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See detailLa régénération naturelle des hêtraies-chênaies en lumière : approche expérimentale en forêt ardennaise
Ligot, Gauthier ULg; Claessens, Hugues ULg; Baudry, Olivier et al

in Forêt Wallonne (2014), (129), 19-21

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See detailBiased binomial assessment of cross-validated estimation of classification accuracies illustrated in diagnosis predictions
Noirhomme, Quentin ULg; Lesenfants, Damien ULg; Gomez, Francisco et al

in NeuroImage: Clinical (2014), 4

Multivariate classification is used in neuroimaging studies to infer brain activation or in medical applications to infer diagnosis. Their results are often assessed through either a binomial or a ... [more ▼]

Multivariate classification is used in neuroimaging studies to infer brain activation or in medical applications to infer diagnosis. Their results are often assessed through either a binomial or a permutation test. Here, we simulated classification results of generated random data to assess the influence of the cross-validation scheme on the significance of results. Distributions built from classification of random data with crossvalidation did not follow the binomial distribution. The binomial test is therefore not adapted. On the contrary, the permutation test was unaffected by the cross-validation scheme. The influence of the crossvalidation was further illustrated on real-data from a brain–computer interface experiment in patients with disorders of consciousness and from an fMRI study on patients with Parkinson disease. Three out of 16 patients with disorders of consciousness had significant accuracy on binomial testing, but only one showed significant accuracy using permutation testing. In the fMRI experiment, the mental imagery of gait could discriminate significantly between idiopathic Parkinson’s disease patients and healthy subjects according to the permutation test but not according to the binomial test. Hence, binomial testing could lead to biased estimation of significance and false positive or negative results. In our view, permutation testing is thus recommended for clinical application of classification with cross-validation. [less ▲]

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See detailExigences administratives et condition suspensive dans la vente immobilière
Kohl, Benoît ULg; Onclin, François ULg

in Revue Critique de Jurisprudence Belge [= RCJB] (2014), (1), 13-55

Cette étude est consacrée à l'utilisation de la condition suspensive en lien avec les exigences administratives, dans la matière spécifique de la vente immobilière. Le foisonnement des exigences de nature ... [more ▼]

Cette étude est consacrée à l'utilisation de la condition suspensive en lien avec les exigences administratives, dans la matière spécifique de la vente immobilière. Le foisonnement des exigences de nature urbanistique, environnementale et énergétique, en lien avec les biens immeubles, pousse les intervenants à la vente de biens immeubles - qu'il s'agisse de particuliers ou de professionnels - à recourir à la modalité de la condition suspensive. Se pose dès lors la question de la validité de cette pratique. Cette contribution suit en réalité un arrêt de la Cour de cassation du 24 février 2011 qui porte sur la conclusion de la vente d'une parcelle, issue de la division d'un bien, sous la condition suspensive de la délivrance d'un permis de lotir. L'étude se divise en deux parties. La première offre un rappel, bien nécessaire, du droit commun. Elle analyse donc les différentes composantes de la condition suspensive. La seconde étudie, de manière plus spécifique, la mise sous condition suspensive de différentes exigences administratives en lien avec la vente immobilière. L'arrêt de la Cour de cassation précité y est notamment commenté. [less ▲]

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See detailImportance of synovitis in osteoarthritis: Evidence for the use of glycosaminoglycans against synovial inflammation.
Henrotin, Yves ULg; Lambert, Cécile ULg; Richette, Pascal

in Seminars in Arthritis & Rheumatism (2014), 43(5), 579-87

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See detailLe nouveau fichier écologique des essences. Pourquoi et comment ?
Claessens, Hugues ULg; Bifolchi, Eva; Cordier, Sophie ULg et al

in Forêt Wallonne (2014), (129), 60-70

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See detailBone sialoprotein as a potential key factor implicated in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis
Pesesse, Laurence ULg; Sanchez, Christelle ULg; Walsh, David et al

in Osteoarthritis and Cartilage (2014), 22(4), 547-56

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See detailAircraft Engine Gas Path Diagnostic Methods: Public Benchmarking Results
Simon, Donald; Borguet, Sébastien ULg; Léonard, Olivier ULg et al

in Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines & Power (2014), 136(4), 041201

Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of aircraft engine health management (EHM) technologies. To help address this issue, a gas path diagnostic benchmark problem ... [more ▼]

Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of aircraft engine health management (EHM) technologies. To help address this issue, a gas path diagnostic benchmark problem has been created and made publicly available. This software tool, referred to as the Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (Pro- DiMES), has been constructed based on feedback provided by the aircraft EHM community. It provides a standard benchmark problem enabling users to develop, evaluate, and compare diagnostic methods. This paper will present an overview of ProDiMES along with a description of four gas path diagnostic methods developed and applied to the problem. These methods, which include analytical and empirical diagnostic techniques, will be described and associated blind-test-case metric results will be presented and compared. Lessons learned along with recommendations for improving the public benchmarking processes will also be presented and discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailWidespread occurence of expressed fungal secretory peroxydases in forest soils
Kellner, Harald; Luis, Patricia; Pecyna, Marek, J. et al

in PLoS ONE (2014), 9(4),

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See detailLa relation structure chimique-propriétés physiques des galactomannanes extraits de la caroube
Gillet, Sébastien ULg; Blecker, Christophe ULg; Paquot, Michel ULg et al

in Comptes Rendus Chimie (2014), 17(4),

Carob galactomannan fine chemical structure is closely related to the physical behavior developed in aqueous solution. Three elements of structural characterization are mainly described in the literature ... [more ▼]

Carob galactomannan fine chemical structure is closely related to the physical behavior developed in aqueous solution. Three elements of structural characterization are mainly described in the literature: the degree of galactose substitution, chain length, and galactose units distribution. This review article will attempt to highlight the impact of different structural features on physical properties such as solubility, viscosity, formation of hydrogels or gels in combination with other saccharides. The impact of industrial purification process on the structure and physical properties is also developed. [less ▲]

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See detailNetamines H-N, Tricyclic Alkaloids from the Marine Sponge Biemna laboutei and Their Antimalarial Activity.
Gros, Emmanuelle; Al-Mourabit, Ali; Martin, Marie-Therese et al

in Journal of natural products (2014), 77(4), 818-23

Chemical examination of the CH2Cl2-MeOH (1:1) extract of the Madagascar sponge Biemna laboutei resulted in the isolation of seven new tricyclic alkaloids, netamines H-N (1-7), along with the known ... [more ▼]

Chemical examination of the CH2Cl2-MeOH (1:1) extract of the Madagascar sponge Biemna laboutei resulted in the isolation of seven new tricyclic alkaloids, netamines H-N (1-7), along with the known netamine G and mirabilins A, C, and F. Their structures were elucidated by interpretation of 1D and 2D NMR spectra and HRESIMS data. All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against KB cells and their antiplasmodial activity. Netamine M (6) was found to be cytotoxic, with an IC50 value in the micromolar range, and netamine K (4) exhibited activity against Plasmodium falciparum with an IC50 value of 2.4 muM. [less ▲]

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See detailValidation analytique d'une méthode chromatographique destinée à rechercher et à identifier les opiacés naturels ou (semi) synthétiques
DUBOIS, Nathalie ULg; Counerotte, Stéphane ULg; Goffin, Eric ULg et al

in Annales de Biologie Clinique (2014), 72(2), 197-206

L’identification de la substance absorbée par un consommateur d’opiacés peut être problématique dans la mesure où il n’existe pas de biomarqueur spécifique pour toutes les molécules. Nous avons développé ... [more ▼]

L’identification de la substance absorbée par un consommateur d’opiacés peut être problématique dans la mesure où il n’existe pas de biomarqueur spécifique pour toutes les molécules. Nous avons développé une technique de chromatographie liquide ultra-haute pression couplée à un spectromètre de masse en tandem qui permet l’identification et le dosage de 25 opiacés dans le plasma. La préparation de l’échantillon consiste en une extraction en phase solide sur colonnes Oasis ® MCX (Waters). La méthode a été validée selon les critères préconisés par la FDA, complètement pour 21 substances et avec quelques réserves pour les 4 produits restants. Cette méthode a été appliquée à 80 patients traités au CHU de Liège pour lesquels la recherche d’opiacés était positive. L’identification du produit consommé a été effective dans 86 % des cas. [less ▲]

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See detailLa place et le rôle des médecins généralistes dans le suivi de chirurgie bariatrique en province de Liège
Gaspard, Stéphanie; Ketterer, Frédéric ULg; Belche, Jean-Luc ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014), 69

This paper is concerned with the place and role of general practitioners in the follow-up of patients submitted to bariatric surgery in the province of Liège. The results of the analysis were compared ... [more ▼]

This paper is concerned with the place and role of general practitioners in the follow-up of patients submitted to bariatric surgery in the province of Liège. The results of the analysis were compared with clinical practice guidelines published by the French Haute Autorité de Santé (HAS). Fifteen interviews were conducted with GPs who follow up operated patients. The results highlight the GPs’ wish to fully participate in the follow-up of those patients. Their medical supervision is centered on the HAS clinical practice guidelines, taking into account the intake deficiencies as well as the patient’s psychological experience. However, some aspects are disregarded, mainly because of a lack of theoretical knowledge (some biological parameters, pregnancy and contraception). The short consultation time along with the poor communication with the hospital multidisciplinary team were mentioned as obstacles to a good quality follow-up. Progress is still needed to reach the clinical practice guidelines. However, there is a wish to better collaborate. Organising coordination meetings between professionals along with an early implication of the GP – even before surgery – represent possible solutions. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation of the death of calves after epileptiform seizures associated with metabolic disorders
Chevalier, Marine; Lebreton, Pascal; Garnier, Catherine et al

in Cattle Practice (2014), 22(1), 10-16

Death of calves after epileptiform seizures can be caused by metabolic disorders including hypomagnesaemia, although a range of other conditions may also be implicated and therefore also warrant ... [more ▼]

Death of calves after epileptiform seizures can be caused by metabolic disorders including hypomagnesaemia, although a range of other conditions may also be implicated and therefore also warrant investigation. Hypomagnesaemia is primarily observed in herds where calves are fed exclusively with either milk or milk substitute products. Hyperparathyroidism is associated with congestion and hypertrophy of the parathyroid gland and causes both hypercalcaemia and hypophosphataemia. However, its exact aetiology currently remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to explain epileptiform seizures in calves from a cattle herd presenting both deaths and decreased average daily gain (ADG). A Montbeliard herd with calves presenting epileptiform seizures from the age of five weeks was studied. The herd consisted of 39 cows and 46 calves. Tachycardia, nervousness and trampling, violent seizures of tetany lasting approximately 15 minutes were all observed, while opisthotonos was observed in 5 calves. Three of the latter calves died. The remaining calves presented a decreased ADG. Blood and urine biochemical assays were performed on 8 sick calves to determine the aetiology of the clinical signs. The assays revealed normo/hyper-calcaemia, hypophosphataemia and hypomagnesaemia, as well as hypocalciuria, hyperphosphaturia and hypomagnesuria. Deficiencies in iodine, iron and vitamins A, D3 and E were also reported in the herd. These calves could potentially be suffering from hyperparathyroidism. Hyperparathyroidism results in hypomagnesaemia, hypovitaminosis-A and, on occassion, hypercalcaemia and hypophosphataemia. This condition can lead to seizures, muscular problems, heart attacks and anorexia. The simultaneous occurrence of hypomagnesaemia, hyperparathyroidism and hypovitaminosis-A has been never described in related research literature. This is, therefore, in all likelihood a new metabolic disorder facing young cattle. Blood and urine biochemical assays are important tools for the detection of this pathological entity in calves. A dosage of parathyroid hormone (PTH) by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA) method using a kit suitable for cattle can be used to detect hyperparathyroidism. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular evidence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Belgium
Nahayo, Adrien; Bardiau, Marjorie ULg; Volpe, Rosario ULg et al

in BMC Veterinary Research (2014), 10(80),

Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a tick-borne pathogen of veterinary and human importance. Both ticks as vectors and vertebrates as reservoir hosts are essential for the cycle maintenance of this bacterium ... [more ▼]

Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a tick-borne pathogen of veterinary and human importance. Both ticks as vectors and vertebrates as reservoir hosts are essential for the cycle maintenance of this bacterium. Currently, the whole range of animal species reservoirs for A. phagocytophilum in natural environment is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of infection with A. phagocytophilum in the wild boar population in southern Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreasing meltwater discharge from the Nuuk region of the Greenland ice sheet and implications for mass balance (1960-2012)
Van As, D; Andersen, ML; Petersen, D et al

in Journal of Glaciology (2014), 60(220), 314-322

We assess the runoff and surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland ice sheet in the Nuuk region (southwest) using output of two regional climate models (RCMs) evaluated by observations. The region ... [more ▼]

We assess the runoff and surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland ice sheet in the Nuuk region (southwest) using output of two regional climate models (RCMs) evaluated by observations. The region encompasses six glaciers that drain into Godtha ̊bsfjord. RCM data (1960–2012) are resampled to a high spatial resolution to include the narrow (relative to the native grid spacing) glacier trunks in the ice mask. Comparing RCM gridded results with automatic weather station (AWS) point measurements reveals that locally models can underestimate ablation and overestimate accumulation by up to tens of per cent. However, comparison with lake discharge indicates that modelled regional runoff totals are more accurate. Model results show that melt and runoff in the Nuuk region have doubled over the past two decades. Regional SMB attained negative values in recent high-melt years. Taking into account frontal ablation of the marine-terminating glaciers, the region lost 10–20 km3 w.e. a–1 in 2010–12. If 2010 melting prevails during the remainder of this century, a low-end estimate of sea-level rise of 5 mm is expected by 2100 from this relatively small section (2.6%) of the ice sheet alone. [less ▲]

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See detailDo Consumers Pay More for What They Value More? The Case of Local Milk-based Dairy Products in Senegal
Lefevre, Mélanie ULg

in Agricultural and Resource Economics Review (2014), 43(1), 158-177

Senegalese consumers prefer milk-based dairy products that are local and fresh to ones produced with imported powder. However, prices for fresh-milk-based and powder-based products are not significantly ... [more ▼]

Senegalese consumers prefer milk-based dairy products that are local and fresh to ones produced with imported powder. However, prices for fresh-milk-based and powder-based products are not significantly different. I address this puzzle by first confirming the preference using choice-based conjoint data to evaluate whether Senegalese consumers will pay a significant positive premium for fresh local products. I then identify price determinants using a unique dataset of milk product characteristics. The results verify the Senegalese preference for fresh local dairy products and show that consumers’ misinformation regarding product composition prevents them from allocating a higher price to local milk-based products. [less ▲]

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See detailSelective breeding of Arabian and Thoroughbred racehorses in Algeria: perceptions, objectives and practices of owners-breeders
Tennah, Safia ULg; Farnir, Frédéric ULg; Kafidi, Nacerredine et al

in Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia (2014), 43(4), 188-196

This survey, conducted with 461 racehorse owners-breeders in Algeria between 2009 and 2011, investigates their perceptions, objectives and practices regarding selective breeding. Racehorse breeding is a ... [more ▼]

This survey, conducted with 461 racehorse owners-breeders in Algeria between 2009 and 2011, investigates their perceptions, objectives and practices regarding selective breeding. Racehorse breeding is a full-time professional activity for a third of interviewees. The holdings are small-sized with 77% owning one or two mares. The regular practice of mating is here used to categorize breeders according to their degree of professionalization (38.4% professional vs. 61.6% occasional breeders). Experience in the sector was also used to classify breeders, considering as “junior” the breeders under 10 years experience (38.8%) and as “senior” those above 10 years (61.2%). More than professionalization, experience shows a significant impact on practices and objectives. Thus, experience influences breed choice (junior breeders tend to specialize while senior own both Arabian and Thoroughbreds), age at first foaling (sooner among senior breeders), information sources considered for selecting stallions (senior use more diversified sources), the importance granted to the price of mating (greater for junior breeders), the importance granted to the ranking compared to earnings (the ranking being more important to junior breeders), and the priority given to breeding (junior breeders give higher priority to a buy-race-resell activity). Finally, racehorse breeding is poorly professionalized, the only financial goal being cost coverage. Despite inappropriate practices, an interest for selection is noticed. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization of Biomass-Fuelled Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CCHP) Systems Integrated with Subcritical or Transcritical Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs)
Maraver, Daniel; Quoilin, Sylvain ULg; Royo, Javier

in Entropy (2014), 16(5), 2433-2453

This work is focused on the thermodynamic optimization of Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs), coupled with absorption or adsorption cooling units, for combined cooling heating and power (CCHP) generation from ... [more ▼]

This work is focused on the thermodynamic optimization of Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs), coupled with absorption or adsorption cooling units, for combined cooling heating and power (CCHP) generation from biomass combustion. Results were obtained by modelling with the main aim of providing optimization guidelines for the operating conditions of these types of systems, specifically the subcritical or transcritical ORC, when integrated in a CCHP system to supply typical heating and cooling demands in the tertiary sector. The thermodynamic approach was complemented, to avoid its possible limitations, by the technological constraints of the expander, the heat exchangers and the pump of the ORC. The working fluids considered are: n-pentane, n-heptane, octamethyltrisiloxane, toluene and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane. In addition, the energy and environmental performance of the different optimal CCHP plants was investigated. The optimal plant from the energy and environmental point of view is the one integrated by a toluene recuperative ORC, although it is limited to a development with a turbine type expander. Also, the trigeneration plant could be developed in an energy and environmental efficient way with an n-pentane recuperative ORC and a volumetric type expander. [less ▲]

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See detailTime variations of O2(a1Delta) nightglow spots on the Venus nightside and dynamics of the upper mesosphere
Soret, Lauriane ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Piccioni, Giuseppe et al

in Icarus (2014), 237

The dynamical regime of the Venus upper atmosphere is mainly decomposed into three regions. The first one, located below 65 km of altitude is governed by the retrograde superrotational zonal (RSZ ... [more ▼]

The dynamical regime of the Venus upper atmosphere is mainly decomposed into three regions. The first one, located below 65 km of altitude is governed by the retrograde superrotational zonal (RSZ) circulation. The second region above 130 km is dominated by the subsolar to antisolar (SS–AS) circulation. The dynamics of the transition region in between are still not fully understood. However, the O2(a1D) nightglow emission at 1.27 lm, whose emitting layer is located at 96 km, can be used as a tracer of the dynamics in this transition region and the imaging spectrometer VIRTIS-M on board Venus Express, orbiting Venus since April 2006, acquired a large amount of nadir observations at this wavelength. Several previous studies showed that the O2(a1D) nightglow emission is statistically located near the antisolar point. In this study, individual VIRTIS-M nadir observations have been analyzed to investigate the variability of the phenomenon. Bright patches of 1.27 lm airglow have been extracted from every observation. It appears that the location of the bright patch is highly variable, even though the brightest patches occur near the antisolar point. Nadir observations have also been divided into time series, allowing generating animations to follow the intensity and the displacement of bright patches over time. Apparent wind velocities and characteristic decay/rise times and have been deduced from these time series. The speed of the displacements varies from 0 up to 213 m s 1, with a mean value of 54 m s 1. Owing to the high variability of the direction of the displacements both in the short and the long terms, no clear trend of a global motion at 96 km can be deduced from these observations. The mean decay time is 750 min while the mean rise time is 1550 min. The decay time can be explained as a combination of radiative decay and atomic oxygen transport. [less ▲]

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See detailEnonciation journalistique et espace public. Une hégémonie pleine de voix ?
Servais, Christine ULg

in Communication (2014), 32(2),

L’auteure examine la manière dont l’espace public est non seulement traversé, mais également divisé et structuré par l’énonciation journalistique. En concevant l’acte d’énonciation comme inachevé, au sens ... [more ▼]

L’auteure examine la manière dont l’espace public est non seulement traversé, mais également divisé et structuré par l’énonciation journalistique. En concevant l’acte d’énonciation comme inachevé, au sens où il ne peut être rapporté à un sujet singulier, elle dirige l’analyse vers la question de la responsabilité et, à partir de là, vers une étude de la réception. L’analyse de trois formes de division à l’œuvre dans l’énonciation médiatique permet de considérer sa complexité dans son rapport à un « nous », présent ou à venir, et par conséquent à une communauté politique. [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnostic precision of PET imaging and functional MRI in disorders of consciousness: a clinical validation study
Stender, Johan; Gosseries, Olivia ULg; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie ULg et al

in Lancet Neurology (2014)

Background: Bedside clinical examinations can have high rates of misdiagnosis of unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (vegetative state) or minimally conscious state. The diagnostic and prognostic usefulness ... [more ▼]

Background: Bedside clinical examinations can have high rates of misdiagnosis of unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (vegetative state) or minimally conscious state. The diagnostic and prognostic usefulness of neuroimaging-based approaches has not been established in a clinical setting. We did a validation study of two neuroimaging-based diagnostic methods: PET imaging and functional MRI (fMRI). Methods: For this clinical validation study, we included patients referred to the University Hospital of Liège, Belgium, between January, 2008, and June, 2012, who were diagnosed by our unit with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, locked-in syndrome, or minimally conscious state with traumatic or non-traumatic causes. We did repeated standardised clinical assessments with the Coma Recovery Scale—Revised (CRS—R), cerebral 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET, and fMRI during mental activation tasks. We calculated the diagnostic accuracy of both imaging methods with CRS—R diagnosis as reference. We assessed outcome after 12 months with the Glasgow Outcome Scale—Extended. Findings: We included 41 patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, four with locked-in syndrome, and 81 in a minimally conscious state (48=traumatic, 78=non-traumatic; 110=chronic, 16=subacute). 18F-FDG PET had high sensitivity for identification of patients in a minimally conscious state (93%, 95% CI 85—98) and high congruence (85%, 77—90) with behavioural CRS—R scores. The active fMRI method was less sensitive at diagnosis of a minimally conscious state (45%, 30—61) and had lower overall congruence with behavioural scores (63%, 51—73) than PET imaging. 18F-FDG PET correctly predicted outcome in 75 of 102 patients (74%, 64—81), and fMRI in 36 of 65 patients (56%, 43—67). 13 of 42 (32%) of the behaviourally unresponsive patients (ie, diagnosed as unresponsive with CRS—R) showed brain activity compatible with (minimal) consciousness (ie, activity associated with consciousness, but diminished compared with fully conscious individuals) on at least one neuroimaging test; 69% of these (9 of 13) patients subsequently recovered consciousness. Interpretation: Cerebral 18F-FDG PET could be used to complement bedside examinations and predict long-term recovery of patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome. Active fMRI might also be useful for differential diagnosis, but seems to be less accurate. Funding: The Belgian National Funds for Scientific Research (FNRS), Fonds Léon Fredericq, the European Commission, the James McDonnell Foundation, the Mind Science Foundation, the French Speaking Community Concerted Research Action, the University of Copenhagen, and the University of Liège. [less ▲]

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See detailLa Cour constitutionnelle fait sienne la jurisprudence Zolotoukhine et Ruotsalainen
Kéfer, Fabienne ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2014), (14), 679-683

Si un employeur ou un assuré social a d’abord été poursuivi pénalement, et condamné ou acquitté par un jugement définitif, l’administration devra renoncer à infliger la sanction administrative. Si celle ... [more ▼]

Si un employeur ou un assuré social a d’abord été poursuivi pénalement, et condamné ou acquitté par un jugement définitif, l’administration devra renoncer à infliger la sanction administrative. Si celle-ci est appliquée avant que le juge pénal statue, il se peut que la décision administrative ne soit pas définitive ; en ce cas, le juge pénal reste libre de prononcer une condamnation pénale, ce qui tiendra en échec la sanction administrative. En revanche, si celle-ci a déjà fait l’objet d’une contestation tranchée de manière définitive par un tribunal, ou si, le cas échéant, l’employeur n’a pas formé dans le délai légal une opposition à la contrainte décernée par l’administration, la décision judiciaire ou administrative est une décision définitive au sens de l’article 4 du Protocole n° 7 ; dans ce cas, une condamnation pénale violerait le principe non bis in idem. [less ▲]

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See detailLate Night, la danse de la déperdition
Delhalle, Nancy ULg

in Alternatives Théâtrales (2014), (120),

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See detailImpact of metallurgical size effects on plasticity of thin mettallic materials
Hug, Eric; keller, clement; Habraken, Anne ULg

in Materials Science Forum (2014), 783-786

Three examples involving size effects are presented witj implications concerning the formability: small Ni-20wt.%Cr resistive bridges, magnetic micro-sensors performed with (Ni,Co,Fe)based alloys and ... [more ▼]

Three examples involving size effects are presented witj implications concerning the formability: small Ni-20wt.%Cr resistive bridges, magnetic micro-sensors performed with (Ni,Co,Fe)based alloys and copper clad aluminum thin wires. The mechanical properties are directly linked to the ratio thickness over grain size (t/d ratio) of the parts.These metallurgical considerations must be taken into account when we are concerned by numerical simulation of the process of such components. It is shown that the simulations can correctly reproduce the softening effect linked to a decrease in thickness and in number of grains across the thickness. Finally the effect of a moderate increase in temperature on these results will be briefly reported. [less ▲]

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See detailAnimal health and welfare: equivalent or complementary?
Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Vandenheede, Marc ULg

in Revue scientifique et technique - Office international des épizooties (2014), 33(1), 91-96

Reflexion about the concepts of "health" and "welfare", applied to domestic animals in comparison with humans.

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See detailComparison of vocal loading parameters in kindergarten and elementary school teachers
Remacle, Angélique ULg; Morsomme, Dominique ULg; FINCK, Camille ULg

in Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing research (2014), (406-415),

Purpose: Although a global picture exists of teachers’ voice demands in general, few studies have compared specific groups of teachers to determine whether some are more at risk than others. This study ... [more ▼]

Purpose: Although a global picture exists of teachers’ voice demands in general, few studies have compared specific groups of teachers to determine whether some are more at risk than others. This study compared vocal loading of kindergarten and elementary school teachers; professional and non-professional vocal load was determined for both groups. Method: Twelve kindergarten and twenty elementary school female teachers without voice problems were monitored during one workweek using the Ambulatory Phonation Monitor. Vocal loading parameters analyzed were F0, SPL, time dose, distance dose and cycle dose. Results: Comparisons between the groups showed significantly higher cycle dose and distance dose for kindergarten teachers than for elementary school teachers, in both professional and non-professional environments. Professional and non-professional voice use comparisons showed significant differences for all parameters, indicating that vocal load was higher in the professional environment for both groups. Conclusions: The higher vocal doses measured in kindergarten teachers suggest that particular attention should be paid to this specific group of teachers. Although non-professional vocal load is lower than professional vocal load, it is important to take both into account because of their cumulative effects. [less ▲]

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See detailA computational model for cell/ECM growth on 3D surfaces using the level set method: a bone tissue engineering case study
Guyot, Yann ULg; papantoniou, Ioannis; Chai, Yoke Chin et al

in Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology (2014)

Three dimensional (3D) open porous scaffolds are commonly used in tissue engineering (TE) applications to provide an initial template for cell attachment and subsequent cell growth and construct ... [more ▼]

Three dimensional (3D) open porous scaffolds are commonly used in tissue engineering (TE) applications to provide an initial template for cell attachment and subsequent cell growth and construct development. The macroscopic geometry of the scaffold is key in determining the kinetics of cell growth and thus in vitro ‘tissue’ formation. In this study we developed a computational framework based on the level set methodology to predict curvature-dependent growth of the cell/extracellular matrix domain within TE constructs. Scaffolds with various geometries (hexagonal, square, triangular) and pore sizes (500 and 1000 µm) were produced in house by additive manufacturing, seeded with human periosteum-derived cells and cultured under static conditions for 14 days. Using the projected tissue area as an output measure, the comparison between the experimental and the numerical results demonstrated a good qualitative and quantitative behavior of the framework. The model in its current form is able to provide important spatio-temporal information on final shape and speed of pore-filling of tissue engineered constructs by cells and extracellular matrix during static culture. [less ▲]

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See detailLatitudinal structure of the Venus O2 infrared airglow: A signature of small-scale dynamical processes in the upper atmosphere
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Soret, Lauriane ULg; Piccioni, Giuseppe et al

in Icarus (2014), 236

Images of the nightside limb of Venus have been obtained in the northern hemisphere with the VIRTIS multispectral infrared imager on board Venus Express between April 2006 and October 2008. We analyze the ... [more ▼]

Images of the nightside limb of Venus have been obtained in the northern hemisphere with the VIRTIS multispectral infrared imager on board Venus Express between April 2006 and October 2008. We analyze the latitudinal distribution of the O2(a1D) airglow limb profiles at 1.27 lm to characterize its distribution and variability. We show that the instantaneous structure of the emission is very different from the statistical global view of an enhanced emission near the equator, decreasing in brightness and slightly increasing in altitude toward the poles. The peak intensity of the limb profiles varies by a factor up to 50 between the brightest spots and the darkest regions. The bright airglow spots correspond to regions of enhanced downward flow of oxygen atoms originating from the dayside. Considerable variations in brightness and morphology are observed in the altitude–latitudinal distribution over a 24-h period. Analysis of the limb profiles indicates that secondary airglow peaks located at altitudes higher than the mean value of 96 km are observed on about 30% of the latitudinal cuts, but they are concentrated in narrow latitude areas extending over a few hundred kilometers. Most of them occur in transition regions between two altitude regimes in the 50 to 60 N region, possibly associated with the drop of the cloud top altitude observed equatorward of the ‘‘cold collar’’. We interpret these results as an indication that the strength of vertical transport in this mesosphere–thermosphere transition region is very variable both in location and time. This variability, also observed in nadir airglow images and wind measurements, is a key characteristic of the mesosphere–thermosphere transition region. It may be caused by fluctuations of the global day-to-night circulation generated by gravity waves. We show with a one dimensional model that local enhancements of eddy transport is a possibility. This variability is currently not accounted for by global circulation models that predict a single stable region of enhanced airglow in the vicinity of the antisolar point. [less ▲]

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See detailEnjeux autour des forêts congolaises
Vermeulen, Cédric ULg

in Cahiers africains (2014), 84

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See detailBrown rust disease control in winter wheat: I. Exploring an approach for disease progression based on night weather conditions
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg

in Environmental Science & Pollution Research (2014), 21(4), 4797-4808

An empirical approach for simulating the infection and progress of leaf rust (caused by Puccinia triticina) during stem elongation on winter wheat was analysed for the 2000 to 2006 growing seasons. The ... [more ▼]

An empirical approach for simulating the infection and progress of leaf rust (caused by Puccinia triticina) during stem elongation on winter wheat was analysed for the 2000 to 2006 growing seasons. The approach was elaborated based on night weather conditions (i.e., air temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) and leaf rust occurrences. Data from three consecutive cropping seasons (2000-2002) at four representative sites of the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg were used in the set-up phase. The capability to correctly simulate the occurrence expression of P. triticina infections on the upper leaf layers was then assessed over the 2003-2006 period. Our study revealed that the development of leaf rust required a period of at least 12 consecutive hours with air temperatures ranging between 8 and 16 °C, a relative humidity greater than 60 % (optimal values being 12-16 °C and up to 80 % for air temperatures and relative humidity, respectively) and rainfall less than 1 mm. Moreover, leaf rust occurrences and infections were satisfactorily simulated. The false alarm ratio was ranged from 0.06 to 0.20 in all the study sites. The probability of detection and critical success index for WLR infection were also close to 1 (perfect score). [less ▲]

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See detailTreatment of aortic stenosis with a self-expanding transcatheter valve: the International Multi-centre ADVANCE Study
Linke, Axel; Wenaweser, Peter; Gerckens, Ulrich et al

in European Heart Journal (2014)

Aim Transcatheter aortic valve implantation has become an alternative to surgery in higher risk patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis. The aim of the ADVANCE study was to evaluate outcomes following ... [more ▼]

Aim Transcatheter aortic valve implantation has become an alternative to surgery in higher risk patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis. The aim of the ADVANCE study was to evaluate outcomes following implantation of a self-expanding transcatheter aortic valve system in a fully monitored, multi-centre ‘real-world’ patient population in highly experienced centres. Methods and results Patients with severe aortic stenosis at a higher surgical risk inwhomimplantation of theCoreValve Systemwas decided by the Heart Teamwere included. Endpointswere a composite of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE; all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, or reintervention) and mortality at 30 days and 1 year. Endpoint- related eventswere independently adjudicated based on Valve AcademicResearch Consortiumdefinitions.Atotal of 1015 patients [mean logistic EuroSCORE 19.4+12.3% [median (Q1,Q3), 16.0% (10.3, 25.3%)], age 81+6 years] were enrolled. Implantation of the CoreValve System led to a significant improvement in haemodynamics and an increase in the effective aortic valve orifice area. At 30 days, theMACCErate was 8.0% (95% CI: 6.3–9.7%), all-cause mortalitywas 4.5% (3.2–5.8%), cardiovascular mortality was 3.4% (2.3–4.6%), and the rate of stroke was 3.0% (2.0–4.1%). The lifethreatening or disabling bleeding rate was 4.0% (2.8–6.3%). The 12-month rates of MACCE, all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and stroke were 21.2% (18.4–24.1%), 17.9% (15.2–20.5%), 11.7% (9.4–14.1%), and 4.5% (2.9–6.1%), respectively. The 12-month rates of all-cause mortality were 11.1, 16.5, and 23.6% among patients with a logistic Euro- SCORE ≤10%, EuroSCORE 10–20%, and EuroSCORE .20% (P , 0.05), respectively. Conclusion The ADVANCE study demonstrates the safety and effectiveness of the CoreValve System with low mortality and stroke rates in higher risk real-world patients with severe aortic stenosis. [less ▲]

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See detailGeometrical guidance and trapping transition of human sperm cells
Guidobaldi, Alejandro; Jeyaram, Yogesh; Berdakin, Ivan et al

in Physical Review. E : Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics (2014), 89

The guidance of human sperm cells under con finement in quasi 2D microchambers is investigated using a purely physical method to control their distribution. Transport property measurements and simulations ... [more ▼]

The guidance of human sperm cells under con finement in quasi 2D microchambers is investigated using a purely physical method to control their distribution. Transport property measurements and simulations are performed with diluted sperm populations, for which eff ects of geometrical guidance and concentration are studied in detail. In particular, a trapping transition at convex angular wall features is identi ed and analyzed. We also show that highly efficient microratchets can be fabricated by using curved asymmetric obstacles to take advantage of the spermatozoa specifi c swimming strategy. [less ▲]

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See detailSimulation of spatial and temporal trends in nitrate concentrations at the regional scale in the Upper Dyle basin, Belgium
César, Emilie; Wildemeersch, Samuel ULg; Orban, Philippe ULg et al

in Hydrogeology Journal (2014), 22

Models are the only tools capable of predicting the evolution of groundwater systems at a regional scale in taking into account a large amount of information. This study presents the association of a ... [more ▼]

Models are the only tools capable of predicting the evolution of groundwater systems at a regional scale in taking into account a large amount of information. This study presents the association of a water balance model (WetSpass) with a groundwater flow and solute transport model (SUFT3D, « Saturated and Unsaturated Flow and Transport in 3D ») in order to simulate the present and future groundwater quality in terms of nitrate in the Upper Dyle basin (439 km², Belgium). The HFEMC (« Hybrid Finite Element Mixing Cell ») method implemented in the SUFT3D code is used to model groundwater flow and nitrate transport. A spatially-distributed recharge modelled with WetSpass is considered for prescribing the recharge to the groundwater flow model. The feasibility of linking WetSpass model with the finite-elements SUFT3D code is demonstrated. Time evolution and distribution of nitrate concentration are then simulated using the calibrated model. Nitrate inputs are spatially-distributed according to land use. The spatial simulations and temporal trends are compared with previously published data on this aquifer and show good results. [less ▲]

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See detailAdding Value to Agricultural Products and Agrifood Byproducts by Highlighting Functional Ingredients
Besbes, Souhail; Besbes, Souhail; Attia, Hamadi et al

in Journal of Chemistry (2014), 2014(848231), 1-2

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See detailNIMEFI: Gene Regulatory Network Inference using Multiple Ensemble Feature Importance Algorithms
Ruyssinck, Joeri; Huynh-Thu, Vân Anh ULg; Geurts, Pierre ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2014)

One of the long-standing open challenges in computational systems biology is the topology inference of gene regulatory networks from high-throughput omics data. Recently, two community-wide efforts ... [more ▼]

One of the long-standing open challenges in computational systems biology is the topology inference of gene regulatory networks from high-throughput omics data. Recently, two community-wide efforts, DREAM4 and DREAM5, have been established to benchmark network inference techniques using gene expression measurements. In these challenges the overall top performer was the GENIE3 algorithm. This method decomposes the network inference task into separate regression problems for each gene in the network in which the expression values of a particular target gene are predicted using all other genes as possible predictors. Next, using tree-based ensemble methods, an importance measure for each predictor gene is calculated with respect to the target gene and a high feature importance is considered as putative evidence of a regulatory link existing between both genes. The contribution of this work is twofold. First, we generalize the regression decomposition strategy of GENIE3 to other feature importance methods. We compare the performance of support vector regression, the elastic net, random forest regression, symbolic regression and their ensemble variants in this setting to the original GENIE3 algorithm. To create the ensemble variants, we propose a subsampling approach which allows us to cast any feature selection algorithm that produces a feature ranking into an ensemble feature importance algorithm. We demonstrate that the ensemble setting is key to the network inference task, as only ensemble variants achieve top performance. As second contribution, we explore the effect of using rankwise averaged predictions of multiple ensemble algorithms as opposed to only one. We name this approach NIMEFI (Network Inference using Multiple Ensemble Feature Importance algorithms) and show that this approach outperforms all individual methods in general, although on a specific network a single method can perform better. An implementation of NIMEFI has been made publicly available. [less ▲]

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See detailSur quelles connaissances se baser pour évaluer l’état de santé des populations de truite commune (Salmo trutta)?
Gouraud, Véronique; Baran, Philippe; Bardonnet, Agnès et al

in Hydroécologie appliquée (2014)

Le retour au premier plan de la notion de santé des écosystèmes met en évidence la préoccupation de la société à mettre en oeuvre des mesures pour la protection des milieux anthropisés. Les critères ... [more ▼]

Le retour au premier plan de la notion de santé des écosystèmes met en évidence la préoccupation de la société à mettre en oeuvre des mesures pour la protection des milieux anthropisés. Les critères d’évaluation de la santé des peuplements piscicoles mis en oeuvre sont rarement débattus au sein de la communauté scientifique. L’exercice proposé ici devait permettre d’avoir ce débat sur la truite commune (Salmo trutta), espèce phare des cours d’eau situés en tête de bassin, qui représentent la majorité du réseau hydrographique français. La démarche visait à recueillir la conception qu’avait un nombre restreint d’experts, sur le fonctionnement de ces populations et sur les critères d’évaluation de leur fonctionnement. Les paramètres clé régulant chaque stade de développement ont été identifiés et hiérarchisés. Unconsensus s’est dégagé sur le fait que, dans l’état actuel des connaissances, le diagnostic peut être établi sur la base de l’analyse des paramètres abiotiques essentiels pour la biologie et, plus difficilement, sur l’analyse des paramètres biotiques. Pour tous les stades de développement, les paramètres identifiés sont liés à l’habitat (qualité du substrat, conditions hydrauliques, température et qualité de l’eau), l’hydrologie et la connectivité. Des connaissances demandent d’être acquises pour définir des critères biologiques. Cela implique de renforcer la surveillance biologique à long terme et les actions de recherche pour caractériser la variabilité des paramètres biologiques et identifier les échelles spatio-temporelles pertinentes et les processus fonctionnels. [less ▲]

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See detailWhy do heroin users refuse to participate in a heroin-assisted treatment trial?
Demaret, Isabelle ULg; Litran, Géraldine; Magoga, Cécile et al

in Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems (2014), Epub ahead of print, March 22, 2014

Background: Heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) can improve the condition of heroin addicts who are resistant to other treatments. However, in a new HAT trial in Belgium, fewer subjects than expected were ... [more ▼]

Background: Heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) can improve the condition of heroin addicts who are resistant to other treatments. However, in a new HAT trial in Belgium, fewer subjects than expected were included. Aim: Our research team explored the reasons given by heroin users in explaining why they did not want to participate. Methods: In 2011, during the trial recruitment, we interviewed heroin users (n=52) who never took the opportunity to meet the research team during the recruitment process preceding the trial. Results: Of those 52 heroin users, 25 were afraid of the limited length of the HAT and 11 feared becoming more dependent as a result of HAT. Conclusion: A trial that was planned to last for a limited length of time may have demotivated heroin users who could otherwise have benefited from this new programme. [less ▲]

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See detailApport du traitement d'images dans le suivi de l'influence des teneurs en nutriments sur la croissance des lentilles d'eau (Lemna minor)
Tangou Tabou, Thierry ULg; Baya, Dehenould Trésor; Liady, Mouhamadou Nourou Dine ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(1), 37-48

The growth of duckweed (Lemna minor) is an important component in the process in wasterwater floating macrophyte ponds. An excess or shortage of this biomass may be responsible for the dysfunction of such ... [more ▼]

The growth of duckweed (Lemna minor) is an important component in the process in wasterwater floating macrophyte ponds. An excess or shortage of this biomass may be responsible for the dysfunction of such ponds. Modeling these duckweed ponds through mass balances based on Petersen's matrix may be helpful in facilitating the optimal management of such facilities. This study sought at assessing the efficiency of digital image processing in the growth monitoring of Lemna minor under different concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus. The experiments were carried out in a growth chamber (phytotron) using an experimental pilot involving initial fresh Lemna minor biomass (1 g), nitrogen and phosphorus concentration varying between 5 and 64 mg N-NH4+.L-1, and 1 and 24 mg P-PO43-.L-1, respectively. The digital image processing was achieved in addition to gravimetric methods (fresh weight and/or dry weight). Our results showed that image processing method allowed a continuous and non destructive monitoring of duckweeds biomass. The growth of Lemna minor progressively decreases when nitrogen and phosphorus were greater than 16 mg N-NH4+.L-1 and 6 mg P-PO43-.L-1. The maximum growth rate μmax are of the order of 0.07 d-1, the kinetic constants Ks and Ki are respectively 3.83 mg.L-1 and 204 mg L-1 for nitrogen, 1.26 mg.L-1 and 13.3 mg.L-1 for phosphorus. Such results are interesting as they could serve in the optimal management of Lemna minor and the modeling of biological reactors. [less ▲]

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See detailCFD-based Compartment model for description of mixing in bioreactors
Delafosse, Angélique ULg; Calvo, Sébastien ULg; Collignon, Marie-Laure ULg et al

in Chemical Engineering Science (2014), 106

In most bioprocesses, it is fundamental to accurately predict the hydrodynamics behavior of bioreactors of different size and its interaction with the biological reaction. Computational Fluid Dynamics can ... [more ▼]

In most bioprocesses, it is fundamental to accurately predict the hydrodynamics behavior of bioreactors of different size and its interaction with the biological reaction. Computational Fluid Dynamics can provide detailed modeling about hydrodynamics and mixing. However, it is computationally intensive, especially when reactions are taken into account. Another way to predict hydrodynamics is the use of “Compartment” or “Network-of-zones” model which are much less demanding in computation time than CFD. However, compartments and fluxes between them are often defined by considering global quantities not representative of the flow complexity. To overcome the limitations of these two methods, a solution is to combine compartment modeling and CFD simulations. The aim of this study is to propose a compartment model where the flow rates between two adjacent compartments are easily computed from the velocity fields obtained by CFD. The mixing evolution predicted by the CFD-based compartment model have been then compared with mixing experiment results. Unlike a CFD mixing simulation and a classical compartment model, the CFD-based compartment model proposed in this work reproduces with a good accuracy the spatial distribution of concentrations during the mixing process and this, without any adjustable parameters. [less ▲]

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See detailSystematic optimization of subcritical and transcritical organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) constrained by technical parameters in multiple applications
Maraver, Daniel; Royo, Javier; Lemort, Vincent ULg et al

in Applied Energy (2014), 117

The present work is focused on the thermodynamic optimization of organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) for power generation and CHP from different average heat source profiles (waste heat recovery, thermal oil ... [more ▼]

The present work is focused on the thermodynamic optimization of organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) for power generation and CHP from different average heat source profiles (waste heat recovery, thermal oil for cogeneration and geothermal). The general goal is to provide optimization guidelines for a wide range of operating conditions, for subcritical and transcritical, regenerative and non-regenerative cycles. A parameter assessment of the main equipment in the cycle (expander, heat exchangers and feed pump) was also carried out. An optimization model of the ORC (available as an electronic annex) is proposed to predict the best cycle performance (subcritical or transcritical), in terms of its exergy efficiency, with different working fluids. The working fluids considered are those most commonly used in commercial ORC units (R134a, R245fa, Solkatherm, n-Pentane, Octamethyltrisiloxane and Toluene). The optimal working fluid and operating conditions from a purely thermodynamic approach are limited by the technological constraints of the expander, the heat exchangers and the feed pump. Hence, a complementary assessment of both approaches is more adequate to obtain some preliminary design guidelines for ORC units. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of the magnetic penetration depth in a superconducting Pb film
Brisbois, Jérémy ULg; Raes, Bart; Van de Vondel, Joris et al

in Journal of Applied Physics (2014), 115(10), 103906

By means of scanning Hall probe microscopy technique we accurately map the magnetic field pattern produced by Meissner screening currents in a thin superconducting Pb stripe. The obtained field profile ... [more ▼]

By means of scanning Hall probe microscopy technique we accurately map the magnetic field pattern produced by Meissner screening currents in a thin superconducting Pb stripe. The obtained field profile allows us to quantitatively estimate the Pearl length Λ without the need of pre-calibrating the Hall sensor. This fact contrasts with the information acquired through the spatial field dependence of an individual flux quantum where the scanning height and the magnetic penetration depth combine in a single inseparable parameter. The derived London penetration depth λL coincides with the values previously reported for bulk Pb once the kinetic suppression of the order parameter is properly taken into account. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of a quantitative approach using surface-enhanced Raman chemical imaging: First step for the determination of an impurity in a pharmaceutical model
De Bleye, Charlotte ULg; Sacre, Pierre-Yves ULg; Dumont, Elodie ULg et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2014), 90

This publication reports, for the first time, the development of a quantitative approach using surface-enhanced Raman chemical imaging (SER-CI). A pharmaceutical model presented as tablets based on ... [more ▼]

This publication reports, for the first time, the development of a quantitative approach using surface-enhanced Raman chemical imaging (SER-CI). A pharmaceutical model presented as tablets based on paracetamol, which is the most sold drug around the world, was used to develop this approach. 4-Aminophenol is the main impurity of paracetamol and is actively researched in pharmaceutical formulations because of its toxicity. As its concentration is generally very low (<0.1%, w/w), conventional Raman chemical imaging cannot be used. In this context, a SER-CI method was developed to quantify 4-aminophenol assessing a limit of quantification below its limit of specification of 1000 ppm. Citrate-reduced silver nanoparticles were used as SERS substrate and these nanoparticles were functionalized using 1-butanethiol. Different ways to cover the tablets surface by butanethiol-functionalized silver nanoparticles were tested and a homogeneity study of the silver nanoparticles covering was realized. This homogeneity study was performed in order to choose the best way to cover the surface of tablets by silver colloid. Afterwards, the optimization of the SER-CI approach was necessary and different spectral intensity normalizations were tested. Finally, a quantitative approach using SER-CI was developed enabling to quantify 4-aminophenol from 0.025% to 0.2% in paracetamol tablets. This quantitative approach was tested on two different series of tablets using different batches of silver nanoparticles. [less ▲]

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See detailSmall impact of surrounding oceanic conditions on 2007–2012 Greenland Ice Sheet surface mass balance
Noel, Brice; Fettweis, Xavier ULg; van de Berg, W.J. et al

in Cryosphere Discussions (The) (2014), 8

During recent summers (2007–2012), several surface melt records were broken over the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). The extreme summer melt resulted in part from a persistent negative phase of the North ... [more ▼]

During recent summers (2007–2012), several surface melt records were broken over the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). The extreme summer melt resulted in part from a persistent negative phase of the North-Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), favouring warmer than normal conditions over the GrIS. In addition, it has been suggested that significant anomalies in sea ice cover (SIC) and sea surface temperature (SST) may partially explain recent anomalous GrIS surface melt. To assess the impact of 2007–2012 SIC and SST anomalies on GrIS surface mass balance (SMB), a set of sensitivity experiments was carried out with the regional climate model MAR. These simulations suggest that changes in SST and SIC in the seas surrounding Greenland do not significantly impact GrIS SMB, due to the katabatic winds blocking effect. These winds are strong enough to prevent oceanic near-surface air, influenced by SIC and SST variability, from penetrating far inland. Therefore, the ice sheet SMB response is restricted to coastal regions, where katabatic winds are weaker. However, anomalies in SIC and SST could have indirectly affected the surface melt by changing the general circulation in the North Atlantic region, favouring more frequent warm air advection to the GrIS. [less ▲]

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See detailThe yellow hypergiant HR 5171 A: Resolving a massive interacting binary in the common envelope phase
Chesneau, O.; Meilland, A.; Chapellier, E. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 563

Context. Only a few stars are caught in the very brief and often crucial stages when they quickly traverse the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, and none has yet been spatially resolved in the mass transfer ... [more ▼]

Context. Only a few stars are caught in the very brief and often crucial stages when they quickly traverse the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, and none has yet been spatially resolved in the mass transfer phase. Aims: We initiated long-term optical interferometry monitoring of the diameters of massive and unstable yellow hypergiants (YHG) with the goal of detecting both the long-term evolution of their radius and shorter term formation of a possible pseudo-photosphere related to proposed large mass-loss events. Methods: We observed HR 5171 A with AMBER/VLTI. We also examined archival photometric data in the visual and near-IR spanning more than 60 years, as well as sparse spectroscopic data. Results: HR 5171 Aexhibits a complex appearance. Our AMBER data reveal a surprisingly large star for a YHG R∗ = 1315 ± 260R⊙ (or ~6.1 AU) at the distance of 3.6 ± 0.5 kpc. The source is surrounded by an extended nebulosity, and these data also show a large level of asymmetry in the brightness distribution of the system, which we attribute to a newly discovered companion star located in front of the primary star. The companion's signature is also detected in the visual photometry, which indicates an orbital period of Porb = 1304 ± 6 d. Modeling the light curve with the NIGHTFALL program provides clear evidence that the system is a contact or possibly over-contact eclipsing binary. A total current system mass of 39^+40_-22 M⊙ and a high mass ratio q ≥ 10 is inferred for the system. Conclusions: The low-mass companion of HR 5171 is very close to the primary star that is embedded within its dense wind. Tight constraints on the inclination and vsini of the primary are lacking, which prevents us from determining its influence precisely on the mass-loss phenomenon, but the system is probably experiencing a wind Roche-Lobe overflow. Depending on the amount of angular momentum that can be transferred to the stellar envelope, HR 5171 A may become a fast-rotating B[e]/luminous blue variable/Wolf-Rayet star. In any case, HR 5171 A highlights the possible importance of binaries for interpreting the unstable YHGs and for massive star evolution in general. [less ▲]

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See detailImpacts of earthworms on soil components and dynamics. A review
Lemtiri, Aboulkacem ULg; Colinet, Gilles ULg; Alabi, Taofic ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18

Earthworm populations are important decomposers contributing to aggregate formation and nutrient cycling processes involving nitrogen cycles, phosphorus and carbon. They are known to influence soil ... [more ▼]

Earthworm populations are important decomposers contributing to aggregate formation and nutrient cycling processes involving nitrogen cycles, phosphorus and carbon. They are known to influence soil fertility by participating to important processes in soil such as soil structure regulation and organic matter dynamics. Earthworms also modify the microbial communities through digestion, stimulation and dispersion in casts. Consequently, changes in the activities of earthworm communities, as a result of soil management practices, can also be used as indicators of soil fertility and quality. It is therefore important to understand how earthworm communities affect soil dynamics. This review adresses the current state of knowledge on earthworm’s impacts on soil structure and soil organic matter (carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) dynamics, with special emphasis on the effects of land management practices on earthworm communities. [less ▲]

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See detailClimatological study of ionospheric irregularities over the European mid-latitude sector with GPS
Wautelet, Gilles ULg; Warnant, René ULg

in Journal of Geodesy (2014), 88(3), 223-240

High-frequency variability of the ionosphere, or irregularities, constitutes the main threat for real-time precise positioning techniques based on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) measurements ... [more ▼]

High-frequency variability of the ionosphere, or irregularities, constitutes the main threat for real-time precise positioning techniques based on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) measurements. Indeed, during periods of enhanced ionospheric variability, GNSS users in the field – who cannot verify the integrity of their measurements – will experience positioning errors that can reach several decimeters, while the nominal accuracy of the technique is cm-level. In the frame of this paper, a climatological analysis of irregularities over the European mid-latitude region is presented. Based on a ten year GPS dataset over Belgium, the work analyzes the occurrence rate (as a function of the solar cycle, season and local time) as well as the amplitude of ionospheric irregularities observed at a single GPS station. The study covers irregularities either due to space weather events (solar origin) or of terrestrial origin. If space weather irregularities are responsible for the largest effects in terms of ionospheric error, their occurrence rate highly depends on solar activity. Indeed, the occurrence rate of ionospheric irregularities is about 9% during solar maximum, whereas it drops to about 0% during medium or low solar activity periods. Medium-Scale Ionospheric Disturbances (MSTIDs) occurring during daytime in autumn/winter are the most recurrent pattern of the time series, with yearly proportions slightly varying with the solar cycle and an amplitude of about 10% of the TEC background. Another recurrent irregularity type, though less frequent than MSTIDs, is the noise-like variability in TEC observed during summer nighttime, under quiet geomagnetic conditions. These summer nighttime irregularities exhibit amplitudes ranging between 8 and 15% of the TEC background. [less ▲]

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See detailMais ce "p", que veut-il dire finalement ?
Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Dardenne, Nadia ULg

in Medi-Sphere (2014), 437

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See detailIntroduction : Visions du Paradis/Visions of paradise
Melice, Anne ULg; Van Wolputte, Steven; Pype, Katrien

in Social Compass (2014), 61 (1)

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See detailAn astronomical survey conducted in Belgium
Nazé, Yaël ULg; Fontaine, Sébastien ULg

in Physics Education (2014), 49

This article presents the results of the first survey conducted in Belgium about the interest and knowledge in astronomy. Two samples were studied, the public at large (667 questionnaires) and students ... [more ▼]

This article presents the results of the first survey conducted in Belgium about the interest and knowledge in astronomy. Two samples were studied, the public at large (667 questionnaires) and students (2589 questionnaires), but the results are generally similar in both samples. We evaluated people’s interest, main information source, and attitudes towards astronomy, as well as their supposed and actual knowledge of the subject. The main conclusion is that, despite a poor self-confidence, people do know the basic astronomical concepts. However, that knowledge is not deeply rooted, as reasoning questions show well-spread misconceptions and/or misunderstandings. [less ▲]

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See detailRevue épidémiologique des blessures lors de la pratique du rugby à XV
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Julia, Marc; Chupin, Marie et al

in Journal de Traumatologie du Sport (2014), 31(1), 49-53

Rugby is an increasingly popular sport. Full contact being a major characteristic of rugby, injuries are not uncommon. The incidence of injury in Rugby Union reaches 30–91 per 1,000 hours of game time ... [more ▼]

Rugby is an increasingly popular sport. Full contact being a major characteristic of rugby, injuries are not uncommon. The incidence of injury in Rugby Union reaches 30–91 per 1,000 hours of game time. This epidemiological review of injuries in rugby players reports their localization, nature, causes, moment of occurrence in matches and seasonal trends as well as the influence of the player’s position, field conditions, and duration of off time after injury. [less ▲]

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See detailMode identification based on time-series spectrophotometry for the bright rapid sdB pulsator EC 01541-1409
Randall, Suzanna K; Fontaine, Gilles; Geier, Stephan et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 563

We present an analysis of time-resolved spectrophotometry gathered with FORS/VLT for the rapidly pulsating hot B subdwarf EC 01541-1409 with the aim of identifying the degree index ℓ of the larger ... [more ▼]

We present an analysis of time-resolved spectrophotometry gathered with FORS/VLT for the rapidly pulsating hot B subdwarf EC 01541-1409 with the aim of identifying the degree index ℓ of the larger amplitude modes. This mode identification can be extremely useful in detailed searches for viable asteroseismic models in parameter space, and can be crucial for testing the validity of a solution a posteriori. To achieve it, we exploit the ℓ-dependence of the monochromatic amplitude, phase, and velocity-to-amplitude ratio of a mode as a function of wavelength. We use the ℓ-sensitive phase lag between the flux perturbation and the radial velocity as an additional diagnostic tool. On this basis, we are able to unambiguously identify the dominant 140.5 s pulsation of our target as a radial mode, and the second-highest amplitude periodicity at 145.8 s as an ℓ = 2 mode. We further exploit the exceptionally high-sensitivity data that we gathered for the dominant mode to infer modal properties that are usually quite difficult to estimate in sdB pulsators, namely the physical values of the dimensionless radius, temperature, and surface gravity perturbations. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction : Visions du Paradis/Visions of paradise
Melice, Anne ULg; Van Wolputte, Steven; Pype, Katrien

in Social Compass (2014), 61 (1)

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See detailOptimized look-ahead tree policies: a bridge between look-ahead tree policies and direct policy search
Jung, Tobias ULg; Wehenkel, Louis ULg; Ernst, Damien ULg et al

in International Journal of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing (2014), 28(3-5), 255-289

Direct policy search (DPS) and look-ahead tree (LT) policies are two popular techniques for solving difficult sequential decision-making problems. They both are simple to implement, widely applicable ... [more ▼]

Direct policy search (DPS) and look-ahead tree (LT) policies are two popular techniques for solving difficult sequential decision-making problems. They both are simple to implement, widely applicable without making strong assumptions on the structure of the problem, and capable of producing high performance control policies. However, computationally both of them are, each in their own way, very expensive. DPS can require huge offline resources (effort required to obtain the policy) to first select an appropriate space of parameterized policies that works well for the targeted problem, and then to determine the best values of the parameters via global optimization. LT policies do not require any offline resources; however, they typically require huge online resources (effort required to calculate the best decision at each step) in order to grow trees of sufficient depth. In this paper, we propose optimized look-ahead trees (OLT), a model-based policy learning scheme that lies at the intersection of DPS and LT. In OLT, the control policy is represented indirectly through an algorithm that at each decision step develops, as in LT using a model of the dynamics, a small look-ahead tree until a prespecified online budget is exhausted. Unlike LT, the development of the tree is not driven by a generic heuristic; rather, the heuristic is optimized for the target problem and implemented as a parameterized node scoring function learned offline via DPS. We experimentally compare OLT with pure DPS and pure LT variants on optimal control benchmark domains. The results show that the LT-based representation is a versatile way of compactly representing policies in a DPS scheme (which results in OLT being easier to tune and having lower offline complexity than pure DPS); while at the same time, DPS helps to significantly reduce the size of the look-ahead trees that are required to take high-quality decisions (which results in OLT having lower online complexity than pure LT). Moreover, OLT produces overall better performing policies than pure DPS and pure LT and also results in policies that are robust with respect to perturbations of the initial conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailInterview: Rosalind Hackett reflects on religious media in Africa
Melice, Anne ULg; Hackett, Rosalind; Van Wolputte, Steven et al

in Social Compass (2014), 61 (1)

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See detailL'ÉCHO-DOPPLER TRANSCRÂNIEN DANS LA PRISE EN CHARE DES STÉNOSES ARTÉRIELLES CERVICALES ET INTRACRÂNIENNES
SCHOYSMAN, Laurent ULg; TSHIBANDA, Luaba ULg; OTTO, Bernard ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014), 69

Le progrès technique en imagerie a permis le développement de l’écho-Doppler transcrânien en mode duplex ou triplex. A côté des autres techniques de neuro-imagerie, son intérêt dans la pathologie ... [more ▼]

Le progrès technique en imagerie a permis le développement de l’écho-Doppler transcrânien en mode duplex ou triplex. A côté des autres techniques de neuro-imagerie, son intérêt dans la pathologie vasculaire cérébrale va grandissant. Le présent article a pour but de présenter cette technique en détaillant ses indications actuelles chez les patients présentant des sténoses artérielles cervicales et intra-crâniennes. [less ▲]

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See detailFacultative paedomorphosis and the pattern of intra- and interspecific variation in cranial skeleton: lessons from European newts (Ichthyosaura alpestris and Lissotriton vulgaris)
Ivanović, Ana; Cvijanović, Milena; Denoël, Mathieu ULg et al

in Zoomorphology (2014), 133(1), 99-109

Paedomorphosis, the presence of ancestral larval and juvenile traits that occur at the descendent adult stage, is an evolutionary phenomenon that shaped morphological evolution in many vertebrate lineages ... [more ▼]

Paedomorphosis, the presence of ancestral larval and juvenile traits that occur at the descendent adult stage, is an evolutionary phenomenon that shaped morphological evolution in many vertebrate lineages, including tailed amphibians. Among salamandrid species, paedomorphic and metamorphic phenotypes can be observed within single populations (facultative paedomorphosis). Despite wide interest in facultative paedomorphosis and polymorphism produced by heterochronic changes (heterochronic polymorphism), the studies that investigate intraspecific morphological variation in facultative paedomorphic species are largely missing. By quantifying the cranium size and development (bone development and remodeling), we investigated the variation at multiple levels (i.e., between sexes, populations and species) of two facultatively paedomorphic European newt species: the alpine and the smooth newt. The pattern of variation between paedomorphs (individuals keeping larval traits at the adult stage) and metamorphs (metamorphosed adult individuals) varied between species and among populations within a single species. The patterns of variation in size and skull formation appear to be more uniform in the alpine than in the smooth newt, indicating that developmental constraints differed between species (more pronounced in alpine than in smooth newt). Our study shows that the cranial skeleton provides detailed insight in the pattern of variation and divergence in heterochronic polymorphism within and between species and open new questions related to heterochronic polymorphism and evolution of cranial skeleton. [less ▲]

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See detailLaTeX, un peu, beaucoup (3. Le béhaba)
Dupont, Pascal ULg

in Losanges (2014)

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See detailPourquoi tant de richesse? Dossier Reliques & reliquaires
George, Philippe ULg

in Arts Sacrés (2014), 28

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See detailPrecision design of ethylene- and polar-monomer-based copolymers by organometallic-mediated radical polymerization
Kermagoret, Anthony ULg; Debuigne, Antoine ULg; Jérôme, Christine ULg et al

in Nature Chemistry (2014), 6(3), 179-187

The copolymerization of ethylene with polar monomers is a major challenge when it comes to the manufacture of materials with potential for a wide range of commercial applications. In the chemical industry ... [more ▼]

The copolymerization of ethylene with polar monomers is a major challenge when it comes to the manufacture of materials with potential for a wide range of commercial applications. In the chemical industry, free-radical polymerization is used to make a large proportion of such copolymers, but the forcing conditions result in a lack of fine control over the architecture of the products. Herein we introduce a synthetic tool, effective under mild experimental conditions, for the precision design of unprecedented ethylene- and polar-monomer-based copolymers. We demonstrate how an organocobalt species can control the growth of the copolymer chains, their composition and the monomer distribution throughout the chain. By fine tuning the ethylene pressure during polymerization and by exploiting a unique reactive mode of the end of the organometallic chain, novel block-like copolymer structures can be prepared. This highly versatile synthetic platform provides access to a diverse range of polymer materials. [less ▲]

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See detailOARSI guidelines for the non-surgical management of knee osteoarthritis
McAlindon; Henrotin, Yves ULg

in Osteoarthritis and Cartilage (2014), 22(3), 363-388

This paper presents concise, up-to-date, patient-focused, evidence-based, expert consensus guidelines for the management of knee osteoarthritis, intended to inform patients, physicians and allied ... [more ▼]

This paper presents concise, up-to-date, patient-focused, evidence-based, expert consensus guidelines for the management of knee osteoarthritis, intended to inform patients, physicians and allied healthcare professionnal worlwide. [less ▲]

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See detailA differential Lyapunov framework for contraction analysis
Forni, Fulvio ULg; Sepulchre, Rodolphe ULg

in IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control (2014), 59(3), 614-628

Lyapunov's second theorem is an essential tool for stability analysis of differential equations. The paper provides an analog theorem for incremental stability analysis by lifting the Lyapunov function to ... [more ▼]

Lyapunov's second theorem is an essential tool for stability analysis of differential equations. The paper provides an analog theorem for incremental stability analysis by lifting the Lyapunov function to the tangent bundle. The Lyapunov function endows the state-space with a Finsler structure. Incremental stability is inferred from infinitesimal contraction of the Finsler metrics through integration along solutions curves. [less ▲]

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See detailExtensive study of HD 25558, a long-period double-lined binary with two SPB components
Sódor, Á.; De Cat, P.; Wright, D. J. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2014), 438(4), 3535-3556

We carried out an extensive observational study of the Slowly Pulsating B (SPB) star, HD 25558. The ~2000 spectra obtained at different observatories, the ground-based and MOST satellite light curves ... [more ▼]

We carried out an extensive observational study of the Slowly Pulsating B (SPB) star, HD 25558. The ~2000 spectra obtained at different observatories, the ground-based and MOST satellite light curves revealed that this object is a double-lined spectroscopic binary with an orbital period of about 9 years. The observations do not allow the inference of an orbital solution. We determined the physical parameters of the components, and found that both lie within the SPB instability strip. Accordingly, both show line-profile variations due to stellar pulsations. Eleven independent frequencies were identified in the data. All the frequencies were attributed to one of the two components based on Pixel-by-pixel variability analysis of the line profiles. Spectroscopic and photometric mode identification was also performed for the frequencies of both stars. These results suggest that the inclination and rotation of the two components are rather different. The primary is a slow rotator with ~6 d period, seen at ~60 deg inclination, while the secondary rotates fast with ~1.2 d period, and is seen at ~20 inclination. Spectropolarimetric measurements revealed that the secondary component has a magnetic field with at least a few hundred Gauss strength, while no magnetic field can be detected in the primary. [less ▲]

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See detailTransiting planets from WASP-South, Euler and TRAPPIST: WASP-68 b, WASP-73 b and WASP-88 b, three hot Jupiters transiting evolved solar-type stars
Delrez, Laetitia ULg; Van Grootel, Valérie ULg; Anderson, D. R. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014)

We report the discovery by the WASP transit survey of three new hot Jupiters, WASP-68 b, WASP-73 b and WASP-88 b. WASP-68 b has a mass of 0.95+-0.03 M_Jup, a radius of 1.24-0.06+0.10 R_Jup, and orbits a V ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery by the WASP transit survey of three new hot Jupiters, WASP-68 b, WASP-73 b and WASP-88 b. WASP-68 b has a mass of 0.95+-0.03 M_Jup, a radius of 1.24-0.06+0.10 R_Jup, and orbits a V=10.7 G0-type star (1.24+-0.03 M_sun, 1.69-0.06+0.11 R_sun, T_eff=5911+-60 K) with a period of 5.084298+-0.000015 days. Its size is typical of hot Jupiters with similar masses. WASP-73 b is significantly more massive (1.88-0.06+0.07 M_Jup) and slightly larger (1.16-0.08+0.12 R_Jup) than Jupiter. It orbits a V=10.5 F9-type star (1.34-0.04+0.05 M_sun, 2.07-0.08+0.19 R_sun, T_eff=6036+-120 K) every 4.08722+-0.00022 days. Despite its high irradiation (2.3 10^9 erg s^-1 cm^-2), WASP-73 b has a high mean density (1.20-0.30+0.26 \rho_Jup) that suggests an enrichment of the planet in heavy elements. WASP-88 b is a 0.56+-0.08 M_Jup planet orbiting a V=11.4 F6-type star (1.45+-0.05 M_sun, 2.08-0.06+0.12 R_sun, T_eff=6431+-130 K) with a period of 4.954000+-0.000019 days. With a radius of 1.70-0.07+0.13 R_Jup, it joins the handful of planets with super-inflated radii. The ranges of ages we determine through stellar evolution modeling are 4.5-7.0 Gyr for WASP-68, 2.8-5.7 Gyr for WASP-73 and 1.8-4.3 Gyr for WASP-88. WASP-73 appears to be a significantly evolved star, close to or already in the subgiant phase. WASP-68 and WASP-88 are less evolved, although in an advanced stage of core H-burning. [less ▲]

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See detailMineralogical and geotechnical characterization of clays from Northern Morocco for their potential use in ceramic industry
El Ouahabi, Meriam ULg; Daoudi, Lahcen; Fagel, Nathalie ULg

in Clay Minerals (2014), 49

This study focuses on the mineralogical and geotechnical characterization of Northern Morocco clays (i.e., from Tangier and Tetouan areas) and further comparison with main clay ores used in national ... [more ▼]

This study focuses on the mineralogical and geotechnical characterization of Northern Morocco clays (i.e., from Tangier and Tetouan areas) and further comparison with main clay ores used in national ceramic (i.e., from Meknes, Fes, Salé and Safi regions). Sampled clays were analyzed by X-ray diffraction on bulk and clay (< 2 µm) fractions to identify the mineralogical assemblages of the clay outcrops. Further analyses were conducted to determine the particle size distribution (laser diffraction particle analyser), the total organic matter content (from LossOnIgnition measurements) and the Atterberg limits of the raw clays. The aims of this study were first to investigate the spatial variability of the clay samples and second to evaluate their potential application as raw materials in ceramic industry. Tetouan and Tangier clays are characterized by diversified mineralogical assemblages (in particular a variable proportion of clay, quartz and calcite) in regard with Meknes, Fes, Salé and Safi clays (high clay content, quartz and calcite). The clay fraction of Tetouan and Tangier samples is dominated by illite and kaolinite with variable contribution of chlorite, smectite and/or vermiculite. Illite is the dominant phase in Meknes, Fes, Safi and Salé clays, but is associated with kaolinite. There is no direct relationship between the mineral assemblage composition and the lithology of the series. The studied clays materials consist generally in fine particles with medium to high plasticity and low organic matter content. Taking into account mineralogy, grain-size distribution and plasticity those clays seem to be suitable as raw material for the growing Morocco ceramic industry. [less ▲]

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See detailSimultaneous determination of seven azole antifungal drugs in serum by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography and diode array detection
MISTRETTA, Virginie ULg; DUBOIS, Nathalie ULg; DENOOZ, Raphael ULg et al

in Acta Clinica Belgica (2014), 69(1), 53-61

Azole antifungals are a group of fungistatic agents that can be administered orally or parenterally. The determination of the concentrations of these antifungals (miconazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole ... [more ▼]

Azole antifungals are a group of fungistatic agents that can be administered orally or parenterally. The determination of the concentrations of these antifungals (miconazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, and its major active metabolite, hydroxy-itraconazole) in serum can be useful to adapt the doses to pharmacological ranges because of large variability in the absorption and metabolism of the drugs, multiple drug interactions, but also potential resistance or toxicity. A method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of these drugs in serum utilizing ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography and diode array detection (UHPLC-DAD). After a simple and rapid liquid– liquid extraction, the pre-treated sample was analysed on an UHPLC-DAD system (Waters CorporationH). The chromatographic separation was carried out on an Acquity BEH C18 column (Waters Corporation) with a gradient mode of mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and aqueous ammonium bicarbonate 10.0 M pH10. The flow rate was 0.4 ml/min and the injection volume was 5 ml. The identification wavelength varied according to the drug from 210 to 260 nm. The method was validated by the total error method approach by using an analytical validation software (eNnoval V3.0 ArlendaH). The seven azole antifungals were identified by retention time and specific UV spectra, over a 13-minute run time. All calibration curves showed good linearity (r2.0.99) in ranges considered clinically adequate. The assay was linear from 0.05 to 10 mg/l for voriconazole, posaconazole, itraconazole, hydroxy-itraconazole, and ketoconazole, from 0.3 to 10 mg/l for fluconazole, and from 0.1 to 10 mg/l for miconazole. The bias and imprecision values for intraand inter-assays were lower than 10% and than 15%, respectively. In conclusion, a simple, sensitive, and selective UHPLC-DAD method was developed and validated to determine seven azole antifungal drugs in human serum. This method is applicable to patient samples, and can be applied successfully to clinical applications and therapeutic drug monitoring. [less ▲]

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See detailClimate and Security: Evidence, Emerging Risks and a New Agenda
Gemenne, François ULg; Barnett, Jon; Adger, W. Neil et al

in Climatic Change (2014), 123(1), 1-9

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See detailA learning procedure for sampling semantically different valid expressions
St-Pierre, David Lupien; Maes, Francis; Ernst, Damien ULg et al

in International Journal of Artificial Intelligence (2014), 12(1), 18-35

A large number of problems can be formalized as finding the best symbolic expression to maximize a given numerical objective. Most approaches to approximately solve such problems rely on random ... [more ▼]

A large number of problems can be formalized as finding the best symbolic expression to maximize a given numerical objective. Most approaches to approximately solve such problems rely on random exploration of the search space. This paper focuses on how this random exploration should be performed to take into account expressions redundancy and invalid expressions. We propose a learning algorithm that, given the set of available constants, variables and operators and given the target finite number of trials, computes a probability distribution to maximize the expected number of semantically different, valid, generated expressions. We illustrate the use of our approach on both medium-scale and large-scale expression spaces, and empirically show that such optimized distributions significantly outperform the uniform distribution in terms of the diversity of generated expressions. We further test the method in combination with the recently proposed nested Monte-Carlo algorithm on a set of benchmark symbolic regression problems and demonstrate its interest in terms of reduction of the number of required calls to the objective function. [less ▲]

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See detailEpidemiological tools for effective surveillance of porcine cysticercosis in Africa
Goussanou, J.S.E; Kpodekon, M.T.; Youssao, A.K.I. et al

in Veterinary World (2014), 7(3), 125-134

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See detailLéopold Ier et la religion catholique (1831-1865). L’opium d’un Roi ?
Genin, Vincent ULg

in Trésor de Liège : Bulletin trimestriel (2014), 38

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See detailExuberant inflammatory reaction as a side effect of platelet-rich plasma injection in treating one case of tendinopathy
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; LEONARD, Philippe ULg et al

in Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine (2014), 24(2), 150-152

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains a large quantity of growth factors, which may enhance tendon healing processes. Local infiltration of PRP represents a relatively new treatment for tendinopathies. To ... [more ▼]

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains a large quantity of growth factors, which may enhance tendon healing processes. Local infiltration of PRP represents a relatively new treatment for tendinopathies. To date, no side effects have been reported after infiltration of PRP to treat tendinopathy. We reported a case of exuberant inflammatory reaction after one infiltration of PRP to treat jumper’s knee in a type 1 diabetic patient who was 35 years old. Injections of PRP must be proposed after careful consideration for patients with morbidity risks linked to insulin-dependent diabetes. [less ▲]

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See detailClinically meaningful effect of strontium ranelate on symptoms in knee osteoarthritis: a responder analysis
Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Bellamy, Nicholas et al

in Rheumatology (2014)

Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of strontium ranelate in improving symptoms in knee OA. Methods. Symptoms were assessed over 3 years in patients with primary knee OA receiving ... [more ▼]

Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of strontium ranelate in improving symptoms in knee OA. Methods. Symptoms were assessed over 3 years in patients with primary knee OA receiving strontium ranelate 2 g/day (n = 454), 1 g/day (n = 445) or placebo (n = 472) in the Strontium Ranelate Efficacy in Knee Osteoarthritis Trial. Clinical response was evaluated using WOMAC subscores, minimal perceptible clinical improvement (MPCI), minimal clinically important improvement (MCII) and a modified OMERACT Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) responder definition. Patients who withdrew prematurely from the study were considered non-responders. Results. There was no significant effect on symptoms for strontium ranelate 1 g/day. At the dosage of 2 g/day, strontium ranelate was associated with greater response than placebo in terms of 520% improvement in WOMAC pain from baseline to the last visit (58% vs 47%, P = 0.002) and 550% improvement in WOMAC pain (42% vs 36%, P = 0.083). Significant differences were found in MPCI response for WOMAC pain (52% vs 40%, P<0.001), stiffness (47% vs 39%, P = 0.009) and physical function (46% vs 37%, P = 0.009) and in MCII response for WOMAC physical function (46% vs 37%, P = 0.013). There were also more OMERACT-OARSI-like responders with strontium ranelate (44% vs 35%, P = 0.004). The treatment placebo difference in MPCI response for WOMAC pain was significant after 6 months (P = 0.024), while that in MPCI and MCII response for WOMAC physical function reached significance after 12 months (P = 0.027 and P = 0.019, respectively). Conclusion. Treatment with strontium ranelate 2 g/day over 3 years is associated with a clinically meaningful improvement in pain from 6 months as well as physical function and stiffness as assessed by the number of responders above thresholds of clinical relevance. [less ▲]

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See detailUpdated distribution and biogeography of amphibians and reptiles of Europe
Silero, Neftali; Campos, João; Bonardi, Anna et al

in Amphibia-Reptilia (2014), 35(1), 1-31

A precise knowledge of the spatial distribution of taxa is essential for decision-making processes in land management and biodiversity conservation, both for present and under future global change ... [more ▼]

A precise knowledge of the spatial distribution of taxa is essential for decision-making processes in land management and biodiversity conservation, both for present and under future global change scenarios. This is a key base for several scientific disciplines (e.g. macro-ecology, biogeography, evolutionary biology, spatial planning, or environmental impact assessment) that rely on species distribution maps. An atlas summarizing the distribution of European amphibians and reptiles with 50×50 km resolution maps based on ca. 85,000 grid records was published by the Societas Europaea Herpetologica (SEH) in 1997. Since then, more detailed species distribution maps covering large parts of Europe became available, while taxonomic progress has led to a plethora of taxonomic changes including new species descriptions. To account for these progresses, we compiled information from different data sources: published in books and websites, ongoing national atlases, personal data kindly provided to the SEH, the 1997 European Atlas, and the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). Databases were homogenised, deleting all information except species names and coordinates, projected to the same coordinate system (WGS84) and transformed into a 50×50 km grid. The newly compiled database comprises more than 384,000 grid and locality records distributed across 40 countries. We calculated species richness maps as well as maps of Corrected Weighted Endemism and species distribution types (i.e. groups of species with similar distribution patterns) by hierarchical cluster analysis using Jaccard’s index as association measure. Our analysis serves as a preliminary step towards an interactive, dynamic and online distributed database system (NA2RE system) of the current spatial distribution of European amphibians and reptiles (see http://na2re.ismai.pt). The NA2RE system will serve as well to monitor potential temporal changes in their distributions. Grid maps of all species are made available along with this paper as a tool for decision-making and conservation-related studies and actions. We also identify taxonomic and geographic gaps of knowledge that need to be filled, and we highlight the need to add temporal and altitudinal data for all records, to allow tracking potential species distribution changes as well as detailed modelling of the impacts of land use and climate change on European amphibians and reptiles. [less ▲]

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See detailVers une synthèse de la conception et une définition des zones dans le gradient urbain-rural
Andre, Marie ULg; Mahy, Grégory ULg; Lejeune, Philippe ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(1), 61-74

The increasing footprint of urbanization on landscapes justifies the study of cities and the zones surrounding them. Paradoxically, the concepts relating to these zones remain unclear. Scientists from ... [more ▼]

The increasing footprint of urbanization on landscapes justifies the study of cities and the zones surrounding them. Paradoxically, the concepts relating to these zones remain unclear. Scientists from different disciplines diverge when defining these zones or their limits; they even often mention the zones without any definition. This practice excludes comparison between studies. By means of bibliographic research, the variety of terms used to describe the different zones composing the urban-rural gradient has been evidenced, as well as the characteristics of the zones themselves. They have been evaluated according to their relative importance and according to a series of criteria. Finally, new definitions for the different zones have been proposed in order to enable their identification in the field. [less ▲]

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See detailClimate and Security: Evidence, Emerging Risks and a New Agenda
Gemenne, François ULg; Adger, Neil; Barnett, Jon et al

in Climatic Change (2014)

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See detail(Re-)Assessing Career Patterns in Multi-Level Systems: Insights from Wallonia in Belgium
Dodeigne, Jérémy ULg

in Regional & Federal Studies (2014), 24(2), 151-171

This article proposes a new analytical framework for the study of political careers in multi-level systems. It is argued that the study of vertical movements between political arenas, which constitutes ... [more ▼]

This article proposes a new analytical framework for the study of political careers in multi-level systems. It is argued that the study of vertical movements between political arenas, which constitutes the prevalent methodological approach in the literature on political careers, should be complemented by the study of horizontal movements within political arenas. Based on a longitudinal analysis of individual political careers, the micro-approach developed in this article allows the comprehension of all territorial dynamics of political careers in multi-level systems. Based on an in-depth case study of all 419 Walloon careers in Belgium, four career patterns are identified: national careers, regional careers, multi-level careers and discrete careers. Although Belgium presents an integrated structure of opportunity, it is demonstrated that key evidences underline the prevalence of a regional and a national political class along a highly integrated political elites. [less ▲]

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See detailGas injection test in the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone: data analysis and numerical modelling
De la Vaissière, Rémi; Gerard, Pierre; Radu, Jean-Pol ULg et al

in Geological Society, London, Special Publications Online First (2014)

This paper describes a field-scale experiment on gas transport mechanisms performed at Andra’s Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in a clay rock. The experimental layout consists of two parallel ... [more ▼]

This paper describes a field-scale experiment on gas transport mechanisms performed at Andra’s Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in a clay rock. The experimental layout consists of two parallel boreholes that are equipped with multiple packer completions isolating three intervals each, which have been continuously monitoring the pore pressure evolution of the clay rock. Nitrogen gas was injected in the middle test interval of one of the boreholes at increasing rates. The entire gas test comprised six periods of controlled gas injections, each fol-lowed by a shut-in pressure recovery phase. The experimental data are presented along with their interpretation by means of numerical modelling of two-phase flow of gas and water using different numerical codes and different geometrical approaches that include axisymmetric, half-space and full 3D models. An iterative modelling process was used to show step-by-step how an accu-rate description of each component of the experiment system produced a satisfactory reproduc-tion of the experimental data and an improved understanding of the relevant phenomena. For instance, the initial volume of remaining water in the test interval, and the presence of a damaged zone around the boreholes, was important for the models to obtain good agreement with the field data. [less ▲]

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See detailInterview: Rosalind Hackett reflects on religious media in Africa
Melice, Anne ULg; Hackett, Rosalind; Van Wolputte, Steven et al

in Social Compass (2014), 61 (1)

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See detailThe Ultraviolet Spectrograph on NASA’s Juno Mission
Gladstone, G Randal; Persyn, Steven C.; Eterno, John S. et al

in Space Science Reviews (2014)

The ultraviolet spectrograph instrument on the Juno mission (Juno-UVS) is a long-slit imaging spectrograph designed to observe and characterize Jupiter’s far-ultraviolet (FUV) auroral emissions. These ... [more ▼]

The ultraviolet spectrograph instrument on the Juno mission (Juno-UVS) is a long-slit imaging spectrograph designed to observe and characterize Jupiter’s far-ultraviolet (FUV) auroral emissions. These observations will be coordinated and correlated with those from Juno’s other remote sensing instruments and used to place in situ measurements made by Juno’s particles and fields instruments into a global context, relating the local data with events occurring in more distant regions of Jupiter’s magnetosphere. Juno-UVS is based on a series of imaging FUV spectrographs currently in flight—the two Alice instruments on the Rosetta and New Horizons missions, and the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission. However, Juno-UVS has several important modifications, including (1) a scan mirror (for targeting specific auroral features), (2) extensive shielding (for mitigation of electronics and data quality degradation by energetic particles), and (3) a cross delay line microchannel plate detector (for both faster photon counting and improved spatial resolution). This paper describes the science objectives, design, and initial performance of the Juno-UVS. [less ▲]

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See detailL'imaginaire politique de la théorie de l'énonciation
Provenzano, François ULg

in Langage et Société (2014), 147

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See detailThe Third/Second Generation PTH Assay Ratio as a Marker for Parathyroid Carcinoma: Evaluation Using an Automated Platform
CAVALIER, Etienne ULg; BETEA, Daniela ULg; SCHLECK, Marie-Louise ULg et al

in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (2014), 99(3), 453-7

Background: Parathyroid carcinoma (PCa) is rare and often difficult to differentiate initially from benign disease. Because PCa oversecretes amino PTH that is detected by third-generation but not by ... [more ▼]

Background: Parathyroid carcinoma (PCa) is rare and often difficult to differentiate initially from benign disease. Because PCa oversecretes amino PTH that is detected by third-generation but not by second-generation PTH assays, the normal generation PTH ( 1) is inverted in PCa (ie, 1). Objective: The objective of the investigation was to study the utility and advantages of automated generation PTH ratio measurements using the Liaison XL platform over existing manual techniques. Setting: The study was conducted at a tertiary-referral academic center. Design: This was a retrospective laboratory study. Subjects: Eleven patients with advanced PCa (mean age 56.0 y). The controls were patients with 1°-hyperparathyroidism (n 144;meanage 53.8 y), renal transplantation (n 41;meanage 50.6 y), hemodialysis (n 80; mean age 65.2 y), and healthy elderly subjects (n 40; mean age 72.6 y). Results: The median (interquartile range) generation PTH ratio was 1.16 (1.10 –1.38) in the PCa group, which was significantly higher than the control groups: 0.74 (hemodialysis, 0.71–0.75), 0.77 (renal transplant, 0.73–0.79), 0.80 (healthy elderly, 0.74–0.83), and 0.76 (1°-hyperparathyroidism, 0.74–0.78). An inverted -generation PTH ratio ( 1) was seen in 9 of 11 PCa patients (81.8%) and in 7 of 305 controls (2.3%), 3 of 80 hemodialysis (3.8%), and 4 of 144 1°-hyperparathyroidism patients (2.8%). Of four PCa patients who had a normal PTH ratio with the manual method, two had an inverted -generation PTH ratio with the automated method. Conclusions: Study of the -generation PTH ratio in large patient populations should be feasible using a mainstream automated platform like the Liaison XL. The current study confirms the utility of the inverted -generation PTH ratio as a marker of PCa (sensitivity: 81.8%; specificity: 97.3%). [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of Metabolic Pathways Expressed by Pichia anomala KH6 in the Presence of the Pathogen Botrytis cinerea on Apple: New Possible Targets for Biocontrol Improvement
Kwasiborski, Anthony; Bajji, Mohammed; Renaut, J. et al

in PLoS ONE (2014), 9(3),

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See detailOlder adults, physical activity and the internet: Exploring their behaviours, beliefs and opinions
Mouton, Alexandre ULg; Cloes, Marc ULg

in International Journal of Physical Education (2014), 51(1), 18-29

Despite the numerous health benefits, population physical activity (PA) levels are low and decline with age. As the population grows older, with some major implications in terms of public health cost ... [more ▼]

Despite the numerous health benefits, population physical activity (PA) levels are low and decline with age. As the population grows older, with some major implications in terms of public health cost, innovative interventions to promote PA in older adults are of major interest. The Internet holds potential for delivering effective PA interventions and older adults are the largest-growing group of Internet users. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to explore the older adults’ behaviours, beliefs and opinions about PA and Internet. At baseline, 75 older adults participated in the two stages of the study: (1) an assessment of their behaviours and beliefs about PA and web-based PA promotion; and (2) the experimentation of a single session of home-exercising followed by an interview regarding their opinion on this session. Results exposed that a minority of the participants were regularly active according to the stage of change for PA. Depending on their knowledge of PA, participants mainly perceived social and health aspects as barriers or motivators for their practice of PA. Senior adults considered home-exercising delivered via the Internet sufficiently relevant, acceptable, original, appreciated and reproducible only if it goes along with a reinforced social support and a community-centred PA promotion. [less ▲]

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See detailL'ENMG…C'est le pied
WANG, François-Charles ULg

in Neurologies (2014), 17(166), 108-113

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See detailNouvelles courbes de productivité harmonisées pour le douglas, l'épicéa et les mélèzes en wallonie
Perin, Jérôme ULg; De Thier, Olivier ULg; Claessens, Hugues ULg et al

in Forêt Wallonne (2014), 129(mars/avril),

Les courbes de productivité sont des outils de diagnostic précieux en gestion forestière. Elles permettent d'estimer le potentiel de production d'un peuplement de structure équienne d’âge connu à partir d ... [more ▼]

Les courbes de productivité sont des outils de diagnostic précieux en gestion forestière. Elles permettent d'estimer le potentiel de production d'un peuplement de structure équienne d’âge connu à partir d'une mesure ponctuelle de la hauteur dominante. Une nouvelle génération de modèles de productivité plus fiables ont été développés pour l'épicéa, le douglas et les mélèzes en Wallonie et ont été intégrés au sein d'un outil informatique de diagnostic simple et rapide d'utilisation. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Governance of Mixed Companies: Policy Implications for Local Governments
Marra, A; Cruz, N.F.; Marques, R.C. et al

in Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics (2014), 85(1), 1-164

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See detailIntentionnalité in obliquo
Dewalque, Arnaud ULg

in Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique (2014)

Je suggère ici qu'une théorie adéquate de l'intentionnalité ne peut pas faire l'économie de la notion d'intentionnalité latérale ou "in modo obliquo". Je compare, sur ce point, les contributions de ... [more ▼]

Je suggère ici qu'une théorie adéquate de l'intentionnalité ne peut pas faire l'économie de la notion d'intentionnalité latérale ou "in modo obliquo". Je compare, sur ce point, les contributions de Chisholm et de Brentano. Après une brève introduction (§ 1), je reconstruis la théorie de la référence indirecte de Chisholm (§§ 2-3) et la théorie des représentations in obliquo de Brentano (§§ 4-6). À mon sens, ces théories présupposent toutes deux l’idée que certains items ne peuvent pas être visés de façon directe ou in recto – ce qui implique la question suivante: en vertu de quoi certains items ne peuvent-ils pas être représentés in recto? (§ 7). Je fais alors l’hypothèse que la notion de contenu abstrait ou dépendant, développée par Stumpf et Husserl, offre une solution à ce problème (§ 8). Enfin, je suggère que ce critère permet de construire une interprétation plausible de la théorie brentanienne et, simultanément, de jeter un regard critique sur la théorie de la référence indirecte de Chisholm (§ 9). [less ▲]

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See detailGlobal Isochrons and Phase Sensitivity of Bursting Neurons
Mauroy, Alexandre ULg; Rhoads, Blane; Moehlis, Jeff et al

in SIAM Journal on Applied Dynamical Systems (2014), 13(1), 306-338

Phase sensitivity analysis is a powerful method for studying (asymptotically periodic) bursting neuron models. One popular way of capturing phase sensitivity is through the computation of isochrons ... [more ▼]

Phase sensitivity analysis is a powerful method for studying (asymptotically periodic) bursting neuron models. One popular way of capturing phase sensitivity is through the computation of isochrons---subsets of the state space that each converge to the same trajectory on the limit cycle. However, the computation of isochrons is notoriously difficult, especially for bursting neuron models. In [W. E. Sherwood and J. Guckenheimer, SIAM J. Appl. Dyn. Syst., 9 (2010), pp. 659--703], the phase sensitivity of the bursting Hindmarsh--Rose model is studied through the use of singular perturbation theory: cross sections of the isochrons of the full system are approximated by those of fast subsystems. In this paper, we complement the previous study, providing a detailed phase sensitivity analysis of the full (three-dimensional) system, including computations of the full (two-dimensional) isochrons. To our knowledge, this is the first such computation for a bursting neuron model. This was made possible thanks to the numerical method recently proposed in [A. Mauroy and I. Mezić, Chaos, 22 (2012), 033112]---relying on the spectral properties of the so-called Koopman operator---which is complemented with the use of adaptive quadtree and octree grids. The main result of the paper is to highlight the existence of a region of high phase sensitivity called the almost phaseless set and to completely characterize its geometry. In particular, our study reveals the existence of a subset of the almost phaseless set that is not predicted by singular perturbation theory (i.e., by the isochrons of fast subsystems). We also discuss how the almost phaseless set is related to empirically observed phenomena such as addition/deletion of spikes and to extrema of the phase response of the system. Finally, through the same numerical method, we show that an elliptic bursting model is characterized by a very high phase sensitivity and other remarkable properties. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term outcome and use of 6-Minute Walk test in West Highland white Terriers with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Lilja-Maula, LIO; Laurila, HP; Syrjä, P et al

in Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2014), 28(2), 379-385

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See detailThe feedback of massive stars on interstellar astrochemical processes
De Becker, Michaël ULg

in Astrophysics & Space Science (2014), 350(1), 237-243

Astrochemistry is a discipline that studies physico-chemical processes in astrophysical environments. Such environments are characterized by conditions that are substantially different from those existing ... [more ▼]

Astrochemistry is a discipline that studies physico-chemical processes in astrophysical environments. Such environments are characterized by conditions that are substantially different from those existing in usual chemical laboratories. Models which aim to explain the formation of molecular species in interstellar environments must take into account various factors, including many that are directly, or indirectly related to the populations of massive stars in galaxies. The aim of this paper is to review the influence of massive stars, whatever their evolution stage, on the physico-chemical processes at work in interstellar environments. These influences include the ultraviolet radiation field, the production of high energy particles, the synthesis of radionuclides and the formation of shocks that permeate the interstellar medium. [less ▲]

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See detailA method to evaluate the adaptability of photovoltaic energy on urban facades
Esclapés Jover, F.J.; Ferreiro Prieto, I.; Piera Llodrá, J. et al

in Solar Energy (2014), 105

Solar simulation and evaluation tools are essential for the design of novel energy and environmental strategies. To date, a number published studies in this area focused on the analysis of flat roofs and ... [more ▼]

Solar simulation and evaluation tools are essential for the design of novel energy and environmental strategies. To date, a number published studies in this area focused on the analysis of flat roofs and small urban areas. This paper presents a method, based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS), for defining the potential of photovoltaic solar energy over urban faßcades. The method enables the generation of 3D solar maps from two standard data sources, namely cadastral cartography and data on solar irradiance registered by the Spanish State Meteorological Agency (AEMET, for its initials in Spanish). A series of charts have been generated relating the urban and solar geometries as a result of the numerical model. The charts permit the study of the optimal parameters for the photovoltaic integration over faßcades. In addition, a study conducted over a representative urban area of Madrid is discussed as an example of the applicability of the discussed methodology. Finally, the adequacy of the Spanish Technical Edification Code (CTE, for its initials in Spanish), defining thresholds regarding the usability of photovoltaic energy, has been tested both theoretically and through the case study. Our study concludes that this regulation hinders the architectural integration of photovoltaic devices given the strict usability thresholds adopted. [less ▲]

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