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See detailImplicit Belittlements Call for Implicit Measures: Emotional Reactions to Youth Paternalistic Stereotypes
Silvestre, Aude ULg; Huart, Johanne ULg; Dardenne, Benoît ULg

in Psychologica Belgica (2017), 57(2), 133-153

Age discrimination at work can potentially affect every worker. Indeed, like ‘old’ workers, young ones hired in their first job elicit the idea that they have quite interesting social abilities but lack ... [more ▼]

Age discrimination at work can potentially affect every worker. Indeed, like ‘old’ workers, young ones hired in their first job elicit the idea that they have quite interesting social abilities but lack of competence, which constitutes a case of paternalistic stereotypes (Fiske, Cuddy, Glick, & Xu, 2002). Generally, the negative (incompetence) facet of such stereotypes is not blatantly expressed, but is subtly conveyed behind an apparently positive discourse. Consequently, it is considered as being generally under-detected, while harmful. In this paper, we examine whether paternalistic stereotyping’s under-detection is real or if it is due to the use of inadequate measures. Based on a study showing that targets feel that something is wrong (Dardenne, Dumont, & Bollier 2007), we rely on affective measures to investigate whether the detection of the subtly conveyed negative facet of paternalistic stereotypes calls for subtle, implicit measures. In Study 1, explicit self-reports of targets’ affective states after a meeting with a paternalistic boss revealed mainly positive affect. In Study 2, an implicit emotional measure however revealed the presence of a negative affective state. The last Study, using a more ecological affective measure, demonstrates that paternalistic stereotypes trigger an ambivalent affective reaction. Altogether, the three studies suggest that the negative facet of paternalistic stereotypes is not as under-detected as we thought. [less ▲]

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See detailConditions for thermally induced all-optical switching in ferrimagnetic alloys: Modeling of TbCo
Moreno, Roberto; Ostler, Thomas ULg; Chantrell, Roy et al

in Physical Review B (2017), 96

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See detailPropagation of material and surface profile uncertainties on MEMS micro-resonators using a stochastic second-order computational multi-scale approach
Lucas, Vincent ULg; Golinval, Jean-Claude ULg; Voicu, Rodica et al

in International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering (2017), 111(1), 26-68

This paper aims at accounting for the uncertainties due to material structure and surface topology of microbeams in a stochastic multiscale model. For micro-resonators made of anisotropic polycrystalline ... [more ▼]

This paper aims at accounting for the uncertainties due to material structure and surface topology of microbeams in a stochastic multiscale model. For micro-resonators made of anisotropic polycrystalline materials, micro-scale uncertainties are due to the grain size, grain orientation, and to the surface profile. First, microscale realizations of stochastic volume elements (SVEs) are obtained based on experimental measurements. To account for the surface roughness, the SVEs are defined as a volume element having the same thickness as the MEMS, with a view to the use of a plate model at the structural scale. The uncertainties are then propagated up to an intermediate scale, the meso-scale, through a second-order homogenization procedure.From the meso-scale plate resultant material property realizations, a spatially correlated random field of the in plane, out of plane, and cross resultant material tensors can be characterized. Owing to this characterized random field, realizations of MEMS-scale problems can be defined on a plate finite element model. Samples of the macro-scale quantity of interest can then be computed by relying on a Monte-Carlo simulation procedure. As a case study, the resonance frequency of MEMS micro-beams is investigated for different uncertainty cases, such as grain preferred orientations and surface roughness effects. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of Organic Solvents on Microalgae Growth, Metabolism and Industrial Bioproduct Extraction: A Review
Miazek, Krystian ULg; Kratky, Lukas; Sulc, Radek et al

in International Journal of Molecular Sciences (2017)

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See detailInfluence of environmental factors on food intake among nursing home residents: a survey combined with a video approach
Buckinx, Fanny ULg; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Morelle, Alison et al

in Clinical Interventions in Aging (2017), 12

Background: In addition to the well-known physiological factors, dietary behavior that affects health seems to be influenced by a wide variety of environmental factors. The aim of this study was to assess ... [more ▼]

Background: In addition to the well-known physiological factors, dietary behavior that affects health seems to be influenced by a wide variety of environmental factors. The aim of this study was to assess, by means of an original video approach, the influence of the environment on food intake in nursing homes. Methods: The perception of the environment during meals in nursing homes was evaluated by residents and by two groups of volunteers who either work in the field of geriatrics, or who do not work in the field of geriatrics. First, a random sample of residents answered a self-administered questionnaire related to different indicators (ie, noise, space, comfort, light, odors, perceived satisfaction of meals, taste of meals, presentation of meals, service and setting). Second, two separate panels, one including the people who work in the field of geriatrics (ie, experts) and one including the people who have no particular interest in geriatrics (ie, nonexperts), were asked to answer a questionnaire on their perception of the environment after having watched a video of the lunch in each nursing home. Then, the food intake of the residents was measured by a precise food-weighing method. Results: A total of 88 residents from nine different nursing homes, 18 experts and 45 nonexperts answered the questionnaires. This study highlighted that, on the one hand, after adjustment on confounding variables, the perception of the quantity of food served by the residents is the only single factor associated with food consumption (P=0.003). On the other hand, experts and nonexperts did not perceive any environmental factor that seems to be significantly associated with residents’ food intake. Conclusion: Our results highlighted that, in a nursing home setting, environmental factors have limited influence on the food intake of the residents, with the exception of their own perception of the quantity served. The relevance of this factor deserves further investigation. [less ▲]

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See detailH0LiCOW - I. H0 Lenses in COSMOGRAIL's Wellspring: program overview
Suyu, S. H.; Bonvin, V.; Courbin, F. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 468

Strong gravitational lens systems with time delays between the multiple images allow measurements of time-delay distances, which are primarily sensitive to the Hubble constant that is key to probing dark ... [more ▼]

Strong gravitational lens systems with time delays between the multiple images allow measurements of time-delay distances, which are primarily sensitive to the Hubble constant that is key to probing dark energy, neutrino physics and the spatial curvature of the Universe, as well as discovering new physics. We present H0LiCOW (H[SUB]0[/SUB] Lenses in COSMOGRAIL's Wellspring), a program that aims to measure H[SUB]0[/SUB] with <3.5 per cent uncertainty from five lens systems (B1608+656, RXJ1131-1231, HE 0435-1223, WFI2033-4723 and HE 1104-1805). We have been acquiring (1) time delays through COSMOGRAIL and Very Large Array monitoring, (2) high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope imaging for the lens mass modelling, (3) wide-field imaging and spectroscopy to characterize the lens environment and (4) moderate-resolution spectroscopy to obtain the stellar velocity dispersion of the lenses for mass modelling. In cosmological models with one-parameter extension to flat Λ cold dark matter, we expect to measure H[SUB]0[/SUB] to <3.5 per cent in most models, spatial curvature Ω[SUB]k[/SUB] to 0.004, w to 0.14 and the effective number of neutrino species to 0.2 (1σ uncertainties) when combined with current cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments. These are, respectively, a factor of ˜15, ˜2 and ˜1.5 tighter than CMB alone. Our data set will further enable us to study the stellar initial mass function of the lens galaxies, and the co-evolution of supermassive black holes and their host galaxies. This program will provide a foundation for extracting cosmological distances from the hundreds of time-delay lenses that are expected to be discovered in current and future surveys. [less ▲]

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See detailMUSE-inspired view of the quasar Q2059-360, its Lyman α blob, and its neighborhood
North, P. L.; Marino, R. A.; Gorgoni, C. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2017), 604

The radio-quiet quasar Q2059-360 at redshift z = 3.08 is known to be close to a small Lyman α blob (LAB) and to be absorbed by a proximate damped Lyα (PDLA) system. Here, we present the Multi Unit ... [more ▼]

The radio-quiet quasar Q2059-360 at redshift z = 3.08 is known to be close to a small Lyman α blob (LAB) and to be absorbed by a proximate damped Lyα (PDLA) system. Here, we present the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) integral field spectroscopy follow-up of this quasi-stellar object (QSO). Our primary goal is to characterize this LAB in detail by mapping it both spatially and spectrally using the Lyα line, and by looking for high-ionization lines to constrain the emission mechanism. Combining the high sensitivity of the MUSE integral field spectrograph mounted on the Yepun telescope at ESO-VLT with the natural coronagraph provided by the PDLA, we map the LAB down to the QSO position, after robust subtraction of QSO light in the spectral domain. In addition to confirming earlier results for the small bright component of the LAB, we unveil a faint filamentary emission protruding to the south over about 80 pkpc (physical kpc); this results in a total size of about 120 pkpc. We derive the velocity field of the LAB (assuming no transfer effects) and map the Lyα line width. Upper limits are set to the flux of the N v λ1238 - 1242, C iv λ1548 - 1551, He ii λ1640, and C iii] λ1548 - 1551 lines. We have discovered two probable Lyα emitters at the same redshift as the LAB and at projected distances of 265 kpc and 207 kpc from the QSO; their Lyα luminosities might well be enhanced by the QSO radiation. We also find an emission line galaxy at z = 0.33 near the line of sight to the QSO. This LAB shares the same general characteristics as the 17 others surrounding radio-quiet QSOs presented previously. However, there are indications that it may be centered on the PDLA galaxy rather than on the QSO. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programme 60.A-9331(A). [less ▲]

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See detailGround-based monitoring of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko gas activity throughout the Rosetta mission
Opitom, C.; Snodgrass, C.; Fitzsimmons, A. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 469

Simultaneously to the ESA Rosetta mission, a world-wide ground-based campaign provided measurements of the large scale activity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko through measurement of optically active ... [more ▼]

Simultaneously to the ESA Rosetta mission, a world-wide ground-based campaign provided measurements of the large scale activity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko through measurement of optically active gas species and imaging of the overall dust coma. We present more than 2 yr of observations performed with the FORS2 low-resolution spectrograph at the VLT, TRAPPIST and ACAM at the WHT. We focus on the evolution of the CN production as a tracer of the comet activity. We find that it is asymmetric with respect to perihelion and different from that of the dust. The CN emission is detected for the first time at 1.34 au pre-perihelion and production rates then increase steeply to peak about 2 weeks after perihelion at (1.00 ± 0.10) × 10[SUP]25[/SUP] molecules s[SUP]-1[/SUP], while the post-perihelion decrease is more shallow. The evolution of the comet activity is strongly influenced by seasonal effects with enhanced CN production when the Southern hemisphere is illuminated. [less ▲]

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See detailProbing the atmosphere of a sub-Jovian planet orbiting a cool dwarf
Sedaghati, Elyar; Boffin, Henri M. J.; Delrez, Laetitia et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 468

We derive the 0.01 $\mu$m binned transmission spectrum, between 0.74 and 1.0 $\mu$m, of WASP-80b from low resolution spectra obtained with the FORS2 instrument attached to ESO's Very Large Telescope. The ... [more ▼]

We derive the 0.01 $\mu$m binned transmission spectrum, between 0.74 and 1.0 $\mu$m, of WASP-80b from low resolution spectra obtained with the FORS2 instrument attached to ESO's Very Large Telescope. The combination of the fact that WASP-80 is an active star, together with instrumental and telluric factors, introduces correlated noise in the observed transit light curves, which we treat quantitatively using Gaussian Processes. Comparison of our results together with those from previous studies, to theoretically calculated models reveals an equilibrium temperature in agreement with the previously measured value of 825K, and a sub-solar metallicity, as well as an atmosphere depleted of molecular species with absorption bands in the IR ($\gg 5\sigma$). Our transmission spectrum alone shows evidence for additional absorption from the potassium core and wing, whereby its presence is detected from analysis of narrow 0.003 $\mu$m bin light curves ($\gg 5\sigma$). Further observations with visible and near-UV filters will be required to expand this spectrum and provide more in-depth knowledge of the atmosphere. These detections are only made possible through an instrument-dependent baseline model and a careful analysis of systematics in the data. [less ▲]

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See detailPolarization of the changing-look quasar J1011+5442
Hutsemekers, Damien ULg; Agis-Gonzalez, Beatriz ULg; Sluse, Dominique ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2017), 604

If the disappearance of the broad emission lines observed in changing-look quasars were caused by the obscuration of the quasar core through moving dust clouds in the torus, high linear polarization ... [more ▼]

If the disappearance of the broad emission lines observed in changing-look quasars were caused by the obscuration of the quasar core through moving dust clouds in the torus, high linear polarization typical of type 2 quasars would be expected. We measured the polarization of the changing-look quasar J1011+5442 in which the broad emission lines have disappeared between 2003 and 2015. We found a polarization degree compatible with null polarization. This measurement suggests that the observed change of look is not due to a change of obscuration hiding the continuum source and the broad line region, and that the quasar is seen close to the system axis. Our results thus support the idea that the vanishing of the broad emission lines in J1011+5442 is due to an intrinsic dimming of the ionizing continuum source that is most likely caused by a rapid decrease in the rate of accretion onto the supermassive black hole. Based on observations made with the William Herschel telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges in cannabis use in emerging adulthood: The influence of peer network, impulsivity, anxiety and depression
Glowacz, Fabienne ULg; Schmits, Emilie ULg

in European Review of Applied Psychology = Revue Européenne de Psychologie Appliquée (2017), 67(4), 171-179

Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug with the highest prevalence reported among 15- to 24-year-olds. This specific period of emerging adulthood constitutes a critical age for substance use and ... [more ▼]

Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug with the highest prevalence reported among 15- to 24-year-olds. This specific period of emerging adulthood constitutes a critical age for substance use and for future consumption. Cannabis use patterns change during college or university and the post-college transition; users are at greater risk of adverse health outcomes (especially if they start or maintain a pattern of frequent use). Objectives The overall aim of this study was to highlight psychological and relational factors that might be associated with changes (including cessation and fluctuation) in cannabis use during this specific period, separately for males and females. Methods The subjects were 682 first-year college students (69.94% of female), aged between 18 and 25 years (M = 18.59 years, SD = 1.56). Four groups were formed according to cannabis consumption: “non-users” (54.64%), “desisting users” (14.04%), “fluctuating users” (16.23%), and “persistent users” (15.07%). A self-report questionnaire was administered to evaluate prevalence, frequency and trajectory of use, number of peer cannabis users, alcohol use, impulsivity, anxiety (trait and social) and depression. Results Females appear more sensitive to the romantic partner's consumption than males. For both sexes, having more friends who use cannabis appears to be a determinant. Depression and anxiety were not related to changes in cannabis use. Impulsivity is a significant factor for the maintenance of cannabis use in emerging adulthood, with higher lack of premeditation for males and higher sensation seeking for females among fluctuating and persistent users. Conclusions Results are discussed in terms of maintenance of use and the spiral of consumption, including clinical implications for prevention and interventions. [less ▲]

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See detailBaudelaire: traductor auctoritas
Mogollon Zapata, Juan Manuel ULg

in Literatura: Historia, Teoría, Crítica (2017), 19(2), 19-51

In order to achieve visibility in the media and a position recognized by both the public and their peers, translators are compelled to take advantage of spaces of enunciation such as those provided by ... [more ▼]

In order to achieve visibility in the media and a position recognized by both the public and their peers, translators are compelled to take advantage of spaces of enunciation such as those provided by prefaces, criticism, or biographical notes. Thanks to these spaces, in which translators deploy discursive and institutional strategies that allow them to position themselves and their translation project, translators acquire the status of translator-auctoritas, that is, a level of symbolic authority capable of endowing them with a public image. Through the detailed analysis of the editorial strategies and institutional calculations implemented by Baudelaire in order to position his project of translating Edgar Allan Poe, we show how the poet achieves the status of translator-autoritas and the role the latter played in the construction of his own literary identity [less ▲]

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See detailM Dwarf Exoplanet Surface Density Distribution: A Log-Normal Fit from 0.07-400 AU
Meyer, Michael R.; Amara, Adam; Reggiani, Maddalena ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics Letters (2017), 1707

We fit a log-normal function to the M dwarf orbital surface density distribution of gas giant planets, over the mass range 1-10 times that of Jupiter, from 0.07-400 AU. We use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo ... [more ▼]

We fit a log-normal function to the M dwarf orbital surface density distribution of gas giant planets, over the mass range 1-10 times that of Jupiter, from 0.07-400 AU. We use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach to explore the likelihoods of various parameter values consistent with point estimates of the data given our assumed functional form. This fit is consistent with radial velocity, microlensing, and direct imaging observations, is well-motivated from theoretical and phenomenological viewpoints, and makes predictions of future surveys. We present probability distributions for each parameter as well as a Maximum Likelihood Estimate solution. We suggest this function makes more physical sense than other widely used functions, and explore the implications of our results on the design of future exoplanet surveys. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of mucus in cell-based models used to screen mucosal drug delivery
Lechanteur, Anna ULg; das Neves, José; Sarmento, Bruno

in Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews (2017)

The increasing interest in developing tools to predict drug absorption through mucosal surfaces is fostering the establishment of epithelial cell-based models. Cell-based in vitro techniques for drug ... [more ▼]

The increasing interest in developing tools to predict drug absorption through mucosal surfaces is fostering the establishment of epithelial cell-based models. Cell-based in vitro techniques for drug permeability assessment are less laborious, cheaper and address the concerns of using laboratory animals. Simultaneously, in vitro barrier models that thoroughly simulate human epithelia or mucosae may provide useful data to speed up the entrance of new drugs and new drug products into the clinics. Nevertheless, standard cell-based in vitro models that intend to reproduce epithelial surfaces often discard the role of mucus in influencing drug permeation/absorption. Biomimetic models of mucosae in which mucus production has been considered may not be able to fully reproduce the amount and architecture of mucus, resulting in biased characterization of permeability/absorption. In these cases, artificial mucus may be used to supplement cell-based models but still proper identification and quantification are required. In this review, considerations regarding the relevance of mucus in the development of cell-based epithelial and mucosal models mimicking the gastro-intestinal tract, the cervico-vaginal tract and the respiratory tract, and the impact of mucus on the permeability mechanisms are addressed. From simple epithelial monolayers to more complexes 3D structures, the impact of the presence of mucus for the extrapolation to the in vivo scenario is critically analyzed. Finally, an overview is provided on several techniques and methods to characterize the mucus layer over cell-based barriers, in order to intimately reproduce human mucosal layer and thereby, improve in vitro/in vivo correlation. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Poetics of (In)visibility: A Stylistic Analysis of Caryl Phillips's Foreigners: Three English Lives
Tunca, Daria ULg

in Ariel : A Review of International English Literature (2017), 48(3-4), 159-186

Caryl Phillips’s multi-voiced texts have often been studied through the lens of Bakhtinian polyphony. In this essay, I focus on the volume of fictionalized biographies Foreigners: Three English Lives ... [more ▼]

Caryl Phillips’s multi-voiced texts have often been studied through the lens of Bakhtinian polyphony. In this essay, I focus on the volume of fictionalized biographies Foreigners: Three English Lives (2007) to demonstrate that the polyphonic nature of Phillips’s work resides not only in the structural confrontation of characters’ and narrators’ voices but also in the inscription of the writer’s own subjectivity within these individual discourses. Borrowing methods from the discipline of stylistics, I first focus on the use of adjectives and modality in the opening section of Foreigners, “Dr. Johnson’s Watch,” to establish how the first-person narrator’s gradual transition from tentativeness to self-confidence constitutes a way for the implied author, on the one hand, to expose the thwarted logic of the colonially-tinted discourse of his eighteenth-century narrator and, on the other, to offer larger reflections on the process of ideological encoding inherent in the writing of historiography. Such an investigation based on modality furthers allow me to challenge the critical consensus according to which the second section of the book, “Made in Wales,” is a straightforward factual account. Indeed, I suggest that the story of the rise and fall of mixed-race boxer Randolph Turpin is in fact a highly polyphonic narrative featuring increasingly marked clashes in modality and point of view. These, I argue, may draw attention precisely to the problematic construction of historiographical discourse deceptively made to appear so commonsense by the narrator of “Dr. Johnson’s Watch.” [less ▲]

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See detailImaging of super-fast dynamics and flow instabilities of superconducting vortices
Embon, L.; Anahory, Y.; Jelic, Zeljko ULg et al

in Nature Communications (2017), 8

Quantized magnetic vortices driven by electric current determine key electromagnetic properties of superconductors. While the dynamic behavior of slow vortices has been thoroughly investigated, the ... [more ▼]

Quantized magnetic vortices driven by electric current determine key electromagnetic properties of superconductors. While the dynamic behavior of slow vortices has been thoroughly investigated, the physics of ultrafast vortices under strong currents remains largely unexplored. Here, we use a nanoscale scanning superconducting quantum interference device to image vortices penetrating into a superconducting Pb film at rates of tens of GHz and moving with velocities of up to tens of km/s, which are not only much larger than the speed of sound but also exceed the pair-breaking speed limit of superconducting condensate. These experiments reveal formation of mesoscopic vortex channels which undergo cascades of bifurcations as the current and magnetic field increase. Our numerical simulations predict metamorphosis of fast Abrikosov vortices into mixed Abrikosov-Josephson vortices at even higher velocities. This work offers an insight into the fundamental physics of dynamic vortex states of superconductors at high current densities, crucial for many applications. [less ▲]

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See detailViolences conjugales et justice pénale: un couple à problémes ? Introduction au dossier
Glowacz, Fabienne ULg; Vanneste, Charlotte ULg

in Champ Pénal = Penal Field (2017), Vol. XIV | 2017

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See detailStructural Basis for Plant Plasma Membrane Protein Dynamics and Organization into Functional Nanodomains
Gronnier, Julien; Crowet, Jean-Marc ULg; Habenstein, Birgit et al

in eLife (2017), 6

Plasma Membrane is the primary structure for adjusting to ever changing conditions. PM sub-compartmentalization in domains is thought to orchestrate signalling cascades. Yet, mechanisms governing membrane ... [more ▼]

Plasma Membrane is the primary structure for adjusting to ever changing conditions. PM sub-compartmentalization in domains is thought to orchestrate signalling cascades. Yet, mechanisms governing membrane organization are mostly uncharacterized. The plant-specific proteins REMORINs are factors regulating hormonal crosstalk and host invasion. REMs are the best-characterized PM nanodomain markers targeted to the PM via an uncharacterized moiety called REMORIN C-terminal Anchor. By coupling biophysical methods, super-resolution microscopy and physiology, we decipher an original mechanism regulating the dynamic and organization of nanodomains. We showed that PM targeting is independent of the COP II-dependent secretory pathway and mediated by PI4P and sterol. REM-CA is an unconventional lipid-binding motif that confers nanodomain organization. Analyses of REM-CA mutants by single particle tracking demonstrate that mobility and supramolecular organization are critical for immunity. This study provides a unique mechanistic insight into how the tight control of spatial segregation is critical in the definition of PM domain necessary to support biological function. [less ▲]

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See detailMIP-based constructive heuristics for the three-dimensional Bin Packing Problem with transportation constraints
Paquay, Célia ULg; Limbourg, Sabine ULg; Schyns, Michael ULg et al

in International Journal of Production Research (2017)

This article is about seeking a good feasible solution in a reasonable amount of computation time to the three-dimensional Multiple Bin Size Bin Packing Problem (MBSBPP). The MBSBPP studied considers ... [more ▼]

This article is about seeking a good feasible solution in a reasonable amount of computation time to the three-dimensional Multiple Bin Size Bin Packing Problem (MBSBPP). The MBSBPP studied considers additional constraints encountered in real world air transportation situations, such as cargo stability and the particular shape of containers. This MBSBPP has already been formulated as a Mixed Integer linear Programming problem, but as yet only poor results have been achieved for even fairly small problem sizes. The goal of the work this paper describes is to develop heuristics that are able to quickly provide good initial feasible solutions for the MBSBPP. Three methodologies are considered, which are based on the decomposition of the original problem into easier subproblems: the matheuristics Relax-and-Fix, Insert-and-Fix and Fractional Relax-and-Fix. They have been parametrised on real data sets and then compared to each other. In particular, two of these techniques show promising results in reasonable computational times. [less ▲]

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See detailRéalisation du attelle de Thomas modifiée pour un membre antérieur
Maquet, Celine ULg; Casalta, Hélène ULg; Touati, Kamal ULg et al

in Point Vétérinaire (2017), 377

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See detailThe European Union’s Ambition to Harmonize Rules to Counter the Abuse of Member States’ Disparate Tax Legislations
Docclo, Caroline ULg

in Bulletin for International fiscal documentation (2017)

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See detailCyanobacterial Contribution to Travertine Deposition in the Hoyoux River System, Belgium
Kleinteich, Julia; Golubic, Stjepko; Pessi, Igor S. et al

in Microbial Ecology (2017), 74

Travertine deposition is a landscape-forming process, usually building a series of calcareous barriers differentiating the river flow into a series of cascades and ponds. The process of carbonate ... [more ▼]

Travertine deposition is a landscape-forming process, usually building a series of calcareous barriers differentiating the river flow into a series of cascades and ponds. The process of carbonate precipitation is a complex relationship between biogenic and abiotic causative agents, involving adapted microbial assemblages but also requiring high levels of carbonate saturation, spontaneous degassing of carbon dioxide and slightly alkaline pH. We have analysed calcareous crusts and water chemistry from four sampling sites along the Hoyoux River and its Triffoy tributary (Belgium) in winter, spring, summer and autumn 2014. Different surface textures of travertine deposits correlated with particular microenvironments and were influenced by the local water flow. In all microenvironments, we have identified the cyanobacterium Phormidium incrustatum (Nägeli) Gomont as the organism primarily responsible for carbonate precipitation and travertine fabric by combining morphological analysis with molecular sequencing (16S rRNA gene and ITS, the Internal Transcribed Spacer fragments), targeting both field populations and cultures to exclude opportunistic microorganisms responding favourably to culture conditions. Several closely related cyanobacterial strains were cultured; however, only one proved identical with the sequences obtained from the field population by direct PCR. This strain was the dominant primary producer in the calcareous deposits under study and in similar streams in Europe. The dominance of one organism that had a demonstrated association with carbonate precipitation presented a valuable opportunity to study its function in construction, preservation and fossilisation potential of ambient temperature travertine deposits. These relationships were examined using scanning electron microscopy and Raman microspectroscopy. [less ▲]

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See detailA Receding Horizon Approach to Incorporate Frequency Support into the AC/DC Converters of a Multi-Terminal DC Grid
Papangelis, Lampros ULg; Panciatici, Patrick; Debry, Marie-Sophie et al

in Electric Power Systems Research (2017)

This paper proposes a novel control scheme for provision of frequency support among asynchronous AC areas through HVDC grids. It is based on local controllers, each acting on a voltage source converter ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes a novel control scheme for provision of frequency support among asynchronous AC areas through HVDC grids. It is based on local controllers, each acting on a voltage source converter, using local measurements only, and supporting frequency of the adjacent AC area after a significant disturbance. The new discrete control is combined with the existing DC voltage droop technique. The formulation, inspired of Receding Horizon Control, enables providing to the AC area the desired frequency support, while at the same time taking into account various constraints, such as maintaining the DC voltage between secure operating limits. Examples obtained from a test system with a five-terminal DC network connecting two asynchronous areas demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control scheme in various scenarios, with emphasis on component failures. [less ▲]

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See detailThe thermal structure of the Venus atmosphere: Intercomparison of Venus Express and ground based observations of vertical temperature and density profiles✰
Limaye, Sanjay S.; Lebonnois, Sebastien; Mahieux, Arnaud et al

in Icarus (2017), 294

The Venus International Reference Atmosphere (VIRA) model contains tabulated values of temperature and number densities obtained by the experiments on the Venera entry probes, Pioneer Venus Orbiter and ... [more ▼]

The Venus International Reference Atmosphere (VIRA) model contains tabulated values of temperature and number densities obtained by the experiments on the Venera entry probes, Pioneer Venus Orbiter and multi-probe missions in the 1980s. The instruments on the recent Venus Express orbiter mission generated a significant amount of new observational data on the vertical and horizontal structure of the Venus atmosphere from 40 km to about 180 km altitude from April 2006 to November 2014. Many ground based experiments have provided data on the upper atmosphere (90-130 km) temperature structure since the publication of VIRA in 1985. The "Thermal Structure of the Venus Atmosphere" Team was supported by the International Space Studies Institute (ISSI), Bern, Switzerland, from 2013 to 2015 in order to combine and compare the ground-based observations and the VEx observations of the thermal structure as a first step towards generating an updated VIRA model. Results of this comparison are presented in five latitude bins and three local time bins by assuming hemispheric symmetry. The intercomparison of the ground-based and VEx results provides for the first time a consistent picture of the temperature and density structure in the 40 km-180 km altitude range. The Venus Express observations have considerably increased our knowledge of the Venus atmospheric thermal structure above ∼40 km and provided new information above 100 km. There are, however, still observational gaps in latitude and local time above certain regions. Considerable variability in the temperatures and densities is seen above 100 km but certain features appear to be systematically present, such as a succession of warm and cool layers. Preliminary modeling studies support the existence of such layers in agreement with a global scale circulation. The intercomparison focuses on average profiles but some VEx experiments provide sufficient global coverage to identify solar thermal tidal components. The differences between the VEx temperature profiles and the VIRA below 0.1 mbar/95 km are small. There is, however, a clear discrepancy at high latitudes in the 10-30 mbar (70-80 km) range. The VEx observations will also allow the improvement of the empirical models (VTS3 by Hedin et al., 1983 and VIRA by Keating et al., 1985) above 0.03 mbar/100 km, in particular the 100-150 km region where a sufficient observational coverage was previously missing. The next steps in order to define the updated VIRA temperature structure up to 150 km altitude are (1) define the grid on which this database may be provided, (2) fill what is possible with the results of the data intercomparison, and (3) fill the observational gaps. An interpolation between the datasets may be performed by using available General Circulation Models as guidelines. An improved spatial coverage of observations is still necessary at all altitudes, in latitude-longitude and at all local solar times for a complete description of the atmospheric thermal structure, in particular on the dayside above 100 km. New in-situ observations in the atmosphere below 40 km are missing, an altitude region that cannot be accessed by occultation experiments. All these questions need to be addressed by future missions. [less ▲]

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See detailSpecular sets
Berthé, Valérie; De Felice, Clelia; Delecroix, Vincent et al

in Theoretical Computer Science (2017), 684

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See detailMigraine triggers and habituation of visual evoked potentials
Lisicki Martinez, Marco ULg; Ruiz-Romagnoli, Emiliano; Piedrabuena, Raul et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2017)

Background: Identifying specific subsets of patients within the clinical spectrum of migraine could help in personalizing migraine treatment. Profiling patients by combining clinical characteristics and ... [more ▼]

Background: Identifying specific subsets of patients within the clinical spectrum of migraine could help in personalizing migraine treatment. Profiling patients by combining clinical characteristics and neurophysiological biomarkers is largely unexplored. We studied the association between migraine attack triggers and habituation of visual evoked potentials. Methods: We personally interviewed 25 patients about their migraine triggers following a structured list, and measured the N1-P1 habituation slope over six blocks of 100 averaged pattern-reversal VEP afterwards. Results: The mean number of triggers per patient was 4.52 1.42. Habituation slopes differed significantly between subjects who reported stress as a migraine trigger (deficient VEP habituation) and subjects who did not (preserved VEP habituation). For the remaining categories, the mean amplitude slope was always positive, indicating deficient habituation, and was not significantly different between subgroups. Conclusions: Migraine patients not reporting perceived stress as a trigger for their attacks might constitute a distinct clinic-physiological subset within the migraine spectrum. [less ▲]

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See detailLa Legal Origins Theory : droit, économie, idéologie
Vandenbulke, Antoine ULg

in Revue Internationale de Droit Economique (2017), 1

The Legal Origins Theory argues that the legal origins of a state have a significant influence on its economic growth. This theory originated mainly and prospered in the field of company law. A group of ... [more ▼]

The Legal Origins Theory argues that the legal origins of a state have a significant influence on its economic growth. This theory originated mainly and prospered in the field of company law. A group of researchers has enquired about the degree of protection granted to minority shareholders in various states throughout the world. They concluded that states belonging to the legal family of common law granted the best protection, sourcing an efficient market and easing their economic growth. The Legal Origins Theory spread out widely and expanded to several other legal domains, while continuing to emphasize and highlight the efficiency of the common law. It was furthermore at the heart of the “Doing Business” reports of the World Bank. This theory has led to many critiques, which the present paper aims to show. Beyond this analysis and the review of criticisms, our study finally attempts to identify the philosophical assumptions that support the Theory of Legal Origins, through the review of the developments authored by Friedrich von Hayek and Bruno Leoni. [less ▲]

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See detailConsistency of spatiotemporal sound features supports the use of passive acoustics for long-term monitoring
Parmentier, Eric ULg; Di Iorio, Lucia; Picciulin, Marta et al

in Animal Conservation (2017)

Many studies stress the usefulness of fish calls as effective indicators of distinct species occurrence. However, most of these studies have been undertaken in a given area and during restricted periods ... [more ▼]

Many studies stress the usefulness of fish calls as effective indicators of distinct species occurrence. However, most of these studies have been undertaken in a given area and during restricted periods of time. There is a need to show passive acoustic monitoring is a reliable method to study vocal species over space and time. This study aims to use passive acoustic methods to follow the brown meagre Sciaena umbra at relevant temporal and spatial scales. Specimens of S. umbra were recorded in both aquarium and in the field. In situ recordings were made at two regions (Corsica and Sardinia) during four summers (2008–2012–2013–2015). Temporal and frequency parameters of the fish calls were collected by different teams and compared to test the ability to unequivocally identify the fish sound. The comparison between our data and the bibliography highlights the capability to identify S. umbra during a period of 17 years in different Mediterranean regions, clearly supporting the usefulness of acoustic monitoring to discover and protect aggregation sites of this endangered species. The sound producing mechanism in S. umbra consists of high-speed sonic muscles surrounding dorsally the posterior end of the swim bladder, which can explain the low acoustic variability that helps in the species identification. Similar mechanisms are found in other Sciaenidae, suggesting that a similar conclusion can be drawn for many other adult sciaenids that could be used as sentinel species. This study should be of high interest to policymakers and scientists because it shows passive acoustic can be confidently used in resource management. [less ▲]

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See detailRéalisation du attelle de Thomas modifiée chez le bovin
Maquet, Celine ULg; Casalta, Hélène ULg; Sartelet, Arnaud ULg et al

in Point Vétérinaire (2017), 377

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See detailBuilding a digital agenda for cultural diversity: UNESCO, new governance norms for culture and power dynamics
Vlassis, Antonios ULg

in Quaderns del CAC (2017), XX(43), 47-54

The Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions (CDCE) adopted by UNESCO in 2005 is now a key international instrument in the global governance of culture. In ... [more ▼]

The Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions (CDCE) adopted by UNESCO in 2005 is now a key international instrument in the global governance of culture. In December 2016, the CDCE’s Committee adopted Operational Guidelines in order to align the CDCE with the development of digital technologies. In this respect, this article deals with the struggles between actors in the process for adopting new governance norms for the diversity of cultural expressions in the digital context and it seeks to understand how the interests and influence of the actors involved intersect in consensual and conflicting ways. [less ▲]

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See detail10 years of denosumab treatment in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: results from the phase 3 randomised FREEDOM trial and open-label extension
Bone, H.G.; Wagman, R.B.; Brandi, M.L. et al

in Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology (2017), 5

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See detailEnhancing erythritol productivity in Yarrowia lipolytica using metabolic engineering
Carly, Frédéric; Vandermies, Marie ULg; Telek, Samuel ULg et al

in Metabolic Engineering (2017), 42

Erythritol (1,2,3,4-butanetetrol) is a four-carbon sugar alcohol with sweetening properties that is used by the agrofood industry as a food additive. In this study, we demonstrated that metabolic ... [more ▼]

Erythritol (1,2,3,4-butanetetrol) is a four-carbon sugar alcohol with sweetening properties that is used by the agrofood industry as a food additive. In this study, we demonstrated that metabolic engineering can be used to improve the production of erythritol from glycerol in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. The best results were obtained using a mutant that overexpressed GUT1 and TKL1, which encode a glycerol kinase and a transketolase, respectively, and in which EYK1, which encodes erythrulose kinase, was disrupted; the latter enzyme is involved in an early step of erythritol catabolism. In this strain, erythritol productivity was 75% higher than in the wild type; furthermore, the culturing time needed to achieve maximum concentration was reduced by 40%. An additional advantage is that the strain was unable to consume the erythritol it had created, further increasing the process's efficiency. The erythritol productivity values we obtained here are among the highest reported thus far. [less ▲]

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See detailMapping degenerate vortex states in a kagomé lattice of elongated antidots via scanning Hall probe microscopy
Xue, Cun; Ge, Jun-Yi; He, An et al

in Physical Review. B : Condensed Matter (2017), 96

We investigate the degeneracy of the superconducting vortex matter ground state by directly visualizing the vortex con gurations in a kagomé lattice of elongated antidots via scanning Hall probe ... [more ▼]

We investigate the degeneracy of the superconducting vortex matter ground state by directly visualizing the vortex con gurations in a kagomé lattice of elongated antidots via scanning Hall probe microscopy (SHPM). The observed vortex patterns, at specifi c applied magnetic fi elds, are in good agreement with the confi gurations obtained using time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL) simulation. Both results indicate that the long range interaction in this nano-structured superconductor is unable to lift degeneracy between different vortex states and the pattern formation is mainly ruled by the nearest neighbour interaction. This simpli cation allows the identi cation of a set of simple rules characterizing the vortex con gurations. We demonstrated that these rules can explain both the observed vortex distributions and the magnetic fi eld dependent degree of degeneracy. [less ▲]

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See detailCognitive brain responses during circadian wake-promotion: evidence for sleep- pressure-dependent hypothalamic activations
Reichert, Carolin Franziska; Maire, Micheline; Gabel, Virginie et al

in Scientific Reports (2017), 7(1),

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See detailMacroevolutionary analysis of the tempo of diversification in snappers and fusiliers (Percomorpha: Lutjanidae)
Frederich, Bruno ULg; Santini, Francesco

in Belgian Journal of Zoology (2017), 147(1), 17-35

The percomorph fish family Lutjanidae (snappers and fusiliers) includes about 135 reef-dwelling species, mainly confined to tropical and subtropical marine waters. The great majority of snappers are ... [more ▼]

The percomorph fish family Lutjanidae (snappers and fusiliers) includes about 135 reef-dwelling species, mainly confined to tropical and subtropical marine waters. The great majority of snappers are active predators feeding on fishes or crustaceans, even though some species, including the fusiliers (Caesioninae), have evolved zooplanktivory. Lutjanids show a great diversity of habitat preferences, based on depth segregation and distribution across reef and associated habitats (e.g. mangroves, seagrass beds, estuaries). In spite of their great ecological and economic importance little is known about the tempo of evolution in this group. The present study provides the most comprehensive molecular phylogeny to date for lutjanids, including 70% of extant species and 19 of the 21 currently described genera. We time-calibrated our molecular tree using the oldest described lutjanid fossils, and show how this group likely originated during the Late Cretaceous to Early Paleocene. Lutjanids experienced significant radiation during the Late Eocene and Early Oligocene, in contrast to a pattern of Late Oligocene/Miocene radiation observed in many other reef-associated groups. The time-tree allows us to investigate the tempo of diversification, and our results suggest a variation in the rate of speciation during the evolution of the major clade formed by “lutjanins and caesionins”. Variation in diet and life history strategies could explain this clade-specific dynamic, even though future phylogenetic comparative studies combining additional ecological and morphological data are needed to test this hypothesis. [less ▲]

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See detailLe recours à l'arbitrage en matière de succession internationale ou la rencontre entre deux mondes qui s'ignorent
Wautelet, Patrick ULg

in Revue du Notariat Belge (2017), 143(3119), 378-405

L'arbitrage est-il possible et, si oui, dans quelle mesure, dans le domaine des successions internationales? Pour répondre à cette question, le texte prend appui sur le Règlement 650/2012. L’arbitrage ... [more ▼]

L'arbitrage est-il possible et, si oui, dans quelle mesure, dans le domaine des successions internationales? Pour répondre à cette question, le texte prend appui sur le Règlement 650/2012. L’arbitrage présente des avantages considérables pour régler les différends issus d’une suc- cession présentant une dimension internationale. Des obstacles importants peuvent néanmoins limiter, voire empêcher le recours à l’arbitrage en matière successorale. Sont abordées successivement dans cette contribution, les questions d'accès à l'arbitrage et de déroulement de l'arbitrage, en particulier sous l'angle du droit applicable à l'arbitrage successoral. Deux difficultés majeures seront examinées au titre des questions relatives à l'accès à l'arbitrage : la première tient à la possibilité pour une juridiction arbitrale de se prononcer sur les droits réservataires dont bénéficient certains proches du défunt, la seconde à la fragilité qui pèse sur le choix par un testateur de confier à une juridiction arbitrale la résolution des différends. [less ▲]

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See detailViolences conjugales : un dilemme pour la justice pénale ? Leçons d’une analyse des enregistrements statistiques effectués dans les parquets belges
Vanneste, Charlotte ULg

in Champ pénal/Penal field (2017), XIV

Drawing on the analysis of statistics regarding Intimate Partner Violence collected on a large scale at the level of the Belgian prosecutors’ offices, the article reveals a wide gap between the zero ... [more ▼]

Drawing on the analysis of statistics regarding Intimate Partner Violence collected on a large scale at the level of the Belgian prosecutors’ offices, the article reveals a wide gap between the zero tolerance rhetoric conveyed in the normative discourse and actual implementation, which is generally weak and showing divergent judicial practices in the field. Faced with this dilemma, the highly contestable impact of the zero tolerance policy observed in preventing recidivism offers a substantial argument to revisit the role of the criminal justice system in this area. [less ▲]

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See detailFaire émerger les problèmes (présentation du dossier)
Gavray, Marc-Antoine ULg

in Diotime. Revue internationale de didactique de la philosophie (2017), 73

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See detailIdentification and management of patients at increased risk of osteoporotic fracture: outcomes of an ESCEO expert consensus meeting.
Kanis, J.A.; Cooper, C.; Rizzoli, R. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2017), 28(7), 2023-2034

Summary: Osteoporosis represents a significant and increasing healthcare burden in Europe, but most patients at increased risk of fracture do not receive medication, resulting in a large treatment gap ... [more ▼]

Summary: Osteoporosis represents a significant and increasing healthcare burden in Europe, but most patients at increased risk of fracture do not receive medication, resulting in a large treatment gap. Identification of patients who are at particularly high risk will help clinicians target appropriate treatment more precisely and cost-effectively, and should be the focus of future research. Introduction: The purpose of the study was to review data on the identification and treatment of patients with osteoporosis at increased risk of fracture. Methods: Aworking group convened by the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis met to review current data on the epidemiology and burden of osteoporosis and the patterns of medical management throughout Europe. [less ▲]

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See detailA Theory of Soft Capture
Agrell, Per; Gautier, Axel ULg

in Scandinavian Journal of Economics (2017), 119(3), 571-596

n this paper, wee propose a model for regulatory capture that is based on information transmission and asymmetric information. In a three-tier model, a regulator is charged by a political principal to ... [more ▼]

n this paper, wee propose a model for regulatory capture that is based on information transmission and asymmetric information. In a three-tier model, a regulator is charged by a political principal to provide a signal for the type of a regulated firm. Only the firm can observe his type and the production of a correlated signal with a given accuracy is costly for the regulator. The firm can costlessly provide an alternative signal of lower accuracy that is presented to the regulator. In a self-enforcing equilibrium, the regulator transmits the firm-produced signal, internalizes its own savings in information cost and the firm enjoys higher information rents. The main feature of soft capture is that it is not based on a reciprocity of favors but on a congruence of interests between the firm and the regulator. [less ▲]

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See detailRéalisation du attelle de Thomas modifiée pour un membre postérieur
Maquet, Celine ULg; Casalta, Hélène ULg; Touati, Kamal ULg et al

in Point Vétérinaire (2017), 377

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See detailInfusion of mesenchymal stromal cells after deceased liver transplantation: A phase I-II, open-label, clinical study.
DETRY, Olivier ULg; VANDERMEULEN, Morgan ULg; DELBOUILLE, Marie-Hélène ULg et al

in Journal of Hepatology (2017), 67(1), 47-55

BACKGROUND & AIM: Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) infusion could be a mean to establish tolerance in solid organ recipients. The aim of this prospective, controlled, phase-1 study was to evaluate the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND & AIM: Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) infusion could be a mean to establish tolerance in solid organ recipients. The aim of this prospective, controlled, phase-1 study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety and tolerability of a single infusion of MSCs in liver transplant recipients. METHODS: Ten liver transplant recipients under standard immunosuppression received 1.5-3x106/kg third-party unrelated MSCs on post-operative day 3+/-2, and were prospectively compared to a control group of 10 liver transplant recipients. As primary end-points, MSC infusional toxicity was evaluated, and infectious and cancerous complications were prospectively recorded until month 12 in both groups. As secondary end-points, rejection rate, month-6 graft biopsies, and peripheral blood lymphocyte phenotyping were compared. Progressive immunosuppression weaning was attempted from month 6 to 12 in MSC recipients. RESULTS: No variation in vital parameters or cytokine release syndrome could be detected during and after MSC infusion. No patient developed impairment of organ functions (including liver graft function) following MSC infusion. No increased rate of opportunistic infection or de novo cancer was detected. As secondary end-points, there was no difference in overall rates of rejection or graft survival. Month-6 biopsies did not demonstrate a difference between groups in the evaluation of rejection according to the Banff criteria, in the fibrosis score or in immunohistochemistry (including Tregs). No difference in peripheral blood lymphocyte typing could be detected. The immunosuppression weaning in MSC recipients was not successful. CONCLUSIONS: No side effect of MSC infusion at day 3 after liver transplant could be detected, but this infusion did not promote tolerance. This study opens the way for further MSC or Treg-based trials in liver transplant recipients. LAY SUMMARY: Therapy with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) has been proposed as a mean to improve results of solid organ transplantation. One of the potential MSC role could be to induce tolerance after liver transplantation, i.e. allowing the cessation of several medications with severe side effects. This study is the first-in-man use of MSC therapy in 10 liver transplant recipients. This study did not show toxicity after a single MSC infusion but it was not sufficient to allow withdrawal of immunosuppression. [less ▲]

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See detailViolences au sein des relations amoureuses des adolescents et jeunes adultes : une réalité à ne pas négliger
Glowacz, Fabienne ULg; Courtain, Audrey ULg

in Champ Pénal = Penal Field (2017), XIV

Au cours des dernières décennies, la violence conjugale a fait l’objet d’un intérêt majeur par la science et la société, donnant lieu à l’élaboration de textes légaux et à des stratégies judiciaires ... [more ▼]

Au cours des dernières décennies, la violence conjugale a fait l’objet d’un intérêt majeur par la science et la société, donnant lieu à l’élaboration de textes légaux et à des stratégies judiciaires, psycho-sociales et préventives spécifiques. Ces avancées ont été initiées par la mobilisation des mouvements féministes qui ont sensibilisé la société aux violences faites aux femmes, tout particulièrement la violence physique, pour ensuite également considérer différentes formes de violences. Ainsi, les recherches scientifiques et les politiques publiques se sont concentrées principalement sur les violences dans les couples entre partenaires adultes. La violence dans les relations amoureuses des adolescents et des jeunes adultes est peu envisagée à un niveau sociétal, alors que la recherche montre que différentes formes de violences sont présentes au sein de ces relations. Dans le cadre de cette contribution, nous proposons de développer sur base d’une revue de la littérature et de données d’enquêtes menées auprès d’adolescents et de jeunes adultes, les spécificités des violences au sein des relations amoureuses durant cette période de développement, leurs prévalences et les dynamiques en cours, ainsi que les iens entre attitudes et violences agies et subies dans les relations amoureuses. Les questions relatives à la bidirectionnalité et à la symétrie de la violence, débattues pour la violence conjugale, seront également discutées à la lumière des éléments émanant des recherches menées au niveau international et d’une enquête menée en Belgique. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative Phytochemical Composition and Hypoglycemic Activity of Some Plants Used by Traditional Healers to Treat Diabetes in Kisangani
KATEMO MUHOYA, Frédéric; Kadima Ntokamunda, Justin-Léonard; Marini Djang'Eing'A, Roland ULg

in International Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical REsearch (2017), Vol. 9(Issue 4), 312-321

Background: Phytochemical and Biological studies are always needed to define chemical composition, bioactivity and toxicity of plants from folk medicines before integrating them into conventional ... [more ▼]

Background: Phytochemical and Biological studies are always needed to define chemical composition, bioactivity and toxicity of plants from folk medicines before integrating them into conventional medicines. Here we compared phytochemical composition and antihyperglycemic activity of some plants used in Kisangani to treat diabetes. Methods: The plants tested are Aloe vera (AV), Bidens pilosa (BP), Cassia alata (CA), Cassia occidentalis (CO), Catharanthus roseus pink flower (CRp), Catharanthus roseus white flower or alba (CRw), Mangifera indica (MI), Morinda lucida (ML), Morinda morindoides (MM), Panda oleosa (PO), Terminalia catappa (TC), and Vernonia amygdalina (VA). Their content in polyphenols, saponins, alkaloids and mineral ash were compared. Hyperglycemia was induced in rabbits by oral glucose tolerance test with glibenclamide 0.2 mg/kg as reference. Blood glucose level was assayed by Folin-Wu photometric method. The mean percentage in glucose level reduction (MPR) was calculated from control untreated animals. The relative potency of each extract (RP) was calculated from glibenclamide MPR taken as 100%. Results: Flavonoids, tannins and saponins, were the main components; alkaloids were found only in CRp, CRw, ML and MM. The water content varied from 67% to 88%; Total ashes content was lower in roots (9%) than other parts (11-16%). Glibenclamide gave MPR=56.8% and RP=100%. MPR and RP for plant extracts were, ML(29.8%; 52.4%), CA(31.9%; 56.2%), MI(46.6%; 81.9%), MM(46.6%; 81.9%), TC(47.2%; 83.1%), VA(49.4%; 86.9%), CO(54.4%; 95.8%), CRw(57.4%; 101.0%), BP(60.8%; 107.0%), CRp(63.2%; 111.1%), AV(64.5%; 113.4%), PO(83.2%;146.3%). Conclusion: All plants but Panda oleosa have been studied by others; the main phytochemical groups reported have been confirmed in the local species. All plants exhibited some antihyperglycemic activity, differing however by their relative potency. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiple uprising invasions of Pelophylax water frogs, potentially inducing a new hybridogenetic complex
Dufresne, Christophe; Denoël, Mathieu ULg; Di Santo, Lionel et al

in Scientific Reports (2017), 7

The genetic era has revolutionized our perception of biological invasions. Yet, it is usually too late to understand their genesis for efficient management. Here, we take the rare opportunity to ... [more ▼]

The genetic era has revolutionized our perception of biological invasions. Yet, it is usually too late to understand their genesis for efficient management. Here, we take the rare opportunity to reconstruct the scenario of an uprising invasion of the famous water frogs (Pelophylax) in southern France, through a fine-scale genetic survey. We identified three different taxa over less than 200 km2: the autochthonous P. perezi, along with the alien P. ridibundus and P. kurtmuelleri, which have suddenly become invasive. As a consequence, the latter hybridizes and may now form a novel hybridogenetic complex with P. perezi, which could actively promote its replacement. This exceptional situation makes a textbook application of genetics to early-detect, monitor and understand the onset of biological invasions before they pose a continental-wide threat. It further emphasizes the alarming rate of amphibian translocations, both at global and local scales, as well as the outstanding invasive potential of Pelophylax aliens. [less ▲]

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See detailNatural and induced loss of function mutations in SlMBP21 MADS-box gene led to jointless-2 phenotype in tomato
Gomez Roldan, Maria Victoria; Périlleux, Claire ULg; Morin, Halima et al

in Scientific Reports (2017), 7

Abscission is the mechanism by which plants disconnect unfertilized flowers, ripe fruits, senescent or diseased organs from the plant. In tomato, pedicel abscission is an important agronomic factor that ... [more ▼]

Abscission is the mechanism by which plants disconnect unfertilized flowers, ripe fruits, senescent or diseased organs from the plant. In tomato, pedicel abscission is an important agronomic factor that controls yield and post-harvest fruit quality. Two non-allelic mutations, jointless (j) and jointless-2 (j-2), controlling pedicel abscission zone formation have been documented but only j-2 has been extensively used in breeding. J was shown to encode a MADS-box protein. Using a combination of physical mapping and gene expression analysis we identified a positional candidate, Solyc12g038510, associated with j-2 phenotype. Targeted knockout of Solyc12g038510, using CRISPR/Cas9 system, validated our hypothesis. Solyc12g038510 encodes the MADS-box protein SlMBP21. Molecular analysis of j-2 natural variation revealed two independent loss-of-function mutants. The first results of an insertion of a Rider retrotransposable element. The second results of a stop codon mutation that leads to a truncated protein form. To bring new insights into the role of J and J-2 in abscission zone formation, we phenotyped the single and the double mutants and the engineered alleles. We showed that J is epistatic to J-2 and that the branched inflorescences and the leafy sepals observed in accessions harboring j-2 alleles are likely the consequences of linkage drags. [less ▲]

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See detailThe influence of health concerns in scientific and policy debates on climate change
Schütte, Stefanie; Depoux, Anneliese; Vigil Diaz Telenti, Sara ULg et al

in Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health (2017)

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See detailSpaces of in-between-ness and unbelonging: The hotel in short stories by Sefi Atta and Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie
Toivanen, Anna-Leena ULg

in English Studies in Africa (2017), 60(1), 1-11

Spaces of in-between-ness and unbelonging: The hotel in short stories by Se fi Atta and Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie Anna-Leena Toivanen The fi gure of the migrant has become a paradigmatic representative of ... [more ▼]

Spaces of in-between-ness and unbelonging: The hotel in short stories by Se fi Atta and Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie Anna-Leena Toivanen The fi gure of the migrant has become a paradigmatic representative of globalised postcoloniality. Yet, not all ‘ postcolonial ’ mobilities can be equated with migration. Cases in point are the travelling African protagonists of two diasporic Nigerian short stories, Se fi Atta ’ s ‘ Housekeeping ’ (2010) and Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie ’ s ‘ Transition to Glory ’ (2006). The short stories feature the fi gures of the African leisure traveller, tourist, and, in particular, hotel guest. The hotel articulates different dimensions of a site that is frequently conceived, both in fi ction and in theory, as a place and symbol of in-between- ness, deviance and displacement. In ‘ Housekeeping ’ , the hotel serves as a setting for exploring the socio-economic differences between migrant travellers and symbolises a sense of diasporic unbelonging. In ‘ Transition to Glory ’ ,the hotel room is used as a setting and symbol for an adulterous relationship. It comes across as a space of deviance which is not properly inscribed either in the private/domestic or the public. While set in spaces of in-between-ness and transit, both texts articulate metaphorical senses of longing for home. By analysing the literary representation of the hotel trope, this article contributes to widening the scope of how postcolonial mobilities can be understood. [less ▲]

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See detailDecreasing cloud cover drives the recent mass loss on the Greenland Ice Sheet
Hofer, S.; Tedstone, A.; Fettweis, Xavier ULg et al

in Science (2017), 3(6),

The Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has been losing mass at an accelerating rate since the mid-1990s. This has been due to both increased ice discharge into the ocean and melting at the surface, with the ... [more ▼]

The Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has been losing mass at an accelerating rate since the mid-1990s. This has been due to both increased ice discharge into the ocean and melting at the surface, with the latter being the dominant contribution. This change in state has been attributed to rising temperatures and a decrease in surface albedo. We show, using satellite data and climate model output, that the abrupt reduction in surface mass balance since about 1995 can be attributed largely to a coincident trend of decreasing summer cloud cover enhancing the melt-albedo feedback. Satellite observations show that, from 1995 to 2009, summer cloud cover decreased by 0.9 ± 0.3% per year. Model output indicates that the GrIS summer melt increases by 27 ± 13 gigatons (Gt) per percent reduction in summer cloud cover, principally because of the impact of increased shortwave radiation over the low albedo ablation zone. The observed reduction in cloud cover is strongly correlated with a state shift in the North Atlantic Oscillation promoting anticyclonic conditions in summer and suggests that the enhanced surface mass loss from the GrIS is driven by synoptic-scale changes in Arctic-wide atmospheric circulation. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterizing the leaching of sperrylite (PtAs2) in cyanide-based solutions
Mwase Malumbo, James ULg; Petersen, Jochen

in Hydrometallurgy (2017)

The mineral sperrylite (PtAs2), unlike other Pt minerals, has shown to be resistant to cyanide leaching, even at elevated temperatures of 50 °C. This has prevented further development of a two-stage heap ... [more ▼]

The mineral sperrylite (PtAs2), unlike other Pt minerals, has shown to be resistant to cyanide leaching, even at elevated temperatures of 50 °C. This has prevented further development of a two-stage heap leaching process, of which the second stage is cyanide leaching for a Platreef ore, due to a considerable portion of the Pt being present as sperrylite. Through a comprehensive set of leaching tests, this study has shown that sperrylite leaches slowly in cyanide due to eventual passivation. The addition of ferricyanide to the cyanide solution results in significantly more Pt being leached (up to 16 times) than with cyanide only under identical process conditions. However, over time passivation occurred in this system also, but can be seemingly be overcome by filtering, rinsing and re-suspending the sperrylite. This was further investigated using a reactor system continuously fed with a ferricyanide-cyanide to leach a fixed bed of sperrylite mineral. Again, gradual passivation of the mineral phase was observed, which was fully reversible following a day of feeding with distilled water. XPS analysis of fresh and leached mineral indicated a depletion of As on the mineral surface, which tallied with an observed preferential leaching of As during leaching, at least initially. As a result, it is postulated that a less cyanide-soluble compound of the form PtAs(X) forms, where x is < 2. The ease with which the leaching process can be restarted after rinsing the mineral indicates that the adsorption of solution species is the key step in forming a passivating layer. This adsorption is potentially favoured by the gradual surface transformation. Finally, an electrochemical study confirmed that the ferricyanide-cyanide system facilitated an electron transfer reaction at the sperrylite surface with the likely oxidation of As and reduction of the ferricyanide. Gradual passivation of the surface was also observed in this system. [less ▲]

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See detailPharmacokinetic characterization of [18F]UCB-H PET radiopharmaceutical in the rat brain.
Becker, Guillaume ULg; Warnier, Corentin; Serrano Navacerrada, Maria Elisa ULg et al

in Molecular Pharmaceutics (2017), 14(8), 2719-2725

The synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A), a protein essential to the proper nervous system function, is found in presynaptic vesicles. Thus, SV2A targeting, using dedicated radiotracers combined with ... [more ▼]

The synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A), a protein essential to the proper nervous system function, is found in presynaptic vesicles. Thus, SV2A targeting, using dedicated radiotracers combined with positron emission tomography (PET), allows the assessment of synaptic density in the living brain. The first-in-class fluorinated SV2A specific radioligand, [18F]UCB-H, is now available at high-activity through an efficient radiosynthesis compliant with the current good manufacturing practices (cGMP). We report here a non-invasive method to quantify [18F]UCB-H binding in rat brain with microPET. Validation study in rats confirmed the need of high enantiomeric purity to target SV2A in vivo. We demonstrated the reliability of a population-based input function to quantify SV2A in preclinical microPET setting. Finally, we investigated the in vivo metabolism of [18F]UCB-H and confirmed the negligible amount of radiometabolites in the rat brain. Hence, the in vivo quantification of SV2A using [18F]UCB-H microPET seems a promising tool for the assessment of the synaptic density in the rat brain, and opens the way for longitudinal follow-up in neurodegenerative diseases rodents’ models. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence of activation of vagal afferents by non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation: An electrophysiological study in healthy volunteers
NONIS, Romain ULg; D'Ostilio, Kevin; SCHOENEN, Jean ULg et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2017)

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See detailUntangling glycaemia and mortality in critical care
Uyttendaele, Vincent ULg; Dickson, Jennifer L.; Shaw, Geoffrey M. et al

in Critical Care (2017), 21(1), 152

Background: Hyperglycaemia is associated with adverse outcomes in the intensive care unit, and initial studies suggested outcome benefits of glycaemic control (GC). However, subsequent studies often ... [more ▼]

Background: Hyperglycaemia is associated with adverse outcomes in the intensive care unit, and initial studies suggested outcome benefits of glycaemic control (GC). However, subsequent studies often failed to replicate these results, and they were often unable to achieve consistent, safe control, raising questions about the benefit or harm of GC as well as the nature of the association of glycaemia with mortality and clinical outcomes. In this study, we evaluated if non-survivors are harder to control than survivors and determined if glycaemic outcome is a function of patient condition and eventual outcome or of the glycaemic control provided. Methods: Clinically validated, model-based, hour-to-hour insulin sensitivity (SI) and its hour-to-hour variability (%ΔSI) were identified over the first 72 h of therapy in 145 patients (119 survivors, 26 non-survivors). In hypothesis testing, we compared distributions of SI and %ΔSI in 6-hourly blocks for survivors and non-survivors. In equivalence testing, we assessed if differences in these distributions, based on blood glucose measurement error, were clinically significant. Results: SI level was never equivalent between survivors and non-survivors (95% CI of percentage difference in medians outside ±12%). Non-survivors had higher SI, ranging from 9% to 47% higher overall in 6-h blocks, and this difference became statistically significant as glycaemic control progressed. %ΔSI was equivalent between survivors and non-survivors for all 6-hourly blocks (95% CI of difference in medians within ±12%) and decreased in general over time as glycaemic control progressed. Conclusions: Whereas non-survivors had higher SI levels, variability was equivalent to that of survivors over the first 72 h. These results indicate survivors and non-survivors are equally controllable, given an effective glycaemic control protocol, suggesting that glycaemia level and variability, and thus the association between glycaemia and outcome, are essentially determined by the control provided rather than by underlying patient or metabolic condition. [less ▲]

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See detailOne-step hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemical performance of sodium-manganese-iron phosphate as cathode material for Li-ion batteries
Karegeya, Claude ULg; Mahmoud, Abdelfattah ULg; Vertruyen, Bénédicte ULg et al

in Journal of Solid State Chemistry (2017), 253

The sodium-manganese-iron phosphate Na2Mn1.5Fe1.5(PO4)3 (NMFP) with alluaudite structure was obtained by a one-step hydrothermal synthesis route. The physical properties and structure of this material ... [more ▼]

The sodium-manganese-iron phosphate Na2Mn1.5Fe1.5(PO4)3 (NMFP) with alluaudite structure was obtained by a one-step hydrothermal synthesis route. The physical properties and structure of this material were obtained through XRD and Mössbauer analyses. X-ray diffraction Rietveld refinements confirm a cationic distribution of Na+ and presence of vacancies in A(2)’, Na+ and small amounts of Mn2+ in A(1), Mn2+ in M(1) , 0.5 Mn2+ and Fe cations (Mn2+,Fe2+ and Fe3+) in M(2), leading to the structural formula Na2Mn(Mn0.5Fe1.5)(PO4)3. The particles morphology was investigated by SEM. Several reactions with different hydrothermal reaction times were attempted to design a suitable synthesis protocol of NMFP compound. The time of reaction was varied from 6 to 48 hours at 220°C. The pure phase of NMFP particles was firstly obtained when the hydrothermal reaction of NMFP precursors mixture was maintained at 220°C for 6 hours. When the reaction time was increased from 6 to 12, 24 and 48 hours, the dandelion structure was destroyed in favor of NMFP micro-rods. The combination of NMFP (NMFP-6H, NMFP-12H, NMFP-24H and NMFP-48H) structure refinement and Mössbauer characterizations shows that the increase of the reaction time leads to the progressive increment of Fe(III) and the decrease of the crystal size. The electrochemical tests indicated that NMFP is a 3 V sodium intercalating cathode. The comparison of the discharge capacity evolution of studied NMFP electrode materials at C/5 current density shows different capacities of 48, 40, 34 and 34 mAhg-1 for NMFP-6H, NMFP-12H, NMFP-24H and NMFP-48H respectively. Interestingly, all samples show excellent capacity retention of about 99 % during 50 cycles. [less ▲]

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See detailCassava Mosaic and Brown Streak Diseases: Current Perspectives and Beyond
Rey, M.E.C.; Vanderschuren, Hervé ULg

in Annual Review of Virology (2017), 4

Cassava is the fourth largest source of calories in the world but is subject to economically important yield losses due to viral diseases, including cassava brown streak disease and cassava mosaic disease ... [more ▼]

Cassava is the fourth largest source of calories in the world but is subject to economically important yield losses due to viral diseases, including cassava brown streak disease and cassava mosaic disease. Cassava mosaic disease occurs in sub-Saharan Africa and the Asian subcontinent and is associated with nine begomovirus species, whereas cassava brown streak disease has to date been reported only in sub-Saharan Africa and is caused by two distinct ipomovirus species. We present an overview of key milestones and their significance in the understanding and characterization of these two major diseases as well as their associated viruses and whitefly vector. New biotechnologies offer a wide range of opportunities to reduce virus-associated yield losses in cassava for farmers and can additionally enable the exploitation of this valuable crop for industrial purposes. This review explores established and new technologies for genetic manipulation to achieve desired traits such as virus resistance. [less ▲]

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See detailPrehospital identification of trauma patients requiring transfusion: results of a retrospective study evaluating the use of the trauma induced coagulopathy clinical score (TICCS) in 33,385 patients from the TraumaRegister DGU®
TONGLET, Martin ULg; Lefering, Rolf; Minon, Jean Marc et al

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (2017)

Background: Identifying trauma patients that need emergent blood product transfusion is crucial. The Trauma Induced Coagulopathy Clinical Score (TICCS) is an easy-to-measure score developed to meet this ... [more ▼]

Background: Identifying trauma patients that need emergent blood product transfusion is crucial. The Trauma Induced Coagulopathy Clinical Score (TICCS) is an easy-to-measure score developed to meet this medical need. We hypothesized that TICCS would assist in identifying patients that need a transfusion in a large cohort of severe trauma patients from the TraumaRegister DGUVR (TR-DGU). Materials and methods: A total of 33,385 severe trauma patients were extracted from the TR-DGU for retrospective analysis. The TICCS was adapted for the registry structure. Blood transfusion was defined as the use of at least one unit of red blood cells (RBC) during acute hospital treatment. Results: With an area under the receiving operating curve (AUC) of 0.700 (95% CI: 0.691–0.709), the TICCS appeared to be moderately discriminant for determining the need for RBC transfusion in the trauma population of the TR-DGU. A TICCS cut-off value of 12 yielded the best trade-off between true positives and false positives. The corresponding positive predictive value and negative predictive values were 48.4% and 89.1%, respectively. Conclusion: This retrospective study confirms that the TICCS is a useful and simple score for discriminating between trauma patients with and without the need for emergent blood product transfusion. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphology Development and Mechanical Properties Variation during Cold-Drawing of Polyethylene-Clay Nanocomposite Fibers
Coppola, Bartolomeo ULg; Scarfato, Paola; Incarnato, Loredana et al

in Polymers (2017), 9(6), 235-251

In this work, the influence of composition and cold-drawing on nano- and micro-scale morphology and tensile mechanical properties of PE/organoclay nanocomposite fibers was investigated. Nanocomposites ... [more ▼]

In this work, the influence of composition and cold-drawing on nano- and micro-scale morphology and tensile mechanical properties of PE/organoclay nanocomposite fibers was investigated. Nanocomposites were prepared by melt compounding in a twin-screw extruder, using a maleic anhydride grafted linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE–g–MA) and an organomodified montmorillonite (Dellite 67G) at three different loadings (3, 5 and 10 wt %). Fibers were produced by a single-screw extruder and drawn at five draw ratios (DRs): 7.25, 10, 13.5, 16 and 19. All nanocomposites, characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, and FT-IR techniques, showed an intercalated/exfoliated morphology. The study evidenced that the nanoclay presence significantly increases both elastic modulus (up to +115% for fibers containing 10 wt % of D67G) and drawability of as-spun nanocomposite fibers. Moreover, at fixed nanocomposite composition, the cold-drawing process increases fibers elastic modulus and tensile strength at increasing DRs. However, at high DRs, “face-to-edge” rearrangement phenomena of clay layers (i.e., clay layers tend to rotate and touch each other) arise in fibers at high nanoclay loadings. Finally, nanocomposite fibers show a lower diameter reduction during drawing, with respect to the plain system, and surface feature of adjustable roughness by controlling the composition and the drawing conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailDesign and experimental validation of an adaptive control law to maximize power generation of a small-scale waste heat recovery system
Hernandez Naranjo, Jairo Andrés ULg; Desideri, Adriano ULg; Gusev, Sergei et al

in Applied Energy (2017), 203

Increasing the energy efficiency of industrial processes is a challenge that involves, not only improving the methodologies for design and manufacturing, but optimizing performance during part-load ... [more ▼]

Increasing the energy efficiency of industrial processes is a challenge that involves, not only improving the methodologies for design and manufacturing, but optimizing performance during part-load operation and transient conditions. A well-adopted solution consists of developing waste heat recovery (WHR) systems based on Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) power units. The highest efficiency for such cycle is obtained at low superheating values, corresponding to the situation where the system exhibits time-varying nonlinear dynamics, triggered by the fluctuating nature of the waste heat source. In this paper, an adaptive control law using the Model Predictive Control (MPC) framework is proposed. This work goes a step beyond most of the existing scientific works in the field of ORC power systems, since the MPC controller is implemented in a lab-scale prototype, and its performance compared against a gain-scheduled PID strategy. The experimental results show that the adaptive MPC outperforms the gain-scheduled PID based strategy, as it allows to accurately regulate the evaporating temperature, while keeping vapor condition at the inlet of the expander i.e., the superheating, in a safe operating range, thus increasing the net power generation. [less ▲]

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See detailVitamin B1 diversity and characterization of biosynthesis genes in cassava
Mangel, N.; Fudge, J.; Fitzpatrick, T.B. et al

in Journal of Experimental Botany (2017), 68(13), 3351-3363

Vitamin B1, which consists of the vitamers thiamin and its phosphorylated derivatives, is an essential micronutrient for all living organisms because it is required as a metabolic cofactor in several ... [more ▼]

Vitamin B1, which consists of the vitamers thiamin and its phosphorylated derivatives, is an essential micronutrient for all living organisms because it is required as a metabolic cofactor in several enzymatic reactions. Genetic diversity of vitamin B1 biosynthesis and accumulation has not been investigated in major crop species other than rice and potato. We analyzed cassava germplasm for accumulation of B1 vitamers. Vitamin B1 content in leaves and roots of 41 cassava accessions showed significant variation between accessions. HPLC analyses of B1 vitamers revealed distinct profiles in cassava leaves and storage roots, with nearly equal relative levels of thiamin pyrophosphate and thiamin monophosphate in leaves, but mostly thiamin pyrophosphate in storage roots. Unusually, the cassava genome has two genes encoding the 4-amino-2-methyl-5-hydroxymethylpyrimidine phosphate synthase, THIC (MeTHIC1 and MeTHIC2), both of which carry a riboswitch in the 3'-UTR, as well as the adenylated thiazole synthase, THI1 (MeTHI1a and MeTHI1b). The THIC and THI1 genes are expressed at very low levels in storage roots compared with the accumulation of vitamin B1, indicating only limited biosynthesis de novo therein. In leaves, vitamin B1 content is negatively correlated with THIC and THI1 expression levels, suggesting post-transcriptional regulation of THIC by the riboswitch present in the 3'-UTR of the THIC mRNA and regulation of THI1 by promoter activity or alternative post-transcriptional mechanisms. [less ▲]

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See detailFrustrated crystallization of a monolayer of magnetized beads under geometrical confinement
Schockmel, Julien ULg; Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Opsomer, Eric ULg et al

in Physical Review. E : Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics (2017)

We present a systematic experimental study of the confinement effect on the crystallization of a monolayer of magnetized beads. The particles are millimeter-scale grains interacting through the short ... [more ▼]

We present a systematic experimental study of the confinement effect on the crystallization of a monolayer of magnetized beads. The particles are millimeter-scale grains interacting through the short range magnetic dipole-dipole potential induced by an external magnetic field. The grains are confined by repulsing walls and are homogeneously distributed inside the cell. A two-dimensional (2d) Brownian motion is induced by horizontal mechanical vibrations. Therefore, the balance between magnetic interaction and agitation allows investigating 2d phases through direct visualization. The effect of both confinement size and shape on the grains’ organization in the low-energy state has been investigated. Concerning the confinement shape, triangular, square, pentagonal, hexagonal, heptagonal, and circular geometries have been considered. The grain organization was analyzed after a slow cooling process. Through the measurement of the averaged bond order parameter for the different confinement geometries, it has been shown that cell geometry strongly affects the ordering of the system. Moreover, many kinds of defects, whose observation rate is linked to the geometry, have been observed: disclinations, dislocations, defects chain, and also more exotic defects such as a rosette. Finally, the influence of confinement size has been investigated and we point out that no finite-size effect occurs for a hexagonal cell, but the finite-size effect changes from one geometry to another. [less ▲]

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See detailContributions of U-Th-Pb dating on the diagenesis and sediment sources of the Lower Group (BI) of the Mbuji-Mayi Supergroup (Democratic Republic of Congo)
François, Camille ULg; Kabamba Baludikay, Blaise ULg; Storme et al

in Precambrian Research (2017)

In this paper, we present new age constraints for the lower part of the Meso-Neoproterozoic sedimentary Mbuji-Mayi Supergroup (Democratic Republic of Congo, DRC). This Supergroup preserves a large ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we present new age constraints for the lower part of the Meso-Neoproterozoic sedimentary Mbuji-Mayi Supergroup (Democratic Republic of Congo, DRC). This Supergroup preserves a large diversity of organic-walled microfossils, evidencing the diversification of early eukaryotes for the first time in Central Africa. We use different methods such as in situ U-Pb geochronology by LA-ICP-MS and U-Th-Pb chemical datings by Electron Microprobe on diagenetic and detrital minerals such as xenotimes, monazites and zircons. We attempt to better constrain the provenance of the Mbuji-Mayi sediments and the minimum age of the Mbuji-Mayi Supergroup to constrain the age of the microfossils. Results with LA-ICP-MS and EMP provide new ages between 1030 and 1065 Ma for the diagenesis of the lower part of the sedimentary sequence. These results are consistent with data on biostratigraphy supporting the occurrence of worldwide changes at the Mesoproterozoic/Neoproterozoic boundary. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of an open-source algorithm based on inertial measurement units (IMU) of a smartphone to detect cattle grass intake and ruminating behaviors
Andriamandroso, Andriamasinoro ULg; Lebeau, Frédéric ULg; Beckers, Yves ULg et al

in Computers & Electronics in Agriculture (2017), 139

In this paper, an open algorithm was developed for the detection of cattle’s grass intake and rumination activities. This was done using the widely available inertial measurement unit (IMU) from a ... [more ▼]

In this paper, an open algorithm was developed for the detection of cattle’s grass intake and rumination activities. This was done using the widely available inertial measurement unit (IMU) from a smartphone, which contains an accelerometer, a gyroscope, a magnetometer and location sensors signals sampled at 100 Hz. This equipment was mounted on 19 grazing cows of different breeds and daily video sequences were recorded on pasture of different forage allowances. After visually analyzing the cows’ movements on a calibration database, signal combinations were selected and thresholds were determined based on 1-s time windows, since increasing the time window did not increase the accuracy of detection. The final algorithm uses the average value and standard deviation of two signals in a two-step discrimination tree: the gravitational acceleration on x-axis (Gx) expressing the cows’ head movements and the rotation rate on the same x-axis (Rx) expressing jaw movements. Threshold values encompassing 95% of the normalized calibrated data gave the best results. Validation on an independent database resulted in an average detection accuracy of 92% with a better detection for rumination (95%) than for grass intake (91%). The detection algorithm also allows for characterization of the diurnal feeding activities of cattle at pasture. Any user can make further improvements, for data collected at the same way as the iPhone’s IMU has done, since the algorithm codes are open and provided as supplementary data. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of UAS photogrammetric products for tree detection and characterization of coniferous stands
Bonnet, Stéphanie ULg; Lisein, Jonathan ULg; Lejeune, Philippe ULg

in International Journal of Remote Sensing (2017), 38(19), 5310-5337

The use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) opens a new era for remote sensing and forest management, which requires accurate and regular quantification of resources. In this study, we propose a ... [more ▼]

The use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) opens a new era for remote sensing and forest management, which requires accurate and regular quantification of resources. In this study, we propose a comprehensive workflow to detect trees and assess forest attributes in the particular context of coniferous stands in transformation from even-aged to uneven-aged stands, using UAS imagery, from data acquisition to model construction. We implement a local maxima detection to identify the tree tops, based on a fixed-radius moving window in a Canopy Height Model (CHM) and images produced from UAS surveys. To compare the contribution of different photogrammetric products, we analysed the local maxima detected from the CHM, from three image types (individual rectified and ortho-rectified images and ortho-mosaic) and from a combination of both CHM and images. The local maxima detection gave promising results, with low omission and true-positive rates of up to 89.2%. A filtering process of false positives was implemented, using a supervised classification which decreased the false positives up to 2.6%. Based on the local maxima combined with an area-based approach, we constructed models to assess top height (R2: 83%, root mean square error [RMSE]: 5.7%), number of stems (R2: 71%, RMSE: 28.3%), basal area (R2: 70%, RMSE: 16.2%), volume (R2: 69%, RMSE: 20.1%), and individual tree height (R2: 70%, RMSE: 7.2%). Despite a suboptimal data acquisition, our simple and flexible method has yielded good results and shows great potential for application. [less ▲]

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See detailBody shape convergence driven by small size optimum in marine angelfishes
Frederich, Bruno ULg; Santini, Francesco; Konow, Nicolai et al

in Biology Letters (2017), 13

Convergent evolution of small body size occurs across many vertebrate clades and may reflect an evolutionary response to shared selective press- ures. However it remains unclear if other aspects of ... [more ▼]

Convergent evolution of small body size occurs across many vertebrate clades and may reflect an evolutionary response to shared selective press- ures. However it remains unclear if other aspects of phenotype undergo convergent evolution in miniaturized lineages. Here we present a comparative analysis of body size and shape evolution in marine angelfishes (Pomacanthidae), a reef fish family characterized by repeated transitions to small body size. We ask if lineages that evolve small sizes show convergent evolution in body shape. Our results reveal that angelfish lineages evolved three different stable size optima with one corresponding to the group of pygmy angelfishes (Centropyge). Then, we test if the observed shifts in body size are associated with changes to new adaptive peaks in shape. Our data suggest that independent evolution to small size optima have induced repeated convergence upon deeper body and steeper head profile in Centropyge. These traits may favour manoeuvrability and visual aware- ness in these cryptic species living among corals, illustrating that functional demands on small size may be related to habitat specialization and predator avoidance. The absence of shape convergence in large marine angelfishes also suggests that more severe requirements exist for small than for large size optima. [less ▲]

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See detailResting state connectivity between default mode network and insula encodes acute migraine headache
Coppola, Gianluca; Di Renzo, Antonio; Tinelli, Emanuele et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2017), 0(0), 1-9

Background: Previous functional MRI studies have revealed that ongoing clinical pain in different chronic pain syndromes is directly correlated to the connectivity strength of the resting default mode ... [more ▼]

Background: Previous functional MRI studies have revealed that ongoing clinical pain in different chronic pain syndromes is directly correlated to the connectivity strength of the resting default mode network (DMN) with the insula. Here, we investigated seed-based resting state DMN-insula connectivity during acute migraine headaches. Methods: Thirteen migraine without aura patients (MI) underwent 3 T MRI scans during the initial six hours of a spontaneous migraine attack, and were compared to a group of 19 healthy volunteers (HV). We evaluated headache intensity with a visual analogue scale and collected seed-based MRI resting state data in the four core regions of the DMN: Medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and left and right inferior parietal lobules (IPLs), as well as in bilateral insula. Results: Compared to HV, MI patients showed stronger functional connectivity between MPFC and PCC, and between MPFC and bilateral insula. During migraine attacks, the strength of MPFC-to-insula connectivity was negatively correlated with pain intensity. Conclusion:We show that greater subjective intensity of pain during a migraine attack is associated with proportionally weaker DMN-insula connectivity. This is at variance with other chronic extra-cephalic pain disorders where the opposite was found, and may thus be a hallmark of acute migraine head pain. [less ▲]

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See detailLuteinizing Hormone Deficiency: Historical Views and Perspectives
VALDES SOCIN, Hernan Gonzalo ULg; Daly, Adrian ULg; BECKERS, Albert ULg

in Austin Andrology (2017), 2(1), 1-2

Fertility in men requires normal testicular development, which is controlled by chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in utero and thereafter by luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH ... [more ▼]

Fertility in men requires normal testicular development, which is controlled by chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in utero and thereafter by luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Some rare observations, such as, mutations in the luteinizing hormone subunit beta gene [2] have contributed substantially to our understanding of reproductive development and male infertility. In this editorial we summaryze current knowledge about beta LH mutations and polymorphism in men and discuss fertility issues. [less ▲]

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See detailLe principe non bis in idem et les procédures mixtes : un camouflet infligé à la jurisprudence Zalotoukhine ?
Michiels, Olivier ULg; Falque, Géraldine ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2017), (2017/23), 1069-1078

Pour lutter contre certains comportements socialement inacceptables, les États peuvent concevoir des réponses juridiques complémentaires au moyen de procédures mixtes pour autant que celles-ci forment un ... [more ▼]

Pour lutter contre certains comportements socialement inacceptables, les États peuvent concevoir des réponses juridiques complémentaires au moyen de procédures mixtes pour autant que celles-ci forment un tout cohérent, c’est-à-dire qu’elles soient liées par un lien matériel et temporel suffisamment étroit. Le cumul des sanctions pénales et administratives est autorisé dès lors que les deux procédures poursuivent des buts complémentaires et traitent d’aspects différents de l’acte préjudiciable, que le cumul des sanctions soit prévisible, qu’il n’y ait pas de répétition dans la collecte et dans l’appréciation des preuves et qu’un mécanisme de compensation entre les sanctions soit prévu. [less ▲]

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See detailMethodological approach for the implementation of a simulator in augmented reality in a radiation therapy department
Servotte, Jean-Christophe ULg; Guillaume, Michèle ULg; BOGA, Deniz ULg et al

in International Journal of Healthcare Management (2017), 10(3), 154-159

Radiation therapy (RT) is one of the cornerstones for the treatment of cancer. In most countries RT machines are handled by professionals benefitting from an ad hoc training in theoretical knowledge as ... [more ▼]

Radiation therapy (RT) is one of the cornerstones for the treatment of cancer. In most countries RT machines are handled by professionals benefitting from an ad hoc training in theoretical knowledge as well as technical and non-technical skills. In Belgium, RT departments are hiring in nurses for this activity. In countries where there is a specified core curriculum for basic training of radiation technologist, this basic training falls short once in practice and there is an obvious requirement for a continuous updating of skills in order to keep up with the accelerating evolution of technology. Therefore, the decision has been taken to implement a simulator in augmented reality in the RT department in Liège, to face the double challenge i.e. basic professional training as well as continuous education in technical and nontechnical skills and Crew Resource Management. We describe a methodological approach to implement this simulator in augmented reality. [less ▲]

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See detailEMT and inflammation: inseparable actors of cancer progression.
Suarez-Carmona, Meggy; Lesage, Julien; Cataldo, Didier ULg et al

in Molecular Oncology (2017)

Tumors can be depicted as wounds that never heal, and are infiltrated by a large array of inflammatory and immune cells. Tumor-associated chronic inflammation is a hallmark of cancer that fosters ... [more ▼]

Tumors can be depicted as wounds that never heal, and are infiltrated by a large array of inflammatory and immune cells. Tumor-associated chronic inflammation is a hallmark of cancer that fosters progression to a metastatic stage, as has been extensively reviewed lately. Indeed, inflammatory cells persisting in the tumor establish a cross-talk with tumor cells that may result in a phenotype switch into tumor-supporting cells. This has been particularly well described for macrophages and is referred to as tumor-associated "M2" polarization. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), the embryonic program that loosens cell-cell adherence complexes and endows cells with enhanced migratory and invasive properties, can be co-opted by cancer cells during metastatic progression. Cancer cells that have undergone EMT are more aggressive, displaying increased invasiveness, stem-like features and resistance to apoptosis. EMT programs can also stimulate the production of pro-inflammatory factors by cancer cells. Conversely, inflammation is a potent inducer of EMT in tumors. Therefore, the two phenomena may sustain each other, in an alliance for metastasis. This is the focus of this review, where the interconnections between EMT programs and cellular and molecular actors of inflammation are described. We also recapitulate data linking the EMT/inflammation axis to metastasis. [less ▲]

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See detailSbCOMT (Bmr12) is involved in the biosynthesis of tricin-lignin in sorghum
Eudes, Aymerick; Dutta, Tanmoy; Deng, Kei et al

in PLoS ONE (2017), 12(6), 1-11

Lignin in plant biomass represents a target for engineering strategies towards the development of a sustainable bioeconomy. In addition to the conventional lignin monomers, namely p-coumaryl, coniferyl ... [more ▼]

Lignin in plant biomass represents a target for engineering strategies towards the development of a sustainable bioeconomy. In addition to the conventional lignin monomers, namely p-coumaryl, coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols, tricin has been shown to be part of the native lignin polymer in certain monocot species. Because tricin is considered to initiate the polymerization of lignin chains, elucidating its biosynthesis and mechanism of export to the cell wall constitute novel challenges for the engineering of bioenergy crops. Late steps of tricin biosynthesis require two methylation reactions involving the pathway intermediate selgin. It has recently been demonstrated in rice and maize that caffeate O-methyltransferase (COMT) involved in the synthesis syringyl (S) lignin units derived from sinapyl alcohol also participates in the synthesis of tricin in planta. In this work, we validate in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) that the O-methyltransferase responsible for the production of S lignin units (SbCOMT / Bmr12) is also involved in the synthesis of lignin-linked tricin. In particular, we show that biomass from the sorghum bmr12 mutant contains lower level of tricin incorporated into lignin, and that SbCOMT can methylate the tricin precursors luteolin and selgin. Our genetic and biochemical data point toward a general mechanism whereby COMT is involved in the synthesis of both tricin and S lignin units. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular surveillance of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapies in the Democratic Republic of Congo
Mvumbi Makaba, Dieudonné; Bobanga Lengu, Thierry; Kayembe Ntumba, Jean-Marie et al

in PLoS ONE (2017)

Malaria is a major public health problem in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Despite progress achieved over the past decade in the fight against malaria, further efforts have to be done such as in the ... [more ▼]

Malaria is a major public health problem in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Despite progress achieved over the past decade in the fight against malaria, further efforts have to be done such as in the surveillance and the containment of Plasmodium falciparum resistant strains. We investigated resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapies currently in use in Democratic Republic of Congo by surveying molecular polymorphisms in three genes: pfcrt, pfmdr1 and pfk13 to explore possible emergence of amodiaquine, lumefantrine or artemisinin resistance in Democratic Republic of Congo. This study essentially revealed that resistance to chloroquine is still decreasing while polymorphism related to amodiaquine resistance seems to be not present in Democratic Republic of Congo, that three samples, located in the east of the country, harbor Pfmdr1 amplification and that none of the mutations found in South-East Asia correlated with artemisinine resistance have been found in Democratic Republic of Congo. But new mutations have been identified, especially the M476K, occurred in the same position that the M476I previously identified in the F32-ART strain, strongly resistant to artemisinine. Antimalarial first-line treatments currently in use in Democratic Republic of Congo are not associated with emergence of molecular markers of resistance. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscovery and Characterization of R/S-N-3-Cyanophenyl-N'-(6-tert-butoxycarbonylamino-3,4-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-benzopyran-4-yl)urea, a New Histone Deacetylase Class III Inhibitor Exerting Antiproliferative Activity against Cancer Cell Lines
Schnekenburger, M; Goffin, Eric ULg; Lee, J-Y et al

in Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2017), 60(11), 4714-4733

A new series of N-aryl-N'-3,4-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-benzopyran-4-yl)ureas bearing an alkoxycarbonylamino group at the 6-position were synthesized and examined as putative anticancer agents targeting ... [more ▼]

A new series of N-aryl-N'-3,4-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-benzopyran-4-yl)ureas bearing an alkoxycarbonylamino group at the 6-position were synthesized and examined as putative anticancer agents targeting sirtuins in glioma cells. On the basis of computational docking combined to in vitro sirtuin 1/2 inhibition assays, we selected compound 18 [R/S-N-3-cyanophenyl-N'-(6-tert-butoxycarbonylamino-3,4-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-benzopyran-4-yl)urea] which displays a potent antiproliferative activity on various glioma cell types, assessed by quantitative videomicroscopy, eventually triggering senescence. The impact on normal glial cells was lower with a selectivity index of >10. Furthermore, human U373 and Hs683 glioblastoma cell lines served to demonstrate the inhibitory activity of 18 against histone deacetylase (HDAC) class III sirtuins 1 and 2 (SIRT1/2) by quantifying acetylation levels of histone and non-histone proteins. The translational potential of 18 was validated by an NCI-60 cell line screen and validation of growth inhibition of drug resistant cancer cell models. Eventually, the anticancer potential of 18 was validated in 3D glioblastoma spheroids and in vivo by zebrafish xenografts. In summary, compound 18 is the first representative of a new class of SIRT inhibitors opening new perspectives in the medicinal chemistry of HDAC inhibitors. [less ▲]

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See detailDiversity of farming systems integrating fish pond aquaculture in the province of Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Mafwila Kinkela, Patrick ULg; Kambashi Mutiaka, Bienvenu ULg; Dogot, Thomas ULg et al

in Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics (2017), Vol 118(No 1), 149-160

Agriculture and aquaculture systems are used by many farmers in various tropical countries of Asia, America and Africa. They have proven their relevancy to increase the productivity of farms by optimising ... [more ▼]

Agriculture and aquaculture systems are used by many farmers in various tropical countries of Asia, America and Africa. They have proven their relevancy to increase the productivity of farms by optimising nutrient fluxes and reducing requirements for external fertilisers. This article analysed the current state of fish farming and the way it is integrated with other farm subsystems in the urban/peri-urban and rural areas of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. More precisely, it examined the allocation of resources at the farm level, the recovery of helophytes plants, and the fate of fish production choices and it explored the possibility of intensifying these existing integrated farming systems. After a census of ponds in the urban and rural areas of Kinshasa, an on-site survey was conducted on 150 fish pond farms to assess the different activities practiced on farms, the impact of integrating crops and livestock to fish pond aquaculture and the constraints of the system. A total of three thousand and twenty (3020) fish ponds were recorded in the urban and rural areas of Kinshasa. Among these farms integrated aquaculture-agriculture systems exist with a wide diversity of practices (about 79% of farms combined fish with livestock and/or vegetable production). No striking differences between fish farms according to the allocation of resources, fish production method such as monoculture or polyculture, the recovery of helophytes plants and the fate of fish production choice were found depending on the location. However, fish farms were differently managed when combined with agriculture and/or livestock. Regarding the integration of the different subsystems through nutrient fluxes, 11 different movements of material between subsystems were found in integrated farms. However, not all fluxes are equally used in all farms and therefore improvements cannot be generalised. Improvements to be explored are such as making better use of manure pond mud and helophyte plants. For this purpose, proper training of farmers might be critical. Finally, bringing farmers together in cooperatives could also contribute to reduce the cost of purchase and transportation of fish fry and feed. [less ▲]

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See detailWhole blood microsampling for the quantitation of estetrol without derivatization by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
Nys, Gwenaël ULg; Gallez, Anne ULg; Kok, Miranda ULg et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2017), 140

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See detailL’article 458 du Code des impôts sur les revenus est-il un frein à l’intervention du fisc en procédure pénale ?
Michiels, Olivier ULg

in Journal des Tribunaux (2017), 2017/21(n° 6691), 398-400

L'article aborde la question de la constitution de partie civile de l'Etat, administration des contributions directes, en cas de fraude fiscale. Il envisage notamment ce sujet au regard de l'article 458 ... [more ▼]

L'article aborde la question de la constitution de partie civile de l'Etat, administration des contributions directes, en cas de fraude fiscale. Il envisage notamment ce sujet au regard de l'article 458 du CIR qui prévoit que les personnes qui auront été condamnées comme auteurs ou complices d’infractions visées aux articles 449 à 452 du Code des impôts sur les revenus seront tenues solidairement au paiement de l’impôt éludé. [less ▲]

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See detailA seven-planet resonant chain in TRAPPIST-1
Luger, Rodrigo; Sestovic, Marko; Kruse, Ethan et al

in Nature Astronomy (2017), 1

The TRAPPIST-1 system is the first transiting planet system found orbiting an ultracool dwarf star[SUP] 1 [/SUP]. At least seven planets similar in radius to Earth were previously found to transit this ... [more ▼]

The TRAPPIST-1 system is the first transiting planet system found orbiting an ultracool dwarf star[SUP] 1 [/SUP]. At least seven planets similar in radius to Earth were previously found to transit this host star[SUP] 2 [/SUP]. Subsequently, TRAPPIST-1 was observed as part of the K2 mission and, with these new data, we report the measurement of an 18.77 day orbital period for the outermost transiting planet, TRAPPIST-1 h, which was previously unconstrained. This value matches our theoretical expectations based on Laplace relations[SUP] 3 [/SUP] and places TRAPPIST-1 h as the seventh member of a complex chain, with three-body resonances linking every member. We find that TRAPPIST-1 h has a radius of 0.752 R [SUB]⊕[/SUB] and an equilibrium temperature of 173 K. We have also measured the rotational period of the star to be 3.3 days and detected a number of flares consistent with a low-activity, middle-aged, late M dwarf. [less ▲]

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See detailActivation of the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR27 by surrogate ligands promotes β-arrestin 2 recruitment
Dupuis, Nadine ULg; Laschet, Céline ULg; Franssen, Delphine ULg et al

in Molecular Pharmacology (2017), 91(6), 595-608

G protein-coupled receptors are the most important drug targets for human diseases. An important number of them remain devoid of confirmed ligands. GPR27 is one of these orphan receptors, characterized by ... [more ▼]

G protein-coupled receptors are the most important drug targets for human diseases. An important number of them remain devoid of confirmed ligands. GPR27 is one of these orphan receptors, characterized by a high level of conservation among vertebrates and a predominant expression in the central nervous system. In addition, it has recently been linked to insulin secretion. However, the absence of endogenous or surrogate ligands for GPR27 complicates the examination of its biological function. Our aim was to validate GPR27 signaling pathways and therefore we sought to screen a diversity oriented synthesis library to identify GPR27-specific surrogate agonists. In order to select an optimal screening assay, we investigated GPR27 ligand-independent activity. Both in G protein-mediated pathways and in β-arrestin 2 recruitment, no ligand-independent activity could be measured. However, we observed a recruitment of β-arrestin 2 to a GPR27V2 chimera in the presence of membrane-anchored β-adrenergic receptor kinase 1 (GRK2). Therefore, we optimized a firefly luciferase complementation assay to screen against this chimeric receptor. We identified two compounds (N-[4-(anilinocarbonyl)phenyl]-2,4-dichlorobenzamide (ChemBridge ID5128535) and 2,4-dichloro-N-{4-[(1,3-thiazol-2-ylamino)sulfonyl]phenyl}benzamide (ChemBridge ID5217941)) sharing a N-phenyl-2,4-dichlorobenzamide scaffold, which were selective for GPR27 over its closely related family members GPR85 and GPR173. The specificity of the activity was confirmed with a NanoBiT® β-arrestin 2 assay, imaging of GFP-tagged β-arrestin 2 and PathHunter® β-arrestin 2 Assay. Interestingly, no G protein activation was detected upon activation of GPR27 by these compounds. Our study provides the first selective surrogate agonists for the orphan GPR27. [less ▲]

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See detailValidation of MOPITT carbon monoxide using ground-based Fourier transform infrared spectrometer data from NDACC
Buchholz, R. R.; Deeter, M. N.; Worden, H. M. et al

in Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (2017), 10(5), 1927--1956

The Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) satellite instrument provides the longest continuous dataset of carbon monoxide (CO) from space. We perform the first validation of MOPITT version ... [more ▼]

The Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) satellite instrument provides the longest continuous dataset of carbon monoxide (CO) from space. We perform the first validation of MOPITT version 6 retrievals using total column CO measurements from ground-based remote-sensing Fourier transform infrared spectrometers (FTSs). Validation uses data recorded at 14 stations, that span a wide range of latitudes (80°N to 78°S), in the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). MOPITT measurements are spatially co-located with each station, and different vertical sensitivities between instruments are accounted for by using MOPITT averaging kernels (AKs). All three MOPITT retrieval types are analyzed: thermal infrared (TIR-only), joint thermal and near infrared (TIR–NIR), and near infrared (NIR-only). Generally, MOPITT measurements overestimate CO relative to FTS measurements, but the bias is typically less than 10%. Mean bias is 2.4% for TIR-only, 5.1% for TIR–NIR, and 6.5% for NIR-only. The TIR–NIR and NIR-only products consistently produce a larger bias and lower correlation than the TIR-only. Validation performance of MOPITT for TIR-only and TIR–NIR retrievals over land or water scenes is equivalent. The four MOPITT detector element pixels are validated separately to account for their different uncertainty characteristics. Pixel 1 produces the highest standard deviation and lowest correlation for all three MOPITT products. However, for TIR-only and TIR–NIR, the error-weighted average that includes all four pixels often provides the best correlation, indicating compensating pixel biases and well-captured error characteristics. We find that MOPITT bias does not depend on latitude but rather is influenced by the proximity to rapidly changing atmospheric CO. MOPITT bias drift has been bound geographically to within ±0.5%/yr or lower at almost all locations. [less ▲]

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See detailH0LiCOW - III. Quantifying the effect of mass along the line of sight to the gravitational lens HE 0435-1223 through weighted galaxy counts★
Rusu, Cristian E.; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Sluse, Dominique ULg et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 467

Based on spectroscopy and multiband wide-field observations of the gravitationally lensed quasar HE 0435-1223, we determine the probability distribution function of the external convergence κ[SUB]ext[/SUB ... [more ▼]

Based on spectroscopy and multiband wide-field observations of the gravitationally lensed quasar HE 0435-1223, we determine the probability distribution function of the external convergence κ[SUB]ext[/SUB] for this system. We measure the under/overdensity of the line of sight towards the lens system and compare it to the average line of sight throughout the Universe, determined by using the CFHTLenS (The Canada France Hawaii Lensing Survey) as a control field. Aiming to constrain κ[SUB]ext[/SUB] as tightly as possible, we determine under/overdensities using various combinations of relevant informative weighting schemes for the galaxy counts, such as projected distance to the lens, redshift and stellar mass. We then convert the measured under/overdensities into a κ[SUB]ext[/SUB] distribution, using ray-tracing through the Millennium Simulation. We explore several limiting magnitudes and apertures, and account for systematic and statistical uncertainties relevant to the quality of the observational data, which we further test through simulations. Our most robust estimate of κ[SUB]ext[/SUB] has a median value κ^med_ext = 0.004 and a standard deviation σ[SUB]κ[/SUB] = 0.025. The measured σ[SUB]κ[/SUB] corresponds to 2.5 per cent relative uncertainty on the time delay distance, and hence the Hubble constant H[SUB]0[/SUB] inferred from this system. The median κ^med_ext value varies by ˜0.005 with the adopted aperture radius, limiting magnitude and weighting scheme, as long as the latter incorporates galaxy number counts, the projected distance to the main lens and a prior on the external shear obtained from mass modelling. This corresponds to just ˜0.5 per cent systematic impact on H[SUB]0[/SUB]. The availability of a well-constrained κ[SUB]ext[/SUB] makes HE 0435-1223 a valuable system for measuring cosmological parameters using strong gravitational lens time delays. [less ▲]

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See detailThe VLT/NaCo large program to probe the occurrence of exoplanets and brown dwarfs at wide orbits. IV. Gravitational instability rarely forms wide, giant planets
Vigan, A.; Bonavita, M.; Biller, B. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2017), 603

Understanding the formation and evolution of giant planets (≥1 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB]) at wide orbital separation (≥5 AU) is one of the goals of direct imaging. Over the past 15 yr, many surveys have placed ... [more ▼]

Understanding the formation and evolution of giant planets (≥1 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB]) at wide orbital separation (≥5 AU) is one of the goals of direct imaging. Over the past 15 yr, many surveys have placed strong constraints on the occurrence rate of wide-orbit giants, mostly based on non-detections, but very few have tried to make a direct link with planet formation theories. In the present work, we combine the results of our previously published VLT/NaCo large program with the results of 12 past imaging surveys to constitute a statistical sample of 199 FGK stars within 100 pc, including three stars with sub-stellar companions. Using Monte Carlo simulations and assuming linear flat distributions for the mass and semi-major axis of planets, we estimate the sub-stellar companion frequency to be within 0.75-5.70% at the 68% confidence level (CL) within 20-300 AU and 0.5-75 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB], which is compatible with previously published results. We also compare our results with the predictions of state-of-the-art population synthesis models based on the gravitational instability (GI) formation scenario with and without scattering. We estimate that in both the scattered and non-scattered populations, we would be able to detect more than 30% of companions in the 1-75 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB] range (95% CL). With the threesub-stellar detections in our sample, we estimate the fraction of stars that host a planetary system formed by GI to be within 1.0-8.6% (95% CL). We also conclude that even though GI is not common, it predicts a mass distribution of wide-orbit massive companions that is much closer to what is observed than what the core accretion scenario predicts. Finally, we associate the present paper with the release of the Direct Imaging Virtual Archive (DIVA), a public database that aims at gathering the results of past, present, and future direct imaging surveys. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile (ESO Large Program 184.C-0157 and Open Time 089.C-0137A and 090.C-0252A). [less ▲]

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See detailWaste Heat Recovery by Means of Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) System Coupled with Two-Phase Closed Thermosyphons
Le, Van Long ULg; Declaye, Sébastien ULg; Dumas, Xavier et al

in International Journal of Thermodynamics (2017)

This paper aims at assessing the performance of a waste heat-to-power plant by means of an ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) system coupled with two-phase closed thermosyphons (or gravity-assisted heat pipes or ... [more ▼]

This paper aims at assessing the performance of a waste heat-to-power plant by means of an ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) system coupled with two-phase closed thermosyphons (or gravity-assisted heat pipes or wickless heat pipes). The heat exchanger, made up of two-phase closed thermosyphons, is used for conveying heat from exhaust stream to ORC working fluid. In reality, a hot oil loop or a pressurized hot water loop or a saturated ste am loop or even a direct evaporator is often used to transfer heat from the heat source to the ORC system. However, installing a heat exchanger directly in the hot gas paths of ORC system evokes the concerns for the flammability and/or toxicity of organic working fluids especially when the heat source has a relatively high temperature. Also the use of an intermediate heat carrier loop such as thermal oil or saturated steam or pressurized water loop is costly and involves installation of comparatively heavy components. In principle, the use of two-phase closed thermosyphons for capturing and transporting heat from a waste heat source to organic working fluid is less expensive than utilizing an intermediate heat transfer loop and eliminates safety issues as in the case of direct installation of an ORC evaporator in the hot gas paths. [less ▲]

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See detailA computational stochastic multiscale methodology for MEMS structures involving adhesive contact
Hoang Truong, Vinh ULg; Wu, Ling ULg; Paquay, Stéphane et al

in Tribology International (2017), 110

This work aims at developing a computational stochastic multiscale methodology to quantify the uncertainties of the adhesive contact problems due to capillary effects and van der Waals forces in MEMS ... [more ▼]

This work aims at developing a computational stochastic multiscale methodology to quantify the uncertainties of the adhesive contact problems due to capillary effects and van der Waals forces in MEMS. Because the magnitudes of the adhesive forces strongly depend on the surface interaction distances, which in turn evolve with the roughness of the contacting surfaces, the involved structural behaviors suffer from a scatter. To numerically predict the probabilistic behaviors of structures involving adhesion, the proposed method introduces stochastic meso-scale random apparent contact forces which can be integrated into a stochastic finite element model. Because the evaluation of their realizations is expensive, a generator for the random apparent contact force using the polynomial chaos expansion is constructed in an efficient way. [less ▲]

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See detailPeriod–luminosity relations of fast-rotating B-type stars in the young open cluster NGC 3766
Saio, H.; Ekström, S.; Mowlavi, N. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 467(4), 3864-3873

We study the pulsational properties of rapidly rotating main-sequence B-type stars using linear non-adiabatic analysis of non-radial low-frequency modes taking into account the effect of rotation. We ... [more ▼]

We study the pulsational properties of rapidly rotating main-sequence B-type stars using linear non-adiabatic analysis of non-radial low-frequency modes taking into account the effect of rotation. We compare the properties of prograde sectoral g and retrograde r modes excited by the κ mechanism at the Fe opacity peak with the newly discovered period–luminosity relation that is obeyed by a group of fast-rotating B-type stars in the young open cluster NGC 3766. The observed relation consists of two sequences in the period versus magnitude diagram, at periods shorter than 0.5 d. We find that this property is consistent with similar period–luminosity relations predicted for excited sectoral prograde g modes of azimuthal orders m = −1 and −2 in fast-rotating stars along an isochrone. We further show that some of the rapidly rotating stars that have photometric variability with periods longer than a day may be caused by r-mode pulsation predicted to be excited in these stars. One fast-rotating star, in particular, shows both short and long periods that can be explained by the simultaneous excitation of g- and r-mode pulsations in models of fast-rotating stars. [less ▲]

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See detailMultimodal imaging Gd-nanoparticles functionalized with Pittsburgh compound B or a nanobody for amyloid plaques targeting
Pansieri, Jonathan; Plissonneau, Marie; Stransky-Heilkron, Nathalie et al

in Nanomedicine (2017)

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See detailN-Glycosylation of an IgG antibody secreted by Nicotiana tabacum BY-2 cells can be modulated through co-expression of human β-1,4-galactosyltransferase
Navarre, Catherine; Smargiasso, Nicolas ULg; Duvivier, Laurent et al

in Transgenic Research (2017), 26(3), 375-384

Nicotiana tabacum BY-2 suspension cells have several advantages that make them suitable for the production of full-size monoclonal antibodies which can be purified directly from the culture medium ... [more ▼]

Nicotiana tabacum BY-2 suspension cells have several advantages that make them suitable for the production of full-size monoclonal antibodies which can be purified directly from the culture medium. Carbohydrate characterization of an antibody (Lo-BM2) expressed in N. tabacum BY-2 cells showed that the purified Lo-BM2 displays N-glycan homogeneity with a high proportion (>70%) of the complex GnGnXF glycoform. The stable co-expression of a human β-1,4-galactosyltransferase targeted to different Golgi sub-compartments altered Lo-BM2N-glycosylation and resulted in the production of an antibody that exhibited either hybrid structures containing a low abundance of the plant epitopes (α-1,3-fucose and β-1,2-xylose), or a large amount of galactose-extended N-glycan structures. These results demonstrate the suitability of stable N-glycoengineered N. tabacum BY-2 cell lines for the production of human-like antibodies. © 2017, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. [less ▲]

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See detailQu'est-ce que l'eau souterraine ?
Ruthy, Ingrid ULg; Brouyère, Serge ULg

in Eco Karst (2017), 108

L'eau souterraine et le karst. Quelques définitions et concepts-clés

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See detailHistoire du thymus : d'un organe vestigial à la programmation de la tolérance immunitaire
Geenen, Vincent ULg

in Medecine Sciences : M/S (2017), 33(6-7), 634-644

This synthesis presents the most important disruptions of conceptions about the thymus since its discovery in Antique Greece. For centuries, the thymus has been considered as a vestigial organ, and its ... [more ▼]

This synthesis presents the most important disruptions of conceptions about the thymus since its discovery in Antique Greece. For centuries, the thymus has been considered as a vestigial organ, and its role in T-lymphocyte differentiation has been proposed only in the 1960’s. Most recent studies attribute to the thymus an essential and unique role in the programming of central immunological self-tolerance. The basal mechanism implicated in this function is the transcription in thymic epithelium of genes encoding precursors of self-antigens. Processing of these latters leads to presentation of self-antigens by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) machinery expressed by thymic epithelial and dendritic cells. During fetal life, this presentation drives negative selection of T-cell clones harboring receptors with high affinity for these complexes MHC/self-antigen. After birth, this presentation promotes the generation of regulatory T cells specific for these complexes. A number of studies, as well as the identification of Aire and Fezf2 genes, have shown that a thymus dysfunction plays a crucial role in the development of organ-specific autoimmunity. [less ▲]

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See detailUn trivial sport‐santé
Lombard, Gilles ULg; Cloes, Marc ULg

in Revue EP&S (2017), 375

L’évolution de la société est telle que la sédentarité et le nombre de personnes en surpoids ne font qu’augmenter. En touchant la quasi-totalité des jeunes, l’éducation physique se trouve en première ... [more ▼]

L’évolution de la société est telle que la sédentarité et le nombre de personnes en surpoids ne font qu’augmenter. En touchant la quasi-totalité des jeunes, l’éducation physique se trouve en première ligne pour agir. Toutefois, le temps hebdomadaire qui lui est imparti et le temps d’activité effectif dans une leçon ne peuvent être suffisants pour exercer un effet décisif sur leur santé. Il peut alors être intéressant que le professeur d’éducation physique endosse un rôle supplémentaire d’éducateur à la santé. Le principe est de faire acquérir les compétences (motrices, techniques, tactiques, etc.) prévues par le programme mais aussi et surtout, d’apporter aux élèves des informations importantes pour leur vie de citoyen, des idées, des astuces, des mises en garde qu’ils pourraient retenir et appliquer au quotidien. Ainsi la physical literacy (l’éducation de l’élève par le mouvement) et l’accountability (le fait d’amener un élément nouveau supplémentaire à l’élève lors de chaque cours) deviennent prioritaires donnant réellement à l’éducation physique l’ambition d’une formation de citoyens physiquement éduqués. Cela nécessite de faire évoluer les pratiques des enseignants et de faire que la dimension santé constitue un fil rouge tout au long de la scolarité des élèves. En effet, les approches liant santé et EPS reposent très souvent sur la motivation extrinsèque des élèves (points, sanction, évaluation certificative…) en contradiction avec l’ambition éducative visant « l’implication spontanée » des jeunes et le concept d’ancrage sociétal qui est actuellement privilégié dans certaines structures de formation. Nous avons donc envisagé un dispositif visant l’acquisition de connaissances théoriques en situation, avant, pendant ou après chaque leçon, au bénéfice de l’implication des élèves. [less ▲]

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See detailCKD-EPI equation: a suitable glomerular filtration rate estimate for drug dosing in HIV-infected patients
Gagneux-Brunon, A; Bothelo-Nevers, E; DELANAYE, Pierre ULg et al

in Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses (2017), 47(4), 266-270

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See detailSurface Modification of Powder Metallurgy Titanium by Colloidal Techniques and Diffusion Processes for Biomedical Applications
Ureña, Julia; Mendoza Gallego, Carlos ULg; Ferrari, Begoña et al

in Advanced Engineering Materials (2017), 19(6),

This contribution focuses on modifying the composition and surface characteristics of powder metallurgy titanium substrates to improve their wear resistance and to reduce the surface Younǵs modulus, while ... [more ▼]

This contribution focuses on modifying the composition and surface characteristics of powder metallurgy titanium substrates to improve their wear resistance and to reduce the surface Younǵs modulus, while maintaining the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. The modification consists of Mo and TiN coatings produced by colloidal techniques which are deposited by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) or spraying onto green or sintered titanium substrates. The final surface structures are formed during a heat treatment, during which diffusion and consolidation of the layers take place. The surfaces are characterised by XRD, SEM, and micro-indentation; showing diffusion areas of between 40 and 85 microns with clear microstructural changes as well as higher hardness values. [less ▲]

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See detailA decision support tool for transient stability preventive control
Pertl, Michael; Weckesser, Johannes ULg; Rezkalla, Michel et al

in Electric Power Systems Research (2017), 147

The paper presents a decision support tool for transient stability preventive control contributing to increased situation awareness of control room operators by providing additional information about the ... [more ▼]

The paper presents a decision support tool for transient stability preventive control contributing to increased situation awareness of control room operators by providing additional information about the state of the power system in terms of transient stability. A time-domain approach is used to assess the transient stability for potentially critical faults. Potential critical fault locations are identified by a critical bus screening through analysis of pre-disturbance steady-state conditions. The identified buses are subject to a fast critical contingency screening determining the actual critical contingencies/buses. These two screenings aim at reducing the computational burden of the assessment, since only contingencies considered as critical are taken into account. The critical clearing times for the critical contingencies are determined. A preventive re-dispatch of generators to ensure a predefined minimum critical clearing time for faults at all buses is proposed, while costs are minimized. The results of the assessment are presented to the control room operator, who decides to accept the suggested dispatch or to repeat the assessment considering additional user-specific constraints. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated on a standard nine-bus and the New England test system. [less ▲]

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See detailNumerical modelling of micro-plasto-hydrodynamic lubrication in plane strip drawing
Carretta, Yves ULg; Bech, Jakob; Legrand, Nicolas et al

in Tribology International (2017), 110

This paper presents a new finite element model capable of predicting the onset of micro-plasto-hydrodynamic (MPH) lubrication and the amount of lubricant escaping from surface pockets in metal forming ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a new finite element model capable of predicting the onset of micro-plasto-hydrodynamic (MPH) lubrication and the amount of lubricant escaping from surface pockets in metal forming. The present approach is divided in two steps. First, a simulation at the macroscopic level is conducted. Then, a second simulation highlighting microscopic liquid lubrication mechanisms is achieved using boundary conditions provided by the first model. These fluid-structure interaction computations are made possible through the use of the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) formalism. The developed methodology is validated by comparison to experimental measurements conducted in plane strip drawing. The effect of physical parameters like the drawing speed, the die angle and the strip thickness reduction is investigated. The numerical results show good agreement with experiments. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification and Structure-Function Study of Positive Allosteric Modulators of Kainate Receptors
Larsen, Anja Probst; Fièvre, Sabine; Frydenvang, Karla et al

in Molecular Pharmacology (2017), 91

Kainate receptors (KARs) consist of a class of ionotropic gluta- mate receptors, which exert diverse pre- and postsynaptic functions through complex signaling regulating the activity of neural circuits ... [more ▼]

Kainate receptors (KARs) consist of a class of ionotropic gluta- mate receptors, which exert diverse pre- and postsynaptic functions through complex signaling regulating the activity of neural circuits. Whereas numerous small-molecule positive allosteric modulators of the ligand-binding domain of (S)-2- amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propanoic acid (AMPA) receptors have been reported, no such ligands are avail- able for KARs. In this study, we investigated the ability of three benzothiadiazine-based modulators to potentiate glutamate-evoked currents at recombinantly expressed KARs. 4-cyclopropyl-7-fluoro-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1- dioxide (BPAM344) potentiated glutamate-evoked currents of GluK2a 21-fold at the highest concentration tested (200 mM), with an EC50 of 79 mM. BPAM344 markedly decreased desensitization kinetics (from 5.5 to 775 ms), whereas it only had a minor effect on deactivation kinetics. 4-cyclopropyl-7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxide (BPAM521) potentiated the recorded peak current amplitude of GluK2a 12-fold at a concen- tration of 300 mM with an EC50 value of 159 mM, whereas no potentiation of the glutamate-evoked response was observed for 7-chloro-4-(2-fluoroethyl)-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxide (BPAM121) at the highest concentration of modulator tested (300 mM). BPAM344 (100 mM) also potentiated the peak current amplitude of KAR subunits GluK3a (59-fold), GluK2a (15- fold), GluK1b (5-fold), as well as the AMPA receptor subunit GluA1i (5-fold). X-ray structures of the three modulators in the GluK1 ligand-binding domain were determined, locating two modulator- binding sites at the GluK1 dimer interface. In conclusion, this study may enable the design of new positive allosteric modulators selective for KARs, which will be of great interest for further investigation of the function of KARs in vivo and may prove useful for pharmacologically controlling the activity of neuronal networks. [less ▲]

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See detailMagnetic Shielding Above 1 T at 20 K With Bulk, Large Grain YBCO Tubes Made by Buffer-aided Top Seeded Melt Growth
Wera, Laurent ULg; Fagnard, Jean-François ULg; Kumar, Numbury Devendra et al

in IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity (2017), 27(4),

YBCO tubes of ~ 10 mm diameter closed at one extremity were engineered by a Buffer-Aided Top Seeded Melt Growth fabrication process (BA-TSMG). These tubes can act as efficient “dc” magnetic shields and ... [more ▼]

YBCO tubes of ~ 10 mm diameter closed at one extremity were engineered by a Buffer-Aided Top Seeded Melt Growth fabrication process (BA-TSMG). These tubes can act as efficient “dc” magnetic shields and are observed to reduce axial flux densities of 1.5 T by a factor of 100 at 20 K. Such performances are comparable in magnitude to the record threshold inductions reported for bulk MgB2 and Bi-2212 materials at lower temperatures. Magnetic shielding measurements for open and closed tubes at 77 K also show that the presence of the cap improves substantially the shielding performance at the closed extremity since it reduces the penetration through the open end. This fabrication technique is extremely promising for shielding “dc” stray fields generated by HTS magnets operated in a temperature range obtained by cryocoolers, liquid hydrogen (20 K) or liquid neon (27 K). [less ▲]

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See detailSolidarité intergénérationnelle chez les migrantes sud-américaines
Vivas Romero, Maria ULg; Piddiu, Luca

in Voix Solidaires (2017), 22(été 2017), 14-16

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See detailInsect fatty acids: A comparison of lipids from three Orthopterans and Tenebrio molitor L. larvae
Paul, Aman ULg; Frederich, Michel ULg; Caparros Megido, Rudy ULg et al

in Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology (2017), 20(2), 337-340

In order to explore some potential insect sources of food lipids, the lipid compositions of three Orthopterans (Acheta domesticus, Conocephalus discolor and Chorthippus parallelus) were analyzed and ... [more ▼]

In order to explore some potential insect sources of food lipids, the lipid compositions of three Orthopterans (Acheta domesticus, Conocephalus discolor and Chorthippus parallelus) were analyzed and compared with those of Tenebrio molitor larvae. A. domesticus, Co. discolor, Ch. parallelus and T. molitor larvae were found to contain approximately 15%, 13%, 10% and 32% lipids on dry weight, respectively. The lipids from three Orthopterans contain much higher amounts of essential fatty acids than those of T. molitor larvae. The two Orthopterans of the suborder Ensifera i.e., A. domesticus and Co. discolor contain linoleic acid in major quantities, while Ch. parallelus of the suborder Caelifera, contain α-linolenic acid in major quantities. The consumption of linoleic and α-linolenic fatty acid is linked with numerous health promoting effects. The factors that contribute to differences in fatty acid profiles of these insects are being discussed. At last the nutritional parameters including polyunsaturated to saturated and omega 6 to omega 3 fatty acid ratios of these insect lipids are also being discussed to understand the potential role of these lipids in human nutrition. [less ▲]

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