were able to identify 233 OHCA in the first period and 235 in the second. Victims were predominantly male (59%, both periods), with mean ages of 64.1 and 63.9 years, respectively. In 2009, only 9.9% victims benefited from bystander CPR, this increased to 22.5% in 2011 (p<0.0002). The main reasons for protocol under-utilisation were: assistance not offered by the dispatcher (42,3%), caller physically remote from the victim (20.6%). Median time from call to first compression, defined here as no flow time, was 253sec in 2009 and 168sec in 2011 (NS). Ten victims were admitted to hospital after ROSC in 2009 and 13 in 2011 (p=0.09). Conclusion: From the beginning and despite its under-utilisation, the ALERT protocol significantly improved the number of patients in whom bystander CPR was attempted. [less ▲]

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See detailArtistic separation versus artistic mixing in European multicultural cities
Martiniello, Marco ULg

in Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power (2014), 21(1), 1-9

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See detailReliability and validity of a new French-language triage algorithm : the ELISA scale
JOBE, Jérôme ULg; Ghuysen, Alexandre ULg; GERARD, P et al

in Emergency Medicine Journal (2014), 31(2), 115-20

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See detailLe traitement médical conservateur des tendinopathies du genou
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; BAUVIR, Philippe ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg et al

in Ortho-Rhumato (2014), 12(1), 31-34

Les traitements «passifs» des tendinopathies sont généralement utilisés de manière empirique pour combattre la douleur mais ne modifient pas la structure histologique du tendon. Par contre, le travail ... [more ▼]

Les traitements «passifs» des tendinopathies sont généralement utilisés de manière empirique pour combattre la douleur mais ne modifient pas la structure histologique du tendon. Par contre, le travail excentrique a pour but de contrecarrer une théorie étiopathogénique proposant une insuffisance de résistance du tendon exposé à des charges externes qui peuvent progressivement entrainer des lésions. Les résultats cliniques suite à cette prise en charge montrent souvent une évolution favorable des douleurs. Les ondes de choc extra-corporelles demeurent une option thérapeutique non-invasives et présentent peu de complications. De plus, elles sont employées avec succès pour traiter des tendinopathies chroniques rebelles aux traitements conservateurs classiques. Le plasma riche en plaquettes (PRP) est obtenu par centrifugation de sang autologue afin d’obtenir une grande concentration plaquettaire dépendant de la technique employée. Malgré la preuve de l’efficacité du PRP sur la régénération tissulaire en laboratoire, il existe actuellement peu de preuves cliniques tangibles concernant le traitement des tendinopathies chroniques. Enfin, d’autres nouvelles options thérapeutiques (patches de dérivés nitrés, infiltrations de polidocanol, d’acide hyaluronique et de cellules souches) sont également abordées. [less ▲]

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See detailAdolf Eichmann sous la loupe des tests projectifs: TAT, Rorschach, Szondi
Peralta, Alberto; Kramer, Richard; Stassart, Martine ULg

in Szondiana (2014)

Under consideration of three major projective personality tests (TAT, Rorschach and Szonditests) it appears that Adolf Eichmann who has organized the deportation of jewish european people to Auschwitz ... [more ▼]

Under consideration of three major projective personality tests (TAT, Rorschach and Szonditests) it appears that Adolf Eichmann who has organized the deportation of jewish european people to Auschwitz, was no common individual but a perverse one with schizoparanoïd features behind an obsessionnal mask. These data contradict the famous opinion of Hanna Arendt about "the banality of evil" [less ▲]

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See detailPrecision synthesis of poly(ionic liquid)-based block copolymers by cobalt-mediated radical polymerization and preliminary study of their self-assembling properties
Coupillaud, Paul; Fèvre, Maréva; Wirotius, Anne-Laure et al

in Macromolecular Rapid Communications (2014), 35(4), 422-430

A poly(ionic liquid)-based block copolymer (PIL BCP), namely, poly(vinyl acetate)-b-poly(N-vinyl-3-butylimidazolium bromide), PVAc-b-PVBuImBr, is synthesized by sequential cobalt-mediated radical ... [more ▼]

A poly(ionic liquid)-based block copolymer (PIL BCP), namely, poly(vinyl acetate)-b-poly(N-vinyl-3-butylimidazolium bromide), PVAc-b-PVBuImBr, is synthesized by sequential cobalt-mediated radical polymerization (CMRP). A PVAc precursor is first prepared at 30 °C in bulk by CMRP of VAc, using bis(acetylacetonato)cobalt(II), Co(acac)2, and a radical source (V-70). Growth of PVBuImBr from PVAc-Co(acac)2 is accomplished by CMRP in DMF/MeOH (2:1, v/v). This PIL BCP self-assembles in the sub-micron size range into aggregated core–shell micelles in THF, whereas polymeric vesicles are observed in water, as evidenced by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Thin-solid sample cut from raw materials analyzed by TEM shows an ordered lamellar organization by temperature-dependent synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Anion exchange can be accomplished to achieve the corresponding PIL BCP with bis(trifluorosulfonyl)imide (Tf2N−) anions, which also gives rise to an ordered lamellar phase in bulk samples. A complete suppression of SAXS second-order reflection suggests that this compound has a symmetric volume fraction (f ≈ 0.5). SAXS characterization of both di- and triblock PIL BCP analogues previously reported also shows a lamellar phase of very similar behavior, with only an increase of the period by about 8% at 60 °C. [less ▲]

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See detailSuspicion de fibrose pulmonaire idiopathique chez un West Highland White Terrier
Roels, Elodie ULg; Bolen, Géraldine ULg; Clercx, Cécile ULg

in Monde Vétérinaire (Le) : European Veterinary Magazine (2014), 139

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See detailDevelopment of the ultrastructure of sonic muscles: a kind of neoteny?
Millot, Sandie; Parmentier, Eric ULg

in BMC Evolutionary Biology (2014), 14

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See detailContribution of Spray Droplet Pinning Fragmentation to Canopy Retention
Boukhalfa, Hassina dite Hafida ULg; Massinon, Mathieu ULg; Belhamra, Mohamed et al

in Crop Protection (2014), 56

Drop behaviour during impact affects retention. The increase of adhesion is usually seen as the objective when applying crop protection products, while bouncing and shattering are seen as detrimental to ... [more ▼]

Drop behaviour during impact affects retention. The increase of adhesion is usually seen as the objective when applying crop protection products, while bouncing and shattering are seen as detrimental to spray retention. However, observation of drop impacts on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) using high speed shadowgraphy shows that bouncing and fragmentation can occur in Cassie-Baxter as well as in Wenzel wetting regimes. In this last regime, a part of the drop may remain stuck on the surface, contributing to retention. Using simultaneous measurements of drop impacts with high speed imaging and of retention with fluorophotometry for spray mixtures on excised barley leaves using a Teejet 11003 nozzle at 0.2 MPa, it is observed that about 50% of the drops that fragmented in the Wenzel state remain on the horizontal leaf. Depending on the spray mixture, these impact outcomes accounted for 28 to 46% of retention, the higher contribution being correlated with bigger VMD (Volume Median Diameter). This contribution is not negligible and should be considered when modelling spray retention processes. [less ▲]

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See detailLes enjeux stratégiques de l’Union européenne et de la Turquie dans les Balkans occidentaux
Lika, Liridon ULg

in Interventions Economiques = Papers in Political Economy (2014)

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See detailInfiniment petits en économie
Bair, Jacques ULg; Henry, Valérie ULg

in Tangente, l'aventure mathématique (2014), 156

Depuis la création de l'analyse mathématique, principalement par Newton et Leibniz, les économistes ont découvert qu'ils pouvaient exploiter avec succès le concept mathématique d'infiniment petit dans ... [more ▼]

Depuis la création de l'analyse mathématique, principalement par Newton et Leibniz, les économistes ont découvert qu'ils pouvaient exploiter avec succès le concept mathématique d'infiniment petit dans leurs raisonnements. Dans cet article est donné un aperçu des premières apparitions de l'analyse infinitésimale en économie. [less ▲]

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See detailINFLUENCE OF JUMPING STRATEGY ON KINETIC PARAMETERS
Jidovtseff, Boris ULg; Quievre, Jacques; Harris Nigel et al

in Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness (2014), 54

Aim: Different jumping strategies can be used during plyometric training. Understanding how manipulating variables such as the counter-movement, flexion amplitude, the drop and the load could influence ... [more ▼]

Aim: Different jumping strategies can be used during plyometric training. Understanding how manipulating variables such as the counter-movement, flexion amplitude, the drop and the load could influence neuromuscular adaptation would be beneficial for coaches and athletes. The purpose of this study was to analyze how these variations in the vertical jump influenced kinematic and kinetic parameters as measured by a force platform. Methods: Ten male subjects performed, eight kinds of vertical jumps on a force platform : (1) squat jump (SJ); (2) shallow counter-movement jump (S-CMJ); (3) natural counter-movement jump (N-CMJ); (4) deep counter-movement jump (D-CMJ); (5) loaded (20kg) counter-movement jump (20-CMJ); (6) shallow drop jump (S-DJ); (7) deep drop jump (D-DJ); (8) six consecutive jump test (6CJ). Customised Labview software was used to calculate time, displacement, velocity, acceleration, force, power, impulse and stiffness. After statistical analysis, jumping variables were grouped to achieve spécific training objectives. Results: The mechanical parameters were largely influenced by the jump strategy, all the deep jumps produced superior jump heights and concentric velocities as compared to the shallow jumps. The exercises associated with greater power outputs were the S-DJ (5386±1095w) and 6CJ (5795±1365w) that involved short impulse durations and very high accelerations. The greatest values of muscle stiffness were not recorded during the highest vertical jumps, meaning that stiffness is not critical for jumping high. Conclusion: This study gives an overview of what is changing when we manipulate jumping variables and instructions given to the athletes. Plyometric exercises should be carefully selected according to the sport and specific individual needs. [less ▲]

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See detailCombination of Genomic and Proteomic Approaches to Characterize the Symbiotic Population of the Banana Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
De Clerck, Caroline ULg; Tsuchida, Tsutomu; Massart, Sébastien ULg et al

in Environmental Entomology (2014)

Aphids are known to live in symbiosis with speciÞc bacteria called endosymbionts that have positive or negative impacts on their hosts. In this study, six banana aphid (Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel ... [more ▼]

Aphids are known to live in symbiosis with speciÞc bacteria called endosymbionts that have positive or negative impacts on their hosts. In this study, six banana aphid (Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel) strains from various geographical origins (Gabon, Madagascar, and Burundi) were screened to determine their symbiotic content, using complementary genomic (16S rDNA sequencing and speciÞc polymerase chain reaction) and proteomic (two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis coupled with protein identiÞcation by matrix assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-ßight mass spectrometry) approaches. Despite the geographical heterogeneity, the combined methods allowed us to identify the same two symbionts in the six aphids strains tested: Buchnera aphidicola and Wolbachia. Although B. aphidicola is found in almost all aphid species, the systematic presence of Wolbachia in banana aphids is particularly interesting, as this bacterium usually has a low prevalence in aphid species. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the Wolbachia sp. strain found in P. nigronervosa was very similar to the strain present in aphids of the genus Cinara, known to have developed a strong and long-term symbiotic association with Wolbachia. The high level of asexual reproduction in P. nigronervosa could be linked to the presence of Wolbachia, but its prevalence also suggests that this symbiotic bacterium could play a more essential role in its aphid host. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of a colorimetric method for the dosage of OI- anions and I2 in aqueous media
Bafort, Françoise ULg; Barthelemy, Jean-Paul ULg; Parisi, Olivier ULg et al

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2014), 79(1), 155-160

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See detailEpigenetic modulators mitigate angiogenesis through a complex transcriptomic network
Shiva Shankar, T.V.; Willems, Luc ULg

in Vascular Pharmacology (2014), 60

In this review, we summarize the knowledge pertaining to the role of epigenetics in the regulation of angiogenesis. In particular, we show that lysine acetylation and cytosine methylation are important ... [more ▼]

In this review, we summarize the knowledge pertaining to the role of epigenetics in the regulation of angiogenesis. In particular, we show that lysine acetylation and cytosine methylation are important transcriptional regulators of angiogenic genes in endothelial cells. Lysine acetylation and cytosine methylation inhibitors idiosyncratically tune the transcriptome and affect expression of key modulators of angiogenesis such as VEGF and eNOS. Transcriptomic profiling also reveals a series of novel genes that are concomitantly affected by epigenetic modulators. The reversibility and overall tolerability of currently available epigenetic inhibitors open up the prospect of therapeutic intervention in pathologies where angiogenesis is exacerbated. This type of multitargeted strategy has the major advantage of overcoming the compensatory feedback mechanisms that characterize single anti-angiogenic factors. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of protein modifications in senescence of freeze-dried Acetobacter senegalensis during storage
Shafiei, Rasoul ULg; Zarmehrkhorshid, Raziyeh ULg; Bentaib, Azeddine ULg et al

in Microbial Cell Factories (2014)

Background Loss of viability is one of the most important problems during starter culture production. Previous research has mostly focused on the production process of bacterial starters, but there are ... [more ▼]

Background Loss of viability is one of the most important problems during starter culture production. Previous research has mostly focused on the production process of bacterial starters, but there are few studies about cellular protein deterioration causing cell defectiveness during storage. In the present study, we investigated the influence of storage temperature (−21, 4, 35°C) on the cellular protein modifications which may contribute to the senescence of freeze-dried Acetobacter senegalensis. Results Heterogeneous populations composed of culturable cells, viable but non-culturable cells (VBNC) and dead cells were generated when freeze-dried cells were kept at −21 and 4°C for 12 months whereas higher storage temperature (35°C) mainly caused death of the cells. The analysis of stored cell proteome by 2D-DiGE demonstrated a modified pattern of protein profile for cell kept at 4 and 35°C due to the formation of protein spot trains and shift of Isoelectric point (pI). Quantification of carbonylated protein by ELISA showed that the cells stored at 4 and 35°C had higher carbonylated protein contents than fresh cells. 2D-DiGE followed by Western blotting also confirmed the carbonylation of cellular proteins involved in translation process and energy generation. The auto-fluorescent feature of cells kept at 35°C increased significantly which may be an indication of protein glycation during storage. In addition, the percentage of cellular unsaturated fatty acid and the solubility of cellular proteins decreased upon storage of cells at higher temperature suggesting that peroxidation of fatty acids and possibly protein lipidation and oxidation occurred. Conclusions High storage temperature induces some deteriorative reactions such as protein oxidation, lipidation and glycation which may cause further protein modifications like pI-shift, and protein insolubility. These modifications can partly account for the changes in cell viability. It can also be deduced that even moderate carbonylation of some critical cellular proteins (like ribosomal proteins) may lead to VBNC formation or death of freeze-dried bacteria. Moreover, it seems that other mechanisms of biomolecule deterioration preceding protein carbonylation lead to VBNC formation under very low storage temperature. [less ▲]

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See detailMicroorganisms living on macroalgae: diversity, interactions, and biotechnological applications
Martin, Marjolaine ULg; Portetelle, Daniel ULg; Michel, Gurvan et al

in Applied Microbiology & Biotechnology (2014)

Marine microorganisms play key roles in every marine ecological process, hence the growing interest in studying their populations and functions. Microbial communities on algae remain underexplored ... [more ▼]

Marine microorganisms play key roles in every marine ecological process, hence the growing interest in studying their populations and functions. Microbial communities on algae remain underexplored, however, despite their huge biodiversity and the fact that they differ markedly from those living freely in seawater. The study of this microbiota and of its relationships with algal hosts should provide crucial information for ecological investigations on algae and aquatic ecosystems. Furthermore, because these microorganisms interact with algae in multiple, complex ways, they constitute an interesting source of novel bioactive compounds with biotechnological potential, such as dehalogenases, antimicrobials, and alga-specific polysaccharidases (e.g., agarases, carrageenases, and alginate lyases). Here, to demonstrate the huge potential of alga-associated organisms and their metabolites in developing future biotechnological applications, we first describe the immense diversity and density of these microbial biofilms. We further describe their complex interactions with algae, leading to the production of specific bioactive compounds and hydrolytic enzymes of biotechnological interest. We end with a glance at their potential use in medical and industrial applications. [less ▲]

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See detailCoûts de soins de malades diabétiques hospitalisés en court séjour à Lubumbashi : Etude descriptive transversale
Mundongo Tshamba, Henri; Kaj Malonga, Françoise; Ditend, Grévisse et al

in Diabetes Research & Clinical Practice (2014), 103(Supplement 1), 32

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See detailVeroordeelde RV op dividenden: zijn de aanpassingen te beperkt ?
Peeters, Bart ULg

in Fiscologue International (2014), 361

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See detailWhite Matter Changes in Comatose Survivors of Anoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy and Traumatic Brain Injury: Comparative Diffusion-Tensor Imaging Study
Van Der Eerden, Anke; Khalilzadeh, Omid; Perlbarg, Vincent et al

in Radiology (2014), 270

Purpose:To analyze white matter pathologic abnormalities by using diffusion-tensor (DT) imaging in a multicenter prospective cohort of comatose patients following cardiac arrest or traumatic brain injury ... [more ▼]

Purpose:To analyze white matter pathologic abnormalities by using diffusion-tensor (DT) imaging in a multicenter prospective cohort of comatose patients following cardiac arrest or traumatic brain injury (TBI). Materials and Methods: Institutional review board approval and informed consent from proxies and control subjects were obtained. DT imaging was performed 5–57 days after insult in 49 cardiac arrest and 40 TBI patients. To control for DT imaging–processing variability, patients’ values were normalized to those of 111 control subjects. Automated segmentation software calculated normalized axial diffusivity (λ1) and radial diffusivity (λ) in 19 predefined white matter regions of interest (ROIs). DT imaging variables were compared by using general linear modeling, and side-to-side Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated. P values were corrected for multiple testing (Bonferroni). Results:In central white matter, λ1 differed from that in control subjects in six of seven TBI ROIs and five of seven cardiac arrest ROIs (all P < .01). The λ differed from that in control subjects in all ROIs in both patient groups (P < .01). In hemispheres, λ1 was decreased compared with that in control subjects in three of 12 TBI ROIs (P < .05) and nine of 12 cardiac arrest ROIs (P < .01). The λ was increased in all TBI ROIs (P < .01) and in seven of 12 cardiac arrest ROIs (P < .05). Cerebral hemisphere λ1 was lower in cardiac arrest than in TBI in six of 12 ROIs (P < .01), while λ was higher in TBI than in cardiac arrest in eight of 12 ROIs (P < .01). Diffusivity values were symmetrically distributed in cardiac arrest (P < .001 for side-to-side correlation) but not in TBI patients. Conclusion:DT imaging findings are consistent with the known predominance of cerebral hemisphere axonal injury in cardiac arrest and chiefly central myelin injury in TBI. This consistency supports the validity of DT imaging for differentiating axon and myelin damage in vivo in humans. [less ▲]

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See detailLa validité des procédures conventionnelles de récusation d’arbitres
Caprasse, Olivier ULg; Henry, Frédéric ULg

in Journal des Tribunaux (2014)

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See detailModalités prescriptives des nouveaux dispositifs de gestion et logiques identitaires des managers publics
Pichault, François ULg; Schoenaers, Frédéric ULg

in RH Publica : (2014), 4-2013(oct-nov-dec), 16-21

Les pouvoirs locaux sont soumis, comme tous les autres niveaux de pouvoir, à de profonds mouvements de « managérialisation », dont la récente transformation des titres de secrétaire communal et de ... [more ▼]

Les pouvoirs locaux sont soumis, comme tous les autres niveaux de pouvoir, à de profonds mouvements de « managérialisation », dont la récente transformation des titres de secrétaire communal et de receveur communal en directeur général et directeur financier sont des illustrations emblématiques. Les pouvoirs communaux sont désormais invités à rédiger des « programmes stratégiques transversaux » (PST) et à se doter de divers outils de gestion en vue d’améliorer le service aux citoyens dans un cadre budgétaire restreint. Le présent article propose une réflexion sur la capacité de ces nouveaux outils à façonner l’action publique au niveau du management intermédiaire… [less ▲]

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See detailMagnetospheric Science Objectives of the Juno Mission
Bagenal, Fran; Adriani, A.; Allegrini, F. et al

in Space Science Reviews (2014)

In July 2016, NASA’s Juno mission becomes the first spacecraft to enter polar orbit of Jupiter and enture deep into unexplored polar territories of the magnetosphere. Focusing on these polar regions, we ... [more ▼]

In July 2016, NASA’s Juno mission becomes the first spacecraft to enter polar orbit of Jupiter and enture deep into unexplored polar territories of the magnetosphere. Focusing on these polar regions, we review current understanding of the structure and dynamics of the magnetosphere and summarize the outstanding issues. The Juno mission profile involves (a) a several-week approach from the dawn side of Jupiter’s magnetosphere, with an orbit-insertion maneuver on July 6, 2016; (b) a 107-day capture orbit, also on the dawn flank; and (c) a series of thirty 11-day science orbits with the spacecraft flying over Jupiter’s poles and ducking under the radiation belts. We show how Juno’s view of the magnetosphere evolves over the year of science orbits. The Juno spacecraft carries a range of instruments that take particles and fields measurements, remote sensing observations of auroral emissions at UV, visible, IR and radio wavelengths, and detect microwave emission from Jupiter’s radiation belts. We summarize how these Juno measurements address issues of auroral processes, microphysical plasma physics, ionosphere-magnetosphere and satellite-magnetosphere coupling, sources and sinks of plasma, the radiation belts, and the dynamics of the outer magnetosphere. To reach Jupiter, the Juno spacecraft passed close to the Earth on October 9, 2013, gaining the necessary energy to get to Jupiter. The Earth flyby provided an opportunity to test Juno’s instrumentation as well as take scientific data in the terrestrial magnetosphere, in conjunction with ground-based and Earth-orbiting assets. [less ▲]

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See detailA Super-Jupiter orbiting a late-type star: A refined analysis of microlensing event OGLE-2012-BLG-0406
Tsapras, Y.; Choi, J.-Y.; Street, R. A. et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2014), 782

We present a detailed analysis of survey and follow-up observations of microlensing event OGLE-2012-BLG-0406 based on data obtained from 10 different observatories. Intensive coverage of the lightcurve ... [more ▼]

We present a detailed analysis of survey and follow-up observations of microlensing event OGLE-2012-BLG-0406 based on data obtained from 10 different observatories. Intensive coverage of the lightcurve, especially the perturbation part, allowed us to accurately measure the parallax effect and lens orbital motion. Combining our measurement of the lens parallax with the angular Einstein radius determined from finite-source effects, we estimate the physical parameters of the lens system. We find that the event was caused by a $2.73\pm 0.43\ M_{\rm J}$ planet orbiting a $0.44\pm 0.07\ M_{\odot}$ early M-type star. The distance to the lens is $4.97\pm 0.29$\ kpc and the projected separation between the host star and its planet at the time of the event is $3.45\pm 0.26$ AU. We find that the additional coverage provided by follow-up observations, especially during the planetary perturbation, leads to a more accurate determination of the physical parameters of the lens. [less ▲]

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See detailParameter identification of the STICS crop model, using an accelerated formal MCMC approach
Dumont, Benjamin ULg; Leemans, Vincent ULg; Mansouri, Majdi ULg et al

in Environmental Modelling & Software (2014), 52

This study presents a Bayesian approach for the parameters’ identification of the STICS crop model based on the recently developed Differential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) algorithm. The ... [more ▼]

This study presents a Bayesian approach for the parameters’ identification of the STICS crop model based on the recently developed Differential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) algorithm. The posterior distributions of nine specific crop parameters of the STICS model were sampled with the aim to improve the growth simulations of a winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) culture. The results obtained with the DREAM algorithm were initially compared to those obtained with a Nelder-Mead Simplex algorithm embedded within the OptimiSTICS package. Then, three types of likelihood functions implemented within the DREAM algorithm were compared, namely the standard least square, the weighted least square, and a transformed likelihood function that makes explicit use of the coefficient of variation (CV). The results showed that the proposed CV likelihood function allowed taking into account both noise on measurements and heteroscedasticity which are regularly encountered in crop modelling [less ▲]

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See detailAdrenomedullin refines mortality prediction by the BODE index in COPD - The "BODE-A" index.
Stolz, Daiana; Kostikas, Kostantinos; Blasi, Francesco et al

in European Respiratory Journal (2014)

The BODE index is well-validated for mortality prediction in COPD. Concentrations of plasma proadrenomedullin, a surrogate for mature adrenomedullin, independently predicted 2-year mortality among ... [more ▼]

The BODE index is well-validated for mortality prediction in COPD. Concentrations of plasma proadrenomedullin, a surrogate for mature adrenomedullin, independently predicted 2-year mortality among inpatients with COPD exacerbation.We compared accuracy of initial proadrenomedullin level, BODE, and BODE components, alone or combined, in predicting 1-year or 2-year all-cause mortality in a multicenter, multinational observational cohort with stable, moderate to very severe COPD.Proadrenomedullin was significantly associated (P<0.001) with 1-year mortality (4.7%) and 2-year mortality (7.8%), and comparably predictive to BODE regarding both (C statistics: 0.691 vs. 0.745, 0.635 vs. 0.679). Relative to using BODE alone, adding proadrenomedullin significantly improved 1-year and 2-year mortality prognostication (C statistics: 0.750, 0.818; both P<0.001). Proadrenomedullin plus BOD was more predictive than was the original BODE including 6-minute-walk distance. In multivariable analysis, proadrenomedullin (LR X2 13.0, P<0.001), body mass index (8.5, P=0.004), and 6-minute-walk distance (7.5, P=0.006), but not modified MMRC dyspnoea score (2.2, P=0.14) or FEV1 % predicted (0.3, P=0.60), independently foretold 2-year survival.Proadrenomedullin plus BODE better predicts mortality in COPD patients than does BODE alone; proadrenomedullin may substitute for 6-minute-walk distance in BODE when 6-minute-walk testing is unavailable. [less ▲]

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See detailAn algorithm for the separation of two-row cuts
Louveaux, Quentin ULg; Poirrier, Laurent ULg

in Mathematical Programming (2014), 143(1-2), 111-146

We consider the question of finding deep cuts from a model with two rows of the type PI = {(x,s) ∈ Z2 ×Rn+ : x = f +Rs}. To do that, we show how to reduce the complexity of setting up the polar of conv(PI ... [more ▼]

We consider the question of finding deep cuts from a model with two rows of the type PI = {(x,s) ∈ Z2 ×Rn+ : x = f +Rs}. To do that, we show how to reduce the complexity of setting up the polar of conv(PI ) from a quadratic number of integer hull computations to a linear number of integer hull computations. Furthermore, we present an algorithm that avoids computing all integer hulls. A polynomial running time is not guaranteed but computational results show that the algorithm runs quickly in practice. [less ▲]

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See detail3-D Modeling of Thin Sheets in the Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Transient Scattering Analysis
Boubekeur, Mohamed; Kameni, Abelin; Bernard, Laurent et al

in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics (2014), 50(2), 493-496

This paper presents a modeling of thin sheets. An interface condition based on analytical solution is used to avoid a fine mesh. This condition is integrated in a time domain Discontinuous Galerkin method ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a modeling of thin sheets. An interface condition based on analytical solution is used to avoid a fine mesh. This condition is integrated in a time domain Discontinuous Galerkin method in order to evaluate the shielding effectiveness. This approach is validated by a comparison with analytical solution. 2D and 3D cavities are simulated to illustrate the efficiency of the condition. [less ▲]

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See detailObservation <–> Text(e) <–> Culture
Badir, Sémir ULg

in Semiotica (2014), 198

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See detailApproximate and Efficient Methods to Assess Error Fields in Spatial Gridding with Data Interpolating Variational Analysis (DIVA)
Beckers, Jean-Marie ULg; Barth, Alexander ULg; Troupin, Charles ULg et al

in Journal of Atmospheric & Oceanic Technology (2014), 31(2), 515-530

We present new approximate methods to provide error fields for the spatial analysis tool Diva. It is first shown how to replace the costly analysis of a large number of covariance functions by a single ... [more ▼]

We present new approximate methods to provide error fields for the spatial analysis tool Diva. It is first shown how to replace the costly analysis of a large number of covariance functions by a single analysis for quick error computations. Then another method is presented where the error is only calculated in a small number of locations and from there the spatial error field itself interpolated by the analysis tool. The efficiency of the methods is illustrated on simple schematic test cases and a real application in the Mediterranean Sea. These examples show that with these methods one has the possibility for quick masking of regions void of sufficient data and the production of "exact" error fields at reasonable cost. The error-calculation methods can also be generalized for use with other analysis methods such as 3D-Var and are therefore potentially interesting for other implementations. [less ▲]

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See detailQue peut le métalangage ? What can metalanguage do ?
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg; Provenzano, François ULg; Klinkenberg, Jean-Marie ULg et al

in Signata. Annales des Sémiotiques = Annals of Semiotics (2014), 4

In the social sciences, research that is conveyed in a display of technical language is not always seen in a good light. This is a trend particularly in semiotics. As a field of study, it has a reputation ... [more ▼]

In the social sciences, research that is conveyed in a display of technical language is not always seen in a good light. This is a trend particularly in semiotics. As a field of study, it has a reputation for eagerness to use semio-jargon at the worst, or at best, a reputation for walling itself off in a self-reflective meta-language. It is true that the best known and most cited treatise on structural semiotics, by Greimas and Courtés, was published as an Analytical Dictionary. And it is also true that Peirce's work is prodigiously crammed with terminological inventions and speculations. It would seem that in both cases, the quest for scientific rigor took precedence over elegance of expression and of so-called natural discourse. Nothing new under the sun, n'est-ce pas? They say that a courtesan under Louis XIV scandalized the Sun King's court by uttering a technical term in the king's bedchamber, which illustrates how far back the issue goes; it certainly didn't begin with the development of the academic study of signs. In issue 4 of Signata we would like to examine the various aspects of building the meta-language of semiotics. The intention is not to adopt a philological perspective, but to look at the issue of terminologies in current scientific epistemology. We will examine the diversity of the possible meta-languages (natural language versus technical language?), the influence of related disciplines (what implications do the borrowed terms from grammar, logic, mathematics, and so on have for semiotics?), the reasons — explicit or not — for the choices made, and the stylistic impacts of those choices. An inquiry of this sort could go in many directions. What follows is an open-ended, non-exhaustive enumeration: Semiotics: A special case? Is it actually true that the semiotic approach generates a more prolific meta-linguistic output than other disciplines? How and why? It would be interesting, for example, to do comparisons with these more or less related disciplines (linguistics, sociology, psychology, etc.), to assess whether their rapport with the meta-language might possibly be different, and the reasons for and effects of those differences. In these assessments, of course, there arises the issue of "natural language", which is so readily its own meta-language: Are there disciplines that reconcile themselves with this supposed naturalness without any detriment? An updated meta-language may be deemed as unavoidable for a discipline whose vocation is to generalize, which implies substantial modeling power. But what do we find in philosophy, which can be expressed without abandoning natural language, and which seems to incur less reproach for its jargon than semiotics? The archaeology of meta-languages Another line of inquiry would be of a genealogical nature: This would involve examining the theoretical justifications that underpin meta-language borrowings from this or that other discipline, at this or that other time in its history, and the repercussions, both stylistic and epistemological, of the trade in terminology. On this score, we note that classical structuralism has expressed itself to a great extent in a grammatical and more broadly linguistic language (actants, modalities, deixis, articulation, semes, etc.). But it is common knowledge that other approaches to semantic facts have favored the language of logic. And yet others have shown that it is both possible and effective to use language taken from geometry or optics. In addition to these, from the perspective of the primacy of perception, the language of the natural sciences must be included — particularly that of the neurosciences —, and the language of sensory forms from phenomenology. Whether one is helping oneself to terms like "isotopy" and "valence" from physics and chemistry or "topology" from mathematics, these are not innocent choices in a discipline that has blazed its trail through the social sciences. The epistemological influence of the meta-language. Without any doubt, herein lies the most complex, ambivalent issue. Firstly, when one adopts a meta-language, by definition one views the object of study as a language (whether it is the natural language or the language of images, or the language of social practices). Yet this operation is so laden with consequences that to enumerate them would be an impossible task. We will merely note that many theoretical categories and analytical tools seem to emerge directly from the choice of a particular meta-language and the distance dictated by it. Secondly, opting for one meta-language over another is ipso facto a choice of which explanatory form the analysis will use. It follows that working on the meta-language, far from being a deathly sterile activity, is a practice intended to generate the form the explanation will take (which is without any doubt a major issue in scientific discussion). But these two epistemological impacts of meta-language generation can trigger a great deal of discussion on what we might call "the adverse effects" of the chosen options. For example, if there is a consensus within a group on a particular meta-language (such as in Greimassian semiotics), it may become just a template to apply, simply a schema to project onto objects; but if it is an object of inquiry (such as in Peirce's work), it may yield an approach that is more theoretical than practical. Hence the question: Hasn't semiotics in fact been above all a field with a mix of applied and self-reflective approaches? And in any case, does it truly explain things when one supports a meta-language and seeks to apply it and think within its terms? For example, we might question whether the meta-linguistic power of semiotics hasn't made it a discipline that is quick to generalize, and kept it from focusing on the singularity of its objects. We might also question whether semiotic research isn't all too often more formal than substantial, both in the Hjelmselvian sense and the usual sense. Ultimately, even further up the line, one could debate the epistemological possibility of the meta-language itself — as the poststructuralist philosophies have done. Isn't the distinction between object language and meta-language actually a bit utopian in the natural languages, since it assumes that the terms completely lose their reflexivity? Lastly, we might question whether the meta-language as a theoretical tool doesn't entail more than just artless transparency, but also an effort to define the theory within a restrictive set of evidence. For example, to bring up the "semiotic square" presupposes that there is always a semiotic square that explains the basis of the discourse (in such a way that what was a working hypothesis could become a non-falsifiable theory). The socio-rhetorical effects of the meta-language Aside from the epistemological requirements, when technical terminology is reworked, this has impacts on the circulation of concepts and their appropriation by different groups, which then affects group members' recognition of one another and how they differentiate one group from another. The boundary drawn on a conceptual system by a terminological apparatus thus gives rise to corollary inclusion-exclusion repercussions that are not unimportant. There are fights over terminological legitimacy, whose foremost characteristic is actually that they are not formulated as such. Any meta-language also has impacts on the social aspects of thinking. This is especially true of the meta-language of semiotics, because, due to its dedication to generality and transposability, it must fully support deconstruction. On the other side of the coin, one can maintain that meta-language is to objects what bureaucracy is to communities: It is helpful in creating order and making distinctions, in establishing levels and empty slots, but the risk, then, is that it may become an end in itself that must be maintained and tended, and that it ultimately disallows acting and thinking in other ways. In the light of this rhetorical approach, finally, we will set down some things to consider on the manner in which semiotics talks to itself: Are "techno-speak" and "jargon" inevitable? Are "elegance" and "practicality" valid criteria for a meta-language? What impacts on the meta-language are due to the obligation we often have in semiotics to dialogue with those outside our field: Can/ should this influence the way semiotics is communicated? And what is the cost of this influence? [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of uncertainty in surface mass balance–elevation feedback on projections of the future sea level contribution of the Greenland ice sheet
Edwards, T.; Fettweis, Xavier ULg; Gagliardini, O. et al

in Cryosphere (The) (2014), 8

We apply a new parameterisation of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) feedback between surface mass balance (SMB: the sum of surface accumulation and surface ablation) and surface elevation in the MAR ... [more ▼]

We apply a new parameterisation of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) feedback between surface mass balance (SMB: the sum of surface accumulation and surface ablation) and surface elevation in the MAR regional climate model (Edwards et al., 2014) to projections of future climate change using five ice sheet models (ISMs). The MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional: Fettweis, 2007) climate projections are for 2000–2199, forced by the ECHAM5 and HadCM3 global climate models (GCMs) under the SRES A1B emissions scenario. The additional sea level contribution due to the SMB–elevation feedback averaged over five ISM projections for ECHAM5 and three for HadCM3 is 4.3% (best estimate; 95% credibility interval 1.8–6.9%) at 2100, and 9.6% (best estimate; 95% credibility interval 3.6–16.0%) at 2200. In all results the elevation feedback is significantly positive, amplifying the GrIS sea level contribution relative to the MAR projections in which the ice sheet topography is fixed: the lower bounds of our 95% credibility intervals (CIs) for sea level contributions are larger than the "no feedback" case for all ISMs and GCMs. Our method is novel in sea level projections because we propagate three types of modelling uncertainty – GCM and ISM structural uncertainties, and elevation feedback parameterisation uncertainty – along the causal chain, from SRES scenario to sea level, within a coherent experimental design and statistical framework. The relative contributions to uncertainty depend on the timescale of interest. At 2100, the GCM uncertainty is largest, but by 2200 both the ISM and parameterisation uncertainties are larger. We also perform a perturbed parameter ensemble with one ISM to estimate the shape of the projected sea level probability distribution; our results indicate that the probability density is slightly skewed towards higher sea level contributions. [less ▲]

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See detailSpectrometric monitoring of atmospheric carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) above the Jungfraujoch station since 1989: evidence of continued increase but at a slowing rate
Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg; Zander, Rodolphe ULg; Toon, G. C. et al

in Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (2014), 7

The long-term evolution of the vertical column abundance of carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) above the high-altitude Jungfraujoch station (Swiss Alps, 46.5° N, 8.0° E, 3580 m a.s.l.) has been derived from the ... [more ▼]

The long-term evolution of the vertical column abundance of carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) above the high-altitude Jungfraujoch station (Swiss Alps, 46.5° N, 8.0° E, 3580 m a.s.l.) has been derived from the spectrometric analysis of Fourier transform infrared solar spectra recorded at that site between 1989 and 2012. The investigation is based on a multi-microwindow approach, two encompassing pairs of absorption lines belonging to the R-branch of the strong ν3 band of CF4 centered at 1283 cm−1, and two additional ones to optimally account for weak but overlapping HNO3 interferences. The analysis reveals a steady accumulation of the very long-lived CF4 above the Jungfraujoch at mean rates of (1.38 ± 0.11) × 1013 molec cm−2 yr−1 from 1989 to 1997, and (0.98 ± 0.02) × 1013 molec cm−2 yr−1 from 1998 to 2012, which correspond to linear growth rates of 1.71 ± 0.14 and 1.04 ± 0.02% yr−1 respectively referenced to 1989 and 1998. Related global CF4 anthropogenic emissions required to sustain these mean increases correspond to 15.8 ± 1.3 and 11.1 ± 0.2 Gg yr−1 over the above specified time intervals. Findings reported here are compared and discussed with respect to relevant northern mid-latitude results obtained remotely from space and balloons as well as in situ at the ground, including new gas chromatography mass spectrometry measurements performed at the Jungfraujoch since 2010. [less ▲]

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See detailÀ la Chandeleur, la crêpe reprend vigueur
Frankinet, Baptiste ULg; Lempereur, Françoise ULg

in Culture, le Magazine Culturel de l'Université de Liège (2014)

Entretien avec Françoise Lempereur autour de l’origine de cette fête et des multiples coutumes qui y sont liées

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See detailOn transvaginal endoscopy for elucidating pathogenesis and treatment of ovarian endometria
Nisolle, Michelle ULg

in Gynecological Surgery (2014), 11(1),

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See detailProbabilistic parameterisation of the surface mass balance–elevation feedback in regional climate model simulations of the Greenland ice sheet
Edwards, T.; Fettweis, Xavier ULg; Gagliardini, O. et al

in Cryosphere (The) (2014), 8

We present a new parameterisation that relates surface mass balance (SMB: the sum of surface accumulation and surface ablation) to changes in surface elevation of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) for the ... [more ▼]

We present a new parameterisation that relates surface mass balance (SMB: the sum of surface accumulation and surface ablation) to changes in surface elevation of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) for the MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional: Fettweis, 2007) regional climate model. The motivation is to dynamically adjust SMB as the GrIS evolves, allowing us to force ice sheet models with SMB simulated by MAR while incorporating the SMB–elevation feedback, without the substantial technical challenges of coupling ice sheet and climate models. This also allows us to assess the effect of elevation feedback uncertainty on the GrIS contribution to sea level, using multiple global climate and ice sheet models, without the need for additional, expensive MAR simulations. We estimate this relationship separately below and above the equilibrium line altitude (ELA, separating negative and positive SMB) and for regions north and south of 77° N, from a set of MAR simulations in which we alter the ice sheet surface elevation. These give four "SMB lapse rates", gradients that relate SMB changes to elevation changes. We assess uncertainties within a Bayesian framework, estimating probability distributions for each gradient from which we present best estimates and credibility intervals (CI) that bound 95% of the probability. Below the ELA our gradient estimates are mostly positive, because SMB usually increases with elevation: 0.56 (95% CI: −0.22 to 1.33) kg m−3 a−1 for the north, and 1.91 (1.03 to 2.61) kg m−3 a−1 for the south. Above the ELA, the gradients are much smaller in magnitude: 0.09 (−0.03 to 0.23) kg m−3 a−1 in the north, and 0.07 (−0.07 to 0.59) kg m−3 a−1 in the south, because SMB can either increase or decrease in response to increased elevation. [less ▲]

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See detailLes aventures du corps et de l’identité dans la photographie de mode
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg

in Nouveaux Actes Sémiotiques (2014), 117

L’objectif de ce travail est d’explorer certaines caractéristiques de la photographie de mode : en premier lieu, les façons dont elle se met en scène en tant que photo de mode, et en second lieu, les ... [more ▼]

L’objectif de ce travail est d’explorer certaines caractéristiques de la photographie de mode : en premier lieu, les façons dont elle se met en scène en tant que photo de mode, et en second lieu, les manières dont elle-même théorise le fonctionnement plus général de l’univers de la mode. [less ▲]

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See detailUntangling spatial and temporal trends in the variability of the Black Sea Cold Intermediate Layer and mixed Layer Depth using the DIVA detrending procedure
Capet, Arthur ULg; Troupin, Charles ULg; Cartensen, Jacob et al

in Ocean Dynamics (2014), 64(3), 315-324

Current spatial interpolation products may be biased by uneven distribution of measurements in time. This manuscript presents a detrending method that recognizes and eliminates this bias. The method ... [more ▼]

Current spatial interpolation products may be biased by uneven distribution of measurements in time. This manuscript presents a detrending method that recognizes and eliminates this bias. The method estimates temporal trend components in addition to the spatial structure and has been implemented within the Data Interpolating Variational Analysis (DIVA) analysis tool. The assets of this new detrending method are illustrated by producing monthly and annual climatologies of two vertical properties of the Black Sea while recognizing their seasonal and interannual variabilities : the mixed layer depth, and the cold content of its Cold Intermediate Layer (CIL). The temporal trends, given as by-products of the method, are used to analyze the seasonal and interannual variability of these variables over the past decades (1955-2011). In particular, the CIL interannual variability is related to the cumulated winter air temperature anomalies, explaining 88\% of its variation. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of a liquid chromatographic method for thesimultaneous quantification of curcumin, -arteether,tetrahydrocurcumin and dihydroartemisinin. Application to lipid-based formulations
Memvanga Bondo, Patrick; Mbinze Kindenge, Jérémie ULg; Rozet, Eric ULg et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2014), 88(-), 447-456

A liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous separation of curcumin, B-arteether, tetrahydrocurcumin and dihydroartemisinin based on the design of experiments and the design space ... [more ▼]

A liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous separation of curcumin, B-arteether, tetrahydrocurcumin and dihydroartemisinin based on the design of experiments and the design space methodology. The influence of the percentage of organic modifier, flow rate of the mobile phase and column temperature on the analytes separation was investigated. The optimal chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column (125 mm × 4 mm, 5 µm) using an isocratic elution with a mobile phase consisting of methanol:ammonium acetate (pH 4; 10 mM) (80/20, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.45 ml/min and a column temperature of 32.5◦C. This method was then validated for simultaneous quantification of curcumin and B -arteether contained in lipid-based formulations taking into account the B -expectation tolerance interval for the total error measurement. Finally, the suitability of the proposed liquid chromatographic method for routine analysis of curcumin and B -arteether loaded in lipid-based formulations has been proven. [less ▲]

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See detailImprovement of a stability-indicating method by Quality-by-Design versus Quality-by-Testing: A case of a learning process
Hubert, Cédric ULg; Lebrun, Pierre ULg; Houari, Sabah ULg et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2014), 88

The understanding of the method is a major concern when developing a stability-indicating method and even more so when dealing with impurity assays from complex matrices. In the presented case study, a ... [more ▼]

The understanding of the method is a major concern when developing a stability-indicating method and even more so when dealing with impurity assays from complex matrices. In the presented case study, a Quality-by-Design approach was applied in order to optimize a routinely used method. An analytical issue occurring at the last stage of a long-term stability study involving unexpected impurities perturbing the monitoring of characterized impurities needed to be resolved. A compliant Quality-by-Design (QbD) methodology based on a Design of Experiments (DoE) approach was evaluated within the framework of a Liquid Chromatography (LC) method. This approach allows the investigation of Critical Process Parameters (CPPs), which have an impact on Critical Quality Attributes (CQAs) and, consequently, on LC selectivity. Using polynomial regression response modeling as well as Monte Carlo simulations for error propagation, Design Space (DS) was computed in order to determine robust working conditions for the developed stability-indicating method. This QbD compliant development was conducted in two phases allowing the use of the Design Space knowledge acquired during the first phase to define the experimental domain of the second phase, which constitutes a learning process. The selected working condition was then fully validated using accuracy profiles based on statistical tolerance intervals in order to evaluate the reliability of the results generated by this LC/ESI-MS stability-indicating method. A comparison was made between the traditional Quality-by-Testing (QbT) approach and the QbD strategy, highlighting the benefit of this QbD strategy in the case of an unexpected impurities issue. On this basis, the advantages of a systematic use of the QbD methodology were discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailMetallothioneins pattern during ontogeny of coastal dolphin, Pontoporia blainvillei, from Argentina
Polizzi, P.S.; Romero, M.B.; Chiodi Boudet, L.N. et al

in Marine Pollution Bulletin (2014)

Metallothioneins are signals of metal exposure and widely used in biomonitoring. Franciscana dolphin is an endemic cetacean from the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean, classified as Vulnerable A3d by the IUCN ... [more ▼]

Metallothioneins are signals of metal exposure and widely used in biomonitoring. Franciscana dolphin is an endemic cetacean from the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean, classified as Vulnerable A3d by the IUCN. Metallothionein, copper and zinc in Franciscana were assessed in two geographic groups; one inhabits La Plata River estuary, anthropogenically impacted, and the other inhabits marine coastal ecosystems, with negligible pollution. Despite the environment, hepatic and renal MT concentrations were similar, but there was a declining trend from early to later developmental stages. Metallothionein K/L, Cu and Zn levels corresponded to normal reported ranges. MT was not related with Cd. Fetal concentrations were higher than its mother. These results and the health status of dolphins are suggesting that MT correspond to physiological ranges for the species, and they are closely to homeostasis of Zn and Cu, according to its ontogenetic changes. The information constitutes the first MT information on Franciscana dolphin and can be considered as baseline for the species conservation. [less ▲]

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See detailClassification of periodic orbits of two-dimensional homogeneous granular crystals with no pre-compression
Detroux, Thibaut ULg; Starosvetsky, Yuli; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg et al

in Nonlinear Dynamics (2014), 76(April 2014), 673-696

In the present study we classify the periodic orbits of a squarely packed, uncompressed and undamped, homogeneous granular crystal, assuming that all elastic granules oscillate with the same frequency (i ... [more ▼]

In the present study we classify the periodic orbits of a squarely packed, uncompressed and undamped, homogeneous granular crystal, assuming that all elastic granules oscillate with the same frequency (i.e., under condition of 1:1 resonance); this type of Hamiltonian periodic orbits have been labeled as nonlinear normal modes. To this end we formulate an auxiliary system which consists of a two-dimensional, vibro-impact lattice composed of non-uniform “effective particles” oscillating in an anti-phase fashion. The analysis is based on the idea of balancing linear momentum in both horizontal and vertical directions for separate, groups of particles, whereby each such a group is represented by the single effective particle of the auxiliary system. It is important to emphasize that the auxiliary model can be defined for general finite, squarely packed granular crystals composed of n rows and m columns. The auxiliary model is successful in predicting the total number of such periodic orbits, as well as the amplitude ratios for different periodic regimes including strongly localized ones. In fact this methodology enables one to systematically study the generation of mode localization in these strongly nonlinear, highly degenerate dynamical systems. Good correspondence between the results of the theoretical model and direct numerical simulations is observed. The results presented herein can be further extended to study the intrinsic dynamics of the more complex granular materials, such as heterogeneous two-dimensional and three-dimensional granular crystals and multi-layered structures. [less ▲]

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See detailMilli-Interacting Dark Matter Interpretation of the Direct-Search Experiments
Wallemacq, Quentin ULg

in Advances in High Energy Physics (2014), 2014

We reinterpret the results of the direct searches for dark matter in terms of milli-interacting dark particles. The model reproduces the positive results from DAMA/LIBRA and CoGeNT and is consistent with ... [more ▼]

We reinterpret the results of the direct searches for dark matter in terms of milli-interacting dark particles. The model reproduces the positive results from DAMA/LIBRA and CoGeNT and is consistent with the absence of signal in the XENON100, CDMS-II/Ge, and LUX detectors. Dark atoms, interacting with standard atoms through a kinetic mixing between photons and dark photons and a mass mixing of sigma mesons with dark scalars, diffuse elastically in terrestrial matter where they deposit all their energy. Reaching underground detectors through gravity at thermal energies, they form bound states with nuclei of the active medium by radiative capture, which causes the emission of photons that produce the observed signals. The parameter space of the model is explored and regions reproducing the results at the 2 sigma level are obtained for each experiment. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of decreased glomerular filtration rate in intensive care units: serum cystatin C versus serum creatinine
DELANAYE, Pierre ULg; CAVALIER, Etienne ULg; Morel, Jérôme et al

in BMC Nephrology (2014), 15(9), 1471-2369

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See detailWASP-103b: a new planet at the edge of tidal disruption
Gillon, Michaël ULg; Anderson, D. R.; Collier-Cameron, A. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014)

We report the discovery of WASP-103b, a new ultra-short-period planet (P=22.2 hr) transiting a 12.1 V-magnitude F8-type main-sequence star (1.22+-0.04 Msun, 1.44-0.03+0.05 Rsun, Teff = 6110+-160 K). WASP ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery of WASP-103b, a new ultra-short-period planet (P=22.2 hr) transiting a 12.1 V-magnitude F8-type main-sequence star (1.22+-0.04 Msun, 1.44-0.03+0.05 Rsun, Teff = 6110+-160 K). WASP-103b is significantly more massive (1.49+-0.09 Mjup) and larger (1.53-0.07+0.05 Rjup) than Jupiter. Its large size and extreme irradiation (around 9 10^9 erg/s/cm^2) make it an exquisite target for a thorough atmospheric characterization with existing facilities. Furthermore, its orbital distance is less than 20% larger than its Roche radius, meaning that it might be significantly distorted by tides and might experience mass loss through Roche-lobe overflow. It thus represents a new key object for understanding the last stage of the tidal evolution of hot Jupiters. [less ▲]

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See detailWind collisions in three massive stars of Cygnus OB2
Cazorla, Constantin ULg; Nazé, Yaël ULg; Rauw, Grégor ULg

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 561

Aims. We wish to study the origin of the X-ray emission of three massive stars in the CygOB2 association: CygOB2#5, Cyg OB2 #8A, and Cyg OB2 #12. Methods. To this aim, dedicated X-ray observations from ... [more ▼]

Aims. We wish to study the origin of the X-ray emission of three massive stars in the CygOB2 association: CygOB2#5, Cyg OB2 #8A, and Cyg OB2 #12. Methods. To this aim, dedicated X-ray observations from XMM-Newton and Swift are used, as well as archival ROSAT and Suzaku data. Results. Our results on Cyg OB2 #8A improve the phase coverage of the orbit and confirm previous studies: the signature of a wind- wind collision is conspicuous. In addition, signatures of a wind-wind collision are also detected in Cyg OB2 #5, but the X-ray emission appears to be associated with the collision between the inner binary and the tertiary component orbiting it with a 6.7 yr period, without a putative collision inside the binary. The X-ray properties strongly constrain the orbital parameters, notably allowing us to discard some proposed orbital solutions. To improve the knowledge of the orbit, we revisit the light curves and radial velocity of the inner binary, looking for reflex motion induced by the third star. Finally, the X-ray emission of Cyg OB2 #12 is also analyzed. It shows a marked decrease in recent years, compatible with either a wind-wind collision in a wide binary or the aftermath of a recent eruption. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Tax protein and the minichromosome maintenance protein complex MCM2-7 affect cell replication and viral transcription
Barez, Pierre-Yves ULg; Carpentier, Alexandre ULg; Boxus, Mathieu et al

in Retrovirology (2014), 11(S1), 96

The Tax oncoprotein plays a key role in the mechanisms of transformation, viral persistence and pathogenicity. Recently, we showed that Tax interacts with the minichromosome maintenance MCM2-7 helicase ... [more ▼]

The Tax oncoprotein plays a key role in the mechanisms of transformation, viral persistence and pathogenicity. Recently, we showed that Tax interacts with the minichromosome maintenance MCM2-7 helicase and binds to origins of DNA replication (Boxus et al, 2012 Blood 119:151). In fact, Tax modulates the spatiotemporal program of origin activation during the S phase of cell cycle. By this mechanism, Tax accelerates S phase progression through early firing of late replication origins. By interacting with the 5’ LTR, the MCM2-7 complex also modulates Tax transactivation. Together, our data thus demonstrates that interaction between Tax and MCM2-7 modulates reprogramming of replication origins as well as viral transcription. [less ▲]

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See detailCheckpoints modulation by the Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 Tax protein
Carpentier, Alexandre ULg; Barez, Pierre-Yves ULg; Boxus, Mathieu et al

in Retrovirology (2014), 11(S1), 90

HTLV-1 is responsible for two main diseases, Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma and HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis, for which there is currently no satisfactory treatment. Among the ... [more ▼]

HTLV-1 is responsible for two main diseases, Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma and HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis, for which there is currently no satisfactory treatment. Among the proteins encoded by HTLV-1, Tax appears to play an important role in the mechanisms leading to pathogenicity. We are interested in the mechanisms of cell transformation by Tax and more particularly in the interplay between the viral Tax oncoprotein and the DNA damage response (DDR). We demonstrated that transient expression of Tax results in DNA damage, cell cycle arrest and activation of the DDR. In fibroblasts, cell cycle arrest occurs at the G1 and G2 phases depending on the p53 background. Although Tax induces apoptosis and senescence in fibroblasts, HTLV-1 infected lymphocytes proliferate continuously and appear to be adapted to the checkpoint control. This mechanism allows infected lymphocytes to proliferate despite the presence of genomic lesions. With these observations, we propose a novel therapeutic approach based on the principle of synthetic lethality. [less ▲]

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See detailOrigin and evolution of metal P-type ATPases in Plantae (Archaeplastida)
Hanikenne, Marc ULg; Baurain, Denis ULg

in Frontiers in Plant Science (2014), 4

Metal ATPases are a subfamily of P-type ATPases involved in the transport of metal cations across biological membranes. They all share an architecture featuring eight transmembrane domains in pairs of two ... [more ▼]

Metal ATPases are a subfamily of P-type ATPases involved in the transport of metal cations across biological membranes. They all share an architecture featuring eight transmembrane domains in pairs of two and are found in prokaryotes as well as in a variety of Eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, eight metal P-type ATPases have been described, four being specific to copper transport and four displaying a broader metal specificity, including zinc, cadmium and possibly copper and calcium. So far, few efforts have been devoted to elucidating the origin and evolution of these proteins in Eukaryotes. In this work, we use large-scale phylogenetics to show that metal P-type ATPases form a homogenous group among P-type ATPases and that their specialisation into either monovalent (Cu) or divalent (Zn, Cd…) metal transport stems from a gene duplication that took place early in the evolution of Life. Then, we demonstrate that the four subgroups of plant metal ATPases all have a different evolutionary origin and a specific taxonomic distribution, only one tracing back to the cyanobacterial progenitor of the chloroplast. Finally, we examine the subsequent evolution of these proteins in green plants and conclude that the genes thoroughly characterised in model organisms are often the result of lineage-specific gene duplications, which calls for caution when attempting to infer function from sequence similarity alone in non-model organisms. [less ▲]

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See detailReversibly crosslinked thermo- and redox-responsive nanogels for controlled drug release
Liu, Ji ULg; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Hurtgen, Marie ULg et al

in Polymer Chemistry (2014), 5(1), 77-88

Reversibly crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) PVOH-b-PNVCL nanogels were prepared by using a redox-responsive crosslinking agent, 3,30-dithiodipropionic acid (DPA), to crosslink ... [more ▼]

Reversibly crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) PVOH-b-PNVCL nanogels were prepared by using a redox-responsive crosslinking agent, 3,30-dithiodipropionic acid (DPA), to crosslink the PVOH corona, above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the PNVCL block. The stability of the as-prepared nanogels against heating and diluting with water was studied by dynamic light scattering (DLS) to follow the evolution of the hydrodynamic diameter and size distribution. Stability under reductive conditions was also studied by DLS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after exposure to dithiothreitol (DTT) buffer solutions at different pH. The reversibility of the crosslinking was evaluated by treating the de-crosslinked nanogels with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) above the LCST. As a hydrophobic drug model, Nile red (NR) was loaded into the nanogels, and triggered release behaviours were studied after exposure to the same DTT buffer solutions. Moreover, two PVOH-b-PNVCL copolymers with different compositions and LCST were used to evaluate the effect of the LCST on the release behaviours of the nanogels. The cytotoxicity of the nanogels against a mouse fibroblast-like L929 cell line was assessed via the MTS assay, and preliminary studies on cellular uptake of the nanogels within human melanoma MEL-5 cells were also carried out by fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. [less ▲]

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See detailHeat-triggered drug release systems based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles filled with a maghemite core and phase-change molecules as gatekeepers
Liu, Ji ULg; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; De Pauw-Gillet, Marie-Claire ULg et al

in Journal of Materials Chemistry B (2014), 2(1), 59-70

Core–shell nanoparticlesmade of a maghemite core and a mesoporous silica shell were developed as drug delivery systems (DDS). Doxorubicin® (DOX, DNA intercalating drug) was loaded within the mesoporous ... [more ▼]

Core–shell nanoparticlesmade of a maghemite core and a mesoporous silica shell were developed as drug delivery systems (DDS). Doxorubicin® (DOX, DNA intercalating drug) was loaded within the mesoporous cavities, while phase-change molecules (PCMs), e.g. 1-tetradecanol (TD) with a melting temperature (Tm) of 39 °C, were introduced as gatekeepers to regulate the release behaviours. An overall loading amount of ca. 20 wt% (TD/DOX ca. 50/50 wt/wt) was confirmed. Heat-triggered release of DOX evidenced a “zero premature release” (<3% of the entire payload in 96 h release) under physiological conditions (37°C), and however, a sustainable release (ca. 40% of the entire payload in 96 h) above Tm of TD (40 °C). It also demonstrated the possibility to deliver drug payloads in small portions (pulsatile release mode) via multiple heating on/off cycles, due to the reversible phase change of the PCMs. In vitro heattriggered release of DOX within cell culture of the MEL-5 melanoma cell line was also tested. It was found that DOX molecules were trapped efficiently within the mesopores even after internalization within the cytoplasm of MEL-5 cells at 37 °C, with the potential toxicity of DOX strongly quenched (>95% viability after 72 h incubation). However, continuous cell apoptosis was detected at cell culture temperature above Tm of TD, due to the heat-triggered release of DOX (<50% viability after 72 h incubation at 40 °C). Moreover, due to the presence of a maghemite core within the DDS, T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging performance was also confirmed. These as-designed core–shell nanoparticles are envisaged to become promising DDS for “on-demand” heat-triggered release. [less ▲]

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See detailHyper-replicative bovine leukemia virus by mutation of an envelope N-linked glycosylation site
De Brogniez, Alix ULg; Bouzar, Amel-Baya; Jacques, Jean-Rock ULg et al

in Retrovirology (2014), 11(1), 141

Reverse genetics can be used in the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) system to characterize mechanisms of viral persistence and pathogenesis. The question addressed here pertains to the role of glycans bound ... [more ▼]

Reverse genetics can be used in the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) system to characterize mechanisms of viral persistence and pathogenesis. The question addressed here pertains to the role of glycans bound to the BLV envelope glycoprotein (SU). A commonly accepted hypothesis is that addition of carbohydrates to the SU protein potentially creates a structure called « glycan shield » that confers resistance to the virus against the host immune response. On the other hand, glycosylation can also modulate attachment of the virus to the cell membrane. To unravel the role of SU glycosylation, three complementary strategies were developed: pharmacological inhibition of different glycosylation pathways, interference with glycan attachment and site-directed mutagenesis of N-glycosylation sites in an infectious BLV provirus. The different approaches show that glycosylation is required for cell fusion, as expected. Simultaneous mutation of all 8 potential N-glycosylation sites destroys infectivity. Surprisingly, mutation of the asparagine residue at position 230 creates a virus having an increased capacity to form syncytia in vitro. Compared to wild-type BLV, mutant N230 also replicates at accelerated rates in vivo. Collectively, this data thus illustrates an example of a N-glycosylation site that restricts viral replication, contrasting with the hypothesis supported by glycan shield model. [less ▲]

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See detailBi-directional Modulation of Somatosensory Mismatch Negativity with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: An event Related Potential Study
Chen, Jui-Cheng; Hammerer, Dorothea; D'Ostilio, Kevin ULg et al

in The journal of Physiology (2014)

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See detailExpanding the scope of controlled radical polymerization via cobalt–tellurium radical exchange reaction
Kermagoret, Anthony ULg; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Bourguignon, Maxime et al

in ACS Macro Letters (2014), 3(1), 114-118

Cobalt-mediated radical polymerization (CMRP) and tellurium-mediated radical polymerization (TERP) were combined for the first time, offering new perspectives in the precision design of macromolecular ... [more ▼]

Cobalt-mediated radical polymerization (CMRP) and tellurium-mediated radical polymerization (TERP) were combined for the first time, offering new perspectives in the precision design of macromolecular structures. In particular, the present work highlights the benefits of this strategy for the synthesis of novel poly(vinyl acetate)-based block copolymers. A range of well-defined poly(vinyl acetate)s (PVAc) were first produced via CMRP using the bis(acetylacetonato)cobalt(II) complex (Co(acac)2) as a regulating agent. Substitution of a methyltellanyl moiety for Co(acac)2 at the ω-chain end of the precursor was then achieved upon treatment with dimethylditelluride. In contrast to the PVAc prepared by TERP, the ones produced by sequential CMRP and Co/Te exchange reaction almost exclusively consist of regular head-to-tail-TeMe chain-end species that can be activated by TERP. Ultimately, a series of monomers problematic in Co(acac)2-mediated radical polymerization including N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM), 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl acrylate (ADAME), n-butyl acrylate (BA), isoprene (IP), and vinylimidazole (NVIm) were polymerized by TERP from the PVAc–TeMe macroinitiators leading to novel diblock copolymers that cannot be made by each technique used separately. [less ▲]

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See detailRelationships between mind-wandering and attentional control abilities in young adults and adolescents
Stawarczyk, David ULg; Majerus, Steve ULg; Catale, Corinne ULg et al

in Acta Psychologica (2014), 148

Recent findings suggest that mind-wandering—the occurrence of thoughts that are both stimulus-independent and task-unrelated—corresponds to temporary failures in attentional control processes involved in ... [more ▼]

Recent findings suggest that mind-wandering—the occurrence of thoughts that are both stimulus-independent and task-unrelated—corresponds to temporary failures in attentional control processes involved in maintaining constant task-focused attention. Studies supporting this proposal are, however, limited by a possible confound between mind-wandering episodes and other kinds of conscious experiences, such as external distractions (i.e., interoceptive sensations and exteroceptive perceptions). In the present study, we addressed this issue by examining, in adolescents and young adults, the relations between tasks measuring attentional control abilities and a measure of mind-wandering that is distinct from external distractions. We observed (1) that adolescents experienced more frequent external distractions, but not more mind-wandering, than young adults during the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) and (2) that, in young adults, the influence of external distractions on SART performance was fully accounted for by attentional control abilities, whereas mind-wandering was associated with decreases in SART performance above and beyond what was explained by attentional control abilities. These results show that mind-wandering cannot be entirely reduced to failures in the ability to maintain one’s attention focused on task, and suggest that external distractions rather than mind-wandering are due to attentional control failures. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effect of surface orientation on spray retention
Massinon, Mathieu ULg; Boukhalfa, Hassina dite Hafida ULg; Lebeau, Frédéric ULg

in Precision Agriculture (2014)

Research in precision spraying investigates the means to reduce the amount of herbicide applied by directing droplets more accurately towards the weeds. The trend in the development of spot spraying ... [more ▼]

Research in precision spraying investigates the means to reduce the amount of herbicide applied by directing droplets more accurately towards the weeds. The trend in the development of spot spraying equipment is an increase of the spatial resolution and new actuators that are able to target very small areas. However, there is a lack of methods for assigning rates of herbicides relating target to optimal droplet features. A wide range of droplet impact angles occurs during the spray application process because of droplet trajectories and the variability of leaf orientation. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to highlight the effect of surface orientation on droplet impact outcomes (adhesion, rebound or splashing) on two very difficult-to-wet surfaces: an artificial surface with a regular roughness pattern and an excised black-grass leaf with an anisotropic roughness pattern. Measurements were performed for different surface orientations with a high-speed camera coupled with backlighting LED. Droplets of two formulations (distilled water and distilled water + a surfactant) were produced with a moving flat-fan hydraulic nozzle to obtain a wide range of droplet sizes and velocities, which were measured by image analysis. Increasing surface angle reduces surface area available for droplet capture. Droplet impact behaviors are then modified since surface tilt induces a tangential velocity component at impact and, consequently, a reduction of the normal component. Impact modifications have also been observed due to the anisotropic roughness pattern of a black-grass leaf. The integration of droplet-surface interaction information offers a significant way to further improve the precision spraying efficiency by considering the optimal droplet size, speed and ejection angle depending on the target surface and architecture. [less ▲]

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See detailTwo spotted and magnetic early B-type stars in the young open cluster NGC2264 discovered by MOST and ESPaDOnS
Fossati, L.; Zwintz, K.; Castro, N. et al

in ArXiv e-prints (2014), 1401

Star clusters are known as superb tools for understanding stellar evolution. In a quest for understanding the physical origin of magnetism and chemical peculiarity in about 7% of the massive main-sequence ... [more ▼]

Star clusters are known as superb tools for understanding stellar evolution. In a quest for understanding the physical origin of magnetism and chemical peculiarity in about 7% of the massive main-sequence stars, we analysed two of the ten brightest members of the ~10 Myr old Galactic open cluster NGC 2264, the early B-dwarfs HD47887 and HD47777. We find accurate rotation periods of 1.95 and 2.64 days, respectively, from MOST photometry. We obtained ESPaDOnS spectropolarimetric observations, through which we determined stellar parameters, detailed chemical surface abundances, projected rotational velocities, and the inclination angles of the rotation axis. Because we found only small (<5 km/s) radial velocity variations, most likely caused by spots, we can rule out that HD47887 and HD47777 are close binaries. Finally, using the least-squares deconvolution technique, we found that both stars possess a large-scale magnetic field with an average longitudinal field strength of about 400 G. From a simultaneous fit of the stellar parameters we determine the evolutionary masses of HD47887 and HD47777 to be 9.4+/-0.7 M0 and 7.6+/-0.5 M0. Interestingly, HD47777 shows a remarkable helium underabundance, typical of helium-weak chemically peculiar stars, while the abundances of HD47887 are normal, which might imply that diffusion is operating in the lower mass star but not in the slightly more massive one. Furthermore, we argue that the rather slow rotation, as well as the lack of nitrogen enrichment in both stars, can be consistent with both the fossil and the binary hypothesis for the origin of the magnetic field. However, the presence of two magnetic and apparently single stars near the top of the cluster mass-function may speak in favour of the latter. [less ▲]

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See detailA search for pulsations in the HgMn star HD 45975 with CoRoT photometry and ground-based spectroscopy
Morel, Thierry ULg; Briquet, Maryline ULg; Auvergne, M. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 561

The existence of pulsations in HgMn stars is still being debated. To provide the first unambiguous observational detection of pulsations in this class of chemically peculiar objects, the bright star HD ... [more ▼]

The existence of pulsations in HgMn stars is still being debated. To provide the first unambiguous observational detection of pulsations in this class of chemically peculiar objects, the bright star HD 45975 was monitored for nearly two months by the CoRoT satellite. Independent analyses of the light curve provide evidence of monoperiodic variations with a frequency of 0.7572 d[SUP]-1[/SUP] and a peak-to-peak amplitude of ~2800 ppm. Multisite, ground-based spectroscopic observations overlapping the CoRoT observations show the star to be a long-period, single-lined binary. Furthermore, with the notable exception of mercury, they reveal the same periodicity as in photometry in the line moments of chemical species exhibiting strong overabundances (e.g., Mn and Y). In contrast, lines of other elements do not show significant variations. As found in otherHgMn stars, the pattern of variability consists in an absorption bump moving redwards across the line profiles. We argue that the photometric and spectroscopic changes are more consistent with an interpretation in terms of rotational modulation of spots at the stellar surface. In this framework, the existence of pulsations producing photometric variations above the ~50 ppm level is unlikely in HD 45975. This provides strong constraints on the excitation/damping of pulsation modes in this HgMn star. The CoRoT space mission was developed and is operated by the French space agency CNES, with participation of ESA's RSSD and Science Programmes, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Germany, and Spain. This work is based on observations collected at La Silla and Paranal Observatories, ESO (Chile), with the HARPS and UVES spectrographs at the 3.6-m and very large telescopes, under programmes LP185.D-0056 and 287.D-5066. It is also based on observations made with the Mercator Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma by the Flemish Community, at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. Based on observations obtained with the HERMES spectrograph, which is supported by the Fund for Scientific Research of Flanders (FWO), Belgium, the Research Council of K.U. Leuven, Belgium, the Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS), Belgium, the Royal Observatory of Belgium, the Observatoire de Genève, Switzerland, and the Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Germany. [less ▲]

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See detailToward a Unique Nitrogen Isotopic Ratio in Cometary Ices
Rousselot, Philippe; Pirali, Olivier; Jehin, Emmanuel ULg et al

in Astrophysical Journal Letters (2014), 780

Determination of the nitrogen isotopic ratios in different bodies of the solar system provides important information regarding the solar system's origin. We unambiguously identified emission lines in ... [more ▼]

Determination of the nitrogen isotopic ratios in different bodies of the solar system provides important information regarding the solar system's origin. We unambiguously identified emission lines in comets due to the [SUP]15[/SUP]NH[SUB]2[/SUB] radical produced by the photodissociation of [SUP]15[/SUP]NH[SUB]3[/SUB]. Analysis of our data has permitted us to measure the [SUP]14[/SUP]N/[SUP]15[/SUP]N isotopic ratio in comets for a molecule carrying the amine (-NH) functional group. This ratio, within the error, appears similar to that measured in comets in the HCN molecule and the CN radical, and lower than the protosolar value, suggesting that N[SUB]2[/SUB] and NH[SUB]3[/SUB] result from the separation of nitrogen into two distinct reservoirs in the solar nebula. This ratio also appears similar to that measured in Titan's atmospheric N[SUB]2[/SUB], supporting the hypothesis that, if the latter is representative of its primordial value in NH[SUB]3[/SUB], these bodies were assembled from building blocks sharing a common formation location. [less ▲]

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See detailLes datacenters, métaphore du capitalisme
Thoreau, François ULg

in Politique : Revue de Débats (2014), 83(1), 66-73

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See detailA vibrotactile P300-based BCI for consciousness detection and communication
Lugo, Zulay; Rodriguez, Javi; Lechner, Alexander et al

in Clinical EEG and Neuroscience : Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS) (2014)

Brain–computer interface (BCI) has been used for many years for communication in severely disabled patients. BCI based on electrophysiological signals has enabled communication, using auditory or visual ... [more ▼]

Brain–computer interface (BCI) has been used for many years for communication in severely disabled patients. BCI based on electrophysiological signals has enabled communication, using auditory or visual stimuli to elicit event-related potentials (ERPs). The aim of this study was to determine whether patients with locked-in syndrome (LIS) could elicit a P300 wave, using a vibrotactile oddball paradigm for establishing somatosensory BCI-based communication. Six chronic LIS patients performed 2electroencephalography (EEG)-based vibrotactile P300 oddball tasks. After a simple mental counting task of the target stimuli, participants were instructed to answer 5 questions by counting the vibration on either the right wrist for “yes” or the left wrist for “no.” All participants were able to elicit a P300 wave using the vibrotactile oddball paradigm BCI task. In the counting task, 4 patients got accuracies of 100% (average above chance). In the communication task, one patient achieved 100% accuracy (average above chance). We have shown the feasibility of eliciting a P300 response using vibrotactile stimulation in patients with LIS. The present study provides evidence that this approach can be used for EEG-based BCI communications in this patient group. This is the first study to prove the feasibility of a BCI based on somatosensory (vibratory) stimulation in a group of braininjured patients. Furthermore, this approach could be used for the detection of consciousness in non-communicating patients due to severe brain injuries. [less ▲]

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See detailEntre permis forestier et permis minier, la diff icile émergence des forêts communautaires au Gabon
Morin, Amélie; Meunier, Quentin; Moumbogou et al

in Parcs et Réserves (2014), 68(4), 16-22

A l’heure de l’attribution des premières forêts communautaires au Gabon, de multiples questions surgissent et attendent de manière urgente une réponse de la part de l’Etat. Le présent article se penche ... [more ▼]

A l’heure de l’attribution des premières forêts communautaires au Gabon, de multiples questions surgissent et attendent de manière urgente une réponse de la part de l’Etat. Le présent article se penche sur l’une d’entre elles, à savoir la superposition des permis d’exploitation (minier, forestier) avec l’espace utilisé traditionnellement par les communautés locales et candidates à l’obtention d’une forêt communautaire. Quelques situations rencontrées sur le terrain sont présentées et discutées. Il est urgent qu’un réel aménagement du territoire voie le jour au Gabon, qui détermine la place de chaque activité, hiérarchise l’affectation de l’espace et détermine le cas échéant les conditions de « cohabitation » de plusieurs permis. [less ▲]

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See detailAutograph/Holograph and Authorial Manuscripts in Arabic Script [Conference Review]
Franssen, Elise ULg

in Comparative Oriental Manuscript Studies Newsletter (2014), 7

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See detailFourth Belgian multicentre survey of antibiotic susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria
Wybo, Ingrid; Van den Bossche; Soetens, Oriane et al

in Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (2014), 69

Objectives: To collect recent data on the susceptibility of anaerobes to antimicrobial agents with known activity against anaerobes, and to compare them with results from previous Belgian multicentre ... [more ▼]

Objectives: To collect recent data on the susceptibility of anaerobes to antimicrobial agents with known activity against anaerobes, and to compare them with results from previous Belgian multicentre studies. Methods: Four hundred and three strict anaerobic clinical isolates were prospectively collected from February 2011 to April 2012 in eight Belgian university hospitals. MICs were determined by one central laboratory for 11 antimicro- bial agents using Etest methodology. Results: According to EUCAST breakpoints, .90% of isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanate (94%), piperacillin/tazobactam (91%), meropenem (96%), metronidazole (92%) and chloramphenicol (98%), but only 70% and 40% to clindamycin and penicillin, respectively. At CLSI recommended breakpoints, only 71% were sus- ceptible to moxifloxacin and 79% to cefoxitin. MIC50/MIC90 values for linezolid and for tigecycline were 1/4 and 0.5/ 4 mg/L, respectively. When compared with survey data from 2004, no major differences in susceptibility profiles were noticed. However, the susceptibility of Prevotella spp. and other Gram-negative bacilli to clindamycin decreased from 91% in 1993 – 94 and 82% in 2004 to 69% in this survey. Furthermore, the susceptibility of clostridia to moxifloxacin decreased from 88% in 2004 to 66% in 2011 – 12 and that of fusobacteria from 90% to 71%. Conclusions: Compared with previous surveys, little evolution was seen in susceptibility, except a decline in activity of clindamycin against Prevotella spp. and other Gram-negative bacteria, and of moxifloxacin against clostridia. Since resistance was detected to all antibiotics, susceptibility testing of anaerobic isolates is indicated in severe infections to confirm appropriateness of antimicrobial therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailRecommandations européennes pour la prise en charge des cardiopathies congénitales complexes de l'adulte
MILTNER, Béatrice ULg; LANCELLOTTI, Patrizio ULg; SEGHAYE, Marie-Christine ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014), 69(1), 16-25

THe number of patients with Grown-Up Congenital Heart disease (GUCH) consulting adult cardiologists is steadily increasing. These patients have either a non-diagnosed congenital heart disease revealed at ... [more ▼]

THe number of patients with Grown-Up Congenital Heart disease (GUCH) consulting adult cardiologists is steadily increasing. These patients have either a non-diagnosed congenital heart disease revealed at adulthood, or a diagnosed congenital heart disease for which one or multiple interventions have possibly been performed during childhood. In this article, we summarize the recommendations of the European Society of Cardiology of 2010 for complex congenital heart disease. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing consciousness in coma and related states using transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography.
Gosseries, Olivia ULg; Thibaut, Aurore ULg; Boly, Mélanie ULg et al

in Annales Françaises d'Anesthésie et de Réanimation (2014)

Thanks to advances in medical care, an increased number of patients recover from coma. However, some remain in vegetative/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome or in a minimally conscious state. Detection of ... [more ▼]

Thanks to advances in medical care, an increased number of patients recover from coma. However, some remain in vegetative/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome or in a minimally conscious state. Detection of awareness in severely brain-injured patients is challenging because it relies on behavioral assessments, which can be affected by motor, sensory and cognitive impairments of the patients. Other means of evaluation are needed to improve the accuracy of the diagnosis in this challenging population. We will here review the different altered states of consciousness occurring after severe brain damage, and explain the difficulties associated with behavioral assessment of consciousness. We will then describe a non-invasive technique, transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with high-density electroencephalography (TMS-EEG), which has allowed us to detect the presence or absence of consciousness in different physiological, pathological and pharmacological states. Some potential underlying mechanisms of the loss of consciousness will then be discussed. In conclusion, TMS-EEG is highly promising in identifying markers of consciousness at the individual level and might be of great value for clinicians in the assessment of consciousness. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of Lactobacillus strains isolated from Algerian children faeces for their probiotic properties
Bahri, F.; Lejeune, Annick ULg; Dubois-Dauphin, R. et al

in African Journal of Microbiology Research [=AJMR] (2014), 8(3), 297-303

Lactic acid bacteria termed probiotics have preventive as well as curative effects on several types of diarrhoea of different aetiologies. The main objective of this study was to screen lactobacilli ... [more ▼]

Lactic acid bacteria termed probiotics have preventive as well as curative effects on several types of diarrhoea of different aetiologies. The main objective of this study was to screen lactobacilli strains having probiotic traits, isolated from Algerian healthy children faeces on the purpose of using them further in children diarrheal illnesses. One hundred and twenty (120) lactic acid bacteria isolates were selected from faecal samples of healthy Algerian children aged between five and ten years. Gram positive rods and catalase negative bacteria (52 isolates) were screened, in vitro, for their probiotic potential properties including ability to survive in simulated gastro-intestinal conditions, adherence to Caco-2 cells and their antimicrobial activity. The results show that only five strains resisted in simulated gastric juice at pH 1.5 and pepsin. Four of them were resistant to simulated intestinal conditions at pH 8 and pancreatin and have a good adherence. In the end, three of them were retained as they display interesting probiotic profiles characterized by a strong antimicrobial effect against some intestinal pathogenic bacteria. They were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Lactobacillus plantarum F12, Lactobacillus brevis G6 and Lactobacillus paracasei B13. [less ▲]

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