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See detailModélisation du cycle de Fasciola hepatica en Belgique à partir de paramètres climatiques
Bossaert, K.; Lonneux, J. F.; Losson, Bertrand ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1999), 143

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See detailLe diabete gestationnel: physiopathologie et signification pronostique pour la mere.
Geronooz, I.; Scheen, André ULg; Lefebvre, Pierre ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(5), 434-9

Pregnancy is associated with important changes in mother metabolism, especially in late gestation, among which a decreased glucose tolerance caused by insulin resistance. In some of these women, glucose ... [more ▼]

Pregnancy is associated with important changes in mother metabolism, especially in late gestation, among which a decreased glucose tolerance caused by insulin resistance. In some of these women, glucose intolerance is increased by a defect in B-cell function and diabetes mellitus occurs. These women who develop a gestational diabetes need a close follow-up because they are at high risk for further development of diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of pituitary hormones on the prostate.
Reiter, E.; Hennuy, Benoît ULg; Bruyninx, M. et al

in Prostate (1999), 38(2), 159-65

BACKGROUND: Although essential, androgens alone are not sufficient to induce normal growth and functionality of the prostate. Nonandrogenic hormones must also be involved in the proliferation of the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Although essential, androgens alone are not sufficient to induce normal growth and functionality of the prostate. Nonandrogenic hormones must also be involved in the proliferation of the prostate cancer cells which do not respond to antiandrogenic therapy and which thus become androgen-independent. Prolactin, but also growth hormone and luteinizing hormone, are potentially able to act on both normal and abnormal prostatic cells. METHODS: In this review we summarize data from the literature concerning the physiological and pathological implications of prolactin, growth hormone, and luteinizing hormone on the prostate. RESULTS: In rodent prostates, prolactin and growth hormone can induce a variety of effects independently of androgens (e.g., transactivation of certain genes, or synthesis of the major secretion products). Moreover, hyperprolactinemia is responsible for inflammation and dysplasia of the gland, while growth hormone promotes the development of prostate tumors in vivo in the mouse and rat. Growth hormone acts on the gland directly, through prostatic growth hormone receptors, and/or indirectly via the stimulation of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) synthesis in the liver. Luteinizing hormone receptor is expressed in rat and human prostates. Luteinizing hormone increases the amount of various transcripts in the rat prostate through an androgen-independent pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Prolactin, growth hormone, and luteinizing hormone, alone or synergistically with androgens, play physiologically significant roles in the normal prostate. The involvement of these hormones in the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic carcinoma is an issue that needs to be addressed. [less ▲]

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See detailComparaison des Kess-Kess de Hmar Lakhdad (Emsien, Maroc) et des monticules micritiques de l'anticlinorium de Philippeville (Frasnien, Belgique)
Hilali, A.; Lachkem, H.; Boulvain, Frédéric ULg

in Geologica Belgica (1999), 1

A Comparison between the Kess-kess of Hmar Lakhdad (Emsian, Morocco) and the mud mounds of the Philippeville Anticlinorium (Frasnian, Belgium). The Kess-kess of Hmar Lakhdad are Devonian mud mounds ... [more ▼]

A Comparison between the Kess-kess of Hmar Lakhdad (Emsian, Morocco) and the mud mounds of the Philippeville Anticlinorium (Frasnian, Belgium). The Kess-kess of Hmar Lakhdad are Devonian mud mounds, located SE of Erfoud (Moroccan Antiatlas). Fenestral structures, which are very abundant, occur from the base to the top of most buildups. These structures are classified in two groups: stromatactis s.s. and stromatactoid fenestrae. each of them showing a high morphological variability. These fenestrae look very similar to the structures already described from the Belgian mud mounds. However, their attribution to sponges cannot be demonstrated. Microstromatolifhes, a microbial structure, are common in the Moroccan and Belgian buildups. The numerous sedi-mentological similarities between the two types of mounds allow to assign the facies of the Kess-kess to the coral-crinoidal limestones at the base of the Belgian buildups. This comparison justifies a paleoecological and paleobathy-metrical interpretation of the Moroccan mud mounds. [less ▲]

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See detailSoluble transferrin receptor as a potential determinant of iron loading in congenital anaemias due to ineffective erythropoiesis.
Cazzola, M.; Beguin, Yves ULg; Bergamaschi, G. et al

in British Journal of Haematology (1999), 106(3), 752-5

Congenital anaemias due to ineffective erythropoiesis may be associated with excessive iron absorption and progressive iron loading. We investigated whether the soluble transferrin receptor (TfR) level ... [more ▼]

Congenital anaemias due to ineffective erythropoiesis may be associated with excessive iron absorption and progressive iron loading. We investigated whether the soluble transferrin receptor (TfR) level was related to the degree of iron overload in 20 patients with thalassaemia intermedia, six patients with congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia type II (CDA II) and four patients with X-linked congenital sideroblastic anaemia (XLSA). All but two patients had increased serum ferritin levels (median 601 microgram/l, range 105-2855 microgram/l). Multiple regression analysis showed that 62% (P < 0.0001) of the variation in serum ferritin was explained by age and by changes in soluble TfR. [less ▲]

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See detailVaccinia virus intracellular mature virions contain only one lipid membrane
Hollinshead, M.; Vanderplasschen, Alain ULg; Smith, G. L. et al

in Journal of Virology (1999), 73

Vaccinia virus (VV) morphogenesis commences with the formation of lipid crescents that grow into spherical immature virus (IV) and then infectious intracellular mature virus (IMV) particles. Early studies ... [more ▼]

Vaccinia virus (VV) morphogenesis commences with the formation of lipid crescents that grow into spherical immature virus (IV) and then infectious intracellular mature virus (IMV) particles. Early studies proposed that the lipid crescents were synthesized de novo and matured into IMV particles that contained a single lipid bilayer (S. Dales and E. H. Mosbach, Virology 35:564-583, 1968), but a more recent study reported that the lipid crescent was derived from membranes of the intermediate compartment (IC) and contained a double lipid bilayer (B. Sodiek et al., J. Cell Biol. 121:521-541, 1993). In the present study, we used high-resolution electron microscopy to reinvestigate the structures of the lipid crescents, IV, and IMV particles in order to determine if they contain one or two membranes. Examination of thin sections of Epon-embedded, VV-infected cells by use of a high-angular-tilt series of single sections, serial-section analysis, and high-resolution digital-image analysis detected only a single, 5-nm-thick lipid bilayer in virus crescents, IV, and IMV particles that is covered by a 8-nm-thick protein coat. In contrast, it was possible to discern tightly apposed cellular membranes, each 5 nm thick, in junctions between cells and in the myelin sheath of Schwann cells around neurons. Serial-section analysis and angular tilt analysis of sections detected no continuity between virus lipid crescents or IV particles and cellular membrane cisternae. Moreover, crescents were found to form at sites remote from IC membranesnamely, within the center of virus factories and within the nucleusdemonstrating that crescent formation can occur independently of IC membranes. These data leave unexplained the mechanism of single-membrane formation, but they have important implications with regard to the mechanism of entry of IMV and extracellular enveloped virus into cells; topologically, a one-to-one membrane fusion suffices for delivery of the IMV core into the cytoplasm. Consistent with this, we have demonstrated previously by confocal microscopy that uncoated virus cores within the cytoplasm lack the IMV surface protein D8L, and we show here that intracellular cores lack the surface protein coat and lipid membrane. [less ▲]

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See detailC. R. Ph. MÉNARD, De Chrétien de Troyes au Tristan en prose. Études sur les Romans de la Table Ronde
Henrard, Nadine ULg

in Moyen Age (Le) (1999), CV(3-4), 876-877

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See detailDevelopment of a new hydrocarbon index for oil-in-water
Kvernheim, A. L.; Lund, H. S.; Berg, B. et al

in Chemosphere (1999), 39(15), 2707-2722

A new robust method for determination of hydrocarbons in water without use of Freon(TM) or other halogenated solvents has been validated and subjected to an interlaboratory exercise. The method is based ... [more ▼]

A new robust method for determination of hydrocarbons in water without use of Freon(TM) or other halogenated solvents has been validated and subjected to an interlaboratory exercise. The method is based on extraction with a light hydrocarbon (boiling point in the 39-69 degrees C range), followed by cleanup for removal of polar components and detection by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionisation (FID) detection. The performance characteristics of the method are comparable with that of the previous Freon-IR method with recoveries in the 60-80% range and reproducibility (between laboratory variations) of about 30%. A screening method for hydrocarbons in the range 5 ppm and above based on infrared spectroscopy (IR), and a promising method for detection of low levels based on solid phase extraction (SPE) has been tested and validated. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of 5-vinyl-1,3-oxazolidine-2-thione in complex matrices at ppb level
Mabon, N.; Wathelet, Jean-Paul ULg; Marlier, Michel

in Talanta (1999), 49(1), 199-206

5-Vinyl-1,3-oxazolidine-2-thione (5-VOT) is a goitrogenic compound released by enzymatic degradation of progoitrin, the most important glucosinolate occurring in rapeseed meal. This paper describes an ... [more ▼]

5-Vinyl-1,3-oxazolidine-2-thione (5-VOT) is a goitrogenic compound released by enzymatic degradation of progoitrin, the most important glucosinolate occurring in rapeseed meal. This paper describes an analytical method for determining the 5-VOT in complex matrices. The method proposed by Quinsac et al. [J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., 75(3) (1992) 529] has been improved by modification of the extraction conditions and the purification steps. The extraction of 5-VOT is performed with hot acid buffer. The first purification step is achieved by solid-phase chromatography (C-18). The second purification step of 5-VOT is carried out by complexation with phenyl mercury acetate in cyclohexane and, afterwards, by decomplexation using an aqueous solution of sodium thiosulfate. These reactions move 5-VOT from an aqueous to an organic medium, and then back again to the aqueous phase. This Procedure ensures a high purification efficiency. The precise quantification of 5-VOT is completed in 12 min by reverse-phase liquid chromatography (C18), using an isocratic elution with an ultraviolet detector and with synthetic 4,4-dimethyl-1,3-oxazolidine-2-thione as internal standard. Using this modified method, 5-VOT can be determined in different matrices such as rapeseed meal, animal diets, muscle, several organs (thyroid, liver, kidney and lung) and biological fluids (plasma and milk). The quantification limit of 5-VOT in the sample is of 1 ppb (1 mu g kg(-1)), the recovery rate of 5-VOT is about 90% and the repeatability is over 97%. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailCrystal structure of the EF-hand parvalbumin at atomic resolution (0.91 Å) and at low temperature (100 K). Evidence for conformational multistates within the hydrophobic core.
Declercq, Jean-Paul; Evrard, Christine ULg; Lamzin, Victor et al

in Protein Science : A Publication of the Protein Society (1999), 8

Several crystal structures of parvalbumin (Parv), a typical EF-hand protein, have been reported so far for different species with the best resolution achieving 1.5 Å. Using a crystal grown under ... [more ▼]

Several crystal structures of parvalbumin (Parv), a typical EF-hand protein, have been reported so far for different species with the best resolution achieving 1.5 Å. Using a crystal grown under microgravity conditions, cryotechniques (100 K), and synchrotron radiation, it has now been possible to determine the crystal structure of the fully Ca2+ loaded form of pike (component pI 4.10) Parv.Ca2 at atomic resolution (0.91 Å). The availability of such a high quality structure offers the opportunity to contribute to the definition of the validation tools useful for the refinement of protein crystal structures determined to lower resolution. Besides a better definition of most of the elements in the protein threedimensional structure than in previous studies, the high accuracy thus achieved allows the detection of well-defined alternate conformations, which are observed for 16 residues out of 107 in total. Among them, six occupy an internal position within the hydrophobic core and converge toward two small buried cavities with a total volume of about 60 Å3. There is no indication of any water molecule present in these cavities. It is probable that at temperatures of physiological conditions there is a dynamic interconversion between these alternate conformations in an energy-barrier dependent manner. Such motions for which the amplitudes are provided by the present study will be associated with a timedependent remodeling of the void internal space as part of a slow dynamics regime (millisecond timescales) of the parvalbumin molecule. The relevance of such internal dynamics to function is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailHistidine modification and mutagenesis point to the involvement of a large conformational change in the mechanism of action of phage lambda lysozyme
Evrard, Christine ULg; Fastrez, Jacques; Soumillion, Patrice

in FEBS Letters (1999), 460

Phage lambda lysozyme is structurally related to other known lysozymes but its mechanism of action is different from the classical lysozyme mechanism, acting as a transglycosidase rather than a hydrolase ... [more ▼]

Phage lambda lysozyme is structurally related to other known lysozymes but its mechanism of action is different from the classical lysozyme mechanism, acting as a transglycosidase rather than a hydrolase. As two conformations have been revealed by the crystal structure, we investigated the effect of mutating and modifying a histidine located near to or far from the active site in the respective closed and open conformations. Whereas its asparagine mutation has little or no effect on activity, its N-carbethoxylation inactivates the enzyme. This provide further evidence for the involvement of the closed conformation and for the need of conformational mobility in lambda lysozyme function. [less ▲]

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See detailZoos, éducation et malentendus: Essai d'anthropologie des émotion du visiteur de zoo
Servais, Véronique ULg

in Cahiers d'Ethologie (1999), 19(1), 1-16

In the current debate about the zoo's educational role it s usually assumed that the emotional aspect of the zoo experience impairs the scienfic knowledge that people can gain from their visit. First we ... [more ▼]

In the current debate about the zoo's educational role it s usually assumed that the emotional aspect of the zoo experience impairs the scienfic knowledge that people can gain from their visit. First we briefly describe four human-animal interactionnal patterns that can be observed in a zoo, and we recognise that indeed, in that context, the emotion experienced by the public impairs its knowledge of the animals. then we persent the Hediger's distinctin between an object and a subject animal and we hypothesise that the visitor's emotions impari animal knowledge only when the exhibited animals are object-animals. Those are incomplete animals : they are not complete beings in relation to their evolutionary environment. It is our view that when the exhibited animals are more complete organisms, the emotions can be a tool for a better knowledge of the animals. [less ▲]

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See detailThe great-grand-daughter design: a simple strategy to increase the power of a grand-daughter design for QTL mapping
Coppieters, Wouter ULg; Kvasz, A.; Arranz, J. J. et al

in Genetical Research (1999), 74

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See detailL'etude clinique du mois. L'etude CAPPP: "The Captopril Prevention Project".
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(3), 197-9

The Captopril Prevention Project (CAPPP) was a prospective, randomized, open trial which aimed at comparing the prevention by captopril (n = 5492) or by a conventional treatment (n = 5493; diuretics or ... [more ▼]

The Captopril Prevention Project (CAPPP) was a prospective, randomized, open trial which aimed at comparing the prevention by captopril (n = 5492) or by a conventional treatment (n = 5493; diuretics or beta-blockers) of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with hypertension (diastolic blood pressure > 100 mmHg). After a mean follow-up of 6.1 years, the results regarding the primary endpoint and most secondary endpoints were not significantly different between the two therapeutic modalities. The only differences (perhaps due to a randomisation bias) were a slightly higher incidence of stroke, but a lower risk of diabetes mellitus, in the captopril group than in the group receiving conventional treatment. In conclusion, the CAPPP study demonstrates, for the first time, that captopril, an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, is as effective as conventional treatment with diuretics or beta-blockers, two drugs whose efficacy has already been demonstrated when compared to placebo, in the prevention of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive patients. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization Of Functional Residues In The Interfacial Recognition Domain Of Lecithin Cholesterol Acyltransferase (Lcat)
Peelman, F.; Vanloo, B.; Perez-Mendez, O. et al

in Protein Engineering (1999), 12(1), 71-8

Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is an interfacial enzyme active on both high-density (HDL) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Threading alignments of LCAT with lipases suggest that residues ... [more ▼]

Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is an interfacial enzyme active on both high-density (HDL) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Threading alignments of LCAT with lipases suggest that residues 50-74 form an interfacial recognition site and this hypothesis was tested by site-directed mutagenesis. The (delta56-68) deletion mutant had no activity on any substrate. Substitution of W61 with F, Y, L or G suggested that an aromatic residue is required for full enzymatic activity. The activity of the W61F and W61Y mutants was retained on HDL but decreased on LDL, possibly owing to impaired accessibility to the LDL lipid substrate. The decreased activity of the single R52A and K53A mutants on HDL and LDL and the severer effect of the double mutation suggested that these conserved residues contribute to the folding of the LCAT lid. The membrane-destabilizing properties of the LCAT 56-68 helical segment were demonstrated using the corresponding synthetic peptide. An M65N-N66M substitution decreased both the fusogenic properties of the peptide and the activity of the mutant enzyme on all substrates. These results suggest that the putative interfacial recognition domain of LCAT plays an important role in regulating the interaction of the enzyme with its organized lipoprotein substrates. [less ▲]

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See detailInsulin lispro (Humalog) in the treatment of diabetes mellitus: overview of belgian clinical data from global studies.
Bex, M.; Buysschaert, M.; De Leeuw, I. et al

in Acta Clinica Belgica (1999), 54(5), 241-5

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See detailReport of the Sixth International Workshop on Human Chromosome 11 Mapping 1998. Nice, France, May 2-5, 1998.
Gaudray, P.; Carle, G. F.; Gerhard, D. S. et al

in CytoGenetics & Cell Genetics (1999), 86(3-4), 167-86

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See detailSuzanne Leclercq
Fairon-Demaret, M; Streel, Maurice ULg

in Annales Académie royale de Belgique, Notices (1999), 99

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See detailSequence and analysis of chromosome 4 of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana.
Mayer, K.; Portetelle, Daniel ULg; Vandenbol, Micheline ULg et al

in Nature (1999), 402

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See detailErythropoietin and platelet production.
Beguin, Yves ULg

in Haematologica (1999), 84(6), 541-7

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Erythropoietin (Epo) is the primary growth factor for the red cell lineage but treatment with recombinant human Epo (rHuEpo) has been shown to increase platelet counts. In ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Erythropoietin (Epo) is the primary growth factor for the red cell lineage but treatment with recombinant human Epo (rHuEpo) has been shown to increase platelet counts. In several animal species treatment with rHuEpo stimulated platelet production, but platelet counts tended to normalize after 1-2 weeks and large, chronic doses even caused thrombocytopenia. This paper aims to review the evidence about the effects of Epo on megakaryopoiesis. INFORMATION SOURCES: I examined the literature published in journals covered by Medline(R)a concerning the effects of Epo, hypoxia and iron deficiency on megakaryopoiesis and platelets. The reference list of each article was reviewed to try to identify further contributions. STATE OF THE ART: In vivo data have shown that moderate Epo stimulation, i.e. that produced by standard doses of rHuEpo, short-term hypoxia or moderate iron deficiency, causes a moderate elevation of platelet counts, whereas intense Epo stimulation, as produced by high doses of rHuEpo, prolonged hypoxia or severe iron deficiency, causes some degree of thrombocytopenia. In the latter case, there appears to be a diphasic response to Epo, the initial positive response (a stimulation of platelet production) being followed by thrombocytopenia. Contrarily to the thrombocytopenia due to increased platelet destruction induced by other growth factors, Epo-induced thrombocytopenia is the result of an inhibition of platelet production. CONCLUSION AND PERSPECTIVE: Stem-cell competition between erythroid and platelet precursors appears to be the cause of these phenomena in situations of prolonged, intense stimulation by Epo. In vitro data support the existence of a common erythrocytic and megakaryocytic precursor. It remains to be determined whether these effects of rHuEpo are a result of the dose itself or of the magnitude of the erythropoietic effect of that dose. It is not known whether a lower dose given in a patient with decreased marrow function would bring about the same biological effects as those induced by high doses of rHuEpo in the presence of a normal marrow function. Caution should be exercised before using high doses of hematopoietic growth factors. [less ▲]

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See detailHistoire de la vallée de l'Euphrate entre le barrage de Teshrine et Karkemish aux IIIe et IIe millénaires av. J. C
Tunca, Önhan ULg; Lacambre, Denis

in Archaeology of the Upper Syrian Euphrates. The Tishrin Dam Area. Proceedings of the International Symposium Held at Barcelona (1999)

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See detailDevelopment of a monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA for the détection of bovine enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic strains of Escherichia coli O26
Kerr, P.; China, B.; Mainil, Jacques ULg et al

in Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology (1999), 6

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See detailL'accès à la communication scientifique, un concept global
Pochet, Bernard ULg

in Documentation & Bibliothèques (1999), 45(3), 101-105

After the observation of information retrieval behaviors and the use and management of scholarly information it is obvious that we need for information literacy courses. After several years of practice ... [more ▼]

After the observation of information retrieval behaviors and the use and management of scholarly information it is obvious that we need for information literacy courses. After several years of practice, research and reflexion quickly described, and an overview of the literature the author suggest to think scientific communication as a whole and to consider the student and researcher both as a user and as author. The article defines this whole conception of scientific communication and gives as an example a information literacy course based on this principle, making the bet that learning of scientific culture and the world of science communication must be part of the same draft training. [less ▲]

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See detailLes aménagements forestiers en Belgique méridionale (Wallonie) : états des lieux et perspectives
Rondeux, Jacques ULg

in Revue Forestière Française (1999), LI(numéro spécial), 241-246

The forests of French-speaking Belgium cover 530,000 hectares that are evenly distributed as between public and private property and as between deciduous and coniferous populations. Since the 90's, the ... [more ▼]

The forests of French-speaking Belgium cover 530,000 hectares that are evenly distributed as between public and private property and as between deciduous and coniferous populations. Since the 90's, the emphasis of forest policy has been on permanency and multiple-use. Forest plans, particularly in public forests, are largely shaped by production, conservation and protection functions as reflected in complete revisions of the computerised compartment register and implementation of many regulatory provisions. This article reviews existing approaches and describes the main planning methods recommended according to types of stands and on whether a forest is public or private, the latter being far less regulated. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterizations by automorphism groups of some rank 3 buildings - IV: Hyperbolic p-adic Moufang buildings of rank 3
Van Maldeghem, H.; Van Steen, Kristel ULg

in Geometriae Dedicata (1999), 75(2), 115-122

In this paper, we introduce the p-adic Moufang condition for hyperbolic buildings of rank 3. It is the most obvious and simplest generalization of the p-adic Moufang condition for affine buildings ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we introduce the p-adic Moufang condition for hyperbolic buildings of rank 3. It is the most obvious and simplest generalization of the p-adic Moufang condition for affine buildings, introduced in Part III of this sequence of papers. We show that p is very restricted, which confirms (but does not prove) the conjecture that no p-adic analogue is possible for the construction of Moufang (hyperbolic) buildings by Ronan and Tits. [less ▲]

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See detailTieleman Jansz. van Braght et la construction anabaptiste du passé
Donneau, Olivier ULg

in Revue d'Histoire Ecclésiastique (1999), 94

In his martyrology (published in 1660), the conservative Dutch Mennonite Tieleman Jansz. van Braght propose an original interpretation of the Christian past. In order to put together a succession of ... [more ▼]

In his martyrology (published in 1660), the conservative Dutch Mennonite Tieleman Jansz. van Braght propose an original interpretation of the Christian past. In order to put together a succession of witnesses, he examines one by one the ancient or medieval spiritual ancestors who, at the time, were claimed by both Catholics and Protestants. Those who seems to have been submitting to the divine principles - such as the practice of adult baptism - are considered as orthodox ; furthermore, if the orthodox suffered for their faith, they were given the title of martyr. Among the chosen ones, we thus have, besides the Anabaptists themselves: the early Christians, the Donatists, the Waldenses and the Hussites. These believers become the members of a dissenting and persecuted Church, which had held its own since the days of the Apostles. This notion conflict with the idea of Reformatio et, a fortiori, with that of Restitutio which is generally ascribed to the Anabaptists of the sixteenth century. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomated Sample Preparation Techniques for the Determination of Drug Enantiomers in Biological Fluids Using Liquid Chromatography with Chiral Stationary Phases
Ceccato, Attilio ULg; Toussaint, B.; Chiap, Patrice ULg et al

in Enantiomer (1999), 4(3-4), 305-15

The determination of drug enantiomers has become of prime importance in the field of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. Liquid chromatography (LC) is one of the most frequently used techniques for ... [more ▼]

The determination of drug enantiomers has become of prime importance in the field of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. Liquid chromatography (LC) is one of the most frequently used techniques for achieving the separation and quantitation of the enantiomers of drug compounds. In the bioanalytical field, the integrated systems present an interesting alternative to time-consuming sample preparation techniques such as liquid-liquid extraction. Solid phase extraction (SPE) on disposable cartridges, dialysis or column switching are sample preparation techniques that can be fully automated and applied to enantioselective analysis in biological fluids. The selection of the most appropriate LC mode and chiral stationary phase for enantioseparations in bioanalysis is discussed and some aspects of these automated sample preparation procedures are compared, such as selectivity, detectability, elution of the analytes from the extraction sorbent, sample volume and analyte stability. [less ▲]

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See detailPlatyhypnidium mutatum, a mysterious new moss from Germany
Ochyra, R.; Vanderpoorten, Alain ULg

in Journal of Bryology (1999), 21

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See detailTraitement antimigraineux: présent et avenir
Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(2), 79-86

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See detailAnalysis of fluorescence lifetime of protochlorophyllide and chlorophyllide in isolated etioplast membranes measured from multifrequency cross-correlation phase fluorometry
Mysliwa-Kurdziel, B.; Franck, Fabrice ULg; Strzalka, K.

in Photochemistry & Photobiology (1999), 70(4), 616-623

The fluorescence decays of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) and of chlorophyllide (Chlide) in wheat etioplast membranes were analyzed using a multiexponential fluorescence decay model. Using different ... [more ▼]

The fluorescence decays of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) and of chlorophyllide (Chlide) in wheat etioplast membranes were analyzed using a multiexponential fluorescence decay model. Using different excitation wavelengths from 430 to 470 nm, we found that a triple-exponential model at 14 degrees C and a double-exponential model at -170 degrees C were adequate to describe the Pchlide fluorescence decay. We discuss the origin of the three fluorescence lifetime components at 14 degrees C on the basis of the dependence of their fractional intensities on the excitation wavelength and by correlating the fractional intensities with integrated fluorescence intensities of different Pchlide forms in steady-state fluorescence spectra, The fluorescence decay of the main Pchlide form, photoactive Pchlide-F657, is shown to have a complex character with a fast component of 0.25 ns and a slower component of about 2 ns. Two lifetime components of 2 ns and 5.5-6.0 ns are ascribed to the second photoactive form, Pchlide-F645, and to nonphotoactive Pchlide forms, respectively. In etioplast membranes preilluminated by a short saturating fight pulse, we found a single 5.0 ns component for Chlide-F688 (the Chlide-NADPH :protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase [POR]-NADP(+) complex) and an additional 1.6 ns component when the formation of Chlide-F696 (the Chlide-POR-NADPH complex) was promoted by exogenous NADPH, From the fluorescence lifetime results we evaluated the quantum yield of the primary photoreaction by Chlide-F696 as being 70%. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-invasive assessment of arterial haemoglobin oxygen saturation in cattle by pulse oximetry
Coghe, Joost; Uystepruyst, Christophe; Bureau, Fabrice ULg et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (1999), 145

The aim of this study was to evaluate the practicality and accuracy of different attachment sites for the optodes of a pulse oximeter (measuring arterial haemoglobin oxygen saturation) in healthy cattle ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to evaluate the practicality and accuracy of different attachment sites for the optodes of a pulse oximeter (measuring arterial haemoglobin oxygen saturation) in healthy cattle, and to assess the accuracy of pulse oximetry in diseased cattle with low haemoglobin oxygen saturation values caused by respiratory disease. The tait the nasal septum and the genital mucosa of females provided a continuous, stable and intense signal. The smallest bias, and no significant difference between measurements of arterial haemoglobin (mSp02) with the pulse oximeter and measurements of arterial haemoglobin oxygen saturation (SaOZ) with a blood gas analyser was obtained when the probe was attached to the tail. This site was used to evaluate the accuracy of pulse oximetry in animais with respiratory disease. There was a small bias between the measurements of Sa02 and mSp02, with a tendency for pulse oximetry to underestimate higher values and to overestimate lower values. The precision of pulse oximetry decreased substantially with the values for Sa02 <80 per cent, which lies outside the clinically relevant range [less ▲]

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See detailEpidémiosurveillance de l'encéphalopathie spongiforme bovine en Belgique : bilan de l'année 1998
Saegerman, Claude ULg; Dechamps, P.; Vanopdenbosch, E. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1999), 143

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See detailHistopathological pattern and humoral immune response to a crude exo-antigen and purified keratinase of Microsporum canis in symptomatic and asymptomatic infected cats.
Mignon, Bernard ULg; Coignoul, Freddy ULg; Leclipteux, T. et al

in Medical Mycology (1999), 37(1), 1-9

In order to understand better the mechanisms involved in the diverse clinical patterns in Microsporum canis-infected cats, the histopathological features were compared in symptomatic and asymptomatic ... [more ▼]

In order to understand better the mechanisms involved in the diverse clinical patterns in Microsporum canis-infected cats, the histopathological features were compared in symptomatic and asymptomatic infected cats. Additionally, the IgG immune response to a crude exo-antigen and purified keratinase of M. canis was studied by ELISA in cats of various clinical and mycological status. Acute and subacute perifolliculitis and folliculitis occurred more frequently in symptomatic than asymptomatic cats. The latter usually displayed signs of chronic inflammation and a marked infiltration of superficial dermis by mast cells, which would suggest that these animals present similarities to chronically dermatophytic humans or animals. When using a crude M. canis antigen, all infected cats were shown to have significantly higher levels of specific IgG when compared to culture negative and mechanical carrier-cats. In these non-infected animals, specific IgG was more frequently detected in adults than in young animals. No difference in anti-crude antigen specific IgG was observed between symptomatic and asymptomatic infected cats, indicating that the presence of IgG is probably unrelated to the clinical status of cats. Anti-keratinase specific IgG was only detected in one of the infected cats. [less ▲]

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See detailL’utilisation du fluor dans la thérapeutique de l’ostéoporose
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in Synoviale (1999), 81

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See detailA novel gene overexpressed in the prostate of castrated rats: hormonal regulation, relationship to apoptosis and to acquired prostatic cell androgen independence.
Bruyninx, M.; Hennuy, Benoît ULg; Cornet, Anne ULg et al

in Endocrinology (1999), 140(10), 4789-99

We have identified a novel complementary DNA (cDNA) corresponding to a gene overexpressed in the rat ventral prostate after castration. This cDNA displays 89.4% identity with 453 bp of a mouse EST and 81 ... [more ▼]

We have identified a novel complementary DNA (cDNA) corresponding to a gene overexpressed in the rat ventral prostate after castration. This cDNA displays 89.4% identity with 453 bp of a mouse EST and 81.5% identity with 157 bp of a human EST and was named PARM-1 for prostatic androgen-repressed message-1. The complete cDNA is 1187 bp long and codes for a protein of 298 amino acids that contains four potential glycosylation sites and three half cystinyl residues. The PARM-1 gene was found to be expressed at quite low levels in most rat tissues including those of the urogenital tract. The kinetic of induction of PARM-1 gene in the prostate was highly correlated to the development of apoptosis in the whole organ. Supplementation of castrated animals with androgens reversed both the process of apoptosis and the overexpression of PARM-1 gene. Supplementation with estrogens did not result in an increase in the PARM-1 messenger RNA levels when compared with the castration alone. However, the treatment resulted in a more rapid return to intact levels in the castrated plus estrogen group. When apoptosis of testis and prostate was induced in vivo by hypophysectomy, it was found that PARM-1 was only overexpressed in the prostate. Therefore, PARM-1 seems to be regulated by androgens only in the prostate. Using in situ hybridization and immunohistological techniques, we have shown that PARM-1 gene product is found exclusively in the epithelial cells of involuting prostate. Analysis by flow cytometry of MAT LyLu epithelial cells transiently expressing PARM-1 protein did not allow us to demonstrate a direct effect of PARM-1 gene overexpression on the programmed death of the transfected cells. Treatment of MAT LyLu cells by transforming growth factor-beta induced apoptosis but had no effect on PARM-1 production. However PARM-1 protein has been detected by Western blotting in various cell lines such as MAT LyLu, MAT Lu, and PIF, which are androgen independent. This would suggest that PARM-1 gene product would be a marker for acquired androgen-independence of these tumor cells. [less ▲]

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See detailKinetic Energy Release Distributions in the Dissociation of Energy-Selected Fluoroethene and 1,1-Difluoroethene Ions.
Güthe, F.; Locht, Robert ULg; Leyh, Bernard ULg et al

in Journal of Physical Chemistry A (1999), 103

The unimolecular dissociation of energy-selected fluoroethene and 1,1-difluoroethene ions has been investigated by threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence TPEPICO) technique. The breakdown diagrams ... [more ▼]

The unimolecular dissociation of energy-selected fluoroethene and 1,1-difluoroethene ions has been investigated by threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence TPEPICO) technique. The breakdown diagrams of the 1,1-difluorethene and fluoroethene have been recorded between 13-22 eV. From time-of-flight (TOF) spectra, complete distributions of the kinetic energy released (KERD) in the dissociation of these energy-selected ions have been derived. For the HF-loss reaction channel, the KERD peaks at about 200 meV for low excitation energies but becomes thermal at higher excitation energies. For the F-loss channel, the KERD peaks at zero kinetic energy for low excitation energies but at about 200 meV for high excitation energy. The analysis of the KERD provides evidence that consecutive fragmentation takes place for the 1,1-difluoroethene at energies above 19 eV. [less ▲]

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See detailTemperament and character inventory (TCI) and depression.
Hansenne, Michel ULg; Reggers, J.; Pinto, Emmanuel ULg et al

in Journal of Psychiatric Research (1999), 33(1), 31-6

Although several studies have assessed the relationships between the temperament dimensions of the Cloninger model of personality and depression, little is known about the role played by the character ... [more ▼]

Although several studies have assessed the relationships between the temperament dimensions of the Cloninger model of personality and depression, little is known about the role played by the character dimensions proposed by the seven-factor model of Cloninger in depression. In this study, the relationships between the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and depression were examined in a sample of 40 major depressive patients and 40 healthy controls. Depressed patients exhibit higher harm avoidance and self-transcendence scores as well as lower self-directedness and cooperativeness scores as compared to healthy controls. However, the three other dimensions do not differ between depressive patients and controls. Among the depressive group, harm avoidance, self-directedness and cooperativeness dimensions are related to the severity of depression as assessed by the Hamilton scale. This study confirms the state dependence of the harm avoidance dimension and suggests a relationship between the character dimensions of the Cloninger model and depression. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of Pregnancy-Associated Glycoprotein concentrations in sheep: a retrospective study
Gajewski, Zdzislaw; Beckers, Jean-François ULg; Melo de Sousa, Noelita ULg et al

in Advances in Cell Biology (1999), 26(Supplement 12), 89-96

This study is carried out to determine ovine pregnancy associated glycoprotein (oPAG) levels in the serum of Berrichone ewes throughout gestation and the first month post partum. The levels were ... [more ▼]

This study is carried out to determine ovine pregnancy associated glycoprotein (oPAG) levels in the serum of Berrichone ewes throughout gestation and the first month post partum. The levels were determinated with heterologous RIA using bovine PAG as standard and tracer and rabbit antiserum against oPAG. The level of oPAG increased from the 4th week of pregnancy till 12-13th week and decreased slowly till 17th week, when increased rapidly and reached the highest level (around 600-700 ng/ml). In the sheep carrying twins, we observed higher levels of oPAG than in the uniparous sheep. After lambing, oPAG decreased rapidly in 4 week to basal values. The oPAG concentrations in the animals carrying twins was higher when comparised to single lamb. We concluded that the oPAG level depends on the number of lambs and term of pregnancy. The estimation of oPAG concentrations in the blood can be used as a indicator for pregnancy diagnosis. [less ▲]

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See detailAccuracy and stability of the discretised isopycnal mixing equation
Mathieu, P. P.; Deleersnijder, E.; Beckers, Jean-Marie ULg

in Applied Mathematics Letters (1999), 12(4), 81-88

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See detailP300 and personality: an investigation with the Cloninger's model.
Hansenne, Michel ULg

in Biological Psychology (1999), 50(2), 143-55

The relationships between P300 and personality have been explored mainly in reference to the model of personality described by Eysenck because of its biological bases. Recently, Cloninger and his ... [more ▼]

The relationships between P300 and personality have been explored mainly in reference to the model of personality described by Eysenck because of its biological bases. Recently, Cloninger and his colleagues have proposed a model of personality based on four temperaments and three characters. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) is a 226-item self-questionnaire developed to assess these seven dimensions of personality. In the present study, the relationships between these dimensions of personality and P300 have been investigated in 43 normal subjects. The results show that P300 amplitude is positively correlated with the novelty seeking dimension and negatively correlated with the harm avoidance dimension. In contrast, the other dimensions of the TCI were not related to P300 amplitude. Moreover, P300 latency and reaction time were not associated with the TCI dimensions of personality. This study confirms that personality is related to P300. [less ▲]

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See detailLa mortalité embryonnaire. 2. Implications hormonales
Hanzen, Christian ULg; Lourtie, O.; Drion, Pierre ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1999), 143

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See detailTreatment of Osteoporosis: Role of Bone-Forming Agents
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Halkin, V.; Henrotin, Yves ULg et al

in Osteoporosis International (1999), 9 Suppl 2

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See detailLa prescription de l'action délictuelle en droit du travail après la loi du 10 juin 1998
Kefer, Fabienne ULg

in Revue de Droit Social = Tijdschrift voor Sociaal Recht (1999)

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See detailComparison of necrotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolates from farm animals and humans
Mainil, Jacques ULg; Jacquemin, E.; Pohl, P. et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (1999), 70

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See detailAquatic bryophytes for a spatio-temporal monitoring of the water pollution of the rivers Meuse and Sambre (Belgium)
Vanderpoorten, Alain ULg

in Environmental Pollution (1999), 104(3), 401-410

Jaccard's distances between the aquatic bryophyte assemblages recorded in 1972-1973 and in 1997 in nine study sites along the Belgian course of the rivers Meuse and Sambre were correlated with the ... [more ▼]

Jaccard's distances between the aquatic bryophyte assemblages recorded in 1972-1973 and in 1997 in nine study sites along the Belgian course of the rivers Meuse and Sambre were correlated with the differences of concentrations of 13 physico-chemical factors (O2, N-NO2-. N-NH4+, N-NO3-, P-PO43-, K+, pH, Ca++, Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn and Mn) between 1972-1973 and 1996. The strong decrease in heavy metals pollution and the decrease of the trophic level are correlated with the recolonization of the most polluted sites in the 1970s by the pollution-sensitive species present in the valleys at the beginning of the century. Conversely, N-NO2-, N-N03" and K+ have increased between the two surveys. They currently reach much higher concentrations in the Sambre than in the Meuse, as well as N and micro-pollutants such as pyrene and anionic detergents. The different loads of these factors in the studied rivers might explain their different recolonization patterns. Although some species might have developed a tolerance to certain factors, an effort to improve the quality of the effluents coming from industrial areas still remains to be made, especially in the frame of the projects of river flooding of the riverine areas. [less ▲]

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See detailWater and nitrogen transfer study through soils of a small agricultural water catchment
Tychon, Bernard ULg; Vander Borght, Paul ULg; De Backer, Louis W.

in Water Science & Technology (1999), 39(12), 69-76

Water and nitrogen movements in a small watershed (32ha) located in the Belgian Lorraine (south-eastern Belgium) were monitored intensively between 1988 and 1991 to investigate at a daily time step the ... [more ▼]

Water and nitrogen movements in a small watershed (32ha) located in the Belgian Lorraine (south-eastern Belgium) were monitored intensively between 1988 and 1991 to investigate at a daily time step the possibility of predicting water discharge rates and nitrate concentrations in a spring if one knows the surface agricultural practices in the catchment area. The watershed was equipped with instruments to monitor the various meteorological, pedological, agronomic and geohydrological parameters assumed to explain most of the behaviour of water and nitrogen fluxes. They were recorded at various levels, i.e., the surface, vadose zone, saturated zone, and watershed outlet. Field observations were made to cross-check fluxes at each level. This information was then used in simulation models (SOIL and SOILN) to describe the movement of water and nitrogen solutes in the vadose zone and with original programming that describes their movements in the groundwater down to the outlet. These models present many parameters, the most sensitive of which were subjected to Monte Carlo Analysis which confirmed the robustness of the approach. The performance of the comprehensive model is quite satisfactory, with a 10% error in nitrogen fluxes over a three-year period. It shows the limits of such an approach despite the particularly intense degree of observation. [less ▲]

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See detailVariations of aquatic bryophyte assemblages in the Rhine Rift related to water quality. 1.The Alsatian Rhine floodplain
Vanderpoorten, Alain ULg; Klein, J. P.; Stieperaere, H. et al

in Journal of Bryology (1999), 21

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See detailLyapunov functions for stable cascades and applications to global stabilization
Mazenc, F.; Sepulchre, Rodolphe ULg; Jankovic, M.

in IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control (1999), 44(9), 1795-1800

This paper generalizes recent Lyapunov constructions for a cascade of two nonlinear systems one of which is stable rather than asymptotically stable. A new a cross term construction in the Lyapunov ... [more ▼]

This paper generalizes recent Lyapunov constructions for a cascade of two nonlinear systems one of which is stable rather than asymptotically stable. A new a cross term construction in the Lyapunov function allows us to replace earlier growth conditions by a necessary boudedness condition. This method is instrumental in the global stabilization of feedforward systems and new stabilization results are derived from the generalized construction. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude écosystémique d'une gravière de l'ancien lit majeur du Rhin (Krafft-Erstein, Bas-Rhin, France)
Klein, J. P.; Vanderpoorten, Alain ULg

in Martinia (1999), 15(1), 3-13

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See detailAnalysis of Factors Influencing Long-Term Survival after Surgical Resection for Oesophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Kolh, Philippe ULg; Honore, Pierre ULg; Gielen, J. L. et al

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (1999), 99(3, May-Jun), 113-8

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated prognostic factors in 34 patients discharged from hospital after surgical resection for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: There were 22 males and 12 ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated prognostic factors in 34 patients discharged from hospital after surgical resection for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: There were 22 males and 12 females; mean age was 59.3 years (range 42-77 years). Preoperative neoadjuvant treatment consisted in chemotherapy alone in three patients and in combined radiochemotherapy in 14. Digestive continuity was restored with a gastric transplant in 26 patients and a colonic graft in 8. Surgery was curative in 28 patients and palliative in 6. There were three stage I, 14 stage II, 13 stage III, and 4 stage IV diseases. In 19 patients the lymph nodes were invaded. The tumour was well differentiated in 17 patients, moderately in 9, and poorly in 8. RESULTS: Follow-up ranged from 2 to 100 months. Overall median postoperative survival was 21 months. By univariate analysis, factors influencing survival were curative surgery (p = 0.04), stage (p = 0.006), and nodal involvement (p = 0.0003). Nodal involvement was an independent prognostic factor by multivariate analysis (p = 0.0002). Patient age and sex, perioperative transfusion, digestive transplant, tumour local extension, grade of differentiation, and distant metastasis did not influence survival. Also, we did not observe any significant benefit of preoperative or postoperative chemotherapy or radiochemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Nodal involvement was the most important prognostic factor influencing survival. Therefore, an earlier diagnosis of oesophageal cancer in a less advanced stage is important to improve survival rates. Our study could not confirm the benefit of neoadjuvant therapy in terms of late survival. [less ▲]

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See detailCandidate gene markers associated with somatotropic axis and milk selection
Parmentier, I.; Portetelle, Daniel ULg; Gengler, Nicolas ULg et al

in Domestic Animal Endocrinology (1999), 17(2-3), 139-148

One of the obstacles to progress in dairy cattle selection is that milk production traits are only expressed after the first calving. However, the use of the quantitative trait loci (QTL) technology will ... [more ▼]

One of the obstacles to progress in dairy cattle selection is that milk production traits are only expressed after the first calving. However, the use of the quantitative trait loci (QTL) technology will improve the efficiency of dairy industry with a positive image for the consumers. QTL are part of the genome showing a preponderant action and explaining the major part of variation of the trait production. At the present time, the two major strategies developed to detect such QTL are the candidate gene approach and the positional genetics approach. The somatotropic axis contains the most promising candidates in this respect, as it strongly regulates milk production. Then, the identification of favorable QTL associated with the somatotropic axis that are significantly correlated with genetic merits for milk production could lead to more effective selection programs. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailAccounting for Environmental Influences in Stochastic Frontier Models: With Application to International Airlines
Coelli, Tim; Perelman, Sergio ULg; Romano, Elliot

in Journal of Productivity Analysis (1999), 11

The principal aim of this paper is to measure the efficiency of international airlines. We obtain measures of technical efficiency from stochastic frontier production functions which have been adjusted to ... [more ▼]

The principal aim of this paper is to measure the efficiency of international airlines. We obtain measures of technical efficiency from stochastic frontier production functions which have been adjusted to account for environmental influences such as network conditions, geographical factors, etc. We observe that two alternative approaches to this problem have been proposed in the efficiency measurement literature. One assumes that the environmental factors influence the shape of the technology while the other assumes that they directly influence the degree of technical inefficiency. In this paper we compare the results obtained when using these two approaches. The two sets of results provide similar rankings of airlines but suggest differing degrees of technical inefficiency. Both sets of results also suggest that Asian/Oceanic airlines are technically more efficient than European and North American airlines but that the differences are essentially due to more favourable environmental conditions. Nevertheless, it is among Asian companies that the major improvements in managerial efficiency (technical efficiency with environmental factors netted out) took place over the sample period (1977–1990). [less ▲]

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See detailAbbaye de Stavelot : découverte d’une sépulture exceptionnelle
Van den Bossche, Benoît ULg; Lemeunier, Albert ULg; Otte, Marcel ULg et al

in Archeologia : Fouilles et Découvertes (1999), 12

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See detailState of current therapy and patient care in Europe.
Lefebvre, Pierre ULg; Scheen, André ULg

in International Journal of Clinical Practice. Supplement (1999), 107

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See detailImpacts of (NH4)2SO4 deposition on Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst) roots
Carnol, Monique ULg; Cudlin, Pavel; Ineson, Phil

in Water, Air & Soil Pollution (1999), 116

The effects of enhanced (NH4)(2)SO4 (NS) deposition on Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst) fine root biomass, vitality and chemistry were investigated using root-free in-growth cores reproducing native ... [more ▼]

The effects of enhanced (NH4)(2)SO4 (NS) deposition on Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst) fine root biomass, vitality and chemistry were investigated using root-free in-growth cores reproducing native organic and mineral soil horizons. The cores were covered and watered every 2 weeks with native throughfall or throughfall supplemented with NS to increase deposition by 75 kg ha(-1) a(-1) NH4+-N (86 kg ha(-1) a(-1) SO42--S). The in-growth cores were sampled after 19 months and assessed for root biomass, necromass, length, tip number, tip vitality and fine root chemistry. Root biomass and fine root aluminium (Al) concentration were negatively correlated, but NS deposition had no effect on root growth or root tip vitality. NS deposition caused increased fine root nitrogen (N) concentrations in the organic horizon and increased Calcium (Ca) concentrations in the mineral horizon. Fine root biomass was higher in the organic horizon, where fine root Al and potassium (K) concentrations were lower and Ca concentrations higher than in the mineral horizon. Results highlighted the importance of soil stratification on fine root growth and chemical composition. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication and performances of graphitic chromium cast iron rolls
Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline ULg; Terziev, L.; Breyer, J. P. et al

in Revue de Métallurgie [=Revue de Métallurgie. Cahiers d'Informations Techniques] (1999), 96(11), 1401-1411

The main requirements for the development of a new grade for the later finishing section of the mill are : good oxidation and thermal behaviour, high wear resistance, good resistance to rolling incidents ... [more ▼]

The main requirements for the development of a new grade for the later finishing section of the mill are : good oxidation and thermal behaviour, high wear resistance, good resistance to rolling incidents. The approach of Marichal Ketin to improve the rolling performances in the last finishing stands is presented. The Hi-Cr cast iron possesses excellent wear resistance due to the presence of hard chromium carbides, but its thermal conductivity and sticking properties are fairly low. A graphite precipitation could contribute to an improvement in thermal conductivity and serve as lubricant preventing sticking. The new material, called graphitic chromium iron, shows good oxidation, wear and thermal behaviour allowing its use as work roll in the last stands of the finishing section of a HSM. In the as-cast condition, graphite precipitation in high Ni and Si chromium cast iron occurs at a temperature of 950 degrees C. Moreover, the amount and volume of free graphite may be increased by secondary graphite precipitation during suitable heat treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailAnnual activity cycle of adult brown trout (Salmo trutta L.): A radio-telemetry study in a small stream of the Belgian Ardenne
Ovidio, Michaël ULg

in Bulletin Français de la Pêche et de la Pisciculture (1999), (352), 1-18

During a study period of 26 months, twenty trout (26.0-57.0 cm FL; 198-1,685 g) were daily located from 16 to 466 days in a small stream of the Belgian Ardenne, the Aisne stream (tributary of the river ... [more ▼]

During a study period of 26 months, twenty trout (26.0-57.0 cm FL; 198-1,685 g) were daily located from 16 to 466 days in a small stream of the Belgian Ardenne, the Aisne stream (tributary of the river Ourthe) in order to characterize their annual pattern of mobility. Daily movements were more frequent and longer during the spawning period (October-December) than at any other time of the year. Upstream migrations (max.: 25 km) generally occurred during October and the first fortnight of November and were triggered by a combination of Variations of water temperature and water level within a thermal range of 10-14 degrees C. Spawning activity (second fortnight of November until late December) took place in the Aisne stream (max. width : 10 m) or in its small tributaries. Trout surviving spawning undertook a fast (max.:9,200 m in 24 h) and precise post reproductive homing. From winter to summer, daily movements were shorter and mainly corresponded to changes of residences within a home range of which the size was proportional to the trout's size. In March and June, some trout made long upstream unidirectional migrations of which the biological signification is still unknown. These results are discussed within the context of life history strategies and management of trout populations. [less ▲]

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See detailEnvironmental factors controlling NO3- leaching, N2O emissions and numbers of NH4+ oxidisers in a coniferous forest soil
Carnol, Monique ULg; Ineson, Phil

in Soil Biology & Biochemistry (1999), 31

Main and interactive effects of temperature, throughfall volume and NH4+ deposition on soil solution NO3- concentrations, N2O emissions and numbers of NH4+ oxidisers were investigated in a controlled ... [more ▼]

Main and interactive effects of temperature, throughfall volume and NH4+ deposition on soil solution NO3- concentrations, N2O emissions and numbers of NH4+ oxidisers were investigated in a controlled laboratory experiment. Large intact soil cores from a Picea abies (L.) Karat. stand were incubated according to an 'incomplete factorial design' at 4, 12 or 20 degrees C and watered every 2 weeks with 300, 500 or 700 ml (442, 737 and 1032 mm yr(-1)) of a natural throughfall solution enriched with 0, 37.5 or 75 kg NH4+-N ha(-1) yr(-1). Watering and sampling were performed every 2 weeks, during a 112 d period. At d 112, a temperature optimum for NO3--N concentrations in the leachate, NO3--N fluxes and numbers of NH4+ oxidisers in the mineral soil layer was determined at ca. 11 degrees C. NO3--N concentrations also decreased with throughfall volume, towards a minimum at 590 ml, with temperature however contributing most to modelling NO3--N concentrations and the two factors acting independently. The model explained 59% of the variability in the data, and the regression between observed and predicted concentrations was highly significant (P < 0.0001, r(2) = 0.93). NO3--N fluxes increased quadratically with throughfall volume, and throughfall volume and NH4+ deposition interacted significantly in determining the numbers of NH4+ oxidisers in the mineral soil layer. Numbers of NH4+ oxidisers were higher in the humus layer and decreased with increasing temperatures. N2O fluxes increased quadratically with temperature, and the linear and quadratic effects of throughfall volume (maximum at 500 ml). Results suggest that optimum temperatures for net nitrification may have been overestimated in previous studies by the use of disturbed soils. [less ▲]

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See detailL'anorexie mentale, une maladie grave specifique de la femme jeune.
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(4), 255-61

Anorexia nervosa is characterized by a triad comprising anorexia, weight loss, and amenorrhoea. It is typically present in adolescent or young adult women and its prevalence appears to increase in our ... [more ▼]

Anorexia nervosa is characterized by a triad comprising anorexia, weight loss, and amenorrhoea. It is typically present in adolescent or young adult women and its prevalence appears to increase in our society. Eating disorders may lead to cachexia and various severe complications. This disease, which appears to be associated to a particular psychological background, is triggered by conflictual relationships, usually within the family. The anorectic patient should be carefully evaluated, as soon as possible, from a somatic, dietetic and psychological point of view. A specific therapeutic approach should be rapidly proposed in a specialized centre, if possible by a multidisciplinary team. The treatment is most often difficult and of long duration. Prognosis remains uncertain in most cases, especially when appropriate care is delayed. [less ▲]

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See detailL'excès pondéral et l'obésité chez l'enfant: Un réel problème de santé publique.
Guillaume, Michèle ULg; Burniat, W.

in Revue de Médecine Générale [=RMG] (1999)

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See detailScintigraphy of the equine lung
Votion, Dominique ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Equine Veterinary Education (1999), 11

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See detailCAPPP trial. Captopril Prevention Project.
Scheen, André ULg

in Lancet (1999), 353(9166), 1793-41795-6

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See detailAirway epithelial cell migration dynamics. MMP-9 role in cell-extracellular matrix remodeling
Legrand, C.; Gilles, Christine ULg; Zahm, J. M. et al

in Journal of Cell Biology (1999), 146(2), 517-29

Cell spreading and migration associated with the expression of the 92-kD gelatinase (matrix metalloproteinase 9 or MMP-9) are important mechanisms involved in the repair of the respiratory epithelium. We ... [more ▼]

Cell spreading and migration associated with the expression of the 92-kD gelatinase (matrix metalloproteinase 9 or MMP-9) are important mechanisms involved in the repair of the respiratory epithelium. We investigated the location of MMP-9 and its potential role in migrating human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC). In vivo and in vitro, MMP-9 accumulated in migrating HBEC located at the leading edge of a wound and MMP-9 expression paralleled cell migration speed. MMP-9 accumulated through an actin-dependent pathway in the advancing lamellipodia of migrating cells and was subsequently found active in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Lamellipodia became anchored through primordial contacts established with type IV collagen. MMP-9 became amassed behind collagen IV where there were fewer cell-ECM contacts. Both collagen IV and MMP-9 were involved in cell migration because when cell-collagen IV interaction was blocked, cells spread slightly but did not migrate; and when MMP-9 activation was prevented, cells remained fixed on primordial contacts and did not advance at all. These observations suggest that MMP-9 controls the migration of repairing HBEC by remodeling the provisional ECM implicated in primordial contacts. [less ▲]

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See detailL'éclairage : une technique en évolution. De la performance visuelle à l'émotion
Eugène, Christian; Rombauts, Patrick; Embrechts, Jean-Jacques ULg et al

in Revue E Tijdschrift (1999), 115è année, 3/4

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See detailUn réformateur lotharingien de choc : l'abbé Poppon de Stavelot (978-1048)
George, Philippe ULg

in Revue Mabillon (1999)

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See detailL'éclairage : une technique en évolution. Les méthodes de calcul et de simulation
Embrechts, Jean-Jacques ULg; Renglet, Michel; Eugène, Christian et al

in Revue E Tijdschrift (1999), 115è année, 3/4

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See detailRacisme et sentiment d'appartenance ethnique chez les 10-12 ans en milieu scolaire
Pirotte, Gautier ULg

in Nouvelles Pratiques Sociales (1999), vol12(1/2), 217-232

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See detailHumoral and cellular immune response to a crude exo-antigen and purified keratinase of Microsporum canis in experimentally infected guinea pigs.
Mignon, Bernard ULg; Leclipteux, T.; Focant, Charles ULg et al

in Medical Mycology (1999), 37(2), 123-129

In order to understand better the host-parasite relationship and to compare with previous observations in Microsporum canis naturally infected cats, the humoral and cellular immune responses to both a ... [more ▼]

In order to understand better the host-parasite relationship and to compare with previous observations in Microsporum canis naturally infected cats, the humoral and cellular immune responses to both a crude exo-antigen and a 31.5 kDa purified keratinase were evaluated in 12 M. canis experimentally infected guinea pigs. Humoral and cellular responses were assessed by ELISA from days 0 to 56 postinfection (PI) and by measurement of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses on days 14 and 57 PI, respectively. Additionally, immunohistochemical staining was performed and demonstrated that the keratinase was produced in infected guinea pig skin, as previously reported in cats. Despite a marked interindividual variation, all the guinea pigs produced specific IgG to the crude exo-antigen from day 21 PI onwards, but no anti-keratinase IgG was detected. Strongly positive DTH responses to the exo-antigen were observed on both dates, whereas the keratinase elicited no and weak DTH on days 14 and 57 PI, respectively. These results are in agreement with those previously described for naturally infected cats, and indicate that the 31.5 kDa keratinase is not a major antigen in M. canis infection. [less ▲]

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See detailMédiamorphoses. Notes sur quelques conversions macluhaniennes
Durand, Pascal ULg

in Quaderni : la Revue de la Communication (1999), 37

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See detailUn siècle d'histoire coopérative à travers les statistiques de l'A.C.I.
Mignot, Delphine; Defourny, Jacques ULg; Leclerc, André

in Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics = Annales de l'Economie Publique, Sociale et Coopérative (1999), 70(1), 75-105

Beaucoup d'auteurs se sont déjà penchés sur l'évolution quantitative du mouvement coopératif; mais généralement leurs analyses se limitaient à un secteur, à une région ou à une période particulière. Grâce ... [more ▼]

Beaucoup d'auteurs se sont déjà penchés sur l'évolution quantitative du mouvement coopératif; mais généralement leurs analyses se limitaient à un secteur, à une région ou à une période particulière. Grâce à une collecte effectuée par A. Leclerc (Université de Moncton, Canada) de toutes les informations statistiques détenues par l'Alliance Coopérative Internationale, ce travail peut s'appuyer sur une base de données exceptionnelle concernant le nombre de coopérateurs affiliés à l'A.C.I. depuis 1896. Sur base de ce recensement, les auteurs ont cherché à déterminer les grandes orientations de l'évolution du sociétariat coopératif sur une période longue de près d'un siècle. Dans cet article, ils présentent la plupart des résultats obtenus en découpant la période analysée en quatre phases de développement du mouvement coopératif mondial. [less ▲]

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See detailFar-field decoupled basis for the method of moments-2D case
V Sabariego, Ruth ULg; Landesa, Luis; Obelleiro, Fernando

in Progress in Electromagnetics Research [=PIER] (1999), 24

When solving electromagnetic problems, integral equation methods, such as the Method of Moments, are known to yield to dense matrix systems whose solution usually supposes an intensive computational cost ... [more ▼]

When solving electromagnetic problems, integral equation methods, such as the Method of Moments, are known to yield to dense matrix systems whose solution usually supposes an intensive computational cost. Continuous efforts have been developed to overcome this drawback. In this paper, the goal is to generate a set of basis functions defined over the entire domain and characterized by a null radiated power coupling in the far-field region. This behavior permits to diminish the density of unknowns per wavelength, considering only a reduced set of the new basis. Furthermore, the resulting matrix has a sparse structure. All these factors amounts to considerable savings in terms of computer storage and CPU requirements. [less ▲]

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See detailLymphoid cell apoptosis induced by trophoblastic cells: a model of active foeto-placental tolerance
Coumans, Bernard ULg; Thellin, Olivier ULg; Zorzi, Willy ULg et al

in Journal of Immunological Methods (1999), 224(1-2), 185-196

To test the hypothesis that CD95-L (Fas-L) present on trophoblastic cells plays a part in establishing foeto-placental tolerance by inducing apoptosis of immune defence cells, we cocultured trophoblasts ... [more ▼]

To test the hypothesis that CD95-L (Fas-L) present on trophoblastic cells plays a part in establishing foeto-placental tolerance by inducing apoptosis of immune defence cells, we cocultured trophoblasts with lymphoid cells and scored the frequency of cell death in these cultures. We prepared human trophoblastic cells from term placentas removed by C-section and placed them in culture for 48 h before introducing the lymphoid cells. We added Jurkat cells, a CD3 + lymphoid cell line, or purified T cells from human blood to the cultured trophoblasts and monitored apoptosis by electron microscopy and flow cytometry after TUNEL or annexin V labelling. The frequency of cell death in the CD3 + cell population was higher when the lymphoid cells were cocultured with trophoblastic cells than when they were cultured alone. This frequency increased with time but was reduced when anti-CD95-L antibodies were added to the culture medium. Cell death was less frequent in the lymphoid cell population when trophoblasts were replaced with human fibroblasts not expressing CD95-L. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailDirective beam expansions for the generalized multipole technique
V Sabariego, Ruth ULg; Landesa, Luis; Obelleiro, Fernando

in Microwave & Optical Technology Letters (1999), 22(6), 382-387

In recent years, the generalized multipole technique (GMT) and other fictitious source methods have been widely used to solve electromagnetic scattering problems. Nevertheless, these methods have been ... [more ▼]

In recent years, the generalized multipole technique (GMT) and other fictitious source methods have been widely used to solve electromagnetic scattering problems. Nevertheless, these methods have been shown to be very sensitive to the source locations, and often produce ill-conditioned matrix systems. The current approach suggests a kind of synthesized directive expansion to reduce the dependence on the source locations, the condition number of the impedance matrix, and the number of unknowns. [less ▲]

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See detailLa loi du 11 décembre 1998 relative à la prescription de l'action publique
Jacobs, Ann ULg

in Journal des Tribunaux (1999)

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See detailInterets et limites de la diete proteique chez le patient obese diabetique de type 2.
Scheen, André ULg

in Annales d'Endocrinologie (1999), 60(6), 443-50

Weight excess plays a major role in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes but only a minority of patients succeed in following a restrictive calorie diet in the long-term, able to reduce body weight and ... [more ▼]

Weight excess plays a major role in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes but only a minority of patients succeed in following a restrictive calorie diet in the long-term, able to reduce body weight and maintain normoglycaemia. Very low-calorie diets such as protein diets rapidly reduce plasma glucose levels by various mechanisms, among which a significant improvement of hepatic and muscular insulin sensitivity and a partial recovery of insulin secretion. The rapidity of the hypoglycaemic action suggests that calorie restriction plays a more important role than weight loss itself. The lowering of plasma glucose levels imposes an early reduction in the doses of antidiabetic agents to avoid hypoglycaemia. Well-balanced protein diets are well tolerated, provided that they are restricted to a few weeks. The most important limitation of the protein diet is the risk of weight regain afterwards and such situation requires the maintenance of an hypocaloric diet in the long-term. Ideally, the protein diet should be integrated in a global approach including treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes and frequently associated other risk factors. [less ▲]

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See detailLimit Cycle Oscillation Control and Suppression
Dimitriadis, Grigorios ULg; Cooper, Jonathan E

in Aeronautical Journal (1999), 103(1023), 257-263

The prediction and characterization of the Limit Cycle Oscillation (LCO) behaviour of nonlinear aeroelastic systems has become of great interest recently. However, much of this work has concentrated on ... [more ▼]

The prediction and characterization of the Limit Cycle Oscillation (LCO) behaviour of nonlinear aeroelastic systems has become of great interest recently. However, much of this work has concentrated on determining the existence of LCOs. This paper concentrates on LCO stability. By considering the energy present in di®erent limit cycles, and also using the Harmonic Balance Method, it is shown how the stability of limit cycles can be determined. The analysis is then extended to show that limit cycles can be controlled, or even suppressed, by the use of suitable excitation signals. A basic control scheme is developed to achieve this, and is demonstrated on a simple simulated nonlinear aeroelastic system. [less ▲]

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See detailRadiative lifetimes, branching fractions and transition probabilities in Ge I. Solar implications
Biémont, Emile ULg; Lynga, C.; Li, Z. S. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (1999), 303

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See detailLa prise de décisions pré-interactives dans l'enseignement des activités physiques et sportives
Cloes, Marc ULg; Pirottin, Véronique; Ledent, Maryse et al

in Revue de l'Education Physique (1999), 39(1), 25-36

Lorsqu'on tente de comprendre les comportements observés en classe, aborder la réflexion, les décisions et les valeurs des intervenants permet de mieux interpréter ce que l'on a observé. Cette démarche ... [more ▼]

Lorsqu'on tente de comprendre les comportements observés en classe, aborder la réflexion, les décisions et les valeurs des intervenants permet de mieux interpréter ce que l'on a observé. Cette démarche est évidemment délicate puisqu'il s'agit d'entrer dans un domaine sujet à des problèmes de crédibilité. Il est crucial de distinguer les valeurs et croyances, d'une part, et les prises de décisions, d'autre part. Celles-ci concernent deux moment de la relation pédagogique, ... [less ▲]

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See detailThe Farrakhan Phenomenon - R. Singh
Martiniello, Marco ULg

in Nationalism & Ethnic Politics (1999), 5(3-4), 282-283

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See detailInteractively converging on context-sensitive representations: a solution to the frame problem
French, Robert M; Anselme, Patrick ULg

in Revue Internationale de Philosophie (1999), 209(3), 365-385

While we agree that the frame problem, as initially stated by McCarthy and Hayes (1969), is a problem that arises because of the use of representations, we do not accept the anti-representationalist ... [more ▼]

While we agree that the frame problem, as initially stated by McCarthy and Hayes (1969), is a problem that arises because of the use of representations, we do not accept the anti-representationalist position that the way around the problem is to eliminate representations. We believe that internal representations of the external world are a necessary, perhaps even a defining feature, of higher cognition. We explore the notion of dynamically created context-dependent representations that emerge from a continual interaction between working memory, external input, and long-term memory. We claim that only this kind of representation, necessary for higher cognitive abilities such as counterfactualization, will allow the combinatorial explosion inherent in the frame problem to be avoided. Introduction You live in a tidy little suburb of America. You call up a friend and invite him to have a drink. He agrees to meet you at seven. But then, just before you hang up, he adds, 'Unless my wife has scheduled something else for this evening.' You think: that's reasonable. Then he adds, 'Unless the bar doesn't exist anymore.' You think: that's a bit strange since the bar was there three months before. Then he adds, 'Unless I'm killed on the way there.' You begin to wonder if you really want to have a drink with him. And finally, he adds, 'Unless a meteorite destroys the earth' and you suddenly remember a prior engagement. But what, exactly, makes some of these conditions perfectly reasonable, others crazy? The philosophical problem is that we cannot exclude any of them a priori because contexts do exist in which they would be perfectly appropriate remarks. For example, if the bar in question was a theme bar devoted to punk rock music, or if the conversation had occurred in London in 1942 or in Sarajevo fifty years later, or if on that day the earth happened to be passing through a dense band of meteorites the size of Madagascar.... [less ▲]

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See detailCBP and histone deacetylase inhibition enhance the transactivation potential of the HOXB7 homeodomain-containing protein
Chariot, Alain ULg; Van Lint, Carine; Chapelier, Muriel et al

in Oncogene (1999), 18

Homeodomain-containing proteins are transcription factors regulating the coordinated expression of multiple target genes involved in development, differentiation and cellular transformation. In this study ... [more ▼]

Homeodomain-containing proteins are transcription factors regulating the coordinated expression of multiple target genes involved in development, differentiation and cellular transformation. In this study, we demonstrated that HOXB7, one member of this family, behaved as a transactivator in breast cancer cells. Deletion of either the HOXB7 N-terminal domain or the C-terminal acidic tail abolished this transcriptional effect, suggesting a combination of distinct functional transactivating domains. HOXB7 physically interacted both in vitro and in vivo with the coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP). This interaction led to an enhanced transactivating potential and required the N-terminal of HOXB7 as well as two domains located at the C-terminal part of CBP. Moreover, trichostatin A, a deacetylase inhibitor, strongly enhanced the transcriptional properties of HOXB7. Our data therefore indicate that HOX proteins can directly interact with CBP and that acetylation/deacetylation may regulate their transcriptional properties. [less ▲]

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See detailLa loi du 10 juin 1998 relative à la prescription de l'action civile née d'une infraction
Jacobs, Ann ULg

in Revue Générale de Droit Civil Belge = Tijdschrift voor Belgisch Burgerlijk (1999)

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See detail"CAPCIL". Adaptation posologique des traitements par aminoglycosides
Gougnard, Thierry; Charlier, Corinne ULg; Plomteux, Guy ULg

in Acta Clinica Belgica. Supplementum (1999), 1

The objectives of the therapeutic drug monitoring are to assume the efficacy and inocuity of a medical treatment and the patient's observance. The administration of a drug to a patient is not always ... [more ▼]

The objectives of the therapeutic drug monitoring are to assume the efficacy and inocuity of a medical treatment and the patient's observance. The administration of a drug to a patient is not always performed in the same conditions and therefore treatment has to be adapted. When necessary, this one is very often based on empiric or very approximative notions and, more seldom, on results of plasmatic concentrations of the drug. The CAPCIL program allows the possibility to objectivate the medical decision and adapt the posology on the basis of two kinetic parameters: the biological half-life and the distribution volume. Indeed, most of pharmacokinetics modifications (drug interactions, diseases, ...) are affecting the two parameters. With basic informations so as height and weight, posology, treatment objectives and peak/trough plasmatic concentrations of the drug, the program is proposing several posology adaptation schemes. The example of a once-a-day administration of amikacin is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailStephen Berg's Shaving
Delville, Michel ULg

in The Prose Poem : an International Journal (1999), 8

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See detailKarst dans les micaschistes d'Akok Bekoé - Sud Cameroun
Willems, Luc ULg; Vicat, Jean-Paul; Pouclet, André

in Bulletin de la Société Géographique de Liège (1999), 37(2), 5-18

50 km south of Yaoundé, karst phenomena are developed in micaschists. A network of fractures dependent in thrusting area guided formation of caves, conduits and other morphologies comparable with those ... [more ▼]

50 km south of Yaoundé, karst phenomena are developed in micaschists. A network of fractures dependent in thrusting area guided formation of caves, conduits and other morphologies comparable with those found in the karst limestones. The presence of a spring and the proximity of the Nyong river suggest that a chemical erosion within an aquifer is at the origin of most of forms. The position of certain conduits and tafonis dismisses the assumption of a genesis within a weathering mantle. [less ▲]

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See detailConcentrations plasmatiques de la vitamine K1 et de l'acenocoumarol en fonction du temps de quick (I.N.R.)
Gougnard, Thierry; Charlier, Corinne ULg; David, Jean-Louis ULg et al

in Acta Clinica Belgica. Supplementum (1999), S1

Reduced vitamins K are acting as cofactors of glutamic carboxylation of procoagulant factors (II, VII, IX and X). The reduction of these vitamins is inhibited by oral anticoagulants. The response to ... [more ▼]

Reduced vitamins K are acting as cofactors of glutamic carboxylation of procoagulant factors (II, VII, IX and X). The reduction of these vitamins is inhibited by oral anticoagulants. The response to antivitamins K is individual and may change during the treatment of a patient. The determinations of plasmatic vitamin K and acenocoumarol may help to explain the mechanism of a resistance to the anticoagulant therapy. Quantifications of vitamin K1 are realized after liquid-liquid extraction with liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection after post-column reduction. For acenocoumarol, plasma concentration is measured, after liquid-liquid extraction, by liquid chromatograph, with ion trap mass spectrometer detector. [less ▲]

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See detailMaximal Ventilation Assessment in Healthy Calves
Bureau, Fabrice ULg; Coghe, J.; Uystepruyst, C. H. et al

in Veterinary Journal (1999), 157(3), 309-314

In order to define a reliable method for estimating maximal ventilation in cattle, 12 healthy calves underwent a rebreathing trial and injections of increasing doses of lobeline, a respiratory analeptic ... [more ▼]

In order to define a reliable method for estimating maximal ventilation in cattle, 12 healthy calves underwent a rebreathing trial and injections of increasing doses of lobeline, a respiratory analeptic. The effects of these tests on the main ventilatory parameters (tidal volume, VT; respiratory frequency, fR and minute volume,.VE) recorded during the 15 s of maximal response were studied and compared. The sharp rise in.VE(4.8 times higher than the resting value) observed during the rebreathing trial was mainly due to an increase in VT. This rise in ventilation was the highest ever reported in calves. Lobeline dose-dependently enhanced ventilation up to a threshold dose of 0.25 mg/kg, which always produced a maximal response. This maximal response (3.7 times higher than the resting value), reflecting both an increase in fR and VT, was reproducible at an interval of 12 h and was highly correlated with that observed during the rebreathing trial (R = 0.98, P< 0.001). These results suggest that: (1) rebreathing trial is a reliable method to induce and measure maximal ventilation in calves; and (2) lobeline administration (0.25 mg/kg) is a reliable means of accurately estimating this variable. Lobeline administration, unlike the rebreathing trial, is safe and easy to standardize, and the test therefore seems to be the preferred way of studying maximal ventilation in calves. [less ▲]

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