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See detailInfinite self-shuffling words
Charlier, Emilie ULg

in Journal of Combinatorial Theory - Series A (2014), 128

In this paper we introduce and study a new property of infinite words: An infinite word x, with values in a finite set A, is said to be k-self-shuffling (k≥2) if there exists a shuffle of k copies of x ... [more ▼]

In this paper we introduce and study a new property of infinite words: An infinite word x, with values in a finite set A, is said to be k-self-shuffling (k≥2) if there exists a shuffle of k copies of x which produces x. We are particularly interested in the case k=2, in which case we say x is self-shuffling. This property of infinite words is shown to be independent of the complexity of the word as measured by the number of distinct factors of each length. Examples exist from bounded to full complexity. It is also an intrinsic property of the word and not of its language (set of factors). For instance, every aperiodic word contains a non-self-shuffling word in its shift orbit closure. While the property of being self-shuffling is a relatively strong condition, many important words arising in the area of symbolic dynamics are verified to be self-shuffling. They include for instance the Thue–Morse word fixed by the morphism 0↦01, 1↦10. As another example we show that all Sturmian words of intercept 0<ρ<1 are self-shuffling (while those of intercept ρ=0 are not). Our characterization of self-shuffling Sturmian words can be interpreted arithmetically in terms of a dynamical embedding and defines an arithmetic process we call the stepping stone model. One important feature of self-shuffling words stems from their morphic invariance: The morphic image of a self-shuffling word is self-shuffling. This provides a useful tool for showing that one word is not the morphic image of another. In addition to its morphic invariance, this new notion has other unexpected applications particularly in the area of substitutive dynamical systems. For example, as a consequence of our characterization of self-shuffling Sturmian words, we recover a number theoretic result, originally due to Yasutomi, on a classification of pure morphic Sturmian words in the orbit of the characteristic. [less ▲]

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See detailLa prothèse valvulaire idéale n’existe toujours pas. Quels facteurs entrent en compte pour orienter les choix d’une valve mécanique ou biologique ?
GREGOIRE, Céline ULg; Nellessen, Eric; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014), 69(11), 600-604

The prevalence of valvular heart diseases reaches 2.5% in the overall population. Aortic valve replacement is one of the most common surgical procedures. We report the story of a female patient whose ... [more ▼]

The prevalence of valvular heart diseases reaches 2.5% in the overall population. Aortic valve replacement is one of the most common surgical procedures. We report the story of a female patient whose aortic mechanical valve, implanted at the age of 54 years at the time of a mitral valve repair surgery, had to be replaced 14 years later, due to the development of a subvalvular pannus narrowing the valvular orifice. We use this clinical story to compare the advantages and disadvantages of repair surgery and valve replacement with a biological or mechanical prosthesis, and summarize the latest evidence for the choice of the most adequate prosthesis for a particular patient’s profile. [less ▲]

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See detailProjections graphiques de quelques espaces de la vie sociale au Japon
Badir, Sémir ULg

in Lexia (2014), 17-18

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See detailValidation of SCIAMACHY HDO/H2O measurements using the TCCON and NDACC-MUSICA networks
Scheepmaker, R. A.; Frankenberg, C.; Deutscher, N. M. et al

in Atmospheric Measurement Techniques. Papers in Open Discussion (2014), 7(11), 11799--11851

Measurements of the atmospheric HDO/H2O ratio help us to better understand the hydrological cycle and improve models to correctly simulate tropospheric humidity and therefore climate change. We present an ... [more ▼]

Measurements of the atmospheric HDO/H2O ratio help us to better understand the hydrological cycle and improve models to correctly simulate tropospheric humidity and therefore climate change. We present an updated version of the column-averaged HDO/H2O ratio dataset from the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY). The dataset is extended with two additional years, now covering 2003–2007, and is validated against co-located ground-based total column delta-D measurements from Fourier-Transform Spectrometers (FTS) of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC, produced within the framework of the MUSICA project). Even though the time overlap between the available data is not yet ideal, we determined a mean negative bias in SCIAMACHY delta-D of -35±30‰ compared to TCCON and -69±15‰ compared to MUSICA (the uncertainty indicating the station-to-station standard deviation). The bias shows a latitudinal dependency, being largest (about -60 to -80‰) at the highest latitudes and smallest (about -20 to -30‰) at the lowest latitudes. We have tested the impact of an offset correction to the SCIAMACHY HDO and H2O columns. This correction leads to a humidity and latitude dependent shift in delta-D and an improvement of the bias by 27 ‰, although it does not lead to an improved correlation with the FTS measurements nor to a strong reduction of the latitudinal dependency of the bias. The correction might be an improvement for dry, high-altitude areas, such as the Tibetan Plateau and the Andes region. For these areas, however, validation is currently impossible due to a lack of ground stations. The mean standard deviation of single-sounding SCIAMACHY–FTS differences is ~115 ‰, which is reduced by a factor ~2 when we consider monthly means. When we relax the strict matching of individual measurements and focus on the mean seasonalities using all available FTS data, we find that the correlation coefficients between SCIAMACHY and the FTS networks improve from 0.2 to 0.7–0.8. Certain ground stations show a clear asymmetry in delta-D during the transition from the dry to the wet season and back, which is also detected by SCIAMACHY. This asymmetry points to a transition in the source region temperature or location of the water vapor, and shows the added information that HDO/H2O measurements provide, if used in combination with variations in humidity. [less ▲]

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See detailPractical aspects of genome-wide association interaction analysis.
Gusareva, Elena ULg; Van Steen, Kristel ULg

in Human Genetics (2014), 133(11), 1343-58

Large-scale epistasis studies can give new clues to system-level genetic mechanisms and a better understanding of the underlying biology of human complex disease traits. Though many novel methods have ... [more ▼]

Large-scale epistasis studies can give new clues to system-level genetic mechanisms and a better understanding of the underlying biology of human complex disease traits. Though many novel methods have been proposed to carry out such studies, so far only a few of them have demonstrated replicable results. Here, we propose a minimal protocol for genome-wide association interaction (GWAI) analysis to identify gene–gene interactions from large-scale genomic data. The different steps of the developed protocol are discussed and motivated, and encompass interaction screening in a hypothesis-free and hypothesisdriven manner. In particular, we examine a wide range of aspects related to epistasis discovery in the context of complex traits in humans, hereby giving practical recommendations for data quality control, variant selection or prioritization strategies and analytic tools, replication and meta-analysis, biological validation of statistical findings and other related aspects. The minimal protocol provides guidelines and attention points for anyone involved in GWAI analysis and aims to enhance the biological relevance of GWAI findings. At the same time, the protocol improves a better assessment of strengths and weaknesses of published GWAI methodologies. [less ▲]

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See detailPoints d'appui
Jacquemain, Marc ULg

in SociologieS (2014)

L'article discute un grand résumé de Jan Spurk. Il met le doigt sur la contradiction dans ce "grand résumé" entre l'assomption que je le "je" est au coeur du capitalisme contemporain et le fait de confier ... [more ▼]

L'article discute un grand résumé de Jan Spurk. Il met le doigt sur la contradiction dans ce "grand résumé" entre l'assomption que je le "je" est au coeur du capitalisme contemporain et le fait de confier au sujet la tâche de l'émancipation de ce même capitalisme. Il propose de relever, dans différents courants de la littérature contemporaine de sciences sociales, les éléments qui plaident pour un "sujet" doté d'une capacité empirique de résistance au capitalisme. [less ▲]

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See detailA BCool magnetic snapshot survey of solar-type stars
Marsden, S.C.; Petit, P.; Jeffers, S.V. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2014), 444

We present the results of a major high-resolution spectropolarimetric BCool project magnetic survey of 170 solar-type stars. Surface magnetic fields were detected on 67 stars, with 21 classified as mature ... [more ▼]

We present the results of a major high-resolution spectropolarimetric BCool project magnetic survey of 170 solar-type stars. Surface magnetic fields were detected on 67 stars, with 21 classified as mature solar-type stars, a result that increases by a factor of 4 the number of mature solar-type stars on which magnetic fields have been observed. In addition, a magnetic field was detected for 3 out of 18 of the subgiant stars surveyed. For the population of K-dwarfs, the mean value of |Bl| (|Bl|mean) was also found to be higher (5.7 G) than |Bl|mean measured for the G-dwarfs (3.2 G) and the F-dwarfs (3.3 G). For the sample as a whole, |Bl|mean increases with rotation rate and decreases with age, and the upper envelope for |Bl| correlates well with the observed chromospheric emission. Stars with a chromospheric S-index greater than about 0.2 show a high magnetic field detection rate and so offer optimal targets for future studies. This survey constitutes the most extensive spectropolarimetric survey of cool stars undertaken to date, and suggests that it is feasible to pursue magnetic mapping of a wide range of moderately active solar-type stars to improve our understanding of their surface fields and dynamos. [less ▲]

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See detailRetrofitting the suburbs: Insulation, density, urban form and location
Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Environmental management and sustainable development (2014), 3(2), 138-153

The effects of urban sprawl have been well documented, particularly regarding energy consumption. Suburban neighbourhoods are known to be energy inefficient and urban sprawl is considered as a major issue ... [more ▼]

The effects of urban sprawl have been well documented, particularly regarding energy consumption. Suburban neighbourhoods are known to be energy inefficient and urban sprawl is considered as a major issue for sustainable development. To improve the energy efficiency of existing suburban urban fabrics is a major challenge that must be addressed to favour a sustainability transition of our built environment. In this context, this paper aims at investigating several scenarios that could be developed to improve the sustainability of existing suburban neighbourhoods: three main types of scenarios (building insulation, density, and urban form) and twelve sub-scenarios, which are focused on the possible evolution of the existing suburban building stocks, are proposed. Quantitative methods developed in previous research are used to assess and compare building and transportation energy consumption of a representative suburban case study. This application aims at investigating two main research questions: (1) "how to intervene in suburban neighbourhoods?" and (2) «where to intervene?" The main results of this application, which are focused on energy efficiency, are then studied in a larger framework to highlight their opportunities and constraints. The main findings of the paper are that, beyond the traditional polarisation of the debates on the energy efficiency of our built environment between the “compact” and the “sprawled” city, a new pragmatic paradigm, which is focused on the smooth densification of existing suburban neighbourhoods, can make them evolve towards greater sustainability. [less ▲]

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See detailCompte rendu de "Où est passé la critique sociale", P. Corcuff, La découverte, 2013
Frère, Bruno ULg

in SociologieS (2014)

L’ouvrage dont Philippe Corcuff nous suggère ici un grand résumé est stimulant à plus d’un titre. Comme à son habitude l’auteur fait montre d’une étonnante faculté à circuler entre les différents espaces ... [more ▼]

L’ouvrage dont Philippe Corcuff nous suggère ici un grand résumé est stimulant à plus d’un titre. Comme à son habitude l’auteur fait montre d’une étonnante faculté à circuler entre les différents espaces de réflexion de l’agir humain, balayant tour à tour le champ de la sociologie, de la philosophie, du cinéma, de la littérature, de l’engagement social et politique ou de la culture populaire. Passant de Michel Jonaz à Foucault, de Weber à Al Pacino, de Marcos à Magris, Corcuff jongle assez magistralement avec des univers distincts que nos habitudes intellectuelles aiment séparer tantôt par souci prétendu de « scientificité » tantôt parce que, bon gré mal gré, nos esprits de chercheurs en sciences humaines ont été configurés de telle sorte que les passerelles entre divers champs de réflexions possibles (artistiques, politiques, sociologiques, etc.) ne se construisent même plus. Je voudrais donc ouvrir la discussion autour de Où est passé la critique sociale ? en saluant l’audace des ponts entrepris par Philippe Corcuff. Que l’on accepte de le suivre sur chacun d’entre eux ou pas n’enlève rien à la qualité de cette tentative intellectuellement risquée (tant les espaces parcourus sont vastes) à l’heure où la doxa académique, comme dirait Bourdieu, voudrait que nous nous enfermions tous exclusivement dans l’ultra-spécialisation scientifique de micro-catégories du savoir rassemblées dans une case de la sous-spécialité de la discipline que nous avons choisi. Cela afin de parvenir à pointer du doigt un détail qui sera jugé suffisamment original par les rares pairs aussi spécialisés que nous pour décrocher le graal d’une publication dans une sacro-sainte revue rankée. Ainsi, Corcuff semble nous dire : je ne suis pas spécialiste des gender studies mais j’ose évoquer le féminisme. Je ne suis pas spécialiste de la Grèce Antique mais j’ose citer Aristote. On se moque du contenu des textes de tel chanteur populaire, mais j’ose indiquer en quoi il recèle, au même titre que le féminisme ou Aristote, des ressources pour construire une sociologie ou, plus simplement, une esquisse de pensée analytique. Corcuff démontre qu’il est possible de rompre les barrières, de fréquenter des terres improbables pour faire naître le plaisir de la réflexion. Et c’est très heureux. Cette appréciation globale posée, je voudrais à présent entrer dans le vif du sujet et structurer mon commentaire en deux temps. Le premier voudrait insister sur les deux principales qualités des deux textes. De par la variété des paradigmes sociologiques, philosophiques, anthropologiques ou historiques convoqués, Où est passée la critique sociale ? et son résumé dévoilent un intérêt pédagogique singulier pour tout qui désire fréquenter ces disciplines. D’autre part, l’un des trois axes de l’ouvrage repérés par Corcuff dans son grand résumé mérite pour sa part clairement l’intérêt des spécialistes contemporains de la critique sociale. Le second temps de mon commentaire traitera alors de l’écueil que je pense cette fois déceler dans le résumé et l’ouvrage. Cet écueil illustre d’ailleurs une légère insatisfaction ressentie à l’égard de plusieurs ouvrages de l’auteur, insatisfaction précisément due à la frustration de ne pas voir l’originalité de sa démarche être conduite à son terme. Pour le dire rapidement, je chercherai à indiquer que, d’une certaine manière, la tentative de Corcuff a le défaut de ses qualités : il en fait trop et trop peu à la fois. Tout se passe comme si l’ouvrage – et le résumé – n’étaient qu’un succession de notes éparses qui se succèdent au sujet d’un très grand nombre d’auteurs, cités parfois lapidairement, souvent très rapidement, sur un concept ou l’autre, jamais développé de façon systématique, en arguant qu’au bout du compte, la démarche se justifie par la légitimité du bricolage en sociologie. A ce titre, l’ouvrage peut parfois apparaître redondant. Il semble en effet ressasser tout du long la même idée (intéressante au demeurant) d’une sociologie comme boîte à outil, assumant son incomplétude et ses insuffisances, en la déclinant il est vrai sous plusieurs angles. Ceci sans jamais véritablement entrer dans le vif du sujet et entreprendre soit l’approfondissement théorique de son intuition fondamentale soit son application empirique dans une enquête approfondie. [less ▲]

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See detailDe l’usage des programmes électoraux. Compétition sur enjeux et attribution des compétences au sein du gouvernement wallon 2014-2019
Piet, Grégory ULg

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2014), 3

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See detailAu cœur de la réforme des soins de santé mentale en Belgique : les coordinateurs de réseau
Thunus, Sophie ULg; Lorquet, Nadège ULg

in SociologieS (2014)

Inside the Belgian reform of mental health care delivery: network coordinators This article analyses the Belgian reform of mental health care delivery as a two steps-translation (Callon 1986): the ... [more ▼]

Inside the Belgian reform of mental health care delivery: network coordinators This article analyses the Belgian reform of mental health care delivery as a two steps-translation (Callon 1986): the problematization – the devising of a new mental health care model by policy makers, and the interessement – through which “local coordinators” tried to interest local actors to the new model. Based on empirical data, two evidences are stressed: the coordination function is conceived in different ways, ranging from intermediaries to mediators; and the interessement is influenced by systems of concrete action (Friedberg, 1997). Thus, it is argued that in case where translators are appointed to interest local actors to a problematization from the policy arena, their performance is better appraised by considering their commitment to behave as faithful intermediaries or as strategic mediators, and the informal games regulating their system of action. [less ▲]

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See detailAn inverse modelling approach to estimate the hygric parameters of clay-based masonry during a Moisture Buffer Value test
Dubois, Samuel ULg; McGregor, Fionn; Evrard, Arnaud et al

in Building & Environment (2014), 81

This paper presents an inverse modelling approach for parameter estimation of a model dedicated to the description of moisture mass transfer in porous hygroscopic building materials. The hygric behaviour ... [more ▼]

This paper presents an inverse modelling approach for parameter estimation of a model dedicated to the description of moisture mass transfer in porous hygroscopic building materials. The hygric behaviour of unfired clay-based masonry samples is specifically studied here and the Moisture Buffer Value (MBV) protocol is proposed as a data source from which it is possible to estimate several parameters at once. Those include materials properties and experimental parameters. For this purpose, the mass of two clay samples with different compositions is continuously monitored during several consecutive humidity cycles in isothermal conditions. Independently of these dynamic experimental tests, their moisture storage and transport parameters are measured with standard steady-state methods. A simple moisture transfer model developed in COMSOL Multiphysics is used to predict the moisture uptake/release behaviour during the MBV tests. The set of model parameters values that minimizes the difference between simulated and experimental results is then automatically estimated using an inverse modelling algorithm based on Bayesian techniques. For materials properties, the optimized parameters values are compared to values that were experimentally measured in steady state. And because a precise understanding of parameters is needed to assess the confidence in the inverse modelling results, a sensitivity analysis of the model is also provided. [less ▲]

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See detailRaman hyperspectral imaging: a single tool to characterise pharmaceutical products
Netchacovitch, Lauranne ULg; De Bleye, Charlotte ULg; Chavez, Pierre-François ULg et al

in European Pharmaceutical Review (2014), 19(5), 8-11

Raman hyperspectral imaging is an increasingly used tool in the pharmaceutical field because it allows for the investigation of many characteristics on a solid sample. This paper delves into Raman ... [more ▼]

Raman hyperspectral imaging is an increasingly used tool in the pharmaceutical field because it allows for the investigation of many characteristics on a solid sample. This paper delves into Raman spectroscopy and imaging, including spectral and spatial information, and presents some applications of Raman hyperspectral imaging in the pharmaceutical field. [less ▲]

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See detailPlutella xylostella (L.) infestations at varying temperatures induce the emission of specific volatile blends by Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh
Hien, Truong Thi Dieu ULg; Delory, Benjamin ULg; Brostaux, Yves ULg et al

in Plant Signaling & Behavior (2014)

The effect of combined abiotic and biotic factors on plant volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions is poorly understood. This study evaluated the VOC emissions produced by Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Col ... [more ▼]

The effect of combined abiotic and biotic factors on plant volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions is poorly understood. This study evaluated the VOC emissions produced by Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Col-0 subjected to three temperature regimes (17, 22, and 27 °C) in the presence and absence of Plutella xylostella larvae over two time intervals (0–4 and 4–8 h), in comparison to control plants. The analyses of VOCs emitted by Arabidopsis plants were made by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It was found that certain volatile groups (e.g., alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, and terpenes) are induced by both single factors (temperature or larval infestation) and combined factors (temperature and larvae interactions), whereas other volatile groups (e.g., isothiocyanates [ITCs] and nitrile) were specific to the experimental conditions. ITCs (mainly 4-methylpentyl isothiocyanate) were emitted from plants subjected to larval infestation at 17 and 27 °C after the two time intervals. The proportions of sulfides (mainly dimethyl disulfide) and 4-(methylthio) butanenitrile were significantly higher on herbivore-infested plants at 22 °C compared to the other treatments. Overall, our findings indicate that changes in all experimental conditions caused significant changes to the VOC emissions of Arabidopsis plants. Therefore, the interaction between temperature and larval feeding may represent an important factor determining the variability of volatile emissions by plants subjected to multiple simultaneous factors. [less ▲]

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See detailLa représentation commerciale comme objet principal du contrat
Kéfer, Fabienne ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2014), (2014/35),

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See detailInjury Risk Assessment of Non-Lethal Projectile Head Impacts
Oukara, Amar ULg; Robbe, Cyril; Nsiampa, Nestor et al

in The Open Biomedical Engineering Journal (2014), 8(2014), 75-83

Kinetic energy non-lethal projectiles are used to impart sufficient effect onto a person in order to deter uncivil or hazardous behavior with a low probability of permanent injury. Since their first use ... [more ▼]

Kinetic energy non-lethal projectiles are used to impart sufficient effect onto a person in order to deter uncivil or hazardous behavior with a low probability of permanent injury. Since their first use, real cases indicate that the injuries inflicted by such projectiles may be irreversible and sometimes lead to death, especially for the head impacts. Given the high velocities and the low masses involved in such impacts, the assessment approaches proposed in automotive crash tests and sports may not be appropriate. Therefore, there is a need of a specific approach to assess the lethality of these projectiles. In this framework, some recent research data referred in this article as “force wall approach” suggest the use of three lesional thresholds (unconsciousness, meningeal damages and bone damages) that depend on the intracranial pressure. Three corresponding critical impact forces are determined for a reference projectile. Based on the principle that equal rigid wall maximal impact forces will produce equal damage on the head, these limits can be determined for any other projectile. In order to validate the consistence of this innovative method, it is necessary to compare the results with other existing assessment methods. This paper proposes a comparison between the “force wall approach” and two different head models. The first one is a numerical model (Strasbourg University Finite Element Head Model-SUFEHM) from Strasbourg University; the second one is a mechanical surrogate (Ballistics Load Sensing Headform-BLSH) from Biokinetics. [less ▲]

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See detailCapacitated vehicle routing problem with sequence- based pallet loading and axle weight constraints
Pollaris, Hanne; Braekers, Kris; Caris, An et al

in EURO Journal on Transportation and Logistics (2014)

In this paper, we introduce and study the capacitated vehicle routing problem with sequence-based pallet loading and axle weight constraints. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that axle ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we introduce and study the capacitated vehicle routing problem with sequence-based pallet loading and axle weight constraints. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that axle weight restrictions are incorporated in a vehicle routing model. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that incorporating axle weight restrictions in a vehicle routing model is possible and necessary for a feasible route planning. Axle weight limits impose a great challenge for transportation companies. Trucks with overloaded axles represent a significant threat for traffic safety and may cause serious damage to the road surface. Transporters face high fines when violating these limits. A mixed integer linear programming formulation for the capacitated vehicle routing problem with sequence-based pallet loading and axle weight constraints is provided. Results of the model are compared to the results of the model without axle weight restrictions. Computational experiments demonstrate that the model performs adequately and that the integration of axle weight constraints in vehicle routing models is required for a feasible route planning. [less ▲]

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See detailBrix, contre la modernité
Lorent, Fanny ULg

in COnTEXTES : Revue de Sociologie de la Littérature (2014)

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See detailPiezoelectric vibration damping using resonant shunt circuits: an exact solution
Soltani, Payam ULg; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg; Tondeau, Gilles et al

in Smart Materials & Structures (2014), 23

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See detailRetrievals of formaldehyde from ground-based FTIR and MAX-DOAS observations at the Jungfraujoch station and comparisons with GEOS-Chem and IMAGES model simulations
Franco, Bruno ULg; Hendrick, François; Van Roozendael, Michel et al

in Atmospheric Measurement Techniques. Papers in Open Discussion (2014), 7

As a ubiquitous product of the oxidation of many Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde (HCHO) plays a key role as a short-lived and reactive intermediate in the atmospheric photo-oxidation ... [more ▼]

As a ubiquitous product of the oxidation of many Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde (HCHO) plays a key role as a short-lived and reactive intermediate in the atmospheric photo-oxidation pathways leading to the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosols. In this study, HCHO profiles have been successfully retrieved from ground-based Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) solar spectra and UV-Visible Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) scans recorded during the July 2010–December 2012 time period at the Jungfraujoch station (Swiss Alps, 46.5 N, 8.0 E, 3580ma.s.l.). Analysis of the retrieved products has revealed different vertical sensitivity between both remote sensing techniques. Furthermore, HCHO amounts simulated by two state-of-the-art Chemical Transport Models (CTMs), GEOS-Chem and IMAGESv2, have been compared to FTIR total columns and MAX-DOAS 3.6–8 km partial columns, accounting for the respective vertical resolution of each ground-based instrument. Using the CTMs outputs as intermediate, FTIR and MAX-DOAS retrievals have shown consistent seasonal modulations of HCHO throughout the investigated period, characterized by summertime maximum and wintertime minimum. Such comparisons have also highlighted that FTIR and MAX-DOAS provide complementary products for the HCHO retrieval above the Jungfraujoch station. [less ▲]

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See detailSensitivity of Greenland Ice Sheet surface mass balance to perturbations in sea surface temperature and sea ice cover: a study with the regional climate model MAR
Noel, Brice; Fettweis, Xavier ULg; van de Berg, W.J. et al

in Cryosphere (The) (2014), 8

During recent summers (2007–2012), several surface melt records were broken over the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). The extreme summer melt resulted in part from a persistent negative phase of the North ... [more ▼]

During recent summers (2007–2012), several surface melt records were broken over the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). The extreme summer melt resulted in part from a persistent negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), favoring warmer atmospheric conditions than normal over the GrIS. Simultaneously, large anomalies in sea ice cover (SIC) and sea surface temperature (SST) were observed in the North Atlantic, suggesting a possible connection. To assess the direct impact of 2007–2012 SIC and SST anomalies on GrIS surface mass balance (SMB), a set of sensitivity experiments was carried out with the regional climate model MAR forced by ERA-Interim. These simulations suggest that perturbations in SST and SIC in the seas surrounding Greenland do not considerably impact GrIS SMB, as a result of the katabatic wind blocking effect. These offshore-directed winds prevent oceanic near-surface air, influenced by SIC and SST anomalies, from penetrating far inland. Therefore, the ice sheet SMB response is restricted to coastal regions, where katabatic winds cease. A topic for further investigation is how anomalies in SIC and SST might have indirectly affected the surface melt by changing the general circulation in the North Atlantic region, hence favoring more frequent warm air advection towards the GrIS. [less ▲]

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See detailCombined holography and thermography in a single sensor through image-plane holography at thermal infrared wavelengths
Georges, Marc ULg; Vandenrijt, Jean-François ULg; Thizy, Cédric ULg et al

in Optics Express (2014), 22(21), 25517-25529

Holographic interferometry in the thermal wavelengths range, combining a CO2 laser and digital hologram recording with a microbolometer array based camera, allows simultaneously capturing temperature and ... [more ▼]

Holographic interferometry in the thermal wavelengths range, combining a CO2 laser and digital hologram recording with a microbolometer array based camera, allows simultaneously capturing temperature and surface shape information about objects. This is due to the fact that the holograms are affected by the thermal background emitted by objects at room temperature. We explain the setup and the processing of data which allows decoupling the two types of information. This natural data fusion can be advantageously used in a variety of nondestructive testing applications. [less ▲]

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See detailProbabilistic Assessment of Lifetime of Low-Earth-Orbit Spacecraft: Uncertainty Propagation and Sensitivity Analysis
Dell'Elce, Lamberto ULg; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg

in Journal of Guidance Control & Dynamics (2014)

This paper is devoted to the probabilistic uncertainty quantification of orbital lifetime estimation of low-altitude satellites. Specifically, given a detailed characterization of the dominant sources of ... [more ▼]

This paper is devoted to the probabilistic uncertainty quantification of orbital lifetime estimation of low-altitude satellites. Specifically, given a detailed characterization of the dominant sources of uncertainty, we map this input into a probabilistic characterization of the orbital lifetime through orbital propagation. Standard Monte Carlo propagation is first considered. The concept of drag correction is then introduced to facilitate the use of polynomial chaos expansions and to make uncertainty propagation computationally effective. Finally, the obtained probabilistic model is exploited to carry out stochastic sensitivity analyses, which in turn allow gaining insight into the impact uncertainties have on orbital lifetime. The proposed developments are illustrated using one CubeSat of the QB50 constellation. [less ▲]

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See detailSeasonal variations of wild boar Sus scrofa distribution in agricultural landscapes: a species distribution modelling approach
Morelle, Kevin ULg; Lejeune, Philippe ULg

in European Journal of Wildlife Research (2014)

Seasonal changes in the distribution of animals can have an important impact on the ecosystem. In agricultural landscapes, the seasonal movement of the wild boar Sus scrofa towards field crops often ... [more ▼]

Seasonal changes in the distribution of animals can have an important impact on the ecosystem. In agricultural landscapes, the seasonal movement of the wild boar Sus scrofa towards field crops often results in damages and makes control of the population difficult. The plasticity of the species to cope with different habitats is largely proven, but the environmental and human drivers of this seasonal habitat shift at the population scale remain largely unknown. Using MaxEnt and two seasonally distinct presence datasets, we contrasted the distribution of wild boar in southern Belgium during the growing and hunting seasons to (i) analyse seasonal drivers of the distribution and (ii) forecast the potential spread of the species north to its current distribution. We demonstrated that during the growing season, wild boar range almost double, owing to the cover and food provided by agricultural areas, thereby enhancing the movement and spread of the species. We found that the seasonal distribution of wild boar in agricultural lands is mostly influenced by the search for cover and food provided alternatively by forest and field crops. Interestingly, it seems that this search for cover operates under the constraint of a threshold distance. Our results indeed reveal an increased probability of presence not only in the vicinity of forests but also above a threshold distance of 865 m from the forest edge, suggesting that wild boar can overcome the dependence to forest cover. The forecast distribution of wild boar highlighted a potential increase of the current range into suitable habitat between 63 and 168 km2. To counteract the potential spread of the species into agricultural habitats and the consecutive damages, we insist on the need for the development of integrated management strategies, combining land use spatial configuration and wild boar spatial behaviour. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of bovine colostrum on growth and survival in Red kids during the first year of life.
Abdou, Harouna ULg; Marichatou, Hamani; Beckers, Jean-François ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 4th Scientific Meeting of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, ULg (Liege–Belgium) 17 October, 2014 (2014)

The aim of this work was to measure the effect of supplementation with bovine colostrum among newborn Red goats breastfed in breeding conditions for semi-intensive type of Niger. The study was conducted ... [more ▼]

The aim of this work was to measure the effect of supplementation with bovine colostrum among newborn Red goats breastfed in breeding conditions for semi-intensive type of Niger. The study was conducted in Secondary Goat Breeding Center of Maradi (SGBCM). Forty newborn kids, regardless of sexe, were divided randomly into two groups: a "T-Control " group receiving only breast milk per feeding (n = 20) and a "C-Colostrum" group having the same diet but supplemented with bovine colostrum thawed (50 ml the first day of life, then 25 ml in 2 meals/ day between the ages of 2 and 15d, n = 20). The results indicate that supplementation with bovine colostrum in the first 15 days of life, increases the growth of kids until weaning (P<0.001), modifie some barymetric changes some settings improves health status and reduces the mortality rate. To our knowledge, in the studied environment, this work is original and seems to bring new knowledges likely to have practical applications in areas with farming conditions quite difficult. [less ▲]

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See detailRèglements de juges : conséquences sur la peine et sur la saisine du juge de renvoi
Michiels, Olivier ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2014)

Le prévenu qui après avoir été condamné par défaut et sur opposition interjette seul appel de cette dernière décision ne peut voir sa situation aggravée quand bien même la juridiction d’appel s’est ... [more ▼]

Le prévenu qui après avoir été condamné par défaut et sur opposition interjette seul appel de cette dernière décision ne peut voir sa situation aggravée quand bien même la juridiction d’appel s’est déclarée incompétente provoquant de la sorte un règlement de juges qui se résout par son renvoi devant la cour d’assises. [less ▲]

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See detailA closer look at the low frequency dynamics of vortex matter
Raes, Bart; de Souza Silva, Clecio C.; Silhanek, Alejandro ULg et al

in Physical Review. B : Condensed Matter (2014), 90

Using scanning susceptibility microscopy, we shed new light on the dynamics of individual superconducting vortices and examine the hypotheses of the phenomenological models traditionally used to explain ... [more ▼]

Using scanning susceptibility microscopy, we shed new light on the dynamics of individual superconducting vortices and examine the hypotheses of the phenomenological models traditionally used to explain the macroscopic ac electromagnetic properties of superconductors. The measurements, carried out on a 2H-NbSe2 single crystal at relatively high temperature T = 6.8 K, show a linear amplitude dependence of the global ac-susceptibility for excitation amplitudes between 0.3 and 2.6 Oe. We observe that the low amplitude response, typically attributed to the oscillation of vortices in a potential well defi ned by a single, relaxing, Labusch constant, actually corresponds to strongly non-uniform vortex shaking. This is particularly pronounced in the fi eld-cooled disordered phase, which undergoes a dynamic reorganization above 0.8 Oe as evidenced by the healing of lattice defects and a more uniform oscillation of vortices. These observations are corroborated by molecular dynamics simulations when choosing the microscopic input parameters from the experiments. The theoretical simulations allow us to reconstruct the vortex trajectories providing deeper insight in the thermally induced hopping dynamics and the vortex lattice reordering. [less ▲]

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See detailThe use of Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry for isomer composition determination extracted from Se-rich yeast
Far, Johann ULg; Delvaux, Cédric ULg; Kune, Christopher ULg et al

in Analytical Chemistry (2014), just accepted

The isomer ratio determination of a selenium-containing metabolite produced by Se-rich yeast was performed. Electrospray Ionization and Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry (IM-MS) were unsuccessfully used in ... [more ▼]

The isomer ratio determination of a selenium-containing metabolite produced by Se-rich yeast was performed. Electrospray Ionization and Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry (IM-MS) were unsuccessfully used in order to resolve the isomers according to their Collisional Cross Section (CCS) difference. The isomer ratio determination of 2,3-dihydroxypropionylselenocystathionine was performed after multidimensional liquid chromatography preconcentration from a water extract of Se-rich yeast using preparative size exclusion, anion exchange and capillary reverse phase columns coupled to IM-MS. 4’-nitrobenzo-15-crown-5 ether, a Selective Shift Reagent (SSR), was added after the last chromatographic dimension in order to specifically increase the CCS of one of the isomers by the formation of a stable host-guest system with the crown-ether . Both isomers were consequently fully resolved by IM-MS and the relative ratio of the isomers was determined: 11-13% and 87-89%. The present data compared favorably with literature to support the analytical strategy despite the lack of authentic standard for method validation. In addition, computational chemistry methods were successfully applied to design the SSR and to support the experimental data. [less ▲]

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See detailA facile and fast electrochemical route to produce functional few-layer graphene sheets for lithium battery anode application
Ouhib, Farid ULg; Aqil, Abdelhafid ULg; Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg et al

in Journal of Materials Chemistry A (2014), 2(37), 15298-15302

A simple approach for the production of polymer functionalized graphene nanosheets is reported. The resulting polyacrylonitrile chemisorbed on graphene sheets is made of 1 to 2 layers, with a large ... [more ▼]

A simple approach for the production of polymer functionalized graphene nanosheets is reported. The resulting polyacrylonitrile chemisorbed on graphene sheets is made of 1 to 2 layers, with a large majority of graphene single-layers. This novel functionalized graphene exhibits good cycling stability as an anode in Li-ion batteries without a conductive additive or binder. [less ▲]

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See detailClassical analogy for the deflection of flux avalanches by a metallic layer
Brisbois, Jérémy ULg; Vanderheyden, Benoît ULg; Colauto, Fabiano et al

in New Journal of Physics (2014), 16(10), 103003

Sudden avalanches of magnetic flux bursting into a superconducting sample undergo deflections of their trajectories when encountering a conductive layer deposited on top of the superconductor. Remarkably ... [more ▼]

Sudden avalanches of magnetic flux bursting into a superconducting sample undergo deflections of their trajectories when encountering a conductive layer deposited on top of the superconductor. Remarkably, in some cases the flux is totally excluded from the area covered by the conductive layer. We present a simple classical model that accounts for this behaviour and considers a magnetic monopole approaching a semi-infinite conductive plane. This model suggests that magnetic braking is an important mechanism responsible for avalanche deflection. [less ▲]

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See detailThe 2.35 year itch of Cygnus OB2 #9. III. X-ray and radio emission analysis based on 3D hydrodynamical modelling
Parkin, E. R.; Pittard, J. M.; Nazé, Yaël ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 570

Context. The wind-wind collision in a massive star binary system leads to the generation of high temperature shocks that emit at X-ray wavelengths and, if particle acceleration is effective, may exhibit ... [more ▼]

Context. The wind-wind collision in a massive star binary system leads to the generation of high temperature shocks that emit at X-ray wavelengths and, if particle acceleration is effective, may exhibit non-thermal radio emission. Cyg OB2#9 is one of a small number of massive star binary systems in this class. <BR /> Aims: X-ray and radio data recently acquired as part of a project to study Cyg OB2#9 are used to constrain physical models of the binary system, providing in-depth knowledge about the wind-wind collision and the thermal, and non-thermal, emission arising from the shocks. <BR /> Methods: We use a 3D, adaptive mesh refinement simulation (including wind acceleration, radiative cooling, and the orbital motion of the stars) to model the gas dynamics of the wind-wind collision. The simulation output is used as the basis for radiative transfer calculations considering the thermal X-ray emission and the thermal/non-thermal radio emission. <BR /> Results: The flow dynamics in the simulation show that wind acceleration (between the stars) is inhibited at all orbital phases by the opposing star's radiation field, reducing pre-shock velocities below terminal velocities. To obtain good agreement with the X-ray observations, our initial mass-loss rate estimates require a down-shift by a factor of ˜7.7 to 6.5 × 10[SUP]-7[/SUP] M[SUB]⊙[/SUB] yr[SUP]-1[/SUP] and 7.5 × 10[SUP]-7[/SUP] M[SUB]⊙[/SUB] yr[SUP]-1[/SUP] for the primary and secondary star, respectively. Furthermore, the low gas densities and high shock velocities in Cyg OB2 #9 are suggestive of unequal electron and ion temperatures, and the X-ray analysis indicates that an immediately post-shock electron-ion temperature ratio of ≃0.1 is also required. The radio emission is dominated by non-thermal synchrotron emission. A parameter space exploration provides evidence against models assuming equipartition between magnetic and relativistic energy densities. However, fits of comparable quality can be attained with models having stark contrasts in the ratio of magnetic-to-relativistic energy densities. Both X-ray and radio lightcurves are largely insensitive to viewing angle. The variations in X-ray emission with orbital phase can be traced back to an inverse relation with binary separation and pre-shock velocity. The radio emission also scales with pre-shock velocity and binary separation, but to positive powers (i.e. not inversely). The radio models also reveal a subtle effect whereby inverse Compton cooling leads to an increase in emissivity as a result of the synchrotron characteristic frequency being significantly reduced. Finally, using the results of the radio analysis, we estimate the surface magnetic field strengths to be ≈0.3 - 52G. [less ▲]

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See detailTIGRE: A new robotic spectroscopy telescope at Guanajuato, Mexico
Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Schröder, K.-P.; Rauw, Grégor ULg et al

in Astronomische Nachrichten (2014), 335

TIGRE is a new robotic spectroscopy telescope located in central Mexico at the La Luz Observatory of the University of Guanajuato. The 1.2 m telescope is fiber-coupled to an échelle spectrograph with a ... [more ▼]

TIGRE is a new robotic spectroscopy telescope located in central Mexico at the La Luz Observatory of the University of Guanajuato. The 1.2 m telescope is fiber-coupled to an échelle spectrograph with a spectral resolving power exceeding 20 000 over most of the covered spectral range between 3800 Å and 8800 Å, with a small gap of 130 Å around 5800 Å. TIGRE operates robotically, i.e. it (normally) carries out all observations without any human intervention, including, in particular, the target selection in any given observing night. In this paper we describe the properties of the TIGRE instrumentation and its technical realization, as well as our first operational experience with the performance and efficiency of the overall system. Finally, we present some examples of recent TIGRE observations. [less ▲]

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See detailQTL analysis and candidate gene mapping for the polyphenol content in cider apple
Verdu, Cindy ULg; Guyot, Sylvain; Childebrand, Nicolas et al

in PLoS ONE (2014), 9(10), 107103

Polyphenols have favorable antioxidant potential on human health suggesting that their high content is responsible for the beneficial effects of apple consumption. They control the quality of ciders as ... [more ▼]

Polyphenols have favorable antioxidant potential on human health suggesting that their high content is responsible for the beneficial effects of apple consumption. They control the quality of ciders as they predominantly account for astringency, bitterness, color and aroma. In this study, we identified QTLs controlling phenolic compound concentrations and the average polymerization degree of flavanols in a cider apple progeny. Thirty two compounds belonging to five groups of phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by reversed phase liquid chromatography on both fruit extract and juice, over three years. The average polymerization degree of flavanols was estimated in fruit by phloroglucinolysis coupled to HPLC. Parental maps were built using SSR and SNP markers and used for the QTL analysis. Sixty-nine and 72 QTLs were detected on 14 and 11 linkage groups of the female and male maps, respectively. A majority of the QTLs identified in this study are specific to this population, while others are consistent with previous studies. This study presents for the first time in apple, QTLs for the mean polymerization degree of procyanidins, for which the mechanisms involved remains unknown to this day. Identification of candidate genes underlying major QTLs was then performed in silico and permitted the identification of 18 enzymes of the polyphenol pathway and six transcription factors involved in the apple anthocyanin regulation. New markers were designed from sequences of the most interesting candidate genes in order to confirm their co-localization with underlying QTLs by genetic mapping. Finally, the potential use of these QTLs in breeding programs is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailSimulation and optimization of a CHP biomass plant and district heating network
Sartor, Kevin ULg; Quoilin, Sylvain ULg; Dewallef, Pierre ULg

in Applied Energy (2014), 130

Biomass Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants connected to district heating (DH) networks are recognized nowadays as a very good opportunity to increase the share of renewable sources into energy systems ... [more ▼]

Biomass Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants connected to district heating (DH) networks are recognized nowadays as a very good opportunity to increase the share of renewable sources into energy systems. However, as CHP plants are not optimized for electricity production, their operation is profitable only if a sufficient heat demand is available throughout the year. Most of the time, pre-feasibility studies are based on peak power demand and business plans only assume monthly or yearly consumption data. This approach usually turns out to overestimate the number of operating hours or oversize the plant capacity. This contribution presents a methodology intended to be simple and effective that provides accurate estimations of economical, environmental and energetic performances of CHP plants connected to district heating networks. A quasi-steady state simulation model of a CHP plant combined with a simulation model of the district heating network installed on the Campus of the University in Liège (Belgium) is used as an application framework to demonstrate the effectiveness of the selected approach. Based on the developed model and actual consumption data, several scenarios for energy savings are considered and ranked. The potential energy savings and resulting energy costs are estimated enabling more general conclusions to be drawn on the opportunity of using district heating networks in urban districts for Western Europe countries. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrocrystalline cellulose, a direct compression binder in a quality by design environment—A review
Thoorens, Grégory; Krier, Fabrice ULg; Leclercq, Bruno et al

in International Journal of Pharmaceutics (2014), 473(1-2), 64-72

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See detailDynamic Simulation of Large-scale Power Systems Using a Parallel Schur-complement-based Decomposition Method
Aristidou, Petros ULg; Fabozzi, Davide; Van Cutsem, Thierry ULg

in IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems (2014), 25(10), 2561-2570

Power system dynamic simulations are crucial for the operation of electric power systems as they provide important information on the dynamic evolution of the system after an occurring disturbance. This ... [more ▼]

Power system dynamic simulations are crucial for the operation of electric power systems as they provide important information on the dynamic evolution of the system after an occurring disturbance. This paper proposes a robust, accurate and efficient parallel algorithm based on the Schur complement domain decomposition method. The algorithm provides numerical and computational acceleration of the procedure. Based on the shared-memory parallel programming model, a parallel implementation of the proposed algorithm is presented. The implementation is general, portable and scalable on inexpensive, shared-memory, multi-core machines. Two realistic test systems, a medium-scale and a large-scale, are used for performance evaluation of the proposed method. [less ▲]

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See detailUnveiling the effects of berenil, a DNA-binding drug, on Trypanosoma cruzi: implications for kDNA ultrastructure and replication.
Zuma, Aline Araujo; Cavalcanti, Danielle Pereira; Zogovich, Marcelo et al

in Parasitology research (2014)

Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, exhibits a single mitochondrion with an enlarged portion termed kinetoplast. This unique structure harbors the mitochondrial DNA (kDNA ... [more ▼]

Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, exhibits a single mitochondrion with an enlarged portion termed kinetoplast. This unique structure harbors the mitochondrial DNA (kDNA), composed of interlocked molecules: minicircles and maxicircles. kDNA is a hallmark of kinetoplastids and for this reason constitutes a valuable target in chemotherapeutic and cell biology studies. In the present work, we analyzed the effects of berenil, a minor-groove-binding agent that acts preferentially at the kDNA, thereby affecting cell proliferation, ultrastructure, and mitochondrial activity of T. cruzi epimastigote form. Our results showed that berenil promoted a reduction on parasite growth when high concentrations were used; however, cell viability was not affected. This compound caused significant changes in kDNA arrangement, including the appearance of membrane profiles in the network and electron-lucent areas in the kinetoplast matrix, but nuclear ultrastructure was not modified. The use of the TdT technique, which specifically labels DNA, conjugated to atomic force microscopy analysis indicates that berenil prevents the minicircle decatenation of the network, thus impairing DNA replication and culminating in the appearance of dyskinetoplastic cells. Alterations in the kinetoplast network may be associated with kDNA lesions, as suggested by the quantitative PCR (qPCR) technique. Furthermore, parasites treated with berenil presented higher levels of reactive oxygen species and a slight decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential and oxygen consumption. Taken together, our results reveal that this DNA-binding drug mainly affects kDNA topology and replication, reinforcing the idea that the kinetoplast represents a potential target for chemotherapy against trypanosomatids. [less ▲]

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See detailPalynological record of the Silurian/Devonian boundary in the Argentinian Precordillera, western Gondwana
Garcia Muro, V.J.; Rubinstein, C.V.; Steemans, Philippe ULg

in Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Palaontologie. Abhandlungen (2014), 274(1), 25-42

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See detailPelouses calcaires : une application de la portance écologique pour le renforcement du réseau écologique
Hendrickx, Sébastien ULg; Van Der Kaa, Claire ULg; Sérusiaux, Emmanuël ULg

in Notes de recherche - Conférence Permanente du Développement Territorial Région Wallonne (2014), 48

La méthodologie d’évaluation de la portance écologique du territoire a ensuite été paramétrée afin d'objectiver l’intérêt du territoire wallon du point de vue des pelouses calcaires. Il résulte de cette ... [more ▼]

La méthodologie d’évaluation de la portance écologique du territoire a ensuite été paramétrée afin d'objectiver l’intérêt du territoire wallon du point de vue des pelouses calcaires. Il résulte de cette application un outil cartographique qui permet de discriminer les sites potentiels les plus efficaces pour la restauration de ces pelouses sur le plan écologique. Cet exercice démontre ainsi très concrètement l'utilité de la portance écologique en tant qu'aide à la décision pour orienter les dépenses de préservation de leur réseau écologique spécifique. [less ▲]

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See detailData processing of vibrational chemical imaging for pharmaceutical applications.
Sacre, Pierre-Yves ULg; De Bleye, Charlotte ULg; Chavez, Pierre-François ULg et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2014), 101

Vibrational spectroscopy (MIR, NIR and Raman) based hyperspectral imaging is one of the most powerful tools analyze pharmaceutical preparation. Indeed, it combines the advantages of vibrational ... [more ▼]

Vibrational spectroscopy (MIR, NIR and Raman) based hyperspectral imaging is one of the most powerful tools analyze pharmaceutical preparation. Indeed, it combines the advantages of vibrational spectroscopy to imaging techniques and allows therefore the visualization of distribution of compounds, crystallization processes. However, these techniques provide a huge amount of data that must be processed to extract the relevant information. This review presents fundamental concepts of hyperspectral imaging, the basic theory of the most used chemometric tools used to pre-process, process and post-process the generated data. The last part of the present paper focuses on pharmaceutical applications of hyperspectral imaging and highlights the data processing approaches to enable the reader making the best choice among the different tools available. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence of oxidative stress and mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction in an in vitro model of sepsis-induced kidney injury
Quoilin, Caroline ULg; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange ULg; Lécart, Sandrine et al

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-Bioenergetics (2014), 1837(10), 1790-1800

To investigate the role of oxidative stress and/or mitochondrial impairment in the occurrence of acute kidney injury (AKI) during sepsis, we developed a sepsis-induced in vitro model using proximal ... [more ▼]

To investigate the role of oxidative stress and/or mitochondrial impairment in the occurrence of acute kidney injury (AKI) during sepsis, we developed a sepsis-induced in vitro model using proximal tubular epithelial cells exposed to a bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS). This investigation has provided key features on the relationship between oxidative stress and mitochondrial respiratory chain activity defects. LPS treatment resulted in an increase in the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX-4), suggesting the cytosolic overexpression of nitric oxide and superoxide anion, the primary reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). This oxidant state seemed to interrupt mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation by reducing cytochrome c oxidase activity. As a consequence, disruptions in the electron transport and the proton pumping across the mitochondrial inner membrane occurred, leading to a decrease of the mitochondrial membrane potential, a release of apoptotic-inducing factors and a depletion of adenosine triphosphate. Interestingly, after being targeted by RNS and ROS, mitochondria became in turn producer of ROS, thus contributing to increase the mitochondrial dysfunction. The role of oxidants in mitochondrial dysfunction was further confirmed by the use of iNOS inhibitors or antioxidants that preserve cytochrome c oxidase activity and prevent mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation. These results suggest that sepsis-induced AKI should not only be regarded as failure of energy status but also as an integrated response, including transcriptional events, ROS signaling, mitochondrial activity and metabolic orientation such as apoptosis. [less ▲]

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See detailNeurophysiology of hypnosis
VANHAUDENHUYSE, Audrey ULg; Laureys, Steven ULg; Faymonville, Marie-Elisabeth ULg

in Clinical Neurophysiology (2014), 44

We here review behavioral, neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies of hypnosis as a state, as well as hypnosis as a tool to modulate brain responses to painful stimulations. Studies have shown that ... [more ▼]

We here review behavioral, neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies of hypnosis as a state, as well as hypnosis as a tool to modulate brain responses to painful stimulations. Studies have shown that hypnotic processes modify internal (self awareness) as well as external (environmental awareness) brain networks. Brain mechanisms underlying the modulation of pain perception under hypnotic conditions involve cortical as well as subcortical areas including anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices, basal ganglia and thalami. Combined with local anesthesia and conscious sedation in patients undergoing surgery, hypnosis is associated with improved peri- and postoperative comfort of patients and surgeons. Finally, hypnosis can be considered as a useful analogue for simulating conversion and dissociation symptoms in healthy subjects, permitting better characterization of these challenging disorders by producing clinically similar experiences. [less ▲]

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See detailIsolation and cultivation of xylanolytic and cellulolytic Sarocladium kiliense and Trichoderma virens from the gut of the termite Reticulitermes santonensis
Tarayre, Cédric ULg; Bauwens, Julien ULg; Brasseur, Catherine ULg et al

in Environmental Science & Pollution Research (2014)

The purpose of this work was the isolation and cultivation of cellulolytic and xylanolytic microorganisms extracted from the gut of the lower termite Reticulitermes santonensis. Microcrystalline cellulose ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this work was the isolation and cultivation of cellulolytic and xylanolytic microorganisms extracted from the gut of the lower termite Reticulitermes santonensis. Microcrystalline cellulose (with and without lignin) and beech wood xylan were used as diets instead of poplar wood in order to select cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading fungi. The strain Sarocladium kiliense (Acremonium kiliense) CTGxxyl was isolated from the termites fed on xylan, while the strain Trichoderma virens CTGxAviL was isolated from the termites fed on cellulose (with and without lignin). Both molds were cultivated in liquid media containing different substrates: agro-residues or purified polymers. S. kiliense produced maximal β-glucosidase, endo-1,4-β-D-glucanase, exo-1,4-β-D-glucanase and endo-1,4-β-D-xylanase activities of 0.103, 3.99, 0.53, and 40.8 IU/ml, respectively. T. virens produced maximal β-xylosidase, endo-1,4-β-D-glucanase, exo-1,4-β-D-glucanase, and endo-1,4-β-D-xylanase activities of 0.38, 1.48, 0.69, and 426 IU/ml. The cellulase and the xylanase of S. kiliense, less common than T. virens, were further investigated. The optimal activity of the xylanase was observed at pH 9–10 at 60 °C. The cellulase showed its maximal activity at pH 10, 70 °C. Zymography identified different xylanases produced by both molds, and some fragment sizes were highlighted: 35, 100, and 170 kDa for S. kiliense and 20, 40, 80, and 170 kDa for T. virens. In both cases, endo-1,4-β-D-xylanase activitieswere confirmed through mass spectrometry. [less ▲]

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See detailL’ANATOMIE REVISITÉE DU PETIT BASSIN
Bonnet, Pierre ULg

in Louvain Medical (2014), 133(8), 3-13

Le petit bassin est un espace cônique musculoosseux comportant la portion inférieure de la cavité péritonéale surmontant l’espace endopelvien. Les viscères pelviens reçoivent leur vascularisation des ... [more ▼]

Le petit bassin est un espace cônique musculoosseux comportant la portion inférieure de la cavité péritonéale surmontant l’espace endopelvien. Les viscères pelviens reçoivent leur vascularisation des parois latérales au sein de l’espace endopelvien, leur innervation dépend d’une double origine, abdominale et pelvienne. Les parois de cet espace abritent les nerfs somatiques et vaisseaux destinés aux parois de la partie inférieure du tronc et aux membres inférieurs. La connaissance pratique de cette anatomie peut être aidée par une approche constructive élaborant les parois et ensuite le contenu de cet espace. [less ▲]

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See detailEtiology in Parthenius of Nicaea
Vandersmissen, Marc ULg

in Euphrosyne (2014), 42

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See detailEccentric muscle contractions: risks and benefits
Hody, Stéphanie ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Lacrosse, Zoé ULg et al

in Proceedings of the Belgian Royal Academies of Medicine (2014)

La contraction musculaire excentrique se caractérise par le développement d'une tension musculaire associée à l'étirement concomitant du complexe musculo-tendineux. Ce mode de contraction présente un ... [more ▼]

La contraction musculaire excentrique se caractérise par le développement d'une tension musculaire associée à l'étirement concomitant du complexe musculo-tendineux. Ce mode de contraction présente un intérêt croissant dans de nombreux domaines tels que l’entraînement sportif, la médecine physique et la rééducation. De plus, certaines indications de l’entraînement en mode excentrique ont été posées chez des patients porteurs de maladies chroniques. Cependant, lorsqu’il est réalisé de manière intense et inhabituelle, l’exercice excentrique peut entraîner diverses altérations de l’ultrastructure musculaire qui se manifestent par une série de symptômes cliniques comme des douleurs musculaires d’apparition retardées (Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness, DOMS) et une altération de la fonction musculaire. Malgré la littérature abondante consacrée à la description du phénomène des DOMS, aucune théorie cohérente n’est actuellement disponible pour expliquer la survenue différée des sensations douloureuses et des signes associés. De même, toujours à l’analyse de la littérature, on ne peut que constater l’absence de solution thérapeutique susceptible d’atténuer significativement l’intensité des DOMS et de leurs conséquences fonctionnelles associées à l’exception, paradoxalement, de l’exercice excentrique lui-même qui, lorsqu’il est proposé en conditions sous-maximales d’intensité progressivement croissante, semble constituer la seule prévention réellement efficace de l’apparition des DOMS. De même, si l’efficacité d’un entraînement spécifique dans la prévention des DOMS a été confirmée par de nombreux travaux, la nature de cet effet protecteur reste sujette à conjectures. Nous sommes néanmoins convaincus qu’une meilleure compréhension des réponses aiguës et/ou adaptatives à l’exercice excentrique contribuerait d’une part, à la mise au point d’interventions thérapeutiques efficaces et d’autre part, à élucider les évènements moléculaires impliqués dans des conditions pathologiques telles que les myalgies et certaines maladies neuromusculaires. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing XCO2 retrievals for assessing the long-term consistency of NDACC/FTIR data sets
Barthlott; Schneider, M; Hase, F et al

in Atmospheric Measurement Techniques. Papers in Open Discussion (2014), 7

Within the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change), more than 20 FTIR (Fourier–Transform InfraRed) spectrometers, spread worldwide, provide long-term data records of many ... [more ▼]

Within the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change), more than 20 FTIR (Fourier–Transform InfraRed) spectrometers, spread worldwide, provide long-term data records of many atmospheric trace gases. We present a method that uses measured and modelled XCO2 for assessing the consistency of these data records. Our NDACC XCO2 retrieval setup is kept simple so that it can easily be adopted for any NDACC/FTIR-like measurement made since the late 1950s. By a comparison to coincident TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network) measurements, we empirically demonstrate the useful quality of this NDACC XCO2 product (empirically obtained scatter between TCCON and NDACC is about 4‰ for daily mean as well as monthly mean comparisons and the bias is 25 ‰). As XCO2 model we developed and used a simple regression model fitted to CarbonTracker results and the Mauna Loa CO2 in-situ records. A comparison to TCCON data suggests an uncertainty of the model for monthly mean data of below 3 ‰. We apply the method to the NDACC/FTIR spectra that are used within the project MUSICA (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water) and demonstrate that there is a good consistency for these globally representative set of spectra measured since 1996: the scatter between the modelled and measured XCO2 on a yearly time scale is only 3 ‰. [less ▲]

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See detailMuscle Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Horses Affected by Acute Laminitis
Serteyn, Didier ULg; de la Rebière de Pouyade, Geoffroy ULg; Sandersen, Charlotte ULg et al

in Bioenergetics (2014)

Laminitis is a common and debilitating disease affecting horses and ponies. It often leads to the demise of the animal. Energy deficiency is suspected to entrain the disruption of the hemidesmosomes ... [more ▼]

Laminitis is a common and debilitating disease affecting horses and ponies. It often leads to the demise of the animal. Energy deficiency is suspected to entrain the disruption of the hemidesmosomes leading to the failure of the dermal-epidermal interface. The aim of this study was to measure the muscle mitochondrial function by high resolution respirometry. Muscle micro-biopsies were obtained from 11 horses affected by acute metabolic laminitis, 6 horses affected by acute laminitis resulting from a systemic inflammation response syndrome and 28 healthy horses distributed in 2 control groups: 17 horses with a body condition score [BSC, ranging from 0 (emaciated) to 5 (obese)] of 2 to 3 and 11 horses with a BSC of 4 to 5. During the acute phase of laminitis, a significant reduction of the muscle mitochondrial respiration was observed. The muscle mitochondrial dysfunction occurred independently of the etiology (metabolic disorder or systemic inflammation) leading to laminitis. The reduction of the oxidative phosphorylation and of the maximal respiratory capacity (after uncoupling) may induce depletion of the cell’s ATP content. If the same mitochondrial alteration occurs in the foot lamina, mitochondria targeting should be considered for the future, not only to better understand the physiopathology of the disease but also to maintain and to support the mitochondrial function before reaching the « mitochondrial dysfunction threshold » that may lead to the failure of the dermal-epidermal interface. [less ▲]

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See detailSystematic analysis of site-specific yield distributions resulting from nitrogen management and climatic variability interactions
Dumont, Benjamin ULg; Basso, Bruno; Leemans, Vincent ULg et al

in Precision Agriculture (2014)

At the plot level, crop simulation models such as STICS have the potential to evaluate risk associated with management practices. In nitrogen (N) management, however, the decision-making process is ... [more ▼]

At the plot level, crop simulation models such as STICS have the potential to evaluate risk associated with management practices. In nitrogen (N) management, however, the decision-making process is complex because the decision has to be taken without any knowledge of future weather conditions. The objective of this paper is to present a general methodology for assessing yield variability linked to climatic uncertainty and variable N rate strategies. The STICS model was coupled with the LARS-Weather Generator. The Pearson system and coefficients were used to characterise the shape of yield distribution. Alternatives to classical statistical tests were proposed for assessing the normality of distributions and conducting comparisons (namely, the Jarque-Bera and Wilcoxon tests, respectively). Finally, the focus was put on the probability risk assessment, which remains a key point within the decision process. The simulation results showed that, based on current N application practice among Belgian farmers (60 60 60 kgN ha-1), yield distribution was very highly significantly non normal, with the highest degree of asymmetry characterised by a skewness value of -1.02. They showed that this strategy gave the greatest probability (60%) of achieving yields that were superior to the mean (10.5 t ha-1) of the distribution. [less ▲]

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See detailLa ludicisation des pratiques d’écriture sur Internet : une étude des fanfictions comme dispositifs jouables
Barnabé, Fanny ULg

in Sciences du jeu (2014), 2(Automne),

This paper aims for studying the ludification phenomenon through one of its realizations: the introduction of play in the writing of fan fictions on the Internet. According to the perspective of the "play ... [more ▼]

This paper aims for studying the ludification phenomenon through one of its realizations: the introduction of play in the writing of fan fictions on the Internet. According to the perspective of the "play studies" (Triclot, 2011) and of the "play design" (Genvo, 2008), the ludification is defined here as the generalization of a "playful attitude" observable through the traces (the "signs of playability") it leaves on the objects it appropriates. This work therefore seeks to identify, within a corpus of fan fiction inspired by the videogame series Kingdom Hearts, any marks of the playful use that is made of these texts. The modifications occasioned, in the practice, by the use of digital technology will also be considered (can this "ludogenic" media increase the playability?; Vial, 2012). The fan fiction will successively be considered as a community phenomenon, as a writing practice and, finally, as a set of texts. [less ▲]

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See detailRetrospective analysis of a suburban out-ofhours clinic in Belgium
Belche, Jean-Luc ULg; Berrewaerts, Marie-Astrid ULg; Burette, Philippe ULg et al

in Acta Clinica Belgica (2014), 69(5), 341-347

Introduction: In many countries, out-of-hours medical care is under scrutiny. The aim of this article is to study the activities recorded by the first out-of-hours clinic that has been opened, as a pilot ... [more ▼]

Introduction: In many countries, out-of-hours medical care is under scrutiny. The aim of this article is to study the activities recorded by the first out-of-hours clinic that has been opened, as a pilot study, in two Walloon communes. Material and method: A retrospective analysis of anonymized data was conducted for 2009. Coding of diagnoses was conducted using the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC-2). Results: A total of 3949 contacts were recorded in 2009 with the out-of-hours clinic, 3294 related to inhabitants of the two communes covered, which was equivalent to 13% of the total population in question. Compared to 7.2% of contacts between midnight and 8 a.m., 82.9% of contacts took place between 8 a.m. and 9 p.m., and 91.6% of contacts were handled locally, with only 8.4% resulting in hospitalization. In addition, 52% of contacts were with patients aged between 25 and 65; 29.9% of contacts were with paediatric patients (,15 years). Patients over the age of 65 made up 18% of contacts. The most common pathologies were respiratory (R). Analysis of flu diagnoses identified two epidemic peaks. Discussion: The suburban out-of-hours clinic studied fulfilled an important role in managing the demand for health care. The large majority of health problems were resolved locally, and the inhabitants did not need to go to hospital. Appointments between midnight and 8 a.m. were in the minority, which points towards adjusting the organization of the out-of-hours service during the night. The geriatric population is not highly over-represented contrary to what might be expected considering its largest number of pathologies. The on-call doctor’s skills profile should take account of the populations and morbidities encountered. Out-ofhours clinics could possibly play a sentinel role in terms of flu epidemics. Conclusion: This study describes a pilot suburban out-of-hours clinic which met three of recommendations set by the KCE in its report on out-of-hours care in general medicine: the organization of an out-of-hours clinic with logistical support, the use of a single telephone number and merging out-of-hours areas. While debate exists on the management of out-of-hours care, this study provides evidence on the role of the physician during these hours. [less ▲]

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See detail2014 ESC Guidelines on diagnosis and management of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: The Task Force for the Diagnosis and Management of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).
Elliott, Perry M.; Anastasakis, Aris; Borger, Michael A. et al

in European heart journal (2014), 35(39), 2733-79

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See detailImproved spectral fitting of nitrogen dioxide from OMI in the 405-465 nm window
van Geffen, J H G M; Boersma, K F; Van Roozendael, M et al

in Atmospheric Measurement Techniques. Papers in Open Discussion (2014), 7

An improved nitrogen dioxide (NO2) slant column density retrieval for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) in the 405–465 nm spectral region is presented. Since the launch of OMI on board NASA's EOS-Aura ... [more ▼]

An improved nitrogen dioxide (NO2) slant column density retrieval for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) in the 405–465 nm spectral region is presented. Since the launch of OMI on board NASA's EOS-Aura satellite in 2004, DOAS retrievals of NO2 slant column densities have been the starting point for the KNMI DOMINO (v2.0) and NASA SP (v2.1) retrievals. However, recent intercomparisons between NO2 retrievals from OMI and other UV/Vis and limb spectrometers, as well as ground-based measurements, clearly suggested that OMI stratospheric NO2 is biased high. This study revises the OMI NO2 retrieval in detail. The representation of the OMI slit function to convolve high-resolution reference spectra onto the relevant spectral grid is improved. The window used for the wavelength calibration is optimised, leading to much-reduced fitting errors. Ozone and water vapour spectra used in the fit are updated, reflecting the recently improved knowledge on their absorption cross section as documented in the literature. The improved spectral fit also accounts for absorption by the O2–O2 collision complex and by liquid water over clear-water areas. The main changes in the improved spectral fitting result from the updates related to the wavelength calibration: the RMS error of the fit is reduced by 23% and the NO2 slant column by 0.85 × 1015 molec cm-2, independent of latitude, solar zenith angle and NO2 value. Including O2–O2 and liquid water absorption and updating the O3 and water vapour cross-section spectra further reduces NO2 slant columns on average by 0.35 × 1015 molec cm-2, accompanied with a further 9% reduction in the RMS error of the fit. The improved OMI NO2 slant columns are consistent with independent NO2 retrievals to within a range that can be explained by photo-chemically driven diurnal increases in stratospheric NO2 and by small differences in fitting window and fitting approach. The revisions indicate that current OMI NO2 slant columns suffered mostly from an additive, positive offset that is removed by the improved wavelength calibration and representation of the OMI slit function. It is therefore anticipated that the improved NO2 slant columns are most important to retrievals of spatially homogeneous stratospheric NO2 rather than to heterogeneous tropospheric NO2. [less ▲]

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See detailL'amiodarone et la thyroïde
Brescia, Lionel ULg; Benoit, Arnaud ULg; BETEA, Daniela ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014), 69(10), 549-554

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See detailPour l'amour du grec : le voyage de Villoison en Grèce et au Levant (1784-1786)
Famerie, Etienne ULg

in Art&Fact (2014), 33

How the French scholar d'Ansse de Villoison describes, analyses and judges the state of Ottoman Greece in the end of the 18th century

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See detailValidation des paramètres de marche par un système accélérométrique (Locométrix*) à l'aide d'un système opto-électronique 3D (Coda Motion )
GILLAIN, Sophie ULg; Schwartz, Cédric ULg; Boutaayamou, Mohamed ULg et al

in Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement (2014), 12(supplément 3),

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See detailJosé Muñoz: La poética de las manchas
Dejasse, Erwin ULg

in Entre Líneas: Revista de Estudios Sobre Historieta y Humor Gráfico (2014), 1

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See detailLarval development sites of the main Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in northern Europe and distribution of coprophilic species larvae in Belgian pastures
Zimmer, Jean-Yves ULg; Brostaux, Yves ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg et al

in Veterinary Parasitology (2014), 205(3-4), 676-686

Some Culicoides species of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are biological virus vectors worldwide and have indeed been associated with outbreaks of important epizoonoses in recent years, such as ... [more ▼]

Some Culicoides species of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are biological virus vectors worldwide and have indeed been associated with outbreaks of important epizoonoses in recent years, such as bluetongue and Schmallenberg disease in northern Europe. These diseases, which affect domestic and wild ruminants, have caused considerable economic losses. Knowledge of substrates suitable for Culicoides larval development is important, particularly for the main vector temperate species. This study, realized during two years, aimed to highlight the larval development sites of these biting midge species in the immediate surroundings of ten Belgian cattle farms. Moreover, spatial distribution of the coprophilic Culicoides larvae (C. chiopterus and C. dewulfi) within pastures was studied with increasing distance from farms along linear transects (farm–pasture–woodland). A total of 4347 adult specimens belonging to 13 Culicoides species were obtained by incubation of 2131 soil samples belonging to 102 different substrates; 18 of these substrates were suitable for larval development. The Obsoletus complex (formed by two species) was observed in a wide range of substrates, including silage residues, components of a chicken coop, dung adhering to walls inside stables, leftover feed along the feed bunk, a compost pile of sugar beet residues, soil of a livestock trampling area, and decaying wood, while the following served as substrates for the other specimens: C. chiopterus, mainly cow dung; C. dewulfi, cow dung and molehill soil; C. circumscriptus, algae; C. festivipennis, algae and soil in stagnant water; C. nubeculosus, algae and silt specifically from the edge of a pond; C. punctatus, mainly wet soil between silage reserves; C. salinarius, algae; and C. stigma, algae and wet soil between silage reserves. We also recorded significantly higher densities of coprophilic larvae within pastures in cow dung located near forests, which is likely due to the localization of potential hosts; the presence of these larvae within cow dung is, however, uninfluenced by relative distance from farms. A better knowledge of the microhabitats of Culicoides biting midges and their spatial distribution may allow the development of targeted species-specific vector control strategies, and may help to prevent the creation of new larval development sites. [less ▲]

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See detailLe mystère belge de la translucidité des SCI françaises
Docclo, Caroline ULg

in Tijdschrift voor Fiscaal Recht (2014), (466), 694-697

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See detailDissociation Pathways of Benzylpyridinium “Thermometer” Ions Depend on the Activation Regime: An IRMPD Spectroscopy Study
Morsa, Denis ULg; Gabelica, Valérie ULg; Rosu, Frédéric et al

in Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters (2014), 5

The dissociation of benzylpyridinium “thermometer” ions is widely used to calibrate the internal energy of ions produced in mass spectrometry. The fragmentation mechanism is usually believed to yield a ... [more ▼]

The dissociation of benzylpyridinium “thermometer” ions is widely used to calibrate the internal energy of ions produced in mass spectrometry. The fragmentation mechanism is usually believed to yield a benzylium cation, although recent studies suggest the possibility of a rearrangement leading to the tropylium isomer, which would compromise the accuracy of energy calibrations. In this study, we used IRMPD spectroscopy to probe the dissociation pathways of the p-(tert-butyl)- benzylpyridinium ion. Our results show that the formation of both benzylium and tropylium products is feasible depending on the activation regime and on the reaction time scale. Varying the trapping delays in the hexapole gives insight into a rearrangement mechanism occurring through consecutive reactions with an isomerization from benzylium to tropylium. Our work provides experimental validations for the established calibration procedure and highlights the adequacy of IRMPD spectroscopy to qualitatively resolve gas-phase rearrangement kinetics. [less ▲]

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See detailPlasma riche en plaquettes et lésions tendineuses
KAUX, Jean-François ULg; Drion, Pierre ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014), 69(Synthèse 2014), 67-72

Platelets contain growth factors released during their degranulation following activation. These growth factors promote tissue remodeling, wound healing and angiogenesis. Currently, the clinical effect of ... [more ▼]

Platelets contain growth factors released during their degranulation following activation. These growth factors promote tissue remodeling, wound healing and angiogenesis. Currently, the clinical effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) is still discussed or even controversial. Our researches have evaluated the effectiveness of PRP on the healing of animal tendons and human suffering from chronic jumper's knee. [less ▲]

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See detailPSI Mehler reaction is the main alternative photosynthetic electron pathway in Symbiodinium sp., symbiotic dinoflagellates of cnidarians
Roberty, Stéphane ULg; Bailleul, Benjamin ULg; Berne, Nicolas et al

in New Phytologist (2014), 204(1), 81-91

• Photosynthetic organisms have evolved various photoprotective and regulatory mechanisms to cope with changing and high light intensities. The nature and relative amplitude of these mechanisms is matter ... [more ▼]

• Photosynthetic organisms have evolved various photoprotective and regulatory mechanisms to cope with changing and high light intensities. The nature and relative amplitude of these mechanisms is matter of debate in dinoflagellates that live in symbiosis with cnidarians. In this work, the amplitude of photosynthetic alternative electron flows to oxygen (chlororespiration, Mehler reaction, mitochondrial respiration) and PSI cyclic electron flow were investigated in Symbiodinium clades A1, B1 and F1. • Cultured Symbiodinium strains were maintained semi-continuously under identical environmental conditions. Joint measurements of oxygen evolution, fluorescence emission, and absorption changes at specific wavelengths were used to evaluate PSI and PSII electron transfer rates (ETR). • A light-dependent and O2-dependent ETR was observed in all strains. This ETR involved PSII and PSI and was insensitive to addition of mitochondrial and carbon fixation inhibitors. • These results demonstrate that photoreduction of oxygen downstream of PSI by the so-called Mehler reaction is the main alternative electron sink at the onset and steady state of photosynthesis in all strains. This mechanism in Symbiodinium sustains significant levels of photosynthetic electron flux under high light, thus acting as a photoprotective mechanism and increasing the ATP/NADPH ratio by the electron transfer chain. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of the presence of free lime nodules into concrete: experimentation and modelling
Courard, Luc ULg; Degée, Hervé ULg; Darimont, Anne ULg

in Cement and Concrete Research (2014), 64

When nodules of lime are embedded into concrete, the expansion accompanying the transformation of CaO into Ca(OH)2 induces stresses and strains in both the lime nodule and in the concrete matrix. The ... [more ▼]

When nodules of lime are embedded into concrete, the expansion accompanying the transformation of CaO into Ca(OH)2 induces stresses and strains in both the lime nodule and in the concrete matrix. The concrete cover thickness, the diameter and the shape of the lime nodule as well as the mechanical characteristics of concrete and lime are the key parameters influencing the development of internal pressure and hence controlling the risk of cracking or pop-out. In order to study the effect of lime into cementitious concretes, laboratory investigations and modelling have been performed and show that the minimum cover thickness necessary to avoid the development of the pop-out phenomenon is estimated of the order of half the diameter of the inclusion. This is coming from the observation that expansion happens inside the porosity of the hydrated lime Ca(OH)2: ESEM and DRX analysis confirm the effect of confinement in the development of crystals. [less ▲]

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See detailAn asymptotic expansion-based method for a spectral approach in equivalent statistical linearization
Canor, Thomas ULg; Blaise, Nicolas ULg; Denoël, Vincent ULg

in Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics (2014), 38

Equivalent linearization consists in replacing a nonlinear system with an equivalent linear one whose parameters are tuned with regard to the minimization of a suitable function. In particular, the ... [more ▼]

Equivalent linearization consists in replacing a nonlinear system with an equivalent linear one whose parameters are tuned with regard to the minimization of a suitable function. In particular, the Gaussian equivalent linearization expresses the properties of an equivalent linear system in terms of the mean vector and the covariance matrix of the responses, which are the unknowns of the optimization problem in a spectral approach. Even though the system has been linearized, the resulting set of equations is nonlinear. The computational effort in this method pertains to the solution of a possibly large set of nonlinear algebraic equations involving integrals and inversions of full matrices. This work proposes to develop and apply an asymptotic expansion-based method to facilitate and to improve the statistical linearization for large nonlinear structures. The proposed developments demonstrate that for slightly to moderately coupled nonlinear systems, the equivalent linearization can be applied with an appropriate modal approach and eventually seen as a convergent series initiated with the stochastic response of a main decoupled linear system. With this method, the computational effort is attractively reduced, the conditioning of the set of nonlinear algebraic equations is improved and inversion of full transfer matrices and repeated integrations are avoided. The paper gives a formal description of the method and illustrates its implementation and performances with the computation of stationary responses of nonlinear structures subject to coherent random excitation fields. [less ▲]

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See detailEditorial
Jidovtseff, Boris ULg

in Sciences et Sports - Journal des Sciences et de la Médecine de l'Homme en mouvement (2014), 29(Hors-série 1), 1

There are a number of positive challenges for Physical Education. Recent chearch shows that physical activity has a powerfull impact on the structure and functioning of the brain that opens up important ... [more ▼]

There are a number of positive challenges for Physical Education. Recent chearch shows that physical activity has a powerfull impact on the structure and functioning of the brain that opens up important avenues for research and practice. [less ▲]

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See detailMathematical Modeling of HIV Dynamics After Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation: A Review
Rivadeneira, Pablo; Moog, Claude; Stan, Guy-Bart et al

in BioResearch Open Acces (2014), 3(5), 233-241

This review shows the potential ground-breaking impact that mathematical tools may have in the analysis and the understanding of the HIV dynamics. In the first part, early diagnosis of immunological ... [more ▼]

This review shows the potential ground-breaking impact that mathematical tools may have in the analysis and the understanding of the HIV dynamics. In the first part, early diagnosis of immunological failure is inferred from the estimation of certain parameters of a mathematical model of the HIV infection dynamics. This method is supported by clinical research results from an original clinical trial: data just after 1 month following therapy initiation are used to carry out the model identification. The diagnosis is shown to be consistent with results from monitoring of the patients after 6 months. In the second part of this review, prospective research results are given for the design of individual anti-HIV treatments optimizing the recovery of the immune system and minimizing side effects. In this respect, two methods are discussed. The first one combines HIV population dynamics with pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics models to generate drug treatments using impulsive control systems. The second one is based on optimal control theory and uses a recently published differential equation to model the side effects produced by highly active antiretroviral therapy therapies. The main advantage of these revisited methods is that the drug treatment is computed directly in amounts of drugs, which is easier to interpret by physicians and patients. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of vocal load on breathiness: Perceptual evaluation
Remacle, Angélique ULg; Schoentgen, Jean; FINCK, Camille ULg et al

in Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology (2014), 39(3), 139-146

Objectives: To evaluate the impact on voice of 2 hours of continuous oral reading. Methods: Fifty normophonic women underwent two sessions of voice loading in which the required intensity level varied: 60 ... [more ▼]

Objectives: To evaluate the impact on voice of 2 hours of continuous oral reading. Methods: Fifty normophonic women underwent two sessions of voice loading in which the required intensity level varied: 60-65 dB(A) for the first session, and 70-75 dB(A) for the second session. Ten expert judges evaluated the breathiness of one sentence recorded before and after each loading session. Pairs of stimuli were presented randomly to the judges, who were asked to designate the breathiest sample. Results: A significant decrease in breathiness was observed following both sessions, suggesting an improvement of voice subsequent to loading. When comparing the two intensity levels, no difference was found for breathiness after vocal loading. [less ▲]

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See detailMathematical Modeling of HIV Dynamics After Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation: A Review
Rivadeneira, Pablo; Moog, Claude; Stan, Guy-Bart et al

in BioResearch Open Acces (2014), 3(5), 233-241

This review shows the potential ground-breaking impact that mathematical tools may have in the analysis and the understanding of the HIV dynamics. In the first part, early diagnosis of immunological ... [more ▼]

This review shows the potential ground-breaking impact that mathematical tools may have in the analysis and the understanding of the HIV dynamics. In the first part, early diagnosis of immunological failure is inferred from the estimation of certain parameters of a mathematical model of the HIV infection dynamics. This method is supported by clinical research results from an original clinical trial: data just after 1 month following therapy initiation are used to carry out the model identification. The diagnosis is shown to be consistent with results from monitoring of the patients after 6 months. In the second part of this review, prospective research results are given for the design of individual anti-HIV treatments optimizing the recovery of the immune system and minimizing side effects. In this respect, two methods are discussed. The first one combines HIV population dynamics with pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics models to generate drug treatments using impulsive control systems. The second one is based on optimal control theory and uses a recently published differential equation to model the side effects produced by highly active antiretroviral therapy therapies. The main advantage of these revisited methods is that the drug treatment is computed directly in amounts of drugs, which is easier to interpret by physicians and patients. [less ▲]

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See detailHighly dispersed iron xerogel catalysts for p-nitrophenol degradation by photo-Fenton effects
Mahy, Julien ULg; Tasseroul, Ludivine ULg; Zubiaur, Anthony ULg et al

in Microporous and Mesoporous Materials (2014), 197

Several iron xerogel catalysts were synthesized by hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and 3-(2-aminoethylamino)propyltrimethoxysilane (EDAS) which is able to form a chelate with iron ... [more ▼]

Several iron xerogel catalysts were synthesized by hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and 3-(2-aminoethylamino)propyltrimethoxysilane (EDAS) which is able to form a chelate with iron ions. The EDAS/TEOS ratio strongly influences the texture of xerogel catalysts. The specific surface area and the micro- and mesoporous volume increase with this ratio. It seems that EDAS plays a nucleating agent role for silica particles and allows to anchor Fe-based moieties inside the silica network. Iron oxide nanoparticles of diameter 1-1.5 nm and Fe3+ ions result, encapsulated in silica particles with sizes of about 10-30 nm in diameter. The iron species was determined by Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetometry measurements and only Fe3+ species were observed in xerogel catalysts. The Fenton and photo-Fenton effect of these catalysts were evaluated on the degradation of p-nitrophenol in aqueous media under different conditions. Results show that in the presence of H2O2, iron xerogel catalysts present a photo-Fenton effect, reaching 99 % of degradation after 24 h. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact and retention of spray droplets on a horizontal hydrophobic surface
Zwertvaegher, Ingrid; Verhaeghe, Micheline; Brusselman, Eva et al

in Biosystems Engineering (2014), 126

Spray retention, i.e. the overall capture of spray droplets by plants on initial or subsequent impact, and after loss due to run-off, is an important stage in the spray application process as droplet ... [more ▼]

Spray retention, i.e. the overall capture of spray droplets by plants on initial or subsequent impact, and after loss due to run-off, is an important stage in the spray application process as droplet losses may result in reduced efficacy, economic loss, and environmental contamination. The aim of this exploratory study is to determine whether a new method based on calculating the volumetric proportions per impact type, i.e. adhesion, rebound and shatter, can be used to predict spray retention. These volumetric proportions are calculated based on logistic regression models, derived from vision-based droplet characteristics and impact assessments, and laser-based spray characteristics. The advantages and limitations of such a method are explored. The volumetric proportions per impact type on a horizontal, synthetic hydrophobic surface were determined for four different nozzles (XR 110 01 VS flat-fan nozzle, XR 110 04 VS flat-fan nozzle, XR 110 08 VS flat-fan nozzle and AI 110 08 VS air-induction nozzle) under controlled realistic conditions, and compared to the results of a retention test. The volumetric proportions of adhesion were much lower than the relative retentions, indicating that a considerable amount of rebound and shatter also contributed to final retention. The method should thus be improved by including the droplets retained after first impact and the retained proportions of partial droplet fragmentation but it is nevertheless considered a promising technique. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiscale modelling framework for the fracture of thin brittle polycrystalline films - Application to polysilicon
Mulay, Shantanu; Becker, Gauthier ULg; Vayrette, Renaud et al

in Computational Mechanics (2014)

Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) made of polycrystalline silicon are widely used in several engineering fields. The fracture properties of polycrystalline silicon directly affect their reliability ... [more ▼]

Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) made of polycrystalline silicon are widely used in several engineering fields. The fracture properties of polycrystalline silicon directly affect their reliability. The effect of the orientation of grains on the fracture behaviour of polycrystalline silicon is investigated out of the several factors. This is achieved, firstly, by identifying the statistical variation of the fracture strength and critical strain energy release rate, at the nanoscopic scale, over a thin freestanding polycrystalline silicon film, having mesoscopic scale dimensions. The fracture stress and strain at the mesoscopic level are found to be closely matching with uniaxial tension experimental results. Secondly, the polycrystalline silicon film is considered at the continuum MEMS scale, and its fracture behaviour is studied by incorporating the nanoscopic scale effect of grain orientation. The entire modelling and simulation of the thin film is achieved by combining the discontinuous Galerkin method and extrinsic cohesive law describing the fracture process. [less ▲]

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See detailEditorial
Jidovtseff, Boris ULg

in Science et sports (2014), 29(Hors-série 1), 2

Il y a un grand nombre d'aspects positifs dans l'éducation physique. Des études récentes montre que l'activité physique influence positivement le développement et le fonctionnement du cerveau, ouvrant des ... [more ▼]

Il y a un grand nombre d'aspects positifs dans l'éducation physique. Des études récentes montre que l'activité physique influence positivement le développement et le fonctionnement du cerveau, ouvrant des perspectives importantes de recherche mais aussi d'applications pratiques. [less ▲]

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See detailMagnetization of 2-G Coils and Artificial Bulks
Coombs, Tim; Fagnard, Jean-François ULg; Matsuda, Koichi

in IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity (2014), 24(5), 8201005

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See detailEGFR activation and signaling in cancer cells are enhanced by the membrane-bound metalloprotease MT4-MMP.
Paye, Alexandra ULg; Truong, Alice ULg; Yip, Cassandre ULg et al

in Cancer research (2014)

MT4-MMP (MMP-17) is a GPI-anchored matrix metalloprotease expressed on the surface of cancer cells which promotes tumor growth and metastasis. In this report, we identify MT4-MMP as an important driver of ... [more ▼]

MT4-MMP (MMP-17) is a GPI-anchored matrix metalloprotease expressed on the surface of cancer cells which promotes tumor growth and metastasis. In this report, we identify MT4-MMP as an important driver of cancer cell proliferation through CDK4 activation and retinoblastoma protein (Rb) inactivation. We also determine a functional link between MT4-MMP and the growth factor receptor EGFR. Mechanistic experiments revealed direct association of MT4-MMP and its positive effects on EGFR phosphorylation in response to TGF- and EGF in cancer cells. Notably, the effects of MT4-MMP on proliferation and EGFR activation did not rely on metalloprotease activity. Clinically, MT4-MMP and EGFR expression were correlated in human triple negative breast cancer specimens. Altogether our results identify MT4-MMP as a positive modifier of EGFR outside-in signaling that acts to cooperatively drive cancer cell proliferation. [less ▲]

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See detailDevenir art-thérapeute
Vandeninden, Elise ULg

in SociologieS (2014)

In the field of mental health workers, a new profession is emerging: animators of art workshops in psychiatry, also called ‘art therapists’. Our paper reveals the results of a survey conducted in Belgium ... [more ▼]

In the field of mental health workers, a new profession is emerging: animators of art workshops in psychiatry, also called ‘art therapists’. Our paper reveals the results of a survey conducted in Belgium among these new professionals. In portraying this new group of ‘distributed’ workers, we will discuss the reasons for their difficult process of professionalization [less ▲]

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See detailLa Belgique et les conventions internationales du travail
Detienne, Quentin ULg

in Journal des Tribunaux du Travail (2014)

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See detailPrevenção Quaternária e limites em medicina
Jamoulle, Marc ULg; Gomes, Luis

in Revista Brasileira de Medicina de Família e Comunidade (2014), 9(31),

O conceito de Prevenção Quaternária, um questionamento sobre a base da ação médica, nasceu na articulação da relação médico-paciente. Refere-se a toda a atividade médica, sendo uma importante ferramenta ... [more ▼]

O conceito de Prevenção Quaternária, um questionamento sobre a base da ação médica, nasceu na articulação da relação médico-paciente. Refere-se a toda a atividade médica, sendo uma importante ferramenta para a medicina de família. É uma interrogação ética sobre os excessos da demasiada e demasiadamente pouca medicina e fornece algumas respostas. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-period stochastic optimization problems in transportation management (Ph. D. Thesis Summary)
Pironet, Thierry ULg

in 4OR : Quarterly Journal of the Belgian, French and Italian Operations Research Societies (2014)

Ph. D Thesis summary see other reference on ORBI

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See detailCoordination of alkali metal ions to model branched hexasaccharides dictates fragment yield in MALDI in-source decay with hydrogen abstraction using 5-nitrosalicylic acid as the matrix
Asakawa, Daiki; Smargiasso, Nicolas ULg; De Pauw, Edwin ULg

in Journal of Mass Spectrometry [=JMS] (2014), 49

The differences among MALDI-ISD spectra of hexasaccharides cationized with various alkali metals are reflected in the different stabilities of the ‘hydrogen-deficient’ glycan radical. The stability order ... [more ▼]

The differences among MALDI-ISD spectra of hexasaccharides cationized with various alkali metals are reflected in the different stabilities of the ‘hydrogen-deficient’ glycan radical. The stability order of alkali metal-glycan radical complexes is proportional to the size of the alkali metal cation, K+ > Na+ > Li+. The Coordination of alkali metal ions to model branched hexasaccharides is the major parameter that dictates the fragment yield in MALDI in-source decay with hydrogen abstraction using 5-nitrosalicylic acid as the matrix [less ▲]

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See detailTowards understanding wild boar Sus scrofa movement: a synthetic movement ecology approach
Morelle, Kevin ULg; Podgórski, Tomasz; Prévot, Céline et al

in Mammal Review (2014)

In recent decades, the wild boar Sus scrofa has simultaneously increased its population size and colonized new habitats, causing more ecological and socio-economic concern than perhaps any other ungulate ... [more ▼]

In recent decades, the wild boar Sus scrofa has simultaneously increased its population size and colonized new habitats, causing more ecological and socio-economic concern than perhaps any other ungulate species. However, the drivers and mechanisms of the species' spatial ecology remain poorly understood. Thanks to a recently developed framework, the movement ecology of any organism can now be tackled within a consistent and unified theoretical approach. Based on this framework, we reviewed the literature on wild boar movement ecology to assess current knowledge and to identify important gaps. By using important navigational (e.g. olfactory sense) and cognitive (e.g. spatial memory, learning from conspecifics) abilities, wild boar have developed complex movement strategies to cope with external factors. However, there is a lack of detailed information on the role played by the internal state (motivation) and motion capacity in shaping the spatial ability of the species. Specific aspects of the movement ecology of the wild boar, together with its high diet plasticity and its high prolificacy, are probably the most important causes of the rapid spread of wild boar worldwide. We hope our review will inspire other scientists to apply their biological models to the movement ecology paradigms. Furthermore, we suggest that future researchers dealing with the movement ecology of any species should explicitly state the components and interactions of the framework investigated to facilitate further understanding and comparison among studies. [less ▲]

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See detailValorization of Tunisian secondary date varieties (Phoenix Dactylifera L.) by hydrothermal treatments : New fiber concentrates with antioxidant properties
Mrabet, Abdessalem; Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Guillermo; Guillen-Bejarano, Rafael et al

in LWT - Food Science and Technology (2014)

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See detailThermo-responsive gold/poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) core–corona nanoparticles as a drug delivery system
Liu, Ji ULg; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Hurtgen, Marie et al

in Polymer Chemistry (2014), 5(18), 5289-5299

Core–corona gold/poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) nanoparticles (gold@PVOH-b-PNVCL NPs) were fabricated via an in situ method, where a gold salt was reduced within the macromolecular aqueous ... [more ▼]

Core–corona gold/poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) nanoparticles (gold@PVOH-b-PNVCL NPs) were fabricated via an in situ method, where a gold salt was reduced within the macromolecular aqueous solution. Arrangement of macromolecular chains on the surface of gold cores was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy. The responsiveness to temperature and the preserved colloidal stability of the gold@PVOH-b-PNVCL NPs above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) were confirmed by dynamic light scattering and turbidity measurements. The drug loading capacity (DLC of ca. 1.3–2.8 wt%) of the gold@PVOH-b-PNVCL NPs as a drug delivery system (DDS) was tested with Nadolol®, a hydrophilic drug, and the release behaviours were studied at several temperatures. PVOH-b-PNVCL copolymers with an LCST of a few degrees above the biological temperature (37 °C), for example, PVOH180-b-PNVCL110 (LCST of 41 °C), are preferential, due to the slower release at 37 °C, but a faster release at temperatures that are a few degrees higher. The cytocompatibility of the gold@PVOH-b-PNVCL NPs against mouse fibroblastic L929 cells was evaluated via the MTS assay. Cellular uptake within MEL-5 human melanoma cells was studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy, fluorescence-activated cell sorting and TEM techniques and it showed that gold@PVOH-b-PNVCL NPs preferably accumulated within the cellular cytoplasm, with an incubation concentration and period-dependent uptake process. All these results corroborated a general utility of these thermo-responsive gold@PVOH-b-PNVCL NPs for drug delivery and controlled drug release. [less ▲]

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See detailBlock, random and palm-tree amphiphilic fluorinated copolymers: controlled synthesis, surface activity and use as dispersion polymerization stabilizers
Alaimo, David ULg; Beigbeder, Alexandre; Dubois, Philippe et al

in Polymer Chemistry (2014), 5(18), 5273-5282

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See detailChemical Mass Balance model applied to an olfactory annoyance problematic
Clarke, Kevin; Redon, Nathalie; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg et al

in Environmental Science & Technology (2014), Just accepted manuscript(web),

The source-receptor model CMB (Chemical Mass Balance) generally used for air pollution studies is applied for the first time to solve odour signatures issues. The olfactory annoyance perceived at a ... [more ▼]

The source-receptor model CMB (Chemical Mass Balance) generally used for air pollution studies is applied for the first time to solve odour signatures issues. The olfactory annoyance perceived at a receptor site of an industrial area is often the result of a combination of different smells, emitted by several industrial sources. To identify the main responsible for the inconvenience, tools able to determine the contribution of each source directly where the annoyance is perceived are widely developed and deployed. In this work, the contributions of VOC sources, coming from a waste treatment plant containing 3 potential sources of olfactory annoyance (waste storage, production of biogas, and compost piles of green wastes), and perceived at a village located downwind, are studied by chemical analyses. The CMB methodology is applied and the results are finally compared to olfactometric methods, in order to validate whether it is appropriate to use this model for olfactory problems or not. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-Chromatic Analysis of SAR Images for Coherent Target Detection
Bovenga, Fabio; Barbier, Christian ULg; De Rauw, Dominique ULg et al

in Remote Sensing (2014), 6

This work investigates the possibility of performing target analysis through the Multi-Chromatic Analysis (MCA), a technique that basically explores the information content of sub-band images obtained by ... [more ▼]

This work investigates the possibility of performing target analysis through the Multi-Chromatic Analysis (MCA), a technique that basically explores the information content of sub-band images obtained by processing portions of the range spectrum of a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image. According to the behavior of the SAR signal at the different sub-bands, MCA allows target classification. Two strategies have been experimented by processing TerraSAR-X images acquired over the Venice Lagoon, Italy: one exploiting the phase of interferometric sub-band pairs, the other using the spectral coherence derived by computing the coherence between sub-band images of a single SAR acquisition. The first approach introduces the concept of frequency-persistent scatterers (FPS), which is complementary to that of the time-persistent scatterers (PS). FPS and PS populations have been derived and analyzed to evaluate the respective characteristics and the physical nature of the targets. Spectral coherence analysis has been applied to vessel detection, according to the property that, in presence of a random distribution of surface scatterers, as for open sea surfaces, spectral coherence is expected to be proportional to sub-band intersection, while in presence of manmade structures it is preserved anyhow. First results show that spectral coherence is well preserved even for very small vessels, and can be used as a complementary information channel to constrain vessel detection in addition to classical Constant False Alarm Rate techniques based on the sole intensity channel. [less ▲]

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See detailanxiety at the first radiotherapy session for non-metastatic brest cancer: key communication and communication-related predictors
Lewis, Florence; Merckaert, Isabelle; Liénard, Aurore et al

in Radiotherapy & Oncology (2014)

Background and purpose Patients may experience clinically relevant anxiety at their first radiotherapy (RT) sessions. To date, studies have not investigated during/around the RT simulation the key ... [more ▼]

Background and purpose Patients may experience clinically relevant anxiety at their first radiotherapy (RT) sessions. To date, studies have not investigated during/around the RT simulation the key communication and communication-related predictors of this clinically relevant anxiety. Material and methods Breast cancer patients (n = 227) completed visual analog scale (VAS) assessments of anxiety before and after their first RT sessions. Clinically relevant anxiety was defined as having pre- and post-first RT session VAS scores ⩾4 cm. Communication during RT simulation was assessed with content analysis software (LaComm), and communication-related variables around the RT simulation were assessed with questionnaires. Results Clinically relevant anxiety at the first RT session was predicted by lower self-efficacy to communicate with the RT team (OR = 0.65; p = 0.020), the perception of lower support received from the RT team (OR = 0.70; p = 0.020), lower knowledge of RT-associated side effects (OR = 0.95; p = 0.057), and higher use of emotion-focused coping (OR = 1.09; p = 0.013). Conclusions This study provides RT team members with information about potential communication strategies, which may be used to reduce patient anxiety at the first RT session. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigating apical adverse effects of four endocrine active substances in the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis
Giusti, Arnaud ULg; Lagadic, Laurent; Barsi, Alpar et al

in Science of the Total Environment (2014), 493

The hermaphroditic gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis is proposed as a candidate species for the development of OECD guidelines for testing of the reprotoxicity of chemicals, including endocrine active ... [more ▼]

The hermaphroditic gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis is proposed as a candidate species for the development of OECD guidelines for testing of the reprotoxicity of chemicals, including endocrine active substances (EASs). Up to now, only a few putative EASs have been tested for their reproductive toxicity in this species. In this study, we investigate the effects of four EASs with different affinities to the vertebrate estrogen and androgen receptors (chlordecone as an estrogen; cyproterone acetate, fenitrothion and vinclozolin as anti-androgens) on the reproduction of L. stagnalis in a 21-day semi-static test. Testosterone and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) were used as the reference compounds. The tested EASs had no significant effect on growth and survival at the tested concentration ranges (ng to μg/L). Classical reproduction endpoints (i.e., oviposition and fecundity) were not responsive to the tested chemicals, except for chlordecone and 17α-ethinylestradiol, which hampered reproduction from 19.6 μg/L and 17.6 μg/L, respectively. The frequency of polyembryonic eggs, used as an additional endpoint, demonstrated the effects of all compounds except EE2. The molecular pathways, which are involved in such reproduction impairments, remain unknown. Our results suggest that egg quality is a more sensitive endpoint as compared to other reproductive endpoints commonly assessed in mollusk toxicity tests. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiqubit symmetric states with maximally mixed one-qubit reductions
Baguette, Dorian ULg; Bastin, Thierry ULg; Martin, John ULg

in Physical Review. A (2014), 90

We present a comprehensive study of maximally entangled symmetric states of arbitrary numbers of qubits in the sense of the maximal mixedness of the one-qubit reduced density operator. A general criterion ... [more ▼]

We present a comprehensive study of maximally entangled symmetric states of arbitrary numbers of qubits in the sense of the maximal mixedness of the one-qubit reduced density operator. A general criterion is provided to easily identify whether given symmetric states are maximally entangled in that respect or not. We show that these maximally entangled symmetric (MES) states are the only symmetric states for which the expectation value of the associated collective spin of the system vanishes, as well as in corollary the dipole moment of the Husimi function. We establish the link between this kind of maximal entanglement, the anticoherence properties of spin states, and the degree of polarization of light fields. We analyze the relationship between the MES states and the classes of states equivalent through stochastic local operations with classical communication (SLOCC). We provide a nonexistence criterion of MES states within SLOCC classes of qubit states and show in particular that the symmetric Dicke state SLOCC classes never contain such MES states, with the only exception of the balanced Dicke state class for even numbers of qubits. The 4-qubit system is analyzed exhaustively and all MES states of this system are identified and characterized. Finally the entanglement content of MES states is analyzed with respect to the geometric and barycentric measures of entanglement, as well as to the generalized N-tangle. We show that the geometric entanglement of MES states is ensured to be larger than or equal to 1/2, but also that MES states are not in general the symmetric states that maximize the investigated entanglement measures. [less ▲]

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See detailFundamental Limitations of High Contrast Imaging Set by Small Sample Statistics
Mawet, D.; Milli, J.; Wahhaj, Z. et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2014), 792

In this paper, we review the impact of small sample statistics on detection thresholds and corresponding confidence levels (CLs) in high-contrast imaging at small angles. When looking close to the star ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we review the impact of small sample statistics on detection thresholds and corresponding confidence levels (CLs) in high-contrast imaging at small angles. When looking close to the star, the number of resolution elements decreases rapidly toward small angles. This reduction of the number of degrees of freedom dramatically affects CLs and false alarm probabilities. Naively using the same ideal hypothesis and methods as for larger separations, which are well understood and commonly assume Gaussian noise, can yield up to one order of magnitude error in contrast estimations at fixed CL. The statistical penalty exponentially increases toward very small inner working angles. Even at 5-10 resolution elements from the star, false alarm probabilities can be significantly higher than expected. Here we present a rigorous statistical analysis that ensures robustness of the CL, but also imposes a substantial limitation on corresponding achievable detection limits (thus contrast) at small angles. This unavoidable fundamental statistical effect has a significant impact on current coronagraphic and future high-contrast imagers. Finally, the paper concludes with practical recommendations to account for small number statistics when computing the sensitivity to companions at small angles and when exploiting the results of direct imaging planet surveys. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing the operation rules of a reservoir system based on a detailed modelling-chain
Bruwier, Martin ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Pirotton, Michel ULg et al

in Natural Hazards & Earth System Sciences Discussion (2014), 2

According to available climate change scenarios for Belgium, drier summers and wetter winters are expected. In this study, we focus on two muti-purpose reservoirs located in the Vesdre catchment, which is ... [more ▼]

According to available climate change scenarios for Belgium, drier summers and wetter winters are expected. In this study, we focus on two muti-purpose reservoirs located in the Vesdre catchment, which is part of the Meuse basin. The current operation rules of the reservoirs are first analysed. Next, the impacts of two climate change scenarios are assessed and enhanced operation rules are proposed to mitigate these impacts. For this purpose, an integrated model of the catchment was used. It includes a hydrological model, one-dimensional and two-dimensional hydraulic models of the river and its main tributaries, a model of the reservoir system and a flood damage model. Five performance indicators of the reservoir system have been defined, reflecting its ability to provide sufficient drinking, to control floods, to produce hydropower and to reduce low-flow condition. As shown by the results, enhanced operation rules may improve the drinking water potential and the low-flow augmentation while the existing operation rules are efficient for flood control and for hydropower production. [less ▲]

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See detailGuidance on current good radiopharmacy practice for the small-scale preparation of radiopharmaceuticals using automated modules: a European perspective
Aerts, Joël ULg; Ballinger, james; Behe, Martin et al

in Journal of Labelled Compounds & Radiopharmaceuticals (2014), 57

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See detailThe PLATO 2.0 Mission
Rauer, H.; Catala, C.; Aerts, C. et al

in Experimental Astronomy (2014)

PLATO 2.0 has recently been selected for ESA’s M3 launch opportunity (2022/24). Providing accurate key planet parameters (radius, mass, density and age) in statistical numbers, it addresses fundamental ... [more ▼]

PLATO 2.0 has recently been selected for ESA’s M3 launch opportunity (2022/24). Providing accurate key planet parameters (radius, mass, density and age) in statistical numbers, it addresses fundamental questions such as: How do planetary systems form and evolve? Are there other systems with planets like ours, including potentially habitable planets? The PLATO 2.0 instrument consists of 34 small aperture telescopes (32 with 25 s readout cadence and 2 with 2.5 s candence) providing a wide field-of-view (2232 deg 2) and a large photometric magnitude range (4–16 mag). It focusses on bright (4–11 mag) stars in wide fields to detect and characterize planets down to Earth-size by photometric transits, whose masses can then be determined by ground-based radial-velocity follow-up measurements. Asteroseismology will be performed for these bright stars to obtain highly accurate stellar parameters, including masses and ages. The combination of bright targets and asteroseismology results in high accuracy for the bulk planet parameters: 2 %, 4–10 % and 10 % for planet radii, masses and ages, respectively. The planned baseline observing strategy includes two long pointings (2–3 years) to detect and bulk characterize planets reaching into the habitable zone (HZ) of solar-like stars and an additional step-and-stare phase to cover in total about 50 % of the sky. PLATO 2.0 will observe up to 1,000,000 stars and detect and characterize hundreds of small planets, and thousands of planets in the Neptune to gas giant regime out to the HZ. It will therefore provide the first large-scale catalogue of bulk characterized planets with accurate radii, masses, mean densities and ages. This catalogue will include terrestrial planets at intermediate orbital distances, where surface temperatures are moderate. Coverage of this parameter range with statistical numbers of bulk characterized planets is unique to PLATO 2.0. The PLATO 2.0 catalogue allows us to e.g.: - complete our knowledge of planet diversity for low-mass objects, - correlate the planet mean density-orbital distance distribution with predictions from planet formation theories,- constrain the influence of planet migration and scattering on the architecture of multiple systems, and - specify how planet and system parameters change with host star characteristics, such as type, metallicity and age. The catalogue will allow us to study planets and planetary systems at different evolutionary phases. It will further provide a census for small, low-mass planets. This will serve to identify objects which retained their primordial hydrogen atmosphere and in general the typical characteristics of planets in such low-mass, low-density range. Planets detected by PLATO 2.0 will orbit bright stars and many of them will be targets for future atmosphere spectroscopy exploring their atmosphere. Furthermore, the mission has the potential to detect exomoons, planetary rings, binary and Trojan planets. The planetary science possible with PLATO 2.0 is complemented by its impact on stellar and galactic science via asteroseismology as well as light curves of all kinds of variable stars, together with observations of stellar clusters of different ages. This will allow us to improve stellar models and study stellar activity. A large number of well-known ages from red giant stars will probe the structure and evolution of our Galaxy. Asteroseismic ages of bright stars for different phases of stellar evolution allow calibrating stellar age-rotation relationships. Together with the results of ESA’s Gaia mission, the results of PLATO 2.0 will provide a huge legacy to planetary, stellar and galactic science. [less ▲]

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See detailHow (not) to perform ecosystem service valuation - Pricing Gorillas in the Mist -
Boeraeve, Fanny ULg; Dendoncker, Nicolas; Jacobs, Sander et al

in Biodiversity and Conservation (2014)

Monetary valuation of ecosystem services (ES) is gaining growing interest in scientific papers, policies and awareness-raising documents for its potential as a communication tool illustrating the societal ... [more ▼]

Monetary valuation of ecosystem services (ES) is gaining growing interest in scientific papers, policies and awareness-raising documents for its potential as a communication tool illustrating the societal importance of biodiversity. However, simultaneously, its limitations are increasingly discussed in the literature. In this paper we argue that monetary valuation of ES should be seen as representing only one component of ES valuations. We provide basic standards to ensure integrated approaches to ES valuation that can effectively contribute to preserving cultural and biological diversity by acknowledging boundaries to resource exploitation and by building on the various interests and socio-cultural values of involved stakeholders. We base our discussion on a recent study that assesses the economic value of the world-famous Virunga National Park in the Democratic Republic of Congo, home to some of the last mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei). We alert against some ES monetary valuation that narrowly frames biodiversity conservation in terms of economic calculus and argue that subjugating conservation efforts to profit logics downplays the importance of intrinsic, symbolic and other non-economic values of biodiversity. We conclude by providing principles and methodological guidelines to enhance ES valuation as a tool to promote awareness rising for biodiversity conservation through the understanding the overall importance of biodiversity for human societies. [less ▲]

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See detailElastic damage to crack transition in a coupled non-local implicit discontinuous Galerkin/extrinsic cohesive law framework
Wu, Ling ULg; Becker, Gauthier ULg; Noels, Ludovic ULg

in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics & Engineering (2014), 279

One current challenge related to computational fracture mechanics is the modeling of ductile fracture and in particular the damage to crack transition. On the one hand, continuum damage models, especially ... [more ▼]

One current challenge related to computational fracture mechanics is the modeling of ductile fracture and in particular the damage to crack transition. On the one hand, continuum damage models, especially in their non-local formulation which avoids the loss of solution uniqueness, can capture the material degradation process up to the localization of the damage, but are unable to represent a discontinuity in the structure. On the other hand cohesive zone methods can represent the process zone at the crack tip governing the crack propagation, but cannot account for the diffuse material damaging process. In this paper we propose to combine, in a small deformations setting, a non-local elastic damage model with a cohesive zone model. This combination is formulated within a discontinuous Galerkin nite element discretization. Indeed this DG weak formulation can easily be developed in a non-local implicit form and naturally embeds interface elements that can be used to integrate the traction separation law of the cohesive zone model. The method remains thus consistent and computationally e cient as compared to other cohesive element approaches. The effects of the damage to crack transition and of the mesh discretization are respectively studied on the compact tension specimen and on the double-notched specimen, demonstrating the efficiency and accuracy of the method. [less ▲]

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