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See detailUne innovation dans la chirurgie hellénistique: l'opération de la cataracte
Marganne, Marie-Hélène ULg

in Medizinhistorisches Journal (2001), 36(1), 23-33

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See detailSecondary fabrics revealed by remanence anisotropy: methodological study and examples from plutonic rocks
Trindade, Ricardo I.F.; Bouchez, Jean-Luc; Bolle, Olivier ULg et al

in Geophysical Journal International (2001), 147(2), 310-318

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See detailCompact holographic camera based on photorefractive crystals and application in interferometry
Georges, Marc ULg; Scauflaire, Véronique; Lemaire, Philippe

in Optical Materials (2001), 18

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See detailEquine Third Metacarpal Bone Assessment by Quantitative Ultrasound and Dual-Energy-X-Ray absorptiometry.
Carstanjen, Bianca; Duboeuf, F.; Amory, Hélène ULg et al

in Veterinary Surgery : The Official Journal of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons (2001), 30

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See detailEvolution of aphidophagous ladybird populations in a vegetable crop and implications as biological agents.
Francis, Frédéric ULg; Colignon, P.; Hastir, P. et al

in Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent) (2001), 66(2a), 333-40

Aphidophagous predators such as hoverfly and ladybird beetles are effective biological agents to control aphid pests in perennial and annual cultivated species. Introduction and conservation of beneficial ... [more ▼]

Aphidophagous predators such as hoverfly and ladybird beetles are effective biological agents to control aphid pests in perennial and annual cultivated species. Introduction and conservation of beneficial insects are two ways to increase natural control of pests. Whether massive releases of entomophagous insects are expensive and time consuming, the preservation of predator natural populations can be expected by reducing and by adapting chemical treatments in crop fields. Vegetable cultivated areas increased in Belgium for several years, mainly Fabaceae species such as peas and beans. In this work, the evolution of ladybird species population was assessed from May to June in broad bean fields (Vicia faba L.) between Waremme and Hannut, in Hesbaye. Weekly, the aphid and aphidophagous beetle populations were collected from yellow traps and determined on plants by visual observations. Even if five ladybird species were identified, three of them represented more than 95% of the collected insects (Coccinella septempunctata L., Propylea quatuor-decimpunctata L. and Psyllobora vingintiduopunctata L.). Evolution of coccinellid populations during the cultivation season was discussed in relation to the presence of potential aphid preys and the agrochemical treatments which were applied. Integrated pest management in vegetable fields constitute a reliable way to increase the quality level of fresh vegetables in terms of pesticide residue limitations. [less ▲]

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See detailCompte rendu de Frédéric Barbier, Histoire du livre
Durand, Pascal ULg

in Bulletin des Bibliothèques de France (2001), 46/4

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See detailIntegrated modelling of the Belgian Coastal Zone
Delhez, Eric ULg; Carabin, G.

in Estuarine Coastal & Shelf Science (2001), 53(4), 477-491

The management of the water resources in coastal or delta plains asks for an integrated modelling of the water system at a regional scale. In the SALMON project, detailed descriptions of the groundwater ... [more ▼]

The management of the water resources in coastal or delta plains asks for an integrated modelling of the water system at a regional scale. In the SALMON project, detailed descriptions of the groundwater, river and marine domains are provided by coupling appropriate numerical models of these different sub-systems. The application of this three-fold model to the Scheldt and Belgian Coastal Zone reveals a marked river plume extending along the Belgian Coast with strong offshore gradients. This plume cannot be explained by the Eulerian residual transport velocity field but requires Lagrangian aspects to be taken into account. The computation of the age of this water mass shows that the different parts of the coastal zone are influenced by a discharge in the Grote Schijn River after a delay that varies between a few days (for the marine part of the estuary) to about 100 days (for the centre of the residual gyre). The computation shows also that the groundwater around Antwerp can also be contaminated by a pollution in the river but the resulting mass loss from the river does not lead to a significant reduction of the flux to the coastal zone. (C) 2001 Academic Press. [less ▲]

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See detailLa sémiologie selon L.J. Prieto
Badir, Sémir ULg

in Linx (2001), 44

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See detailMetabolic and Structural Abnormalities in Dogs with Early Left Ventricular Dysfunction Induced by Incessant Tachycardia
Mc Entee, Kathleen ULg; Flandre, Thierry; Doizé, Cécile ULg et al

in American Journal of Veterinary Research (2001), 62(6), 889-94

OBJECTIVE: To assess morphologic and metabolic abnormalities in dogs with early left ventricular dysfunction (ELVD) induced by rapid right ventricular pacing (RRVP). ANIMALS: 7 Beagles. PROCEDURE: Plasma ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To assess morphologic and metabolic abnormalities in dogs with early left ventricular dysfunction (ELVD) induced by rapid right ventricular pacing (RRVP). ANIMALS: 7 Beagles. PROCEDURE: Plasma carnitine concentrations were measured before and after development of ELVD induced by RRVP. At the same times, transvenous endomyocardial biopsy was performed, and specimens were submitted for determination of myocardial carnitine concentrations and histologic, morphometric, and ultrastructural examination. RESULTS: In 4 dogs in which baseline plasma total carnitine concentration was normal, RRVP induced a decrease in myocardial total and free carnitine concentrations and an increase in myocardial esterified carnitine concentration. In 3 dogs in which baseline plasma total carnitine concentration was low, plasma and myocardial carnitine concentrations were unchanged after pacing. Structural changes associated with pacing included perinuclear vacuolization in 3 dogs. Morphometric analyses indicated there was a decrease in myofiber cross-sectional diameter and area following pacing. Electron microscopy revealed changes in myofibrils and mitochondria following pacing. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results indicated that moderate to severe alterations in myocyte cytoarchitecture are present in dogs with ELVD induced by RRVP and that in dogs with normal plasma carnitine concentrations, myocardial carnitine deficiency may be a biochemical marker of ELVD. Results also indicated that transvenous endomyocardial biopsy can be used to evaluate biochemical and structural myocardial changes in dogs with cardiac disease. [less ▲]

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See detailAb initio simulations of liquid semiconductors using the pseudopotential-density functional method
Chelikowsky, J. R.; Derby, J. J.; Godlevsky, V. V. et al

in Journal of Physics : Condensed Matter (2001), 13(41), 817-854854

One of the most difficult problems in condensed matter physics is describing the microscopic nature of the liquid state. Owing to the dynamical nature of the liquid state, it is not possible to discuss a ... [more ▼]

One of the most difficult problems in condensed matter physics is describing the microscopic nature of the liquid state. Owing to the dynamical nature of the liquid state, it is not possible to discuss a particular microscopic structure; only ensemble averages can be specified. Such averages can be performed via well crafted molecular dynamics simulations: the length of the simulation, the size of the ensemble and the nature of the interatomic forces must all be carefully analysed. Historically, a problematic issue in doing such simulations is that of how to describe the interatomic forces in the liquid state. This matter is especially challenging for the melt of semiconductors, such as silicon or gallium arsenide, where the chemical bond contains a strong covalent component. It is difficult to use pairwise interatomic potentials in such cases. Although many-body potentials can be utilized for simulations of these materials, one must map quantum phenomena such as hybridization onto classical interatomic potentials. This mapping is complex and difficult. In this review, we illustrate how one can avoid this problem by utilizing quantum forces to simulate liquids. Our focus is on the pseudopotential-density functional method. Within the pseudopotential method, only the valence electrons are explicitly treated and within the density functional theory, exchange and correlation terms are mapped onto an effective one-electron potential [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of parathyroid hormone (1-34) on fractures and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.
Neer, R M; Arnaud, C D; Zanchetta, J R et al

in New England Journal of Medicine [=NEJM] (2001), 344(19), 1434-41

BACKGROUND: Once-daily injections of parathyroid hormone or its amino-terminal fragments increase bone formation and bone mass without causing hypercalcemia, but their effects on fractures are unknown ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Once-daily injections of parathyroid hormone or its amino-terminal fragments increase bone formation and bone mass without causing hypercalcemia, but their effects on fractures are unknown. METHODS: We randomly assigned 1637 postmenopausal women with prior vertebral fractures to receive 20 or 40 microg of parathyroid hormone (1-34) or placebo, administered subcutaneously by the women daily. We obtained vertebral radiographs at base line and at the end of the study (median duration of observation, 21 months) and performed serial measurements of bone mass by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: New vertebral fractures occurred in 14 percent of the women in the placebo group and in 5 percent and 4 percent, respectively, of the women in the 20-microg and 40-microg parathyroid hormone groups; the respective relative risks of fracture in the 20-microg and 40-microg groups, as compared with the placebo group, were 0.35 and 0.31 (95 percent confidence intervals, 0.22 to 0.55 and 0.19 to 0.50). New nonvertebral fragility fractures occurred in 6 percent of the women in the placebo group and in 3 percent of those in each parathyroid hormone group (relative risk, 0.47 and 0.46, respectively [95 percent confidence intervals, 0.25 to 0.88 and 0.25 to 0.861). As compared with placebo, the 20-microg and 40-microg doses of parathyroid hormone increased bone mineral density by 9 and 13 more percentage points in the lumbar spine and by 3 and 6 more percentage points in the femoral neck; the 40-microg dose decreased bone mineral density at the shaft of the radius by 2 more percentage points. Both doses increased total-body bone mineral by 2 to 4 more percentage points than did placebo. Parathyroid hormone had only minor side effects (occasional nausea and headache). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis with parathyroid hormone (1-34) decreases the risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures; increases vertebral, femoral, and total-body bone mineral density; and is well tolerated. The 40-microg dose increased bone mineral density more than the 20-microg dose but had similar effects on the risk of fracture and was more likely to have side effects. [less ▲]

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See detailComment je traite une ascite
Gielen, S.; Delwaide, Jean ULg; Detry, Olivier ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(12), 809-815

Ascites is the most common of the major complications of cirrhosis. The initial evaluation of a patient with ascites should include a history, physical evaluation and some investigations. Treatment should ... [more ▼]

Ascites is the most common of the major complications of cirrhosis. The initial evaluation of a patient with ascites should include a history, physical evaluation and some investigations. Treatment should consist of treating the underlying liver disease, sodium restricted diet (2 g of Na+/day) and diuretics. This regimen is effective in 90 % of patients. The treatment options for the diuretic-resistant patients include serial therapeutic paracentesis, peritoneovenous shunting, TIPSand liver transplantation. The treatment and prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis which is a frequent and severe complication in cirrhotic patients with ascites is also important. The differential diagnosis with secondary bacterial peritonitisis is essential because the latter usually does not resolve unless patients are surgically treated. [less ▲]

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See detailA world monograph of the lichen genus Gyalectidium (Gomphillaceae)
Ferraro, Lidia Itati; Lücking, Robert; Sérusiaux, Emmanuël ULg

in Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society (2001), 137

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See detailSurface Modification of Polycarbonate and Poly(ethyleneterephthalate) Films and Membranes by Polyelectrolyte Deposition
Dauginet, Laurence; Duwez, Anne-Sophie ULg; Legras, Roger et al

in Langmuir (2001), 17

The surface modification by chemical or physical adsorption of a polyelectrolyte (polyallylamine, PAH) was established using hydrolyzed polycarbonate (PC) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) thick and ... [more ▼]

The surface modification by chemical or physical adsorption of a polyelectrolyte (polyallylamine, PAH) was established using hydrolyzed polycarbonate (PC) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) thick and thin films. Contact angle data indicated changes in the hydrophilicity of PET film surfaces in terms of the chemical treatment. XPS analysis showed that the immobilization of PAH on PET and PC films was effective and that the amount of chemically or/and physically bounded PAH depends on the pH of the electrolyte solution used for the adsorption. Similar treatments have been successfully applied to polymeric track-etched membranes. These modified membranes have been used as templates for the synthesis of polypyrrole (PPy) nanotubules. FE-SEM analysis showed that much thicker PPy tubules were obtained in modified membranes than in virgin ones. This indicates that the surface chemistry of the pore walls plays an important role in the morphology of the nanostructures synthesized within the pores [less ▲]

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See detailIncinérateurs, crise dioxine et risques sanitaires pour la population belge
Bernard; Fierens; Mairesse et al

in Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences. Académie Royale de Belgique (2001), 1-6

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See detailSmall Town China. Goverance, Economy, Environment and Lifestyle in Three Zhen
Florence, Eric ULg

in Revue Bibliographique de Sinologie = Review of Bibliography in Sinology (2001), Vol. XVIII

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See detailDes escargots et des champignons à la rescousse du développement durable
Libois, Roland ULg; Codjia, J.T.C.

in Parcs & Réserves (2001), 56(4), 46-49

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See detailLéon Bloy et la communication. Dans l'enfer des médias
Durand, Pascal ULg

in Série Léon Bloy (2001), 5

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See detailIntensive and Prolonged Health Promotion Strategy May Increase Awareness of Osteoporosis among Postmenopausal Women
Tellier, V.; De Maeseneer, J.; De Prins, L. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2001), 12(2), 131-5

The aim of the study was to measure the results of a 15-year health promotion strategy towards osteoporosis, in an urban community of subjects over 45 years old, in terms of osteoporosis awareness and ... [more ▼]

The aim of the study was to measure the results of a 15-year health promotion strategy towards osteoporosis, in an urban community of subjects over 45 years old, in terms of osteoporosis awareness and handling. To this end an ancillary study to a large survey of the Belgian population's self-perceived health status was carried out. A rectangular sample of 4800 individuals over 45 years old was randomly selected in two Belgian cities, among the affiliates of the two main health insurance providers. One of the cities (Liege) had been, since the early 1980s, the target of a constant health promotion strategy, directed to both the medical community and the general population, aimed at increasing osteoporosis awareness in women after the menopause. During the same period, no particular steps were taken in the other city (Aalst) to increase osteoporosis awareness in the community. In our study, the participants were asked to spontaneously report any chronic, serious and/or severe disorders that they had been suffering from, for at least 6 months, during the previous 12 months. They also provided a list of drugs they were taking at the time of the survey. Osteoporosis was reported to be a disease affecting 1.5% of men in Aalst and 1.3% of men in Liege (p = 0.61). For women, osteoporosis was reported to be present in 4.8% in Aalst and 10.8% in Liege (p<0.001). Self-reporting of osteoporosis prevalence in Liege was statistically significantly higher in women aged 45-64 years, 65-74 years or over 75 years (p<0.001). Obesity, alcohol consumption or physical activity were equally distributed between women from Liege and Aalst. Prescription drugs used for osteoporosis had been delivered to a similar proportion of men in Aalst and Liege. In women, a statistically significant difference in these prescription drugs was observed between Liege and Aalst, both for the overall population (p<0.001) and in each of the age classes (p<0.001 for 45-64 years and 65-74 years; p<0.009 for over 75 years). A continuous long-term health promotion strategy, directed toward both physicians and the general population, thus appears to increase awareness about osteoporosis in women over 45 years and/or in the medical community. This is reflected by an increase in self-reported prevalence of osteoporosis and in the prescription of drugs aimed at prevention and treatment of this disorder. Whether these observations reflect an appropriate diagnosis and a proper handling of the disease remains to be evaluated by objective diagnostic tools such as bone densitometry and by an evaluation of the effectiveness of prescription practices in postmenopausal women. [less ▲]

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See detailPrésentation
Badir, Sémir ULg; Arrivé, Michel

in Linx (2001), 44

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See detailCharacterization of TRIP-assisted multiphase steel surface topography by atomic force microscopy
Ros-Yanez, Tanya; Houbaert, Yvan; Mertens, Anne ULg

in Materials Characterization (2001), 47

Transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP)-assisted multiphase steels have a complicated microstructure consisting of different phases, mainly ferrite, retained austenite, bainite and martensite. Atomic ... [more ▼]

Transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP)-assisted multiphase steels have a complicated microstructure consisting of different phases, mainly ferrite, retained austenite, bainite and martensite. Atomic force microscopy has been used for the phase identification and characterization of the phases in this kind of steel. A series of tests has been made on a C-Mn-Si and a C-Mn-Al TRIP-assisted steel after two different heat treatments: intercritical annealing followed by quench, and intercritical annealing followed by aging. After the aging process, the C-Mn-Al alloy was tempered in order to make metallographic observation easier, except the samples for mechanical testing, XRD or Mössbauer spectroscopy. It has been possible to identify the different phases and their topographic characteristics and to study their morphology using atomic force microscopy. The fine and complex microstructures of TRIP-assisted multiphase steels require improvements of the existing observation techniques, like electron backscattered diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Results of these techniques are presented. [less ▲]

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See detailA control strategy for controllable series capacitor in electric power systems
Ghandhari, Mehrdad; Andersson, Goran; Pavella, Mania ULg et al

in Automatica (2001), 37

It has been veri"ed that a controllable series capacitor with a suitable control scheme can improve transient stability and help to damp electromechanical oscillations. A question of great importance is ... [more ▼]

It has been veri"ed that a controllable series capacitor with a suitable control scheme can improve transient stability and help to damp electromechanical oscillations. A question of great importance is the selection of the input signals and a control strategy for this device in order to damp power oscillations in an e!ective and robust manner. Based on Lyapunov theory a control strategy for damping of electromechanical power oscillations in a multi-machine power system is derived. Lyapunov theory deals with dynamical systems without inputs. For this reason, it has traditionally been applied only to closed-loop control systems, that is, systems for which the input has been eliminated through the substitution of a predetermined feedback control. However, in this paper, we use Lyapunov function candidates in feedback design itself by making the Lyapunov derivative negative when choosing the control. This control strategy is called control Lyapunov function for systems with control inputs. Also, two input signals for this control strategy are used. The "rst one is based on local information and the second one on remote information derived by the single machine equivalent method. [less ▲]

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See detailLe déroulement de la conférence sur le développement rural durable dans l'ensemble des pays d'Europe.
Christians, Charles ULg; Schmitz, Serge ULg

in Bulletin de la Société Géographique de Liège (2001), 41

Présentation de l'organisation, du thème, de l'objectif et des activités (travaux sur le terrain et Conférence).

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See detailTrophic diversiy within the eastern Weddell Sea amphipod community
Dauby, Patrick ULg; Scailteur, Yves; De Broyer, Claude

in Hydrobiologia (2001), 443

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See detailPrediction of protein digestibility in dog food by a multi-enzymatic method: a useful technique to develop.
Tonglet, Catherine; Jeusette, Isabelle; Istasse, Louis ULg et al

in Journal of Animal Physiology & Animal Nutrition (2001), 85(7-8), 189-94

The multi-enzymatic method with constant pH described by Dufour-Etienne et al. (Rec. Med. Vet. 168, 789-796, 1992) was tested using 17 industrial dry dog foods and two ingredients, sodium caseinate and ... [more ▼]

The multi-enzymatic method with constant pH described by Dufour-Etienne et al. (Rec. Med. Vet. 168, 789-796, 1992) was tested using 17 industrial dry dog foods and two ingredients, sodium caseinate and beef meat, which were used as references. The quantity of sodium hydroxide added to the enzymatic solution was measured after incubation times of 2, 5 and 10 min and the best prediction of the apparent protein digestibility was obtained with an incubation time fixed at 2 min. The volume of sodium hydroxide 0.1 N constantly added to maintain the pH of the solution at 8 was correlated to the value of in vivo digestibility of the protein measured in the dog. The correlation coefficient obtained was 0.90 with a standard error of the regression of 1.9 for all samples. The correlation coefficients calculated for incubation times of 5 and 10 min were lower than that at 2 min; thus an incubation period of 2 min provided the highest correlation coefficient for this multi-enzymatic method at constant pH. However, considering the lack of samples with an apparent protein digestibility ranging between 85 and 95%, the slope of the regression line and the correlation coefficient were strongly influenced by the ingredients, such that when the correlation coefficient was calculated for 17 dog foods without the reference ingredients, a coefficient of 0.71 (+/- 1.9) was obtained. These tests of in vitro digestibility are valuable to predict the apparent digestibility of the protein in the dog, but, it is essential to confirm the results by an in vivo test. [less ▲]

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See detailVingt ans après... Regards d'un didacticien sur l'enseignement de la littérature française de Belgique
Dumortier, Jean-Louis ULg

in Textyles : Revue des Lettres Belges de Langue Française (2001), 19

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See detailThe early Paleozoic carbon cycle
Godderis, Y.; François, Louis ULg; Veizer, J.

in Earth And Planetary Science Letters (2001), 190(3-4), 181-196

A review of O, C, Sr and S isotope trends for the entire Phanerozoic shows that the present-day values of isotope signals are similar to those at the Proterozoic termination. The sharp rise in Sr-87/Sr-86 ... [more ▼]

A review of O, C, Sr and S isotope trends for the entire Phanerozoic shows that the present-day values of isotope signals are similar to those at the Proterozoic termination. The sharp rise in Sr-87/Sr-86 since similar to 65 Ma has been attributed to an uplift and subsequent metamorphism and erosion associated with the Himalayas and Tibet. This orogenic evolution has been postulated to have influenced the global organic and inorganic carbon cycles and climate as well. A similar large-scale orogeny, the Pan-African event, also dominated the Neoproterozoic (Vendian) times, and the similarity of modern and Neoproterozoic isotope values for seawater may therefore have had a comparable tectonic cause. In this contribution, we present the results of a numerical model of the coupled C-alkalinity-S-Sr cycles suggesting that the early Paleozoic (from early Cambrian to late Devonian) evolution of Sr, O, C and S seawater isotope signals could have been the consequence of progressive oxidation of a large reduced carbon reservoir exhumed during the Pan-African orogeny. The delta O-18 measured in brachiopod shells is used as a forcing of the model, postulating that any change in the oxygen isotopic composition of seawater is the result of a disequilibrium in the organic carbon subcycle through the coupling of the oxygen isotopic and carbon cycles. The calculated delta C-13, Sr-87/Sr-86 and delta S-34 are in good agreement with the data, as is the reasonable calculated history for atmospheric pCO(2) and its relation to global climate. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailAlgebraic decay of the survival probability in chaotic helium
Schlagheck, Peter ULg; Buchleitner, A.

in Physical Review. A (2001), 63(2), 024701

We demonstrate that the classical helium atom exhibits algebraic decay of the survival probability in the autoionizing eZe configuration. Excitation towards asymptotic orbits of marginal stability is ... [more ▼]

We demonstrate that the classical helium atom exhibits algebraic decay of the survival probability in the autoionizing eZe configuration. Excitation towards asymptotic orbits of marginal stability is identified as the cause of the nonexponential decay. Since one electron travels along a bound Kepler trajectory of infinite excitation in these orbits, we argue that the classical decay law will prevail in the quantum dynamics of a wave packet launched along the eZe configuration. [less ▲]

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See detailModelling and design of an electrostatically levitated disc for inertial sensing applications
Kraft, Michael ULg; Farooqui, Mateen M.; Evans, Alan G. R.

in Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering (2001), 11(4), 423--427

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See detailThe acquired brain injuries in the term and preterm babies: an update on their pathophysiology
Battisti, Oreste ULg; Adant-François, A.; Scalais, E. et al

in Journal du Pédiatre Belge (2001), 3

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See detailBelgian normative data of the temperament and character inventory
Hansenne, Michel ULg; Le Bon, O.; Gauthier, Audrey ULg et al

in European Journal of Psychological Assessment (2001), 17(1), 56-62

The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) is a 226-item self-questionnaire developed to assess the seven dimensions of personality described by Cloninger and his colleagues. Normative data from 322 ... [more ▼]

The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) is a 226-item self-questionnaire developed to assess the seven dimensions of personality described by Cloninger and his colleagues. Normative data from 322 representative French-speaking subjects from Belgium are presented and the psychometric properties are discussed. Mean scores of temperament dimensions were appreciably different from those published by Cloninger. In our sample, novelty seeking and self-transcendence scores were lower and harm avoidance scores were higher compared to US norms. The other dimensions were almost identical. The factorial analysis showed that the hypothesized factor structure of temperament and character dimensions was almost confirmed. The present study also confirmed that the TCI scales were weakly related among themselves. The relationships were consistent with those reported by previous reports. Gender differences were also found for different dimensions. [less ▲]

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See detailEquilibrium charge-state distributions of sodium ions in carbon foil
Tordoir, Xavier ULg; Bastin, Thierry ULg; Dumont, Paul-Dominique ULg et al

in Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section B, Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms (2001), 173

The equilibrium charge-state distributions have been measured for sodium ions at the exit of a carbon foil for energies ranging from 0.43 to 1.66 Me V. A comparison of our results with available models is ... [more ▼]

The equilibrium charge-state distributions have been measured for sodium ions at the exit of a carbon foil for energies ranging from 0.43 to 1.66 Me V. A comparison of our results with available models is performed and an empirical formula for calculating the charge-state fractions of sodium ions is deduced. [less ▲]

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See detailModule checking
Kupferman, Orna; Vardi, Moshe Y; Wolper, Pierre ULg

in Information & Computation (2001), 164(2), 322-344

In computer system design, we distinguish between closed and open systems. A closed system is a system whose behavior is completely determined by the state of the system. An open system is a system that ... [more ▼]

In computer system design, we distinguish between closed and open systems. A closed system is a system whose behavior is completely determined by the state of the system. An open system is a system that interacts with its environment and whose behavior depends on this interaction. The ability of temporal logics to describe an ongoing interaction of a reactive program with its environment makes them particularly appropriate for the specification of open systems. Nevertheless, model-checking algorithms used for the verification of closed systems are not appropriate for the verification of open systems. Correct model checking of open systems should check the system with respect to arbitrary environments and should take into account uncertainty regarding the environment. This is not the case with current model-checking algorithms and tools. In this paper we introduce and examine the problem of model checking of open systems (module checking, for short). We show that while module checking and model checking coincide for the linear-time paradigm, module checking is much harder than model checking for the branching-time paradigm. We prove that the problem of module checking is EXPTIME-complete for specifications in CTL and 2EXPTIME-complete for specifications in CTL*. This bad news is also carried over when we consider the program-complexity of module checking. As good news, we show that for the commonly-used fragment of CTL (universal, possibly, and always possibly properties), current model-checking tools do work correctly, or can be easily adjusted to work correctly, with respect to both closed and open systems. (C) 2001 Academic Press. [less ▲]

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See detailL'etude clinique du mois. L'etude CALM ou interet de combiner un inhibiteur de l'enzyme de conversion et un antagoniste du recepteur de type 1 de l'angiotensine II dans le traitement de la nephropathie diabetique.
Philips, Jean-Christophe ULg; Weekers, Laurent ULg; Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(2), 126-8

The main objective of the CALM (Candesartan And Lisinopril Microalbuminuria) study is to assess the effect of a dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin system--using both an angiotensin converting enzyme ... [more ▼]

The main objective of the CALM (Candesartan And Lisinopril Microalbuminuria) study is to assess the effect of a dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin system--using both an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I) and an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker--in patients with type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure and microalbuminuria. The study included 200 patients randomized to receive candesartan 16 mg or lisinopril 20 mg for 12 weeks, followed by 12 weeks of the same monotherapy or a combination treatment. Main outcomes are the reduction of microalbuminuria and blood pressure. All three of the treatments are effective, but the dual blockade is respectively 18%, 8 mmHg and 5 mmHg more effective in reducing microalbuminuria, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. No comparison is made between this "new" association and the more frequently used biotherapy (i.e. ACE-I plus thiazidic diuretic) and therefore its usefulness in regular practice is still to be determined. [less ▲]

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See detailLes bioindustries fertilisent la valorisation
Thonart, Philippe ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2001), 5(3), 131-134

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See detailCaractérisation de particules d'engrais : corrélation entre les propriétés physiques et morphométriques
Miserque, Olivier; Tissot, Serge; Pirard, Eric ULg

in Récents Progrès en Génie des Procédés (2001), 15(78),

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See detailThe Composite Genome Of The Legume Symbiont Sinorhizobium Meliloti
Galibert, Francis; Finan, Turlough M.; Long, Sharon R. et al

in Science (2001), 293(5530),

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See detailGrowth patterns of Belgian Blue replacement heifers and growing males in commercial farms
de Behr, Vanessa; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULg et al

in Livestock Production Science (2001), 71

A survey was carried out to propose models of growth curves in Belgian Blue cattle less than 20 months of age and raised in commercial farms in southern Belgium. Live weight data were recorded between ... [more ▼]

A survey was carried out to propose models of growth curves in Belgian Blue cattle less than 20 months of age and raised in commercial farms in southern Belgium. Live weight data were recorded between 1993 and 1999 from 1104 breeding heifers, and 924 growing males. The linear, polynomial group, power, logistic, Brody, Gompertz, von Bertalanffy and Richards models were used and compared. A step-wise linear growth model characterized by two periods of linear growth was also evaluated. This last model has been proposed as the reference model to characterize the growth curves of Belgian Blue cattle less than 20 months old. The animals were then ranked and divided in subgroups based on percentiles and quartiles in order to compare their performances. The subgroups performing better presented a greater homogeneity. The males ranked above the 90th percentile presented a growth rate comparable to that of young males selected for artificial insemination. Cattle ranked above the third quartile presented a growth rate comparable to that of licensed animals. When reproduction performances were related to the growth rate, it appeared that the better growing heifers were bred younger and heavier than lesser performing animals. [less ▲]

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See detailCompte-rendu de Daniel Giovannangeli, Le retard de la conscience. Husserl, Sartre, Derrida
Leclercq, Bruno ULg

in Recherches Husserliennes (2001), 16

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See detailImproving the bias/variance tradeoff of decision trees - towards soft tree induction
Geurts, Pierre ULg; Olaru, Cristina; Wehenkel, Louis ULg

in Engineering intelligent systems (2001), 9

One of the main difficulties with standard top down induction of decision trees comes from the high variance of these methods. High variance means that, for a given problem and sample size, the resulting ... [more ▼]

One of the main difficulties with standard top down induction of decision trees comes from the high variance of these methods. High variance means that, for a given problem and sample size, the resulting tree is strongly dependent on the random nature of the particular sample used for training. Consequently, these algorithms tend to be suboptimal in terms of accuracy and interpretability. This paper analyses this problem in depth and proposes a new method, relying on threshold softening, able to significantly improve the bias/variance tradeoff of decision trees. The algorithm is validated on a number of benchmark problems and its relationship with fuzzy decision tree induction is discussed. This sheds some light on the success of fuzzy decision tree induction and improves our understanding of machine learning, in general. [less ▲]

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See detailEugène Monseur (1860-1912)
Boutier, Marie-Guy ULg

in Wallonnes : Chronique de la Société de Langue et de Littérature Wallonnes (2001), (1),

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See detailMicrophase separation at the surface of block copolymers, as studied with atomic force microscopy
Rasmont, A.; Leclère, Philippe; Doneux, C. et al

in Colloids and Surfaces B : Biointerfaces (2000), 19(4), 381-395

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to study the phase separation process occurring in block copolymers in the solid state. The simultaneous measurement of the amplitude and the phase of the oscillating ... [more ▼]

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to study the phase separation process occurring in block copolymers in the solid state. The simultaneous measurement of the amplitude and the phase of the oscillating cantilever in the tapping mode operation provides the surface topography along with the cartography of the microdomains of different mechanical properties. This technique thus allows to characterize the size and shape of those microdomains and their organization at the surface (e.g. cubic lattice spheres, hexagonal lattice of cylinders, or lamellae). In this study, a series of symmetric triblock copolymers made of a inner elastomeric sequence (poly(butadiene) or poly(alkylacrylate)) and two outer thermoplastic sequences (poly(methylmethacrylate)) is analyzed by AFM in the tapping mode. The microphase separation and their morphology are essential factors for the potential of these materials as a new class of thermoplastic elastomers. Special attention is paid to the control of the surface morphology, as observed by AFM, by the molecular structure of the copolymers (volume ratio of the sequences, molecular weight, length of the alkyl side group) and the experimental conditions used for the sample preparation. The molecular structure of the chains is completely controlled by the synthesis, which relies on the sequential living anionic polymerization of the comonomers. The copolymers are analyzed as solvent-cast films, whose characteristics depend on the solvent used and the annealing conditions. The surface arrangement of the phase-separated elastomeric and thermoplastic microdomains observed on the AFM phase images is discussed on the basis of quantitative information provided by the statistical analysis by Fourier transform and grain size distribution calculations. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of porous polylactide foams by image analysis and impedance spectroscopy
Maquet, Véronique; Blacher, Silvia ULg; Pirard, René ULg et al

in Langmuir (2000), 16(26), 10463-10470

The texture of highly porous polylactide foams prepared by freeze-drying of poly-L-lactide (L-PLA) and poly-DL-lactide (DL-PLA) solutions of various concentrations was investigated by two novel ... [more ▼]

The texture of highly porous polylactide foams prepared by freeze-drying of poly-L-lactide (L-PLA) and poly-DL-lactide (DL-PLA) solutions of various concentrations was investigated by two novel methodologies, image analysis and impedance spectroscopy. Image analysis of scanning electron micrographs of transverse cross-sections at two different magnifications gave information on both the macroporosity (1 mum < width 10 <mu>m) and ultramacroporosity (width > 10 mum). Impedance spectroscopy was used to investigate the transport properties of the three-dimensional porous matrices by measurement of ionic conduction. Image analysis showed that: (a) the macroporosity, which mainly contributes to porosity, is independent of the sample composition; (b) when the concentration of the polymer solution is increased, the density of the ultramacropores decreases and their average diameter increases; (c) the distribution of the ultramacropores is more homogeneous in the semicrystalline L-PLA. foams than in the amorphous DL-PLA counterparts, in which the ultramacropores tend to make clusters. The dielectric properties changed at low frequency, in relation to modifications in the ultramacroporosity. Ultramacropores of the L-PLA foams were found to be more open and more sensitive to the concentration of the polymer solutions compared with DL-PLA. Expectedly, the mechanical properties of the PLA foams changed with the structure of the ultramacroporous network. These results encourage further investigations on the texture of porous supports, to collect pertinent information on the physical macro- and ultramacroenvironment in which cells will reside. [less ▲]

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See detailPeripheral Nerve Regeneration Using Bioresorbable Macroporous Polylactide Scaffolds
Maquet, Véronique; Martin, Didier ULg; Malgrange, Brigitte ULg et al

in Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, Part A (2000), 52(4), 639-51

The ability of DRG-derived neurons to survive and attach onto macroporous polylactide (PLA) foams was assessed in vitro. The foams were fabricated using a thermally induced polymer-solvent phase ... [more ▼]

The ability of DRG-derived neurons to survive and attach onto macroporous polylactide (PLA) foams was assessed in vitro. The foams were fabricated using a thermally induced polymer-solvent phase separation. Two types of pore structures, namely oriented or interconnected pores, can be produced, depending on the mechanism of phase separation, which in turn can be predicted by the thermodynamics of the polymer-solvent pair. Coating of the porous foams with polyvinylalcohol (PVA) considerably improved the wettability of the foams and allowed for cell culture. The in vitro biocompatibility of the PVA-coated supports was demonstrated by measuring cell viability and neuritogenesis. Microscopic observations of the cells seeded onto the polymer foams showed that the interconnected pore networks were more favorable to cell attachment than the anisotropic ones. The capacity of highly oriented foams to support in vivo peripheral nerve regeneration was studied in rats. A sciatic nerve gap of 5-mm length was bridged with a polymer implant showing macrotubes of 100 microm diameter. At 4 weeks postoperatively, the polymer implant was still present. It was well integrated and had restored an anatomic continuity. An abundant cell migration was observed at the outer surface of the polymer implant, but not within the macrotubes. This dense cellular microenvironment was found to be favorable for axogenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailType Iv Collagen Induces Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 Activation in Ht1080 Fibrosarcoma Cells
Maquoi, Erik ULg; Frankenne, F.; Noël, Agnès ULg et al

in Experimental Cell Research (2000), 261(2), 348-59

Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) activation has been described as a "master switch" which triggers tumor spread and metastatic progression. We show here that type IV collagen, a major component of ... [more ▼]

Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) activation has been described as a "master switch" which triggers tumor spread and metastatic progression. We show here that type IV collagen, a major component of basement membranes, promotes MMP-2 activation by HT1080 cells. When plated on plastic, HT1080 cells constitutively processed the 66-kDa pro-MMP-2 into a 62-kDa intermediate activated form, most probably through a membrane type (MT) 1 MMP-dependent mechanism. In the presence of type IV collagen, part of this intermediate form was further processed to fully activated 59-kDa MMP-2. This activation was prevented by tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP)-2 and a broad-spectrum hydroxamic acid-based synthetic MMP inhibitor (GI129471). Type IV collagen-mediated pro-MMP-2 activation did not involve either a transcriptional modulation of MMP-2, MT1-MMP, or TIMP-2 expression nor any alteration of MT1-MMP protein synthesis or processing. An inverse relationship between MMP-2 activation and the concentration of secreted TIMP-2 was observed. This is consistent with our previous report that TIMP-2 degradation is probably linked to the MT1-MMP-dependent MMP-2 activation mechanism. Because invasive tumor cells must breach basement membranes at different steps of the metastatic dissemination, the ability of HT1080 cells to activate pro-MMP-2 in the presence of type IV collagen might represent a key regulatory mechanism for the acquisition of an invasive potential. [less ▲]

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See detailWater-soluble complexes formed by sodium poly(4-styrenesulfonate) and a poly(2-vinylpyridinium)-block-poly(ethyleneoxide) copolymer
Gohy, Jean-François; Varshney, Sunil K; Antoun, Said et al

in Macromolecules (2000), 33(25), 9298-9305

Formation of interpolyelectrolyte complexes (IPEC) between sodium poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PSSO3Na) and a diblock copolymer consisting of a protonated poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP) block and a neutral ... [more ▼]

Formation of interpolyelectrolyte complexes (IPEC) between sodium poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PSSO3Na) and a diblock copolymer consisting of a protonated poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP) block and a neutral poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) one was investigated in water. The main experimental variables were the molecular weight (MW) of the PSSO3Na polyanion, the molar ratio of the cationic and anionic species (i.e., the stoichiometry of the complex), and the pH of the aqueous solution. It was observed that (i) the interpolyelectrolyte complexes self-assemble at least at low pH into the core of monodisperse spherical micelles surrounded by a corona of PEO blocks and possibly of uncomplexed PSSO3Na segments, (ii) their stability depends on the pH in relation to the degree of protonation of the P2VP block, whatever the MW of the PSSO3Na polyanion and the cation/anion stoichiometry, (iii) the complexes are dissociated above a critical pH and are salt-sensitive, falling apart above a critical salt concentration, and (iv) a cooperative mechanism operates, which is completely reversible. [less ▲]

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See detailAdsorption of Poly(vinylpyrrolidone)/Surfactant(s) mixtures at the silica/water interface: a calorimetric investigation
Thibaut, Anne; Misselyn-Bauduin, Anne-Marie; Broze, Guy ULg et al

in Langmuir (2000), 16(25), 9841-9849

The adsorption of binary mixtures of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and of ternary mixture of PVP, SDS, and pentaethylene glycol monodecyl ether (C10E5) onto silica has been ... [more ▼]

The adsorption of binary mixtures of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and of ternary mixture of PVP, SDS, and pentaethylene glycol monodecyl ether (C10E5) onto silica has been studied by the measurements of the adsorbed amount of PVP and the heat of adsorption. The amount of PVP adsorbed from the binary mixtures decreases as the SDS concentration is increased, whereas the enthalpy change passes through a maximum at SDS concentration of ca. 4 g/L. The chain conformation of PVP adsorbed on silica has been estimated from the adsorption data in relation to the surfactant concentration. It changes from loops and tails to trains upon increasing SDS concentration. At SDS concentrations higher than 4 g/L, a comblike conformation is observed. The adsorption of PVP/SDS/C10E5 ternary mixtures depends on the polymer concentration regime. [less ▲]

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See detailSpecific Passive Immunity Reduces the Excretion of Glycoprotein E-Negative Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1 Vaccine Strain in Calves
Lemaire, Mylène; Hanon, E.; Schynts, Frédéric et al

in Vaccine (2000), 19(9-10), 1013-7

We investigated the excretion of either a glycoprotein E (gE)-negative bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV1) vaccine strain or a conventional modified-live vaccine strain in both naive and passively immunised ... [more ▼]

We investigated the excretion of either a glycoprotein E (gE)-negative bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV1) vaccine strain or a conventional modified-live vaccine strain in both naive and passively immunised calves. The replication of gE-negative strain was considerably reduced in the maternally immunised calves, in comparison with the non-immune calves. On the other hand, the excretion of the gE-positive conventional vaccine strain was not reduced and even seemed to be prolonged in the presence of maternal antibodies. These results suggest that BHV1 gE may play a role in virus survival in the presence of antibodies. [less ▲]

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See detailTemporal differentiation in two strains of small rodents: a wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) and an albino mouse (Mus musculus OF1)
Lejeune, Helga ULg; Huynen, Marie-Claude ULg; Ferrara, André ULg

in Behavioural Processes (2000), 52(2-3), 155-169

Wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) and OF1 albino mice (Mus musculus) were compared over durations ranging from 0.5 to 7 s, using the differential reinforcement of response duration schedule (DRRD) and a ... [more ▼]

Wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) and OF1 albino mice (Mus musculus) were compared over durations ranging from 0.5 to 7 s, using the differential reinforcement of response duration schedule (DRRD) and a 'platform' response, i.e. staying on a small platform for a specified criterion duration to be reinforced. Species-related differences were found for mean response durations, efficiency and the number of trials needed to reach a preset performance criterion. Coefficients of variation of response durations did not differ. Overall, OF1 mice needed more trials than wood mice to reach a temporal criterion. However, over 3-7 s, data from both strains almost fitted the behavioral assumptions of Scalar Timing theory. Performance of mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) trained in a similar setting was shown for visual comparison. [less ▲]

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See detailPlacental growth hormone (GH), GH-binding protein, and insulin-like growth factor axis in normal, growth-retarded, and diabetic pregnancies: Correlations with fetal growth
McIntyre, H. D.; Serek, R.; Crane, D. I. et al

in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (2000), 85(3), 1143-1150

We previously described significant changes in GH-binding protein (GHBP) in pathological human pregnancy. There was a substantial elevation of GHBP in cases of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and a ... [more ▼]

We previously described significant changes in GH-binding protein (GHBP) in pathological human pregnancy. There was a substantial elevation of GHBP in cases of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and a reduction in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. GHBP has the potential to modulate the proportion of free placental GH (PGH) and hence the impact on the maternal GH/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) axis, fetal growth, and maternal glycemic status. The present study was undertaken to investigate the relationship among glycemia, GHBP, and PGH during pregnancy and to assess the impact of GHBP on the concentration of free PGH. We have extended the analysis of specimens to include measurements of GHBP, PGH, IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), IGFSP-2, and IGFBP-3 and have related these to maternal characteristics, fetal growth, and glycemia. The simultaneous measurement of GHBP and PGH has for the first time allowed calculation of the free component of PGH and correlation of the free component to indexes of fetal growth and other endocrine markers. PGH, free PGH, IGF-I, and IGF-II were substantially decreased in IUGR at 28-30 weeks gestation (K28) and 36-38 weeks gestation (K36). The mean concentration (+/-SEM) of total PGH increased significantly from K28 to K36 (30.0 +/- 2.2 to 50.7 +/- 6.2 ng/mL; n = 40), as did the concentration of free PGH (23.4 +/- 2.3 to 43.7 +/- 6.0 ng/mL; n = 38). The mean percentage of free PGH was significantly less in IUGR than in normal subjects (67% vs. 79%; P < 0.01). Macrosomia was associated with an increase in these parameters that did not reach statistical significance. Multiple regression analysis revealed that PGH/IGF-I and IGFBP-5 account for 40% of the variance in birth weight. IGFBP-3 showed a significant correlation with IGF-I, IGF-II, and free and total PGK at K28 and K36. Noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients had a lower mean percentage of free PGH (65%; P < 0.01), and insulin-dependent diabetics had a higher mean percentage of free PGH (87%; P < 0.01) than normal subjects. Mean postprandial glucose at K28 correlated positively with PGH and free PGH (consistent with the hyperglycemic action of GH). GHBP correlated negatively with both postprandial and fasting glucose. Although GHBP correlated negatively with PGH (r = -0.52; P <.001), free PGH and total PGH correlated very closely (r = 0.98). The results are consistent with an inhibitory function for GHBP in vivo and support a critical role for placental GH and IGF-I in driving normal fetal growth. [less ▲]

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See detailVariations of the Ap star HDE 318107
Manfroid, Jean ULg; Mathys, G.

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2000), 364

The rotation period of the Ap star HDE 318107 has been determined from magnetic and photometric observations obtained between August 1992 and September 1998.

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See detailGenotypic Characterization of Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli (Epec) Isolated in Belgium from Dogs and Cats
Goffaux, F.; China, B.; Janssen, L. et al

in Research in Microbiology (2000), 151(10), 865-71

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) are isolated from man and farm animals but also from dogs and cats. They produce typical histological lesions called 'attaching and effacing' lesions. Both plasmid ... [more ▼]

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) are isolated from man and farm animals but also from dogs and cats. They produce typical histological lesions called 'attaching and effacing' lesions. Both plasmid and chromosomal elements are involved in the pathogenesis of EPEC infection. The presence of these genetic elements was investigated in 14 dog and three cat EPEC isolates. A bfpA-related gene was detected in five of the 17 isolates in association with high molecular weight plasmids, and a locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) was present in all isolates. The LEE was inserted in the selC region in only 12% of the isolates. The eae, tir, espA and espB genes were analyzed by multiplex PCR. The results indicated the presence of those genes in the tested isolates with heterogeneity in the gene subtypes present: eae gamma-tir alpha-espA alpha-espB alpha (65%), eae beta-tir beta-espA beta-espB beta (29%), eae alpha-tir alpha-espA alpha-espB alpha (6%). Moreover, the espD gene was also present in dog and cat EPEC. The DEPEC and CEPEC form a heterogeneous group and five of them are closely related to human EPEC. [less ▲]

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See detailL'électronique au service de la détection des chaleurs.
Hanzen, Christian ULg

in Hebdo Vétérinaire (2000), 32

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See detailBone Sialoprotein Mrna and Protein Expression in Human Multiple Myeloma Cell Lines and Patients
Bellahcene, Akeila ULg; Van Riet, I.; de Greef, C. et al

in British Journal of Haematology (2000), 111(4), 1118-21

Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a glycoprotein essentially found in mineralizing connective tissues. We have recently demonstrated that BSP is ectopically expressed by carcinomas that metastasize to bone with ... [more ▼]

Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a glycoprotein essentially found in mineralizing connective tissues. We have recently demonstrated that BSP is ectopically expressed by carcinomas that metastasize to bone with high frequency. Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by the localization of tumour plasma cells in the bone marrow. In this study, BSP expression was evaluated in human myeloma cell lines and in bone marrow aspirates and one ascites fluid from MM patients. BSP was detectable in conditioned media of MM cell lines. Using FACS analysis and in situ hybridization, we demonstrated that tumour cells from all MM patients and cell lines analysed express BSP at both the protein and the mRNA level. [less ▲]

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See detailStripes Ordering in Self-Stratification Experiments of Binary and Ternary Granular Mixtures
Lecocq, N.; Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg

in Physical Review. E : Statistical Physics, Plasmas, Fluids, and Related Interdisciplinary Topics (2000), 62(6, Pt B), 8241-4

The self-stratification of binary and ternary granular mixtures has been experimentally investigated. Ternary mixtures lead to a particular ordering of the strata which was not accounted for in former ... [more ▼]

The self-stratification of binary and ternary granular mixtures has been experimentally investigated. Ternary mixtures lead to a particular ordering of the strata which was not accounted for in former explanations. Bouncing grains are found to have an important effect on stratum formation. A complementary mechanism for self-stratification of binary and ternary granular mixtures is proposed. [less ▲]

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See detailVirus Neutralizing Antibodies against a Panel of 18 Bvdv Isolates in Calves Vaccinated with Rispoval Rs-Bvd
Hamers, C.; Di Valentin, Emmanuel ULg; Dumont, Chloé ULg et al

in Journal of Veterinary Medicine. B, Infectious Diseases & Veterinary Public Health (2000), 47(10), 721-6

Seven of nine colostrum-deprived calves, free from infection with bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV), were vaccinated with Rispoval RS-BVD on two occasions, 21 days apart, while the other two were kept ... [more ▼]

Seven of nine colostrum-deprived calves, free from infection with bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV), were vaccinated with Rispoval RS-BVD on two occasions, 21 days apart, while the other two were kept as BVDV infection controls. The virus neutralizing (VN) serum antibodies induced by vaccination were tested for their ability to neutralize 18 European BVDV isolates, including laboratory reference strains and recent field isolates, both cytopathic and non-cytopathic biotypes as well as genotypes I and II. The strains were isolated in Belgium, France, Germany and the United Kingdom. While there were large variations in the vaccine-induced VN titres of the individual calves against all the strains, e.g. the titres against Osloss NCP, the European reference strain ranged from 1.7 to 6.7 (1:log2), serum from each animal was capable of neutralizing between nine and all 18 of the strains tested. Nevertheless, from the results of this study, it can be concluded that in colostrum-deprived BVDV seronegative calves, Rispoval RS-BVD can stimulate the production of VN antibodies capable of neutralizing a wide range of antigenically diverse European isolates of BVDV, including genotypes I and II. [less ▲]

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See detailA 295-Kda Intermediate Filament-Associated Protein in Radial Glia and Developing Muscle Cells in Vivo and in Vitro
Chanas-Sacre, Grazyna; Thiry, Marc ULg; Pirard, Sandrine et al

in Developmental Dynamics : An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists (2000), 219(4), 514-25

The RC2 antibody is frequently used to label mouse radial glial cells in all parts of the nervous system where neuronal migration occurs during embryonic and early postnatal life. The antigen recognized ... [more ▼]

The RC2 antibody is frequently used to label mouse radial glial cells in all parts of the nervous system where neuronal migration occurs during embryonic and early postnatal life. The antigen recognized by this antibody still needs to be identified. We have characterized further its localization in vivo, its expression and subcellular localization in vitro, as well as its molecular nature. Histologic investigations of whole mouse embryos reveal an equally intense expression of RC2 immunostaining in radial glial cells in brain and spinal cord and in skeletal muscle. In glial cells cultures, the RC2 antibody recognizes an epitope located on the glial cytoskeleton and identified as an intermediate filament associated protein (IFAP) at the ultrastructural level. RC2 immunostaining in those cells is strongly dependent on the presence of a serum-derived activity. Serum-removal causes a decrease of the staining while adding serum back to the cells induces reexpression of RC2 immunoreactivity. By Western blotting, we find that in intermediate filament (IF) preparations obtained from cultured cerebellar glia, the RC2 antibody recognizes a 295-kDa protein whose expression is also dependent on the presence of serum in culture medium. In developing muscle cells, RC2 immunostaining is observed from the myoblast stage and disappears after complete myotube fusion. Both in vivo and in vitro, staining is first seen as a loose capping around myoblasts nuclei and progressively concentrates into Z-disks in association with the muscle IF protein desmin. The RC2 antibody also recognizes a 295-kDa protein band in muscle tissue protein extracts. Thus, the RC2 antibody recognizes a developmentally regulated cytoskeletal protein that is expressed, like other previously identified IFAPs, by cells of the glial and myogenic lineages and whose expression in vitro seems to be controlled by a signaling mechanism known to modulate astroglial morphology. [less ▲]

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See detailEffectiveness of block copolymers as stabilizers for aqueous titanium dioxide dispersions of a high solid content
Creutz, Serge; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Progress in Organic Coatings (2000), 40(1-4), 21-29

Copolymers of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) and sodium methacrylate (MANa) have been synthesized and tested as dispersants for the aqueous dispersion of titanium dioxide (80 wt.% solid ... [more ▼]

Copolymers of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) and sodium methacrylate (MANa) have been synthesized and tested as dispersants for the aqueous dispersion of titanium dioxide (80 wt.% solid). The molecular composition of the block copolymers has an effect on the dispersion stability. Triblock copolymers consisting of PMANa outer blocks are unable to stabilize the dispersion. Triblock copolymers of the reverse structure form poorly stable dispersions due to at least partial particle bridging. In the case of non-blocky distribution of the DMAEMA and MANa comonomers in the chains, the stabilization capability is lost. A decrease in the anchoring strength of the diblocks has a deleterious effect on the dispersion stability. Finally, the surface coverage depends on the availability of free copolymer chains (unimers) coexisting with micelles. These trends have been confirmed in a fully formulated paint containing Cu-phthalocyanine pigment. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Contraceptive Profile of a New Oral Contraceptive with Antimineralocorticoid and Antiandrogenic Effects
Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg

in European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care : The Official Journal of the European Society of Contraception (2000), 5(Suppl 3), 25-33

Yasmin (Schering AG, Berlin, Germany), a new oral contraceptive containing 30 microg ethinylestradiol combined with 3 mg drospirenone, effectively inhibits ovulation, as demonstrated by measurement of ... [more ▼]

Yasmin (Schering AG, Berlin, Germany), a new oral contraceptive containing 30 microg ethinylestradiol combined with 3 mg drospirenone, effectively inhibits ovulation, as demonstrated by measurement of plasma hormone levels (follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol and progesterone), and echographic evaluation of follicular ripening. Like other low-dose oral contraceptives, the combination of ethinylestradiol and drospirenone markedly limits cervical function, spinnbarkeit and degree of crystallization, resulting in a hostile environment for sperm penetration. Two large, randomized, multicenter, open-label clinical studies have compared the contraceptive efficacy of ethinylestradiol/drospirenone with that of Marvelon, a well-established contraceptive containing 30 microg ethinylestradiol plus 150 microg desogestrel. Both preparations provided effective contraception and good cycle control. There were no negative effects on hemostatic parameters, lipids and carbohydrate metabolism. However, in both studies, ethinylestradiol/drospirenone had a more favorable effect on body weight than ethinylestradiol/desogestrel, with mean body weight remaining lower in the ethinylestradiol/ drospirenone group, the difference between the two preparations being statistically significant. Pre-existing acne and seborrhea were improved by ethinylestradiol/ drospirenone and blood pressure was essentially unchanged. These studies show that ethinylestradiol/drospirenone provides effective oral contraception, excellent cycle control and good tolerability, with effects on body weight and skin condition that are likely to confer a significant beneficial effect on compliance, especially in women with a tendency to gain weight under oral contraceptives due to water retention. [less ▲]

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See detailIonic end-capping of (semi)telechelic polymers by mesogens
Gohy, Jean-François; Sobry, Roger ULg; Van den Bossche, Guy ULg et al

in Polymer International (2000), 49(11), 1293-1301

Two methods have been used to end-cap linear polymer chains at one end or at both ends by a mesogen through ionic bonding. These polymers are designated as liquid-crystalline halato(semi)telechelic ... [more ▼]

Two methods have been used to end-cap linear polymer chains at one end or at both ends by a mesogen through ionic bonding. These polymers are designated as liquid-crystalline halato(semi)telechelic polymers (LC H(S)TPs). The first method relies on the ion exchange reaction between the metal counterion of halato(semi)telechelic polymers and an ionic mesogen. The second method is based on the proton transfer from a sulfonic or carboxylic acid end-group to a tertiary aliphatic amine, this approach being controlled by the relative pKa values of the acidic and basic groups. If the pKa difference is not large enough, strong hydrogen-bonding is observed by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy rather than proton transfer. The resulting materials have been characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized optical microscopy (POM) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). [less ▲]

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See detailTaxonomy of stock market indices
Bonanno, G.; Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Mantegna, R. N.

in Physical Review. E : Statistical Physics, Plasmas, Fluids, and Related Interdisciplinary Topics (2000), 62(6),

We investigate sets of financial nonredundant and nonsynchronously recorded time series. The sets are composed by a number of stock market indices located all over the world in five continents. By ... [more ▼]

We investigate sets of financial nonredundant and nonsynchronously recorded time series. The sets are composed by a number of stock market indices located all over the world in five continents. By properly selecting the time horizon of returns and by using a reference currency we find a meaningful taxonomy. The detection of such a taxonomy proves that interpretable information can be stored in a set of nonsynchronously recorded time series. [less ▲]

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See detailConsiderations on delocalized HbA(1c) assays
Bordas-Fonfrede, M.; Selam, J. L.; Goudable, J. et al

in Diabètes & Métabolism (2000), 26(6), 508-512

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See detailModélisation des phénomènes thermomécaniques dans une lingotière de coulée continue
Pascon, Frédéric ULg; Habraken, Anne ULg; Bourdouxhe, M. et al

in Mécanique & Industries (2000), 1

Modelling of the thermomechanical phenomena in a mould of continuous casting. The surface and internal quality of continuous cast products depends very much on the behaviour of the strand in the mould ... [more ▼]

Modelling of the thermomechanical phenomena in a mould of continuous casting. The surface and internal quality of continuous cast products depends very much on the behaviour of the strand in the mould during solidification. Among the parameters likely to influence this behaviour, the mould taper takes a prominent part. We developed a thermomechanical 2D model of the strand in the mould using the finite element code LAGAMINE. A slice of the strand is defined perpendicularly to the casting axis with the following boundary conditions: symmetry with principal axes of the section (double symmetry), frictional unilateral contact with the mould surface and imposed mould temperature. The approach uses the generalised plane strain state that allows a variable thickness of the slice in time, and provides one equation for the vertical force equilibrium. The ferrostatic pressure is also taken into account. Due to the mould taper, the geometry of the mould is not constant, but varies as the slice is moving down. The thermal exchange conditions are also modified, depending on contact condition between the strand and the mould. After a two years work, the model is now in checking to predict behaviour of the strand in different cases (shape of the strand cross section, mould taper, etc.). [less ▲]

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See detailRegulation of Etioplast Pigment-Protein Complexes, Inner Membrane Architecture, and Protochlorophyllide a Chemical Heterogeneity by Light-Dependent Nadph:Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductases a and B
Franck, Fabrice ULg; Sperling, U.; Frick, G. et al

in Plant Physiology (2000), 124(4), 1678-96

The etioplast of dark-grown angiosperms is characterized by the prolamellar body (PLB) inner membrane, the absence of chlorophyll, and the accumulation of divinyl and monovinyl derivatives of ... [more ▼]

The etioplast of dark-grown angiosperms is characterized by the prolamellar body (PLB) inner membrane, the absence of chlorophyll, and the accumulation of divinyl and monovinyl derivatives of protochlorophyll(ide) a [Pchl(ide) a]. Either of two structurally related, but differentially expressed light-dependent NADPH:Pchlide oxidoreductases (PORs), PORA and PORB, can assemble the PLB and form dark-stable ternary complexes containing enzymatically photoactive Pchlide-F655. Here we have examined in detail whether these polypeptides play redundant roles in etioplast differentiation by manipulating the total POR content and the PORA-to-PORB ratio of etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings using antisense and overexpression approaches. POR content correlates closely with PLB formation, the amounts, spectroscopic properties, and photoreduction kinetics of photoactive Pchlide, the ratio of photoactive Pchlide-F655 to non-photoactive Pchl(ide)-F632, and the ratio of divinyl- to monovinyl-Pchl(ide). This last result defines POR as the first endogenous protein factor demonstrated to influence the chemical heterogeneity of Pchl(ide) in angiosperms. It is intriguing that excitation energy transfer between different spectroscopic forms of Pchl(ide) in etiolated cotyledons remains largely independent of POR content. We therefore propose that the PLB contains a minimal structural unit with defined pigment stoichiometries, within which a small amount of non-photoactive Pchl(ide) transfers excitation energy to a large excess of photoactive Pchlide-F655. In addition, our data suggests that POR may bind not only stoichiometric amounts of photoactive Pchlide, but also substoichiometric amounts of non-photoactive Pchl(ide). We conclude that the typical characteristics of etioplasts are closely related to total POR content, but not obviously to the specific presence of PORA or PORB. [less ▲]

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See detailRoles of Nuclear Factor-Kappab, P53, and P21/Waf1 in Daunomycin-Induced Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis
Hellin, A. C.; Bentires-Alj, M.; Verlaet, Myriam ULg et al

in Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (The) (2000), 295(3), 870-8

Daunomycin is a potent inducer of p53 and NF-kappaB transcription factors. It is also able to increase the amount of the p21 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. The human p21 promoter harbors p53 ... [more ▼]

Daunomycin is a potent inducer of p53 and NF-kappaB transcription factors. It is also able to increase the amount of the p21 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. The human p21 promoter harbors p53-responsive elements and an NF-kappaB binding site. [less ▲]

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See detailLe syndrome de Gitelman: une cause rare d'hypokaliemie
Brasseur, Edmond ULg; PHILIPS, Jean-Christophe ULg; Rorive, Georges ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(12), 1037-40

We report a case of hypokaliemia whose origin is a urinary potassium loss associated with syndrome of Gitelman. The syndrome of Gitelman is a rare familiar autosomal recessive nephropathy. We will discuss ... [more ▼]

We report a case of hypokaliemia whose origin is a urinary potassium loss associated with syndrome of Gitelman. The syndrome of Gitelman is a rare familiar autosomal recessive nephropathy. We will discuss the pathophysiology of this syndrome and differential diagnoses. [less ▲]

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See detailTolerance to the Foeto-Placental 'Graft': Ten Ways to Support a Child for Nine Months
Thellin, Olivier ULg; Coumans, Bernard ULg; Zorzi, Willy ULg et al

in Current Opinion in Immunology (2000), 12(6), 731-7

Tolerance to the foetal 'allograft' has been extensively studied in the past few years, providing interesting new insights. In addition to a potential role for HLA-G, which has been widely discussed ... [more ▼]

Tolerance to the foetal 'allograft' has been extensively studied in the past few years, providing interesting new insights. In addition to a potential role for HLA-G, which has been widely discussed, there are hypotheses suggesting roles for several other molecules or cells: leukemia inhibitory factor and its receptor; indoleamine 2. 3-dioxygenase; the Th1/Th2 balance; suppressor macrophages; hormones such as progesterone or the placental growth hormone; CD95 and its ligand; and, as recently proposed, annexin II. Tolerance of the foetal allograft is probably the consequence of a wide panel of mechanisms that may or may not be pregnancy-specific, that are of major or secondary importance and that may be interconnected. [less ▲]

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See detailProtection fongicide intégrée au mode de conduire de la culture. Exemple du blé en Belgique
Bodson, Bernard ULg; Meeùs, Patrick; Moreau, Jean-Marc et al

in Phytoma : La Défense des Végétaux (2000), 533

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See detailCytokine Production from Peripheral Whole Blood in Atopic and Nonatopic Asthmatics: Relationship with Blood and Sputum Eosinophilia and Serum Ige Levels
Bettiol, J.; Bartsch, Pierre ULg; Louis, Renaud ULg et al

in Allergy (2000), 55(12), 1134-41

BACKGROUND: The cytokine network is thought to be essential in orchestrating airway inflammation in asthma. Although evidence has accumulated to suggest that atopic asthma is a Th2 disease, much less is ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The cytokine network is thought to be essential in orchestrating airway inflammation in asthma. Although evidence has accumulated to suggest that atopic asthma is a Th2 disease, much less is known about nonatopic asthma. METHODS: We have compared the production of IL-4, IL-6, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha from peripheral blood leukocytes between atopic (n=21) and nonatopic (n=22) asthmatics and healthy nonatopic subjects (n=20). Peripheral blood was incubated for 24 h either without stimulus or with LPS or PHA. Cytokines were measured by the immunotrapping technique (Dynamic Immunoassay). RESULTS: When compared to healthy nonatopic subjects, both atopic and nonatopic asthmatics showed increased blood and sputum eosinophilia associated with raised total serum IgE levels. Similarly, both asthma groups displayed spontaneous, endotoxin-induced overproduction of IL-6. Enhanced spontaneous, endotoxin-induced release of IL-4 combined with reduced spontaneous IFN-gamma production was seen only in atopic asthma. In this group of patients, the production of IL-4 was related to the extent of blood and sputum eosinophilia. In nonatopic asthmatics, serum levels of IgE were inversely related to the production of IFN-gamma. CONCLUSIONS: Both atopic and intrinsic asthma display raised blood and airway eosinophilia, raised total serum IgE, and overproduction of IL-6 from peripheral blood. Atopic asthma is also characterized by impaired spontaneous release of IFN-gamma and increased production of IL-4 that correlates with the magnitude of eosinophilic inflammation. [less ▲]

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See detailSma Circuits Reduce Platelet Consumption and Platelet Factor Release During Cardiac Surgery
Defraigne, Jean-Olivier ULg; Pincemail, Joël ULg; Dekoster, Guy ULg et al

in Annals of Thoracic Surgery (2000), 70(6), 2075-81

BACKGROUND: Platelet count and function are particularly damaged by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). This study evaluated the effects of a novel CPB circuit in terms of platelet count and activation, and ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Platelet count and function are particularly damaged by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). This study evaluated the effects of a novel CPB circuit in terms of platelet count and activation, and postoperative need for blood products. METHODS: One hundred patients undergoing coronary grafting were randomized in two groups: control group (n = 50) and test group (n = 50, surface modifying additives circuit, SMA group). Blood samples were taken before, during, and after CPB. Postoperative blood loss, number of transfused blood products, and postoperative variables were recorded. RESULTS: The platelet count decreased less in the SMA group compared to the control group (end of CPB: respectively, 165 +/- 9 x 10(3)/mm3 vs 137 +/- 8 x 10(3)/mm3; p < 0.01). This was paralleled by a reduction in beta-thromboglobulin plasma levels in the SMA group. There was a trend to decreased blood loss in the SMA group, but the difference was significant only in patients taking aspirin preoperatively (p < 0.05). In the SMA group nearly 50% less fresh frozen plasma and platelet units were administered (p < 0.01). No operative deaths were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The use of circuits with surface additives is clinically safe, preserves platelet levels, and attenuates platelet activation. This may lead to a reduced need for blood products. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation de l'efficacité de la lutte chimique contre Helicoverpa armigera sur le cotonnier durant la campagne agricole 1996 au Burkina Faso
Toé, A.M.; Héma, S.A.O.; Schiffers, Bruno ULg

in Etudes et Recherches Sahéliennes (2000), 4-5

ln 1996, the cotton subsector in Burkina Faso experienced a great crisis which was drama-like here and there. An exceptionally high infestation of cotton plants by the main pest, Helicoverpa armigera (a ... [more ▼]

ln 1996, the cotton subsector in Burkina Faso experienced a great crisis which was drama-like here and there. An exceptionally high infestation of cotton plants by the main pest, Helicoverpa armigera (a density of 167n500 worms par hectare) on treated plots whereas the theoretical intervention threshold is ranging from 5,000 to 12,500 Army-worms per hectare could not be controlled by the released insecticides. This year, the infestation intensity was at least sirnilar with the one of the year 1991 in which harvest losses had been estimated at 50,000 tons of seed cotton (NIBOUCHE 1994), i.e. a loss of about 20 billion francs CFA. The aftermath was really heavy for the productucers, SOFITEX and the Burkina state. Four years later, well informed and well-advised experts take into consideration the natural factors and hurnan opcrational factors that are the source of this economie drarna : findings from two independent expert reports produced according to Laboratory Good Pratices (GLP) at the request of civil society on sorne pesticides, highlited concordantly their poor quality (low active ingredient. content, poor quality of formulations). This work, whilst restoring truth in a fair and unbiased way, states the reasons for our past and current failures as weil as the reasons for our future successes. By proposing a new approach to studies on the efficacy of cotton insecticides, tbis work contributes to the seeking of a better phytosanitary protection for cotton in the countries of the sub-region. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychrophilic Enzymes: Revisiting the Thermodynamic Parameters of Activation May Explain Local Flexibility
Lonhienne, T.; Gerday, Charles ULg; Feller, Georges ULg

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (2000), 1543(1), 1-10

Basic theoretical and practical aspects of activation parameters are briefly reviewed in the context of cold-adaptation. In order to reduce the error impact inherent to the transition state theory on the ... [more ▼]

Basic theoretical and practical aspects of activation parameters are briefly reviewed in the context of cold-adaptation. In order to reduce the error impact inherent to the transition state theory on the absolute values of the free energy (DeltaG(#)), enthalpy (DeltaH(#)) and entropy (DeltaS(#)) of activation, it is proposed to compare the variation of these parameters between psychrophilic and mesophilic enzymes, namely Delta(DeltaG(#))(p-m), Delta(DeltaH(#))(p-m) and Delta(DeltaS(#))(p-m). Calculation of these parameters from the available literature shows that the main adaptation of psychrophilic enzymes lies in a significant decrease of DeltaH(#), therefore leading to a higher k(cat), especially at low temperatures. Moreover, in all cases including cold-blooded animals, DeltaS(#) exerts an opposite and negative effect on the gain in k(cat). It is argued that the magnitude of this counter-effect of DeltaS(#) can be reduced by keeping some stable domains, while increasing the flexibility of the structures required to improve catalysis at low temperature, as demonstrated in several cold-active enzymes. This enthalpic-entropic balance provides a new approach explaining the two types of conformational stability detected by recent microcalorimetric experiments on psychrophilic enzymes. [less ▲]

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See detailAdsorption of an aqueous mixture of surfactants on silica
Thibaut, Anne; Misselyn-Bauduin, Anne-Marie; Grandjean, Jean ULg et al

in Langmuir (2000), 16(24), 9192-9198

The behavior of mixtures of a nonionic surfactant, pentaethylene glycol monodecyl ether (C10E5), and an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), was studied at the water−silica interface. In ... [more ▼]

The behavior of mixtures of a nonionic surfactant, pentaethylene glycol monodecyl ether (C10E5), and an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), was studied at the water−silica interface. In contrast to the C10E5 surfactant, which is adsorbed at the silica−water interface at pH 6, the adsorption of the anionic surfactant is not observed. In the presence of SDS, the adsorption of C10E5 is severely restricted as result of the formation of mixed micelles in solution. This behavior is consistent with the adsorption free energy, ΔGads, of C10E5 and the free energy of mixed micellization, ΔGmix.mic, of SDS and C10E5. Flow microcalorimetry (FMC) results showed that the addition of C10E5/SDS mixtures to silica precoated with C10E5 resulted in the release of the preadsorbed nonionic surfactant; the whole phenomenon is exothermic. Combination of calorimetric data (FMC and isothermal titration calorimetry), self-diffusion coefficients, and the regular solution theory led to the conclusion that the main driving force for the C10E5 desorption was the formation of mixed micelles by unimeric SDS and the released nonionic surfactant. [less ▲]

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See detailResistance of Isolated Pulmonary Mitochondria During in Vitro Anoxia/Reoxygenation
Willet, K.; Detry, Olivier ULg; Sluse, Francis ULg

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (2000), 1460(2-3), 346-52

The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of in vitro anoxia/reoxygenation on the oxidative phosphorylation of isolated lung mitochondria. Mitochondria were isolated after harvesting from fresh ... [more ▼]

The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of in vitro anoxia/reoxygenation on the oxidative phosphorylation of isolated lung mitochondria. Mitochondria were isolated after harvesting from fresh pig lungs flushed with Euro-Collins solution. Mitochondrial respiratory parameters were determined in isolated mitochondria before anoxia (control), after 5-45 min anoxia followed by 5 min reoxygenation, and after 25 or 40 min of in vitro incubation in order to follow the in vitro aging of mitochondria during respiratory assays. Respiratory parameters measured after anoxia/reoxygenation did not show any oxidative phosphorylation dysfunction, indicating a high resistance of pulmonary mitochondria to in vitro anoxia/reoxygenation (up to 45 min anoxia). These results indicate that mitochondria are not directly responsible of their oxidative phosphorylation damage observed after in vivo ischemia (K. Willet et al., Transplantation 69 (2000) 582) but are a target of others cellular injuries leading to mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo. [less ▲]

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See detailNf-Kappab Activation in Response to Toxical and Therapeutical Agents: Role in Inflammation and Cancer Treatment
Bours, Vincent ULg; Bonizzi, Giuseppina; Bentires-Alj, Mohamed et al

in Toxicology (2000), 153(1-3), 27-38

The NF-kappaB transcription factor is ubiquitously expressed and controls the expression of a large number of genes. Experimental data clearly indicate that NF-kappaB is a major regulator of the ... [more ▼]

The NF-kappaB transcription factor is ubiquitously expressed and controls the expression of a large number of genes. Experimental data clearly indicate that NF-kappaB is a major regulator of the inflammatory reaction by controlling the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules in response to cytokines, oxidative stress and infectious agents. We demonstrated that NF-kappaB activation by IL-1beta follows three distinct cell-specific pathways. Moreover, our studies indicated that in one model of inflammatory diseases, horse recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), the extent of NF-kappaB basal activity correlates with pulmonary dysfunction. Another role of NF-kappaB activity protects cancer cells against apoptosis and could participate in the resistance to cancer treatment. However, we did not observe any increased cytotoxicity after treatment with anticancer drugs or TNF-alpha of cells expressing a NF-kappaB inhibitor. Therefore, we can conclude that the inhibition of apoptosis by NF-kappaB is likely to be cell type and stimulus-dependent. Further studies are required to determine whether NF-kappaB could be a target for anticancer treatments. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanisms of Persistent Nf-Kappa B Activity in the Bronchi of an Animal Model of Asthma
Bureau, Fabrice ULg; Delhalle, Sylvie; Bonizzi, Giuseppina et al

in Journal of Immunology (2000), 165(10), 5822-5830

In most cells trans-activating NF-kappaB induces many inflammatory proteins as well as its own inhibitor, IkappaB-alpha, thus assuring a transient response upon stimulation. However, NF-kappaB-dependent ... [more ▼]

In most cells trans-activating NF-kappaB induces many inflammatory proteins as well as its own inhibitor, IkappaB-alpha, thus assuring a transient response upon stimulation. However, NF-kappaB-dependent inflammatory gene expression is persistent in asthmatic bronchi, even after allergen eviction. In the present report we used bronchial brushing samples (BBSs) from heaves-affected horses (a spontaneous model of asthma) to elucidate the mechanisms by which NF-kappaB activity is maintained in asthmatic airways. NF-kappaB activity was high in granulocytic and nongranulocytic BBS cells. However, NF-kappaB activity highly correlated to granulocyte percentage and was only abrogated after granulocytic death in cultured BBSs. Before granulocytic death, NF-kappaB activity was suppressed by simultaneous addition of neutralizing anti-IL-1beta and anti-TNF-alpha Abs to the medium of cultured BBSs. Surprisingly, IkappaB-beta, whose expression is not regulated by NF-kappaB, unlike IkappaB-alpha, was the most prominent NF-kappaB inhibitor found in BBSs. The amounts of IkappaB-beta were low in BBSs obtained from diseased horses, but drastically increased after addition of the neutralizing anti-IL-1beta and anti-TNF-alpha Abs. These results indicate that sustained NF-kappaB activation in asthmatic bronchi is driven by granulocytes and is mediated by IL-1beta and TNF-alpha. Moreover, an imbalance between high levels of IL-1beta- and TNF-alpha-mediated IkappaB-beta degradation and low levels of IkappaB-beta synthesis is likely to be the mechanism preventing NF-kappaB deactivation in asthmatic airways before granulocytic death. [less ▲]

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See detailPolarization holography reveals the nature of the grating in polymers containing azo-dye
Blanche, Pierre-Alexandre ULg; Lemaire, P. C.; Maertens, Christophe et al

in Optics Communications (2000), 185(1-3), 1-12

To study the origin of reversible holographic recording in three polymers containing the same azo-dye, we have measured the diffraction efficiency and analyzed the gratings characteristics for various ... [more ▼]

To study the origin of reversible holographic recording in three polymers containing the same azo-dye, we have measured the diffraction efficiency and analyzed the gratings characteristics for various writing beams polarizations. The amplitude of the holographic grating, as well as the ratio between index and absorption modulations, have been investigated by gratings shifting. The total amount of diffracted power and the diffraction efficiency versus the reading beam polarization has been measured by non-degenerated four waves mixing. These experiments have revealed that the molecular mechanisms of holographic recording in the studied compounds are different. The photoinduced orientation of the chromophores is predominant for C6-C11-DMNPAA; so, in C11-C6-DMNPAA (DMNPAA: 2,5-dimethyl-4-(p-nitrophenylazo)anisole), the refractive index variation comes from the presence of both trans and cis populations generated by photoisomerization. The behavior of the PVK:DMNPAA is included between these extreme cases since both phenomena act. [less ▲]

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See detailLinear and nonlinear Rayleigh-Bénard-Marangoni instability with surface deformations
Regnier, Vincent; Dauby, Pierre ULg; Lebon, Georgy ULg

in Physics of Fluids (2000), 12

Thermoconvective instabilities in a bilayer liquid-gas system with a deformed interface are investigated. In the first part of the work which is devoted to a linear approach, emphasis is put on the role ... [more ▼]

Thermoconvective instabilities in a bilayer liquid-gas system with a deformed interface are investigated. In the first part of the work which is devoted to a linear approach, emphasis is put on the role of the upper gas layer on the instability phenomenon. The condition to be satisfied by the gas to remain purely conductive is established. The so-called Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation is discussed and its range of validity is carefully defined. Instead of the classical Rayleigh, Marangoni, crispation, and Galileo numbers, new dimensionless groups are introduced. A critical comparison with several previous works is made. The nonlinear analysis consists in studying the different convective patterns which can appear above the threshold. Particular attention is devoted to the shape of the interface and the so-called ``hybrid'' relief. The amplitude of the deformation is also determined and comparison with experimental data is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Optical Time Delay Estimate for the Double Gravitational Lens System B1600+434
Burud, I.; Hjorth, J.; Jaunsen, A. O. et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2000), 544

We present optical I-band light curves of the gravitationally lensed double QSO B1600+434 from observations obtained at the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) between 1998 April and 1999 November. The ... [more ▼]

We present optical I-band light curves of the gravitationally lensed double QSO B1600+434 from observations obtained at the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) between 1998 April and 1999 November. The photometry has been performed by simultaneous deconvolution of all the data frames, involving a numerical lens galaxy model. Four methods have been applied to determine the time delay between the two QSO components, giving a mean estimate of Deltat=51+/-4 days (95% confidence level). This is the fourth optical time delay ever measured. Adopting a Omega=0.3, Lambda=0 universe and using the mass model of Maller et al., this time delay estimate yields a Hubble parameter of H[SUB]0[/SUB]=52[SUP]+14[/SUP][SUB]-8[/SUB] km s[SUP]-1[/SUP] Mpc[SUP]-1[/SUP] (95% confidence level), where the errors include time delay as well as model uncertainties. There are time-dependent offsets between the two (appropriately shifted) light curves that indicate the presence of external variations due to microlensing. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. [less ▲]

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See detailCoordinated monitoring of the eccentric O-star binary Iota Orionis: the X-ray analysis
Pittard, Julian M; Stevens, Ian R; Corcoran, Michael F et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2000), 319

We analyse two ASCA observations of the highly eccentric O9 III+B1 III binary Iota Orionis obtained at periastron and apastron. Based on the assumption of a strong colliding-wind shock between the stellar ... [more ▼]

We analyse two ASCA observations of the highly eccentric O9 III+B1 III binary Iota Orionis obtained at periastron and apastron. Based on the assumption of a strong colliding-wind shock between the stellar components, we expected to see significant variation in the X-ray emission between these phases. The observations proved otherwise: the X-ray luminosities and spectral distributions were remarkably similar. The only noteworthy feature in the X-ray data was the hint of a proximity effect during periastron passage. Although this `flare' is of relatively low significance, it is supported by the notable proximity effects seen in the optical, and the phasing of the X-ray and optical events is in very good agreement. However, other interpretations are also possible. In view of the degradation of the SIS instrument and source contamination in the GIS data we discuss the accuracy of these results, and also analyse archival ROSAT observations. We investigate why we do not see a clear colliding-wind signature. A simple model shows that the wind attenuation to the expected position of the shock apex is negligible throughout the orbit, which poses the puzzling question of why the expected 1/D variation (i.e. a factor of 7.5) in the intrinsic luminosity is not seen in the data. Two scenarios are proposed: either the colliding-wind emission is unexpectedly weak such that intrinsic shocks in the winds dominate the emission, or, alternatively, the emission observed is colliding-wind emission but in a more complex form than we would naively expect. Complex hydrodynamical models are then analysed. Despite strongly phase-variable emission from the models, both are consistent with the observations. We find that if the mass-loss rates of the stars are low then intrinsic wind shocks could dominate the emission. However, when we assume higher mass-loss rates of the stars, we find that the observed emission could also be consistent with a purely colliding-wind origin. A summary of the strengths and weaknesses of each interpretation is presented. To distinguish between the different models X-ray observations with improved phase coverage will be necessary. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Old Halo metallicity gradient: the trace of a self-enrichment process
Parmentier, Geneviève ULg; Jehin, Emmanuel ULg; Magain, Pierre ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2000), 363

Based on a model of globular cluster self-enrichment published in a previous paper, we present an explanation for the metallicity gradient observed throughout the galactic Old Halo. Our self-enrichment ... [more ▼]

Based on a model of globular cluster self-enrichment published in a previous paper, we present an explanation for the metallicity gradient observed throughout the galactic Old Halo. Our self-enrichment model is based on the ability of globular cluster progenitor clouds to retain the ejecta of a first generation of Type II Supernovae. The key point is that this ability depends on the pressure exerted on the progenitor cloud by the surrounding protogalactic medium and therefore on the location of the cloud in the protoGalaxy. Since there is no significant (if any) metallicity gradient in the whole halo, we also present a review in favour of a galactic halo partly built via accretions and mergers of satellite systems. Some of them bear their own globular clusters and therefore ``contaminate'' the system of globular clusters formed ``in situ'', namely within the original potential well of the Galaxy. Therefore, the comparison between our self-enrichment model and the observational data should be limited to the genuine galactic globular clusters, the so-called Old Halo group. [less ▲]

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See detailPropriété intellectuelle : vers une exception à l’épuisement communautaire?
Munoz, Rodolphe ULg

in Journal des Tribunaux Droit Européen (2000), 73

La théorie de l’épuisement empêche une entreprise de s’opposer à la commercialisation d’un produit qui a été écoulé sur un autre marché. L’épuisement est dit "communautaire" ou régional: la protection ne ... [more ▼]

La théorie de l’épuisement empêche une entreprise de s’opposer à la commercialisation d’un produit qui a été écoulé sur un autre marché. L’épuisement est dit "communautaire" ou régional: la protection ne peut être invoquée dans un Etat membre lorsque le produit a déjà été mis sur le marché dans un autre pays de la Communauté. La jurisprudence analysée dans cet article indique que l’épuisement pourrait devenir mondial. Aucune firme ne pourrait alors empêcher l’écoulement d’un produit commercialisé dans un pays tiers. Les vendeurs pourraient écouler dans la Communauté des produits achetés moins cher à l’étranger. Cela serait particulièrement intéressant pour les produits électroniques, qui sont traditionnellement chers en Europe. Le processus entraînerait, à moyen terme, une diminution des prix sur le continent européen. [less ▲]

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See detailMMP-2 and MMP-9-Linked Gelatinolytic Activity in the Sputum from Patients with Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Cataldo, Didier ULg; Munaut, Carine ULg; Noël, Agnès ULg et al

in International Archives of Allergy & Immunology (2000), 123(3), 259-67

BACKGROUND: The course of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with bronchial morphological changes. Metalloproteinases are thought to play a role in these structural ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The course of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with bronchial morphological changes. Metalloproteinases are thought to play a role in these structural changes. METHODS: We studied the gelatinolytic activity present in the induced sputum from 20 patients with asthma, 20 with COPD and 19 healthy controls. The assessment of gelatinolytic activity was performed by quantitative zymography, and gelatinolytic species were identified by Western blot analysis. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) was detected by reverse zymography and ELISA. RESULTS: From zymography, we found significantly higher gelatinolytic activity linked to pro-matrix metalloproteinase-9 (pro-MMP-9) in the sputum from asthmatics (p < 0.0001) and COPD patients (p < 0.0001) compared to the control group. Furthermore, the activated form of MMP-9 (85 kD) was found in the sputum from 60% of asthmatics and 85% of COPD patients, but was absent in that of control subjects (p < 0.0001). Importantly, although less frequently detectable than pro-MMP-9, pro- MMP-2 (72 kD) was found more frequently in asthmatics (50%) than in control subjects (5%) (p < 0. 005). We also described two unusual gelatinolytic species of 45 and 120 kD and showed that they derived from MMP-9 according to their ability to bind gelatin and anti-MMP-9 antibody. Levels of TIMP-1 were higher in asthmatics (p < 0.05) and COPD patients (p < 0.05) than in controls. CONCLUSION: Asthmatics and COPD patients display an increased gelatinolytic activity linked to MMP-2 and MMP-9 and higher levels of TIMP-1 in their sputum. [less ▲]

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See detailComment j'explore ... une bouche brulante
Claessens, N.; Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(11), 1011-4

Burning mouth is a symptom typical for the oral mucosa. In contrast, pruritus is absent at this site. The situation which is the reverse on the skin can be explained by microanatomical differences in the ... [more ▼]

Burning mouth is a symptom typical for the oral mucosa. In contrast, pruritus is absent at this site. The situation which is the reverse on the skin can be explained by microanatomical differences in the sensorial innervation and by a different balance between neuromediators. Burning mouth sensation calls for the search of a series of diseases. However, it is most often a monosymptomatic expression of a minimal lichenoid stomatitis. [less ▲]

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See detailMicro-adénomes à prolactine : le traitement par cabergoline
Beckers, Albert ULg; Valdes Socin, Hernan Gonzalo ULg

in Médecine Thérapeutique Endocrinologie (2000), 2(6), 496-500

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See detailL'image du mois. Histiocytome fibreux malin
Delanaye, Pierre ULg; Heymans, Olivier; Boverie, Jacques ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(11), 969

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See detailLa fibromyalgie en l'an 2000
Maquet, Didier ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(11), 991-7

Musculoskeletal pain is common in the population. Several pathologies like fibromyalgia (FM), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) or spasmophilia are associated with functional myalgia. The etiology of FM ... [more ▼]

Musculoskeletal pain is common in the population. Several pathologies like fibromyalgia (FM), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) or spasmophilia are associated with functional myalgia. The etiology of FM remains elusive, but the diagnosis is well established. The criteria for the classification are widespread pain combined with tenderness at 11 or more of the 18 specific tender points sites. The prevalence is 2% in the general population. This article reviews recent data on the pathophysiology and treatment of FM. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferences in Experimental Virulence of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Viral Strains Isolated from Haemorrhagic Syndromes
Hamers, C.; Couvreur, B.; Dehan, Pierre ULg et al

in Veterinary Journal (2000), 160(3), 250-8

In the late 1980s, a new hypervirulent and epidemic form of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection appeared in North America. A similar but sporadic syndrome was later reported in Europe. To ... [more ▼]

In the late 1980s, a new hypervirulent and epidemic form of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection appeared in North America. A similar but sporadic syndrome was later reported in Europe. To compare the pathogenic characters of the North American and European hypervirulent strains, we inoculated BVDV naive calves with BVDV strains isolated from haemorrhagic syndromes originating in Belgium, France and the USA. The experimental procedure comprised daily clinical examination and measurement of blood and virological parameters.The American BVD890/256 strain induced severe thrombocytopaenia, profuse diarrhoea and pneumonia in all calves, indicating that hypervirulent BVDV could be the primary infectious agent of pneumonia. Interestingly, a strong correlation was observed between the intense viraemia and a decreased platelet count. None of the European strains tested induced significant pathological signs, although isolated from cases presenting haemorrhagic syndrome. [less ▲]

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See detailProduction of Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1-Seronegative Latent Carriers by Administration of a Live-Attenuated Vaccine in Passively Immunized Calves
Lemaire, Mylène; Meyer, Gilles; Baranowski, Eric et al

in Journal of Clinical Microbiology (2000), 38(11), 4233-8

The consequences of the vaccination of neonatal calves with the widely used live-attenuated temperature-sensitive (ts) bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) were investigated. The ts strain established acute ... [more ▼]

The consequences of the vaccination of neonatal calves with the widely used live-attenuated temperature-sensitive (ts) bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) were investigated. The ts strain established acute and latent infections in all vaccinated calves either with or without passive immunity. Four of seven calves vaccinated under passive immunity became clearly BHV-1 seronegative by different serological tests, as did uninfected control calves after the disappearance of maternal antibodies, and they remained so for long periods. A cell-mediated immune response was detected by a BHV-1 gamma interferon assay, but this test failed to detect the seronegative latent carriers (SNLCs). While they are not detected, SNLCs represent a threat for BHV-1-free herds or countries. This study demonstrates that SNLCs can be easily obtained by inoculation with a live-attenuated BHV-1 under passive immunity and that latent carrier animals without any antibody do exist. Consequently, this situation could represent a good model to experimentally produce SNLCs. [less ▲]

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See detailComment je traite ... le myelome multiple refractaire par thalidomide
Scerbo, F.; Matus, G.; Sautois, Brieuc ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(11), 970-3

Despite the use of high-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, multiple myeloma remains largely uncurable. Indeed complete remission rate is about 50% and median ... [more ▼]

Despite the use of high-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, multiple myeloma remains largely uncurable. Indeed complete remission rate is about 50% and median survival reaches 5 years without plateau. Recently thalidomide has been identified as a promising agent. We report the clinical story of 2 patients with refractory myeloma that we treated successfully with thalidomide. [less ▲]

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See detailLes fibroses pulmonaires idiopathiques: nouvelle classification histopathologique et aspects cliniques
Blaise, Pierre ULg; Louis, Renaud ULg; Bartsch, Pierre ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(11), 986-90

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) comprises different interstitial lung diseases of unknown origin. They are classified into four groups based on pathologic criteria: UIP, DIP, AIP and NSIP. This ... [more ▼]

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) comprises different interstitial lung diseases of unknown origin. They are classified into four groups based on pathologic criteria: UIP, DIP, AIP and NSIP. This classification helps in terms of prognosis and treatment. In addition to history, physical examination and common investigations (chest X ray, pulmonary function testing), a bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), a high-resolution CT scan and ideally a open-lung biopsy are needed to establish a precise diagnosis. The patients are usually treated by immunosuppressive agents, and mainly by corticoids. However, in UIP, lung transplantation is the only way to improve survival. [less ▲]

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See detailHeavy Metals Contamination and Body Condition of Wintering Guillemots (Uria Aalge) at the Belgian Coast from 1993 to 1998
Debacker, Virginie ULg; Jauniaux, Thierry ULg; Coignoul, Freddy ULg et al

in Environmental Research (2000), A84(3), 310-317

A sample of 166 common guillemots (Uria aalge) recovered from Belgian beaches during five wintering seasons, from 1993-1994 to 1997-1998, were examined. At necropsy, postmortem examination including body ... [more ▼]

A sample of 166 common guillemots (Uria aalge) recovered from Belgian beaches during five wintering seasons, from 1993-1994 to 1997-1998, were examined. At necropsy, postmortem examination including body mass, fat reserves, presence or not of intestinal contents, eventual status of oiling, and pathological changes (cachexia, acute hemorrhagic gastroenteropathy (GEAH)) was attributed to each individual. Mild to severe cachexia, a pathology characterized by moderate to severe atrophy of the pectoral muscle as well as reduced amounts or absence of subcutaneous and/or abdominal fat, was observed for most specimens (85.8%). Heavy metal analyses (Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd, Ni, Cr, and Pb) of the tissues (typically liver, kidney, and pectoral muscle) were performed, and total lipids were determined (liver and pectoral muscle). The guillemots collected at the Belgian coast exhibited higher Cu and Zn concentrations compared to individuals collected in more preserved areas of the North Sea such as the northern colonies. A general decrease of their total body mass as well as liver, kidney, and pectoral muscle mass was associated to increasing cachexia severity. Moreover, significantly increasing heavy metal levels (Cu and Zn) in the tissues as well as depleted muscle lipid contents were observed parallel to increasing cachexia severity. On the contrary the organs' total metal burden barely correlates to this status. These observations tend to indicate a general redistribution of heavy metals within the organs as a result of prolonged starvation and protein catabolism (cachectic status). Such a redistribution could well be an additional stress to birds already experiencing stressfull conditions (starvation, oiling). [less ▲]

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See detailObservations
Lecocq, Pascale ULg

in Journal des Juges de Paix = Tijdschrift van de Vrederecters (2000), 10-11

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See detailReactive compatibilization of SAN/EPR blends: Effect of rubber content and reactivity of the SAN functional groups
Pagnoulle, Christophe; Martin, Philippe; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics (2000), 201(16), 2181-2194

SAN containing 20 wt.-% reactive SAN-X was melt blended with EPDM containing 50 wt.-% maleic anhydride EPR grafted chains (EP-g-MA). The rubber content was changed from 15 to 80 wt.-%, and 2 types of ... [more ▼]

SAN containing 20 wt.-% reactive SAN-X was melt blended with EPDM containing 50 wt.-% maleic anhydride EPR grafted chains (EP-g-MA). The rubber content was changed from 15 to 80 wt.-%, and 2 types of reactive groups (X) were attached to SAN (0.028 mol X/ wt.-%), i. e. primary amines and carbamates which are primary amine precursors at the processing temperature. Phase morphology, tensile properties and impact strength depend not only on the rubber content but also on the relative reactivity of the amine and the carbamate groups towards maleic anhydride, in a strong dependence on the reaction rate and the reaction completeness. The dispersion mechanism has been discussed, including formation of sub-inclusions. Dependence of the impact resistance on the rubber phase content for non-reactive blends (□) and blends modified by SAN-NH2 (;) and SAN-carb (o), respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailLe cas clinique du mois. Fusariose disseminee chez un patient immunodeprime
Quatresooz, Pascale ULg; Meiers, I.; Arrese, J. E. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(11), 974-6

Fusarium spp are ubiquitous soil saprophytes and occasional plant pathogens. Fusariosis in humans is usually limited to superficial mycoses. We report the case of a disseminated fungal infection due to ... [more ▼]

Fusarium spp are ubiquitous soil saprophytes and occasional plant pathogens. Fusariosis in humans is usually limited to superficial mycoses. We report the case of a disseminated fungal infection due to Fusarium spp in an immunosuppressed patient suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukemia. This report and review of the recent literature suggest that Fusarium spp are emerging fungal pathogens in immunosuppressed patients. [less ▲]

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