References of "Scientific journals"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEffects of lesions of the medial preoptic nucleus on the testosterone-induced metabolic changes in specific brain areas in male quail
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Stamatakis, A.; Bacola, S. et al

in Neuroscience (2001), 108(3), 447-466

The effects of bilateral lesions of the medial preoptic nucleus in association with testosterone on the metabolic activity in discrete brain regions was studied quantitatively by the in vivo ... [more ▼]

The effects of bilateral lesions of the medial preoptic nucleus in association with testosterone on the metabolic activity in discrete brain regions was studied quantitatively by the in vivo autoradiographic 2-deoxyglucose method. Adult male quail were castrated and then left without hormone replacement therapy or treated with testosterone or treated with testosterone and submitted to a bilateral lesion of the medial preoptic nucleus, a brain region that plays a key role in the activation of male copulatory behavior by testosterone. Treatment for about 10 days with testosterone activated the expression of the full range of male sexual behaviors and these behaviors were completely suppressed by the medial preoptic nucleus lesions. Mapping of 2-deoxyglucose uptake revealed both increases and decreases of metabolic activity in discrete brain regions associated with the systemic treatment with testosterone as well as with the lesion of the medial preoptic nucleus. Testosterone affected the oxidative metabolism in brain areas that are known to contain sex steroid receptors (such as the nucleus taeniae and the paraventricular and ventromedial nuclei of the hypothalamus) but also in nuclei that are believed to be devoid of such receptors. Effects of testosterone in these nuclei may be indirect or reflect changes in terminals of axons originating in steroid-sensitive areas. Bilateral medial preoptic nucleus lesions affected 2-deoxyglucose uptake in a variety of brain regions. Some of these regions are known to be mono-synaptically connected to the medial preoptic nucleus. Metabolic depression in these areas may reflect retrograde changes in the neurons projecting to the damaged field. The metabolic changes identified in the present study confirm the prominent role of the preoptic area in the control of sexual behavior, show that changes in the physiology of the visual system represent one of the ways through which testosterone influences the occurrence of this behavior and demonstrate that the medial preoptic nucleus has marked effects on the metabolic activity in a variety of limbic and telencephalic structures. This study also indicates that the medial preoptic nucleus affects the activity of the area ventralis of Tsai, a dopaminergic area known to send projections to a variety of hypothalamic, thalamic and mesencephalic nuclei that are implicated in the control of male sexual behavior. These data therefore support the notion that the control of the dopaminergic activity in the area ventralis of Tsai by the medial preoptic nucleus represents one of the ways through which the medial preoptic area regulates male reproductive behavior. (C) 2001 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 56 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailModerate hypothermia during cardiopulmonary bypass reduces myocardial cell damage and myocardial cell death related to cardiac surgery.
Vazquez-Jimenez, J. F.; Qing, M.; Hermanns, B. et al

in Journal of the American College of Cardiology (2001), 38(4), 1216-23

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that moderate hypothermia during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) provides myocardial protection by enhancing intra-myocardial anti-inflammatory ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that moderate hypothermia during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) provides myocardial protection by enhancing intra-myocardial anti-inflammatory cytokine balance. BACKGROUND: Moderate hypothermia during experimental CPB stimulates production of interleukin-10 (IL10) and blunts release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha). METHODS: Twelve young pigs were assigned to a temperature (T degrees ) regimen during CPB: moderate hypothermia (T degrees : 28 degrees C; n = 6) and normothermia (T degrees : 37 degrees C; n = 6). Intra-myocardial TNFalpha- and IL10-messenger RNA were detected by competitive reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and quantification of cytokine synthesis by Western blot. Levels of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) in cardiac lymph and in arterial and coronary venous blood were examined during and after CPB. Myocardial cell damage was assessed by histologic and ultrastructural anomalies of tissue probes taken 6 h after CPB. RESULTS: Synthesis of IL10 was significantly higher, while that of TNFalpha was significantly lower, in pigs that were in moderate hypothermia during surgery than in the others. In contrast with normothermia, moderate hypothermia was also associated with significantly lower cumulative cardiac lymphatic flow during and after CPB, significantly lower lymphatic cTnI concentrations after CPB, significantly lower percentages of myocardial cell necrosis and a significantly lower score of ultrastructural anomalies of myocardial cells. While the percentage of apoptotic cells was not different between groups, the apoptosis/necrosis ratio tended to be higher in animals that were in moderate hypothermia during surgery. In all animals, TNFalpha synthesis correlated positively while IL10 production correlated negatively with necrosis and total cell death, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that moderate hypothermia during CPB provides myocardial protection by enhancing intra-myocardial anti-inflammatory cytokine balance. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 43 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEthno-agricultural approach to the rural environment in the prevention of Kashin-Beck disease
Malaisse, François ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg; Mathieu, Françoise et al

in International Orthopaedics (2001), 25

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLa prescription extinctive en droit du travail
Kefer, Fabienne ULg; Clesse, Jacques ULg

in Journal des Tribunaux du Travail (2001)

Detailed reference viewed: 74 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailVerifìcarea unei structuri metalice pentru depozitare paletizata la actinuea focului
Zaharia, R.; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

in Zilele Academice Timisorene Editia VII - Buletinul Stiintific al Universitatii Politehnica din Timisoara (2001), 46(60), 288-298

The paper presents a fire design study case for a high-rise storage rack supporting building. Standardised ISO and natural fire models were considered for the fire action. The advanced numerical analysis ... [more ▼]

The paper presents a fire design study case for a high-rise storage rack supporting building. Standardised ISO and natural fire models were considered for the fire action. The advanced numerical analysis was carried out by means of SAFIR program, a FEM software specialised for the mechanical analysis of structures under elevated temperatures. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 69 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAspidothelium gemmiferum sp. nov., from Papua new Guinea (Lichenized Ascomycetes)
Sérusiaux, Emmanuël ULg; Lücking, Robert

in Mycotaxon (2001), 79

Detailed reference viewed: 6 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailProtein adsorption on preadsorbed polyampholytic monolayers
Mahltig, Boris; Werner, Carsten; Müller, Martin et al

in Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition (2001), 12(9), 995-1010

The adsorption behaviour of five different globular proteins on pure silicon substrates and on preadsorbed polyampholytic monolayers has been investigated as a function of protein concentration. The ... [more ▼]

The adsorption behaviour of five different globular proteins on pure silicon substrates and on preadsorbed polyampholytic monolayers has been investigated as a function of protein concentration. The prelayers were prepared by adsorption of the ampholytic diblock copolymer poly(methacrylic acid)-block-poly ((dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PMAA-b-PDMAEMA). This polyampholyte adsorbs in densely packed micelles directly from aqueous solution. Ellipsometry was used to determine the amount of adsorbed polyampholyte and protein. While ATR-IR spectroscopy gives information about the adsorption and desorption behaviour of the preadsorbed polyampholytic layer, the lateral structures of the dried films were investigated by scanning force microscopy (SFM). The amount of protein adsorbed was found to be strongly influenced by the preadsorbed polyampholyte compared to the adsorption on the pure silicon substrates. No displacement of the polyampholyte by the proteins was detected. In most cases the protein adsorption was reduced by the preadsorbed polyampholytic layer. The observed trends are explained by the change in electrostatic and hydrophilic characteristics of the substrates. Furthermore, the entropy of adsorption has to be taken into account. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLiver transplantation for hepatitis B virus infection: improving long-term outcomes
Detry, Olivier ULg; Delwaide, Jean ULg

in Medscape Transplantation (2001)

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (6 ULg)
Full Text
See detailHuman viral infections derived from food
Scipioni, Alexandra ULg; Daube, Georges ULg; Thiry, Etienne ULg

in Point Vétérinaire (2001), 32(218, AUG-SEP),

Several viruses may be transmitted to humans via food including hepatitis A and E virus (VHA and VHE), Norwalk type calicivirus, rotavirus and astrovirus. Enterovirus and enteric adenovirus may also be ... [more ▼]

Several viruses may be transmitted to humans via food including hepatitis A and E virus (VHA and VHE), Norwalk type calicivirus, rotavirus and astrovirus. Enterovirus and enteric adenovirus may also be transmitted. Sick people or healthy carriers excrete these viruses in their stools. Shellfish and water are the most frequently contaminated foodstuffs. Another route of infection is during handling of food. Detection of these viruses in food is complex for several reasons: the interaction of virus and food makes viral concentration and purification difficult, in vitro culture of these viruses is difficult if not impossible, and the quantity of virus present in the sample is low. Molecular technology (PCR) is the most suitable method of detection. Another method is to choose an indicator of viral faecal contamination. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 101 (7 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe short-range baryon baryon interaction in a chiral constituent quark model
Stancu, Floarea ULg; Glozman, Ya. L.

in Nuclear Physics A (2001), A683

The previous analysis of the short-range $NN$ repulsion originating from the Goldstone boson exchange hyperfine interaction between constituent quarks is revisited. We study in which respects the ... [more ▼]

The previous analysis of the short-range $NN$ repulsion originating from the Goldstone boson exchange hyperfine interaction between constituent quarks is revisited. We study in which respects the repulsion depends on the radial form of the spin-spin quark-quark force. We show that while the radial form affects the structure of the 6Q wave function, the short-range repulsion in the $NN$ system persists in any case. We extend our analysis to other $YN$ and $YY$ (flavor octet-octet) systems and demonstrate that the flavor-spin hyperfine interaction implies a short-range repulsion in these B=2 systems as well. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (3 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailLe tympan de l’Enfance du Christ à la cathédrale de Strasbourg (l’iconographie)
Van den Bossche, Benoît ULg

in Grenzenlos. Historische Zeitschrift der Erwin-von-Steinbach-Stiftung (2001), 14

Detailed reference viewed: 70 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailIncreased Camp Levels and Protein Kinase (Pka) Type I Activation in Cd4+ T Cells and B Cells Contribute to Retrovirus-Induced Immunodeficiency of Mice (Maids): A Useful in Vivo Model for Drug Testing
Rahmouni, Souad ULg; Aandahl, Einar Martin; Trebak, Mohamed et al

in FASEB Journal (2001), 15(8), 1466-1468

Murine AIDS (MAIDS) is characterized by a lymphoproliferative disease and a profound anergy, which involves mostly CD4(+) T cells. To better define the mechanisms responsible for anergy, we measured cAMP ... [more ▼]

Murine AIDS (MAIDS) is characterized by a lymphoproliferative disease and a profound anergy, which involves mostly CD4(+) T cells. To better define the mechanisms responsible for anergy, we measured cAMP concentrations in the different lymphocyte subsets of the infected mice. CD4(+) T cells and B cells displayed a dramatic 10- to 30-fold increase of cAMP. cAMP was also significantly increased in CD8(+) T cells, although to a far lesser extent. The unusual CD4(+) CD90(-) T cells, typical of MAIDS, were characterized by a much higher cAMP level than their CD90(+) counterparts. T cells of the infected mice were much more sensitive to inhibition by the cAMP analogue 8-CPT-cAMP, which confirmed increased in vivo exposure to cAMP. In accordance with the increased cAMP levels, PKA type I was constitutively activated and its C subunit was translocated to the nucleus. Finally, the profound T-cell anergy associated with MAIDS could be reversed by treating T cells with a PKA type I-selective antagonist ex vivo. MAIDS could constitute a suitable model for the study of new pharmacological agents aimed at reversing the immunosuppressive effects of cAMP previously shown to be involved in several pathological states, including HIV infection and common variable immunodeficiency. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 44 (7 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailTeloptosis, a Turning Point in Hair Shedding Biorhythms
Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Dermatology : International Journal for Clinical & Investigative Dermatology (2001), 203(2), 115-7

The timing regulation of the hair growth phases is quite complex. We name teloptosis the termination of the telogen phase with hair shedding. The initiation of the next anagen I phase is independent from ... [more ▼]

The timing regulation of the hair growth phases is quite complex. We name teloptosis the termination of the telogen phase with hair shedding. The initiation of the next anagen I phase is independent from teloptosis. Both events are triggered by distinct factors. Indeed, teloptosis is the result of the loss of adhesion between cells of the club hair and those of its epithelial envelope. Teloptosis synchronization is perceived as telogen effluvium, related or not to shortening of the anagen phase. Subtle changes leading to early or delayed teloptosis affect hair density. It is possible to distinguish two types of telogen hairs on a trichogram. Those with an epithelial sheath indicate strong binding, suggesting early telogen, whereas the absence of an epithelial sheath indicates loose binding, conveying teloptosis. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailInfo-congres. La cochrane collaboration, porte-parole de la medecine factuelle.
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(11), 796-8

During the 9th International Cochrane Colloquium (Lyon October 9-13, 2001), around 700 participants discussed about how to make the evidence dissemination process more efficient in order to promote the ... [more ▼]

During the 9th International Cochrane Colloquium (Lyon October 9-13, 2001), around 700 participants discussed about how to make the evidence dissemination process more efficient in order to promote the Evidence-Based Medicine. The best evidence is summarized in systematic reviews of randomised and/or controlled clinical trials within the Cochrane Library which are prepared with a high methodological quality. However, these reviews should be completed to cover all medical domains, be actualized regularly, and, most importantly, be better known and more largely used by physicians in routine practice. All these objectives could not be attained without an official recognition and a financial support by the public health authorities. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPrognostic value of decremental responses to repetitive nerve stimulation in ALS patients.
Wang, François-Charles ULg; De Pasqua, Victor ULg; Gerard, Pascale ULg et al

in Neurology (2001), 57(5), 897-9

Decrement of the thenar compound muscle action potentials (CMAP), after repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) of the median nerve at 3 Hz, was evaluated in patients with ALS before riluzole therapy. CMAP ... [more ▼]

Decrement of the thenar compound muscle action potentials (CMAP), after repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) of the median nerve at 3 Hz, was evaluated in patients with ALS before riluzole therapy. CMAP size as well as motor unit number and size estimates were evaluated twice before and after 1 year of riluzole therapy. The correlation between decrement and CMAP size reduction per year was highly significant (r = 0.77), but no relationship could be demonstrated between decrement and other variables. The authors thus propose that decrement after RNS may be used as a predictor of further drop in CMAP size. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 40 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailVoix de la mémoire et causes obscures
Gauthier, Jean-Marie ULg

in Cahiers de Psychologie Clinique (2001), 16

Freud a établi un lien très fort entre Inconscient et temporalité puisque, à l'inverse de toutes nos autres productions personnelles, seul celui-ci ne subirait pas les outrages du temps. Ce texte tente de ... [more ▼]

Freud a établi un lien très fort entre Inconscient et temporalité puisque, à l'inverse de toutes nos autres productions personnelles, seul celui-ci ne subirait pas les outrages du temps. Ce texte tente de montrer l'importance et la richesse de cette intuition freudienne à travers l'analyse du film de W. Wenders, 'Lisbon Story'. Il nous faut alors, pour reprendre les propos de Freud constater que la structure de nos temporalités intérieures est complexe, à la fois immuable et en perpétuelle transformation. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 34 (4 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailEffect of hemodiafiltration on pulmonary hemodynamics in a model of porcin endotoxin shock
Moonen, Marie ULg; LAMBERMONT, Bernard ULg; Kolh, Philippe ULg et al

in Journal of the American Society of Nephrology [=JASN] (2001), 12

Detailed reference viewed: 7 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPex, Analytical Tools For Pdb Files. II. H-Pex: Noncanonical H-Bonds In Alpha-Helices
Thomas, Annick ULg; Benhabiles, N.; Meurisse, R. et al

in Proteins-Structure Function and Genetics (2001), 43(1), 37-44

We use the H-Pex (Thomas et al., this issue) to analyze the main chain interactions in 131 proteins. In antiparallel beta-sheets, the geometry of the N...O bond is: median N...O distances, 2.9 SA, C==O ... [more ▼]

We use the H-Pex (Thomas et al., this issue) to analyze the main chain interactions in 131 proteins. In antiparallel beta-sheets, the geometry of the N...O bond is: median N...O distances, 2.9 SA, C==O...N angles at 154 degrees and the C alpha--C==O...H angles are dispersed around 3 degrees. In some instances, the other side of the C==O axis is occupied by a HC alpha. As recently supported by Vargas et al. (J Am Chem Soc 2000;122:4750-4755) C alpha H...O and NH...O could cooperate to sheet stability. In alpha-helices, the main chain C==O interact with the NH of their n + 4 neighbor on one side, and with a C beta H or C gamma H on the other side. The median O...N distance (3.0 A) and C==N angle (147 degrees) suggest a canonical H-bond, but the C alpha--C==O...H dihedral angle invalidates this option, since the hydrogen attacks the oxygen at 122 degrees, i.e., between the sp(2) and pi orbitals. This supports that the H-bond is noncanonical. In many instances, the C gamma H or the C beta H of the n + 4 residue stands opposite to the NH with respect to the oxygen. Therefore, we propose that, in alpha-helices, the C gamma H or C beta H and the NH of the n + 4 residue hold the oxygen like an electrostatic pincher. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 9 (0 ULg)
Full Text
See detailJe lis, j'écris : la pratique du journal de lecture
De Croix, Séverine ULg

in Enjeux : Revue de Formation Continuée et de Didactique du Français (2001), 50

Detailed reference viewed: 65 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPex, Analytical Tools For Pdb Files. I. Gf-Pex: Basic File To Describe A Protein
Thomas, Annick ULg; Bouffioux, O.; Geeurickx, D. et al

in Proteins-Structure Function and Genetics (2001), 43(1), 28-36

Pex are created to extract numeric and string descriptions of protein structures from PDB files. This concerns covalent bond lengths and angles, secondary structures, residues in interaction, H-bond ... [more ▼]

Pex are created to extract numeric and string descriptions of protein structures from PDB files. This concerns covalent bond lengths and angles, secondary structures, residues in interaction, H-bond lengths and geometry, etc. Several kinds of Pex are generated: (1) general feature (GF-Pex); (2) H-bond (H-Pex); and (3) accessible surface (AS-Pex) and force potential (FP-Pex). We describe the general principles of Pex and detail the GF-Pex files. Using the GF-Pex of 131 proteins, we analyze the mean residue frequencies, the straight phi/psi distribution and the major kinds of secondary structures in proteins. Thomas et al. (this issue) analyzes the main chain H-bonds in those proteins. The GF-Pex and H-Pex files of the 131 proteins can be downloaded from the CBMN site (http://www.fsagx.ac.be/bp/). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailChronic rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm manifesting as crural neuropathy.
Defraigne, Jean-Olivier ULg; SakalihasanN, Natzi ULg; LAVIGNE, Jean-Paul ULg et al

in Annals of Vascular Surgery (2001), 15(3), 405-11

Chronic rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) resulting in unusual clinical manifestations can occur if the resistance of structures surrounding the aorta is sufficient to contain hemorrhage. In this ... [more ▼]

Chronic rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) resulting in unusual clinical manifestations can occur if the resistance of structures surrounding the aorta is sufficient to contain hemorrhage. In this report, we describe five cases of chronic ruptured AAA in which the presenting feature was crural neuropathy. All patients were male with a mean age of 74 +/- 1.8 years. At the time of presentation, crural neuropathy had been ongoing for 3 to 9 weeks. In three cases, AAA was not initially suspected because an inadequate clinical examination was performed (not in the vascular surgery department) and because of the small diameter of the aorta in relation to the patient's morphology. Two patients had one episode of hypotension that was wrongly attributed to vagal attack. Abdominal CT scanning was always diagnostic of chronic rupture. In two cases, rupture was associated with erosion of the body of one or more vertebrae and laboratory evidence of inflammation, i.e., increase in sedimentation rate and fibrinogen level. The mean diameter of the AAA was 7.1 +/- 0.9 cm (range 5-10 cm). All patients underwent midline laparotomy, which was performed under emergency conditions in two cases, under semi-emergency conditions in one case, and electively in two cases. Perforation was consistently located on the posterolateral wall of the aorta and varied from 1 to 3 cm in length. Repair was performed using an aortobifemoral prosthesis in four cases, and a straight tube in one case. The patient who underwent emergency surgery died 4 days after the procedure. The remaining four patients recovered uneventfully and were discharged after 10 days. In the elderly, ruptured AAA should be included in the differential diagnosis of crural neuropathy. An episode of hypotension, regardless of its duration, in an elderly patient should be given serious consideration as a possible sign of ruptured AAA with ongoing retroperitoneal hemorrhage. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 38 (2 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailStability of strange quark matter in an effective chiral model with scale anomaly
Jaminon, Martine ULg; Van den Bossche, Bruno

in Nuclear Physics A (2001), 686

Stability of strange quark matter is investigated within a chiral model which implements the scale anomaly of QCD. As far as quark confinement is mimicked by a large value of the u-quark mass, the model ... [more ▼]

Stability of strange quark matter is investigated within a chiral model which implements the scale anomaly of QCD. As far as quark confinement is mimicked by a large value of the u-quark mass, the model behaves in the chiral limit as a MIT bag model: it yields a stable system composed of quarks surrounded by the vacuum. As soon as finite current quark masses are taken into account, stability is however lost. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA psycho-endocrinological overview of transsexualism
Michel, Aude; Mormont, Christian ULg; Legros, Jean-Jacques ULg

in European Journal of Endocrinology (2001), 145(4), 365-376

The technical possibility of surgical sex change has opened up a debate concerning the legitimacy and utility of carrying out such an intervention at the request of the transsexual. Diagnostic ... [more ▼]

The technical possibility of surgical sex change has opened up a debate concerning the legitimacy and utility of carrying out such an intervention at the request of the transsexual. Diagnostic, psychological, medical and ethical arguments have been brought forth, both for and against. Nonetheless, anatomical transformation by surgical means has currently become a practice as the frequency of serious gender identity disorders is constantly progressing. After a brief introduction, the present paper will consider typological, aetiological and epidemiological aspects of transsexualism. Treatment of the sex change applicant is then defined and discussed in terms of psychological, psychiatric, endocrinological and surgical aspects. Finally, the question of post-operation follow-up will be examined. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 40 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailOn the symmetry of the age field of a passive tracer released into a one-dimensional fluid flow by a point-source
Deleersnijder, E.; Delhez, Eric ULg; Crucifix, M. et al

in Bulletin de la Société Royale de Liège (2001), 70

Tracer is released from a point-source into an incompressible, one-dimensional fluid flow, with constant velocity and diffusivity. The age of a tracer parcel, which is defined as the time elapsed since ... [more ▼]

Tracer is released from a point-source into an incompressible, one-dimensional fluid flow, with constant velocity and diffusivity. The age of a tracer parcel, which is defined as the time elapsed since leaving the source, may be evaluated as the ratio of the age concentration to the tracer concentration. The latter are governed by two partial differential equations. Time-dependent analytical solutions are derived, which show that the age is symmetric with respect to the source. This is astonishing, since it could have been expected that the age would reflect somehow the strong asymmetry of the tracer concentration, which tends to be much larger on the downstream side of the source than on the upstream side. Some finite-difference counterparts of this problem are seen to lead to age fields which, in their steady-state limit, are also symmetric with respect to the source. This is believed to be helpful to interpret the results of numerical models of complex fluid flows in which the age is introduced as a diagnostic variable. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (4 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailUse of multiple electrophysiological techniques to get insigh into the mode of action of an insecticide, fipronil
Grolleau, Françoise; Alix, Philippe ULg; Le Corronc, Hervé et al

in Veterinary and Human Toxicology (2001), 43(4), 238

Detailed reference viewed: 4 (0 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailActualites therapeutiques 2001.
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(9), 612-24

The most important drugs registered and/or launched in Belgium during the last year in the various disciplines of internal medicine will be briefly described. The main characteristics of each molecule as ... [more ▼]

The most important drugs registered and/or launched in Belgium during the last year in the various disciplines of internal medicine will be briefly described. The main characteristics of each molecule as well as its modalities of appropriate use in clinical practice will be pointed out. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 6 (0 ULg)
Full Text
See detailLa protection et la gestion du patrimoine biologique
Dufrêne, Marc ULg

in Bulletin de la Commission royale des Monuments, Sites et Fouilles (2001), 17

Detailed reference viewed: 58 (16 ULg)
See detailDes évaluations externes : pourquoi ?
Lafontaine, Dominique ULg; Gregoire, J.

in Pédagogies, réformes et innovations dans l'enseignement (2001), 14

Detailed reference viewed: 36 (9 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEn Bloc Excision of Nonpalpable Breast Lesions Using the Advanced Breast Biopsy Instrumentation System: An Alternative to Needle Guided Surgery?
Lifrange, Eric ULg; Dondelinger, R. F.; Fridman, Viviana ULg et al

in European Radiology (2001), 11(5), 796-801

This study was prospectively conducted to evaluate the clinical potential of the advanced breast biopsy instrumentation (ABBI) system as an alternative to needle localization and open surgery in the ... [more ▼]

This study was prospectively conducted to evaluate the clinical potential of the advanced breast biopsy instrumentation (ABBI) system as an alternative to needle localization and open surgery in the management of nonpalpable breast lesions (NPBL). One hundred and eighty-six consecutive patients were referred for management of NPBL. Thirty-six underwent an ABBI procedure, offered as a first step before possible surgery for lesions which would in any case have required complete excision. The 18 patients with a malignant ABBI biopsy underwent re-excision of the biopsy site and axillary dissection was carried out in cases of infiltrating carcinoma. The other 150 patients underwent image-guided needle biopsy. Following these procedures, 60/150 (40%) patients underwent needle-guided surgery. Finally, 96/186 (51%) patients required complete excision. A total of 43 benign lesions and 53 carcinomas were confirmed. Thirty-six out of 96 (38%) excisions were obtained with the ABBI system; 17/43 (40%) benign lesions and 11/53 (21%) carcinomas were completely removed with the ABBI system. Out of 9 malignant specimens with a pathological size less than 10 mm, 5/9 (55%) had tumor-free margins and in 8/9 (89%) no residual disease was found at re-excision. The preliminary results of this study suggest that, in selected cases, en bloc excision using the ABBI procedure could be an alternative to conventional surgery. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (1 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailL'exercice physique pour prevenir l'obesite, favoriser l'amaigrissement et maintenir la perte ponderale.
Scheen, André ULg; Rorive, Marcelle ULg; Letiexhe, Michel ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(4), 244-7

Obesity is a multifactorial disease making difficult the determination of the precise role of one specific factor such as physical activity or sedentary. Nevertheless, numerous arguments, derived from ... [more ▼]

Obesity is a multifactorial disease making difficult the determination of the precise role of one specific factor such as physical activity or sedentary. Nevertheless, numerous arguments, derived from epidemiological observational studies or from randomized controlled interventional trials, support a favourable role of regular physical activity in the control of body weight. Physical activity contributes to prevent the occurrence of weight excess, especially in children or adolescents, to obtain a satisfactory weight loss, in general in combination with reduced-energy diets, and to maintain long-term weight loss. In addition, physical activity improves both the metabolic profile and health of obese subjects. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 69 (3 ULg)
See detailSyrie pré-hellénistique: Tell Beydar
Van der Stede, Véronique ULg; Talon, Philippe

in Annales d'Histoire de l'Art et d'Archéologie (2001), XXIII

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailACTH silent adenoma shrinking under cabergoline.
Petrossians, Patrick ULg; Ronci, N.; Valdes Socin, Hernan Gonzalo ULg et al

in European Journal of Endocrinology (2001), 144(1), 51-57

OBJECTIVES: The authors present a case report that proposes the use of cabergoline treatment in silent ACTH adenoma, an unusual member of the heterogeneous group of the so-called clinically non ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: The authors present a case report that proposes the use of cabergoline treatment in silent ACTH adenoma, an unusual member of the heterogeneous group of the so-called clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas. DESIGN: Following the clinical and radiological improvement of a recurrent silent ACTH adenoma in a 77-year-old patient treated with cabergoline (0.5 mg every 2 days for 2 years), in vitro studies of the original tumor were performed. METHODS: The original tumor from the patient was studied by in situ hybridization and dopamine D2 receptor autoradiography. It was compared with four macroprolactinomas and two macroadenomas from patients with Cushing's disease. RESULTS: The D2 receptor mRNA signal of the reported case was intense and of the same order of magnitude as that observed in control prolactinomas. Dopamine D2 receptor autoradiography was twice that of control corticotroph adenomas and was close to that observed in prolactinomas. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first description of an in vivo shrinkage of an ACTH silent adenoma under cabergoline. We demonstrate in vitro, the presence of D2 receptors in the primitive tumor in concentrations similar to those found in control prolactinomas. These results suggest that therapeutic trials with cabergoline might be undertaken in recurring cases of ACTH silent tumors and more generally, non-functioning pituitary adenomas. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 34 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailExperimental and theoretical investigations of the electrical properties of undoped and magnesium-doped GaN layers
Nguyen, Ngoc Duy ULg; Germain, Marianne; Schmeits, Marcel et al

in Journal of Crystal Growth (2001), 230

The ac characteristics of GaN : Mg and undoped GaN layers, grown by MOVPE on sapphire substrates, are measured for a wide range of temperature and bias conditions, in order to investigate the effect of ... [more ▼]

The ac characteristics of GaN : Mg and undoped GaN layers, grown by MOVPE on sapphire substrates, are measured for a wide range of temperature and bias conditions, in order to investigate the effect of the magnesium-related level on the transport properties. Two peaks, whose height and position depend on the measurement temperature, are observed in the admittance curves (G/ω versus frequency) of the Mg-doped samples, whereas only one peak appears in undoped samples. The study of the frequency dependence of the impedance, with a model including the two metallic Au/GaN junctions, the GaN layer itself, shows that, besides the effect of the differential resistance of the layer which plays a role in both sample types, the presence of a Mg-related deep level contributes to the observed variations of the peaks in the admittance curves of the p-doped samples. Results of a theoretical steady-state and small-signal analysis based on numerical modelling of the Au/GaN/Au heterostructure complete our analysis. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 66 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSupernumerary outer hair cells arise external to the last row of sensory cells in the organ of corti.
Lefèbvre, Philippe ULg; Malgrange, Brigitte ULg; Thiry, Marc ULg et al

in Acta Oto-Laryngologica (2001), 121(2), 164-8

During the development of the mammalian inner ear, the number of hair cells produced is highly regulated and remains constant throughout life. The mechanism underlying this regulation is beginning to be ... [more ▼]

During the development of the mammalian inner ear, the number of hair cells produced is highly regulated and remains constant throughout life. The mechanism underlying this regulation is beginning to be understood although many aspects still remain obscure. When late embryonic or early postnatal rat organs of Corti were cultured, the production of supernumerary hair cells was observed. This overproduction of sensory cells could be modulated by the addition of several growth factors. In this study, we examined explants of rat organs of Corti that produced supernumerary hair cells. In the supernumerary hair cell region, up to two rows of inner hair cells and five rows of outer hair cells were observed. Morphological evaluation of these specimens revealed that less mature hair cells were located in the most external rows of these sensory cells. When a supernumerary hair cell was produced, a supporting cell (i.e. Deiters' cell) was also produced, strongly suggesting that the conversion of a Deiters' cell into a hair cell was not the mechanism that produced these extra hair cells. Based on these results, we propose that prosensory cells located at the external edge of the organ of Corti retain a capacity to form hair cells and that it is these prosensory cells that differentiate into supernumerary hair cells and Deiters' cells. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 49 (9 ULg)
Full Text
See detailLes devoirs: Un canal de communication entre l'école et les familles
Poncelet, Débora ULg; Schillings, Patricia ULg; Hindryckx, Geneviève ULg et al

in Point sur la Recherche en Education (Le) (2001), 20

Detailed reference viewed: 252 (16 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLa recombinaison chez les alphaherpèsvirus
Meurens, François; Schynts, Frédéric; Thiry, Etienne ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2001), 145

Detailed reference viewed: 6 (0 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailAnalysis Of The Chromosome Sequence Of The Legume Symbiont Sinorhizobium Meliloti Strain 1021
Capela, Delphine; Barloy-Hubler, Frédérique; Gouzy, Jérôme et al

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2001), 98(17),

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailla fièvre aphteuse : rappels épidémiologiques et cliniques
Thiry, Etienne ULg

in Point Vétérinaire (2001), 32

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSynthesis of large pore disordered MSU-type mesoporous silicas through the assembly of C16(EO)10 surfactant and TMOS silica source: Effect of the hydrothermal treatment and thermal stability of materials
Blin, J. L.; Léonard, Alexandre ULg; Su, B. L.

in Journal of Physical Chemistry B (2001), 105(26), 6070-6079

Decaoxyethylene cetyl ether [C 16(EO) 10] has been employed as templating agent for large pore disordered MSU-type mesoporous silicas synthesis. The effect of the hydrothermal treatment (heating time and ... [more ▼]

Decaoxyethylene cetyl ether [C 16(EO) 10] has been employed as templating agent for large pore disordered MSU-type mesoporous silicas synthesis. The effect of the hydrothermal treatment (heating time and temperature) on the textural properties, in particular, pore diameter of materials has been investigated. The obtained materials have been characterized by different techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis. The thermal stability of the compounds is also evaluated. Our results show that the pore diameter depends strongly on the heating time and temperature. This is the result of a competition between the stretching of the surfactant chains, which can lead to the breakdown of the walls separating adjacent pores, and the reorganization of micelles with heating time and temperature. At higher temperature or for longer durations, a more extended surfactant molecular conformation can be obtained, which leads to materials with larger pore sizes. A reorganization of the micellar solution during the hydrothermal treatment in autoclave can also simultaneously occur to give materials with smaller pore diameter. It is found that compounds prepared with the nonionic surfactant exhibit an enhanced thermal stability compared to those synthesized with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMABr) as templating agent. This higher stability is related to the synthesis pathway and the structure of materials. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailOn a general decomposition of the error of an approximate stress field in elasticity
Debongnie, Jean-François ULg; Beckers, Pierre ULg

in Computer Assisted Mechanics and Engineering Sciences [=CAMES] (2001), 8

The errors of finite element approximations are analysed in a general frame, which is completely independent from the way through which the approximate solution was obtained. It is found that the error ... [more ▼]

The errors of finite element approximations are analysed in a general frame, which is completely independent from the way through which the approximate solution was obtained. It is found that the error always admits decomposition in two terms, namely the equilibrium error and the compatibility error, which are orthogonal. Each of these admits upper and lower bound that can be computed in a post-processing scheme [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 39 (7 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailVenlafaxine induced hair loss
PITCHOT, William ULg; ANSSEAU, Marc ULg

in American Journal of Psychiatry (The) (2001)

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLe diagnostic immunologique rapide des encéphalopathies spongiformes transmissibles
Pastoret, Paul-Pierre ULg; Gouffaux, M.; Saegerman, Claude ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2001), 145

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailNeuromuscular transmission in migraine: a single-fiber EMG study in clinical subgroups.
Ambrosini, Anna; Maertens De Noordhout, Alain ULg; Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Neurology (2001), 56(8), 1038-43

OBJECTIVE: To search for impairment of neuromuscular transmission by single-fiber electromyography (SFEMG) in patients with common forms of migraine. BACKGROUND: P/Q Ca(2+) channels are genetically ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To search for impairment of neuromuscular transmission by single-fiber electromyography (SFEMG) in patients with common forms of migraine. BACKGROUND: P/Q Ca(2+) channels are genetically abnormal in most cases of familial hemiplegic migraine (International Headache Society [IHS] code 1.2.3) and may be involved in other types of migraine. Besides in the brain, these channels are found in motor nerve endings, where they control stimulation-induced acetylcholine release. If they are functionally abnormal, the neuromuscular transmission might be impaired. METHODS: Sixty-two migraineurs (18 without aura, IHS code 1.1; 19 with typical aura, IHS code 1.2.1; 10 with prolonged aura, IHS code 1.2.2; 15 with and without aura) and 16 healthy control subjects underwent stimulation SFEMG. Results were expressed as the mean value of consecutive differences (MCD) and percentage of single-fiber abnormalities (abnormal jitter or impulse blocking). RESULTS: Average MCD was comparable in control subjects and migraineurs (17.1 +/- 2.6 versus 17.5 +/- 4.7 microsec). By contrast, single-fiber abnormalities were found in 17 patients but in none of the control subjects (p = 0.036). Most of these patients had unilateral sensorimotor symptoms and/or aphasia and/or loss of balance during the aura. SFEMG abnormalities were significantly correlated with the occurrence of these clinical features and with a diagnosis of migraine with prolonged aura. CONCLUSIONS: Stimulation SFEMG shows mild abnormalities of neuromuscular transmission in a subgroup of migraineurs with aura, characterized by clinical features frequently found in human P/Q Ca(2+) channelopathies. These abnormalities might thus be due to genetically modified P/Q Ca(2+) channels. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 36 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEpidémiologie moléculaire de la fièvre aphteuse
Thiry, Etienne ULg; Baranowski, Eric; Domingo, E.

in Epidémiologie et Santé Animale (2001), 39(59-67),

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (4 ULg)
Full Text
See detailThe Immuno-Inflammatory Reaction in Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis: Characterisation, Genetics and Clinical Application. Focus on Tnf Alpha
Louis, Edouard ULg

in Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica (2001), 64(1), 1-5

Inflammatory bowel diseases are multifactorial polygenic diseases. The author has worked on the characterisation of the mucosal immuno-inflammatory reaction, on genetic predisposition and on potential ... [more ▼]

Inflammatory bowel diseases are multifactorial polygenic diseases. The author has worked on the characterisation of the mucosal immuno-inflammatory reaction, on genetic predisposition and on potential clinical application of blood immuno-inflammatory markers in these diseases. This paper summarizes some aspects of this work, focusing on TNF. Following points are developed: production of TNF by inflamed mucosa, genetic control of TNF production, TNF gene polymorphim in inflammatory bowel disease, and evaluation of serum TNF as a marker of disease activity or evolutivity. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (4 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailDe l'"Etat social actif" à la politique belge de l'emploi
Matagne, Geoffroy ULg

in Courrier Hebdomadaire du CRISP (2001), 1737-1738

Detailed reference viewed: 208 (33 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailOn the sources of work hardening in multiphase steels assisted by transformation-induced plasticity
Jacques, Pascal J.; Furnémont, Quentin; Mertens, Anne ULg et al

in Philosophical Magazine A (2001), 81(7), 1789-1812

The mechanisms effectively responsible for the enhancement of the work-hardening capabilities of multiphase steels assisted by transformation-induced plasticity are highlighted. Different microstructures ... [more ▼]

The mechanisms effectively responsible for the enhancement of the work-hardening capabilities of multiphase steels assisted by transformation-induced plasticity are highlighted. Different microstructures, some containing a proportion of retained austenite with various mechanical stabilities, are studied. The dislocation density generated within ferrite by the mechanically induced martensitic transformation of retained austenite is shown to scale with the incremental work-hardening exponent. The acoustic emission generated during tensile straining was also measured. The acoustic emission was revealed to result mainly from dislocation motion, especially from the motion of the additional dislocation density generated in intercritical ferrite by the strain-induced martensitic transformation. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 86 (3 ULg)
Full Text
See detailConstruire des indicateurs internationaux d'équité des systèmes éducatifs
Demeuse, Marc ULg; Baye, Ariane ULg; Straeten, Marie-Hélène et al

in Cahiers du Service de Pédagogie Expérimentale (SPE) (2001), (7-8), 97-100

Les membres du SPE se préoccupent de longue date des problèmes d'équité éducative (Crahay, 2000). Ils contribuent soit à l'évaluation de celle-ci dans le système belge francophone ou au sein d'autres ... [more ▼]

Les membres du SPE se préoccupent de longue date des problèmes d'équité éducative (Crahay, 2000). Ils contribuent soit à l'évaluation de celle-ci dans le système belge francophone ou au sein d'autres systèmes à travers des recherches internationales, telles celles de l'IEA ou de l'OCDE (Demeuse, Crahay [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 56 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCaractérisation et valorisation du savoir paysan sur les insectes nuisibles du pois cajan (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) dans le Nord de l'Ouganda
Velay, F.; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre ULg; Mergeai, Guy ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2001), 5(2), 105-114

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAlternative oxidase and uncoupling protein: thermogenesis versus cell energy balance.
Jarmuszkiewicz, W.; Sluse-Goffart, C.; Vercesi, A. et al

in Bioscience Reports (2001), 21(2), 213-222

The physiological role of an alternative oxidase and an uncoupling protein in plant and protists is discussed in terms of thermogenesis and energy metabolism balance in the cell. It is concluded that ... [more ▼]

The physiological role of an alternative oxidase and an uncoupling protein in plant and protists is discussed in terms of thermogenesis and energy metabolism balance in the cell. It is concluded that thermogenesis is restricted not only by a lower-limit size but also by a kinetically-limited stimulation of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe occurrence of the ilio-lumbar syndrome in a spinal cord injury patient
Chantraine, A.; Bosson, L.; Malaise, Michel ULg et al

in Spinal Cord : The Official Journal of the International Medical Society of Paraplegia (2001), 39(4), 237-239

STUDY DESIGN: Case report of a 71-year-old man having sustained a spinal cord injury (SCI) for 26 years. He started to suffer from low back pain 21 years after his onset and this was diagnosed as ilio ... [more ▼]

STUDY DESIGN: Case report of a 71-year-old man having sustained a spinal cord injury (SCI) for 26 years. He started to suffer from low back pain 21 years after his onset and this was diagnosed as ilio-lumbar syndrome (ILS). OBJECTIVES: To describe the problem of low back pain occurring after a change of wheelchair in a SCI, and to indicate the importance of the ilio-lumbar syndrome as a possible cause of low back complaint. OUTCOME: Clinical findings supported by echotomography confirmed the diagnosis of ILS in our case. CONCLUSION: ILS should be considered when some changes and deterioration of the status of SCI occur due to low back complaint. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 ULg)
See detailM. Migeotte
Biémont, Emile ULg

in Nouvelle Bibliographie Nationale, Académie Royale de Belgique (2001), 6

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe 'Aesthetics of Personalism' in Caryl Phillips's Writing: Complexity as a New Brand of Humanism
Ledent, Bénédicte ULg

in World Literature Written in English (2001), 39(1), 75-85

This paper attempts to underline the epistemological implications of Phillips's handling of diasporic history through a focus on individual lives in Cambridge (1991) and The Nature of Blood (1997). His ... [more ▼]

This paper attempts to underline the epistemological implications of Phillips's handling of diasporic history through a focus on individual lives in Cambridge (1991) and The Nature of Blood (1997). His confessional first-person narratives highlight the intricacies inherent in human nature, thereby resisting the globalizing discourse of liberal humanism. Even more importantly, his fictions seem to illustrate a new, more understanding approach to this often hackneyed term, for they give voice to individuals whose multiple differences are, paradoxically, part proof of a common humanity, viewed here as an inclusive rather than exclusive concept. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 108 (9 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThiazolidinediones and liver toxicity.
Scheen, André ULg

in Diabètes & Métabolism (2001), 27(3), 305-13

Thiazolidinediones or glitazones specifically target insulin resistance. They have proven efficacy for reducing plasma glucose levels of type 2 diabetic patients treated with diet alone, sulphonylureas ... [more ▼]

Thiazolidinediones or glitazones specifically target insulin resistance. They have proven efficacy for reducing plasma glucose levels of type 2 diabetic patients treated with diet alone, sulphonylureas, metformin or insulin. In addition, they may be associated to some improvement of cardiovascular risk profile. However, troglitazone, the first compound approved by the FDA in the US, proved to be hepatotoxic and was withdrawn from the market after the report of several dozens of deaths or cases of severe hepatic failure requiring liver transplantation. It remains unclear whether or not hepatotoxicity is a class effect or is related to the unique tocopherol side chain of troglitazone. Rosiglitazone and pioglitazone, two other glitazones, appear to have similar efficacy on blood glucose control of type 2 diabetic patients as compared to troglitazone. In controlled clinical trials, the incidence of significant increases in liver enzyme levels (ALT) was similar with rosiglitazone or pioglitazone as compared to placebo, whereas troglitazone was associated with a threefold greater incidence. In contrast to the numerous case reports of acute liver failure in patients receiving troglitzone, only two cases of severe reversible liver failure have been reported in patients treated with rosiglitazone, with a causal relationship remaining uncertain. Furthermore, no single case of severe hepatotoxicity has been reported yet with pioglitazone. While regular monitoring of liver enzymes is still recommended and more long-term data are desirable, current clinical evidence supports the conclusion that rosiglitazone and pioglitazone do not share the hepatotoxic profile of troglitazone. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 515 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailComparative study of twenty nine non parametric interaction tests in two-way layouts
Van Belle, Laurent; Claustriaux, Jean-Jacques ULg

in Multiciência (2001), 4(2), 179-196

Detailed reference viewed: 9 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailComputational Study Of Lipid-Destabilizing Protein Fragments: Towards A Comprehensive View Of Tilted Peptides
Lins, Laurence ULg; Charloteaux, Benoît ULg; Thomas, Annick ULg et al

in Proteins-Structure Function and Genetics (2001), 44(4), 435-47

Tilted peptides are short sequence fragments (10-20 residues long) that possess an asymmetric hydrophobicity gradient along their sequence when they are helical. Due to this gradient, they adopt a tilted ... [more ▼]

Tilted peptides are short sequence fragments (10-20 residues long) that possess an asymmetric hydrophobicity gradient along their sequence when they are helical. Due to this gradient, they adopt a tilted orientation towards a single lipid/water interface and destabilize the lipids. We have detected those peptides in many different proteins with various functions. While being all tilted-oriented at a single lipid/water interface, no consensus sequence can be evidenced. In order to better understand the relationships between their lipid-destabilizing activity and their properties, we used IMPALA to classify the tilted peptides. This method allows the study of interactions between a peptide and a modeled lipid bilayer using simple restraint functions designed to mimic some of the membrane properties. We predict that tilted peptides have access to a wide conformational space in membranes, in contrast to transmembrane and amphipathic helices. In agreement with previous studies, we suggest that those metastable configurations could lead to the perturbation of the acyl chains organization and could be a general mechanism for lipid destabilization. Our results further suggest that tilted peptides fall into two classes: those from proteins acting on membrane behave differently than destabilizing fragments from interfacial proteins. While the former have equal access to the two layers of the membrane, the latter are confined within a single lipid layer. This could be in relation with the organization of lipid substrate on which the peptides physiologically act. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailIdentification of Brucella spp. genes involved in intracellular trafficking.
Delrue, R. M.; Martinez-Lorenzo, M.; Lestrate, P. et al

in Cellular Microbiology (2001), 3(7), 487-97

After uptake by host cells, the pathogen Brucella transits through early endosomes, evades phago-lysosome fusion and replicates in a compartment associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The ... [more ▼]

After uptake by host cells, the pathogen Brucella transits through early endosomes, evades phago-lysosome fusion and replicates in a compartment associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The molecular mechanisms underlying these processes are still poorly understood. To identify new bacterial factors involved in these processes, a library of 1800 Brucella melitensis 16M mini-Tn5catkm mutants was screened for intracellular survival and multiplication in HeLa cells and J774A.1 macrophages. Thirteen mutants were identified as defective for their intracellular survival in both cell types. In 12 of them, the transposon had inserted in the virB operon, which encodes a type IV-related secretion system. The preponderance of virB mutants demonstrates the importance of this secretion apparatus in the intracellular multiplication of B. melitensis. We also examined the intracellular fate of three virB mutants (virB2, virB4 and virB9) in HeLa cells by immunofluorescence. The three VirB proteins are not necessary for penetration and the inhibition of phago-lysosomal fusion within non-professional phagocytes. Rather, the virB mutants are unable to reach the replicative niche and reside in a membrane-bound vacuole expressing the late endosomal marker, LAMP1, and the sec61beta protein from the ER membrane, proteins that are present in autophagic vesicles originating from the ER. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 35 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLucien Lambotte, esquisse biographique
Pirenne, Christophe ULg

in Revue de la Société liégeoise de Musicologie (2001), 18

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (10 ULg)
See detailComment j'explore ... la musculature paravertebrale lombaire dans les radiculopathies par electromyographie.
Tomasella, Marco ULg; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg; WANG, François-Charles ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(10), 716-22

Lumbar paraspinal muscles examination is an interesting part of the electrodiagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected lumbosacral radiculopathy. However, many electromyographers hesitate to ... [more ▼]

Lumbar paraspinal muscles examination is an interesting part of the electrodiagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected lumbosacral radiculopathy. However, many electromyographers hesitate to routinely include that technique in their study of lower limbs. The purpose of this paper is to specify the anatomy and electrophysiologic data of multifidus lumbar paraspinal muscle. Previous anatomic studies indicate that the medial lumbar multifidus and lumbar interspinalis muscles share unisegmental innervation by the dorsal ram of the spinal nerve. Electromyography of these muscles can improve the sensitivity of lumbosacral radiculopathy detection. Multi-MUP analysis of quantitative electromyographic parameters in lumbar paraspinal muscles, in a population of 75 healthy subjects without back pain, allowed to set up normal values for the L5 myotome. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 65 (9 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailCopper And Vegetation At The Kansanshi Hill (Zambia) Copper Mine
Leteinturier, B.; Baker, Ajm.; Bock, Laurent ULg et al

in Belgian Journal of Botany (2001), 134(1),

Detailed reference viewed: 32 (2 ULg)
Full Text
See detailL'activité physique de jeunes adolescents en Communauté française de Belgique
Piéron, Maurice; Cloes, Marc ULg

in Revue de l'Education Physique (2001), 41(1), 42-48

La santé figure dans la plupart des préoccupations des théoriciens et des praticiens de l'éducation physique. Les effets de santé associés à la pratique régulière d'activités physiques suscitent un ... [more ▼]

La santé figure dans la plupart des préoccupations des théoriciens et des praticiens de l'éducation physique. Les effets de santé associés à la pratique régulière d'activités physiques suscitent un intérêt fondamental chez de nombreux chercheurs. En effet, à deux reprises, un groupe de consensus s'est réuni pour établir un bilan des certitudes et des doutes en matière de relations entre l'activité physique et la santé. ... [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 77 (2 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailSr, Nd isotopes and geochemistry of the Bayuda Desert high-grade metamorphic basement (Sudan): An early Pan-African oceanic convergent margin, not the edge of the East Saharan ghost craton?
Küster, D.; Liégeois, Jean-Paul ULg

in Precambrian Research (2001), 109(1-2), 1-23

The high-grade metamorphic basement of the Bayuda Desert is situated at the inferred transition between the juvenile Neoproterozoic mainly greenschist facies Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) and the pre ... [more ▼]

The high-grade metamorphic basement of the Bayuda Desert is situated at the inferred transition between the juvenile Neoproterozoic mainly greenschist facies Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) and the pre-Neoproterozoic mainly amphibolite facies domain of the East Saharan Ghost Craton. New geochemical and Sr-Nd isotope data reveal that this basement in Bayuda constituted a Neoproterozoic oceanic convergent margin succession with limited and probably late input of old material. Within this series, garnet amphibolites and epidote-biotite gneisses have geochemical characteristics of HFSE-depleted tholeiitic basalts and low- to medium-K dacites and rhyodacites, indicating magmatism in an oceanic island arc or back-arc basin environment. This magmatism occurred at 806 ± 19 Ma (Sm-Nd 11 WR isochron), similar in age to arc magmatism in the ANS. Leucocratic gneisses, muscovite schists and garnet-biotite schists form the dominant meta-sedimentary rocks of the study area. They were primarily derived from two different sources: volcanogenic sediments from a Neoproterozoic island arc (TDM Nd model ages between 790 and 900 Ma) and terrigeneous sediments from an older continental source (TDM Nd model ages up to 2100 Ma). The volcanosedimentary succession was metamorphosed under amphibolite facies conditions prior to 670 Ma, probably at approximately 700 Ma. The high-grade metamorphism is related to a frontal collisional event that also produced syn-collisional peraluminous granites preserved as muscovite-biotite gneisses. Meta-igneous rocks from eastern Bayuda have εNd values at 806 Ma of + 5.2 ± 0.4, indicating a less depleted mantle source (crustal contamination can be excluded) than the neighbouring Gabgaba-Gebeit terrane (εNd, ca. + 7) from the Arabian-Nubian shield. Less depleted mantle source is also known at Jebel Moya to the south, and inside the Arabian-Nubian Shield to the southeast of Bayuda. Lithological and structural similarities (dominantly northeast striking foliation) with the Bayuda Desert succession occur in many parts of central and western Sudan, suggesting a comparable geodynamic evolution. It is proposed that a Neoproterozoic oceanic convergent margin (Bayuda type succession) collided at approximately 700 Ma to the northwest with the East Saharan ghost craton, whose easternmost limit must lie below or more to the west than previously thought. © 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (0 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailEvolution of ventriculo-arterial coupling during acute myocardial ischemia
Kolh, Philippe ULg; D'Orio, Vincenzo ULg; LAMBERMONT, Bernard ULg et al

in European Heart Journal (2001), 22

Detailed reference viewed: 3 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA Plea to Bridge the Gap between Antifungals and the Management of Onychomycosis
ARRESE ESTRADA, Jorge ULg; Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in American Journal of Clinical Dermatology (2001), 2(5), 281-4

Onychomycosis represents a stubborn problem for the clinician facing up to the realities of antifungal treatments. There are obvious discrepancies between data given by in vitro antifungal testings ... [more ▼]

Onychomycosis represents a stubborn problem for the clinician facing up to the realities of antifungal treatments. There are obvious discrepancies between data given by in vitro antifungal testings, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics, and those gathered from clinical experience. This critical review is an attempt at bridging the gap between in vitro and in vivo information about oral antifungals that aim to treat onychomycoses. Common sense shows that the in vitro concept of fungicidy cannot be simply extrapolated into clinical practice. Indeed, chlamidoconidia and arthroconidia present in vivo are much more resistant to antifungals than hyphae. Corneofungimetry may be a realistic bioassay in predicting antifungal activity in human infections. Boosting hyphae growth from conidia while taking antifungals is a new and appealing treatment modality that deserves controlled study. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailRole of bradykinin and tachykinins in the potentiation by enalapril of coughing induced by citric acid in pigs.
Moreaux, B.; Advenier, C.; Gustin, Pascal ULg

in Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology (2001), 15(1), 23-29

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are among the first-choice drugs for treating hypertension and congestive heart disease. It has been reported, however, that these drugs could induce chronic ... [more ▼]

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are among the first-choice drugs for treating hypertension and congestive heart disease. It has been reported, however, that these drugs could induce chronic cough and airway hyperresponsiveness. The aim of this work was to assess in pigs the effects of bradykinin and tachykinins on citric-acid-induced coughing after ACE inhibitor pretreatment. Coughing was induced by challenging pigs with an aerosol of 0.8 M citric acid over 15 min. Coughs were counted by a trained observer for 30 min. The animals underwent two cough induction tests two days apart (days 1 and 3), the first being taken as a control. All drugs were injected intravenously 30 min before the second challenge. In the control group, no difference was observed between days 1 and 3. The ACE inhibitor enalapril (7.5 and 15 microg/kg) caused the cough frequency to increase significantly. In contrast, a dose-related decrease was observed with Hoe140 (icatibant), a bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist (0.5 and 1 mg/kg). When both drugs were administered simultaneously (15 microg/kg for enalapril and 1 mg/kg for Hoe140), a significant increase was observed as compared with the control value obtained on day 1. When enalapril was combined with the three tachykinin receptor antagonists SR 140333 (NK1 receptor antagonist), SR 48968 (NK2 receptor antagonist) and SR 142801 (NK3 receptor antagonist), a significant decrease was observed as compared with control value obtained on day 1; the percentage of variation was also significantly different as compared with those observed in enalapril groups at both doses. These data suggest that ACE-inhibitor-induced enhancement of the cough reflex is mainly due to tachykinins and not to bradykinin in our pig model. Bradykinin, however, plays a major role in coughing induced by citric acid alone. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLandscape ecology in action (A. Farina).
Bogaert, Jan ULg

in Landscape & Urban Planning (2001), 53(1-4), 181-182

Detailed reference viewed: 34 (2 ULg)
Full Text
See detailDe l'utilité de la modélisation numérique en hydrodynamique de surface
Archambeau, Pierre ULg; Dewals, Benjamin ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg et al

in Ingenieurbiologie / Génie Biologique (2001), (4), 9-20

Detailed reference viewed: 52 (7 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailChromogenic detection of aminoglycoside phosphotransferases.
Amoroso, Ana Maria ULg; Gutkind, G. O.

in Methods in molecular medicine (2001), 48

Acquired resistance to aminoglycosides is most frequently due to the presence of the so-called aminoglycoside modifying enzymes (AGME) (1) able to catalyze one or more of three general reactions: N ... [more ▼]

Acquired resistance to aminoglycosides is most frequently due to the presence of the so-called aminoglycoside modifying enzymes (AGME) (1) able to catalyze one or more of three general reactions: N-acetylation, O-nucleotidylation and O-phosphorylation (2). Although resistance phenotype (to different (substrate or not for enzymatic modification) may serve as an approach for identifying actual enzymes present in a given isolate (3), results can be obscured or confusing, particularly when several different enzymes (4) (even, isoenzymes with different affinities) are superimposing their action in a single microorganism with potential "permeability" or target alterations. Thus, identification of the AGME content of a given strain also requires screening at the DNA level using probes specific to all the known AGME (5). However, the complete set of probes is available only to a few laboratories around the world, making surveillance for the appearance of novel enzymes, or the unlikely evolution of those already known, a relatively nonfeasible goal, as search for new enzymes may begin only after failing to hybridize to all known probes. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailGap Filling Strategies For Long Term Energy Flux Data Sets
Falge, E.; Baldocchi, D.; Olson, R. et al

in Agricultural and Forest Meteorology (2001), 107(1),

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (2 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailDistinct behavior of mutant triosephosphate isomerase in hemolysate and in isolated form: molecular basis of enzyme deficiency
Orosz, F.; Olah, J.; Alvarez, M. et al

in Blood (2001), 98(10), 3106-12

In a Hungarian family with severe decrease in triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) activity, 2 germ line-identical but phenotypically differing compound heterozygote brothers inherited 2 independent (Phe240Leu ... [more ▼]

In a Hungarian family with severe decrease in triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) activity, 2 germ line-identical but phenotypically differing compound heterozygote brothers inherited 2 independent (Phe240Leu and Glu145stop codon) mutations. The kinetic, thermodynamic, and associative properties of the recombinant human wild-type and Phe240Leu mutant enzymes were compared with those of TPIs in normal and deficient erythrocyte hemolysates. The specific activity of the recombinant mutant enzyme relative to the wild type was much higher (30%) than expected from the activity (3%) measured in hemolysates. Enhanced attachment of mutant TPI to erythrocyte inside-out vesicles and to microtubules of brain cells was found when the binding was measured with TPIs in hemolysate. In contrast, there was no difference between the binding of the recombinant wild-type and Phe240Leu mutant enzymes. These findings suggest that the missense mutation by itself is not enough to explain the low catalytic activity and "stickiness" of mutant TPI observed in hemolysate. The activity of the mutant TPI is further reduced by its attachment to inside-out vesicles or microtubules. Comparative studies of the hemolysate from a British patient with Glu104Asp homozygosity and with the platelet lysates from the Hungarian family suggest that the microcompartmentation of TPI is not unique for the hemolysates from the Hungarian TPI-deficient brothers. The possible role of cellular components, other than the mutant enzymes, in the distinct behavior of TPI in isolated form versus in hemolysates from the compound heterozygotes and the simple heterozygote family members is discussed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLe portage asymptomatique de Microsporum canis chez le chat
Mignon, Bernard ULg; Brouta, F.; Descamps, F. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2001), 145

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSpirometric performance in Belgian Blue calves: I. Effects on economic losses due to the bovine respiratory disease complex.
Bureau, Fabrice ULg; Detilleux, Johann ULg; Dorts, T. et al

in Journal of Animal Science (2001), 79(5), 1301-1304

The aim of this study was to determine whether high spirometric performances in calves are associated with low economic losses due to the bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). Five spirometric ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to determine whether high spirometric performances in calves are associated with low economic losses due to the bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). Five spirometric variables (SV) were measured in 909 double-muscled Belgian Blue calves from 15 to 60 d of age. Afterward, calves were monitored for 6 mo to determine whether they developed BRDC and to determine the costs due to BRDC (i.e., medicine costs and veterinarians' fees, plus estimated financial losses due to mortality in case of death). To analyze the effects of spirometric performances on BRDC cost, a fixed linear model was used for each SV. In addition to SV, each model included the effects of sex, dam's parity, vaccination status, muscular development score, herd-period, and BW. Only herd-period and the maximal ventilation and the vital capacity had significant effects on costs due to BRDC, indicating that these two SV are major physiological determinants of economic losses associated with BRDC. Accordingly, it is assumed that an amelioration of maximal ventilation and vital capacity could result in increased resistance to BRDC in calves. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailNumerations systems on a regular language
Lecomte, Pierre ULg; Rigo, Michel ULg

in Theory of Computing Systems (2001), 34

Generalizations of positional number systems in which N is recognizable by finite automata are obtained by describing an arbitrary infinite regular language according to the lexicographic ordering. For ... [more ▼]

Generalizations of positional number systems in which N is recognizable by finite automata are obtained by describing an arbitrary infinite regular language according to the lexicographic ordering. For these systems of numeration, we show that ultimately periodic sets are recognizable. We also study translation and multiplication by constants as well as the order-dependence of the recognizability. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 39 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailL'invention de la mélancolie. Note sur l'ancienneté de la photographie
Havelange, Carl ULg

in Journal Français de Psychiatrie. Clinique, Scientifique et Psychanalytique (2001), 16

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (0 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailEffect of the msb3 msb4 double mutation on the intracellular pool of purine nucleotides in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: application to the study of the biological activity of the oncogenic human protein oncTre210p.
Bach, Stéphane; Burny, Arsène; Bontemps, Françoise et al

in Yeast (Chichester, England) (2001), 18(S305), 17-7

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailClinical and economic impact of diabetes mellitus on percutaneous and surgical treatment of multivessel coronary disease patients: insights from the Arterial Revascularization Therapy Study (ARTS) trial.
Abizaid, A.; Costa, M. A.; Centemero, M. et al

in Circulation (2001), 104(5), 533-8

BACKGROUND: Our aims were to compare coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and stenting for the treatment of diabetic patients with multivessel coronary disease enrolled in the Arterial Revascularization ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Our aims were to compare coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and stenting for the treatment of diabetic patients with multivessel coronary disease enrolled in the Arterial Revascularization Therapy Study (ARTS) trial and to determine the costs of these 2 treatment strategies. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients (n=1205) were randomly assigned to stent implantation (n=600; diabetic, 112) or CABG (n=605; diabetic, 96). Costs per patient were calculated as the product of each patient's use of resources and the corresponding unit costs. Baseline characteristics were similar between the groups. At 1 year, diabetic patients treated with stenting had the lowest event-free survival rate (63.4%) because of a higher incidence of repeat revascularization compared with both diabetic patients treated with CABG (84.4%, P<0.001) and nondiabetic patients treated with stents (76.2%, P=0.04). Conversely, diabetic and nondiabetic patients experienced similar 1-year event-free survival rates when treated with CABG (84.4% and 88.4%). The total 1-year costs for stenting and CABG in diabetic patients were $12 855 and $16 585 (P<0.001) and in the nondiabetic groups, $10 164 for stenting and $13 082 for surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Multivessel diabetic patients treated with stenting had a worse 1-year outcome than patients assigned to CABG or nondiabetics treated with stenting. The strategy of stenting was less costly than CABG, however, regardless of diabetic status. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 6 (0 ULg)
Full Text
See detailCommentaire
Richelle, Marc ULg

in Intellectica (2001), 33

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (0 ULg)
See detailLe portfolio : un outil de socio-construction pour scripteur en devenir
Baye, Ariane ULg; Denooz, Régine

in Caractères (2001), 3

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (3 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailExercice physique et sport: du meilleur au pire.
Scheen, André ULg; Kulbertus, Henri ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(4), 193-4

Detailed reference viewed: 40 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailTetraethyl(Pyrrolidine-2,2-diyl)Bisphosphonate
Olive, Gilles ULg; Jacques, Alain

in Molecules (2001), 6

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLe Bestiaire des philosophes indiens
Verpoorten, Jean-Marie ULg

in Acta Orientalia Belgica (2001)

Compilation de textes (avec leurs traductions) relatifs aux animaux dans les œuvres de deux grammairiens (Patañjali I et Bhartṛhari II) et de cinq courants philosophiques (MīmāṃsāIII, NyāyaIV, VaiśeṣikaV ... [more ▼]

Compilation de textes (avec leurs traductions) relatifs aux animaux dans les œuvres de deux grammairiens (Patañjali I et Bhartṛhari II) et de cinq courants philosophiques (MīmāṃsāIII, NyāyaIV, VaiśeṣikaV, Sāṃkhya VI et YogaVII). L’animal le plus souvent mentionné est le « bovin » dont le nom (go) pose le problème de sa dénotation : est-ce l’animal individuel ou la classe « bovin » ? Il faut qu’il dénote l’individu, car, dans la phrase « il donne la vache au médecin », go ne peut pas s’appliquer à l’espèce «vache » Un second problème (I et II) est celui de la « comparaison » (upamāna) : qu’est-ce qui permet de reconnaître un bovin sauvage à partir de la connaissance d’un bovin domestique ? Quel nom donner à tel animal à partir de similitudes partielles avec tel autre ? Où est le détail caractéristique qui distingue le bovin du gayal (I, III) ? Une trop grande différence entre deux entités (par ex.un bovin et un cheval) rend impossible l’upamāna (IV). Le serpent et ses anneaux sont analogues à un substrat permanent et à ses formes changeantes (IV) Quand on regarde soit un cerf courir, soit un merle ou un cygne voler, c’est l’animal qu’on voit et non l’acte de courir ou voler (II) . En effet un acte comme tel n’est pas comparable à un autre car tous deux sont inachevés. En épistémologie, l’erreur est souvent illustrée par la confusion dans la pénombre entre une corde et un serpent (II) Des problèmes sont soulevés à propos des injonctions et interdictions rituelles. Tel animal à immoler, dont le nom est au singulier, vaut pour un groupe entier ou une espèce ; telle interdiction ne mentionne explicitement que le chien et le chat comme à écarter du gâteau sacrificiel, alors que le corbeau devrait l’être aussi (III). D’autre part, s’il faut immoler un lion ou un bœuf , on se gardera d’immoler soit un homme sous prétexte qu’il est courageux comme un lion ou balourd comme un boeuf. Le problème est parfois d’ordre grammatical. L’adjectif kāpota « de pigeon » qualifie ce qui appartient à l’oiseau vivant ; peut-on dès lors l’employer pour une «soupe de pigeon » où manifestement l’oiseau est mort (I) ? D’autre part, comment le mot go peut-il s’appliquer à des vaches de terre cuite, puisqu’elles ne sont pas vivantes (IV). Et si des gâteaux de farine en forme de lions c’est par ressemblance aux lions vivants. Le métaphorique est fondé sur ce qui ne l’est pas(III) Au plan ontologique, le bouddhiste soutient que les qualités existent sans le support d’une substance L’illustre le fait qu’une cigogne dans la pénombre se limite à une tache de couleur (IV) La logique est abordée en V via la confrontation entre deux raisonnements, le bon : « puisque c’est cornu, c’est un bovin » et le mauvais : « puisque c’est cornu, c’est un cheval » Notons enfin que VI classe animaux et insectes en qualité de résidences pour les humains réincarnés et que VII énumère des postures yogiques qui portent des noms d’animaux. Une liste de ceux-ci clôt cette étude. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailHST and ground-based observations of the gravitational lens system Q1009-0252 A & B
Claeskens, Jean-François ULg; Khmil, S. V.; Lee, Dong Wook et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2001), 367

In this paper, we propose a critical study of direct images and spectra obtained for the doubly imaged QSO Q1009-0252 A & B (=LBQS1009-0252 A & B). First, we report new observations with the WFPC2 onboard ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we propose a critical study of direct images and spectra obtained for the doubly imaged QSO Q1009-0252 A & B (=LBQS1009-0252 A & B). First, we report new observations with the WFPC2 onboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), in which the lensing galaxy is very clearly detected. We combine these with existing NICMOS observations in order to characterize the nature and redshift of the lens. Our HST observations are also fitted with simple analytical lens models; estimates expected for the time delay and M/L of the lensing galaxy are derived. Secondly, new and existing ground-based observations are used in order to establish the first multicolour lightcurves of the lensed components. Although the time resolution is low, flux variability is detected for both components. Finally, ground-based spectroscopic observations published by Surdej et al. (1993) are re-processed with a new method designed to extract spectra with small angular separations. The final spectra are analysed on the basis of a simple model including macrolensing and microlensing amplifications and dust extinction. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory (La Silla, Chile) and with the Hubble Space Telescope. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe metropolis-hastings algorithm, a handy tool for the practice of environmental model estimation : illustration with the biochemical oxygen demand data
Torre, F.; Boreux, Jean-Jacques ULg; Parent, E.

in Cybergeo : Revue Européenne de Géographie = Cybergeo - European Journal of Geography (2001), 187

Environmental scientists often face situations where: (i) stimulus-response relationships are non-linear; (ii) data are rare or imprecise; (iii) facts are uncertain and stimulus-responses relationships ... [more ▼]

Environmental scientists often face situations where: (i) stimulus-response relationships are non-linear; (ii) data are rare or imprecise; (iii) facts are uncertain and stimulus-responses relationships are questionable.In this paper, we focus on the first two points. A powerful and easy-to-use statistical method, the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, allows the quantification of the uncertainty attached to any model response. This stochastic simulation technique is able to reproduce the statistical joint distribution of the whole parameter set of any model. The Metropolis-Hastings algorithm is described and illustrated on a typical environmental model: the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). The aim is to provide a helpful guideline for further, and ultimately more complex, models. As a first illustration, the MH-method is also applied to a simple regression example to demonstrate to the practitioner the ability of the algorithm to produce valid results. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 74 (3 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailL'etude clinique du mois. Apres la tempete sur les anorexigenes centraux, l'etude "STORM" avec la sibutramine.
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(1), 56-8

The results of the "Sibutramine Trial of Obesity Reduction and Maintenance" (STORM) published in the last issue of December 2000 of the Lancet are summarized. This clinical trial (open label for the first ... [more ▼]

The results of the "Sibutramine Trial of Obesity Reduction and Maintenance" (STORM) published in the last issue of December 2000 of the Lancet are summarized. This clinical trial (open label for the first 6 months and double blind versus placebo for a further 18 months) demonstrates the positive effect of sibutramine, a new anorectic drug, on long-term weight maintenance after weight loss in obese subjects. The benefit of sibutramine on the cardiovascular risk profile of the obese patient is more particularly discussed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailInventaire forestier régional et saisie électronique de données : une synergie prometteuse
Rondeux, Jacques ULg; Cavelier, Tristan

in Revue Forestière Française (2001), LIII(1), 81-87

The work done in connection with any regional or national inventory involves collecting huge amounts of increasingly diversified data. To reduce time lags before such data can be processed, we have ... [more ▼]

The work done in connection with any regional or national inventory involves collecting huge amounts of increasingly diversified data. To reduce time lags before such data can be processed, we have developed an encryption system on a HUSKY personal computer that is highly suitable to the sometimes adverse working conditions encountered in forests. The experiment has turned out to be extremely valuable and the system has been in use since mid-2000 for the purposes of the forest inventory in the Walloon Region. Considerable time savings are thus achieved and a highly elaborate computerised validation process and on-line aid to operators have significantly reduced the frequency of errors. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailConditioned stimulus preference after acetaldehyde but not ethanol injections
Quertemont, Etienne ULg; De Witte, Philippe

in Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior (2001), 68

Acetaldehyde, the first ethanol metabolite, has been suggested to mediate some of the behavioral effects of ethanol and particularly its reinforcing properties, although this later hypothesis remains ... [more ▼]

Acetaldehyde, the first ethanol metabolite, has been suggested to mediate some of the behavioral effects of ethanol and particularly its reinforcing properties, although this later hypothesis remains extremely controversial. While several studies demonstrated the reinforcing effects of brain acetaldehyde, blood acetaldehyde accumulation is believed to be primarily aversive. In the present study, a conditioned reinforcement procedure has been used to investigate the reinforcing and/or aversive effects of intraperitoneal injections of both acetaldehyde and ethanol in Wistar rats. An olfactory stimulus was paired with daily injections of either ethanol (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 g/kg) or acetaldehyde (0, 10, 20, 100 and 150 mg/kg). After eight conditioning sessions, all rats were tested for their stimulus preference or aversion. The results show that conditioning with small, 0.25 and 0.5 g/kg, ethanol doses induced neither preference nor aversion for the olfactory cue. In contrast, higher ethanol doses (1.0 and 2.0 g/kg) resulted in significant stimulus aversions. Acetaldehyde conditioning led to a biphasic stimulus preference, with a maximal preference around 20 mg/kg acetaldehyde. No evidence of aversive effects was found with increasing doses of acetaldehyde, even with concentrations close to the lethal limit. The present study clearly shows that systemic acetaldehyde injections induced significant stimulus preferences. This suggests that acetaldehyde may be, at least in part, responsible for the reinforcing effects of alcohol intake. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailComparative Pathogenesis of Acute and Latent Infections of Calves with Bovine Herpesvirus Types 1 and 5
Meyer, Gilles; Lemaire, Mylène; Ros, C. et al

in Archives of Virology (2001), 146(4), 633-52

This study was conducted to compare the pathogenesis of acute and latent infections with closely related bovine herpesvirus types 1 (BHV-1) and 5 (BHV-5) in their natural host. Two groups of eight calves ... [more ▼]

This study was conducted to compare the pathogenesis of acute and latent infections with closely related bovine herpesvirus types 1 (BHV-1) and 5 (BHV-5) in their natural host. Two groups of eight calves were inoculated intranasally with BHV-1 or BHV-5. Although BHV-1 and BHV-5 similarly replicate in the nasal mucosa after inoculation, both viruses differ markedly in their ability to cause disease, BHV-5 being responsible of some fatal encephalitis while BHV-1 inducing rhinotracheitis. Virus isolation and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that BHV-5 replicates extensively in neurons of the central nervous system (CNS) and in respiratory cells of lungs, tracheal and nasal mucosae. Invasion of the CNS likely occurs through the trigeminal and olfactory pathways. Both groups developed cross-neutralising antibodies during this experiment suggesting partial clinical cross-protection afforded by the two infections. Three months after primary infection, experimental reactivation showed that BHV-5 was able to establish latency in the trigeminal ganglia but also the CNS of surviving calves. Moreover, laboratory findings suggested that BHV-5 could also persist in the tracheal and nasal mucosae. These results indicate that, after primary infection, BHV-1 and BHV-5 displayed similar biological features and consequently need to be considered together for the control of BHV-1 infection. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLa théorie d’après Hjelmslev
Badir, Sémir ULg

in Janus. Quaderni del Circolo Glossematico (2001), 2

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSuppression of matching field effects by splay and pinning energy dispersion in YBa2Cu3O7 with columnar defects
Niebieskikwiat, D.; Silhanek, Alejandro ULg; Civale, L. et al

in Physical Review. B : Condensed Matter (2001), 63(14),

We report measurements of the irreversible magnetization M-i of a large number of YBa2Cu3O7 single crystals with columnar defects (CD). Some of them exhibit a maximum in M-i when the density of vortices ... [more ▼]

We report measurements of the irreversible magnetization M-i of a large number of YBa2Cu3O7 single crystals with columnar defects (CD). Some of them exhibit a maximum in M-i when the density of vortices equals the density of tracks, at temperatures above 40 K. We show that the observation of these matching field effects is constrained to those crystals where the orientational and pinning energy dispersion of the CD system lies below a certain threshold. The amount of such dispersion is determined by the mass and energy of the irradiation ions, and by the crystal thickness. Time relaxation measurements show that the matching effects are associated with a reduction of the creep rate, and occur deep into the collective pinning regime. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (4 ULg)
Full Text
See detailEffets comportementaux et neurochimiques de stimuli associés à l’administration d'éthanol: implications pour les comportements d'alcoolisation
Quertemont, Etienne ULg; De Witte, Philippe

in Cahiers de l'I.R.E.B. (2001), 15

Les drogues, y compris l’alcool, peuvent servir de stimuli inconditionnels dans des situations d’apprentissage par conditionnement. Les stimuli environnementaux qui accompagnent systématiquement ... [more ▼]

Les drogues, y compris l’alcool, peuvent servir de stimuli inconditionnels dans des situations d’apprentissage par conditionnement. Les stimuli environnementaux qui accompagnent systématiquement l’administration d’alcool peuvent ainsi acquérir le statut de stimuli conditionnés capables d’induire à eux seuls des réactions physiologiques conditionnées. Deux types de réactions conditionnées avec l’alcool ont été observées. D’une part, les stimuli associés à l’administration d’alcool peuvent induire des effets similaires à ceux de l’éthanol. D’autre part, ces stimuli conditionnés à l’éthanol peuvent aussi engendrer des réponses conditionnées opposées aux effets de l’éthanol. Ces deux types de réponses conditionnées semblent jouer un rôle dans les différentes étapes de l’alcoolisation. Leur implication dans la tolérance envers l’éthanol est largement illustrée par le phénomène de tolérance dépendante de l’environnement. Plusieurs études expérimentales et observations cliniques suggèrent aussi que les processus de conditionnement pourraient être impliqués dans la consommation d’alcool et particulièrement dans son abus. Toutefois, les bases neurochimiques de ces réponses conditionnées à l’éthanol sont encore largement méconnues. De récentes études utilisant la technique de microdialyse intracérébrale ont pourtant montré le rôle de divers neurotransmetteurs et neuromodulateurs. D’une part, les réponses conditionnées similaires à l’éthanol sont accompagnées d’une libération de dopamine dans le noyau accumbens. D’autre part, la libération conditionnée de glutamate et de taurine semble être impliquée dans les réponses conditionnées opposées aux effets de l’éthanol. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 110 (8 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPresence of Oestrogen Receptor Type Beta in Human Retina
Munaut, Carine ULg; Lambert, Vincent ULg; Noël, Agnès ULg et al

in British Journal of Ophthalmology (2001), 85(7), 877-82

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recent studies have demonstrated the existence of two oestrogen receptor subtypes alpha (ORalpha) and beta (ORbeta) with significant differences of expression among organs. Since ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recent studies have demonstrated the existence of two oestrogen receptor subtypes alpha (ORalpha) and beta (ORbeta) with significant differences of expression among organs. Since important pathologies of human eye could be linked to hormonal status, the expression of ORbeta in ocular posterior segment was sought. METHODS: Immunohistochemical localisation of ORbeta and ORalpha protein and detection of OR mRNAs by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were performed in macular and extramacular regions of the retina and in the choroid on male and female donors eyes. RESULTS: ORbeta protein was localised in the ganglion cell layer and in the choroid. At the transcriptional level, mRNA for ORbeta and for ORalpha were both present. Local differences in the expression level were observed, however, suggesting the possibility of variation in the ratio of ORalpha v ORbeta. CONCLUSIONS: The coexistence of two oestrogen receptor subtypes in the human ocular posterior segment raises acute questions about their potential physiological role, but offers a perspective for preferential targeting of a specific receptor subtype. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 103 (40 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailAmputations in Diabetic Patients: A Plea for Footsparing Surgery
Van Damme, Hendrik ULg; Rorive, Marcelle ULg; Martens De Noorthout, B. M. et al

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (2001), 101(3, May-Jun), 123-9

The authors observed a rather high rate of primary major amputation (above-knee or below-knee) performed for diabetic foot problems as well as an important revision rate for minor amputations (forefoot or ... [more ▼]

The authors observed a rather high rate of primary major amputation (above-knee or below-knee) performed for diabetic foot problems as well as an important revision rate for minor amputations (forefoot or toe) in diabetics. They reviewed their experience in order to compare it with more recent data from the literature, pleading for foot-sparing surgery. From 1993 to 1998, 186 amputations were performed on 146 diabetic patients. The cause of foot ulcers was neuropathy in 43 of them (51 episodes of diabetic foot problems) while in the remaining 103 patients (135 episodes of diabetic foot problems), diabetic macroangiopathy (absent ankle pulses) was on cause. For neuropathic foot problems, amputations were almost minor, resulting in a limb salvage rate of 90%. Only five of these patients (12%) had primary major limb amputation versus 43 of the dysvascular patients (42%). The reasons for major amputation by first intention were extensive tissue loss, intractable infection or non-reconstructible occlusive vessel disease, as judged by the surgeon. A foot-sparing surgery was attempted in 92 dysvascular cases. In only 44 of them, a preliminary vascular repair was performed. Twenty eight percent of the primary toe amputations and 24% of the forefoot amputations required secondary revision to a more proximal level. Minor amputations in case of diabetic neuropathy were characterized by a more favourable outcome: only 14% of the toe and 9% of the forefoot amputations failed. During follow-up, only 63% of the major amputations regained an autonomic walking capability with their prosthesis. Wound healing problems in diabetic foot are mainly due to infection and poor tissue perfusion. An aggressive control of the infection and distal revascularization of calf- or foot arteries, whenever possible, could improve the results of diabetic foot surgery. The poor functional recovery after major amputation (only 63% autonomic gait with limb prosthesis) argues for foot-sparing surgery whenever possible. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 88 (15 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA simplified one-pot synthesis of 9-[(3-[18F]fluoro-1-hydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]guanine([18F]FHPG) and 9-(4-[18F]fluoro-3-hydroxymethylbutyl)guanine ([18F]FHBG) for gene therapy.
Shiue, Grace G.; Shiue, Ching-Yann; Lee, Roland L. et al

in Nuclear Medicine & Biology (2001), 28(7), 875-83

9-[(3-[18F]Fluoro-1-hydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]guanine ([18F]FHPG, 2) has been synthesized by nucleophilic substitution of N(2)-(p-anisyldiphenylmethyl)-9-[[1-(p-anisyldiphenylmethoxy)-3-toluenesulfonylox y ... [more ▼]

9-[(3-[18F]Fluoro-1-hydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]guanine ([18F]FHPG, 2) has been synthesized by nucleophilic substitution of N(2)-(p-anisyldiphenylmethyl)-9-[[1-(p-anisyldiphenylmethoxy)-3-toluenesulfonylox y-2-propoxy]methyl]guanine (1) with potassium [18F]fluoride/Kryptofix 2.2.2 followed by deprotection with 1 N HCl and purification with different methods in variable yields. When both the nucleophilic substitution and deprotection were carried out at 90 degrees C and the product was purified by HPLC (method A), the yield of compound 2 was 5-10% and the synthesis time was 90 min from EOB. However, if both the nucleophilic substitution and deprotection were carried out at 120 degrees C and the product was purified by HPLC, the yield of compound 2 decreased to 2%. When compound 2 was synthesized at 90 degrees C and purified by Silica Sep-Pak (method B), the yield increased to 10-15% and the synthesis time was 60 min from EOB. Similarly, 9-(4-[18F]fluoro-3-hydroxymethylbutyl)guanine ([18F]FHBG, 4) was synthesized with method A and method B in 9% and 10-15% yield, respectively, in a synthesis time of 90 and 60 min, respectively, from EOB. Compound 2 was relatively unstable in acidic medium at 120 degrees C while compound 4 was stable under the same condition. Both compound 2 and compound 4 had low lipid/water partition coefficient (0.126 +/- 0.022, n=5 and 0.165 +/- 0.023, n=5, respectively). Although it contains non-radioactive ganciclovir ( approximately 5-30 microg) as a chemical by-product, compound 2 synthesized by method B has a similar uptake in 9L glioma cells as that synthesized by method A, and is a potential tracer for imaging herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene expression in tumors using PET. Similarly, compound 4 synthesized by method B contains approximately 10-25 microg of penciclovir as a chemical by-product. Thus, the simplified one pot synthesis (method B) is a useful method for synthesizing both compound 2 and compound 4 in good yield for routine clinical use, and the method is readily amenable for automation. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 53 (0 ULg)