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See detailMaternal transfer of organohalogenated compounds in sharks and stingrays
Weijs, Liesbeth; Briels, Nathalie; Adams, Douglas et al

in Marine Pollution Bulletin (2015)

Elasmobranchs can bioaccumulate considerable amounts of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and utilize several reproductive strategies thereby influencing maternal transfer of contaminants. This study ... [more ▼]

Elasmobranchs can bioaccumulate considerable amounts of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and utilize several reproductive strategies thereby influencing maternal transfer of contaminants. This study provides preliminary data on the POP transfer from pregnant females to offspring of three species (Atlantic stingrays, bonnethead, blacktip sharks) with different reproduction modes (aplacental, placental viviparity). Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels were generally higher than any other POPs. Stingrays and blacktip shark embryos contained the lowest POP concentrations while bonnetheads and the blacktip adult female had the highest concentrations. Results suggest that are more readily transferred from the mother to the embryo compared to what is transferred to ova in stingrays. Statistically significant differences in levels of selected POPs were found between embryos from the left and right uterus within the same litter as well as between female and male embryos within the same litter for bonnetheads, but not for the blacktip sharks. [less ▲]

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See detailTime-varying respiratory system elastance: a physiological model for patients who are spontaneously breathing.
Chiew, Yeong Shiong; Pretty, Christopher; Docherty, Paul D. et al

in PloS one (2015), 10(1), 0114847

BACKGROUND: Respiratory mechanics models can aid in optimising patient-specific mechanical ventilation (MV), but the applications are limited to fully sedated MV patients who have little or no ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Respiratory mechanics models can aid in optimising patient-specific mechanical ventilation (MV), but the applications are limited to fully sedated MV patients who have little or no spontaneously breathing efforts. This research presents a time-varying elastance (Edrs) model that can be used in spontaneously breathing patients to determine their respiratory mechanics. METHODS: A time-varying respiratory elastance model is developed with a negative elastic component (Edemand), to describe the driving pressure generated during a patient initiated breathing cycle. Data from 22 patients who are partially mechanically ventilated using Pressure Support (PS) and Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA) are used to investigate the physiology relevance of the time-varying elastance model and its clinical potential. Edrs of every breathing cycle for each patient at different ventilation modes are presented for comparison. RESULTS: At the start of every breathing cycle initiated by patient, Edrs is < 0. This negativity is attributed from the Edemand due to a positive lung volume intake at through negative pressure in the lung compartment. The mapping of Edrs trajectories was able to give unique information to patients' breathing variability under different ventilation modes. The area under the curve of Edrs (AUCEdrs) for most patients is > 25 cmH2Os/l and thus can be used as an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) severity indicator. CONCLUSION: The Edrs model captures unique dynamic respiratory mechanics for spontaneously breathing patients with respiratory failure. The model is fully general and is applicable to both fully controlled and partially assisted MV modes. [less ▲]

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See detailDes chiffres de la politique à la politique du chiffre Le cas des réformes du financement de la recherche dans les universités belge francophones.
Fallon, Catherine ULg

in Reflets et Perspectives de la Vie Economique (2015)

“Governing by numbers” is a trend on the increase in public action. Numbers tend to pervade the politico-administrative space without questioning neither the quantification processes which produce them ... [more ▼]

“Governing by numbers” is a trend on the increase in public action. Numbers tend to pervade the politico-administrative space without questioning neither the quantification processes which produce them nor the conditions of their utilization in government. And yet the use of numbers and data in political arguments contribute to transform the terms of the debate: politics can transform data and indicators, but one should not neglect how numbers affect policymaking. This article proposes as case study the analysis of some recent transformations of public research funding mechanism in universities in French speaking Belgium. It questions the systemic effects of the use of performance indicators in public management in this sector and it proposes some starting points for a discussion of their impact on the quality of the political debate. [less ▲]

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See detailA note on the equivalence between observed and expected information functions with polytomous IRT models
Magis, David ULg

in Journal of Educational & Behavioral Statistics (2015), 40

The purpose of this note is to study the equivalence of observed and expected (Fisher) information functions with polytomous item response theory (IRT) models. It is established that observed and expected ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this note is to study the equivalence of observed and expected (Fisher) information functions with polytomous item response theory (IRT) models. It is established that observed and expected information functions are equivalent for the class of divide-by-total models (including partial credit, generalized partial credit, rating scale and nominal response models), but not for the class of difference models (including the graded response and modified graded response models). Yet, observed information function remains positive in both classes. Straightforward connections with dichotomous IRT models and further implications are outlined. [less ▲]

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See detailClimate Change and Tritrophic Interactions: Will Modifications to Greenhouse Gas Emissions Increase the Vulnerability of Herbivorous Insects to Natural Enemies?
Boullis, Antoine ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg; Verheggen, François ULg

in Environmental Entomology (2015)

Insects are highly dependent on odor cues released into the environment to locate conspecifics or food sources. This mechanism is particularly important for insect predators that rely on kairomones ... [more ▼]

Insects are highly dependent on odor cues released into the environment to locate conspecifics or food sources. This mechanism is particularly important for insect predators that rely on kairomones released by their prey to detect them. In the context of climate change and, more specifically, modifications in the gas composition of the atmosphere, chemical communication-mediating interactions between phytophagous insect pests, their host plants, and their natural enemies is likely to be impacted. Several reports have indicated that modifications to plants caused by elevated carbon dioxide and ozone concentrations might indirectly affect insect herbivores, with community-level modifications to this group potentially having an indirect influence on higher trophic levels. The vulnerability of agricultural insect pests toward their natural enemies under elevated greenhouse gases concentrations has been frequently reported, but conflicting results have been obtained. This literature review shows that the higher levels of carbon dioxide, as predicted for the coming century, do not enhance the abundance or efficiency of natural enemies to locate hosts or prey in most published studies. Increased ozone levels lead to modifications in herbivore-induced volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by damaged plants, which may impact the attractiveness of these herbivores to the third trophic level. Furthermore, other oxidative gases (such as SO2 and NO2) tend to reduce the abundance of natural enemies. The impact of changes in atmospheric gas emissions on plant–insect and insect–insect chemical communication has been under-documented, despite the significance of these mechanisms in tritrophic interactions. We conclude by suggesting some further prospects on this topic of research yet to be investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailTiO2 Macroscopic Fibers with Enhanced Photocatalytic Properties Obtained through a Scale-Up Semi-Industrial Process
Kinadjian, Natacha; Le Bechec, Mickael; Henrist, Catherine ULg et al

in Advanced Engineering Materials (2015), 17(1), 36-44

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See detailDesign of Pt/carbon xerogel catalysts for PEM fuel cells
Job, Nathalie ULg; Lambert, Stéphanie ULg; Zubiaur, Anthony ULg et al

in Catalysts (2015), 5

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See detailDramatic osteonecrosis of the jaw associated with oral bisphosphonates, periodontitis and dental implant removal
Ayora, A F; HERION, Francine ULg; ROMPEN, Eric ULg et al

in Journal of Clinical Periodontology (2015), 42

Osteoporosis affects millions of elderly patients, and anti-resorptive drugs (ARD) such as bisphosphonates (BP) represent the first-line therapy. Despite the benefits related to the use of these ... [more ▼]

Osteoporosis affects millions of elderly patients, and anti-resorptive drugs (ARD) such as bisphosphonates (BP) represent the first-line therapy. Despite the benefits related to the use of these medications, osteonecrosis of the jaw is a significant complication in a subset of patients receiving these drugs. CASE PRESENTATION: This report documents a case of dramatic bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis associated with periodontitis and dental implant removal in an osteoporotic patient treated with per os bisphosphonates for an uninterrupted period of 15 years. CONCLUSION: The aim of this report was to discuss the administration period of BP in the treatment of osteoporosis, the decision-making and clinical management of severe MRONJ and the indications for dental implant placement in these specific patients. [less ▲]

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See detailHistoire et expérience fondatrice dans Sein und Zeit
Zincq, Aurélien ULg

in Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique (2015)

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See detailClinical inertia in general practice, a matter of debate: a qualitative study with 114 general practitioners in Belgium.
Aujoulat, Isabelle; Jacquemin, Patricia; Hermans, Michel et al

in BMC family practice (2015), 16(1), 13

BackgroundPrescribing that is not concordant with guidelines is increasingly referred to as clinical inertia (CI). However, CI may be only apparent, and the absence of decision may actually reflect ... [more ▼]

BackgroundPrescribing that is not concordant with guidelines is increasingly referred to as clinical inertia (CI). However, CI may be only apparent, and the absence of decision may actually reflect appropriate inaction as a result of good clinical reasoning. Our study aimed to: (i) elucidate GPs inverted question mark beliefs regarding CI and the risk of CI in their own practice, (ii) identify modifiable provider-related factors associated with CI.MethodsWe conducted 8 group interviews with 114 general practitioners (GP) in Belgium, and used an integrated approach of thematic analysis.ResultsOur results call for a redefinition of CI, in order to take into account the GPs inverted question mark extended health-promoting role, and acknowledge that inaction or delayed action follows a process of clinical reasoning that takes into account the patients inverted question mark preferences, and that is appropriate most of the time. However, the participants in our study did acknowledge that the risk of CI exists in practice. The main factor of such a risk is when GPs feel overwhelmed and disempowered, due to characteristics of either the patients or the health care system, including contradictions between guidelines and reimbursement policies.ConclusionsAlthough situations of clinical inertia exist in practice and need to be prevented or corrected, the term clinical inertia could potentially increase the already existing gap between general practice and specialised care, whereas sustained efforts toward more collaborative work and integrated care are called for. [less ▲]

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See detailThe emergence of metabolomics as a key discipline in the drug discovery process
Fillet, Marianne ULg; Frederich, Michel ULg

in Drug Discovery Today: Technologies (2015), (0), -

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See detailUsing zero-inlated models to predict the relative distribution and abundance of roe deer over very large spatial scales
Bouyer, Yaëlle ULg; Rigot, Thibaud; Panzacchi, Manuela et al

in Annales Zoologici Fennici (2015), 52

In Norway, recovering populations of large carnivores commonly prey on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Understanding predator habitat use and ecology requires fine-scaled information on prey distribution ... [more ▼]

In Norway, recovering populations of large carnivores commonly prey on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Understanding predator habitat use and ecology requires fine-scaled information on prey distribution and abundance. However, the massive spatial scales at which large carnivores use the landscape presents many practical and statistical challenges for developing functional prey distribution models. Pellet-count data from >1000 km of transects gathered across southeastern Norway from 2005 to 2011 were used to derive a map of relative prey abundance for roe deer. These data were modeled using zero-inflated hurdle models using both environmental and anthropogenic variables. Snow depth and agricultural fields were the most significant variables in explaining both presence and abundance. Internal k-cross validation of the model showed medium accuracy (Spearman r = 0.35), whereas external evaluation carried out on the basis of independently collected snow-tracking data (Spearman r = 0.37) and hunting statistics (Spearman r = 0.88) showed high accuracy. The map generated can facilitate both the study of broad scale processes linking predators and prey as well as roe deer management in southeastern Norway. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of thermal comfort models for various climatic zones of North-East India
Singh, Manoj Kumar; Mahapatra, Sadhan; Teller, Jacques ULg

in Sustainable Cities and Society (2015), 14

Thermal comfort study provides crucial information about thermal performance of naturally ventilated buildings. Humphreys and Auliciems comfort model uses indoor and outdoor temperatures to predict ... [more ▼]

Thermal comfort study provides crucial information about thermal performance of naturally ventilated buildings. Humphreys and Auliciems comfort model uses indoor and outdoor temperatures to predict comfort temperatures. It is found that the comfort temperatures obtained by using these methods do not take into account the occupant behavioral adaptability to a particular climatic zone. This demands development of new set of comfort models based on local environmental parameters, socio-cultural setup and behavioral action. Analysis shows that four major variables like indoor and outdoor temperature, relative humidity and clothing pattern plays an important role in defining comfort and greatly influence the occupant’s perception and acceptance on thermal comfort. In this study, comfort models are developed based on these variables. The computed neutral temperatures based on the models are compared with the comfort temperatures obtained through comfort survey. The models are developed using the measured data of January and July months and validated with the measured data of April and October months. This study also concludes that it is not possible to obtain a generalized thermal comfort model for all climatic zone because adaptation process, expectation and perception of people are region specific and governed by local socio-cultural requirement. [less ▲]

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See detailCompte-rendu de l'ouvrage de M. Le Blanc et P. Trudeau: La réadaptation de l'adolescent antisocial
Mathys, Cécile ULg

in Canadian Journal of Criminology & Criminal Justice = Revue Canadienne de Criminologie et de Justice Pénale (2015), 57(1),

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See detailRegional volumes and spatial volumetric distribution of gray matter in the gender dysphoric brain.
Hoekzema, Elseline; Schagen, Sebastian E. E.; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P. C. et al

in Psychoneuroendocrinology (2015), 55C

The sexual differentiation of the brain is primarily driven by gonadal hormones during fetal development. Leading theories on the etiology of gender dysphoria (GD) involve deviations herein. To examine ... [more ▼]

The sexual differentiation of the brain is primarily driven by gonadal hormones during fetal development. Leading theories on the etiology of gender dysphoria (GD) involve deviations herein. To examine whether there are signs of a sex-atypical brain development in GD, we quantified regional neural gray matter (GM) volumes in 55 female-to-male and 38 male-to-female adolescents, 44 boys and 52 girls without GD and applied both univariate and multivariate analyses. In girls, more GM volume was observed in the left superior medial frontal cortex, while boys had more volume in the bilateral superior posterior hemispheres of the cerebellum and the hypothalamus. Regarding the GD groups, at whole-brain level they differed only from individuals sharing their gender identity but not from their natal sex. Accordingly, using multivariate pattern recognition analyses, the GD groups could more accurately be automatically discriminated from individuals sharing their gender identity than those sharing their natal sex based on spatially distributed GM patterns. However, region of interest analyses indicated less GM volume in the right cerebellum and more volume in the medial frontal cortex in female-to-males in comparison to girls without GD, while male-to-females had less volume in the bilateral cerebellum and hypothalamus than natal boys. Deviations from the natal sex within sexually dimorphic structures were also observed in the untreated subsamples. Our findings thus indicate that GM distribution and regional volumes in GD adolescents are largely in accordance with their respective natal sex. However, there are subtle deviations from the natal sex in sexually dimorphic structures, which can represent signs of a partial sex-atypical differentiation of the brain. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of arsenic (III) at a nano gold modified solid carbon paste electrode
Sakira, Abdoul Karim; Somé, Issa Touridomon; Ziemons, Eric ULg et al

in Electroanalysis (2015), 27

A selective and sensitive electroanalytical method was developed for arsenic determination based on a nanogold (AuNP) modified solid carbon paste work- ing electrode (SCPE) modified in two steps (i ... [more ▼]

A selective and sensitive electroanalytical method was developed for arsenic determination based on a nanogold (AuNP) modified solid carbon paste work- ing electrode (SCPE) modified in two steps (i) physisorp- tion and (ii) additional electrodeposition of nanogold par- ticles in the presence of iodide. Copper(II) interference was solved by covering the gold layer by a self assembled mono layer (SAM) of glutathione. Using DPASV a linear response of the signal was obtained as a function of As(III) in the concentration range 0.05–20mM (4– 1498 ppb) with a limit of detection of 0.01 mM (0.9 ppb). Sample stirring and degassing were not needed. Applica- tion to the determination of arsenic(III) and (V) in un- derground water samples from Burkina Faso was success- fully achieved. [less ▲]

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See detailAcoustic monitoring of O2 production of a seagrass meadow
Felisberto, Paulo; Jesus, Sérgio M.; Zabel, Friedrich et al

in Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology (2015), 464(0), 75-87

Acoustic data were acquired in October 2011 over a Posidonia oceanica meadow in the Bay of la Revellata, Calvi, Corsica. The purpose was to develop an acoustic system for monitoring the oxygen (O2 ... [more ▼]

Acoustic data were acquired in October 2011 over a Posidonia oceanica meadow in the Bay of la Revellata, Calvi, Corsica. The purpose was to develop an acoustic system for monitoring the oxygen (O2) production of an entire seagrass meadow. In a shallow water area (b38 m), densely covered by P. oceanica, a sound source transmitted signals in 3 different bands (400–800 Hz, 1.5–3.5 kHz and 6.5–8.5 kHz) toward three self-recording hydrophones at a distance of 100 m, over the period of oneweek. The data showa high correlation between the diel cycle of the acoustic signals' energy received by the hydrophones and the temporal changes in water column O2 concentration as measured by optodes. The results thus show that a simple acoustic acquisition system can be used to monitor the O2-based productivity of a seagrass meadow at the ecosystem level with high temporal resolution. The finding of a significant production of O2 as bubbles in seagrass ecosystems suggests that net primary production is underestimated by methods that rely on the mass balance of dissolved O2 measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailLe regard (peu optimiste) du soignant sur la personne âgée
Schroyen, Sarah ULg; Missotten, Pierre ULg; Marquet, Manon ULg et al

in Medi-Sphere (2015)

L’âgisme (c’est-à-dire l’ensemble de nos stéréotypes liés à l’avancée en âge) a de nombreuses conséquences négatives tant pour le patient lui-même qu’au sein de la relation entre le patient et le ... [more ▼]

L’âgisme (c’est-à-dire l’ensemble de nos stéréotypes liés à l’avancée en âge) a de nombreuses conséquences négatives tant pour le patient lui-même qu’au sein de la relation entre le patient et le personnel soignant. Au cours de cet article, nous illustrerons les représentations du vieillissement prévalentes chez les soignants et aborderons brièvement les conséquences de l’âgisme sur leurs attitudes de soins. [less ▲]

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See detailPositive cooperativity between acceptor and donor sites of the peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase.
Bury, Daniel; Dahmane, Ismahene ULg; Derouaux, Adeline ULg et al

in Biochemical pharmacology (2015), 93(2), 141-50

The glycosyltransferases of family 51 (GT51) catalyze the polymerization of lipid II to form linear glycan chains, which, after cross linking by the transpeptidases, form the net-like peptidoglycan ... [more ▼]

The glycosyltransferases of family 51 (GT51) catalyze the polymerization of lipid II to form linear glycan chains, which, after cross linking by the transpeptidases, form the net-like peptidoglycan macromolecule. The essential function of the GT makes it an attractive antimicrobial target; therefore a better understanding of its function and its mechanism of interaction with substrates could help in the design and the development of new antibiotics. In this work, we have used a surface plasmon resonance Biacore((R)) biosensor, based on an amine derivative of moenomycin A immobilized on a sensor chip surface, to investigate the mechanism of binding of substrate analogous inhibitors to the GT. Addition of increasing concentrations of moenomycin A to the Staphylococcus aureus MtgA led to reduced binding of the protein to the sensor chip as expected. Remarkably, in the presence of low concentrations of the most active disaccharide inhibitors, binding of MtgA to immobilized moenomycin A was found to increase; in contrast competition with moenomycin A occurred only at high concentrations. This finding suggests that at low concentrations, the lipid II analogs bind to the acceptor site and induce a cooperative binding of moenomycin A to the donor site. Our results constitute the first indication of the existence of a positive cooperativity between the acceptor and the donor sites of peptidoglycan GTs. In addition, our study indicates that a modification of two residues (L119N and F120S) within the hydrophobic region of MtgA can yield monodisperse forms of the protein with apparently no change in its secondary structure content, but this is at the expense of the enzyme function. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of the lemann index to assess digestive tract damage in patients with Crohn's disease.
Pariente, Benjamin; Mary, Jean-Yves; Danese, Silvio et al

in Gastroenterology (2015), 148(1), 52-633

BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is a need for a scoring system that provides a comprehensive assessment of structural bowel damage, including stricturing lesions, penetrating lesions, and surgical resection, for ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is a need for a scoring system that provides a comprehensive assessment of structural bowel damage, including stricturing lesions, penetrating lesions, and surgical resection, for measuring disease progression. We developed the Lemann Index and assessed its ability to measure cumulative structural bowel damage in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS: We performed a prospective, multicenter, international, cross-sectional study of patients with CD evaluated at 24 centers in 15 countries. Inclusions were stratified based on CD location and duration. All patients underwent clinical examination and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging analyses. Upper endoscopy, colonoscopy, and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging analyses were performed according to suspected disease locations. The digestive tract was divided into 4 organs and subsequently into segments. For each segment, investigators collected information on previous operations, predefined strictures, and/or penetrating lesions of maximal severity (grades 1-3), and then provided damage evaluations ranging from 0.0 (no lesion) to 10.0 (complete resection). Overall level of organ damage was calculated from the average of segmental damage. Investigators provided a global damage evaluation (from 0.0 to 10.0) using calculated organ damage evaluations. Predicted organ indexes and Lemann Index were constructed using a multiple linear mixed model, showing the best fit with investigator organ and global damage evaluations, respectively. An internal cross-validation was performed using bootstrap methods. RESULTS: Data from 138 patients (24, 115, 92, and 59 with upper tract, small bowel, colon/rectum, and anus CD location, respectively) were analyzed. According to validation, the unbiased correlation coefficients between predicted indexes and investigator damage evaluations were 0.85, 0.98, 0.90, 0.82 for upper tract, small bowel, colon/rectum, anus, respectively, and 0.84 overall. CONCLUSIONS: In a cross-sectional study, we assessed the ability of the Lemann Index to measure cumulative structural bowel damage in patients with CD. Provided further successful validation and good sensitivity to change, the index should be used to evaluate progression of CD and efficacy of treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailMagnetic shielding performances of YBa2Cu3O7−δ -coated silver tubes obtained by electrophoretic deposition
Devendra Kumar, N; Closset, Raphaël ULg; Wera, Laurent ULg et al

in Superconductor Science and Technology (2015), 28

We report a complete procedure to achieve multilayer YBCO thick films by electrophoretic deposition on silver tubes using a suspension of YBCO powder in butanol. With the aim to optimize the magnetic ... [more ▼]

We report a complete procedure to achieve multilayer YBCO thick films by electrophoretic deposition on silver tubes using a suspension of YBCO powder in butanol. With the aim to optimize the magnetic shielding performances of the coatings, we have carried out an extensive investigation of the influence of the deposition parameters, the multilayer deposition sequence and the intermediate/final heat treatments on the coating microstructure. Using the optimized conditions, a 24-layer YBCO coating has been successfully prepared on an 80 mm long Ag tube: the melt growth processed multilayered YBCO thick film thus obtained can shield an applied magnetic field of 1.9 mT at 77 K, the highest value per thickness unit reported so far in the literature for these materials. [less ▲]

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See detailLa correction de l’expression écrite en langue étrangère en Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles : expliciter l’implicite
Noiroux, Kevin ULg; Simons, Germain ULg

in Les cahiers de l’Association des chercheurs et enseignants didacticiens des langues étrangères (acedle) (2015)

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See detailThe impact of oregano (Origanum heracleoticum) essential oil and carvacrol on virulence gene transcription by Escherichia coli O157:H7
Mith, Hasika; Clinquart, Antoine ULg; Zhiri, Abdesselam et al

in FEMS Microbiology Letters (2015), 362

The aim of the current study was to determine, via reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis, the effect of oregano essential oil (Origanum heracleoticum) and ... [more ▼]

The aim of the current study was to determine, via reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis, the effect of oregano essential oil (Origanum heracleoticum) and carvacrol, its major component, on the expression of virulence-associated genes in enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 ATCC strain 35150. Both oregano oil and carvacrol demonstrated their efficacy firstly, by inhibiting the transcription of the ler gene involved in up regulation of the LEE2, LEE3 and LEE4 promoters and of attaching and effacing lesions and secondly by decreasing both Shiga toxin and fliC genes expression. In addition, a decrease in luxS gene transcription involved in quorum sensing was observed. These results were dose dependent and showed a specific effect of O. heracleoticum and carvacrol in downregulating the expression of virulence genes in EHEC O157:H7. These findings suggest that oregano oil and carvacrol have the potential to mitigate the adverse health effects caused by virulence gene expression in EHEC O157: [less ▲]

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See detailThe ciliogenic transcription factor Rfx3 is required for the formation of the thalamocortical tract by regulating patterning of prethalamus and ventral telencephalon.
Magnani, D; Morlé, L; Hasenpusch-Theil, K et al

in Human Molecular Genetics (2015)

Primary cilia are complex subcellular structures that play key roles during embryogenesis by controlling the cellular response to several signaling pathways. Defects in the function and/or structure of ... [more ▼]

Primary cilia are complex subcellular structures that play key roles during embryogenesis by controlling the cellular response to several signaling pathways. Defects in the function and/or structure of primary cilia underlie a large number of human syndromes collectively referred to as ciliopathies. Often, ciliopathies are associated with mental retardation (MR) and malformation of the corpus callosum. However, the possibility of defects in other forebrain axon tracts, which could contribute to the cognitive disorders of these patients, has not been explored. Here, we investigate the formation of the corticothalamic/thalamocortical tracts in mice mutant for Rfx3, which regulates the expression of many genes involved in ciliogenesis and cilia function. Using DiI axon tracing and immunohistochemistry experiments, we show that some Rfx3-/- corticothalamic axons abnormally migrate toward the pial surface of the ventral telencephalon (VT). Some thalamocortical axons (TCAs) also fail to leave the diencephalon or abnormally project toward the amygdala. Moreover, the Rfx3-/- VT displays heterotopias containing attractive guidance cues and expressing the guidance molecules Slit1 and Netrin1. Finally, the abnormal projection of TCAs toward the amygdala is also present in mice carrying a mutation in the Inpp5e gene, which is mutated in Joubert Syndrome and which controls cilia signaling and stability. The presence of identical thalamocortical malformations in two independent ciliary mutants indicates a novel role for primary cilia in the formation of the corticothalamic/thalamocortical tracts by establishing the correct cellular environment necessary for its development. [less ▲]

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See detailNeuromodulation in migraine: state of the art and perspectives.
MAGIS, Delphine ULg

in Expert review of medical devices (2015)

Migraine is a highly prevalent and disabling disease. The drugs prescribed for migraine prophylaxis can have intolerable side effects or can be ineffective. Neuromodulation techniques are increasingly ... [more ▼]

Migraine is a highly prevalent and disabling disease. The drugs prescribed for migraine prophylaxis can have intolerable side effects or can be ineffective. Neuromodulation techniques are increasingly used in neurology. Transcutaneous supraorbital nerve stimulation is effective in episodic migraine prevention, whereas vagus nerve stimulation provides interesting results in acute migraine therapy. Transcranial stimulation techniques gave variable, and sometimes contradictory, results. The visual cortex is the target of choice in migraine: studies in migraine prevention and aura acute treatment are encouraging. These noninvasive therapies appear safe with a low rate of side effects. Available studies of invasive occipital nerve stimulation in chronic migraine gave modest results; but invasive occipital nerve stimulation offers a new hope to highly disabled patients who failed to respond to any other treatment. In the future, neuromodulation will probably take an increasing place in migraine treatment, as add-on therapy or alternative to medications, especially because of its attractive safety profile. [less ▲]

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See detailCatalogue of the types and illustrated specimens recovered from the ‘black marble’ of Denée, a marine conservation-Lagerstätte from the Mississippian of southern Belgium
Mottequin, Bernard ULg; Poty, Edouard; Prestianni, Cyrille

in Geologica Belgica (2015)

The Viséan ‘black marble’ of Denée is one of the best preserved Mississippian fossil assemblages. This Lagerstätte is famous for the exceptional preservation of several groups of macro-organisms (fishes ... [more ▼]

The Viséan ‘black marble’ of Denée is one of the best preserved Mississippian fossil assemblages. This Lagerstätte is famous for the exceptional preservation of several groups of macro-organisms (fishes, echinoids, graptolites). However, only a part of the fauna has received attention from specialists and most of the phyla may benefit from a modern revision based on new investigative techniques such as 3D imagery and CT-scanning. Almost all the specimens illustrated in the literature have been traced and we present here a comprehensive catalogue of this material. Representatives of several minor groups are photographically illustrated for the first time as well as five emblematic specimens of the styracopterid genus Benedenius (Pisces). For purposes of nomenclatural formality, the lectotypes of Benedenius deneensis Traquair (in de Koninck, 1878), B. soreili Fraipont, 1890, Oligoporus soreili Fraipont, 1904, Taeniaster? fournieri Fraipont, 1904, and Scaphiocrinus longicaudatus Fraipont, 1904 are here selected. [less ▲]

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See detailEarly seed plants from Western Gondwana: Paleobiogeographical and ecological implications based on Tournaisian (Lower Carboniferous) records from Argentina
Prestianni, C.; Rustan, J.J.; Balseiro, D. et al

in Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (2015), 417

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See detailSolutrean and Magdalenian ferruginous rocks heat-treatment: accidental and/or deliberate action?
Salomon, Hélène ULg; Vignaud, Colette; Lahlil, Sophia et al

in Journal of Archaeological Science (2015), 55

Heating of prehistoric coloring materials can induce radical changes in color indicative of structural matter transformation. For instance, the structure of the yellow iron oxide-rich mineral, goethite ... [more ▼]

Heating of prehistoric coloring materials can induce radical changes in color indicative of structural matter transformation. For instance, the structure of the yellow iron oxide-rich mineral, goethite, changes into the red iron oxide-rich mineral, hematite, when it is heated to around 250-300°C. For a long time, heating has been thought to be the reason for the high frequencies of red rocks used in camp sites and the red pigments in rock art paintings. However, records of heat-treatment of coloring materials are usually not well documented; the contextual information is not clear enough to confirm intentional heating. Two Solutrean camp sites (the flint workshop Les Maîtreaux and the hunting site Combe Saunière I) and one middle Magdalenian cave with rock art (Grotte Blanchard, La Garenne) allow us to study the heating process of ferruginous rocks. All three sites, which have been excavated relatively recently, have well-defined archaeological records and strong associations between the ferruginous rocks and other artifacts. With the use of X-ray diffraction and electron µ-diffraction for identifying structural modification and SEM-FEG and TEM-FEG for detecting dehydration nano-pores, we have strong evidence for intentional heat-treatment of yellow goethite-rich materials in two archaeological contexts and one site for unintentional heating, where rocks were only partially transformed. Intentional heating to obtain red hematite from primary goethite would have required ingenious methods of temperature control in fireplace settings and purpose-built ground ovens. [less ▲]

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See detailRoot System Markup Language: toward an unified root architecture description language
Lobet, Guillaume ULg; Pound, Michael; Diener, Julien et al

in Plant Physiology (2015)

The number of image analysis tools supporting the extraction of architectural features of root systems has increased over the last years. These tools offer a handy set of complementary facilities, yet it ... [more ▼]

The number of image analysis tools supporting the extraction of architectural features of root systems has increased over the last years. These tools offer a handy set of complementary facilities, yet it is widely accepted that none of these software tool is able to extract in an efficient way growing array of static and dynamic features for different types of images and species. . We describe the Root System Markup Language (RSML) that has been designed to overcome two major challenges: (i) to enable portability of root architecture data between different software tools in an easy and interoperable manner allowing seamless collaborative work, and (ii) to provide a standard format upon which to base central repositories which will soon arise following the expanding worldwide root phenotyping effort. RSML follows the XML standard to store 2D or 3D image metadata, plant and root properties and geometries, continuous functions along individual root paths and a suite of annotations at the image, plant or root scales, at one or several time points. Plant ontologies are used to describe botanical entities that are relevant at the scale of root system architecture. An xml-schema describes the features and constraints of RSML and open-source packages have been developed in several languages (R, Excel, Java, Python, C#) to enable researchers to integrate RSML files into popular research workflow. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalytical Procedure Validation and the Quality by Design Paradigm
Rozet, Eric ULg; Lebrun, Pierre ULg; Michiels, Jean-François et al

in Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics (2015), 25

Since the adoption of the ICH Q8 document concerning the development of pharmaceutical processes following a quality by design (QbD) approach, there have been many discussions on the opportunity for ... [more ▼]

Since the adoption of the ICH Q8 document concerning the development of pharmaceutical processes following a quality by design (QbD) approach, there have been many discussions on the opportunity for analytical procedure developments to follow a similar approach. While development and optimization of analytical procedure following QbD principles have been largely discussed and described, the place of analytical procedure validation in this framework has not been clarified. This article aims at showing that analytical procedure validation is fully integrated into the QbD paradigm and is an essential step in developing analytical procedures that are effectively fit for purpose. Adequate statistical methodologies have also their role to play: such as design of experiments, statistical modelling, and probabilistic statements. The outcome of analytical procedure validation is also an analytical procedure design space, and from it, control strategy can be set. [less ▲]

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See detailMetal bioavailability and bioaccumulation in the polychaete Nereis virens (Sars): the effects of site-specific sediment characteristics
Pini, Jennifer; Richir, Jonathan ULg; Watson, Gordon

in Marine Pollution Bulletin (2015), accepted for publication

The present study investigates the relationships between copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in sediment, pore water and their bioaccumulation in the polychaete Nereis virens, as well as the ... [more ▼]

The present study investigates the relationships between copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in sediment, pore water and their bioaccumulation in the polychaete Nereis virens, as well as the importance of site-specific sediment characteristics in that process. Sediment, pore water and N. virens were sampled from seven sites with different pollution histories along the English Channel coast. Results showed that site-specific metal levels and sediment characteristics were important in determining the bioavailability of metals to worms. Significant correlations were found between Cu in the sediment and in the pore water and between Zn in the pore water and in N. virens. Zn from the pore water was thus more readily available from a dissolved source to N. virens than Cu. Data also showed that metal concentrations in N. virens were lower than those found in other closely related polychaetes, indicating that it may regulate tissue concentrations of Cu and Zn. [less ▲]

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See detailNew data on the recent history of the littoral forests of southern Cameroon: an insight into the role of historical human disturbances on the current forest composition
Biwolé, Achille ULg; Morin-Rivat, Julie ULg; Fayolle, Adeline ULg et al

in Plant Ecology and Evolution (2015), 148(1), 19-28

Background and aims – Prior to European colonisation of Central Africa, human populations were dispersed through the forests, where they practiced slash-and-burn cultivation. From the 19th century they ... [more ▼]

Background and aims – Prior to European colonisation of Central Africa, human populations were dispersed through the forests, where they practiced slash-and-burn cultivation. From the 19th century they were progressively concentrated in villages along roads, leaving large areas of forest derelict. In south-western Cameroon, and elsewhere in Central Africa, forest canopy is dominated by long-lived lightdemanding tree species, suggesting a possible role of human disturbance. The aim of this study was to bring new insights into the possible effect of historical human disturbances in terms of timing and spatial extent on the current forest composition. Location – Wet evergreen littoral forest in south-western Cameroon. Methods and key results – A combined vegetation sampling and archaeobotanical survey were conducted. Potsherds, oil-palm endocarps, and charcoal were found throughout the study area, suggesting generalised human occupation and anthropogenic fire. Human occupancy occurred in two periods: between 2200 and 1500 BP, and, more recently, beginning three centuries ago. High frequency of fire and the presence of Elaeis guineensis both dated recently (between 260 and 145 BP) suggest slash-and-burn shifting cultivation practices. These human-induced disturbances may coincide with the age of the current emergent lightdemanding species, the age of which can be estimated around 200 years, or with the phases of drying climate recorded in the Central African forest in the early 18th century. Conclusions – These results support the idea that historical human disturbances are one of the major factors that shaped the current forest composition in Central Africa. [less ▲]

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See detailSafety of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors for treating type 2 diabetes.
Scheen, André ULg

in Expert opinion on drug safety (2015), epub

Introduction: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (gliptins) occupy a growing place in the armamentarium of drugs used for the management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes, although some safety ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (gliptins) occupy a growing place in the armamentarium of drugs used for the management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes, although some safety concerns have been raised in recent years. Areas covered: An updated review providing an analysis of available safety data (meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, observational cohort and case-control studies and pharmacovigilance reports) with five commercialized DPP-4 inhibitors (sitagliptin, vildagliptin, saxagliptin, alogliptin, linagliptin). A special focus is given to overall safety profile; pancreatic adverse events (AEs) (acute pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer); overall cardiovascular safety (myocardial infarction and stroke); congestive heart failure concern and finally, safety in special populations (elderly, renal impairment). Expert opinion: The good tolerance/safety profile of DPP-4 inhibitors has been largely confirmed, including in more fragile populations (elderly, renal impairment) with almost no increased risk of infection or gastrointestinal AEs, no weight gain and a minimal risk of hypoglycemia. Although an increased risk of acute pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer was suspected, the complete set of available data appears reassuring so far. Cardiovascular safety of DPP-4 inhibitors has been proven but an unexpected increased risk of heart failure has been reported which should be confirmed in ongoing trials and better understood. Further postmarketing surveillance is recommended. [less ▲]

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See detailError analysis of generalized-alpha Lie group time integration methods for constrained mechanical systems
Arnold, Martin; Bruls, Olivier ULg; Cardona, Alberto

in Numerische Mathematik (2015), 129(1), 149-179

Generalized-alpha methods are very popular in structural dynamics. They are methods of Newmark type and combine favourable stability properties with second order convergence for unconstrained second order ... [more ▼]

Generalized-alpha methods are very popular in structural dynamics. They are methods of Newmark type and combine favourable stability properties with second order convergence for unconstrained second order systems in linear spaces. Recently, they were extended to constrained systems in flexible multibody dynamics that have a configuration space with Lie group structure. In the present paper, the convergence of these Lie group methods is analysed by a coupled one-step error recursion for differential and algebraic solution components. It is shown that spurious oscillations in the transient phase result from order reduction that may be avoided by a perturbation of starting values or by index reduction. Numerical tests for a benchmark problem from the literature illustrate the results of the theoretical investigations. [less ▲]

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See detailAvoiding 2-binomial squares and cubes
Rao, Michaël; Rigo, Michel ULg; Salimov, Pavel

in Theoretical Computer Science (2015), 572

Two finite words $u,v$ are $2$-binomially equivalent if, for all words $x$ of length at most $2$, the number of occurrences of $x$ as a (scattered) subword of $u$ is equal to the number of occurrences of ... [more ▼]

Two finite words $u,v$ are $2$-binomially equivalent if, for all words $x$ of length at most $2$, the number of occurrences of $x$ as a (scattered) subword of $u$ is equal to the number of occurrences of $x$ in $v$. This notion is a refinement of the usual abelian equivalence. A $2$-binomial square is a word $uv$ where $u$ and $v$ are $2$-binomially equivalent. In this paper, considering pure morphic words, we prove that $2$-binomial squares (resp. cubes) are avoidable over a $3$-letter (resp. $2$-letter) alphabet. The sizes of the alphabets are optimal. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiscale variability of amphipod assemblages in Posidonia oceanica meadows
Sturaro, Nicolas ULg; Lepoint, Gilles ULg; Vermeulen, Simon et al

in Journal of Sea Research (2015), 95

The study of spatial patterns is of ecological importance in order to understand the causes of the distribution and abundance of organisms, and it also provides valuable basis for management and ... [more ▼]

The study of spatial patterns is of ecological importance in order to understand the causes of the distribution and abundance of organisms, and it also provides valuable basis for management and conservation. Amphipod crustaceans are key organisms in seagrass ecosystems. However, little attention has been paid to the spatial scales at which amphipod assemblages may vary. We examined variability patterns of amphipod populations inhabiting Posidonia oceanica meadows, over spatial scales spanning four orders of magnitude (1 to 1000 metres) and for two consecutive years. This study reports the scales that contributed most to spatial variation of amphipod assemblages and explores the potential processes of the observed patterns, with particular emphasis on habitat features. The number of species, the diversity and the density of some species, exhibited high variation across years. Most species showed the highest spatial variation in density and biomass at small scales (~1 and 10 m). Based on density data, the structure of amphipod assemblages did not differ at any scales investigated. The patchiness that occurred at small scales may have been only weakly related to habitat features. Instead, we postulated that behavioural processes of amphipods were likely good explanatory factors. Although, the small scale spatial variability can be an important feature of amphipod assemblages in P. oceanica meadows, many patterns probably remained undetected as they may occur at scales smaller than those investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailThorough characterization of a Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System with Raman hyperspectral imaging: A case study.
Sacre, Pierre-Yves ULg; Netchacovitch, Lauranne ULg; De Bleye, Charlotte ULg et al

in International Journal of Pharmaceutics (2015), 484

Newly developed drugs often have poor bioavailability due to their poor water solubility (BCS class 2 drugs). It is therefore necessary to develop new strategies to enhance their solubility and their ... [more ▼]

Newly developed drugs often have poor bioavailability due to their poor water solubility (BCS class 2 drugs). It is therefore necessary to develop new strategies to enhance their solubility and their activity, among which, Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SEDDS). The efficacy of the drugs contained in these preparations is mainly affected by the solid state and the particle size of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). However, it is quite complex, long and expensive to characterize these parameters with classical techniques such as X-Ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry or hot stage microscopy. The present article presents, through a case study, the advantages of the Raman hyperspectral imaging in the characterization of such formulations. Indeed, Raman chemical imaging may fully characterize SEDDS with single equipment and operator in a non-destructive way allowing the follow-up of the formulation during stability studies. Raman imaging is therefore a tool of choice in the PAT framework since it increases the knowledge of the formulation and the process. A quantitative multivariate method using Raman hyperspectral imaging to assay the API in the lipid based formulation has been developed and fully validated following the “total error” approach. [less ▲]

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See detailAgeism and its clinical impact in oncogeriatry: state of knowledge and therapeutic leads
Schroyen, Sarah ULg; Adam, Stéphane ULg; JERUSALEM, Guy ULg et al

in Clinical Interventions in Aging (2015), 10

Cancer is a major health problem that is widespread in elderly people. Paradoxically, older people suffering from cancer are often excluded from clinical trials and are undertreated when compared to ... [more ▼]

Cancer is a major health problem that is widespread in elderly people. Paradoxically, older people suffering from cancer are often excluded from clinical trials and are undertreated when compared to younger patients. One explanation for these observations is age stigma (ie, stereotypes linked to age, and thus ageism). These stigmas can result in deleterious consequences for elderly people’s mental and physical health in “normal” aging. What, then, is the impact in a pathological context, such as oncology? Moreover, health care professionals’ attitudes can be tainted with ageism, thus leading to undesirable consequences for patients. To counter these stigmas, we can apply some possible interventions emerging from research on normal aging and from social psychology, such as intergenerational contact, activation of positive stereotypes, self-affirmation, and so on; these tools can improve opinions of aging among the elderly people themselves, as well as health care professionals, thus affecting patients’ mental and physical health. [less ▲]

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See detailRestoring testosterone levels by adding dehydroepiandrosterone to a drospirenone containing combined oral contraceptive: II. Clinical effects.
Zimmerman, Y.; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg; Pintiaux, Axelle ULg et al

in Contraception (2015), 91(2), 134-42

OBJECTIVES: Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) decrease androgen levels, including testosterone (T), which may be associated with sexual dysfunction and mood complaints in some women. We have shown that ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) decrease androgen levels, including testosterone (T), which may be associated with sexual dysfunction and mood complaints in some women. We have shown that 'co-administration' of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to a drospirenone (DRSP)-containing COC restored total T levels to baseline and free T levels by 47%. Here we describe the effects on sexual function, mood and quality of life of such an intervention. STUDY DESIGN: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 99 healthy COC starters. A COC containing 30mcg ethinylestradiol (EE) and 3mg DRSP was used for three cycles, followed by six cycles of the same COC combined with 50mg/day DHEA or placebo. Subjects completed the Moos Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ), the McCoy Female Sexuality Questionnaire and the short form of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q). Safety and tolerability, including effects on skin, were evaluated. RESULTS: The addition of DHEA induced small but significant improvements compared to placebo in the MDQ score for autonomic reactions during the menstrual (-2.0 vs. 0.71; p=0.05) and the premenstrual phase (-3.1 vs. 2.9; p=0.01) and for behavior during the intermenstrual phase (-1.4 vs. 3.6; p=0.02). A significant difference was found in the MDQ score for arousal during the premenstrual phase in favor of placebo (-5.0 vs. 1.0; p=0.01). There were no statistically significant differences between groups for the MSFQ and Q-LES-Q scores. DHEA 'co-administration' resulted in an acceptable safety profile. DHEA negated the beneficial effect of the COC on acne according to the subjects' self-assessment. CONCLUSIONS: 'Co-administration' with DHEA did not result in consistent improvements in sexual function, mood and quality of life indicators in women taking EE/DRSP. Retrospectively, the 50 mg dose of DHEA may be too low for this COC. IMPLICATIONS: A well-balanced judgment of the clinical consequences of normalizing androgens during COC use may require complete normalization of free T. [less ▲]

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See detailEffets du froid sur les stades précoces de développement du maïs (Zea mays)
Riva-Roveda, Laetitia ULg; Périlleux, Claire ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2015), 19(1), 42-52

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See detailSpore assemblages from Upper Ordovician and Lowermost Silurian sediments recovered from the Qusaiba-1 shallow core hole, Qasim region, central Saudi Arabia
Wellman, Charles H.; Steemans, Philippe ULg; Miller, M.A.

in Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology (2015), 212

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See detailA quality by design approach for longitudinal quality attributes
Lebrun, Pierre ULg; Giacoletti, Katherine; Scherder, Tara et al

in Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics (2015), 25

The concept of quality by design (QbD) as published in ICH-Q8 is currently one of the most recurrent topics in the pharmaceutical literature. This guideline recommends the use of information and prior ... [more ▼]

The concept of quality by design (QbD) as published in ICH-Q8 is currently one of the most recurrent topics in the pharmaceutical literature. This guideline recommends the use of information and prior knowledge gathered during pharmaceutical development studies to provide a scientific rationale for the manufacturing process of a product and provide guarantee of future quality. This poses several challenges from a statistical standpoint and requires a shift in paradigm from traditional statistical practices. First, to provide “assurance of quality” of future lots implies the need to make predictions regarding the quality given past evidence and data. Second, the quality attributes described in the Q8 guidelines are not always a set of unique, independent measurements. In many cases, these criteria are com- plicated longitudinal data with successive acceptance criteria over a defined period of time. A common example is a dissolution profile for a modified or extended-release solid dosage form that must fall within acceptance limits at several time points. A Bayesian approach for longitudinal data obtained in various conditions of a design of experiment is provided to elegantly address the ICH-Q8 recommendation to provide assurance of quality and derive a scientifically sound design space. [less ▲]

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See detailFacile deposition of ZnO:Cu films: Structural and optical characterization
Ivanova, T.; Harizanova, A.; Koutzarova, T. et al

in Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing (2015), 30

Sol-gel technology has been applied for preparation of ZnO:Cu films. The proposed facile approach allows obtaining a wide variety of copper doped zinc oxide systems, revealing different structural and ... [more ▼]

Sol-gel technology has been applied for preparation of ZnO:Cu films. The proposed facile approach allows obtaining a wide variety of copper doped zinc oxide systems, revealing different structural and optical behaviors. The work presents structural and optical studies depending on Cu concentration and thermal treatments in the range of 500-800°C. The structural analysis is performed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD). It reveals that small Cu addition enhances the film crystallization. Increasing copper concentration results in deterioration of ZnO:Cu crystallization. XRD study manifests no Cu oxide phases in ZnO:Cu film structure for lower Cu additions. For a specific higher copper concentration, an appearance of a small fraction of copper oxide is detected. Vibrational properties have been characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. The effect of the copper introduction into ZnO reveals a slight change of optical properties compared to ZnO films for certain Cu ratios. ZnO:Cu films with higher copper contents manifest different optical behaviors with very high transparency in spectral visible range. [less ▲]

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See detailTooling Materials and Solutions for Thixoforming: A key to the process industrialization
Rassili, Ahmed ULg; Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline ULg

in Solid State Phenomena (2015), 217-218

Investigations on steel thixoforming started in the early 90's and many developments were carried out, mainly driven by the industrialization of the process. After a series of basic investigations on ... [more ▼]

Investigations on steel thixoforming started in the early 90's and many developments were carried out, mainly driven by the industrialization of the process. After a series of basic investigations on adapted steels and materials as well as near-net shaping investigations, the issue of mass production raised and thus induced some other challenges mainly on die life and process automation and cycling. High working temperatures and components complexity were then the main locks to mass productions. In most of reported literature, none of the involved research group reached or real production and industrialization criteria. The euro group holds most of these research investigations [1]. We have reported many of these results in previous communications and this paper presents a continuity of what have already been presented. Some advanced tooling materials and solutions are presented and applied to a real complex industrial component. [less ▲]

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See detailKnowledge of the concept Light Rail Transit: Exploring its relevance and identification of the determinants of various knowledge levels
Creemers, Lieve; Tormans, Hans; Bellemans, Tom et al

in Transportation Research. Part A : Policy & Practice (2015), 74

This paper explores the knowledge of the concept ‘Light Rail Transit’ (LRT) in the context of implementing a Light Rail system in a (sub)-urban region. To this end, three models are estimated: a first ... [more ▼]

This paper explores the knowledge of the concept ‘Light Rail Transit’ (LRT) in the context of implementing a Light Rail system in a (sub)-urban region. To this end, three models are estimated: a first model to explore the role of knowledge on modal choice, a second one to identify the determinants of the level of knowledge and a third model to identify the determinants of a cognitive mismatch between actual (real) knowledge and perceived knowledge. The first model (a negative binomial regression model) underlines the significant relation between knowledge of the concept LRT and modal choice. Given the lack of knowledge of the concept ‘Light Rail Transit’ revealed by the descriptive results, it is of crucial importance to raise the level of knowledge. Knowledge acquisition can be based on transit experiences and information provision. To explore how information campaigns should be constructed and which target groups should be approached, the factors influencing travelers’ knowledge and the determinants of a cognitive mismatch are identified by a Multinomial Logit Model (MNL-model) and a binary logit model. The results show that various socio-economic variables as well as socio-psychological variables are significantly influencing actual knowledge and significantly influencing a cognitive mismatch. Among these variables, employment, gender, perception of ticket price of Public Transit (PT) and expectations with regard to seat availability in the LRT-vehicle are the most influential ones. [less ▲]

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See detailA generic anisotropic continuum damage model integration scheme adaptable to both ductile damage and biological damage-like situations
Mengoni, Marlène ULg; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg

in International Journal of Plasticity (2015), 66

This paper aims at presenting a general versatile time integration scheme applicable to anisotropic damage coupled to elastoplasticity, considering any damage rate and isotropic hardening formulations ... [more ▼]

This paper aims at presenting a general versatile time integration scheme applicable to anisotropic damage coupled to elastoplasticity, considering any damage rate and isotropic hardening formulations. For this purpose a staggered time integration scheme in a finite strain framework is presented, together with an analytical consistent tangent operator. The only restrictive hypothesis is to work with an undamaged isotropic material, assumed here to follow a J2 plasticity model. The only anisotropy considered is thus a damage-induced anisotropy. The possibility to couple any damage rate law with the present algorithm is illustrated with a classical ductile damage model for aluminium, and a biological damage-like application. The later proposes an original bone remodelling law coupled to trabecular bone plasticity for the simulation of orthodontic tooth movements. All the developments have been considered in the framework of the implicit non-linear finite element code Metafor (developed at the LTAS/MN2L, University of Liège, Belgium - www.metafor.ltas.ulg.ac.be). [less ▲]

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See detailLinear and nonlinear optical properties of functionalized CdSe quantum dots prepared by plasma sputtering and wet chemistry
Humbert, Christophe; Dahi, Abdellatif; Dalstein, Laetitia et al

in Journal of Colloid & Interface Science (2015), 445

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See detailEducation et formation en médecine gériatrique en Europe : challenge du futur?
ROLLER, REGINA ELISABETH; PETERMANS, Jean ULg

in Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement (2015)

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See detailBioaccumulation of organohalogenated compounds in sharks and rays from the southeastern USA
Weijs, Liesbeth; Briels, Nathalie; Adams, Douglas et al

in Environmental Research (2015), 137

Organohalogenated compounds are widespread in the marine environment and can be a serious threat to organisms in all levels of aquatic food webs, including elasmobranch species. Information about the ... [more ▼]

Organohalogenated compounds are widespread in the marine environment and can be a serious threat to organisms in all levels of aquatic food webs, including elasmobranch species. Information about the concentrations of POPs (persistent organic pollutants) and of MeO-PBDEs (methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers) in elasmobranchs is scarce and potential toxic effects are poorly understood. The aims of the present study were therefore to investigate the occurrence of multiple POP classes (PCBs, PBDEs, DDXs, HCB, CHLs) and of MeO-PBDEs in various elasmobranch species from different trophic levels in estuarine and marine waters of the southeastern United States. Overall, levels and patterns of PCBs, PBDEs, DDXs, HCB, CHLs and of MeO-PBDEs varied according to the species, maturity stage, gender and habitat type. The lowest levels of POPs were found in Atlantic stingrays and the highest levels were found in bull sharks. As both species are respectively near the bottom and at top of the trophic web, with juvenile bull sharks frequently feeding on Atlantic stingrays, these findings further suggest a bioaccumulation and biomagnification process with trophic position. MeO-PBDEs were not detected in Atlantic stingrays, but were found in all shark species. HCB was not found in Atlantic stingrays, bonnetheads or lemon sharks, but was detected in the majority of bull sharks examined. Comparison with previous studies suggests that Atlantic stingrays may be experiencing toxic effects of PCBs and DDXs on their immune system. However, the effect of these compounds on the health of shark species remains unclear. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative biogeochemistry-ecosystem-human interactions on dynamic continental margins
Levin, Lisa A.; Liu, Kon-Kee; Kay-Christian, Emeis et al

in Journal of Marine Systems (2015), 141

The ocean’s continental margins face strong and rapid change, forced by a combination of direct human activity, anthropogenic CO2-induced climate change, and natural variability. Stimulated by discussions ... [more ▼]

The ocean’s continental margins face strong and rapid change, forced by a combination of direct human activity, anthropogenic CO2-induced climate change, and natural variability. Stimulated by discussions in Goa, India at the IMBER IMBIZO III, we (1) provide an overview of the drivers of biogeochemical variation and change on margins, (2) compare temporal trends in hydrographic and biogeochemical data across different margins (3) review ecosystem responses to these changes, (4) highlight the importance of margin time series for detecting and attributing change and (5) examine societal responses to changing margin biogeochemistry and ecosystems. We synthesize information over a wide range of margin settings in order to identify the commonalities and distinctions among continental margin ecosystems. Key drivers of biogeochemical variation include long-term climate cycles, CO2-induced warming, acidification, and deoxygenation, as well as sea level rise, eutrophication, hydrologic and water cycle alteration, changing land use, fishing, and species invasion. Ecosystem responses are complex and impact major margin services including primary production, fisheries production, nutrient cycling, shoreline protection, chemical buffering, and biodiversity. Despite regional differences, the societal consequences of these changes are unarguably large and mandate coherent actions to reduce, mitigate and adapt to multiple stressors on continental margins. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the necessity and biological significance of threshold-free regulon prediction outputs
Rigali, Sébastien ULg; Nivelle, Renaud; Tocquin, Pierre ULg

in Molecular Biosystems (2015), 11

The in silico prediction of cis-acting elements in a genome is an efficient way to quickly obtain an overview of the biological processes controlled by a trans-acting factor, and connections between ... [more ▼]

The in silico prediction of cis-acting elements in a genome is an efficient way to quickly obtain an overview of the biological processes controlled by a trans-acting factor, and connections between regulatory networks. Several regulon prediction web tools are available, designed to identify DNA motifs predicted to be bound by transcription factors using position weight matrix-based algorithms. In this paper we expose and discuss the conflicting objectives of software creators (bioinformaticians) and software users (biologists), who aim for reliable and exhaustive prediction outputs, respectively. Software makers, concerned with providing tools that minimise the number of false positive hits, often impose a stringent threshold score for a sequence to be included in the list of the putative cis-acting sites. This rigidity eventually results in the identification of strongly reliable but largely straightforward sites, i.e. those associated with genes already anticipated to be targeted by the studied transcription factor. Importantly, this biased identification of strongly bound sequences contrasts with the biological reality where, in many circumstances, a weak DNA-protein interaction is required for the appropriate gene's expression. We show here a series of transcriptionally controlled systems involving weakly bound cis-acting elements that could never have been discovered because of the policy of preventing software users from modifying the screening parameters. Proposing only trustworthy prediction outputs thus prevents biologists from fully utilising their knowledge background and deciding to analyse statistically irrelevant hits that could nonetheless be potentially involved in subtle, unexpected, though essential cis-trans relationships. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes reward unpredictability reflect risk?
Anselme, Patrick ULg

in Behavioural Brain Research (2015), 280(1), 119-127

Most decisions made in real-life situations are risky because they are associated with possible negative consequences. Current models of decision-making postulate that the occasional, unpredictable ... [more ▼]

Most decisions made in real-life situations are risky because they are associated with possible negative consequences. Current models of decision-making postulate that the occasional, unpredictable absence of reward that may result from free choice is a negative consequence interpreted as risk by organisms in laboratory situations. I argue that such a view is difficult to justify because, in most experimental paradigms, reward omission does not represent a cost for the decision maker. Risk only exists when unpredictability may cause a potential loss of own limited resources, whether energetic, social, financial, and so on. Thus the experimental methodologies used to test humans and non-humans relative to risk-taking seem to be limited to studying the effects of reward uncertainty in the absence of true decision cost. This may have important implications for the conclusions that can be drawn with respect to the neurobehavioural determinants of risk-taking in real-life situations. [less ▲]

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See detailBeyond the Experience: Detection of Metamemorial Regularities
Geurten, Marie ULg; Willems, Sylvie ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

in Consciousness & Cognition (2015), 33

We examined the mechanisms involved in the development of the easily learned, easily remembered (ELER) heuristic in three groups of young children (4–5 years, 6–7 years, and 8–9 years). A trial-to ... [more ▼]

We examined the mechanisms involved in the development of the easily learned, easily remembered (ELER) heuristic in three groups of young children (4–5 years, 6–7 years, and 8–9 years). A trial-to-acquisition procedure was used to evaluate how much these children’s judgment of learning depended on the ELER heuristic. Moreover, a new experimental paradigm, composed of six phases—a pretest, four training phases, and a posttest—was employed to implicitly influence the validity of the ELER association that underlies this metacognitive rule. Results revealed that the ELER heuristic develops early (4–5 years), but its use is reduced after implicit training. Furthermore, executive monitoring was found to account for the smaller changes observed in older children (8–9 years) after training. From a developmental perspective, these findings present a coherent picture of children’s learning of metacognitive heuristics, wherein early automatic and implicit learning is later followed by effortful control. [less ▲]

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See detailLectures de La Reine Albemarle ou le dernier touriste. Ontologie, autobiographie, politique
Cormann, Grégory ULg

in Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique (2015), 11(1),

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See detailUsing local second gradient model and shear strain localisation to model the excavation damaged zone in unsaturated claystone
Pardoen, Benoît ULg; Levasseur, Séverine ULg; Collin, Frédéric ULg

in Rock Mechanics & Rock Engineering (2015), 48(2), 691-714

The drilling of galleries induces damage propagation in the surrounding medium and creates, around them, the excavation damaged zone (EDZ). The prediction of the extension and fracture structure of this ... [more ▼]

The drilling of galleries induces damage propagation in the surrounding medium and creates, around them, the excavation damaged zone (EDZ). The prediction of the extension and fracture structure of this zone remains a major issue, especially in the context of underground nuclear waste storage. Experimental studies on geomaterials indicate that localised deformation in shear band mode usually appears prior to fractures. Thus, the excavation damaged zone can be modelled by considering the development of shear strain localisation bands. In the classical finite element framework, strain localisation suffers a mesh-dependency problem. Therefore, an enhanced model with a regularisation method is required to correctly model the strain localisation behaviour. Among the existing methods, we choose the coupled local second gradient model. We extend it to unsaturated conditions and we include the solid grain compressibility. Furthermore, air ventilation inside underground galleries engenders a rock– atmosphere interaction that could influence the damaged zone. This interaction has to be investigated in order to predict the damaged zone behaviour. Finally, a hydromechanical modelling of a gallery excavation in claystone is presented and leads to a fairly good representation of the EDZ. The main objectives of this study are to model the fractures by considering shear strain localisation bands, and to investigate if an isotropic model accurately reproduces the in situ measurements. The numerical results provide information about the damaged zone extension, structure and behaviour that are in very good agreement with in situ measurements and observations. For instance, the strain localisation bands that develop in chevron pattern during the excavation and rock desaturation, due to air ventilation, are observed close to the gallery. [less ▲]

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See detail¿Quién mató a Rosario Tijeras? Narco y culpa.
Vanden Berghe, Kristine ULg

in Bulletin of Spanish Studies (2015), 92(2), 2-19

The novel Rosario Tijeras (Jorge Franco Ramos, 1999) is interpreted here from the perspective of the literary genre of the whodunnit. More particularly, the analysis investigates who is responsible for ... [more ▼]

The novel Rosario Tijeras (Jorge Franco Ramos, 1999) is interpreted here from the perspective of the literary genre of the whodunnit. More particularly, the analysis investigates who is responsible for the murder of the female assassin. Taking into account the serious psychological instability of the narrator and the violations of the maxims of communicative cooperation, it is argued that he is an unreliable narrator. Such a reading of the novel as a detective story told by an unreliable narrator reveals a number of clues as to who murdered Rosario Tijeras. It also paves the way towards a new interpretation of the novel: this article argues that there is a parallelism between Franco Ramos’ novel and La virgen de los Sicarios (1994) by Fernando Vallejo: in both novels the issues of violence and guilt in societies dominated by drug trafficking are treated in a similar way. [less ▲]

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See detailBayesian inference for transportation origin–destination matrices: the Poisson–inverse Gaussian and other Poisson mixtures
Perrakis, Konstantinos; Karlis, Dimitris; Cools, Mario ULg et al

in Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A Statistics in Society (2015), 178(1), 271-296

Transportation origin–destination analysis is investigated through the use of Poisson mixtures by introducing covariate-based models which incorporate different transport modelling phases and also allow ... [more ▼]

Transportation origin–destination analysis is investigated through the use of Poisson mixtures by introducing covariate-based models which incorporate different transport modelling phases and also allow for direct probabilistic inference on link traffic based on Bayesian predictions. Emphasis is placed on the Poisson–inverse Gaussian model as an alternative to the commonly used Poisson–gamma and Poisson–log-normal models. We present a first full Bayesian formulation and demonstrate that the Poisson–inverse Gaussian model is particularly suited for origin–destination analysis because of its desirable marginal and hierarchical properties. In addition, the integrated nested Laplace approximation is considered as an alternative to Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling and the two methodologies are compared under specific modelling assumptions. The case-study is based on 2001 Belgian census data and focuses on a large, sparsely distributed origin–destination matrix containing trip information for 308 Flemish municipalities. [less ▲]

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See detailCan meandering flows in shallow rectangular reservoir be modelled with the 2D shallow water equations?
Peltier, Yann ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in Journal of Hydraulic Engineering (2015)

In this article, the ability of the 2D shallow water equations to model meandering flows in shallow rectangular reservoirs is discussed. Four meandering flows, of various shallowness, were modelled using ... [more ▼]

In this article, the ability of the 2D shallow water equations to model meandering flows in shallow rectangular reservoirs is discussed. Four meandering flows, of various shallowness, were modelled using the academic flow model WOLF 2D, which includes a depth-averaged k- model accounting for the horizontal and vertical turbulent length-scales. The bottom friction was modelled with the Colebrook-White formula and different roughness heights were considered. A Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) was applied to the simulation results to extract the behaviour of the main structures responsible for the meandering flow. The same POD analysis was also performed for the reference experimental flow fields, obtained by Large-Scale Particle Image Velocimetry. The first two POD modes obtained from the numerical simulations assuming a smooth bottom are in good agreement with the experimental modes in terms of energy, as well as temporal and spatial variations, whatever the shallowness. In contrast, the remaining simulated modes are not well rendered. The effect of an increased roughness height in the simulations is finally discussed. It leads to an improved reproduction of the first two modes and of the following modes, except when significant viscous effects govern in the flow. [less ▲]

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See detailActive faulting at the western tip of the Gulf of Corinth, Greece, from high-resolution seismic data
Beckers, Arnaud ULg; Hubert, Aurelia ULg; Beck, Christian et al

in Marine Geology (2015)

The Gulf of Corinth is one of the fastest-spreading intra-continental rifts on Earth. GPS data indicate that the rift is currently opening in a NNE-SSW direction, with a rate of extension reaching up to ... [more ▼]

The Gulf of Corinth is one of the fastest-spreading intra-continental rifts on Earth. GPS data indicate that the rift is currently opening in a NNE-SSW direction, with a rate of extension reaching up to 16 mm yr-1 in its westernmost part. Although the rest of the offshore rift has been well studied, the western tip of the rift is still poorly explored. We present an accurate map of submarine faults in this area based on two high-resolution seismic reflection surveys (single channel sparker). In the eastern part of the studied area, the sedimentary infill is affected by the known North Eratini, South Eratini and West Channel faults. Further to the west, the seafloor is mostly flat, and is bounded to the north by the normal, south-dipping, Trizonia fault. To the north, the shallower part of the Gulf shows to the east a diffuse pattern of normal and strike-slip deformation which is replaced to the west by a 7.5 km long SE striking strike-slip fault zone, called the Managouli fault zone. To the westernmost tip of the Gulf, in the Nafpaktos Basin, two fault sets with different strikes are encountered; the one with aNE-SW strike exhibits a clear strike-slip component. The western tip of the Gulf of Corinth is the only part of the Corinth Rift where convincing evidence for strike-slip movement has been found. This fault pattern is likely related to the complex deformation occurring at the diffuse junction at the western tip of the Rift between three crustal blocks: Continental Greece, Peloponnese, and the Ionian Island-Akarnia block. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantitative temperature monitoring of a heat tracing experiment using cross-borehole ERT
Hermans, Thomas ULg; Wildemeersch, Samuel ULg; Jamin, Pierre ULg et al

in Geothermics (2015), 53

The growing demand for renewable energy leads to an increase in the development of geothermal energy projects and heat has become a common tracer in hydrology and hydrogeology. Designing geothermal ... [more ▼]

The growing demand for renewable energy leads to an increase in the development of geothermal energy projects and heat has become a common tracer in hydrology and hydrogeology. Designing geothermal systems requires a multidisciplinary approach including geological and hydrogeological aspects. In this context, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) can bring relevant, qualitative and quantitative information on the temperature distribution in operating shallow geothermal systems or during heat tracing experiments. We followed a heat tracing experiment in an alluvial aquifer using cross-borehole time-lapse ERT. Heated water was injected in a well while water of the aquifer was extracted at another well. An ERT section was set up across the main flow direction. The results of ERT were transformed into temperature using calibrated petrophysical relationships. These ERT-derived temperatures were then compared to direct temperature measurements in control piezometers collected with distributed temperature sensing (DTS) and groundwater temperature loggers. Spatially, it enabled to map the horizontal and vertical extent of the heated water plume, as well as the zones where maximum temperatures occurred. Quantitatively, the temperatures and breakthrough curves estimated from ERT were in good agreement with the ones observed directly during the rise and maximum of the curve. An overestimation, likely related to 3D effects, was observed for the tail of the heat breakthrough curve. The error made on temperature can be estimated to be between 10 to 20 %, which is a fair value for indirect measurements. From our data, we estimated a quantification threshold for temperature variation of 1.2°C. These results suggest that ERT should be considered when designing heat tracing experiments or geothermal systems. It could help also to assess the geometrical complexity of the concerned reservoirs. It also appears that ERT could be a useful tool to monitor and control geothermal systems once they are in operation. [less ▲]

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See detailThe year in cardiology 2014: valvular heart disease.
Pierard, Luc ULg; Vahanian, Alec

in European heart journal (2015)

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See detailVISMODEGIB ET CARCINOMES BASOCELLULAIRES LOCALEMENT AVANCES
LEBAS, Eglantine ULg; RORIVE, Andrée ULg; EL HAYDERI, Lara ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2015)

Basal cell carcinoma is the most frequent skin cancer. Even though metastases are exceptional, these cancers may be locally highly aggressive. The Hedgehog signaling pathway plays a significant role in ... [more ▼]

Basal cell carcinoma is the most frequent skin cancer. Even though metastases are exceptional, these cancers may be locally highly aggressive. The Hedgehog signaling pathway plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of basal cell carcinoma. Vismodegib is a selective inhibitor of this pathway and may be administered orally. Its main indication is locally advanced basal cell carcinoma, when other therapeutic options have failed or are contra-indicated. Vismodegib can also be used as prophylactic therapy in the Gorlin syndrome or basal cell nevomatosis. Its principal adverse effects are muscle spasms, alopecia and altered taste. They are frequent, but often moderate in intensity; they sometimes restrict continuation of treatment. Two clinical cases are presented, relating the efficacity and tolerance of this new therapeutic option. [less ▲]

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See detailQu'est-ce qu'un thème?
Badir, Sémir ULg

in Signata. Annales des Sémiotiques = Annals of Semiotics (2015), 5 (2014)

We approach the notion of theme as a problematic one. Particularly, one can observe that the functions of a theme, as they are assigned by the specialists, especially in linguistics and literary studies ... [more ▼]

We approach the notion of theme as a problematic one. Particularly, one can observe that the functions of a theme, as they are assigned by the specialists, especially in linguistics and literary studies, are multiple and mutually incompatible. It is from this variety reluctant to the disciplinarized modes of knowledge that we have in mind to establish the semiological nature of the theme. Its development is a knowledge that does not bend nor to analysis neither to synthesis. In this research, the lectures made by Roland Barthes at the Collège de France serve as a guide and as an example. [less ▲]

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See detailPulmonary Hypertension in Valvular Disease: A Comprehensive Review on Pathophysiology to Therapy From the HAVEC Group.
Magne, Julien; Pibarot, Philippe; Sengupta, Partho P. et al

in JACC. Cardiovascular imaging (2015), 8(1), 83-99

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a classic pathophysiological consequence of left-sided valvular heart disease (VHD). However, as opposed to other forms of PH, there are relatively few published data on the ... [more ▼]

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a classic pathophysiological consequence of left-sided valvular heart disease (VHD). However, as opposed to other forms of PH, there are relatively few published data on the prevalence, impact on outcome, and management of PH with VHD. The objective of this paper is to present a systematic review of PH in patients with VHD. PH is found in 15% to 60% of patients with VHD and is more frequent among symptomatic patients. PH is associated with higher risk of cardiac events under conservative management, during valve replacement or repair procedures, and even following successful corrective procedures. In addition to its usefulness in assessing the presence and severity of VHD, Doppler echocardiography is a key tool in diagnosis of PH and assessment of its repercussion on right ventricular function. Assessment of pulmonary arterial pressure during exercise stress echocardiography may provide additional prognostic information beyond resting evaluation. Cardiac magnetic resonance is also useful for assessing right ventricular geometry and function, which provide additional prognostic information in patients with VHD and PH. [less ▲]

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See detailCost-effectiveness of vitamin D and calcium supplementation in the treatment of elderly women and men with osteoporosis.
Hiligsmann, Mickaël ULg; Ben Sedrine, Wafa; Bruyère, Olivier ULg et al

in European journal of public health (2015), 25(1), 20-25

BACKGROUND: The supplementation with vitamin D and calcium has been recommended for elderly, specifically those with increased risk of fractures older than 65 years. This study aims to assess the cost ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The supplementation with vitamin D and calcium has been recommended for elderly, specifically those with increased risk of fractures older than 65 years. This study aims to assess the cost-effectiveness of vitamin D and calcium supplementation in elderly women and men with osteoporosis and therefore to assess if this recommendation is justified in terms of cost-effectiveness. METHODS: A validated model for economic evaluations in osteoporosis was used to estimate the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained of vitamin D/calcium supplementation compared with no treatment. The model was populated with cost and epidemiological data from a Belgian health-care perspective. Analyses were conducted in women and men with a diagnosis of osteoporosis (i.e. bone mineral density T-score </=-2.5). A literature search was conducted to describe the efficacy of vitamin D and calcium in terms of fracture risk reduction. RESULTS: The cost per QALY gained of vitamin D/calcium supplementation was estimated at euro40 578 and euro23 477 in women and men aged 60 years, respectively. These values decreased to euro7912 and euro10 250 at the age of 70 years and vitamin D and calcium supplementation was cost-saving at the age of 80 years, meaning that treatment cost was less than the costs of treating osteoporotic fractures of the no-treatment group. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that vitamin D and calcium supplementation is cost-effective for women and men with osteoporosis aged over 60 years. From an economic perspective, vitamin D and calcium should therefore be administrated in these populations including those also taking other osteoporotic treatments. [less ▲]

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See detailLa copie d’expression écrite en langue étrangère : un support équitable ?
Noiroux, Kevin ULg; Simons, Germain ULg

in Spirale (2015), 55

Summative writing assessment is an evaluative practice that aims, at least theoretically, to inform each student about his performance in that skill at a given time, and to help him to understand his ... [more ▼]

Summative writing assessment is an evaluative practice that aims, at least theoretically, to inform each student about his performance in that skill at a given time, and to help him to understand his errors so that he can make progress in his learning. In this article, we analyse summative writing assessment through various prisms. At the macro level, we discuss the reforms of the education system pertaining to assessment ; at the meso level, we target the assessment tools offered by the same education system, as well as the attention that may or may not be paid to remediation ; at the micro level, we deal with the issue of corrective feedback which students receive on their written production. By crossing these different sources (legal provisions, interviews, surveys, analysis of students’ annotated written production, etc.), we conclude that this practice may present major risks of inequality. [less ▲]

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See detailLes difficultés d'apprentissage procédural chez les enfants dysphasiques
Desmottes, Lise ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg; Maillart, Christelle ULg

in ANAE : Approche Neuropsychologique des Apprentissages chez l'Enfant (2015)

Through a review of the literature, this paper shows that linguistic and non-linguistic disorders in children with specific language impairment might be linked to difficulties in procedural learning ... [more ▼]

Through a review of the literature, this paper shows that linguistic and non-linguistic disorders in children with specific language impairment might be linked to difficulties in procedural learning, especially regarding sequential abilities. Indeed, children with specific language impairment encounter difficulties to learn visuo-motor and linguistic sequences. These difficulties are not limited to initial learning but extend to the consolidation stage in long-term memory. Finally, recent studies show that it is possible to improve procedural learning abilities, suggesting new avenues for rehabilitation. [less ▲]

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See detailRethinking Vulnerability Analysis and Governance with Emphasis on a Participatory Approach
Rossignol, Nicolas ULg; Delvenne, Pierre ULg; Turcanu, Catrinel

in Risk Analysis : An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis (2015), 35(1), 129-141

This paper draws on vulnerability analysis as it emerged as a complement to classical risk analysis, and it aims at exploring its ability of nurturing risk and vulnerability governance actions. An ... [more ▼]

This paper draws on vulnerability analysis as it emerged as a complement to classical risk analysis, and it aims at exploring its ability of nurturing risk and vulnerability governance actions. An analysis of the literature on vulnerability analysis allows us to formulate a threefold critique: first, vulnerability analysis has been treated separately in the natural and the technological hazards fields. This separation prevents vulnerability to unleash the full range of its potential, as it constraints appraisals into artificial categories and thus already closes down the outcomes of the analysis. Second, vulnerability analysis focused on assessment tools that are mainly quantitative, whereas qualitative appraisal is a key to assessing vulnerability in a comprehensive way and to informing policy-making. Third, a systematic literature review of case studies reporting on participatory approaches to vulnerability analysis allows us to argue that participation has been important to address the above, but it remains too closed down in its approach and would benefit from embracing a more open, encompassing perspective. Therefore, we suggest rethinking vulnerability analysis as one part of a dynamic process between opening-up and closing-down strategies, in order to support a vulnerability governance framework. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of the Lémann Index to assess digestive tract damage in patients with Crohn's disease
Pariente, B; Mary, JY; Danese, S et al

in Gastroenterology (2015), 148

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See detailInscriptiones Lesbi, Tenedi, Nesi. Concordance des éditions
Famerie, Etienne ULg

in Horos (2015), 26-29

Concordance of the whole corpus of inscriptions of Lesbus, in relation with the inventory of the collection stored in the Archaeological Museum (Lesbus)

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See detailInternational assessment of future low flow regimes and their impact on three water related sectors in the Meuse basin – a collaborative approach
Bauwens, Alexandra; Degré, Aurore ULg; Deraedt, Deborah ULg et al

in International Journal of River Basin Management (2015), 13(1), 123-135

There is a wide recognition of the watershed scale as the right scale for global water management, notably in the context of the WFD. Hence, it often refers to international management and therefore to ... [more ▼]

There is a wide recognition of the watershed scale as the right scale for global water management, notably in the context of the WFD. Hence, it often refers to international management and therefore to various pre-existing regional management tools, models or even objectives. In this study we aim at describing the collaborative assessment of climate change’s effect on low flow regime and the consequences on three water related sectors: drinking water production, agriculture and electricity production. The paper highlights the choices that were made during the study that involved scientific teams, managers and stakeholders from the four main countries of the Meuse Basin. It shows that the methodological choices were operational and aimed at preserving existing methods and knowledge within each country. They led to hydrological scenarios comparable to the main available ensemble approaches and to methodologies well accepted within the concerned countries. The results of the project highlight and quantify the water scarcity that the three sectors will have to face by the end of the century mainly regarding the electricity production. They also show that common allocation rules are necessary to manage water demand during future low flow periods. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid combined to 6-Benzylaminopurine on callus induction, total phenolic and ascorbic acid production, and antioxidant activities in leaf tissue cultures of Crataegus azarolus L. var. aronia
Chaabani, Ghaya; Tabart, Jessica; Kevers, Claire ULg et al

in Acta Physiologiae Plantarum (2015), 37

The present research work describes the effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)/6-Benzylamino-purine (BAP) ratio on callus induction, total phenols and ascorbic acid production and antioxidant ... [more ▼]

The present research work describes the effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)/6-Benzylamino-purine (BAP) ratio on callus induction, total phenols and ascorbic acid production and antioxidant activities in leaf-derived calli of Crataegus azarolus (hawthorn). The supplementation of 1.0 mg/L 2,4-D and 1.0 mg/L BAP to MS medium was found to be the most efficient for callus induction (as percentage and fresh weigh). The results of biochemical analysis showed that the highest total phenols contents were obtained in callus cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L 2,4-D and 1.0 mg/L BAP (52 ± 0.56 mg GAE/g DM) and were significantly lower than those of intact leaves (76 ± 1.72 mg GAE/g DM). However, the highest ascorbic acid contents were found in callus cultured on MS supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 2,4-D and 0.5 mg/L BAP (0.96 ± 0.13 mg AAE/g DM) and these amounts were statistically similar to those found in leaves tissues (0.74 ± 0.07 mg AAE/g DM). Antioxidant activities of callus extracts were determined using two TEAC assays and results showed that extract of callus cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L 2,4-D and 1.0 mg/L BAP have the greatest antiradical activities against DPPH (124 ± 2.92 mg TE/g DM) and ABTS (0.19 ± 0.02 mg TE/g DM) compared to the leaves of field-grown plant. Thus, the use of high level of 2,4-D over BAP can be suitable to enhance the quality more than the quantity of bioactive compounds in leaf callus culture of hawthorn. [less ▲]

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See detailShort communication: Novel method to predict body weight of primiparous dairy cows throughout the lactation
Vanrobays, Marie-Laure ULg; Vandenplas, Jérémie ULg; Hammami, Hedi ULg et al

in Journal of Dairy Science (2015), 98

Body weight (BW) of dairy cows can be estimated using linear conformation traits (calculated BW; CBW), which are generally recorded only once during a lactation. However, predicted BW (PBW) throughout the ... [more ▼]

Body weight (BW) of dairy cows can be estimated using linear conformation traits (calculated BW; CBW), which are generally recorded only once during a lactation. However, predicted BW (PBW) throughout the lactation would be useful, e.g., at milk-recording dates allowing feed-intake prediction for advisory purposes. Therefore, a 2-step approach was developed to obtain PBW for each milk-recording date. In the first step, a random-regression test-day model was used with CBW as observations to predict PBW. The second step consisted in changing means and (co)variances of prior distributions for the additive genetic random effects of the test-day model by using priors derived from results of the first step to predict again PBW. A total of 25,061 CBW from 24,919 primiparous Holstein cows were computed using equations from literature. Using CBW as observations, PBW was then predicted over the whole lactation for 232,436 dates corresponding to 207,375 milk-recording dates and 25,061 classification dates. Results showed that using both steps (the 2-step approach) provided more accurate predictions than using only the first step (the one-step approach). Based on the results of this preliminary study, BW of dairy cows could be predicted throughout the lactation using this procedure. These predictions could be useful in milk-recording systems to compute traits of interest (e.g., feed-intake prediction). The developed novel method is also flexible because actual direct measurements of BW can also be used together with CBW, the prediction model being able to accommodate different levels of accuracies of used BW phenotypes. [less ▲]

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See detailElevated heart rate at 24-36h after admission and in-hospital mortality in acute in non-arrhythmic heart failure.
Lancellotti, Patrizio ULg; ANCION, Arnaud ULg; Magne, Julien et al

in International journal of cardiology (2015), 182C

BACKGROUND: Elevated resting heart rate is associated with worse outcomes in chronic heart failure (HF) but little is known about its prognostic impact in acute setting. The main aim of the present study ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Elevated resting heart rate is associated with worse outcomes in chronic heart failure (HF) but little is known about its prognostic impact in acute setting. The main aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between resting heart rate obtained 24-36h after admission for acute non-arrhythmic HF and in-hospital mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined the association of heart rate with in-hospital mortality in a cohort of 712 patients admitted for acute HF. None of the patients had significant arrhythmias, required invasive ventilation, or presented with acute coronary syndrome or primary valvular disease. Forty patients (5.6%) died during the hospital stay. Those patients were significantly older (78+/-9 vs. 72+/-12years; p=0.0021), had higher heart rate (92+/-22 vs. 78+/-18bpm; p<0.0001), NT pro-BNP (p=0.0005), creatinine (p=0.023), were often diabetics (p=0.026) and had lower systolic and diastolic blood pressures (p<0.05). There was a significant graded relationship between the increase in mortality rate and tertile of heart rate (p<0.01). With multivariable analysis, age (p=0.037), heart rate (p<0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (p<0.001), prior ischemic heart disease (p=0.02) and creatinine (p=0.019) emerged as independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. After adjusting for predictors of poor prognosis, patients in the highest heart rate tertile had worst outcomes when compared with those in the lowest heart rate group (p=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Higher heart rate 24-36h after admission for acute non-arrhythmic HF is associated with increased risk of in-hospital mortality. Early targeting of elevated heart rate might represent a complementary therapeutic challenge. [less ▲]

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See detailOsteoporosis in patients taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: a focus on fracture outcome
Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in Endocrine (2015), 48(1), 65-68

Depression is one of the most important mental health problems and a leading cause of disability. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are considered as first-line therapy for the treatment of ... [more ▼]

Depression is one of the most important mental health problems and a leading cause of disability. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are considered as first-line therapy for the treatment of depressive symptoms among older adults because of their presumed favorable adverse effect profile. However, they could have deleterious effects on the bone. Evidence from longitudinal, crosssectional, and prospective cohort studies suggests that the use of antidepressants at therapeutic doses is associated with decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture risk. The association between SSRIs use and fracture risk could potentially differ depending on dose, exposure duration, time of exposure, age, or sex. However, the risk of fracture declined rapidly after discontinuation of use of SSRIs. The evidence now seems sufficient to consider adding SSRIs to the list of medications that contribute to osteoporosis. In practice, assessment of risk factor for osteoporosis or fractures could be made taking into account age, gender, duration, and severity of depression, length of SSRI treatments, and other concurrent risk factors. [less ▲]

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See detailThe neural basis of temporal order processing in past and future thought
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Jeunehomme, Olivier ULg; Majerus, Steve ULg et al

in Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience (2015), 27

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See detailOptimization of a cheap and residential small-scale production of edible crickets with local by-products as an alternative protein-rich human food source in Ratanakiri Province (Cambodia)
Caparros Megido, Rudy ULg; Alabi, Taofic ULg; Nieus, Clément et al

in Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture (2015)

Background - Health status of the indigenous people of the Ratanakiri Province, Cambodia, is significantly lower compared to the rest of the nation. The domestication and mass production of insects may ... [more ▼]

Background - Health status of the indigenous people of the Ratanakiri Province, Cambodia, is significantly lower compared to the rest of the nation. The domestication and mass production of insects may represent a sustainable, cost effective and high quality alternative source of protein to traditional livestock. This study aimed to optimise a cheap and residential cricket breeding system based on unused wild resources. The cricket development, Teleogryllus testaceus (Walker), under seven diets composed of taro aerial parts, young cassava leaves, young cashew leaves and brown rice flour (with or without banana slices), versus a traditionally used broiler feed diet was studied. Results - Cricket mortality was low in all diets, except the two cashew-based diets. Total biomass was significantly higher under the broiler feed, in addition to the two diets containing a combination of cassava leaf powder and brown rice. Yet, crickets fed with the taro diet had the highest percentage of protein. Concerning the breeding system cost, units using cassava leaves were the cheapest ones. Conclusion – Diets based of cassava leaves seems to be the most promising ones. Nevertheless, to produce crickets with a high body mass and a high protein level, a new experiment must be realised in which the cassava leaf maturity will be adapted to fit with the cricket growth stage. Moreover, to reduce the cost of the breeding units, handmade local products should be used instead of purchased components. [less ▲]

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See detailMutations in the voltage-gated potassium channel gene KCNH1 cause Temple-Baraitser syndrome and epilepsy.
Simons, Cas; Rash, Lachlan D.; Crawford, Joanna et al

in Nature genetics (2015), 47(1), 73-7

Temple-Baraitser syndrome (TBS) is a multisystem developmental disorder characterized by intellectual disability, epilepsy, and hypoplasia or aplasia of the nails of the thumb and great toe. Here we ... [more ▼]

Temple-Baraitser syndrome (TBS) is a multisystem developmental disorder characterized by intellectual disability, epilepsy, and hypoplasia or aplasia of the nails of the thumb and great toe. Here we report damaging de novo mutations in KCNH1 (encoding a protein called ether a go-go, EAG1 or KV10.1), a voltage-gated potassium channel that is predominantly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), in six individuals with TBS. Characterization of the mutant channels in both Xenopus laevis oocytes and human HEK293T cells showed a decreased threshold of activation and delayed deactivation, demonstrating that TBS-associated KCNH1 mutations lead to deleterious gain of function. Consistent with this result, we find that two mothers of children with TBS, who have epilepsy but are otherwise healthy, are low-level (10% and 27%) mosaic carriers of pathogenic KCNH1 mutations. Consistent with recent reports, this finding demonstrates that the etiology of many unresolved CNS disorders, including epilepsies, might be explained by pathogenic mosaic mutations. [less ▲]

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See detailLes supports pour l'étude fournis à l'élève en sciences biologiques sont-ils créateurs d'inégalités? Etude exploratoire de productions de futurs enseignants en Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles (Belgique)
Poffé, Corentin ULg; Laschet, Mélanie ULg; Hindryckx, Marie-Noëlle ULg

in Spirale : Revue de Recherches en Education (2015), 55

Une revue de la littérature permet d’attribuer à de nombreux facteurs les inégalités dans l’apprentissage. Parmi ceux-ci, nous avons choisi d’analyser, avec le regard du formateur d’enseignants, les ... [more ▼]

Une revue de la littérature permet d’attribuer à de nombreux facteurs les inégalités dans l’apprentissage. Parmi ceux-ci, nous avons choisi d’analyser, avec le regard du formateur d’enseignants, les supports pour l’étude proposés par nos étudiants futurs enseignants aux élèves du secondaire (15 à 18 ans) en vue de l’évaluation, lors des cours de sciences biologiques. Cette « photographie instantanée » des supports pour l’étude nous a fourni un état des lieux qui nous permet d’objectiver nos impressions de formateurs quant au rôle des supports pour l’étude dans la problématique des inégalités scolaires. [less ▲]

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See detailAphid species and associated natural enemies in field crops: what about the invasive ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)?
Vandereycken, Axel ULg; Durieux, Delphine ULg; Joie, Emilie ULg et al

in Entomologie Faunistique = Faunistic Entomology (2015), 68

Following the introduction in the 80's of the invasive coccinellid species Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) in Europe, several studies have begun to focus on the interactions with other aphid predator species ... [more ▼]

Following the introduction in the 80's of the invasive coccinellid species Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) in Europe, several studies have begun to focus on the interactions with other aphid predator species. In this study, aphids and associated predators were sampled to determine their relative abundance in four agricultural crops (broad bean, corn, potato, and wheat) in Belgium during 2010 and 2011. The Moericke trap was used to quantify the mean number of aphids and aphid predators from May to September in both years. A total of 28 aphid species and 21 aphidophagous species were observed. In both years, H. axyridis was among the most abundant aphidophagous predators in all four crops, and was the second most abundant coccinellid species after Coccinella septempunctata L. The community of aphidophagous species was similar across all four inventoried crops. However, the highest population densities of this alien species were recorded in broad bean and potato crops, which also hosted the highest aphid population densities. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the communities of aphid predators are highly diversified in the agroecosystems, despite the high occurrence of H. axyridis, an introduced predator that has become well established in this environment. [less ▲]

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See detailEstimation of degree-days for different climatic zones of North-East India
Borah, Pallavi; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Mahapatra, Sadhan

in Sustainable Cities and Society (2015), 14

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See detailAlgebrability and nowhere Gevrey differentiability
Bastin, Françoise ULg; Conejero, J. Alberto; Esser, Céline ULg et al

in Israel Journal of Mathematics (2015), 205

We show that there exist c-generated algebras (and dense in C^infty([0,1])) every nonzero element of which is a nowhere Gevrey diff erentiable function. This leads to results of dense algebrability (and ... [more ▼]

We show that there exist c-generated algebras (and dense in C^infty([0,1])) every nonzero element of which is a nowhere Gevrey diff erentiable function. This leads to results of dense algebrability (and, therefore, lineability) of functions enjoying this property. In the process of proving these results we also provide a new construction of nowhere Gevrey di fferentiable functions. [less ▲]

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See detailThe course of anaemia in children and adolescents with Crohn's disease included in a prospective registry.
Van Biervliet, Stephanie; Smets, Francoise; Hofmann, Ilse et al

in International journal of colorectal disease (2015), 30(1), 51-6

AIM: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and evolution of anaemia in prospectively followed children and adolescents diagnosed with Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS: The BELCRO registry ... [more ▼]

AIM: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and evolution of anaemia in prospectively followed children and adolescents diagnosed with Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS: The BELCRO registry (inclusion May 2008-April 2010), describing current clinical treatment practice of children diagnosed with CD, provided data on age, height, body mass index (BMI), paediatric Crohn's disease activity index (PCDAI), therapy and haemoglobin (Hb) at diagnosis 12 and 24 months follow-up. Anaemia was defined as Hb < -2 sd, while severe anaemia was defined as Hb < -4 sd. Patients were classified as child </=13 and adolescent >13 years of age. RESULT: Ninety-six were included, 13 dropped out due to insufficient Hb data (37 females/46 males; median age 13.3 years, range 2.2-17.8 years). At diagnosis, the median Hb sd was -2.66 (-8.4; 1.07) and was correlated with the PCDAI (p = 0.013). At diagnosis, 51/83 (61 %) were anaemic and all had active disease. Hb z-score significantly improved (p < 0.0001) but 26/68 (38 %) remained anaemic at 12 months and 29/76 (38 %) at 24 months of follow-up. The correlation to the PCDAI disappeared. At 24 months, children were more likely to be anaemic. There was no difference in iron dose nor duration of iron supplements between children and adolescents. Iron treatment was more readily given to patients presenting with anaemia. Hb did not differ between patients with (n = 28) or without iron supplements. Half of the patients with persisting anaemia were given iron supplements, of which, only three were given intravenously. CONCLUSION: Anaemia remains an important extra-intestinal manifestation of CD in children. Physicians, lacking optimal treatment strategies, undertreat their patients. [less ▲]

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See detailA linear accelerator for levitated micro-objects
Sari, Ibrahim; Kraft, Michael ULg

in Sensors and Actuators. A, Physical (2015)

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See detailA new species of Groenlandaspis Heintz, 1932 (Placodermi, Arthrodira) from the Famennian (Late Devonian) of Belgium
Olive, Sébastien ULg; Prestianni, Cyrille; Dupret, Vincent

in Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology (2015), 35(5),

A new species of the phlyctaeniid arthrodire genus Groenlandaspis from the upper Famennian of Belgium is described. The remains of Groenlandaspis potyi sp. nov. consist of dissociated thoracic armor ... [more ▼]

A new species of the phlyctaeniid arthrodire genus Groenlandaspis from the upper Famennian of Belgium is described. The remains of Groenlandaspis potyi sp. nov. consist of dissociated thoracic armor elements, but the specimen designed to be the holotype displays the median dorsal, anterior and posterior dorsolateral plates in connection. Though incomplete, the new species is characterized by an equilateral triangle-shaped median dorsal plate, a protruding posterodorsal apron of the posterior dorsolateral plate behind the overlap area for the median dorsal plate, and an overall lack of ornamentation. Groenlandaspis potyi sp. nov. constitutes the second occurrence of a Groenlandaspis species in continental Europe after the description of Groenlandaspis thorezi from upper Famennian quarries of Belgium. Another probable new species of Groenlandaspis is also described, though of unknown locality and horizon; it can however be deduced from the upper Famennian of Belgium without more precision. Together with some unpublished material of groenlandaspidids from the Famennian tetrapod-bearing locality of Strud, this material highlights the richness of the Groenlandaspididae diversity in Belgium. The discovery of Groenlandaspis potyi sp. nov. in Belgium reinforces the Famennian global distribution of this widespread genus during this period. Also, since those organisms have possibly been considered as non-marine indicators, this material is another argument pleading for close relationships between Euramerica and Gondwana around the Frasnian-Famennian boundary. [less ▲]

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See detailL’acte incendiaire, son sujet et sa signification : propositions à partir du Saint Genet de Jean-Paul Sartre
Englebert, Jérôme ULg

in Annales Médico-Psychologiques (2015), 172(2), 186-192

Objectives In this paper we studied fire setters with the hermeneutics’ method from the philosophy of Jean-Paul Sartre. In the psychobiography of Jean Genet, the philosopher raises issues of the ... [more ▼]

Objectives In this paper we studied fire setters with the hermeneutics’ method from the philosophy of Jean-Paul Sartre. In the psychobiography of Jean Genet, the philosopher raises issues of the infractional acting and its social meaning. Methods After recalling the basic notions of international literature about fire setters (including confusion with pyromania, diagnostic problems proposed by the DSM IV and the concept of "communicative arson"), we propose phenomenological and existential clues to discuss the act and its meaning. It is the unlawful act that is analysed and more specifically the arson. We propose different analysis than the psychic causality which is inspired by psychoanalysis. The criminogenesis gives way to a questioning of identity, about the place of fire in the subject’s history and within its relationships to others. As proposed by Sartre, the paradigm of this research is to consider the meaning "as the return of the future in the present". The second field of this study is an analysis of three clinical cases. These cases are the result of a forensic practice. The method is focused on the analysis of a narrative and autobiographical production. By this way we studied the temporal process of these three arsonists. Results A comparative reading of the psychobiography of Jean Genet written by Sartre and of the situation of arsonists gives accurate information. The "criminogenesis" gives way to a questioning of identity. In this way we discuss the meaning of fire in the subject's history and within its relationship to others. We highlight the inscription of the act in the social and constitutive process of the individual. From the clinical material, the author demonstrates a link between arson and construction of identity. Identity is considered as a dialectic between “ipse” and “idem”, as suggested by Ricœur. We can therefore consider the real sense that the arson has from the perspective of the actor but also from the viewpoint of the society and these conceptions may be similar or different. In clinical practice, we recommend to pay special attention to how the fire is part of the biography of the patient. Conclusions The fascination for fire is a source of meaning which can be radically different depending on whether we consider the external interpreter (the world or the clinician) or the author of the action. The basic principles of hermeneutics, as described by Gadamer and Ricœur, are to demonstrate that the understanding and the interpretation are not only the methods used in the human sciences but are also part of the fundamental processes inherent in human nature. Hermeneutics in general is the opposite of a doctrine of truth. It rather seeks to show arbitrarily how the interpretation and the search for meaning are paradigmatic of the human experience. [less ▲]

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See detailA New Approach to the 2-Regularity of the ℓ-Abelian Complexity of 2-Automatic Sequences
Parreau, Aline; Rigo, Michel ULg; Rowland, Eric ULg et al

in The Electronic Journal of Combinatorics (2015), 22(1), 127

We prove that a sequence satisfying a certain symmetry property is 2-regular in the sense of Allouche and Shallit, i.e., the Z-module generated by its 2-kernel is finitely generated. We apply this theorem ... [more ▼]

We prove that a sequence satisfying a certain symmetry property is 2-regular in the sense of Allouche and Shallit, i.e., the Z-module generated by its 2-kernel is finitely generated. We apply this theorem to develop a general approach for studying the l-abelian complexity of 2-automatic sequences. In particular, we prove that the period-doubling word and the Thue--Morse word have 2-abelian complexity sequences that are 2-regular. Along the way, we also prove that the 2-block codings of these two words have 1-abelian complexity sequences that are 2-regular. [less ▲]

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See detailA Systematic Review of Cost-Effectiveness Analyses of Drugs for Postmenopausal Osteoporosis.
Hiligsmann, Mickaël ULg; Evers, Silvia M.; Ben Sedrine, Wafa et al

in PharmacoEconomics (2015), 33(3), 205-224

BACKGROUND: Given the limited availability of healthcare resources and the recent introduction of new anti-osteoporosis drugs, the interest in the cost effectiveness of drugs in postmenopausal ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Given the limited availability of healthcare resources and the recent introduction of new anti-osteoporosis drugs, the interest in the cost effectiveness of drugs in postmenopausal osteoporosis remains and even increases. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify all recent economic evaluations on drugs for postmenopausal osteoporosis, to critically appraise the reporting quality, and to summarize the results. METHODS: A literature search using Medline, the National Health Service Economic Evaluation database and the Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry was undertaken to identify original articles published between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2013. Studies that assessed cost effectiveness of drugs in postmenopausal osteoporosis were included. The Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement was used to assess the quality of reporting of these articles. RESULTS: Of 1,794 articles identified, 39 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. They were conducted in 14 different countries and nine active interventions were assessed. When compared with no treatment, active osteoporotic drugs were generally cost effective in postmenopausal women aged over 60-65 years with low bone mass, especially those with prior vertebral fractures. Key drivers of cost effectiveness included individual fracture risk, medication adherence, selected comparators and country-specific analyses. Quality of reporting varied between studies with an average score of 17.9 out of 24 (range 7-21.5). CONCLUSION: This review found a substantial number of published cost-effectiveness analyses of drugs in osteoporosis in the last 6 years. Results and critical appraisal of these articles can help decision makers when prioritizing health interventions and can inform the development of future economic evaluations. [less ▲]

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See detailClimate-controlled palynofacies and miospore biostratigraphy of the Early Devonian Jauf Formation, northern Saudi Arabia
Breuer, Pierre; Leszczynski, S.; Miller, M.A. et al

in Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology (2015), 212

The Jauf Formation miospore succession is synthesized in terms of paleoenvironments and sequence stratigraphy. The data set for this study is obtained from four overlapping, continuously cored, and ... [more ▼]

The Jauf Formation miospore succession is synthesized in terms of paleoenvironments and sequence stratigraphy. The data set for this study is obtained from four overlapping, continuously cored, and extensively sampled, boreholes that for a 940 ft composite section. The Jauf Formation ranges in age from late Pragian to latest Emsian. The palynological assemblages, recognized herein, provide the basis for recognizing depositional environments present in the Early Devonian of northern Saudi Arabia. Transgressive – regressive cycles are indicated, not only by lithology but by marked changes in the marine to terrestrially dominated palynological assemblages. Flooding events are recognized by the replacement of spore dominated assemblages by organic-walled microphytoplankton. The maximum flooding interval for the Jauf is reinterpreted based on a correlative event consisting of diverse acritarchs and abundant chitinozoans. [Add details on the paly and sequence stratigraphy here. No.cycles and order.] The new northern Gondwanan biozonation developed by Breuer and Steemans (2012) and used here allows a high-resolution regional biozonation for the Arabian Plate and more intercontinental [?] correlation of the Jauf Formation with other Gondwanan and Euramerican localities. One new spore genus (Zonohilates) and four spore species (Insculptospora maxima, Camarozonotriletes alruwailii, Devonomonoletes crassus and Zonohilates vulneratus) are newly proposed. [less ▲]

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