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See detailStructural, Kinetic, and Calorimetric Characterization of the Cold-Active Phosphoglycerate Kinase from the Antarctic Pseudomonas Sp. Tacii18
Bentahir, Mostafa; Feller, Georges ULg; Aittaleb, Mohamed et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2000), 275(15), 11147-53

The gene encoding the phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) from the Antarctic Pseudomonas sp. TACII18 has been cloned and found to be inserted between the genes encoding for glyceraldhyde-3-phosphate ... [more ▼]

The gene encoding the phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) from the Antarctic Pseudomonas sp. TACII18 has been cloned and found to be inserted between the genes encoding for glyceraldhyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and fructose aldolase. The His-tagged and the native recombinant PGK from the psychrophilic Pseudomonas were expressed in Escherichia coli. The wild-type and the native recombinant enzymes displayed identical properties, such as a decreased thermostability and a 2-fold higher catalytic efficiency at 25 degrees C when compared with the mesophilic PGK from yeast. These properties, which reflect typical features of cold-adapted enzymes, were strongly altered in the His-tagged recombinant PGK. The structural model of the psychrophilic PGK indicated that a key determinant of its low stability is the reduced number of salt bridges, surface charges, and aromatic interactions when compared with mesophilic and thermophilic PGK. Differential scanning calorimetry of the psychrophilic PGK revealed unusual variations in its conformational stability for the free and substrate-bound forms. In the free form, a heat-labile and a thermostable domain unfold independently. It is proposed that the heat-labile domain acts as a destabilizing domain, providing the required flexibility around the active site for catalysis at low temperatures. [less ▲]

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See detailEnantiomeric Separations of Drugs Using Mixtures of Charged and Neutral Cyclodextrins
Fillet, Marianne ULg; Hubert, Philippe ULg; Crommen, Jacques ULg

in Journal of Chromatography. A (2000), 875(1-2), 123-34

An overview on the use of mixtures of neutral and charged cyclodextrins as chiral additives for the enantioseparation of drugs by capillary electrophoresis is presented. These so called dual cyclodextrin ... [more ▼]

An overview on the use of mixtures of neutral and charged cyclodextrins as chiral additives for the enantioseparation of drugs by capillary electrophoresis is presented. These so called dual cyclodextrin systems can often provide unique selectivities. A brief theoretical background illustrating the influence of the chiral discrimination ability and the effective mobility of the two cyclodextrins on the overall selectivity of the enantiomeric separation is given. Typical examples of applications in the pharmaceutical field, based on the simultaneous use of a charged (cationic or anionic) and neutral cyclodextrins, are described. [less ▲]

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See detailSpectropolarimetry of the iron low ionization broad absorption line quasar Q 0059-2735
Lamy, H.; Hutsemekers, Damien ULg

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2000), 356(Letters), 9-12

We present optical (ultraviolet rest-frame) spectropolarimetric observations of the rare iron low ionization broad absorption line (BAL) QSO Q 0059-2735. The continuum polarization increases to the blue ... [more ▼]

We present optical (ultraviolet rest-frame) spectropolarimetric observations of the rare iron low ionization broad absorption line (BAL) QSO Q 0059-2735. The continuum polarization increases to the blue with a regular rotation of the polarization position angle, suggesting that at least two mechanisms are at the origin of the polarization. There is also some evidence for dilution by a ion {Fe}{ii} pseudo-continuum in emission. In the broad absorption lines, the polarization strongly rises, with the largest values ever reported. On the contrary, the ion {Fe}{ii} blends in absorption are not more polarized than the continuum, while they are clearly visible in the polarized flux. These different polarization properties of ion {Fe}{ii} absorption lines suggest a different origin and/or geometry. The observed properties of Q 0059-2735 are consistent with a hybrid QSO / starburst model. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile [less ▲]

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See detailCalculation of spacer compression for bundle lines under short-circuit.
Lilien, Jean-Louis ULg; papailiou, Konstantin

in IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery (2000), 15(N°2), 839-845

Short-circuit tests results and proposal of a new method to improve Manuzio formula on bundle conductors spacer compression.

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See detailSelection de ressources EBM sur l'Internet
Delvenne, Catherine ULg; Pasleau, Françoise ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(4), 220-5

To integrate Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) into practice, the physician has access to a number of resources on the Internet. They belong to two distinct groups: tools intended for EBM learning and EBM ... [more ▼]

To integrate Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) into practice, the physician has access to a number of resources on the Internet. They belong to two distinct groups: tools intended for EBM learning and EBM syntheses prepared by different international organizations. The present article presents the main EBM resources on the network and comments on them. These information are also available on the URL site: http:www.ebm.lib.ulg.ac.be/prostate/link_ebm .htm. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of the performance of linear resistance and ultrasonic pneumotachometers at rest and during lobeline-induced hyperpnoea
Kästner, S. B. R.; Marlin, D. J.; Roberts, C. A. et al

in Research in Veterinary Science (2000), 68(2), 153-9

The performance of a Fleisch No. 5 pneumotachometer (F), and two commercial ultrasonic pneumotachometers, the BRDL (B) and the Spiroson (S) systems were compared in respect to their use for determination ... [more ▼]

The performance of a Fleisch No. 5 pneumotachometer (F), and two commercial ultrasonic pneumotachometers, the BRDL (B) and the Spiroson (S) systems were compared in respect to their use for determination of ventilatory parameters at rest and during lobeline-induced hyperpnoea. Five clinically healthy Thoroughbred horses were tested with the three pneumotachometers in random order. Respiratory airflow, respired gas concentrations, oesophageal pressures, pressures within the mask systems and arterial blood gases were determined before and during lobeline-induced hyperpnoea. Because measured peak expiratory airflow rates exceeded the stated linear range of the Fleisch pneumotachometer ( approximately +/- 25 l s(-1)) differential pressure-flow curves were determined in vitro over the range of flows recorded in vivo. Expired flows greater than the linear range were corrected according to the derived regression equation. No differences in any of the measured variables among the three systems were present at rest. At peak ventilation of lobeline-induced hyperpnoea mask pressures [Delta P(mask)(mean (SEM)): F: 9.6 (2.8) cm H(2)O, B: 0.8 (0.4) cm H(2)O, S: 1.4 (0.8) cm H(2)O] and end tidal carbon dioxide [ ET CO(2)(mean (SEM)): F: 2. 6 (0.1)%, B: 2.1 (0.2)%, S: 2.1 (0.1)%] were significantly higher in system F. Despite a tendency for respiratory frequency and peak inspired and expired flows, to be lower with system F, no significant differences in the measurements of ventilatory mechanics were detected. In conclusion, the ultrasonic flowmeters pose significantly lower resistive loads onto the respiratory system during ventilation above resting levels than Fleisch No 5 pneumotachometers. However, at the flowrates achieved during lobeline-induced hyperpnoea an in vitro calibration of the differential pressure-flow relationship allows correction for expiratory alinearity in system F. In addition, the performance of the Spiroson flowmeter is accurate in determining ventilatory mechanics at rest and during lobeline-induced hyperpnoea. [less ▲]

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See detailPhoto : EDDIE KIRKLAND
Sacré, Robert ULg

in Soul Bag (2000), (158), 25

Eddie Krkland, Peer juillet 1988

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See detailCyclosporine a Inhibits Partially Spermine-Induced Differentiation but Not Cell Loss of Suckling Rat Small Intestine
Peulen, Olivier ULg; Dandrifosse, Guy ULg

in Digestive Diseases & Sciences (2000), 45(4), 750-4

The polyamines are of great importance in several biological processes, such as cell proliferation, and differentiation. The ingestion of spermine by suckling rats induces the precocious maturation of ... [more ▼]

The polyamines are of great importance in several biological processes, such as cell proliferation, and differentiation. The ingestion of spermine by suckling rats induces the precocious maturation of their small intestine. This phenomenon is preceded by a cell elimination at the villus tip. We hypothesize that these two phenomena could be mediated by the immune system and thus inhibited by an immunosuppressive agent such as cyclosporine A. Cyclosporine A inhibits, at least partially, the spermine-induced increase of the maltase- and sucrase-specific activities in the small intestine but failed to inhibit lactase-specific activity decrease and cell loss. Spermine does not act by the same mechanism in differentiation and in cell loss. Moreover, spermine acts in a different way on lactase-specific activity compared to maltase- or sucrase-specific activity. We hypothesize that spermine acts on differentiation by a T-cell/IL-2-dependent mechanism. [less ▲]

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See detailQuaternary Indole Alkaloids from the Stem Bark of Strychnos Guianensis
Penelle, Jacques; Tits, Monique ULg; Christen, Philippe et al

in Phytochemistry (2000), 53(8), 1057-66

Two new quaternary alkaloids, 9-methoxy-Nb-methylgeissoschizol and guiachrysine together with the known compounds C-alkaloid O, fluorocurine, mavacurine, macusine B and C-profluorocurine, were isolated ... [more ▼]

Two new quaternary alkaloids, 9-methoxy-Nb-methylgeissoschizol and guiachrysine together with the known compounds C-alkaloid O, fluorocurine, mavacurine, macusine B and C-profluorocurine, were isolated from Strychnos guianensis stembark. The structures of the compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic studies. [less ▲]

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See detailA new universality for random sequential deposition of needles
Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Galam, S.; Kramer, M.

in European Physical Journal B -- Condensed Matter (2000), 14(3), 407-410

Percolation and jamming phenomena are investigated for random sequential deposition of rectangular needles on d = 2 square lattices. Associated thresholds p(c)(perc) and p(c)(jam) are determined for ... [more ▼]

Percolation and jamming phenomena are investigated for random sequential deposition of rectangular needles on d = 2 square lattices. Associated thresholds p(c)(perc) and p(c)(jam) are determined for Various needle sizes. Their ratios p(c)(perc)/p(c)(jam) are found to be a constant 0.62 +/- 0.01 for all sizes. In addition the ratio of jamming thresholds for respectively square blocks and needles is also found to be a constant 0.79 +/- 0.01. These constants exhibit some universal connexion in the geometry of jamming and percolation for both anisotropic shapes (needles versus square lattices) and isotropic shapes (square blocks on square lattices). A universal empirical law is proposed for all three thresholds as a function of alpha. [less ▲]

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See detailInhibition of Croton Oil-Induced Oedema in Mice Ear Skin by Capsular Polysaccharides from Cyanobacteria
Garbacki, Nancy ULg; Gloaguen, Vincent; Damas, Jacques ULg et al

in Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology (2000), 361(4), 460-4

The anti-inflammatory properties of hydrophilic extracts of the capsular polymers of twelve cyanobacterial strains belonging to the genera Phormidium and Nostoc from marine and terrestrial habitats were ... [more ▼]

The anti-inflammatory properties of hydrophilic extracts of the capsular polymers of twelve cyanobacterial strains belonging to the genera Phormidium and Nostoc from marine and terrestrial habitats were tested topically on croton oil-induced oedema in mice ear skin. The screening program identified several strains as producers of anti-inflammatory products (up to 56% inhibition of the oedema). The inhibition response was dose-dependent. The application of trichloroacetic acid-treated extracts reduced the oedema by about 60%. On the other hand, one of the strains enhanced the inflammatory response. Analysis of five of the extracts showed the presence of neutral sugars (from 34.3% to 47.1%, w/w), uronic acids (from 7.1% to 26.7%, w/w) and proteins (from 30.1% to 57.0%, w/w) in the crude polymer. Rhamnose, fucose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose, galactose, galacturonic acid and glucuronic acid were detected as well as sulphate groups (from 9.6% to 21.5%, w/w of sugars). The main components found were glucose and mannose. [less ▲]

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See detailSpatial Distribution of Blood Flow in Electrically Stimulated Human Muscle: A Positron Emission Tomography Study
Vanderthommen, Marc ULg; Depresseux, J. C.; Dauchat, L. et al

in Muscle & Nerve (2000), 23(4), 482-9

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) was studied with positron emission tomography (PET) and H(2)(15)O in the quadriceps muscle of 11 men. The subjects were submitted to simultaneous bilateral ... [more ▼]

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) was studied with positron emission tomography (PET) and H(2)(15)O in the quadriceps muscle of 11 men. The subjects were submitted to simultaneous bilateral isometric contraction (5 s)-rest (5 s) cycles for 12 min, with a workload corresponding to 5% of quadriceps maximal isometric voluntary torque (QMIVT) for one thigh (5%T) and 10% of QMIVT for the other (10%T). Scans were centered at the electrodes and tissue blood flow (TBF) was evaluated in square regions of interest (ROIs) (3.5 cm(2)) in the transverse section (TS) of both thighs. The mean TBF reached 8.9 mL min(-1) 100 g(-1) in the TS of the 5%T and 11.5 mL min(-1) 100 g(-1) in the TS of the 10%T (P > 0.05). A negative linear relationship was found for both thighs between the ROI-electrode distance and the TBF (P </= 0.009). The mean percentage of activated ROIs (TBF > 5 mL min(-1) 100 g(-1)) was lower in the 5%T than in the 10%T (50.6% vs. 62.2%; P = 0.017). With NMES, the pattern of spatial recruitment appears linked to electrode proximity and is spatially extended. These results confirm the utility of combining NMES with voluntary exercise in the treatment of atrophied muscle. [less ▲]

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See detailLa globalisation du savoir à travers le prisme du 51ème congrès de la société américaine de criminologie (Toronto, 1999)
Dantinne, Michaël ULg

in Revue de Droit Pénal et de Criminologie (2000), 38(4),

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See detailDiagnostic et traitement de l'insuffisance cardiaque
Pierard, Luc ULg; Kulbertus, Henri ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(4), 271-7

The incidence of heart failure is consistently progressing among our population; it now represents a major problem of public health and is extremely costly for our health system. Over recent years ... [more ▼]

The incidence of heart failure is consistently progressing among our population; it now represents a major problem of public health and is extremely costly for our health system. Over recent years, several well controlled studies have been devoted to heart failure. They allow to propose guidelines which fulfill all the requirements of Evidence-Based Medicine. These recommendations, however, are not always easy to apply in the individual patient. Guidelines for the sometimes difficult diagnosis of heart failure will be reviewed. On the basis of the results of large controlled clinical trials, we shall envisage the comprehensive treatment of a heart failure patient taking into account the functional class as well as some individual characteristics (age, presence of hypertension, atrial fibrillation, renal insufficiency). The different pharmacologic agents which have demonstrated efficacy will be reviewed and the strategies to avoid the potential pitfalls of their simultaneous use will be indicated. The key role of the general practitioner in the surveillance and titration of heart failure therapy will be emphasized. [less ▲]

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See detailAcute Mesenteric Ischaemia: Minimal Invasive Management by Combined Laparoscopy and Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty
Leduc, Frédéric J; Pestieau, Sophie R; Detry, Olivier ULg et al

in European Journal of Surgery. Acta Chirurgica (2000), 166(4), 345-7

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See detailIn Vitro Stimulation of the Prepubertal Rat Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Pulse Generator by Leptin and Neuropeptide Y through Distinct Mechanisms
LEBRETHON, Marie-Christine ULg; Vandersmissen, E.; Gerard, Arlette ULg et al

in Endocrinology (2000), 141(4), 1464-9

Leptin may act as a negative feedback signal to the brain in the control of appetite through suppression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) secretion and stimulation of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript ... [more ▼]

Leptin may act as a negative feedback signal to the brain in the control of appetite through suppression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) secretion and stimulation of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), a new anorectic peptide. We aimed at studying whether leptin, NPY, and CART have related effects on the hypothalamic control of the pituitary-gonadal system and the developmental changes in NPY and CART effects. Using retrochiasmatic hypothalamic explants from prepubertal 15-day-old male rats, the GnRH interpulse interval (mean +/- SD: 62 +/- 5 min) was significantly reduced by 10(-7) M of leptin (46 +/- 3.3 min) as well as 10(-7) M of NPY (47 +/- 4.4 min) and 10(-6) M of CART (46 +/- 2.7 min), whereas the GnRH pulse amplitude was not affected. The stimulatory effects of different NPY receptor agonists [human PYY 3-36, porcine NPY 13-36, human (D-Trp 32) NPY, porcine (Leu 31 Pro 34) NPY, human pancreatic polypeptide (PP)], as well as the absent effects of rat PP were consistent with the involvement of the Y5-receptor subtype in mediation of NPY effects. Incubation with 10(-7) M of a Y5-receptor selective antagonist prevented the effect of NPY (61 +/- 4 vs. 46 +/- 2 min), whereas leptin and CART effects were not (47 +/- 3 vs. 46 +/- 3 min and 46 +/- 3 vs. 46 +/- 2 min, respectively), suggesting that NPY was not involved in leptin and CART effects. Using an anti-CART antiserum (1:1000), the reduction of GnRH interpulse interval caused by leptin was partially prevented (56.2 +/- 4 vs. 47.9 +/- 3.8 min), whereas the reduction of GnRH interval caused by NPY was not affected (45.9 +/-2.5 vs. 47.8 +/- 3.7). The GnRH interpulse interval was decreased by 10(-7) M of NPY at 5 days (72 +/- 3.8 vs. 91.9 +/- 3.5) as well as at 15 days, whereas such an effect was not observed anymore at 25 and 50 days. Similar effects were observed using 10(-6) M of CART-peptide. Using 10(-6) M of the Y5-receptor antagonist, the GnRH interpulse interval was significantly increased at 15 days (66.6 +/- 2.7 min), 25 days (56.5 +/- 39.9 min), and 50 days (52.5 vs. 38.2 min), whereas no change was observed at 5 days. Using the anti-CART antiserum, a significant increase of GnRH interpulse interval was observed at 25 days only. In conclusion, the stimulatory effects of leptin and NPY on the frequency of pulsatile GnRH secretion before puberty involve two distinct mechanisms. NPY causes acceleration of GnRH pulsatility via the Y5-receptor subtype, which is not involved in leptin effects while the CART is involved in leptin effects on GnRH secretion but not in NPY effects. The reduction of pulsatility by the Y5 antagonist provides evidence of endogenous NPY involvement in the control of GnRH secretion from the time of onset of puberty. [less ▲]

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See detailTraitement de l'angor pectoris chronique
Legrand, Victor ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(4), 290-6

Stable angina is one of the manifestations of coronary artery disease. In this review, we shall define the clinical criteria for the diagnosis of angina. The different techniques of evaluation will be ... [more ▼]

Stable angina is one of the manifestations of coronary artery disease. In this review, we shall define the clinical criteria for the diagnosis of angina. The different techniques of evaluation will be discussed with a particular emphasis on the international recommendations for the use of coronary arteriography. The different therapeutic modalities will be outlined based on the results of large controlled clinical trials. Finally, the guidelines proposed for the use of coronary by-pass surgery and PTCA will be reviewed. [less ▲]

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See detailL'infarctus aigu du myocarde: prise en charge, pronostic et suivi
Lancellotti, Patrizio ULg; Pierard, Luc ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(4), 278-85

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a serious condition which requires rapid hospital management. In this article, we review the current recommendations concerning AMI treatment, as well as our ... [more ▼]

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a serious condition which requires rapid hospital management. In this article, we review the current recommendations concerning AMI treatment, as well as our therapeutic approach, which is based on the evidence provided by several large well controlled clinical trials. Mid and long term prognosis are mainly related to the development of left ventricular dysfunction which determines heart failure, the occurrence of severe ventricular arrhythmias and the persistence of residual myocardial ischemia. Several treatments (aspirin, beta-blockade, ACE inhibitors, statins) have shown their benefit in terms of secondary prevention. [less ▲]

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See detailDependence of phase morphology and mechanical properties of PS/SBR/PE ternary blends on composition: transition from core-shell to triple-phase continuity structures
Luzinov, Igor; Pagnoulle, Christophe; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Polymer (2000), 41(9), 3381-3389

The weight ratio of PE and PS in ternary PS/SBR/PE blends has been changed at constant SBR content (25 wt%). When the matrix is either PE or PS, the dispersed phase has a core-shell structure with SBR ... [more ▼]

The weight ratio of PE and PS in ternary PS/SBR/PE blends has been changed at constant SBR content (25 wt%). When the matrix is either PE or PS, the dispersed phase has a core-shell structure with SBR forming the shell. The size of the core expectedly increases with the content of the core-forming polymer. In some composition range, the three phases are simultaneously continuous, SBR being localized in between the co-continuous PE and PS phases. The ultimate mechanical properties of the ternary blends containing SBR/PE and SBR/PS core-shell dispersed phases are close to the properties of the PS/SBR and PE/SBR binary blends, respectively. Some synergism in the elongation at break of the ternary blends is observed when core-shell SBR/PS phases are dispersed in PE matrix. [less ▲]

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See detailLe Problem-Based Learning, description d'une pedagogie conduisant a la medecine factuelle
Chalon, Patrice ULg; Delvenne, Catherine ULg; Pasleau, Françoise ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(4), 233-8

Problem-Based Learning is an educational method which uses health care scenarios to provide a context for learning and to elaborate knowledge through discussion. Additional expectations are to stimulate ... [more ▼]

Problem-Based Learning is an educational method which uses health care scenarios to provide a context for learning and to elaborate knowledge through discussion. Additional expectations are to stimulate critical thinking and problem-solving skills, and to develop clinical reasoning taking into account the patient's psychosocial environment and preferences, the economic requirements as well as the best evidence from biomedical research. Appearing at the end of the 60's, it has been adopted by 10% of medical schools world-wide. PBL follows the same rules as Evidence-Based Medicine but is student-centered and provides the information-seeking skills necessary for self-directed life long learning. In this short article, we review the theoretical basis and process of PBL, emphasizing the teacher-student relationship and discussing the suggested advantages and disadvantages of this curriculum. Students in PBL programs make greater use of self-selected references and online searching. From this point of view, PBL strengthens the role of health libraries in medical education, and prepares the future physician for Evidence-Based Medicine. [less ▲]

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See detailXPS analysis of the PC/PVDF interface modified by PMMA. Location of the PMMA at the interface
Moussaif, Noureddine; Pagnoulle, Christophe; Riga, Joseph et al

in Polymer (2000), 41(9), 3391-3394

Polycarbonate (PC) and polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) are two immiscible polymers, which form two-phase polyblends with a weak interfacial adhesion and a high interfacial tension. This situation may be ... [more ▼]

Polycarbonate (PC) and polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) are two immiscible polymers, which form two-phase polyblends with a weak interfacial adhesion and a high interfacial tension. This situation may be changed by the addition of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), which is miscible with PVDF and concentrates at the PVDF/PC interface. Location of PMMA at the PC/PVDF interface has been confirmed by XPS analysis, which shows that the interface enrichment in PMMA already takes place when only 10 wt% PMMA is premixed with PVDF. [less ▲]

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See detailRelativite de la prise en charge des cancers cutanes. Plaidoyer pour la synergie entre le medecin generaliste et le dermatologue-oncologue
Pierard, Gérald ULg; Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine ULg; Cornil, F. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(4), 247-252

The clinical diagnosis and treatment of cutaneous cancers represent a frequent situation in cancerology. About one third of all human cancers take their origin from the skin. The general practitioner and ... [more ▼]

The clinical diagnosis and treatment of cutaneous cancers represent a frequent situation in cancerology. About one third of all human cancers take their origin from the skin. The general practitioner and the dermatologist-oncologist play the key role in that field of health care. [less ▲]

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See detailSingle-step reactive extrusion of PLLA in a corotating twin-screw extruder promoted by 2-ethylhexanoic acid tin(II) salt and triphenylphosphine
Jacobsen, S.; Fritz, H. G.; Degée, Philippe et al

in Polymer (2000), 41(9), 3395-3403

The ring opening polymerisation of L,L-lactide using an equimolar complex of 2-ethylhexanoic acid tin(II) salt Sn(Oct)2 and triphenylphosphine P( )3 as catalyst shows for the first time a reactivity ... [more ▼]

The ring opening polymerisation of L,L-lactide using an equimolar complex of 2-ethylhexanoic acid tin(II) salt Sn(Oct)2 and triphenylphosphine P( )3 as catalyst shows for the first time a reactivity providing a polymerisation propagation rate fast enough to imagine a continuous single-step reactive extrusion process for bulk polymerisation. The ring opening polymerisation has been realised on a corotating closely intermeshing twin-screw extruder, using a specially designed screw concept to provide sufficient energy input and mixing for further enhancement of the propagation rate, without detrimentally enhancing depolymerisation or transesterification reactions. Using one chosen screw and processing concept on a twin-screw extruder with 25 mm diameter and a L/D-ratio of 48, the influence of different processing parameters on the resulting molecular parameters of the Polylactide (PLA) has been determined. Furthermore, the mechanical property profile of the generated PLA-polymers is discussed and related to the molecular parameters. [less ▲]

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See detailComment resoudre en pratique un probleme diagnostique ou therapeutique en suivant une demarche EBM?
Delvenne, Catherine ULg; Pasleau, Françoise ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(4), 226-32

Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) can be defined as the use of best current evidence from clinical research in making decisions about the care of individual patients. It consists of a process of turning ... [more ▼]

Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) can be defined as the use of best current evidence from clinical research in making decisions about the care of individual patients. It consists of a process of turning clinical problems into questions and then locating the best available evidence to answer them, critically appraising the evidence for its validity and usefulness, and applying the findings to clinical practice. The present article presents the EBM principles and their application to diagnostic and therapeutic questions. Further detailed information on Evidence-Based Medicine is presented at the URL address: http: inverted question markwww.ebm.lib.ulg.ac.be/prostate/ebm.+ ++htm. [less ▲]

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See detailTraitement de l'angor instable
Legrand, Victor ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(4), 286-9

Unstable angina generally is a serious condition which often requires hospital treatment. In this review article, we shall describe our therapeutic approach to unstable angina. It is almost identical ... [more ▼]

Unstable angina generally is a serious condition which often requires hospital treatment. In this review article, we shall describe our therapeutic approach to unstable angina. It is almost identical worldwide. This attitude is based on the evidence provided by well controlled clinical trials. It is therefore a good example of Evidence-Based Medicine. [less ▲]

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See detailCytokine Release and Neutrophil Activation Are Not Prevented by Heparin-Coated Circuits and Aprotinin Administration
Defraigne, Jean-Olivier ULg; Pincemail, Joël ULg; Larbuisson, Robert ULg et al

in Annals of Thoracic Surgery (2000), 69(4), 1084-91

BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) initiates a whole-body inflammatory response where complement and neutrophil activation and cytokine release play an important role. This prospective trial ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) initiates a whole-body inflammatory response where complement and neutrophil activation and cytokine release play an important role. This prospective trial examined the effects of both heparin-coated circuits and aprotinin on the inflammatory processes during CPB, with respect to cytokine release and neutrophil activation. METHODS: Two hundred patients undergoing cardiac surgery were randomized in four groups of 50 patients each: heparin-coated circuit with aprotinin (HCO-A) or without aprotinin (HCO) administration, and uncoated circuit with aprotinin (C-A) or without aprotinin administration (C). In groups receiving aprotinin, a high-dose regimen was given. In all groups, high initial doses of heparin were used (3 mg/kg intravenously). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8, and myeloperoxidase and elastase levels were measured in plasma samples taken before, during, and after CPB. RESULTS: In all groups, the TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-8 levels reached a maximum after protamine administration. After 24 hours, they remained significantly elevated (IL-6 and IL-8) or returned to baseline values (TNF-alpha). A similar pattern was observed with myeloperoxidase and elastase levels. No significant intergroup differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS: CPB is associated with cytokine release and neutrophil activation, which are not attenuated by the use of heparin-coated circuits or by the administration of aprotinin. Aprotinin and heparin-coated circuits do not show additive effects. [less ▲]

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See detailGalloping data base on single and bundle conductors prediction of maximum amplitudes
Lilien, Jean-Louis ULg; Havard, Dave

in IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery (2000), 15(N°2), 670-674

A data base of 166 cases has been analysed to produced formula to predict galloping amplitudes on power lines either for single conductor of bundle conductor lines.Calculation enhanced the prediction for ... [more ▼]

A data base of 166 cases has been analysed to produced formula to predict galloping amplitudes on power lines either for single conductor of bundle conductor lines.Calculation enhanced the prediction for single conductors but predict larger amplitudes for bundle. [less ▲]

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See detailIntérêt de la tomographie à émission de positons dans la prise en charge du cancer broncho-pulmonaire
Bury, Thierry ULg; Rigo, Pierre ULg

in Revue de Pneumologie Clinique (2000), 56(2), 125-31

18 FDG- PET is an imagining technique based on metabolic criteria rather than morphological criteria. (18) FDG- PET can demonstrate accelerated glycosis in cancer tissue related to increased transporter ... [more ▼]

18 FDG- PET is an imagining technique based on metabolic criteria rather than morphological criteria. (18) FDG- PET can demonstrate accelerated glycosis in cancer tissue related to increased transporter and glycolytic enzyme activity. Whole body PET is currently under validation in a growing number of indications during diagnostic and therapeutic assessment phases of cancer treatment. In the field of pulmonary oncology, (18) FDG- PET has already demonstrated its performance capacity to: 1) discriminate the malignant nature of a solitary pulmonary nodule, 2) improve sensitivity over CT for mediastinal assessment in small-cell lung cancer, 3) acquire whole body imaging to search for distant metastasis in patients with small-cell lung cancer; PET is particularly useful for evaluation of an adrenal mass, 4) complement CT imaging to better dissociate tumor residue or recurrence from post-therapeutic sequelae in small-cell lung cancer. Information provided by (18) FDG- PET is thus clinically relevant as it allows better dissociation of a benign process from a malignant process and better precision of small-cell lung cancer extension without necessitating systematic invasive exploration. [less ▲]

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See detailLa globalisation du savoir à travers le prisme du 51ème congrès de la société américaine de criminologie (Toronto, 1999)
Dantinne, Michaël ULg

in Revue de Droit Pénal et de Criminologie (2000), 38(4), 443-455

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See detailNew Antimalarial and Cytotoxic Sungucine Derivatives from Strychnos Icaja Roots
Frederich, Michel ULg; De Pauw-Gillet, Marie-Claire ULg; Llabres, Gabriel ULg et al

in Planta Medica (2000), 66(3), 262-9

Reinvestigation of Strychnos icaja Baillon resulted in the isolation of vomicine, isostrychnine and of three new sungucine derivatives, named isosungucine (8), 18-hydroxy-sungucine (9) and 18-hydroxy ... [more ▼]

Reinvestigation of Strychnos icaja Baillon resulted in the isolation of vomicine, isostrychnine and of three new sungucine derivatives, named isosungucine (8), 18-hydroxy-sungucine (9) and 18-hydroxy-isosungucine (10). They were identified by detailed spectroscopic methods. The complete 1H- and 13C-NMR study of sungucine was also realized. Some of these compounds were highly active against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and more particularly against the chloroquine-resistant strain. Compound 10 showed a selective antiplasmodial activity, with > 100-fold greater toxicity towards Plasmodium falciparum, relative to cultured human cancer cells (KB and HeLa lines) or fibroblasts (WI38). [less ▲]

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See detailCorrelation between Nuclear Factor-Kappab Activity in Bronchial Brushing Samples and Lung Dysfunction in an Animal Model of Asthma
Bureau, Fabrice ULg; Bonizzi, G.; Kirschvink, N. et al

in American Journal of Respiratory & Critical Care Medicine (2000), 161(4, Pt 1), 1314-1321

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways, in which many inflammatory genes are overexpressed. Transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), which is thought to control the ... [more ▼]

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways, in which many inflammatory genes are overexpressed. Transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), which is thought to control the transcriptional initiation of inflammatory genes, has been poorly investigated in asthma. In the present report, bronchial cells (BCs), recovered by bronchial brushing in healthy and heaves-affected horses (i.e., an animal model of asthma), were assessed for NF-kappaB activity. Small amounts of active NF-kappaB were present in BCs of healthy horses, whereas high levels of NF-kappaB activity was found during crisis (i.e., acute airway obstruction) in all heaves-affected horses. Three weeks after the crisis, the level of NF-kappaB activity found in BCs of heaves-affected horses was highly correlated (p < 0.01) to the degree of residual lung dysfunction. Unexpectedly, active NF- kappaB complexes found in BCs of heaves-affected horses were mainly p65 homodimers, rather than classic p65-p50 heterodimers. At last, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression paralleled p65 homodimers activity in these cells. These results demonstrate that the kinetics of NF-kappaB activity is strongly related to the course of the disease and confirm the relevance of NF-kappaB as a putative target in asthma therapy. Moreover, uncommon p65 homodimers could transactivate, in BCs, a subset of genes, such as ICAM-1, characteristic of chronic airway inflammation. [less ▲]

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See detailBroad Spectrum Diffusion Model for Room Acoustics Ray-Tracing Algorithms
Embrechts, Jean-Jacques ULg

in Journal of the Acoustical Society of America (2000), 107(4), 2068-81

Geometrical acoustics methods have already been transformed to account for diffusely reflecting boundaries. In randomized ray-tracing algorithms, the sound rays are either specularly reflected or ... [more ▼]

Geometrical acoustics methods have already been transformed to account for diffusely reflecting boundaries. In randomized ray-tracing algorithms, the sound rays are either specularly reflected or scattered, according to the value of a random number which is compared with the diffusion factor. However, this method becomes inefficient if this factor depends on frequency, since the process must then be repeated for each frequency band. A method is proposed in this paper to compute all frequency components simultaneously in a single pass. The diffuse reflection model is based on the definition of a new concept: the "splitting coefficient," which can differ from the diffusion factor. First, the randomized ray-tracing method is described and the diffusion model is applied to a single diffusing surface in free field. It is shown that the results computed by the program are in accordance with theoretical results. Then, the method is shown to work properly when it is applied to more realistic enclosures: This is proved in theory and illustrated by some examples. A particular problem is the increase of the statistical error which has been solved by an appropriate control of the splitting coefficient. [less ▲]

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See detailNovel functionalized oligo-vinylthiophene molecules with modulated second-order nonlinear optical response
dos Santos, D. A.; Kogej, T.; Brédas, Jean-Luc et al

in Journal of Molecular Structure (2000), 521

We present a joint theoretical and experimental investigation of the second-order nonlinear optical properties of a new kind of active molecule with a triblock structure. The molecular architecture is ... [more ▼]

We present a joint theoretical and experimental investigation of the second-order nonlinear optical properties of a new kind of active molecule with a triblock structure. The molecular architecture is such that two highly polarizable conjugated segments are separated from each other by a spacer; one of the conjugated segments is end-capped with an electron-donor group, the other one by an acceptor. E-vinylthiophenes are used as the conjugated segments; N,N-dimethylaniline and nitrophenyl are selected as the donor-acceptor pairs, while the spacer consists of a nonconjugated moiety. Several spacers are considered and discussed with respect to their ability to modulate the charge transfer between the donor and acceptor ends. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh Levels of Timp-2 Correlate with Adverse Prognosis in Breast Cancer
Remacle, A.; McCarthy, K.; Noël, Agnès ULg et al

in International Journal of Cancer = Journal International du Cancer (2000), 89(2), 118-21

TIMP-2 is an endogenous inhibitor of MMPs. Most data from model systems suggest that high levels of this inhibitor prevent metastasis. In human breast cancers, however, we show that high levels of TIMP-2 ... [more ▼]

TIMP-2 is an endogenous inhibitor of MMPs. Most data from model systems suggest that high levels of this inhibitor prevent metastasis. In human breast cancers, however, we show that high levels of TIMP-2 correlate with both shortened disease-free interval and overall survival. In primary breast cancers, TIMP-2 levels showed no significant relationship with either tumor size or axillary node status but correlated inversely with estrogen receptor levels. TIMP-2 levels also correlated significantly with those for TIMP-1. We conclude that high levels of endogenous TIMP-2, like other protease inhibitors such as PAI-1 and TIMP-1, correlate with progression of human breast cancer. [less ▲]

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See detailDemonstration in Vivo That Stromelysin-3 Functions through Its Proteolytic Activity
Noël, Agnès ULg; Boulay, A.; Kebers, F. et al

in Oncogene (2000), 19(12), 1605-12

Stromelysin-3 (ST3), a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expressed in aggressive carcinomas, has been shown to promote tumor development in different in vivo experimental models. However, the inability of ... [more ▼]

Stromelysin-3 (ST3), a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expressed in aggressive carcinomas, has been shown to promote tumor development in different in vivo experimental models. However, the inability of its mature form to degrade extracellular matrix components casts doubt on whether ST3 functions in vivo as a protease. In this study, we evaluated whether the ST3 tumor-promoting effect could be ascribed to its proteolytic activity and whether this putative protease could be targeted with MMP inhibitors. Catalytically inactive mutant cDNA of human (h) ST3 or mouse (m) ST3 were generated and transfected into MCF7 cells. When injected into nude mice in the presence of matrigel, the mutant-bearing cells did not exhibit the enhanced tumorigenicity elicited by MCF7 cells transfected with wild-type ST3 cDNA. In a second approach, TIMP2 overproduction in MCF7 cells expressing hST3 was induced by retroviral infection. The co-expression of ST3 and TIMP2 failed to enhance the tumorigenicity of MCF7 cells. Notably, matrigel depleted of low-molecular-weight proteins and growth factors failed to promote the tumorigenicity of ST3-expressing MCF7 cells. These findings provide the first in vivo evidence that ST3 is indeed a protease that can modulate cancer progression by remodeling extracellular matrix and probably by inducing it to release the necessary microenvironmental factors. Thus, ST3 represents an interesting target for specific MMP inhibition. [less ▲]

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See detailElongation of telechelic ionomers under shear: a rheological and rheo-optical study
Chassenieux, Christophe; Tassin, Jean-François; Gohy, Jean-François et al

in Macromolecules (2000), 33(5), 1796-1800

The behavior under shear of solutions of α,ω-lithium sulfonato polystyrene (α,ω-LiPSS100) in toluene has been investigated by rheo-optics and rheology. Shear-thickening is observed and related to a strong ... [more ▼]

The behavior under shear of solutions of α,ω-lithium sulfonato polystyrene (α,ω-LiPSS100) in toluene has been investigated by rheo-optics and rheology. Shear-thickening is observed and related to a strong increase of birefringence and a pronounced and rapid alignment of the polymer chains toward the flow direction leading to an important elasticity of the fluids. The draw ratio of the polymer chains under shear has been estimated from the rheo-optical data. When the fraction of loops is taken into account, draw ratios on the order of 4 are calculated in the shear thickening regime. [less ▲]

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See detailControlled ring-opening polymerization of epsilon-caprolactone promoted by "in situ" formed yttrium alkoxides
Martin, Eric; Dubois, Philippe ULg; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Macromolecules (2000), 33(5), 1530-1535

The ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone has been initiated by [tris(hexamethyldisilyl)amide]yttrium in the presence of an excess of 2-propanol. This initiating system is very active even at high ... [more ▼]

The ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone has been initiated by [tris(hexamethyldisilyl)amide]yttrium in the presence of an excess of 2-propanol. This initiating system is very active even at high alcohol-to-Y molar ratio. Polymers with controlled molecular parameters (Mn, end groups) and low dispersity are formed as result of fast alkoxide/alcohol exchange. At molar excess of 2-propanol higher than 100, this exchange is no longer quantitative. The in situ formed active species involved in this new initiating system are different from those ones present in the commercial yttrium oxo-isopropoxide Y5(μ-O)(OiPr)13 cluster. Evidence is provided by 1H NMR spectroscopy. [less ▲]

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See detailOptical polarization of 47 quasi-stellar objects: The data
Lamy, H.; Hutsemekers, Damien ULg

in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Supplement Series (2000), 142

New broad-band linear polarization measurements are presented for a sample of 47 QSOs which includes 27 broad absorption line QSOs and 2 gravitational lens candidates. Tables 3 and 4 are also available in ... [more ▼]

New broad-band linear polarization measurements are presented for a sample of 47 QSOs which includes 27 broad absorption line QSOs and 2 gravitational lens candidates. Tables 3 and 4 are also available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory (ESO, La Silla). [less ▲]

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See detailPour une pédagogie de la reconnaissance. Le programme de recherche Quart-Monde-Université
Havelange, Carl ULg

in Pour. La revue du groupe de recherche pour l'éducation et la prospective (2000), (165), 172-179

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See detailIncreased Expression of mRNA Encoding Ferritin Heavy Chain in Brain Structures of a Rat Model of Absence Epilepsy
Lakaye, Bernard ULg; de Borman, B.; Minet, Arlette ULg et al

in Experimental Neurology (2000), 162(1), 112-20

Differential mRNA display was carried out to find genes that are differentially regulated in the brain of a rat strain with absence epilepsy, the genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS ... [more ▼]

Differential mRNA display was carried out to find genes that are differentially regulated in the brain of a rat strain with absence epilepsy, the genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS). Among the 32 differentially displayed cDNA fragments actually cloned and sequenced, one shows 100% identity with the rat heavy chain ferritin (H-ferritin) mRNA. Northern blot analysis confirmed the up-regulation of the H-ferritin mRNA. Using dot blotting, a 40% increase in expression was reported in the subcortical forebrain of the adult GAERS, while cortex, brain stem, and cerebellum appeared unmodified. This change was not observed in the brain of 25-day-old rats, an age at which the epileptic phenotype is not present. By in situ hybridization, the enhanced expression was localized in the hippocampus. The increase in mRNA encoding H-ferritin was not immunodetected at the protein level by Western blotting. These results are not apparently related to the neural substrate of SWD or to the distribution of local increase in glucose metabolism previously described in the GAERS. It is hypothesized that the up-regulation of the H-ferritin mRNA is part of a mechanism protecting the hippocampus, a seizure-prone area, against a possible overactivation during absence seizures. [less ▲]

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See detailAntioxidant Status after Cold Ischemia of Rabbit Lung
Pincemail, Joël ULg; Kolh, Philippe ULg; Detry, Olivier ULg et al

in Transplantation Proceedings (2000), 32(2), 484-5

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See detailExiste-t-il des progres dans le traitement du cancer du pancreas metastatique?
Jerusalem, Guy ULg; Bours, Vincent ULg; Fillet, Georges ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(3), 146-8

Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal cancers in the western world. The authors review the different chemotherapeutic regimens for the palliative approach of this disease. 5-fluorouracil has been ... [more ▼]

Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal cancers in the western world. The authors review the different chemotherapeutic regimens for the palliative approach of this disease. 5-fluorouracil has been the only drug with some efficacy for a longtime. Recently a clinical benefit has been obtained with gemcitabine. Polychemotherapy regimens based on gemcitabine, 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin and/or epirubicin have been administered in clinical phase II trials. The superiority of polychemotherapy in terms of palliative benefits or survival is uncertain. Palliative care remains an important issue. [less ▲]

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See detailContinuous reactive extrusion polymerization of L-lactide - an engineering view
Jacobsen, Sven; Fritz, Hans-Gerhard; Degée, Philippe et al

in Macromolecular Symposia (2000), 153

Polylactides (PLA), biodegradable aliphatic polyesters, produced from renewable resources might substitute petrochemically based polymers in a broad range of applications in the near future, if we manage ... [more ▼]

Polylactides (PLA), biodegradable aliphatic polyesters, produced from renewable resources might substitute petrochemically based polymers in a broad range of applications in the near future, if we manage to produce them at lower cost and higher efficiency than nowadays. Possible applications include food packaging for meat and soft drinks, films for agro-industry and non-wovens in hygienic products. The authors developed, based on a new catalytic system, a reactive extrusion polymerisation process, which can be used to produce PLA continuously in larger quantities and at lower costs than before. This extrusion polymerisation process has been developed and tested with laboratory scale machines and has to be transferred to industrial processing equipment. This paper aims to address the problems attached with this transfer and to discuss the chances to finally achieve low cost PLA at industrial scale. [less ▲]

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See detailAssurance, risque et criminologie
Lemaître, André ULg

in Revue de Droit Pénal et de Criminologie (2000)

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See detailNew developments on the ring opening polymerisation of polylactide
Jacobsen, Sven; Fritz, Hans-Gerhard; Degée, Philippe et al

in Industrial Crops & Products (2000), 11

Polylactides (PLA), biodegradable aliphatic polyesters, produced solely from renewable resources may substitute petrochemically based polymers in a broad range of applications in the near future, if we ... [more ▼]

Polylactides (PLA), biodegradable aliphatic polyesters, produced solely from renewable resources may substitute petrochemically based polymers in a broad range of applications in the near future, if we manage to produce them at lower cost and higher efficiency as nowadays. Possible applications include food packaging for meat and soft drinks, films for agro-industry and non-wovens in hygienic products. The authors developed, based on a new catalytic system, a reactive extrusion polymerisation process, which can be used to produce PLA continuously in larger quantities and at lower costs than before. This extrusion polymerisation process has been developed and tested with laboratory scale machines and the possibilities to extend this polymerisation process to lactide based blockcopolymers have been investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailGénétique de la Néphropathie diabétique
Hadjadj, Samy; Weekers, Laurent ULg; Marre, Michel

in Sang Thrombose Vaisseaux [=STV] (2000), 12(3), 151-156

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See detailIdentification of the Origin of Catecholaminergic Inputs to Hvc in Canaries by Retrograde Tract Tracing Combined with Tyrosine Hydroxylase Immunocytochemistry
Appeltants, D.; Absil, Philippe ULg; Balthazart, Jacques ULg et al

in Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy (2000), 18(3), 117-33

The telencephalic nucleus HVc (sometimes referred to as the high vocal center) plays a key role in the production and perception of birdsong. Although many afferent and efferent connections to this ... [more ▼]

The telencephalic nucleus HVc (sometimes referred to as the high vocal center) plays a key role in the production and perception of birdsong. Although many afferent and efferent connections to this nucleus have been described, it has been clear for many years, based on chemical neuroanatomical criteria, that there are projections to this nucleus that remain undescribed. A variety of methods including high performance liquid chromatography, immunohistochemistry and receptor autoradiography have identified high levels of catecholamine transmitters, the presence of enzymes involved in the synthesis of catecholamines such as tyrosine hydroxylase and a variety of catecholamine receptor sub-types in the HVc of several songbird species. However, no definitive projections to HVc have been described from cells groups known to synthesize catecholamines. These projections were analyzed in the present study by retrograde tract tracing combined with immunocytochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase. The origin of the catecholaminergic inputs to HVc were determined based exclusively on birds in which injections of the retrograde tracer (latex fluospheres) were confined within the cytoarchitectonic boundaries of the nucleus. Retrogradely transported latex fluospheres were found mainly in cells of two dopaminergic nuclei, the mesencephalic central gray (A11) and, to a lesser extend, the area ventralis of Tsai (A10; homologous to the ventral tegmental area of mammals). A few retrogradely-labelled cells were also found in the noradrenergic nucleus subceruleus (A6). Most of these retrogradely-labelled cells were also tyrosine hydroxylase-positive. Other catecholaminergic nuclei were devoid of retrograde label. These data converge with others studies to indicate that HVc receives discrete dopaminergic and noradrenergic inputs. These inputs may influence the steroid regulation of HVc, attentional processes related to song and modulate sensory inputs to the song system. [less ▲]

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See detailHypochlorous Acid, a Major Oxidant Produced by Activated Neutrophils, Has Low Effect on Two Pyridobenzazepine Derivatives, Jl 3 and Jl 13
Liégeois, Jean-François ULg; Zahid, N.; Bruhwyler, J. et al

in Archiv der Pharmazie (2000), 333(2-3), 63-7

JL 13 (5-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-8-chloro-pyrido[2,3-b]- [1,5]benzoxazepine fumarate) and JL 3 (10-(4-methylpiperazin-1- yl)pyrido[4,3-b][1,4]benzothiazepine), two pyridobenzazepine derivatives ... [more ▼]

JL 13 (5-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-8-chloro-pyrido[2,3-b]- [1,5]benzoxazepine fumarate) and JL 3 (10-(4-methylpiperazin-1- yl)pyrido[4,3-b][1,4]benzothiazepine), two pyridobenzazepine derivatives structurally related to clozapine, were selected for further development. Due to their structural similarity to clozapine, they are haunted by the spectre of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis. In a previous study, JL 13 was shown to be less sensitive to oxidation than clozapine. In the present paper, using an in vitro procedure, we report the effect of hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a major in vivo oxidant, on both drugs. It appears that the oxidations of JL 3 and JL 13, unlike clozapine, are very slow and little secondary product is formed. Moreover, in contrast to clozapine, the products that were formed are not reactive and thus do not react with glutathione or N-acetylcysteine. Thus, if, as postulated for clozapine, drug-induced agranulocytosis is due to a reactive metabolite formed by neutrophils or their precursors, JL 3 and JL 13 would not be expected to cause the same adverse reaction. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis of new (pyrrole-g- ε-caprolactone) copolymers
Jérôme, Christine ULg; Martinot, Lucien; Louette, Pierre et al

in Macromolecular Symposia (2000), 153

Poly-ε-caprolactone end-capped by a pyrrole moiety has been synthesized and successfully copolymerized with pyrrole with formation of new brush copolymers. Copolymerization has been achieved by ... [more ▼]

Poly-ε-caprolactone end-capped by a pyrrole moiety has been synthesized and successfully copolymerized with pyrrole with formation of new brush copolymers. Copolymerization has been achieved by electrochemical and chemical techniques. Formation of copolymer has been confirmed by various methods including XPS, DSC, TGA, and SEM. The effect of the PCL branches on conductivity, morphology and stability of PPy has been studied. [less ▲]

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See detailRandomized Trial of Diaspirin Cross-Linked Hemoglobin Solution as an Alternative to Blood Transfusion after Cardiac Surgery. The Dclhb Cardiac Surgery Trial Collaborative Group
Lamy, Maurice ULg; Daily, Elaine K.; Brichant, Jean-François ULg et al

in Anesthesiology (2000), 92(3), 646-56

BACKGROUND: Risks associated with transfusion of allogeneic blood have prompted development of methods to avoid or reduce blood transfusions. New oxygen-carrying compounds such as diaspirin cross-linked ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Risks associated with transfusion of allogeneic blood have prompted development of methods to avoid or reduce blood transfusions. New oxygen-carrying compounds such as diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin (DCLHb) could enable more patients to avoid allogeneic blood transfusion. METHODS: The efficacy, safety, hemodynamic effects, and plasma persistence of DCLHb were investigated in a randomized, active-control, single-blind, multicenter study in post-cardiac bypass surgery patients. Of 1,956 screened patients, 209 were determined to require a blood transfusion and met the inclusion criteria during the 24-h post-cardiac bypass period. These patients were randomized to receive up to three 250-ml infusions of DCLHb (n = 104) or three units of packed erythrocytes (pRBCs; n = 105). Further transfusions of pRBCs or whole blood were permitted, if indicated. Primary efficacy end points were the avoidance of blood transfusion through hospital discharge or 7 days postsurgery, whichever came first, and a reduction in the number of units of pRBCs transfused during this same time period. Various laboratory, physiologic, and hemodynamic parameters were monitored to define the safety and pharmacologic effect of DCLHb in this patient population. RESULTS: During the period from the end of cardiopulmonary bypass surgery through postoperative day 7 or hospital discharge, 20 of 104 (19%) DCLHb recipients did not receive a transfusion of pRBCs compared with 100% of control patients (P < 0.05). The overall number of pRBCs administered during the 7-day postoperative period was not significantly different. Mortality was similar between the DCLHb (6 of 104 patients) and the control (8 of 105 patients) groups. Hypertension, jaundice/hyperbilirubinemia, increased serum glutamic oxalo-acetic transaminase, abnormal urine, and hematuria were reported more frequently in the DCLHb group, and there was one case of renal failure in each group. The hemodynamic effects of DCLHb included a consistent and slightly greater increase in systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance with associated increases in systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures compared with pRBC. Cardiac output values decreased more in the DCLHb group patients after the first administration than the control group patients. At 24 h postinfusion, the plasma hemoglobin level was less than one half the maximal level for any amount of DCLHb infused. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of DCLHb allowed a significant number (19%) of cardiac surgery patients to avoid exposure to erythrocytes postoperatively. [less ▲]

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See detailIs Fractal Geometry Useful in Medicine and Biomedical Sciences?
Heymans, O.; Fissette, Jean ULg; Vico, P. et al

in Medical Hypotheses (2000), 54(3), 360-6

Fractal geometry has become very useful in the understanding of many phenomena in various fields such as astrophysics, economy or agriculture and recently in medicine. After a brief intuitive introduction ... [more ▼]

Fractal geometry has become very useful in the understanding of many phenomena in various fields such as astrophysics, economy or agriculture and recently in medicine. After a brief intuitive introduction to the basis of fractal geometry, the clue is made about the correlation between Df and the complexity or the irregularity of a structure. However, fractal analysis must be applied with certain caution in natural objects such as bio-medical ones. The cardio-vascular system remains one of the most important fields of application of these kinds of approach. Spectral analysis of the R-R interval, morphology of the distal coronary arteries constitute two examples. Other very interesting applications are founded in bacteriology, medical imaging or ophthalmology. In our institution, we apply fractal analysis in order to quantitate angiogenesis and other vascular processes. [less ▲]

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See detailEpidermal Growth Factor Upregulates Production of Supernumerary Hair Cells in Neonatal Rat Organ of Corti Explants
Lefèbvre, Philippe ULg; Malgrange, Brigitte ULg; Thiry, Marc ULg et al

in Acta Oto-Laryngologica (2000), 120(2), 142-5

The organ of Corti is highly ordered, with a single row of inner hair cells and three rows of outer hair cells. The number of hair cells produced was thought to be limited by the time of their terminal ... [more ▼]

The organ of Corti is highly ordered, with a single row of inner hair cells and three rows of outer hair cells. The number of hair cells produced was thought to be limited by the time of their terminal mitosis (i.e. E14 in the mouse). However, exogenous application of retinoic acid has been shown to stimulate the formation of supernumerary hair cells in organ of Corti explants from E13 to E16 mouse embryos. Using late embryonic and neonatal rat organ of Corti explants, we investigated the potential for production of supernumerary hair cells in more mature auditory sensory epithelia. When newborn rat organ of Corti explants were cultured under control conditions, an area of supernumerary hair cells was observed in a segment of organ of Corti that was at the junction between the basal and middle turns. In these areas of supernumerary hair cells the number of hair cells increased per unit of length, but remained constant per surface unit, further demonstrating the supernumerary character of this phenomenon. Organ of Corti explants treated with epidermal growth factor (EGF) showed a 50% increase in the length of the organ of Corti segment containing supernumerary hair cells. Upregulation of supernumerary hair cell formation by EGF was found to start and be maximal at birth (P0) and to disappear by 2 days after birth (P2). Treatment of EGF stimulated P0 explants with an antimitotic drug, cytosine arabinoside (ARAc), demonstrated that the production of supernumerary hair cells occurred independently of cell division. [less ▲]

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See detailCold-Adapted Enzymes: From Fundamentals to Biotechnology
Gerday, Charles ULg; Aittaleb, Mohamed; Bentahir, Mostafa et al

in Trends in Biotechnology (2000), 18(3), 103-7

Psychrophilic enzymes produced by cold-adapted microorganisms display a high catalytic efficiency and are most often, if not always, associated with high thermosensitivity. Using X-ray crystallography ... [more ▼]

Psychrophilic enzymes produced by cold-adapted microorganisms display a high catalytic efficiency and are most often, if not always, associated with high thermosensitivity. Using X-ray crystallography, these properties are beginning to become understood, and the rules governing their adaptation to cold appear to be relatively diverse. The application of these enzymes offers considerable potential to the biotechnology industry, for example, in the detergent and food industries, for the production of fine chemicals and in bioremediation processes. [less ▲]

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See detailTarget-Controlled Infusion of Propofol and Remifentanil Combined with Bispectral Index Monitoring for Awake Craniotomy
Hans, Pol ULg; Bonhomme, Vincent ULg; Born, J. D. et al

in Anaesthesia (2000), 55(3), 255-9

We describe the target-controlled administration of propofol and remifentanil, combined with monitoring of the bispectral index, during an awake craniotomy for removal of a left temporo-parietal tumour ... [more ▼]

We describe the target-controlled administration of propofol and remifentanil, combined with monitoring of the bispectral index, during an awake craniotomy for removal of a left temporo-parietal tumour near the motor speech centre. Target concentrations of the two drugs were adjusted according to the patient's responses to painful stimuli and surgical events, and the need for speech testing. Allowing the effect-site concentrations of propofol and remifentanil to decrease during surgery allowed the performance of cortical speech mapping and the testing of the patient's ability to speak. Although the bispectral index was not used as a guide for the administration of the drugs, its value correlated better with the patient's responsiveness than did the predicted effect-site concentrations of propofol. Side-effects, comprising hypotension, respiratory depression and airway obstruction, were related to rapid increases in drug infusion rates and were easily managed. [less ▲]

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See detailProgression in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cell Tumorigenicity: Compared Effect of FGF-3 and FGF-4.
Hajitou, A.; Deroanne, Christophe ULg; Noël, Agnès ULg et al

in Breast Cancer Research and Treatment (2000), 60(1), 15-28

The transforming properties of fibroblast growth factor 3 (FGF-3) were investigated in MCF7 breast cancer cells and compared to those of FGF-4, a known oncogenic product. The short form of fgf-3 and the ... [more ▼]

The transforming properties of fibroblast growth factor 3 (FGF-3) were investigated in MCF7 breast cancer cells and compared to those of FGF-4, a known oncogenic product. The short form of fgf-3 and the fgf-4 sequences were each introduced with retroviral vectors and the proteins were only detected in the cytoplasm of the infected cells, as expected. In vitro, cells producing FGF-3 (MCF7.fgf-3) and FGF-4 (MCF7.fgf-4) displayed an amount of estrogen receptors decreased to around 45% of the control value. However, MCF7.fgf-3 cell proliferation remained responsive to estradiol supply. The sensitivity of the MCF7.fgf-4 cells, if existant, was masked by the important mitogenic action exerted by FGF-4. In vivo, the MCF7.fgf-3 and MCF7.fgf-4 cells gave rise to tumors under conditions in which the control cells were not tumorigenic. Supplementing the mice with estrogen had the paradoxical effect of totally suppressing the start of the FGF-3 as well as the FGF-4 tumors. Tumorigenicity in the presence of matrigel was similar for MCF7.fgf-3 and control cells and was increased by estrogen supplementation. Once started, the MCF7.fgf-4 tumors grew with a characteristic high rate. Remarkably, FGF-4 but not FGF-3, stimulated the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF165) without altering the steady-state level of its mRNA, suggesting a possible regulation of VEGF synthesis at the translational level in MCF7 cells. The increased VEGF secretion is probably involved in the more aggressive phenotype of the MCF7.fgf-4 cells while a decreased dependence upon micro-environmental factors might be part of the increased tumorigenic potential of the MCF7.fgf-3 cells. [less ▲]

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See detailLaparoscopic Living Donor Nephrectomy: University of Liege Experience
Detry, Olivier ULg; Hamoir, Etienne ULg; Defechereux, Thierry ULg et al

in Transplantation Proceedings (2000), 32(2), 486-7

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See detailIncreased Aortic Compliance Maintains Left Ventricular Performance at Lower Energetic Cost
Kolh, Philippe ULg; D'Orio, Vincenzo ULg; Lambermont, Bernard ULg et al

in European Journal of Cardio - Thoracic Surgery (2000), 17(3), 272-8

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate left ventricular contractility and energetic cost of cardiac ejection under conditions of acute increase in aortic compliance. METHODS: In six ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate left ventricular contractility and energetic cost of cardiac ejection under conditions of acute increase in aortic compliance. METHODS: In six anaesthetized pigs, ascending aortic compliance was increased by adding a volume chamber in parallel to the ascending aorta. Systemic vascular parameters, including characteristic impedance, peripheral resistance, total vascular compliance, and inertance, were estimated with a four-element windkessel model. Arterial elastance was derived from these parameters. Left ventricular systolic function was assessed by end-systolic pressure-volume relationship (end-systolic elastance), and stroke work. Pressure-volume area was used as a measure of myocardial oxygen consumption. Heart rate remained constant during the experimentation. RESULTS: Adding the aortic volume chamber significantly increased vascular compliance from 0. 95+/-0.08 to 1.17+/-0.06 ml/mmHg (P<0.01), while inductance, characteristic impedance, peripheral resistance, and arterial elastance remained statistically at basal values, respectively 0. 0020+/-0.0003 mmHg.s(2)/ml, 0.105+/-0.009 mmHg.s/ml, 1.27+/-0.12 mmHg.s/ml, and 2.43+/-0.21 mmHg/ml. During the same interval, stroke work and pressure-volume area decreased respectively from 2700+/-242 to 2256+/-75 mmHg.ml (P<0.01), and from 3806+/-427 to 3179+/-167 mmHg.ml (P<0.01). Stroke work and pressure-volume area decreased at matched end-diastolic volumes. In contrast, end-systolic elastance, ejection fraction, and stroke volume remained statistically unchanged, respectively at 2.29+/-0.14 mmHg/ml, 48.1+/-2.1 %, and 32. 4+/-1.7 ml. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that, when facing an increased aortic compliance, the left ventricle displays unchanged contractility, but the energetic cost of cardiac ejection is significantly decreased. These data may be of clinical importance when choosing an artificial prosthesis for ascending aortic replacement. [less ▲]

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See detailExercices excentriques appliqués au traitement des tendinites
Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Godon, Bernard ULg et al

in Kine 2000, Revue Européenne de la Kinésithérapie (2000), 11

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See detailInvolvement of Insulin-Like Growth Factors in Early T Cell Development: A Study Using Fetal Thymic Organ Cultures
Kecha, O.; Brilot, F.; Martens, Henri ULg et al

in Endocrinology (2000), 141(3), 1209-17

The expression of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and IGF receptor genes was investigated by RT-PCR during ontogeny of the murine thymus. IGF-1, IGF-1R, M6P/IGF-2R genes are expressed in the thymus both ... [more ▼]

The expression of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and IGF receptor genes was investigated by RT-PCR during ontogeny of the murine thymus. IGF-1, IGF-1R, M6P/IGF-2R genes are expressed in the thymus both in fetal and postnatal life, whereas IGF-2 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) decline after birth but are still detectable on the seventh week. By in situ hybridization, IGF-2 transcripts were located in the outer cortex and medulla of the postnatal thymus, and on the whole surface ofthe epithelial-like network in the fetal thymus. The effects of anti-IGFs and IGF-receptors neutralizing Abs on the generation of pre-T cell subpopulations were then investigated using fetal thymic organ cultures (FTOC). FTOC treatment with an anti-IGF-2 mAb, an anti-IGF-1R mAb, or an anti-M6P/IGF-2R polyclonal Ab induced a blockade of T cell differentiation at the CD4-CD8- stage, as shown by a significant increase in the percentage of CD4-CD8- cells and a decrease in the percentage of CD4+CD8+ cells. Moreover, anti-IGF-2 Ab treatment induced an increase in CD8+ cells suggesting that thymic IGF-2 might have a role in determining differentiation into the CD4 or CD8 lineage. Anti-IGF-1 Ab treatment decreased the proportion in CD4-CD8- cells and increased the frequency in CD4+CD8+. FTOC treatment with anti-(pro)insulin did not exert any significant effect on T cell development. These data indicate that the intrathymic IGF-mediated signaling plays an active role in the early steps of T cell differentiation during fetal development. [less ▲]

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See detailAdenocarcinome pancreatique: role de l'anatomie pathologique
Delvenne, Philippe ULg; Delvenne, Catherine ULg; Quatresooz, Pascale ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(3), 135-40

Duct cell adenocarcinoma is by far the most frequent neoplasm of the pancreas, accounting for about 80% of malignant tumors. In this report, we describe the main diagnostic pitfalls of this cancer in ... [more ▼]

Duct cell adenocarcinoma is by far the most frequent neoplasm of the pancreas, accounting for about 80% of malignant tumors. In this report, we describe the main diagnostic pitfalls of this cancer in routine or frozen sections, as well as the help of immunohistology to make the differential diagnosis. We also discuss the potential interest of tumor markers for evaluating the prognosis of these tumors and provide information about the creation of a Web site (URL: http://www.ebm.lib.ulg.ac.be/index.htm) created to help clinicians exploit the laboratory results. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis of poly(methyl methacrylate)-b-poly(n-butyl acrylate)-b-poly(methyl methacrylate) triblocks and their potential as thermoplastic elastomers
Tong, J. D.; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Polymer (2000), 41(7), 2499-2510

A series of well defined poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-b-poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PnBA)-b-PMMA triblock copolymers (MnBM) has been synthesized by transalcoholysis of PMMA-b-poly(tert-butylacrylate ... [more ▼]

A series of well defined poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-b-poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PnBA)-b-PMMA triblock copolymers (MnBM) has been synthesized by transalcoholysis of PMMA-b-poly(tert-butylacrylate) (PtBA)-b-PMMA precursors (MTM) by n-butanol. Phase separation is observed for all the investigated triblock copolymers, which contain PMMA outer blocks in the 5000-50 000 molecular weight (MW) range and PnBA inner blocks with MW in the 100 000-200 000 range. Although the ultimate tensile properties of these MnBM triblock copolymers are poor compared to traditional diene-based TPEs (SBS and SIS), they are much better than those ones reported for PMMA-b-poly(isooctyl acrylate) (PIOA)-b-PMMA triblocks (MIM). A reasonable explanation for this observation is found in the average molecular weight between chain entanglements (Me) that has been estimated to be 28 000 for the central PnBA rubbery block, which is consistently much smaller than for PIOA (59 000) and substantially higher than Me for polybutadiene (1700) and polyisoprene (6100). The tensile behavior of MnBM copolymers cannot be fitted by either a simple elastomer model free from chain entanglements (suitable to MIM) or by a "filler" modified rubber model (suitable for diene-based TPEs), supporting the hypothesis that the mechanical properties of the investigated (meth)acrylate thermoplastic elastomers are significantly affected by any change in Me of the central acrylate block. Viscoelastic analysis shows that MnBM triblocks are of higher complex viscosity than the SBS and SIS analogs, leading to a shift in the order-disorder transition temperature to much higher temperature, unless the outer PMMA blocks are of very low molecular weight (5000). [less ▲]

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See detailRing opening copolymerization of ε-caprolactone, γ-(triethylsilyloxy)-ε-caprolactone and γ-ethylene ketal-ε-caprolactonelactone: a route to hetero-graft copolyesters
Stassin, Fabrice; Halleux, Olivier; Dubois, Philippe ULg et al

in Macromolecular Symposia (2000), 153

ε-Caprolactone (ε-CL) has been copolymerized with two precursors of γ-hydroxy-ε-CL, i.e., γ-ethylene ketal-ε-caprolactone (TOSUO) and γ-(triethylsilyloxy)-ε-caprolactone (TeSCL). The triethylsilyloxy ... [more ▼]

ε-Caprolactone (ε-CL) has been copolymerized with two precursors of γ-hydroxy-ε-CL, i.e., γ-ethylene ketal-ε-caprolactone (TOSUO) and γ-(triethylsilyloxy)-ε-caprolactone (TeSCL). The triethylsilyloxy pendant groups can be selectively deprotected into hydroxyl groups followed by the deprotection of the acetal substituents. Each series of hydroxyl groups can be used to initiate the polymerization of cyclic monomers so leading to hetero-graft copolyesters with, for instance, poly-ε-CL and polylactide grafts. [less ▲]

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See detailLa Folie Mallarmé
Durand, Pascal ULg

in Courrier du Centre International d'Etudes Poétiques (2000), 225

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See detailWhen false memories do not occur : not thinking of the lure or remembering that it was not heard ?
Brédart, Serge ULg

in Memory (2000), 8(2), 123-128

The aim of the present study was to evaluate two explanations for the non-occurrence of false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. One explanation was that a critical lure is not ... [more ▼]

The aim of the present study was to evaluate two explanations for the non-occurrence of false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. One explanation was that a critical lure is not recalled because the list failed to evoke it in the participant's mind. Another possible explanation was that the participant would identify the critical lure and would remember, at the time of recall, that the lure was not produced by an external source. In order to explore these two possible explanations for the non-occurrence of false memories, an experimental phase was added to the usual DRM paradigm: participants were asked to recall items they thought of but did not recall because these items were not members of the list presented by the experimenter. Among participants who did not recall the critical lure during the standard recall task, those who recalled the critical lure during the additional phase outnumbered those who did not recall it. This result is more consistent with the second explanation than with the first one. [less ▲]

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See detailLes traitements post-menopause a revoir? Une polemique nouvelle!
Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg; Desreux, Joëlle ULg; Pintiaux, Axelle ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(3), 156-60

The study by Schairer et al. aims to determine whether increases in risk of breast cancer associated with the estrogen-progestin regimen are greater than those associated with estrogen alone. This study ... [more ▼]

The study by Schairer et al. aims to determine whether increases in risk of breast cancer associated with the estrogen-progestin regimen are greater than those associated with estrogen alone. This study is a cohort of follow-up data for 1980-1995 from the Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project, a nationwide breast cancer screening program that involved 29 screening centers throughout the United States. A total of 46,355 postmenopausal women were followed. During follow up, 2,082 cases of breast cancer were identified. Increases in risk with estrogen only and estrogen-progestin only were restricted to use within the previous 4 years. The relative risk increased by 0.01 with each year of estrogen-only use and by 0.08 with each year of estrogen-progestin-only use among recent users. Among women with a Body Mass Index of 24.4 kg/m2 or less, increases in relative risk with each year of estrogen-only use and estrogen-progestin-only use among recent users were 0.03 and 0.12, respectively. The authors conclude that the estrogen-progestin regimen increases breast cancer risk beyond that associated with estrogen alone. This study was largely commented in the lay media. Unfortunately the Belgian media introduced the confusion between the relative risk and the risk attributable to estrogen and estrogen-progestin. The aim of this manuscript is to precisely inform our colleagues, to analyze the Schairer study and to present the actual figures of risk associated with the use of estrogen and estrogen-progestin replacement therapy. Finally, we formulate some suggestions for the physician to whom the patient declares: "Did you read the negative effects of hormones?". What should we advice? [less ▲]

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See detailAn Additional Aromatic Interaction Improves the Thermostability and Thermophilicity of a Mesophilic Family 11 Xylanase: Structural Basis and Molecular Study
Georis, J.; De Lemos Esteves, Frédéric ULg; Lamotte-Brasseur, J. et al

in Protein Science : A Publication of the Protein Society (2000), 9(3), 466-75

In a general approach to the understanding of protein adaptation to high temperature, molecular models of the closely related mesophilic Streptomyces sp. S38 Xyl1 and thermophilic Thermomonospora fusca ... [more ▼]

In a general approach to the understanding of protein adaptation to high temperature, molecular models of the closely related mesophilic Streptomyces sp. S38 Xyl1 and thermophilic Thermomonospora fusca TfxA family 11 xylanases were built and compared with the three-dimensional (3D) structures of homologous enzymes. Some of the structural features identified as potential contributors to the higher thermostability of TfxA were introduced in Xyl1 by site-directed mutagenesis in an attempt to improve its thermostability and thermophilicity. A new Y11-Y16 aromatic interaction, similar to that present in TfxA and created in Xyl1 by the T11Y mutation, improved both the thermophilicity and thermostability. Indeed, the optimum activity temperature (70 vs. 60 degrees C) and the apparent Tm were increased by about 9 degrees C, and the mutant was sixfold more stable at 57 degrees C. The combined mutations A82R/F168H/N169D/delta170 potentially creating a R82-D169 salt bridge homologous to that present in TfxA improved the thermostability but not the thermophilicity. Mutations R82/D170 and S33P seemed to be slightly destabilizing and devoid of influence on the optimal activity temperature of Xyl1. Structural analysis revealed that residues Y11 and Y16 were located on beta-strands B1 and B2, respectively. This interaction should increase the stability of the N-terminal part of Xyl1. Moreover, Y11 and Y16 seem to form an aromatic continuum with five other residues forming putative subsites involved in the binding of xylan (+3, +2, +1, -1, -2). Y11 and Y16 might represent two additional binding subsites (-3, -4) and the T11Y mutation could thus improve substrate binding to the enzyme at higher temperature and thus the thermophilicity of Xyl1. [less ▲]

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See detailLe coup de la fourchette
Boxho, Philippe ULg

in Journal de Médecine Légale, Droit Médical (2000), 43(2), 121-125

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See detailSlow Peaking and Low-Gain Designs for Global Stabilization of Nonlinear Systems
Sepulchre, Rodolphe ULg

in IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control (2000), 45(3), 453-461

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See detailLe rêve de Helder Camara
Verjans, Pierre ULg

in Politique : Revue de Débats (2000)

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See detailRing-opening polymerization of 6-hydroxynon-8-enoic acid lactone : Novel biodegradable copolymers containing allyl pendent groups
Mecerreyes, David; Miller, Robert D.; Hedrick, James L. et al

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry (2000), 38(5), 870-875

This article reports the synthesis and copolymerization of 6-hydroxynon-8-enoic acid lactone. The ring-opening polymerization of this lactone-type monomer bearing a pendant allyl group led to new ... [more ▼]

This article reports the synthesis and copolymerization of 6-hydroxynon-8-enoic acid lactone. The ring-opening polymerization of this lactone-type monomer bearing a pendant allyl group led to new homopolymers and random copolymers with -caprolactone and L,L-lactide. The copolymerizations were carried out at 110 °C with Sn(Oct)2 as a catalyst. The introduction of unsaturations into the aliphatic polyester permitted us to carry out different chemical transformations on this family of polymers. For example, this article reports the bromination, epoxidation, and hydrosylilation of the allyl group in the new polyester copolymers. [less ▲]

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See detailCell-Mediated Immune Response in Calves to Single-Dose, Trickle, and Challenge Infections with Fasciola Hepatica
Bossaert, K.; Jacquinet, E.; Saunders, J. et al

in Veterinary Parasitology (2000), 88(1-2), 17-34

A peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation assay was used to study the cell-mediated immune response in eight calves experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica. Hypersensitivity-related ... [more ▼]

A peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation assay was used to study the cell-mediated immune response in eight calves experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica. Hypersensitivity-related eosinophil and mast-cell responses were also assessed. The primary infection of 500 metacercariae was administered either as a single-dose or as a trickle infection over a 4-week period. Calves were challenge-infected 4 months later with 100 metacercariae and slaughtered 24 weeks postprimary infection. Skin eosinophil counts (SEC) were determined prior to infection on the basis of the intradermal reaction (IDR) to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). These counts correlated negatively with the mean fluke length but not with the fluke burden found at necropsy. At the end of the experiment, non-specific (PHA) and specific (excretory-secretory parasite, products, FhESAg, and whole-worm extract, FhSomAg) immediate type hypersensitivity IDR were elicited in contrast to delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses. The SEC correlated with blood eosinophilia but not with parasite parameters. These findings suggest that the eosinophil response does not correlate clearly with the development of resistance to F. hepatica infection in cattle. A specific mononuclear cell response to FhSomAg was detectable as early as 7 days after infection in both infected groups, being significantly higher during the very early migratory phase of the juveniles in the single-dose infected calves than in the trickle infected calves. This response remained significantly higher in infected groups than in the control group throughout the experiment. Challenge elicited a significant proliferative response, less pronounced than after primary infection. No production of gamma-interferon (INF-gamma) was recorded 3 weeks after challenge. At necropsy, the mean number of flukes recovered was similar in both infected groups, suggesting that the rate at which the infection is administrated has no effect on protective immunity. Hepatic lesions, similar in both infected groups, were characterised by marked eosinophil and mast-cell infiltration. Liver biopsies were performed and their diagnostic value is discussed. All results suggest that F. hepatica infection predominantly induces a Type-2 response in cattle, and that this response has little protective effect. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of Autoantibodies against Oxidized Ldl and Antioxidant Status in Top Soccer and Basketball Players after 4 Months of Competition
Pincemail, Joël ULg; Lecomte, J.; Castiau, J. et al

in Free Radical Biology & Medicine (2000), 28(4), 559-65

Antioxidant status and titers of autoantibodies against oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL-Ab) were investigated in top soccer (S; n = 21, age 24.6 +/- 4.3 years) and basketball (B; n 3,000 mIU/ml ... [more ▼]

Antioxidant status and titers of autoantibodies against oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL-Ab) were investigated in top soccer (S; n = 21, age 24.6 +/- 4.3 years) and basketball (B; n 3,000 mIU/ml) in ox-LDL-Ab were found in half the players (12S and 4B) with a maximum reaching 6000 mIU/ml (normal range: 200-600 mIU/ml), showing an in vivo LDL oxidation. There was no correlation between ox-LDL-Ab titers and chlolesterol, LDL cholesterol, or antioxidant levels. Nevertheless, plasma vitamin C concentration was lower in athletes having high levels of ox-LDL-Ab when compared with those with normal levels (8.49 +/- 3.14 mirogram/ml vs. 10.39 +/- 2.55 microgram/ml), but this difference was not statistically significant. In conclusion, our data suggest that potential atherogenic and cardiovascular risks as reflected by high titers in ox-LDL-Ab may exist in some top athletes despite a nonaltered antioxidant status. [less ▲]

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See detailEnantiomeric Separation of Clenbuterol by Transient Isotachophoresis-Capillary Zone Electrophoresis-Uv Detection New Optimization Technique for Transient Isotachophoresis
Toussaint, B.; Hubert, Philippe ULg; Tjaden, U. R. et al

in Journal of Chromatography. A (2000), 871(1-2), 173-80

A method for the in-line preconcentration and enantioseparation of clenbuterol by transient isotachophoresis-capillary zone electrophoresis-UV absorbance detection (transient ITP-CZE-UV) has been ... [more ▼]

A method for the in-line preconcentration and enantioseparation of clenbuterol by transient isotachophoresis-capillary zone electrophoresis-UV absorbance detection (transient ITP-CZE-UV) has been developed. It implies the use of dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin as chiral selector and the application of a hydrodynamic counterflow during the ITP step. ITP is used to focus the sample constituents prior to CE whereas a counterpressure counterbalances the electrophoretic migration of the compounds. The sample is then focused and kept stationary in the proximity of the capillary inlet before CZE separation, leading to an extended-volume ITP-CZE system. A new strategy for the fast optimization of the counterpressure has been developed which implies the measurement of the hydrodynamic and electrophoretic velocities of the analyte during ITP. The in-line preconcentration and enantioseparation of clenbuterol selected as model compound was optimized using this method. Salbutamol was chosen as internal reference in order to check the reproducibility of the method. A 173-nl volume of aqueous ample solution was injected which implies an improvement of the injection volume of about 16 and a resolution of 4.8 was obtained for the clenbuterol enantiomers. A concentration detection limit of 10(-6) mol/l was readily achieved for clenbuterol and salbutamol using only 3 min ITP preconcentration in in-line counterflow transient ITP-CZE-UV. Thanks to its fast optimization, the method is applicable to any enantioseparation by means of only five very short preliminary measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomated Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Atenolol in Plasma Using Dialysis and Trace Enrichment on a Cation-Exchange Precolumn for Sample Handling
Chiap, Patrice ULg; Buraglia, B. M.; Ceccato, Attilio ULg et al

in Journal of Chromatography. B : Biomedical Sciences and Applications (2000), 739(1), 205-17

A fully automated method involving dialysis combined with trace enrichment was developed for the liquid chromatographic (LC) determination of atenolol, a hydrophilic beta-blocking agent, in human plasma ... [more ▼]

A fully automated method involving dialysis combined with trace enrichment was developed for the liquid chromatographic (LC) determination of atenolol, a hydrophilic beta-blocking agent, in human plasma. The plasma samples were dialysed on a cellulose acetate membrane and the dialysate was reconcentrated on a short trace enrichment column (TEC) packed with a strong cation-exchange material. All sample handling operations can be executed automatically by a sample processor (ASTED system). After TEC conditioning, the plasma sample, to which the internal standard (sotalol, another hydrophilic beta-blocker) was automatically added, was introduced in the donor channel and dialysed in the static/pulsed mode. The dialysis liquid consisted of 4.3 mM phosphoric acid. When the dialysis process was discontinued, the analytes were eluted from the TEC in the back-flush mode by the LC mobile phase and transferred to the analytical column, packed with octyl silica. The LC mobile phase consisted of phosphate buffer, pH 7.0-methanol (81:19; v/v) with 1-octanesulfonate. Atenolol and the internal standard were monitored photometrically at 225 nm. The different parameters influencing the dialysis and trace enrichment processes were optimised with respect to analyte recovery. The influence of two different kinds of cation-exchange material on analyte recovery and peak efficiency was also studied. The method was then validated in the concentration range 25-1000 ng/ml. The mean recovery for atenolol was 65% and the limit of quantitation was 25 ng/ml. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of Albendazole and Its Main Metabolites in Ovine Plasma by Liquid Chromatography with Dialysis as an Integrated Sample Preparation Technique
Chiap, Patrice ULg; Evrard, Brigitte ULg; Bimazubute, M. A. et al

in Journal of Chromatography. A (2000), 870(1-2), 121-34

Albendazole is a benzimidazole derivative with a broad-spectrum activity against human and animal helminth parasites. In order to determine the main pharmacokinetic parameters in sheep after oral and ... [more ▼]

Albendazole is a benzimidazole derivative with a broad-spectrum activity against human and animal helminth parasites. In order to determine the main pharmacokinetic parameters in sheep after oral and intravenous administration of a new formulation of albendazole (an aqueous solution), a fully automated method was developed for the determination of this drug and its main metabolites, albendazole sulfoxide (active metabolite) and sulfone in ovine plasma. This method involves dialysis as purification step, followed by enrichment of the dialysate on a precolumn and liquid chromatography (LC). All sample handling operations were executed automatically by means of an ASTED XL system. After conditioning of the trace enrichment column (TEC) packed with octadecyl silica with pH 6.0 phosphate buffer containing sodium azide, the plasma sample, in which a protein releasing reagent (1 M HCl) containing Triton X-100 was automatically added, was loaded in the donor channel and dialysed on a cellulose acetate membrane in the static-pulsed mode. The dialysis liquid consisted of pH 2.5 phosphate buffer. By rotation of a switching valve, the analytes were eluted from the TEC in the back-flush mode by the LC mobile phase and transferred to the analytical column, packed with octyl silica. The chromatographic separation was performed at 35 degrees C and the analytes were monitored photometrically at 295 nm. Due to the differences in hydrophobic character between albendazole and its metabolites, a gradient elution was applied. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of acetonitrile and pH 6.0 phosphate buffer. The proportion of organic modifier was increased from 10.0 to 50.1% in 12.30 min, then from 50.1 to 66.9% in 1.70 min. First, the gradient conditions and the temperature were optimised for the LC separation using the DryLab software. Then, the influence of some parameters of the dialysis process on analyte recovery was investigated. Finally, the method developed was validated. The mean recoveries for albendazole and its metabolites were about 70 and 65%, respectively. The limits of quantification for albendazole and its metabolites were 10 and 7.5 ng/ml, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailA Method for Spatial Deconvolution of Spectra
Courbin, F.; Magain, Pierre ULg; Kirkove, Murielle ULg et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2000), 529

A method for spatial deconvolution of spectra is presented. It follows the same fundamental principles as the ``MCS image deconvolution algorithm'' recently developed by Magain, Courbin, & Sohy and uses ... [more ▼]

A method for spatial deconvolution of spectra is presented. It follows the same fundamental principles as the ``MCS image deconvolution algorithm'' recently developed by Magain, Courbin, & Sohy and uses information contained in the spectrum of a reference point-spread function to spatially deconvolve spectra of very blended sources. An improved resolution rather than an infinite one is aimed at, overcoming the well-known problem of ``deconvolution artifacts.'' As in the MCS algorithm, the data are decomposed into a sum of analytical point sources and a numerically deconvolved background so that the spectrum of extended sources in the immediate vicinity of bright point sources may be accurately extracted and sharpened. The algorithm has been tested on simulated data including seeing variation as a function of wavelength and atmospheric refraction. It is shown that the spectra of severely blended point sources can be resolved while fully preserving the spectrophotometric properties of the data. Extended objects ``hidden'' by bright point sources (up to 4-5 mag brighter) can be accurately recovered as well, provided the data have a sufficiently high total signal-to-noise ratio (200-300 per spectral resolution element). Such spectra are relatively easy to obtain, even down to faint magnitudes, within a few hours of integration time with 10 m class telescopes. [less ▲]

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See detailVoltage Instability: Phenomena, Countermeasures, and Analysis Methods
Van Cutsem, Thierry ULg

in Proceedings of the IEEE (2000), 88(2), 208-227

A power system may be subject to (rotor) angle, frequency or voltage instability. Voltage instability takes on the form of a dramatic drop of transmission system voltages, which may lead to system ... [more ▼]

A power system may be subject to (rotor) angle, frequency or voltage instability. Voltage instability takes on the form of a dramatic drop of transmission system voltages, which may lead to system disruption. During the past two dàcades it has become a major threat for the operation of many systems and, in the prevailing open access erwironment, it is a factor leading to limit power transfers. The objective of this paper is to describe voltage instability phenomena, to enumerate preventive and curative countermeasures, and to present in a unified and coherent way various computer analysis methods used or proposed. [less ▲]

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See detailResocialiser l'économie?
Defourny, Jacques ULg

in Revue Internationale de l'Economie Sociale : Recma, Revue des Etudes Coopératives, Mutualistes et Associatives (2000), 275-276

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See detailFinite Elements for the Lubricated Contact Between Solids in Metal Forming Processes
Boman, Romain ULg; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg

in Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters) (2000), 13(1), 319-327

In this paper, the lubrication problem in numerical simulation of forming processes is considered. After enumerating the difficulties encountered when trying to solve such a problem with the finite ... [more ▼]

In this paper, the lubrication problem in numerical simulation of forming processes is considered. After enumerating the difficulties encountered when trying to solve such a problem with the finite element method, a generalization of the formulation of Liu for the thin film hydrodynamic lubrication regime is presented. This method is then applied to a strip rolling simulation, using the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) formalism. [less ▲]

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See detailPart 8: Steady-state creep and creep recovery for service and accident conditions
Schneider, Ulrich; Schwesinger, P.; Debicki, Gérard et al

in Materials and Structures (2000), 33

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See detailCriteria for cure of acromegaly : a consensus statement
Giustina, A.; Barkan, A.; Casanueva, F. et al

in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (2000), 85(2), 526-529

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See detailLe logement social
Frankignoulle, Pierre ULg; Malherbe, Alain

in Cahiers de l'Urbanisme (Les) (2000)

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See detailLes insulinomes dans les néoplasies endocriniennes multiples de type 1 (NEM1) : A propos d'une série de 44 cas du Groupe d'Etude des Néoplasies Endocriniennes Multiples (GENEM)
Cougard, P.; Goudet, P.; Peix, J. L. et al

in Annales de Chirurgie (2000), 125(2), 118-123

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See detailIn-Line Concentration and Enantioseparation of Clenbuterol by Transient Isotachophoresis-Capillary Zone Electrophoresis-Uv Detection
Toussaint, B.; Gysler, J.; Hubert, Philippe ULg et al

in Biomedical Chromatography : BMC (2000), 14(1), 32-3

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See detailTomographie a emission de positons au 18FDG et adenocarcinome pancreatique
Daenen, Frédéric ULg; Hustinx, Roland ULg; Belhocine, Tarik et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(2), 89-94

FDG-PET imaging non invasively studies the glucose metabolism which is usually increased in malignant lesions. We evaluated the clinical performance of PET for detecting pancreatic cancer and its ... [more ▼]

FDG-PET imaging non invasively studies the glucose metabolism which is usually increased in malignant lesions. We evaluated the clinical performance of PET for detecting pancreatic cancer and its recurrence. In our series of 24 studies, PET appears to complement other imaging modalities. As compared to CT, in particular, it demonstrated fewer false positive results in the pancreas and it was also more sensitive. Moreover, whole-body FDG-PET allows for the entire staging of the disease. [less ▲]

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See detailAre Milk Polyamines Preventive Agents against Food Allergy?
Dandrifosse, Guy ULg; Peulen, Olivier ULg; El Khefif, N. et al

in Proceedings of the Nutrition Society (2000), 59(1), 81-6

Insufficient polyamine intake could play a role in the induction of sensitization to dietary allergens. This proposal is based essentially on investigations made in sucking rats and in children. In ... [more ▼]

Insufficient polyamine intake could play a role in the induction of sensitization to dietary allergens. This proposal is based essentially on investigations made in sucking rats and in children. In sucking rats it has been established that oral administration of spermine can induce all the modifications occurring in the digestive tract at weaning. In the intestine events occur in two phases. The early event consists of desquamation of the epithelium resulting from an activation of apoptosis. The late event appears to involve an hormonal cascade in which adrenocorticotropic hormone, cytokines, bombesin and corticosterone are included. Observations in human subjects show that: (1) the spermine and spermidine concentrations are generally lower in infant formulas than in human breast milk. Mothers seem consistently to have relatively high or relatively low concentrations of spermine and spermidine in their milk. These individual variations may be due to diet, lifestyle or genetic background; (2) the probability of developing allergy can reach 80 % if the mean spermine concentration in the milk is lower than 2 nmol/ml milk. It is approximately 0 % if the mean spermine concentration is higher than 13 nmol/ml milk; (3) preliminary results show that the intestinal permeability to macromolecules differs in premature babies when they are fed on breast milk compared with infant formulas (J Senterre, J Rigo, G Forget, G Dandrifosse and N Romain, unpublished results). This difference does not seem to be present when powdered milk is supplemented with polyamines at the concentration found in breast milk; (4) spermine increases proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes isolated from the tonsils of children. [less ▲]

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See detailStenosis of a Mechanical Mitral Prosthetic Valve in a Patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Hoffer, E.; Itoua, M.; Radermecker, Maurice ULg et al

in Acta Cardiologica (2000), 55(1), 49-51

A young woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) developed progressive heart failure several years after mitral valve replacement with a Bjork-Shiley prosthesis for treating mitral stenosis due to ... [more ▼]

A young woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) developed progressive heart failure several years after mitral valve replacement with a Bjork-Shiley prosthesis for treating mitral stenosis due to Libman-Sacks endocarditis. She was admitted to the hospital with pulmonary oedema. Transoesophageal echocardiography revealed stenosis of the mitral prosthesis, which was covered by fibrous tissue. Replacement of the prosthesis was done but the patient died from cerebral haemorrhage three days later. Although three cases of prosthetic valve dysfunction in SLE have been documented so far, this is to our knowledge the first report of a SLE recurrence on a tilting disc mechanical valve. [less ▲]

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See detailExtensive Genome-Wide Linkage Disequilibrium in Cattle
Farnir, Frédéric ULg; Coppieters, Wouter ULg; Arranz, J. J. et al

in Genome Research (2000), 10(2), 220-7

A genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) map was generated using microsatellite genotypes (284 autosomal microsatellite loci) of 581 gametes sampled from the dutch black-and-white dairy cattle population ... [more ▼]

A genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) map was generated using microsatellite genotypes (284 autosomal microsatellite loci) of 581 gametes sampled from the dutch black-and-white dairy cattle population. LD was measured between all marker pairs, both syntenic and nonsyntenic. Analysis of syntenic pairs revealed surprisingly high levels of LD that, although more pronounced for closely linked marker pairs, extended over several tens of centimorgan. In addition, significant gametic associations were also shown to be very common between nonsyntenic loci. Simulations using the known genealogies of the studied sample indicate that random drift alone is likely to account for most of the observed disequilibrium. No clear evidence was obtained for a direct effect of selection ("Bulmer effect"). The observation of long range disequilibrium between syntenic loci using low-density marker maps indicates that LD mapping has the potential to be very effective in livestock populations. The frequent occurrence of gametic associations between nonsyntenic loci, however, encourages the combined use of linkage and linkage disequilibrium methods to avoid false positive results when mapping genes in livestock. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis, morphology, and mechanical properties of poly(methyl methacrylate)-b-poly(n-butyl acrylate)-b-poly (methyl methacrylate) triblocks. Ligated anionic polymerization vs atom transfer radical polymerization
Tong, Jiang-Dong; Moineau, Georges; Leclère, Philippe et al

in Macromolecules (2000), 33(2), 470-479

Poly(methyl methacrylate)-b-poly(n-butyl acrylate)-b-poly(methyl methacrylate) triblock copolymers have been prepared by ligated anionic polymerization (LAP; 8K-50K-8K) and atom transfer radical ... [more ▼]

Poly(methyl methacrylate)-b-poly(n-butyl acrylate)-b-poly(methyl methacrylate) triblock copolymers have been prepared by ligated anionic polymerization (LAP; 8K-50K-8K) and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP; 9K-51K-9K). Size exclusion chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance, and differential scanning calorimetry have confirmed that the molecular structure of the two triblock copolymers is essentially identical. However, important differences are found in dynamic mechanical properties, viscoelastic properties, and stress−strain behavior. Indeed, the ATRP copolymer has low storage modulus, high complex viscosity, high order−disorder transition temperature, and poor ultimate tensile strength and elongation at break, compared to those of the LAP analogue. Marked differences also observed by tapping mode atomic force microscopy in the microscopic morphology of thin films of these copolymers. All these observations can be explained by the slow initiation of MMA by the poly(n-butyl acrylate) macroinitiator used in ATRP in contrast to what happens when MMA is added to living poly(tert-butyl acrylate) anions. As a result, the polydispersity of the short poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) outer blocks is much broader in the ATRP copolymer, although the polydispersity index of the triblock is only 1.15. This heterogeneous structure of the ATRP triblock is also supported by the comparison of homo-PMMAs prepared by LAP and ATRP. [less ▲]

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See detailDispense de permis d'urbanisme en Région wallonne (IV)
Delnoy, Michel ULg

in Immobilier (2000), 1

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See detailRing-Opening Polymerization of γ-bromo-ε-caprolactone : A novel route to functionalized aliphatic polyesters
Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Mazza, Michaël; Halleux, Olivier et al

in Macromolecules (2000), 33(1), 14-18

The synthesis, characterization, and polymerization of a new cyclic ester, gamma-bromo-epsilon-caprolactone (gamma-BrCL), are reported. The ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of this new monomer initiated ... [more ▼]

The synthesis, characterization, and polymerization of a new cyclic ester, gamma-bromo-epsilon-caprolactone (gamma-BrCL), are reported. The ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of this new monomer initiated from Al((OPr)-Pr-i)(3) as initiator in toluene at 0 degrees C was found to be living and proceeds by a coordination-insertion mechanism. Random and block copolymerizations of this gamma-BrCL with epsilon-caprolactone (epsilon-CL) were also found to be living as evidenced by the experimental molecular weight which is consistent with that expected from the monomer to initiator molar ratio, the narrow polydispersity, and the good agreement between the comonomers molar fraction in the comonomer feed and the copolymer. The thermal transitions (Tg and Tm) in the epsilon-CL/gamma-Br-CL random copolymers depend strongly on the gamma-BrCL content. Increasing the gamma BrCL content in the copolymer [F(BrCL)] increased the Tg of the copolymer from -61 degrees C for poly(epsilon-caprolactone) to -16.5 degrees C for the poly( gamma-BrCL) homopolymer but decreased the Tm of the PCL to contents of similar to 30 mol % of gamma BrCL [F(BrCL) =0.3]Beyond this value, the copolymers were found to be amorphous and exist as viscous liquids. [less ▲]

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See detailCell Type-Specific Role for Reactive Oxygen Species in Nuclear Factor-Kappab Activation by Interleukin-1
Bonizzi, G.; Piette, Jacques ULg; Merville, Marie-Paule ULg et al

in Biochemical Pharmacology (2000), 59(1), 7-11

The role of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) in nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation remains a matter of controversy. We have studied whether ROIs played any role in NF-kappaB induction by ... [more ▼]

The role of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) in nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation remains a matter of controversy. We have studied whether ROIs played any role in NF-kappaB induction by interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) in different cell types. Our studies indicated three different pathways. IL-1beta stimulation of lymphoid cells generates ROIs, which are required for IkappaB-alpha degradation and NF-kappaB activation. The source of these ROIs is the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) enzyme. In monocytic cells, ROIs are also produced in response to IL-1beta and necessary for NF-kappaB induction, but their source appears to be the NADPH oxidase complex. Finally, epithelial cells do not generate ROIs after IL-1beta stimulation, but do rapidly activate NF-kappaB. Interestingly, transfection of epithelial cells with the 5-LOX and 5-LOX activating protein expression vectors restored ROI production and ROI-dependent NF-kappaB activation in response to IL-1beta. Our data thus indicate that ROIs are cell type-specific second messengers for NF-kappaB induction by IL-1beta. [less ▲]

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See detailFar ultraviolet imaging from the IMAGE spacecraft. 1. System design
Mende, S. B.; Heetderks, H.; Frey, H. U. et al

in Space Science Reviews (2000), 91

Direct imaging of the magnetosphere by the IMAGE spacecraft will be supplemented by observation of the global aurora, the footprint of magnetospheric regions. To assure the simultaneity of these ... [more ▼]

Direct imaging of the magnetosphere by the IMAGE spacecraft will be supplemented by observation of the global aurora, the footprint of magnetospheric regions. To assure the simultaneity of these observations and the measurement of the magnetospheric background neutral gas density, the IMAGE satellite instrument complement includes three Far Ultraviolet (FUV) instruments. In the wavelength region 120-190 nm, a downward-viewing auroral imager is only minimally contaminated by sunlight, scattered from clouds and ground, and radiance of the aurora observed in a nadir viewing geometry can be observed in the presence of the high-latitude dayglow. The Wideband Imaging Camera (WIC) will provide broad band ultraviolet images of the aurora for maximum spatial and temporal resolution by imaging the LBH N_2 bands of the aurora. The Spectrographic Imager (SI), a monochromatic imager, will image different types of aurora, filtered by wavelength. By measuring the Doppler-shifted Ly-alpha, the proton-induced component of the aurora will be imaged separately. Finally, the GEO instrument will observe the distribution of the geocoronal emission, which is a measure of the neutral background density source for charge exchange in the magnetosphere. The FUV instrument complement looks radially outward from the rotating IMAGE satellite and, therefore, it spends only a short time observing the aurora and the Earth during each spin. Detailed descriptions of the WIC, SI, GEO, and their individual performance validations are discussed in companion papers. This paper summarizes the system requirements and system design approach taken to satisfy the science requirements. One primary requirement is to maximize photon collection efficiency and use efficiently the short time available for exposures. The FUV auroral imagers WIC and SI both have wide fields of view and take data continuously as the auroral region proceeds through the field of view. To minimize data volume, multiple images are taken and electronically co-added by suitably shifting each image to compensate for the spacecraft rotation. In order to minimize resolution loss, the images have to be distortion-corrected in real time for both WIC and SI prior to co-adding. The distortion correction is accomplished using high speed look up tables that are pre-generated by least square fitting to polynomial functions by the on-orbit processor. The instruments were calibrated individually while on stationery platforms, mostly in vacuum chambers as described in the companion papers. Extensive ground-based testing was performed with visible and near UV simulators mounted on a rotating platform to estimate their on-orbit performance. The predicted instrument system performance is summarized and some of the preliminary data formats are shown. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis and polarized light-induced birefringence of new polymethacrylates containing carbazolyl and azobenzene pendant groups
Maertens, Christophe; Dubois, Philippe ULg; Jérôme, Robert ULg et al

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part B, Polymer Physics (2000), 38(1), 205-213

Low Tg copolymers of [11(N-carbazolyl)undecylmethacrylate] and [2,5-dimethylphenyl-[(4-nitrophenyl)azo]-phenoxyalkylmethacrylate] have been synthesized and the polarized light-induced birefringence of ... [more ▼]

Low Tg copolymers of [11(N-carbazolyl)undecylmethacrylate] and [2,5-dimethylphenyl-[(4-nitrophenyl)azo]-phenoxyalkylmethacrylate] have been synthesized and the polarized light-induced birefringence of thick films (70 m) has been investigated at a constant deducted temperature relative to Tg (T - Tg = 10 °C). The optical properties of these copolymers have been studied in relation to the azo-dye content and the length of the alkyl spacer between the azo-dye and the methacrylic backbone. They have been compared with the dispersion of (4-methoxy-2,5-dimethylphenyl)-(4-nitrophenyl)diazene (DMNPAA) within a poly[11(N-carbazolyl)undecyl-methacrylate] and a poly[N-vinylcarbazole] (PVK) matrix. The experimental curves have been fitted by biexponentials, so emphasizing the effects of the copolymer structure on the kinetics of the writing process. The photoinduced orientation is more than three orders of magnitude higher in a grafted material compared to the dispersion version. The azo-dye concentration also has an important role in both the amplitude and the dynamics of the photo-orientation. [less ▲]

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See detailPOX 186: the ultracompact blue compact dwarf galaxy reveals its nature
Doublier, V.; Kunth, D.; Courbin, F. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2000), 353

High resolution, ground based R and I band observations of the ultra compact dwarf galaxy POX 186 are presented. The data, obtained with the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT), are analyzed using a new ... [more ▼]

High resolution, ground based R and I band observations of the ultra compact dwarf galaxy POX 186 are presented. The data, obtained with the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT), are analyzed using a new deconvolution algorithm which allows one to resolve the innermost regions of this stellar-like object into three Super-Star Clusters (SSC). Upper limits to both masses (M ~ 10[SUP]5[/SUP] M[SUB]sun[/SUB]) and physical sizes (<=60pc) of the SSCs are set. In addition, and maybe most importantly, extended light emission underlying the compact star-forming region is clearly detected in both bands. The R-I color rules out nebular Halpha contamination and is consistent with an old stellar population. This casts doubt on the hypothesis that Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies (BCDG) are young galaxies. based on observations carried out at NTT in La Silla, operated by the European Southern Observatory, during Director's Discretionary Time. [less ▲]

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See detailFar ultraviolet imaging from the IMAGE spacecraft. 3. Spectral imaging of Lyman-alpha and OI 135.6 nm
Mende, S. B.; Heetderks, H.; Frey, H. U. et al

in Space Science Reviews (2000), 91

Two FUV Spectral imaging instruments, the Spectrographic Imager (SI) and the Geocorona Photometer (GEO) provide IMAGE with simultaneous global maps of the hydrogen (121.8 nm) and oxygen 135.6 nm ... [more ▼]

Two FUV Spectral imaging instruments, the Spectrographic Imager (SI) and the Geocorona Photometer (GEO) provide IMAGE with simultaneous global maps of the hydrogen (121.8 nm) and oxygen 135.6 nm components of the terrestrial aurora and with observations of the three dimensional distribution of neutral hydrogen in the magnetosphere (121.6 nm). The SI is a novel instrument type, in which spectral separation and imaging functions are independent of each other. In this instrument, two-dimensional images are produced on two detectors, and the images are spectrally filtered by a spectrograph part of the instrument. One of the two detectors images the Doppler-shifted Lyman-alpha while rejecting the geocoronal `cold' Ly-alpha, and another detector images the OI 135.6 nm emission. The spectrograph is an all-reflective Wadsworth configuration in which a grill arrangement is used to block most of the cold, un-Doppler-shifted geocoronal emission at 121.567 nm. The SI calibration established that the upper limit of transmission at cold geocoronal Ly-alpha is less than 2%. The measured light collecting efficiency was 0.01 and 0.008 cm^2 at 121.8 and at 135.6 nm, respectively. This is consistent with the size of the input aperture, the optical transmission, and the photocathode efficiency. The expected sensitivity is 1.8x10^-2 and 1.3x10^-2 counts per Rayleigh per pixel for each 5 s viewing exposure per satellite revolution (120 s). The measured spatial resolution is better than the 128x128 pixel matrix over the 15 degx15 deg field of view in both wavelength channels. The SI detectors are photon counting devices using the cross delay line principle. In each detector a triple stack microchannel plate (MCP) amplifies the photo-electronic charge which is then deposited on a specially configured anode array. The position of the photon event is measured by digitizing the time delay between the pulses detected at each end of the anode structures. This scheme is intrinsically faster than systems that use charge division and it has a further advantage that it saturates more gradually at high count rates. The geocoronal Ly-alpha is measured by a three-channel photometer system (GEO) which is a separate instrument. Each photometer has a built in MgF_2 lens to restrict the field of view to one degree and a ceramic electron multiplier with a KBr photocathode. One of the tubes is pointing radially outward perpendicular to the axis of satellite rotation. The optic of the other two subtend 60 deg with the rotation axis. These instruments take data continuously at 3 samples per second and rely on the combination of satellite rotation and orbital motion to scan the hydrogen cloud surrounding the earth. The detective efficiencies (effective quantum efficiency including windows) of the three tubes at Ly-alpha are between 6 and 10%. [less ▲]

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