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See detailRegards croisés entre le Portugal et la Wallonie
Belche, Jean-Luc ULg; Sousa, Alexandra

in Santé Conjuguée (2015), 73

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See detailTribulations d’une vieille dame : De la « loi relative aux anormaux et délinquants d’habitude » à la « loi relative à l’internement des personnes atteintes d'un trouble mental »
Garcet, Serge ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2015), 70e année

Le système belge de prise en charge des délinquants atteints de troubles mentaux est organisé selon un principe de défense sociale. Il se caractérise par une double attention pour, d’une part, la ... [more ▼]

Le système belge de prise en charge des délinquants atteints de troubles mentaux est organisé selon un principe de défense sociale. Il se caractérise par une double attention pour, d’une part, la protection de la société par une neutralisation du risque et, d’autre part, la nécessité de soins à prodiguer à la personne internée. L’évolution du cadre juridique de la loi de 1930 relative aux anormaux et délinquants d’habitude à la loi relative à l’internement des personnes atteintes d'un trouble mental de 2014 rend compte des vicissitudes nées du tiraillement entre ces deux piliers sécuritaire et thérapeutique. Dans ce difficile rapport de forces, bien que publiée mais pas encore d’application, la version de 2014 de la loi constitue à bien des égards une évolution positive dans la prise en compte des personnes internées et de leurs besoins. [less ▲]

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See detailContraception et risque carcinologique
BELIARD, Aude ULg

in Réalités en Gynécologie-Obstétrique (2015), 179

Hormonal contraception is used by millions of women worldwide for many years. Is there any impact on cancer risks (breast, ovarian, endometrial, cervical, liver, and colon cancer)? On the other hand, as a ... [more ▼]

Hormonal contraception is used by millions of women worldwide for many years. Is there any impact on cancer risks (breast, ovarian, endometrial, cervical, liver, and colon cancer)? On the other hand, as a result of advances in cancer therapy, women within the reproductive-aged group are more likely to survive cancer and be interested to procreate or to delay pregnancy. Which method of contraception can be proposed to this special population of cancer patients? [less ▲]

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See detailRecent decline of roach Rutilus rutilus stock in a large river ecosystem in relation with its population dynamics
Otjacques, William; Latli, Adrien; Bernard, Benoît et al

in Fundamental and Applied Limnology (2015), 187(2), 151-163

Studies dealing with quantitative decline of freshwater fish species with long-time series data are rather scarce and primarily limited to migratory species. We present an original work integrating over ... [more ▼]

Studies dealing with quantitative decline of freshwater fish species with long-time series data are rather scarce and primarily limited to migratory species. We present an original work integrating over two decades investigations on roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) stock, one of the dominant cyprinid fish species in the River Meuse (Belgium). This study aimed to quantify changes in the stock of roach after recent indicators (captures from sport fishermen) suggested a sharp decline. Three methods were used: capture-mark-recapture (CMR) estimation, catch per unit of effort by gillnetting (CPUE) and long-term monitoring of fish-passes. Population dynamics of roach was also investigated. CMR method demonstrated a decrease of 91% of the roach stock compared to earlier data (1993–2003), with current densities close to 300 roach ha–1. This was also confirmed by a decrease of 95 % in CPUEs and a decrease between 93 and 98 % in two fish-passes during the same period. On the other hand, growth and mortality did not indicate radical changes before and after the decline was found. As roach stock decline is generalizable to the whole Belgian’s Meuse following estimations in two other sites, further investigations are needed to explain the reasons underlying this decline in order to take conservation measures. First, the uptake of primary production (i.e. phytoplankton) by invasive clams is supposed. And secondly, an increase in predation pressure by the Great Cormorant is effective as this avian predator was found in high densities from 2000 until 2006. [less ▲]

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See detailComment je traite ... A propos du positionnement des inhibiteurs de la DPP-4 (gliptines) dans le traitement du diabète de type 2
SCHEEN, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2015), 70

Summary : Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (gliptins) are more and more prominent medications in the management of type 2 diabetes (T2D), with five molecules commercialized and as many fixed-dose ... [more ▼]

Summary : Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (gliptins) are more and more prominent medications in the management of type 2 diabetes (T2D), with five molecules commercialized and as many fixed-dose combinations with metformin. After failure of metformin monotherapy, gliptins compete with old medications such as sulphonylureas, on the one hand, or with new oral antidiabetic agents such as inhibitors of renal sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2) (gliflozines), on the other hand. Another alternative is the use of an incretin mimetic (agonist of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors, to be injected subcutaneously) rather than an incretin enhancer such as a gliptin, before considering insulin therapy. This article analyses the arguments in favour of DPP-4 inhibitors. We will mainly consider the use of gliptins in patients with recently diagnosed T2D, in elderly and frail patients and in those with chronic kidney disease. To illustrate the discussion, we will analyze the results of both interventional and observational studies with vildagliptin. Obviously, these various groups of patients represent a large proportion of T2D population. [less ▲]

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See detailPressure-impulse diagram of a beam developing non-linear membrane action under blast loading
Hamra, Lotfi ULg; Demonceau, Jean-François ULg; Denoël, Vincent ULg

in International Journal of Impact Engineering (2015), 86

The p–I diagram of a frame beam subjected to blast loading is established, including the elastic lateral restraint and inertia offered by the rest of the structure, the development of nonlinear membrane ... [more ▼]

The p–I diagram of a frame beam subjected to blast loading is established, including the elastic lateral restraint and inertia offered by the rest of the structure, the development of nonlinear membrane action and also, the bending-tension (M−N) interaction that develops in the plastic hinges. The analytical procedures to compute the asymptotes in the p–I diagram as well as a parametric study on the p–I diagram are provided. A dimensional analysis of the problem reveals that, under the considered assumptions, four dimensionless parameters mainly influence the required ductility of the beam. Two of them are related to the behavior of the indirectly affected part (the lateral restraint and mass). Another one is related to the mechanical properties of the investigated beam (i.e. the ratio of the bending to axial resistance). The last parameter incorporates scales of the geometry and of the deformed configuration at the onset of the plastic mechanism. [less ▲]

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See detailValeurs ajoutées des archives ouvertes : ORBi de l’université de Liège
Thirion, Paul ULg

in i2D : Information, Données et Documents : Pratiques ET Recherche (2015), 2015(4), 61-62

En 2008, l’Université de Liège appuie son répertoire institutionnel Open Repository and Bibliography (ORBi) sur le « mandat à la liégeoise » rendant obligatoire le dépôt des publications qu’elle assortit ... [more ▼]

En 2008, l’Université de Liège appuie son répertoire institutionnel Open Repository and Bibliography (ORBi) sur le « mandat à la liégeoise » rendant obligatoire le dépôt des publications qu’elle assortit d’un incitant puissant puisque seules les publications déposées sur ORBi sont prises en compte dans l’évaluation au sein de cette université (nominations, promotions, attributions de crédits, etc.). <br>Pour atteindre le succès observé, un effort particulier a été apporté à l'implémentation se "services à valeur ajoutée" pour l'auteur, l'institution et plus globalement le citoyen et la communauté scientifique. [less ▲]

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See detailAccompagner l'implantation de l'approche par compétences en histoire : avec quels moyens d'enseignement ?
Jadoulle, Jean-Louis ULg

in Didactica historica. Revue suisse pour l'enseignement de l'histoire (2015), 1

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See detailThe cultivable surface microbiota of the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum is enriched in macroalgal-polysaccharide-degrading bacteria
Martin, Marjolaine ULg; Barbeyron, Tristan; Martin, Renée ULg et al

in Frontiers in Microbiology (2015), 6(december),

Bacteria degrading algal polysaccharides are key players in the global carbon cycle and in algal biomass recycling. Yet the water column, which has been studied largely by metagenomic approaches, is poor ... [more ▼]

Bacteria degrading algal polysaccharides are key players in the global carbon cycle and in algal biomass recycling. Yet the water column, which has been studied largely by metagenomic approaches, is poor in such bacteria and their algal-polysaccharide-degrading enzymes. Even more surprisingly, the few published studies on seaweed-associated microbiomes have revealed low abundances of such bacteria and their specific enzymes. However, as macroalgal cell-wall polysaccharides do not accumulate in nature, these bacteria and their unique polysaccharidases must not be that uncommon. We, therefore, looked at the polysaccharide-degrading activity of the cultivable bacterial subpopulation associated with Ascophyllum nodosum. From A. nodosum triplicates, 324 bacteria were isolated and taxonomically identified. Out of these isolates, 78 (∼25%) were found to act on at least one tested algal polysaccharide (agar, ι- or κ-carrageenan, or alginate). The isolates “active” on algal-polysaccharides belong to 11 genera: Cellulophaga, Maribacter, Algibacter, and Zobellia in the class Flavobacteriia (41) and Pseudoalteromonas, Vibrio, Cobetia, Shewanella, Colwellia, Marinomonas, and Paraglaceciola in the class Gammaproteobacteria (37). A major part represents likely novel species. Different proportions of bacterial phyla and classes were observed between the isolated cultivable subpopulation and the total microbial community previously identified on other brown algae. Here, Bacteroidetes and Gammaproteobacteria were found to be the most abundant and some phyla (as Planctomycetes and Cyanobacteria) frequently encountered on brown algae weren’t identified. At a lower taxonomic level, twelve genera, well-known to be associated with algae (with the exception for Colwellia), were consistently found on all three A. nosodum samples. Even more interesting, 9 of the 11 above mentioned genera containing polysaccharolytic isolates were predominant in this common core. The cultivable fraction of the bacterial community associated with A. nodosum is, thus, significantly enriched in macroalgal-polysaccharide-degrading bacteria and these bacteria seem important for the seaweed holobiont even though they are under-represented in alga-associated microbiome studies. [less ▲]

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See detailÉditorial=Woord vooraf
Decoster, Sara ULg

in Cahiers de la Documentation = Bladen voor Documentatie (2015), 69(4),

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See detail" D'ombre et de lumière " : Récit d'une régénération réussie en chênaie ardennaise
Layon, José; Dubois, Héloïse ULg

in FORÊT.NATURE (2015), (137), 38-47

Nombreux sont les sylviculteurs qui souhaitent régénérer naturellement la chênaie mais le processus demande une gestion pointue, permettant de contourner les obstacles. Une régénération naturelle du chêne ... [more ▼]

Nombreux sont les sylviculteurs qui souhaitent régénérer naturellement la chênaie mais le processus demande une gestion pointue, permettant de contourner les obstacles. Une régénération naturelle du chêne sessile a été mise en place dès 1989 dans un compartiment de 16 ha situé sur le cantonnement DNF de La Roche-en-Ardenne (Belgique). Le peuplement initial était un médiocre taillis sous futaie de chêne et de hêtre à sous-étage de charme. Par ses observations et ses actions précises, le gestionnaire a réussi à installer les semis de chêne, à en soustraire suffisamment de la dent du gibier, bien présent, pour constituer un peuplement de qualité. Les enseignements de l'expérience sont multiples. Quelques points essentiels sont exposés : dosage fin de la lumière pour favoriser le développement des semis de chêne en maîtrisant le hêtre et la végétation adventice, observation de la réaction des semis comme indicateur du moment de l'intervention, exploitation adaptée, dégagement et/ou dépressage dans le semis, pression du gibier, etc. Actuellement, le chêne est régénéré sur plus de 12 ha. Le coût total est estimé entre 800 et 1000 €/ha. [less ▲]

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See detailQualité de vie du patient sarcopénique : apport de l’étude liégeoise SarcoPhAge
Beaudart, Charlotte ULg; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; PETERMANS, Jean ULg et al

in Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement (2015), 13(4), 391-5

The consequences of sarcopenia on quality are difficult to evaluate and consequently are quite poorly studied. The few studies assessing the quality of life in sarcopenic subjects currently use generic ... [more ▼]

The consequences of sarcopenia on quality are difficult to evaluate and consequently are quite poorly studied. The few studies assessing the quality of life in sarcopenic subjects currently use generic quality of life questionnaires such as SF36 and EQ5D. The SarcoPhAge study, conducted on a cohort developed in Liège including 534 subjects of 65 years or older, suggested that sarcopenic subjects present a significant worse quality of life in the domains of physical function compared to nonsarcopenic subjects. Generic tools do not cover exhaustively all the areas of potential dysfunction concerned in this geriatric syndrome. Yet, there is no specific and validated quality of life questionnaire for sarcopenia. It would be useful to have at our disposal a sarcopenia specific quality of life questionnaire to assess not only the prospective quality of life of sarcopenic subjects but also to assess the efficacy and the rele [less ▲]

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See detailGender differences in responses in Gammarus pulex exposed to BDE-47: a gel-free proteomic approach
Gismondi, Eric ULg; Mazzucchelli, Gabriel ULg; De Pauw, Edwin ULg et al

in Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety (2015), 122

Very few ecotoxicological studies have considered differences in toxic effects on male and female organisms. Here, we investigated protein expression differences in caeca of Gammarus pulex males and ... [more ▼]

Very few ecotoxicological studies have considered differences in toxic effects on male and female organisms. Here, we investigated protein expression differences in caeca of Gammarus pulex males and females under control conditions (unexposed) and after 96 h exposure to BDE-47. Using gel-free proteomic analysis, we have identified 45 proteins, of which 25 were significantly differently expressed according to sex and/or BDE-47 exposure. These proteins were involved in several biological processes such as energy metabolism, chaperone proteins, or transcription/translation. In unexposed amphipods, 11 proteins were significantly over-expressed in females, and 6 proteins were over-expressed in males. Under BDE-47 stress, 7 proteins were differently impacted according to sex. For example, catalase was over-expressed in exposed females and under-expressed in exposed males, as compared to respective controls. Conversely, proteins involved in energy metabolism were up-regulated in males and down-regulated in females. Our proteomic study showed differences in responses of males and females to BDE-47 exposure, emphasizing that sex is a confounding factor in ecotoxicological assessment. However, due to the limited information existing in databases on Gammarids, it was difficult to define a BDE-47 mechanism of action. The gel-free proteomic seems to be a promising method to develop in future ecotoxicological studies and thus, to improve our understanding of the mechanism of action of xenobiotics. [less ▲]

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See detailA probabilistic model for predicting the uncertainties of the humid stiction phenomenon on hard materials
Hoang Truong, Vinh ULg; Wu, Ling ULg; Paquay, Stéphane et al

in Journal of Computational & Applied Mathematics (2015), 289

Stiction is a major failure in microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices in which two contacting surfaces can remain stuck together because of the adhesive forces. Due to the difference between the ... [more ▼]

Stiction is a major failure in microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices in which two contacting surfaces can remain stuck together because of the adhesive forces. Due to the difference between the surfaces roughness and the adhesive force range, the real contact areas are usually smaller than the apparent one, resulting in a scatter in the adhesive forces. Consequently, the stiction is an uncertain phenomenon. In this work, we develop a probabilistic model to predict the uncertainties of stiction due to the capillary forces acting on stiff materials. This model contains two levels: at the deterministic level, the model can predict the pull-out adhesive contact forces for a given surface topology; at the probabilistic level, the model generates independent identically distributed surfaces on which the deterministic solution can be applied to evaluate the uncertainties related to the stiction phenomenon. [less ▲]

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See detailNouvelles données sur un pigment noir d’origine cambrienne, utilisé au Paléolithique moyen et découvert dans la grotte Scladina (Andenne, Belgique)
Bonjean, D; Vanbrabant, Y; Abrams, G et al

in Notae Praehistoricae (2015), 35

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See detailEnvironmental impacts of phosphoric acid production using di-hemihydrate process: a Belgian case study
Belboom, Sandra ULg; Szöcs, Carl; Léonard, Angélique ULg

in Journal of Cleaner Production (2015), 108

This paper undertakes an environmental evaluation of phosphoric acid production, using industrial data from Prayon SA in Belgium. Phosphoric acid is produced using the wet di-hemihydrate process also ... [more ▼]

This paper undertakes an environmental evaluation of phosphoric acid production, using industrial data from Prayon SA in Belgium. Phosphoric acid is produced using the wet di-hemihydrate process also called Central Prayon process. Both grades of phosphoric acid are evaluated: fertilizer and purified grades. Specificities of this plant are highlighted and improvements of the process in terms of energy and facilities integration through years are quantified as environmental benefits. The implementation on site of two sulphuric acid production facilities and their energetic integration allow a reduction of climate change impact of 80%. Results also show the importance of phosphogypsum valorisation which is sold for the main part in this case study. Concerning the purified grade, this specific process has been compared to the thermal process, using Best Available Techniques (BAT) values for the modelling. It shows a reduced environmental impact for the wet process in the majority of categories studies. [less ▲]

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See detailEntre soins aux patients psychiatriques délinquants et protection sociale à l’égard des délinquants psychiatriques : enjeux et perspectives criminologiques du plan pour patients psychiatriques médico-légaux
Garcet, Serge ULg

in Revue de Droit Pénal et de Criminologie (2015)

En Belgique, la réforme de la santé mentale a récemment été élargie aux populations internées dans le cadre de la loi dite « de défense sociale ». Construite sur un modèle communautaire du soin, elle ... [more ▼]

En Belgique, la réforme de la santé mentale a récemment été élargie aux populations internées dans le cadre de la loi dite « de défense sociale ». Construite sur un modèle communautaire du soin, elle propose une approche globale et intégrée de tous les acteurs, services et secteurs pertinents. Tout en développant les principaux axes de la réforme, l’article questionne la mise en œuvre de ce modèle dans le contexte hybride de l’internement entre mesure de protection et nécessité de soins. [less ▲]

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See detailPrincipes pratiques de l'animatique des groupes. Stratégies d'animation en vue d'un apprentissage expérientiel
Faulx, Daniel ULg; Danse, Cédric ULg

in Cahiers Internationaux de Psychologie Sociale (2015), 4

he paradigm of the face-to-face group dynamics encloses the postulates, intentions and principles underlying group’s process. It formates the methodology of their conduct. Fourteen components of this ... [more ▼]

he paradigm of the face-to-face group dynamics encloses the postulates, intentions and principles underlying group’s process. It formates the methodology of their conduct. Fourteen components of this paradigm are here listed, to help the trainers, from the angle to apply it in their practical experience in leading groups. They make a consistent whole and guide the trainer in its using of the methodology of structured experiences. [less ▲]

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See detailAgriculture et environnement : genèse des relations
Habran, Maxime ULg

in Revue de l'Union européenne (2015), (593), 604-617

Les négociations portant sur la réforme de la politique agricole commune (PAC) auraient dû mettre la politique de protection de l’environnement sur le devant de la scène. Au lieu de cela, la PAC s’est vu ... [more ▼]

Les négociations portant sur la réforme de la politique agricole commune (PAC) auraient dû mettre la politique de protection de l’environnement sur le devant de la scène. Au lieu de cela, la PAC s’est vu doter d’un nouveau mécanisme appelé verdissement ou paiement vert destiné à verdir le pilier des soutiens de marché. Ce mécanisme rend opaque la prise en compte de l’environnement et affaiblit la conditionnalité. D’un greening, les négociateurs se sont mis d’accord sur un greenwashing. L’objectif de cette contribution est de montrer la manière dont est intégrée la politique de protection de l’environnement au sein de la politique agricole commune. La notion de conditionnalité environnementale permet de comprendre l’articulation et l’interaction entre ces deux politiques. [less ▲]

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See detailThe protective effects of free wheel-running against cocaine psychomotor sensitization persist after exercise cessation in C57BL/6J mice
Lespine, Louis-Ferdinand ULg; Tirelli, Ezio ULg

in Neuroscience (2015), 310

Previous literature suggests that free access to a running wheel can attenuate the behavioral responsiveness to addictive drugs in rodents. In a few studies, wheel-running cessation accentuated drug ... [more ▼]

Previous literature suggests that free access to a running wheel can attenuate the behavioral responsiveness to addictive drugs in rodents. In a few studies, wheel-running cessation accentuated drug responsiveness. Here, we tested whether free wheel-running cessation is followed by (1) an accentuation or (2) an attenuation of cocaine psychomotor sensitization, knowing that no cessation of (continuous) wheel-running is associated with an attenuation of cocaine responsiveness. Male C57BL/6J mice, aged 35 days, were housed singly either with (exercising mice) or without (non-exercising mice) a running wheel. At the end of a period of 36 days, half of the exercising mice were deprived of their wheel whereas the other half of exercising mice kept their wheel until the end of experimentation (which lasted 85 days). The non-exercising mice were housed without wheel throughout experimentation. Testing took place 3 days after exercise cessation. After 2 once-daily drug-free test sessions, mice were tested for initiation of psychomotor sensitization over 13 once-daily injections of 8 mg/kg cocaine. Post-sensitization conditioned activation (saline challenge) and long-term expression of sensitization were assessed 2 or 30 days after the last sensitizing injection (same treatments as for initiation of sensitization), respectively. Exercising mice and mice undergoing wheel-running cessation exhibited comparable degrees of attenuation of all cocaine effects in comparison with the continuously non-exercising mice, which showed the greatest effects. Thus, the efficaciousness of wheel-running at attenuating cocaine sensitization not only resisted to exercise cessation but also was unambiguously persistent (an important effect rarely reported in previous literature). [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of serum fractionation methods by data independent label-free proteomics
Baiwir, Dominique ULg; Mazzucchelli, Gabriel ULg; Smargiasso, Nicolas ULg et al

in EuPA Open Proteomics (2015), 9

Off-line sample prefractionations applied prior to biomarker discovery proteomics are options to enable more protein identifications and detect low-abundance proteins. This work compared five commercial ... [more ▼]

Off-line sample prefractionations applied prior to biomarker discovery proteomics are options to enable more protein identifications and detect low-abundance proteins. This work compared five commercial methods efficiency to raw serum analysis using label-free proteomics. The variability of the protein quantities determined for each process was similar to the unprefractionated serum. A 49% increase in protein identifications and 12.2% of reliable quantification were obtained. A 61 times lower limit of protein quantitation was reached compared to protein concentrations observed in raw serum. The concentrations of detected proteins were confronted to estimated reference values. [less ▲]

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See detailThe importance of phenotypic diversity in conservation: Resilience of palmate newt morphotypes after fish removal in Larzac ponds (France)
Denoël, Mathieu ULg; Winandy, Laurane ULg

in Biological Conservation (2015), 192

Resilience of organisms after threat removal is an essential feature to justify conservation efforts. Amphibians are particularly threatened with a worldwide decline, showing a low resistance to invaders ... [more ▼]

Resilience of organisms after threat removal is an essential feature to justify conservation efforts. Amphibians are particularly threatened with a worldwide decline, showing a low resistance to invaders such as fish. Previous research has shown that they could recover after fish extirpation due to metamorphosed colonizers. However, not all amphibian phenotypes are able to persist to fish introduction and disperse. In many species of newts and salamanders, paedomorphs retain gills in the adult stage, which makes them fully aquatic. A proposed way to conserve this phenotype would be to remove introduced fish from their habitats. However, because paedomorphosis is usually not expressed in the presence of fish, it is unknown whether fish removal could allow the resilience of paedomorphs. This would be possible only if progenies of metamorphosed individuals could become paedomorphic in restored habitats. Through a quantitative survey in three types of ponds, including control ponds without fish, ponds in which fish were extirpated, and fish ponds, we determined abundances of paedomorphic and metamorphic palmate newts (Lissotriton helveticus). The results show that paedomorphosis resilience is possible and even highly frequent, as paedomorphs were found in 80% of ponds where fish disappeared. Abundances were similar between these ponds and control ponds whereas fish ponds had almost no newts, indicating a very low resistance to invaders. This shows that conserving common phenotypes can help to preserve endangered phenotypes, as paedomorphs were produced through the reproduction of metamorphs. There is thus hope of maintaining intraspecific biodiversity though conservation action involving threat removal. [less ▲]

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See detailEntraîner la communication professionnelle par des dispositifs en e-learning au cours du Master en orthophonie
Martinez Perez, Trecy ULg; Maillart, Christelle ULg; Willems, Sylvie ULg

in Rééducation Orthophonique (2015), 264

La capacité à communiquer efficacement constitue une qualité professionnelle incontournable des orthophonistes. Néanmoins, dans la formation initiale, les compétences communicationnelles sont rarement ... [more ▼]

La capacité à communiquer efficacement constitue une qualité professionnelle incontournable des orthophonistes. Néanmoins, dans la formation initiale, les compétences communicationnelles sont rarement travaillées et évaluées au contraire d’autres compétences cliniques telles que l’évaluation et la rééducation. Beaucoup considèrent en effet que ces compétences relationnelles s’entraîneront naturellement sur le terrain. Or, la communication professionnelle possède des caractéristiques qui lui sont propres et qui doivent être entraînées. Dans le Master en orthophonie à l’Université de Liège, deux dispositifs ont été développés et ciblent la communication au cours de l’entretien anamnestique et de la remise de conclusion. Ces dispositifs reposent essentiellement sur des modules en e-learning et permettent de garantir aux étudiants en orthophonie les bases nécessaires en communication professionnelle avec peu de ressources académiques. [less ▲]

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See detailSaying the unsayable: Imagining reconciliation in Gail Jones's Sorry
Belleflamme, Valérie-Anne ULg

in English Text Construction (2015), 8(2), 297

In her novel Sorry (2007), Australian novelist and essayist Gail Jones engages in a reflection on the ethics of reconciliation. Written in response to her wish to acknowledge the debt to the Stolen ... [more ▼]

In her novel Sorry (2007), Australian novelist and essayist Gail Jones engages in a reflection on the ethics of reconciliation. Written in response to her wish to acknowledge the debt to the Stolen Generations, Sorry offers new possibilities of ethical mourning, allowing the dead to return and the voiceless to speak. This article explores the ways in which Jones not only fashions a narrative that bypasses the unsayable dimension of Australia’s history and the representational difficulties inherent in trauma but also fosters the empathetic imagination through a metadiscursive discussion of the act of reading. Self-referentiality and self-reflexivity are also examined, as they allow Jones to draw attention to her novel’s writerly elaborations and offer an alternative to standard reconciliation practices. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental and computational micro–mechanical investigations of compressive properties of polypropylene/multi–walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite foams
Wan, Fangyi; Tran, Minh Phuong; Leblanc, Christophe ULg et al

in Mechanics of Materials (2015), 91(Part 1), 95-118

The compressive behavior of nanocomposite foams is studied by both experimental and computational micro-mechanics approaches with the aim of providing an efficient computational model for this kind of ... [more ▼]

The compressive behavior of nanocomposite foams is studied by both experimental and computational micro-mechanics approaches with the aim of providing an efficient computational model for this kind of material. The nanocomposites based on polypropylene (PP) and different contents of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are prepared by melt mixing method. The nanocomposite samples are foamed using super-critical carbon dioxide (ScCO2) as blowing agent at different soaking temperatures. The influence of this foaming parameter on the morphological characteristics of the foam micro-structure is discussed. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) measurements are used to quantify the crystallinity degree of both nanocomposites and foams showing that the crystallinity degree is reduced after the foaming process. This modification leads to mechanical properties of the foam cell walls that are different from the raw nanocomposite PP/CNTs material. Three--point bending tests are performed on the latter to measure the flexural modulus in terms of the crystallinity degree. Uniaxial compression tests are then performed on the foamed samples under quasi-static conditions in order to extract the macro-scale compressive response. Next, a two-level multi-scale approach is developed to model the behavior of the foamed nanocomposite material. On the one hand, the micro-mechanical properties of nanocomposite PP/CNTs cell walls are evaluated from a theoretical homogenization model accounting for the micro-structure of the semi-crystalline PP, for the degree of crystallinity, and for the CNT volume fraction. The applicability of this theoretical model is demonstrated via the comparison with experimental data from the described experimental measurements and from literature. On the other hand, the macroscopic behavior of the foamed material is evaluated using a computational micro-mechanics model using tetrakaidecahedron unit cells and periodic boundary conditions to estimate the homogenized properties. The unit cell is combined with several geometrical imperfections in order to capture the elastic collapse of the foamed material. The numerical results are compared to the experimental measurements and it is shown that the proposed unit cell computational micro-mechanics model can be used to estimate the homogenized behavior, including the linear and plateau regimes, of nanocomposite foams. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing natriuretic peptides to detect cardiac diseases in horses
Leroux, Aurélia ULg

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2015), 177

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See detailStructure-Activity Relationships of Novel Tryptamine-Based Inhibitors of Bacterial Transglycosylase.
Sosic, Izidor; Anderluh, Marko; Sova, Matej et al

in Journal of medicinal chemistry (2015)

Penicillin-binding proteins represent well-established, validated, and still very promising targets for the design and development of new antibacterial agents. The transglycosylase domain of penicillin ... [more ▼]

Penicillin-binding proteins represent well-established, validated, and still very promising targets for the design and development of new antibacterial agents. The transglycosylase domain of penicillin-binding proteins is especially important, as it catalyzes polymerization of glycan chains, using the peptidoglycan precursor lipid II as a substrate. On the basis of the previous discovery of a noncovalent small-molecule inhibitor of transglycosylase activity, we systematically explored the structure-activity relationships of these tryptamine-based inhibitors. The main aim was to reduce the nonspecific cytotoxic properties of the initial hit compound and concurrently to retain the mode of its inhibition. A focused library of tryptamine-based compounds was synthesized, characterized, and evaluated biochemically. The results presented here show the successful reduction of the nonspecific cytotoxicity, and the retention of the inhibition of transglycosylase enzymatic activity, as well as the ability of these compounds to bind to lipid II and to have antibacterial actions. [less ▲]

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See detailFerroelectric instability in nanotubes and spherical nanoshells
Qiu, Ruihao ULg; Bousquet, Eric ULg; Cano, Andres

in Europhysics Letters [=EPL] (2015), 112

The emergence of ferroelectricity in nanotubes and spherical nanoshells is studied theoretically. We determine semi-analytically the size and thickness dependence of the ferroelectric instability, as well ... [more ▼]

The emergence of ferroelectricity in nanotubes and spherical nanoshells is studied theoretically. We determine semi-analytically the size and thickness dependence of the ferroelectric instability, as well as its dependence on the properties of the surrounding media and the corresponding interfaces. By properly tuning these factors, we demonstrate possible routes for enhancing the ferroelectric transition temperature and promoting the competition between irrotational and vortex-like states in the ultra-thin limit due to the specific topology of these nanoparticles. [less ▲]

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See detailMesure des flux de CO2 et séquestration de carbone dans les écosystèmes terrestres ouest-africains (Synthèse Bibliographique)
Ago, Expédit Evariste ULg; Agbossou, Euloge Kossi; Ozer, Pierre ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2015)

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See detailPost-coronagraphic tip-tilt sensing for vortex phase masks: the QACITS technique
Huby, Elsa ULg; Baudoz, Pierre; Mawet, Dimitri et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2015), 584

Small inner working angle coronagraphs, like the vortex phase mask, are essential to exploit the full potential of ground-based telescopes in the context of exoplanet detection and characterization ... [more ▼]

Small inner working angle coronagraphs, like the vortex phase mask, are essential to exploit the full potential of ground-based telescopes in the context of exoplanet detection and characterization. However, the drawback of this attractive feature is a high sensitivity to pointing errors, which degrades the performance of the coronagraph. We propose a tip-tilt retrieval technique based on the analysis of the final coronagraphic image, hereafter called Quadrant Analysis of Coronagraphic Images for Tip-tilt Sensing (QACITS). Under the assumption of small phase aberrations, we show that the behaviour of the vortex phase mask can be simply described from the entrance pupil to the Lyot stop plane by Zernike polynomials. This convenient formalism is used to establish the theoretical basis of the QACITS technique. Simulations have been performed to demonstrate the validity and limits of the technique, including the case of a centrally obstructed pupil. The QACITS technique principle is further validated by experimental results in the case of an unobstructed circular aperture. The typical configuration of the Keck telescope (24% central obstruction) has been simulated with additional high order aberrations. In these conditions, our simulations show that the QACITS technique is still adapted to centrally obstructed pupils and performs tip-tilt retrieval with a precision of $5 \times 10^{-2}$ {\lambda}/D when wavefront errors amount to {\lambda}/14 rms and $10^{-2}$ {\lambda}/D for {\lambda}/70 rms errors (with {\lambda} the wavelength and D the pupil diameter). The implementation of the QACITS technique is based on the analysis of the scientific image and does not require any modification of the original setup. Current facilities equipped with a vortex phase mask can thus directly benefit from this technique to improve the contrast performance close to the axis. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscrimination of deciduous tree species from time series of unmanned aerial system imagery
Lisein, Jonathan ULg; Michez, Adrien ULg; Claessens, Hugues ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2015), 10(11),

Technology advances can revolutionize Precision Forestry by providing accurate and fine forest information at tree level. This paper addresses the question of how and particularly when Unmanned Aerial ... [more ▼]

Technology advances can revolutionize Precision Forestry by providing accurate and fine forest information at tree level. This paper addresses the question of how and particularly when Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) should be used in order to efficiently discriminate deciduous tree species. A time series of high resolution UAS imagery was collected to cover the growing season from leaf flush to leaf fall. Full benefit was taken of the temporal resolution of UAS acquisition, one of the most promising features of small drones. The disparity in forest tree phenology is at the maximum during early spring and late autumn. But the phenology state that optimized the classification result is the one that minimizes the spectral variation within tree species groups and, at the same time, maximizes the phenologic differences between species. Sunlit tree crowns (5 deciduous species groups) were classified using a Random Forest approach for monotemporal, two-date and three-date combinations. The end of leaf flushing was the most efficient single-date time window. Multitemporal datasets definitely improve the overall classification accuracy. But single-date high resolution orthophotomosaics, acquired on optimal time-windows, result in a very good classification accuracy (overall out of bag error of 16%). [less ▲]

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See detailRecent advances in BLV research
Barez, Pierre-Yves ULg; De Brogniez, Alix ULg; Carpentier, Alexandre ULg et al

in Viruses (2015), 7(11), 6080-6088

Different animal models have been proposed to investigate the mechanisms of HTLV-induced pathogenesis: rats, transgenic and NOD-SCID/γcnull (NOG) mice, rabbits, squirrel monkeys, baboons and macaques ... [more ▼]

Different animal models have been proposed to investigate the mechanisms of HTLV-induced pathogenesis: rats, transgenic and NOD-SCID/γcnull (NOG) mice, rabbits, squirrel monkeys, baboons and macaques. These systems indeed provide useful information but have intrinsic limitations such as lack of disease relevance, species specificity or inadequate immune response. Another strategy based on a comparative virology approach is to characterize a related pathogen and to speculate on possible shared mechanisms. In this perspective, bovine leukemia virus (BLV), another member of the deltaretrovirus genus, is evolutionary related to HTLV-1. BLV induces lymphoproliferative disorders in ruminants providing useful information on the mechanisms of viral persistence, genetic determinants of pathogenesis and potential novel therapies. [less ▲]

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See detailPrimary osteosarcoma of the breast : a case report
Crevecoeur, Julie; Jossa, Véronique; GENNIGENS, Christine ULg et al

in Clinical Case Reports (2015)

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See detailgammaMAXT: a fast multiple-testing correction algorithm
Van Lishout, François ULg; Gadaleta, Francesco; Moore, Jason H. et al

in BioData Mining (2015), 8(36),

Background: The purpose of the maxT algorithm is to provide a significance test algorithm that controls the family-wise error rate (FWER) during simultaneous hypothesis testing. However, the requirements ... [more ▼]

Background: The purpose of the maxT algorithm is to provide a significance test algorithm that controls the family-wise error rate (FWER) during simultaneous hypothesis testing. However, the requirements in terms of computing time and memory of this procedure are proportional to the number of investigated hypotheses. The memory issue has been solved in 2013 by Van Lishout’s implementation of MaxT, which makes the memory usage independent from the size of the dataset. This algorithm is implemented in MBMDR-3.0.3, a software that is able to identify genetic interactions, for a variety of SNP-SNP based epistasis models effectively. On the other hand, that implementation turned out to be less suitable for genome-wide interaction analysis studies, due to the prohibitive computational burden. Results: In this work we introduce gammaMAXT, a novel implementation of the maxT algorithm for multiple testing correction. The algorithm was implemented in software MBMDR-4.2.2, as part of the MB-MDR framework to screen for SNP-SNP, SNP-environment or SNP-SNP-environment interactions at a genome-wide level. We show that, in the absence of interaction effects, test-statistics produced by the MB-MDR methodology follow a mixture distribution with a point mass at zero and a shifted gamma distribution for the top 10 % of the strictly positive values. We show that the gammaMAXT algorithm has a power comparable to MaxT and maintains FWER, but requires less computational resources and time. We analyze a dataset composed of 106 SNPs and 1000 individuals within one day on a 256-core computer cluster. The same analysis would take about 104 times longer with MBMDR-3.0.3. Conclusions: These results are promising for future GWAIs.However, the proposed gammaMAXT algorithm offers a general significance assessment and multiple testing approach, applicable to any context that requires performing hundreds of thousands of tests. It offers new perspectives for fast and efficient permutation-based significance assessment in large-scale (integrated) omics studies. [less ▲]

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See detail“Shakespeare was wrong”: counter-discursive intertextuality in Gail Jones’s Sorry
Belleflamme, Valérie-Anne ULg

in Journal of Postcolonial Writing (2015), 51(6), 661671

In what is presented as a moment of truth in Gail Jones’s novel Sorry, the narrator’s brief statement that “Shakespeare was wrong” appears to call into question the English dramatist’s literary and ... [more ▼]

In what is presented as a moment of truth in Gail Jones’s novel Sorry, the narrator’s brief statement that “Shakespeare was wrong” appears to call into question the English dramatist’s literary and epistemological supremacy. Starting from this unsettling premise, this article seeks to define Jones’s counter-discursive use of Shakespearean intertextuality. While it has, for decades, proved a risky task for both historians and novelists to write about the delicate issue of silence in Australia without risking the appropriation of an Aboriginal voice, the article examines how Jones exploits defamiliarizing techniques in order to undermine the dominant European discourse (as encoded in the Shakespearean text) without assuming an Aboriginal perspective. Her aim is to facilitate the emergence of an incipient, tentatively-defined counter-discourse sufficiently attuned to the specific realities of Australia. The article argues that by adopting an Australian cultural perspective designed to decentre Shakespeare Jones hopes to reconcile history and writing, but also the divided aspects of White Australia’s twofold identity at a time of profound national changes. [less ▲]

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See detailA KNOWLEDGE-BASED APPROACH FOR MAPPING LAND DEGRADATION IN THE ARID RANGELANDS OF NORTH AFRICA
Mahyou, Hamid; Tychon, Bernard ULg; Balaghi, Riad et al

in Land Degradation & Development (2015)

Rangelands cover about 82% of the arid area of Morocco. It is generally acknowledged that these areas are threatened by desertification. Monitoring desertification requires accurate knowledge about the ... [more ▼]

Rangelands cover about 82% of the arid area of Morocco. It is generally acknowledged that these areas are threatened by desertification. Monitoring desertification requires accurate knowledge about the current status of rangeland degradation. Remote sensing is widely used to assess changes in land cover, but its use in arid rangelands has limitations because of spectral confusion among various types of land cover. The objective of this study was to assess the severity and spatial extent of rangeland degradation in the high plateaus of eastern Morocco, using a knowledge-based approach combining remote sensing and ancillary data. This approach relies on analyzing datasets derived from Landsat TM satellite imagery, lithology, bioclimatic data and field measurements. The level of rangeland degradation was assessed using indicators such as vegetation parameters, grazing levels and cultivation intensity, which provided a high level of accuracy for mapping and monitoring the degradation of the arid rangelands. The results showed that the total area of degraded rangeland in the high plateaus of eastern Morocco is about 17,417 km², accounting for 48% in the studied area. [less ▲]

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See detailRetrieval of ammonia from ground-based FTIR solar spectra
Dammers, Enrico; Vigouroux, C; Palm, M et al

in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (2015), 15

We present a retrieval method for ammonia (NH3) total columns from ground-based Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) observations. Observations from Bremen (53.10° N, 8.85° E), Lauder (45.04° S, 169.68° E ... [more ▼]

We present a retrieval method for ammonia (NH3) total columns from ground-based Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) observations. Observations from Bremen (53.10° N, 8.85° E), Lauder (45.04° S, 169.68° E), Reunion (20.9° S, 55.50° E) and Jungfraujoch (46.55° N, 7.98° E) were used to illustrate the capabilities of the method. NH3 mean total columns ranging three orders of magnitude were obtained with higher values at Bremen (mean of 13.47 × 1015 molecules cm-2) to the lower values at Jungfraujoch (mean of 0.18 × 1015 molecules cm-2). In conditions with high surface concentrations of ammonia, as in Bremen, it is possible to retrieve information on the vertical gradient as two layers can be discriminated. The retrieval there is most sensitive to ammonia in the planetary boundary layer, where the trace gas concentration is highest. For conditions with low concentrations only the total column can be retrieved. Combining the systematic and random errors we have a mean total error of 26 % for all spectra measured at Bremen (Number of spectra (N) = 554), 30 % for all spectra from Lauder (N =2412), 25 % for spectra from Reunion (N =1262) and 34 % for spectra measured at Jungfraujoch (N =2702). The error is dominated by the systematic uncertainties in the spectroscopy parameters. Station specific seasonal cycles were found to be consistent with known seasonal cycles of the dominant ammonia sources in the station surroundings. The developed retrieval methodology from FTIR-instruments provides a new way to obtain highly time-resolved measurements of ammonia burdens. FTIR-NH3 observations will be useful for understanding the dynamics of ammonia concentrations in the atmosphere and for satellite and model validation. It will also provide additional information to constrain the global ammonia budget. [less ▲]

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See detailField data on the little known and endangered Lepilemur mittermeieri
Wilmet, Leslie ULg; Schwitzer, Christoph; Beudels-Jamar, Roseline C. et al

in Journal of Primatology (2015), 4(2),

Lepilemur mittermeieri is a very little known sportive lemur of the Ampasindava peninsula of Madagascar, presently regarded as endangered. On the basis of genetic material only, obtained from three ... [more ▼]

Lepilemur mittermeieri is a very little known sportive lemur of the Ampasindava peninsula of Madagascar, presently regarded as endangered. On the basis of genetic material only, obtained from three individuals collected at the same locality. No observation confidently allocated to the species has been reported since. The objectives of our research were to verify that the sportive lemurs found in forests of the Ampasindava peninsula beyond the type-locality of Lepilemur mittermeieri belonged to the same species as the type, to provide morphological and behavioural data for populations confidently attributed to L. mittermeieri and to obtain for these populations preliminary evaluations of density variations within the peninsula. Our surveys were undertaken in March and April 2014 in remnant forest patches of the western part of the Ampasindava peninsula. Linear transects by night and punctual observations by day were conducted. A total of 54 animals were seen along nine transects situated in four forest patches, two at low altitude and two at high altitude. All animals examined and photographed appeared similar, and the impression was gained that a single taxon was involved. Genetic material collected from one dead specimen proved identical to the type of L. mittermeieri which confirmed the identity of the populations we observed. It thus appears that L. mittermeieri is indeed the only sportive lemur present on the peninsula and that it occurs in several forest remnants. We endeavoured to get evaluations of the density and abundance of the species in the four forest patches we studied. We used KAIs (Kilometric Abundance Indices) to evaluate and compare relative densities, and Buckland’s distance sampling method to evaluate absolute densities. The latter suggested a density of 1.9 animals/ha, a result that must, however, be taken with caution. [less ▲]

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See detailElp3 drives Wnt-dependent tumor initiation and regeneration in the intestine
LADANG, Aurélie ULg; Rapino, Francesca ULg; Heukamp, Lukas et al

in Journal of Experimental Medicine (2015), 212(12), 2057-75

Tumor initiation in the intestine can rapidly occur from Lgr5(+) crypt columnar stem cells. Dclk1 is a marker of differentiated Tuft cells and, when coexpressed with Lgr5, also marks intestinal cancer ... [more ▼]

Tumor initiation in the intestine can rapidly occur from Lgr5(+) crypt columnar stem cells. Dclk1 is a marker of differentiated Tuft cells and, when coexpressed with Lgr5, also marks intestinal cancer stem cells. Here, we show that Elp3, the catalytic subunit of the Elongator complex, is required for Wnt-driven intestinal tumor initiation and radiation-induced regeneration by maintaining a subpool of Lgr5(+)/Dclk1(+)/Sox9(+) cells. Elp3 deficiency dramatically delayed tumor appearance in Apc-mutated intestinal epithelia and greatly prolonged mice survival without affecting the normal epithelium. Specific ablation of Elp3 in Lgr5(+) cells resulted in marked reduction of polyp formation upon Apc inactivation, in part due to a decreased number of Lgr5(+)/Dclk1(+)/Sox9(+) cells. Mechanistically, Elp3 is induced by Wnt signaling and promotes Sox9 translation, which is needed to maintain the subpool of Lgr5(+)/Dclk1(+) cancer stem cells. Consequently, Elp3 or Sox9 depletion led to similar defects in Dclk1(+) cancer stem cells in ex vivo organoids. Finally, Elp3 deficiency strongly impaired radiation-induced intestinal regeneration, in part because of decreased Sox9 protein levels. Together, our data demonstrate the crucial role of Elp3 in maintaining a subpopulation of Lgr5-derived and Sox9-expressing cells needed to trigger Wnt-driven tumor initiation in the intestine. [less ▲]

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See detailLes musées à forme d’établissement public administratif peuvent-ils recourir à l’arbitrage ?
Desseilles, François ULg

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2015), (3), 497-520

This article aims to study the possibility of using alternative dispute resolution (ADR), specifically arbitration, in the museum sphere. If the answer given will naturally vary according to the nature of ... [more ▼]

This article aims to study the possibility of using alternative dispute resolution (ADR), specifically arbitration, in the museum sphere. If the answer given will naturally vary according to the nature of institutions, the study focused on public administrative institutions in French law. We focus first on the place of ADR in the museum context and the expansion of market logic faced by public museums. The role of arbitration in these is discussed and some definitions and concepts are correlatively recalled. Next, the article examines the arbitrability of disputes concerning contracts of a public administrative establishment. It is first of all a matter of the analysis of the principle of prohibition to public entities to resort to arbitration. Second, the article examines the principles and conditions of the validity of the arbitration clause in international contracts, considering mainly the French jurisprudence, which decides that arbitrability of disputes in international trade is feasible in principle. Finally a description of various mechanisms and several stakeholders in the arbitration is made. [less ▲]

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See detailThermoelectric properties of the unfilled skutterudite FeSb3 from first principles and Seebeck local probes
Lemal, Sébastien ULg; Ngoc, Nguyen; de Boor, Johanens et al

in Physical Review. B: Condensed Matter and Materials Physics (2015), 92

Using a combination of first-principles calculations and experimental transport measurements, we study the electronic and magnetic structure of the unfilled skutterudite FeSb3. We employ the hybrid ... [more ▼]

Using a combination of first-principles calculations and experimental transport measurements, we study the electronic and magnetic structure of the unfilled skutterudite FeSb3. We employ the hybrid functional approach for exchange-correlation. The ground state is determined to be anti-ferromagnetic with an atomic magnetic moment of 1.6 μB/Fe. The Néel temperature Tn is estimated at 6 K, in agreement with experiments which found a paramagnetic state down to 10 K. The ground state is semiconducting, with a small electronic gap of 33 meV, also consistent with previous experiments on films. Charge carrier concentrations are estimated from Hall resistance measurements. The Seebeck coefficient is measured and mapped using a scanning probe at room temperature that yields an average value of 38.6 μV/K, slightly lower than the theoretical result. The theoretical conductivity is analyzed as a function of temperature and concentration of charge carriers. [less ▲]

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See detailLaser cladding as repair technology for Ti6Al4V alloy: Influence of building strategy on microstructure and hardness
Paydas, Hakan ULg; Mertens, Anne ULg; Carrus, Raoul et al

in Materials & Design (2015), 85

Laser cladding is a metal deposition technique used to fabricate or repair components made from high value metallic alloys. In the present work Ti-6Al-4V deposits with variable thickness are made to ... [more ▼]

Laser cladding is a metal deposition technique used to fabricate or repair components made from high value metallic alloys. In the present work Ti-6Al-4V deposits with variable thickness are made to assess the use of laser cladding as a repair technology. Both the effect of the building strategy (BS) and the incident energy (IE) on the metallurgical characteristics of the deposits in relation to their complex thermal history have been studying. It is shown that for the configuration consisting in a decreasing track length (DTL) under high IE, a gradient of cooling rate exists that leads to the presence of different phases within the microstructure. Conversely homogeneous microstructures are present either for the configuration with a constant track length (CTL) under high IE, and for the strategy obtained from a DTL under low IE. Depending on the possible heat accumulation the nature of the phases are determined together with hardness maps within the deposits. Some qualification criteria are set prior to tensile tests to selected the adequate candidate-deposit that does not weaken the cladded material when it is stressed. A thermo-metallurgical scheme is proposed that helps understanding the effect of both the BS and the IE on the microstructure. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis of polyphosphodiesters by ring-opening polymerization of cyclic phosphates bearing allyl phosphoester protecting groups
Clément, Benoit; Molin, Daniel G.; Jérôme, Christine ULg et al

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry (2015), 53(22), 2642-2648

The allyl phosphoester group is shown to be a protecting group for the synthesis of anionic polyphosphodiesters. Our strategy relies on the synthesis of a cyclic phosphate monomer bearing a pendant allyl ... [more ▼]

The allyl phosphoester group is shown to be a protecting group for the synthesis of anionic polyphosphodiesters. Our strategy relies on the synthesis of a cyclic phosphate monomer bearing a pendant allyl phosphoester group, its easy purification by fractional distillation, its organocatalyzed ring-opening polymerization by 1,8-diazobicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) and 1-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-3-cyclohexyl-thiourea (TU). Finally, the deprotection of the allyl phosphoester group is carried out by reaction with sodium benzenethiolate in the absence of any detectable degradation. [less ▲]

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See detailWood Specific Gravity Variations and Biomass of Central African Tree Species: The Simple Choice of the Outer Wood
Bastin, Jean-François ULg; Fayolle, Adeline ULg; Tarelkin, Yegor et al

in PLoS ONE (2015)

Context: Wood specific gravity is a key element in tropical forest ecology. It integrates many aspects of tree mechanical properties and functioning and is an important predictor of tree biomass. Wood ... [more ▼]

Context: Wood specific gravity is a key element in tropical forest ecology. It integrates many aspects of tree mechanical properties and functioning and is an important predictor of tree biomass. Wood specific gravity varies widely among and within species and also within individual trees. Notably, contrasted patterns of radial variation of wood specific gravity have been demonstrated and related to regeneration guilds (light demanding vs. shade-bearing). However, although being repeatedly invoked as a potential source of error when estimating the biomass of trees, both intraspecific and radial variations remain little studied. In this study we characterized detailed pith-to-bark wood specific gravity profiles among contrasted species prominently contributing to the biomass of the forest, i.e., the dominant species, and we quantified the consequences of such variations on the biomass. Methods: Radial profiles of wood density at 8% moisture content were compiled for 14 dominant species in the Democratic Republic of Congo, adapting a unique 3D X-ray scanning technique at very high spatial resolution on core samples. Mean wood density estimates were validated by water displacement measurements. Wood density profiles were converted to wood specific gravity and linear mixed models were used to decompose the radial variance. Potential errors in biomass estimation were assessed by comparing the biomass estimated from the wood specific gravity measured from pith-to-bark profiles, from global repositories, and from partial information (outer wood or inner wood). Results: Wood specific gravity profiles from pith-to-bark presented positive, neutral and negative trends. Positive trends mainly characterized light-demanding species, increasing up to 1.8 g.cm-3 per meter for Piptadeniastrum africanum, and negative trends characterized shade-bearing species, decreasing up to 1 g.cm-3 per meter for Strombosia pustulata. The linear mixed model showed the greater part of wood specific gravity variance was explained by species only (45%) followed by a redundant part between species and regeneration guilds (36%). Despite substantial variation in wood specific gravity profiles among species and regeneration guilds, we found that values from the outer wood were strongly correlated to values from the whole profile, without any significant bias. In addition, we found that wood specific gravity from the DRYAD global repository may strongly differ depending on the species (up to 40% for Dialium pachyphyllum). Main conclusion: Therefore, when estimating forest biomass in specific sites, we recommend the systematic collection of outer wood samples on dominant species. This should prevent the main errors in biomass estimations resulting from wood specific gravity and allow for the collection of new information to explore the intraspecific variation of mechanical properties of trees. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst New Solar Models With Opas Opacity Tables
Le Pennec, Maëlle; Turck-Chièze, Sylvaine; Salmon, Sébastien ULg et al

in Astrophysical Journal Letters (2015), 813(2), 42

Stellar seismology appears more and more as a powerful tool for a better determination of the fundamental properties of solar-type stars. However, the particular case of the Sun is still challenging. For ... [more ▼]

Stellar seismology appears more and more as a powerful tool for a better determination of the fundamental properties of solar-type stars. However, the particular case of the Sun is still challenging. For about a decade now, the helioseismic sound-speed determination has continued to disagree with the standard solar model (SSM) prediction, questioning the reliability of this model. One of the sources of uncertainty could be in the treatment of the transport of radiation from the solar core to the surface. In this Letter, we use the new OPAS opacity tables, recently available for solar modeling, to address this issue. We discuss first the peculiarities of these tables, then we quantify their impact on the solar sound-speed and density profiles using the reduced OPAS tables taken on the grids of the OPAL ones. We use the two evolution codes, Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics and Code Liégeois d'Evolution Stellaire, that led to similar conclusions in the solar radiative zone. In comparison to commonly used OPAL opacity tables, the new solar models are computed for the most recent photospheric composition with OPAS tables and present improvements to the location of the base of the convective zone and to the description of the solar radiative zone in comparison to the helioseismic observations, even if the differences in the Rosseland mean opacity do not exceed 6%. We finally carry out a comparison to a solar model computed with the OP opacity tables. [less ▲]

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See detailDiurnal cycle and multi-decadal trend of formaldehyde in the remote atmosphere near 46° N
Franco, Bruno ULg; Marais, Eloise A.; Bovy, Benoît ULg et al

in Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics Discussions (2015), 15

Only very few long-term trends of formaldehyde (HCHO) exist. Furthermore, many uncertainties remain as to its diurnal cycle, representing a large short-term variability superimposed on seasonal and inter ... [more ▼]

Only very few long-term trends of formaldehyde (HCHO) exist. Furthermore, many uncertainties remain as to its diurnal cycle, representing a large short-term variability superimposed on seasonal and inter-annual variations that should be accounted for when comparing ground-based observations to e.g., model results. In this study, we derive a multi-decadal time series (January 1988 – June 2015) of HCHO total columns from ground-based high-resolution Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) solar spectra recorded at the high-altitude station of Jungfraujoch (Swiss Alps, 46.5° N, 8.0° E, 3580 m a.s.l.), allowing for the characterization of the mid-latitudinal atmosphere for background conditions. First we investigate the HCHO diurnal variation, peaking around noontime and mainly driven by the intra-day insolation modulation and methane (CH4) oxidation. We also characterize quantitatively the diurnal cycles by adjusting a parametric model to the observations, which links the daytime to the HCHO columns according to the monthly intra-day regimes. It is then employed to scale all the individual FTIR measurements on a given daytime in order to remove the effect of the intra-day modulation for improving the trend determination and the comparison with HCHO columns simulated by the state-of-the-art chemical transport model GEOS-Chem v9-02. Such a parametric model will be useful to scale the Jungfraujoch HCHO columns on satellite overpass times in the framework of future calibration/validation efforts of space borne sensors. GEOS-Chem sensitivity tests suggest then that the seasonal and inter-annual HCHO column variations above Jungfraujoch are predominantly led by the atmospheric CH4 oxidation, with a maximum contribution of 25 % from the anthropogenic non-methane volatile organic compound precursors during wintertime. Finally, trend analysis of the so-scaled 27-year FTIR time series reveals a long-term evolution of the HCHO columns in the remote troposphere to be related with the atmospheric CH4 fluctuations and the short-term OH variability: +2.9 %/yr between 1988 and 1995, -3.7 %/yr over 1996-2002 and +0.8/% yr from 2003 onwards. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimal electron, phonon, and magnetic characteristics for low energy thermally induced magnetization switching
Atxitia, U.; Ostler, Thomas ULg; Chantrell, R. W. et al

in Applied Physics Letters (2015), 107(19), 192402

Using large-scale computer simulations, we thoroughly study the minimum energy required to ther- mally induced magnetization switching (TIMS) after the application of a femtosecond heat pulse in ... [more ▼]

Using large-scale computer simulations, we thoroughly study the minimum energy required to ther- mally induced magnetization switching (TIMS) after the application of a femtosecond heat pulse in transition metal-rare earth ferrimagnetic alloys. We find that for an energy efficient TIMS, a low ferrimagnetic net magnetization with a strong temperature dependence is the relevant factor for the magnetic system. For the lattice and electron systems, the key physics for efficient TIMS is a large electron-phonon relaxation time. Importantly, we show that as the cooling time of the heated elec- trons is increased, the minimum power required to produce TIMS can be reduced by an order of magnitude. Our results show the way to low power TIMS by appropriate engineering of magnetic heterostructures. [less ▲]

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See detailComposite dark matter and direct-search experiments
Wallemacq, Quentin ULg

in International Journal of Modern Physics D : Gravitation, Astrophysics & Cosmology (2015), 24

The results of the direct searches for dark matter are reinterpreted in the framework of composite dark matter, i.e. dark matter particles that form neutral bound states, generically called “dark atoms” ... [more ▼]

The results of the direct searches for dark matter are reinterpreted in the framework of composite dark matter, i.e. dark matter particles that form neutral bound states, generically called “dark atoms”. Two different scenarios are presented: milli-interacting dark matter and dark anti-atoms. In both of them, dark matter interacts sufficiently strongly with terrestrial matter to be stopped in it before reaching underground detec- tors, which are typically located at a depth of 1 km. As they drift towards the center of the earth because of gravity, these thermal dark atoms are radiatively captured by the atoms of the active medium of underground detectors, which causes the emission of photons that produce the signals through their interac- tions with the electrons of the medium. This provides a way of reinterpreting the results in terms of electron recoils instead of nuclear recoils. The two models involve milli-charges and are able to reconcile the most contradictory experiments. We determine, for each model, the regions in the parameter space that reproduce the experiments with positive results in con- sistency with the constraints of the experiments with negative results. [less ▲]

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See detailRemote control of self-assembled microswimmers
Grosjean, Galien ULg; Lagubeau, Guillaume ULg; Darras, Alexis ULg et al

in Scientific Reports (2015)

Floating magnetic particles can self-assemble into structures. These structures are periodically deformed in a non reciprocal way using magnetic fields, which leads to controllable low Reynolds number ... [more ▼]

Floating magnetic particles can self-assemble into structures. These structures are periodically deformed in a non reciprocal way using magnetic fields, which leads to controllable low Reynolds number locomotion. [less ▲]

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See detailChange in ATP-binding cassette B1/19, glutamine synthetase and alcohol dehydrogenase gene expression during root elongation in Betula pendula Roth and Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn in response to leachate and leonardite humic substances
Tahiri, Abdelghani ULg; Delporte, Fabienne ULg; Muhovski, Yordan et al

in Plant Physiology & Biochemistry (2015), 98

Humic substances (HS) are complex and heterogeneous compounds of humified organic matter resulting from the chemical and microbiological decomposition of organic residues. HS have a positive effect on ... [more ▼]

Humic substances (HS) are complex and heterogeneous compounds of humified organic matter resulting from the chemical and microbiological decomposition of organic residues. HS have a positive effect on plant growth and development by improving soil structure and fertility. They have long been recognized as plant growth-promoting substances, particularly with regard to influencing nutrient uptake, root growth and architecture. The biochemical and molecular mechanisms through which HS influence plant physiology are not well understood. This study evaluated the bioactivity of landfill leachate and leonardite HS on alder (Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn) and birch (Betula pendula Roth) during root elongation in vitro. Changes in root development were studied in relation to auxin, carbon and nitrogen metabolisms, as well as to the stress adaptive response. The cDNA fragments of putative genes encoding two ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (ABCB1 and ABCB19) belonging to the B subfamily of plant ABC auxin transporters were cloned and sequenced. Molecular data indicate that HS and their humic acid (HA) fractions induce root growth by influencing polar auxin transport (PAT), as illustrated by the modulation of the ABCB transporter transcript levels (ABCB1 and ABCB19). There were also changes in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and glutamine synthetase (GS) gene transcript levels in response to HS exposure. These findings confirmed that humic matter affects plant growth and development through various metabolic pathways, including hormonal, carbon and nitrogen metabolisms and stress response or signalization. [less ▲]

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See detailHow do cumulative live birth rates and cumulative multiple live birth rates over complete courses of assisted reproductive technology treatment per woman compare among registries?
De Neubourg, Diane; Bogaerts, Kris; Blockeel, Christophe et al

in Human Reproduction (2015)

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See detailX-Ray Emission from Massive Stars in Cyg OB2
Rauw, Gregor ULg; Nazé, Yaël ULg; Wright, N. J. et al

in Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series (2015), 221

We report on the analysis of the Chandra-ACIS data of O, B, and WR stars in the young association Cyg OB2. X-ray spectra of 49 O-stars, 54 B-stars, and 3 WR-stars are analyzed and for the brighter sources ... [more ▼]

We report on the analysis of the Chandra-ACIS data of O, B, and WR stars in the young association Cyg OB2. X-ray spectra of 49 O-stars, 54 B-stars, and 3 WR-stars are analyzed and for the brighter sources, the epoch dependence of the X-ray fluxes is investigated. The O-stars in Cyg OB2 follow a well-defined scaling relation between their X-ray and bolometric luminosities: log(Lx/Lbol)=-7.2+/- 0.2. This relation is in excellent agreement with the one previously derived for the Carina OB1 association. Except for the brightest O-star binaries, there is no general X-ray overluminosity due to colliding winds in O-star binaries. Roughly half of the known B-stars in the surveyed field are detected, but they fail to display a clear relationship between Lx and Lbol. Out of the three WR stars in Cyg OB2, probably only WR 144 is itself responsible for the observed level of X-ray emission, at a very low log(Lx/Lbol)=-8.8+/- 0.2. The X-ray emission of the other two WR-stars (WR 145 and 146) is most probably due to their O-type companion along with a moderate contribution from a wind–wind interaction zone. [less ▲]

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See detailDo single, double or triple fungicide sprays differentially affect the grain quality in winter wheat?
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; kOUADIO, Louis; Junk et al

in Field Crops Research (2015), 183(257-266),

Foliar fungicides in wheat are typically used to safeguard against economic losses from diseases. In this study, we assessed the effects of three fungicide spray regimes [single, double, and triple ... [more ▼]

Foliar fungicides in wheat are typically used to safeguard against economic losses from diseases. In this study, we assessed the effects of three fungicide spray regimes [single, double, and triple treatments] on four different grain quality parameters [thousand grain weight (TGW), test weight (TW), grain protein content (GPC), and Zeleny sedimentation volume (ZSV)] during the 2006–2009 period at two sites in Luxembourg. The fungicides used were generally a mix of chlorothalonil and triazoles. At Burmerange, (cultivar Cubus), the values of TGW, TW, GPC and ZSV ranged from 38 to 62 g, 67 to 83 kg hl−1, 12.0% to 14.7% dry matter (DM), and 27 to 54 ml, respectively. Whereas, at Everlange (cultivar Achat), the ranges of TGW, TW, GPC and ZSV were 42 to 65 g, 65 to 81 kg hl−1, 11.0% to 15.0% DM, and 21 to 66 ml, respectively. In more than 75% cases, the results indicate that fungicides did not significantly affect TW or ZSV at either sites (P > 0.05). However, there was a significant and positive fungicide effect on GPC in 2006 and 2009 at Burmerange, and only in 2006 at Everlange (P < 0.05). On the contrary, TGW was significantly affected at Burmerange in all years, except 2008 when a positive increase was observed compared to control plots; and in 2006 and 2007 at Everlange. Interestingly, when there was an effect of fungicides on a quality parameter, there was no difference among different fungicide treatments. Thus under conditions prevailing in Luxembourg, a single fungicide treatment applied with judicious timing generally resulted in statistically similar grain quality parameters when compared with a double or triple fungicide treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailObservations of radio-quiet quasars at 10-mas resolution by use of gravitational lensing
Jackson, Neal; Tagore, Amitpal S.; Roberts, Carl et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2015), 454

We present Very Large Array detections of radio emission in 4 four-image gravitational lens systems with quasar sources: HS 0810+2554, RX J0911+0511, HE 0435-1223 and SDSS J0924+0219, and extended Multi ... [more ▼]

We present Very Large Array detections of radio emission in 4 four-image gravitational lens systems with quasar sources: HS 0810+2554, RX J0911+0511, HE 0435-1223 and SDSS J0924+0219, and extended Multi-Element Remote Linked Interferometer (e-MERLIN) observations of two of the systems. The first three are detected at a high level of significance, and SDSS J0924+0219 is detected. HS 0810+2554 is resolved, allowing us for the first time to achieve 10-mas resolution of the source frame in the structure of a radio-quiet quasar. The others are unresolved or marginally resolved. All four objects are among the faintest radio sources yet detected, with intrinsic flux densities in the range 1-5 μJy; such radio objects, if unlensed, will only be observable routinely with the Square Kilometre Array. The observations of HS 0810+2554, which is also detected with e-MERLIN, strongly suggest the presence of a mini active galactic nucleus, with a radio core and milliarcsecond scale jet. The flux densities of the lensed images in all but HE 0435-1223 are consistent with smooth galaxy lens models without the requirement for smaller scale substructure in the model, although some interesting anomalies are seen between optical and radio flux densities. These are probably due to microlensing effects in the optical. [less ▲]

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See detailPostures et figures « néo-réactionnaires ». Autour d'un personnage collectif
Durand, Pascal ULg; Sindaco, Sarah ULg

in COnTEXTES : Revue de Sociologie de la Littérature (2015)

Rendre compte du courant dit des « nouveaux réactionnaires » en dressant le portrait du personnage collectif qui lui sert de support tient ici d’une mesure de prudence autant que d’un choix de méthode, à ... [more ▼]

Rendre compte du courant dit des « nouveaux réactionnaires » en dressant le portrait du personnage collectif qui lui sert de support tient ici d’une mesure de prudence autant que d’un choix de méthode, à la faveur d’une double distance créée avec l’objet : distance historique pour commencer, même si celle-ci tendra à se resserrer progressivement autour dudit objet ; distance assurée d’un autre côté par un effort d’abstraction des régularités en fait de rhétorique et de posture caractéristiques du phénomène examiné dans son ensemble. Un phénomène à la fois social et discursif dont les conditions de possibilité et d’efficacité intéresse davantage le propos du présent article que les contenus polémiques dont il se nourrit et les fortes individualités dont il se soutient [less ▲]

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See detailX-ray emission from the giant magnetosphere of the magnetic O-type star NGC 1624-2
Petit, V.; Cohen, D. H.; Wade, G. A. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2015), 453

We observed NGC 1624-2, the O-type star with the largest known magnetic field (B[SUB]p[/SUB] ˜ 20 kG), in X-rays with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS-S) camera on-board the Chandra X-ray ... [more ▼]

We observed NGC 1624-2, the O-type star with the largest known magnetic field (B[SUB]p[/SUB] ˜ 20 kG), in X-rays with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS-S) camera on-board the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Our two observations were obtained at the minimum and maximum of the periodic Hα emission cycle, corresponding to the rotational phases where the magnetic field is the closest to equator-on and pole-on, respectively. With these observations, we aim to characterize the star's magnetosphere via the X-ray emission produced by magnetically confined wind shocks. Our main findings are as follows. (i) The observed spectrum of NGC 1624-2 is hard, similar to the magnetic O-type star θ[SUP]1[/SUP] Ori C, with only a few photons detected below 0.8 keV. The emergent X-ray flux is 30 per cent lower at the Hα minimum phase. (ii) Our modelling indicated that this seemingly hard spectrum is in fact a consequence of relatively soft intrinsic emission, similar to other magnetic Of?p stars, combined with a large amount of local absorption (˜1-3× 10[SUP]22[/SUP] cm[SUP]-2[/SUP]). This combination is necessary to reproduce both the prominent Mg and Si spectral features, and the lack of flux at low energies. NGC 1624-2 is intrinsically luminous in X-rays (log L^{em}_X˜ 33.4) but 70-95 per cent of the X-ray emission produced by magnetically confined wind shocks is absorbed before it escapes the magnetosphere (log L^{ISMcor}_X˜ 32.5). (iii) The high X-ray luminosity, its variation with stellar rotation, and its large attenuation are all consistent with a large dynamical magnetosphere with magnetically confined wind shocks. [less ▲]

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See detailA rocky planet transiting a nearby low-mass star
Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.; Irwin, Jonathan; Charbonneau, David et al

in Nature (2015), 527

M-dwarf stars—hydrogen-burning stars that are smaller than 60 per cent of the size of the Sun—are the most common class of star in our Galaxy and outnumber Sun-like stars by a ratio of 12:1. Recent ... [more ▼]

M-dwarf stars—hydrogen-burning stars that are smaller than 60 per cent of the size of the Sun—are the most common class of star in our Galaxy and outnumber Sun-like stars by a ratio of 12:1. Recent results have shown that M dwarfs host Earth-sized planets in great numbers: the average number of M-dwarf planets that are between 0.5 to 1.5 times the size of Earth is at least 1.4 per star. The nearest such planets known to transit their star are 39 parsecs away, too distant for detailed follow-up observations to measure the planetary masses or to study their atmospheres. Here we report observations of GJ 1132b, a planet with a size of 1.2 Earth radii that is transiting a small star 12 parsecs away. Our Doppler mass measurement of GJ 1132b yields a density consistent with an Earth-like bulk composition, similar to the compositions of the six known exoplanets with masses less than six times that of the Earth and precisely measured densities. Receiving 19 times more stellar radiation than the Earth, the planet is too hot to be habitable but is cool enough to support a substantial atmosphere, one that has probably been considerably depleted of hydrogen. Because the host star is nearby and only 21 per cent the radius of the Sun, existing and upcoming telescopes will be able to observe the composition and dynamics of the planetary atmosphere. [less ▲]

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See detailThe aggressive personality of an introduced fish affects foraging behavior in a polymorphic newt
Winandy, Laurane ULg; Denoël, Mathieu ULg

in Behavioral Ecology (2015), 26(6), 1528-1536

The study of personality has aroused much interest and has provided insight into the understanding of animal behavior. Nevertheless, the study of the ecological consequences of personality is a newer ... [more ▼]

The study of personality has aroused much interest and has provided insight into the understanding of animal behavior. Nevertheless, the study of the ecological consequences of personality is a newer field that could shed light on cases of alien species introductions. The goldfish (Carassius auratus) is frequently introduced worldwide and affects the abundance of newts, having an especially negative impact on an alternative phenotype, the paedomorph, which maintains larval traits at the adult stage, unlike the other phenotype, the metamorph, which has undergone metamorphosis. We experimentally assessed the impact of goldfish on the foraging behavior of both phenotypes of palmate newts (Lissotriton helveticus). More particularly, we assessed fish personality by analyzing the foraging activity and the aggressiveness toward newts, and newt personality by analyzing individual difference in boldness. In the presence of fish, fewer newts foraged than in their absence, and paedomorphs were more affected than metamorphs. We found strong personality differences in fish and fewer newts foraged in the presence of a more aggressive fish. Newts differed in boldness, but fish aggressiveness remains a key factor to explain newt behavior. Studying behavioral interactions between native and alien species helps to understand the mechanisms of coexistence and exclusion and why different phenotypes might be affected differently by the same threat. To a great extent, not only the presence of fish alters the foraging opportunities of newts but also the personality of the invader; integrating personality patterns of invaders is therefore a key to understanding the ecological consequences of alien species introduction. [less ▲]

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See detailMétroplasties (utérus en T après l'ère DES, septum): quel bénéfice?
BRICHANT, Géraldine ULg; CLOSON, François ULg; MASEREEL, Marie-Caroline ULg et al

in Louvain Medical (2015), 134

Mûllerian anomalies are associated with infertility and obstetric complications, such as recurrent pregnancy loss, preterm labor or birth, as well as malpresentation. The most common anomalies inlude ... [more ▼]

Mûllerian anomalies are associated with infertility and obstetric complications, such as recurrent pregnancy loss, preterm labor or birth, as well as malpresentation. The most common anomalies inlude septate uterus, uterus bicornuate, and uterus didelphys (Class II and III according to ESHRE/ESGE classification). Hypoplastic uteri are rare, being usually caused by in utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol. Hysteroscopic metroplasty has been shown to improve both fertility and obstetrical outcomes in patients with hypoplastic or septate uterus [less ▲]

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See detailModernisation des institutions judiciaires belges: vers un management de type 2.0
Schoenaers, Frédéric ULg

in Cahiers de la Sécurité (2015), 32

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See detailCOMMENT EXPLORER LES SYMPTOMES NEGATIFS DE LA PSYCHOSE CHEZ L'ENFANT: UNE SEMIOLOGIE DIMENSIONNELLE
SCHOLL, Jean-Marc ULg

in Acta Psychiatrica Belgica (2015), 117

Despite its high frequency, psychotic syndrome in childhood is little understood and is often diagnosed only after several years of development, and this during a time when the child’s psychosocial future ... [more ▼]

Despite its high frequency, psychotic syndrome in childhood is little understood and is often diagnosed only after several years of development, and this during a time when the child’s psychosocial future is at stake. Negative symptoms are systematically present at the prodromal phase and are the most stable thereafter. It is therefore essential to furnish clinicians with precise semiological markers to recognize it. This paper presents a dimensional semiology of the negative symptoms for use in anamnesis and in clinical observation of the child. Is also gives a guide to the interviewing process. [less ▲]

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See detailLire entre les actes. Le théâtre mis en pièces par le récit d’anticipation
Stienon, Valérie ULg

in Tropics (2015), 2

Si les histoires de la littérature française font généralement peu de cas du roman d’anticipation, rendu invisible aux sélections de la postérité par la variété de ses désignations génériques, l’hybridité ... [more ▼]

Si les histoires de la littérature française font généralement peu de cas du roman d’anticipation, rendu invisible aux sélections de la postérité par la variété de ses désignations génériques, l’hybridité de ses formes et les discontinuités de son, ce dernier, en revanche, semble avoir des choses à dire au sujet de la littérature. Encore faut-il préciser de quel théâtre il est question dans ces anticipations, et dans quelle mesure il est possible de lire l’inscription d’un genre à travers la poétique d’un autre. Les thématisations du théâtre sont passibles d’une caractérisation multiforme impliquant des données d’ordre poétique, contextuel et historique. Plus qu’une définition de cette référence, la lecture transversale et diachronique de 1860 à 1930 qui suit entend formuler une interrogation sur les modalités de son traitement. Le théâtre participe-t-il, comme la poésie et le roman, et au même titre qu’eux, de la décadence anticipée des Lettres, signe d’un déclin général dont il prendrait acte à sa mesure ? Un genre ou un registre (drame, comédie, tragédie, boulevard, music-hall, vaudeville, opérette, etc.) est-il mis en évidence, ou ceux-ci sont-ils plutôt indifférenciés, voire présentés comme équivalents ? Ces considérations révèlent-elles une hybridation ou une remise en question des classements micro- et macro-génériques ? [less ▲]

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See detailAdult bone marrow mesenchymal and neural crest stem cells are chemoattractive and accelerate motor recovery in a mouse model of spinal cord injury
Neirinckx, Virginie ULg; Agirman, Gulistan ULg; Coste, Cécile ULg et al

in Stem Cell Research and Therapy (2015), 6(211),

Introduction: Stem cells from adult tissues were considered for a long time as promising tools for regenerative therapy of neurological diseases, including spinal cord injuries (SCI). Indeed, mesenchymal ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Stem cells from adult tissues were considered for a long time as promising tools for regenerative therapy of neurological diseases, including spinal cord injuries (SCI). Indeed, mesenchymal (MSCs) and neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) together constitute the bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSCs) that were used as therapeutic options in various models of experimental SCI. However, as clinical approaches remained disappointing, we thought that reducing BMSC heterogeneity should be a potential way to improve treatment efficiency and reproducibility. Methods: We investigated the impact of pure populations of MSCs and NCSCs isolated from adult bone marrow in a mouse model of spinal cord injury. We then analyzed the secretome of both MSCs and NCSCs, and its effect on macrophage migration in vitro. Results: We first observed that both cell types induced motor recovery in mice, and modified the inflammatory reaction in the lesion site. We also demonstrated that NCSCs but especially MSCs were able to secrete chemokines and attract macrophages in vitro. Finally, it appears that MSC injection in the spinal cord enhance early inflammatory events in the blood and spinal cord of SCI mice. Conclusions: Altogether, our results suggest that both cell types have beneficial effects in experimental SCI, and that further investigation should be dedicated to the regulation of the inflammatory reaction following SCI, in the context of stem cell-based therapy but also in the early-phase clinical management of SCI patients. [less ▲]

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See detailSmall RNA deep sequencing identifies viral microRNAs during malignant catarrhal fever induced by alcelaphine herpesvirus 1
Sorel, Océane ULg; Tuddenham, Lee; Myster, Françoise ULg et al

in Journal of General Virology (The) (2015), 96(11), 3360-3372

Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) is a c-herpesvirus (c-HV) carried asymptomatically by wildebeest. Upon cross-species transmission, AlHV-1 induces a fatal lymphoproliferative disease named malignant ... [more ▼]

Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) is a c-herpesvirus (c-HV) carried asymptomatically by wildebeest. Upon cross-species transmission, AlHV-1 induces a fatal lymphoproliferative disease named malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) in many ruminants, including cattle, and the rabbit model. Latency has been shown to be essential for MCF induction. However, the mechanisms causing the activation and proliferation of infected CD8+T cells are unknown. Many c-HVs express microRNAs (miRNAs). These small non-coding RNAs can regulate expression of host or viral target genes involved in various pathways and are thought to facilitate viral infection and/or mediate activation and proliferation of infected lymphocytes. The AlHV-1 genome has been predicted to encode a large number of miRNAs. However, their precise contribution in viral infection and pathogenesis in vivo remains unknown. Here, using cloning and sequencing of small RNAs we identified 36 potential miRNAs expressed in a lymphoblastoid cell line propagated from a calf infected with AlHV-1 and developing MCF. Among the sequenced candidate miRNAs, 32 were expressed on the reverse strand of the genome in two main clusters. The expression of these 32 viral miRNAs was further validated using Northern blot and quantitative reverse transcription PCR in lymphoid organs of MCF- developing calves or rabbits. To determine the concerted contribution in MCF of 28 viral miRNAs clustered in the non-protein-coding region of the AlHV-1 genome, a recombinant virus was produced. The absence of these 28 miRNAs did not affect viral growth in vitro or MCF induction in rabbits, indicating that the AlHV-1 miRNAs clustered in this non-protein-coding genomic region are dispensable for MCF induction. [less ▲]

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See detailThe harmonic balance method for bifurcation analysis of large-scale nonlinear mechanical systems
Detroux, Thibaut ULg; Renson, Ludovic ULg; Masset, Luc ULg et al

in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering (2015), 296

The harmonic balance (HB) method is widely used in the literature for analyzing the periodic solutions of nonlinear mechanical systems. The objective of this paper is to exploit the method for bifurcation ... [more ▼]

The harmonic balance (HB) method is widely used in the literature for analyzing the periodic solutions of nonlinear mechanical systems. The objective of this paper is to exploit the method for bifurcation analysis, i.e., for the detection and tracking of bifurcations of nonlinear systems. To this end, an algorithm that combines the computation of the Floquet exponents with bordering techniques is developed. A new procedure for the tracking of Neimark–Sacker bifurcations that exploits the properties of eigenvalue derivatives is also proposed. The HB method is demonstrated using numerical experiments of a spacecraft structure that possesses a nonlinear vibration isolation device. [less ▲]

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See detailSI: Binominal Syntagms
Brems, Lieselotte ULg; De Clerck, Bernard; Verveckken, Katrien

in Language Sciences (2015)

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See detailLa collection "Poétique" : terre d'accueil
Lorent, Fanny ULg

in A l'épreuve (2015), 2

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See detailGlobal optimization of the production and the distribution system for typical European HVAC systems
Randaxhe, François ULg; Lemort, Vincent ULg; Lebrun, Jean ULg

in Energy Procedia (2015), 78

European countries have agreed on a new 2030 Framework with a 30% improvement in energy efficiency compared to projection and a 40% cut in greenhouse gas emissions compared to 1990 levels. With an ... [more ▼]

European countries have agreed on a new 2030 Framework with a 30% improvement in energy efficiency compared to projection and a 40% cut in greenhouse gas emissions compared to 1990 levels. With an estimated 11% of all the electrical energy used in Europe consumed by HVAC systems, the improvement of their efficiency is a key element to reach these targets. When looking at the energy flow in typical European HVAC systems, one can observe important degradation in efficiency associated to heating and cooling energy transportation systems together with a non-optimal use of the production plant. These inefficiencies are direct consequences of the system design with, quite often, a lack of consideration of the system part load or its off-design operation. This research attempts to identify the sensitivity of both cooling and heating HVAC systems to these conditions and to propose an approach to optimize the design and the operation of HVAC systems integrated in buildings considering trade-off between primary systems efficiency, distribution losses and auxiliaries consumption. [less ▲]

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See detailNumerical modelling of transient cyclic vertical loading of suction caissons in sand
Cerfontaine, Benjamin ULg; Collin, Frédéric ULg; Charlier, Robert ULg

in Geotechnique (2015), 65(12),

This paper presents numerical investigations of the monotonic and cyclic behaviours of suction caissons upon vertical transient loading. Both drained and partially drained conditions are investigated ... [more ▼]

This paper presents numerical investigations of the monotonic and cyclic behaviours of suction caissons upon vertical transient loading. Both drained and partially drained conditions are investigated. Monotonic compression and traction simulations are carried out to qualitatively compare results with the literature and validate the model. They highlight the different modes of reaction of the caisson to both compression and traction loading. A sensitivity analysis points out the strong influence of some parameters on the resistance of the caisson but also on the failure mechanism. The transient behaviour of the caisson upon different kinds of cyclic load signals is analysed. Results reproduce the settlement and pore water pressure accumulations observed during experiments. The influence of the key design parameters on the settlement accumulation is also assessed. Finally a cyclic diagram is proposed to describe the evolution of the final settlement upon different magnitudes of loading. [less ▲]

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See detailThe genome of a tortoise herpesvirus (testudinid herpesvirus 3) has a novel structure and contains a large region that is not required for replication in vitro or virulence in vivo.
Gandar, Frederic ULg; Wilkie, Gavin S.; Gatherer, Derek et al

in Journal of Virology (2015), 89(22), 11438-11456

Testudinid herpesvirus 3 (TeHV-3) is the causative agent of a lethal disease affecting several tortoise species. The threat that this virus poses to endangered animals is focusing efforts on ... [more ▼]

Testudinid herpesvirus 3 (TeHV-3) is the causative agent of a lethal disease affecting several tortoise species. The threat that this virus poses to endangered animals is focusing efforts on characterizing its properties, in order to enable the development of prophylactic methods. We have sequenced the genomes of the two most studied TeHV-3 strains (1976 and 4295). TeHV-3 strain 1976 has a novel genome structure and is most closely related to a turtle herpesvirus, thus supporting its classification into genus Scutavirus, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, family Herpesviridae. The sequence of strain 1976 also revealed viral counterparts of cellular interleukin-10 and semaphorin, which have not been described previously in members of subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. TeHV-3 strain 4295 is a mixture of three forms (m1, m2, and M), in which, in comparison to strain 1976, the genomes exhibit large, partially overlapping deletions of 12.5 to 22.4 kb. Viral subclones representing these forms were isolated by limiting dilution assays, and each replicated in cell culture comparably to strain 1976. With the goal of testing the potential of the three forms as attenuated vaccine candidates, strain 4295 was inoculated intranasally into Hermann's tortoises (Testudo hermanni). All inoculated subjects died, and PCR analyses demonstrated the ability of the m2 and M forms to spread and invade the brain. In contrast, the m1 form was detected in none of the organs tested, suggesting its potential as the basis of an attenuated vaccine candidate. Our findings represent a major step toward characterizing TeHV-3 and developing prophylactic methods against it. [less ▲]

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See detailHypervulnerability to Sound Exposure through Impaired Adaptive Proliferation of Peroxisomes.
Delmaghani, Sedigheh; Defourny, Jean; Aghaie, Asadollah et al

in Cell (2015), 163(4), 894-906

A deficiency in pejvakin, a protein of unknown function, causes a strikingly heterogeneous form of human deafness. Pejvakin-deficient (Pjvk(-/-)) mice also exhibit variable auditory phenotypes ... [more ▼]

A deficiency in pejvakin, a protein of unknown function, causes a strikingly heterogeneous form of human deafness. Pejvakin-deficient (Pjvk(-/-)) mice also exhibit variable auditory phenotypes. Correlation between their hearing thresholds and the number of pups per cage suggest a possible harmful effect of pup vocalizations. Direct sound or electrical stimulation show that the cochlear sensory hair cells and auditory pathway neurons of Pjvk(-/-) mice and patients are exceptionally vulnerable to sound. Subcellular analysis revealed that pejvakin is associated with peroxisomes and required for their oxidative-stress-induced proliferation. Pjvk(-/-) cochleas display features of marked oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant defenses, and peroxisomes in Pjvk(-/-) hair cells show structural abnormalities after the onset of hearing. Noise exposure rapidly upregulates Pjvk cochlear transcription in wild-type mice and triggers peroxisome proliferation in hair cells and primary auditory neurons. Our results reveal that the antioxidant activity of peroxisomes protects the auditory system against noise-induced damage. [less ▲]

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See detailLégitimité des recommandations sur la viscosupplémentation
Henrotin, Yves ULg

in Rhumatos (2015), 12(111), 280

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See detailRadiative origin of neutrino masses
Aristizabal Sierra, Diego ULg

in Acta Physica Polonica B (2015), 46

Mechanisms for Majorana neutrino mass generation can be classified according to the level at which the Weinberg operator is generated. The different possibilities can be sorted in “canonical” tree-level ... [more ▼]

Mechanisms for Majorana neutrino mass generation can be classified according to the level at which the Weinberg operator is generated. The different possibilities can be sorted in “canonical” tree-level and loop-induced realizations, the latter being motivated by their potential experimental testability. Here, we discuss the one- and two-loop cases, paying special attention to systematic classification schemes, whose aim is that of constructing a full picture for neutrino mass generation [less ▲]

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See detailLa médecine de demain: science-fiction ou science-réalité ?
COUCKE, Philippe ULg

in Onco : Revue Multidisciplinaire d'Oncologie (2015), 9(6), 3-4

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See detailHistoires sur Able Archer
Kluge, Alexander; Leyh, Valérie ULg

in Cahiers d'Etudes Germaniques (2015), 69

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See detailPosttraumatisches Puppen-Syndrom. Gedanken zu Jean Michel d'Hoops Inszenierung "Borgia. Comédie contemporaine"
Wunsch-Viehöver, Vera ULg

in Das Andere Theater (2015), 88

compte-rendu sur "Borgia. Comédie contemporaine" de Thomas Gunzig, mise en scène par Jean-Michel d'Hoop, cie. Point Zéro

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See detailL’ETUDE CLINIQUE DU MOIS EMPA-REG OUTCOME : L’empagliflozine réduit la mortalité chez le patient diabétique de type 2 à haut risque cardiovasculaire
SCHEEN, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2015), 70

Summary : EMPA-REG OUTCOME is an international, prospective, placebo-controlled clinical trial investigating the cardiovascular outcomes of empagliflozin, an inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporters ... [more ▼]

Summary : EMPA-REG OUTCOME is an international, prospective, placebo-controlled clinical trial investigating the cardiovascular outcomes of empagliflozin, an inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2), in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and known cardiovascular disease. The trial succeeded in reaching the primary objective of non-inferiority and, in addition, showed, after a median follow up of 3.1 years, a superiority of empagliflozin (10 or 25 mg/day) versus placebo as regards the primary composite cardiovascular endpoint (hasard ratio or HR = 0.86; 95% CI 0.74-0.99; P = 0.04), hospitalisations for heart failure (- 35 %), cardiovascular mortality (- 38 %) and all-cause mortality (- 32 %, each p< 0.001). The reduction in mortality appeared early (< 6 months) and concerned all subgroups, without any obvious heterogeneity. This reduction in mortality does not seem to be fully explained by the concomitant slight reductions in HbA1c, body weight, waist circumference, blood pressure and serum uric acid levels in the empagliflozin groups versus the placebo group. Finally, the tolerance and safety profile of empagliflozin was good, with only a moderate increase in benign mycotic genital infections, a well-known adverse event with SGLT2 inhibitors. The remarkable effects of empagliflozin in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, especially on mortality, should modify the management of patients with type 2 diabetes and a high cardiovascular risk in a near future. [less ▲]

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See detailTentative insight into the multiplicity of the persistent dust maker WR 106 from X-ray observations
De Becker, Michaël ULg

in New Astronomy (2015), 41

This paper presents the results of the analysis of the very first dedicated X-ray observation with XMM-Newton of WR 106. This carbon-rich WC9d Wolf–Rayet star belongs to the category of persistent dust ... [more ▼]

This paper presents the results of the analysis of the very first dedicated X-ray observation with XMM-Newton of WR 106. This carbon-rich WC9d Wolf–Rayet star belongs to the category of persistent dust makers (WCd stars). The issue of the multiplicity of these dust makers is pivotal to understand the dust formation process, and in this context X-ray observations may allow to reveal an X-ray emission attributable to colliding-winds in a binary system. The main result of this analysis is the lack of detection of X-rays coming from WR 106. Upper limits on the X-ray flux are estimated, but the derived numbers are not sufficient to provide compelling constraints on the existence or not of a colliding-wind region. Detailed inspection of archive data bases reveals that persistent dust makers have been poorly investigated by the most sensitive X-ray observatories. Certainly, the combination of several approaches to indirectly constrain their multiplicity should be applied to lift a part of the veil on the nature of these persistent dust makers. [less ▲]

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See detailAmphibians forgo aquatic life in response to alien fish introduction
Winandy, Laurane ULg; Darnet, Elodie; Denoël, Mathieu ULg

in Animal Behaviour (2015), 109

Species with complex life cycles are good models to understand trade-offs between life in hostile and favourable habitats. Newts remain in breeding wetlands for a long period and are strongly affected by ... [more ▼]

Species with complex life cycles are good models to understand trade-offs between life in hostile and favourable habitats. Newts remain in breeding wetlands for a long period and are strongly affected by fish introduction; however, mechanisms of the exclusion observed in the field are still not well known. In particular, whether newts skip breeding and leave water for land in response to fish introduction and how aquatic shelter may influence their choice remain open questions. To investigate these questions, we experimentally studied the use of aquatic and terrestrial habitats during the breeding season of palmate newts, Lissotriton helveticus, in the presence and absence of goldfish, Carassius auratus. We determined the consequences of habitat choice on newt fitness by assessing sexual activity and number of eggs. There was a strong, significant avoidance of the aquatic environment in the presence of fish, particularly when no aquatic shelter was available. This escape from the water had an impact on reproduction: newts decreased their sexual activity and laid fewer eggs. The availability of shelters favoured coexistence but did not prevent a large proportion of the newts from leaving water and skipping reproduction. This study shows how the presence of fish and the absence of aquatic shelters can lead to newts forgoing aquatic life, thus improving our understanding of the mechanisms behind the coexistence and exclusion patterns found in the wild. More broadly, these data contribute to explaining aquatic versus terrestrial life in favourable and unfavourable environments. [less ▲]

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See detailImpacts of underwater noise on marine vertebrates: Project introduction and first results
Liebschner, Alexander; Seibel, Henrike; Teilmann, Jonas et al

in Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology (2015), 875

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See detailL'image du mois : Le processus thrombotique sous la loupe (microscopie intravitale)
Oury, Cécile ULg; Hego, Alexandre ULg; LANCELLOTTI, Patrizio ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2015), 70(11), 537-539

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See detailOpportunités pour la valorisation des végétaux riches en anthocyanes comme sources de colorants alimentaires (synthèse bibliographique)
Beye, Cheikh ULg; Tounkara, Lat Souk; Seck, Mamadou Amadou et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2015), 19(4), 392-401

Introduction. Très répandues dans le règne végétal, les anthocyanes sont le sujet d’un grand nombre d’études qui abordent en général les aspects concernant leur instabilité vis-à-vis des conditions dans ... [more ▼]

Introduction. Très répandues dans le règne végétal, les anthocyanes sont le sujet d’un grand nombre d’études qui abordent en général les aspects concernant leur instabilité vis-à-vis des conditions dans lesquelles elles sont employées ou l’effet bénéfique de leur consommation sur la santé. Littérature. Ces aspects sont particulièrement importants lorsqu’on envisage de les extraire en vue de leur utilisation comme colorant alimentaire naturel. Dans cette revue bibliographique, les propriétés des anthocyanes susceptibles d’être altérées lors de leur transformation ont été étudiées. Par la suite, un état des lieux sur les méthodes de fabrication de colorants à base d’anthocyanes a été fait afin de dégager des perspectives pour l’exploitation des matières végétales qui en contiennent de grandes quantités. Conclusions. Les fruits et légumes utilisables pour la fabrication de colorants alimentaires sont nombreux et variés. Les différences au niveau du contenu ont une influence sur la stabilité de la couleur des extraits, mais les progrès récents en matière de formulation ouvrent des perspectives pour la valorisation des végétaux riches en anthocyanes. [less ▲]

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See detailREGISTRE BELGE ET CENTRES DE RÉFÉRENCE POUR LES MALADIES TROPHOBLASTIQUES GESTATIONNELLES
DELCOMINETTE, Sarah ULg; TIMMERMANS, Marie ULg; DELBECQUE, Katty ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2015), 70(11), 550-556

Gestational trophoblastic diseases include placental pathologies comprising fertilization abnormalities (hydatidiform moles) and malignant lesions (choriocarcinoma, placental site trophoblastic tumor and ... [more ▼]

Gestational trophoblastic diseases include placental pathologies comprising fertilization abnormalities (hydatidiform moles) and malignant lesions (choriocarcinoma, placental site trophoblastic tumor and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor). Due to their low incidence and heterogeneity, their diagnosis, management and treatment are not always optimal. Following the example of other European countries, a national registration system with two reference centers has been set up to guide physicians and patients and to propose individualized management. The centers offer their expertise through a systematic centralised pathology review by a panel of experts. HCG values are plotted in regression curves. In case of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, an imaging work-up is proposed, from which the FIGO score and stage are derived and will guide the choice of treatment. Belgian centers offer a multidisciplinary approach, in partnership with the referent physician. More information for practitioners and patients is available on a web site: www.mole-chorio-bgog.eu, which also harbours a forum of discussion. [less ▲]

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See detailSymptômes neurologiques du bord latéral du pied et de la cheville
WANG, François-Charles ULg

in Médecine et Chirurgie du Pied = Foot Medicine and Surgery (2015), 31

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See detailCharacteristics and typology of sheep herding systems in the suburban area of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)
Tindano, Kisito ULg; Moula, Nassim ULg; Traoré, A. et al

in Archiv für Tierzucht = Archives Animal Breeding (2015), 58

Strong increase in demand for animal products could benefit local producers in developing countries. This development opportunity particularly concerns suburban livestock. In Burkina Faso, the suburban ... [more ▼]

Strong increase in demand for animal products could benefit local producers in developing countries. This development opportunity particularly concerns suburban livestock. In Burkina Faso, the suburban area of Ouagadougou is a place for the setting up of an increasing number of breeders. Due to its importance in religious traditions, spurring its consumption in whole West Africa, mutton is a major part of this suburban production. In order to characterize sheep farming in the suburban zone of Ouagadougou, in terms of motives, practices, and economic performance, and to better understand the dynamic at play in the sheep sector, a survey has been conducted among 80 sheep farmers around Ouagadougou. The results show that suburban sheep keeping is a highly dual sector. Nearly half (42.5 %) of farms may be described as traditional livestock, while 50% are evolving towards intensification. These two groups essentially differ in terms of animal genetic and feeding management, farm infrastructure, and farmer education level. Economically, the whole sample tends to indicate a lack of profitability of the activity in terms of monetary income. Several factors contributing to this situation are pinpointed, namely feed and animal health constraints, flock and production management, and the market conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailFinite element modelling of composite structures under crushing load
Chiu, Louis N.S.; Falzon, Brian G.; Boman, Romain ULg et al

in Composite Structures (2015), 131

This paper details the theory and implementation of a composite damage model, addressing damage within a ply (intralaminar) and delamination (interlaminar), developed for the simulation of the crushing of ... [more ▼]

This paper details the theory and implementation of a composite damage model, addressing damage within a ply (intralaminar) and delamination (interlaminar), developed for the simulation of the crushing of laminated composite structures. It includes a more accurate determination of the characteristic length to achieve mesh objectivity in capturing intralaminar damage consisting of matrix cracking and fibre failure, a load-history dependent material response, an isotropic hardening nonlinear matrix response, as well as a more physically-based interactive matrix damage mechanism. The developed damage model requires a set of material parameters obtained from a combination of standard and non-standard material characterisation tests. The fidelity of the model mitigates the need to manipulate, or “calibrate”, the input data to achieve good agreement with experimental results. This intralaminar damage model was implemented as a VUMAT subroutine, and used in conjunction with an existing interlaminar damage model, in Abaqus/Explicit. This approach was validated through the simulation of the crushing of a cross-ply composite tube with a tulip-shaped trigger, loaded in uniaxial compression. Despite the complexity of the chosen geometry, excellent correlation was achieved with experimental results. [less ▲]

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See detailLa Communauté germanophone après la sixième réforme de l’État : état des lieux et perspectives
Bouhon, Frédéric ULg; Niessen, Christoph; Reuchamps, Min

in Courrier Hebdomadaire du CRISP (2015), 2266-2267

Cet article dresse un état des lieux des compétences et du financement de la Communauté germanophone, en identifiant les modifications que la sixième réforme de l'État a apportées à cet égard. Il fait ... [more ▼]

Cet article dresse un état des lieux des compétences et du financement de la Communauté germanophone, en identifiant les modifications que la sixième réforme de l'État a apportées à cet égard. Il fait état des débats politiques qui ont accompagné ces réformes et de la manière dont celles-ci ont déjà partiellement été mises en œuvre. Il récapitule aussi la représentation dont la Communauté germanophone bénéficie au sein de l'Union européenne, de l'Autorité fédérale, de la Région wallonne et de la Province de Liège. [less ▲]

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See detailIncapacité de travail prolongée. Revue des facteurs de risque professionnels et des stratégies d'intervention
Somville, Pierre ULg; Mairiaux, Philippe ULg

in Archives des Maladies Professionnelles et de l'Environnement (2015), 76(5), 458-467

Purpose of the study In the context of the general population aging and the increasing cost of work disability, public authorities pay special attention to the employability of workers with health ... [more ▼]

Purpose of the study In the context of the general population aging and the increasing cost of work disability, public authorities pay special attention to the employability of workers with health problems. In order to consider strategies for reducing the duration of disability and promoting the return-to-work, the Belgian Federal Public Service Work and Employment wished to have an update of the available scientific evidence on this topic. Methods This literature review is based on articles published in English between 2001 and 2011 and extracted from the MEDLINE database. The review first part deals with long term incapacity risk factors while the second one describes evidence as regards prevention measures and intervention strategies. Results Some risk factors significantly associated with long term disability have been identified: being employed in heavy jobs, fear-avoidance reactions and psychosocial occupational factors such as job dissatisfaction, lack of work control, insufficient support, poor relationships with colleagues, but also the worker own perception of his ability to return to work. Early detection of these perceived barriers to return to work is needed. With regard to intervention strategies, the review, limited to low back pain associated work absences, supports the interest of ergonomic changes in the working environment and the importance of participative interventions. The communication between the return to work actors (i.e. clinical physicians, occupational physicians, employers, insurers and the worker himself) is a key factor in the success of the intervention. Finally, in heavier workload occupations, promoting a systematic access to a transitory light duty position appears to be an interesting guideline. [less ▲]

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See detailTrunk muscle profile in elite tennis players with and without low back pain
GROSDENT, Stéphanie ULg; Demoulin, Christophe ULg; Souchet, Matthieu et al

in Journal of Sports Medicine & Physical Fitness (2015), 55(11), 1354-1362

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See detailA Parallel Processing Approach to Dynamic Simulations of Combined Transmission and Distribution Systems
Aristidou, Petros ULg; Van Cutsem, Thierry ULg

in International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems (2015), 72

Simulating a power system with both transmission and distribution networks modeled in detail is a huge computational challenge. In this paper, a Schur-complement-based domain decomposition algorithm is ... [more ▼]

Simulating a power system with both transmission and distribution networks modeled in detail is a huge computational challenge. In this paper, a Schur-complement-based domain decomposition algorithm is proposed to provide accurate, detailed dynamic simulations of such systems. The simulation procedure is accelerated with the use of parallel programming techniques, taking advantage of the parallelization opportunities inherent to domain decomposition algorithms. The proposed algorithm is general, portable and scalable on inexpensive, shared-memory, multi-core machines. A large-scale test system is used for its performance evaluation. [less ▲]

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See detailSurface Constrained Elastic Rods with Application to the Sphere
Huynen, Alexandre ULg; Detournay, Emmanuel; Denoël, Vincent ULg

in Journal of Elasticity (2015)

The unilateral contact between an elastic rod and a rigid surface is encountered in numerous biological and engineering applications. Along continuous contacts, the centerline of the rod reflects the ... [more ▼]

The unilateral contact between an elastic rod and a rigid surface is encountered in numerous biological and engineering applications. Along continuous contacts, the centerline of the rod reflects the geometry of the constraining surface. This restriction of the rod axis to surface bound configurations enters its local equilibrium through a reaction pressure which ensures the compatibility between the deformation and the restraint geometry. The classic equations governing the static equilibrium of elastic rods are particularized to surface bound configurations by (i) specifying the location of the rod axis in terms of its coordinates in the parameter space associated with the constraining surface parameterization, and (ii) characterizing the orientation of its material frame through its rotation with respect to the surface normal. This formulation, which emphasizes the relations between the rod configuration and the geometry of the constraint, also leads to an expression for the reaction pressure. This approach is then validated on a spherical surface by comparing with known solutions for elastic curves, i.e., inextensible and twist free rods. [less ▲]

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See detailSéance de renforcement musculaire utilisant des objets du quotidien
Dubru, Gilles ULg; Cloes, Marc ULg

in Revue de l'Education Physique (2015), 55(1), 43-56

Les professeurs d’éducation physique proposent régulièrement des leçons portant sur le renforcement musculaire faisant partie des compétences à acquérir par les élèves (domaine de la condition physique ... [more ▼]

Les professeurs d’éducation physique proposent régulièrement des leçons portant sur le renforcement musculaire faisant partie des compétences à acquérir par les élèves (domaine de la condition physique). En revanche, il n'est pas nécessairement fréquent que ces séances visent à expliquer aux élèves comment ils peuvent exploiter ce qu'ils apprennent à l'école lorsqu'ils sont chez eux. Cet article illustre une approche susceptible de combler ce manque. [less ▲]

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