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See detailContribution of past and future self-defining event networks to personal identity
Demblon, Julie; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg

in Memory (2017), 25

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See detailPolyurethane coatings in 20th century outdoor painted sculptures. Part II: Comparative study of four systems by means of Py-GC/MS
Defeyt, Catherine ULg; Schilling, Michael; Langenbacher, Julia et al

in Heritage Science (2017), 5(15),

Because PU coatings offer a compromise between aesthetic and performance expectations, unachievable with other types of industrial paints, they are currently recognized as the most appropriate option to ... [more ▼]

Because PU coatings offer a compromise between aesthetic and performance expectations, unachievable with other types of industrial paints, they are currently recognized as the most appropriate option to coat sculptures intended for an outdoor setting. However, the PU class includes various systems, such as two package solvent-borne, two package water-borne, one package water-borne and fluoropolymer polyurethanes, which possess very different properties. 115 reference samples of PU coatings were investigated by means of Py-GC/MS, in order to outline the differences and the similarities existing, in terms of composition, between the major PU systems used for creating as well as for conserving modern painted outdoor sculptures. The Py- GC/MS study of an extended number of reference samples showed that the composition of equivalent PU systems strongly varies depending on the product line and the manufacturer. Furthermore the comparison of all the produced pyrograms allowed defining characteristic marker compounds helpful to discriminate specific PU paint systems. [less ▲]

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See detailA generic wear prediction procedure based on the Discrete Element Method for ball mill liners in the cement industry
Boemer, Dominik ULg; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg

in Minerals Engineering (2017)

generic procedure to predict the wear evolution of lining surfaces, namely the spatial distribution of wear and the progressive modification of the geometry due to wear, is introduced in the context of ... [more ▼]

generic procedure to predict the wear evolution of lining surfaces, namely the spatial distribution of wear and the progressive modification of the geometry due to wear, is introduced in the context of shell liners in ball mills. The wear data is accumulated on the surface of the liner by 3D discrete element method (DEM) simulations of the ball charge in an axial slice of the mill, which is either closed by a periodic boundary condition or by frictionless end walls. The calibration of this wear data with the measured wear profiles of the shell liner in a 5.8 m diameter industrial cement tube mill shows that the tangential damping energy defined by the linear spring-slider-damper DEM contact law is the best fitting wear model of 6 different models. The gradual update of the liner shape delivers adequate results for liners without an axial height variation, while the accuracy of fully variable geometrical modifications is limited by the computation time. Nevertheless, detailed phenomena, like the creation of grooves in the liner, were for the first time numerically modeled. [less ▲]

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See detailDo evoked potentials contribute to the functional follow-up and clinical prognosis of multiple sclerosis?
GIFFROY, Xavier ULg; MAES, Nathalie ULg; Albert, Adelin ULg et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2017)

The clinical variability and complexity of multiple sclerosis (MS) challenges the individual clinical course prognostication. This study aimed to find out whether multimodal evoked potentials (EP ... [more ▼]

The clinical variability and complexity of multiple sclerosis (MS) challenges the individual clinical course prognostication. This study aimed to find out whether multimodal evoked potentials (EP) correlate with the motor components of multiple sclerosis functional composite (MSFCm) and predict clinically relevant motor functional deterioration. One hundred MS patients were assessed at baseline (T0) and about 7.5 years later (T1), with visual, somatosensory and motor EP and rated on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and the MSFCm, including the 9 Hole Peg Test and the Timed 25 Foot Walk (T25FW). The Spearman correlation coefficient (rS) was used to evaluate the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between EP Z scores and clinical findings. The predictive value of baseline electrophysiological data for clinical worsening (EDSS, 9-HPT, T25FW, MSFCm) during follow-up was assessed by logistic regression analysis. Unlike longitudinal correlations, cross-sectional correlations between EP Z scores and clinical outcomes were all significant and ranged between 0.22 and 0.67 (p\0.05). The global EP Z score was systematically predictive of EDSS and MSFCm worsening over time (all p\0.05). EP latency was a better predictor than amplitude, although weaker than latency and amplitude aggregation in the global EP Z score. The study demonstrates that EP numerical scores can be used for motor function monitoring and outcome prediction in patients with MS. [less ▲]

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See detailMono- and bimetallic manganese-carbonyl complexes and clusters bearing imidazol(in)ium-2-dithiocarboxylate ligands
Beltran Alvarez, Tomás Francisco ULg; Zaragoza, Guillermo; Delaude, Lionel ULg

in Dalton Transactions (2017), 46

Five complexes with the generic formula fac-[MnBr(CO)3(S2C[middle dot]NHC)] were obtained by reacting [MnBr(CO)5] with a set of representative imidazol(in)ium-2-dithiocarboxylate zwitterions. These ... [more ▼]

Five complexes with the generic formula fac-[MnBr(CO)3(S2C[middle dot]NHC)] were obtained by reacting [MnBr(CO)5] with a set of representative imidazol(in)ium-2-dithiocarboxylate zwitterions. These ligands are the adducts of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) and carbon disulfide. The mononuclear Mn(i) derivatives were coupled with Na[Mn(CO)5] to afford bimetallic [Mn2(CO)6(S2C[middle dot]NHC)] clusters. Yet, the most convenient strategy to access these dinuclear Mn(0) products implied a direct carbonyl substitution from the [Mn2(CO)10] dimer. The molecular structures of three monometallic and four bimetallic compounds were elucidated by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In the monometallic complexes, the NHC[middle dot]CS2 ligands exhibited a bidentate [small kappa]2-S,S[prime or minute] coordination mode with an S-C-S bite angle of about 116[degree]. In the dinuclear clusters, the CS2- unit acted as a chelate toward one manganese center and as a pseudoallylic ligand toward the other one. The S-C-S bite angle was reduced to ca. 104[degree]. Thus, the zwitterions displayed a remarkable flexibility, which also permitted a staggered arrangement of the carbonyl groups in the bimetallic systems. Examination of the [small nu, Greek, macron]CO absorption bands on IR spectroscopy helped identify the presence of fac-Mn(CO)3 or Mn2(CO)6 motifs, while the 13C NMR chemical shift of the CS2- moiety was a reliable indicator for monitoring its hapticity. Whereas the dinuclear clusters were air- and moisture-stable crystalline solids, mononuclear halido derivatives displayed only a limited stability under aerobic conditions. Both types of compounds underwent rather unselective, extensive fragmentations in the gas phase, in sharp contrast with the analogous rhenium derivatives that led to clean sequential decarbonylation processes upon collision-induced dissociation. [less ▲]

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See detailOutcomes of UCB transplantation are comparable in FLT3+ AML: Results of CIBMTR, eurocord and EBMT collaborative analysis.
Ustun, C.; Giannotti, F.; Zhang, M.-J. et al

in Leukemia : Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K (2017)

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from siblings or unrelated donors (URD) during complete remission (CR) may improve leukemia-free survival (LFS) in FLT3+ acute myeloid leukemia (AML ... [more ▼]

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from siblings or unrelated donors (URD) during complete remission (CR) may improve leukemia-free survival (LFS) in FLT3+ acute myeloid leukemia (AML) that has poor prognosis due to high relapse rates. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) HCT outcomes are largely unknown in this population. We found that compared with sibling HCT, relapse risks were similar after UCB (n=126), (HR 0.86, P=0.54) and URD (n=91) (HR 0.81, P=0.43). UCB HCT was associated with statistically higher non-relapse mortality compared with sibling HCT (HR 2.32, P=0.02), but not vs URD (HR 1.72, P=0.07). All three cohorts had statistically not significant 3-year LFS: 39% (95% CI 30-47) after UCB, 43% (95% CI 30-54) after sibling, and 50% (95% CI 40-60) after URD. Chronic GVHD rates were significantly lower after UCB compared with either sibling (HR 0.59, P=0.03) or URD (HR 0.49, P=0.001). Adverse factors for LFS included high leukocyte count at diagnosis and HCT during CR2. UCB is a suitable option for adults with FLT3+AML in the absence of an HLA-matched sibling and its immediate availability may be particularly important for FLT3+ AML where early relapse is common thus allowing HCT in CR1 when outcomes are best.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 25 January 2017. doi:10.1038/leu.2017.42. [less ▲]

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See detailThiamine and benfotiamine improve cognition and ameliorate GSK-3β-associated stressinduced behaviours in mice
Markova, Nataliia; Bazhenova, Nataliya; Anthony, Daniel C et al

in Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry (2017), 75

Thiamine deficiency in the brain has been implicated in the development of dementia and symptoms of depression. Indirect evidence suggests that thiamine may contribute to these pathologies by controlling ... [more ▼]

Thiamine deficiency in the brain has been implicated in the development of dementia and symptoms of depression. Indirect evidence suggests that thiamine may contribute to these pathologies by controlling the activities of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β. While decreased GSK- 3β activity appears to impair memory, increased GSK-3β activity is associated with the distressed/depressed state. However, direct evidence for the effects of thiamine on GSK-3β function were not have not been reported. Here, we administered thiamine or, the more bioavailable precursor, benfotiamine at 200 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks to C57BL/6J mice, to determine whether treatment might affect behaviours that are known to be sensitive to GSK-3β activity and whether such administration impacts on GSK-3β expression within the brain. The mice were tested in models of contextual conditioning and extinction, a 5-day rat exposure stress test, and a modified swim test with repeated testing. Imipramine (7.5 mg/kg/day) was administered as a positive control for thiamine or benfotiamine. As for imipramine, both compounds inhibited the upregulation of GSK-3β induced by predator stress or repeated swimming, and reduced floating scores and the predator stress-induced behavioural changes in anxiety and exploration. Coincident, thiamine and benfotiamine improved learning and extinction of contextual fear, and the acquisition of the step-down avoidance task. Together, our data indicate that thiamine and benfotiamine have antidepressant/anti-stress effects in naïve animals that are associated with reduced GSK-3β expression. Importantly, the treatment also had pro-cognitive actions despite the impact on GSK-3β activity. [less ▲]

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See detailFuture-oriented mental time travel in individuals with disordered gambling.
Noel, Xavier; Saeremans, Melanie; Kornreich, Charles et al

in Consciousness & Cognition (2017), 49

This study investigated the ability of individuals with disordered gambling to imagine future events. Problem gamblers (n=35) and control participants (n=35) were asked to imagine positive and negative ... [more ▼]

This study investigated the ability of individuals with disordered gambling to imagine future events. Problem gamblers (n=35) and control participants (n=35) were asked to imagine positive and negative future events for three temporal distances (one week, one year, 5-10years). Then, a variety of phenomenological aspects of their future thoughts (e.g., sensory and contextual details, autonoetic consciousness) were rated. Compared to control subjects, problem gamblers generated fewer positive and negative events across all temporal distances, an impairment that was correlated to verbal fluency scores. Furthermore, problem gamblers rated imagined events as containing fewer sensory and contextual details, and lacking autonoetic consciousness. These findings demonstrate that problem gambling is associated with a reduced future-oriented mental time travel ability and, in particular, with diminished autonoetic consciousness when imagining future events. [less ▲]

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See detailChemical Composition and Acaricidal Activity of Thymus algeriensis Essential Oil against Varroa destructor
Kouache, Benmoussa; Brada, Moussa; Saadi, Abdelkader et al

in Natural Product Communications (2017), 12(0), 1-4

The aim of the present study was to determine the chemical composition and evaluate the acaricidal activity of Thymus algeriensis essential oil (TAEO) against Varroa destructor. This ectoparasitic mite is ... [more ▼]

The aim of the present study was to determine the chemical composition and evaluate the acaricidal activity of Thymus algeriensis essential oil (TAEO) against Varroa destructor. This ectoparasitic mite is a pest of the honey bee Apis mellifera. The essential oil from the aerial parts of T. algeriensis, obtained by hydrodistillation, was obtained in a yield of 2.8± 0.2%, w/w. The TAEO was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Thirty-four compounds were identified, representing 99.3% of the oil. The main constituents were carvacrol (48.4%), γ-terpinene (14.9%), p-cymene (14.7%), and thymol (5.6%). Four lots were constituted at the level of an apiary in order to study the dynamics of the Varroa destructor and its host, Apis mellifera. After diagnosis by the biological method "install of diapers", the lots were treated at different doses of TAEO (0.1, 0.3 and 0.5%). TAEO was sprayed on top of the hives. The results show that TAEO at 0.5% resulted in a decrease in the rate of infestation of Varroa destructor, causing a mortality rate of 32.6% without negative effect on the nesting of the queen. The essential oil of T. algeriensis could be used as a bioacaricidal agent. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalogical reasoning in children with specific language impairment: Evidence from a scene analogy task
Krzemien, Magali ULg; Jemel, Boutheina; Maillart, Christelle ULg

in Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics (2017)

Analogical reasoning is a human ability that maps systems of relations. It develops along with relational knowledge, working memory and executive functions such as inhibition. It also maintains a mutual ... [more ▼]

Analogical reasoning is a human ability that maps systems of relations. It develops along with relational knowledge, working memory and executive functions such as inhibition. It also maintains a mutual influence on language development. Some authors have taken a greater interest in the analogical reasoning ability of children with language disorders, specifically those with specific language impairment (SLI). These children apparently have weaker analogical reasoning abilities than their aged-matched peers without language disorders. Following cognitive theories of language acquisition, this deficit could be one of the causes of language disorders in SLI, especially those concerning productivity. To confirm this deficit and its link to language disorders, we use a scene analogy task to evaluate the analogical performance of SLI children and compare them to controls of the same age and linguistic abilities. Results show that children with SLI perform worse than age-matched peers, but similar to language-matched peers. They are more influenced by increased task difficulty. The association between language disorders and analogical reasoning in SLI can be confirmed. The hypothesis of limited processing capacity in SLI is also being considered. [less ▲]

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See detailLEF1-mediated MMP13 gene expression is repressed by SIRT1 in human chondrocytes.
Elayyan, Jinan; Lee, Eun-Jin; Gabay, Odile et al

in FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (2017)

Reduced SIRT1 activity and levels during osteoarthritis (OA), promotes gradual loss of cartilage. Loss of cartilage matrix is accompanied by an increase in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 13, partially ... [more ▼]

Reduced SIRT1 activity and levels during osteoarthritis (OA), promotes gradual loss of cartilage. Loss of cartilage matrix is accompanied by an increase in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 13, partially because of enhanced LEF1 transcriptional activity. In this study, we assessed the role of SIRT1 in LEF1-mediated MMP13 gene expression in human OA chondrocytes. Results showed that MMP13 protein levels and enzymatic activity decreased significantly during SIRT1 overexpression or activation by resveratrol. Conversely, MMP13 gene expression was reduced in chondrocytes transfected with SIRT1 siRNA or treated with nicotinamide (NAM), a sirtuin inhibitor. Chondrocytes challenged with IL-1beta, a cytokine involved in OA pathogenesis, enhanced LEF1 protein levels, and gene expression, resulting in increased MMP13 gene expression; however, overexpression of SIRT1 during IL-1beta challenge impeded LEF1 levels and MMP13 gene expression. Previous reports showed that LEF1 binds to the MMP13 promoter and transactivates its expression, but we observed that SIRT1 repressed LEF1 protein and mRNA expression, ultimately reducing LEF1 transcriptional activity, as judged by luciferase assay. Finally, mouse articular cartilage from Sirt1-/- presented increased LEF1 and MMP13 protein levels, similar to human OA cartilage. Thus, demonstrating for the first time that SIRT1 represses MMP13 in human OA chondrocytes, which appears to be mediated, at least in part, through repression of the transcription factor LEF1, a known modulator of MMP13 gene expression.-Elayyan, J. Lee, E.-J., Gabay, O., Smith, C. A., Qiq, O., Reich, E., Mobasheri, A., Henrotin, Y., Kimber, S. J., Dvir-Ginzberg, M. LEF1-mediated MMP13 gene expression is repressed by SIRT1 in human chondrocytes. [less ▲]

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See detailMembrane Interactions of Natural Cyclic Lipodepsipeptides of the Viscosin Group
Geudens, Niels; Nasir, Mehmet Nail ULg; Crowet, Jean-Marc ULg et al

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes (2017), 1859(3), 331-339

Many Pseudomonas spp. produce cyclic lipodepsipeptides (CLPs), which, besides their role in biological functions such as motility, biofilm formation and interspecies interactions, are antimicrobial. It ... [more ▼]

Many Pseudomonas spp. produce cyclic lipodepsipeptides (CLPs), which, besides their role in biological functions such as motility, biofilm formation and interspecies interactions, are antimicrobial. It has been established that interaction with the cellular membrane is central to the mode of action of CLPs. In this work, we focus on the CLPs of the so-called viscosin group, aiming to assess the impact of the main structural variations observed within this group on both the antimicrobial activity and the interaction with model membranes. The antimicrobial activity of viscosin, viscosinamide A, WLIP and pseudodesmin A were all tested on a broad panel of mainly Gram-positive bacteria. Their capacity to permeabilize or fuse PG/PE/cardiolipin model membrane vesicles is assessed using fluorescent probes. We find that the Glu2/Gln2 structural variation within the viscosin group is the main factor that influences both the membrane permeabilization properties and the minimum inhibitory concentration of bacterial growth, while the configuration of the Leu5 residue has no apparent effect. The CLPmembrane interactions were further evaluated using CD and FT-IR spectroscopy on model membranes consisting of PG/PE/cardiolipin or POPC with or without cholesterol. In contrast to previous studies, we observe no conformational change upon membrane insertion. The CLPs interact both with the polar heads and aliphatic tails of model membrane systems, altering bilayer fluidity, while cholesterol reduces CLP insertion depth [less ▲]

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See detailFifth European Dirofilaria and Angiostrongylus Days (FiEDAD) 2016
Simón, F.; Kartashev, V.; González-Miguel, J. et al

in Parasites & Vectors (2017), 10(1), 5

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See detailDisease Note. First Report of Persimmon Cryptic Virus in Spain
Ruiz-Garcia, A-B; Chamberland, N.; Martinez, C. et al

in Journal of Plant Pathology [=JPP] (2017), 99(1),

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See detailDiet effects on bumblebee health
Roger, N.; Michez, D.; Wattiez, R. et al

in Journal of Insect Physiology (2017), 96

Among physiological processes, the maintenance of immunity is one of the most energetically costly in invertebrates. Disease resistance can be quantified by measuring immunocompetence, which is defined as ... [more ▼]

Among physiological processes, the maintenance of immunity is one of the most energetically costly in invertebrates. Disease resistance can be quantified by measuring immunocompetence, which is defined as the ability of an organism to mount an immune response, either in cellular, humoral or behavioural forms. In insects, immune capacity can be affected by a variety of factors including pesticides, genetic diversity or diet. Here we focus on an important species of domesticated pollinator, Bombus terrestris, and the potential impact of a poor pollen diet (low nutritional content and toxic) on its health. We investigate three responses at both colony and individual levels: behavioural, humoral and cellular. Our results show that poor pollen diets decrease larval and pupal masses and increase larval ejection as well as adult constitutive immunity (i.e., prophenoloxidase assays). The susceptibility of bumblebees to disease and infection might therefore be greater after a nutritive stress. These findings raise the importance of available plant hosts, especially floral plant species providing pollen with suitable nutritive quality (i.e., nutrient pollen content) for bumblebees. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd [less ▲]

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See detailThe closure of arteriovenous fistula in kidney transplant recipients is associated with an acceleration of kidney function decline
WEEKERS, Laurent ULg; VANDERWECKENE, Pauline ULg; pottel, hans et al

in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation (2017)

ABSTRACT Background. The creation of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) may retard chronic kidney disease progression in the general population. Conversely, the impact of AVF closure on renal function in kidney ... [more ▼]

ABSTRACT Background. The creation of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) may retard chronic kidney disease progression in the general population. Conversely, the impact of AVF closure on renal function in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) remains unknown. Methods. From 2007 to 2013, we retrospectively categorized 285 KTRs into three groups: no AVF (Group 0, n = 90), closed AVF (Group 1, n = 114) and left-open AVF (Group 2, n = 81). AVF closure occurred at 653 ± 441 days after kidney transplantation (KTx), with a thrombosis:ligation ratio of 19:95. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was determined using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. Linear mixed models calculated the slope and intercept of eGFR decline versus time, starting at 3 months post-KTx, with a median follow-up of 1807 days (95% confidence interval 1665–2028). Results. The eGFR slope was less in Group 1 (−0.081 mL/min/ month) compared with Group 0 (−0.183 mL/min/month; P = 0.03) or Group 2 (−0.164 mL/min/month; P = 0.09). Still, the eGFR slope significantly deteriorated after (−0.159 mL/min/month) versus before (0.038 mL/min/month) AVF closure (P= 0.03). Study periods before versus after AVF closure were balanced to a mean of 13.5 and 12.5 months, respectively, with at least 10 observations per patient (n = 99). Conclusions. In conclusion, a significant acceleration of eGFR decline is observed over the 12 months following the closure of a functioning AVF in KTRs. [less ▲]

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See detailIntegrating production scheduling and vehicle routing decisions at the operational decision level: A review and discussion
Moons, Stef; Ramaekers, Katrien; Caris, An et al

in Computers & Industrial Engineering (2017), 104

Production scheduling and vehicle routing are two well-studied problems in literature. Although these supply chain functions are interrelated, they are often solved sequentially. This uncoordinated ... [more ▼]

Production scheduling and vehicle routing are two well-studied problems in literature. Although these supply chain functions are interrelated, they are often solved sequentially. This uncoordinated approach can lead to suboptimal solutions. In the current competitive business environment, companies are searching for methods to save costs and improve their service level. Integrating production and distribution scheduling operations can be an approach to improve the overall performance. This paper focuses on integrated production-distribution operational level scheduling problems, which explicitly take into account vehicle routing decisions of the delivery process. Existing literature on integrated production scheduling and vehicle routing problems is reviewed and classified. Both the problem characteristics of mathematical models and the accompanying solution approaches are discussed to identify directions for further research. [less ▲]

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See detailOrigine et histoire de la folie : un nouveau Foucault, un nouveau fou
Englebert, Jérôme ULg

in Evolution Psychiatrique (2017), 82(2), 436-437

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See detailSystemic biomarkers of collagen and elastin turnover are associated with clinically relevant outcomes in COPD.
Stolz, Daiana; Leeming, Diana Julie; Edfort Kristensen, Jacob Hull et al

in CHEST (2017)

BACKGROUND: Extracellular matrix remodeling (ECM) of the lung tissue releases protein fragments into the blood, where they may be detected as serological surrogate markers of disease activity in chronic ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Extracellular matrix remodeling (ECM) of the lung tissue releases protein fragments into the blood, where they may be detected as serological surrogate markers of disease activity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We aimed to assess the association of ECM turnover with severity and outcome of COPD. METHODS: In a prospective, observational, multicenter study including 506 patients with COPD, GOLD grades II-IV, we analyzed serum samples at stable state, exacerbation and 4 weeks after exacerbation, for a panel of 5 novel neo-epitopes including fragments of collagen type-III (C3M) and type-VI (C6M), pro-forms of collagen type-III (Pro-C3) and type-VI (Pro-C6) and neutrophil elastase-generated fragments of elastin (EL-NE) by ELISA. These neo-epitopes were also measured at stable state in a derivation cohort including 100 COPD patients. RESULTS: Serum levels of C3M, C6M, Pro-C3, Pro-C6 and EL-NE were associated with lung function. Patients with the lowest levels of Pro-C3 and Pro-C6 had more severe airflow limitation, hyperinflation, air trapping, and emphysema. Degradation of collagen type-III and -VI was associated with dyspnea. All ECM biomarkers, except Pro-C6, were increased at exacerbation as compared to stable state but, except EL-NE, did not differ between stable state and exacerbation follow-up in the crude and adjusted analyses. In Cox regression adjusted analyses, Pro-C3 was associated with a shorter time to exacerbation (HR 0.72[0.59-0.89] p=0.002) and Pro-C6 with survival (HR 2.09[1.18-3.71], p=0.011). CONCLUSIONS: Serum biomarkers of ECM turnover are significantly associated with disease severity and clinically relevant outcomes in COPD. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh-throughput strategies for the discovery and engineering of enzymes for biocatalysis
Jacques, Philippe ULg; Béchet, M.; Bigan, M. et al

in Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering (2017), 40(2),

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See detailNon-invasive approaches in the diagnosis of acute rejection in kidney transplant recipients, part II: omics analyses of urine and blood samples
Erpicum, Pauline ULg; HANSSEN, Oriane ULg; WEEKERS, Laurent ULg et al

in Clinical Kidney Journal (2017)

Kidney transplantation (KTx) represents the best available treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease. Still, the full benefits of KTx are undermined by acute rejection (AR). The diagnosis of AR ... [more ▼]

Kidney transplantation (KTx) represents the best available treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease. Still, the full benefits of KTx are undermined by acute rejection (AR). The diagnosis of AR ultimately relies on transplant needle biopsy. However, such an invasive procedure is associated with a significant risk of complications and is limited by sampling error and interobserver variability. In the present review, we summarize the current literature about non-invasive approaches for the diagnosis of AR in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs), including in vivo imaging, gene-expression profiling and omics analyses of blood and urine samples. Most imaging techniques, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasound and magnetic resonance, exploit the fact that blood flow is significantly lowered in case of AR-induced inflammation. In addition, AR-associated recruitment of activated leucocytes may be detectable by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. In parallel, urine biomarkers, including CXCL9/CXCL10 or a three-gene signature of CD3ε, CXCL10 and 18S RNA levels, have been identified. None of these approaches has yet been adopted in the clinical follow-up of KTRs, but standardization of analysis procedures may help assess reproducibility and comparative diagnostic yield in large, prospective, multicentre trials. [less ▲]

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See detailPitfalls in supermatrix phylogenomics
Philippe, Hervé; Vienne, Damien M. De; Ranwez, Vincent et al

in European Journal of Taxonomy (2017), 283

In the mid-2000s, molecular phylogenetics turned into phylogenomics, a development that improved the resolution of phylogenetic trees through a dramatic reduction in stochastic error. While some then ... [more ▼]

In the mid-2000s, molecular phylogenetics turned into phylogenomics, a development that improved the resolution of phylogenetic trees through a dramatic reduction in stochastic error. While some then predicted “the end of incongruence”, it soon appeared that analysing large amounts of sequence data without an adequate model of sequence evolution amplifies systematic error and leads to phylogenetic artefacts. With the increasing flood of (sometimes low-quality) genomic data resulting from the rise of high-throughput sequencing, a new type of error has emerged. Termed here “data errors”, it lumps together several kinds of issues affecting the construction of phylogenomic supermatrices (e.g., sequencing and annotation errors, contaminant sequences). While easy to deal with at a single-gene scale, such errors become very difficult to avoid at the genomic scale, both because hand curating thousands of sequences is prohibitively time-consuming and because the suitable automated bioinformatics tools are still in their infancy. In this paper, we first review the pitfalls affecting the construction of supermatrices and the strategies to limit their adverse effects on phylogenomic inference. Then, after discussing the relative non-issue of missing data in supermatrices, we briefly present the approaches commonly used to reduce systematic error. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of hazardous chemicals in edible insects and insect-based food intended for human consumption
Poma, G; Cuykx, M; Amato, E et al

in Food and Chemical Toxicology (2017), 100

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See detailMacroevolution of Specificity in Cyanolichens of the Genus Peltigera Section Polydactylon (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota)
Magain, Nicolas ULg; Miadlikoswka, Jolanta; Goffinet, Bernard et al

in Systematic Biology (2017), 66(1), 74-99

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See detailSartre in Venedig: der Mann, der in die Kälte ging
Cormann, Grégory ULg; Viehöver, Vera ULg

in Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique (2017), 11

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See detailWidespread activity of multiple lineages of Usutu virus, western Europe, 2016.
Cadar, Daniel; Luhken, Renke; van der Jeugd, Henk et al

in Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2017), 22(4),

In the summer of 2016, Belgium, France, Germany and the Netherlands reported widespread Usutu virus (USUV) activity based on live and dead bird surveillance. The causative USUV strains represented four ... [more ▼]

In the summer of 2016, Belgium, France, Germany and the Netherlands reported widespread Usutu virus (USUV) activity based on live and dead bird surveillance. The causative USUV strains represented four lineages, of which two putative novel lineages were most likely recently introduced into Germany and spread to other western European countries. The spatial extent of the outbreak area corresponded with R0 values > 1. The occurrence of the outbreak, the largest USUV epizootic registered so far in Europe, allowed us to gain insight in how a recently introduced arbovirus with potential public health implications can spread and become a resident pathogen in a naive environment. Understanding the ecological and epidemiological factors that drive the emergence or re-emergence of USUV is critical to develop and implement timely surveillance strategies for adequate preventive and control measures. Public health authorities, blood transfusion services and clinicians in countries where USUV was detected should be aware of the risk of possible USUV infection in humans, including in patients with unexplained encephalitis or other neurological impairments, especially during late summer when mosquito densities peak. [less ▲]

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See detailSedation of Patients With Disorders of Consciousness During Neuroimaging: Effects on Resting State Functional Brain Connectivity.
KIRSCH, Murielle ULg; Guldenmund, P; Ali Bahri, Mohamed et al

in Anesthesia and Analgesia (2017), 124(2),

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See detailSystématiser les associations. Le concept hjelmslévien de paradigme et son héritage greimassien
Badir, Sémir ULg; Cigana, Lorenzo ULg

in Signata. Annales des Sémiotiques = Annals of Semiotics (2017), 8

This paper aims to explore the notion of “paradigm” by following its development in the epistemology of linguistics and semiotics of the twentieth century through three landmarks: its first use within ... [more ▼]

This paper aims to explore the notion of “paradigm” by following its development in the epistemology of linguistics and semiotics of the twentieth century through three landmarks: its first use within linguistics, by Ferdinand de Saussure, its redefinition by Louis Hjelmslev, and its reinterpretation in textual semiotics by Algirdas J. Greimas. The concept of “paradigm” represents, more than others, the very target of structuralist theorisation. Marking the transition between openness and closeness of linguistic categories, it crystallises the structuralist ambition to bring the dynamic variability and richness of semiotic phenomena back to a closed, or at least stable, inventory of functional ground elements. [less ▲]

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See detailStructure impact of two galactomannan fractions on their viscosityproperties in dilute solution, unperturbed state and gel state
Gillet, Sébastien; Aguedo, Mario ULg; Petrut, Raul Flaviu ULg et al

in International Journal of Biological Macromolecules (2017), 96

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See detailMT4-MMP and EGFR expression levels are key biomarkers for breast cancer patient response to chemotherapy and erlotinib.
Yip, Cassandre ULg; Foidart, Pierre ULg; Somja, Joan ULg et al

in British Journal of Cancer (2017)

BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are heterogeneous cancers with poor prognosis. We aimed to determine the clinical relevance of membrane type-4 matrix metalloproteinase (MT4-MMP), a ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are heterogeneous cancers with poor prognosis. We aimed to determine the clinical relevance of membrane type-4 matrix metalloproteinase (MT4-MMP), a membrane type matrix metalloproteinase that interacts with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpressed in >50% of TNBC. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective immunohistochemical analysis on human TNBC samples (n=81) and validated our findings in in vitro and in vivo assays. RESULTS: Membrane type-4 matrix metalloproteinase and EGFR are produced in 72.5% of TNBC samples, whereas those proteins are faintly produced by healthy tissues. Unexpectedly, tumour relapse after chemotherapy was reduced in samples highly positive for MT4-MMP. Mechanistically, this is ascribed to a higher sensitivity of MT4-MMP-producing cells to alkylating or intercalating chemotherapeutic agents, as assessed in vitro. In sharp contrast, MT4-MMP expression did not affect tumour cell sensitivity to paclitaxel that interferes with protease trafficking. Importantly, MT4-MMP expression sensitised cancer cells to erlotinib, a tyrosine kinase EGFR inhibitor. In a pre-clinical model, the growth of MT4-MMP overexpressing xenografts, but not of control ones, was reduced by epirubicin or erlotinib. The combination of suboptimal drug doses blocked drastically the growth of MT4-MMP-producing tumours. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that MT4-MMP defines a sub-population of TNBC sensitive to a combination of DNA-targeting chemotherapeutic agents and anti-EGFR drugs.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication 14 February 2017; doi:10.1038/bjc.2017.23 www.bjcancer.com. [less ▲]

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See detailMetabolomic and molecular signatures of Mascarene Aloes using a multidisciplinary approach
Govinden-Soulange, J.; Lobine, D.; Frederich, Michel ULg et al

in South African Journal of Botany (2017), 108

In this research a multidisciplinary approach was used to unveil the genetic, metabolic uniqueness and relationships of endemic Mascarene Aloes (Aloe macra, Aloe purpurea, Aloe tormentorii) with respect ... [more ▼]

In this research a multidisciplinary approach was used to unveil the genetic, metabolic uniqueness and relationships of endemic Mascarene Aloes (Aloe macra, Aloe purpurea, Aloe tormentorii) with respect to Aloe vera. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, DNA sequencing and antioxidant profiles of these Aloes were studied. Principal component analysis following 1H NMR revealed the specificity of the Mascarene Aloes relative to Aloe vera. The superior free radical scavenging ability of A. purpurea, A. macra and A. tormentorii as compared to other Aloes was also unveiled. Phylogenetic analyses of chloroplast genes and ITS region sequences of these Mascarene Aloes were done using maximum parsimony and Bayesian analysis. Mascarene Aloes clustered within one clade separate from Aloe vera confirming their relative recent emergence in this genus. Results from this study showed that there is sufficient evidence at the metabolomic and molecular level to distinguish between Aloe ​purpurea from Mauritius and that of Reunion. © 2016 SAAB [less ▲]

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See detailANTICANCER, ANTIPLASMODIAL AND ANTITRYPANOSOMAL ACTIVITIES OF CRUDE EXTRACTS OF PLATANUS ORIENTALIS
Ebralidze, L.; Mskhiladze, Lasha; Ledoux, Allison ULg et al

in World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research (2017), 6(3), 170-175

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See detailEffects of reducing blood pressure on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes: Focus on SGLT2 inhibitors and EMPA-REG OUTCOME.
Scheen, André ULg; Delanaye, P.

in Diabètes & Métabolism (2017), (epub ahead of print),

Empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, has enabled remarkable reductions in cardiovascular and all-cause mortality as well as in renal outcomes in patients with type 2 ... [more ▼]

Empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, has enabled remarkable reductions in cardiovascular and all-cause mortality as well as in renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and a history of cardiovascular disease in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME. These results have been attributed to haemodynamic rather than metabolic effects, in part due to the osmotic/diuretic action of empagliflozin and the reduction in arterial blood pressure (BP). The present narrative review includes the results of meta-analyses of trials evaluating the effects on renal outcomes of lowering BP in patients with T2D, with a special focus on the influence of baseline and achieved systolic BP, and compares the renal outcome results of the EMPA-REG OUTCOME with those of other major trials with inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system in patients with T2D and the preliminary findings with other SGLT2 inhibitors, and also evaluates post hoc analyses from the EMPA-REG OUTCOME of special interest as regards the BP-lowering hypothesis and renal function. While systemic BP reduction associated to empagliflozin therapy may have contributed to the renal benefits reported in EMPA-REG OUTCOME, other local mechanisms related to kidney homoeostasis most probably also played a role in the overall protection observed in the trial. [less ▲]

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See detailReconstructing Cenozoic vegetation from proxy data and models – A NECLIME synthesis (Editorial)
François, Louis ULg; Bruch, A. A.; Utescher, T. et al

in Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (2017), 467

[No abstract available]

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See detailFactors associated with reaching or not reaching target HbA1c after initiation of basal or premixed insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Scheen, André ULg; Schmitt, H.; Jiang, H. H. et al

in Diabètes & Métabolism (2017), 43(69-78),

AIMS: To evaluate factors associated with reaching or not reaching target glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels by analysing the respective contributions of fasting hyperglycaemia (FHG), also referred to as ... [more ▼]

AIMS: To evaluate factors associated with reaching or not reaching target glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels by analysing the respective contributions of fasting hyperglycaemia (FHG), also referred to as basal hyperglycaemia, vs postprandial hyperglycaemia (PHG) before and after initiation of a basal or premixed insulin regimen in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: This post-hoc analysis of insulin-naive patients in the DURABLE study randomised to receive either insulin glargine or insulin lispro mix 25 evaluated the percentages of patients achieving a target HbA1c of <7.0% (<53mmol/mol) per baseline HbA1c quartiles, and the effect of each insulin regimen on the relative contributions of PHG and FHG to overall hyperglycaemia. RESULTS: Patients had comparable demographic characteristics and similar HbA1c and FHG values at baseline in each HbA1c quartile regardless of whether they reached the target HbA1c. The higher the HbA1c quartile, the greater was the decrease in HbA1c, but also the smaller the percentage of patients achieving the target HbA1c. HbA1c and FHG decreased more in patients reaching the target, resulting in significantly lower values at endpoint in all baseline HbA1c quartiles with either insulin treatment. Patients not achieving the target HbA1c had slightly higher insulin doses, but lower total hypoglycaemia rates. CONCLUSION: Smaller decreases in FHG were associated with not reaching the target HbA1c, suggesting a need to increase basal or premixed insulin doses to achieve targeted fasting plasma glucose and improve patient response before introducing more intensive prandial insulin regimens. [less ▲]

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See detailLa mise en œuvre du droit de plainte en Belgique francophone. Observation des processus de médiation en soins de santé
Dubois, Christophe ULg; Vandeninden, Elise ULg

in Revue Française des Affaires Sociales (2017), 1(1), 79-96

This article concerns the treatment of patients’ rights cases in French‐speaking Belgian hospitals by the “mediator”, that is, the person who has the legal duty of dealing with grievances arising from the ... [more ▼]

This article concerns the treatment of patients’ rights cases in French‐speaking Belgian hospitals by the “mediator”, that is, the person who has the legal duty of dealing with grievances arising from the application of this right of complaint. What happens to a patient’s complaint? This is the question that this article attempts to answer through a report on the “local” organization of mediation ser‐ vices within the hospital. It thus clari es the links and divergences between the formal discourses accompanying the implementation of the mediation function in health care on the one hand, and, on the other hand, the actual practices of media‐ tion determined by the work of mediators in the hospital. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of the long-term effect of biochar on properties of temperate agricultural soil at pre-industrial charcoal kiln sites in Wallonia, Belgium
Hardy, Brieuc; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas ULg; Houben, David et al

in European Journal of Soil Science (2017), 68

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See detailVaginocutaneous fistula and buttock abscess formation 7 years after polypropylene transobturator tape insertion.
ABDALLAH, Alain; NISOLLE, Michelle ULg; DE LANDSHEERE, Laurent ULg

in Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction (2017), 46

Surgical treatment for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) using transobturator tape insertion is widely accepted. However several postoperative complications were reported in the literature including ... [more ▼]

Surgical treatment for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) using transobturator tape insertion is widely accepted. However several postoperative complications were reported in the literature including infections, abscess and fistula formation. Here we report a case of 57 year old female who presented with abscess and left vaginocutaneous buttock fistula 7 years after transobturator polypropelene tape insertion. Treatment included abscess drainage with dissection of the fistulous tract and removal of the left arm of the transobturator tape along with antibiotic coverage. Sinus drainage stopped after 3 days. Stress urinary incontinence didn't recur. Suspicion of fistula formation should rise in patients presenting with bothersome vaginal or cutaneous discharge after transobturator tape insertion. This case is particular since it describes a fistula complication with polypropelene tape which is unusual with this type of tapes. Treatment of such complication should always consist of surgical removal of the mesh to allow closure of the fistulous tract. [less ▲]

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See detailDo flower mixtures with high functional diversity enhance aphid predators in wildflower strips?
Hatt, Séverin ULg; Uyttenbroeck, Roel ULg; Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULg et al

in European Journal of Entomology (2017), 114

Among semi-natural elements in agricultural landscapes, wildflower strips sown at field margins or within fields represent potential habitats for the natural enemies of insect pests. As insects are ... [more ▼]

Among semi-natural elements in agricultural landscapes, wildflower strips sown at field margins or within fields represent potential habitats for the natural enemies of insect pests. As insects are sensitive to a variety of flower traits, we hypothesised that mixtures with high functional diversity attract and support a higher abundance and species richness of aphid flower visiting predators compared to mixtures with low functional diversity. During a field experiment, repeated over two years (2014 and 2015) in Gembloux (Belgium), aphid predators (i.e., lacewings, ladybeetles and hoverflies) were pan-trapped in five sown flower mixtures (including a control mixture, with three replicates of each mixture) of low to high functional diversity based on seven traits (i.e., flower colour, ultra-violet reflectance and pattern, blooming start and duration, height and flower class, primarily based on corolla morphology). In both years, flower species in the sown mixtures (i.e., sown and spontaneous flowers) were listed, and the realised functional diversity of each plot was calculated. Over the two years, an increase in functional diversity did not result in an increase in the abundance and richness of aphid predators. Moreover, ladybeetles, representing the majority of trapped predators, were more abundant in mixtures with very low or intermediary functional diversity at sowing, especially in 2014. We hypothesise that certain flower species, which were abundant in certain mixtures (and not in those exhibiting the highest functional diversity), attracted predators and were sufficiently represented to support them. Our results present novel information that could be used to the development of flower mixtures that provide effective ecosystem services, such as pest control. [less ▲]

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See detailMars Topography Investigated Through the Wavelet Leaders Method: a Multidimensional Study of its Fractal Structure
Deliège, Adrien ULg; Kleyntssens, Thomas ULg; Nicolay, Samuel ULg

in Planetary and Space Science (2017), 136C

This work examines the scaling properties of Mars topography through a wavelet-based formalism. We conduct exhaustive one-dimensional (both longitudinal and latitudinal) and two-dimensional studies based ... [more ▼]

This work examines the scaling properties of Mars topography through a wavelet-based formalism. We conduct exhaustive one-dimensional (both longitudinal and latitudinal) and two-dimensional studies based on Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data using the multifractal formalism called Wavelet Leaders Method (WLM). This approach shows that a scale break occurs at approximately 15 km, giving two scaling regimes in both 1D and 2D cases. At small scales, these topographic profiles mostly display a monofractal behavior while a switch to multifractality is observed in several areas at larger scales. The scaling exponents extracted from this framework tend to be greater at small scales. In the 1D context, these observations are in agreement with previous works and thus suggest that the WLM is well-suited for examining scaling properties of topographic fields. Moreover, the 2D analysis is the first such complete study to our knowledge. It gives both a local and global insight on the scaling regimes of the surface of Mars and allows to exhibit the link between the scaling exponents and several famous features of the Martian topography. These results may be used as a solid basis for further investigations of the scaling laws of the Red planet and show that the WLM could be used to perform systematic analyses of the surface roughness of other celestial bodies. [less ▲]

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See detailCabergoline for Cushing's disease: a large retrospective multicenter study.
Ferriere, A.; Cortet, C.; Chanson, P. et al

in European Journal of Endocrinology (2017), 176(3), 305-314

OBJECTIVE: The efficacy of cabergoline in Cushing's disease (CD) is controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of cabergoline in a large contemporary cohort of ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: The efficacy of cabergoline in Cushing's disease (CD) is controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of cabergoline in a large contemporary cohort of patients with CD. DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective multicenter study from thirteen French and Belgian university hospitals. METHODS: Sixty-two patients with CD received cabergoline monotherapy or add-on therapy. Symptom score, biological markers of hypercortisolism and adverse effects were recorded. RESULTS: Twenty-one (40%) of 53 patients who received cabergoline monotherapy had normal urinary free cortisol (UFC) values within 12 months (complete responders), and five of these patients developed corticotropic insufficiency. The fall in UFC was associated with significant reductions in midnight cortisol and plasma ACTH, and with clinical improvement. Compared to other patients, complete responders had similar median baseline UFC (2.0 vs 2.5xULN) and plasma prolactin concentrations but received lower doses of cabergoline (1.5 vs 3.5 mg/week, P < 0.05). During long-term treatment (>12 months), cabergoline was withdrawn in 28% of complete responders because of treatment escape or intolerance. Overall, sustained control of hypercortisolism was obtained in 23% of patients for 32.5 months (19-105). Nine patients on steroidogenesis inhibitors received cabergoline add-on therapy for 19 months (1-240). Hypercortisolism was controlled in 56% of these patients during the first year of treatment with cabergoline at 1.0 mg/week (0.5-3.5). CONCLUSIONS: About 20-25% of CD patients are good responders to cabergoline therapy allowing long-term control of hypercortisolism at relatively low dosages and with acceptable tolerability. No single parameter, including the baseline UFC and prolactin levels, predicted the response to cabergoline. [less ▲]

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See detailMesenchymal stromal cell therapy for inflmmatory bowel diseases
GREGOIRE, Céline ULg; LECHANTEUR, Chantal ULg; BRIQUET, Alexandra ULg et al

in Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics (2017), 45

Background Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic relapsing diseases in which pro-inflammatory immune cells and cytokines induce intestinal tissue damage and disability. Mesenchymal stromal cells ... [more ▼]

Background Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic relapsing diseases in which pro-inflammatory immune cells and cytokines induce intestinal tissue damage and disability. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) exert powerful immunomodulatory effects and stimulate tissue repair. Aim To review the current data on mesenchymal stromal cell therapy in IBD. Method We searched PubMed and ‘ClinicalTrials.gov’ databases using the terms ‘mesenchymal stromal cells’, ‘mesenchymal stem cell transplantation’, ‘inflammatory bowel diseases’, ‘Crohn disease’ and ‘colitis, ulcerative’. Additional publications were identified from individual article reference lists. Results MSCs include inhibition of Th1/Th17 lymphocytes and recruitment of regulatory T lymphocytes, induction of antigen-presenting cells into a regulatorylike profile, and stimulation of epithelial cell differentiation and proliferation. More than 200 patients with refractory fistulas have been treated with local injections of MSCs, resulting in complete response in more than half, and in overall response in approximately two thirds of patients. In refractory luminal Crohn’s disease, 49 cases of systemic MSC infusions have been reported, while trials with autologous MSCs resulted in mitigated responses, studies using allogeneic MSCs were promising, with around 60% of patients experiencing a response and around 40% achieving clinical remission. Conclusions Mesenchymal stromal cells might represent a promising therapy for IBD, especially for Crohn’s disease. There remain many unsolved questions concerning the optimal origin and source of mesenchymal stromal cells, dosage and modalities of administration. Moreover, mesenchymal stromal cells still need to prove their effectiveness compared with conventional treatments in randomised controlled trials. [less ▲]

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See detailA comparative study on optimum insulation thickness of walls and energy savings in equatorial and tropical climate
Kameni Nematchoua, Modeste; Ricciardi, Paola; Reiter, Sigrid ULg et al

in International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment (2017)

The increase outdoor temperature acts directly on the indoor climate of buildings. In Cameroon, the energy consumption demand in the buildings sector has been rapidly increasing in recent years; so well ... [more ▼]

The increase outdoor temperature acts directly on the indoor climate of buildings. In Cameroon, the energy consumption demand in the buildings sector has been rapidly increasing in recent years; so well that energy supply does not always satisfy demand. Thermal insulation technology can be one of the leading methods for reducing energy consumption in these new buildings. However, choosing the thickness of the insulation material often causes high insulation costs. In the present study, the optimum insulation thickness, energy saving and payback period were calculated for buildings in Yaounde´ and Garoua cities, located in two climatic regions in Cameroon. The economic model including the cost of insulation material and the present value of energy consumption and the cost over a life time of 22 years of the building, were used to find the optimum insulation thickness, energy saving, and payback period. Materials that extruded polystyrene were chosen and used for two typical wall structures (concrete block (HCB) and compressed stabilized earth block wall (CSEB)). The early cooling transmission loads, according to wall orientations and percentage of radiation blocked were calculated using the explicit finite-difference method under steady periodic conditions. As a result, it was found that the west- and east-facing walls are the least favourite in the cooling season, whereas the south and north orientations are the most economical. Although wall orientation had a significant effect on the optimum insulation thickness, it had a more significant effect on energy savings. In equatorial region (Yaounde´), for south orientation, the optimum insulation thickness was 0.08 m for an energy savings of 51.69 $/m2. Meanwhile, in tropical region (Garoua), for north orientation, the optimum insulation thickness was 0.11 m for an energy savings of 97.82 $/m2. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization and validation of a fast Supercritical Fluid Chromatography method for the quantitative determination of vitamin D3 and its related impurities.
Andri, Bertyl ULg; Lebrun, Pierre ULg; Dispas, Amandine ULg et al

in Journal of Chromatography. A (2017)

In the uprising context of green analytical chemistry, Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC) is often suggested as an alternative to Normal Phase Liquid Chromatography. Indeed, SFC provides fast ... [more ▼]

In the uprising context of green analytical chemistry, Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC) is often suggested as an alternative to Normal Phase Liquid Chromatography. Indeed, SFC provides fast, efficient and green separations. In this report, the quantitative performances of SFC were challenged on a real-life case study: the Quality Control (QC) of vitamin D3. A rapid and green SFC method was optimized thanks to the Design of Experiments–Design Space (DoE–DS) methodology. It provided robust and high quality separation of the compounds within a 2 min timeframe, using a gradient of ethanol as co-solvent of the carbon dioxide. The analytical method was fully validated according to the total error approach, demon- strating the compliance of the method to the specifications of U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP: 97.0–103.0%) and European Pharmacopeia (EP: 97.0–102.0%) for an interval of [50–150%] of the target concentration. In order to allow quantification of impurities using vitamin D3 as an external standard in SFC-UV, correction factors were determined and verified during method validation. Thus, accurate quantification of impu- rities was demonstrated at the specified levels (0.1 and 1.0% of the main compound) for a 70.0–130.0% dosing range. This work demonstrates the validity of an SFC method for the QC of vitamin D3 raw material and its application to real samples. Therefore, it supports the switch to a greener and faster separative technique as an alternative to NPLC in the pharmaceutical industry. [less ▲]

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See detailDéficits de la conscience autonoétique et de la mémoire autobiographique: résultats d'une intervention cognitive dans la schizophrénie.
Boulanger, Marie ULg; Neumann, Aurore; Blairy, Sylvie ULg

in Pratiques Psychologiques (2017)

The study evaluates the effects of a cognitive intervention called Self-Awareness Therapy (SAT) on abilities of mental time travel in deficit in schizophrenia. Among whole schizophrenia participants ... [more ▼]

The study evaluates the effects of a cognitive intervention called Self-Awareness Therapy (SAT) on abilities of mental time travel in deficit in schizophrenia. Among whole schizophrenia participants, seven participated in SAT, four took part in the Integrative Program Therapy (IPT) and six followed a treatment as usual. Before and after interventions, participants were asked to complete TEMPau for autonoetic awareness and autobiographical memory such as TeMA, for autobiographical memory and projection into future events. Intragroups and individual statistical analyses were conducted. The participants of SAT intervention reported more specific past TEMPau and future specific events on TeMA after therapy. Results support that, in schizophrenia, the retrieving of past specific memories and projection into future specific events could be improved under certain conditions only. [less ▲]

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See detailEstrogen receptors and estetroldependent neuroprotective actions: a pilot study
Tskitishvili, Ekaterine ULg; Pequeux, Christel ULg; Munaut, Carine ULg et al

in Journal of Endocrinology (2017), 232(1), 85-95

Estetrol (E4) has strong antioxidative, neurogenic and angiogenic effects in neural system resulting in the attenuation of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. We aimed to define the role of estrogen ... [more ▼]

Estetrol (E4) has strong antioxidative, neurogenic and angiogenic effects in neural system resulting in the attenuation of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. We aimed to define the role of estrogen receptors in E4-dependent actions in neuronal cell cultures and prove the promyelinating effect of E4. In vitro the antioxidative and cell survival/proliferating effects of E4 on H2O2-induced oxidative stress in primary hippocampal cell cultures were studied using different combinations of specific inhibitors for ERalpha (MPP dihydrochloride), ERbeta (PHTTP), GPR30 (G15) and palmytoilation (2-BR). LDH activity and cell survival assays were performed. In vivo the promyelinating role of different concentrations of E4 (1 mg/kg/day, 5 mg/kg/day, 10 mg/kg/day, 50 mg/kg/day) was investigated using the hypoxic-ischemic brain damage model in the 7-day-old immature rats before/after the induction of hypoxic-ischemic insult. Myelin basic protein (MBP) immunostaining was performed on brain coronal sections. Our results show that LDH activity is significantly upregulated in cell cultures where the E4's effect was completely blocked by concomitant treatment either with ERalpha and ERbeta inhibitors (MPP and PHTPP, respectively), or ERalpha and ERbeta inhibitors combined with 2-BR. Cell survival is significantly downregulated in cell cultures where the effect of E4 was blocked by ERbeta inhibitor (PHTTP) alone. The blockage of GRP30 receptor did affect neither LDH activity nor cell survival. MBP immunostaining is significantly upregulated in E4-pretreated groups at a concentration of 5 mg/kg/day and 50 mg/kg/day E4, whereas the MBP-positive area OD ratio is significantly increased in all the E4-treated groups. E4's antioxidative actions mostly depend on ERalpha and ERbeta, whereas neurogenesis and possibly promyelinating activities might be realized through ERbeta. [less ▲]

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See detailAre Th17 Cells Playing a Role in Immunity to Dermatophytosis?
Heinen, Marie-Pierre ULg; Cambier, Ludivine ULg; Fievez, Laurence ULg et al

in Mycopathologia (2017), 182(1), 251-261

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See detailOxidative wear behaviour of laser clad high speed steel thick deposits: influence of sliding speed, carbide type and morphology
Hashemi, Seyedeh Neda ULg; Mertens, Anne ULg; Montrieux, Henri-Michel ULg et al

in Surface & Coatings Technology (2017), 315

The oxidative wear behaviour of four different High Speed Steel (HSS) thick coatings (one cast material and three laser clad deposits with varying Mo, V and W contents) was investigated using a pin-on ... [more ▼]

The oxidative wear behaviour of four different High Speed Steel (HSS) thick coatings (one cast material and three laser clad deposits with varying Mo, V and W contents) was investigated using a pin-on-disc tribometer at two different sliding speeds of 10cm/s and 50cm/s. Microstructural characterisation (before and after the wear tests) was carried out by SEM and wear debris was analysed by XRD. For all four materials, the oxide layer was formed of hard and brittle haematite-type α-Fe2O3, prone to break and release debris that acted as a third body, thus increasing sample wear. The laser clad HSS materials exhibited a higher wear resistance than their conventional cast counterpart, thanks to their finer microstructures. In particular, the coarser MC and M2C carbides present in the cast material were sensitive to cracking during the wear tests, releasing debris that contributed to increased third body abrasion together with oxide fragments. A detailed comparison of the wear behaviour of the three laser clad deposits, in correlation with their different microstructures, further demonstrated that harder V-rich MC carbides offered better wear resistance compared to the softer W-rich M2C carbides. The morphology of the carbides also played a role in determining the wear resistance at the higher sliding speed of 50 cm/s. Clover-shaped primary MC carbides resisted wear better than angular ones due to their better geometric anchoring. Similarly, the geometric anchoring of eutectic M2C carbides, forming a quasi-continuous network at the grain boundaries of the matrix, proved beneficial at higher sliding speed. [less ▲]

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See detailRelevant Animal Models in Dermatophyte Research
Cambier, Ludivine ULg; Heinen, Marie-Pierre ULg; Mignon, Bernard ULg

in Mycopathologia (2017), 182(1), 229-240

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See detailMapping the functional connectome traits of levels of consciousness
Amico, Enrico; Marinazzo, Daniele; Di Perri, Carol ULg et al

in NeuroImage (2017)

Examining task-free functional connectivity (FC) in the human brain offers insights on how spontaneous integration and segregation of information relate to human cognition, and how this organization may ... [more ▼]

Examining task-free functional connectivity (FC) in the human brain offers insights on how spontaneous integration and segregation of information relate to human cognition, and how this organization may be altered in different conditions, and neurological disorders. This is particularly relevant for patients in disorders of consciousness (DOC) following severe acquired brain damage and coma, one of the most devastating conditions in modern medical care. We present a novel data-driven methodology, connICA, which implements Independent Component Analysis (ICA) for the extraction of robust independent FC patterns (FC-traits) from a set of individual functional connectomes, without imposing any a priori data stratification into groups. We here apply connICA to investigate associations between network-traits derived from task-free FC and cognitive features that define levels of consciousness. Three main independent FC-traits were identified and linked to consciousness-related clinical features. The first one represents the functional configuration of an "awake resting" brain, and is associated to the level of arousal. The second FC-trait reflects the disconnection of the visual and sensory-motor connectivity patterns and relates to the ability of communicating with the external environment. The third FC-trait isolates the connectivity pattern encompassing the fronto-parietal and the default-mode network areas as well as the interaction between left and right hemisphere, which are also associated to the awareness of the self and its surroundings. Each FC-trait represents a distinct functional process with a role in the degradation of conscious states in functional brain networks, shedding further light on the functional subcircuits that get disrupted in severe brain-damage. [less ▲]

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See detailExtreme intra-clutch egg size dimorphism is not coupled with corresponding differences in antioxidant capacity and stable isotopes between eggs
Poisbleau, Maud; Beaulieu, Michaël; Dehnhard, Nina et al

in Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A : Molecular & Integrative Physiology (2017), 205

Oviparous females need to allocate resources optimally to their eggs in order to maximize their fitness. Among these resources, dietary antioxidants, acquired by females and transferred to the eggs during ... [more ▼]

Oviparous females need to allocate resources optimally to their eggs in order to maximize their fitness. Among these resources, dietary antioxidants, acquired by females and transferred to the eggs during egg formation, can greatly affect the development and survival of the embryo and chick. In crested penguins, incubation starts after the second and last egg is laid and, as opposed to many other bird species, this egg hatches first, thereby enhancing the survival of the chick. Here, we assessed whether antioxidant and isotopic composition could underlie these differences between eggs within clutches of southern rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome). The second-laid egg had higher total antioxidant capacity than the first-laid egg, although this was not due to higher antioxidant concentration but to its higher mass. This suggests that resources are allocated by females at a constant rate in both eggs within clutches. Accordingly, we found a strong correlation for isotopic compositions between eggs suggesting that resources were allocated similarly to each egg within the clutch. Overall, we found little evidence for a significant role of antioxidant and isotopic compositions to explain differences in terms of embryo/chick development between eggs in crested penguins. However, since our results suggest a constant rate of antioxidant transfer from females to eggs, limiting the mass of the first-laid egg might represent a strategy for females to spare antioxidant defences and preserve self-maintenance. [less ▲]

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See detailRegeneration after fire in campo rupestre: Short- and long-term vegetation dynamics
Le Stradic, Soizig ULg; Hernandez, P.; Fernandes, G. W. et al

in Flora: Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants (2017)

The Cerrado (Brazilian savanna) is the second largest biome in Brazil, covering 22% of the country, and campo rupestre is one of the most biodiverse ecosystem. Campo rupestre are extremely old mountaintop ... [more ▼]

The Cerrado (Brazilian savanna) is the second largest biome in Brazil, covering 22% of the country, and campo rupestre is one of the most biodiverse ecosystem. Campo rupestre are extremely old mountaintop tropical ecosystems, composed of a mosaic of herbaceous, shrubland and savanna vegetation, generally located above 900. m above sea level characterized by shallow, acidic and nutrient-poor soils. In the context of increased land-use changes, effective conservation and management projects appear necessary to guarantee the conservation of these ecosystems. Although fire is a natural disturbance in campo rupestre, the effects of fire on vegetation dynamics remain poorly understood. Our objective was to assess the effects of fire on vegetation recovery and plant composition on both the short- and long-term in the main herbaceous vegetation types: the sandy and stony grasslands. We monitored plant community composition before and after a wildfire in order to assess the short-term vegetation recovery. Diachronic analyses of grasslands burnt at various dates were used to understand the effects of fire on the long-term vegetation dynamics. Our results highlighted a rapid recovery of campo rupestre vegetation after wildfires, suggesting a high adaptation to fire of plant communities. We did not find a significant variation in species richness of sandy grasslands according to time after fire, whereas higher species richness was observed in the recently burnt stony grasslands. No change in plant composition of campo rupestre in response to fire was highlighted, probably due to the high heterogeneity of this ecosystem. After fire, biomass gradually increased over time in both vegetation types. High biomass accumulation could lead to stronger fires. Further studies are necessary to understand the relationship between biomass accumulation and fire intensity in campo rupestre in order to set up adapted fire management strategies to conserve campo rupestre biodiversity. © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. [less ▲]

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See detailWalnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa (Diptera: Tephritidae), invades Europe: invasion potential and control strategies
Verheggen, François ULg; Verhaeghe, Agnès; Giordanengo, Philippe et al

in Applied Entomology and Zoology (2017), 52(1), 1-7

Rhagoletis completa Cresson (Diptera: Tephritidae) is native to North America and invaded Western Europe in the late 1980s, causing important damage to its principal host, walnut (Juglans spp.). In this ... [more ▼]

Rhagoletis completa Cresson (Diptera: Tephritidae) is native to North America and invaded Western Europe in the late 1980s, causing important damage to its principal host, walnut (Juglans spp.). In this review, we summarize the important elements of R. completa’s biology, phytosanitary status and methods used in Europe for its control, and then present the main conclusions associated with a completed risk analysis performed in 2014 to evaluate the dispersion and establishment potential of R. completa in Europe. The walnut husk fly was initially identified in Switzerland (1988) and Italy (1991), from where it spread to at least seven additional countries: France, Spain, Germany, Austria, Croatia, Slovenia and Hungary. R. completa has not reached the limits of its potential distribution. The main dissemination pathways within Europe include: (1) natural adult dissemination; (2) adult hitchhiker behaviour; and, to a lesser extent, (3) transportation of larvae in fresh fruits. R. completa host plants are widely distributed in Europe, either as isolated wild trees or in orchards, favouring the probability of fly establishment in currently fly-free areas. In addition, the European territories where Juglans species are present share biogeographic similarities. In orchards where R. completa is present and uncontrolled, 100% of walnut trees can be infested, causing losses in walnut yields of up to 80%. The negative effect is low (<10% yield loss) under phytosanitary control, although additional costs must also be considered to support specific monitoring for R. completa. The information presented here underlines a strong need for better walnut husk fly monitoring across European countries, as well as for increasing efforts to develop biological methods to control this emerging pest. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term consistency of spatial patterns of primate seed dispersal
Heymann, E. W.; Culot, Laurence ULg; Knogge, Christoph et al

in Ecology and Evolution (2017)

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See detailThoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) in proximal (type A) aortic dissection: Ready for a broader application?
Nienaber, Christoph A.; Sakalihasan, Natzi ULg; Clough, Rachel E. et al

in Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (The) (2017)

OBJECTIVE: Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has demonstrated encouraging results and is gaining increasing acceptance as a treatment option for aortic aneurysms and dissections. Yet, its role ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has demonstrated encouraging results and is gaining increasing acceptance as a treatment option for aortic aneurysms and dissections. Yet, its role in managing proximal aortic pathologies is unknown-this is important because in proximal (Stanford type A) aortic dissections, 10% to 30% are not accepted for surgery and 30% to 50% are technically amenable for TEVAR. We describe our case series of type A aortic dissections treated by using TEVAR. METHODS: Between year 2009 and 2016, 12 patients with acute, subacute, or chronic type A aortic dissection with the proximal entry tear located between the coronaries and brachiocephalic artery were treated with TEVAR at 3 centers. Various stent-graft configurations were used to seal the proximal entry tear in the ascending aorta under rapid pacing. RESULTS: A total of 12 patients (9 male, 3 female), mean age 81 +/- 7 years, EuroSCORE II 9.1 +/- 4.5, underwent TEVAR for the treatment of type A aortic dissection. Procedural success was achieved in 11 of 12 patients (91.7%). There was 1 minor stroke and 1 intraprocedural death. No additional deaths were reported at 30 days. At 36 months, there were 4 further deaths (all from nonaortic causes). The mean survival of these 4 deceased was 23 months (range 15-36 months). Follow-up computed tomography demonstrated favorable aortic remodeling. CONCLUSIONS: TEVAR is feasible and reveals promising early results in selected patients with type A aortic dissection who are poor candidates for surgical repair. The current iteration of stent-graft technology, however, needs to be adapted to features specific to the ascending aorta. [less ▲]

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See detailSources and fate of antimicrobials in integrated fish-pig and non-integrated tilapia farms
Li, Kang; Liu, Liping; Zhan et al

in Science of the Total Environment (2017), 595

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See detailRigid catheters reduced duration of less invasive surfactant therapy procedures in manikins.
RIGO, Vincent ULg; Debauche, Christian; Maton, Pierre et al

in Acta Paediatrica (2017)

Aim: Different catheters can be used for less invasive surfactant therapy (LIST): feeding tubes inserted with or without Magill forceps, different angiocatheters and centre specific devices, such as ... [more ▼]

Aim: Different catheters can be used for less invasive surfactant therapy (LIST): feeding tubes inserted with or without Magill forceps, different angiocatheters and centre specific devices, such as umbilical catheters affixed to a stylet. This study compared the effectiveness of LIST devices and endotracheal tubes (ETT). Methods: Video recordings of 20 neonatologists simulating different LIST techniques on two manikin heads were analysed. Procedural effectiveness was evaluated by the duration of procedures and failure rates. Ease of use was scored. Results: The median procedure time for the Neonatal Intubation Trainer was significantly longer with feeding tubes without Maggil forceps. For the more difficult ALS Baby Trainer, successful procedures lasted a median of 24 (17-32) seconds with ETT, 24 (15-36) seconds with stylet-guided catheters and 34 (27-46) seconds and 37 (29-42) seconds with 13cm and 30cm angiocatheters, respectively. Both methods using feeding tubes were statistically slower than ETT intubation, lasting 32 (25-44) seconds and 39 (27-95) seconds with or without Maggil forceps. Failure rates (7-20%) were no different between the LIST methods. Techniques using feeding tubes were rated as more difficult. Conclusion: Only rigid or stylet-guided catheters required tracheal catheterisation times similar to those of endotracheal intubation and neonatologists found them easier.  KEY NOTES • This manikin study used video recordings of 20 neonatologists to compare the effectiveness of devices for less invasive surfactant therapy (LIST) and endotracheal tubes. • The durations of tracheal catheterisation for LIST using rigid or stylet-guided catheters were no different from those obtained with endotracheal tubes, but feeding tubes with or without Maggil forceps required longer procedures. • Neonatologists found rigid or stylet-guided catheters easier to use. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental observation of the Poincaré-Birkhoff scenario in a driven many-body quantum system
Tomkovic, Jiri; Muessel, Wolfgang; Strobel, Helmut et al

in Physical Review A (2017), 95

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See detailIron-dependent nitrogen cycling in a ferruginous lake and the nutrient status of Proterozoic oceans
Michiels, Celine C.; Darchambeau, François ULg; Roland, Fleur ULg et al

in Nature Geoscience (2017), advance online publication

Nitrogen limitation during the Proterozoic has been inferred from the great expanse of ocean anoxia under low-O2 atmospheres, which could have promoted NO3- reduction to N2 and fixed N loss from the ocean ... [more ▼]

Nitrogen limitation during the Proterozoic has been inferred from the great expanse of ocean anoxia under low-O2 atmospheres, which could have promoted NO3- reduction to N2 and fixed N loss from the ocean. The deep oceans were Fe rich (ferruginous) during much of this time, yet the dynamics of N cycling under such conditions remain entirely conceptual, as analogue environments are rare today. Here we use incubation experiments to show that a modern ferruginous basin, Kabuno Bay in East Africa, supports high rates of NO3- reduction. Although 60 of this NO3- is reduced to N2 through canonical denitrification, a large fraction (40\%) is reduced to NH4+, leading to N retention rather than loss. We also find that NO3- reduction is Fe dependent, demonstrating that such reactions occur in natural ferruginous water columns. Numerical modelling of ferruginous upwelling systems, informed by our results from Kabuno Bay, demonstrates that NO3- reduction to NH4+ could have enhanced biological production, fuelling sulfate reduction and the development of mid-water euxinia overlying ferruginous deep oceans. This NO3- reduction to NH4+ could also have partly offset a negative feedback on biological production that accompanies oxygenation of the surface ocean. Our results indicate that N loss in ferruginous upwelling systems may not have kept pace with global N fixation at marine phosphorous concentrations (0.04-0.13[thinsp][mu]M) indicated by the rock record. We therefore suggest that global marine biological production under ferruginous ocean conditions in the Proterozoic eon may thus have been P not N limited. [less ▲]

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See detailChitosan : a promising polymer for cartilage repair and viscosupplementation
Comblain, Fanny ULg; Rocasalbas, Guillem; Gautier, Sandrine et al

in Bio-medical Materials & Engineering (2017)

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See detailSimilarity of the Jovian satellite footprints: spots multiplicity and dynamics
Bonfond, Bertrand ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg; Badman, S. V. et al

in Icarus (2017)

In the magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn, the intense interaction of the satellites Io, Europa, Ganymede and Enceladus with their surrounding plasma environment leaves a signature in the aurora of the ... [more ▼]

In the magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn, the intense interaction of the satellites Io, Europa, Ganymede and Enceladus with their surrounding plasma environment leaves a signature in the aurora of the planet. Called satellite footprints, these auroral features appear either as a single spot (Europa and Enceladus) or as multiple spots (Io and Ganymede). Moreover, they can be followed by extended trailing tails in the case of Io and Europa, while no tail has been reported for Ganymede and Enceladus, yet. Here we show that all Jovian footprints can be made of several spots. Furthermore, the footprints all experience brightness variations on timescale of 2-3 minutes. We also demonstrate that the satellite location relative to the plasma sheet is not the only driver for the footprint brightness, but that the plasma environment and the magnetic field strength also play a role. These new findings demonstrate that the Europa and Ganymede footprints are very similar to the Io footprint. As a consequence, the processes expected to take place at Io, such as the bi-directional electron acceleration by Alfvén waves or the partial reflection of these waves on plasma density gradients, can most likely be extended to the other footprints, suggesting that they are indeed universal processes. [less ▲]

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See detailPrès de 20 ans après sa grave crise sanitaire, où en est la hêtraie ardennaise?
Claessens, Hugues ULg; Claessens, Laureline ULg; Longrée, Charlotte et al

in FORÊT.NATURE (2017), 142(Janvier-Février-Mars), 30-36

La "maladie du hêtre", apparue au début des années 2000 suite au coup de froid de 1998, détruisit plus d'un million de mètres cubes de bois. Un suivi d'une vingtaine d'années a permis de faire le point ... [more ▼]

La "maladie du hêtre", apparue au début des années 2000 suite au coup de froid de 1998, détruisit plus d'un million de mètres cubes de bois. Un suivi d'une vingtaine d'années a permis de faire le point sur son évolution et son impact actuel, et de proposer quelques recommandations pour la gestion de la hêtraie. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of the crustal magnetic field on the Mars aurora electron flux and UV brightness
Bisikalo, D. V.; Shematovich, V. I.; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg et al

in Icarus (2017), 282

Observations with the SPICAM instrument on board Mars Express have shown the occasional presence of localized ultraviolet nightside emissions associated with enhanced energetic electron fluxes. These ... [more ▼]

Observations with the SPICAM instrument on board Mars Express have shown the occasional presence of localized ultraviolet nightside emissions associated with enhanced energetic electron fluxes. These features generally occur in regions with significant radial crustal magnetic field. We use a Monte-Carlo electron transport model to investigate the role of the magnetic field on the downward and upward electron fluxes, the brightness and the emitted power of auroral emissions. Simulations based on an ASPERA-3 measured auroral electron precipitation indicate that magnetic mirroring leads to an intensification of the energy flux carried by upward moving electrons- from about 20% in the absence of crustal magnetic field up to 33-78% when magnetic field is included depending on magnetic field topology. Conservation of the particle flux in a flux tube implies that the presence of the B-field does not appreciably modify the emission rate profiles for an initially isotropic pitch angle distribution. However, we find that crustal magnetic field results in increase of the upward electron flux, and, consequently, in reduction of the total auroral brightness for given energy flux of precipitating electrons. [less ▲]

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See detailInstitutional pedagogy for an autonomous society: Castoriadis & Lapassade
Wustefeld, Sophie ULg

in Educational Philosophy & Theory (2017)

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See detailExposure to Bacterial CpG DNA Protects from Airway Allergic Inflammation by Expanding Regulatory Lung Interstitial Macrophages.
Sabatel, Catherine ULg; Radermecker, Coraline ULg; Fievez, Laurence ULg et al

in Immunity (2017), 46(3), 457-473

Living in a microbe-rich environment reduces the risk of developing asthma. Exposure of humans or mice to unmethylated CpG DNA (CpG) from bacteria reproduces these protective effects, suggesting a major ... [more ▼]

Living in a microbe-rich environment reduces the risk of developing asthma. Exposure of humans or mice to unmethylated CpG DNA (CpG) from bacteria reproduces these protective effects, suggesting a major contribution of CpG to microbe-induced asthma resistance. However, how CpG confers protection remains elusive. We found that exposure to CpG expanded regulatory lung interstitial macrophages (IMs) from monocytes infiltrating the lung or mobilized from the spleen. Trafficking of IM precursors to the lung was independent of CCR2, a chemokine receptor required for monocyte mobilization from the bone marrow. Using a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation, we found that adoptive transfer of IMs isolated from CpG-treated mice recapitulated the protective effects of CpG when administered before allergen sensitization or challenge. IM-mediated protection was dependent on IL-10, given that Il10-/- CpG-induced IMs lacked regulatory effects. Thus, the expansion of regulatory lung IMs upon exposure to CpG might underlie the reduced risk of asthma development associated with a microbe-rich environment. [less ▲]

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See detailCXCL12 mediates glioblastoma resistance to radiotherapy in the subventricular zone.
Goffart, Nicolas ULg; Lombard, Arnaud; Lallemand, François ULg et al

in Neuro-Oncology (2017), 19(1), 66-77

BACKGROUND: Patients with glioblastoma (GBM) have an overall median survival of 15 months despite multimodal therapy. These catastrophic survival rates are to be correlated to systematic relapses that ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Patients with glioblastoma (GBM) have an overall median survival of 15 months despite multimodal therapy. These catastrophic survival rates are to be correlated to systematic relapses that might arise from remaining glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) left behind after surgery. In this line, it has recently been demonstrated that GSCs are able to escape the tumor mass and preferentially colonize the adult subventricular zone (SVZ). At a distance from the initial tumor site, these GSCs might therefore represent a high-quality model of clinical resilience to therapy and cancer relapses as they specifically retain tumor-initiating abilities. METHOD: While relying on recent findings that have validated the existence of GSCs in the human SVZ, we questioned the role of the SVZ niche as a potential GSC reservoir involved in therapeutic failure. RESULTS: Our results demonstrate that (i) GSCs located in the SVZ are specifically resistant to radiation in vivo, (ii) these cells display enhanced mesenchymal roots that are known to be associated with cancer radioresistance, (iii) these mesenchymal traits are specifically upregulated by CXCL12 (stromal cell-derived factor-1) both in vitro and in the SVZ environment, (iv) the amount of SVZ-released CXCL12 mediates GBM resistance to radiation in vitro, and (v) interferes with the CXCL12/CXCR4 signalling system, allowing weakening of the tumor mesenchymal roots and radiosensitizing SVZ-nested GBM cells. CONCLUSION: Together, these data provide evidence on how the adult SVZ environment, through the release of CXCL12, supports GBM therapeutic failure and potential tumor relapse. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of the entering stock, migration dynamics and fish pass fidelity of european eel in the belgian meuse river
Nzau Matondo, Billy ULg; Benitez, Jean-Philippe ULg; Dierckx, Arnaud ULg et al

in River Research & Applications (2017), 33

Migration dynamics of incoming eels in Belgium via Lixhe in the Meuse River were investigated using two fish passes with different configurations— net traps and automatic detection stations—as tools to ... [more ▼]

Migration dynamics of incoming eels in Belgium via Lixhe in the Meuse River were investigated using two fish passes with different configurations— net traps and automatic detection stations—as tools to distinguish resident and migrating eels. From April to September 2013, 435 eels (P50 length, 403 mm; range, 196–836 mm) were caught (daily maxima catch, 90 eels per day), 90% between 13 June and 1 August (50 days) and P50 on 19 July. Eels migrated mostly at 19–26 °C (P50, 24.4 °C), river discharge 65–314m3 s 1 (P50, 84m3 s 1), during the dark at 00:00–05:00 h and during both the waxing and waning phases of moonlight. From 396 eels tagged and released 0.3 km downstream of the Lixhe dam, 6.8% of them were recaptured, and 37.4% were detected. Migration flux was estimated at 7184 eels (0.863 t) using the markrecapture method and decreased to 1156 eels (0.139 t) using automatic transponder detection. Most eels probably migrated through a sluice located downstream of Lixhe to reach the upper Meuse via the Albert Canal. Eels moved almost independently to the configuration of the fish passes and their location, but most eels displayed fidelity to the fish pass where they were captured. Migrant eels showed a wide range of size and life stages, with a higher proportion of eels (80%) belonging to the yellow eel stage. A lower proportion of eels (6%) had a larger size and presented an advanced continental silvering process corresponding to the migrating stage before their transatlantic migration. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailIn Memoriam Léon Lacroix (1909-2016)
Rochette, Bruno ULg

in Antiquité Classique (2017), 86

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See detailComparison between sedation and general anesthesia for high resolution computed tomographic characterization of canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in west highland white terriers
Roels, Elodie ULg; Couvreur, Thierry; Farnir, Frédéric ULg et al

in Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound (2017)

Canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (CIPF) is a progressive interstitial lung disease mainly affecting West Highland white terriers (WHWTs). Thoracic high-resolution computed tomographic (T-HRCT ... [more ▼]

Canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (CIPF) is a progressive interstitial lung disease mainly affecting West Highland white terriers (WHWTs). Thoracic high-resolution computed tomographic (T-HRCT) findings for CIPF acquired under general anesthesia have been described previously. However, the use of general anesthesia may be contraindicated for some affected dogs. Sedation may allow improved speed and safety, but it is unknown whether sedation would yield similar results in identification and grading of CIPF lesions. The aim of this prospective, observational, method-comparison, case-control study was to compare findings from T-HRCT images acquired under sedation versus general anesthesia for WHWTs affected with CIPF (n=11) and age-matched controls (n=9), using the glossary of terms of the Fleischner Society and a scoring system. Ground-glass opacity (GGO) was identified in all affected WHWTs for both sedation and general anesthesia acquisitions, although the GGO extent varied significantly between the two acquisitions (P<0.001). Ground-glass opacity was the sole lesion observed in control dogs (n=6), but was less extensive compared with affected WHWTs. Identification and grading of a mosaic attenuation pattern differed significantly between acquisitions (P<0.001). Identification of lesions such as consolidations, nodules, parenchymal and subpleural bands, bronchial wall thickening, and bronchiectasis did not differ between acquisitions. The present study demonstrated that T-HRCT obtained under sedation may provide different information than T-HRCT obtained under general anesthesia for identification and grading of some CIPF lesions, but not all of them. These differences should be taken into consideration when general anesthesia is contraindicated and sedation is necessary for evaluating WHWTs with CIPF. [less ▲]

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See detailA Belgian survey on the diagnosis of asthma-COPD overlap syndrome.
Cataldo, Didier ULg; Corhay, Jean-Louis ULg; Derom, Eric et al

in International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (2017), 12

INTRODUCTION: Patients with chronic airway disease may present features of both asthma and COPD, commonly referred to as asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). Recommendations on their diagnosis are diffuse ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: Patients with chronic airway disease may present features of both asthma and COPD, commonly referred to as asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). Recommendations on their diagnosis are diffuse and inconsistent. This survey aimed to identify consensus on criteria for diagnosing ACOS. METHODS: A Belgian expert panel developed a survey on ACOS diagnosis, which was completed by 87 pulmonologists. Answers chosen by >/=70% of survey respondents were considered as useful criteria for ACOS diagnosis. The two most frequently selected answers were considered as major criteria, others as minor criteria. The expert panel proposed a minimal requirement of two major criteria and one minor criterion for ACOS diagnosis. Respondents were also asked which criteria are important for considering inhaled corticosteroids prescription in a COPD patient. RESULTS: To diagnose ACOS in COPD patients, major criteria were "high degree of variability in airway obstruction over time (change in forced expiratory volume in 1 second >/=400 mL)" and "high degree of response to bronchodilators (>200 mL and >/=12% predicted above baseline)". Minor criteria were "personal/family history of atopy and/or IgE sensitivity to >/=1 airborne allergen", "elevated blood/sputum eosinophil levels and/or increased fractional exhaled nitric oxide", "diagnosis of asthma <40 years of age"; "symptom variability", and "age (in favor of asthma)". To diagnose ACOS in asthma patients, major criteria were "persistence of airflow obstruction over time (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio <0.7)" and "exposure to noxious particles/gases, with >/=10 pack-years for (ex-)smokers"; minor criteria were "lack of response on acute bronchodilator test"; "reduced diffusion capacity"; "limited variability in airway obstruction"; "age >40 years"; "emphysema on chest computed tomography scan". CONCLUSION: Specific criteria were identified that may guide physicians to a more uniform diagnostic approach for ACOS in COPD or asthma patients. These criteria are largely similar to those used to prescribe inhaled corticosteroids in COPD. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of fatty acid beta-oxidation in lymphangiogenesis.
Wong, Brian W.; Wang, Xingwu; Zecchin, Annalisa et al

in Nature (2017), 542(49),

Lymphatic vessels are lined by lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs), and are critical for health. However, the role of metabolism in lymphatic development has not yet been elucidated. Here we report that in ... [more ▼]

Lymphatic vessels are lined by lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs), and are critical for health. However, the role of metabolism in lymphatic development has not yet been elucidated. Here we report that in transgenic mouse models, LEC-specific loss of CPT1A, a rate-controlling enzyme in fatty acid beta-oxidation, impairs lymphatic development. LECs use fatty acid beta-oxidation to proliferate and for epigenetic regulation of lymphatic marker expression during LEC differentiation. Mechanistically, the transcription factor PROX1 upregulates CPT1A expression, which increases acetyl coenzyme A production dependent on fatty acid beta-oxidation. Acetyl coenzyme A is used by the histone acetyltransferase p300 to acetylate histones at lymphangiogenic genes. PROX1-p300 interaction facilitates preferential histone acetylation at PROX1-target genes. Through this metabolism-dependent mechanism, PROX1 mediates epigenetic changes that promote lymphangiogenesis. Notably, blockade of CPT1 enzymes inhibits injury-induced lymphangiogenesis, and replenishing acetyl coenzyme A by supplementing acetate rescues this process in vivo. [less ▲]

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See detailDulaglutide for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Scheen, André ULg

in Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy (2017), 17(4), 485-496

INTRODUCTION: Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) are injectable agents used for the treatment of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. The interest for this pharmacological class is rising ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) are injectable agents used for the treatment of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. The interest for this pharmacological class is rising with the development of once weekly compounds and the demonstration of a potential reduction in cardiorenal outcomes. Areas covered: The paper describes the main pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic characteristics of dulaglutide, a new once-weekly GLP-1 RA. Dulaglutide was extensively investigated in the phase-3 AWARD program, which demonstrated its safety and efficacy when compared to placebo or active glucose-lowering agents in patients treated with diet alone, metformin or sulfonylurea monotherapy, oral dual therapies and basal insulin. In both Caucasian and Japanese patients, comparative trials showed better glucose control with dulaglutide, with a minimal risk of hypoglycemia and weight loss, but at the expense of an increased dropout rate due to side effects, mostly transient gastrointestinal disturbances. Dulaglutide proved its non-inferiority versus liraglutide and the safety and tolerance profile is similar to that of other GLP-1 RAs. Expert opinion: The once-weekly formulation and the combined positive effects on both glucose control and weight improves patient satisfaction despite nausea. Dulaglutide must prove its capacity to reduce cardiovascular and diabetic complications in the ongoing prospective REWIND trial. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence of a fine-scale genetic structure for the endangered Pyrenean desman (Galemys pyrenaicus) in the French Pyrenees
Gillet, F; Cabria, M.; Blanc, F. et al

in Journal of Mammalogy (2017)

The Pyrenean desman (Galemys pyrenaicus) is a small, semi-aquatic mammal endemic to the Pyrenean Mountains and the northern half of the Iberian Peninsula where it lives in cold and well-oxygenated flowing ... [more ▼]

The Pyrenean desman (Galemys pyrenaicus) is a small, semi-aquatic mammal endemic to the Pyrenean Mountains and the northern half of the Iberian Peninsula where it lives in cold and well-oxygenated flowing mountain streams. This species is currently classified as vulnerable on the IUCN Red List and has been undergoing habitat loss and fragmentation for decades, inevitably impacting its distribution. A recent genetic study, based on mitochondrial and intronic sequences, showed that the genetic variability of the Pyrenean desman is very low in the Pyrenees. In this study, we investigated the potential existence of genetic structure and gene flow at a smaller scale using 24 polymorphic microsatellite loci. As the Pyrenean desman is a very elusive species, we supplemented our tissue sample collection with samples of feces collected in the French range of this species. We successfully identified 70 individuals based on 355 fecal samples. Bayesian analyses revealed 3 genetic and geographic clusters (1 eastern, 1 central, and 1 western, including 3 genetic sub-clusters), with origins tracing back only 200 years. These clusters were characterized by low levels of genetic diversity and high inbreeding coefficients. Although gene flow among clusters appeared to be limited, populations seem to have exchanged alleles recently. Therefore, connectivity between watersheds should be enhanced to maintain genetic diversity and potentially improve the long-term survival of the Pyrenean desman in France [less ▲]

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See detailCan DEM time series produced by UAV be used to quantify diffuse erosion in an agricultural watershed?
Pineux, Nathalie ULg; Lisein, Jonathan ULg; Swerts, Gilles ULg et al

in Geomorphology (2017), 280

Erosion and deposition modelling should rely on field data. Currently these data are seldom available at large spatial scales and/or at high spatial resolution. In addition, conventional erosion ... [more ▼]

Erosion and deposition modelling should rely on field data. Currently these data are seldom available at large spatial scales and/or at high spatial resolution. In addition, conventional erosion monitoring approaches are labour intensive and costly. This calls for the development of new approaches for field erosion data acquisition. As a result of rapid technological developments and low cost, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have recently become an attractive means of generating high resolution digital elevation models (DEMs). The use of UAV to observe and quantify gully erosion is now widely established. However, in some agro-pedological contexts, soil erosion results from multiple processes, including sheet and rill erosion, tillage erosion and erosion due to harvest of root crops. These diffuse erosion processes often represent a particular challenge because of the limited elevation changes they induce. In this study,we propose to assess the reliability and development perspectives of UAV to locate and quantify erosion and deposition in a context of an agricultural watershed with silt loam soils and a smooth relief. Erosion and deposition rates derived from high resolution DEM time series are compared to field measurements. The UAV technique demonstrates a high level of flexibility and can be used, for instance, after a major erosive event. It delivers a very high resolution DEM(pixel size: 6 cm) which allows us to compute high resolution runoff pathways. This could enable us to precisely locate runoff management practices such as fascines. Furthermore, the DEMs can be used diachronically to extract elevation differences before and after a strongly erosive rainfall and be validated by field measurements. While the analysis for this study was carried out over 2 years, we observed a tendency along the slope from erosion to deposition. Erosion and deposition patterns detected at the watershed scale are also promising. Nevertheless, further development in the processing workflow of UAV data is required in order to make this technique accurate and robust enough for detecting sediment movements in an agricultural watershed affected by diffuse erosion. This area of investigation holdsmuch potential as the images processing is relatively new and expanding. [less ▲]

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See detailNuclear Medicine techniques in transplantation
LOVINFOSSE, Pierre ULg; HUSTINX, Roland ULg

in Clinical and Translational Imaging (2017)

Organ transplantation has grown over the past decades thanks to major improvements in surgical techniques and immunosuppressive treatment. Nuclear medicine is used for non-invasively improving the ... [more ▼]

Organ transplantation has grown over the past decades thanks to major improvements in surgical techniques and immunosuppressive treatment. Nuclear medicine is used for non-invasively improving the selection of candidates to give or receive a transplant, for monitoring graft recipients and for diagnosing and managing early and late complications. This review describes the clinical role of nuclear medicine in transplantation and discusses some of the possible perspectives. [less ▲]

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See detailProtean proteases: at the cutting edge of lung diseases.
Taggart, Clifford; Mall, Marcus A.; Lalmanach, Gilles et al

in European Respiratory Journal (2017), 49(2),

Proteases were traditionally viewed as mere protein-degrading enzymes with a very restricted spectrum of substrates. A major expansion in protease research has uncovered a variety of novel substrates, and ... [more ▼]

Proteases were traditionally viewed as mere protein-degrading enzymes with a very restricted spectrum of substrates. A major expansion in protease research has uncovered a variety of novel substrates, and it is now evident that proteases are critical pleiotropic actors orchestrating pathophysiological processes. Recent findings evidenced that the net proteolytic activity also relies upon interconnections between different protease and protease inhibitor families in the protease web.In this review, we provide an overview of these novel concepts with a particular focus on pulmonary pathophysiology. We describe the emerging roles of several protease families including cysteine and serine proteases.The complexity of the protease web is exemplified in the light of multidimensional regulation of serine protease activity by matrix metalloproteases through cognate serine protease inhibitor processing. Finally, we will highlight how deregulated protease activity during pulmonary pathogenesis may be exploited for diagnosis/prognosis purposes, and utilised as a therapeutic tool using nanotechnologies.Considering proteases as part of an integrative biology perspective may pave the way for the development of new therapeutic targets to treat pulmonary diseases related to intrinsic protease deregulation. [less ▲]

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See detailChemical composition, vasorelaxant, antioxidant and antiplatelet effects of essential oil of Artemisia campestris L. from Oriental Morocco
Dib, Ikram; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULg; Sindic, Marianne ULg et al

in BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2017), 17(art. 82), 1-15

Background: Artemisia campestris L. (Asteraceae) is a medicinal herb traditionally used to treat hypertension and many other diseases. Hence, this study is aimed to analyze the essential oil of A ... [more ▼]

Background: Artemisia campestris L. (Asteraceae) is a medicinal herb traditionally used to treat hypertension and many other diseases. Hence, this study is aimed to analyze the essential oil of A. campestris L (AcEO) and to investigate the antiplatelet, antioxidant effects and the mechanisms of its vasorelaxant effect. Methods: The chemical composition of AcEO was elucidated using GC/MS analysis. Then, the antioxidant effect was tested on DPPH radical scavenging and on the prevention of β-carotene bleaching. The antiplatelet effect was performed on the presence of the platelet agonists: thrombin and ADP. The mechanism of action of the vasorelaxant effect was studied by using the cellular blockers specified to explore the involvement of NO/GC pathway and in the presence of calcium channels blockers and potassium channels blockers. Results: AcEO is predominated by the volatiles: spathulenol, ß-eudesmol and p-cymene. The maximal antioxidant effect was obtained with the dose 2 mg/ml of AcEO. The dose 1 mg/ml of AcEO showed a maximum antiplatelet effect of, respectively 49.73% ±9.54 and 48.20% ±8.49 on thrombin and ADP. The vasorelaxation seems not to be mediated via NOS/GC pathway neither via the potassium channels. However, pretreatment with calcium channels blockers attenuated this effect, suggesting that the vasorelaxation is mediated via inhibition of L-type Ca2+ channels and the activation of SERCA pumps of reticulum plasma. Conclusion: This study confirms the antioxidant, antiplatelet and vasorelaxant effects of A.campestris L essential oil. However, the antihypertensive use of this oil should be further confirmed by the chemical fractionation and subsequent bio-guided assays. [less ▲]

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See detailMethane in the South China Sea and the Western Philippine Sea
Tseng, Hsiao-Chun; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Borges, Alberto ULg et al

in Continental Shelf Research (2017), 135

Approximately 700 water samples from the South China Sea (SCS) and 300 water samples from the western Philippine Sea (wPS) were collected during eight cruises from August 2003 to July 2007 to determine ... [more ▼]

Approximately 700 water samples from the South China Sea (SCS) and 300 water samples from the western Philippine Sea (wPS) were collected during eight cruises from August 2003 to July 2007 to determine methane (CH4) distributions from the surface to a depth of 4250 m. The surface CH4 concentrations exceeded atmospheric equilibrium, both in the SCS and the wPS, and the concentrations were 4.5±3.6 and 3.0±1.2 nmol L−1, respectively. The sea-to-air fluxes were calculated, and the SCS and the wPS were found to emit CH4 to the atmosphere at 8.6±6.4 µmol m−2 d−1 and 4.9±4.9 µmol m−2 d−1, respectively. In the SCS, CH4 emissions were higher over the continental shelf (11.0±7.4 µmol m−2 d−1) than over the deep ocean (6.1±6.0 µmol m−2 d−1), owing to greater biological productivity and closer coupling with the sediments on the continental shelf. The SCS emitted 30.1×106 mol d−1 CH4 to the atmosphere and exported 1.82×106 mol d−1 CH4 to the wPS. The concentrations of both CH4 and chlorophyll a were high in the 150 m surface layer of the wPS, but were not significantly correlated with each other. CH4 concentrations generally declined with increasing depth below the euphotic zone but remained constant below 1,000 m, both in the SCS and the wPS. Some high CH4 concentrations were observed at mid-depths and bottom waters in the SCS, and were most likely caused by the release of CH4 from gas hydrates or gas seepage. [less ▲]

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See detailSemaglutide: a promising new glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist.
Scheen, André ULg

in Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology (2017)

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See detailDistances between nested densities and a measure of the impact of the prior in Bayesian statistics
Ley, Christophe; Reinert, Gesine; Swan, Yvik ULg

in Annals of Applied Probability (2017), 27(1), 216-241

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See detailPhotoreversibility and biocompatibility of polydimethylsiloxane-coumarin as adjustable intraocular lens material
Jellali, Rachid; Bertrand, Virginie ULg; Alexandre, Michaël et al

in Macromolecular Bioscience (2017)

Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) constitutes an interesting material for a variety of biomed- ical applications, especially as intraocular lenses (IOLs), for its excellent transparency. In this work, a ... [more ▼]

Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) constitutes an interesting material for a variety of biomed- ical applications, especially as intraocular lenses (IOLs), for its excellent transparency. In this work, a photoreversible PDMS-coumarin network, whose shape and properties can be adjusted postoperatively in a noninvasive manner, is developed. The synthesis of PDMS-cou- marin is achieved by amidation of a coumarin acid chloride derivative with amine-function- alized PDMSs. Under exposure of λ > 300 nm, these polymers can be cured by dimerization of coumarin. The cured polymers can be uncrosslinked via photocleavage of cyclobutane dimers upon illumination at λ < 290 nm. The diffusion of linear PDMSs in a crosslinked network and the controlled shape modification are studied, which demonstrate that these polymers are good candidates for adjustable IOL application. IOL disks prepared from these materials show high hydrophobicity and good transparency. In vitro cytotoxicity, lens epithelial cell adhesion assays, and rabbit host reaction against implanted disks demonstrate the biocompatibility of the polymer. [less ▲]

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See detailConserved Fever Pathways across Vertebrates: A Herpesvirus Expressed Decoy TNF-alpha Receptor Delays Behavioral Fever in Fish.
Rakus, Krzysztof; Ronsmans, Maygane; Forlenza, Maria et al

in Cell Host & Microbe (2017), 21(2), 244-253

Both endotherms and ectotherms (e.g., fish) increase their body temperature to limit pathogen infection. Ectotherms do so by moving to warmer places, hence the term "behavioral fever." We studied the ... [more ▼]

Both endotherms and ectotherms (e.g., fish) increase their body temperature to limit pathogen infection. Ectotherms do so by moving to warmer places, hence the term "behavioral fever." We studied the manifestation of behavioral fever in the common carp infected by cyprinid herpesvirus 3, a native carp pathogen. Carp maintained at 24 degrees C died from the infection, whereas those housed in multi-chamber tanks encompassing a 24 degrees C-32 degrees C gradient migrated transiently to the warmest compartment and survived as a consequence. Behavioral fever manifested only at advanced stages of infection. Consistent with this, expression of CyHV-3 ORF12, encoding a soluble decoy receptor for TNF-alpha, delayed the manifestation of behavioral fever and promoted CyHV-3 replication in the context of a temperature gradient. Injection of anti-TNF-alpha neutralizing antibodies suppressed behavioral fever, and decreased fish survival in response to infection. This study provides a unique example of how viruses have evolved to alter host behavior to increase fitness. [less ▲]

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See detailTwo-Parameter Kinematic Approach for Shear Strength of Deep Concrete Beams with Internal FRP Reinforcement
Mihaylov, Boyan ULg

in Journal of Composites for Construction (2017), DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)CC.1943-5614 .0000747

Tests of deep concrete beams with internal fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) reinforcement have shown that such members can exhibit lower shear strength than members with conventional steel reinforcement. To ... [more ▼]

Tests of deep concrete beams with internal fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) reinforcement have shown that such members can exhibit lower shear strength than members with conventional steel reinforcement. To model this effect, the current paper proposes an approach based on a two-parameter kinematic theory (2PKT) for conventional deep beams. The 2PKT is built on a kinematic model with two degrees of freedom that describes the deformation patterns of cracked beams. Using this theory shows that large strains in FRP longitudinal reinforcement result in reduced shear resistance of the critical loading zones (CLZ) of deep beams. The original 2PKT is therefore modified by introducing a reduction factor for the shear carried by the CLZ. The extended 2PKT approach is then applied to a database of 39 tests of FRP-reinforced deep beams from the literature, resulting in an average shear strength experimental-to-predicted ratio of 1.06 and a coefficient of variation of 18.3%. The results show that the 2PKT adequately captures the effects of the stiffness of the reinforcement, section depth, concrete strength, and shear-span-to-depth ratio on the shear strength of FRP-reinforced deep beams. [less ▲]

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See detailL’IMAGE DU MOIS.Une tumeur cardiaque indéterminée
RADERMECKER, Régis ULg; RENSON, Virginie ULg; Delvenne, Philippe ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2017), 72(1), 4-5

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See detailThe proteolytic system of pineapple stems revisited: Purification and characterization of multiple catalytically active forms.
Matagne, André ULg; Bolle, Laetitia; El Mahyaoui, Rachida et al

in Phytochemistry (2017), (138), 29-51

Crude pineapple proteases extract (aka stem bromelain; EC 3.4.22.4) is an important proteolytic mixture that contains enzymes belonging to the cysteine proteases of the papain family. Numerous studies ... [more ▼]

Crude pineapple proteases extract (aka stem bromelain; EC 3.4.22.4) is an important proteolytic mixture that contains enzymes belonging to the cysteine proteases of the papain family. Numerous studies have been reported aiming at the fractionation and characterization of the many molecular species present in the extract, but more efforts are still required to obtain sufficient quantities of the various purified protease forms for detailed physicochemical, enzymatic and structural characterization. In this work, we describe an efficient strategy towards the purification of at least eight enzymatic forms. Thus, following rapid fractionation on a SP-Sepharose FF column, two sub-populations with proteolytic activity were obtained: the unbound (termed acidic) and bound (termed basic) bromelain fractions. Following reversible modification with monomethoxypolyethylene glycol (mPEG), both fractions were further separated on Q-Sepharose FF and SP-Sepharose FF, respectively. This procedure yielded highly purified molecular species, all titrating ca. 1 mol of thiol group per mole of enzyme, with distinct biochemical properties. N-terminal sequencing allowed identifying at least eight forms with proteolytic activity. The basic fraction contained previously identified species, i.e. basic bromelain forms 1 and 2, ananain forms 1 and 2, and comosain (MEROPS identifier: C01.027). Furthermore, a new proteolytic species, showing similarities with basic bomelain forms 1 and 2, was discovered and termed bromelain form 3. The two remaining species were found in the acidic bromelain fraction and were arbitrarily named acidic bromelain forms 1 and 2. Both, acidic bromelain forms 1, 2 and basic bromelain forms 1, 2 and 3 are glycosylated, while ananain forms 1 and 2, and comosain are not. The eight protease forms display different amidase activities against the various substrates tested, namely small synthetic chromogenic compounds (DL-BAPNA and Boc-Ala-Ala-Gly-pNA), fluorogenic compounds (like Boc-Gln-Ala-Arg-AMC, Z-Arg-Arg-AMC and Z-Phe-Arg-AMC), and proteins (azocasein and azoalbumin), suggesting a specific organization of their catalytic residues. All forms are completely inhibited by specific cysteine and cysteine/serine protease inhibitors, but not by specific serine and aspartic protease inhibitors, with the sole exception of pepstatin A that significantly affects acidic bromelain forms 1 and 2. For all eight protease forms, inhibition is also observed with 1,10-phenanthrolin, a metalloprotease inhibitor. Metal ions (i.e. Mn2+, Mg2+ and Ca2+) showed various effects depending on the protease under consideration, but all of them are totally inhibited in the presence of Zn2+. Mass spectrometry analyses revealed that all forms have a molecular mass of ca. 24 kDa, which is characteristic of enzymes belonging to the papain-like proteases family. Far-UV CD spectra analysis further supported this analysis. Interestingly, secondary structure calculation proves to be highly reproducible for all cysteine proteases of the papain family tested so far (this work; see also Azarkan et al., 2011; Baeyens-Volant et al., 2015) and thus can be used as a test for rapid identification of the classical papain fold. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the evaluation of interface quality in concrete repair system by means of impact-echo signal analysis
Garbacz, Andrzej; Piotrowski, Tomacz; Courard, Luc ULg et al

in Construction and Building Materials (2017), 134

According to Concrete Repair Manual as well as ACI 562-16 and European EN 1504-10 standards, a bond strength as a measure of adhesion is one the main feature of repair system necessary to be assessed. The ... [more ▼]

According to Concrete Repair Manual as well as ACI 562-16 and European EN 1504-10 standards, a bond strength as a measure of adhesion is one the main feature of repair system necessary to be assessed. The most common laboratory and engineering method for bond strength evaluation is pull-off test. This is however a semi-destructive method that needs a repair in a place of measurement. Recently, the great interest in nondestructive techniques (NDT) development is noted. Impact-Echo (IE) is considered as one of the most promising methods for this purpose. In this paper, the study on the usability the IE test based on frequency spectrum analysis for bond strength evaluation is analyzed. Both Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation and experimental tests were performed in order to obtain potential relations between IE frequency spectrum and parameters characterizing concrete substrate quality that may affect the final bond strength and the real value of pull-off bond strength measured on samples as well. It was concluded that the IE method can be a useful tool for interface quality and bond strength evaluations in concrete repair system. However, more complex signal analysis, e.g. wavelet analysis, should be considered in the future. [less ▲]

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See detailFormaliser le trope : De la subjectivité linguistique à la subjectivité épilinguistique
Mathy, Adrien ULg

in Signata. Annales des Sémiotiques = Annals of Semiotics (2017)

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See detailMolecular-Based Recursive Partitioning Analysis Model for Glioblastoma in the Temozolomide Era: A Correlative Analysis Based on NRG Oncology RTOG 0525.
Bell, Erica Hlavin; Pugh, Stephanie L.; McElroy, Joseph P. et al

in JAMA Oncology (2017)

Importance: There is a need for a more refined, molecularly based classification model for glioblastoma (GBM) in the temozolomide era. Objective: To refine the existing clinically based recursive ... [more ▼]

Importance: There is a need for a more refined, molecularly based classification model for glioblastoma (GBM) in the temozolomide era. Objective: To refine the existing clinically based recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) model by incorporating molecular variables. Design, Setting, and Participants: NRG Oncology RTOG 0525 specimens (n = 452) were analyzed for protein biomarkers representing key pathways in GBM by a quantitative molecular microscopy-based approach with semiquantitative immunohistochemical validation. Prognostic significance of each protein was examined by single-marker and multimarker Cox regression analyses. To reclassify the prognostic risk groups, significant protein biomarkers on single-marker analysis were incorporated into an RPA model consisting of the same clinical variables (age, Karnofsky Performance Status, extent of resection, and neurologic function) as the existing RTOG RPA. The new RPA model (NRG-GBM-RPA) was confirmed using traditional immunohistochemistry in an independent data set (n = 176). Main Outcomes and Measures: Overall survival (OS). Results: In 452 specimens, MGMT (hazard ratio [HR], 1.81; 95% CI, 1.37-2.39; P < .001), survivin (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.04-1.76; P = .02), c-Met (HR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.06-2.23; P = .02), pmTOR (HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.60-0.97; P = .03), and Ki-67 (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.10-1.78; P = .007) protein levels were found to be significant on single-marker multivariate analysis of OS. To refine the existing RPA, significant protein biomarkers together with clinical variables (age, Karnofsky Performance Status, extent of resection, and neurological function) were incorporated into a new model. Of 166 patients used for the new NRG-GBM-RPA model, 97 (58.4%) were male (mean [SD] age, 55.7 [12.0] years). Higher MGMT protein level was significantly associated with decreased MGMT promoter methylation and vice versa (1425.1 for methylated vs 1828.0 for unmethylated; P < .001). Furthermore, MGMT protein expression (HR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.38-2.43; P < .001) had greater prognostic value for OS compared with MGMT promoter methylation (HR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.28-2.44; P < .001). The refined NRG-GBM-RPA consisting of MGMT protein, c-Met protein, and age revealed greater separation of OS prognostic classes compared with the existing clinically based RPA model and MGMT promoter methylation in NRG Oncology RTOG 0525. The prognostic significance of the NRG-GBM-RPA was subsequently confirmed in an independent data set (n = 176). Conclusions and Relevance: This new NRG-GBM-RPA model improves outcome stratification over both the current RTOG RPA model and MGMT promoter methylation, respectively, for patients with GBM treated with radiation and temozolomide and was biologically validated in an independent data set. The revised RPA has the potential to contribute to improving the accurate assessment of prognostic groups in patients with GBM treated with radiation and temozolomide and to influence clinical decision making. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00304031. [less ▲]

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See detailConcise Reviews: Regeneration in Mammalian Cochlea Hair Cells: Help from Supporting Cells Transdifferentiation.
Franco, Benedicte; Malgrange, Brigitte ULg

in Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio) (2017)

It is commonly assumed that mammalian cochlear cells do not regenerate. Therefore, if hair cells are lost following an injury, no recovery could occur. However, during the first postnatal week, mice ... [more ▼]

It is commonly assumed that mammalian cochlear cells do not regenerate. Therefore, if hair cells are lost following an injury, no recovery could occur. However, during the first postnatal week, mice harbor some progenitor cells that retain the ability to give rise to new hair cells. These progenitor cells are in fact supporting cells. Upon hair cells loss, those cells are able to generate new hair cells both by direct transdifferentiation or following cell cycle re-entry and differentiation. However, this property of supporting cells is progressively lost after birth. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms that are involved in mammalian hair cell development and regeneration. Manipulating pathways used during development constitute good candidates for inducing hair cell regeneration after injury. Despite these promising studies, there is still no evidence for a recovery following hair cells loss in adult mammals. Stem Cells 2017. [less ▲]

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See detailLe colloque Francarbi à Bruxelles : le principe du contradictoire en arbitrage
Caprasse, Olivier ULg

in Journal des Tribunaux (2017)

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See detailTroubles du comportement alimentaire et régulation émotionnelle
Englebert, Jérôme ULg

in Psychosomatique Relationnelle (2017), 7

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See detailAeroservoelastic Simulations for Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines
Prasad, Chandra Shekhar ULg; Chen, Qiong Zhong; Bruls, Olivier ULg et al

in Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy (2017), 231(2), 103-117

This paper describes the development of a complete methodology for the aeroservoelastic modeling of horizontal axis wind turbines at the conceptual design stage. The methodology is based on the ... [more ▼]

This paper describes the development of a complete methodology for the aeroservoelastic modeling of horizontal axis wind turbines at the conceptual design stage. The methodology is based on the implementation of unsteady aerodynamic modeling, advanced description of the control system and nonlinear finite element calculations in the SWT wind turbine design package. The aerodynamic modeling is carried out by means of fast techniques, such as the Blade Element Method and the unsteady Vortex Lattice Method, including a free wake model. The complete model also includes a description of a doubly fed induction generator and its control system for variable speed operation. The SWT software features a non-linear finite element solver with multi-body dynamics capability. The full methodology is used to perform complete aeroservoelastic simulations of a realistic 2MW wind turbine model. The interaction between the three components of the approach is carefully analyzed and presented here. [less ▲]

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