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See detailResponse letter-Comparative biochemical analysis after steam pretreatments of lignocellulosic biomass from six combined morphological parts of Williams Cavendish banana plant (Triploid Musa AAA group)
Kamdem, Irenée ULg

in Waste Management & Research : The Journal of the International Solid Wastes & Public Cleansing Association (2015)

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See detailDiscrete Modeling : Thermidynamics Based on Shannon Entropy and Discrete States of Molecules
Pfleger, Martin; Wallek, Thomas; Pfennig, Andreas ULg

in Industrial and Engineering Chemistry (2015), 54

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See detailA 500-year seasonally resolved δ 18 O and δ 13 C, layer thickness and calcite aspect record from a speleothem deposited in the Han-sur-Lesse cave, Belgium
Van Rampelbergh, M.; Verheyden, S.; Allan, Mohammed ULg et al

in Climate of the Past (2015), 11

Speleothem δ18O and δ13C signals enable climate reconstructions at high resolution. However, scarce decadal and seasonally resolved speleothem records are often diffi- cult to interpret in terms of climate ... [more ▼]

Speleothem δ18O and δ13C signals enable climate reconstructions at high resolution. However, scarce decadal and seasonally resolved speleothem records are often diffi- cult to interpret in terms of climate due to the multitude of factors that affect the proxy signals. In this paper, a fast- growing (up to 2 mm yr−1) seasonally laminated speleothem from the Han-sur-Lesse cave (Belgium) is analyzed for its δ18O and δ13C values, layer thickness and changes in cal- cite aspect. The studied record covers the period between AD 2001 and 1479 as indicated by layer counting and con- firmed by 20 U / Th ages. The Proserpine proxies are sea- sonally biased and document drier (and colder) winters on multidecadal scales. Higher δ13C signals reflect increased prior calcite precipitation (PCP) and lower soil activity dur- ing drier (and colder) winters. Thinner layers and darker calcite relate to slower growth and exist during drier (and colder) winter periods. Exceptionally dry (and cold) winter periods occur from 1565 to 1610, at 1730, from 1770 to 1800, from 1810 to 1860, and from 1880 to 1895 and correspond to exceptionally cold periods in historical and instrumental records as well as European winter temperature reconstruc- tions. More relative climate variations, during which the four measured proxies vary independently and display lower am- plitude variations, occur between 1479 and 1565, between 1610 and 1730, and between 1730 and 1770. The winters during the first and last periods are interpreted as relatively wetter (and warmer) and correspond to warmer periods in historical data and in winter temperature reconstructions in Europe. The winters in the period between 1610 and 1730 are interpreted as relatively drier (and cooler) and correspond to generally colder conditions in Europe. Interpretation of the seasonal variations in δ18O and δ13C signals differs from that on a decadal and multidecadal scale. Seasonal δ18O variations reflect cave air temperature variations and suggest a 2.5◦C seasonality in cave air temperature during the two relatively wetter (and warmer) winter periods (1479–1565 and 1730–1770), which corresponds to the cave air temper- ature seasonality observed today. Between 1610 and 1730, the δ18O values suggest a 1.5◦C seasonality in cave air tem- perature, indicating colder summer temperatures during this drier (and cooler) interval. The δ13C seasonality is driven by PCP and suggests generally lower PCP seasonal effects be- tween 1479 and 1810 compared to today. A short interval of increased PCP seasonality occurs between 1600 and 1660, and reflects increased PCP in summer due to decreased win- ter recharge. [less ▲]

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See detailChallenges of Sustainable and Commercial Aquaponics
Goddek, Simon; Delaide, Boris ULg; Mankasingh, Utra et al

in Sustainability (2015), 7

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See detailImproved spectral fitting of nitrogen dioxide from OMI in the 405-465 nm window
van Geffen, J H G M; Boersma, K F; Van Roozendael, M et al

in Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (2015), 8

An improved nitrogen dioxide (NO2) slant column density retrieval for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) in the 405–465 nm spectral region is presented. Since the launch of OMI on board NASA’s EOS-Aura ... [more ▼]

An improved nitrogen dioxide (NO2) slant column density retrieval for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) in the 405–465 nm spectral region is presented. Since the launch of OMI on board NASA’s EOS-Aura satellite in 2004, differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) retrievals of NO2 slant column densities have been the starting point for the KNMI DOMINO and NASA SP NO2 vertical column data as well as the OMI NO2 data of some other institutes. However, recent intercomparisons between NO2 retrievals from OMI and other UV/Vis and limb spectrometers, as well as ground-based measurements, suggest that OMI stratospheric NO2 is biased high. This study revises and, for the first time, fully documents the OMI NO2 retrieval in detail. The representation of the OMI slit function to convolve high-resolution reference spectra onto the relevant spectral grid is improved. The window used for the wavelength calibration is optimised, leading to much-reduced fitting errors. Ozone and water vapour spectra used in the fit are updated, reflecting the recently improved knowledge of their absorption cross section in the literature. The improved spectral fit also accounts for absorption by the O2–O2 collision complex and by liquid water over clearwater areas. The main changes in the improved spectral fitting result from the updates related to the wavelength calibration: the RMS error of the fit is reduced by 23% and the NO2 slant column by 0.85 1015 molec cm-2, independent of latitude, solar zenith angle and NO2 value. Including O2–O2 and liquid water absorption and updating the O3 and water vapour cross-section spectra further reduces NO2 slant columns on average by 0.35 1015 molec cm-2, accompanied by a further 9% reduction in the RMS error of the fit. The improved OMI NO2 slant columns are consistent with independent NO2 retrievals from other instruments to within a range that can be explained by photochemically driven diurnal increases in stratospheric NO2 and by small differences in fitting window and approach. The revisions indicate that current OMI NO2 slant columns suffered mostly from an additive positive offset, which is removed by the improved wavelength calibration and representation of the OMI slit function. It is therefore anticipated that the improved NO2 slant columns are most important to retrievals of spatially homogeneous stratospheric NO2 rather than to heterogeneous tropospheric NO2. [less ▲]

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See detailGCxGC-TOFMS and supervised multivariate approaches to study human cadaveric decomposition olfactive signatures
Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues ULg; Perrault, Katelynn A.; Stadler, Sonja et al

in Analytical Bioanalytical Chemistry (2015), 407(16), 4767-4778

In forensic thanato-chemistry, the understanding of the process of soft tissue decomposition is still limited. A better understanding of the decomposition process and the characterization of the ... [more ▼]

In forensic thanato-chemistry, the understanding of the process of soft tissue decomposition is still limited. A better understanding of the decomposition process and the characterization of the associated volatile organic compounds (VOC) can help to improve the training of victim recovery (VR) canines, which are used to search for trapped victims in natural disasters or to locate corpses during criminal investigations. The complexity of matrices and the dynamic nature of this process require the use of comprehensive analytical methods for investigation. Moreover, the variability of the environment and between individuals creates additional difficulties in terms of normalization. The resolution of the complex mixture of VOCs emitted by a decaying corpse can be improved using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC× GC), compared to classical singledimensional gas chromatography (1DGC). This study combines the analytical advantages of GC×GC coupled to timeof- flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) with the data handling robustness of supervised multivariate statistics to investigate the VOC profile of human remains during early stages of decomposition. Various supervised multivariate approaches are compared to interpret the large data set. Moreover, early decomposition stages of pig carcasses (typically used as human surrogates in field studies) are also monitored to obtain a direct comparison of the two VOC profiles and estimate the robustness of this human decomposition analog model. In this research, we demonstrate that pig and human decomposition processes can be described by the same trends for the major compounds produced during the early stages of soft tissue decomposition. [less ▲]

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See detailEnvironmental constraints drive the partitioning of the soundscape in fishes
Ruppé, Laetitia; Clément, Gaël; Herrel, Anthony et al

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2015)

The underwater environment is more and more being depicted as particularly noisy, and the inventory of calling fishes is continuously increasing. However, it currently remains unknown how species share ... [more ▼]

The underwater environment is more and more being depicted as particularly noisy, and the inventory of calling fishes is continuously increasing. However, it currently remains unknown how species share the soundscape and are able to communicate without misinterpreting the messages. Different mechanisms of interference avoidance have been documented in birds, mammals, and frogs, but little is known about interference avoidance in fishes. How fish thus partition the soundscape underwater remains unknown, as acoustic communication and its organization have never been studied at the level of fish communities. In this study, passive acoustic recordings were used to inventory sounds produced in a fish community (120 m depth) in an attempt to understand how different species partition the acoustic environment. We uncovered an important diversity of fish sounds, and 16 of the 37 different sounds recorded were sufficiently abundant to use in a quantitative analysis. We show that sonic activity allows a clear distinction between a diurnal and a nocturnal group of fishes. Moreover, frequencies of signals made during the day overlap, whereas there is a clear distinction between the different representatives of the nocturnal callers because of a lack of overlap in sound frequency. This first demonstration, to our knowledge, of interference avoidance in a fish community can be understood by the way sounds are used. In diurnal species, sounds are mostly used to support visual display, whereas nocturnal species are generally deprived of visual cues, resulting in acoustic constraints being more important. [less ▲]

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See detailRetrieval of ethane from ground-based FTIR solar spectra using improved spectroscopy: recent burden increase above Jungfraujoch
Franco, Bruno ULg; Bader, Whitney ULg; Toon, G. C. et al

in Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer (2015), 160(C), 36-49

An improved spectroscopy is used to implement and optimize the retrieval strategy of ethane (C2H6) from ground-based Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) solar spectra recorded at the high-altitude station ... [more ▼]

An improved spectroscopy is used to implement and optimize the retrieval strategy of ethane (C2H6) from ground-based Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) solar spectra recorded at the high-altitude station of Jungfraujoch (Swiss Alps, 46.5° N, 8.0° E, 3580m a.s.l.). The improved spectroscopic parameters include C2H6 pseudo-lines in the 2720-3100 cm-1 range and updated line parameters for methyl chloride and ozone. These improved spectroscopic parameters allow for substantial reduction of the fitting residuals as well as enhanced information content. They also contribute to limiting oscillations responsible for ungeophysical negative mixing ratio profiles. This strategy has been successfully applied to the Jungfraujoch solar spectra available from 1994 onwards. The resulting time series is compared with C2H6 total columns simulated by the state-of-the-art chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. Despite very consistent seasonal cycles between both data sets, a negative systematic bias relative to the FTIR observations suggests that C2H6 emissions are underestimated in the current inventories implemented in GEOS-Chem. Finally, C2H6 trends are derived from the FTIR time series, revealing a statistically-significant sharp increase of the C2H6 burden in the remote atmosphere above Jungfraujoch since 2009. Evaluating cause of this change in the C2H6 burden, which may be related to the recent massive growth of shale gas exploitation in North America, is of primary importance for atmospheric composition and air quality in the Northern Hemisphere. [less ▲]

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See detailPerspective: Tyrosine Phosphatases As Novel Targets For Antiplatelet Therapy
Tautz, Lutz; Senis, Yotis; Oury, Cécile ULg et al

in Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry (2015), Epub ahead of print

Arterial thrombosis is the primary cause of most cases of myocardial infarction and stroke, the leading causes of death in the developed world. Platelets, highly specialized cells of the circulatory ... [more ▼]

Arterial thrombosis is the primary cause of most cases of myocardial infarction and stroke, the leading causes of death in the developed world. Platelets, highly specialized cells of the circulatory system, are key contributors to thrombotic events. Antiplatelet drugs, which prevent platelets from aggregating, have been very effective in reducing the mortality and morbidity of these conditions. However, approved antiplatelet therapies have adverse side effects, most notably the increased risk of bleeding. Moreover, there remains a considerable incidence of arterial thrombosis in a subset of patients receiving currently available drugs. Thus, there is a pressing medical need for novel antiplatelet agents with a more favorable safety profile and less patient resistance. The discovery of novel antiplatelet targets is the matter of intense ongoing research. Recent findings demonstrate the potential of targeting key signaling molecules, including kinases and phosphatases, to prevent platelet activation and aggregation. Here, we offer perspectives to targeting members of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) superfamily, a major class of enzymes in signal transduction. We give an overview of previously identified PTPs in platelet signaling, and discuss their potential as antiplatelet drug targets. We also introduce VHR (DUSP3), a PTP that we recently identified as a major player in platelet biology and thrombosis. We review our data on genetic deletion as well as pharmacological inhibition of VHR, providing proof-of-principle for a novel and potentially safer VHR-based antiplatelet therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficacy of heroin-assisted treatment in Belgium: a randomised controlled trial
Demaret, Isabelle ULg; Quertemont, Etienne ULg; Litran, Géraldine et al

in European Addiction Research (2015), 21(4), 179-187

Background/Aims: Heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) can improve the condition of heroin addicts still using street heroin after a methadone treatment. In Belgium, a new trial compared the efficacy of a HAT ... [more ▼]

Background/Aims: Heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) can improve the condition of heroin addicts still using street heroin after a methadone treatment. In Belgium, a new trial compared the efficacy of a HAT to existing methadone maintenance treatment. Methods: In this randomised controlled trial, HAT was limited to 12 months. Participants were assessed every 3 months. They were responders if they showed improvement on the level of street heroin use, health or criminal involvement. Results: 74 participants were randomised in the trial. The experimental group (n=36) counted 30% of responders more than the control group (n=38) at each assessment point (p<0.05), except at 12 months where the difference (11%) was no longer significant (p=0.35). Still, after 12 months, participants in the experimental group reported significantly greater improvements (p<0.05) than the control group on the level of street heroin use and on the level of physical and mental health. Both groups reported significantly less criminal facts after 12 months (p<0.001), but with no significant difference between the groups. Conclusions: This trial confirms the short-term efficacy of HAT for severe heroin addicts, who already failed methadone treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailComparer et articuler les droits. L'exemple du démariage en 2015
Wautelet, Patrick ULg

in Droit de la famille (2015), 20(4), 63-66

Cette communication dresse un tableau succincts de l'état du droit comparé du divorce en Europe. L'analyse de droit comparé sert d'appui à une mise en perspective du droit international privé du divorce.

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See detailMeteorological variation in daily travel behaviour: evidence from revealed preference data from the Netherlands
Creemers, Lieve; Wets, Geert; Cools, Mario ULg

in Theoretical & Applied Climatology (2015), 120(1-2), 183-194

This study investigates the meteorological variation in revealed preference travel data. The main objective of this study is to investigate the impact of weather conditions on daily activity participation ... [more ▼]

This study investigates the meteorological variation in revealed preference travel data. The main objective of this study is to investigate the impact of weather conditions on daily activity participation (trip motives) and daily modal choices in the Netherlands. To this end, data from the Dutch National Travel Household Survey of 2008 were matched to hourly weather data provided by the Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute and were complemented with thermal indices to indicate the level of thermal comfort and additional variables to indicate the seasonality of the weather conditions. Two multinomial logit–generalised estimation equations (MNL-GEE) models were constructed, one to assess the impact of weather conditions on trip motives and one to assess the effect of weather conditions on modal choice. The modelling results indicate that, depending on the travel attribute of concern, other factors might play a role. Nonetheless, the thermal component, as well as the aesthetical component and the physical component of weather play a significant role. Moreover, the parameter estimates indicate significant differences in the impact of weather conditions when different time scales are considered (e.g. daily versus hourly based). The fact that snow does not play any role at all was unexpected. This finding can be explained by the relatively low occurrence of this weather type in the study area. It is important to consider the effects of weather in travel demand modelling frameworks because this will help to achieve higher accuracy and more realistic traffic forecasts. These will in turn allow policy makers to make better long-term and short-term decisions to achieve various political goals, such as progress towards a sustainable transportation system. Further research in this respect should emphasise the role of weather conditions and activityscheduling attributes. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst do not harm
Jamoulle, Marc ULg

in Journal of Mid-life Health (2015), 6(2), 51-52

commentary on Kalra B, Malik S. Quaternary prevention and menopause. J Midlife Health 2014;5:53-4.

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See detailPhytochemical Profile and Biological Activity Evaluation of Zanthoxylum heterophyllum Leaves against Malaria
Ledoux, Allison ULg; Mareatefau, Hinerava; Jansen, Olivia ULg et al

in Planta Medica Letters (2015), 2

The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiplasmodial properties of Zanthoxylum heterophyllum, an endemic plant from the Mascarene Islands. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of ethyl acetate and ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiplasmodial properties of Zanthoxylum heterophyllum, an endemic plant from the Mascarene Islands. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of ethyl acetate and dichloromethane crude extracts obtained from leaf samples collected on Reunion Island was evaluated on the Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 chloroquine-sensitive strain using a colorimetric method. The major active compound was identified by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. The best antiplasmodial activity was obtained for the ethyl acetate extract (15 µg/mL < IC50 < 50 µg/mL). The major compound was identified as a sanshool derivative, an alkylamide compound that has moderate antimalarial activity (IC50 = 11.3 µg/mL). This is the first report of the presence of a sanshool derivative in Z. heterophyllum. The moderate antiplasmodial activity of hydroxy-γ-isosanshool was demonstrated for the first time. [less ▲]

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See detailExtensions du concept de fonction
Bair, Jacques ULg; Henry, Valérie ULg

in Tangente Hors Série (2015), (56), 41

Extensions modernes du concept de fonction Comme la plupart des concepts mathématiques, celui de fonction s’est transformé progressivement pour devenir ce qui nous en est enseigné aujourd’hui. Il évolue ... [more ▼]

Extensions modernes du concept de fonction Comme la plupart des concepts mathématiques, celui de fonction s’est transformé progressivement pour devenir ce qui nous en est enseigné aujourd’hui. Il évolue encore de nos jours : il est toujours plus général, mais également plus abstrait et sophistiqué. Nous donnons ici un petit aperçu intuitif de quelques-unes de ses généralisations modernes. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociations of Plasma Concentrations of Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene and Polychlorinated Biphenyls with Prostate Cancer: A Case–Control Study in Guadeloupe (French West Indies)
Emeville, Elise; Giusti, Arnaud ULg; Coumoul, Xavier et al

in Environmental Health Perspectives (2015), 123(4), 317-323

Background: Long-term exposure to persistent pollutants with hormonal properties (endocrine-disrupting chemicals, EDCs) may contribute to the risk of prostate cancer (PCa). However, epidemiological ... [more ▼]

Background: Long-term exposure to persistent pollutants with hormonal properties (endocrine-disrupting chemicals, EDCs) may contribute to the risk of prostate cancer (PCa). However, epidemiological evidence remains limited. Objectives: We investigated the relationship between PCa and plasma concentrations of universally widespread pollutants, in particular p,p’- dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE) and the non-dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyl congener 153 (PCB153). Methods and Findings: We evaluated before treatment 576 men with newly diagnosed PCa and 655 controls in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). Exposure was analyzed according to case-control status. Associations were assessed by unconditional logistic regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors. Missing data were handled by multiple imputation. We estimated a significant positive association between DDE and PCa (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.53; 95% CI 1.02, 2.30 for the highest versus lowest quintile of exposure; PTrend= 0.01). PCB153 was inversely associated with PCa (OR 0.30; 95% CI 0.19, 0.47 for the highest versus lowest quintile of exposure values; PTrend<0.001). Also, PCB153 was more strongly associated to low-grade than high grade PCa. Conclusions: Associations of PCa with DDE and PCB153 were in opposite directions. This may reflect differences in the mechanisms of action of these EDCs, and although our findings need to be replicated in other populations, they are consistent with complex effects of EDCs on human health. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative effectiveness of silvicultural interventions for increasing timber production and sustaining conservation values in natural tropical production forests. A systematic review protocol
Petrokofsky, Gillian; Sist, Plinio; Blanc, Lilian et al

in Environmental Evidence (2015), 4(8),

Background: Currently, about 400 million hectares of tropical moist forests worldwide are designated production forests, about a quarter of which are managed by rural communities and indigenous peoples ... [more ▼]

Background: Currently, about 400 million hectares of tropical moist forests worldwide are designated production forests, about a quarter of which are managed by rural communities and indigenous peoples. There has been a gradual impoverishment of forest resources inside selectively logged forests in which the volume of timber extracted over the first cutting cycle was mostly from large, old trees that matured over a century or more and grew in the absence of strong anthropological pressures. In forests now being logged for a second and third time, that volume has not been reconstituted due in part to the lack of implementation of post-logging silvicultural treatments. This depletion of timber stocks renders the degraded forests prone to conversion to other land uses. Although it is essential to preserve undisturbed primary forests through the creation of protected areas, these areas alone will not be able to ensure the conservation of all species on a pan-tropical scale, for social, economic and political reasons. The conservation of tropical forests of tomorrow will mostly take place within human-modified (logged, domesticated) forests. In this context, silvicultural interventions are considered by many tropical foresters and forest ecologists as tools capable of effectively conserving tropical forest biodiversity and ecosystem services while stimulating forest production. This systematic review aims to assess past and current evidence of the impact of silviculture on tropical forests and to identify silvicultural practices appropriate for the current conditions in the forests and forestry sectors of the Congo Basin, Amazonia and Southeast Asia. Methods: This systematic review will undertake an extensive search of literature to assess the relative effectiveness of different silvicultural interventions on timber production and the conservation value of forests, and to determine whether there is a relationship between sustainability of timber harvesting and the maintenance/conservation of other ecosystem services and biodiversity in production forests. Data will be extracted for meta-analysis of at least sub-sets of the review questions. Findings are expected to help inform policy and develop evidence-based practice guidelines on silvicultural practices in tropical forests. [less ▲]

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See detailCopper extraction from coarsely ground printed circuit boards using moderate thermophilic bacteria in a rotating-drum reactor
Rodrigues, Michael; Leão, Versiane; Gomes, Otavio et al

in Waste Management (2015), 41

The current work reports on a new approach for copper bioleaching from Printed Circuit Board (PCB) by moderate thermophiles in a rotating-drum reactor. Initially leaching of PCB was carried out in shake ... [more ▼]

The current work reports on a new approach for copper bioleaching from Printed Circuit Board (PCB) by moderate thermophiles in a rotating-drum reactor. Initially leaching of PCB was carried out in shake flasks to assess the effects of particle size ( 208 lm + 147 lm), ferrous iron concentration (1.25–10.0 g/L) and pH (1.5–2.5) on copper leaching using mesophile and moderate thermophile microorganisms. Only at a relatively low solid content (10.0 g/L) complete copper extraction was achieved from the particle size investigated. Conversely, high copper extractions were possible from coarse-ground PCB (20 mm-long) working with increased solids concentration (up to 25.0 g/L). Because there was as the faster leaching kinetics at 50 C Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans was selected for experiments in a rotating-drum reactor with the coarser-sized PCB sheets. Under optimal conditions, copper extraction reached 85%, in 8 days and microscopic observations by SEM–EDS of the on nonleached and leached material suggested that metal dissolution from the internal layers was restricted by the fact that metal surface was not entirely available and accessible for the solution in the case of the 20 mm-size sheets. [less ▲]

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See detailEffets de la modernisation de tannerie sur l’impact de ses activités sur la qualité des eaux : cas de la tannerie de Maradi au Niger
Saidou, H.; Laminou Manzo, O.; Ozer, Pierre ULg et al

in Research Inventy: International Journal Of Engineering And Science (2015), 5(4), 30-38

The modernization of the tannery of Maradi had intervened in 2009 with the introduction of the process of tanning in the chromium. We estimated the influence of this change of operating process through an ... [more ▼]

The modernization of the tannery of Maradi had intervened in 2009 with the introduction of the process of tanning in the chromium. We estimated the influence of this change of operating process through an evaluation of the impact characteristics evolution of the solid and liquid discharges of this tannery on water. It stands out that the modernization of the tannery activities had more or less significant effects on these environment elements. We noted a relative improvement of the quality of underground waters illustrated by the regression of the content in chloride and nitrates rates stabilization. While the content in chromium evolved in a significant way as well as the pH. However, all the four above parameters remain below WHO standards. By cons, this modernization has almost not influenced the impact on the quality of surface waters. The values of BOD and COD have continued to rise despite the installation of a treatment system. Thus this surface water, including the pond, proved to be a major public health risk for domestic and agricultural use and is also a source of air pollution. [less ▲]

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See detailChamps électriques et magnétiques et santé : quel message au grand public ?
Ledent, Maryse ULg; Beauvois, Véronique ULg; Demaret, Isabelle ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2015), 70(4), 172-178

Les revues de littérature scientifique ne permettent pas de conclure de manière définitive à l’absence d’un effet des champs électriques et magnétiques 50 Hz sur la santé. L’incertitude entraîne de ... [more ▼]

Les revues de littérature scientifique ne permettent pas de conclure de manière définitive à l’absence d’un effet des champs électriques et magnétiques 50 Hz sur la santé. L’incertitude entraîne de nombreux questionnements. Dans cet article, nous aborderons les concepts-clés permettant de bien comprendre les effets potentiels des champs électriques et magnétiques sur la santé. Nous donnerons également des valeurs d’exposition de la vie quotidienne et proposerons des pistes à suivre face à un patient posant des questions sur les effets sur la santé des champs électriques et magnétiques 50 Hz. [less ▲]

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See detailClimatic risk assessment to improve nitrogen fertilisation recommendations : A strategic crop model-based approach
Dumont, Benjamin ULg; Basso, Bruno; Bodson, Bernard ULg et al

in European Journal of Agronomy (2015), 65(10-17),

Within the context of nitrogen (N) management, since 1950, with the rapid intensification of agriculture, farmers have often applied much larger fertiliser quantities than what was required to reach the ... [more ▼]

Within the context of nitrogen (N) management, since 1950, with the rapid intensification of agriculture, farmers have often applied much larger fertiliser quantities than what was required to reach the yield potential. However, to prevent pollution of surface and groundwater induced by nitrates, The European Community launched The European Nitrates Directive 91/6/76/EEC. In 2002, in Wallonia (Belgium), the Nitrates Directive has been transposed under the Sustainable Nitrogen Management in Agriculture Program (PGDA), with the aim of maintaining productivity and revenue for the country’s farmers, while reducing the environmental impact of excessive N application. A feasible approach for addressing climatic uncertainty lies in the use of crop models such as the one commonly known as STICS (simulateur multidisciplinaire pour les cultures standard). These models allow the impact on crops of the interaction between cropping systems and climatic records to be assessed. Comprehensive historical climatic records are rare, however, and therefore the yield distribution values obtained using such an approach can be discontinuous. In order to obtain better and more detailed yield distribution information, the use of a high number of stochastically generated climate time series was proposed, relying on the LARS-Weather Generator. The study focused on the interactions between varying N practices and climatic conditions. Historically and currently, Belgian farmers apply 180 kg N ha−1, split into three equal fractions applied at the tillering, stem elongation and flag-leaf stages. This study analysed the effectiveness of this treatment in detail, comparing it to similar practices where only the N rates applied at the flag-leaf stage were modified. Three types of farmer decision-making were analysed. The first related to the choice of N strategy for maximising yield, the second to obtaining the highest net revenue, and the third to reduce the environmental impact of potential N leaching, which carries the likelihood of taxation if inappropriate N rates are applied. The results showed reduced discontinuity in the yield distribution values thus obtained. In general, the modulation of N levels to accord with current farmer practices showed considerable asymmetry. In other words, these practices maximised the probability of achieving yields that were at least superior to the mean of the distribution values, thus reducing risk for the farmers. The practice based on applying the highest amounts (60–60–100 kg N ha−1) produced the best yield distribution results. When simple economical criteria were computed, the 60–60–80 kg N ha−1 protocol was found to be optimal for 80–90% of the time. There were no statistical differences, however, between this practice and Belgian farmers’ current practice. When the taxation linked to a high level of potentially leachable N remaining in the soil after harvest was considered, this methodology clearly showed that, in 3 years out of 4, 30 kg N ha−1 could systematically be saved in comparison with the usual practice. [less ▲]

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See detailLa dépression est une complication fréquente du lupus érythémateux disséminé : considérations épidémiologiques, pathogéniques et thérapeutiques
Lemaire, Benoît ULg; Geron, Donatienne ULg; MALAISE, Olivier ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2015), 70(4), 215-218

Le lupus érythémateux disséminé (LED) est une maladie de système aux conséquences aussi multiples qu’invalidantes. La prévalence des épisodes dépressifs majeurs y est significativement supérieure à celle ... [more ▼]

Le lupus érythémateux disséminé (LED) est une maladie de système aux conséquences aussi multiples qu’invalidantes. La prévalence des épisodes dépressifs majeurs y est significativement supérieure à celle des sujets sains ou atteints d’autres pathologies inflammatoires. S’il est évident que le statut de maladie chronique au dénouement souvent péjoratif et le nombre de traitements qu’elle impose constituent des facteurs favorisants, il est probable que les mécanismes pathogéniques du LED occasionnent une atteinte cérébrale précipitant une symptomatologie dépressive. Cet article approfondit les liens entre LED et dépression à travers des notions épidémiologiques, étiopathogéniques et thérapeutiques. [less ▲]

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See detailImagerie métabolique en oncologie thoracique
DUYSINX, Bernard ULg; HUSTINX, Roland ULg

in EMC Pneumologie (2015), 12(2),

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See detailMolding thrombus of an ECMO cannula floating in the right atrium.
MORIMONT, Philippe ULg; LAMBERMONT, Bernard ULg; GARSPARD, Valérie ULg et al

in Intensive Care Medicine (2015)

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See detailL’Affaire Édouard Descamps à la Cour de La Haye en 1921. Un recul international de la Belgique ?
Genin, Vincent ULg

in Revue Générale (2015), 3/4(mars-avril), 35-42

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See detailPhylogenetic analysis of cultivation-resistant terrestrial cyanobacteria with massive sheaths (Stigonema spp. and Petalonema alatum, Nostocales, Cyanobacteria) using single-cell and filament sequencing of environmental samples
Mares, Jan; Lara, Yannick ULg; Dadakova, Ina et al

in Journal of Phycology (2015), 51(2), 288297

Molecular assessment of a large portion of traditional cyanobacterial taxa has been hindered by the failure to isolate and grow them in culture. In this study, we developed an optimized protocol for ... [more ▼]

Molecular assessment of a large portion of traditional cyanobacterial taxa has been hindered by the failure to isolate and grow them in culture. In this study, we developed an optimized protocol for single cell/filament isolation and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of terrestrial cyanobacteria with large mucilaginous sheaths, and applied it to determine the phylogenetic position of typical members of the genera Petalonema and Stigonema. A methodology based on a glass-capillary isolation technique and a semi-nested PCR protocol enabled reliable sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from all samples analyzed. Ten samples covering seven species of Stigonema from Europe, North and Central America, and Hawaii, and the type species of Petalonema from Slovakia were sequenced. Contrary to some previous studies, which proposed a relationship with heteropolar nostocalean cyanobacteria, Petalonema appeared to belong to the family Scytonemataceae. Analysis of Stigonema specimens recovered a unique coherent phylogenetic cluster, substantially broadening our knowledge of the molecular diversity within this genus. Neither the uni- to biseriate species nor the multiseriate species formed monophyletic subclusters within the genus. Typical multiseriate species of Stigonema clustered in a phylogenetic branch derived from uni- to biseriate S. ocellatum Thuret ex Bornet & Flahault in our analysis, suggesting that species with more complex thalli may have evolved from the more simple ones. We propose the technique tested in this study as a promising tool for a future revision of the molecular taxonomy in cyanobacteria. [less ▲]

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See detailAgonistic sounds and swim bladder morphology in a malapterurid electric catfish
Boyle, Kelly; Bolen, Géraldine ULg; Parmentier, Eric ULg

in Journal of Zoology (2015)

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See detailQuelle place pour le test de génération de thrombine au sein du laboratoire de biologie clinique?
LECUT, Christelle ULg; PETERS, Pierre ULg; MASSION, Paul ULg et al

in Annales de Biologie Clinique (2015), 73(2), 137-149

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See detailAccess to human tissues for research and product development
Pirnay, Jean‐Paul; BAUDOUX, Etienne ULg; Cornu, Olivier et al

in EMBO Reports (2015)

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See detailLa création de partenariats par les services publics de l’emploi belges et suisses: Quels sont les impacts du modèle de gestion du partenariat sur la collaboration ?
Remy, Céline ULg

in Politiques et management public (2015), 32(1), 63-77

Les services publics de l’emploi (SPE) belges et suisses font appel, depuis des années, à des opérateurs privés marchands et non-marchands pour la mise en place de projets de formation et d’accompagnement ... [more ▼]

Les services publics de l’emploi (SPE) belges et suisses font appel, depuis des années, à des opérateurs privés marchands et non-marchands pour la mise en place de projets de formation et d’accompagnement à destination des demandeurs d’emploi. Chaque SPE possède un modèle spécifique de management des collaborations qui est, selon nous, plus ou moins autonomisé et capacitant pour les parties-prenantes. Nous nous intéressons, dans le cadre de cet article, aux effets des modèles de gestion du partenariat sur la collaboration établie entre les services publics de l’emploi et les opérateurs privés. L’objectif est de montrer que le modèle de partenariat peut faire apparaître des attitudes spécifiques dans le chef des prestataires. Certains comportements peuvent nuire à la bonne collaboration entre les parties-prenantes. [less ▲]

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See detailLaboratory challenges in primary aldosteronism screening and diagnosis
Rehan, Muhammad; Raizman, Joshua; CAVALIER, Etienne ULg et al

in Clinical Biochemistry (2015), 48(6), 377-387

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See detailLe cas clinique du mois. Hémangiome épithélioïde, une tumeur osseuse rare.
Gérard, Valérie; TOMASELLA, Marco ULg; KURTH, William ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2015), 70(4), 169-171

A case of pathological hip fracture associated with an epithelioid hemangioma is reported. Epithelioid hemangioma is a benign tumor, rarely localized in a bone. When the tumor is found on the skeleton, it ... [more ▼]

A case of pathological hip fracture associated with an epithelioid hemangioma is reported. Epithelioid hemangioma is a benign tumor, rarely localized in a bone. When the tumor is found on the skeleton, it generally involves a long bone. X-ray does not permit the differenciation of epithelioid hemangioma from other,malignant, vascular tumors. Therefore,the diagnosis requires surgery. Although no consensus treatment guidelines exist, the curettage – filling is most often proposed. [less ▲]

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See detailA novel procedure to measure shrinkage-free tree-rings from very large wood samples combining photogrammetry, high-resolution image processing, and GIS tools
Latte, Nicolas ULg; Beeckman, Hans; Bauwens, Sébastien ULg et al

in Dendrochronologia (2015), 34

We present a new procedure for wood sampling and tree-ring measurement that can be used for dendrochronological investigation on very large trees, specifically adapted for tropical rainforest species ... [more ▼]

We present a new procedure for wood sampling and tree-ring measurement that can be used for dendrochronological investigation on very large trees, specifically adapted for tropical rainforest species. This procedure takes advantage of the technological developments in computing, image processing, and geographic information systems (GIS) to overcome the technical limitations of the currently used methods. Two types of wood samples can be used (stem disks and/or bars) depending on tree diameter, and the difficulty of ring delineation and crossdating. Bars are an effective compromise between cores and disks. We developed an application combining several programs (Excel, R, ArcGIS, and MapWinGIS) in the Windows operating system for semi-automatic measurement of tree-rings from high-resolution images of the sanded cross-section. Using an innovative method to reverse the wood shrinkage resulting from the drying process, tree-ring measurement can be performed on shrinkage-free images, thus referring to the actual growth of the tree. [less ▲]

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See detailL'Eau se retire: le Tsunami arrive
COUCKE, Philippe ULg

in Healthcare Executive (2015), 81

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See detailPetit voyage à travers les âges: de l'expression à la fonction
Bair, Jacques ULg; Henry, Valérie ULg

in Tangente Hors Série (2015), (56), 12-15

Le concept de fonction est assurément fondamental en mathématiques. Il a été construit lentement, par de multiples améliorations successives. Dans cet article, nous souhaitons évoquer succinctement ... [more ▼]

Le concept de fonction est assurément fondamental en mathématiques. Il a été construit lentement, par de multiples améliorations successives. Dans cet article, nous souhaitons évoquer succinctement quelques étapes marquantes de son élaboration. [less ▲]

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See detailL’agency de la route Yucumo-Rurrenabaque entre développement, conservation et autonomie indigène: une étude de cas dans l’Amazonie Bolivienne
Marquez Guerra, José Francisco ULg

in Desenvolvimento e Meio Ambiente (2015), 33

Very often roads that are continuously built through Amazonia are thought to mechanically and irreversibly induce colonisation, deforestation and environmental and cultural degradation. This paper ... [more ▼]

Very often roads that are continuously built through Amazonia are thought to mechanically and irreversibly induce colonisation, deforestation and environmental and cultural degradation. This paper provides a detailed case study questioning this taken-for-granted idea. It concerns the Pilón Lajas (Bolivia) and shows that the road gets irreversible only through the interplay between development framing and conservation framing as both define road and spaces, and through the interactions these framings induce between actors that refer to them. Road agency only performs by reciprocal relations that actors develop to stabilise their own practices around roads. Indigenous people, quartered between dilution in interculturality and domination bay conservation, are trying to reconcile autonomy and development by skipping between these frameworks. [less ▲]

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See detailAnisotropy and tension-compression asymmetry modeling of the room temperature plastic response of Ti-6A1-4V
Tuninetti, Victor; Gilles, Gaëtan ULg; Pardoen, Thomas et al

in International Journal of Plasticity (2015), 67

The mechanical behavior of the alloy Ti-6A1-4V is characterized using uniaxial tension, uniaxial compression, simple shear and place strain tests in three orthogonal material directions. The experimental ... [more ▼]

The mechanical behavior of the alloy Ti-6A1-4V is characterized using uniaxial tension, uniaxial compression, simple shear and place strain tests in three orthogonal material directions. The experimental results reveal tension/compression asymmetry, anisotropic yielding and anisotropic strain-hardening. These features are incorporated into an elasto-plastic constitutive law based on the macroscopic orthotropic yield criterion "CPB06" adapted to hexagonal metals. A new identification method for the yield criterion parameters is proposed by inverse modeling of the axial strain field compression specimens in the three orthogonal directions of the material. The sensitivity of different sets of material parameters to the identification method is also analysed and the capacity of the model to accurately predict the forces and displacement field is discussed. A validation of the best set of identified CPB06material parameters is performed by comparing the load-displacement curves in different loading directions for tensile tests on notched round bars with different levels of stress triaxiality and for compression tests on elliptical cross-section specimens, both tests involving multiaxial strain fields and large deformations. [less ▲]

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See detailPrélèvements fiscaux et prestations sociales en Belgique: l'impact de vingt années de réformes
Decoster, André; Perelman, Sergio ULg; Vandelannoote, Dieter et al

in Revue Française d'économie (2015), 24

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See detailA Brief Review of Ultraviolet Auroral Emissions on Giant Planets
Grodent, Denis ULg

in Space Science Reviews (2015), 187(1-4), 23-50

The morphologies of the ultraviolet auroral emissions on the giant gas planets, Jupiter and Saturn, have conveniently been described with combinations of a restricted number of basic components. Although ... [more ▼]

The morphologies of the ultraviolet auroral emissions on the giant gas planets, Jupiter and Saturn, have conveniently been described with combinations of a restricted number of basic components. Although this simplified view is very handy for a gross depiction of the giant planets’ aurorae, it fails to scrutinize the diversity and the dynamics of the actual features that are regularly observed with the available ultraviolet imagers and spectrographs. In the present review, the typical morphologies of Jupiter and Saturn’s aurorae are represented with an updated and more accurate set of components. The use of sketches, rather than images, makes it possible to compile all these components in a single view and to put aside ultraviolet imaging technical issues that are blurring the emission sources, thus preventing one from disentangling the different auroral signatures. The ionospheric and magnetospheric processes to which these auroral features allude can then be more easily accounted. In addition, the use of components of the same kind for both planets may help to put forward similarities and differences between Jupiter and Saturn. The case of the ice giants Uranus and Neptune is much less compelling since their weak auroral emissions are very poorly documented and one can only speculate about their origin. This review presents a current perspective that will inevitably evolve in the future, especially with upcoming observing campaigns and forthcoming missions like Juno. [less ▲]

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See detailLa Belgique dans la hiérarchie internationale. La contribution belge au Droit international (1870-1930) : Vécu et mémoire des juristes belges au contact du premier conflit mondial
Genin, Vincent ULg

in Bulletin d'Information de l'Association Belge d'Histoire Contemporaine = Mededelingenblad van de Belgische Vereniging voor Nieuwste Geschiedenis (2015), XXXVII(2015/1), 12-16

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See detailTendon et acide hyaluronique
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Samson, Antoine; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg

in Science & Sports (2015), 30(2), 57-65

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See detailLe cas clinique du mois : prise en charge d'une hypophosphatémie
HUART, Justine ULg; DUBOIS, Bernard ULg; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2015), 70(4), 163-168

Hypophosphatemia is defined by a serum phosphate level lower than 0.8 mmol/l. If hypophosphatemia is chronically maintained, it is associated with muscular, osteous, neurological or cardio-respiratory ... [more ▼]

Hypophosphatemia is defined by a serum phosphate level lower than 0.8 mmol/l. If hypophosphatemia is chronically maintained, it is associated with muscular, osteous, neurological or cardio-respiratory disorders. We describe a patient with isolated hypophosphatemia, detail the mechanisms of phosphate homeostasis, and envisage the differential diagnosis of hypophosphatemia. Furthermore, we propose a sequential decisional algorithm based on basic biological tests and few complementary investigations. Treatment options are reviewed. [less ▲]

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See detailL’anéantissement des donations : questions de droit international privé
Wautelet, Patrick ULg; Fongaro, Eric

in Revue de planification patrimoniale belge et internationale (2015), 2(1), 39-64

Avec le développement d'une véritable pratique transfrontière de la planification successorale, les questions de droit international privé entourant les donations ont beaucoup retenu l'attention ces ... [more ▼]

Avec le développement d'une véritable pratique transfrontière de la planification successorale, les questions de droit international privé entourant les donations ont beaucoup retenu l'attention ces dernières années. Cet intérêt renouvelé pour un sujet classique a permis d'élucider le statut pour le moins complexe de la donation qui présente une dimension internationale. On a toutefois peu évoqué les difficultés que peuvent susciter la fragilité des donations : institution de droit civil aux contours pour le moins polymorphes, la donation est entourée de nombreuses limitations et obstacles qui ont pour objectif de conjurer les risques que peut faire naître, tant pour le donateur, sa famille que pour ses créanciers, cet acte particulier d'appauvrissement sans contrepartie. Le régime contemporain des donations est fondé sur une série de règles et mécanismes qui permettent de remettre en question la libéralité. Tantôt c'est la capacité d'une des parties (à donner ou à recevoir) qui fait l'objet de dispositions dérogatoires au droit commun, tantôt c'est le consentement du donateur qui suscite l'application d'une règle spéciale, tantôt encore des exigences particulières sont posées à propos des formes que doit revêtir une donation. Ces règles complexes, qui nourrissent un contentieux fourni, sont autant d'obstacles qui peuvent être posés au plein accomplissement des donations. Elles conduisent parfois à la révocation de la donation, qui peut produire ses effets ex nunc ou dans certains cas de façon rétroactive. Dans d'autres situations, la donation est annulée et dès lors considérée comme n'ayant jamais existé. Une donation peut également faire l'objet d'une déclaration ou encore être frappée de caducité ou de déchéance. Ces questions sont abordées dans la présente contribution sous l'angle du droit international privé belge et français, en mettant l'accent tant sur les différences que sur les simillitudes entre ces droits. [less ▲]

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See detailChoix de la première contraception
BELIARD, Aude ULg

in Réalités en Gynécologie-Obstétrique (2015), vol 176

Proposer une contraception adéquate chez les adolescentes est primordial afin d’éviter toute grossesse non désirée. Il est indispensable de conseiller les jeunes filles de façon appropriée pour améliorer ... [more ▼]

Proposer une contraception adéquate chez les adolescentes est primordial afin d’éviter toute grossesse non désirée. Il est indispensable de conseiller les jeunes filles de façon appropriée pour améliorer l’observance et leur expliquer les effets secondaires éventuels pour éviter les échecs de contraception. Le risque d’infection sexuellement transmissible n’est pas négligeable et il faut insister sur l’intérêt de l’usage du préservatif. La contraception combinée œstroprogestative orale présente aussi des avantages non contraceptifs comme l’amélioration de la dysménorrhée entre autre. Le choix du contraceptif hormonal doit tenir compte des facteurs de risque personnels et familiaux et il est nécessaire de reprogrammer une consultation ultérieure afin d’adapter la contraception si nécessaire [less ▲]

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See detailLa défense belge dans le futur
Dumoulin, André ULg

in Revue de Défense nationale (2015), (4),

Analyse de l'évolution récente de l'armée belge avec quelques propositions relatives à son avenir dans le cadre de la préparation d'un nouveau plan stratégique à l'horizon 2030

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See detailL'Union européenne et le testament conjonctif : la fin des incertitudes?
Wautelet, Patrick ULg

in Droit & Patrimoine (2015), 246(40-47),

Le sort des testaments conjonctifs dans les relations internationales privées a de longue date suscité des questions. Cette contribution s'interroge sur l'apport du Règlement successions (650/2012) : ce ... [more ▼]

Le sort des testaments conjonctifs dans les relations internationales privées a de longue date suscité des questions. Cette contribution s'interroge sur l'apport du Règlement successions (650/2012) : ce Règlement permet-il de garantir la circulation d'un testament conjonctif entre Etats membres? [less ▲]

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See detailReforming Belgium’s federalism: Comparing the views of MPs and voters
Reuchamps, Min; Sinardet, Dave; Dodeigne, Jérémy ULg et al

in Government and Opposition : An International Journal of Comparative Politics (2015)

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See detailTranshumanisme : un imaginaire de l’exploitation ?
Absil, Gaëtan ULg; Govers, Patrick ULg

in Salut & Fraternité (2015), 89

Vaincre la mort semble un horizon plausible du transhumanisme : l’utilisation des sciences et des technologies pour améliorer la condition humaine et en exclure le handicap, la maladie, le vieillissement ... [more ▼]

Vaincre la mort semble un horizon plausible du transhumanisme : l’utilisation des sciences et des technologies pour améliorer la condition humaine et en exclure le handicap, la maladie, le vieillissement et la mort. L’immortalité relève des instances imaginaires, matérielles et des relations sociales. Elle relève d’une anthropologie du corps et d’une analyse de la technique comme « recherche du moyen le plus efficace dans tous les domaines. » [less ▲]

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See detailSTENOSE AORTIQUE SEVERE ASYMPTOMATIQUE A FRACTION D'EJECTION VENTRICULAIRE GAUCHE PRESERVEE. EVALUATION A L'EFFORT: QUELS RESULTATS ET QUELLES DECISIONS?
BENSAHI, I; ELFHAL, A; MAGNE, Julien et al

in Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angeiologie (2015), 64(2), 100-108

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See detailBiomarkers and physiolpathology in the cardiorenal syndrome
BOUQUEGNEAU, Antoine ULg; KRZESINSKI, Jean-Marie ULg; DELANAYE, Pierre ULg et al

in Clinica Chimica Acta (2015), 443

Acute cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) corresponds to an association of acute heart failure and a worsening of renal function. The detection of acute kidney injury (AKI) unfortunately occurs at a late stage of ... [more ▼]

Acute cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) corresponds to an association of acute heart failure and a worsening of renal function. The detection of acute kidney injury (AKI) unfortunately occurs at a late stage of CRS, leading to an increased mortality of the patients. In this review, we described the pathophysiology of CRS and discussed the potential interest of biochemical biomarkers (namely creatinine, cystatin C, NGAL, KIM-1, fatty acid binding protein, Nacetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase and IL-18) that could potentially help to detect AKI earlier and thus reduce the morbi-mortality of the patients suffering from CRS. [less ▲]

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See detailProgress on research on rodents and rodent-borne zoonoses in Southeast Asia
Blasdell, Kim; Bordes, Frédéric; Chaisiri, Kittipong et al

in Wildlife Research (2015), 42(2), 98-107

This review aims to synthesize the knowledge on the taxonomy of Southeast Asian murine rodents and the challenges associated with the identification of habitat preferences and associated rodent-borne ... [more ▼]

This review aims to synthesize the knowledge on the taxonomy of Southeast Asian murine rodents and the challenges associated with the identification of habitat preferences and associated rodent-borne diseases. Recent studies concerning the Rattini tribe have identified unclear species boundaries that would benefit from further investigation. The development of barcoding may allow more accurate identification of rodents, specifically for complex species. However, knowledge on the distribution and habitat specializations of many common murine rodents is still scarce, particularly regarding the specific habitat preferences of most synanthropic rodent species (Rattus tanezumi or Rattus exulans). Several studies have analyzed the prevalence of major rodent-borne diseases in Southeast Asia and it appears that the greatest risk of rodent zoonoses are in the lowland rainfed and irrigated landscapes, generally in and around rice fields. [less ▲]

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See detailNear-Death Experiences in patients with locked-in syndrome: Not always a blissful journey
Charland-Verville, Vanessa ULg; Lugo, Zulay; Jourdan, Jean-Pierre et al

in Consciousness & Cognition (2015), 34

Memories of Near-Death Experiences (NDEs) most often are recounted as emotionally positive events. At present, no satisfactory explanatory model exists to fully account for the rich phenomenology of NDEs ... [more ▼]

Memories of Near-Death Experiences (NDEs) most often are recounted as emotionally positive events. At present, no satisfactory explanatory model exists to fully account for the rich phenomenology of NDEs following a severe acute brain injury. The particular population of patients with locked-in syndrome (LIS) provides a unique opportunity to study NDEs following infratentorial brain lesions. We here retrospectively characterized the content of NDEs in 8 patients with LIS caused by an acute brainstem lesion (i.e., ‘‘LIS NDEs’’) and 23 NDE experiencers after coma with supratentorial lesions (i.e., ‘‘classical NDEs’’). Compared to ‘‘classical NDEs’’, ‘‘LIS NDEs’’ less frequently experienced a feeling of peacefulness or well-being. It could be hypothesized that NDEs containing less positive emotions might have a specific neuroanatomical substrate related to impaired pontine/paralimbic connectivity or alternatively might be related to the emotional distress caused by the presence of conscious awareness in a paralyzed body. [less ▲]

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See detailAdherence to physical activity recommendations and its associated factors: an interregional population-based study
Alkerwi, Ala'a; Schuh, Barbara; Sauvageot, Nicolas et al

in Journal of Public Health Research (2015), 4(1),

Background. Though the influence of physical activity in preventing cardiovascular diseases is well documented, only a few comparative studies have determined the degree of adherence to physical activity ... [more ▼]

Background. Though the influence of physical activity in preventing cardiovascular diseases is well documented, only a few comparative studies have determined the degree of adherence to physical activity recommendations among populations and identified the demographic, socioeconomic, behavioural and health-related factors associated with good compliance. Design and methods. Cross-sectional interregional NESCaV survey of 3133 subjects compared three populations, Luxembourg, Lorraine (France) and Wallonia (Belgium), by using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Age and gender prevalence rates of physical activity were standardized to the European population. Results. The likelihood to meet the recommendations was higher in Luxembourg, after adjustment for age, gender, education, employment, weight status, morbidity score, health perception and level of importance attributed to the practice of physical activity (P<0.0001). The odds for meeting the recommendations were significantly higher among those with secondary than tertiary education. Compared to good self-health perception, subjects with poor or fair self-perceived health were less likely to meet the recommendations; this also applied to those attributing little or enough importance to physical activity compared with great importance. Conclusions. Region, education, self-perceived health and perception of importance of physical activity were emerged as independent determinants of meeting the recommendations. Awareness of the positive health effects of physical activity might thus be crucial for motivating the people to become more active. Further research is needed to explore potential region-specific factors which might explain the difference in population behaviours with respect to physical activity. [less ▲]

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See detailGigantism, acromegaly, and GPR101 mutations.
Daly, Adrian ULg; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Stratakis, Constantine

in New England Journal of Medicine (2015), 372(13), 1265

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See detailBRCA1 germline mutation and glioblastoma development: report of cases
Boukerroucha, Meriem ULg; Josse, Claire ULg; SEGERS, Karin ULg et al

in BMC Cancer (2015), 15

Background Germline mutations in breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) increase the risk of breast and ovarian cancers. However, no association between BRCA1 germline mutation and glioblastoma ... [more ▼]

Background Germline mutations in breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) increase the risk of breast and ovarian cancers. However, no association between BRCA1 germline mutation and glioblastoma malignancy has ever been highlighted. Here we report two cases of BRCA1 mutated patients who developed a glioblastoma (GBM). Cases presentation Two patients diagnosed with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) were screened for BRCA1 germline mutation. They both carried a pathogenic mutation introducing a premature STOP codon in the exon 11 of the BRCA1 gene. Few years later, both patients developed a glioblastoma and a second breast cancer. In an attempt to clarify the role played by a mutated BRCA1 allele in the GBM development, we investigated the BRCA1 mRNA and protein expression in breast and glioblastoma tumours for both patients. The promoter methylation status of this gene was also tested by methylation specific PCR as BRCA1 expression is also known to be lost by this mechanism in some sporadic breast cancers. Conclusion Our data show that BRCA1 expression is maintained in glioblastoma at the protein and the mRNA levels, suggesting that loss of heterozygosity (LOH) did not occur in these cases. The protein expression is tenfold higher in the glioblastoma of patient 1 than in her first breast carcinoma, and twice higher in patient 2. In agreement with the high protein expression level in the GBM, BRCA1 promoter methylation was not observed in these tumours. In these two cases, despite of a BRCA1 pathogenic germline mutation, the tumour-suppressor protein expression is maintained in GBM, suggesting that the BRCA1 mutation is not instrumental for the GBM development. [less ▲]

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See detailFerromagnetism induced by entangled charge and orbital orderings in ferroelectric titanate perovskites
Bristowe, Nicholas ULg; Varignon, Julien ULg; Fontaine, Denis et al

in Nature Communications (2015), 6

In magnetic materials, the Pauli exclusion principle typically drives anti-alignment between electron spins on neighbouring species resulting in antiferromagnetic behaviour. Ferromagnetism exhibiting ... [more ▼]

In magnetic materials, the Pauli exclusion principle typically drives anti-alignment between electron spins on neighbouring species resulting in antiferromagnetic behaviour. Ferromagnetism exhibiting spontaneous spin alignment is a fairly rare behaviour, but once materialized is often associated with itinerant electrons in metals. Here we predict and rationalize robust ferromagnetism in an insulating oxide perovskite structure based on the popular titanate series. In half-doped layered titanates, the combination of Jahn–Teller and oxygen breathing motions opens a band gap and creates an unusual charge and orbital ordering of the Ti d electrons. It is argued that this intriguingly intricate electronic network favours the elusive inter-site ferromagnetic (FM) ordering, on the basis of intra-site Hund's rules. Finally, we find that the layered oxides are also ferroelectric with a spontaneous polarization approaching that of ​BaTiO3. The concepts are general and design principles of the technologically desirable FM ferroelectric multiferroics are presented. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing XCO2 retrievals for assessing the long-term consistency of NDACC/FTIR data sets
Barthlott, S; Schneider, M; Hase, F et al

in Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (2015), 8

Within the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change), more than 20 FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared) spectrometers, spread worldwide, provide long-term data records of many ... [more ▼]

Within the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change), more than 20 FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared) spectrometers, spread worldwide, provide long-term data records of many atmospheric trace gases. We present a method that uses measured and modelled XCO2 for assessing the consistency of these NDACC data records. Our XCO2 retrieval setup is kept simple so that it can easily be adopted for any NDACC/FTIR-like measurement made since the late 1950s. By a comparison to coincident TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network) measurements, we empirically demonstrate the useful quality of this suggested NDACC XCO2 product (empirically obtained scatter between TCCON and NDACC is about 4‰ for daily mean as well as monthly mean comparisons, and the bias is 25 ‰). Our XCO2 model is a simple regression model fitted to CarbonTracker results and the Mauna Loa CO2 in situ records. A comparison to TCCON data suggests an uncertainty of the model for monthly mean data of below 3 ‰. We apply the method to the NDACC/FTIR spectra that are used within the project MUSICA (multi-platform remote sensing of isotopologues for investigating the cycle of atmospheric water) and demonstrate that there is a good consistency for these globally representative set of spectra measured since 1996: the scatter between the modelled and measured XCO2 on a yearly time scale is only 3 ‰. [less ▲]

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See detailAge-dependent expression of osteochondrosis-related genes in equine leukocytes
Mendoza García, Luis ULg; Piquemal, David; Lejeune, Jean-Philippe ULg et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2015), 2

Introduction: Osteochondrosis (OC) is a developmental disease in horses which has a significant impact on the horse’s welfare and performance. The early disturbance in the process of endochondral ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Osteochondrosis (OC) is a developmental disease in horses which has a significant impact on the horse’s welfare and performance. The early disturbance in the process of endochondral ossification progresses to inflammatory and repair processes in older horses. Previously, differentially expressed genes in leukocytes of OC-affected horses have been identified. The aim of the present study is to detect age-related changes in these differentially expressed genes. Materials and Methods: The expression of OC-related genes was analysed by real-time PCR and subsequent statistical analysis (ΔΔCT) in the leukocytes of 135 Belgian Warmblood horses divided into three different age groups: 30 months (n=38). Results: Relative expression of genes of horses less than 12 months of age showed significant induction of the genes MGAT4A, PRKCG, MHCI, ApoB, ApoB3G, B4GALT6 and a significantly lower expression of the genes OAS3. Horses of 18–24 months of age, showed a significantly higher expression of the genes TBC1D9, MGAT4A, IFIH1, MHCIIa and MMP1. Horses of more than 30 months of age showed a significantly higher expression of the genes MGAT4A, HP, SECTM1 compared with their age-matched control groups. Conclusions: The study demonstrates that OC-related genes are differentially expressed in horses of different ages compared with their age-matched controls. Some of the genes may be implicated in cell signalling and differentiation as well as carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and inflammation. However, the causal relationship between the differentially expressed genes and the development and progression of the OC lesions needs to be determined. [less ▲]

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See detailCentury-scale simulations of the response of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet to a warming climate
Cornford, S.L.; Martin, D.F.; Payne, A.J. et al

in Cryosphere Discussions (The) (2015), 9

We use the BISICLES adaptive mesh ice sheet model to carry out one, two, and three century simulations of the fast-flowing ice streams of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Each of the simulations begins with ... [more ▼]

We use the BISICLES adaptive mesh ice sheet model to carry out one, two, and three century simulations of the fast-flowing ice streams of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Each of the simulations begins with a geometry and velocity close to present day observations, and evolves according to variation in meteoric ice accumulation, ice shelf melting, and mesh resolution. Future changes in accumulation and melt rates range from no change, through anomalies computed by atmosphere and ocean models driven by the E1 and A1B emissions scenarios, to spatially uniform melt rates anomalies that remove most of the ice shelves over a few centuries. We find that variation in the resulting ice dynamics is dominated by the choice of initial conditions, ice shelf melt rate and mesh resolution, although ice accumulation affects the net change in volume above flotation to a similar degree. Given sufficient melt rates, we compute grounding line retreat over hundreds of kilometers in every major ice stream, but the ocean models do not predict such melt rates outside of the Amundsen Sea Embayment until after 2100. Sensitivity to mesh resolution is spurious, and we find that sub-kilometer resolution is needed along most regions of the grounding line to avoid systematic under-estimates of the retreat rate, although resolution requirements are more stringent in some regions – for example the Amundsen Sea Embayment – than others – such as the Möller and Institute ice streams. [less ▲]

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See detailComment optimiser l’efficience de l’aide internationale, dans le domaine de la santé, en République Démocratique du Congo
Manzambi Kuwekita, Joseph ULg; Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Guillaume, Michèle ULg et al

in Santé Publique : Revue Multidisciplinaire pour la Recherche et l'Action (2015), 27(Janvier-Févier), 129-134

Analysis of national health insurance accounts in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) clearly shows the importance of international sanitary aid, particularly for the funding of general referral ... [more ▼]

Analysis of national health insurance accounts in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) clearly shows the importance of international sanitary aid, particularly for the funding of general referral hospitals, the management of inpatients with AIDS, administration of health zones and funding of preventive care providers. It The targeted changes described in this article could possibly optimize the efficiency of international aid for the DRC population, mainly for disorders considered to be a health care priority (i.e. malaria, AIDS, tuberculosis) as well as in the fight against malnutrition. Recommendations target the implementation of procedures for control of food chain security, changes in lifestyle and dietary habits of the population but also comprise extensive restructuring of the health care administration. A dramatic change of the structure in charge of drug distribution as well as eradication of the transfer of part of public health structure income to public health administrative personnel could result in the allocation of significant funds to the fight against the most important diseases. Better collaboration between the various departments in charge of health care professional training, together with enhanced responsibility of health care personnel is essential. Independent and respected non-governmental organizations should be involved in an audit process, targeting all aspects of the current DRC health system. Eventually, in an equal opportunity perspective, taking into consideration the very high degree of poverty of DRC inhabitants, implementation of health insurance programmes, use of generic drugs and generalization of micro-credit initiatives should also be implemented. [less ▲]

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See detailPast changes in the vertical distribution of ozone – Part 3: Analysis and interpretation of trends
Harris, N. R. P.; Hassler, B.; Tummon, F. et al

in Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics Discussions (2015), 15(6), 8565--8608

Trends in the vertical distribution of ozone are reported and compared for a number of new and recently revised datasets. The amount of ozone-depleting compounds in the stratosphere (as measured by ... [more ▼]

Trends in the vertical distribution of ozone are reported and compared for a number of new and recently revised datasets. The amount of ozone-depleting compounds in the stratosphere (as measured by Equivalent Effective Stratospheric Chlorine – EESC) maximised in the second half of the 1990s. We therefore examine the trends in the periods before and after that peak to see if any change in trend is discernible in the ozone record. Prior to 1998, trends in the upper stratosphere (~ 45 km, 4 hPa) are found to be −5 to −10% per decade at mid-latitudes and closer to −5% per decade in the tropics. No trends are found in the mid-stratosphere (28 km, 30 hPa). Negative trends are seen in the lower stratosphere at mid-latitudes in both hemispheres and in the deep tropics. However it is hard to be categorical about the trends in the lower stratosphere for three reasons: (i) there are fewer measurements, (ii) the data quality is poorer, and (iii) the measurements in the 1990s are perturbed by aerosols from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption in 1991. These findings are similar to those reported previously even though the measurements for the two main satellite instruments (SBUV and SAGE II) and the ground-based Umkehr and ozonesonde stations have been revised. There is no sign of a continued negative trend in the upper stratosphere since 1998: instead there is a hint of an average positive trend of ~ 2% per decade in mid-latitudes and ~ 3% per decade in the tropics. The significance of these upward trends is investigated using different assumptions of the independence of the trend estimates found from different datasets. The averaged upward trends are significant if the trends derived from various datasets are assumed to be independent, but are generally not significant if the trends are not independent. This arises because many of the underlying measurement records are used in more than one merged dataset. At this point it is not possible to say which assumption is best. Including an estimate of the drift of the overall ozone observing system decreases the significance of the trends. The significance will become clearer as (i) more years are added to the observational record, (ii) further improvements are made to the historic ozone record (e.g. through algorithm development), and (iii) the data merging techniques are refined, particularly through a more rigorous treatment of uncertainties. [less ▲]

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See detailImaging myeloma and related monoclonal plasma cell disorders using MRI, low dose whole-body CT and FDG PET/CT
WITHOFS, Nadia ULg; NANNI, C.; SIMONI, Paolo ULg et al

in Clinical and Translational Imaging (2015)

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See detailSiltation and Pollution of Rivers in the Western Highlands of Cameroon: a Consequence of Farmland Erosion and Runoff
Djoukeng, Henri Grisseur ULg; Tankou, Christopher Mubeteneh; Degré, Aurore ULg

in International Journal of Agricultural Research and Reviews (2015), 3(3), 206-212

In the Western Highlands agro-ecological zone of Cameroon, rivers are constantly silted and polluted with eroded sediment and waste from cultivated land. This study characterizes and quantifies the amount ... [more ▼]

In the Western Highlands agro-ecological zone of Cameroon, rivers are constantly silted and polluted with eroded sediment and waste from cultivated land. This study characterizes and quantifies the amount of material coming from plots cultivated in the Méloh Watershed. In a natural rocky-bottomed well measuring 0.90 m deep, 3 m long, and 2.5 m wide, for a period of three years we performed the collection, differentiation, and measurement of trapped sediment in the cultivated part of river that runs through the watershed. Both cultivated sides of the watershed had fairly regular slopes of 14% on one side and 17% on the other side. The material retrieved consisted of soil, plant residues, chemical packages, and plastic casing used for irrigation. During the years 2012 and 2013, farmers practiced both flatbed cultivation and ridging along the steepest slopes. These two methods of land preparation are inefficient in terms of water conservation, as evidenced by the collection of 10.429 t.ha-1 average total sediment per year during this period. Tied ridging cultivation method was experimented during the 2013 crop year and adopted on 75% of plots in 2014. We subsequently collected 3.586 t.ha-1 total sediment, a decrease of 65.61% compared to the average of previous years. The tied ridging cultivation method significantly reduced siltation of the Méloh River (p<0.05). This study showed that traditional agricultural practices are a principal cause of siltation and pollution of the Méloh River. By extrapolation, we can state that the problem must occur in almost all rivers in the study area with similar topography and agricultural practices [less ▲]

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See detailGreenland high-elevation mass balance: inference and implication of reference period (1961–90) imbalance
Colgan, W.; Box, J.; Andersen, M. et al

in Annals of Glaciology (2015), 56(70), 105117

We revisit the input–output mass budget of the high-elevation region of the Greenland ice sheet evaluated by the Program for Arctic Regional Climate Assessment (PARCA). Our revised reference period ... [more ▼]

We revisit the input–output mass budget of the high-elevation region of the Greenland ice sheet evaluated by the Program for Arctic Regional Climate Assessment (PARCA). Our revised reference period (1961–90) mass balance of 54 48 Gt a–1 is substantially greater than the 0 21 Gt a–1 assessed by PARCA, but consistent with a recent, fully independent, input–output estimate of high-elevation mass balance (41 61 Gt a–1). Together these estimates infer a reference period high-elevation specific mass balance of 4.8 5.4 cm w.e. a–1. The probability density function (PDF) associated with this combined input–output estimate infers an 81% likelihood of high-elevation specific mass balance being positive (>0 cm w.e. a–1) during the reference period, and a 70% likelihood that specific balance was >2 cm w.e. a–1. Given that reference period accumulation is characteristic of centurial and millennial means, and that in situ mass-balance observations exhibit a dependence on surface slope rather than surface mass balance, we suggest that millennial-scale ice dynamics are the primary driver of subtle reference period high-elevation mass gain. Failure to acknowledge subtle reference period dynamic mass gain can result in underestimating recent dynamic mass loss by 17%, and recent total Greenland mass loss by 7%. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization of a PGSS (particles from gas saturated solutions) process for a fenofibrate lipid-based solid dispersion formulation
Pestieau, Aude ULg; Krier, Fabrice ULg; Lebrun, Pierre ULg et al

in International Journal of Pharmaceutics (2015), 485

The aim of this study was to develop a formulation containing fenofibrate and Gelucire® 50/13 (Gattefossé, France) in order to improve the oral bioavailability of the drug. Particles from Gas Saturated ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to develop a formulation containing fenofibrate and Gelucire® 50/13 (Gattefossé, France) in order to improve the oral bioavailability of the drug. Particles from Gas Saturated Solutions (PGSS) process was chosen for investigation as a manufacturing process for producing a solid dispersion. The PGSS process was optimized according to the in vitro drug dissolution profile obtained using a biphasic dissolution test. Using a design of experiments approach, the effects of nine experimental parameters were investigated using a PGSS apparatus provided by Separex® (Champigneulles, France). Within the chosen experimental conditions, the screening results showed that the drug loading level, the autoclave temperature and pressure, the connection temperature and the nozzle diameter had a significant influence on the dissolution profile of fenofibrate. During the optimization step, the three most relevant parameters were optimized using a central composite design, while other factors remained fixed. In this way, we were able to identify the optimal production conditions that would deliver the highest level of fenofibrate in the organic phase at the end of the dissolution test. The closeness between the measured and the predicted optimal dissolution profiles in the organic phase demonstrated the validity of the statistical analyses. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociations of Wheat with Pea Can Reduce Aphid Infestations
Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULg; Bodson, Bernard ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg

in Neotropical Entomology (2015)

Increasing plant diversity within crops can be beneficial for pest control. In this field study, the effects of two wheat and pea associations (mixed cropping and strip cropping) on aphid populations were ... [more ▼]

Increasing plant diversity within crops can be beneficial for pest control. In this field study, the effects of two wheat and pea associations (mixed cropping and strip cropping) on aphid populations were compared with pure stands of both crops by observations on tillers and plants. Pea was more susceptible to infestations than wheat. As expected, the density of aphid colonies was significantly higher in pure stands during the main occurrence periods, compared with associations. Additionally, flying beneficials, such as not only aphidophagous adult ladybirds but also parasitoid, hoverfly and lacewing species that feed on aphids at the larval stage, were monitored using yellow pan traps. At specific times of the sampling season, ladybirds and hoverflies were significantly more abundant in the pure stand of pea and wheat, respectively, compared with associations. Few parasitoids and lacewings were trapped. This study showed that increasing plant diversity within crops by associating cultivated species can reduce aphid infestations, since host plants are more difficult to locate. However, additional methods are needed to attract more efficiently adult beneficials into wheat and pea associations. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrowave-stimulated superconductivity due to presence of vortices
Lara, Antonio; Aliev, Farkhad; Silhanek, Alejandro ULg et al

in Scientific Reports (2015), 5

The response of superconducting devices to electromagnetic radiation is a core concept implemented in diverse applications, ranging from the currently used voltage standard to single photon detectors in ... [more ▼]

The response of superconducting devices to electromagnetic radiation is a core concept implemented in diverse applications, ranging from the currently used voltage standard to single photon detectors in astronomy. Suprisingly, a sufficiently high power subgap radiation may stimulate superconductivity itself. The possibility of stimulating type II superconductors, in which the radiation may interact also with vortex cores, remains however unclear. Here we report on superconductivity enhanced by GHz radiation in type II superconducting Pb films in the presence of vortices. The stimulation effect is more clearly observed in the upper critical field and less pronounced in the critical temperature. The magnetic field dependence of the vortex related microwave losses in a film with periodic pinning reveals a reduced dissipation of mobile vortices in the stimulated regime due to a reduction of the core size. Results of numerical simulations support the validy of this conclusion. Our findings may have intriguing connections with holographic superconductors in which the possibility of stimulation is under current debate. [less ▲]

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See detailTrends of ozone total columns and vertical distribution from FTIR observations at eight NDACC stations around the globe
Vigouroux, C; Blumenstock, T; Coffey, M et al

in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (2015), 15

Ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements of solar absorption spectra can provide ozone total columns with a precision of 2 % but also independent partial column amounts in about four ... [more ▼]

Ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements of solar absorption spectra can provide ozone total columns with a precision of 2 % but also independent partial column amounts in about four vertical layers, one in the troposphere and three in the stratosphere up to about 45 km, with a precision of 5–6 %. We use eight of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) stations having a long-term time series of FTIR ozone measurements to study the total and vertical ozone trends and variability, namely, Ny-Ålesund (79ºN), Thule (77ºN), Kiruna (68ºN), Harestua (60ºN), Jungfraujoch (47ºN), Izaña (28ºN), Wollongong (34ºS) and Lauder (45ºS). The length of the FTIR time series varies by station but is typically from about 1995 to present. We applied to the monthly means of the ozone total and four partial columns a stepwise multiple regression model including the following proxies: solar cycle, quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Arctic and Antarctic Oscillation (AO/AAO), tropopause pressure (TP), equivalent latitude (EL), Eliassen–Palm flux (EPF), and volume of polar stratospheric clouds (VPSC). At the Arctic stations, the trends are found mostly negative in the troposphere and lower stratosphere, very mixed in the middle stratosphere, positive in the upper stratosphere due to a large increase in the 1995–2003 period, and non-significant when considering the total columns. The trends for mid-latitude and subtropical stations are all non-significant, except at Lauder in the troposphere and upper stratosphere and at Wollongong for the total columns and the lower and middle stratospheric columns where they are found positive. At Jungfraujoch, the upper stratospheric trend is close to significance (+0.9 ± 1.0 %/decade). Therefore, some signs of the onset of ozone mid-latitude recovery are observed only in the Southern Hemisphere, while a few more years seem to be needed to observe it at the northern mid-latitude station. [less ▲]

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See detailLoss of Snail2 favors skin tumor progression by promoting the recruitment of myeloid progenitors
Villarejo, Ana; Molina Ortiz, Patricia ULg; Montenegro, Yenny et al

in Carcinogenesis (2015), 36(5), 585-597

Snail2 is a zinc finger transcription factor involved in driving epithelial to mesenchymal transitions. Snail2 null mice are viable, but display defects in melanogenesis, gametogenesis and hematopoiesis ... [more ▼]

Snail2 is a zinc finger transcription factor involved in driving epithelial to mesenchymal transitions. Snail2 null mice are viable, but display defects in melanogenesis, gametogenesis and hematopoiesis, and are markedly radiosensitive. Here, using mouse genetics, we have studied the contributions of Snail2 to epidermal homeostasis and skin carcinogenesis. Snail2 −/− mice presented a defective epidermal terminal differentiation and, unexpectedly, an increase in number, size and malignancy of tumor lesions when subjected to the two-stage mouse skin chemical carcinogenesis protocol, compared with controls. Additionally, tumor lesions from Snail2 −/− mice presented a high inflammatory component with an elevated percentage of myeloid precursors in tumor lesions that was further increased in the presence of the anti-inflammatory agent dexamethasone. In vitro studies in Snail2 null keratinocytes showed that loss of Snail2 leads to a decrease in proliferation indicating a non-cell autonomous role for Snail2 in the skin carcinogenic response observed in vivo. Bone marrow (BM) cross-reconstitution assays between Snail2 wild-type and null mice showed that Snail2 absence in the hematopoietic system fully reproduces the tumor behavior of the Snail2 null mice and triggers the accumulation of myeloid precursors in the BM, blood and tumor lesions. These results indicate a new role for Snail2 in preventing myeloid precursors recruitment impairing skin chemical carcinogenesis progression. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficacy of a web-based, center-based or combined physical activity intervention among older adults
Mouton, Alexandre ULg; Cloes, Marc ULg

in Health Education Research (2015)

With more social support and environment-centered interventions being recommended in web-based interventions, this study examined the efficacy of three intervention conditions aimed at promoting physical ... [more ▼]

With more social support and environment-centered interventions being recommended in web-based interventions, this study examined the efficacy of three intervention conditions aimed at promoting physical activity (PA) in older adults. The efficacy analyses included the self-reported PA level, stage of change for PA and awareness about PA among participants. Eligible participants (N = 149; M = 65 years old, SD = 6), recruited in a unique Belgian French-speaking municipality, were randomized in four research arms for a 3-month intervention: (i) web-based; (ii) center-based; (iii) mixed (combination of web- and center-based); and (iv) control (no intervention). Web-based condition included a PA website and monthly tailored emails whereas center-based condition comprised 12 sessions (1 per week) of group exercising. With a significant increase in PA, the PA stage of change and the PA awareness at 12 months, the mixed intervention condition seemed to include the key social and motivating elements for sustainable behavior change. Center-based intervention was more likely to produce significant improvements of the PA level and the stage of change for PA change whereas web-based intervention was more likely to extend the awareness about PA. [less ▲]

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See detailBioassessment of trace element contamination of Mediterranean coastal waters using the seagrass Posidonia oceanica
Richir, Jonathan ULg; Salivas-Decaux, Maÿlis; Lafabrie, Céline et al

in Journal of Environmental Management (2015), 150

A large scale survey of the trace element (TE) contamination of Mediterranean coastal waters was performed from the analysis of Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni and Pb in the bioindicator Posidonia oceanica ... [more ▼]

A large scale survey of the trace element (TE) contamination of Mediterranean coastal waters was performed from the analysis of Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni and Pb in the bioindicator Posidonia oceanica, sampled at 110 sites differing by their levels of exposure to contaminants. The holistic approach developed in this study, based on the combined utilization of several complementary monitoring tools, i.e. water quality scale, pollution index and spatial analysis, accurately assessed the TE contamination rate of Mediterranean coastal waters. In particular, the mapping of the TE contamination according to a new proposed 5-level water quality scale precisely outlined the contamination severity along Mediterranean coasts and facilitated interregional comparisons. Finally, the reliability of the use of P. oceanica as bioindicator species was again demonstrated through several global, regional and local detailed case studies. NB: The designations employed and the presentation of the information in thisdocument do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the authors concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. [less ▲]

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See detailDouble thermo-responsive hydrogels from poly(vinylcaprolactam) containing diblock and triblock copolymers
Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg; Mathieu, Kevin ULg; Kermagoret, Anthony ULg et al

in Polymer Chemistry (2015), 6(10), 1856-1864

The thermally-induced gelation and gel properties of concentrated aqueous solutions of double thermoresponsive poly(N-vinylamide)-based di- and triblock copolymers are studied by rheology. The copolymers ... [more ▼]

The thermally-induced gelation and gel properties of concentrated aqueous solutions of double thermoresponsive poly(N-vinylamide)-based di- and triblock copolymers are studied by rheology. The copolymers under investigation, prepared by cobalt-mediated radical polymerization and coupling reactions, are composed of poly(vinylcaprolactam) (PNVCL) blocks and of a statistical poly(vinylcaprolactam-stat-vinylpyrrolidone) segment with a cloud point temperature (TCP) higher than that of PNVCL. Heating the di- and triblock solutions beyond the first phase transition temperature favors gel formation while heating above the second TCP leads to opaque gels without macroscopic demixing. Moduli of the triblock hydrogels are systematically higher than those of the corresponding diblocks, even above the second transition. Rheological data suggest distinct micellar structures for each copolymer architecture: densely packed micelles of diblocks and 3-D networks of bridged micelles for triblocks. Strain sweep experiments also emphasize the positive effect of the micelle bridging on the elasticity and stability of the hydrogels. The formation and properties of the obtained gels are also shown to depend on the copolymer concentration, block length, and composition. Addition of salt also allows us to tune the phase transition temperatures of these double thermoresponsive hydrogels. [less ▲]

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See detailPrognostic value of (18)F-FDG PET/CT in liver transplantation for hepatocarcinoma.
Detry, Olivier ULg; Govaerts, Laurence; De Roover, Arnaud ULg et al

in World journal of gastroenterology : WJG (2015), 21(10), 3049-54

AIM: To evaluate the prognostic value of pretreatment FDG positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT) in patients with hepatocarcinoma treated by liver transplantation (LT). METHODS: The ... [more ▼]

AIM: To evaluate the prognostic value of pretreatment FDG positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT) in patients with hepatocarcinoma treated by liver transplantation (LT). METHODS: The authors retrospectively analyzed the data of 27 patients (mean age 58 +/- 9 years) who underwent FDG PET-CT before LT for hepatocarcinoma. Mean follow-up was 26 +/- 18 mo. The FDG PET/CT was performed according to a standard clinical protocol: 4 MBqFDG/kg body weight, uptake 60 min, low-dose non-enhanced CT. The authors measured the SUVmax and SUVmean of the tumor and the normal liver. The tumor/liver activity ratios (RSUVmax and RSUVmean) were tested as prognostic factors and compared to the following conventional prognostic factors: MILAN, CLIP, OKUDA, TNM stage, alphafoetoprotein level, portal thrombosis, size of the largest nodule, tumor differentiation, microvascular invasion, underlying cirrhosis and liver function. RESULTS: Overall and recurrence free survivals were 80.7% and 67.4% at 3 years, and 70.6% and 67.4% at 5 years, respectively. According to a multivariate Cox model, only FDG PET/CT RSUVmax predicted recurrence free survival. Even though the MILAN criteria alone were not predictive, it is worth noting that none of the patients outside the MILAN criteria and with RSUVmax < 1.15 relapsed. CONCLUSION: FDG PET/CT with an RSUVmax cut-off value of 1.15 is a strong prognostic factor for recurrence and death in patients with HCC treated by LT in this retrospective series. Further prospective studies should test whether this metabolic index should be systematically included in the preoperative assessment. [less ▲]

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See detailArtificial Intelligence in Video Games: Towards a Unified Framework
Safadi, Firas ULg; Fonteneau, Raphaël ULg; Ernst, Damien ULg

in International Journal of Computer Games Technology (2015), 2015

With modern video games frequently featuring sophisticated and realistic environments, the need for smart and comprehensive agents that understand the various aspects of complex environments is pressing ... [more ▼]

With modern video games frequently featuring sophisticated and realistic environments, the need for smart and comprehensive agents that understand the various aspects of complex environments is pressing. Since video game AI is often specifically designed for each game, video game AI tools currently focus on allowing video game developers to quickly and efficiently create specific AI. One issue with this approach is that it does not efficiently exploit the numerous similarities that exist between video games not only of the same genre, but of different genres too, resulting in a difficulty to handle the many aspects of a complex environment independently for each video game. Inspired by the human ability to detect analogies between games and apply similar behavior on a conceptual level, this paper suggests an approach based on the use of a unified conceptual framework to enable the development of conceptual AI which relies on conceptual views and actions to define basic yet reasonable and robust behavior. The approach is illustrated using two video games, Raven and StarCraft: Brood War. [less ▲]

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See detailMutant p53 promotes tumor cell malignancy by both positive and negative regulation of TGF-β pathway
Lei Ji; Jinjin Xu; Jian Liu et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2015)

Specific p53 mutations abrogate the tumor suppressive functions by gaining new abilities to promote tumorigenesis. Inactivation of p53 is known to distort the TGF-β signaling, which paradoxically displays ... [more ▼]

Specific p53 mutations abrogate the tumor suppressive functions by gaining new abilities to promote tumorigenesis. Inactivation of p53 is known to distort the TGF-β signaling, which paradoxically displays both tumor-suppressive and pro-oncogenic function. The molecular mechanisms how mutant p53 simultaneously antagonizes tumor-suppressive and synergizes tumor-promoting function of TGF-β pathway remain elusive. Here we demonstrate that mutant p53 differentially regulates subsets of TGF-β target genes, by an enhanced binding to the MH2 domain in Smad3 upon the integration of ERK signaling, therefore disrupting the Smad3/Smad4 complex formation. Silencing Smad2, inhibition of ERK or introducing a phosphorylation defective mutation at Ser392 in p53 abrogates the R175H mutant p53 dependent regulation of these TGF- β target genes. Our study provide a mechanism to reconcile the seemingly contradictory observations that mutant p53 can both attenuate and cooperate with the TGF-β pathway to promote cancer cell malignancy in a same cell type. [less ▲]

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See detailPhase Transformations and Crack Initiation in a High-Chromium Cast Steel Under Hot Compression Tests
Tchuindjang, Jérôme Tchoufack ULg; Neira Torres, Ingrid; Fores, Paulo et al

in Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance (2015), 24(5), 2025-2041

The mechanical behavior of the fully austenitic matrix of high-chromium cast steel (HCCS) alloy is determined by external compression stress applied at 300 and 700 C. The microstructure is roughly ... [more ▼]

The mechanical behavior of the fully austenitic matrix of high-chromium cast steel (HCCS) alloy is determined by external compression stress applied at 300 and 700 C. The microstructure is roughly characterized toward both optical and scanning electron microscopy analyses. Dilatometry is used during heating from room temperature up to austenitization to study the solid-state phase transformations, precipitation, and dissolution reactions. Two various strengthening phenomena (precipitation hardening and stress-induced bainite transformation) and one softening mechanism (dynamic recovery) are highlighted from compression tests. The influence of the temperature and the carbide type on the mechanical behavior of the HCCS material is also enhanced. Cracks observed on grain boundary primary carbides allow establishing a rough damage model. The crack initiation within the HCCS alloy is strongly dependent on the temperature, the externally applied stress, and the matrix strength and composition. [less ▲]

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See detailKLF17 empowers TGF-β/Smad signaling by targeting Smad3-dependent pathway to suppress tumor growth and metastasis during cancer progression.
Ali, Amjad ULg; Zhang P; Liangfang Y et al

in cell death and disease (2015)

Inhibition of tumor suppressive signaling is linked to cancer progression, metastasis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β)/Smad signaling plays an important ... [more ▼]

Inhibition of tumor suppressive signaling is linked to cancer progression, metastasis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β)/Smad signaling plays an important role in tumor suppression. Kruppel-like-factor 17 (KLF17) is a negative regulator of metastasis and EMT. However, underlying mechanisms leading to tumor suppressive and anti-metastatic function of KLF17 still remains unknown. Here, we show that KLF17 plays an integral role in potentiating TGF-β/Smad signaling via Smad3-dependent pathway to suppress tumor progression. Intriguingly, TGF-β/Smad3 signaling induces KLF17 expression, generating a positive feedback loop. TGF-β/Smad3-KLF17 loop is critical for anti-metastasis and tumor inhibition in cancer cells. Mechanistically, silencing KLF17 reduced Smad3-DNA complex formation on Smad binding element (SBE) and affects the expression of TGF-β/Smad target genes. Moreover, KLF17 alters Smad3 binding pattern on chromatin. KLF17 regulates TGF-β target genes that are Smad3-dependent. Smad3 and KLF17 physically interact with each other via KLF17 responsive elements/SBE region. Intriguingly, TGF-β stimulates the recruitment of KLF17 on chromatin to subsets of metastasis-associated genes. Functionally, depletion of KLF17 enhanced tumorigenic features in cancer cells. KLF17 is critical for full cytostatic function of TGF-β/Smad signaling. Clinically, KLF17 expression significantly decreases during advance HCC. KLF17 shows positive correlation with Smad3 levels in cancer samples. Our data shows that enhance KLF17 activity has important therapeutic implications for targeted-therapies aimed at TGF-β/Smad3 pathway. These findings define novel mechanism by which TGF-β/Smad-KLF17 pathway mutually affect each other during cancer metastasis, provide a new model of regulation of TGF-β/Smad signaling by KLF17 and defines new insights into anti-metastatic function of KLF17. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Role of Government in Path- Dependent Development of SME Sector in Ukraine
Shutyak, Yuliya; Van Caillie, Didier ULg

in Journal of East-West Business (2015), 21(1), 67-90

This article studies evolution of governmental support for SME development from the times of Perestroika until 2013. Guided by institutional theory, the article revises SME development in Ukraine and ... [more ▼]

This article studies evolution of governmental support for SME development from the times of Perestroika until 2013. Guided by institutional theory, the article revises SME development in Ukraine and explains government actions through the prism of path dependence. The analysis is conducted within a matrix logic resuming the data by several periods of time corresponding to changes in the Ukrainian government and being juxtaposed to the main stages of the path dependence analytical framework. The study reveals main trends in governmental support for small business and main challenges remaining nowadays. [less ▲]

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See detailElastic and inelastic transmission in guided atom lasers: A truncated Wigner approach
Dujardin, Julien ULg; Argüelles, Arturo; Schlagheck, Peter ULg

in Physical Review A (2015), 91

We study the transport properties of a Bose-Einstein condensate formed by an ultracold gas of bosonic atoms that is coupled from a magnetic trap into a one-dimensional waveguide. Our theoretical approach ... [more ▼]

We study the transport properties of a Bose-Einstein condensate formed by an ultracold gas of bosonic atoms that is coupled from a magnetic trap into a one-dimensional waveguide. Our theoretical approach to tackling this problem is based on the truncated Wigner method for which we assume the system to consist of two semi-infinite noninteracting leads and a finite interacting scattering region with two constrictions modeling an atomic quantum dot. The transmission is computed in the steady-state regime and we find a good agreement between truncated Wigner and matrix-product state calculations. We also identify clear signatures of inelastic resonant scattering by analyzing the distribution of energy in the transmitted atomic-matter wave beam. [less ▲]

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See detailBaryon resonances in large Nc QCD
Matagne, Nicolas; Stancu, Floarea ULg

in Reviews of Modern Physics (2015), 87

We review the current status and present open challenges of large $N_c$ QCD baryon spectroscopy. After introducing the $1/N_c$ expansion method we first shortly revisit the latest achievements for the ... [more ▼]

We review the current status and present open challenges of large $N_c$ QCD baryon spectroscopy. After introducing the $1/N_c$ expansion method we first shortly revisit the latest achievements for the ground state properties. Next we discuss the applicability of this method to excited states, presenting two different approaches with their advantages and disadvantages. Selected results for the spectrum and strong and electromagnetic decays are described. We also present further developments for the applicability of the method to excited states, based on the qualitative compatibility between the quark excitation picture and the meson-nucleon scattering picture. We show that a quantitative comparison between results obtained from the mass formula of the $1/N_c$ expansion method and quark models brings convincing support to quark models and shortly discuss the implications of different large $N_c$ limits. We stress that the SU(6) spin-flavor structure of large $N_c$ baryon allows a convenient classification of highly excited resonances into SU(3) multiplets and predicts mass ranges for the missing partners. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrobiological quality of surface water treated with Moringa oleifera seeds or cakes during the storage : case study of water reservoirs of Loumbila, Ziga and Ouaga 3 Dams in Burkina Faso.
Kabore, Aminata; Savadogo, Boubacar; Otoidobiga, Harmonie C. et al

in Journal of Water Resource and Protection (2015), 7

Water purification with Moringa oleifera seeds has received a lot of attention because it reduces water turbidity and pathogenic microorganisms. However, it is important to define the optimum conditions ... [more ▼]

Water purification with Moringa oleifera seeds has received a lot of attention because it reduces water turbidity and pathogenic microorganisms. However, it is important to define the optimum conditions of storage to preserve the treated water quality. The study aims to investigate microbial quality of water treated with Moringa oleifera seeds or cake coagulants inrelation to the storage temperature and shelf life in order to define the optimum conditions of storage. A total of 45 water samples from 3 water reservoirs of Loumbila, Ziga and Ouaga 3 dams were collected in sterile glass bottles and treated in triplicate with Moringa oleifera seeds or defatted cakes coagulants. Treated water samples obtained at optimum conditions were stored at room temperature (25°C - 30°C) and at 4°C. Fecal bacteria pollution indicators (Escherichia coli, fecal coliforms and fecal streptococcus) and parasites were monitored every 24 hours during three (3) days abased on laboratory standard methods. Data were analyzed using the Student's t-test and XLSTAT 7.5.2 statiscal software. From the results obtained, bacterial indicators increased significantly with storage temperature (p < 0.0001) and shelf life (p < 0.0001). However, for all water samples bacterial growth was more important in samples treated with Moringa oleifera cakes than seeds (p < 0.0001). For water samples treated with Moringa oleifera seeds and stored at room temperature, bacterial increase after 72 hours was 57 - 80, 42 - 50 and 22 - 47 CFU/100 ml for fecal coliforms, E. coli and fecal streptococcus, respectively. With Moringa oleifera cake's treatment, the increase was 63 - 104, 57 - 82 and 28 - 52 for the same indicators, respectively. Bacterial growth was also more important at room temperature than at 4°C. Thus, microbiological quality of water treated with Moringa oleifera seeds was better than cakes whatever storage temperature and shelf life. Overall, water treated with Moringa oleifera seeds should be stored at low temperature and consumed within 24 hours. [less ▲]

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See detailSystematic classification of two-loop realizations of the Weinberg operator
Aristizabal Sierra, Diego ULg; Hirsch, Martin; Degée, Audrey ULg et al

in Journal of High Energy Physics [=JHEP] (2015), 2015(03),

We systematically analyze the d=5 Weinberg operator at 2-loop order. Using a diagrammatic approach, we identify two different interesting categories of neutrino mass models: (i) Genuine 2- loop models for ... [more ▼]

We systematically analyze the d=5 Weinberg operator at 2-loop order. Using a diagrammatic approach, we identify two different interesting categories of neutrino mass models: (i) Genuine 2- loop models for which both, tree-level and 1-loop contributions, are guaranteed to be absent. And (ii) finite 2-loop diagrams, which correspond to the 1-loop generation of some particular vertex appearing in a given 1-loop neutrino mass model, thus being effectively 2-loop. From the large list of all possible 2-loop diagrams, the vast majority are infinite corrections to lower order neutrino mass models and only a moderately small number of diagrams fall into these two interesting classes. Moreover, all diagrams in class (i) are just variations of three basic diagrams, with examples discussed in the literature before. Similarly, we also show that class (ii) diagrams consists of only variations of these three plus two more basic diagrams. Finally, we show how our results can be consistently and readily used in order to construct two-loop neutrino mass models. [less ▲]

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See detailPre-employement examination for low back risk in workers exposesd to manual handling of loads : French guidelines
PETIT, Audrey; ROUSSEAU, Sandrine; HUEZ, Jean-François et al

in International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health (2015)

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See detailHow do harpacticoid copepods colonize detrital seagrass leaves?
Mascart, Thibaud ULg; Agusto, Laura; Lepoint, Gilles ULg et al

in Marine Biology (2015), 162(5), 929-943

An experiment was carried out investigating the colonization ability and specific pattern of copepods towards a provisional benthic habitat. Since copepods are known to disperse passively and actively ... [more ▼]

An experiment was carried out investigating the colonization ability and specific pattern of copepods towards a provisional benthic habitat. Since copepods are known to disperse passively and actively, the experiment aimed to investigate the pool of colonizers of macrophytodetritus and the species-specific active colonization pathways. The experiment was performed in a Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica meadow on defaunated macrophytodetritus accumulations (mainly dead seagrass leaves) for two time intervals (24 h and 96 h). Active colonization by copepods, independently of their adjacent potential source pool habitat (bare sandy sediments, P. oceanica canopy, water column and macrophytodetritus) occurred within 24 h. Natural densities (as in the control treatments) were only reached by active colonization through the water column. Both neither diversities nor species composition of natural macrophytodetritus were ever reached by one single migratory pathway, therefore only a combination of interstitial migration and water column migration can explain the species occurrence under natural condition. Moreover, every potential adjacent source pool habitat, contributed species to the newly colonized macrophytodetritus. However, the main colonizers were mostly species with good swimming capabilities. The diverse pool of species present in the newly colonized macrophytodetritus underlines the complex communities and dispersion capabilities of copepods. Hence, macrophytodetritus possesses the potential ability to be a colonizer source pool for every adjacent habitat and thus behaves as a copepod hub for the entire seagrass ecosystem. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of the textural parameters of resorcinol–formaldehyde dry polymers and carbon xerogels on particle sizes upon mechanical milling
Piedboeuf, Marie-Laure ULg; Léonard, Alexandre ULg; Traina, Karl et al

in Colloids and Surfaces A : Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects (2015), 471

Porous carbons find various applications in catalysis, electrochemical storage or sorption. Prior to use, their particle sizes need however to be controlled according to the targeted application. In this ... [more ▼]

Porous carbons find various applications in catalysis, electrochemical storage or sorption. Prior to use, their particle sizes need however to be controlled according to the targeted application. In this study, the grinding behavior of materials prepared from aqueous resorcinol–formaldehyde mixtures and displaying different pore textures was studied in detail. Both dry polymer gels and pyrolyzed carbon xerogels were compared in terms of particle size distributions after planetary ball-milling. The results show that the pore texture and the qualitative hardness of the materials have a strong influence on the grinding behavior, especially if carbon xerogels pyrolyzed before grinding are considered. On the other hand, it appears that the milling of polymer gels, followed by a pyrolysis step, is the most efficient way to obtain homogeneous particle size distributions, for all of the investigated mesopore textures. In this case, carbon particles displaying a narrow grain size distribution centered on a mode value near 10 μm are successfully obtained after similar grinding durations, with retention of the mesopore texture of the starting materials. This work also demonstrates the possibility of using mercury intrusion porosimetry as an interesting tool to assess simultaneously the mesopore dimensions and the particle sizes of porous powders. [less ▲]

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See detailLes droits fondamentaux, une substance malléable pour le juge? Propos sur la "dématérialisation" des droits fondamentaux
Rosoux, Géraldine ULg

in Justice-en-ligne (2015)

Ce texte contient un résumé de la thèse de doctorat de l'auteur; il est disponible en ligne: http://www.justice-enligne.be/article706.html.

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See detailAssessing the operation rules of a reservoir system based on a detailed modelling chain
Bruwier, Martin ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Pirotton, Michel ULg et al

in Natural Hazards & Earth System Sciences (2015), 15

The current operation rules of two muti-purpose reservoirs are analysed based on an integrated model including a hydrological model, a hydraulic model, a model of the reservoir system and a flood damage ... [more ▼]

The current operation rules of two muti-purpose reservoirs are analysed based on an integrated model including a hydrological model, a hydraulic model, a model of the reservoir system and a flood damage model. Five performance indicators have been defined, reflecting the ability to provide drinking water, to control floods, to produce hydropower and to reduce low-flow conditions. Then, impacts of two climate change scenarios are assessed and enhanced operation rules are proposed for mitigation. [less ▲]

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See detailThe small binary asteroid (939) Isberga
Carry, B.; Matter, A.; Scheirich, P. et al

in Icarus (2015), 248

In understanding the composition and internal structure of asteroids, their density is perhaps the most diagnostic quantity. We aim here at characterizing the surface composition, mutual orbit, size, mass ... [more ▼]

In understanding the composition and internal structure of asteroids, their density is perhaps the most diagnostic quantity. We aim here at characterizing the surface composition, mutual orbit, size, mass, and density of the small main-belt binary asteroid (939) Isberga. For that, we conduct a suite of multi-technique observations, including optical lightcurves over many epochs, near-infrared spectroscopy, and interferometry in the thermal infrared. We develop a simple geometric model of binary systems to analyze the interferometric data in combination with the results of the lightcurve modeling. From spectroscopy, we classify Ibserga as a Sq-type asteroid, consistent with the albedo of 0.14<SUB>-0.06</SUB><SUP>+0.09</SUP> (all uncertainties are reported as 3-σ range) we determine (average albedo of S-types is 0.197 ± 0.153, see Pravec et al. (Pravec et al. [2012]. Icarus 221, 365-387). Lightcurve analysis reveals that the mutual orbit has a period of 26.6304 ± 0.0001 h, is close to circular (eccentricity lower than 0.1), and has pole coordinates within 7° of (225°, +86°) in Ecliptic J2000, implying a low obliquity of 1.5<SUB>-1.5</SUB><SUP>+6.0</SUP> deg . The combined analysis of lightcurves and interferometric data allows us to determine the dimension of the system and we find volume-equivalent diameters of 12.4<SUB>-1.2</SUB><SUP>+2.5</SUP> km and 3.6<SUB>-0.3</SUB><SUP>+0.7</SUP> km for Isberga and its satellite, circling each other on a 33 km wide orbit. Their density is assumed equal and found to be 2.91<SUB>-2.01</SUB><SUP>+1.72</SUP> gcm<SUP>-3</SUP> , lower than that of the associated ordinary chondrite meteorites, suggesting the presence of some macroporosity, but typical of S-types of the same size range (Carry [2012]. Planet. Space Sci. 73, 98-118). The present study is the first direct measurement of the size of a small main-belt binary. Although the interferometric observations of Isberga are at the edge of MIDI capabilities, the method described here is applicable to others suites of instruments (e.g., LBT, ALMA). [less ▲]

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See detailWISE J072003.20-084651.2: an Old and Active M9.5 + T5 Spectral Binary 6 pc from the Sun
Burgasser, Adam J.; Gillon, Michaël ULg; Melis, Carl et al

in Astronomical Journal (The) (2015), 149

We report observations of the recently discovered, nearby late-M dwarf WISE J072003.20-084651.2. New astrometric measurements obtained with the TRAPPIST telescope improve the distance measurement to 6.0 ± ... [more ▼]

We report observations of the recently discovered, nearby late-M dwarf WISE J072003.20-084651.2. New astrometric measurements obtained with the TRAPPIST telescope improve the distance measurement to 6.0 ± 1.0 pc and confirm the low tangential velocity (3.5 ± 0.6 km s[SUP]-1[/SUP]) reported by Scholz. Low-resolution optical spectroscopy indicates a spectral type of M9.5 and prominent Hα emission (< {{log }[SUB]10[/SUB]}{{L}[SUB]Hα [/SUB]}/{{L}[SUB]bol[/SUB]}> = -4.68 ± 0.06), but no evidence of subsolar metallicity or Li i absorption. Near-infrared spectroscopy reveals subtle peculiarities that can be explained by the presence of a T5 binary companion, and high-resolution laser guide star adaptive optics imaging reveals a faint (ΔH = 4.1) candidate source 0\buildrel{\prime\prime}\over{.} 14 (0.8 AU) from the primary. With high-resolution optical and near-infrared spectroscopy, we measure a stable radial velocity of +83.8 ± 0.3 km s[SUP]-1[/SUP], indicative of old disk kinematics and consistent with the angular separation of the possible companion. We measure a projected rotational velocity of v sin i = 8.0 ± 0.5 km s[SUP]-1[/SUP] and find evidence of low-level variabilty (˜1.5%) in a 13 day TRAPPIST light curve, but cannot robustly constrain the rotational period. We also observe episodic changes in brightness (1%-2%) and occasional flare bursts (4%-8%) with a 0.8% duty cycle, and order-of-magnitude variations in Hα line strength. Combined, these observations reveal WISE J0720-0846 to be an old, very low-mass binary whose components straddle the hydrogen burning minimum mass, and whose primary is a relatively rapid rotator and magnetically active. It is one of only two known binaries among late M dwarfs within 10 pc of the Sun, both of which harbor a mid T-type brown dwarf companion. We show that while this specific configuration is rare (≲1.6% probability), roughly 25% of binary companions to late-type M dwarfs in the local population are likely low-temperature T or Y brown dwarfs. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. [less ▲]

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See detailRotation, spectral variability, magnetic geometry and magnetosphere of the Of?p star CPD -28° 2561
Wade, G. A.; Barbá, R. H.; Grunhut, J. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2015), 447

We report magnetic and spectroscopic observations and modelling of the Of?p star CPD -28° 2561. Using more than 75 new spectra, we have measured the equivalent width variations and examined the dynamic ... [more ▼]

We report magnetic and spectroscopic observations and modelling of the Of?p star CPD -28° 2561. Using more than 75 new spectra, we have measured the equivalent width variations and examined the dynamic spectra of photospheric and wind-sensitive spectral lines. A period search results in an unambiguous 73.41 d variability period. High-resolution spectropolarimetric data analysed using least-squares deconvolution yield a Zeeman signature detected in the mean Stokes V profile corresponding to phase 0.5 of the spectral ephemeris. Interpreting the 73.41 d period as the stellar rotational period, we have phased the equivalent widths and inferred longitudinal field measurements. The phased magnetic data exhibit a weak sinusoidal variation, with maximum of about 565 G at phase 0.5, and a minimum of about -335 G at phase 0.0, with extrema approximately in phase with the (double-wave) Hα equivalent width variation. Modelling of the Hα equivalent width variation assuming a quasi-3D magnetospheric model produces a unique solution for the ambiguous couplet of inclination and magnetic obliquity angles: (i, β) or (β, i) = (35°, 90°). Adopting either geometry, the longitudinal field variation yields a dipole polar intensity B[SUB]d[/SUB] = 2.6 ± 0.9 kG, consistent with that obtained from direct modelling of the Stokes V profiles. We derive a wind magnetic confinement parameter η[SUB]*[/SUB] ≃ 100, leading to an Alfvén radius R[SUB]A[/SUB] ≃ 3-5R[SUB]*[/SUB], and a Kepler radius R[SUB]K[/SUB] ≃ 20R[SUB]*[/SUB]. This supports a physical scenario in which the Hα emission and other line variability have their origin in an oblique, corotating `dynamical magnetosphere' structure resulting from a magnetically channelled wind. Nevertheless, the details of the formation of spectral lines and their variability within this framework remain generally poorly understood. [less ▲]

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See detailSearch for magnetic fields in particle-accelerating colliding-wind binaries
Neiner, C.; Grunhut, J.; Leroy, B. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2015), 575

Some colliding-wind massive binaries, called particle-accelerating colliding-wind binaries (PACWB), exhibit synchrotron radio emission, which is assumed to be generated by a stellar magnetic field ... [more ▼]

Some colliding-wind massive binaries, called particle-accelerating colliding-wind binaries (PACWB), exhibit synchrotron radio emission, which is assumed to be generated by a stellar magnetic field. However, no measurement of magnetic fields in these stars has ever been performed. We aim at quantifying the possible stellar magnetic fields present in PACWB to provide constraints for models. We gathered 21 high-resolution spectropolarimetric observations of 9 PACWB available in the ESPaDOnS, Narval and HarpsPol archives. We analysed these observations with the least squares deconvolution method. We separated the binary spectral components when possible. No magnetic signature is detected in any of the 9 PACWB stars and all longitudinal field measurements are compatible with 0 G. We derived the upper field strength of a possible field that could have remained hidden in the noise of the data. While the data are not very constraining for some stars, for several stars we could derive an upper limit of the polar field strength of the order of 200 G. We can therefore exclude the presence of strong or moderate stellar magnetic fields in PACWB, typical of the ones present in magnetic massive stars. Weak magnetic fields could however be present in these objects. These observational results provide the first quantitative constraints for future models of PACWB. [less ▲]

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See detailHow well can cold dark matter substructures account for the observed radio flux-ratio anomalies
Xu, Dandan; Sluse, Dominique ULg; Gao, Liang et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2015), 447

Discrepancies between the observed and model-predicted radio flux ratios are seen in a number of quadruply-lensed quasars. The most favoured interpretation of these anomalies is that cold dark matter (CDM ... [more ▼]

Discrepancies between the observed and model-predicted radio flux ratios are seen in a number of quadruply-lensed quasars. The most favoured interpretation of these anomalies is that cold dark matter (CDM) substructures present in lensing galaxies perturb the lens potentials and alter image magnifications and thus flux ratios. So far no consensus has emerged regarding whether or not the predicted CDM substructure abundance fully accounts for the lensing flux anomaly observations. Accurate modelling relies on a realistic lens sample in terms of both the lens environment and internal structures and substructures. In this paper, we construct samples of generalized and specific lens potentials, to which we add (rescaled) subhalo populations from the galaxy-scale Aquarius and the cluster-scale Phoenix simulation suites. We further investigate the lensing effects from subhaloes of masses several orders of magnitude below the simulation resolution limit. The resulting flux-ratio distributions are compared to the currently best available sample of radio lenses. The observed anomalies in B0128+437, B0712+472 and B1555+375 are more likely to be caused by propagation effects or oversimplified/improper lens modelling, signs of which are already seen in the data. Among the quadruple systems that have closely located image triplets/pairs, the anomalous flux ratios of MG0414+0534 can be reproduced by adding CDM subhaloes to its macroscopic lens potential, with a probability of 5-20 per cent; for B0712+472, B1422+231, B1555+375 and B2045+265, these probabilities are only of a few per cent. We hence find that CDM substructures are unlikely to be the whole reason for radio flux anomalies. We discuss other possible effects that might also be at work. [less ▲]

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See detailThe HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. XXXVI. Planetary systems and stellar activity of the M dwarfs GJ 3293, GJ 3341, and GJ 3543
Astudillo-Defru, N.; Bonfils, X.; Delfosse, X. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2015), 575

Context. Planetary companions of a fixed mass induce reflex motions with a larger amplitude around lower-mass stars, which adds to making M dwarfs excellent targets for extra-solar planet searches. The ... [more ▼]

Context. Planetary companions of a fixed mass induce reflex motions with a larger amplitude around lower-mass stars, which adds to making M dwarfs excellent targets for extra-solar planet searches. The most recent velocimeters with a stability of ~1 m s[SUP]-1[/SUP] can detect very low-mass planets out to the habitable zone of these stars. Low-mass small planets are abundant around M dwarfs, and most of the known potentially habitable planets orbit one of these cool stars. <BR /> Aims: Our M-dwarf radial velocity monitoring with HARPS on the ESO 3.6 m telescope at La Silla observatory makes a major contribution to this sample. <BR /> Methods: We present here dense radial velocity (RV) time series for three M dwarfs observed over ~five years: GJ 3293 (0.42 M[SUB]⊙[/SUB]), GJ 3341 (0.47 M[SUB]⊙[/SUB]), and GJ 3543 (0.45 M[SUB]⊙[/SUB]). We extracted these RVs through minimum χ[SUP]2[/SUP]-matching of each spectrum against a stack of all observed spectra for the same star that has a high signal-to-noise ratio. We then compared potential orbital signals against several stellar activity indicators to distinguish the Keplerian variations induced by planets from the spurious signals that result from rotational modulation of stellar surface inhomogeneities and from activity cycles. <BR /> Results: Two Neptune-mass planets - msin(i) = 1.4 ± 0.1 and 1.3 ± 0.1M[SUB]nept[/SUB] - orbit GJ 3293 with periods P = 30.60 ± 0.02 d and P = 123.98 ± 0.38 d, possibly together with a super-Earth - msin(i) ~ 7.9 ± 1.4 M[SUB]⊕[/SUB] - with period P = 48.14 ± 0.12d. A super-Earth - msin(i) ~ 6.1 M[SUB]⊕[/SUB] - orbits GJ 3341 with P = 14.207 ± 0.007d. The RV variations of GJ 3543, on the other hand, reflect its stellar activity rather than planetary signals. Based on observations made with the HARPS instrument on the ESO 3.6 m telescope under the program IDs 072.C-0488, 082.C-0718 and 183.C-0437 at Cerro La Silla (Chile).Tables A.1-A.3 (radial velocity data) are available in electronic form at <A href="http://www.aanda.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201424253/olm">http://www.aanda.org</A> and at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/575/A119">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/575/A119</A> [less ▲]

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See detailModification of standard ISHAGE methodology for CD34+ cells count on thawed Cord Blood Units: results from a multi-center Eurocord/Netcord study
Saccardi, RICCARDO; Azqueta, C; Ballerini, C et al

in Bone Marrow Transplantation (2015), 50

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See detailWASP-20b and WASP-28b: a hot Saturn and a hot Jupiter in near-aligned orbits around solar-type stars
Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Hellier, C. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2015), 575

We report the discovery of the planets WASP-20b and WASP-28b along with measurements of their sky-projected orbital obliquities. WASP-20b is an inflated, Saturn-mass planet (0.31 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB]; 1.46 R ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery of the planets WASP-20b and WASP-28b along with measurements of their sky-projected orbital obliquities. WASP-20b is an inflated, Saturn-mass planet (0.31 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB]; 1.46 R[SUB]Jup[/SUB]) in a 4.9-day, near-aligned (λ = 12.7 ± 4.2°) orbit around CD-24 102 (V = 10.7; F9). Due to the low density of the planet and the apparent brightness of the host star, WASP-20 is a good target for atmospheric characterisation via transmission spectroscopy. WASP-28b is an inflated, Jupiter-mass planet (0.91 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB]; 1.21 R[SUB]Jup[/SUB]) in a 3.4-day, near-aligned (λ = 8 ± 18°) orbit around a V = 12, F8 star. As intermediate-mass planets in short orbits around aged, cool stars (7[SUP]+ 2[/SUP][SUB]-1[/SUB] Gyr and 6000 ± 100 K for WASP-20; 5[SUP]+ 3[/SUP][SUB]-2[/SUB] Gyr and 6100 ± 150 K for WASP-28), their orbital alignment is consistent with the hypothesis that close-in giant planets are scattered into eccentric orbits with random alignments, which are then circularised and aligned with their stars' spins via tidal dissipation. Based on observations made with: the WASP-South (South Africa) and SuperWASP-North (La Palma) photometric survey instruments; the C2 and EulerCam cameras and the CORALIE spectrograph, all mounted on the 1.2-m Euler-Swiss telescope (La Silla); the HARPS spectrograph on the ESO 3.6-m telescope (La Silla) under programs 072.C-0488, 082.C-0608, 084.C-0185, and 085.C-0393; and LCOGT's Faulkes Telescope North (Maui) and Faulkes Telescope South (Siding Spring).Full Tables 2 and 3 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/575/A61">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/575/A61</A> [less ▲]

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See detailSpectroscopic variability of two Oe stars
Rauw, Grégor ULg; Morel, Thierry ULg; Nazé, Yaël ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2015), 575

Context. The two Oe stars HD 45 314 and HD 60 848 have recently been found to exhibit very different X-ray properties: whilst HD 60 848 has an X-ray spectrum and the emission level typical of most OB ... [more ▼]

Context. The two Oe stars HD 45 314 and HD 60 848 have recently been found to exhibit very different X-ray properties: whilst HD 60 848 has an X-ray spectrum and the emission level typical of most OB stars, HD 45 314 features a much harder and brighter X-ray emission, making it a so-called γ Cas analogue. Aims: Monitoring the optical spectra could provide hints towards the origin of these very different behaviours. Methods: We analyse a large set of spectroscopic observations of HD 45 314 and HD 60 848, extending over 20 years. We further attempt to fit the Hα line profiles of both stars with a simple model of emission line formation in a Keplerian disk. Results: Strong variations in the strengths of the Hα, Hβ, and He i λ 5876 emission lines are observed for both stars. In the case of HD 60 848, we find a time lag between the variations in the equivalent widths of these lines, which is currently not understood. The emission lines are double peaked with nearly identical strengths of the violet and red peaks. The Hα profile of this star can be successfully reproduced by our model of a disk seen under an inclination of 30°. In the case of HD 45 314, the emission lines are highly asymmetric and display strong line profile variations. We find a major change in behaviour between the 2002 outburst and the one observed in 2013. This concerns both the relationship between the equivalent widths of the various lines and their morphologies at maximum strength (double-peaked in 2002 versus single-peaked in 2013). Our simple disk model fails to reproduce the observed Hα line profiles of HD 45 314. Conclusions: Our results further support the interpretation that Oe stars do have decretion disks similar to those of Be stars. Whilst the emission lines of HD 60 848 are explained well by a disk with a Keplerian velocity field, the disk of HD 45 314 seems to have a significantly more complex velocity field that could be another signature of the phenomenon that produces its peculiar X-ray emission. [less ▲]

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See detailRumination time, milk yield, milking frequency of grazing dairy cows milked by a mobile automatic system during mild heat stress
Lessire, Françoise ULg; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg; Minet, Julien ULg et al

in Advances in Animal Biosciences (2015), 6(01), 12-14

Grazing dairy cows milked by an automatic system (AS) experienced mild heat stress (HS) periods, twice during the summer. The daily temperature humidity index (THI) during these periods were higher than ... [more ▼]

Grazing dairy cows milked by an automatic system (AS) experienced mild heat stress (HS) periods, twice during the summer. The daily temperature humidity index (THI) during these periods were higher than 72. Milk production, as well as milking frequency, rumination time and milk fat to protein ratio (F/P) during these periods were compared to adjacent periods with mean THI of 61. The daily milking frequency, the total number of visits to AS and the milk production were significantly higher in HS periods (2.12 vs 1.97, 2.99 vs 2.69, and 19.7 vs 18.5 kg milk per cow, respectively). There were significant interactions between times and periods for milking frequency and number of visits, while the daily rumination time was significantly lower (339 vs 419 min) and the F/P in milk tended to be decreased (1.17 vs 1.23). These results could be explained by changes in cow behaviour during HS periods. [less ▲]

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