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See detailUse of wheat bran arabinoxylans in chitosan-based films: Effect on physicochemical properties
Costa, Maria J.; Cerqueira, Miguel A.; Ruiz, Héctor A. et al

in Industrial Crops and Products (2015), 66

tThe aim of this work was to evaluate physicochemical properties of chitosan-based films with differentfractions of arabinoxylans (AXs). Five fractions composed by AXs or mixtures of AXs and arabino-xylo ... [more ▼]

tThe aim of this work was to evaluate physicochemical properties of chitosan-based films with differentfractions of arabinoxylans (AXs). Five fractions composed by AXs or mixtures of AXs and arabino-xylo-oligosaccharides (AXOS) obtained through three different processes were added to chitosan-based films.These films were obtained by solvent casting and characterized in terms of water vapor permeability(WVP), opacity, thickness, moisture content and mechanical properties (i.e., tensile strength – TS andelongation at break – EB), being the chemical interactions evaluated by FTIR.Moisture content values ranged between 20 and 30% for all five studied films being the lowest valueobserved for chitosan films with the fraction F1 of AX/AXOS (21.1%). The films with incorporation of F3a,F3b and F4 AXs fraction were more opaque (>10%) than the other studied films. Regarding mechanicalproperties CH films presented EB and TS values of 31.26% and 8.25 MPa, respectively, both these valuesremain statistically equal with the incorporation of AX/AXOS except for films containing the fractionF1 and F2. For films with the F2 fraction were obtained higher values of EB (41.31%) while for CH filmscontaining the F1 fraction the TS values (13.07 MPa) increased.In conclusion, wheat bran AXs can be successfully incorporated into chitosan-based edible films pro-viding, together with chitosan, an extra functional value to films, due their health benefits. [less ▲]

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See detailDes chiffres de la politique à la politique du chiffre Le cas des réformes du financement de la recherche dans les universités belge francophones.
Fallon, Catherine ULg

in Reflets et Perspectives de la Vie Economique (2015)

“Governing by numbers” is a trend on the increase in public action. Numbers tend to pervade the politico-administrative space without questioning neither the quantification processes which produce them ... [more ▼]

“Governing by numbers” is a trend on the increase in public action. Numbers tend to pervade the politico-administrative space without questioning neither the quantification processes which produce them nor the conditions of their utilization in government. And yet the use of numbers and data in political arguments contribute to transform the terms of the debate: politics can transform data and indicators, but one should not neglect how numbers affect policymaking. This article proposes as case study the analysis of some recent transformations of public research funding mechanism in universities in French speaking Belgium. It questions the systemic effects of the use of performance indicators in public management in this sector and it proposes some starting points for a discussion of their impact on the quality of the political debate. [less ▲]

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See detailComplete analytical procedure to assess the response of a frame submitted to a column loss
Huvelle, Clara; Hoang, Van Long ULg; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg et al

in Engineering Structures (2015), 86

The present paper gives a global overview on recent developments performed at the University of Liege on structural robustness of buildings for the specific scenario ‘‘loss of a column’’. In particular, a ... [more ▼]

The present paper gives a global overview on recent developments performed at the University of Liege on structural robustness of buildings for the specific scenario ‘‘loss of a column’’. In particular, a complete analytical method to assess the response of a 2D frame losing statically one of its columns is presented in details. This method is based on the development of alternative load paths in the damaged structure and takes into account the couplings between the different parts of the structure which are differently affected by the column loss. Also, the validation of the developed method through comparison to experimental and numerical evidences is presented. [less ▲]

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See detailMinimal anomaly-free chiral fermion sets and gauge coupling unification
Ceboa, Luis; Emmanuel-Costa, David; González Felipe, Ricardo et al

in Physical Review. D, Particles, Fields, Gravitation, and Cosmology (2014)

We look for minimal chiral sets of fermions beyond the standard model that are anomaly free and, simultaneously, vectorlike particles with respect to color SU(3) and electromagnetic U(1). We then study ... [more ▼]

We look for minimal chiral sets of fermions beyond the standard model that are anomaly free and, simultaneously, vectorlike particles with respect to color SU(3) and electromagnetic U(1). We then study whether the addition of such particles to the standard model particle content allows for the unification of gauge couplings at a high energy scale, above 5.0 × 1015 GeV so as to be safely consistent with proton decay bounds. The possibility to have unification at the string scale is also considered. Inspired in grand unified theories, we also search for minimal chiral fermion sets that belong to SU(5) multiplets, restricted to representations up to imension 50. It is shown that, in various cases, it is possible to achieve gauge unification provided that some of the extra fermions decouple at relatively high intermediate scales. [less ▲]

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See detailBacterial Community Composition in Three Freshwater Reservoirs of Different Alkalinity and Trophic Status
Llirós, Marc; Inceoğlu, Özgul; García-Armisen, Tamara et al

in PLoS ONE (2014)

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See detailDrivers of inorganic carbon dynamics in first-year sea ice: A model study.
Moreau, Sebastien; Vancoppenolle, Martin; Delille, Bruno ULg et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Oceans (2014)

Sea ice is an active source or a sink for carbon dioxide (CO2), although to what extent is not clear. Here, we analyze CO2 dynamics within sea ice using a one-dimensional halo-thermodynamic sea ice model ... [more ▼]

Sea ice is an active source or a sink for carbon dioxide (CO2), although to what extent is not clear. Here, we analyze CO2 dynamics within sea ice using a one-dimensional halo-thermodynamic sea ice model including gas physics and carbon biogeochemistry. The ice-ocean fluxes and vertical transport of total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) are represented using fluid transport equations. [less ▲]

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See detailLa thermoplastie bronchique dans le traitement de l'asthme sévère de l'adulte.
Chanez, P.; Boulet, L.-P.; Brillet, P.-Y. et al

in Revue des maladies respiratoires (2014)

Bronchial thermoplasty is a recent endoscopic technique for the treatment of severe asthma. It is an innovative treatment whose clinical efficacy and safety are beginning to be better understood. Since ... [more ▼]

Bronchial thermoplasty is a recent endoscopic technique for the treatment of severe asthma. It is an innovative treatment whose clinical efficacy and safety are beginning to be better understood. Since this is a device-based treatment, the evaluation procedure of risks and benefits is different that for pharmaceutical products; safety aspects, regulatory requirements, study design and the assessment of the magnitude of effects may all be different. The mechanism of action and optimal patient selection need to be assessed further in rigorous clinical and scientific studies. This technique is in harmony with the development of personalised medicine in the 21st century. It should be developed further in response to the numerous challenges and needs not yet met in the management of severe asthma. [less ▲]

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See detailCyclovirus CyCV-VN species distribution is not limited to Vietnam and extends to Africa
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Hagen, Ralf Mathias; Frickmann, Hagen et al

in Scientific Reports (2014), 4

Cycloviruses, small ssDNA viruses of the Circoviridae family, have been identified in the cerebrospinal fluid from symptomatic human patients. One of these species, cyclovirus-Vietnam (CyCV-VN), was shown ... [more ▼]

Cycloviruses, small ssDNA viruses of the Circoviridae family, have been identified in the cerebrospinal fluid from symptomatic human patients. One of these species, cyclovirus-Vietnam (CyCV-VN), was shown to be restricted to central and southern Vietnam. Here we report the detection of CyCV-VN species in stool samples from pigs and humans from Africa, far beyond their supposed limited geographic distribution. [less ▲]

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See detailEffets de deux associations culturales à base de blé sur les populations de pucerons (Homoptera: Aphididae) et d’auxiliaires aphidiphages: étude préliminaire menée en Chine
Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULg; Bosquée, Emilie ULg; Honba, David et al

in Entomologie Faunistique = Faunistic Entomology (2014), 67

Crop associations have several advantages when plant species and crop production methods, including harvesting, are well selected. This preliminary study was conducted in the Shandong province (China) to ... [more ▼]

Crop associations have several advantages when plant species and crop production methods, including harvesting, are well selected. This preliminary study was conducted in the Shandong province (China) to better characterize the effect of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)/oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and wheat/pea (Pisum sativum L.) associations on the aphid and aphidophagous beneficial populations. Aphids observed on wheat tillers were significantly more abundant in the pure stand of wheat during the two weeks prior to their population peak, compared with crop associations. Considering the aphidophagous beneficials, significantly more ladybirds were observed in the associations, compared with the pure stand during their abundance peak. Yellow pan traps were also used to assess the diversity and abundance of adult beneficial species. The parasitoid species Aphidius gifuensis (Ashmead) was prevalent. Among predators, Propylea japonica (Thunberg) and Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) were the most abundant species. This study contributes to better understand the potential of crop associations with wheat as a sustainable method to control aphid populations in this region of China. [less ▲]

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See detailLa mémoire du génocide des Juifs chez les jeunes. Connaissances, émotions et évaluations
Grandjean, Geoffrey ULg

in Questions de mémoire et de représentation (2014)

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See detailFirst Evidence of a Volatile Sex Pheromone in Lady Beetles
Fassotte, Bérénice ULg; Fischer, Christophe ULg; Durieux, Delphine ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2014)

To date, volatile sex pheromones have not been identified in the Coccinellidae family; yet, various studies have suggested that such semiochemicals exist. Here, we collected volatile chemicals released by ... [more ▼]

To date, volatile sex pheromones have not been identified in the Coccinellidae family; yet, various studies have suggested that such semiochemicals exist. Here, we collected volatile chemicals released by virgin females of the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), which were either allowed or not allowed to feed on aphids. Virgin females in the presence of aphids, exhibited “calling behavior”, which is commonly associated with the emission of a sex pheromone in several Coleoptera species. These calling females were found to release a blend of volatile compounds that is involved in the remote attraction (i.e., from a distance) of males. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses revealed that (–)-β-caryophyllene was the major constituent of the volatile blend (ranging from 80 to 86%), with four other chemical components also being present; β-elemene, methyl-eugenol, α-humulene, and α-bulnesene. In a second set of experiments, the emission of the five constituents identified from the blend was quantified daily over a 9-day period after exposure to aphids. We found that the quantity of all five chemicals significantly increased across the experimental period. Finally, we evaluated the activity of a synthetic blend of these chemicals by performing bioassays which demonstrated the same attractive effect in males only. The results confirm that female H. axyridis produce a volatile sex pheromone. These findings have potential in the development of more specific and efficient biological pest-control management methods aimed at manipulating the behavior of this invasive lady beetle. [less ▲]

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See detailSound production in Onuxodon fowleri (Carapidae) and its amplification by the host shell
Kever, Loïc ULg; Colleye, Orphal ULg; Lugli, Marco et al

in Journal of Experimental Biology (2014), 217

Onuxodon species are well known for living inside pearl oysters. As in other carapids, their anatomy highlights their ability to make sounds but sound production has never been documented in Onuxodon ... [more ▼]

Onuxodon species are well known for living inside pearl oysters. As in other carapids, their anatomy highlights their ability to make sounds but sound production has never been documented in Onuxodon. This paper describes sound production in Onuxodon fowleri as well as the anatomy of the sound production apparatus. Single-pulsed sounds and multiple-pulsed sounds that sometimes last more than 3 s were recorded in the field and in captivity (Makemo Island, French Polynesia). These pulses are characterized by a broadband frequency spectrum from 100 to 1000 Hz. Onuxodon fowleri is mainly characterized by its ability to modulate the pulse period, meaning that this species can produce pulsed sounds and tonal-like sounds using the same mechanism. In addition, the sound can be remarkably amplified by the shell cavity (peak gain can exceed 10 dB for some frequencies). The sonic apparatus of O. fowleri is characterized by a rocker bone in front of the swimbladder, modified vertebrae and epineurals, and two pairs of sonic muscles, one of which (primary sonic muscle) inserts on the rocker bone. The latter structure, which is absent in other carapid genera, appears to be sexually dimorphic suggesting differences in sound production in males and females. Sound production in O. fowleri could be an example of adaptation where an animal exploits features of its environment to enhance communication. [less ▲]

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See detailHepatitis C Virus Life Cycle and Lipid Metabolism
Popescu, Costin-Ioan; Riva, Laura ULg; Vlaicu, Ovidiu et al

in Biology (2014), 3

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See detailDetection of small amounts of human adenoviruses in stools: comparison of a new immuno real-time PCR assay with classical tools.
Bonot, Sebastian; Ogorzaly, Leslie; Elmoualij, Benaïssa ULg et al

in Clinical Microbiology & Infection (2014), 20(12), 1-7

The detection of low virus concentrations in biological matrices, especially stool samples, is facing significant limitations as far as common diagnostic methods (enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA ... [more ▼]

The detection of low virus concentrations in biological matrices, especially stool samples, is facing significant limitations as far as common diagnostic methods (enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR)) are considered. Here the development of a new immuno real-time PCR (iPCR) is described and its performance in the detection of human adenoviruses (HAdVs) in spiked stools is compared with those of ELISA and qPCR assays. For the iPCR, detection of the sandwich formed by the complexation of capture antibody-antigen-detection antibody was performed by qPCR thanks to the substitution of peroxydase by a chimeric DNA. This modification increased the detection sensitivity 200-fold compared to ELISA. The direct qPCR results revealed that only 0.3–9.5% of the spiked HAdV were detectable, resulting from important losses of DNA occurring at the extraction step. This step was not necessary in the iPCR workflow, avoiding this drawback. The losses of viral particles occurred at the elution step from the stool only. The recovery rate of the iPCR was thus better and ranged between 21 and 54%. As a result, iPCR enabled the detection of lower virus concentrations in stool samples compared to those detected by ELISA and qPCR. The iPCR could be considered as a ‘hyper sensitive ELISA’ for early detection of HAdV infections, especially in the case of immunocompromised patients after haematopoietic stem cell transplant. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring the Effect of Stochastic Perturbation Component in Cellular Automata Urban Growth Model
El Saeid Mustafa, Ahmed Mohamed ULg; Saadi, Ismaïl ULg; Cools, Mario ULg et al

in Procedia Environmental Sciences (2014), 22(Winter), 156168

Urban environments are complex dynamic systems whose prediction of the future states cannot exclusively rely on deterministic rules. Although several studies on urban growth were carried out using ... [more ▼]

Urban environments are complex dynamic systems whose prediction of the future states cannot exclusively rely on deterministic rules. Although several studies on urban growth were carried out using different modelling approaches, the measurement of uncertainties was commonly neglected in these studies. This paper investigates the effect of uncertainty in urban growth models by introducing a stochastic perturbation method. A cellular automaton is used to simulate predicted urban growth. The effect of stochastic perturbation is addressed by comparing series of urban growth simulations based on different degree of stochastic perturbation randomness with the original urban growth simulation, obtained with the sole cellular automata neighbouring effects. These simulations are evaluated using cell-to-cell location agreement and a number of spatial metrics. The model framework has been applied to the Ourthe river basin in Belgium. The results show that the accuracy of the model is increased by introducing a stochastic perturbation component with a limited degree of randomness, in the cellular automata urban growth model. [less ▲]

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See detailRGD surface functionalization of the hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens material to control posterior capsular opacification
Huang, Yi-Shiang ULg; Bertrand, Virginie ULg; Bozukova, Dimitriya et al

in PLoS ONE (2014), 9(12), 32

Posterior Capsular Opacification (PCO) is the capsule fibrosis developed on implanted IntraOcular Lens (IOL) by the de-differentiation of Lens Epithelial Cells (LECs) undergoing Epithelial Mesenchymal ... [more ▼]

Posterior Capsular Opacification (PCO) is the capsule fibrosis developed on implanted IntraOcular Lens (IOL) by the de-differentiation of Lens Epithelial Cells (LECs) undergoing Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT). Literature has shown that the incidence of PCO is multifactorial including the patient’s age or disease, surgical technique, and IOL design and material. Reports comparing hydrophilic and hydrophobic acrylic IOLs have shown that the former has more severe PCO. On the other hand, we have previously demonstrated that the adhesion of LECs is favored on hydrophobic compared to hydrophilic materials. By combining these two facts and contemporary knowledge in PCO development via the EMT pathway, we propose a biomimetically inspired strategy to promote LEC adhesion without de-differentiation to reduce the risk of PCO development. By surface grafting of a cell adhesion molecule (RGD peptide) onto the conventional hydrophilic acrylic IOL material, the surface-functionalized IOL can be used to reconstitute a capsule-LEC-IOL sandwich structure, which has been considered to prevent PCO formation in literature. Our results show that the innovative biomaterial improves LEC adhesion, while also exhibiting similar optical (light transmittance, optical bench) and mechanical (haptic compression force, IOL injection force) properties compared to the starting material. In addition, compared to the hydrophobic IOL material, our bioactive biomaterial exhibits similar abilities in LEC adhesion, morphology maintenance, and EMT biomarker expression, which is the crucial pathway to induce PCO. The in vitro assays suggest that this biomaterial has the potential to reduce the risk factor of PCO development. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing spatio-temporal variability and trends in modelled and measured Greenland Ice Sheet albedo (2000–2013)
Alexander, P.; Tedesco, M.; Fettweis, Xavier ULg et al

in Cryosphere (The) (2014), 8

Accurate measurements and simulations of Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) surface albedo are essential, given the role of surface albedo in modulating the amount of absorbed solar radiation and meltwater ... [more ▼]

Accurate measurements and simulations of Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) surface albedo are essential, given the role of surface albedo in modulating the amount of absorbed solar radiation and meltwater production. In this study, we assess the spatio-temporal variability of GrIS albedo during June, July, and August (JJA) for the period 2000–2013. We use two remote sensing products derived from data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), as well as outputs from the Modèle Atmosphérique Régionale (MAR) regional climate model (RCM) and data from in situ automatic weather stations. Our results point to an overall consistency in spatio-temporal variability between remote sensing and RCM albedo, but reveal a difference in mean albedo of up to ~0.08 between the two remote sensing products north of 70° N. At low elevations, albedo values simulated by the RCM are positively biased with respect to remote sensing products by up to ~0.1 and exhibit low variability compared with observations. We infer that these differences are the result of a positive bias in simulated bare ice albedo. MODIS albedo, RCM outputs, and in situ observations consistently indicate a decrease in albedo of −0.03 to −0.06 per decade over the period 2003–2013 for the GrIS ablation area. Nevertheless, satellite products show a decline in JJA albedo of −0.03 to −0.04 per decade for regions within the accumulation area that is not confirmed by either the model or in situ observations. These findings appear to contradict a previous study that found an agreement between in situ and MODIS trends for individual months. The results indicate a need for further evaluation of high elevation albedo trends, a reconciliation of MODIS mean albedo at high latitudes, and the importance of accurately simulating bare ice albedo in RCMs. [less ▲]

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See detailReversible cross-linking of aliphatic polyamides bearing thermo- and photoresponsive cinnamoyl moieties
Tunc, Deniz ULg; Le Coz, Cédric; Alexandre, Michaël et al

in Macromolecules (2014), 47(23), 8247-8254

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See detailHigh plasma concentrations of sclerostin, an inhibitor of the Wnt signaling pathway in young horses affected by osteochondrosis
Serteyn, Didier ULg; Mendoza García, Luis ULg; Sandersen, Charlotte ULg et al

in Open journal of orthepedics (2014)

Osteochondrosis (OC) is a developmental disease in horses with a significant impact on the horse’s welfare and performance. The early disturbance of enchondral ossification progresses to inflammatory and ... [more ▼]

Osteochondrosis (OC) is a developmental disease in horses with a significant impact on the horse’s welfare and performance. The early disturbance of enchondral ossification progresses to inflammatory and healing process in older horses. Metabolic pathway analysis showed an obvious dysregulation of several signaling pathways related to cartilage formation and cartilage repair such as Wnt/β-catenin, Indian hedgehog and TGF-β signaling pathways. Other regulated genes appeared to be involved in high carbohydrate diet, abnormal insulin metabolism or inflammation. Sclerostin is an osteocyte-secreted soluble antagonist of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. It is crucial for osteoblast development and activity and is increased in naturally occurring lesions of equine osteochondrosis. The aim of this study is to compare the circulating sclerostin levels between OC-affected (n = 20) and healthy horses (n = 19). A significant linear regression between plasma sclerostin and age is observed especially in the healthy young horses. The mean plasma sclerostin concentration is significantly higher in young horses suffering from osteochondrosis compared to the control horses. These results reinforce the possible role of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in the OC pathogeny. The inhibition of this essential pathway could disturb the osteo-chondral differentiation. More studies are currently needed to define the eventual clinic interest of plasma sclerostin as future biomarker in bone and cartilage diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailDirect route to well-defined poly(ionic liquid)s by controlled radical polymerization in water
Cordella, Daniela ULg; Kermagoret, Anthony ULg; Debuigne, Antoine ULg et al

in ACS Macro Letters (2014), 3

The precision synthesis of poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) in water is achieved for the first time by the cobalt-mediated radical polymerization (CMRP) of N-vinyl-3-alkylimidazolium-type monomers following two ... [more ▼]

The precision synthesis of poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) in water is achieved for the first time by the cobalt-mediated radical polymerization (CMRP) of N-vinyl-3-alkylimidazolium-type monomers following two distinct protocols. The first involves the CMRP of various 1-vinyl-3-alkylimidazolium bromides conducted in water in the presence of an alkyl–cobalt(III) complex acting as a monocomponent initiator and mediating agent. Excellent control over molar mass and dispersity is achieved at 30 °C. Polymerizations are complete in a few hours, and PIL chain-end fidelity is demonstrated up to high monomer conversions. The second route uses the commercially available bis(acetylacetonato)cobalt(II) (Co(acac)2) in conjunction with a simple hydroperoxide initiator (tert-butyl hydroperoxide) at 30, 40, and 50 °C in water, facilitating the scaling-up of the technology. Both routes prove robust and straightforward, opening new perspectives onto the tailored synthesis of PILs under mild experimental conditions in water. [less ▲]

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See detailNanocomposites based on MWCNT and polystyrene, styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer, or polymethylmethacrylate, obtained by miniemulsion polymerization
Donescu, Dan; Corobea, Mihai Cosmin; Petcu, Cristian et al

in Journal of Applied Polymer Science (2014), 131(23), 411481-10

Free radical miniemulsion polymerization of styrene (St), St/acrylonitrile 3 : 1 mixture or methylmethacrylate in the presence of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) was proven as a convenient way to ... [more ▼]

Free radical miniemulsion polymerization of styrene (St), St/acrylonitrile 3 : 1 mixture or methylmethacrylate in the presence of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) was proven as a convenient way to obtain homogenous hybrids with perspectives in associated applications like foams specialties materials. Miniemulsion polymerization was viable up to 2% wt. MWCNT to monomer, without agglomerations. The grafting on MWCNT during the polymerization occurs without the need for supplementary functionalization and the polymer grafted nanotubes showed stable dispersions in the polymer solvent. Monomer polarity affected the grafting ability during the polymerization process. The nanocomposites obtained after purification and drying were used in foaming process. MWCNT presence in the related nanocomposites decreased the pore sizes in foam-like materials (for all three different matrices). At 1 wt % MWCNT content, low density (< 0.3 g/cm3), low pore size (< 10 μm) and high cell density (>109 cell/cm3) were achieved. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst-line crizotinib versus chemotherapy in ALK-positive lung cancer.
Solomon, Benjamin J.; Mok, Tony; Kim, Dong-Wan et al

in The New England journal of medicine (2014), 371(23), 2167-77

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of the ALK inhibitor crizotinib as compared with standard chemotherapy as first-line treatment for advanced ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is unknown. METHODS: We ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of the ALK inhibitor crizotinib as compared with standard chemotherapy as first-line treatment for advanced ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is unknown. METHODS: We conducted an open-label, phase 3 trial comparing crizotinib with chemotherapy in 343 patients with advanced ALK-positive nonsquamous NSCLC who had received no previous systemic treatment for advanced disease. Patients were randomly assigned to receive oral crizotinib at a dose of 250 mg twice daily or to receive intravenous chemotherapy (pemetrexed, 500 mg per square meter of body-surface area, plus either cisplatin, 75 mg per square meter, or carboplatin, target area under the curve of 5 to 6 mg per milliliter per minute) every 3 weeks for up to six cycles. Crossover to crizotinib treatment after disease progression was permitted for patients receiving chemotherapy. The primary end point was progression-free survival as assessed by independent radiologic review. RESULTS: Progression-free survival was significantly longer with crizotinib than with chemotherapy (median, 10.9 months vs. 7.0 months; hazard ratio for progression or death with crizotinib, 0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35 to 0.60; P<0.001). Objective response rates were 74% and 45%, respectively (P<0.001). Median overall survival was not reached in either group (hazard ratio for death with crizotinib, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.54 to 1.26; P=0.36); the probability of 1-year survival was 84% with crizotinib and 79% with chemotherapy. The most common adverse events with crizotinib were vision disorders, diarrhea, nausea, and edema, and the most common events with chemotherapy were nausea, fatigue, vomiting, and decreased appetite. As compared with chemotherapy, crizotinib was associated with greater reduction in lung cancer symptoms and greater improvement in quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: Crizotinib was superior to standard first-line pemetrexed-plus-platinum chemotherapy in patients with previously untreated advanced ALK-positive NSCLC. (Funded by Pfizer; PROFILE 1014 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01154140.). [less ▲]

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See detailShort-term spectroscopic variability of Plaskett's star
Palate, Matthieu ULg; Rauw, Grégor ULg

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 572

Context. Plaskett's star (HD 47129) is a very massive O-star binary in a post Roche-lobe overflow stage. CoRoT observations of this system revealed photometric variability with a number of frequencies ... [more ▼]

Context. Plaskett's star (HD 47129) is a very massive O-star binary in a post Roche-lobe overflow stage. CoRoT observations of this system revealed photometric variability with a number of frequencies. <BR /> Aims: The aim of this paper is to characterize the variations in spectroscopy and investigate their origin. <BR /> Methods: To sample its short-term variability, HD 47129 was intensively monitored during two spectroscopic campaigns of six nights each. The spectra were disentangled and Fourier analyses were performed to determine possible periodicities and to investigate the wavelength dependence of the phase constant and the amplitude of the periodicities. <BR /> Results: Complex line profile variations are observed. Frequencies near 1.65, 0.82, and 0.37 d[SUP]-1[/SUP] are detected consistently in the He i λ 4471, He ii λ 4542, and N iii λ 4510-4518 lines. These frequencies are consistent with those of the strongest signals detected in photometry. The possibilities that these variations stem from pulsations, a recently detected magnetic field or tidal interactions are discussed. <BR /> Conclusions: Whilst all three scenarios have their strengths, none of them can currently account for all the observed properties of the line profile variations. Based on observations collected at the Observatoire de Haute Provence (OHP, France). [less ▲]

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See detailWASP-94 A and B planets: hot-Jupiter cousins in a twin-star system
Neveu-VanMalle, M.; Queloz, D.; Anderson, D. R. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 572

We report the discovery of two hot-Jupiter planets, each orbiting one of the stars of a wide binary system. <ASTROBJ>WASP-94A</ASTROBJ> (<ASTROBJ>2MASS 20550794-3408079</ASTROBJ>) is an F8 type star ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery of two hot-Jupiter planets, each orbiting one of the stars of a wide binary system. <ASTROBJ>WASP-94A</ASTROBJ> (<ASTROBJ>2MASS 20550794-3408079</ASTROBJ>) is an F8 type star hosting a transiting planet with a radius of 1.72 ± 0.06 R<SUB>Jup</SUB>, a mass of 0.452 ± 0.034 M<SUB>Jup</SUB>, and an orbital period of 3.95 days. The Rossiter-McLaughlin effect is clearly detected, and the measured projected spin-orbit angle indicates that the planet occupies a retrograde orbit. <ASTROBJ>WASP-94B</ASTROBJ> (<ASTROBJ>2MASS 20550915-3408078</ASTROBJ>) is an F9 stellar companion at an angular separation of 15'' (projected separation 2700 au), hosting a gas giant with a minimum mass of 0.618 ± 0.028 M<SUB>Jup</SUB> with a period of 2.008 days, detected by Doppler measurements. The orbital planes of the two planets are inclined relative to each other, indicating that at least one of them is inclined relative to the plane of the stellar binary. These hot Jupiters in a binary system bring new insights into the formation of close-in giant planets and the role of stellar multiplicity. The radial-velocity and photometric data used for this work are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/572/A49">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/572/A49</A> [less ▲]

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See detailAlignment of quasar polarizations with large-scale structures
Hutsemekers, Damien ULg; Braibant, Lorraine ULg; Pelgrims, Vincent ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 572

We have measured the optical linear polarization of quasars belonging to Gpc scale quasar groups at redshift z ~ 1.3. Out of 93 quasars observed, 19 are significantly polarized. We found that quasar ... [more ▼]

We have measured the optical linear polarization of quasars belonging to Gpc scale quasar groups at redshift z ~ 1.3. Out of 93 quasars observed, 19 are significantly polarized. We found that quasar polarization vectors are either parallel or perpendicular to the directions of the large-scale structures to which they belong. Statistical tests indicate that the probability that this effect can be attributed to randomly oriented polarization vectors is on the order of 1%. We also found that quasars with polarization perpendicular to the host structure preferentially have large emission line widths while objects with polarization parallel to the host structure preferentially have small emission line widths. Considering that quasar polarization is usually either parallel or perpendicular to the accretion disk axis depending on the inclination with respect to the line of sight, and that broader emission lines originate from quasars seen at higher inclinations, we conclude that quasar spin axes are likely parallel to their host large-scale structures. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under program ID 092.A-0221.Table 1 is available in electronic form at <A href="http://www.aanda.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201424631/olm">http://www.aanda.org</A> [less ▲]

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See detailLes solutions humaines. Victor Serge dans le XXe siècle
Cavazzini, Andrea ULg

in Cahiers du GRM (2014)

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See detailA study of one-dimensional transport of Bose-Einstein condensates using exterior complex scaling
Dujardin, Julien ULg; Saenz, Alejandro; Schlagheck, Peter ULg

in Applied Physics B : Lasers & Optics (2014), 117(3), 765

We numerically investigate the one-dimensional transport of Bose-Einstein condensates in the context of guided atom lasers using a mean-field description of the condensate in terms of a spatially ... [more ▼]

We numerically investigate the one-dimensional transport of Bose-Einstein condensates in the context of guided atom lasers using a mean-field description of the condensate in terms of a spatially discretized Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We specifically consider a waveguide configuration in which spatial inhomogeneities and nonvanishing atom-atom interactions are restricted to a spatially localized scattering region of finite extent. We show how the method of smooth exterior complex scaling can be implemented for this particular onfiguration in order to efficiently absorb the outgoing flux within the waveguide. A numerical comparison with the introduction of a complex absorbing potential as well as with the analytically exact elimination of the dynamics of the free non-interacting motion outside the scattering region, giving rise to transparent boundary conditions, clearly confirms the accuracy and efficiency of the smooth exterior complex scaling method. [less ▲]

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See detailDeux ans de formation et d’accompagnement techno-pédagogique à l’ULg : public, impact et perspectives
Van de Poël, Jean-François ULg; Verpoorten, Dominique ULg

in Education & Formation (2014), e-302

Cet article présente une recherche quanti-qualitative portant sur 225 enseignants ayant suivi des formations techno-pédagogiques dispensées par la Cellule eCampus (IFRES, Université de Liège, Belgique) de ... [more ▼]

Cet article présente une recherche quanti-qualitative portant sur 225 enseignants ayant suivi des formations techno-pédagogiques dispensées par la Cellule eCampus (IFRES, Université de Liège, Belgique) de 2011 à 2013. Les données récoltées sont utilisées pour : a) qualifier le public de ces formations, b) évaluer, grâce à une grille d’analyse de discours nommée CInOpTIC, leurs effets sur le développement techno-pédagogique des participants, c) étudier la demande d’accompagnement techno-pédagogique, considérée comme un effet induit par les formations. Sur base des données empiriques analysées, l’article élabore des perspectives pour la régulation des formations eLearning. [less ▲]

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See detailTravail de différentes disciplines collectives sous forme de circuit
Masrouki, Monia; Cloes, Marc ULg

in Revue de l'Education Physique (2014), 54(4), 101-110

In Wallonia, when teaching team sports, secondary school level physical education teachers generally use a traditional (technicist) and single discipline approach. Moreover, teachers meet some ... [more ▼]

In Wallonia, when teaching team sports, secondary school level physical education teachers generally use a traditional (technicist) and single discipline approach. Moreover, teachers meet some difficulties to apply the accountability and literacy principles. In this paper, authors present a practical example of PE lesson demonstrating that it is possible to change teaching. [less ▲]

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See detailA finite-element reciprocity solution for EEG forward modeling with realistic individual head models
Ziegler, Erik ULg; Chellappa, Sarah Laxhmi ULg; Gaggioni, Giulia ULg et al

in NeuroImage (2014), 103

Highlights • Creates EEG forward models suitable for high-resolution source localization. • Automatic T1-based whole-head finite element meshing and leadfield computation. • Pipelines can incorporate ... [more ▼]

Highlights • Creates EEG forward models suitable for high-resolution source localization. • Automatic T1-based whole-head finite element meshing and leadfield computation. • Pipelines can incorporate conductivity tensors from diffusion-weighted images. • Open-source toolbox shared under a permissive software license. • Accuracy comparable to SimBio FEM and superior to OpenMEEG BEM solutions. [less ▲]

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See detailUn blog plutôt qu’un Word ? Retour d’expérience de l’insertion d’un cours en ligne dans un programme de formation d’enseignants du supérieur.
Jérôme, Françoise ULg; Verpoorten, Dominique ULg

in Education & Formation (2014), e-302

En 2012-2013, le CAPAES (Certificat d’Aptitude Pédagogique Approprié à l’Enseignement Supérieur) de l’Université de Liège a incorporé pour la première fois à son programme un cours entièrement en ligne ... [more ▼]

En 2012-2013, le CAPAES (Certificat d’Aptitude Pédagogique Approprié à l’Enseignement Supérieur) de l’Université de Liège a incorporé pour la première fois à son programme un cours entièrement en ligne. L’article en expose les motivations sous-jacentes, présente les outils utilisés et analyse la réception du dispositif par les étudiants. Les données récoltées font apparaitre : a) la familiarité antérieure restreinte des enseignants avec les deux outils exploités dans le cours (une plate-forme eLearning traditionnelle et un blog comme représentant du Web 2.0), b) la capacité, en dépit de cette familiarité limitée, de faire bon usage des deux outils en tant qu’apprenant, c) une satisfaction générale pour le cours en ligne mais faiblement liée à la découverte des deux outils et à la prise de conscience, en tant qu’enseignant, de leur potentiel pédagogique. (L'article fournit en annexe le questionnaire complet utilisé pour recueillir le feed-back des enseignants ayant terminé le cours en ligne). [less ▲]

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See detailGouvernementalité, subjectivité et vérité
Thirion, Nicolas ULg

in Acta Fabula : Revue des Parutions en Théorie Littéraire (2014), 15(10),

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See detailFamily Members of Patients with Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms are at Increased Risk for Aneurysms: Analysis of 618 Probands and their Families from the Liege AAA Family Study.
SakalihasanN, Natzi ULg; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier ULg; Kerstenne, Marie-Ange et al

in Annals of vascular surgery (2014), 28

BACKGROUND: The objectives were to answer the following questions using a well-characterized population in Liege, Belgium: 1) what percentage of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients have a positive ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The objectives were to answer the following questions using a well-characterized population in Liege, Belgium: 1) what percentage of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients have a positive family history for AAA, 2) what is the prevalence of AAAs among relatives of AAA patients; and 3) do familial and sporadic AAA cases differ in clinical characteristics. METHODS AND RESULTS: Unrelated AAA patients diagnosed at the Cardiovascular Surgery Department, University Hospital of Liege, Belgium, between 1999 and 2012 were invited to the study. A detailed family history was obtained in interviews and recorded using Progeny software. In the initial interview 62 (10%) of the 618 AAA patients reported a positive family history for AAA. We divided the 618 patients into two study groups: Group I: 296 AAA patients (268; 91% males) were followed up with computerized tomography combined with positron emission tomography, and Group II: 322 AAA patients (295; 92% males) whose families were invited to ultrasonography screening. Ultrasonography screening identified 24 new AAAs among 186 relatives (>/= 50 years) of 144 families yielding a prevalence of 13%. The highest prevalence (25%) was found among brothers. By combining the number of AAAs found by ultrasonography screening with those diagnosed previously the observed lifetime prevalence of AAA was estimated to be 32% in brothers. The familial AAA cases were more likely to have a ruptured AAA than the sporadic cases (8% vs. 2.4%; P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The findings confirm previously found high prevalence of AAA among brothers, support genetic contribution to AAA pathogenesis and provide rationale for targeted screening of relatives of AAA patients. [less ▲]

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See detailThe construction of workers’ rights consciousness through legal intermediations: the case of employment discrimination in Belgium
Lejeune, Aude ULg; Orianne, Jean-François ULg

in International Journal of Discrimination and the Law (2014), 14(4), 221-243

Through their different encounters with union, court, and government equality agency lawyers, workers report diverse understandings of their personal experience of injustice in the workplace. This paper ... [more ▼]

Through their different encounters with union, court, and government equality agency lawyers, workers report diverse understandings of their personal experience of injustice in the workplace. This paper examines workers’ experiences of discrimination and the role legal professionals play in litigating these issues in Belgium. Bringing together legal and rights consciousness studies and the sociology of intermediation and tracking different stages in the construction of discrimination cases, from the moment when a future litigant describes an event as an injustice to the moment when the judge recognises a discriminatory behaviour (or conversely, dismisses a case), we suggest several possible empirical explanations of the way in which interactions with legal intermediaries affect workers’ rights consciousness. Because we refer to socio-legal studies from common law countries, this paper also calls into question how best to import these studies to assist in analysing legal mobilisations and legal consciousness in continental Europe. [less ▲]

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See detailLes fondamentaux de la valeur des entreprises en Europe
Lambert, Marie ULg; Lenglois, Julien; Streel, Alexandre ULg et al

in Comptabilité et Fiscalité Pratiques (2014)

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See detailThree sub-Jupiter-mass planets: WASP-69b & WASP-84b transit active K dwarfs and WASP-70Ab transits the evolved primary of a G4+K3 binary
Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Delrez, Laetitia ULg et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2014), 445(2),

We report the discovery of the transiting exoplanets WASP-69b, WASP-70Ab and WASP-84b, each of which orbits a bright star (V ˜ 10). WASP-69b is a bloated Saturn-mass planet (0.26 MJup, 1.06 RJup) in a 3 ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery of the transiting exoplanets WASP-69b, WASP-70Ab and WASP-84b, each of which orbits a bright star (V ˜ 10). WASP-69b is a bloated Saturn-mass planet (0.26 MJup, 1.06 RJup) in a 3.868-d period around an active, ˜1-Gyr, mid-K dwarf. ROSAT detected X-rays 60±27 arcsec from WASP-69. If the star is the source then the planet could be undergoing mass-loss at a rate of ˜1012 g s-1. This is one to two orders of magnitude higher than the evaporation rate estimated for HD 209458b and HD 189733b, both of which have exhibited anomalously large Lyman alpha absorption during transit. WASP-70Ab is a sub-Jupiter-mass planet (0.59 MJup, 1.16 RJup) in a 3.713-d orbit around the primary of a spatially resolved, 9-10-Gyr, G4+K3 binary, with a separation of 3.3 arcsec (>=800 au). WASP-84b is a sub-Jupiter-mass planet (0.69 MJup, 0.94 RJup) in an 8.523-d orbit around an active, ˜1-Gyr, early-K dwarf. Of the transiting planets discovered from the ground to date, WASP-84b has the third-longest period. For the active stars WASP-69 and WASP-84, we pre-whitened the radial velocities using a low-order harmonic series. We found that this reduced the residual scatter more than did the oft-used method of pre-whitening with a fit between residual radial velocity and bisector span. The system parameters were essentially unaffected by pre-whitening. [less ▲]

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See detailPolysaccharide-coated PCL nanofibers for wound dressing applications
Croisier, Florence ULg; Atanasova, Ganka; Poumay, Yves et al

in Advanced Healthcare Materials (2014), 3(12), 2032-2039

Polysaccharide-based nanofibers with amultilayered structure are prepared by combining electrospinning (ESP) and layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition techniques. Charged nanofibers are firstly prepared by ... [more ▼]

Polysaccharide-based nanofibers with amultilayered structure are prepared by combining electrospinning (ESP) and layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition techniques. Charged nanofibers are firstly prepared by electrospinning poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) with a block-copolymer bearing carboxylic acid functions. After deprotonation of the acid groups, the layer-by-layer deposition of polyelectrolyte polysaccharides, notably chitosan and hyaluronic acid, is used to coat the electrospun fibers. A multilayered structure is achieved by alternating the deposition of the positively charged chitosan with the deposition of a negatively charged polyelectrolyte. The construction of this multi-layered structure is followed by Zeta potential measurements, and confirmed by observation of hollow nanofibers resulting from the dissolution of the PCL core in a selective solvent. These novel polysaccharide-coated PCL fiber mats remarkably combine the mechanical resistance typical of the core material (PCL) – particularly in the hydrated state –, with the surface properties of chitosan. The control of the nanofiber structure offered by the electrospinning technology, makes the developed process very promising to precisely design biomaterials for tissue engineering. Preliminary cell culture tests corroborate the potential use of such system in wound healing applications. [less ▲]

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See detailNatural killer and dendritic cells collaborate in the immune response induced by the vaccine against uterine cervical cancer.
Langers, Inge ULg; Renoux, Virginie; Reschner, Anca et al

in European journal of immunology (2014), 44

Virus-like particles (VLPs) of human papillomavirus (HPV) are used as a vaccine against HPV-induced cancer, and recently we have shown that these VLPs are able to activate natural killer (NK) cells. Since ... [more ▼]

Virus-like particles (VLPs) of human papillomavirus (HPV) are used as a vaccine against HPV-induced cancer, and recently we have shown that these VLPs are able to activate natural killer (NK) cells. Since NK cells collaborate with dendritic cells (DCs) to induce an immune response against viral infections and tumors, we studied the impact of this crosstalk in the context of HPV vaccination. NK cells in the presence of HPV-VLPs enhanced DC maturation as shown by an upregulation of CD86 and HLA-DR and an increased production of IL-12p70, but not of the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10. This activation was bi-directional. Indeed, in the presence of HPV-VLPs, DCs further activated NK cells by inducing the upregulation of cell surface activation markers (CD69 and HLA-DR). The function of NK cells was also improved as shown by an increase in IFN-gamma secretion and cytotoxic activity against an HPV+ cell line. This crosstalk between NK cells and DCs needed CD40 interaction and IL-12p70 secretion, whereas NKG2D was not implicated. Our results provide insight into how VLPs interact with innate immune cells and how NK cells and DCs play a role in the immune response induced by this vaccine agent. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of gender difference in hospital outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention. Results of the Belgian Working Group on Interventional Cardiology (BWGIC) registry
LEMPEREUR, Mathieu ULg; Magne, Julien; Cornelis, Kristoff et al

in EuroIntervention : Journal of EuroPCR in Collaboration with the Working Group on Interventional Cardiology of the European Society of Cardiology (2014)

Aims: To determine whether there are gender-based differences in in-hospital outcomes among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods and results: We studied a large cohort ... [more ▼]

Aims: To determine whether there are gender-based differences in in-hospital outcomes among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods and results: We studied a large cohort using clinical data from a registry of 130,985 PCI procedures in Belgium, from January 2006 to February 2011. Compared to males, females were significantly older (70.3 vs. 64.8 years), and were more frequently diabetic or hypertensive. Men smoked more and more frequently had previous myocardial infarction (MI), previous PCI or previous coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Coronary artery disease (CAD) was less severe in women, and PCI to the left anterior descending artery was more common in female patients. Unadjusted in-hospital mortality rates were higher in females versus males (2.5% for women and 1.6% for men, p<0.0001). After multivariable analysis, female gender remained an independent predictor of mortality (odds ratio 1.35, 95% CI: 1.22-1.49, p<0.0001). Conclusions: Gender-based differences in hospital mortality rates after PCI were observed in this large registry. Female sex remained an independent predictor of mortality after multivariable adjustment. [less ▲]

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See detailEnfants en situation de vulnérabilité médico-psycho-sociale repérés par la médecine scolaire : les oubliés du réseau de soins ?
Noirhomme-Renard, Florence ULg; Bullens, Quentin ULg; Malchair, Alain ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014), 69(12),

Les besoins actuels de santé des enfants sortent largement du cadre biomédical. La prise en compte des déterminants sociaux de la santé dans la surveillance des enfants offre au médecin scolaire un poste ... [more ▼]

Les besoins actuels de santé des enfants sortent largement du cadre biomédical. La prise en compte des déterminants sociaux de la santé dans la surveillance des enfants offre au médecin scolaire un poste « vigie » pour le repérage d’enfants en situation de vulnérabilité, qui le conduit à la nécessité d’un réel « travail en réseau » pour concourir au développement harmonieux de l’enfant. [less ▲]

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See detailLes Phénomènes
Dewalque, Arnaud ULg; Seron, Denis ULg

in Philosophie (2014), 124

Le présent numéro thématique explore quelques aspects de la question de la phénoménalité. Les trois premiers textes portent sur les phénomènes sensibles: sur le nombre des sens (Brentano), le traitement ... [more ▼]

Le présent numéro thématique explore quelques aspects de la question de la phénoménalité. Les trois premiers textes portent sur les phénomènes sensibles: sur le nombre des sens (Brentano), le traitement des phénomènes sensibles dans la phénoménologie de Husserl (Stumpf) et l'héritage du phénoménisme de Mach dans le néokantisme de Natorp (Palette). Les contributions suivantes s’inscrivent dans le cadre du débat contemporain sur la conscience phénoménale. Elles discutent la pertinence et les difficultés d’une approche phénoménologique du monde (Uriah Kriegel), de l’intentionnalité (Dan Zahavi) et du mental (Dewalque & Seron). [less ▲]

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See detailAboveground biomass mapping of African forest mosaics using canopy texture analysis: toward a regional approach.
Bastin, Jean-François ULg; Barbier, Nicolas; Couteron, Pierre et al

in Ecological Applications (2014), 24(8), 1984-2001

In the context of the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions caused by deforestation and forest degradation (the REDD+ program), optical very high resolution (VHR) satellite images provide an opportunity ... [more ▼]

In the context of the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions caused by deforestation and forest degradation (the REDD+ program), optical very high resolution (VHR) satellite images provide an opportunity to characterize forest canopy structure and to quantify aboveground biomass (AGB) at less expense than methods based on airborne remote sensing data. Among the methods for processing these VHR images, Fourier textural ordination (FOTO) presents a good potential to detect forest canopy structural heterogeneity and therefore to predict AGB variations. Notably, the method does not saturate at intermediate AGB values as do pixelwise processing of available space borne optical and radar signals. However, a regional scale application requires to overcome two difficulties: (i) instrumental effects due to variations in sun-scene-sensor geometry or sensor-specific responses that preclude the use of wide arrays of images acquired under heterogeneous conditions and (ii) forest structural diversity including monodominant or open canopy forests, which are of particular importance in Central Africa. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of a rigorous regional study of canopy texture by harmonizing FOTO indices of images acquired from two different sensors (Geoeye-1 and QuickBird-2) and different sun-scene-sensor geometries and by calibrating a piecewise biomass inversion model using 26 inventory plots (1 ha) sampled across very heterogeneous forest types. A good agreement was found between observed and predicted AGB (RSE=15%; R²=0.85; p-value<0.001) across a wide range of AGB levels from 26 Mg/ha to 460 Mg/ha, and was confirmed by cross validation. A high-resolution biomass map (100 m pixels) was produced for a 400 km² area, and predictions obtained from both imagery sources were consistent with each other (r=0.86; slope=1.03; intercept=12.01 Mg/ha). These results highlight the horizontal structure of forest canopy as a powerful descriptor of the entire forest stand structure and heterogeneity. In particular, we show that quantitative metrics resulting from such textural analysis offer new opportunities to characterize the spatial and temporal variation of the structure of dense forests and may complement the toolbox used by tropical forest ecologists, managers or REDD+ national monitoring, reporting and verification bodies. [less ▲]

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See detailThe sentence repetition task: A powerful diagnostic tool for French children with specific language impairment
Leclercq, Anne-Lise ULg; Quémart, Pauline; Magis, David ULg et al

in Research in Developmental Disabilities (2014), 35

This study assesses the diagnostic accuracy and construct validity of a sentence repetition task that is commonly used for the identification of French children with specific language impairment (SLI ... [more ▼]

This study assesses the diagnostic accuracy and construct validity of a sentence repetition task that is commonly used for the identification of French children with specific language impairment (SLI). Thirty-four school-aged children with a confirmed, diagnostically based diagnosis of SLI, and 34 control children matched on age and nonverbal abilities performed the sentence repetition task. Two general scoring measures took into account the verbatim repetition of the sentence and the number of words accurately repeated. Moreover, five other scoring measures were applied to their answers in order to separately take into account their respect of lexical items, functional items, syntax, verb morphology, and the general meaning of the sentence. Results show good to high levels of sensitivity and specificity at the three cut-off points for all scoring measures. A principal component analysis revealed two factors. Scoring measures for the respect of functional words, syntax and verb morphology provided the largest loadings to the first factor, while scoring measures for the respect of lexical words and general semantics provided the largest loadings to the second factor. Sentence repetition appears to be a valuable tool to identify SLI in French children, and the ability to repeat sentences correctly is supported by two factors: a morphosyntactic factor and a lexical factor. [less ▲]

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See detailDietary early-life exposure to contaminated eels does not impair spatial cognitive performances in adult offspring mice as assessed in the Y-maze and the Morris water maze
Dridi, Imen; Leroy, Delphine; Guignard, Cedric et al

in Nutrition Research (2014), 34(12), 1075-1084

Many environmental contaminants are introduced via the diet and may act as neurotoxins and endocrine disrupters, especially influencing growing organisms in early life. The purpose of this study was to ... [more ▼]

Many environmental contaminants are introduced via the diet and may act as neurotoxins and endocrine disrupters, especially influencing growing organisms in early life. The purpose of this study was to examine whether dietary exposure of dams to fish naturally contaminated with xenobiotics, especially with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and heavy metals (e.g. mercury and lead), resulted in cognitive function deficits in adult offspring mice. Daily, four groups of dams (n = 10/group) ingested standard diet plus paste with/without eels, during gestation and lactation, from gestational day (GD) six until post natal day (PND) 21 (weaning). Dams orally ingested a standardized amount of eel (0.8 mgkg-1 d-1) containing the six non-dioxin-like (NDL) PCBs (σ6 NDL-PCBs: 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180) at 0, 85, 216, and 400 ngkg-1 d-1. Results showed that early-life exposure to contaminated eels did not (compared to non-exposed controls) impair immediate working memory in the Y-maze in the offspring assessed at PND 38. Furthermore, it did not significantly impact spatial learning and retention memory as measured in the Morris water maze in adult offspring mice (PND 120-123). Our results suggest that perinatal exposure to contaminated eels does not affect spatial cognitive performances, as assessed by the Y-maze and Morris water maze at adult age. Adverse effects of xenobiotics reported earlier might be camouflaged by beneficial eel constituents, such as n-3 fatty acids. However, additional studies are needed to differentiate between potential positive and negative effects following consumption of food items both rich in nutrients and contaminants. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailGrey-box identification of a non-linear solar array structure using cubic splines
Noël, Jean-Philippe ULg; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg; Foltête, Emmanuel et al

in International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics (2014), 67

Most identification methods in non-linear structural dynamics assume in advance a mathematical model of the non-linearities. This is however possible in specific situations only, since non-linear effects ... [more ▼]

Most identification methods in non-linear structural dynamics assume in advance a mathematical model of the non-linearities. This is however possible in specific situations only, since non-linear effects may be caused by numerous phenomena and a priori knowledge is generally limited. The present paper investigates the usefulness of piecewise third-order polynomials, termed cubic splines, to identify the complex non-linear dynamics of solar arrays in their stowed configuration. The estimation of the model parameters is achieved using the frequency-domain non-linear subspace identification (FNSI) method. A distinct advantage of the FNSI approach is its capability to calculate accurately a large number of parameters, while maintaining an acceptable computational burden. This makes tractable the use of cubic splines to represent non-linearity in real-life mechanical systems, as the dimensionality of the inverse problem is known to increase dramatically in this case. The experimental structure of interest consists of two parallel aluminium plates assembled with bolted connections. This application is challenging because of the existence of impacts between the two plates at high excitation amplitude, and of the activation of complicated stiffness and damping mechanisms within the bolted connections. [less ▲]

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See detailA global analysis of Spitzer and new HARPS data confirms the loneliness and metal-richness of GJ 436 b
Lanotte, Audrey ULg; Gillon, Michaël ULg; Demory, B.-O. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 572

Context. GJ 436b is one of the few transiting warm Neptunes for which a detailed characterisation of the atmosphere is possible, whereas its non-negligible orbital eccentricity calls for further ... [more ▼]

Context. GJ 436b is one of the few transiting warm Neptunes for which a detailed characterisation of the atmosphere is possible, whereas its non-negligible orbital eccentricity calls for further investigation. Independent analyses of several individual datasets obtained with Spitzer have led to contradicting results attributed to the different techniques used to treat the instrumental effects. Aims. We aim at investigating these previous controversial results and developing our knowledge of the system based on the full Spitzer photometry dataset combined with new Doppler measurements obtained with the HARPS spectrograph. We also want to search for additional planets. Methods. We optimise aperture photometry techniques and the photometric deconvolution algorithm DECPHOT to improve the data reduction of the Spitzer photometry spanning wavelengths from 3-24 {\mu}m. Adding the high precision HARPS radial velocity data, we undertake a Bayesian global analysis of the system considering both instrumental and stellar effects on the flux variation. Results. We present a refined radius estimate of RP=4.10 +/- 0.16 R_Earth, mass MP=25.4 +/- 2.1 M_Earth and eccentricity e= 0.162 +/- 0.004 for GJ 436b. Our measured transit depths remain constant in time and wavelength, in disagreement with the results of previous studies. In addition, we find that the post-occultation flare-like structure at 3.6 {\mu}m that led to divergent results on the occultation depth measurement is spurious. We obtain occultation depths at 3.6, 5.8, and 8.0 {\mu}m that are shallower than in previous works, in particular at 3.6 {\mu}m. However, these depths still appear consistent with a metal-rich atmosphere depleted in methane and enhanced in CO/CO2, although perhaps less than previously thought. We find no evidence for a potential planetary companion, stellar activity, nor for a stellar spin-orbit misalignment. [ABRIDGED] [less ▲]

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See detailPlasma riche en plaquettes et tendinopathies
KAUX, Jean-François ULg; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg

in Ortho-Rhumato (2014), 12(6), 35-39

Certaines tendinopathies présentent une évolution désespérément chronique malgré l’instauration d’un traitement conservateur bien conduit. Diverses études soulignent les propriétés réparatrices des ... [more ▼]

Certaines tendinopathies présentent une évolution désespérément chronique malgré l’instauration d’un traitement conservateur bien conduit. Diverses études soulignent les propriétés réparatrices des plaquettes qui pourraient accélérer la cicatrisation de différents tissus. Le plasma riche en plaquettes (platelet-rich plasma ou PRP) représenterait une thérapeutique d’avenir. Les plaquettes libéraient, lors de leur dégranulation, divers facteurs de croissance. Ceux-ci favoriseraient la cicatrisation tendineuse. Actuellement, les effets du PRP restent toujours discutés voire controversés : les résultats cliniques sont parfois contradictoires même si son efficacité in vitro et sur animal apparait plus franche. Cette variabilité pourrait s’expliquer par l’absence de consensus relatif au mode de préparation du PRP, à la concentration plaquettaire, à la présence ou non de leucocytes, à la technique d’infiltration et au protocole post-infiltration. [less ▲]

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See detailLa conversion des enfants juifs cachés dans la région liégeoise. Histoire et mémoire (1942-2010)
Genin, Vincent ULg

in Revue d'Histoire Ecclésiastique (2014), 109(3-4), 815-856

There is literature aplenty concerning the rescue of Jewish children in Belgium during the Second World War. However, it appears that some questions have remained unanswered to his day about the ... [more ▼]

There is literature aplenty concerning the rescue of Jewish children in Belgium during the Second World War. However, it appears that some questions have remained unanswered to his day about the consequences and the memory processes of these rescues by the Catholic clergy of Liege. After a brief overview of said rescue activities (1942-1944), this contribution will broach, supported by hitherto unexplored archives, three issues: 1. what are the consecutives stages of the memory process from 1944 to 2010? 2. How was this recognition expressed and what were its manifestations or why did it fail to occur? 3. Who are the protagonists –Christians, Jews, Israelis- of this process and what are their interests? [less ▲]

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See detailLe médicament du mois Canagliflozine (Invokana®) : inhibiteur des cotransporteurs rénaux sglt2 pour traiter le diabète de type 2
SCHEEN, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014), 69(12), 692-699

Canagliflozin is an inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2) that are present in renal tubules. This specific insulin-independent mechanism promotes glucosuria, which results in a ... [more ▼]

Canagliflozin is an inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2) that are present in renal tubules. This specific insulin-independent mechanism promotes glucosuria, which results in a reduction in fasting and postprandial glycaemia and a decrease of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Furthermore, canagliflozin promotes weight loss and lowers arterial (mainly systolic) blood pressure. Its efficacy is decreased in patients with renal insufficiency and the treatment should be stopped if estimated glomerular filtration rate is below 45 ml/min/1.73 m². Both the efficacy and safety of canagliflozin have been investigated in 24 to 104-week controlled trials versus placebo or versus an active comparator (glimepiride or sitagliptin). The mean reduction in HbA1c averages 0.75% when added to other treatments, as compared to placebo. The 100 mg dose is as active as sitagliptin 100 mg while the 300 mg canagliflozin dose is even more efficacious. Adverse events are mostly mycotic genital infections and more rarely mild urinary tract infections. Caution is required in elderly patients and the risk of volume depletion should be checked (hypotension). Hypoglycaemia may occur only in patients already treated with an insulin-secreting agent or insulin. Canagliflozin is commercialized under the trade name Invokana®, at the doses of 100 mg and 300 mg once daily, for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. [less ▲]

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See detailBronchial thermoplasty: a new therapeutic option for the treatment of severe, uncontrolled asthma in adults.
Dombret, Marie-Christine; Alagha, Khuder; Philippe Boulet, Louis et al

in European respiratory review : an official journal of the European Respiratory Society (2014), 23(134), 510-8

Bronchial thermoplasty is a young yet promising treatment for severe asthma whose benefit for long-term asthma control outweighs the short-term risk of deterioration and hospitalisation in the days ... [more ▼]

Bronchial thermoplasty is a young yet promising treatment for severe asthma whose benefit for long-term asthma control outweighs the short-term risk of deterioration and hospitalisation in the days following the treatment. It is an innovative treatment whose clinical efficacy and safety are beginning to be better understood. Since this is a device-based therapy, the overall evaluation of risk-benefit is unlike that of pharmaceutical products; safety aspects, regulatory requirements, study design and effect size assessment may be unfamiliar. The mechanisms of action and optimal patient selection need to be addressed in further rigorous clinical and scientific studies. Bronchial thermoplasty fits in perfectly with the movement to expand personalised medicine in the field of chronic airway disorders. This is a device-based complimentary asthma treatment that must be supported and developed in order to meet the unmet needs of modern severe asthma management. The mechanisms of action and the type of patients that benefit from bronchial thermoplasty are the most important challenges for bronchial thermoplasty in the future. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification and characterization of drought stress responsive genes in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) by suppression subtractive hybridization
Abid, Ghassen; Muhovski, Yordan; Mingeot, Dominique et al

in Plant Cell, Tissue & Organ Culture (2014)

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See detailUsing approximate dynamic programming for estimating the revenues of a hydrogen-based high-capacity storage device
François-Lavet, Vincent ULg; Fonteneau, Raphaël ULg; Ernst, Damien ULg

in IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence (2014)

This paper proposes a methodology to estimate the maximum revenue that can be generated by a company that operates a high-capacity storage device to buy or sell electricity on the day-ahead electricity ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes a methodology to estimate the maximum revenue that can be generated by a company that operates a high-capacity storage device to buy or sell electricity on the day-ahead electricity market. The methodology exploits the Dynamic Programming (DP) principle and is specified for hydrogen-based storage devices that use electrolysis to produce hydrogen and fuel cells to generate electricity from hydrogen. Experimental results are generated using historical data of energy prices on the Belgian market. They show how the storage capacity and other parameters of the storage device influence the optimal revenue. The main conclusion drawn from the experiments is that it may be advisable to invest in large storage tanks to exploit the inter-seasonal price fluctuations of electricity. [less ▲]

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See detailToward a tool aimed to quantify soil compaction risks at a regional scale: application to Wallonia (Belgium)
D'Or, Dimitri; Destain, Marie-France ULg

in Soil & Tillage Research (2014), 144

The spatial analysis of the soil compaction risk has been developed at the regional level and applied to Wallonia (Belgium). The methodology is based on the estimation of the probability of exceeding the ... [more ▼]

The spatial analysis of the soil compaction risk has been developed at the regional level and applied to Wallonia (Belgium). The methodology is based on the estimation of the probability of exceeding the preconsolidation stress due to the application of loads on the soil. Preconsolidation stresses (Pc) are computed from the pedotransfer functions of Horn and Fleige (2003) at pF 1.8 and 2.5 and classified into 6 categories ranging from very low Pc (< 30 kPa) to extremely high Pc (> 150 kPa). The computation requires the knowledge of pedological (texture, organic content), mechanical (bulk density, cohesion, internal friction angle), and hydraulic variables (water content available, non-available water content, air capacity, saturated hydraulic conductivity). These variables are obtained from databases like HYPRES or AARDEWERK or from pedotransfer functions. The computation of Pc takes into account the spatial structure of the data: in some cases, data are abundant (e.g. texture data) and spatial variability is taken into account through geostatistical methods. In other cases, the data is sparse but uncertainty information can be extracted from the knowledge of the statistical distribution. Maps of the most probable Pc class are produced. Uncertainty is computed as the classification error probability. Implementation of these methods in Wallonia showed that Pc values higher than 120 kPa are reached either on 64 % of the territory at pF 2.5 or on 55 % at pF 1.8. A higher uncertainty was found at pF 2.5 than at pF 1.8. Uncertainty was also found higher for clay and clayed loess than for other textural classes present in Wallonia. The risk of compaction is defined as the probability that Pc is exceeded by the stress created by a load applied to the soil at a depth of 40 cm, the loads being similar to those induced by agricultural or forestry tires. It appeared that subsoil compaction risks exist mainly in loamy forest soils with small coarse fragments supporting loads similar to that existing on logging machines. In the zones where the uncertainty is low, the developed tool could be used as a basis for providing policy measures in order to promote soil-friendly farming and forest practices. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic parameters for direct and maternal calving ease in Walloon dairy cattle based on linear and threshold models
Vanderick, Sylvie ULg; Troch, Thibault ULg; Gillon, Alain et al

in Journal of Animal Breeding & Genetics (2014), 131(6), 513-521

Calving ease scores from Holstein dairy cattle in the Walloon Region of Belgium were analysed using univariate linear and threshold animal models. Variance components and derived genetic parameters were ... [more ▼]

Calving ease scores from Holstein dairy cattle in the Walloon Region of Belgium were analysed using univariate linear and threshold animal models. Variance components and derived genetic parameters were estimated from a dataset including 33,155 calving records. Included in the models were season, herd and sex of calf age of dam classes group of calvings interaction as fixed effects, herd year of calving, maternal permanent environment and animal direct and maternal additive genetic as random effects. Models were fitted with the genetic correlation between direct and maternal additive genetic effects either estimated or constrained to zero. Direct heritability for calving ease was about 8% with linear models and about 12% with threshold models. Maternal heritabilities were about 2% and 4%, respectively. Genetic correlation between direct and maternal additive effects was found to be not significantly different from zero. Models were compared in terms of goodness of fit and predictive ability. Criteria of comparison such as mean squared error, correlation between observed and predicted calving ease scores as well as between estimated breeding values were estimated from 85,118 calving records. The results provided few differences between linear and threshold models even though correlations between estimated breeding values from subsets of data for sires with progeny from linear model were 17% and 23 % greater for direct and maternal genetic effects, respectively, than from threshold model. For the purpose of genetic evaluation for calving ease in Walloon Holstein dairy cattle, the linear animal model without covariance between direct and maternal additive effects was found to be the best choice. [less ▲]

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See detailToward a tool aimed to quantify soil compaction risks at a regional scale: application to Wallonia (Belgium)
D'Or, Dimitri; Destain, Marie-France ULg

in Soil & Tillage Research (2014), 144

The spatial analysis of the soil compaction risk has been developed at the regional level and applied to Wallonia (Belgium). The methodology is based on the estimation of the probability of exceeding the ... [more ▼]

The spatial analysis of the soil compaction risk has been developed at the regional level and applied to Wallonia (Belgium). The methodology is based on the estimation of the probability of exceeding the preconsolidation stress due to the application of loads on the soil. Preconsolidation stresses (Pc) are computed from the pedotransfer functions of Horn and Fleige (2003) at pF 1.8 and 2.5 and classified into 6 categories ranging from very low Pc (< 30 kPa) to extremely high Pc (> 150 kPa). The computation requires the knowledge of pedological (texture, organic content), mechanical (bulk density, cohesion, internal friction angle), and hydraulic variables (water content available, non-available water content, air capacity, saturated hydraulic conductivity). These variables are obtained from databases like HYPRES or AARDEWERK or from pedotransfer functions. The computation of Pc takes into account the spatial structure of the data: in some cases, data are abundant (e.g. texture data) and spatial variability is taken into account through geostatistical methods. In other cases, the data is sparse but uncertainty information can be extracted from the knowledge of the statistical distribution. Maps of the most probable Pc class are produced. Uncertainty is computed as the classification error probability. Implementation of these methods in Wallonia showed that Pc values higher than 120 kPa are reached either on 64 % of the territory at pF 2.5 or on 55 % at pF 1.8. A higher uncertainty was found at pF 2.5 than at pF 1.8. Uncertainty was also found higher for clay and clayed loess than for other textural classes present in Wallonia. The risk of compaction is defined as the probability that Pc is exceeded by the stress created by a load applied to the soil at a depth of 40 cm, the loads being similar to those induced by agricultural or forestry tires. It appeared that subsoil compaction risks exist mainly in loamy forest soils with small coarse fragments supporting loads similar to that existing on logging machines. In the zones where the uncertainty is low, the developed tool could be used as a basis for providing policy measures in order to promote soil-friendly farming and forest practices. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges in cerebral metabolism in patients with a minimally conscious state responding to zolpidem.
Chatelle, Camille ULg; Thibaut, Aurore ULg; Gosseries, Olivia ULg et al

in Frontiers in Neuroscience (2014)

Background:Zolpidem,ashort-actingnon-benzodiazepineGABAagonisthypnotic,hasbeenshowntoinduceparadoxicalresponsesinsomepatientswithdisordersofconsciousness(DOC ... [more ▼]

Background:Zolpidem,ashort-actingnon-benzodiazepineGABAagonisthypnotic,hasbeenshowntoinduceparadoxicalresponsesinsomepatientswithdisordersofconsciousness(DOC),leadingtorecoveryofarousalandcognitiveabilities.Wehereassessedzolpidem-inducedchangesinregionalbrainmetabolisminthreepatientswithknownzolpidemresponseinchronicpost-anoxicminimallyconsciousstate(MCS).Methods:[18F]-fluorodeoxyglucosepositronemissiontomography(FDG-PET)andstandardizedclinicalassessmentsusingtheComaRecoveryScale-Revisedwereperformedafteradministrationof10mgzolpidemorplaceboinarandomizeddoubleblind2-dayprotocol.PETdatapreprocessingandcomparisonwithahealthyage-matchedcontrolgroupwereperformedusingstatisticalparametricmapping(SPM8).Results:Behaviorally,allpatientsrecoveredfunctionalcommunicationafteradministrationofzolpidem(i.e.,emergencefromtheMCS).FDG-PETshowedincreasedmetabolismindorsolateralprefrontalandmesiofrontalcorticesafterzolpidembutnotafterplaceboadministration.Conclusion:Ourdatashowametabolicactivationofprefrontalareas,corroboratingtheproposedmesocircuithypothesistoexplaintheparadoxicaleffectofzolpidemobservedinsomepatientswithDOC.ItalsosuggeststhekeyroleoftheprefrontalcorticesintherecoveryoffunctionalcommunicationandobjectuseinhypoxicpatientswithchronicMCS. [less ▲]

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See detailSegmentation semi-automatique pour le traitement de données 3D denses : application au patrimoine architectural
Poux, Florent; Hallot, Pierre ULg; Jonlet, Benoît ULg et al

in XYZ : la Revue de l'Association Française de Topographie (2014), 141(36), 69-75

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See detailToward a tool aimed to quantify soil compaction risks at a regional scale: application to Wallonia (Belgium)
D'Or, Dimitri; Destain, Marie-France ULg

in Soil & Tillage Research (2014), 144

The spatial analysis of the soil compaction risk has been developed at the regional level and applied to Wallonia (Belgium). The methodology is based on the estimation of the probability of exceeding the ... [more ▼]

The spatial analysis of the soil compaction risk has been developed at the regional level and applied to Wallonia (Belgium). The methodology is based on the estimation of the probability of exceeding the preconsolidation stress due to the application of loads on the soil. Preconsolidation stresses (Pc) are computed from the pedotransfer functions of Horn and Fleige (2003) at pF 1.8 and 2.5 and classified into 6 categories ranging from very low Pc (< 30 kPa) to extremely high Pc (> 150 kPa). The computation requires the knowledge of pedological (texture, organic content), mechanical (bulk density, cohesion, internal friction angle), and hydraulic variables (water content available, non-available water content, air capacity, saturated hydraulic conductivity). These variables are obtained from databases like HYPRES or AARDEWERK or from pedotransfer functions. The computation of Pc takes into account the spatial structure of the data: in some cases, data are abundant (e.g. texture data) and spatial variability is taken into account through geostatistical methods. In other cases, the data is sparse but uncertainty information can be extracted from the knowledge of the statistical distribution. Maps of the most probable Pc class are produced. Uncertainty is computed as the classification error probability. Implementation of these methods in Wallonia showed that Pc values higher than 120 kPa are reached either on 64 % of the territory at pF 2.5 or on 55 % at pF 1.8. A higher uncertainty was found at pF 2.5 than at pF 1.8. Uncertainty was also found higher for clay and clayed loess than for other textural classes present in Wallonia. The risk of compaction is defined as the probability that Pc is exceeded by the stress created by a load applied to the soil at a depth of 40 cm, the loads being similar to those induced by agricultural or forestry tires. It appeared that subsoil compaction risks exist mainly in loamy forest soils with small coarse fragments supporting loads similar to that existing on logging machines. In the zones where the uncertainty is low, the developed tool could be used as a basis for providing policy measures in order to promote soil-friendly farming and forest practices. [less ▲]

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See detailA New Shift-Share Method
Artige, Lionel ULg; Van Neuss, Leif ULg

in Growth and Change (2014), 45(4), 667-683

Shift-share analysis is a decomposition technique widely used in regional studies to quantify an industry-mix effect and a competitive effect on the growth of regional employment (or any other relevant ... [more ▼]

Shift-share analysis is a decomposition technique widely used in regional studies to quantify an industry-mix effect and a competitive effect on the growth of regional employment (or any other relevant variable) relative to the national average. This technique has always been subject to criticism for its lack of theoretical basis. This paper presents a critical assessment of the methods suggested by Dunn (1960) and by Esteban-Marquillas (1972) and proposes a new shift-share method, which separates out the two effects unambiguously. By way of illustration, we provide an application to manufacturing employment in the Belgian provinces between 1995 and 2007. [less ▲]

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See detailExiste-t-il des phénomènes mentaux?
Dewalque, Arnaud ULg; Seron, Denis ULg

in Philosophie (2014), 124

This paper offers a critical discussion of the so-called argument from the transparency of experience. We recall of the argument against the historical background of phenomenal anti-dualism (Natorp, Wundt ... [more ▼]

This paper offers a critical discussion of the so-called argument from the transparency of experience. We recall of the argument against the historical background of phenomenal anti-dualism (Natorp, Wundt, Russell) and identify three difficulties of it. Eventually, we propose an alternative view, which we call phenomenological dualism. On the proposed view, there is a sense in which our mental states may be said to appear to us, hence there is a sense to say that there are mental phenomena. [less ▲]

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See detailExplaining the CMS Higgs lepton-flavor violating
Aristizabal Sierra, Diego ULg; Vicente, Avelino ULg

in Physical Review. D : Particles and Fields (2014), 90(11), 115004

Direct searches for lepton flavor violating Higgs boson decays in the τ μ channel have been recently reported by the CMS collaboration. The results display a slight excess of signal events with a ... [more ▼]

Direct searches for lepton flavor violating Higgs boson decays in the τ μ channel have been recently reported by the CMS collaboration. The results display a slight excess of signal events with a significance of 2.5σ, which translates into a branching ratio of about 1%. By interpreting these findings as a hint for beyond the standard model physics, we show that the Type-III 2HDM is capable of reproducing such signal while at the same time satisfying vacuum stability, perturbativity, electroweak precision data, measured Higgs standard decay modes and low-energy lepton flavor violating constraints. We have found that the allowed signal strength ranges for the bb, WW* and ZZ* standard channels shrink as soon as BR(h→τμ)∼ 1% is enforced. Thus, we point out that if the excess persists, improved measurements of these channels may be used to test our Type-III 2HDM scenario. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental validation of a thermal model of a LOx flooded ball bearing
Servais, Christophe ULg; Bozet, Jean-Luc ULg; Kreit, Patrick ULg et al

in Tribology International (2014), 80

Ball bearings of turbopumps of rocket engines work in very singular conditions; they are flooded into liquid oxygen or liquid hydrogen. Therefore, the use of any conventional lubricants (oil or grease) is ... [more ▼]

Ball bearings of turbopumps of rocket engines work in very singular conditions; they are flooded into liquid oxygen or liquid hydrogen. Therefore, the use of any conventional lubricants (oil or grease) is prescribed. Although cryogenic fluids can cool this kind of ball bearing, they cannot separate the surfaces in contact. As a result, there is a significant increase in frictional power losses. This paper presents tests performed on a cryotechnic ball bearing flooded in liquid oxygen. The test results showed that beyond a critical loading of the bearing, a sudden increase in temperature occurred. A thermal model is also put forward, in order to understand and anticipate especially the thermal instability described above. [less ▲]

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See detailPicpus et ses doubles
Demoulin, Laurent ULg; Lemoine, Michel

in Traces (2014), 21

Simenon a écrit Signé Picpus dans des conditions particulières. Il s’est essayé à construire une intrigue complexe en multipliant les personnages, les indices matériels et les mobiles sordides. Ce faisant ... [more ▼]

Simenon a écrit Signé Picpus dans des conditions particulières. Il s’est essayé à construire une intrigue complexe en multipliant les personnages, les indices matériels et les mobiles sordides. Ce faisant, il n’a pas laissé à ses lecteurs le rôle d’herméneutes psychologiques qu’il leur confère d’ordinaire. [less ▲]

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See detailLes porcheries : réservoirs des Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), vecteurs des virus de la Maladie de la Langue bleue et de Schmallenberg ?
Zimmer, Jean-Yves ULg; Saegerman, Claude ULg; Martinelle, Ludovic ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(4), 480-487

La fièvre catarrhale ovine (FCO) est une arbovirose qui affecte les ruminants domestiques et sauvages. Depuis sa récente apparition en Europe du Nord, cette épizootie virale a engendré des pertes ... [more ▼]

La fièvre catarrhale ovine (FCO) est une arbovirose qui affecte les ruminants domestiques et sauvages. Depuis sa récente apparition en Europe du Nord, cette épizootie virale a engendré des pertes économiques considérables. Les vecteurs biologiques du virus de la FCO sont des moucherons piqueurs appartenant au genre Culicoides (Diptera : Ceratopogonidae). Plusieurs campagnes de piégeage lumineux de ces moucherons adultes ont été réalisées précédemment en Belgique au sein d’exploitations bovines et ovines, mais aucune à l’intérieur des exploitations porcines. Cette étude vise donc à évaluer, au moyen de pièges lumineux, les populations de culicoïdes éventuellement présentes à l’intérieur de deux porcheries belges au cours de l’automne et de l’hiver 2008. La présence des espèces (potentiellement) vectrices du genre Culicoides a ainsi été mise en évidence à l’intérieur de ces bâtiments durant l’automne : 8 et 749 spécimens appartenant à 2 et 7 espèces ont ainsi respectivement été piégés au sein des porcheries, avec une majorité de femelles du complexe Obsoletus. L’ouverture des bâtiments semble fortement influencer leur présence. L’observation du statut alimentaire des femelles laisse supposer que ces moucherons sont susceptibles de se nourrir ou de pondre au sein des porcheries, même si le sang de porc n’a pas pu être identifié dans l’abdomen des femelles gorgées et que le lisier n’a pas révélé la présence de larves. Les porcs pourraient ainsi intervenir dans le maintien des populations d’espèces potentiellement vectrices du virus de la FCO, ou du nouveau virus dénommé virus Schmallenberg. [less ▲]

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See detailDe beklemtoning van samenstellingen in de tussentaal van Franstalige leerders van het Nederlands uit het immersie- en niet-immersieonderwijs
Bui-Anh, Vu ULg; Jouniaux, Anthony; Hiligsmann, Philippe et al

in n/f (2014), 12

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See detailLa place des savoirs dans l'approche par compétences
Simons, Germain ULg

in Education & Formation (2014), e-302

Ce texte est une mise en perspective de l'axe 1 du n° e-302 de la revue Education & Formation consacré à la publication des actes du colloque d'ABC-Educ (octobre 2013).

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See detailSur les définitions de Dieu. Entretien avec Valère Novarina
Dubouclez, Olivier ULg; Novarina, Valère

in Littérature (2014)

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See detailSpeciation in Malagasy lemurs: a review of the cryptic diversity in genus Lepilemur
Wilmet, Leslie ULg; Schwitzer, Christoph; Devillers, Pierre et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(4), 577-588

Madagascar is one of the highest biodiversity hotspots on the planet; however, it is also one of the most heavily impacted countries in the world in terms of forest degradation and general habitat ... [more ▼]

Madagascar is one of the highest biodiversity hotspots on the planet; however, it is also one of the most heavily impacted countries in the world in terms of forest degradation and general habitat destruction. Genus Lepilemur, in family Lepilemuridae, is a genus of small, nocturnal, exclusively arboreal Malagasy folivores. All species in the genus have small ranges of distribution. Fully forest-dependent, they have a high risk of extinction. Various models and theories of speciation mechanisms have been developed for the fauna and flora of Madagascar. For instance, in the northwestern part of the island, some authors used Lepilemur spp. to test two existing models of distribution: the “Martin model” and “Wilmé model”. Regarding the impact of forest destruction and habitat degradation in Madagascar, conservation strategies for Lepilemur need to be put in place. This paper gives an overview of the current knowledge of the genus Lepilemur and examines speciation for Malagasy lemurs. The understanding of species distribution within biodiversity hotspots is important to identify target for conservation. Therefore, we summarize and compare three biogeography models related to lemurs distribution in order to understand the reasons behind the high diversity (26 species in total) among the genus Lepilemur. Particular attention is also given to the concept of species regarding biodiversity issues and the taxonomic explosion in genus Lepilemur. [less ▲]

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See detailPONTE ET QUALITÉ D’OEUFS DE CAILLES ÉLEVÉES EN CONDITIONS SEMI INTENSIVES DANS L’EST ALGÉRIEN
Moula, Nassim ULg; Philippe, François-Xavier ULg; Ait Kaki, Asma et al

in Archivos de Zootecnia (2014), 63(244), 693-696

This work investigates laying performances and egg quality of 200 quails during 266 laying days. The first collected 240 eggs, for the periods: 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 44 weeks were used in this ... [more ▼]

This work investigates laying performances and egg quality of 200 quails during 266 laying days. The first collected 240 eggs, for the periods: 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 44 weeks were used in this study. The average laying rate calculated over a period of 37 weeks is 74.44 %. All studied eggs quality parameters were significantly (p<0.001) influenced by the age of the quail. The average weight of the whole egg (13.66 g), yolk (3.99 g) and shell (2.28 g) reach their maximum value at the 40th week. The maximum albumen average weight (7.45 g) was observed at 32nd week. Albumen (12.02) and yolk (48.72) indices recorded their highest values at the 12th and the 16th weeks, respectively. The eggs freshness, expressed here by Haugh units decreased with age. They range from 89.56 at the 12th week to 83.71 at the 44th week of age. Yolk color registered values with irregular fluctuations (7.12 to 9.33) in a colorimetric scale of 15 ladders. Highly significant and positive correlations (p<0.001) and were recorded between the whole egg weight and the weight of albumen, yolk and shell. To conclude, the quail age affects significantly the various egg quality parameters. [less ▲]

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See detailUn nouvel instrument d’évaluation des altérations du comportement auditif chez l’enfant avec autisme : l’échelle EACAA - E (Echelle Altérations Comportement Auditif Autisme - Enfant)
Filipova, Marina; Boulard, Aurore ULg; Blanc, Romuald et al

in Revue Francophone de Clinique Comportementale et Cognitive (2014), XIX(3), 57-69

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See detailEmpirical modelling of the bifurcation behaviour of a bridge deck undergoing across-wind galloping
Andrianne, Thomas ULg; Dimitriadis, Grigorios ULg

in Journal of Wind Engineering & Industrial Aerodynamics (2014), 135

This work presents an empirical model capable to describe the galloping bifurcation behaviour of a bridge deck. It is based on a general polynomial form proposed by Novak, which we limit to the 5th order ... [more ▼]

This work presents an empirical model capable to describe the galloping bifurcation behaviour of a bridge deck. It is based on a general polynomial form proposed by Novak, which we limit to the 5th order. The advantage of choosing this function for modelling the vertical force coefficient is that asymmetry of the even terms is enforced in order to reproduce the sub-critical aeroelastic behaviour of the bridge deck. The coefficients of the polynomial are identified from several pairs of displacement amplitudes and the corresponding airspeeds, measured in a wind tunnel during dynamic tests on the sectional bridge model. The identification is carried out using a first order harmonic balance technique. A stability analysis is presented in order to highlight the need of such a model to catch the complete bifurcation behaviour of the system. The resulting force coefficient of this full order model is compared to the well known models of Parkinson and Novak. Finally, the concept universal curve is used in order to discuss the galloping responses of square and rectangular cylinders, in comparison with the one of the bridge deck. [less ▲]

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See detailAdolescent Risk Behaviours and Protective Factors Against Peer Influence
Cattelino, Elena; Glowacz, Fabienne ULg; Born, Michel ULg et al

in Journal of Adolescence (2014), 37(8), 1353-1362

This study examined the relationships between protective factors and involvement in risk behaviour of Italian adolescents with friends involved in risk. Protective factors were drawn from models of peers ... [more ▼]

This study examined the relationships between protective factors and involvement in risk behaviour of Italian adolescents with friends involved in risk. Protective factors were drawn from models of peers and from individual skills (perceived regulatory self-efficacy, intolerant attitudes about deviance) and orientation (to health, school, religion). The data are from two waves, 1 year apart, of a questionnaire survey of adolescents in northwestern Italy. Participants were 908 adolescents (42% boys) ages 14–16 years. Results of a hierarchical regression revealed that religiosity is a protective factor and that friends’ models for conventional behaviours and positive attitude about health can mitigate the influence of deviant friends on adolescent risk behaviour 1 year later, even after controlling for prior levels of risk behaviour. Possible implications of this study suggest the importance of implementing preventive interventions by involving the peer group, especially at about 16 years, and working with heterogeneous (deviant and nondeviant) groups. [less ▲]

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See detailCracs, Neets... and Agency, le vocabulaire d’un autre monde... ou pas?
Vandoorne, Chantal ULg

in Education Santé (2014), (306), 7-8

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See detailCalcifications des tissus mous des jambes
COLLIN, Romain ULg; ANDRE, Béatrice ULg; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014), 69(12), 641-643

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See detailPoly( N-vinylcaprolactam): A thermoresponsive macromolecule with promising future in biomedical field
Liu, Ji; Debuigne, Antoine ULg; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg et al

in Advanced Healthcare Materials (2014), 3(12), 1941-1968

Poly( N -vinylcaprolactam) (PNVCL) is a thermoresponsive and biocompatible polymer that raises an increasing interest in the biomedical area, especially in drug delivery systems (DDS) that include ... [more ▼]

Poly( N -vinylcaprolactam) (PNVCL) is a thermoresponsive and biocompatible polymer that raises an increasing interest in the biomedical area, especially in drug delivery systems (DDS) that include micelles, hydrogels, and hybrid particles. The thermoresponsiveness of PNVCL, used alone or in combination with other stimuli- responsive polymers or particles (pH, magnetic fi eld, or chemicals), is often key in the loading and/or release process in these DDS. The renewed focus on this polymer, which is known for decades, is to a large extent due to recent progress in synthetic strategies. Especially, the advent of efficient controlled radical polymerization (CRP) methods for NVCL monomer gives now access to unprecedented well-defi ned NVCL-based copolymers with unique properties. This Review article addresses up-to-date synthetic aspects, biological features, and biomedical applications of the latest NVCL-containing systems. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Growth of the Skull Roof Plates in Arabosteus variabilis (Acanthothoraci, Placodermi) from the Early Devonian Jauf Formation (Saudi Arabia): Preliminary Results
Olive, Sébastien ULg; Goujet, Daniel; Lelièvre, Hervé et al

in Paleontological Journal (2014), 48(9), 992-1002

The skull roof growth of Arabosteus variabilis (Acanthothoraci), from the Pragian-Early Emsian of Saudi Arabia is studied on the basis of well preserved growth lines on the dermal plates. A clear tendency ... [more ▼]

The skull roof growth of Arabosteus variabilis (Acanthothoraci), from the Pragian-Early Emsian of Saudi Arabia is studied on the basis of well preserved growth lines on the dermal plates. A clear tendency towards growth in length, i.e. allometry in length, can be observed for all studied skull roof plates of Arabosteus variabilis as well as for the skull roof in general. Each studied plate displays particular growth shaping the skull roof according to its position in the skull roof pattern, e.g., the preorbital plate controls the shape of the part of the orbit and the nuchal plate retains the relative proportions in the skull roof during growth. [less ▲]

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See detailInput of supercritical carbon dioxide to polymer synthesis: an overview
Boyère, Cédric; Jérôme, Christine ULg; Debuigne, Antoine ULg

in European Polymer Journal (2014), 61

The ongoing search for environmentally friendlier alternative to the organic solvents used in chemical processes has led to the development of technologies based on supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 ... [more ▼]

The ongoing search for environmentally friendlier alternative to the organic solvents used in chemical processes has led to the development of technologies based on supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2), which is non-flammable, non-toxic and relatively inert fluid. Polymer chemistry does not escape this trend and last achievements in the field of polymer synthesis in scCO2 are reviewed here. Without claiming to be exhaustive, we go through and discuss the benefits of the main polymerization processes in scCO2 including homogeneous, precipitation, dispersion, suspension and emulsion systems. A particular attention is drawn to water/carbon dioxide emulsion polymerization and to the suited surface active agents. This review also underlines that heterogeneous polymerization based on CO2 is more than a strategy for reducing the ecological footprint of the polymer production but it allows structuring the polymer materials into particles or highly interconnected macroporous networks. [less ▲]

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See detailManifesto de Curitiba: pela Prevenção Quaternária e por uma Medicina sem conflitos de interesse
Silva, André Luiz da; Mangin, Derelie; Pizzanelli, Miguel et al

in Revista Brasileira de Medicina de Família e Comunidade (2014), 9(33), 371-374

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See detailTheoretical power spectra of mixed modes in low-mass red giant stars
Grosjean, Mathieu ULg; Dupret, Marc-Antoine ULg; Belkacem, Kevin et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 572

CoRoT and Kepler observations of red giant stars revealed very rich spectra of non-radial solar-like oscillations. Of particular interest was the detection of mixed modes that exhibit significant ... [more ▼]

CoRoT and Kepler observations of red giant stars revealed very rich spectra of non-radial solar-like oscillations. Of particular interest was the detection of mixed modes that exhibit significant amplitude, both in the core and at the surface of the stars. It opens the possibility of probing the internal structure from their innermost layers up to their surface throughout their evolution on the red giant branch, as well as on the red clump. Our objective is primarily to provide physical insight into the mechanism responsible for mixed-mode amplitudes and lifetimes. Subsequently, we aim at understanding the evolution and structure of red-giant spectra along with their evolution. The study of energetic aspects of these oscillations is also important for predicting the mode parameters in the power spectrum. Non-adiabatic computations, including a time-dependent treatment of convection, are performed and provide the lifetimes of radial and non-radial mixed modes. We then combine these mode lifetimes and inertias with a stochastic excitation model that gives us their heights in the power spectra. For stars representative of CoRoT and Kepler observations, we show under which circumstances mixed modes have heights comparable to radial ones. We stress the importance of the radiative damping in determining the height of mixed modes. Finally, we derive an estimate for the height ratio between a g-type and a p-type mode. This can thus be used as a first estimate of the detectability of mixed modes. [less ▲]

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See detailSpectral Analysis and Abundances of the Post-HB Star HD 76431
Khalack, V.; Yameogo, B.; LeBlanc, F. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2014), 445

HD76431 is a slow rotating post-HB star that shows an underabundance of helium by 0.5 dex relative to the solar value. These observational facts suggest that atomic diffusion could be active in its ... [more ▼]

HD76431 is a slow rotating post-HB star that shows an underabundance of helium by 0.5 dex relative to the solar value. These observational facts suggest that atomic diffusion could be active in its atmosphere. We have used the MMT and Bok spectra to estimate the atmospheric parameters of the target star using the model atmospheres and synthetic spectra calculated with TLUSTY and SYNSPEC. The derived values of the effective temperature, surface gravity, helium abundance are consistent with those obtained by Ramspeck et al. (2001b). It appears that NLTE effect are not important for HD76431. We have used Stokes I spectra from ESPaDOnS at CFHT to perform an abundance analysis and a search for observational evidence of vertical stratification of the abundance of certain elements. The results of our abundance analysis are in good agreement with previously published data with respect to average abundances. Our numerical simulations show that carbon and nitrogen reveal signatures of vertical abundance stratification in the atmosphere of HD76431. It appears that the carbon abundance increases toward the deeper atmospheric layers. Nitrogen also shows a similar behaviour, but in deeper atmospheric layers we obtain a significant dispersion for the estimates of its abundance. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of vertical abundance stratification of metals in a post-HB star and up to now it is the hottest star to show such stratification features. We also report the detection of two SiIII and one TiIII emission lines in the spectra of HD76431 that were not detected in previous studies. [less ▲]

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See detailTransient small-scale structure in the main auroral emission at Jupiter
Palmaerts, Benjamin ULg; Radioti, Aikaterini ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics (2014), 119

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See detailComment je traite … Recommandations pour interrompre un traitement médicamenteux
SCHEEN, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014), 69(12), 644-649

L’interruption d’un traitement pharmacologique est une situation clinique fréquente qui peut paraître plus simple à gérer que l’instauration d’un nouveau traitement, mais qui impose néanmoins de remplir ... [more ▼]

L’interruption d’un traitement pharmacologique est une situation clinique fréquente qui peut paraître plus simple à gérer que l’instauration d’un nouveau traitement, mais qui impose néanmoins de remplir certaines conditions et de respecter certaines précautions : 1) pouvoir expliciter les raisons qui justifient l’arrêt du traitement; 2) vérifier qu’il n’y a pas de danger à interrompre le traitement (même si cette interruption est transitoire); 3) savoir comment gérer au mieux l’arrêt de la thérapeutique, en particulier choisir entre une interruption immédiate et une décroissance posologique progressive; et, enfin, 4) assurer un suivi approprié du patient dûment informé chez lequel le traitement vient d’être stoppé. [less ▲]

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See detailConfiance politique et institutions internationales. Les perceptions de l'efficacité, de la légitimité et de la démocratie par des jeunes
Grandjean, Geoffrey ULg

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2014), 3

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See detailPhysical and bacterial controls on inorganic nutrients and dissolved organic carbon during a sea ice growth and decay experiment
Zhou, Jiayun ULg; Delille, Bruno ULg; Kaartokallio, Hermanni et al

in Marine Chemistry (2014), 166

We investigated how physical incorporation, brine dynamics and bacterial activity regulate the distribution of inorganic nutrients and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in artificial sea ice during a 19-day ... [more ▼]

We investigated how physical incorporation, brine dynamics and bacterial activity regulate the distribution of inorganic nutrients and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in artificial sea ice during a 19-day experiment that included periods of both ice growth and decay. The experiment was performed using two series of mesocosms: the first consisted of seawater and the second consisted of seawater enriched with humic-rich river water. We grew ice by freezing the water at an air temperature of -14 °C for 14 days after which ice decay was induced by increasing the air temperature to -1 °C. Using the ice temperatures and bulk ice salinities, we derived the brine volume fractions, brine salinities and Rayleigh numbers. The temporal evolution of these physical parameters indicate that there was a succession of 3 stages in the brine dynamics: forced-convection, followed by bottom convection during ice growth, and then brine stratification during ice decay. The major findings are: (1) the incorporation of dissolved compounds (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosphate, silicate, and DOC) into the sea ice was not conservative (relative to salinity) during ice growth. Brine convection clearly influenced the incorporation of the dissolved compounds, since the non-conservative behavior of the dissolved compounds was particularly pronounced in the absence of brine convection. (2) Bacterial activity further regulated nutrient availability in the ice: ammonium and nitrite accumulated as a result of remineralization processes, although bacterial production was too low to induce major changes in DOC concentrations. (3) Different forms of DOC have different properties and hence incorporation efficiencies. In particular, the terrestrially-derived DOC from the river water was less efficiently incorporated into sea ice than the DOC in the seawater. Therefore the main factors regulating the distribution of the dissolved compounds within sea ice are clearly a complex interaction of brine dynamics, biological activity and in the case of dissolved organic matter, the physico-chemical properties of the dissolved constituents themselves. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term evolution and seasonal modulation of methanol above Jungfraujoch (46.5°N, 8.0°E): Optimisation of the retrieval strategy, comparison with model and independant observations
Bader, Whitney ULg; Stavrakou, T; Muller, J-F et al

in Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (2014), 7

Methanol (CH3OH) is the second most abundant organic compound in the Earth's atmosphere after methane. In this work, we present the first long-term time series of methanol total, lower tropospheric and ... [more ▼]

Methanol (CH3OH) is the second most abundant organic compound in the Earth's atmosphere after methane. In this work, we present the first long-term time series of methanol total, lower tropospheric and upper tropospheric-lower stratospheric partial columns derived from the analysis of high resolution Fourier transform infrared solar spectra recorded at the Jungfraujoch station (46.5° N, 3580 m a.s.l.). The retrieval of methanol is very challenging due to strong absorptions of ozone in the region of the selected υ8 band of CH3OH. Two wide spectral intervals have been defined and adjusted in order to maximize the information content. Methanol does not exhibit a significant trend over the 1995–2012 time period, but a strong seasonal modulation characterized by maximum values and variability in June–July, minimum columns in winter and a peak-to-peak amplitude of 130%. In situ measurements performed at the Jungfraujoch and ACE-FTS occultations give similar results for the methanol seasonal variation. The total and lower tropospheric columns are also compared with IMAGESv2 model simulations. There is no systematic bias between the observations and IMAGESv2 but the model underestimates the peak-to-peak amplitude of the seasonal modulations. [less ▲]

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See detailDouble thermoresponsive di- and triblock copolymers based on N-vinylcaprolactam and N-vinylpyrrolidone: synthesis and comparative study of solution behaviour
Kermagoret, Anthony ULg; Mathieu, Kevin ULg; Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg et al

in Polymer Chemistry (2014), 5(22), 6534-6544

Poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PNVCL) and poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PNVP) are water soluble polymers of interest especially in the biomedical field. Moreover, PNVCL is characterized by a lower critical ... [more ▼]

Poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PNVCL) and poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PNVP) are water soluble polymers of interest especially in the biomedical field. Moreover, PNVCL is characterized by a lower critical solution temperature close to 36 °C in water, which makes it useful for the design of thermoresponsive systems. In this context, we used the cobalt-mediated radical polymerization (CMRP) and reaction coupling (CMRC) for synthesizing a series of well-defined NVCL and NVP-based copolymers, including statistical copolymers as well as double thermoresponsive diblocks and triblocks. Dynamic light scattering and turbidimetry analyses highlighted the crucial impact of the copolymer composition and architecture on the cloud point temperature (TCP) of each segment and also their influence on the multistep assembly behaviour of block copolymers. Addition of NaCl enabled us to adjust the inter-TCP range of the di- and triblock in which selective precipitation of one block and self-assembly of the copolymer were favoured. Overall, data presented here provide a basis for the synthesis of a broad range of NVCL/NVP based copolymer architectures with a tunable thermal response in water. [less ▲]

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See detailAllelopathic and autotoxicity effects of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) root exudates
Bouhaouel, Imen; Gfeller, Aurélie; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULg et al

in BioControl (2014), Online First

The allelopathic activity of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) root exudates was studied by comparing their effects on seedling establishment in barley itself and in two weed species, Bromus ... [more ▼]

The allelopathic activity of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) root exudates was studied by comparing their effects on seedling establishment in barley itself and in two weed species, Bromus diandrus Roth. and Lolium rigidum Gaudin, using an original laboratory protocol, named ‘seed-after-seed’. In this protocol, the donor and the receiver species of watersoluble allelochemicals are grown one after the other in the same dishes, in conditions reducing resource competition between both species. Growth of all receptive species (weeds and barley) was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner, when using increasing barley seed densities (0, 8, 19 and 25 seeds per Petri dish). In our conditions, the barley varieties and landraces exhibited different allelopathic activities against weeds or barley. The allelopathic potential of the barley root exudates was also dependent on the receiver species. Indeed, the released allelochemicals proved to be more toxic against the weed plants than on barley itself. Furthermore, the toxicity of the allelochemicals increased after their release by roots, between day 0 and day 6. These allelochemicals might contribute to the plant community dynamics and their usefulness as bio-herbicides deserves further consideration. [less ▲]

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See detailSoil charcoal to assess the impacts of past human disturbances on tropical forests
Vleminckx, Jason; Morin-Rivat, Julie ULg; Biwolé, Achille et al

in PLoS ONE (2014)

The canopy of many central African forests is dominated by light-demanding tree species that do not regenerate well under themselves. The prevalence of these species might result from ancient slash-and ... [more ▼]

The canopy of many central African forests is dominated by light-demanding tree species that do not regenerate well under themselves. The prevalence of these species might result from ancient slash-and-burn agricultural activities that created large openings, while a decline of these activities since the colonial period could explain their deficit of regeneration. To verify this hypothesis, we compared soil charcoal abundance, used as a proxy for past slash-and-burn agriculture, and tree species composition assessed on 208 rainforest 0.2 ha plots located in three areas from Southern Cameroon. Species were classified in regeneration guilds (pioneer, non-pioneer light-demanding, shade-bearer) and characterized by their woodspecific gravity, assumed to reflect light requirement. We tested the correlation between soil charcoal abundance and: (i) the relative abundance of each guild, (ii) each species and family abundance and (iii) mean wood-specific gravity. Charcoal was found in 83% of the plots, indicating frequent past forest fires. Radiocarbon dating revealed two periods of fires: ‘‘recent’’ charcoal were on average 300 years old (up to 860 BP, n = 16) and occurred in the uppermost 20 cm soil layer, while ‘‘ancient’’ charcoal were on average 1900 years old (range: 1500 to 2800 BP, n = 43, excluding one sample dated 9400 BP), and found in all soil layers. While we expected a positive correlation between the relative abundance of light demanding species and charcoal abundance in the upper soil layer, overall there was no evidence that the current heterogeneity in tree species composition can be explained by charcoal abundance in any soil layer. The absence of signal supporting our hypothesis might result from (i) a relatively uniform impact of past slash-and-burn activities, (ii) pedoturbation processes bringing ancient charcoal to the upper soil layer, blurring the signal of centuries-old Human disturbances, or (iii) the prevalence of other environmental factors on species composition. [less ▲]

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See detailSurvey of Artificial Insemination Practices in Algeria
Souames, Samir; Hanzen, Christian ULg; Detilleux, Johann ULg et al

in Research Journal for Veterinary Practitioner (2014), 3(1), 1-9

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See detailRecent Northern Hemisphere stratospheric HCl increase due to atmospheric circulation changes
Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg; Chipperfield, M. P.; Notholt, J. et al

in Nature (2014), 515(7525), 104--107

The abundance of chlorine in the Earth’s atmosphere increased considerably during the 1970s to 1990s, following large emissions of anthropogenic long-lived chlorine-containing source gases, notably the ... [more ▼]

The abundance of chlorine in the Earth’s atmosphere increased considerably during the 1970s to 1990s, following large emissions of anthropogenic long-lived chlorine-containing source gases, notably the chlorofluorocarbons. The chemical inertness of chlorofluorocarbons allows their transport and mixing throughout the troposphere on a global scale[1], before they reach the stratosphere where they release chlorine atoms that cause ozone depletion[2]. The large ozone loss over Antarctica[3] was the key observation that stimulated the definition and signing in 1987 of the Montreal Protocol, an international treaty establishing a schedule to reduce the production of the major chlorine- and bromine-containing halocarbons. Owing to its implementation, the near-surface total chlorine concentration showed a maximum in 1993, followed by a decrease of half a per cent to one per cent per year[4], in line with expectations. Remote-sensing data have revealed a peak in stratospheric chlorine after 1996[5], then a decrease of close to one per cent per year[6,7], in agreement with the surface observations of the chlorine source gases and model calculations[7]. Here we present ground-based and satellite data that show a recent and significant increase, at the 2σ level, in hydrogen chloride (HCl), the main stratospheric chlorine reservoir, starting around 2007 in the lower stratosphere of the Northern Hemisphere, in contrast with the ongoing monotonic decrease of near-surface source gases. Using model simulations, we attribute this trend anomaly to a slowdown in the Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation, occurring over several consecutive years, transporting more aged air to the lower stratosphere, and characterized by a larger relative conversion of source gases to HCl. This short-term dynamical variability will also affect other stratospheric tracers and needs to be accounted for when studying the evolution of the stratospheric ozone layer. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Robust Economic Statistical Design of the Hotelling’s T^2 Chart
Faraz, Alireza ULg; Chalaki, Kamyar; Saniga, Erwin et al

in Communications in Statistics : Theory & Methods (2014)

Economic statistical designs aim at minimizing the cost of process monitoring when a specific scenario or a set of estimated process and cost parameters is given. However, in practical situations the ... [more ▼]

Economic statistical designs aim at minimizing the cost of process monitoring when a specific scenario or a set of estimated process and cost parameters is given. However, in practical situations the process may be affected by more than one scenario which may lead to severe cost penalties for upsetting the true scenario. This paper presents the robust economic statistical design (RESD) of the T^2 chart to reduce the monetary losses when there are multiple distinct scenarios. The genetic algorithm optimization method is employed here to minimize the total expected monitoring cost across all distinct scenarios. Through two numerical examples the proposed method is illustrated. Simulation studies indicate that the robust economic statistical designs should be encouraged in practice. [less ▲]

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