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See detailStudy of the photocatalytic activity of Fe3+, Cr3+, La3+ and Eu3+ single-doped and co-doped TiO2 catalysts produced by aqueous sol-gel processing
Malengreaux, Charline; Pirard, Sophie ULg; Léonard, Géraldine ULg et al

in Journal of Alloys and Compounds (2017), 691

An aqueous sol-gel process, previously developed for producing undoped and Cu2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ or Pb2+ doped TiO2 photocatalysts with remarkably high photocatalytic activity without requiring any calcination ... [more ▼]

An aqueous sol-gel process, previously developed for producing undoped and Cu2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ or Pb2+ doped TiO2 photocatalysts with remarkably high photocatalytic activity without requiring any calcination step, has been adapted to produce Fe3+, Cr3+, La3+ or Eu3+ single-doped TiO2 photocatalysts as well as La3+-Fe3+ and Eu3+-Fe3+ co-doped TiO2 catalysts. The physicochemical properties of the obtained catalysts have been characterized using a suite of complementary techniques, including ICP-AES, XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption and Fe-57 Mössbauer. The active crystalline phase is obtained without requiring any calcination step and all the different catalysts are composed of nanocrystallites of anatase with a size of 6-7 nm and a high specific surface area varying from 181 to 298 m² g-1. In this study, the effect of the NO3:Ti(IV) mole ratio used to induce the peptisation reaction during the synthesis has been studied and the results revealed that this ratio can influence significantly the textural properties of the resulting catalyst. A screening of the photocatalytic activity of the undoped and Fe3+, Cr3+, La3+ or Eu3+ single-doped and co-doped photocatalysts has been performed by evaluating the degradation of 4-nitrophenol under UV-Visible light (330 nm < λ < 800 nm). This study suggests that the photocatalytic activity is significantly influenced by the dopant nature and content with an optimal dopant content being observed in the case of Fe3+ or La3+ single-doped as well as in the case of La3+-Fe3+ and Eu3+-Fe3+ co-doped catalysts. In the case of Cr3+ single-doped catalysts, a detrimental effect of the dopant on the photocatalytic degradation of 4-nitrophenol has been observed while no significant influence of the dopant has been detected in the case of Eu3+ single-doped catalysts. The role of the different dopants in modulating the photocatalytic activity is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailContinuous Production of Itraconazole-based Solid Dispersions by Hot Melt Extrusion: Preformulation, Optimization and Design Space Determination.
Thiry, Justine ULg; Lebrun, Pierre; Vinassa, Chloé et al

in International Journal of Pharmaceutics (2016), 515(1-2), 114-124

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See detailComprehension of an organosolv process for lignin extraction on Festuca arundinacea and monitoring of the cellulose degradation
Schmetz, Quentin ULg; Maniet, Guillaume ULg; Jacquet, Nicolas ULg et al

in Industrial Crops and Products (2016), 94

It is commonly accepted that the current society needs to partially substitute fossil resources by renewable ones. Among many solutions, one approach consists in the development of biorefinery involving ... [more ▼]

It is commonly accepted that the current society needs to partially substitute fossil resources by renewable ones. Among many solutions, one approach consists in the development of biorefinery involving lignocellulosic biomass to produce bio-based materials and fuels. This study focuses on the comprehension of an organosolv treatment designed to break the complex lignocellulosic structure for high purity lignin extraction from tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). This grass benefits from an increasing interest in Western Europe and has been suggested as feedstock for biorefinery. However, its use as material for high purity lignin production has not been determined yet. Ethanol/water, 92/8% [v/v] with H2SO4 0.32 M was investigated at pilot scale under conventional heating (5 °C min−1 during 30 min and stabilized at 148 °C for 5 min). Precipitated lignin were analyzed as well as the composition of side-stream products (recovered cellulosic pulp and the aqueous hydrolysate). Lignin has been recovered at a purity level of 90% with a yield of 60%. The main contaminants were nitrogen containing compounds and degraded hemicelluloses. 2D-HSQC NMR (Two Dimension-Heteronuclear Single Quantum Correlation Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) revealed a co-extraction of ferulates and coumarates function as well as arabinoxylan. Cellulose was recovered at 53% purity with 60% yield. The conditions appear to be too harsh for tall fescue and led to significant amount of cellulose degradation. A process using a lower alcohol concentration will be developed to provide better yields of both cellulose and lignin. [less ▲]

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See detailInterpellation du genre et sujets mélancoliques. Butler lectrice d’Althusser
Borotto, Jessica ULg

in Cahiers du GRM (2016), 8

Cet article propose d’explorer la manière dont Judith Butler remobilise la thèse althussérienne de l’interpellation dans La Vie psychique du pouvoir . Nous essaierons de saisir les éléments qui nous ... [more ▼]

Cet article propose d’explorer la manière dont Judith Butler remobilise la thèse althussérienne de l’interpellation dans La Vie psychique du pouvoir . Nous essaierons de saisir les éléments qui nous paraissent enrichir la problématique althussérienne, suggérant que la compréhension de la dimension psychique du pouvoir qui ressort de sa lecture permet de complexifier la relation du sujet au pouvoir. Afin de tisser des liens précis entre l’interpellation chez Althusser et la subjectivation chez Butler, nous examinerons d’abord le rôle que Nietzsche et Foucault recouvrent dans la formulation de la théorie de la subjectivation chez Butler. Ensuite, il s’agit de comprendre en quoi la matérialité et l’ambiguïté des mécanismes de subjectivation, qui déjà caractérisent l’interpellation althussérienne, deviennent chez Butler les sources d’une relation critique aux conditions d’émergence du sujet. Enfin nous préciserons comment elle mobilise de telles sources pour élaborer cette figure de la psychanalyse qu’est la mélancolie et pour décrire sa transformation en deuil. [less ▲]

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See detailLearning from Incidents and Incident Reporting: Safety Governance at a Belgian Nuclear Research Center
Rossignol, Nicolas ULg; Van Oudheusden, Michiel ULg

in Science, Technology & Human Values (2016), Online First

This article examines how incidents are governed in a Belgian Nuclear Research Center by way of an incident reporting system named REX. Drawing on a documentary analysis of incident reports, interviews ... [more ▼]

This article examines how incidents are governed in a Belgian Nuclear Research Center by way of an incident reporting system named REX. Drawing on a documentary analysis of incident reports, interviews and focus groups with personnel, it illustrates how REX enacts a safety governmentality centered on identifying incident causes and culprits. As this governmentality mode obscures the epistemic and political character of incidents, it closes down important opportunities for collective learning about safety and safety governance. It is argued that joint reflection about incidents and resistances towards incident reporting serve as fruitful starting points for a more reflexive safety governance that makes explicit how decisions are made in high-risk contexts. Social scientists can enhance governance of this kind by pointing to different perceptions and evaluations of incidents and by insisting that contending interpretations are confronted and accounted for. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of the Extraction Technique, Heating Time and Cryogenic Grinding (N2 at -196°C) on the Composition of Cumin Seeds Volatile Oil
Mékaoui, R; Benkaci-Ali, Farid; Scholl, Georges ULg et al

in Journal of Essential Oil-Bearing Plants [=JEOBP] (2016), 19(8), 1903-1919

Two techniques of extraction of essential oils (Steam distillation assisted by microwave (SDAM) and hydrodistillation assisted by microwave (HDAM)) are respectively advanced steam distillation (SD) and ... [more ▼]

Two techniques of extraction of essential oils (Steam distillation assisted by microwave (SDAM) and hydrodistillation assisted by microwave (HDAM)) are respectively advanced steam distillation (SD) and hydrodistillation techniques (HD), in which a microwave oven is used in the extraction process. They are considered as accelerated techniques extraction performed at atmospheric pressure. The cryogrinding (CG) showed a difference on the yields and aromatic profile comparing to the sample grinding. Isolation and concentration of volatile compounds are performed by a single stage for the extraction of volatile oil from Algerian (Sahara) Cuminum cyminum seeds (CCS). The chemical composition of the essential oil of this plant as a function of extraction time was also studied. The major components and family classes showed a significant variation with the extraction time. Gas chromatography (GC), GCxGC-mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS)] were utilised for qualitative and quantitative analysis of essential oils extracted by these two methods. The major compounds are cumin aldehyde (HDAM-CG: 20.50-53.35 %, SDAM-CG: 21.68 66.6 %), p-cymene (HDAM-CG: 14.1-37.54 %, SDAM-CG: 6.06-20.18 %), β-pinene (HDAM-CG: 4.53-14.74 %, SDAM-CG: 4.3-32.65 %) and γ-terpinene (HDAM-CG: 1.26-14.70 %, SDAM-CG: 5.13-18.23 %). [less ▲]

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See detailSU(3) flavor symmetry breaking in large $N_c$ excited baryons
Stancu, Floarea ULg

in Physical Review. D : Particles and Fields (2016), 94

The $1/N_c$ expansion method for studying the mass spectrum of excited baryons is shortly reviewed together with applications to mixed symmetric states. The $[{\bf 70, \ell^+}]$ multiplet, belonging to ... [more ▼]

The $1/N_c$ expansion method for studying the mass spectrum of excited baryons is shortly reviewed together with applications to mixed symmetric states. The $[{\bf 70, \ell^+}]$ multiplet, belonging to the $N$ = 2 band, is reanalyzed, with emphasis on hyperons and the SU(3) symmetry breaking operators entering the mass formula to first order. An important result is that the hierarchy of masses as a function of strangeness is correctly reproduced for all multiplets. Predictions for unknown excited hyperons to SU(6) $\times$ O(3) multiplets are made. [less ▲]

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See detailEditorial
Borotto, Jessica ULg

in Cahiers du GRM (2016), 10

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See detailLa SNCB : prête pour la libéralisation totale du rail ?
Gautier, Axel ULg; Salem, Iman

in Regards Economiques (2016)

La SNCB n’a pas su s’adapter à la libéralisation du fret ferroviaire faute de rentabilité. Dans la perspective d’une libéralisation du transport de passagers annoncée pour 2023, nous évaluons les ... [more ▼]

La SNCB n’a pas su s’adapter à la libéralisation du fret ferroviaire faute de rentabilité. Dans la perspective d’une libéralisation du transport de passagers annoncée pour 2023, nous évaluons les performances de l’entreprise. Notre étude met en avant un déficit de productivité et une contribution faible des passagers aux coûts par rapport à d’autres opérateurs européens. [less ▲]

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See detailInsights on Molecular Mechanisms of Chondrocytes Death in Osteoarthritis
CHARLIER, Edith ULg; RELIC, Biserka ULg; Deroyer, Céline ULg et al

in International Journal of Molecular Sciences (2016)

Abstract: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a joint pathology characterized by progressive cartilage degradation. Medical care is mainly based on alleviating pain symptoms. Compelling studies report the presence of ... [more ▼]

Abstract: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a joint pathology characterized by progressive cartilage degradation. Medical care is mainly based on alleviating pain symptoms. Compelling studies report the presence of empty lacunae and hypocellularity in cartilage with aging and OA progression, suggesting that chondrocyte cell death occurs and participates to OA development. However, the relative contribution of apoptosis per se in OA pathogenesis appears complex to evaluate. Indeed, depending on technical approaches, OA stages, cartilage layers, animal models, as well as in vivo or in vitro experiments, the percentage of apoptosis and cell death types can vary. Apoptosis, chondroptosis, necrosis, and autophagic cell death are described in this review. The question of cell death causality in OA progression is also addressed, as well as the molecular pathways leading to cell death in response to the following inducers: Fas, Interleukin-1 (IL-1 ), Tumor Necrosis factor- (TNF- ), leptin, nitric oxide (NO) donors, and mechanical stresses. Furthermore, the protective role of autophagy in chondrocytes is highlighted, as well as its decline during OA progression, enhancing chondrocyte cell death; the transition being mainly controlled by HIF-1 /HIF-2 imbalance. Finally, we have considered whether interfering in chondrocyte apoptosis or promoting autophagy could constitute therapeutic strategies to impede OA progression. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscovery of a low-mass companion inside the debris ring surrounding the F5V star HD 206893
Milli, J.; Hibon, P.; Christiaens, Valentin ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 597

<BR /> Aims: Uncovering the ingredients and the architecture of planetary systems is a very active field of research that has fuelled many new theories on giant planet formation, migration, composition ... [more ▼]

<BR /> Aims: Uncovering the ingredients and the architecture of planetary systems is a very active field of research that has fuelled many new theories on giant planet formation, migration, composition, and interaction with the circumstellar environment. We aim at discovering and studying new such systems, to further expand our knowledge of how low-mass companions form and evolve. <BR /> Methods: We obtained high-contrast H-band images of the circumstellar environment of the F5V star HD 206893, known to host a debris disc never detected in scattered light. These observations are part of the SPHERE High Angular Resolution Debris Disc Survey (SHARDDS) using the InfraRed Dual-band Imager and Spectrograph (IRDIS) installed on VLT/SPHERE. <BR /> Results: We report the detection of a source with a contrast of 3.6 × 10[SUP]-5[/SUP] in the H-band, orbiting at a projected separation of 270 milliarcsec or 10 au, corresponding to a mass in the range 24 to 73 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB] for an age of the system in the range 0.2 to 2 Gyr. The detection was confirmed ten months later with VLT/NaCo, ruling out a background object with no proper motion. A faint extended emission compatible with the disc scattered light signal is also observed. <BR /> Conclusions: The detection of a low-mass companion inside a massive debris disc makes this system an analog of other young planetary systems such as β Pictoris, HR 8799 or HD 95086 and requires now further characterisation of both components to understand their interactions. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh resolution (1 km) positive degree-day modelling of Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance, 1870–2012 using reanalysis data
Wilton, D.; Jowett, A.; Hanna, E. et al

in Journal of Glaciology (2016), online

We show results from a positive degree-day (PDD) model of Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) surface mass balance (SMB), 1870–2012, forced with reanalysis data. The model includes an improved daily temperature ... [more ▼]

We show results from a positive degree-day (PDD) model of Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) surface mass balance (SMB), 1870–2012, forced with reanalysis data. The model includes an improved daily temperature parameterization as compared with a previous version and is run at 1 km rather than 5 km resolution. The improvements lead overall to higher SMB with the same forcing data. We also compare our model with results from two regional climate models (RCMs). While there is good qualitative agreement between our PDD model and the RCMs, it usually results in lower precipitation and lower runoff but approximately equivalent SMB: mean 1979–2012 SMB (± standard deviation), in Gt a−1, is 382 ± 78 in the PDD model, compared with 379 ± 101 and 425 ± 90 for the RCMs. Comparison with in situ SMB observations suggests that the RCMs may be more accurate than PDD at local level, in some areas, although the latter generally compares well. Dividing the GrIS into seven drainage basins we show that SMB has decreased sharply in all regions since 2000. Finally we show correlation between runoff close to two calving glaciers and either calving front retreat or calving flux, this being most noticeable from the mid-1990s. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of AIP mutations in pituitary adenomas: 10 years on
Daly, Adrian ULg; BECKERS, Albert ULg

in Endocrine (2016)

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See detailAging of monolithic zirconia dental prostheses: Protocol for a 5-year prospective clinical study using ex vivo analyses
KOENIG, Vinciane ULg; Wulfman, Claudine; DERBANNE, Mathieu et al

in Contemporary Clinical Trials Communication (2016), 4

Background: Recent introduction of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) monolithic zirconia dental prostheses raises the issue of material low thermal degradation (LTD), a ... [more ▼]

Background: Recent introduction of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) monolithic zirconia dental prostheses raises the issue of material low thermal degradation (LTD), a wellknown problem with zirconia hip prostheses. This phenomenon could be accentuated by masticatory mechanical stress. Until now zirconia LTD process has only been studied in vitro. This work introduces an original protocol to evaluate LTD process of monolithic zirconia prostheses in the oral environment and to study their general clinical behavior, notably in terms of wear. Methods/design: 101 posterior monolithic zirconia tooth elements (molars and premolars) are included in a 5-year prospective clinical trial. On each element, several areas between 1 and 2 mm2 (6 on molars, 4 on premolars) are determined on restoration surface: areas submitted or non-submitted to mastication mechanical stress, glazed or non-glazed. Before prosthesis placement, ex vivo analyses regarding LTD and wear are performed using Raman spectroscopy, SEM imagery and 3D laser profilometry. After placement, restorations are clinically evaluated following criteria of the World Dental Federation (FDI), complemented by the analysis of fracture clinical risk factors. Two independent examiners perform the evaluations. Clinical evaluation and ex vivo analyses are carried out after 6 months and then each year for up to 5 years. Discussion: For clinicians and patients, the results of this trial will justify the use of monolithic zirconia restorations in dental practice. For researchers, the originality of a clinical study including ex vivo analyses of material aging will provide important data regarding zirconia properties. [less ▲]

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See detailLimited Impact of Imatinib in a Murine Model of Sclerodermatouc Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease
Belle, Ludovic; Fransolet, Gilles ULg; Somja, Joan ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2016)

Background Sclerodermatous chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease (scl-cGVHD) is one of the most severe form of cGVHD. The Platelet-derived Grotwth Factor (PDGF) and the Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β ... [more ▼]

Background Sclerodermatous chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease (scl-cGVHD) is one of the most severe form of cGVHD. The Platelet-derived Grotwth Factor (PDGF) and the Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) play a significant role in the fibrosing process occurring in scl-cGVHD. This prompted us to assess the impact of the PDGF-r and c-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib on scl-cGVHD. Methods To assess the impact of imatinib on T cell subset proliferation in vivo, Balb/cJ recipient mice were lethally (7 Gy) irradiated and then injected with 10x106 bone marrow cells from B10.D2 mice on day 0. Fourteen days later, 70x106 carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE)- labeled splenocytes from B10.D2 mice were infused and imatinib or sterile water was administered for 5 days. To induce severe scl-cGVHD, Balb/cJ mice were injected i.v. with 10.106 bone marrow cells and 70.106 splenocytes from B10.D2 donor mice after 7 Gy irradiation. Mice were then given sterile water or imatinib from day +7 after transplantation to the end of the experiment (day +52). Results Imatinib decreased the proliferation of total T cells (P = 0.02), CD8+ T cells (P = 0.01), and of regulatory T cells (Tregs) (P = 0.02) in the spleen. In the severe scl-cGVHD model, imatinib- treated mice had significantly lower levels of PDGF-r phosphorylation than control mice on day 29 after transplantation (P = 0.008). However, scl-cGVHD scores were similar between vehicle- and imatinib-treated mice during the whole experiment, while there was a suggestion for less weight loss in imatinib-treated mice that reached statistical significance at day +52 following transplantation (P = 0.02). [less ▲]

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See detailCorrecting circulation biases in a lower-resolution global general circulation model with data assimilation
Canter, Martin ULg; Barth, Alexander ULg; Beckers, Jean-Marie ULg

in Ocean Dynamics (2016)

In this study, we aim at developing a new method of bias correction using data assimilation. This method is based on the stochastic forcing of a model to correct bias by directly adding an additional ... [more ▼]

In this study, we aim at developing a new method of bias correction using data assimilation. This method is based on the stochastic forcing of a model to correct bias by directly adding an additional source term into the model equations. This method is presented and tested first with a twin experiment on a fully controlled Lorenz ’96 model. It is then applied to the lower-resolution global circulation NEMO-LIM2 model, with both a twin experiment and a real case experiment. Sea surface height observations are used to create a forcing to correct the poorly located and estimated currents. Validation is then performed throughout the use of other variables such as sea surface temperature and salinity. Results show that the method is able to consistently correct part of the model bias. The bias correction term is presented and is consistent with the limitations of the global circulation model causing bias on the oceanic currents. [less ▲]

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See detailBrisons le système, pouvoir aux femmes ! (Padoue, 1974)
Borotto, Jessica ULg

in Cahiers du GRM (2016), 10

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See detailIntroduction du Dossier de traduction
Borotto, Jessica ULg; Cavazzini, Andrea

in Cahiers du GRM (2016), 10

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See detailIn vitro evaluation of biocompatibility of uncoated thermally reduced graphene and carbon nanotube-loaded PVDF membranes with adult neural stem cell-derived neurons and glia
Defteralı, Çağla; Verdejo, Raquel; Majeed, Shahid et al

in Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology (2016), 4(n° 64),

Graphene, graphene-based nanomaterials (GBNs), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are being investigated as potential substrates for the growth of neural cells. However, in most in vitro studies, the cells were ... [more ▼]

Graphene, graphene-based nanomaterials (GBNs), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are being investigated as potential substrates for the growth of neural cells. However, in most in vitro studies, the cells were seeded on these materials coated with various proteins implying that the observed effects on the cells could not solely be attributed to the GBN and CNT properties. Here, we studied the biocompatibility of uncoated thermally reduced graphene (TRG) and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes loaded with multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) using neural stem cells isolated from the adult mouse olfactory bulb (termed aOBSCs). When aOBSCs were induced to differentiate on coverslips treated with TRG or control materials (polyethyleneimine-PEI and polyornithine plus fibronectin- PLO/F) in a serum-free medium, neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes were generated in all conditions, indicating that TRG permits the multi-lineage differentiation of aOBSCs. However, the total number of cells was reduced on both PEI and TRG. In a serum-containing medium, aOBSC-derived neurons and oligodendrocytes grown on TRG were more numerous than in controls; the neurons developed synaptic boutons and oligodendrocytes were more branched. In contrast, neurons growing on PVDF membranes had reduced neurite branching, and on MWCNTs-loaded membranes oligodendrocytes were lower in numbers than in controls. Overall, these findings indicate that uncoated TRG may be biocompatible with the generation, differentiation, and maturation of aOBSC-derived neurons and glial cells, implying a potential use for TRG to study functional neuronal networks. [less ▲]

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See detailRésister à l’essentialisation de l’Allemagne : Les Temps Modernes, revue franco-allemande ?
Franck, Thomas ULg

in Trajectoires (2016), 10

Im Zentrum des vorliegenden Aufsatzes steht die Doppelausgabe (46-47) der französischen Zeitschrift Temps Modernes, die unter dem Titel „Allemagne“ im August-September 1949 erschien und einen besonderen ... [more ▼]

Im Zentrum des vorliegenden Aufsatzes steht die Doppelausgabe (46-47) der französischen Zeitschrift Temps Modernes, die unter dem Titel „Allemagne“ im August-September 1949 erschien und einen besonderen Fall von kulturellem und intellektuellem Transfer zwischen Deutschland und Frankreich darstellt. Mit Mitteln der Diskursanalyse und der Imagologie sollen hier rhetorische Strategien herausgearbeitet werden, die der Realisierung eines kritischen Projekts und der Anprangerung der Stereotypen dienen, die Deutschland damals zugeschrieben wurden. Aufgestellt wird folgende These: Indem sie Intellektuelle aus unterschiedlichen Orten und Disziplinen und heterogenes Wissen zusammenbringt, bietet sich die Zeitschrift besonders gut für eine kritische Reflexion der herrschenden Ideologien und kollektiven Überzeugungen an. Indem es Deutschen mit kommunistischer und antifaschistischer Gesinnung das Wort erteilt, will das Heft „Allemagne“ zu Erkenntnissen über ein ‚anderes Deutschland‘ kommen, das von Aufstand und Widerstand geprägt ist, und bricht so mit einer Reduktion des Landes auf eine unveränderliche und monolithische Identität, die als gleichermaßen fügsam und autoritär verstanden wurde. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamics of the flares in the active polar region of Jupiter
Bonfond, Bertrand ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg; Badman, S. V. et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2016)

The dusk-side of the polar region of Jupiter's UV aurorae, called the active region, sometimes exhibits quasi-periodic (QP) flares on time-scales of 2-3 minutes. Based on Hubble Space Telescope Far-UV ... [more ▼]

The dusk-side of the polar region of Jupiter's UV aurorae, called the active region, sometimes exhibits quasi-periodic (QP) flares on time-scales of 2-3 minutes. Based on Hubble Space Telescope Far-UV time-tag images, we show for the first time that the northern hemisphere also displays QP-flares. The area covered by these flares can reach up to 2.4 × 108 km2 (i.e. the whole active region), but often only involves an area an order of magnitude smaller. Using a magnetic field mapping model, we deduced that these areas correspond to the dayside outer magnetosphere. In our dataset, quasi-periodic features are only seen on half of the cases and even on a given observation, a region can be quiet for one half and blinking on the other half. Consecutive observations in the two hemispheres show that the brightening can occur in phase. Combined with the size and location of the flares, this behaviour suggests that the QP-flares most likely take place on closed magnetic field lines. [less ▲]

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See detailAging Processes in Lithiated FeSn2 Based Negative Electrode for Li-ion Batteries: a New Challenge for Tin Based Intermetallic Materials
chamas, mohamad; Mahmoud, Abdelfattah ULg; Tang, Junlei et al

in Journal of Physical Chemistry C (2016)

Tin based intermetallic compounds proposed as negative electrode materials for Li-ion batteries not only suffer from capacity fade during cycling due to volume variations but also from aging phenomena in ... [more ▼]

Tin based intermetallic compounds proposed as negative electrode materials for Li-ion batteries not only suffer from capacity fade during cycling due to volume variations but also from aging phenomena in lithiated states. By using FeSn2 as a model compound, we propose an analysis of this process by combining electrochemical potential measurements, 119Sn and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopies, magnetic measurements and impedance spectroscopy. We show that the Fe/Li7Sn2 composite obtained at the end of the first discharge is progressively transformed during the aging process occurring within the electrochemical cell in open circuit condition. The Fe nanoparticles are stable while the Li7Sn2 nanoparticles are progressively delithiated with time leading to Sn-rich LixSn nano-alloys without observable back reaction with Fe. The deinserted lithium atoms react with the electrolyte and modify the surface electrode interphase (SEI) by increasing its thickness and/or decreasing its porosity [less ▲]

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See detailLa reconnaissance des génocides et la répression du négationnisme
Grandjean, Geoffrey ULg

in Courrier Hebdomadaire du CRISP (2016), 2304-2305

La reconnaissance politique d’un génocide et la répression de la négation de celui-ci représentent deux enjeux d’une grande importance symbolique. Surtout, elles constituent un exercice très délicat pour ... [more ▼]

La reconnaissance politique d’un génocide et la répression de la négation de celui-ci représentent deux enjeux d’une grande importance symbolique. Surtout, elles constituent un exercice très délicat pour l’autorité politique qui pose de tels actes. Il s’agit en effet de consacrer une vérité historique et de dicter le souvenir qui doit en être véhiculé. L’intervention d’une instance politique dans le champ de l’histoire et de la mémoire est toujours entourée de nombreux débats. Les discussions, souvent vives, portent sur diverses questions. Le principe d’une action législative dans un tel domaine est-il recevable et pertinent ? Quelle définition de « génocide » convient-il d’adopter ? La répression du négationnisme est-elle de nature à justifier une limitation de la liberté d’expression ? Si oui, dans quelle mesure cette restriction s’applique-t-elle aussi aux chercheurs ? Lorsqu’il s’agit d’événements historiques relatifs à un autre État, faut-il faire primer l’éthique et la morale sur la diplomatie ? Les réponses à ces interrogations fondamentales se cristallisent dans des lignes de fracture qui échappent aux clivages partisans classiques. En Belgique, les initiatives de reconnaissance des crimes de génocide et de pénalisation de leur négation sont le fait des deux chambres du Parlement fédéral. Elles ont abouti à diverses dispositions législatives, telles la loi réprimant la négation du génocide commis par le régime nazi à l’encontre des Juifs pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale (1995), une résolution relative au génocide perpétré par l’Empire ottoman à l’encontre des Arméniens en 1915 (1998), une résolution sur le génocide des Tutsis au Rwanda en 1994 (2004) et une résolution relative à la commémoration du centenaire du génocide arménien (2015). G. Grandjean retrace et éclaire l’ensemble des débats parlementaires qui se sont tenus en Belgique depuis 1992 autour de la question de la mémoire des crimes de masse. Son Courrier hebdomadaire offre les clés de lecture pour la compréhension des débats en cours quant à une extension de la loi de 1995. [less ▲]

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See detailReplication Errors Made During Oogenesis Lead to Detectable De Novo mtDNA Mutations in Zebrafish Oocytes with a Low mtDNA Copy Number.
Otten, Auke B. C.; Stassen, Alphons P. M.; Adriaens, Michiel et al

in Genetics (2016), 204(4), 1423-1431

Of all pathogenic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in humans, ~25% is de novo, although the occurrence in oocytes has never been directly assessed. We used next generation sequencing to detect point ... [more ▼]

Of all pathogenic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in humans, ~25% is de novo, although the occurrence in oocytes has never been directly assessed. We used next generation sequencing to detect point mutations directly in the mtDNA of 3-15 individual mature oocytes and three somatic tissues from eight zebrafish females. Various statistical and biological filters allowed reliable detection of de novo variants with heteroplasmy >/=1.5%. In total, we detected 38 de novo base substitutions, but no insertions or deletions. These 38 de novo mutations were present in 19 of 103 mature oocytes, indicating that ~20% of the mature oocytes carry at least one de novo mutation with heteroplasmy >/=1.5%. This frequency of de novo mutations is close to that deducted from the reported error rate of polymerase gamma, the mitochondrial replication enzyme, implying that mtDNA replication errors made during oogenesis are a likely explanation. Substantial variation in the mutation prevalence among mature oocytes can be explained by the highly variable mtDNA copy number, since we previously reported that ~20% of the primordial germ cells have a mtDNA copy number of </=73 and would lead to detectable mutation loads. In conclusion, replication errors made during oogenesis are an important source of de novo mtDNA base substitutions and their location and heteroplasmy level determine their significance. [less ▲]

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See detailIn-depth study of 16CygB using inversion techniques
Buldgen, Gaël ULg; Salmon, Sébastien ULg; Reese, D. R. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 596

Context. The 16Cyg binary system hosts the solar-like Kepler targets with the most stringent observational constraints. Indeed, we benefit from very high quality oscillation spectra, as well as ... [more ▼]

Context. The 16Cyg binary system hosts the solar-like Kepler targets with the most stringent observational constraints. Indeed, we benefit from very high quality oscillation spectra, as well as spectroscopic and interferometric observations. Moreover, this system is particularly interesting since both stars are very similar in mass but the A component is orbited by a red dwarf, whereas the B component is orbited by a Jovian planet and thus could have formed a more complex planetary system. In our previous study, we showed that seismic inversions of integrated quantities could be used to constrain microscopic diffusion in the A component. In this study, we analyse the B component in the light of a more regularised inversion. <BR /> Aims: We wish to analyse independently the B component of the 16Cyg binary system using the inversion of an indicator dedicated to analyse core conditions, denoted t[SUB]u[/SUB]. Using this independent determination, we wish to analyse any differences between both stars due to the potential influence of planetary formation on stellar structure and/or their respective evolution. <BR /> Methods: First, we recall the observational constraints for 16CygB and the method we used to generate reference stellar models of this star. We then describe how we improved the inversion and how this approach could be used for future targets with a sufficient number of observed frequencies. The inversion results were then used to analyse the differences between the A and B components. <BR /> Results: The inversion of the t[SUB]u[/SUB] indicator for 16CygB shows a disagreement with models including microscopic diffusion and sharing the chemical composition previously derived for 16CygA. We show that small changes in chemical composition are insufficient to solve the problem but that extra mixing can account for the differences seen between both stars. We use a parametric approach to analyse the impact of extra mixing in the form of turbulent diffusion on the behaviour of the t[SUB]u[/SUB] values. We conclude on the necessity of further investigations using models with a physically motivated implementation of extra mixing processes including additional constraints to further improve the accuracy with which the fundamental parameters of this system are determined. [less ▲]

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See detailWASP-157b, a Transiting Hot Jupiter Observed with K2
Močnik, T.; Anderson, D. R.; Brown, D. J. A. et al

in Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (2016), 970

We announce the discovery of the transiting hot Jupiter WASP-157b in a 3.95-d orbit around a V = 12.9 G2 main-sequence star. This moderately inflated planet has a Saturn-like density with a mass of $0.57 ... [more ▼]

We announce the discovery of the transiting hot Jupiter WASP-157b in a 3.95-d orbit around a V = 12.9 G2 main-sequence star. This moderately inflated planet has a Saturn-like density with a mass of $0.57 \pm 0.10$ M$_{\rm Jup}$ and a radius of $1.06 \pm 0.05$ R$_{\rm Jup}$. We do not detect any rotational or phase-curve modulations, nor the secondary eclipse, with conservative semi-amplitude upper limits of 250 and 20 ppm, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailWASP-92b, WASP-93b and WASP-118b: Three new transiting close-in giant planets
Hay, K. L.; Collier-Cameron, A.; Doyle, A. P. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2016), 463

We present the discovery of three new transiting giant planets, first detected with the WASP telescopes, and establish their planetary nature with follow up spectroscopy and ground-based photometric ... [more ▼]

We present the discovery of three new transiting giant planets, first detected with the WASP telescopes, and establish their planetary nature with follow up spectroscopy and ground-based photometric lightcurves. WASP-92 is an F7 star, with a moderately inflated planet orbiting with a period of 2.17 days, which has R[SUB]p[/SUB] = 1.461 ± 0.077R[SUB]J[/SUB] and M[SUB]p[/SUB] = 0.805 ± 0.068M[SUB]J[/SUB]. WASP-93b orbits its F4 host star every 2.73 days and has R[SUB]p[/SUB] = 1.597 ± 0.077R[SUB]J[/SUB] and M[SUB]p[/SUB] = 1.47 ± 0.029M[SUB]J[/SUB]. WASP-118b also has a hot host star (F6) and is moderately inflated, where R[SUB]p[/SUB] = 1.440 ± 0.036R[SUB]J[/SUB] and M[SUB]p[/SUB] = 0.514 ± 0.020M[SUB]J[/SUB] and the planet has an orbital period of 4.05 days. They are bright targets (V = 13.18, 10.97 and 11.07 respectively) ideal for further characterisation work, particularly WASP-118b, which is being observed by K2 as part of campaign 8. The WASP-93 system has sufficient angular momentum to be tidally migrating outwards if the system is near spin-orbit alignment, which is divergent from the tidal behaviour of the majority of hot Jupiters discovered. [less ▲]

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See detailKilling it Softly: Girdling as an Efficient Eco-friendly Method to Locally Remove the Invasive Acer negundo
Merceron, Nastasia ULg

in Ecological Restoration (2016), 34(4), 297-305

Acer negundo (boxelder maple) is a North American native tree species that currently invades riparian and disturbed areas in Europe, affecting both bank stability and ecosystem biodiversity. As a response ... [more ▼]

Acer negundo (boxelder maple) is a North American native tree species that currently invades riparian and disturbed areas in Europe, affecting both bank stability and ecosystem biodiversity. As a response to managers’ requests, we aimed at finding an eco-friendly method which would locally remove this species and help habitat restoration. Four control methods were tested on A. negundo adults and saplings from stands located in three experimental sites along different watercourses in Southwestern France: girdling, low cutting, high cutting, and cutting followed by the application of juglone (a natural allelopathic substance from walnut tree leaves). Mortality and resprout production on the treated A. negundo individuals were assessed during two years following the application of the control methods. Girdling was the most efficient method as it significantly induced higher mortality rates compared to the others (65 vs 15% of dead A. negundo two years after treatment administration). When healing emerged on trunks, yearly repeated girdling was required to reach full success. None of the control methods significantly reduced resprout production; not even the application of juglone. Girdling is the most recommended method to kill and remove A. negundo at a local scale in invaded natural habitats. Considering that A. negundo benefits from increases in light availability to outcompete native species, we further recommend removing seedlings from understories when applying girdling on adult and sapling individuals in order to optimize restoration conditions in natural stands and improve native species re-establishment. [less ▲]

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See detailLarge neighborhood search for multi-trip vehicle routing
François, Véronique ULg; Arda, Yasemin ULg; Crama, Yves ULg et al

in European Journal of Operational Research (2016), 255(2), 422-441

We consider the multi-trip vehicle routing problem, in which each vehicle can perform several routes during the same working shift to serve a set of customers. The problem arises when customers are close ... [more ▼]

We consider the multi-trip vehicle routing problem, in which each vehicle can perform several routes during the same working shift to serve a set of customers. The problem arises when customers are close to each other or when their demands are large. A common approach consists of solving this problem by combining vehicle routing heuristics with bin packing routines in order to assign routes to vehicles. We compare this approach with a heuristic that makes use of specific operators designed to tackle the routing and the assignment aspects of the problem simultaneously. Two large neighborhood search heuristics are proposed to perform the comparison. We provide insights into the configuration of the proposed algorithms by analyzing the behavior of several of their components. In particular, we question the impact of the roulette wheel mechanism. We also observe that guiding the search with an objective function designed for the multi-trip case is crucial even when exploring the solution space of the vehicle routing problem. We provide several best known solutions for benchmark instances. [less ▲]

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See detailSpeckle Metrology
Mendoza Santoyo, Fernando; Georges, Marc ULg; Lehmann, Peter et al

in Optical Engineering : The Journal of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (2016), 55(12), 121701

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See detailPolyphosphoesters: new trends in synthesis and drug delivery applications
Ergül, Zeynep ULg; Jérôme, Christine ULg

in Macromolecular Bioscience (2016), 16(12), 1745-1761

Polymers with repeating phosphoester linkages in the backbone are biodegradable materials that emerge as a promising class of novel biomaterials, especially in the field of drug delivery systems. In ... [more ▼]

Polymers with repeating phosphoester linkages in the backbone are biodegradable materials that emerge as a promising class of novel biomaterials, especially in the field of drug delivery systems. In contrast to aliphatic polyesters, the pentavalency of the phosphorus atom offers a large diversity of structures and as a consequence a wide range of properties for these mate- rials. In this paper, it is focused on the synthesis of well-defined polyphosphoesters (PPEs) by organocatalyzed ring-opening polymerization, improving the functionalities by combination with click reactions, degrada- tion of functional PPEs and their cytotoxicity, and inputs for applications in drug delivery. [less ▲]

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See detailUne approche psychocriminologique de la radicalisation : le modèle de «transformation cognitivo-affective de la définition de soi et de la construction du sens dans l’engagement radical violent»
Garcet, Serge ULg

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2016), 3

La question de la radicalisation violente renvoie à un champ de recherches transdisciplinaire qui nécessite d’articuler les niveaux micro, méso et macro d’analyse. Dans cette perspective, après avoir ... [more ▼]

La question de la radicalisation violente renvoie à un champ de recherches transdisciplinaire qui nécessite d’articuler les niveaux micro, méso et macro d’analyse. Dans cette perspective, après avoir interrogé la place faite aux variables individuelles dans les principaux modèles explicatifs du processus de radicalisation, l’article envisage comment la capacité d’autodétermination du sujet et sa capacité à agir sur lui-même autant que sur son environnement transforment progressivement les cognitions et nourrissent la motivation à s’engager. Les principes de cette interaction complexe entre la personne et son environnement sont synthétisés dans le modèle original de «transformation cognitivo-affective de la définition de soi et de la construction du sens dans l’engagement radical violent ». [less ▲]

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See detailL’impact des connaissances sémantiques préexistantes en mémoire associative dans le vieillissement normal
Folville, Adrien ULg; Delhaye, Emma ULg; Bastin, Christine ULg

in Revue de Neuropsychologie, Neurosciences Cognitives et Cliniques (2016), 8(4), 253-260

The formation of a global and complex episodic memory requires memory for single units of information of the target event but also binding these elements together. This binding capacity diminishes in ... [more ▼]

The formation of a global and complex episodic memory requires memory for single units of information of the target event but also binding these elements together. This binding capacity diminishes in healthy aging leading to a so-called associative memory deficit. Interestingly, when support is provided during encoding thanks to semantic prior-knowledge (e.g., semantically related word pairs), this associative deficit can be alleviated. The aim of the present review is to summarize the current literature about the influence of prior-knowledge on associative memory performance in healthy aging. Through an analysis of the procedures that have been used in associative memory studies, we suggest two factors that appear to modulate the impact of prior knowledge on older adults’ associative memory. First, the way word pairs are recombined from the encoding to the retrieval phase is the main factor that has to be taken into account. Conditions that promote recall-to-reject discrimination processes lead to similar performance in older compared to younger adults, whereas conditions that require recollection discrimination lead to an age-related decline. Second, the nature of the semantic relations involved in the prior-knowledge support may influence older adults’ performance by modulating the contribution of recollection and familiarity to recognition. Indeed, categorical semantic relations engage both recollection and familiarity-based discrimination, whereas thematic relations allow participants to rely on familiarity-based discrimination only. This latest observation is crucial when one considers recollection as a declining process, in contrast to familiarity, which remains spared in healthy aging. Therefore, future studies should explore the propensity of other semantic relations to alleviate the age-related associative memory decline. [less ▲]

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See detailPulsations of the polar cusp aurora at Saturn
Palmaerts, Benjamin ULg; Radioti, Aikaterini ULg; Roussos, E. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics (2016), 121

The magnetospheric cusp is a region connecting the interplanetary environment to the ionosphere and enabling solar wind particles to reach the ionosphere. We report the detection of several isolated high ... [more ▼]

The magnetospheric cusp is a region connecting the interplanetary environment to the ionosphere and enabling solar wind particles to reach the ionosphere. We report the detection of several isolated high-latitude auroral emissions with the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph of the Cassini spacecraft. We suggest that these auroral spots, located in the dawn-to-noon sector and poleward of the main emission, are the ionospheric signatures of the magnetospheric cusp, in agreement with some previous observations with the Hubble Space Telescope. The high-latitude cusp auroral signature has been associated with high-latitude lobe reconnection in the presence of a southward interplanetary magnetic field. The occurrence rate of the polar cusp aurora suggests that lobe reconnection is frequent at Saturn. Several auroral imaging sequences reveal a quasiperiodic brightening of the polar cusp aurora with a period in the range of 60 to 70 min. Similar pulsations in the energetic electron fluxes and in the azimuthal component of the magnetic field are simultaneously observed by Cassini instruments, suggesting the presence of field-aligned currents. Pulsed dayside magnetopause reconnection is a likely common triggering process for the cusp auroral brightenings at Saturn and the quasiperiodic pulsations in the high-latitude energetic electron fluxes. [less ▲]

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See detailFacilitators and barriers for the adoption, implementation and monitoring of child safety interventions: a multinational qualitative analysis.
Scholtes, Béatrice ULg; Schroder-Back, Peter; MacKay, J. Morag et al

in Injury prevention : journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention (2016)

The efficiency and effectiveness of child safety interventions are determined by the quality of the implementation process. This multinational European study aimed to identify facilitators and barriers ... [more ▼]

The efficiency and effectiveness of child safety interventions are determined by the quality of the implementation process. This multinational European study aimed to identify facilitators and barriers for the three phases of implementation: adoption, implementation and monitoring (AIM process). Twenty-seven participants from across the WHO European Region were invited to provide case studies of child safety interventions from their country. Cases were selected by the authors to ensure broad coverage of injury issues, age groups and governance level of implementation (eg, national, regional or local). Each participant presented their case and provided a written account according to a standardised template. Presentations and question and answer sessions were recorded. The presentation slides, written accounts and the notes taken during the workshops were analysed using thematic content analysis to elicit facilitators and barriers. Twenty-six cases (from 26 different countries) were presented and analysed. Facilitators and barriers were identified within eight general themes, applicable across the AIM process: management and collaboration; resources; leadership; nature of the intervention; political, social and cultural environment; visibility; nature of the injury problem and analysis and interpretation. The importance of the quality of the implementation process for intervention effectiveness, coupled with limited resources for child safety makes it more difficult to achieve successful actions. The findings of this study, divided by phase of the AIM process, provide practitioners with practical suggestions, where proactive planning might help increase the likelihood of effective implementation. [less ▲]

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See detailCross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) questionnaire on lateral elbow tendinopathy for French-speaking patients
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; DELVAUX, François ULg; SCHAUS, Jean ULg et al

in Journal of Hand Therapy (2016), 29(4), 496-504

Background: The lateral elbow tendinopathy is a common injury in tennis players and physical workers. The Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) questionnaire was specifically designed to measure ... [more ▼]

Background: The lateral elbow tendinopathy is a common injury in tennis players and physical workers. The Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) questionnaire was specifically designed to measure pain and functional limitations in patients with lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow). First developed in English, this questionnaire has since been translated into several languages. Objectives: The aims of the study were to translate and cross-culturally adapt the PRTEE questionnaire into French and to evaluate the reliability and validity of this translated version of the questionnaire (PRTEE-F). Methods: The PRTEE was translated and cross-culturally adapted into French according to international guidelines. To assess the reliability and validity of the PRTEE-F, 115 participants were asked twice to fill in the PRTEE-F, and once the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (DASH) and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Internal consistency (using Cronbach’s alpha), test-retest reliability (using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), Standard Error of Measurement (SEM) and Minimal Detectable Change (MDC)), and convergent and divergent validity (using the Spearman’s correlation coefficients respectively with the DASH and with some sub scales of the SF-36) were assessed. Results: The PRTEE was translated into French without any problems. PRTEE-F showed a good test-retest reliability for the overall score (ICC 0.86) and for each item (ICC 0.8-0.96) and a high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.98). The correlation analyses revealed high correlation coefficients between PRTEE-F and DASH (convergent validity) and, as expected, a low or moderate correlation with the divergent subscales of the SF-36 (discriminant validity). There was no floor or ceiling effect. Conclusions: The PRTEE questionnaire was successfully cross-culturally adapted into French. The PRTEE-F is reliable and valid for evaluating French-speaking patients with lateral elbow tendinopathy. [less ▲]

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See detail'Migrations Environnementales? Ramener le politique au coeur du débat'
Vigil Diaz Telenti, Sara ULg

in Cités : Philosophie, Politique, Histoire (2016), 68

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See detailCan regional blocs (still) talk with each other? The Euro-Mercosur relationship
Santander, Sébastian ULg

in World Affairs (2016), 2/33 (459)

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See detailQui a peur du style en sociologie de la littérature ?
Stienon, Valérie ULg; Dessy, Clément; van Nuijs, Laurence

in COnTEXTES : Revue de Sociologie de la Littérature (2016), 18

Une certaine idée romantique du style a contribué, depuis le début du XIXe siècle, à développer une conception singularisante du style, qui associe celui-ci à l'expression d'une originalité de l'individu ... [more ▼]

Une certaine idée romantique du style a contribué, depuis le début du XIXe siècle, à développer une conception singularisante du style, qui associe celui-ci à l'expression d'une originalité de l'individu écrivant. Que faire alors de cette conception de la singularité en sociologie de la littérature, discipline qui privilégie l’explication par le collectif et s’attache à situer chaque pratique dans le tout social ? Comment retrouver les traces de l’individu social dans la matière verbale ou la trace écrite qu’il produit ? L’expression et la saisie d’une subjectivité, censées être le propre du style, sont-elles objectivables ? Dans quelle mesure les styles peuvent-ils rencontrer les dynamiques collectives ? Cet article propose un état de la question et quelques pistes méthodologiques à la lumière des approches sociales du littéraire. [less ▲]

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See detailFondations, philanthropie et mécénat
Vandenbulke, Antoine ULg

in Revue Pratique des Sociétés - Tijdschrift voor Rechtspersoon en Vennootschap (2016), 7

The aim of this paper is to provide an in-depth presentation of the legal aspects of foundations in its philanthropic function. The study introduces historically this legal structure and then exposes its ... [more ▼]

The aim of this paper is to provide an in-depth presentation of the legal aspects of foundations in its philanthropic function. The study introduces historically this legal structure and then exposes its main aspects in positive Belgian law (constitution, increase of the assets, taxation and dissolution). It concludes with a comparison with French law. [less ▲]

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See detailRéforme du bonus logement et instauration du Chèque habitat en Wallonie
Voisin, Fanny ULg

in Les Echos du Logement (2016), 118

Description technique de la réforme du bonus logement entreprise en Région wallonne pour les contrats d’emprunt hypothécaire conclus au plus tard le 31 décembre 2015 et pour les contrats d’emprunt ... [more ▼]

Description technique de la réforme du bonus logement entreprise en Région wallonne pour les contrats d’emprunt hypothécaire conclus au plus tard le 31 décembre 2015 et pour les contrats d’emprunt hypothécaire conclus à partir du 1er janvier 2016. [less ▲]

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See detailNotes sur les puces (Siphonaptera) dans la région de Py et Mantet (Pyrénées-Orientales): présence d'Amphipsylla sibirica sepifera et Callopsylla saxatilis
Libois, Roland ULg; Feliu, Carlos

in Bulletin de la Société Royale Belge d'Entomologie = Bulletin van de Koninklijke Belgische Vereniging voor Entomologie (2016), 152(2), 128-132

327 fleas were collected in the fur of small mammals from Py and Mantet (Pyrénées- Orientales). Fiftheen species were identified with Leptopsylla taschenbergi amitina as the most common (42% of catches ... [more ▼]

327 fleas were collected in the fur of small mammals from Py and Mantet (Pyrénées- Orientales). Fiftheen species were identified with Leptopsylla taschenbergi amitina as the most common (42% of catches) and Ctenophthalmus spp. were slightly less common (25%) (C. baeticus arvernus and C. nobilis dobyi). These fleas were found in all stations from the bridge of the Rotja valley (900 m) to the pass of Mantet (1780 m). Three rare species were identified: Amphipsylla sibirica sepifera (2 ex.) on the pass of Mantet (1780 m), first time on the north side of the Pyrenees, Callopsylla saxatilis at Collada Verde (2320m) and Amalareus penicilliger pyrenaicus at the pass of Mantet, the screes of Mantet (1615 m) and Collada Verde. [less ▲]

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See detailAncient Egyptian texts in contexts. Towards a conceptual data model (the Thot Data Model - TDM)
Polis, Stéphane ULg; Razanajao, Vincent ULg

in Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies (2016), 59(2), 24-41

In this paper, we propose a conceptual data model that could be the basis for future implementations of databases and digital corpuses of Ancient Egyptian texts that fully integrate the material ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we propose a conceptual data model that could be the basis for future implementations of databases and digital corpuses of Ancient Egyptian texts that fully integrate the material dimensions of writing. The types of metadata that can be used for documenting the elements and relationships of this model are discussed and the resources (URIs) available for its online implementation (in the perspective of the ‘linked open data’ movement) are examined. [less ▲]

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See detailDigital holographic interferometry in the long-wave infrared and temporal phase unwrapping for measuring large deformations and rigid body motions of segmented space detector in cryogenic test (invited paper)
Vandenrijt, Jean-François ULg; Thizy, Cédric ULg; Martin, Laurent et al

in Optical Engineering : The Journal of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (2016), 55(12), 121723

We present digital holographic interferometry in the long-wave infrared for monitoring the deformation under cryogenic conditions of a segmented focal plane array (FPA) to be used in a space mission. The ... [more ▼]

We present digital holographic interferometry in the long-wave infrared for monitoring the deformation under cryogenic conditions of a segmented focal plane array (FPA) to be used in a space mission. The long wavelength was chosen for its ability to allow measurement of displacements 20 times larger than DHI in the visible and which were foreseen with the test object under large temperature variations. The latter is a mosaic of 4×4 detectors assembled on a frame. DHI was required to assess the global deformation of the assembly, the deformation of each detector, and piston movements of each of them with respect to their neighbors. For that reason we incorporated the temporal phase unwrapping by capturing a sufficiently high number of holograms between which the phase does not undergo large variations. At last, since the specimen exhibits specular reflectivity at that wavelength, it is illuminated by means of a reflective diffuser. [less ▲]

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See detailL’« ordre géométrique » et le dispositif argumentatif des Méditations métaphysiques de René Descartes
Dubouclez, Olivier ULg

in Revue d'Histoire des Sciences (2016), 69(2), 255-278

Summary : Although nothing shows at first sight that the Metaphysical meditations are built in accordance with a mathematical model, Des- cartes’ claim to have followed the « mos geometricus » invites us ... [more ▼]

Summary : Although nothing shows at first sight that the Metaphysical meditations are built in accordance with a mathematical model, Des- cartes’ claim to have followed the « mos geometricus » invites us to pass over that first impression and to reconsider the Cartesian art of medita- tion. Descartes’ main letters of 1640 (where he describes and also criti- cizes his metaphysical method) along with the last pages of the Second replies of 1641 reveal indeed a mathematical pattern of argumentation based on the classical notion of geometrical analysis. But, if analysis plays an active role in the realization of the « order of reasons » within the context of hyperbolic doubt, its is deeply transformed by Descartes and amounts to a combination of two argumentative tools, namely sup- position and enumeration, which are common to geometry and meta- physics. This article suggests in which sense the very method of Cartesian metaphysics, while not following a strictly linear « chain of reasons », can be genuinely said geometrical. [less ▲]

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See detailSurfactant instillation in spontaneously breathing preterm infants: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
RIGO, Vincent ULg; LEFEBVRE, Caroline ULg; BROUX, Isabelle ULg

in European Journal of Pediatrics (2016), 175(12), 1933-1942

Less invasive surfactant therapies (LIST) use surfactant instillation through a thin tracheal catheter in spontaneously breathing infants. This review and meta-analysis investigates respiratory outcomes ... [more ▼]

Less invasive surfactant therapies (LIST) use surfactant instillation through a thin tracheal catheter in spontaneously breathing infants. This review and meta-analysis investigates respiratory outcomes for preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome treated with LIST rather than administration of surfactant through an endotracheal tube. Randomised controlled trial (RCT) full texts provided outcome data for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), death or BPD, early CPAP failure, invasive ventilation requirements and usual neonatal morbidities. Relative risks (RR) from pooled data, with subgroup analyses, were obtained from a Mantel-Haenszel analysis using a random effect model. Six RCTs evaluated LIST: 4 vs InSurE and 1 each vs delayed or immediate intubation for surfactant. LIST resulted in decreased risks of BPD (RR = 0.71 [0.52-0.99]; NNT = 21), death or BPD (RR = 0.74 [0.58-0.94]; NNT = 15) and early CPAP failure or invasive ventilation requirements (RR = 0.67 [0.53-0.84]; NNT = 8 and RR = 0.69 [0.53-0.88]; NNT = 6). Compared to InSurE, LIST decreased the risks of BPD or death (RR = 0.63 [0.44-0.92]; NNT = 11) and of early CPAP failure (RR = 0.71 [0.53-0.96]; NNT = 11). Common neonatal morbidities were not different. CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory management with LIST decreases the risks of BPD and BPD or death, and the need for invasive ventilation. This strategy appears safe, but long-term follow-up is lacking. WHAT IS KNOWN: • Initial management of preterm infants with CPAP decreases the risk of death or BPD, but many still require surfactant or invasive ventilation. • Surfactant can be instilled through a tracheal thin catheter while the infant breathes on CPAP, but improvement in BPD is inconsistent between studies. What is New: • Less invasive surfactant therapy (LIST) strategies decrease the risks of BPD, of death or BPD, and of CPAP failure compared to strategies where surfactant is administered through an endotracheal tube. • LIST strategies decrease the risks of the composite outcome of BPD or death and of early CPAP failure when compared to "intubation-surfactant-extubation" approaches. [less ▲]

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See detailTrophic specializations of damselfishes are tightly associated with reef habitats and social behaviours
Gajdzik, Laura ULg; Parmentier, Eric ULg; Sturaro, Nicolas ULg et al

in Marine Biology (2016), 163

Despite the increasing need to understand factors shaping community assembly, few studies have simultaneously explored the influence of niche-based and phylogenetic processes. Here, we investigate the ... [more ▼]

Despite the increasing need to understand factors shaping community assembly, few studies have simultaneously explored the influence of niche-based and phylogenetic processes. Here, we investigate the relationships between diet, habitat and social behaviour in damselfishes (Pomacentridae) collected in 2014 at Moorea Island (17°30′S, 149°50′W), French Polynesia. Isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen, in association with stomach contents, delineate three trophic groups: pelagic feeders consuming zooplankton, benthic feeders mainly grazing on algae and an intermediate group feeding on prey from the whole bentho-pelagic compartment. Sulphur isotope ratios indicate segregation between species of the outer reef mostly depending on oceanic input of zooplankton and the lagoonal species relying on locally produced resources or even on terrestrial supply. We demonstrate a tight association between dietary specializations, habitat characteristics and social behaviours, and these correlations are further confirmed by integrating the phylogeny of Pomacentridae. We also provide evidence of phylogenetic conservatism for the stomach content and the habitat–behaviour characters. However, the isotopic trait is evolutionarily more labile probably because it thoroughly depicts the ecological niche of species. To summarize, pelagic feeders (mainly from the Chrominae) usually form shoals in areas close to the open ocean at a maximum depth of 20 m. Benthic feeders (well represented in the Stegastinae) are ubiquitous, solitary and mostly territorial species found at various depths. The intermediate group includes gregarious species from three subfamilies that forage in the lagoon usually above 12 m depth. Overall, we give insight into processes that have structured the damselfish community in Moorea. [less ▲]

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See detailEffectiveness of pheromone traps against Tuta absoluta
Ettaib, Refki; Belkadhi Mohamed, Sadok; Ben Belgacem, Ali et al

in Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies (2016), 4(6)

In the Tunisian south, the heated greenhouses are an important axis of development of agriculture thanks to the big geothermal potential of this zone. Currently, this sector suffers from several ... [more ▼]

In the Tunisian south, the heated greenhouses are an important axis of development of agriculture thanks to the big geothermal potential of this zone. Currently, this sector suffers from several phytosanitary problems. In the last years, a new insect, Tuta absoluta, threaten the cultures of cultivated tomatoes in heated greenhouses. To improve control of T. absoluta, the effectiveness of pheromone traps (associated or not with a source of light) and luminous traps (associated or not with water, with limed buckets for limed covers) were compared. The results show that the traps with pheromones significantly catch more adults of T. absoluta compared to all the other types of traps (average number of trapped adults of T. absoluta = 73.4 (± 142)). The luminous traps associated with water, with limed buckets as with limed covers show, as for them, an intermediate effectiveness. In spite of this slightly less effectiveness, the luminous traps have the advantage of low costs of production as well as the advantage of simultaneously capturing males and females of T. absoluta. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact de l’érosion sur l’envasement des barrages, la recharge des nappes phréatiques côtières et les intrusions marines dans la zone semi-aride méditerranéenne : cas du barrage de Boukourdane (Algérie)
Tadrist, Nassima ULg; Debauche, Olivier

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment (2016), 20(4), 453-467

Description of the subject. Water erosion is a particularly important issue, especially in the Mediterranean and semi-arid zone. This zone is characterized by irregular rainfall patterns, which have a ... [more ▼]

Description of the subject. Water erosion is a particularly important issue, especially in the Mediterranean and semi-arid zone. This zone is characterized by irregular rainfall patterns, which have a considerable influence on soil loss. In mountainous areas, water erosion phenomena are accentuated by steep slopes and low ground cover. The dams draining these areas undergound siltation linked to significant erosion. The silting of the dams drastically limits their capacity and thus their operating life. When used for recharging aquifers, the resuspension of fine particles may accumulate in the recharge areas and reduce infiltration capacity by clogging soil porosity. This leads to a significant reduction of groundwater levels. Additionally, groundwater situated in the coastal zone is submitted to intensive pumping. These two phenomena make groundwater particularly sensitive to marine intrusions. Objectives. This article aims, on the one hand to quantify the rate of siltation in the case of the Boukourdane dam (northern Algeria), which is used to recharge groundwater. On the other hand, the article also shows the reduction in permeability in the capturing field with the current management of releases. Method. Solid rates were set in relation to the liquid flow and sediment concentration occasionally taken from the wadi. The relation established made it possible to evaluate the solid contributions to the dam of Boukourdane. The impact of the releases on recharging the well field was evaluated by grouping wells and the well field mushrooms using heuristic k-means. Regressions were applied to the piezometric variations of each group. Results. This dam is fed by a catchment area of 156 km². Sediment transport was estimated from empirical formulas. The specific degradation rate was estimated at 366 t.km-2.year-1 during the 1993 to 2005 period. The increase in the frequency of extreme rainfall resulted in an increase in the soil erosion rate to 446 t.km-2.year-1 during the 1993 to 2013 period. The volume of sediments accumulated in the dam reached 8.104 m³.year-1 and 11.104 m³.year-1 respectively during these two periods. Conclusions. A change in the management of current releases has a positive impact on the partial restoration of the hydraulic conductivity and de facto, on the fight against marine intrusion. [less ▲]

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See detailNutritional Composition and Rearing Potential of the Meadow Grasshopper (Chorthippus parallelus Zetterstedt)
Paul, Aman ULg; Frederich, Michel ULg; Uyttenbroeck, Roel ULg et al

in Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology (2016), 19(4), 1111-1116

Insects, particularly those belonging to the family Acrididae (grasshoppers), are commonly consumed as human food in many parts of the world. Grasshoppers of the species Chorthippus parallelus are ... [more ▼]

Insects, particularly those belonging to the family Acrididae (grasshoppers), are commonly consumed as human food in many parts of the world. Grasshoppers of the species Chorthippus parallelus are abundantly found throughout Europe. However, these insects were not consumed by Europeans till now, but could possibly be used as human food, which is why we investigated their chemical composition. We found that they contain high level of proteins (69%), with an excellent amino acid profile and protein digestibility (97%). Furthermore, specimens of C. parallelus have an interesting fatty acids profile and minerals composition. Preliminary toxicity assessment indicates that these insects do not exhibit toxicity towards neutrophil cells (white blood cells). These data suggest that C. parallelus could be considered for human consumption. Rearing trials done during the study show that commercial rearing could be developed to produce sufficient biomass for sustaining human consumption. [less ▲]

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See detailIncentives and barriers to environmental inequality mobilization: A case-study analysis in Wallonia, Belgium
Lejeune, Zoé ULg; Teller, Jacques ULg

in Environmental Science and Policy (2016), 66

Environmental inequality scholarship has sought to shed light on the unequal environmental conditions borne by poor people and racial minorities, and to challenge public policies. Most studies are ... [more ▼]

Environmental inequality scholarship has sought to shed light on the unequal environmental conditions borne by poor people and racial minorities, and to challenge public policies. Most studies are concerned either with assessing the unequal distribution of environmental amenities and disamenities or with exploring the theoretical foundations of environmental justice movements. We propose an original approach to environmental inequality, focused not only on the unequal distribution of environmental burdens but also on two other types of factors: the capacity to mobilize and engage in community organizations on the one hand and the spatial dimension of environmental inequalities on the other. The evidence for this study is from an opinion survey carried out in 2012 with 1298 individuals. We use a two-step cluster analysis method to compute a classification system based on four categories of variables: socio-economic, environmental, spatial, and social capital. [less ▲]

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See detailLes complexes œstrogéniques sélectifs tissulaires : un scoop ou un flop ?
BELIARD, Aude ULg

in Références en Gynécologie Obstétrique (2016), 17(1), 26-29

The controversy surrounding the benefits and risks associated with hormone replacement therapy with combined estrogen and progestin induces the development of new therapies avoiding progestin and its side ... [more ▼]

The controversy surrounding the benefits and risks associated with hormone replacement therapy with combined estrogen and progestin induces the development of new therapies avoiding progestin and its side effects. The tissue selective estrogen complexes pair the positive effect of estrogen with selective estrogen receptor modulator which allows endometrial and breast protection. [less ▲]

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See detailValidity and reliability of the French translation of the VISA-A questionnaire for Achilles tendinopathy
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Delvaux, François ULg; Oppong-Kyei, Julian et al

in Disability & Rehabilitation (2016), 38(26), 2593-2599

Purpose The Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment – Achilles tendinopathy questionnaire (VISA-A) evaluates the clinical severity of Achilles tendinopathy. The aim of this study was to translate the VISA ... [more ▼]

Purpose The Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment – Achilles tendinopathy questionnaire (VISA-A) evaluates the clinical severity of Achilles tendinopathy. The aim of this study was to translate the VISA-A into French and to study the reliability and validity of this French version, the VISA-AF. Method The VISA-A was translated into French to produce the VISA-AF using a validated methodology in six steps. Thereafter, several psychometric properties of this French version such as test–retest reliability, internal consistency, construct validity and floor and ceiling effects were evaluated. Therefore, we recruited 116 subjects, distributed into 3 groups: pathological patients (n¼31), at-risk athletes (n¼63) and healthy people (n¼22). Results The final version of the VISAAF was approved by an expert committee. On a scale ranging from 0 to 100, the average scores of the VISA-AF obtained were 59 (± 18) for the pathological group, 99 (± 1) for the healthy group and 94 (± 7) for the at-risk group. The VISA-AF shows excellent reliability, low correlations with the discriminant subscales of the SF-36 and moderate correlations with the convergent subscales of the SF-36. Conclusions The French version of the VISA-A is equivalent to its original version and is a reliable and valid questionnaire for French-speaking patients with Achilles tendinopathy. [less ▲]

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See detailGuide du chercheur américaniste à Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA
Dauphin, Jean-Christophe ULg

in Nuevo Mundo Nuevos Mundos (2016)

Guide pratique destiné aux chercheurs américanistes.

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See detailApplication of Uncoupled Damage Models to Predict Ductile Fracture in Sheet Metal Blanking
Canales Cardenas, Cristian ULg; Boman, Romain ULg; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg

in Key Engineering Materials (2016), 725

The use of uncoupled damage models has been widely used over the years for the prediction of ductile fracture in engineering applications. Nevertheless, its applicability in the prediction of failure has ... [more ▼]

The use of uncoupled damage models has been widely used over the years for the prediction of ductile fracture in engineering applications. Nevertheless, its applicability in the prediction of failure has been shown to be limited in the wide range of loading conditions encountered in different manufacturing processes. In order to enhance the formulation of former damage models, the Lode angle has been recently used to characterize the stress states along with the stress triaxiality. This new family of damage models has been demonstrated to give excellent results when proportional loading paths are considered, but its efficiency in more complex applications still need further analysis. To this end, a comparative study of former and recently developed uncoupled damage models is performed in this work. The identification of material parameters is done considering simple mechanical tests under different conditions. Then, the models are used to predict the onset and propagation of cracks during blanking, where numerical predictions are compared with experimental results. Finally, the selected damage models presented a remarkable overall performance in the range of clearances under study. [less ▲]

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See detailDix années de droit international humanitaire à l'Université de Liège
Deprez, Christophe ULg; Wery, Marine ULg

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2016), 3

Ce bref texte évoque les dix premières années du projet "Droit international humanitaire" à l'Université de Liège.

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See detailMultidisciplinary management of breast cancer
Leclerc, Anne-France ULg; JERUSALEM, Guy ULg; DEVOS, Martine ULg et al

in Archives of Public Health (2016), 74

Breast cancer, with an increasing incidence, is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women worldwide. The treatments proposed, generally a combination of surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, endocrine ... [more ▼]

Breast cancer, with an increasing incidence, is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women worldwide. The treatments proposed, generally a combination of surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, endocrine therapy and / or targeted therapy, are constantly improving, allowing a reduction in the mortality rate, but they are still causing many side effects, not only early but also late, which leads us to consider the post-cancer period as a chronic condition. Side effects, reviewed in this commentary, may affect physical functions, psychological status, social situation, body composition, well-being and quality of life of the patient. In view of the extent of these areas in which side effects of breast cancer and of its treatments can be found, the supportive care offered at the end of treatment need to be multidisciplinary. Different supportive care interventions may be proposed to the patients such as psychological and behavioral interventions, complementary therapies, diet interventions, physical activity/rehabilitation or also physiotherapy interventions for example, all having shown some beneficial effects in the literature. The benefits of these supportive care interventions are thereby already established and they are described in this article, but others studies will be needed to clearly define indications and most optimal modalities of application to reduce side effects and improve quality of life of patients. [less ▲]

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See detailLa « littératie en santé », avatar creux ou concept dynamisant ?
Henrard, Gilles ULg; Prévost, Marianne

in Santé Conjuguée (2016), 77

Mise en avant comme déterminant de la santé ou comme stratégie d’éducation du patient, la « littératie en santé » est un concept relativement neuf qui suscite beaucoup d’intérêt et dont le champ s’est ... [more ▼]

Mise en avant comme déterminant de la santé ou comme stratégie d’éducation du patient, la « littératie en santé » est un concept relativement neuf qui suscite beaucoup d’intérêt et dont le champ s’est progressivement élargi. Mais faut-il l’adopter sans examiner son sens et ses enjeux ? [less ▲]

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See detailShort-lived subduction and exhumation in Western Papua (Wandamen peninsula): Co-existence of HP and HT metamorphic rocks in a young geodynamic setting
François, Camille ULg; de Sigoyer, Julia; Pubellier, Manuel et al

in Lithos (2016), 266-267

Understanding processes of formation of accretionary wedges requires studying young and well preserved examples. The Lengguru wedge (West Papua) is younger than 10 Myr and is a result of oblique and fast ... [more ▼]

Understanding processes of formation of accretionary wedges requires studying young and well preserved examples. The Lengguru wedge (West Papua) is younger than 10 Myr and is a result of oblique and fast subduction (11cm/yr) of the Bird’s Head (a part of the Australian margin beneath the Melanesian Arc). Thus, the rapid formation of this wedge (actually a Fold and Thrust Belt) may be attributed to a single tectonic event. High pressure (HP) metabasic and metasedimentary rocks have been discovered in the core of the wedge in the Wandamen peninsula. Locally, these rocks are overprinted by migmatization during the decompression. Field relationships indicate that migmatites and anatectic leucogranite crosscut the HP metamorphic rocks. This paper reports characterization of petrology and thermobarometry of metasediments and metabasic samples, all included in a former mélange-type rock association, as well as geochronology of metasediments. Pressure-Temperature (PT) conditions highlight two stages of metamorphism within a small time bracket. In metasediments, a first stage of relatively HP (~13-17 kbar) is observed as attested by a first paragenesis of garnet-kyanite-phengite. Garnet, kyanite and phengite are then destabilized in favor of biotite during the decompression (5-12 kbar and > 550°C). Late fractures filled with chlorite and a second generation of white mica crosscut the foliation (< 7 kbar and 500-600°C). In metabasic rocks, the peak of pressure is reached from 15 to 23 kbar and from 525 to 650°C. Geochronological study was conducted using U-Pb dating (LA-MC-ICPMS) on zircons from the metasedimentary and migmatitic rocks. Some zircon cores often present high Th/U ratio typical for magmatic origin, as confirmed by trace element signature of metasediments, and recorded ages older than 300 Ma, witness of the activity of a volcanic arc on the former margin of the Australian craton. Most others zircons presents a low Th/U ratio attesting their metamorphic origin, confirmed by inclusions of kyanite. The metamorphic zircons are dated between 5.61 ± 0.04 Ma and 8.1 ± 1.1 Ma. These very young metamorphic ages attest for a rapid subduction and exhumation event. [less ▲]

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See detailRéflexion relative à une fiscalité du logement territorialement plus efficiente
Bianchet, Bruno ULg; Copée, Pierre ULg; Xhignesse, Guillaume ULg

in Echos du Logement (2016), 118

Le logement est susceptible d’être frappé par différents impôts, tant au niveau de sa possession que de sa cession. L’ensemble de ces mécanismes apparaît très complexe. De plus, ces dfférentes taxes ... [more ▼]

Le logement est susceptible d’être frappé par différents impôts, tant au niveau de sa possession que de sa cession. L’ensemble de ces mécanismes apparaît très complexe. De plus, ces dfférentes taxes présentent des répercussions directes sur l’organisation du territoire puisqu’elles influencent certains choix et comportements des individus. C’est pourquoi la Conférence Permanente du Développement Territorial (CPDT) a été sollicitée pour étudier les incidences de ces mécanismes et émettre des recommandations à ce propos. Nous nous sommes plus particulièrement penchés sur la fiscalité relative à la transaction et la propriété d’un logement, à savoir le droit d’enregistrement et le précompte immobilier, ce qui nous a permis d’aborder la base soit relative à l’octroi de réduction, soit relative au calcul de l’impôt : le revenu cadastral. Or, celui-ci apparait critiquable à différents points de vue. Notre réflexion s’inscrit dans le contexte de la sixième réforme de l’État (loi spéciale du 6 janvier 2014) qui octroie aux Régions davantage d’autonomie fiscale, mais leur impose aussi de nouvelles contraintes et responsabilités. Dès lors, la Wallonie est devenue suffisamment autonome que pour développer sa propre fiscalité immobilière, en fonction de ses contraintes et objectifs. [less ▲]

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See detailNouveaux textes littéraires du scribe Amennakhte (et autres ostraca relatifs au scribe de la Tombe)
Dorn, Andreas ULg; Polis, Stéphane ULg

in Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale (2016), 116

Cet article est le premier d’une série de contributions consacrées à la publication de documents inédits conservés à l’Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale et ayant pour point commun le fait d’être ... [more ▼]

Cet article est le premier d’une série de contributions consacrées à la publication de documents inédits conservés à l’Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale et ayant pour point commun le fait d’être, plus ou moins directement, liés au fameux scribe de la Tombe Amennakhte, fils d’Ipouy. L’objectif est de fournir les matériaux de base qui seront nécessaires à la réalisation de projets de plus grande ampleur, telles une étude micro-historique autour de l’individu en question et une analyse globale de la production textuelle d’un scribe de Deir el-Médineh à la 20e dynastie. Les six ostraca publiés ici appartiennent au fonds des ostraca dits « littéraires » de l’IFAO. Les deux premiers documents sont assurément les plus remarquables dans la mesure où ils viennent enrichir le nombre des textes littéraires ‘signés’ par le scribe Amennakhte. [less ▲]

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See detailAttack-Prevention and Damage-Control Investments in Cybersecurity
Lam, Wing Man Wynne ULg

in Information Economics and Policy (2016)

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See detailLes agents chélateurs : alerte à l'abus !
MISTRETTA, Virginie ULg; CHARLIER, Corinne ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2016), 71(12), 551-556

L’exposition aux métaux lourds est un phénomène courant en raison de leur prévalence dans l’alimentation et dans l’environnement; leur toxicité demeure une préoccupation importante pour la santé publique ... [more ▼]

L’exposition aux métaux lourds est un phénomène courant en raison de leur prévalence dans l’alimentation et dans l’environnement; leur toxicité demeure une préoccupation importante pour la santé publique. Les agents chélateurs sont des substances chimiques utilisées pour augmenter l’élimination de certains métaux présents à des concentrations anormalement élevées dans l’organisme. Leurs indications cliniques approuvées sont limitées, particulièrement en raison des effets indésirables qu’ils peuvent induire. Malheureusement, trop souvent, les agents chélateurs sont utilisés avec pour objectif de vérifier le niveau d’imprégnation de l’organisme par les métaux lourds. Il s’agit d’un usage inapproprié et abusif. Afin d’attirer l’attention des praticiens sur cette problématique, les bons et les mauvais usages des chélateurs de métaux sont passés en revue [less ▲]

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See detailEarly exposure to Aroclor 1254 in vivo disrupts the functional synaptic development of newborn hippocampal granule cells.
Parent, Anne-Simone ULg; Pinson, Anneline ULg; Woods, N. et al

in European Journal of Neuroscience (2016), 44(12), 3001-3010

Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus is sensitive to endogenous and exogenous factors that influence hippocampal function. Ongoing neurogenesis and the integration of these new neurons throughout life thus ... [more ▼]

Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus is sensitive to endogenous and exogenous factors that influence hippocampal function. Ongoing neurogenesis and the integration of these new neurons throughout life thus may provide a sensitive indicator of environmental stress. We examined the effects of Aroclor 1254 (A1254), a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), on the development and function of newly generated dentate granule cells. Early exposure to A1254 has been associated with learning impairment in children, suggesting potential impact on the development of hippocampus and/or cortical circuits. Oral A1254 (from the 6th day of gestation to postnatal day 21) produced the expected increase in PCB levels in brain at postnatal day 21, which persisted at lower levels into adulthood. A1254 did not affect the proliferation or survival of newborn neurons in immature animals nor did it cause overt changes in neuronal morphology. However, A1254 occluded the normal developmental increase in sEPSC frequency in the third post-mitotic week without altering the average sEPSC amplitude. Our results suggest that early exposure to PCBs can disrupt excitatory synaptic function during a period of active synaptogenesis, and thus could contribute to the cognitive effects noted in children exposed to PCBs. [less ▲]

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See detailTriclosan exposure results in alterations of thyroid hormone status and retarded early development and metamorphosis in Cyprinodon variegatus
Schnitzler, Joseph ULg; Frederich, Bruno ULg; Dussenne, Mélanie ULg et al

in Aquatic Toxicology (2016), 181

Thyroid hormones are critically involved in somatic growth, development and metamorphosis of vertebrates. The structural similarity between thyroid hormones and triclosan, an antimicrobial compound widely ... [more ▼]

Thyroid hormones are critically involved in somatic growth, development and metamorphosis of vertebrates. The structural similarity between thyroid hormones and triclosan, an antimicrobial compound widely employed in consumer personal care products, suggests triclosan can have adverse effects on the thyroid system. The sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus, is now used in ecotoxicological studies that have recently begun to focus on potential disruption of the thyroid axis by endocrine disrupting compounds. Here, we investigate the in vivo effects of exposure to triclosan (20, 50, and 100 μg L−1) on the thyroid system and the embryonic and larval development of C. variegatus. Triclosan exposure did not affect hatching success, but delayed hatching time by 6–13 h compared to control embryos. Triclosan exposure affected the ontogenetic variations of whole body thyroid hormone concentrations during the larval phase. The T3 peak around 12–15 dph, described to be indicative for the metamorphosis climax in C. variegatus, was absent in triclosan-exposed larvae. Triclosan exposure did not produce any deformity or allometric repatterning, but a delayed development of 18–32 h was observed. We conclude that the triclosan-induced disruption of the thyroid system delays in vivo the start of metamorphosis in our experimental model. We observed a global developmental delay of 24–45 h, equivalent to 4–7% prolongation of the developmental time in C. variegatus. The costs of delayed metamorphosis can lead to reduction of juvenile fitness and could be a determining factor in the outcome of competitive interactions. [less ▲]

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See detailWhen obtaining a blood sample from the right arm was not the right thing to do: a case of elevated parathyroid hormone levels 27 years after thyroidectomy.
Wolff, Fleur; Gervy, Christine; Cavalier, Etienne ULg et al

in Clinical Chemistry & Laboratory Medicine (2016)

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See detailLes fondements dogmatiques du droit chez Leibniz
Paksy, Máté ULg

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2016), LXI(3), 587-597

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See detailJAMES BOOKER The Bayou Maharajah - Portrait
Sacré, Robert ULg

in ABS Magazine (2016), (52), 16-25

Carrière du pianiste James Booker (1939-1983) , originaire de la Nouvelle Orleans, LA, USA

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See detailEarly prediction of on-going hemorrhage in severe trauma: presentation of the existing scoring systems.
TONGLET, Martin ULg

in archives of trauma research (2016), 5(4),

Early prediction of ongoing hemorrhage may reduce mortality via the earlier delivery of blood products, adequate orientation of the patient in a dedicated highly specialized and trained infrastructure ... [more ▼]

Early prediction of ongoing hemorrhage may reduce mortality via the earlier delivery of blood products, adequate orientation of the patient in a dedicated highly specialized and trained infrastructure, and by earlier correction of acute traumatic coagulopathy. We identified 14 scores or algorithms developed for the prediction of ongoing hemorrhage and the need for massive transfusion in severe trauma patients. [less ▲]

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See detailVoir en art, voir en sciences
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg

in Nouvelle Revue d'Esthétique (2016), 17(1), 139-159

This article is about visual devices that in history of art and in semiotics are generally called "metavisual" and that are used to study some phenomena of framing in artistic images (see the works of ... [more ▼]

This article is about visual devices that in history of art and in semiotics are generally called "metavisual" and that are used to study some phenomena of framing in artistic images (see the works of Victor Stoichita and of Jean-François Bordron). We are going to explore the possibility to use these devices to analyse contemporary scientific images, trying to identify some common actions that go beyond the differences in terms of objects and economy of values between arts and sciences. [less ▲]

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See detailExpanding chemistry’s horizon with continuous-flow reactors  
Monbaliu, Jean-Christophe ULg; Emmanuel, Noémie ULg; Gerardy, Romaric ULg

in Chimie Nouvelle (2016), 122

Continuous-flow micro- and mesofluidic reactors come with inherent properties that can be advantageously utilized for expanding the horizon of preparative chemistry. Accurate control over local process ... [more ▼]

Continuous-flow micro- and mesofluidic reactors come with inherent properties that can be advantageously utilized for expanding the horizon of preparative chemistry. Accurate control over local process parameters, even under extreme conditions, inherent safety, production homogeneity and seamless scale-up are amongst the most important assets of continuous-flow chemistry. Besides, flow chemistry enables the design of efficient multistep processes with significantly reduced footprints. In this note, we discuss some of the most fascinating aspects of continuous-flow micro- and mesofluidic reactors in the specific context of preparative organic chemistry. [less ▲]

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See detailSoutenir les proches d'une personne incarcérée. L'accompagnement d'un Service d'Aide aux justiciables.
Garcet, Serge ULg; Lecomte, Romain

in L'Observatoire (2016), 89(novembre/décembre), 46-49

Interview par R. Lecomte dans le cadre du dossier spécial "travail avec les proches" autour de la thématique de l'aide apportée aux détenus et à leurs proches.

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See detailEvolution récente des surface forestières et de la régénération des coupes rases en Wallonie
Latte, Nicolas ULg; Perin, Jérôme ULg; Lejeune, Philippe ULg

in FORÊT.NATURE (2016), 141

Une gestion réfléchie de la ressource forestière à l’échelle d’une région, telle que la Wallonie, nécessite de connaitre son état et de prédire son devenir. Pour y parvenir, nous proposons une méthode ... [more ▼]

Une gestion réfléchie de la ressource forestière à l’échelle d’une région, telle que la Wallonie, nécessite de connaitre son état et de prédire son devenir. Pour y parvenir, nous proposons une méthode relativement simple, combinant trois sources de données : l’inventaire forestier régional, la photo-interprétation d’orthoimages et une enquête de terrain, ayant comme finalité de décrire finement l’évolution des surfaces forestières, les peuplements mis à blanc et la régénération des coupes rases. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation ENMG du plexus brachial
WANG, François-Charles ULg

in Lettre du Neurologue: le Courrier du Spécialiste (2016), XX(10), 334-344

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See detailApproche du régime alimentaire chez le Silure glane
Libois, Roland ULg; Rosoux, René; Gabris, Bruno

in Recherches Naturalistes en Région Centre (2016), 3 N.S.

The Wels originates from central and East-Europe. It was introduced in Europe as early as the Middle Ages and in France the species has been released many times since the 19th century. It invaded the ... [more ▼]

The Wels originates from central and East-Europe. It was introduced in Europe as early as the Middle Ages and in France the species has been released many times since the 19th century. It invaded the Loire river basin at the end of the last century. It is the largest predatory freshwater fish in Europe. Considering its recent increase in numbers and of range and its feeding behaviour, the Orleans museum coordinated a study of the species in the Loire valley from 2011 to 2014 in order to better know the species ecology and especially its choice of prey and food intake. The stomach contents from a sample of 60 individuals of all sizes, captured using nets, were analysed. It feeds on a wide variety of species, more than 23 were found during this study, mainly fish. Anadromous Fish and Lamprey made up an important part of the food intake (66%). [less ▲]

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See detailFirst-principles reinvestigation of bulk WO3
Hamdi, Hanen ULg; Salje, Ekhard K. H.; Ghosez, Philippe ULg et al

in Physical Review B (2016), 94

Using first-principles calculations, we analyze the structural properties of tungsten trioxide WO3. Our calculations rely on density functional theory and the use of the B1-WC hybrid functional, which ... [more ▼]

Using first-principles calculations, we analyze the structural properties of tungsten trioxide WO3. Our calculations rely on density functional theory and the use of the B1-WC hybrid functional, which provides very good agreement with experimental data. We show that the hypothetical high-symmetry cubic reference structure combines several ferroelectric and antiferrodistortive (antipolar cation motions, rotations, and tilts of oxygen octahedra) structural instabilities. Although the ferroelectric instability is the largest, the instability related to antipolar W motions combines with those associated to oxygen rotations and tilts to produce the biggest energy reduction, yielding a P21/c ground state. This nonpolar P21/c phase is only different from the experimentally reported P c ground state by the absence of a very tiny additional ferroelectric distortion. The calculations performed on a stoichiometric compound so suggest that the low-temperature phase of WO3 is not intrinsically ferroelectric and that the experimentally observed ferroelectric character might arise from extrinsic defects such as oxygen vacancies. Independently, we also identify never observed R3m and R3c ferroelectric metastable phases with large polarizations and low energies close to the P 21 /c ground state, which makes WO3 a potential antiferroelectric material. The relative stability of various phases is discussed in terms of the anharmonic couplings between different structural distortions, highlighting a very complex interplay. [less ▲]

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See detailSediment carbon sink in low-density temperate eelgrass meadows (Baltic Sea)
Jankowska, Emilia; Michel, Loïc ULg; Zaborska, Agata et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Biogeosciences (2016), 121(12), 2918-2934

Seagrass meadows are highly productive habitats that can act as “blue carbon sinks” in coastal ecosystems by facilitating sedimentation and trapping particles. However, the magnitude and occurrence of ... [more ▼]

Seagrass meadows are highly productive habitats that can act as “blue carbon sinks” in coastal ecosystems by facilitating sedimentation and trapping particles. However, the magnitude and occurrence of these effects may be species and density dependent. The present study is the first estimation of seagrass sediment carbon sink in the temperate Zostera marina beds in the Baltic Sea. Several descriptors of organic matter characteristics, along with possible organic matter sources in the sediment were compared at vegetated and unvegetated bottoms. The 210Pb dating of the sediment has been used for accumulation rate assessment. The photopigments and POC concentrations in sediments were higher in vegetated bottoms. The SIAR (Stable Isotopes in R) mixing model based on nitrogen and carbon stable isotope values, indicated that higher percentages of organic matter originated from seagrass production in vegetated sediments (40–45%) compared to unvegetated ones (5–21%). The carbon stock in the upper 10 cm of the vegetated sediments ranged from 50.2 ± 2.2 to 228.0 ± 11.6 (g m−2), whereas the annual C accumulation amount from 0.84 ± 0.2 to 3.85 ± 1.2 (g m−2 yr−1). Our study shows that even the relatively weakly developed vegetation of the small temperate seagrass species enhance organic carbon concentration in the sediments. Estimated carbon stock was much lower than those reported for most of the seagrass meadows elsewhere, and the carbon burial rate was the lowest ever reported. Evidently, the global calculations of sediment carbon stock should be reconsidered by taking into account density and species-related variability. [less ▲]

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See detailANALYSES OF EARLY MEDIEVAL STAINED WINDOW GLASS FROM THE MONASTERY OF BAUME-LES- MESSIEURS (JURA, FRANCE)
Van Wersch, Line ULg; Loisel, C.; Mathis, François ULg et al

in Archaeometry (2016), 58(6), 930-946

The collection of early medieval window glass found in the abbey of Baume-les-Messieurs (Jura, France) is exceptional because it dates to the end of the eighth century, and due to the number of fragments ... [more ▼]

The collection of early medieval window glass found in the abbey of Baume-les-Messieurs (Jura, France) is exceptional because it dates to the end of the eighth century, and due to the number of fragments as well as their state of conservation. Different colours and forms have been identified. These pieces are a rare opportunity to address the glass craft, its recipes and techniques for a phase of its history that has remained little known. Analyses in PIXE–PIGE prove that, in addition to fragments from two soda glass items, the pieces are made from wood-ash glass. Most of them probably came from the same production and the raw material is present in the region. At this early stage of wood-ash glass production, the glassmakers had mastered the glass as well as the colour processes. [less ▲]

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See detailChemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum canum and Ocimum gratissimum in function of harvesting time
Mith, Hasika; Yayi-Ladékan, Eléonore; Dosso Sika Kpoviessi, Salomé et al

in Journal of Essential Oil-Bearing Plants [=JEOBP] (2016), 19(6), 1413-1425

The chemical composition of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum canum and Ocimum gratissimum from Benin as affected by harvesting time, were analyzed ... [more ▼]

The chemical composition of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum canum and Ocimum gratissimum from Benin as affected by harvesting time, were analyzed by GC-FID (Gas chromatography-Flame ionization detector) and GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry). Based on the composition analysis, major components were as follows: estragol (43.0-44.7%) and linalool (24.6 29.8%) in O. basilicum oils; carvacrol (12.0-30.8%) and p-cymene (19.5-26.2%) in O. canum oils; thymol (28.3-37.7%) and γ-terpinene (12.5-19.3 %) in O. gratissimum oils. Disc diffusion and broth microdilution assays were used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of essential oils and their main components against two foodborne bacteria, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium. The tested oils and their components exhibited notable antimicrobial activities against L. monocytogenes and S. Typhimurium. The O. canum and O. gratissimum oils collected at 7h and 19h showed significant higher activities against L. monocytogenes and S. Typhimurium (MICs and MBCs 0.34 - 2.5 μL/mL) (p < 0.05), whereas O. basilicum showed lower activity (MICs and MBCs 2.0 - 8.0 μL/mL) at any daytime of harvest, the weakest being at 19h (MIC and MBC 12.0 - 32.0 μL/mL). The daytime of harvest can influence the composition of oils and their activities on bacteria. [less ▲]

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See detailLaBGen: A method based on motion detection for generating the background of a scene
Laugraud, Benjamin ULg; Pierard, Sébastien ULg; Van Droogenbroeck, Marc ULg

in Pattern Recognition Letters (2016)

Given a video sequence acquired with a fixed camera, the generation of the stationary background of the scene is a challenging problem which aims at computing a reference image for a motionless background ... [more ▼]

Given a video sequence acquired with a fixed camera, the generation of the stationary background of the scene is a challenging problem which aims at computing a reference image for a motionless background. For that purpose, we developed our method named LaBGen, which emerged as the best one during the Scene Background Modeling and Initialization (SBMI) workshop organized in 2015, and the IEEE Scene Background Modeling Contest (SBMC) organized in 2016. LaBGen combines a pixel-wise temporal median filter and a patch selection mechanism based on motion detection. To detect motion, a background subtraction algorithm decides, for each frame, which pixels belong to the background. In this paper, we describe the LaBGen method extensively, evaluate it on the SBI 2016 dataset and compare its performance with other background generation methods. We also study its computational complexity, the performance sensitivity with respect to its parameters, and the stability of the predicted background image over time with respect to the chosen background subtraction algorithm. We provide an open source C++ implementation at http://www.telecom.ulg.ac.be/labgen. [less ▲]

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See detailThe SHARDDS survey: First resolved image of the HD 114082 debris disk in the Lower Centaurus Crux with SPHERE
Wahhaj, Zahed; Milli, Julien; Kennedy, Grant et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 596

We present the first resolved image of the debris disk around the 16 ± 8 Myr old star, HD 114082. The observation was made in the H-band using the SPHERE instrument. The star is at a distance of 92 ± 6 pc ... [more ▼]

We present the first resolved image of the debris disk around the 16 ± 8 Myr old star, HD 114082. The observation was made in the H-band using the SPHERE instrument. The star is at a distance of 92 ± 6 pc in the Lower Centaurus Crux association. Using a Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis, we determined that the debris is likely in the form of a dust ring with an inner edge of 27.7[SUP]+2.8[/SUP][SUB]-3.5[/SUB] au, position angle -74.3°[SUP]+0.5[/SUP][SUB]-1.5[/SUB], and an inclination with respect to the line of sight of 6.7°[SUP]+3.8[/SUP][SUB]-0.4[/SUB]. The disk imaged in scattered light has a surface density that is declining with radius of r[SUP]-4[/SUP], which is steeper than expected for grain blowout by radiation pressure. We find only marginal evidence (2σ) of eccentricity and rule out planets more massive than 1.0 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB] orbiting within 1 au of the inner edge of the ring, since such a planet would have disrupted the disk. The disk has roughly the same fractional disk luminosity (L[SUB]disk[/SUB]/L[SUB]∗[/SUB] = 3.3 × 10[SUP]-3[/SUP]) as HR 4796 A and β Pictoris, however it was not detected by previous instrument facilities most likely because of its small angular size (radius 0.4''), low albedo ( 0.2), and low scattering efficiency far from the star due to high scattering anisotropy. With the arrival of extreme adaptive optics systems, such as SPHERE and GPI, the morphology of smaller, fainter, and more distant debris disks are being revealed, providing clues to planet-disk interactions in young protoplanetary systems. The reduced images are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (<A href="http://130.79.128.5">http://130.79.128.5</A>) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/596/L4">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/596/L4</A> [less ▲]

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See detailQuantum fidelity of symmetric multipartite states
Neven, Antoine ULg; Mathonet, Pierre ULg; Gühne, Otfried et al

in Physical Review A (2016), 94

For two symmetric quantum states one may be interested in maximizing the overlap under local operations applied to one of them. The question arises whether the maximal overlap can be obtained by applying ... [more ▼]

For two symmetric quantum states one may be interested in maximizing the overlap under local operations applied to one of them. The question arises whether the maximal overlap can be obtained by applying the same local operation to each party. We show that for two symmetric multiqubit states and local unitary transformations this is the case; the maximal overlap can be reached by applying the same unitary matrix everywhere. For local invertible operations (stochastic local operations assisted by classical communication equivalence), however, we present counterexamples, demonstrating that considering the same operation everywhere is not enough. [less ▲]

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See detailCorrection of inertial oscillations by assimilation of HFradar data in a model of the Ligurian Sea
Vandenbulcke, Luc ULg; Barth, Alexander ULg; Beckers, Jean-Marie ULg

in Ocean Dynamics (2016)

This article aims at analyzing if high-frequency radar observations of surface currents allow to improve model forecasts in the Ligurian Sea, where inertial oscillations are a dominant feature. An ... [more ▼]

This article aims at analyzing if high-frequency radar observations of surface currents allow to improve model forecasts in the Ligurian Sea, where inertial oscillations are a dominant feature. An ensemble of ROMS models covering the Ligurian Sea, and nested in the Mediterranean Forecasting System, is coupled with two WERA high-frequency radars. A sensitivity study allows to determine optimal parameters for the ensemble filter. By assimilating observations in a single point, the obtained correction shows that the forecast error covariance matrix represents the inertial oscillations, as well as large- and meso-scale processes. Furthermore, it is shown that the velocity observations can correct the phase and amplitude of the inertial oscillations. Observations are shown to have a strong effect during approximately half a day, which confirms the importance of using a high temporal observation frequency. In general, data assimilation of HF radar observations leads to a skill score of about 30 % for the forecasts of surface velocity. [less ▲]

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See detailEnhanced Biogas Production During Anaerobic Digestion of Steam-pretreated Lignocellulosic Biomass from Williams Cavendish Banana Plants
Kamdem, Irenée ULg

in Waste and Biomass Valorization (2016)

In the context of green energy valorisation, this study reports the chemical analysis and improvement of biogas production via anaerobic digestion of treated and untreated agricultural waste ... [more ▼]

In the context of green energy valorisation, this study reports the chemical analysis and improvement of biogas production via anaerobic digestion of treated and untreated agricultural waste lignocellulosic biomass from Williams Cavendish banana plants (WCLB). With a worldwide annual production of 26 million tons of dry matter (DM), large amounts of this waste are abandoned in plantations after fruit harvesting. Steam explosion (SE) and steam cracking (SC) pretreatments were investigated at severity factors of 3.16 and 4.29, respectively, to improve the biogas potential over 135 days under mesophilic conditions. The study revealed a carbon (C)/nitrogen (N) ratio of 27.3, indicating that WCLB has sufficient N content for successful fermentation. The proportions of liquid and solid fractions recovered after SC were 20% and 80%, respectively, whereas SE yielded 17% and 83% liquid and solids, respectively. The neutral sugar content of the studied fractions indicated that glucose and xylose constituted the highest hexose and pentose fractions, respectively, in WCLB. The highest and lowest total biogas potentials were obtained from LFSC (280 mL g-1 of DM) and untreated WCLB (240 mL g-1 of DM), respectively. The methane yield from untreated WCLB and combined solid and liquid fractions from SE and SC were 40, 42, and 51%, respectively, of the theoretical methane potential. The maximum biogas production rate (7.8 mL g-1 d-1) was obtained with SFSC. This study reveals that SC deconstructs WCLB efficiently and thereby greatly enhances methane production. [less ▲]

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See detailDe l’émergence à la canonisation. Instances et supports du cursus honorum artistique et littéraire
Dozo, Björn-Olav ULg; Ellena, Laurence; Saint-Amand, Denis ULg

in COnTEXTES : Revue de Sociologie de la Littérature (2016)

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See detailLa transaction pénale élargie face au contrôle de la Cour constitutionnelle
Michiels, Olivier ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2016), (2016/39), 1847-1852

L'article fait le point sur les incidences d'une transaction intervenant en cours de procédure et sur le contrôle de cette transaction par le juge en application de l'article 216bis du Code d'instruction ... [more ▼]

L'article fait le point sur les incidences d'une transaction intervenant en cours de procédure et sur le contrôle de cette transaction par le juge en application de l'article 216bis du Code d'instruction criminelle. [less ▲]

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See detailStatistical study of Saturn's auroral electron properties with Cassini/UVIS FUV spectral images
Gustin, Jacques ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg; Radioti, Aikaterini ULg et al

in Icarus (2016)

About 2000 FUV spectra of different regions of Saturn's aurora, obtained with Cassini/UVIS from December 2007 to October 2014 have been examined. Two methods have been employed to determine the mean ... [more ▼]

About 2000 FUV spectra of different regions of Saturn's aurora, obtained with Cassini/UVIS from December 2007 to October 2014 have been examined. Two methods have been employed to determine the mean energy 〈E〉 of the precipitating electrons. The first is based on the absorption of the auroral emission by hydrocarbons and the second uses the ratio between the brightness of the Lyman-α line and the H2 total UV emission (Lyα/H2), which is directly related to 〈E〉 via a radiative transfer formalism. In addition, two atmospheric models obtained recently from UVIS polar occultations have been employed for the first time. It is found that the atmospheric model related to North observations near 70° latitude provides the results most consistent with constraints previously published. On a global point of view, the two methods provide comparable results, with 〈E〉 mostly in the 7–17 keV range with the hydrocarbon method and 〈E〉 in the 1–11 keV range with the Lyα/H2 method. Since hydrocarbons have been detected on ∼20% of the auroral spectra, the Lyα/H2 technique is more effective to describe the primary auroral electrons, as it is applicable to all spectra and allows an access to the lowest range of energies (≤5 keV), unreachable by the hydrocarbon method. The distribution of 〈E〉 is found fully compatible with independent HST/ACS constraints (emission peak in the 840–1450 km range) and FUSE findings (emission peaking at pressure level ≤0.2 µbar). In addition, 〈E〉 exhibits enhancements in the 3 LT–10 LT sector, consistent with SKR intensity measurements. An energy flux–electron energy diagram built from all the data points strongly suggests that acceleration by field-aligned potentials as described by Knight's theory is a main mechanism responsible for electron precipitation creating the aurora. Assuming a fixed electron temperature of 0.1 keV, a best-fit equatorial electron source population density of 3 × 103 m−3 is derived, which matches very well to the plasma properties observed with Cassini MAG and CAPS/ELS instruments. However, several auroral regions are characterized by relatively high 〈E〉 and low energy flux, suggesting that additional processes such as plasma injections or magnetic reconnections must be accounted for to explain the emission in these regions. The Lyα/H2 ratio technique can be used to build maps of 〈E〉 from single spectral images. As expected, preliminary results show that the spatial distribution of 〈E〉 is not uniform, as seen on Jupiter. Our study reveals that a fraction of the aurora is due to very low energy electrons (<1 keV). Even in this case, comparisons between observed and modeled spectra show that 100 eV is a suitable value to represent the average energy of the secondary electrons. [less ▲]

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See detailSustainability and management control. Exploring and theorizing control patterns in large European firms
Crutzen, Nathalie ULg; Zvezdov, Dimitar; Schaltegger, Stefan

in Journal of Cleaner Production (2016), Online version

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See detailNuclear Medicine techniques in transplantation
LOVINFOSSE, Pierre ULg; HUSTINX, Roland ULg

in Clinical and Translational Imaging (2016)

Organ transplantation has grown over the past decades thanks to major improvements in surgical techniques and immunosuppressive treatment. Nuclear medicine is used for non-invasively improving the ... [more ▼]

Organ transplantation has grown over the past decades thanks to major improvements in surgical techniques and immunosuppressive treatment. Nuclear medicine is used for non-invasively improving the selection of candidates to give or receive a transplant, for monitoring graft recipients and for diagnosing and managing early and late complications. This review describes the clinical role of nuclear medicine in transplantation and discusses some of the possible perspectives. [less ▲]

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See detailProtein encapsulation and release from PEO-b-polyphosphoester templated calcium carbonate particles
Ergül, Zeynep ULg; Cordonnier, Thomas; Debuigne, Antoine ULg et al

in International Journal of Pharmaceutics (2016), 513

Calcium carbonate particles are promising candidates as proteins carriers for their controlled delivery in the body. The present paper aims at investigating the protein encapsulation by in situ ... [more ▼]

Calcium carbonate particles are promising candidates as proteins carriers for their controlled delivery in the body. The present paper aims at investigating the protein encapsulation by in situ precipitation of calcium carbonate particles prepared by a process based on supercritical CO2 and using a new type of degradable well-defined double hydrophilic block copolymers composed of poly(ethylene oxide) and polyphosphoester blocks acting as templating agent for the calcium carbonate. For this study, lysozyme was chosen as a model for therapeutic protein for its availability and ease of detection. It was found that by this green process, loading into the CaCO3 microparticles with a diameter about 2 mm can be obtained as determined by scanning electron microscopy. A protein loading up to 6.5% active lysozyme was measured by a specific bioassay (Micrococcus lysodeikticus). By encapsulating fluorescent-labelled lysozyme (lysozyme-FITC), the confocal microscopy images confirmed its encapsulation and suggested a core–shell distribution of lysozyme into CaCO3, leading to a release profile reaching a steady state at 59% of release after 90 min. [less ▲]

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See detailRegional sea level changes for the 20th and the 21st century induced by the regional variability in Greenland ice sheet surface mass loss
Meyssignac, B.; Fettweis, Xavier ULg; Chevrier, R. et al

in Journal of Climate (2016), online

Surface mass balance (SMB) variations of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) has been identified as an important contributor to contemporary and projected global mean sea level variations but their impact on ... [more ▼]

Surface mass balance (SMB) variations of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) has been identified as an important contributor to contemporary and projected global mean sea level variations but their impact on the regional sea level change pattern is still poorly known. This study provides for the first time, consistent estimates (i.e. computed with the same models over the past -1900-2015- and over the future -2015-2100-) of GrIS SMB over 1900-2100 based on the output of 32 atmospheric-ocean General Circulation Models and Earth system models involved in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). It is based on a downscaling technique calibrated against the MAR regional climate model in order to calculate an ensemble of 32 Greenland SMB estimates at regional scale. Because the GrIS SMB does not respond uniformly to greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. the southern part of the GrIS is more sensitive to climate warming. This study shows that it should be in imbalance in the 21st century sooner that the northern part. This regional variability affects significantly the associated relative sea level pattern over the entire ocean and particularly along the eastern coast of US and the northern coast of Europe. This highlights the necessity of taking into account GrIS regional SMB changes to evaluate accurately relative sea level changes in future projections. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimizing the subwavelength grating of L-band annular groove phase masks for high coronagraphic performance
Vargas Catalán, E.; Huby, Elsa ULg; Forsberg, P. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 595

Context. The annular groove phase mask (AGPM) is one possible implementation of the vector vortex coronagraph, where the helical phase ramp is produced by a concentric subwavelength grating. For several ... [more ▼]

Context. The annular groove phase mask (AGPM) is one possible implementation of the vector vortex coronagraph, where the helical phase ramp is produced by a concentric subwavelength grating. For several years, we have been manufacturing AGPMs by etching gratings into synthetic diamond substrates using inductively coupled plasma etching. <BR /> Aims: We aim to design, fabricate, optimize, and evaluate new L-band AGPMs that reach the highest possible coronagraphic performance, for applications in current and forthcoming infrared high-contrast imagers. <BR /> Methods: Rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) is used for designing the subwavelength grating of the phase mask. Coronagraphic performance evaluation is performed on a dedicated optical test bench. The experimental results of the performance evaluation are then used to accurately determine the actual profile of the fabricated gratings, based on RCWA modeling. <BR /> Results: The AGPM coronagraphic performance is very sensitive to small errors in etch depth and grating profile. Most of the fabricated components therefore show moderate performance in terms of starlight rejection (a few 100:1 in the best cases). Here we present new processes for re-etching the fabricated components in order to optimize the parameters of the grating and hence significantly increase their coronagraphic performance. Starlight rejection up to 1000:1 is demonstrated in a broadband L filter on the coronagraphic test bench, which corresponds to a raw contrast of about 10[SUP]-5[/SUP] at two resolution elements from the star for a perfect input wave front on a circular, unobstructed aperture. <BR /> Conclusions: Thanks to their exquisite performance, our latest L-band AGPMs are good candidates for installation in state of the art and future high-contrast thermal infrared imagers, such as METIS for the E-ELT. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreased Risk of Group B Streptococcus Invasive Infection in HIV-Exposed but Uninfected Infants: A Review of the Evidence and Possible Mechanisms.
DAUBY, Nicolas; CHAMEKH, Mustapha; MELIN, Pierrette ULg et al

in Frontiers in Immunology (2016), 7

Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a major cause of neonatal sepsis and mortality worldwide. Studies from both developed and developing countries have shown that HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) infants are ... [more ▼]

Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a major cause of neonatal sepsis and mortality worldwide. Studies from both developed and developing countries have shown that HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) infants are at increased risk of infectious morbidity, as compared to HIV-unexposed uninfected infants (HUU). A higher susceptibility to GBS infections has been reported in HEU infants, particularly late-onset diseases and more severe manifestations of GBS diseases. We review here the possible explanations for increased susceptibility to GBS infection. Maternal GBS colonization during pregnancy is a major risk factor for early-onset GBS invasive disease, but colonization rates are not higher in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected pregnant women, while selective colonization with more virulent strains in HIV-infected women is suggested in some studies. Lower serotype-speci c GBS maternal antibody transfer and quantitative and qualitative defects of innate immune responses in HEU infants may play a role in the increased risk of GBS invasive disease. The impact of maternal antiretroviral treatment and its consequences on immune activation in HEU newborns are important to study. Maternal immunization presents a promising intervention to reduce GBS burden in the growing HEU population. [less ▲]

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See detailCarbon balance of an intensively grazed grassland in southern Belgium
Gourlez de la Motte, Louis ULg; Jérôme, Elisabeth; Mamadou, Ossénatou et al

in Agricultural and Forest Meteorology (2016), 228-229

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See detailSensitivity of the annual net ecosystem exchange to the cospectral model used for high frequency loss corrections at a grazed grassland site
Mamadou, Ossenatou; Gourlez de la Motte, Louis ULg; De Ligne, Anne ULg et al

in Agricultural and Forest Meteorology (2016), 228-229

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