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See detailActualites therapeutiques 2002 (1).
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(11), 719-31

The most important drugs registered and/or launched in Belgium during the last year in the various disciplines of internal medicine will be briefly described. The main characteristics of each molecule and ... [more ▼]

The most important drugs registered and/or launched in Belgium during the last year in the various disciplines of internal medicine will be briefly described. The main characteristics of each molecule and its modalities of appropriate use in clinical practice will be emphasized. For all these molecules, both the efficacy and tolerance have been proven in randomised clinical trials according to the rules of Evidence-Based Medicine. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of the early abortion in reciprocal crosses between Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Phaseolus polyanthus Greenm
Geerts, P.; Toussaint, André ULg; Mergeai, Guy ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2002), 6(2), 109-119

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See detailL'etude clinique du mois. La MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study.
Kulbertus, Henri ULg; Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(9), 613-6

20,536 adults (15,454 men and 5,082 women, aged 40-80 years) with coronary heart disease, other occlusive arterial disease or diabetes mellitus were randomly allocated to receive 40 mg simvastatin daily ... [more ▼]

20,536 adults (15,454 men and 5,082 women, aged 40-80 years) with coronary heart disease, other occlusive arterial disease or diabetes mellitus were randomly allocated to receive 40 mg simvastatin daily or matching placebo. In addition to being randomized to compare simvastatin vs placebo, all patients were also randomized to compare antioxidant vitamin supplementation (vitamin E 600 mg/day, vitamin C 250 mg/day and betacarotene 20 mg/day) vs placebo in a "2 x 2 factorial" design. Duration of the study was 5 years. All-cause mortality was significantly reduced among patients allocated to simvastatin (-12.3%) due to a highly significant (-18%) reduction in the coronary death rate, a marginally significant reduction in other vascular deaths and a non-significant reduction in non-vascular deaths. There were highly significant reductions (of about one-quarter) in the first event rate for non-fatal myocardial infarction and coronary death (combined), for non-fatal and fatal stroke and for coronary or non-coronary revascularization. The beneficial effect of simvastatin was seen in all sub-categories which were studied and, particularly: women vs men; patients aged > 70 years vs those aged < 70 years; patients with LDL cholesterol < vs > 116 mg/dl, or total cholesterol < vs > 193 mg/dl. The treatment was well tolerated and the annual risk of myopathy was 0.01%. All comparisons between antioxidant vitamin supplementation and placebo failed to reveal any difference in favour or against the supplementation which was otherwise well tolerated. These important results and their implications will be briefly discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailFra nazionalismo e cosmopolitismo. « Dante » (1932-1940)
Moreno, Paola ULg

in Revue Belge de Philologie et d’Histoire (2002)

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See detailPieges et conseils a propos de l'utilisation des antidiabetiques oraux conventionnels.
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(5), 352-6

The main pitfalls regarding the use of sulphonylureas and metformin in type 2 diabetic patients are described and illustrated by a clinical case. Advices are given in order to avoid the occurrence of ... [more ▼]

The main pitfalls regarding the use of sulphonylureas and metformin in type 2 diabetic patients are described and illustrated by a clinical case. Advices are given in order to avoid the occurrence of severe hypoglycaemic episodes with sulphonylureas and to minimise the risk of lactic acidosis with metformin. These drugs, when used appropriately with respect of contra-indications, have an excellent safety profile and remain the basis of the treatment of type 2 diabetes. [less ▲]

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See detailPhylogeny and Morphological Evolution of the Amblystegiaceae (Bryopsida)
Vanderpoorten, Alain ULg; Hedenäs, L.; Cox, C. J. et al

in Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution (2002), 23

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See detailLes bancs solaires au banc des accusés.
Uhoda, I.; Petite, Louicette ULg; Pierard, Claudine ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(1), 29-32

Sunbeds used in sun parlours do not garantee a controlled innocuity. By contrast, health hazards are obvious in many instances. Forceful tanning is a transitory aspect behind which the spectrum of many ... [more ▼]

Sunbeds used in sun parlours do not garantee a controlled innocuity. By contrast, health hazards are obvious in many instances. Forceful tanning is a transitory aspect behind which the spectrum of many skin changes includes accelerated photoageing, irreversible pigmentary and keratotic changes, and cutaneous malignancies including malignant melanoma. In the absence of protection, the eye is also affected. Even if tanning salon exposure increases the risk for skin cancer by a small amount, it represents a significant potential public health hazard given the number of people attending salons. Digital dermoscopy and ultraviolet light videoscopy are new methods allowing to predict the cutaneous ransom to be paid by the sunbed worshippers. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of illegal growth promoters in biological samples using receptor binding assays
Scippo, Marie-Louise ULg; Van de Weerdt, Cécile ULg; Willemsen, Philippe et al

in Analytica Chimica Acta (2002), 473(1-2), 135-141

In the European Union (EU), the use of growth-promoting substances in meat production is banned. The control of growth promoters, especially steroid hormones, is presently based on expensive and time ... [more ▼]

In the European Union (EU), the use of growth-promoting substances in meat production is banned. The control of growth promoters, especially steroid hormones, is presently based on expensive and time-consuming chromatographic methods of analysis or, sometimes, for screening purposes, on radio- or enzyme-immunoassays, all of which are often too specific to allow effective multi-analyte control. In order to develop rapid and inexpensive multi-analyte detection tests, we proposed the use of hormonal receptors as detection tools. The system described here (radio-receptor assays) is based on a direct bindin g assay of steroid hormones to their respective receptors. Human receptors to estrogens (hERalpha), androgens (hAR), progestagens (hPR) and glucocorticoids (hGR) have been produced by genetic engineering in bacteria or in eucaryotic cells. Binding analyses revealed that the obtained receptor proteins retained a high affinity for their corresponding native ligand. In addition, competition studies continued that each of the four receptors displays a specificity profile for a series of analogs in agreement with the literature. Finally, the stability of these recombinant receptors is sufficient to allow their use in test kits. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailPostmenopausal aging of the sebaceous follicle: a comparison between women receiving hormone replacement therapy or not.
Pierard, Claudine ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Dermatology : International Journal for Clinical & Investigative Dermatology (2002), 204(1), 17-22

BACKGROUND: The endocrine control of sebaceous follicles is complex in women. During aging, a decline in sebum output is often experienced. However, some women report increased seborrhea after the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The endocrine control of sebaceous follicles is complex in women. During aging, a decline in sebum output is often experienced. However, some women report increased seborrhea after the menopause. OBJECTIVE: In this study, the follicular reservoir function was studied during the first decade following the menopause. METHODS: Four evaluations were made at 3-week intervals in two parallel age-matched groups of 50 postmenopausal women receiving hormone replacement therapy (HRT) or not. The Sebumeter served to measure the casual sebum level and the sebum excretion rate on the forehead. In addition, a Visioscan equipped with an ultraviolet-recording camera was used with and without lipid-sensitive tapes interposed between the camera and the skin surface. Follicular openings and sebum pore patterns were studied by image analysis. RESULTS: There was enormous diversity among individual values of sebum output at the skin surface. In untreated women, a significant decline in sebum excretion rate accompanied by an increase in both the sebum replacement time and the mean pore size were evidenced during the first decade after the menopause. The sebum excretion rate and casual level showed a wide range of interindividual differences early after the menopause. These physiological changes were less prominent in women receiving HRT. CONCLUSION: Postmenopausal aging affects the sebum production, but HRT does not significantly control the complex process of seborrhea. However, HRT mitigates the progressive enlargement of the openings of the sebum follicular reservoir. [less ▲]

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See detailTaxonomic assessment, distribution, and ecology of Tortula vahliana var. minor (Pottiaceae, Bryopsida)
Andriessen, L.; Nagels, C.; Arts, T. et al

in Journal of Bryology (2002), 24

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See detailLymecycline and minocycline in inflammatory acne: a randomized, double-blind intent-to-treat study on clinical and in vivo antibacterial efficacy.
Pierard, Claudine ULg; Goffin, Véronique ULg; Arrese Estrada, Jorge ULg et al

in Skin Pharmacology & Applied Skin Physiology (2002), 15(2), 112-9

BACKGROUND: Some antibiotics represent a mainstay in acne treatment. However, studies comparing their efficacies are rare. AIM: To evaluate the clinical and in vivo antibacterial effect of lymecycline and ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Some antibiotics represent a mainstay in acne treatment. However, studies comparing their efficacies are rare. AIM: To evaluate the clinical and in vivo antibacterial effect of lymecycline and minocycline at different dosages. METHOD: Eighty-six patients with moderate to severe acne were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, intent-to-treat study comparing in three parallel groups the effect of (1) lymecycline 300 mg daily for 12 weeks, (2) minocycline 50 mg daily for 12 weeks and (3) minocycline 100 mg daily for 4 weeks followed by 50 mg daily for 8 weeks. Evaluations were made at the screening visit and at five on-treatment visits. They consisted of clinical counts of acne lesions and evaluations of bacterial viability using dual flow cytometry performed on microorganisms collected from sebaceous infundibula by cyanoacrylate strippings. RESULTS: Patients receiving minocycline 100/50 mg had the best clinical outcome, particularly in the reduction of the number of papules. By the end of the trial, the microbial response to minocycline 100/ 50 mg was also superior to either of the other two treatments. There were less live and more dead bacteria. CONCLUSION: In this trial, minocycline 100/50 mg was superior for the treatment of inflammatory acne when compared to lymecycline 300 mg and minocycline 50 mg. [less ▲]

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See detailThe potential of the beta-Microprobe, an intracerebral radiosensitive probe, to monitor the [(18)F]MPPF binding in the rat dorsal raphe nucleus.
Zimmer, L.; Pain, F.; Mauger, G. et al

in European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (2002), 29(9), 1237-47

The aim of this study was to demonstrate the ability of a recently developed beta(+)-range sensitive intracerebral probe (beta-Microprobe) to measure the binding kinetics of [(18)F]MPPF, a well-documented ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to demonstrate the ability of a recently developed beta(+)-range sensitive intracerebral probe (beta-Microprobe) to measure the binding kinetics of [(18)F]MPPF, a well-documented 5-HT(1A) serotoninergic receptor ligand, in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) of the anaesthetised rat. This midbrain nucleus presents a high concentration of 5-HT(1A) receptors known to be implicated in the effects of antidepressants. The difficulty confronting this study lay in the fact that the dimensions of the DRN are smaller than the detection volume of the beta-Microprobe. In the first part of the study, we studied the feasibility of this measurement from a theoretical point of view by autoradiography and a Monte Carlo simulation. We determined the optimal beta-Microprobe location close to the DRN and verified that this configuration allowed accurate determination of [(18)F]MPPF specific binding in the nucleus. In the second part of our study, we measured the in vivo time-concentration curves of [(18)F]MPPF binding in the DRN in comparison with the cerebellum. The specificity of [(18)F]MPPF binding in the DRN was confirmed by its displacement after non-labelled 5-HT(1A)antagonist injection (MPPF or WAY-100635). Moreover, we verified the feasibility of using beta-Microprobe monitoring and simultaneous validation by microdialysis to study the effect of an increase in extracellular serotonin, induced by fenfluramine injection, on [(18)F]MPPF binding in the DRN. Our theoretical simulations, confirmed by our experimental results, demonstrate the ability of this new device to monitor in vivo the binding of [(18)F]MPPF in the DRN of anaesthetised rodents. [less ▲]

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See detailLa guerre et la médecine d'une culture de paix. 5. Synopsis des armes non létales.
Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(3), 176-8

Non lethal weapons may be harmful for people. The effects are accidental in some instances. For some weapons, they are clearly intentional. The eventuality of a fatal issue cannot be ruled out.

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See detailLatest discoveries in prostaglandin receptor modulators
Benoit, P.; De Leval, X.; Pirotte, Bernard ULg et al

in Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents (2002), 12

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See detailInfluence of the metal electronic properties on the sum-frequency generation spectra of dodecanethiol self-assembled monolayers on Pt (111), Ag (111) and Au (111) single crystals
Dreesen, Laurent ULg; Humbert, Christophe; Celebi, M. et al

in Applied Physics B : Lasers & Optics (2002), 74

Infrared-visible sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy is performed at different visible wavelengths between 450 and 650 nm in order to investigate the interaction between metallic substrates (Pt ... [more ▼]

Infrared-visible sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy is performed at different visible wavelengths between 450 and 650 nm in order to investigate the interaction between metallic substrates (Pt, Ag and Au) and 1-dodecanethiol self-assembled monolayers. We show that such measurements provide a means to study the electronic properties of metals as well as the interference phenomena between the SFG signals from the adsorbate and the substrate. The common features of the three interfaces are the vibration modes of the terminal methyl groups. However, these resonances appear as peaks for Pt (111) and as dips in the case of Ag (111). Their shape is not modified when the visible wavelength is tuned between 450 and 650 nm. Moreover, the metal sum-frequency generation contribution is slightly modified in that spectral range. For Au (111) samples, the sum-frequency generation spectrum drastically evolves with the visible wavelength: the peak resonant sum-frequency generation signal at 450 nm becomes rather dip-shaped at 650 nm. The non-linear response of gold is also enhanced when the wavelength associated with the sum-frequency process is close to 480 nm. These results are interpreted on the basis of the metal electronic properties that are responsible for the non-resonant contribution to the SFG signal. [less ▲]

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See detailStructural approach of the mechanism of inhibition of -chymotrypsin by coumarins
Wouters, J.; Huygens, M.; Pochet, L. et al

in Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters (2002), 12

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See detailDNA immunisation. New histochemical and morphometric data.
Ehirchiou, D.; Zorzi, Willy ULg; Biemans, R. et al

in European Journal of Histochemistry (2002), 46(3), 215-22

Splenic germinal center reactions were measured during primary response to a plasmidic DNA intramuscular injection. Cardiotoxin-pretreated Balb/c mice were immunized with DNA plasmids encodmg or not the ... [more ▼]

Splenic germinal center reactions were measured during primary response to a plasmidic DNA intramuscular injection. Cardiotoxin-pretreated Balb/c mice were immunized with DNA plasmids encodmg or not the SAG1 protein, a membrane antigen of Toxoplasma gondii. Specific anti-SAG1 antibodies were detected on days 16 and 36 after injection of coding plasmids. The results of ELISAs showed that the SAG1-specific antibodies are of the IgG2a class. Morphometric analyses were done on serial immunostained cryosections of spleen and draining or non-draining lymph nodes. This new approach made it possible to evaluate the chronological changes induced by DNA immunisation in the germinal centres (in number and in size). Significant increases in the number of germinal centres were measured in the spleen and only in draining lymph nodes after plasmid injection, the measured changes of the germinal centers appeared to result from the adjuvant stimulatory effect of the plasmidic DNA since both the coding and the noncoding plasmid DNA induced them. No measurable changes were recorded in the T-dependent zone of lymph organs. [less ▲]

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See detailBPDZ 154 Activates Adenosine 5’-Triphosphate-Sensitive Potassium Channels; In Vitro Studies Using Rodent Insulin-Secreting Cells and Islets Isolated from Patients with Hyperinsulinism
Cosgrove, K. E.; Antoine, M.-H.; Lee, A. T. et al

in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (2002), 87

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See detailAromatic Side-Chain Interactions In Proteins. II. Near- And Far-Sequence Phe-X Pairs
Thomas, Annick ULg; Meurisse, R.; Brasseur, Robert ULg

in Proteins-Structure Function and Genetics (2002), 48(4), 635-44

We have collected all aromatic pairs (3152) involving an N-phenyl partner in a dataset of 593 proteins of the PDB: 728 of these pairs involve a partner residue less than 6 apart in the sequence. These ... [more ▼]

We have collected all aromatic pairs (3152) involving an N-phenyl partner in a dataset of 593 proteins of the PDB: 728 of these pairs involve a partner residue less than 6 apart in the sequence. These near-sequence Phe-X pairs correspond to specific conformations that stabilize secondary structures, mainly alpha-helices when the residues are 1, 3, and 4 apart, and beta-strands when they are 2 apart in the sequence. These conformations are not spatially random and have been examined in detail. The remaining phenylalanine pairs (2424) are between partners more than 5 apart in the sequence. Of these far-sequence pairs, 34% of occurrences are in sheets. Next in frequencies are pairs that bridge a beta-strand to a helix (24%), followed by pairs that bridge a beta-strand to a random coiled structure (15%). Helix to helix pairs only constitute 12% of these far-sequence pairs. Analysis of the pairing frequency supports the hypothesis that aromatic interactions are late events of protein folding. [less ▲]

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See detailAdvances in the field of COX-2 inhibition
De Leval, X.; Julémont, F.; Delarge, J. et al

in Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents (2002), 12

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See detail2-Alkyl-3-alkylamino-2H-benzo- and pyridothiadiazine 1,1-dioxides: from K+ATP channel openers to Ca++ channel blockers?
Ouedraogo, R.; Becker, B.; Boverie, S. et al

in Biological Chemistry (2002), 383

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See detailIntranasal infusion of enilconazole for treatment of sinonasal aspergillosis in dogs.
Zonderland, Jean-Luc; Stork, Christoph; Saunders, Jimmy et al

in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association [=JAVMA] (2002), 221

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See detailBiospheric carbon stocks reconstructed at the Last Glacial Maximum: comparison between general circulation models using prescribed and computed sea surface temperatures
Otto, D.; Rasse, Daniel; Kaplan, J. et al

in Global and Planetary Change (2002), 33(1-2), 117-138

The terrestrial biosphere model Carbon Assimilation in the Biosphere (CARAIB) was improved by introducing two vegetation storeys and implementing a new module which simulates the equilibrium distribution ... [more ▼]

The terrestrial biosphere model Carbon Assimilation in the Biosphere (CARAIB) was improved by introducing two vegetation storeys and implementing a new module which simulates the equilibrium distribution of the vegetation inferred from physiological processes and climatic constraints. In this fourth version of CARAIB, we differentiate ground-level grasses from tree canopies, which allows us to determine the light available to grasses as a direct function of the leaf area index (LAI) of the forest canopy. Both of these storeys are potentially composed of several plant functional types (PFT). The cover fraction of each PFT within each storey is estimated according to its respective net primary productivity (NPP). A biome is assigned to each grid cell on the basis of three physiological criteria: (1) the cover fraction, (2) the NPP, and (3) the LAI; and two climatic constraints: (1) the growing degree-days (GDD) and (2) the lowest temperature reached during the cold season (T-min), which are well-known indices of vegetation expansion boundaries. Total biospheric carbon stocks (vegetation + soil) are reconstructed by forcing the model with eight climatic scenarios of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21 ka BP), which were obtained from the Palco-Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP) from four general circulation models (MRI2, UGAMP, LMD4, and GEN2) using prescribed and computed sea surface temperatures (SSTs). The model was also forced with a current climate together with a preindustrial atmospheric CO2 level of 280 ppm as reference simulation, To validate the model, current biome distribution is reconstructed and compared, for the modem climate, with two distributions of potential vegetation and, for the LGM, with pollen data. The model simulations are in good agreement with broad-scale patterns of vegetation distribution, The results indicate an increase in the total biospheric carbon stock of 827.8-1106.1 Gt C since the LGM. Sensitivity analyses were performed to discriminate the relative effects of the atmospheric CO, level ("fertilization effect"), the climate (present or LGM), and the sea level. Our results suggest that the CO, fertilization effect is mostly responsible for the total increase in vegetation and soil carbon stocks. The four GCMs diverged in their predicted responses of continental climate to calculated SSTs. Only one of them, i.e., MRI2, predicted a marked decline of the continental temperatures in response to lower calculated SSTs. For this GCM, the effect of reduced SSTs on continental biospheric carbon stocks was a decrease of 544.1 Gt for the soil carbon stock and of 283.7. [less ▲]

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See detailIn vitro and in vivo effects of new insulin releasing agents
Nguyen, Q. A.; Antoine, M. H.; Ouedraogo, R. et al

in Biochemical Pharmacology (2002)

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See detailComment gérer la police dans une période de changement?
Schoenaers, Frédéric ULg

in Revue Française de Gestion (2002), 3-4(139),

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See detailBa distribution in surface Southern Ocean sediments and export production estimates
Fagel, Nathalie ULg; Dehairs, Frank; André, Luc ULg et al

in Paleoceanography (2002), 17(2, MAR-JUN),

[1] We present excess Ba (Baxs) data (i.e., total Ba corrected for lithogenic Ba) for surface sediments from a north-south transect between the Polar Front Zone and the northern Weddell Gyre in the ... [more ▼]

[1] We present excess Ba (Baxs) data (i.e., total Ba corrected for lithogenic Ba) for surface sediments from a north-south transect between the Polar Front Zone and the northern Weddell Gyre in the Atlantic sector and between the Polar Front Zone and the Antarctic continent in the Indian sector. Focus is on two different processes that affect excess Ba accumulation in the sediments: sediment redistribution and excess Ba dissolution. The effect of these processes needs to be corrected for in order to convert accumulation rate into vertical rain rate, the flux component that can be linked to export production. In the Southern Ocean a major process affecting Ba accumulation rate is sediment focusing, which is corrected for using excess Th-230. This correction, however, may not always be straightforward because of boundary scavenging effects. A further major process affecting excess Ba accumulation is barite dissolution during exposure at the sediment-water column interface. Export production estimates derived from excess Th-230 and barite dissolution corrected Baxs accumulation rates (i.e., excess Ba vertical rain rates) are of the same magnitude but generally larger than export production estimates based on water column proxies (Th-234-deficit in the upper water column; particulate excess Ba enrichment in the mesopelagic water column). We believe export production values based on excess Ba vertical rain rate might be overestimated due to inaccurate assessment of the Baxs preservation rate. Barite dissolution has, in general, been taken into account by relating it to exposure time before burial depending on the rate of sediment accumulation. However, the observed decrease of excess Ba content with increasing water column depth (or increasing hydrostatic pressure) illustrates the dependence of barite preservation on degree of saturation in the deep water column in accordance with available thermodynamic data. Therefore correction for barite dissolution would not be appropriate by considering only exposure time of the barite to some uniformly undersaturated deep water but requires also that regional differences in degree of undersatuation be taken into account. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact des méthodes d'application sur l'efficacité d'un traitement à base de Pichia anomala souche K contre les maladies de post-récolte des pommes
Jijakli, Haissam ULg; Dickburt, Catherine; Lepoivre, Philippe ULg et al

in VIII journées scientifiquesBiotechnologies végétales: valorisation pour une agriculture durable (2002)

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See detailA full-acceptance detector at the LHC (FELIX)
Ageev, A.; Akhobadze, K.; Alvero, L. et al

in Journal of Physics : G Nuclear & Particle Physics (2002), 28(6), 117-215

The FELIX collaboration had proposed the construction of a full-acceptance detector for the LHC. The primary mission of FELIX was the study of QCD: to provide comprehensive and definitive observations of ... [more ▼]

The FELIX collaboration had proposed the construction of a full-acceptance detector for the LHC. The primary mission of FELIX was the study of QCD: to provide comprehensive and definitive observations of a very broad range of strong-interaction processes. This document contains an extensive discussion of this physics menu. In a further paper the FELIX detector will be reviewed. [less ▲]

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See detailSelf-esteem, social adjustment and suicidality in affective disorders
Daskalopoulou, E; Dikeos, D; Papadimitriou, G et al

in European Psychiatry (2002), 17

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See detailLes débuts du paléolithique supérieur dans le nord-ouest de l’Europe : le Lincombien-Ranisien-Jerzmanowicien (état de la question)
Flas, Damien ULg

in Anthropologica et Praehistorica : Bulletin de la Société Royale Belge d'Anthropologie et de Préhistoire (2002), 113

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See detailGlacial-interglacial changes of continental weathering: estimates of the related CO2 and HCO3- flux variations and their uncertainties
Munhoven, Guy ULg

in Global and Planetary Change (2002), 33(1-2), 155-176

A range of estimates for the glacial-interglacial variations in CO, consumption and HCO3- production rates by continental weathering processes were calculated with two models of continental weathering ... [more ▼]

A range of estimates for the glacial-interglacial variations in CO, consumption and HCO3- production rates by continental weathering processes were calculated with two models of continental weathering: the Gibbs and Kump Weathering Model (GKWM) [Paleoceanography 9(4) (1994) 529] and an adapted version of Amiotte Suchet and Probst's Global Erosion Model for CO2 Consumption (GEM-CO2) [C. R, Acad. Sci. Paris, Ser. 11317 (1993) 615; Tellus 47B (1995) 273]. Both models link CO2 consumption and HCO3- production rates to the global distributions of lithology and runoff. A spectrum of 16 estimates for the runoff distribution at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was constructed on the basis of two different data sets for present-day runoff and climate results from eight GCM climate simulation experiments carried out in the framework of the Paleo Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP). With these forcings, GKWM produced 3.55-9.0 Tmol/year higher and GEM-CO2 4.7-13.25 Tmol/year higher global HCO3- (1 Tmol=10(12) mol) production rates at the LGM, Mean variations (plus/minus one standard error of the mean with 7 df) were 6.2+/-0.6 and 9.4+/-1.0 Tmol/year, respectively. The global CO2 consumption rates obtained with GKWM were 1.05-4.5 Tmol/year (mean: 2.8+/-0.4 Tmol/year) higher at the LGM than at present. With GEM-CO2 this increase was 1.95-7.15 Tmol/year (mean: 4.8+/-0.6 Tmol/year). The large variability in the changes obtained with each weathering model was primarily due to the variability in the GCM results. The increase in the CO2 consumption rate due to continental shelf exposure at the LGM was always more than 60% larger than its reduction due to ice cover. For HCOT production rates, the increase related to shelf exposure was always more than twice as large as the decrease due to ice cover. Flux variations in the areas exposed both now and at the LGM were, in absolute value, always more than 3.5 times lower than those in the shelf environment. The calculated CO2 consumption rates by carbonate weathering were consistently higher at the LGM, by 2.45-4.5 Tmol/year (mean: 3.4+/-0.2 Tmol/year) according to GKWM and by 2.75-6.25 Tmol/year (mean: 4.6+/-0.4 Tmol/year) according to GEM-CO, For silicate weathering, GKWM produced variations ranging between a 1.9 Tmol/year decrease and a 0.4 Tmol/year increase for the LGM (mean variation: -0.7+/-0.2 Tmol/year); GEM-CO, produced variations ranging between a 0.8 Tmol/year decrease and a 1.05 Tmol/year increase (mean variation: +0.2+/-0.2 Tmol/year). In the mean, the calculated variations of CO2 and HCO3- fluxes would contribute to reduce atmospheric p(CO2) by 5.7+/-1.3 ppmv (GKWM) or 3 12.1+/-1.7 ppmv (GEM-CO2), which might thus represent a non-negligible part of the observed glacial interglacial variation of similar to 75 ppmv. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailA qui appartient le ragondin ?
Roussel, Laurence; Mougenot, Catherine ULg

in Espaces et Sociétés (Paris, France) (2002), (110-111), 225-247

La lutte contre le ragondin, espèce importée d'Amérique du Sud en Europe, aujourd'hui classée parmi les espèces invasives, a été inscrite simultanément dans deux législations différentes. Dans le ... [more ▼]

La lutte contre le ragondin, espèce importée d'Amérique du Sud en Europe, aujourd'hui classée parmi les espèces invasives, a été inscrite simultanément dans deux législations différentes. Dans le mondeagricole, c'est une action qui s'inspire de la guerre contre les ravageurs des cultures. Elle s'organise collectivement à l'aide d'un poison, la bromadiolone. Dans le monde de la chasse, elle est principalement du domaine des piégeurs. Solitaires, ceux-ci pourchassent le ragondin en tant qu'espèce nuisible. Cette division est héritée du Moyen Âge, de ses usages de l'espace et des droits qui leur étaient associés (droit de destruction pour les agriculteurs). Actuellement, l'espace rural peut être vu comme une mosaïque, òu ces deux principaux types de lutte coexistent, alors que certains milieux restent libres de toute intervention. Mais ces actions sont aussi l'objet de critiques qui mettent en cause l'utilisation de la bromadiolone et certaines formes de piégeage. Et aujourd'hui, on observe que les modalités de lutte contre le ragondin se combinent aux nouveaux usages de l'espace. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence Of A New Axial Impeller On K(L)A And Xylanase Production By Penicillium Canescens 10-10c
Bakri, Yasser; Jacques, Philippe ULg; Shi, Kui et al

in Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology (2002), 98

The effects of a new axial impeller (HTPG4) on oxygen volumetric transfer coefficient, KLa, and xylanase production by Penicillium canescens 10-10c were studied and compared for dual-impeller systems, one ... [more ▼]

The effects of a new axial impeller (HTPG4) on oxygen volumetric transfer coefficient, KLa, and xylanase production by Penicillium canescens 10-10c were studied and compared for dual-impeller systems, one with one DT4 impeller below and one HTPG4 above (DT4-HTPG4) and one with two DT4 (DT4-DT4) impellers, in a 5-L bioreactor. The volumetric coefficient of oxygen transfer was measured in culture medium using a gassing-out method at different gassing rates and agitation speeds. We observed that the DT4-HTPG4 combination provided better KLa performance than the DT4-DT4 combination. The two combinations were also tested for their influence on xylanase production by a filamentous microorganism; P. canescens 10-10c. These experiments demonstrated that the DT4-HTPG4 combination impeller enhanced enzyme production up to 23% compared with the DT4-DT4 combination at an aeration rate of 1 vvm and an agitation speed of 600 rpm. The main cause for this difference is thought to be a higher shear stress generated by the DT4-DT4 combination, which damages the mycelium of P. canescens and decreases xylanase production. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyse de l'impact physiologique et economique de l'elagage des arbres d'alignement en port libre.
Toussaint, André ULg; Kervyn de Meerendre, V.; Delcroix, B. et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2002), 6(2), 99-107

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See detailPre- and post-harvest practical application of Pichia anomala strain K, beta-1,3-glucans and calcium chloride on apples: two years of monitoring and efficacy against post-harvest diseases.
Jijakli, Mohamed ULg; de Clercq, Deborah; Dickburt, Catherine et al

in Bulletin OILB/SROP = IOBC/WPRS Bulletin (2002), 25(10), 29-32

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See detailErratum: Evaluation of the hycel diagnostics diana-5 hematolgy analyzer. Laboratory Hematology (2002) vol. 8 (3) (126-133)
Boeme, F.; Cielniaszek, N.; Paulus, Jean-Michel ULg et al

in Laboratory Hematology : Official Publication of the International Society for Laboratory Hematology (2002), 8(4),

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See detailTexture evolution during deep-drawing processes
Duchene, Laurent ULg; Godinas, A.; Cescotto, Serge ULg et al

in Journal of Materials Processing Technology (2002), 125-126

This paper presents a constitutive law based on Taylor’s model implemented in our non-linear finite element code LAGAMINE. The yield locus is only locally described and a particular interpolation method ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a constitutive law based on Taylor’s model implemented in our non-linear finite element code LAGAMINE. The yield locus is only locally described and a particular interpolation method has been developed. This local yield locus model uses a discrete representation of the material’s texture. The interpolation method is presented and a deep-drawing application is simulated in order to show up the influence of the texture evolution during forming processes. [less ▲]

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See detailEst-il déraisonnable de ne pas accorder une pension de survie au compagnon du travailleur décédé ?
Michiels, Olivier ULg; Joskin, Véronique

in Revue Trimestrielle de Droit Familial (2002), (1), 161-166

L'article envisage la question de savoir si le compagnon qui formait un ménage avec un travailleur décédé est en droit de pouvoir revendiquer une pension de survie.

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See detailRéduire la taille des classes dans l'enseignement fondamental : pour des discriminations vraiment positives...
Lafontaine, Dominique ULg

in Cahiers du Service de Pédagogie Expérimentale (SPE) (2002), 11-12

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See detailEmbryo transfer as a method to eliminate pathogenic agents in a rabbit colony
Ectors, Fabien ULg; Delfosse, Henri; De Weder, L. et al

in Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift (2002), 71

To regain the SPF status of a contaminated but genetically valuable rabbit breeding unit, embryos from the contaminated does were transferred into SPF recipient females. Embryos were collected on day 3 of ... [more ▼]

To regain the SPF status of a contaminated but genetically valuable rabbit breeding unit, embryos from the contaminated does were transferred into SPF recipient females. Embryos were collected on day 3 of gestation by flushing uterine horns. All usable embryos were frozen, part of them were not transferred and kept in liquid nitrogen forming a stock of highly valuable genotypes. Thirty-two stimulated does produced 893 embryos, among which 821 (92%) had an intact zona pellucida and were cryopreserved. From this stock, 478 embryos were thawed, 466 were recovered (97.5%) and 417 were of good quality (87.2%). In 30 does, 10 to 18 embryos were surgically transferred per recipient doe and 24.9% (104/417) of them developed to term after transfer. This corresponds to an average number of 3.47 (104/30) live newborns per recipient. Health screenings performed on sanitized rabbits confirmed the disappearance of pathogenic agents. [less ▲]

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See detailChromosome localization changes in the Trypanosoma cruzi nucleus.
Elias, M Carolina Q B; Faria, Marcella; Mortara, Renato A et al

in Eukaryotic Cell (2002), 1(6), 944-53

Chromosome localization in the interphase nuclei of eukaryotes depends on gene replication and transcription. Little is known about chromosome localization in protozoan parasites such as trypanosomes ... [more ▼]

Chromosome localization in the interphase nuclei of eukaryotes depends on gene replication and transcription. Little is known about chromosome localization in protozoan parasites such as trypanosomes, which have unique mechanisms for the control of gene expression, with most genes being posttranscriptionally regulated. In the present study, we examined where the chromosomes are replicated in Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas' disease. The replication sites, identified by the incorporation of 5-bromodeoxyuridine, are located at the nuclear periphery in proliferating epimastigote forms in the early S phase of the cell cycle. When the S phase ends and cells progress through the cell cycle, 5-bromodeoxyuridine labeling is observed in the nuclear interior, suggesting that chromosomes move. We next monitored chromosome locations in different stages of the cell cycle by using a satellite DNA sequence as a probe in a fluorescence in situ hybridization assay. We found two distinct labeling patterns according to the cell cycle stage. The first one is seen in the G(1) phase, in hydroxyurea-arrested epimastigotes or in trypomastigotes, which are differentiated nondividing forms. In all of these forms the satellite DNA is found in dots randomly dispersed in the nucleus. The other pattern is found in cells from the S phase to the G(2) phase. In these cells, the satellite DNA is found preferentially at the nuclear periphery. The labeling at the nuclear periphery disappears only after mitosis. Also, DNA detected with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is found distributed throughout the nuclear space in the G(1) phase but concentrated at the nuclear periphery in the S phase to the G(2) phase. These results strongly suggest that T. cruzi chromosomes move and, after entering the S phase, become constrained at the nuclear periphery, where replication occurs. [less ▲]

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See detailRadiative transfer based scaling of LAI/FPAR retrievals from reflectance data of different resolutions.
Tian, Y; Wang, Y; Zhang, Y et al

in Remote Sensing of Environment (2002), 84(1), 143-159

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See detailMemory kernels and effective Hamiltonians from time dependent methods. II. Vibrational predissociation
Brems, Vincent; Desouter, Michèle ULg

in Journal of Chemical Physics (2002), 116

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See detailImmunocytochemical study of subcellular distribution of bovine leukaemia virus regulatory Tax protein.
Russev, R.; Shikova, E.; Portetelle, Daniel ULg et al

in Annals of Oncology (2002), 13(2), 14

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See detailBlanche-Neige était-elle transsexuelle ?
Michel, Aude; Mormont, Christian ULg

in Encéphale (L') (2002), 28(1), 59-64

The Rorschach Ink Blot test is considered to be an essential analytical instrument when studying the personalities of individuals presenting gender identity disorders, in particular, in the context of a ... [more ▼]

The Rorschach Ink Blot test is considered to be an essential analytical instrument when studying the personalities of individuals presenting gender identity disorders, in particular, in the context of a sex change request. Nevertheless, there exist less than 20 studies of transsexualism utilising the Rorschach since the creation of this diagnostic category in 1953. This research has mostly concerned itself with relations between psychopathology and transsexualism. Practically non-existent are studies investigating the psychological conditions that permit, shape or induce sex change requests in individuals. Transsexuals request the removal of their genitals through mutilation surgery, which can be seen as subjects literally crying out to be castrated. This request is all the more surprising given that castration, in psychoanalytic terms, is considered to be the most severe punishment that an individual (woman or man) can be threatened with. Therefore, we asked ourselves which psychic conditions could motivate such as request. Based on any earlier study where answers (some explicit, others symbolic) given by sex-change applicants tested on the Rorschach were analysed, results seemed to suggest a counter-phobic attitude underlying sex-reassignment requests (28). According to these hypotheses, the fear of castration (banal as such) can only be overcome through the active search for castration itself. In opting for castration, the transsexual puts an end to the states of anxious waiting that are dominated by feelings of the incertitude and unpredictability of an eventual castration. Once obtained, the threat it constituted disappears, and with it so does the fear. Thus, by taking this active and voluntary step, the subject is no longer exposed to an imminent danger in a passive manner. This in itself creates a great feeling of relief, if not of actual pleasure in the subject (28). In this article, we postulated in a purely speculative manner, the existence of one or several modalities in the transsexual dynamics. Nevertheless, one can ask oneself about the possibility of a request based on a desire rather than on a defense, or even on the existence of a defensive process diametrically opposed to the counter-phobic attitude and which, instead of actively provoking the dreaded reality, would privilege its avoidance and the search of passivity. This latter hypothesis has the advantage of being rather easy to explore with the Rorschach because, according to Exner, the predominance of passive compared to active human movement responses (which he terms the Snow White Syndrome) indicates the propensity to escape into passive fantasies and the tendency to avoid the initiative for behaviour or decision-making, if other people can do it in the subject's place (12). Our results largely confirmed the hypothesis of the existence of an opposite mechanism, as a third of subjects (n = 26) presented Snow White Syndrome. According to Exner, these transsexuals are typically characterized by hiding into a world of make believe, avoiding all responsibility, as well as any decision-making. This passivity in our Snow White Syndrome group was all the more remarkable in that, on the whole, it infiltrated into all the movement responses and seemed to define a rigid style of thinking and mental elaboration, in addition to a suggestive content of passivity. However, this condition cannot be associated with a general lack of dynamism or energy. In fact, the treatment of information, which provides data concerning the motivation to treat a stimulus field of the stimulus--whether this concerns the capture (L) of the stimulus or the elaboration (DQ+) of the response--displayed a sufficient amount of motivation. Furthermore, internal resources (EA) were considerable and were brought into play whenever it was necessary to adopt a behaviour or make a decision. Furthermore, based on these Rorschach findings, we note that in transsexuals with Snow White Syndrome, there is a stereotyped tendency to shy away from difficulties by seeking refuge in realistic representations (but that lack in variety), which could be materialized by actions, but where the initiative is delegated to others. These transsexuals appear to shy away from the difficulties of life by seeking refuge into a world of fantasy, which they fill with the representations borrowed from reality (rather than fantasy) and consequently that are liable to be transposed, if necessary, back into reality. Therefore, one can better understand why they shun away from the deceiving reality that their physical sex represents, into the satisfying dream where they possess the genitals of the opposite sex, that is, a perfectly real organ, no longer the result of the subject's fantasy world. [less ▲]

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See detailL'etude clinique du mois. L'etude LIFE: protection cardio-vasculaire du patient hypertendu par le losartan.
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(4), 240-4

The LIFE study ("Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study") demonstrated a significant cardiovascular protection by an angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonist, losartan, in ... [more ▼]

The LIFE study ("Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study") demonstrated a significant cardiovascular protection by an angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonist, losartan, in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. At similar blood pressure control, losartan, as compared to atenolol, reduced the relative risk of primary cardiovascular event (death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) by 13% (p = 0.021) in the whole cohort of 9.193 patients after a mean follow-up of 4.7 years. In a subgroup of 1.195 diabetic patients, the protection was even more marked with a reduction of the combined risk of 24% (p = 0.031) and a fall of the mortality of 39% (p = 0.002). In conclusion, losartan prevents cardiovascular morbidity and death more effectively than atenolol, and seems to confer benefits beyond reduction in blood pressure. [less ▲]

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See detailLes mutualités professionnelles, un axe majeur de la politique sociale patronale pendant l'Entre-deux-guerres en Belgique ?»,
Geerkens, Eric ULg

in Revue Belge de Philologie et d'Histoire (2002), 80(4), 1275-1349

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See detailColumnar defects acting as passive internal field detectors
Silhanek, Alejandro ULg; Civale, L.; Avila, M. A.

in Physical Review. B : Condensed Matter (2002), 65(17),

We have studied the angular dependence of the irreversible magnetization of several YBa2Cu3O7 and 2H-NbSe2 single crystals with columnar defects tilted off the c axis. At high magnetic fields, the ... [more ▼]

We have studied the angular dependence of the irreversible magnetization of several YBa2Cu3O7 and 2H-NbSe2 single crystals with columnar defects tilted off the c axis. At high magnetic fields, the irreversible magnetization M-i(Theta) exhibits a well-known maximum when the applied field is parallel to the tracks. As the field is decreased below Hsimilar to0.02H(c2), the peak shifts away from the tracks' direction toward either the c axis or the ab planes. We demonstrate that this shift results from the misalignment between the external and internal field directions due to the competition between anisotropy and geometry effects. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of organochlorine pesticide residues in the blood of healthy individuals
Charlier, Corinne ULg; Plomteux, Guy ULg

in Clinical Chemistry & Laboratory Medicine (2002), 40(4), 361-364

Pesticide use is one of several factors that have permitted maintenance of our supply of food in spite of continuing increase of the population. However, the use of biologically active compounds poses ... [more ▼]

Pesticide use is one of several factors that have permitted maintenance of our supply of food in spite of continuing increase of the population. However, the use of biologically active compounds poses potential problems of toxicity. If the compound is used at any stage of food production, residues or derivatives may persist in food and the entire population may be exposed to the trace amounts of the material. The human body burden associated with long-term exposure may or may not be associated with illness. Persistent environmental contaminants such as pesticide residues have long been suspected to be implicated in cancer etiology. Organochlorine chemicals are persistent, lipophilic compounds commonly present in the environment. Some of them demonstrated carcinogenic activity in laboratory animals. Controversy still exists concerning their carcinogenic potential in humans. To answer this question, clinical toxicology laboratories should propose validated methodologies able to identify and quantify pesticide residues in biological samples. An example of chromatographic method dedicated to organochlorine residues is presented here and illustrated by results obtained in a healthy population (104 men, 147 women). Only 17.9% of the samples were free from detectable amounts of pesticides and p,p’-DDE 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene was the most frequently detected residue (66.5%). Hexachlorobenzene was found at detectable level in 13.5% of the samples. [less ▲]

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See detailLe traitement de la phraséologie dans DEFI
Michiels, Archibal ULg

in Linguistica Antverpiensia (2002)

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See detailVers un nouveau Droixhe
Frankignoulle, Pierre ULg; Stevens, Barbara

in Cahiers de l'Urbanisme (Les) (2002), 39

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See detailEffect of chronic airway inflammation and exercise on pulmonary and systemic antioxidant status of healthy and heaves-affected horses
Kirschvink, Nathalie; Smith, N.; Fievez, Laurence ULg et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal (2002), 34(6), 563-571

In heaves-affected horses the relation between oxidant status, airway inflammation (AI) and pulmonary function (PF) is unknown. The oxidant status of blood and pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF) of ... [more ▼]

In heaves-affected horses the relation between oxidant status, airway inflammation (AI) and pulmonary function (PF) is unknown. The oxidant status of blood and pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF) of healthy (H, n = 6) and heaves-affected horses in clinical remission (REM, n = 6) and in crisis (CR, n = 7) was assessed at rest, during and after standardised exercise test by measurement of reduced and oxidised glutathione, glutathione redox ratio [GRR%]; uric acid and 8-epi-PGF2alpha. Oxidant status was related to PF parameters (mechanics of breathing and arterial blood gas tension) and Al parameters (bronchoalveolar lavage [BAL] neutrophil % and AI score). Haemolysate glutathione was significantly different between groups and was correlated with PF and AI parameters; GRR in PELF was increased during CR and was correlated with PF and AI parameters. Exercise induced an increase of plasma uric acid that was significantly higher both in REM and CR. PELF 8-epi-PGF2alpha was significantly increased in CR and correlated with PF and AI parameters. These results suggest that oxidative stress occurring in heaves is correlated with PF and AI and may be locally assessed by PELF glutathione status, uric acid and 8-epi-PGF2alpha. Systemic repercussions are reflected by assay of GSH in resting horses and by uric acid in exercising horses. [less ▲]

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See detailL'entrée en vigueur du permis d'environnement et du permis unique
Pâques, Michel ULg

in Actualité législative en droit immobilier (2002)

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See detailOver Kalligramme. Zur Medialität einer Schrift anhand von Paul van Ostaijens De feesten van angst en pijn
Spinoy, Erik ULg

in Spiegel der Letteren (2002), 44(3), 291-293

This is a review of a study by Sonja Neef on the work of Paul van Ostaijen

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See detailSugli strumenti musicali intagliati ed intarsiati del Rinascimento bresciano: note a margine di uno storico dell'arte
Bugini, Mariaelena ULg

in Saggi e memorie di storia dell'arte. Rivista della Fondazione Giorgio Cini di Venezia (2002)

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See detailSingle-domain antibody fragments with high conformational stability.
Dumoulin, Mireille ULg; Conrath, Katja; Van Meirhaeghe, Annemie et al

in Protein Science : A Publication of the Protein Society (2002), 11(3), 500-15

A variety of techniques, including high-pressure unfolding monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence, circular dichroism, and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, have been ... [more ▼]

A variety of techniques, including high-pressure unfolding monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence, circular dichroism, and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, have been used to investigate the equilibrium folding properties of six single-domain antigen binders derived from camelid heavy-chain antibodies with specificities for lysozymes, beta-lactamases, and a dye (RR6). Various denaturing conditions (guanidinium chloride, urea, temperature, and pressure) provided complementary and independent methods for characterizing the stability and unfolding properties of the antibody fragments. With all binders, complete recovery of the biological activity after renaturation demonstrates that chemical-induced unfolding is fully reversible. Furthermore, denaturation experiments followed by optical spectroscopic methods and affinity measurements indicate that the antibody fragments are unfolded cooperatively in a single transition. Thus, unfolding/refolding equilibrium proceeds via a simple two-state mechanism (N <--> U), where only the native and the denatured states are significantly populated. Thermally-induced denaturation, however, is not completely reversible, and the partial loss of binding capacity might be due, at least in part, to incorrect refolding of the long loops (CDRs), which are responsible for antigen recognition. Most interestingly, all the fragments are rather resistant to heat-induced denaturation (apparent T(m) = 60-80 degrees C), and display high conformational stabilities (DeltaG(H(2)O) = 30-60 kJ mole(-1)). Such high thermodynamic stability has never been reported for any functional conventional antibody fragment, even when engineered antigen binders are considered. Hence, the reduced size, improved solubility, and higher stability of the camelid heavy-chain antibody fragments are of special interest for biotechnological and medical applications. [less ▲]

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See detailL'hyperglycemie post-prandiale. II. Approches therapeutiques medicamenteuses.
Scheen, André ULg; Letiexhe, Michel ULg; Geronooz, I. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(4), 196-201

Besides dietary approaches, various pharmacological means have been recently developed in order to better control postprandial hyperglycaemia. This objective may be obtained: 1) by slowing down the ... [more ▼]

Besides dietary approaches, various pharmacological means have been recently developed in order to better control postprandial hyperglycaemia. This objective may be obtained: 1) by slowing down the intestinal absorption of carbohydrates; 2) by insuring a better insulin priming soon after the meal; and 3) by inhibiting post-prandial glucagon secretion or action. Some hormones (amylin, glucagon-like peptide-1) can slow gastric emptying while alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (acarbose, miglitol) retard intestinal digestion and resorption of complex carbohydrates. A more physiological post-meal profile of insulin may be obtained in type 2 diabetes by using new insulin secretagogues of the glinide family (repaglinide, nateglinide) with an earlier and shorter insulinotropic action or, mainly in type 1 diabetes but also in type 2 diabetes, by using short-acting insulin analogues (lispro. Asp B28) or inhated insulin the action of which is faster than that of subcutaneous insulin. Post-prandial glucagon secretion can be inhibited by amylin. GLP-1 or insulin while other glucagon antagonists are currently in development. [less ▲]

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See detailMétastase synoviale d'un cancer colique se présentant comme une arthrite du genou. Caractérisation par tomographie à émission de positons au 18FDG
BECKERS, Catherine ULg; Foidart, J.; Thiry, Albert ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(5), 467-474

A case of carcinomatous monoarthritis involving the left knee due to colonic adenocarcinoma is described. Large recurrent synovial effusion, that will be later hematic, lytic lesion of the bones and ... [more ▼]

A case of carcinomatous monoarthritis involving the left knee due to colonic adenocarcinoma is described. Large recurrent synovial effusion, that will be later hematic, lytic lesion of the bones and chondrolysis were noted. Knee positron emitting tomography scan using FDG (FDG-PET) revealed a diffuse increased uptake in soft tissues assumed to be synovium, the hypertrophy of which was identified by ultrasonography. Whole body PET scan showed extensive lymph node, visceral and bone metastases, suggesting that the increase in the synovium could also be of metastatic origin. The final diagnosis of synovial carcinomatosis secondary to the known colonic adenocarcinoma was confirmed by histological analysis of biopsies obtained by arthroscopy. A review of the literature is realised. To our knowledge, this is the first synovial metastasis studied by FDG-PET. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence of an equilibrium between selenides and osmium(VIII) reagents and selenoxides and osmium(VI) reagents
Krief, A.; Destree, A.; Durisotti, V. et al

in Chemical Communications (2002), (6), 558-559

Driving the equilibrium between selenides and osmium( VIII) reagents with selenoxides and osmium( VI) by a subsequent reaction (rearrangement of allyl selenoxides to allyl alcohols or addition of osmium ... [more ▼]

Driving the equilibrium between selenides and osmium( VIII) reagents with selenoxides and osmium( VI) by a subsequent reaction (rearrangement of allyl selenoxides to allyl alcohols or addition of osmium( VIII) species on C C double bonds) to one side, allows the transformation of methyl geranyl selenides to linalool and of methyl citronellyl selenoxide to 6,7-dihydroxy citronellyl selenide. [less ▲]

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See detailLes conséquences des abus sexuels: le poids des préjugés ou "Il faut brûler Galilée"
Mormont, Christian ULg

in Forensic (2002), 10

Tous les mineurs exposés à des comportements sexuels inappropriés ne présentent pas des séquelles significatives à l'âge adulte. Le fait d'avoir vécu ces expériences sexuelles de façon négative ou de ... [more ▼]

Tous les mineurs exposés à des comportements sexuels inappropriés ne présentent pas des séquelles significatives à l'âge adulte. Le fait d'avoir vécu ces expériences sexuelles de façon négative ou de façon neutre ou positive semble avoir beaucoup d'importance et devrait être pris en compte dans les recherches [less ▲]

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See detailVers de nouveaux modes de communication sur les risques
Brunet, Sébastien ULg; hupet, Pierre

in Sécurité au travail (2002), n°100(1), 566-573

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See detail5-HT1A dysfunction in borderline personality disorder.
Hansenne, Michel ULg; Pitchot, William ULg; Pinto, Emmanuel ULg et al

in Psychological Medicine (2002), 32(5), 935-41

BACKGROUND: A number of challenge studies have reported abnormalities of serotonergic function in borderline personality disorder (BPD). There are, however, problems with the pharmacological probes used ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: A number of challenge studies have reported abnormalities of serotonergic function in borderline personality disorder (BPD). There are, however, problems with the pharmacological probes used in these studies since fenfluramine and m-CPP are not only serotonergic agents but also induce release of catecholamines, particularly dopamine. Therefore, we tested whether subjects with BPD showed a blunted prolactin (PRL) response to flesinoxan, a highly potent and selective 5-HT1A agonist. METHODS: Flesinoxan challenge test was carried out in 20 BPD in-patients and 20 healthy controls matched for gender but not for age. Since 16 BPD in-patients exhibited major depressive co-morbidity, a group of 20 depressed in-patients matched for gender but not for age was also included. RESULTS: BPD in-patients exhibited blunted PRL responses as compared to controls, whereas depressed in-patients did not differ from controls. Moreover, PRL responses were lower among BPD in-patients than among depressed in-patients. Among the BPD in-patients, PRL responses to flesinoxan were lower in patients with past history of suicide attempts (N = 8) than in those with a negative history. CONCLUSIONS: The results show major involvement of serotonergic function in BPD and are consistent with previous studies linking lower serotonergic activity with impulsivity. More particularly, our data suggest that BPD is characterized by lower 5-HT1A receptor sensitivity. Moreover, the data support the involvement of 5-HT1A activity in suicidal behaviour. However, this conclusion is limited because other hormonal responses such as ACTH and cortisol were not assessed, and because BPD was assessed by a self-report questionnaire and not a structured clinical interview. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of a coalescence parameter from batch-settling experiments
Henschke, M; Schlieper, L; Pfennig, Andreas ULg

in Chemical Engineering Journal (2002), 85((2-3)), 369-378

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See detailDérogations au zonage en droit wallon de l'urbanisme
Pâques, Michel ULg

in Actualité législative en droit immobilier (2002)

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See detailEnt-Trachyloban-3beta-ol, a new cytotoxic diterpene frm Croton zambesicus
Block, Sebastien; Stevigny, Caroline; De Pauw-Gillet, Marie-Claire ULg et al

in Planta Medica (2002), 68

The dichloromethane extract of leaves of Croton Zambesicus (Euphorbiaceae) showing in vitro cytotoxicity against huma cervix carcinoma cells was investigated in order to identify its active compounds. A ... [more ▼]

The dichloromethane extract of leaves of Croton Zambesicus (Euphorbiaceae) showing in vitro cytotoxicity against huma cervix carcinoma cells was investigated in order to identify its active compounds. A bio-guided fractionation by HSCCC followed by MPLC led us to isolate a trachylobane diterpene, ent-trachyloban-3beta-ol, with cytotoxic properties (IC50 on HeLa cells = 7.3 ùg/ml). This is the first report on the cytotoxicity of a trachylobane diterpene. [less ▲]

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See detailPhytoremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, anilines and phenols
Harvey, P. J.; Campanella, Bruno ULg; Castro, P. et al

in Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2002), 9

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See detailPerceptions sensorielles extéroceptives: de la microscopie à la biométrologie.
Claes, G.; Martalo, Oriane; Henry, Frédérique ULg et al

in Dermatologie Actualité (2002), 65

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See detailSteroid perfusion of the inner ear for sudden sensorineural hearing loss after failure of conventional therapy: a pilot study.
Lefèbvre, Philippe ULg; Staecker, Hinrich

in Acta Oto-Laryngologica (2002), 122(7), 698-702

The aim of this study was to determine if high-dose delivery of methylprednisolone to the round window can improve hearing after the failure of conventional treatment for sudden sensorineural hearing loss ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to determine if high-dose delivery of methylprednisolone to the round window can improve hearing after the failure of conventional treatment for sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL). In 6 patients with SSHL an Intraear microcatheter was placed in the round window niche and methylprednisolone (62.5 mg/ml) was infused at a rate of 10 microl/h for 8-10 days. Audiometric assessments (including measurement of speech discrimination) were made at presentation, either every day or every other day during treatment and 5 days after the completion of perfusion. Perfusion of methylprednisolone was beneficial for all 6 patients, with a 16.25-25 dB improvement in hearing threshold. A dramatic improvement in speech discrimination was also noted in all patients. In conclusion, methylprednisolone perfused at the level of the round window membrane resulted in significant recovery of hearing function after the failure of standard treatment of SSHL. [less ▲]

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See detailLe détecteur de mensonges à la rescousse de la défense ?
Monville, Pierre ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2002)

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See detailSulle "mostre" d'organo bergamasche di una grande dinastia di organari del Rinascimento padano: appunti di uno storico dell'arte
Bugini, Mariaelena ULg

in Atti dell'Ateneo di Scienze, Lettere et Arti di Bergamo (2002), a.a 2001/2002

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See detailL'hyperglycemie post-prandiale. I. Physiopathologie, consequences cliniques et approaches dietetiques.
Scheen, André ULg; Paquot, Nicolas ULg; Jandrain, Bernard ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(3), 138-41

Postprandial hyperglycaemia depends on the amount and type of ingested carbohydrates and/or the degree of inhibition of hepatic glucose output following a meal. The kinetics of carbohydrate absorption is ... [more ▼]

Postprandial hyperglycaemia depends on the amount and type of ingested carbohydrates and/or the degree of inhibition of hepatic glucose output following a meal. The kinetics of carbohydrate absorption is directly influenced by the type of food (carbohydrates with variable glycaemic indices, fibre content of the meal) and by the speed of gastric emptying. Hepatic glucose output is remarkably inhibited by insulin and strongly stimulated by glucagon. It remains abnormally high after a meal in diabetic patients because of insufficient portal insulin concentrations, hepatic insulin resistance and/or hyperglucagonaemia. In diabetic patients, postprandial hyperglycaemia contributes to the aggravation of chronic hyperglycaemia, and thus to the increase of glycated haemoglobin levels. Furthermore, it has been recently demonstrated that postprandial hyperglycaemia increases the cardiovascular risk, even in nondiabetic subjects, probably by inducing endothelial dysfunction. Appropriate dietary counselling plays a key-role in the control of postprandial hyperglycaemia. Generally speaking, it includes a selection of carbohydrates with low glycaemic index and a higher fibre intake. Pharmacological interventions may also be considered when necessary. [less ▲]

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See detailLa rente et la galette : à propos du remboursement anticipé d’un crédit
Vanbrabant, Bernard ULg

in Revue du Notariat Belge (2002)

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See detailComment j'explore ... Le risque d'un patient d'evoluer vers un diabete de type 2.
Scheen, André ULg; Paquot, Nicolas ULg; Jandrain, Bernard ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(2), 113-5

Both the prevalence and the incidence of type 2 diabetes are increasing rapidly. Effective prevention measures, including lifestyle or drug prescription, have been recently reported. It is thus important ... [more ▼]

Both the prevalence and the incidence of type 2 diabetes are increasing rapidly. Effective prevention measures, including lifestyle or drug prescription, have been recently reported. It is thus important to detect at risk individuals in order to provide appropriate diet and exercise recommendations or even pharmacological treatment. We summarize the most useful indices based on anamnesis, clinical examination and biological assays that can help to detect subjects at high risk of progression towards type 2 diabetes. [less ▲]

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See detailComment on "Strong vortex liquid correlation from multiterminal measurements on untwinned YBa2Cu3O7-delta single crystals"
Maiorov, B.; Silhanek, Alejandro ULg; de la Cruz, F. et al

in Physical Review Letters (2002), 88(13),

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See detailLes "sans-papiers" et les régularisations dans l'Union Européenne à la lumière du cas belge
Martiniello, Marco ULg

in Revue des Affaires Européennes (2002), 11ème-12ème Année

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See detailComparant mais pas fondateur
Caprasse, Olivier ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2002)

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See detailERK and calcium in activation of HIF-1.
Mottet, Denis ULg; Michel, Gaetan; Renard, Patricia et al

in Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (2002), 973

HIF-1 (hypoxia-inducible factor-1) is the main transcription factor responsible for increased gene expression in hypoxia. The oxygen-dependent regulation of HIF-1 activity occurs at multiple levels in ... [more ▼]

HIF-1 (hypoxia-inducible factor-1) is the main transcription factor responsible for increased gene expression in hypoxia. The oxygen-dependent regulation of HIF-1 activity occurs at multiple levels in vivo. The mechanisms regulating HIF-1alpha protein expression have been most extensively analyzed, but the ones modulating HIF-1 transcriptional activity remain unclear. Changes in the phosphorylation and/or redox status of HIF-1alpha certainly play a role. Here, we show that ionomycin could activate HIF-1 transcriptional activity in a way that is additive to the effect of hypoxia without affecting HIF-1alpha protein level and HIF-1 DNA binding capacity. In addition, a calmodulin dominant-negative mutant as well as BAPTA, an intracellular calcium chelator, inhibited the hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation. These results indicate that elevated calcium in hypoxia could participate in HIF-1 activation. PD98059, an inhibitor of the ERK pathway, but not KN-93, an inhibitor of calmodulin kinases II and IV, also blocked HIF-1 activation by hypoxia and by ionomycin. Altogether, these results suggest that calcium and calmodulin would act upstream of ERK in the hypoxia signal transduction pathway leading to enhanced HIF-1 transcriptional activity. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of Anesthesia Simulator
Pendeville, Philippe; Mayne, Alain; LARBUISSON, Robert ULg et al

in Benelux quaterly journal on automatic control (2002), 43(2), 17-19

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See detailIs HIF-1alpha a pro- or an anti-apoptotic protein?
Piret, Jean-Pascal; Mottet, Denis ULg; Raes, Martine et al

in Biochemical Pharmacology (2002), 64(5-6), 889-92

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is the major transcription factor specifically activated by hypoxia. It induces the expression of different genes whose products play an adaptive role for hypoxic cells ... [more ▼]

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is the major transcription factor specifically activated by hypoxia. It induces the expression of different genes whose products play an adaptive role for hypoxic cells and tissues. Besides these protective responses, HIF-1 and/or hypoxia have also been shown to be either anti-apoptotic or pro-apoptotic, according to the cell type and experimental conditions. More severe or prolonged hypoxia rather induces apoptosis that is, at least in part, initiated by the direct association of HIF-1alpha and p53 and p53-induced gene expression. On the other hand, HIF-1alpha dimerized with ARNT, as an active transcription factor, can protect cells from apoptosis induced by several conditions. This review is aimed to describe the different mechanisms that account for these opposite effects of HIF-1alpha. [less ▲]

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See detailInventories and Maps: Cognitive Ways of Framing the Nature Policies in Europe
Mougenot, Catherine ULg; Remy, Elisabeth

in Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning (2002), 4(4), 313-322

Since the Earth Summit in Rio, declining biodiversity has become a subject of general concern for many countries. To counter these negative trends, government nature policies in Europe at least are now ... [more ▼]

Since the Earth Summit in Rio, declining biodiversity has become a subject of general concern for many countries. To counter these negative trends, government nature policies in Europe at least are now thought out primarily in terms of networks. They concern new areas outside nature reserves, new players and new management strategies. Consequently, these policies should themselves become the subject of new public debate. Our study concerns the analysis of the forms used to collect the data required to set up the European Union's Natura 2000 network and maps drawn as part of the Council of Europe's Pan-European Ecological Network strategy. The aim of this article, which takes the perspective developed by the sociology of science, will be to show how the forms and maps used in these new nature policies produce knowledge that precedes policy discussions to search for the best possible socio-political compromises. In other words, the knowledge that is collected in and by means of these documents, forms and maps offers a cognitive way of framing the subsequent public debates. [less ▲]

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See detailThree-dimensional organization of active rRNA genes within the nucleolus.
Cheutin, Thierry; O'Donohue, Marie*-Francoise; Beorchia, Adrien et al

in Journal of Cell Science (2002), 115(Pt 16), 3297-307

In this work, we have localized transcribing rRNA genes at the ultrastructural level and described their three-dimensional organization within the nucleolus by electron tomography. Isolated nucleoli ... [more ▼]

In this work, we have localized transcribing rRNA genes at the ultrastructural level and described their three-dimensional organization within the nucleolus by electron tomography. Isolated nucleoli, which exhibit a reduced transcriptional rate, were used to determine the sites of initial BrUTP incorporation (i.e. rRNA synthesis by the transcriptional machinery). Using pulse-chase experiments with BrUTP and an elongation inhibitor, cordycepin, it was possible to precisely localize the initial sites of BrUTP incorporation. Our data show that BrUTP incorporation initially takes place in the fibrillar centers and that elongating rRNAs rapidly enter the surrounding dense fibrillar component. Furthermore, we investigated the spatial arrangement of RNA polymerase I molecules within the whole volume of the fibrillar centers. Electron tomography was performed on thick sections of cells that had been labeled with anti-RNA polymerase I antibodies prior to embedding. Detailed tomographic analyses revealed that RNA polymerase I molecules are mainly localized within discrete clusters. In each of them, RNA polymerase I molecules were grouped as several coils, 60 nm in diameter. Overall, these findings have allowed us to propose a model for the three-dimensional organization of transcribing rDNA genes within the nucleolus. [less ▲]

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See detailTriplex and quadruplex DNA structures studied by electrospray mass spectrometry
Rosu, Frédéric ULg; Gabelica, Valérie ULg; Houssier, Claude ULg et al

in Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry : RCM (2002), 16(18), 1729-1736

DNA triplex and quadruplex structures have been successfully detected by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Circular dichroism and UV-melting experiments show that these structures are ... [more ▼]

DNA triplex and quadruplex structures have been successfully detected by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Circular dichroism and UV-melting experiments show that these structures are stable in 150 mM ammonium acetate at pH 7 for the quadruplexes and pH 5.5 for the triplexes. The studied quadruplexes were the tetramer [d(TGGGGT)](4), the dimer [d(GGGGTTTTGGGG)](2), and the intramolecular folded strand dGGG(TTAGGG)(3), which is an analog of the human telomeric sequence. The absence of sodium contamination allowed demonstration of the specific inclusion of n-1 ammonium cations in the quadruplex structures, where n is the number of consecutive G-tetrads. We also detected the complexes between the quadruplexes and the quadruplex-specific drug mesoporphyrin IX. MS/MS spectra of [d(TGGGGT)](4) and the complex with the drug are also reported. As the drug does not displace the ammonium cations, one can conclude that the drug binds at the exterior of the tetrads, and not between them. For the triplex structure the ESI-MS spectra show the detection of the specific triplex, at m/z values typically higher than those typically observed for duplex species. Upon MS/MS the antigene strand, which is bound into the major groove of the duplex, separates from the triplex. This is the same dissociation pathway as in solution. To our knowledge this is the first report of a triplex DNA structure by electrospray mass spectrometry. [less ▲]

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See detailLes sans-papiers en Belgique
Martiniello, Marco ULg; Rea, Andrea

in Hommes & Migrations (2002), 1238

Qui sont ces “exclus de l’intérieur”, ces “sans-droits”, générés par une Belgique dont la politique d’immigration s’adapte mal aux nouveaux migrants ? Une étude, menée auprès de cent trente sans-papiers ... [more ▼]

Qui sont ces “exclus de l’intérieur”, ces “sans-droits”, générés par une Belgique dont la politique d’immigration s’adapte mal aux nouveaux migrants ? Une étude, menée auprès de cent trente sans-papiers et clandestins, rend compte de la précarité de leurs conditions de vie. L’analyse des données recueillies permet de dresser un portrait sociologique précis de cette population, et d’examiner à la loupe la misère des conditions de départ, la clandestinité, le travail au noir. Les auteurs de l’étude expliquent, notamment, pourquoi certains sans-papiers n’ont pas cherché à régulariser leur situation, malgré la vaste campagne lancée par les pouvoirs publics en 2000. [less ▲]

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See detailQuelques résultats prometteurs pour une sylviculture de l'Aulne glutineux en Wallonie.
Claessens, Hugues ULg; Thibaut, A.; Rondeux, Jacques ULg

in Revue Forestière Française (2002), 54(3), 259-270

In Belgium, black alder is well known for its ecological functions, but is generally considered as a secondary species without any true economic value. The present study, based on data pertaining to 166 ... [more ▼]

In Belgium, black alder is well known for its ecological functions, but is generally considered as a secondary species without any true economic value. The present study, based on data pertaining to 166 plots, aims at evaluating the potential of black alder silviculture in the Walloon forest (Southern Belgium). We successively analysed dominant height growth, dominant girth growth and solid stem volume over time. It appears that by controlling competition within stands it should be possible to produce quality, 150-cm girth logs within 50 – 100 years, depending on the level of productivity. The German tables of Mitscherlich (in Schöber, 1975) seem to be most suitable for describing the growth parameters of the Belgian alder stands over time and black alder stand production can be estimated at 3 to 9 m3/ha/year according to site classes. We can conclude that black alder silviculture can be a viable economic activity. [less ▲]

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See detailLa réforme de l'adoption pas à pas. Note sous C.A., 28 novembre 2001
Leleu, Yves-Henri ULg

in Journal des Tribunaux (2002)

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See detailProposal for a new standard of faecal contamination indicator: Bifidobacterium
Delcenserie, Véronique ULg; China, Bernard; Gavini, Françoise et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2002), 146(5, OCT-NOV), 279-293

Micro-organisms of the genus Bifidobacterium are some of the most common micro-organisms in the human and animal intestinal tract. Bifidobacterium species are well known for their beneficial effects on ... [more ▼]

Micro-organisms of the genus Bifidobacterium are some of the most common micro-organisms in the human and animal intestinal tract. Bifidobacterium species are well known for their beneficial effects on the microflora. In this article, the interest for this microorganism is other. If this microorganism is found at different stages of the processing line, it indicates often a contamination of this processing line. An other characteristic is that Bifidobacterium species are different according to the host. It could be possible to determine the contamination origin (human or animal). That is an advantage over other bacteria such as the actual faecal contamination indicator, Escherichia coli. The aim of this project is to develop a test, using molecular genetic tools, to rapidly detect the most important Bifidobacterium species in food. If we know the contamination sources, the critical points will be pointed out and the control measures will be better. [less ▲]

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See detailSmearing scheme for finite-temperature electronic-structure calculations
Verstraete, Matthieu ULg; Gonze, X.

in Physical Review. B : Condensed Matter (2002), 65

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See detailBELL, regular 2002 issue
Delrez, Marc ULg

in Belgian Essays on Language and Literature (2002)

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See detailRunoff control of soil degassing at an active volcano. The case of Piton de la Fournaise, Reunion Island
Toutain, J. P.; Baubron, J. C.; François, Louis ULg

in Earth And Planetary Science Letters (2002), 197(1-2), 83-94

Airborne atmospheric and in-situ soil gas analyses demonstrate that distal gas leaks are non-existent at Piton de la Fournaise (PF) despite frequent eruptions. Airborne traverses made at a constant ... [more ▼]

Airborne atmospheric and in-situ soil gas analyses demonstrate that distal gas leaks are non-existent at Piton de la Fournaise (PF) despite frequent eruptions. Airborne traverses made at a constant altitude indicated that no detectable large-scale CO2 degassing occurs from the volcano. In-situ soil gas traverses (CO2, He-4, Rn-222) across the active riftzones, the summit crater and the caldera rims, show both a lack of positive anomalies and evidence of strong depleted concentrations for He and CO2 with respect to air. Depletions in soil He is explained by intense rain water infiltration. A more unexpected result lies in the very low CO2 concentrations (down to 92 ppm) in bare soils in the summit region. Such a depletion was not previously reported and is attributed to considerable basalt weathering operating as the result of huge runoff. A model has enabled both the runoff and the CO2 consumption occurring within the basaltic layers to be calculated. Data obtained are consistent with values expected from large-scale erosion models and with the local calculated diffusive flux of CO2 in soils. The huge runoff, together with the basaltic lithology of the volcano, are found to be the main factor controlling the soil gas signatures at PF. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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