References of "Scientific journals"      in Complete repository Arts & humanities   Archaeology   Art & art history   Classical & oriental studies   History   Languages & linguistics   Literature   Performing arts   Philosophy & ethics   Religion & theology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Business & economic sciences   Accounting & auditing   Production, distribution & supply chain management   Finance   General management & organizational theory   Human resources management   Management information systems   Marketing   Strategy & innovation   Quantitative methods in economics & management   General economics & history of economic thought   International economics   Macroeconomics & monetary economics   Microeconomics   Economic systems & public economics   Social economics   Special economic topics (health, labor, transportation…)   Multidisciplinary, general & others Engineering, computing & technology   Aerospace & aeronautics engineering   Architecture   Chemical engineering   Civil engineering   Computer science   Electrical & electronics engineering   Energy   Geological, petroleum & mining engineering   Materials science & engineering   Mechanical engineering   Multidisciplinary, general & others Human health sciences   Alternative medicine   Anesthesia & intensive care   Cardiovascular & respiratory systems   Dentistry & oral medicine   Dermatology   Endocrinology, metabolism & nutrition   Forensic medicine   Gastroenterology & hepatology   General & internal medicine   Geriatrics   Hematology   Immunology & infectious disease   Laboratory medicine & medical technology   Neurology   Oncology   Ophthalmology   Orthopedics, rehabilitation & sports medicine   Otolaryngology   Pediatrics   Pharmacy, pharmacology & toxicology   Psychiatry   Public health, health care sciences & services   Radiology, nuclear medicine & imaging   Reproductive medicine (gynecology, andrology, obstetrics)   Rheumatology   Surgery   Urology & nephrology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Law, criminology & political science   Civil law   Criminal law & procedure   Criminology   Economic & commercial law   European & international law   Judicial law   Metalaw, Roman law, history of law & comparative law   Political science, public administration & international relations   Public law   Social law   Tax law   Multidisciplinary, general & others Life sciences   Agriculture & agronomy   Anatomy (cytology, histology, embryology...) & physiology   Animal production & animal husbandry   Aquatic sciences & oceanology   Biochemistry, biophysics & molecular biology   Biotechnology   Entomology & pest control   Environmental sciences & ecology   Food science   Genetics & genetic processes   Microbiology   Phytobiology (plant sciences, forestry, mycology...)   Veterinary medicine & animal health   Zoology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Physical, chemical, mathematical & earth Sciences   Chemistry   Earth sciences & physical geography   Mathematics   Physics   Space science, astronomy & astrophysics   Multidisciplinary, general & others Social & behavioral sciences, psychology   Animal psychology, ethology & psychobiology   Anthropology   Communication & mass media   Education & instruction   Human geography & demography   Library & information sciences   Neurosciences & behavior   Regional & inter-regional studies   Social work & social policy   Sociology & social sciences   Social, industrial & organizational psychology   Theoretical & cognitive psychology   Treatment & clinical psychology   Multidisciplinary, general & others     Showing results 38501 to 38600 of 56137     381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391     Cold-Adapted Enzymes: From Fundamentals to BiotechnologyGerday, Charles ; Aittaleb, Mohamed; Bentahir, Mostafa et alin Trends in Biotechnology (2000), 18(3), 103-7Psychrophilic enzymes produced by cold-adapted microorganisms display a high catalytic efficiency and are most often, if not always, associated with high thermosensitivity. Using X-ray crystallography ... [more ▼]Psychrophilic enzymes produced by cold-adapted microorganisms display a high catalytic efficiency and are most often, if not always, associated with high thermosensitivity. Using X-ray crystallography, these properties are beginning to become understood, and the rules governing their adaptation to cold appear to be relatively diverse. The application of these enzymes offers considerable potential to the biotechnology industry, for example, in the detergent and food industries, for the production of fine chemicals and in bioremediation processes. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 69 (4 ULg) Target-Controlled Infusion of Propofol and Remifentanil Combined with Bispectral Index Monitoring for Awake CraniotomyHans, Pol ; Bonhomme, Vincent ; Born, J. D. et alin Anaesthesia (2000), 55(3), 255-9We describe the target-controlled administration of propofol and remifentanil, combined with monitoring of the bispectral index, during an awake craniotomy for removal of a left temporo-parietal tumour ... [more ▼]We describe the target-controlled administration of propofol and remifentanil, combined with monitoring of the bispectral index, during an awake craniotomy for removal of a left temporo-parietal tumour near the motor speech centre. Target concentrations of the two drugs were adjusted according to the patient's responses to painful stimuli and surgical events, and the need for speech testing. Allowing the effect-site concentrations of propofol and remifentanil to decrease during surgery allowed the performance of cortical speech mapping and the testing of the patient's ability to speak. Although the bispectral index was not used as a guide for the administration of the drugs, its value correlated better with the patient's responsiveness than did the predicted effect-site concentrations of propofol. Side-effects, comprising hypotension, respiratory depression and airway obstruction, were related to rapid increases in drug infusion rates and were easily managed. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 75 (4 ULg) Involvement of Insulin-Like Growth Factors in Early T Cell Development: A Study Using Fetal Thymic Organ CulturesKecha, O.; Brilot, F.; Martens, Henri et alin Endocrinology (2000), 141(3), 1209-17The expression of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and IGF receptor genes was investigated by RT-PCR during ontogeny of the murine thymus. IGF-1, IGF-1R, M6P/IGF-2R genes are expressed in the thymus both ... [more ▼]The expression of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and IGF receptor genes was investigated by RT-PCR during ontogeny of the murine thymus. IGF-1, IGF-1R, M6P/IGF-2R genes are expressed in the thymus both in fetal and postnatal life, whereas IGF-2 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) decline after birth but are still detectable on the seventh week. By in situ hybridization, IGF-2 transcripts were located in the outer cortex and medulla of the postnatal thymus, and on the whole surface ofthe epithelial-like network in the fetal thymus. The effects of anti-IGFs and IGF-receptors neutralizing Abs on the generation of pre-T cell subpopulations were then investigated using fetal thymic organ cultures (FTOC). FTOC treatment with an anti-IGF-2 mAb, an anti-IGF-1R mAb, or an anti-M6P/IGF-2R polyclonal Ab induced a blockade of T cell differentiation at the CD4-CD8- stage, as shown by a significant increase in the percentage of CD4-CD8- cells and a decrease in the percentage of CD4+CD8+ cells. Moreover, anti-IGF-2 Ab treatment induced an increase in CD8+ cells suggesting that thymic IGF-2 might have a role in determining differentiation into the CD4 or CD8 lineage. Anti-IGF-1 Ab treatment decreased the proportion in CD4-CD8- cells and increased the frequency in CD4+CD8+. FTOC treatment with anti-(pro)insulin did not exert any significant effect on T cell development. These data indicate that the intrathymic IGF-mediated signaling plays an active role in the early steps of T cell differentiation during fetal development. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 36 (7 ULg) When false memories do not occur : not thinking of the lure or remembering that it was not heard ?Brédart, Serge in Memory (2000), 8(2), 123-128The aim of the present study was to evaluate two explanations for the non-occurrence of false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. One explanation was that a critical lure is not ... [more ▼]The aim of the present study was to evaluate two explanations for the non-occurrence of false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. One explanation was that a critical lure is not recalled because the list failed to evoke it in the participant's mind. Another possible explanation was that the participant would identify the critical lure and would remember, at the time of recall, that the lure was not produced by an external source. In order to explore these two possible explanations for the non-occurrence of false memories, an experimental phase was added to the usual DRM paradigm: participants were asked to recall items they thought of but did not recall because these items were not members of the list presented by the experimenter. Among participants who did not recall the critical lure during the standard recall task, those who recalled the critical lure during the additional phase outnumbered those who did not recall it. This result is more consistent with the second explanation than with the first one. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 100 (10 ULg) Increased Aortic Compliance Maintains Left Ventricular Performance at Lower Energetic CostKolh, Philippe ; D'Orio, Vincenzo ; Lambermont, Bernard et alin European Journal of Cardio - Thoracic Surgery (2000), 17(3), 272-8OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate left ventricular contractility and energetic cost of cardiac ejection under conditions of acute increase in aortic compliance. METHODS: In six ... [more ▼]OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate left ventricular contractility and energetic cost of cardiac ejection under conditions of acute increase in aortic compliance. METHODS: In six anaesthetized pigs, ascending aortic compliance was increased by adding a volume chamber in parallel to the ascending aorta. Systemic vascular parameters, including characteristic impedance, peripheral resistance, total vascular compliance, and inertance, were estimated with a four-element windkessel model. Arterial elastance was derived from these parameters. Left ventricular systolic function was assessed by end-systolic pressure-volume relationship (end-systolic elastance), and stroke work. Pressure-volume area was used as a measure of myocardial oxygen consumption. Heart rate remained constant during the experimentation. RESULTS: Adding the aortic volume chamber significantly increased vascular compliance from 0. 95+/-0.08 to 1.17+/-0.06 ml/mmHg (P<0.01), while inductance, characteristic impedance, peripheral resistance, and arterial elastance remained statistically at basal values, respectively 0. 0020+/-0.0003 mmHg.s(2)/ml, 0.105+/-0.009 mmHg.s/ml, 1.27+/-0.12 mmHg.s/ml, and 2.43+/-0.21 mmHg/ml. During the same interval, stroke work and pressure-volume area decreased respectively from 2700+/-242 to 2256+/-75 mmHg.ml (P<0.01), and from 3806+/-427 to 3179+/-167 mmHg.ml (P<0.01). Stroke work and pressure-volume area decreased at matched end-diastolic volumes. In contrast, end-systolic elastance, ejection fraction, and stroke volume remained statistically unchanged, respectively at 2.29+/-0.14 mmHg/ml, 48.1+/-2.1 %, and 32. 4+/-1.7 ml. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that, when facing an increased aortic compliance, the left ventricle displays unchanged contractility, but the energetic cost of cardiac ejection is significantly decreased. These data may be of clinical importance when choosing an artificial prosthesis for ascending aortic replacement. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 23 (3 ULg) Ring opening copolymerization of ε-caprolactone, γ-(triethylsilyloxy)-ε-caprolactone and γ-ethylene ketal-ε-caprolactonelactone: a route to hetero-graft copolyestersStassin, Fabrice; Halleux, Olivier; Dubois, Philippe et alin Macromolecular Symposia (2000), 153ε-Caprolactone (ε-CL) has been copolymerized with two precursors of γ-hydroxy-ε-CL, i.e., γ-ethylene ketal-ε-caprolactone (TOSUO) and γ-(triethylsilyloxy)-ε-caprolactone (TeSCL). The triethylsilyloxy ... [more ▼]ε-Caprolactone (ε-CL) has been copolymerized with two precursors of γ-hydroxy-ε-CL, i.e., γ-ethylene ketal-ε-caprolactone (TOSUO) and γ-(triethylsilyloxy)-ε-caprolactone (TeSCL). The triethylsilyloxy pendant groups can be selectively deprotected into hydroxyl groups followed by the deprotection of the acetal substituents. Each series of hydroxyl groups can be used to initiate the polymerization of cyclic monomers so leading to hetero-graft copolyesters with, for instance, poly-ε-CL and polylactide grafts. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 49 (5 ULg) Synthesis of poly(methyl methacrylate)-b-poly(n-butyl acrylate)-b-poly(methyl methacrylate) triblocks and their potential as thermoplastic elastomersTong, J. D.; Jérôme, Robert in Polymer (2000), 41(7), 2499-2510A series of well defined poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-b-poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PnBA)-b-PMMA triblock copolymers (MnBM) has been synthesized by transalcoholysis of PMMA-b-poly(tert-butylacrylate ... [more ▼]A series of well defined poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-b-poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PnBA)-b-PMMA triblock copolymers (MnBM) has been synthesized by transalcoholysis of PMMA-b-poly(tert-butylacrylate) (PtBA)-b-PMMA precursors (MTM) by n-butanol. Phase separation is observed for all the investigated triblock copolymers, which contain PMMA outer blocks in the 5000-50 000 molecular weight (MW) range and PnBA inner blocks with MW in the 100 000-200 000 range. Although the ultimate tensile properties of these MnBM triblock copolymers are poor compared to traditional diene-based TPEs (SBS and SIS), they are much better than those ones reported for PMMA-b-poly(isooctyl acrylate) (PIOA)-b-PMMA triblocks (MIM). A reasonable explanation for this observation is found in the average molecular weight between chain entanglements (Me) that has been estimated to be 28 000 for the central PnBA rubbery block, which is consistently much smaller than for PIOA (59 000) and substantially higher than Me for polybutadiene (1700) and polyisoprene (6100). The tensile behavior of MnBM copolymers cannot be fitted by either a simple elastomer model free from chain entanglements (suitable to MIM) or by a "filler" modified rubber model (suitable for diene-based TPEs), supporting the hypothesis that the mechanical properties of the investigated (meth)acrylate thermoplastic elastomers are significantly affected by any change in Me of the central acrylate block. Viscoelastic analysis shows that MnBM triblocks are of higher complex viscosity than the SBS and SIS analogs, leading to a shift in the order-disorder transition temperature to much higher temperature, unless the outer PMMA blocks are of very low molecular weight (5000). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 149 (24 ULg) Adenocarcinome pancreatique: role de l'anatomie pathologiqueDelvenne, Philippe ; Delvenne, Catherine ; Quatresooz, Pascale et alin Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(3), 135-40Duct cell adenocarcinoma is by far the most frequent neoplasm of the pancreas, accounting for about 80% of malignant tumors. In this report, we describe the main diagnostic pitfalls of this cancer in ... [more ▼]Duct cell adenocarcinoma is by far the most frequent neoplasm of the pancreas, accounting for about 80% of malignant tumors. In this report, we describe the main diagnostic pitfalls of this cancer in routine or frozen sections, as well as the help of immunohistology to make the differential diagnosis. We also discuss the potential interest of tumor markers for evaluating the prognosis of these tumors and provide information about the creation of a Web site (URL: http://www.ebm.lib.ulg.ac.be/index.htm) created to help clinicians exploit the laboratory results. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 173 (12 ULg) Les traitements post-menopause a revoir? Une polemique nouvelle!Foidart, Jean-Michel ; Desreux, Joëlle ; Pintiaux, Axelle in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(3), 156-60The study by Schairer et al. aims to determine whether increases in risk of breast cancer associated with the estrogen-progestin regimen are greater than those associated with estrogen alone. This study ... [more ▼]The study by Schairer et al. aims to determine whether increases in risk of breast cancer associated with the estrogen-progestin regimen are greater than those associated with estrogen alone. This study is a cohort of follow-up data for 1980-1995 from the Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project, a nationwide breast cancer screening program that involved 29 screening centers throughout the United States. A total of 46,355 postmenopausal women were followed. During follow up, 2,082 cases of breast cancer were identified. Increases in risk with estrogen only and estrogen-progestin only were restricted to use within the previous 4 years. The relative risk increased by 0.01 with each year of estrogen-only use and by 0.08 with each year of estrogen-progestin-only use among recent users. Among women with a Body Mass Index of 24.4 kg/m2 or less, increases in relative risk with each year of estrogen-only use and estrogen-progestin-only use among recent users were 0.03 and 0.12, respectively. The authors conclude that the estrogen-progestin regimen increases breast cancer risk beyond that associated with estrogen alone. This study was largely commented in the lay media. Unfortunately the Belgian media introduced the confusion between the relative risk and the risk attributable to estrogen and estrogen-progestin. The aim of this manuscript is to precisely inform our colleagues, to analyze the Schairer study and to present the actual figures of risk associated with the use of estrogen and estrogen-progestin replacement therapy. Finally, we formulate some suggestions for the physician to whom the patient declares: "Did you read the negative effects of hormones?". What should we advice? [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 25 (0 ULg) An Additional Aromatic Interaction Improves the Thermostability and Thermophilicity of a Mesophilic Family 11 Xylanase: Structural Basis and Molecular StudyGeoris, J.; De Lemos Esteves, Frédéric ; Lamotte-Brasseur, J. et alin Protein Science : A Publication of the Protein Society (2000), 9(3), 466-75In a general approach to the understanding of protein adaptation to high temperature, molecular models of the closely related mesophilic Streptomyces sp. S38 Xyl1 and thermophilic Thermomonospora fusca ... [more ▼]In a general approach to the understanding of protein adaptation to high temperature, molecular models of the closely related mesophilic Streptomyces sp. S38 Xyl1 and thermophilic Thermomonospora fusca TfxA family 11 xylanases were built and compared with the three-dimensional (3D) structures of homologous enzymes. Some of the structural features identified as potential contributors to the higher thermostability of TfxA were introduced in Xyl1 by site-directed mutagenesis in an attempt to improve its thermostability and thermophilicity. A new Y11-Y16 aromatic interaction, similar to that present in TfxA and created in Xyl1 by the T11Y mutation, improved both the thermophilicity and thermostability. Indeed, the optimum activity temperature (70 vs. 60 degrees C) and the apparent Tm were increased by about 9 degrees C, and the mutant was sixfold more stable at 57 degrees C. The combined mutations A82R/F168H/N169D/delta170 potentially creating a R82-D169 salt bridge homologous to that present in TfxA improved the thermostability but not the thermophilicity. Mutations R82/D170 and S33P seemed to be slightly destabilizing and devoid of influence on the optimal activity temperature of Xyl1. Structural analysis revealed that residues Y11 and Y16 were located on beta-strands B1 and B2, respectively. This interaction should increase the stability of the N-terminal part of Xyl1. Moreover, Y11 and Y16 seem to form an aromatic continuum with five other residues forming putative subsites involved in the binding of xylan (+3, +2, +1, -1, -2). Y11 and Y16 might represent two additional binding subsites (-3, -4) and the T11Y mutation could thus improve substrate binding to the enzyme at higher temperature and thus the thermophilicity of Xyl1. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 42 (11 ULg) La Folie MallarméDurand, Pascal in Courrier du Centre International d'Etudes Poétiques (2000), 225Detailed reference viewed: 28 (4 ULg) Slow Peaking and Low-Gain Designs for Global Stabilization of Nonlinear SystemsSepulchre, Rodolphe in IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control (2000), 45(3), 453-461Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 ULg) Le coup de la fourchetteBoxho, Philippe in Journal de Médecine Légale, Droit Médical (2000), 43(2), 121-125Detailed reference viewed: 69 (16 ULg) Ring-opening polymerization of 6-hydroxynon-8-enoic acid lactone : Novel biodegradable copolymers containing allyl pendent groupsMecerreyes, David; Miller, Robert D.; Hedrick, James L. et alin Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry (2000), 38(5), 870-875This article reports the synthesis and copolymerization of 6-hydroxynon-8-enoic acid lactone. The ring-opening polymerization of this lactone-type monomer bearing a pendant allyl group led to new ... [more ▼]This article reports the synthesis and copolymerization of 6-hydroxynon-8-enoic acid lactone. The ring-opening polymerization of this lactone-type monomer bearing a pendant allyl group led to new homopolymers and random copolymers with -caprolactone and L,L-lactide. The copolymerizations were carried out at 110 °C with Sn(Oct)2 as a catalyst. The introduction of unsaturations into the aliphatic polyester permitted us to carry out different chemical transformations on this family of polymers. For example, this article reports the bromination, epoxidation, and hydrosylilation of the allyl group in the new polyester copolymers. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 78 (17 ULg) Cell-Mediated Immune Response in Calves to Single-Dose, Trickle, and Challenge Infections with Fasciola HepaticaBossaert, K.; Jacquinet, E.; Saunders, J. et alin Veterinary Parasitology (2000), 88(1-2), 17-34A peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation assay was used to study the cell-mediated immune response in eight calves experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica. Hypersensitivity-related ... [more ▼]A peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation assay was used to study the cell-mediated immune response in eight calves experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica. Hypersensitivity-related eosinophil and mast-cell responses were also assessed. The primary infection of 500 metacercariae was administered either as a single-dose or as a trickle infection over a 4-week period. Calves were challenge-infected 4 months later with 100 metacercariae and slaughtered 24 weeks postprimary infection. Skin eosinophil counts (SEC) were determined prior to infection on the basis of the intradermal reaction (IDR) to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). These counts correlated negatively with the mean fluke length but not with the fluke burden found at necropsy. At the end of the experiment, non-specific (PHA) and specific (excretory-secretory parasite, products, FhESAg, and whole-worm extract, FhSomAg) immediate type hypersensitivity IDR were elicited in contrast to delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses. The SEC correlated with blood eosinophilia but not with parasite parameters. These findings suggest that the eosinophil response does not correlate clearly with the development of resistance to F. hepatica infection in cattle. A specific mononuclear cell response to FhSomAg was detectable as early as 7 days after infection in both infected groups, being significantly higher during the very early migratory phase of the juveniles in the single-dose infected calves than in the trickle infected calves. This response remained significantly higher in infected groups than in the control group throughout the experiment. Challenge elicited a significant proliferative response, less pronounced than after primary infection. No production of gamma-interferon (INF-gamma) was recorded 3 weeks after challenge. At necropsy, the mean number of flukes recovered was similar in both infected groups, suggesting that the rate at which the infection is administrated has no effect on protective immunity. Hepatic lesions, similar in both infected groups, were characterised by marked eosinophil and mast-cell infiltration. Liver biopsies were performed and their diagnostic value is discussed. All results suggest that F. hepatica infection predominantly induces a Type-2 response in cattle, and that this response has little protective effect. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 12 (1 ULg) Evaluation of Autoantibodies against Oxidized Ldl and Antioxidant Status in Top Soccer and Basketball Players after 4 Months of CompetitionPincemail, Joël ; Lecomte, J.; Castiau, J. et alin Free Radical Biology & Medicine (2000), 28(4), 559-65Antioxidant status and titers of autoantibodies against oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL-Ab) were investigated in top soccer (S; n = 21, age 24.6 +/- 4.3 years) and basketball (B; n 3,000 mIU/ml ... [more ▼]Antioxidant status and titers of autoantibodies against oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL-Ab) were investigated in top soccer (S; n = 21, age 24.6 +/- 4.3 years) and basketball (B; n 3,000 mIU/ml) in ox-LDL-Ab were found in half the players (12S and 4B) with a maximum reaching 6000 mIU/ml (normal range: 200-600 mIU/ml), showing an in vivo LDL oxidation. There was no correlation between ox-LDL-Ab titers and chlolesterol, LDL cholesterol, or antioxidant levels. Nevertheless, plasma vitamin C concentration was lower in athletes having high levels of ox-LDL-Ab when compared with those with normal levels (8.49 +/- 3.14 mirogram/ml vs. 10.39 +/- 2.55 microgram/ml), but this difference was not statistically significant. In conclusion, our data suggest that potential atherogenic and cardiovascular risks as reflected by high titers in ox-LDL-Ab may exist in some top athletes despite a nonaltered antioxidant status. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 ULg) Enantiomeric Separation of Clenbuterol by Transient Isotachophoresis-Capillary Zone Electrophoresis-Uv Detection New Optimization Technique for Transient IsotachophoresisToussaint, B.; Hubert, Philippe ; Tjaden, U. R. et alin Journal of Chromatography. A (2000), 871(1-2), 173-80A method for the in-line preconcentration and enantioseparation of clenbuterol by transient isotachophoresis-capillary zone electrophoresis-UV absorbance detection (transient ITP-CZE-UV) has been ... [more ▼]A method for the in-line preconcentration and enantioseparation of clenbuterol by transient isotachophoresis-capillary zone electrophoresis-UV absorbance detection (transient ITP-CZE-UV) has been developed. It implies the use of dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin as chiral selector and the application of a hydrodynamic counterflow during the ITP step. ITP is used to focus the sample constituents prior to CE whereas a counterpressure counterbalances the electrophoretic migration of the compounds. The sample is then focused and kept stationary in the proximity of the capillary inlet before CZE separation, leading to an extended-volume ITP-CZE system. A new strategy for the fast optimization of the counterpressure has been developed which implies the measurement of the hydrodynamic and electrophoretic velocities of the analyte during ITP. The in-line preconcentration and enantioseparation of clenbuterol selected as model compound was optimized using this method. Salbutamol was chosen as internal reference in order to check the reproducibility of the method. A 173-nl volume of aqueous ample solution was injected which implies an improvement of the injection volume of about 16 and a resolution of 4.8 was obtained for the clenbuterol enantiomers. A concentration detection limit of 10(-6) mol/l was readily achieved for clenbuterol and salbutamol using only 3 min ITP preconcentration in in-line counterflow transient ITP-CZE-UV. Thanks to its fast optimization, the method is applicable to any enantioseparation by means of only five very short preliminary measurements. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 33 (2 ULg) Automated Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Atenolol in Plasma Using Dialysis and Trace Enrichment on a Cation-Exchange Precolumn for Sample HandlingChiap, Patrice ; Buraglia, B. M.; Ceccato, Attilio et alin Journal of Chromatography. B : Biomedical Sciences and Applications (2000), 739(1), 205-17A fully automated method involving dialysis combined with trace enrichment was developed for the liquid chromatographic (LC) determination of atenolol, a hydrophilic beta-blocking agent, in human plasma ... [more ▼]A fully automated method involving dialysis combined with trace enrichment was developed for the liquid chromatographic (LC) determination of atenolol, a hydrophilic beta-blocking agent, in human plasma. The plasma samples were dialysed on a cellulose acetate membrane and the dialysate was reconcentrated on a short trace enrichment column (TEC) packed with a strong cation-exchange material. All sample handling operations can be executed automatically by a sample processor (ASTED system). After TEC conditioning, the plasma sample, to which the internal standard (sotalol, another hydrophilic beta-blocker) was automatically added, was introduced in the donor channel and dialysed in the static/pulsed mode. The dialysis liquid consisted of 4.3 mM phosphoric acid. When the dialysis process was discontinued, the analytes were eluted from the TEC in the back-flush mode by the LC mobile phase and transferred to the analytical column, packed with octyl silica. The LC mobile phase consisted of phosphate buffer, pH 7.0-methanol (81:19; v/v) with 1-octanesulfonate. Atenolol and the internal standard were monitored photometrically at 225 nm. The different parameters influencing the dialysis and trace enrichment processes were optimised with respect to analyte recovery. The influence of two different kinds of cation-exchange material on analyte recovery and peak efficiency was also studied. The method was then validated in the concentration range 25-1000 ng/ml. The mean recovery for atenolol was 65% and the limit of quantitation was 25 ng/ml. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 23 (3 ULg) Determination of Albendazole and Its Main Metabolites in Ovine Plasma by Liquid Chromatography with Dialysis as an Integrated Sample Preparation TechniqueChiap, Patrice ; Evrard, Brigitte ; Bimazubute, M. A. et alin Journal of Chromatography. A (2000), 870(1-2), 121-34Albendazole is a benzimidazole derivative with a broad-spectrum activity against human and animal helminth parasites. In order to determine the main pharmacokinetic parameters in sheep after oral and ... [more ▼]Albendazole is a benzimidazole derivative with a broad-spectrum activity against human and animal helminth parasites. In order to determine the main pharmacokinetic parameters in sheep after oral and intravenous administration of a new formulation of albendazole (an aqueous solution), a fully automated method was developed for the determination of this drug and its main metabolites, albendazole sulfoxide (active metabolite) and sulfone in ovine plasma. This method involves dialysis as purification step, followed by enrichment of the dialysate on a precolumn and liquid chromatography (LC). All sample handling operations were executed automatically by means of an ASTED XL system. After conditioning of the trace enrichment column (TEC) packed with octadecyl silica with pH 6.0 phosphate buffer containing sodium azide, the plasma sample, in which a protein releasing reagent (1 M HCl) containing Triton X-100 was automatically added, was loaded in the donor channel and dialysed on a cellulose acetate membrane in the static-pulsed mode. The dialysis liquid consisted of pH 2.5 phosphate buffer. By rotation of a switching valve, the analytes were eluted from the TEC in the back-flush mode by the LC mobile phase and transferred to the analytical column, packed with octyl silica. The chromatographic separation was performed at 35 degrees C and the analytes were monitored photometrically at 295 nm. Due to the differences in hydrophobic character between albendazole and its metabolites, a gradient elution was applied. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of acetonitrile and pH 6.0 phosphate buffer. The proportion of organic modifier was increased from 10.0 to 50.1% in 12.30 min, then from 50.1 to 66.9% in 1.70 min. First, the gradient conditions and the temperature were optimised for the LC separation using the DryLab software. Then, the influence of some parameters of the dialysis process on analyte recovery was investigated. Finally, the method developed was validated. The mean recoveries for albendazole and its metabolites were about 70 and 65%, respectively. The limits of quantification for albendazole and its metabolites were 10 and 7.5 ng/ml, respectively. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 43 (0 ULg) A Method for Spatial Deconvolution of SpectraCourbin, F.; Magain, Pierre ; Kirkove, Murielle et alin Astrophysical Journal (2000), 529A method for spatial deconvolution of spectra is presented. It follows the same fundamental principles as the MCS image deconvolution algorithm'' recently developed by Magain, Courbin, & Sohy and uses ... [more ▼]A method for spatial deconvolution of spectra is presented. It follows the same fundamental principles as the MCS image deconvolution algorithm'' recently developed by Magain, Courbin, & Sohy and uses information contained in the spectrum of a reference point-spread function to spatially deconvolve spectra of very blended sources. An improved resolution rather than an infinite one is aimed at, overcoming the well-known problem of deconvolution artifacts.'' As in the MCS algorithm, the data are decomposed into a sum of analytical point sources and a numerically deconvolved background so that the spectrum of extended sources in the immediate vicinity of bright point sources may be accurately extracted and sharpened. The algorithm has been tested on simulated data including seeing variation as a function of wavelength and atmospheric refraction. It is shown that the spectra of severely blended point sources can be resolved while fully preserving the spectrophotometric properties of the data. Extended objects hidden'' by bright point sources (up to 4-5 mag brighter) can be accurately recovered as well, provided the data have a sufficiently high total signal-to-noise ratio (200-300 per spectral resolution element). Such spectra are relatively easy to obtain, even down to faint magnitudes, within a few hours of integration time with 10 m class telescopes. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 21 (6 ULg) Voltage Instability: Phenomena, Countermeasures, and Analysis MethodsVan Cutsem, Thierry in Proceedings of the IEEE (2000), 88(2), 208-227A power system may be subject to (rotor) angle, frequency or voltage instability. Voltage instability takes on the form of a dramatic drop of transmission system voltages, which may lead to system ... [more ▼]A power system may be subject to (rotor) angle, frequency or voltage instability. Voltage instability takes on the form of a dramatic drop of transmission system voltages, which may lead to system disruption. During the past two dàcades it has become a major threat for the operation of many systems and, in the prevailing open access erwironment, it is a factor leading to limit power transfers. The objective of this paper is to describe voltage instability phenomena, to enumerate preventive and curative countermeasures, and to present in a unified and coherent way various computer analysis methods used or proposed. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 234 (9 ULg) Resocialiser l'économie?Defourny, Jacques in Revue Internationale de l'Economie Sociale : Recma, Revue des Etudes Coopératives, Mutualistes et Associatives (2000), 275-276Detailed reference viewed: 141 (7 ULg) Finite Elements for the Lubricated Contact Between Solids in Metal Forming ProcessesBoman, Romain ; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe in Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters) (2000), 13(1), 319-327In this paper, the lubrication problem in numerical simulation of forming processes is considered. After enumerating the difficulties encountered when trying to solve such a problem with the finite ... [more ▼]In this paper, the lubrication problem in numerical simulation of forming processes is considered. After enumerating the difficulties encountered when trying to solve such a problem with the finite element method, a generalization of the formulation of Liu for the thin film hydrodynamic lubrication regime is presented. This method is then applied to a strip rolling simulation, using the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) formalism. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 32 (16 ULg) Part 8: Steady-state creep and creep recovery for service and accident conditionsSchneider, Ulrich; Schwesinger, P.; Debicki, Gérard et alin Materials and Structures (2000), 33Detailed reference viewed: 30 (2 ULg) Criteria for cure of acromegaly : a consensus statementGiustina, A.; Barkan, A.; Casanueva, F. et alin Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (2000), 85(2), 526-529Detailed reference viewed: 10 (0 ULg) Le logement socialFrankignoulle, Pierre ; Malherbe, Alainin Cahiers de l'Urbanisme (Les) (2000)Detailed reference viewed: 39 (9 ULg) Les insulinomes dans les néoplasies endocriniennes multiples de type 1 (NEM1) : A propos d'une série de 44 cas du Groupe d'Etude des Néoplasies Endocriniennes Multiples (GENEM)Cougard, P.; Goudet, P.; Peix, J. L. et alin Annales de Chirurgie (2000), 125(2), 118-123Detailed reference viewed: 13 (0 ULg) In-Line Concentration and Enantioseparation of Clenbuterol by Transient Isotachophoresis-Capillary Zone Electrophoresis-Uv DetectionToussaint, B.; Gysler, J.; Hubert, Philippe et alin Biomedical Chromatography : BMC (2000), 14(1), 32-3Detailed reference viewed: 6 (0 ULg) Tomographie a emission de positons au 18FDG et adenocarcinome pancreatiqueDaenen, Frédéric ; Hustinx, Roland ; Belhocine, Tarik et alin Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(2), 89-94FDG-PET imaging non invasively studies the glucose metabolism which is usually increased in malignant lesions. We evaluated the clinical performance of PET for detecting pancreatic cancer and its ... [more ▼]FDG-PET imaging non invasively studies the glucose metabolism which is usually increased in malignant lesions. We evaluated the clinical performance of PET for detecting pancreatic cancer and its recurrence. In our series of 24 studies, PET appears to complement other imaging modalities. As compared to CT, in particular, it demonstrated fewer false positive results in the pancreas and it was also more sensitive. Moreover, whole-body FDG-PET allows for the entire staging of the disease. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 33 (0 ULg) Are Milk Polyamines Preventive Agents against Food Allergy?Dandrifosse, Guy ; Peulen, Olivier ; El Khefif, N. et alin Proceedings of the Nutrition Society (2000), 59(1), 81-6Insufficient polyamine intake could play a role in the induction of sensitization to dietary allergens. This proposal is based essentially on investigations made in sucking rats and in children. In ... [more ▼]Insufficient polyamine intake could play a role in the induction of sensitization to dietary allergens. This proposal is based essentially on investigations made in sucking rats and in children. In sucking rats it has been established that oral administration of spermine can induce all the modifications occurring in the digestive tract at weaning. In the intestine events occur in two phases. The early event consists of desquamation of the epithelium resulting from an activation of apoptosis. The late event appears to involve an hormonal cascade in which adrenocorticotropic hormone, cytokines, bombesin and corticosterone are included. Observations in human subjects show that: (1) the spermine and spermidine concentrations are generally lower in infant formulas than in human breast milk. Mothers seem consistently to have relatively high or relatively low concentrations of spermine and spermidine in their milk. These individual variations may be due to diet, lifestyle or genetic background; (2) the probability of developing allergy can reach 80 % if the mean spermine concentration in the milk is lower than 2 nmol/ml milk. It is approximately 0 % if the mean spermine concentration is higher than 13 nmol/ml milk; (3) preliminary results show that the intestinal permeability to macromolecules differs in premature babies when they are fed on breast milk compared with infant formulas (J Senterre, J Rigo, G Forget, G Dandrifosse and N Romain, unpublished results). This difference does not seem to be present when powdered milk is supplemented with polyamines at the concentration found in breast milk; (4) spermine increases proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes isolated from the tonsils of children. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 50 (4 ULg) Stenosis of a Mechanical Mitral Prosthetic Valve in a Patient with Systemic Lupus ErythematosusHoffer, E.; Itoua, M.; Radermecker, Maurice et alin Acta Cardiologica (2000), 55(1), 49-51A young woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) developed progressive heart failure several years after mitral valve replacement with a Bjork-Shiley prosthesis for treating mitral stenosis due to ... [more ▼]A young woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) developed progressive heart failure several years after mitral valve replacement with a Bjork-Shiley prosthesis for treating mitral stenosis due to Libman-Sacks endocarditis. She was admitted to the hospital with pulmonary oedema. Transoesophageal echocardiography revealed stenosis of the mitral prosthesis, which was covered by fibrous tissue. Replacement of the prosthesis was done but the patient died from cerebral haemorrhage three days later. Although three cases of prosthetic valve dysfunction in SLE have been documented so far, this is to our knowledge the first report of a SLE recurrence on a tilting disc mechanical valve. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 9 (1 ULg) Extensive Genome-Wide Linkage Disequilibrium in CattleFarnir, Frédéric ; Coppieters, Wouter ; Arranz, J. J. et alin Genome Research (2000), 10(2), 220-7A genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) map was generated using microsatellite genotypes (284 autosomal microsatellite loci) of 581 gametes sampled from the dutch black-and-white dairy cattle population ... [more ▼]A genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) map was generated using microsatellite genotypes (284 autosomal microsatellite loci) of 581 gametes sampled from the dutch black-and-white dairy cattle population. LD was measured between all marker pairs, both syntenic and nonsyntenic. Analysis of syntenic pairs revealed surprisingly high levels of LD that, although more pronounced for closely linked marker pairs, extended over several tens of centimorgan. In addition, significant gametic associations were also shown to be very common between nonsyntenic loci. Simulations using the known genealogies of the studied sample indicate that random drift alone is likely to account for most of the observed disequilibrium. No clear evidence was obtained for a direct effect of selection ("Bulmer effect"). The observation of long range disequilibrium between syntenic loci using low-density marker maps indicates that LD mapping has the potential to be very effective in livestock populations. The frequent occurrence of gametic associations between nonsyntenic loci, however, encourages the combined use of linkage and linkage disequilibrium methods to avoid false positive results when mapping genes in livestock. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 120 (16 ULg) Synthesis, morphology, and mechanical properties of poly(methyl methacrylate)-b-poly(n-butyl acrylate)-b-poly (methyl methacrylate) triblocks. Ligated anionic polymerization vs atom transfer radical polymerizationTong, Jiang-Dong; Moineau, Georges; Leclère, Philippe et alin Macromolecules (2000), 33(2), 470-479Poly(methyl methacrylate)-b-poly(n-butyl acrylate)-b-poly(methyl methacrylate) triblock copolymers have been prepared by ligated anionic polymerization (LAP; 8K-50K-8K) and atom transfer radical ... [more ▼]Poly(methyl methacrylate)-b-poly(n-butyl acrylate)-b-poly(methyl methacrylate) triblock copolymers have been prepared by ligated anionic polymerization (LAP; 8K-50K-8K) and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP; 9K-51K-9K). Size exclusion chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance, and differential scanning calorimetry have confirmed that the molecular structure of the two triblock copolymers is essentially identical. However, important differences are found in dynamic mechanical properties, viscoelastic properties, and stress−strain behavior. Indeed, the ATRP copolymer has low storage modulus, high complex viscosity, high order−disorder transition temperature, and poor ultimate tensile strength and elongation at break, compared to those of the LAP analogue. Marked differences also observed by tapping mode atomic force microscopy in the microscopic morphology of thin films of these copolymers. All these observations can be explained by the slow initiation of MMA by the poly(n-butyl acrylate) macroinitiator used in ATRP in contrast to what happens when MMA is added to living poly(tert-butyl acrylate) anions. As a result, the polydispersity of the short poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) outer blocks is much broader in the ATRP copolymer, although the polydispersity index of the triblock is only 1.15. This heterogeneous structure of the ATRP triblock is also supported by the comparison of homo-PMMAs prepared by LAP and ATRP. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 48 (2 ULg) Dispense de permis d'urbanisme en Région wallonne (IV)Delnoy, Michel in Immobilier (2000), 1Detailed reference viewed: 21 (0 ULg) Ring-Opening Polymerization of γ-bromo-ε-caprolactone : A novel route to functionalized aliphatic polyestersDetrembleur, Christophe ; Mazza, Michaël; Halleux, Olivier et alin Macromolecules (2000), 33(1), 14-18The synthesis, characterization, and polymerization of a new cyclic ester, gamma-bromo-epsilon-caprolactone (gamma-BrCL), are reported. The ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of this new monomer initiated ... [more ▼]The synthesis, characterization, and polymerization of a new cyclic ester, gamma-bromo-epsilon-caprolactone (gamma-BrCL), are reported. The ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of this new monomer initiated from Al((OPr)-Pr-i)(3) as initiator in toluene at 0 degrees C was found to be living and proceeds by a coordination-insertion mechanism. Random and block copolymerizations of this gamma-BrCL with epsilon-caprolactone (epsilon-CL) were also found to be living as evidenced by the experimental molecular weight which is consistent with that expected from the monomer to initiator molar ratio, the narrow polydispersity, and the good agreement between the comonomers molar fraction in the comonomer feed and the copolymer. The thermal transitions (Tg and Tm) in the epsilon-CL/gamma-Br-CL random copolymers depend strongly on the gamma-BrCL content. Increasing the gamma BrCL content in the copolymer [F(BrCL)] increased the Tg of the copolymer from -61 degrees C for poly(epsilon-caprolactone) to -16.5 degrees C for the poly( gamma-BrCL) homopolymer but decreased the Tm of the PCL to contents of similar to 30 mol % of gamma BrCL [F(BrCL) =0.3]Beyond this value, the copolymers were found to be amorphous and exist as viscous liquids. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 90 (9 ULg) Cell Type-Specific Role for Reactive Oxygen Species in Nuclear Factor-Kappab Activation by Interleukin-1Bonizzi, G.; Piette, Jacques ; Merville, Marie-Paule et alin Biochemical Pharmacology (2000), 59(1), 7-11The role of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) in nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation remains a matter of controversy. We have studied whether ROIs played any role in NF-kappaB induction by ... [more ▼]The role of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) in nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation remains a matter of controversy. We have studied whether ROIs played any role in NF-kappaB induction by interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) in different cell types. Our studies indicated three different pathways. IL-1beta stimulation of lymphoid cells generates ROIs, which are required for IkappaB-alpha degradation and NF-kappaB activation. The source of these ROIs is the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) enzyme. In monocytic cells, ROIs are also produced in response to IL-1beta and necessary for NF-kappaB induction, but their source appears to be the NADPH oxidase complex. Finally, epithelial cells do not generate ROIs after IL-1beta stimulation, but do rapidly activate NF-kappaB. Interestingly, transfection of epithelial cells with the 5-LOX and 5-LOX activating protein expression vectors restored ROI production and ROI-dependent NF-kappaB activation in response to IL-1beta. Our data thus indicate that ROIs are cell type-specific second messengers for NF-kappaB induction by IL-1beta. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 13 (0 ULg) Far ultraviolet imaging from the IMAGE spacecraft. 1. System designMende, S. B.; Heetderks, H.; Frey, H. U. et alin Space Science Reviews (2000), 91Direct imaging of the magnetosphere by the IMAGE spacecraft will be supplemented by observation of the global aurora, the footprint of magnetospheric regions. To assure the simultaneity of these ... [more ▼]Direct imaging of the magnetosphere by the IMAGE spacecraft will be supplemented by observation of the global aurora, the footprint of magnetospheric regions. To assure the simultaneity of these observations and the measurement of the magnetospheric background neutral gas density, the IMAGE satellite instrument complement includes three Far Ultraviolet (FUV) instruments. In the wavelength region 120-190 nm, a downward-viewing auroral imager is only minimally contaminated by sunlight, scattered from clouds and ground, and radiance of the aurora observed in a nadir viewing geometry can be observed in the presence of the high-latitude dayglow. The Wideband Imaging Camera (WIC) will provide broad band ultraviolet images of the aurora for maximum spatial and temporal resolution by imaging the LBH N_2 bands of the aurora. The Spectrographic Imager (SI), a monochromatic imager, will image different types of aurora, filtered by wavelength. By measuring the Doppler-shifted Ly-alpha, the proton-induced component of the aurora will be imaged separately. Finally, the GEO instrument will observe the distribution of the geocoronal emission, which is a measure of the neutral background density source for charge exchange in the magnetosphere. The FUV instrument complement looks radially outward from the rotating IMAGE satellite and, therefore, it spends only a short time observing the aurora and the Earth during each spin. Detailed descriptions of the WIC, SI, GEO, and their individual performance validations are discussed in companion papers. This paper summarizes the system requirements and system design approach taken to satisfy the science requirements. One primary requirement is to maximize photon collection efficiency and use efficiently the short time available for exposures. The FUV auroral imagers WIC and SI both have wide fields of view and take data continuously as the auroral region proceeds through the field of view. To minimize data volume, multiple images are taken and electronically co-added by suitably shifting each image to compensate for the spacecraft rotation. In order to minimize resolution loss, the images have to be distortion-corrected in real time for both WIC and SI prior to co-adding. The distortion correction is accomplished using high speed look up tables that are pre-generated by least square fitting to polynomial functions by the on-orbit processor. The instruments were calibrated individually while on stationery platforms, mostly in vacuum chambers as described in the companion papers. Extensive ground-based testing was performed with visible and near UV simulators mounted on a rotating platform to estimate their on-orbit performance. The predicted instrument system performance is summarized and some of the preliminary data formats are shown. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 55 (8 ULg) Synthesis and polarized light-induced birefringence of new polymethacrylates containing carbazolyl and azobenzene pendant groupsMaertens, Christophe; Dubois, Philippe ; Jérôme, Robert et alin Journal of Polymer Science. Part B, Polymer Physics (2000), 38(1), 205-213Low Tg copolymers of [11(N-carbazolyl)undecylmethacrylate] and [2,5-dimethylphenyl-[(4-nitrophenyl)azo]-phenoxyalkylmethacrylate] have been synthesized and the polarized light-induced birefringence of ... [more ▼]Low Tg copolymers of [11(N-carbazolyl)undecylmethacrylate] and [2,5-dimethylphenyl-[(4-nitrophenyl)azo]-phenoxyalkylmethacrylate] have been synthesized and the polarized light-induced birefringence of thick films (70 m) has been investigated at a constant deducted temperature relative to Tg (T - Tg = 10 °C). The optical properties of these copolymers have been studied in relation to the azo-dye content and the length of the alkyl spacer between the azo-dye and the methacrylic backbone. They have been compared with the dispersion of (4-methoxy-2,5-dimethylphenyl)-(4-nitrophenyl)diazene (DMNPAA) within a poly[11(N-carbazolyl)undecyl-methacrylate] and a poly[N-vinylcarbazole] (PVK) matrix. The experimental curves have been fitted by biexponentials, so emphasizing the effects of the copolymer structure on the kinetics of the writing process. The photoinduced orientation is more than three orders of magnitude higher in a grafted material compared to the dispersion version. The azo-dye concentration also has an important role in both the amplitude and the dynamics of the photo-orientation. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 161 (2 ULg) POX 186: the ultracompact blue compact dwarf galaxy reveals its natureDoublier, V.; Kunth, D.; Courbin, F. et alin Astronomy and Astrophysics (2000), 353High resolution, ground based R and I band observations of the ultra compact dwarf galaxy POX 186 are presented. The data, obtained with the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT), are analyzed using a new ... [more ▼]High resolution, ground based R and I band observations of the ultra compact dwarf galaxy POX 186 are presented. The data, obtained with the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT), are analyzed using a new deconvolution algorithm which allows one to resolve the innermost regions of this stellar-like object into three Super-Star Clusters (SSC). Upper limits to both masses (M ~ 10[SUP]5[/SUP] M[SUB]sun[/SUB]) and physical sizes (<=60pc) of the SSCs are set. In addition, and maybe most importantly, extended light emission underlying the compact star-forming region is clearly detected in both bands. The R-I color rules out nebular Halpha contamination and is consistent with an old stellar population. This casts doubt on the hypothesis that Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies (BCDG) are young galaxies. based on observations carried out at NTT in La Silla, operated by the European Southern Observatory, during Director's Discretionary Time. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 68 (1 ULg) Far ultraviolet imaging from the IMAGE spacecraft. 3. Spectral imaging of Lyman-alpha and OI 135.6 nmMende, S. B.; Heetderks, H.; Frey, H. U. et alin Space Science Reviews (2000), 91Two FUV Spectral imaging instruments, the Spectrographic Imager (SI) and the Geocorona Photometer (GEO) provide IMAGE with simultaneous global maps of the hydrogen (121.8 nm) and oxygen 135.6 nm ... [more ▼]Two FUV Spectral imaging instruments, the Spectrographic Imager (SI) and the Geocorona Photometer (GEO) provide IMAGE with simultaneous global maps of the hydrogen (121.8 nm) and oxygen 135.6 nm components of the terrestrial aurora and with observations of the three dimensional distribution of neutral hydrogen in the magnetosphere (121.6 nm). The SI is a novel instrument type, in which spectral separation and imaging functions are independent of each other. In this instrument, two-dimensional images are produced on two detectors, and the images are spectrally filtered by a spectrograph part of the instrument. One of the two detectors images the Doppler-shifted Lyman-alpha while rejecting the geocoronal `cold' Ly-alpha, and another detector images the OI 135.6 nm emission. The spectrograph is an all-reflective Wadsworth configuration in which a grill arrangement is used to block most of the cold, un-Doppler-shifted geocoronal emission at 121.567 nm. The SI calibration established that the upper limit of transmission at cold geocoronal Ly-alpha is less than 2%. The measured light collecting efficiency was 0.01 and 0.008 cm^2 at 121.8 and at 135.6 nm, respectively. This is consistent with the size of the input aperture, the optical transmission, and the photocathode efficiency. The expected sensitivity is 1.8x10^-2 and 1.3x10^-2 counts per Rayleigh per pixel for each 5 s viewing exposure per satellite revolution (120 s). The measured spatial resolution is better than the 128x128 pixel matrix over the 15 degx15 deg field of view in both wavelength channels. The SI detectors are photon counting devices using the cross delay line principle. In each detector a triple stack microchannel plate (MCP) amplifies the photo-electronic charge which is then deposited on a specially configured anode array. The position of the photon event is measured by digitizing the time delay between the pulses detected at each end of the anode structures. This scheme is intrinsically faster than systems that use charge division and it has a further advantage that it saturates more gradually at high count rates. The geocoronal Ly-alpha is measured by a three-channel photometer system (GEO) which is a separate instrument. Each photometer has a built in MgF_2 lens to restrict the field of view to one degree and a ceramic electron multiplier with a KBr photocathode. One of the tubes is pointing radially outward perpendicular to the axis of satellite rotation. The optic of the other two subtend 60 deg with the rotation axis. These instruments take data continuously at 3 samples per second and rely on the combination of satellite rotation and orbital motion to scan the hydrogen cloud surrounding the earth. The detective efficiencies (effective quantum efficiency including windows) of the three tubes at Ly-alpha are between 6 and 10%. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 242 (6 ULg) Combined Interferon-Gamma and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Treatment Differentially Affects Adhesion and Migration of Keratinocyte-Derived Cells to Laminin-1van den Brule, Frédéric A; Clausse, Nathalie; Delvenne, Philippe et alin Cell Adhesion and Communication (2000), 7(4), 321-9Interactions with the extracellular matrix constitute basic steps in cervix carcinoma cell invasion. In this study, we examined the adhesion and migration profiles of two human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA ... [more ▼]Interactions with the extracellular matrix constitute basic steps in cervix carcinoma cell invasion. In this study, we examined the adhesion and migration profiles of two human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA-transfected keratinocyte-derived cell lines, EIL8 and 18-11S3, and of the cervix adenocarcinoma SiHa cell line, towards laminin-1, and the selective effect of a 24-72 h treatment of 1000 U/ml interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), a treatment that significantly decreases cervix carcinoma cell proliferation and progression in nude mice, on these parameters. Compared to normal cervix keratinocytes (CK) and two HPV DNA-transfected keratinocyte cell lines, in basal conditions, the SiHa cell line was characterized by increased attachment (SiHa, 48.74 +/- 4.02 vs. normal keratinocytes, 4.32 +/- 0.40, EIL8, 17.80 +/- 3.03 and 18-11S3, 17.82 +/- 1.48% of attached cells after 30 min) and marked directed chemotactic migration towards laminin-1. Interestingly, treatment of the cells with the cytokines (1000 U/ml IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha) did not modulate the adhesion properties of the cells, but chemotactic migration of SiHa cells to laminin-1 was significantly decreased, while migration towards type I collagen was increased. Similar results were obtained with the Ca Ski cervix carcinoma cell line. Our results emphasize the altered pattern of interactions of cervix carcinoma cells with extracellular matrix components such as laminin-1, compared to normal and pre-neoplastic cells, and contributes to the understanding of the effects of cytokine treatment on cervix carcinoma cells. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 30 (5 ULg) Alternative NationDejasse, Erwin in 9e Art : Les Cahiers du Musée de la Bande Dessinée (2000), 5Short panorama of the evolution of the so called alternative or independant comic in North America in the nineties.Detailed reference viewed: 18 (3 ULg) Emergence of new forms of partnership between colleges of teachers' education and university based on the organization of training researchBeckers, Jacqueline in European Educational Researcher (2000), 6(1), 3-11Detailed reference viewed: 8 (2 ULg) Synthesis and characterization of non-covalent liquid crystalline diblock copolymersGohy, Jean-François; Antoun, Sayed; Sobry, Roger et alin Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics (2000), 201(1), 31-41Poly(dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate)-b-poly(sodium methacrylate) diblocks, (polyDMAEMA-b-polyMA), were synthesized as precursors of liquid crystalline (LC) copolymers. These LC copolymers were prepared by ... [more ▼]Poly(dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate)-b-poly(sodium methacrylate) diblocks, (polyDMAEMA-b-polyMA), were synthesized as precursors of liquid crystalline (LC) copolymers. These LC copolymers were prepared by pro-ton-transfer between a carboxylic acid-containing meso-gen (A) and the dimethylamino substituent of the poly-DMAEMA block and by electrostatic interactions between the polyMA subunits and an ammonium-contain-ing mesogen (B). When mesogen A is complexed with DMAEMA units, a dramatic enhancement of the meso-phase stability is noted. The mesogenic properties of these LC copolymers were compared to those ones of the parent LC homopolymers, in relation to the copolymer composi-tion. The supramolecular organization of the LC diblock copolymers was studied by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and smectic mesophases were observed in some LC (co)polymers. For samples containing a major LC block, a smectic mesophase coexists with microphases formed by the second amorphous block. Different organizations, including a body-centered lattice of spheres and a hexagonal array of cylinders, were observed, depending on the investigated copolymers and their composition. When the LC block is the minor component, it forms microdomains too small for a liquid crystalline order to emerge. Moreover, no supramolecular organization of these dispersed microdomains was detected by SAXS. A homogeneous smectic mesophase was observed when the two blocks are bearing liquid crystalline moieties. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 31 (3 ULg) Benchmark cases for galloping with results obtained from wind tunnel facilities. Validation of a finite element model.keutgen, Renaud; Lilien, Jean-Louis in IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery (2000), 15(N°1), 367-374Wind tunnel galloping are made available with all data (aerodynamics, amplitudes) to check any model.Detailed reference viewed: 49 (5 ULg) Working memory, long-term memory and language processing : issues and future directionsCollette, Fabienne ; Van der Linden, Martial ; Poncelet, Martine in Brain & Language (2000), 71(1), 46-51We examined different views of the relationships between working memory, long-term memory and language processing : working memory considered as a gateway between sensory input and long-term memory or ... [more ▼]We examined different views of the relationships between working memory, long-term memory and language processing : working memory considered as a gateway between sensory input and long-term memory or rather as a workspace; working memory considered as not strictly tied to any particular cognitive system (and consequently viewed as separated from the language system) or rather as drawing on the operation and storage capacities of a subset of components involved in language processing. It is argued that functional imagery studies (along with neuropsychological researches) could contribute to decide between these conceptions. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 87 (3 ULg) Prophylactic Treatment of Migraine with Beta-Blockers and Riboflavin: Differential Effects on the Intensity Dependence of Auditory Evoked Cortical PotentialsSandor, P. S.; Afra, J.; Ambrosini, A. et alin Headache (2000), 40(1), 30-5OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of different pharmacological treatments on the intensity dependence of auditory evoked cortical potentials in migraineurs. BACKGROUND: Between attacks, patients ... [more ▼]OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of different pharmacological treatments on the intensity dependence of auditory evoked cortical potentials in migraineurs. BACKGROUND: Between attacks, patients with migraine show abnormalities in cortical information processing and decreased brain mitochondrial energy reserve. Both are most probably relevant for migraine pathogenesis, and they could be differentially modified by prophylactic drug therapy. Design.-The intensity dependence of the auditory evoked cortical potentials is, on average, increased in migraine. We have studied this intensity dependence in 26 patients before and after a 4-month period of prophylaxis with beta-blockers (n = 11, all migraine without aura; metoprolol or bisoprolol) or riboflavin (n = 15, migraine without aura: 13, migraine with aura: 2). Recordings were performed at least 3 days before or after an attack. RESULTS: After the treatment with beta-blockers, the intensity dependence of the auditory evoked cortical potentials was significantly decreased (before: 1.66+/-1.02 microV/10 dB; after: 0.79+/-1.06 microV/10 dB, P=.02). The decrease in intensity dependence was correlated significantly with clinical improvement (r = .69, P = .02). There was no change in intensity dependence after riboflavin treatment (before: 1.80+/-0.81 microV/10 dB; after: 1.56+/-0.83 microV/10 dB, P = .39), although the majority of patients showed improvement. CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm that beta-blockers and riboflavin act on two distinct pathophysiological mechanisms. Combining both treatments might enhance their efficacy without increasing central nervous system side effects. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 46 (0 ULg) Spacer Compression for a tripple conductor bundleLilien, Jean-Louis ; Hansenne, Eric; Papailiou, Konstantin et alin IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery (2000), 15(N°1), 236-241Spacer compression analysis based on tests and proposed simple methodDetailed reference viewed: 55 (3 ULg) Humoral Immune Response in Calves to Single-Dose, Trickle and Challenge Infections with Fasciola HepaticaBossaert, K.; Farnir, Frédéric ; Leclipteux, Thierry et alin Veterinary Parasitology (2000), 87(2-3), 103-23In cattle experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica, parasite specific IgG1 and IgG2 responses were studied. Additionally parasite specific IgE production was assessed by the Passive Cutaneous ... [more ▼]In cattle experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica, parasite specific IgG1 and IgG2 responses were studied. Additionally parasite specific IgE production was assessed by the Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis reaction. The primary infection was administered either as a single-dose or as a trickle infection over a 4-week period. Animals were challenged 4 months later. Titres of IgG1 and IgG2 against excretory-secretory parasite products (FhESAg), and against a whole-worm extract (FhSomAg) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in relation to weight gain, serum hepatic enzyme levels, and fluke infection rate. At necropsy, the mean number of flukes recovered was similar in both infected groups. The two ELISAs specific for bovine IgG1 showed analogous sensitivity and specificity (92% and 94%). Cross-reactivity was observed towards Echinococcus granulosus, Cysticercus tenuicollis, and C. ovis but not towards C. bovis, Cooperia spp., and Ostertagia spp. FhESAg gave rise to apparently more stable specific IgG1 titres as compared to FhSomAg. Mean IgG1 titres were significantly higher in the single-dose-infected group than in the trickle-infected group during the early migratory phase of the infection (week 2 to week 4 (FhSomAg) or week 6 (FhESAg)). IgG2 values were consistently lower than IgG1 levels. The kinetic response of both isotypes yielded a similar pattern. Specific IgE antibodies were detected in cattle of both infected groups from week 2 post-primary infection (PPI) onwards. The mean serum glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (gammaGT) activities were significantly higher in the single-dose-infected group for 3 weeks around peak levels (12-14 weeks PPI and 14-16 weeks PPI for GLDH and gammaGT respectively). Western blotting revealed a major antigenic fraction in FhESAg (26-30 kDa) recognized specifically by sera from F. hepatica infected calves as early as 6-8 weeks PPI. Experimental challenge caused no statistically significant modification of any parameter (IgG1 and IgG2 titres, enzymatic activities, immunoblotting) used to monitor the course of the infection. No correlation was found between fluke size and number, and antibody titres, suggesting that IgG1 production has little protective effect against F. hepatica infection. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 21 (3 ULg) Amer JaponDejasse, Erwin in 9e Art : Les Cahiers du Musée de la Bande Dessinée (2000), 5Detailed reference viewed: 34 (3 ULg) Intérêt de la procalcitonine dans le diagnostic des broncho-pneumonies liées au respirateurDubois, Emmanuelle; Nys, Monique; Ledoux, Didier et alin Réanimation et Urgences (2000), 9(supplément 2), 179299Detailed reference viewed: 18 (3 ULg) Regards sur MallarméDurand, Pascal in Courrier du Centre International d'Etudes Poétiques (2000), (221), 1-61Articles de Pascal Durand (« La Folie Mallarmé »), Bertrand Marchal (« Mallarmé et le Signe par excellence ») et Benoît Denis (« Le dernier des poètes »).Detailed reference viewed: 25 (5 ULg) Parametric Study for the Creation of the Interface between Concrete and Repair ProductsCourard, Luc in Materials and Structures (2000), 33An analysis as large as possible presents factors acting when a repair system comes into contact with a concrete support. The appetency of the first one for the second is defined from the properties of ... [more ▼]An analysis as large as possible presents factors acting when a repair system comes into contact with a concrete support. The appetency of the first one for the second is defined from the properties of the support and the new layer – essentially in its liquid phase – as well as from the environmental conditions. These properties are cited or explained for each material: roughness, porosity, superficial cohesion and interstitial water into concrete, nature and concentration of the binder, rigidity modulus, capillary succion for repair systems. The thermodynamic properties of the materials as well as transport mechanisms – diffusion, capillary succion – at the interface and roughness of the concrete support are particularly developed. A sequential flow sheet related to the parameters influencing the creation of the interface is proposed. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 23 (1 ULg) Calcium Release from Internal Stores Is Required for the Generation of Spontaneous Hyperpolarizations in Dopaminergic Neurons of Neonatal RatsSeutin, Vincent ; Mkahli, F.; Massotte, Laurent et alin Journal of Neurophysiology (2000), 83(1), 192-7We recently have demonstrated the existence of spontaneous hyperpolarizations in midbrain dopaminergic neurons of neonatal but not adult rats. These events are mediated by the opening of apamin-sensitive ... [more ▼]We recently have demonstrated the existence of spontaneous hyperpolarizations in midbrain dopaminergic neurons of neonatal but not adult rats. These events are mediated by the opening of apamin-sensitive K(+) channels after a rise in the intracellular concentration of Ca(2+). They are resistant to tetrodotoxin in most cases and are probably endogenous (i.e., not synaptically activated). Here their mechanism was investigated. Cyclopiazonic acid (10 microM), a specific inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPases, reversibly abolished the events. Caffeine, which promotes Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores, had concentration-dependent effects. At 1 mM, it markedly and steadily increased the frequency and the amplitude of the hyperpolarizations. At 10 mM, it induced a transient increase in their frequency followed by their cessation. All these effects were quickly reversible. Ryanodine (10 microM), which decreases the conductance of Ca(2+) release channels, irreversibly blocked the spontaneous hyperpolarizations. Dantrolene (100 microM), a blocker of Ca(2+) release from sarcoplasmic reticulum of striated muscle, did not affect the events. On the other hand, Cd(2+) (100-300 microM), a broad antagonist of membrane voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels, significantly reduced the amplitude and the frequency of the hyperpolarizations. However, when the frequency of the events was increased by 1 mM caffeine, Cd(2+) affected them to a smaller extent, whereas cyclopiazonic acid still abolished them. We conclude that internal stores are the major source of Ca(2+) ions that induce the K(+) channel openings underlying the spontaneous hyperpolarizations of these neurons. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (3 ULg) Tnp-470, a Potent Angiogenesis Inhibitor, Amplifies Human T Lymphocyte Activation through an Induction of Nuclear Factor-Kappab, Nuclear Factor-at, and Activation Protein-1 Transcription FactorsLocigno, Roberto; Antoine, Nadine ; Bours, Vincent et alin Laboratory Investigation : Journal of Technical Methods & Pathology (2000), 80(1), 13-21TNP-470, an angiogenesis inhibitor derived from fumagillin, is foreseen as a promising anti-cancer drug. Its effectiveness to restrain tumor growth and its lack of major side effects have been ... [more ▼]TNP-470, an angiogenesis inhibitor derived from fumagillin, is foreseen as a promising anti-cancer drug. Its effectiveness to restrain tumor growth and its lack of major side effects have been demonstrated in several animal models and have led the drug to reach phase III clinical trials. Beside its antiangiogenesis activities, TNP-470 exhibits several effects on the immune system. We had shown previously that TNP-470 stimulated B lymphocyte proliferation through an action on T cells. In this study, we examined the cellular and molecular modifications induced by TNP-470 in normal human T lymphocytes. Transmission electron microscopic examination of PHA/TNP-470-treated T cells revealed significant morphologic modifications when compared with PHA-treated control T cells. TNP-470 induced indeed an important and significant increase of the nuclear size as well as major nuclear chromatin decondensation. This observation indicated that TNP-470 amplified T-cell activation and led us to investigate its effects on the activation of transcription factors involved in T-cell activation. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we have demonstrated that TNP-470 amplifies and extends the DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-AT, nuclear factor-KB, and activation protein-1 in T cells. Furthermore, the angioinhibin significantly increased the secretion of IL-2 and IL-4. Our data demonstrate that TNP-470 amplifies the activation of T cells. This effect, whose molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated, has to be taken into account in the assessment of the antitumor effect of the drug. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 34 (0 ULg) Verification of two versions of the challenge handshake authentication protocol (CHAP)Leduc, Guy in Annales des Télécommunications = Annals of Telecommunications (2000), 55(1-2), 20-30The challenge handshake authentication protocol, CHAP, is an authentication protocol intended for use primarily by hosts and routers that connect to a network server I in switched circuits or dial-up ... [more ▼]The challenge handshake authentication protocol, CHAP, is an authentication protocol intended for use primarily by hosts and routers that connect to a network server I in switched circuits or dial-up lines. but might be applied to dedicated links as well. In this paper; we specify two versions of the protocol, using the formal language Lotos, and apply the Eucalyptus model-based verification tools to prove that the first version has a flaw: whereas the second one is robust to passive and active attacks. The paper is written bl a tutorial fashion with a strong emphasis oil the methodology used. The relative simplicity of the CHAP protocol allows one to include complete Lotos specifications and definitions of properties, so that the experiment can be reproduced easily. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (1 ULg) Clinical Signs, Reproduction of Attaching/Effacing Lesions, and Enterocyte Invasion after Oral Inoculation of an O118 Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia Coli in Neonatal CalvesStordeur, P.; China, B.; Charlier, G. et alin Microbes & Infection (2000), 2(1), 17-24Attaching and effacing (AE) lesions are produced among others by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), which differs from the former by the production of cytotoxins ... [more ▼]Attaching and effacing (AE) lesions are produced among others by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), which differs from the former by the production of cytotoxins active on various cell cultures, the verocytotoxins, or shigacytotoxins. EHEC are associated with diarrhoea and dysentery in humans and in ruminants, mainly calves from two to eight weeks of age. Clinical signs and/or lesions have been reproduced experimentally with EHEC strains belonging to serotypes O5:K4/Nm, O26:K-:H11, O111:Nm, and O157:H7 which are isolated from cattle and/or humans. The purpose of this work was to develop an experimental model of infection in newborn calves with a bovine EHEC strain isolated from a calf which of died of diarrhoea, and belonging to the O118:H16 serotype, which is also common to both cattle and humans. The bovine O118:H16 EHEC strain was able to colonize the gut of three newborn calves, and to induce diarrhoea twenty-four hours after challenge and to produce AE lesions in the small and/or large intestines. AE lesions were detected microscopically and ultrastructurally in the small intestine of one calf and in the whole intestinal track of two calves. Internalization of bacteria and also of pedestal-bacteria complex inside of the enterocyte was observed in two of the three calves. The significance of this stage is unknown but may be related to the invasion of the calf by the bacteria. The challenge strain was isolated from the mesenteric lymph nodes of the same two calves but not from other organs or from heart blood. No blood was observed in the faeces of any of the three calves, nor were any lesions in the internal organs, which may have been related to the production of a verotoxin whose role is still unknown in cattle. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (0 ULg) Malignant prolactinoma discovered by D2 receptor imaging.Petrossians, Patrick ; de Herder, W.; Kwekkeboom, D. et alin Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (2000), 85(1), 398-401Detailed reference viewed: 23 (1 ULg) Concepts délimitant le codage et la structuration de l ’ information clinique en médecine de familleJamoulle, Marc ; Roland, Michelin Santé Conjuguée (2000), 11Cet article tente de cerner de manière compacte les éléments qui entrent en ligne de compte lorsqu’on aborde le traitement de l’information en soins de santé primaires au niveau des médecins de famille ... [more ▼]Cet article tente de cerner de manière compacte les éléments qui entrent en ligne de compte lorsqu’on aborde le traitement de l’information en soins de santé primaires au niveau des médecins de famille. La complexité du champ conceptuel et du champ opératoire de la médecine de famille, l’inclusion du temps comme élément caractéristique, la terminologie, le codage et le flux de l’information, les notions de problème de santé et d’épisode sont successivement abordés. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 26 (1 ULg) Reactive compatibilization of SAN/EPR blends: Effect of kinetics of the compatibilization reaction on the interfacial adhesionPagnoulle, Christophe; Jérôme, Robert in Macromolecular Symposia (2000), 149The very poor adhesion between films of styrene and acrylonitrile random copolymer (SAN) and maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (PP-g-MA) can be dramatically improved by an intermediate thin layer of ... [more ▼]The very poor adhesion between films of styrene and acrylonitrile random copolymer (SAN) and maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (PP-g-MA) can be dramatically improved by an intermediate thin layer of SAN bearing groups reactive toward maleic anhydride. The rate of the interfacial reaction, which is controlled by the reactive groups attached to SAN (amine vs. carbamate) and by the method used to build up the sandwich assembly, has a decisive effect on the capability of the SAN-g-PP graft copolymer formed at the interface to improve the fracture toughness in direct dependence on its molecular architecture. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 35 (3 ULg) Evaluation of Acute Normovolemic Hemodilution for Surgical Repair of CraniosynostosisHans, Pol ; Collin, Vincent; Bonhomme, Vincent et alin Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology (2000), 12(1), 33-6This clinical report investigated the potential benefit of acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) as a blood-saving technique in the surgical repair of craniosynostosis. Over a 4-year period, 34 healthy ... [more ▼]This clinical report investigated the potential benefit of acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) as a blood-saving technique in the surgical repair of craniosynostosis. Over a 4-year period, 34 healthy children undergoing surgical repair of scaphocephaly or pachycephaly were randomly assigned to two groups of 17 patients each. Patients of the first group (ANH group) were submitted to ANH (target Ht: 25%) immediately before surgery and patients of the second group (Control group) were not. During surgery, estimated blood loss was compensated with a 5% albumin solution and no autologous or homologous blood was transfused. At the end of surgery, intraoperative blood loss (mean +/- SD) calculated on the basis of the Ht value and the children weight was 21.3+/-8% of the estimated blood volume (EBV) in the ANH group and 24+/-6.6% in the Control group. Children of the ANH group received their autologous blood (18.9+/-3.3% of EBV) systematically at the end of surgery. In the postoperative period, homologous blood was transfused when the Ht value was equal or less than 21%. Both groups were comparable regarding age, weight, type of craniosynostosis, duration of surgery, EBV, and preoperative Ht value. No difference was observed between ANH and Control groups in the number of patients who received homologous blood (15/17 and 14/17, respectively), in the amount of homologous blood transfused (17+/-4.7% and 19.6+/-6.3% of the EBV, respectively), and in the Ht value before hospital discharge (29.4+/-5.0% and 30.7+/-4.9%, respectively). In conclusion, this report suggests that ANH reduces neither the incidence of homologous transfusion nor the amount of homologous blood transfused in this series of children undergoing surgical repair of craniosynostosis. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 10 (0 ULg) Tumour Necrosis Factor (Tnf) Gene Polymorphism in Crohn's Disease (Cd): Influence on Disease Behaviour?Louis, Edouard ; Peeters, Marc; Franchimont, D. et alin Clinical & Experimental Immunology (2000), 119(1), 64-8Crohn's disease (CD) is a multifactorial disease with genetic heterogeneity. TNF-alpha plays a key role in the development of the mucosal lesions. The aim of our work was to study a single base pair ... [more ▼]Crohn's disease (CD) is a multifactorial disease with genetic heterogeneity. TNF-alpha plays a key role in the development of the mucosal lesions. The aim of our work was to study a single base pair polymorphism located in the promoter region of TNF gene, in a large population of CD patients with well defined phenotypes. One hundred and ninety-three patients with CD and 98 ethnically matched controls were studied. The -308 single base pair polymorphism of TNF gene was studied using an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. Genotype and allelic frequencies were compared between patients and controls and between subgroups of patients defined by sex, age at diagnosis, familial history, location of disease, type of disease, extra-intestinal manifestations, and response to steroid treatment. In 29 patients a measure of TNF-alpha production by colonic biopsies was performed. The frequency of the allele TNF2 as well as the proportion of carriers of the allele TNF2 were slightly but not significantly lower in CD than in controls (11.9% versus 14.8% and 21.5% versus 27.6%, respectively). A more prominent difference in frequencies of allele TNF2 and in proportions of TNF2 carriers was found when comparing subgroups of patients. The frequency of allele TNF2 was significantly higher in steroid-dependent than in non-steroid-dependent disease (28.1% versus 10.3%; Delta = 17.8%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 6.3-29.5%, P = 0.0027) and tended to be higher in colonic than in small bowel disease and in fistulizing than in stricturing disease. Furthermore, TNF2 carriers tended to be more frequent in patients with steroid-dependent than non-steroid-dependent disease (43.8% versus 19.3%; Delta = 24.5%, 95% CI = 3.6-45.4%, P = 0.022), in patients with fistulizing than stricturing disease (26.5% versus 9.6%; Delta = 16.9%, 95% CI = 1. 1-32.6%, P = 0.036), and in patients with colonic than small bowel disease (26.5% versus 11.1%; Delta = 15.4%, 95% CI = -0.8-31.6%, P = 0.063). Finally, patients carrying at least one copy of allele 2 were found to produce slightly more TNF-alpha at the colonic level. The -308 TNF gene polymorphism may have a slight influence on the behaviour of CD. The carriage of allele 2 may favour steroid-dependent disease and to a lesser extent fistulizing and colonic disease, possibly secondary to a more intense TNF-alpha-driven inflammatory reaction at the mucosal level. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 26 (1 ULg) Cytosine Deaminase Suicide Gene Therapy for Peritoneal CarcinomatosisBentires-Alj, M.; Hellin, A. C.; Lechanteur, Chantal et alin Cancer Gene Therapy (2000), 7(1), 20-6Gene therapy is a novel therapeutic approach that might soon improve the prognosis of some cancers. We investigated the feasibility of cytosine deaminase (CD) suicide gene therapy in a model of peritoneal ... [more ▼]Gene therapy is a novel therapeutic approach that might soon improve the prognosis of some cancers. We investigated the feasibility of cytosine deaminase (CD) suicide gene therapy in a model of peritoneal carcinomatosis. DHD/K12 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells transfected in vitro with the CD gene were highly sensitive to 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), and a bystander effect could also be observed. Treating CD+ cells with 5-FC resulted in apoptosis as detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling. In vitro, several human cell lines derived from ovarian or colorectal carcinomas, as well as the rat glioblastoma 9 L cell line, responded to CD/5-FC and showed a very strong bystander effect. 5-FC treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis generated in syngeneic BDIX rats by CD-expressing DHD/K12 cells led to a complete and prolonged response and to prolonged survival. Our study thus demonstrated the efficacy of CD suicide gene therapy for the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 63 (2 ULg) Comment j'explore ... la dissection de l'aorte thoraciqueHubin, L.; Hoffer, E.; Ghaye, Benoît et alin Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(1), 49-56Thoracic aortic dissection constitutes an acute pathology that requires a rapid, accurate and reliable diagnosis. The authors describe and illustrate the advantages and limitations of imaging modalities ... [more ▼]Thoracic aortic dissection constitutes an acute pathology that requires a rapid, accurate and reliable diagnosis. The authors describe and illustrate the advantages and limitations of imaging modalities used in this pathology. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 16 (0 ULg) Mise au point d'une hyperparathyroidie primitive: apport de la scintigraphieBrasseur, Edmond ; PHILIPS, Jean-Christophe ; BELHOCINE, Tarik et alin Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(1), 39-44We report a case of hyperparathyroidism whose diagnosis was suspected by a clinical history and confirmed by routine laboratory tests. Scintigraphy has permitted to localize a focalized lesion ... [more ▼]We report a case of hyperparathyroidism whose diagnosis was suspected by a clinical history and confirmed by routine laboratory tests. Scintigraphy has permitted to localize a focalized lesion corresponding to an adenoma endocrinopathy. The new developments of this imaging technique will be discussed further. Some aspects of physiopathology will be briefly considered and a therapeutic algorithm will be proposed. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (0 ULg) Alternatives à l'hormonothérapie substitutive comme prévention de l'ostéoporose postménopausiqueReginster, Jean-Yves ; Bruyère, Olivier in Lettre du Gynécologue (La) (2000), 248Detailed reference viewed: 17 (4 ULg) Ancestralité de la vie intentionnelle dans la constitution de l'espace. Approche phénoménologique de l'art pariétalde Villers Grand Champs, Bénédicte in L'art du comprendre (2000), 9Detailed reference viewed: 19 (3 ULg) Effectuer l'état des lieux, la réactivation et la rémédiation des bases de chimie à la charnière entre l'enseignement secondaire et l'Université sur http://www.ulg.ac.be/grptrans/Müller, Robert; Cornélis, André; Cahay, René et alin Bulletin de l'Association Belge des Professeurs de Physique et de Chimie (2000), (144), 30-40Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 ULg) Motivations et apports d'une prise en charge ambulatoire pluridisciplinaire de la santé des adolescentsBourguignon, Jean-Pierre ; Grignard, Sophie ; Glowacz, Fabienne et alin Bulletin d'Education du Patient à sa Maladie (2000), 19(3), 126-129D’importants problèmes de santé sont identifiés par les professionnels chez les adolescents. Toutefois, ces problèmes de santé ne sont que peu ou pas soulevés par les adolescents eux-mêmes car ils ... [more ▼]D’importants problèmes de santé sont identifiés par les professionnels chez les adolescents. Toutefois, ces problèmes de santé ne sont que peu ou pas soulevés par les adolescents eux-mêmes car ils consultent peu à ce sujet. En particulier, ils évoquent rarement les aspects psychosociaux des problèmes auxquels ils sont confrontés. Ils fonctionnent dans le clivage entre somatique et psychologique bien que ces deux aspects soient indissociables. Les adolescents sont souvent amenés en consultation par d’autres, dont les parents. Un travail d’identification de la demande réelle de l’adolescent est donc nécessaire pour que celui-ci puisse se mobiliser vers une prise en charge. La confidentialité est cruciale de même que le respect de l’adolescent, ainsi que la reconnaissance de ses craintes et des limites qu’il met à l’accès aux informations par l’anamnèse et l’examen clinique. Il appartient au médecin de lire la demande de l’adolescent dans un double registre, à la fois somatique et psychique et de resituer cette demande dans le contexte de vie particulier à l’adolescent. Aussi, la lecture de la demande intégrera non seulement les problèmes invoqués par l’adolescent mais aussi ceux relevés par l’anamnèse et l’examen clinique. Une telle lecture peut prendre du temps pour les intervenants de santé mais aussi pour l’adolescent, avant qu’il n’aboutisse à l’émergence de sa demande et, dès lors, à une demande de prise en charge. Celle-ci devra parfois faire appel à une équipe spécifique et pluridisciplinaire telle que celle où collaborent les auteurs du présent article, au Centre de Santé de l’Adolescent à Liège. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 338 (36 ULg) Le leasing immobilier - Aspects de droit privéKohl, Benoît ; Vanwijck, Michèle in Revue de Droit Immobilier (2000)Detailed reference viewed: 102 (8 ULg) Characterization of intestinal cnf1+ Escherichia coli from weaned pigsToth, I.; Oswald, E.; Mainil, Jacques et alin International Journal of Medical Microbiology (2000), 290Detailed reference viewed: 8 (1 ULg) Riboflavin (vitamin B2) as a prophylactic treatment for migraineSchoenen, Jean in Medical Updates on Therapy, Diagnosis and Prevention (2000), 2Detailed reference viewed: 26 (0 ULg) Epithelial and endothelial expression of the green fluorescent protein reporter gene under the control of bovine prion protein (PrP) gene regulatory sequences in transgenic mice.Lemaire-Vieille, C.; Schulze, T.; Podevin-Dimster, V. et alin Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2000), 97(10), 5422-7The expression of the cellular form of the prion protein (PrP(c)) gene is required for prion replication and neuroinvasion in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. The identification of the cell ... [more ▼]The expression of the cellular form of the prion protein (PrP(c)) gene is required for prion replication and neuroinvasion in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. The identification of the cell types expressing PrP(c) is necessary to understanding how the agent replicates and spreads from peripheral sites to the central nervous system. To determine the nature of the cell types expressing PrP(c), a green fluorescent protein reporter gene was expressed in transgenic mice under the control of 6.9 kb of the bovine PrP gene regulatory sequences. It was shown that the bovine PrP gene is expressed as two populations of mRNA differing by alternative splicing of one 115-bp 5' untranslated exon in 17 different bovine tissues. The analysis of transgenic mice showed reporter gene expression in some cells that have been identified as expressing PrP, such as cerebellar Purkinje cells, lymphocytes, and keratinocytes. In addition, expression of green fluorescent protein was observed in the plexus of the enteric nervous system and in a restricted subset of cells not yet clearly identified as expressing PrP: the epithelial cells of the thymic medullary and the endothelial cells of both the mucosal capillaries of the intestine and the renal capillaries. These data provide valuable information on the distribution of PrP(c) at the cellular level and argue for roles of the epithelial and endothelial cells in the spread of infection from the periphery to the brain. Moreover, the transgenic mice described in this paper provide a model that will allow for the study of the transcriptional activity of the PrP gene promoter in response to scrapie infection. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 10 (1 ULg) Compte rendu de Grégoire de Tours et l'espace gaulois. Actes du congrès international, Tours (1994), 1997George, Philippe in Moyen Age (Le) (2000)Detailed reference viewed: 10 (1 ULg) Dependency of Premature Ventricular Contractions on Heart Rate and Circadian Rhythms During ChildhoodMassin, M. M.; Maeyns, K.; Withofs, Nadia et alin Cardiology (2000), 93(1-2), 70-3The aim of the present study was to identify and quantify the rate dependence of premature ventricular contractions (PVC) during childhood. A 24-hour Holter recording was performed in 16 consecutive ... [more ▼]The aim of the present study was to identify and quantify the rate dependence of premature ventricular contractions (PVC) during childhood. A 24-hour Holter recording was performed in 16 consecutive children, aged 22 days to 11 years (mean age 5.6 years), with frequent (>5,000/day), isolated monomorphic PVC. Those PVC were identified and the length of the preceding sinus cycle was measured. The values were ordered into 50-ms class intervals, and the percentage of PVC for each class was calculated and then analyzed by linear regression analysis. On the basis of the significance of the p value, and the positive or negative value of the slope, we identified a tachycardia-enhanced, a bradycardia-enhanced, and an indifferent pattern. Chronobiologic analysis was made by the cosinor method. All the patients had upper and lower limits of cycle length beyond which PVC disappeared. A tachycardia-enhanced pattern was present in 7 patients and an indifferent one in 9 patients. In the latter a second-degree polynomial correlation was systematically found. Children but not infants had a significant circadian variation in the frequency of PVC with a very variable time of highest incidence. In conclusion, it is possible to identify a circadian rhythm of PVC and a spontaneous trend between their incidence and the length of the preceding cardiac cycle in children. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 30 (1 ULg) Rupture of a Thoracic Aneurysm in the Left BronchusSCHILS, F.; Deprez, A. F.; CREEMERS, Etienne et alin Acta Chirurgica Belgica (2000), 100(2), 74-6Aortobronchic fistula is a very unusual complication of thoracic aneurysm. We report the case of a 71-year old man with rupture of a thoracic aortic aneurysm in the left main bronchus. The patient had ... [more ▼]Aortobronchic fistula is a very unusual complication of thoracic aneurysm. We report the case of a 71-year old man with rupture of a thoracic aortic aneurysm in the left main bronchus. The patient had suffered a car crash fifteen years ago, without any evidence of aortic rupture at the time. Thereafter, he developed an aortic isthmic dilation (36 mm in diameter). The patient suffered from long standing pulmonary insufficiency and emphysema and was admitted several times on an urgent basis for acute dyspnea. During an hospitalization for respiratory distress, he presented haemoptysis and left lung hyperinflation secondary to partial fistulization and extrinsic compression of the main left bronchus. Isthmic aortic resection and prosthetic grafting was performed and the left main bronchus was closed by an autologous pericardial patch. Ten days later, following an air-leak from the bronchial closure, a transposed latissimus dorsi flap was used by the plastic surgeon to repair the defect. Nevertheless, the patient died from multisystemic failure six weeks later. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 21 (0 ULg) Phalangeal osteosonogrammetry study: age-related changes, diagnostic sensitivity, and discrimination power. The Phalangeal Osteosonogrammetry Study Group.Wuster, C; Albanese, C; De Aloysio, D et alin Journal of Bone and Mineral Research (2000), 15(8), 1603-14Phalangeal osteosonogrammetry was introduced as a method for bone tissue investigation in 1992. It is based on the measure of the velocity of ultrasound (amplitude-dependent speed of sound [AD-SoS]) and ... [more ▼]Phalangeal osteosonogrammetry was introduced as a method for bone tissue investigation in 1992. It is based on the measure of the velocity of ultrasound (amplitude-dependent speed of sound [AD-SoS]) and on the interpretation of the characteristics of the ultrasound signal. In this study we have collected a database of 10,115 subjects to evaluate the performance of AD-SoS and to develop a parameter that is able to quantify the signal characteristics: ultrasound bone profile index (UBPI). The database only includes females of which 4.5% had documented vertebral osteoporotic fractures, 16% lumbar spine dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and 6% hip DXA. The analysis of the ultrasound signal has shown that with aging the UBPI, first wave amplitude (FWA), and signal dynamics (SDy) follow a trend that is different from the one observed for AD-SoS; that is, there is no increase during childhood. In the whole population, the risk of fracture per SD decrease for AD-SOS was odds ratio (OR) 1.71 (CI, 1.58-1.84). The AD-SoS in fractured subjects was significantly lower than in a group of age-matched nonfractured subjects (p < 0.0001). In a small cohort of hip-fractured patients UBPI proved to be lower than in a control age-matched group (p < 0.0001). When the World Health Organization (WHO) working group criteria were applied to this population to identify the T score value for osteoporosis, for AD-SoS we found a T score of -3.2 and for UBPI we found a T score of -3.14. Sixty-six percent of vertebral fractures were below the AD-SoS -3.2 T score and 62% were below UBPI -3.14. We observed the highest incidence of fractures (63.6%) among subjects with AD-SoS who had both DXA T score values below the threshold. We conclude from this study that ultrasound investigation at the hand phalanges is a valid methodology for osteoporosis assessment. It has been possible to quantify signal changes by means of UBPI, a parameter that will improve the possibility of investigating bone structure. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 134 (22 ULg) High-Performance Anion-Exchange Chromatography - Dad As A Tool For The Identification And Quantification Of Oligogalacturonic Acids In Pectin DepolymerisationDeconinck, Thomas J.-M.; Ciza, Antoine; Sinnaeve, Georges et alin Carbohydrate Research (2000), 329(4), High-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) coupled with a diode array detector (DAD) was used to identify and quantify oligogalacturonic acid components in pectins. Purified pectin lyase and ... [more ▼]High-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) coupled with a diode array detector (DAD) was used to identify and quantify oligogalacturonic acid components in pectins. Purified pectin lyase and polygalacturonase were used to generate unsaturated and saturated oligomers from pectins and sodium polygalacturonate, respectively. This method resulted in a good separation of saturated and unsaturated oligomers up to DP 13. It allowed us to follow polygalacturonase and pectate lyase depolymerisation pathways simultaneously. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 33 (0 ULg) Le maillage vert... ou les réseaux de toute nature...Mougenot, Catherine ; Melin, Eric in Cahiers de l'Urbanisme (Les) (2000), (28-29), 42-45Depuis quelques années se développent un peu partout des projets de sentiers nature, de réseaux de cheminements lents, de création de mares, de jardin au naturel, etc. Ils peuvent être regroupés sous le ... [more ▼]Depuis quelques années se développent un peu partout des projets de sentiers nature, de réseaux de cheminements lents, de création de mares, de jardin au naturel, etc. Ils peuvent être regroupés sous le terme de maillage vert ou de réseau écologique. L'article souligne que pour que de tels projets aboutissent, ils supposent une interaction étroite entre réseaux naturels et réseaux humains. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 113 (22 ULg) Increased synovial fluid levels of interleukin-12, sCD25 and sTNF-RII/sTNF-RI ratio delineate a cytokine pattern characteristic of immune arthropathiesRibbens, Clio ; Andre, Béatrice ; Kaye, O. et alin European Cytokine Network (2000), 11(4), 669-676The assessment of cytokines and their soluble receptors in the synovial fluid (SF) of inflammatory arthropathies may be useful in studying pathogenetic and immunoregulatory mechanisms underlying different ... [more ▼]The assessment of cytokines and their soluble receptors in the synovial fluid (SF) of inflammatory arthropathies may be useful in studying pathogenetic and immunoregulatory mechanisms underlying different diseases. The aim of this work was to study the cytokine network occurring in inflammatory arthropathies and to identify a cytokine profile which is characteristic of an immune-mediated synovitis. Levels of IL-12, as well as IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-gamma, sCD25, TNF-alpha and its soluble receptors were measured in the SF of various arthropathies, i.e. non-inflammatory arthropathies: "control" meniscus pathology (n = 21), osteoarthritis (n = 22) and chronic crystal arthritis (n = 9); a non-immune inflammatory arthropathy: acute crystal arthritis (n = 11); 2 immune inflammatory arthropathies: reactive arthritis (ReA) (n = 23) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (n = 44). SF levels of IL-10, TNF-alpha and sTNF-RII were found to be increased in the three inflammatory arthropathies compared to the "control" meniscus group. Within the inflammatory group, acute crystal arthritis was characterized by a significantly higher sTNF-RI/TNF-alpha ratio and ReA by a significantly lower sTNF-RII/TNF-alpha ratio compared to the two other diseases. The two immune arthropathies, RA and ReA, were characterized by increased SF levels of IL-12, sCD25 and of the sTNF-RII/sTNF-RI ratio. ReA differed however from RA by showing lower IL-8 and IL-4 levels, higher IFN-gamma levels and a higher IL-12/IL-10 ratio, suggesting a more prevalent Th1 profile in ReA SF. Our data indicate that the measurement of SF cytokines and soluble receptors may discriminate between each inflammatory arthropathy and might be useful in clinical practice. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 26 (2 ULg) On a q-analogue of the spin-orbit couplingMicu, M.; Stancu, Floarea in Journal of Physics : A Mathematical & General (2000), A33Based on the tensor method, a $q$-analogue of the spin-orbit coupling is introduced in a $q$-deformed Schr\" odinger equation, previously derived for a central potential. Analytic expressions for the ... [more ▼]Based on the tensor method, a $q$-analogue of the spin-orbit coupling is introduced in a $q$-deformed Schr\" odinger equation, previously derived for a central potential. Analytic expressions for the matrix elements of the representations $j = \ell \pm 1/2$ are derived. The spectra of the harmonic oscillator and the Coulomb potential are calculated numerically as a function of the deformation parameter, without and with the spin-orbit coupling. The harmonic oscillator spectrum presents strong analogies with the bound spectrum of an Woods-Saxon potential customarily used in nuclear physics. The Coulomb spectrum simulates relativistic effects. The addition of the spin-orbit coupling reinforces this picture. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 6 (1 ULg) Laparoscopic treatment of endometriomas: cystectomy or suppression? Against laparoscopic cystectomySquifflet, Jean; NISOLLE, Michelle ; Donnez, Jacquesin Gynécologie Obstétrique & Fertilité (2000), 28(7-8), 586-7Detailed reference viewed: 7 (0 ULg) Tuna and dolphin associations in the Northeast Atlantic: Evidence of different ecological niches from stable isotope and heavy metal measurementsDas, Krishna ; Lepoint, Gilles ; Loizeau, Véronique et alin Marine Pollution Bulletin (2000), 40Associations of tunas and dolphins in the wild are quite frequent events and the question arises how predators requiring similar diet in the same habitat share their environmental resources. As isotopic ... [more ▼]Associations of tunas and dolphins in the wild are quite frequent events and the question arises how predators requiring similar diet in the same habitat share their environmental resources. As isotopic composition of an animal is related to that of its preys, stable isotopes (13C/12C and 15N/14N) analyses were performed in three predator species from the Northeast Atlantic: the striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba, the common dolphin Delphinus delphis, and the albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga, and compared to their previously described stomach content. Heavy metals (Cd, Zn, Cu and Fe) are mainly transferred through the diet and so, have been determined in the tissues of the animals. Tunas muscles display higher delta15N than in common and striped dolphins (mean: 11.4 0/00 vs. 10.3 0/00 and 10.4 0/00, respectively) which reflects its higher trophic level nutrition. Higher delta13C are found in common (-18.4 0/00) and striped dolphin (-18.10/00) muscles than in albacore tuna (-19.3 0/00) likely in relation with its migratory pattern. The most striking feature is the presence of two levels of cadmium concentrations in the livers of the tunas (32 mg kg-1 dry weight vs. 5 mg kg-1 dry weight). These two groups also differ by their iron concentrations and their delta15N and delta 13C liver values. These results suggest that in the Biscay Bay, tunas occupy two different ecological niches likely based on different squid input in their diet. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 134 (11 ULg) The copper flora of Katanga: a phytogeographical analysisLeteinturier, B.; Malaisse, François in Geo-Eco-Trop (2000), 23(1-4), Detailed reference viewed: 24 (2 ULg) Eigenschappen van glucosamineReginster, Jean-Yves ; Halkin, Vin Medi-Sfeer (2000), 116Detailed reference viewed: 17 (1 ULg) Identification and characterization of in vivo attenuated mutants of Brucella melitensis.Lestrate, P.; Delrue, R. M.; DANESE, Isabelle et alin Molecular Microbiology (2000), 38(3), 543-51Brucella melitensis 16M is a Gram-negative alpha2-proteobacterium responsible for abortion in goats and for Malta fever in humans. This facultative intracellular pathogen invades into and survives within ... [more ▼]Brucella melitensis 16M is a Gram-negative alpha2-proteobacterium responsible for abortion in goats and for Malta fever in humans. This facultative intracellular pathogen invades into and survives within both professional and non-professional phagocytes. Signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) was used to identify genes required for the in vivo pathogenesis of Brucella. A library of transposon mutants was screened in a murine infection model. Out of 672 mutants screened, 20 were not recovered after a 5 day passage in BALB/c mice. The attenuation of 18 mutants was confirmed using an in vivo competition assay against the wild-type strain. The 18 mutants were characterized further for their ability to replicate in murine macrophages and in HeLa cells. The sequences disrupted by the transposon in the mutants have homology to genes coding for proteins of different functional classes: transport, amino acid and DNA metabolism, transcriptional regulation, peptidoglycan synthesis, a chaperone-like protein and proteins of unknown function. The mutants selected in this study provide new insights into the molecular basis of Brucella virulence. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (0 ULg) Proposals to reject the names Pyrenotrichum, Chlorocyphella and Cyrta (lichenized Fungi Imperfecti: form-class Coelomycetes)Lücking, Robert; Kalb, Klaus; Sérusiaux, Emmanuël et alin Taxon (2000), 49Detailed reference viewed: 5 (0 ULg) Cloning and expression analysis of an inducible HSP70 gene from tilapia fishMolina, Alfredo; Biemar, Frédéric; Muller, Ferenc et alin FEBS Letters (2000), 474(1), 5-10We isolated and characterized the tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) HSP70 gene, highly homologous to other HSP70 genes. A dramatic increase of tilapia HSP70 mRNA levels was observed after heat shock of ... [more ▼]We isolated and characterized the tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) HSP70 gene, highly homologous to other HSP70 genes. A dramatic increase of tilapia HSP70 mRNA levels was observed after heat shock of whole animals in all organs tested. Reporter constructs were tested for transient expression in carp cells and in microinjected zebrafish embryos. The entire isolated regulatory region (-851/+157) was able to mediate heat shock inducible expression of the reporter gene, with no preference for a particular tissue. Our studies represent the first transcriptional analysis of a HSP70 promoter from fish, revealing a powerful tool to direct controlled, tissue-independent gene expression in fish. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 60 (6 ULg) Intestinal maturation induced by spermine in young animalsPeulen, Olivier ; Deloyer, P; Grandfils, Christian et alin Livestock Production Science (2000), 66Detailed reference viewed: 10 (2 ULg) Clinical Usefulness of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (Mna) Scale in Geriatric MedicineGazzotti, C.; Albert, Adelin ; Pepinster, A. et alin Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging (The) (2000), 4(3), 176-81OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of malnutrition in elderly patients hospitalized with an acute illness, as well as to assess the clinical usefulness of standardized ... [more ▼]OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of malnutrition in elderly patients hospitalized with an acute illness, as well as to assess the clinical usefulness of standardized nutritional assessment upon admission by means of the MNA scale. Design: A prospective study. Setting: A large size regional university hospital. Subjects: There were 175 patients (113 women and 62 men) with a mean age of 79.7 + 8.5 years admitted for an acute problem. Death occurred in 11 patients (6.3%). METHODS: Upon admission, demographic (age, gender, origin) and medical (disease, drugs) data were recorded for each patient; the MNA questionnaire (score: 0-30) was administered and Katz score (7-28) calculated. At hospital discharge, data included Katz score, outcome (death/survival), and destination. RESULTS: The mean MNA score was 20.5 + 5.1 and the prevalence of severe malnutrition (MNA <17) was 21.7%. Further, 48.6% of elderly were at risk of malnutrition (MNA between 17 and 24). There was no association between MNA and age or gender, but underweight was a sign of low MNA values (P <.001). MNA scores were inversely related to Katz scores at both admission and hospital discharge (P <.001). Patients originating from nursing homes had a poorer nutritional status than those living at home (MNA: 18.4 against 22.3, P <.001). The number of drugs taken per patient (5.2 + 2.8) was found to be correlated with MNA (P =.049). MNA scores were on average significantly higher (P <.001) in survivors (20.9) than in nonsurvivors (14.1). CONCLUSIONS: The study clearly demonstrates the high prevalence of malnutrition and the clinical usefulness of the MNA scale in geriatric medicine. The MNA score upon admission reflects the patient's nutritional condition, degree of autonomy (Katz score), living conditions and current treatment. It is also predictive of patient's outcome (death or survival). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 43 (3 ULg) Evidence of a reentrant Peierls distortion in liquid GeTeRaty, Jean-Yves ; Godlevsky, V.; Ghosez, Philippe et alin Physical Review Letters (2000), 85(9), 1950-1953The local atomic order of semiconducting liquid GeTe is studied using first-principles molecular-dynamics simulations. Our work points out a high degree of alternating chemical order in the liquid and ... [more ▼]The local atomic order of semiconducting liquid GeTe is studied using first-principles molecular-dynamics simulations. Our work points out a high degree of alternating chemical order in the liquid and demonstrates the presence of a Peierls distortion close above the melting temperature. This distortion, absent in the high temperature crystalline structure of NaCl type, is a remnant of the atomic arrangement in the A7 low temperature crystalline phase. It disappears slowly with temperature, as the liquid evolves from a semiconducting to a metallic state. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 42 (3 ULg) Skin Tensile Strength Modulation by Compressive Garments in Burn Patients. A Pilot StudyFournier, R.; Pierard, Gérald in Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology (2000), 24(6, Nov-Dec), 277-80Compression therapy is frequently used to prevent hypertrophy of post-burn scars. This pilot study was performed in 6 patients to assess non-invasive changes induced in the tensile strength of the skin ... [more ▼]Compression therapy is frequently used to prevent hypertrophy of post-burn scars. This pilot study was performed in 6 patients to assess non-invasive changes induced in the tensile strength of the skin before any clinical improvement can be perceived. Assessments were performed using a computerized suction device delivering three 5 s cycles of 500 mbar depression. Measurements were made at one-month intervals for three months after initiating the garment compression therapy. Comparisons were made between the intact skin, the ungrafted and grafted post-burn scars and the graft donor sites. Data show that garment compression therapy alters the tensile strength in the skin of all test sites. The most reliable variations consist of an increase in both the extensibility and elasticity of the tissues submitted to traction. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 24 (0 ULg) Comparison between Open and Closed Repair for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: A Word of CautionLimet, Raymond ; CREEMERS, Etienne in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (2000), 100(1), 12-5Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 ULg) Neoteny and progenesis as two heterochronic processes involved in paedomorphosis in Triturus alpestris (Amphibia: Caudata)Denoël, Mathieu ; Joly, Pierrein Proceedings of the Royal Society B : Biological Sciences (2000), 267(1451), 1481-1485Current theories on the evolution of paedomorphosis suppose that several ontogenetic pathways have appeared according to different selective pressures. The aim of this study was to find out whether two ... [more ▼]Current theories on the evolution of paedomorphosis suppose that several ontogenetic pathways have appeared according to different selective pressures. The aim of this study was to find out whether two distinct processes can lead to paedomorphosis in the Alpine newt, Triturus alpestris. In this respect, we compared age structures of paedomorphic and metamorphic individuals in two newt populations where the two forms lived syntopically. Whereas paedomorphosis resulted in a slower rate of somatic development in one population, it resulted in an acceleration of sexual maturation in the other population. These processes correspond to neoteny and progenesis, respectively. These results suggest that phenotypic plasticity can result from contrasted ontogenetic pathways between two populations of the same species. They give support to models that consider gonadic development as the target of selection under different environmental pressures. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 204 (24 ULg) In Vitro Inhibitory Effect of SR 27417, a Potent Platelet-Activating Factor (PAF) Receptor Antagonist, on the PAF-Induced Bovine Platelet AggregationBastos da Silva, Miriam; Delaunois, Annie ; Gustin, Pascal et alin Veterinary Research (2000), 31(2, Mar-Apr), 267-672The in vitro inhibitory effect of SR 27417, an antagonist of the platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor, on PAF-induced platelet aggregation was studied in blood collected from seven healthy Friesien ... [more ▼]The in vitro inhibitory effect of SR 27417, an antagonist of the platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor, on PAF-induced platelet aggregation was studied in blood collected from seven healthy Friesien calves. Inhibitory effects of SR 27417 were determined at thirteen different concentrations (0.1-400 nM) by using the dose-response curves of PAF on calf platelet aggregation. In the presence of SR 27417, the maximal slopes of aggregation (%/min) induced by low and high concentrations of PAF were significantly different from the control values obtained without an antagonist at p < or = 0.05 and p < or = 0.01 respectively. In vitro PAF-induced calf platelet aggregation was dose-dependently inhibited by SR 27417. The drug inhibited PAF-induced platelet aggregation in a competitive reversible manner (pA2 = 10.46 +/- 2.36 mol x L(-1)). In conclusion, the results of our study showed that addition of SR 27417 to bovine platelet in vitro inhibits PAF-induced platelet aggregation. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 92 (3 ULg) Villers-le-Bouillet/Vaux-et-Borset : sauvetage d'une fosse néolithique au lieu-dit "A la Chapelle Blanche"Delye, Emmanuel ; Delhaye, Donat; Roberti, Danielin Chronique de l'Archéologie Wallonne (2000), 8Detailed reference viewed: 13 (1 ULg) Nekrotoxikus Escherichia coli (NTEC) törzsek magyarorszagi elöfordulasa és jellemzéseNagy, B.; Toth, I.; Mainil, Jacques et alin Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja = Hungarian Veterinary Journal (2000), 122Detailed reference viewed: 26 (2 ULg) La vie quotidienne à Stavelot-Malmedy autour de l'an mil. Moines & société à travers les Miracula RemacliGeorge, Philippe in Bulletin de l'Institut historique liégeois (2000)Detailed reference viewed: 34 (1 ULg) Les populations de grands mammifères et d'autruches du Parc National de Zakouma au Tchad : statuts et tendances évolutivesDejace, Philippe; Gauthier, Laure; Bouché, Philippe in Revue d'Ecologie (2000), 55Zakouma National Park is situated in the south-east of Chad Republic and covers more than 3 000 km2. Rehabilitated in 1989, it is certainly one of the best-preserved wildlife sanctuaries in Sahelian ... [more ▼]Zakouma National Park is situated in the south-east of Chad Republic and covers more than 3 000 km2. Rehabilitated in 1989, it is certainly one of the best-preserved wildlife sanctuaries in Sahelian Africa. Aerial census shows that most of its original fauna is still present, making the Park an exception in the region despite the recent troubled history of this country. Total population estimates of elephants, buffaloes and topis are given and distribution maps are presented for eleven species. Results are compared with two previous estimates. Except for the ostrich and perhaps the warthog, probably in regression, the populations of two species are stable (hartebeest and giraffe) while the others are clearly increasing (buffalo, topi, elephant and roan antelope). Those encouraging results are the consequence of the remoteness of the park, wich is far from any big town, and also overflooded and isolated during the wet season. Those facts contribute to maintain the human pressure at a sustainable level. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 74 (5 ULg) Le sadomasochisme face à la liberté sexuelle et au droit au respect de la vie privée. Note sous Cass., 6 janvier 1998Genicot, Gilles in Revue Trimestrielle de Droit Familial (2000)Detailed reference viewed: 139 (3 ULg)