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See detailInteraction Of Surfactin With Membranes: A Computational Approach
Deleu, Magali ULiege; Bouffioux, O.; Razafindralambo, Hary ULiege et al

in Langmuir (2003), 19(8),

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See detailOccurrence of sulphides on the bornite-idaite join from Vielsalm, Stavelot Massif, Belgium
Hatert, Frédéric ULiege

in European Journal of Mineralogy (2003), 15(6, NOV-DEC), 1063-1068

Sulphides with chemical compositions between idaite and bornite have been identified from several quartz veins crosscutting Ordovician schists in Vielsalm, Belgium. Idaite is an oxidation product of ... [more ▼]

Sulphides with chemical compositions between idaite and bornite have been identified from several quartz veins crosscutting Ordovician schists in Vielsalm, Belgium. Idaite is an oxidation product of bornite, and occurs in the more oxidised parts of the quartz veins. The alteration sequence bomite --> "anomalous bornite" --> idaite is observed, associated with the growth of chalcopyrite lamellae parallel to the {100} and {111} directions of precursor bornite. Electron microprobe analyses indicate a chemical composition significantly enriched in Cu, when compared with the ideal composition of idaite, Cu3FeS4, as well as a progressive compositional evolution from bomite to idaite. The X-ray powder pattern is indexed in the space group I (4) over bar 2m, similar to that of stannite, and gives the unit-cell parameters a = 5.279(4) and c = 10.47(2) Angstrom. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of somatic growth, strain and sex on double-chamber plethysmographic respiratory function values in healthy mice
Flandre, Thierry; Leroy, Pascal ULiege; Desmecht, Daniel ULiege

in Journal of Applied Physiology (2003), 94

Double-chamber plethysmography has been recognized since 1979 as a reference technique to measure pulmonary function values in guinea pigs, but it has not gained attention for use in mice. Theoretically ... [more ▼]

Double-chamber plethysmography has been recognized since 1979 as a reference technique to measure pulmonary function values in guinea pigs, but it has not gained attention for use in mice. Theoretically, however, this technique combines the advantages of single-chamber plethysmography with a quantitative assessment of flow and/or volume and a calculated resistance, the interpretation of which in terms of bronchoconstriction is not disputed. Here we show that, when appropriately preconditioned, mice are able to gradually grow accustomed to the apparatus and display extremely stable nasal and thoracoabdominal flow tracings. Overall, strain, sex, and somatic growth had a significant effect on pulmonary function values. The changes in specific airway resistance (sRaw) and enhanced pause (Penh) values were never in the same direction, indicating that they measure different things. The respiratory frequency was far higher in C57BL/6 compared with BALB/c mice. Peak flows, minute volume, specific tidal and minute volumes, and sRaw were also higher, but Penh was smaller. Males breathed at a higher frequency than females, leading to a higher minute volume. Nevertheless, the specific volumes were considerably higher among females. Penh was lower in males, whereas sRaw was identical in both sexes. Changes associated with somatic growth were rapid and important between 5 and 9 wk, then slowed down between 9 and 12-13 wk and became almost imperceptible after. [less ▲]

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See detailAdaptive mesh generation for mould filling problems in resin transfer moulding
Béchet, Eric ULiege; Ruiz, E.; Trochu, François et al

in Composites : Part A, Applied Science & Manufacturing (2003), 34(9), 813-834

In injection moulding processes such as Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM) for example, numerical simulations are usually performed on a fixed mesh, on which the numerical algorithm predict the displacement of ... [more ▼]

In injection moulding processes such as Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM) for example, numerical simulations are usually performed on a fixed mesh, on which the numerical algorithm predict the displacement of the flow front. Error estimations can be used in the numerical algorithm to optimise the mesh for the finite element analysis. The mesh can be also adapted during mould filling to follow the shape of the moving boundary. However, in order to minimize computer time, it is preferable to optimise the mesh before carrying out the filling calculation. In this paper, these ideas are adapted to 3D shells, which represent the most common type of composite parts manufactured by RTM. An error estimator generally used in planar or solid geometries is extended for curved 3D surfaces in the specific case of RTM calculations. The extension consists of a projection of the solution field in the tangent plane to avoid problems related to the curvature of the part. Some other issues specific to shell geometries are pointed out and the results of a filling simulation made on a real part are presented. Non-isothermal filling simulations are also carried out in a rectangular mould to illustrate the stability conditions that arise from the convective heat transfer problem. Finally, an analytical study of radial injections is carried out to illustrate issues related to four types of different mesh refinement procedures: (1) a constant time step, (2) constant radial density (to allow a regular progression of the flow front at each time step), (3) a constant Courant number (to ensure stable thermal simulations); and (4) finally, a constant interpolation error. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailThe callipyge locus: evidence for the trans interaction of reciprocally imprinted genes
Georges, Michel ULiege; Charlier, Carole ULiege; Cockett, N.

in Trends in Genetics (2003), 19

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See detailCognitive impairment, dementia and quality of life.
Kurz, Xavier; Scuvée-Moreau, Jacqueline ULiege; Vernooij-Dassen, M. et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2003), 103

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See detailNote sous Cass., 29 novembre 2001
Biquet, Christine ULiege

in Journal des Juges de Paix = Tijdschrift van de Vrederecters (2003)

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See detailModulation of small conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels: a new challenge in medicinal chemistry.
Liégeois, Jean-François ULiege; Mercier, Frédéric ULiege; Graulich, Amaury et al

in Current Medicinal Chemistry (2003), 10(8), 625-47

Small conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels are found in many types of neurons as well as in some other cell types. These channels are selective for K(+) and open when intracellular Ca(2 ... [more ▼]

Small conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels are found in many types of neurons as well as in some other cell types. These channels are selective for K(+) and open when intracellular Ca(2+) rises to omega 500 nM. In neurons, this occurs during and after an action potential. Activation of SK channels hyperpolarizes the membrane, thus reducing cell excitability for several tens or hundreds of milliseconds. This phenomenon is called a afterhyperpolarization (AHP). Three subtypes of SK channels (SK1, SK2, SK3) have been cloned and exhibit a differential localization in the brain. SK channels may play a role in physiological and pathological conditions. They may be involved in the control of memory and cognition. Moreover, they are heavily expressed in the basal ganglia (in particular in the substantia nigra, pars compacta) and in the limbic system, suggesting that they may modulate motricity and emotional behaviour. Based on these facts, SK channel subtypes may be a suitable target for developing novel therapeutic agents, but more work is needed to validate these targets. Hence, there is a great need for selective ligands. Moreover, although the risk of peripheral side-effects for SK channel modulators appears to be low, some questions remain to be investigated. Currently, different molecules are known as SK channel modulators. Apamin is a very potent peptidic agent; it produces a strong blockade of these targets which is only very slowly reversible and it has limited selectivity. Dequalinium was found to be an effective blocker. Different chemical modulations on the dequalinium structure led to the discovery of highly potent bis-quinolinium derivatives such as UCL 1684. Other bis-(2-amino-benzimidazole) derivatives are in development. On the other hand, quaternary salts of bicuculline were reported to be effective in inhibiting AHPs. More recent developments on structurally-related molecules revealed that methyl-laudanosine is a new interesting tool for exploring SK channel pharmacology. Finally, a family of compounds has been shown to facilitate SK channel opening. Such compounds may be useful in treating disorders involving neuronal hyperexcitability. [less ▲]

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See detailLa Belgique francophone face au référendum sarrois de 1955
Lanneau, Catherine ULiege

in Revue d'Allemagne et des Pays de Langue Allemande (2003), 35(4), 525-545

Since 1945, French-speaking Belgians were looking at the « Saar problem », stumbling block of Europe’s build-up, with a mixture of awe and hope. In 1955, as the inhabitants were asked to vote on a ... [more ▼]

Since 1945, French-speaking Belgians were looking at the « Saar problem », stumbling block of Europe’s build-up, with a mixture of awe and hope. In 1955, as the inhabitants were asked to vote on a peculiar status of “Europeanised” autonomous territory (within the WEU but keeping economical union with France), the coming plebiscite was seen as a good bid on Europe’s future. At first, Belgian public opinion was under the influence of optimistic statements made by official French and autonomist propaganda. After the failure of the plebiscite, Belgian journalists and diplomats tried to find some simple and often rather bombastic explanations: intern and extern weakness of France seen as over-cautious or tinted with europhobia, lack of appeal of the European idea, attractiveness of the German economical bloom, Nazi nostalgia or even perennial nationalism of the German man. Then, Saarland, having refused to be an oddity in a nation-based Europe, fell from public interest into oblivion... [less ▲]

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See detailEtudes des impacts hydrauliques, sédimentologiques et écologiques liés aux travaux hydrauliques sur la Semois
Gob, Frédéric; Houbrechts, Geoffrey ULiege; Mols, Julien et al

in Belgeo (2003), 3

Cette étude tente d’évaluer les impacts des dragages réalisés dans le bassin de la Semois (Ardenne). Cette étude interdisciplinaire se penche sur les aspects hydrauliques, environnementaux ... [more ▼]

Cette étude tente d’évaluer les impacts des dragages réalisés dans le bassin de la Semois (Ardenne). Cette étude interdisciplinaire se penche sur les aspects hydrauliques, environnementaux, géomorphologiques et sédimentologiques. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of UDP-glucose : protein transglucosylase genes from potato.
Wald, F. A.; Kissen, R.; du Jardin, Patrick ULiege et al

in Plant Molecular Biology (2003), 52

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See detailThe lichen genus Caprettia Bat. & H. Maia
Sérusiaux, Emmanuël ULiege; Lücking, Robert

in Bibliotheca Lichenologica (2003), 86

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See detailInduction of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber sprouting by hydrogen peroxide.
Bajji, M.; M'Hamdi, M.; Gastiny, F. et al

in Free Radical Research (2003), 37

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See detailPluralité de débiteurs, solidarité-sûreté et sûretés personnelles en matière de crédit à la consommation
Biquet, Christine ULiege

in Journal des Juges de Paix = Tijdschrift van de Vrederecters (2003)

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See detailThe Sahelian drought may have ended during the 1990s
Ozer, Pierre ULiege; Erpicum, Michel ULiege; Demarée, Gaston et al

in Hydrological Sciences Journal = Journal des Sciences Hydrologiques (2003), 48(3), 489-492

The severe drought that affects the Sahel since the late 1960s has been very closely studied and monitored during the last three decades. Recently, after several wet years, it was questioned from a ... [more ▼]

The severe drought that affects the Sahel since the late 1960s has been very closely studied and monitored during the last three decades. Recently, after several wet years, it was questioned from a statistical point of view whether the drought was over. The conclusions of a recent study were that the rainfall deficit was not over at the end of 2000 and that the drought continues. The analysis of the change points in the station rainfall time series suggests differentiating these findings. There is now growing evidence that there is a potential shift towards a more humid state. However, the present analysis shows that the assumption that a significant increase in rainfall may have occurred around the early 1990s could only be verified at the customary confidence level in about 10 years from now. [less ▲]

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See detailStromatopogon cladoniae sp. nova, a remarkable new lichenicolous coelomycete from Belgium
Diederich, Paul; Sérusiaux, Emmanuël ULiege

in Bibliotheca Lichenologica (2003), 86

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See detailJean-Marie Graulich, biographie
Delmer, Andre; Da Silva, Anne-Christine ULiege

in Geologica Belgica (2003), 6(3/4), 73-80

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See detailLe cas clinique du mois. La maladie de still de l'adulte: une cause rare d'hepatite aigue febrile
Michels, V.; Delwaide, Jean ULiege; Vermeulen, P. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(12), 729-733

A 63-year-old woman was hospitalized for the third time in one year for asthenia, fever and chills, jaundice, cytolysis and cholestasis. An adult onset Still's disease was diagnosed. Hepatic ... [more ▼]

A 63-year-old woman was hospitalized for the third time in one year for asthenia, fever and chills, jaundice, cytolysis and cholestasis. An adult onset Still's disease was diagnosed. Hepatic manifestations, diagnostic criteria and efficient therapy of AOSD will be reviewed. [less ▲]

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See detailTopical ascorbic acid on photoaged skin. Clinical, topographical and ultrastructural evaluation: double-blind study vs. placebo.
Humbert, Philippe G; Haftek, Marek; Creidi, Pierre et al

in Experimental Dermatology (2003), 12(3), 237-44

Vitamin C is known for its antioxidant potential and activity in the collagen biosynthetic pathway. Photoprotective properties of topically applied vitamin C have also been demonstrated, placing this ... [more ▼]

Vitamin C is known for its antioxidant potential and activity in the collagen biosynthetic pathway. Photoprotective properties of topically applied vitamin C have also been demonstrated, placing this molecule as a potential candidate for use in the prevention and treatment of skin ageing. A topically applied cream containing 5% vitamin C and its excipient were tested on healthy female volunteers presenting with photoaged skin on their low-neck and arms in view to evaluate efficacy and safety of such treatment. A double-blind, randomized trial was performed over a 6-month period, comparing the action of the vitamin C cream vs. excipient on photoaged skin. Clinical assessments included evaluation at the beginning and after 3 and 6 months of daily treatment. They were performed by the investigator and compared with the volunteer self assessment. Skin relief parameters were determined on silicone rubber replicas performed at the same time-points. Cutaneous biopsies were obtained at the end of the trial and investigated using immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Clinical examination by a dermatologist as well as self-assessment by the volunteers disclosed a significant improvement, in terms of the 'global score', on the vitamin C-treated side compared with the control. A highly significant increase in the density of skin microrelief and a decrease of the deep furrows were demonstrated. Ultrastructural evidence of the elastic tissue repair was also obtained and well corroborated the favorable results of the clinical and skin surface examinations. Topical application of 5% vitamin C cream was an effective and well-tolerated treatment. It led to a clinically apparent improvement of the photodamaged skin and induced modifications of skin relief and ultrastructure, suggesting a positive influence of topical vitamin C on parameters characteristic for sun-induced skin ageing. [less ▲]

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See detailLa beauté cachée du lait: enfance et boisson chez Eugène Savitzkaya
Demoulin, Laurent ULiege

in Textyles : Revue des Lettres Belges de Langue Française (2003), 23

Parcours dans l'oeuvre d'Eugène Savitzkaya. Examen du thème de l'enfance à travers le motif symbolique récurrent du lait.

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See detailThe fate of the adjacent motion segments after lumbar fusion.
Gillet, Philippe ULiege

in Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques (2003), 16(4), 338-45

Lumbar spine fusion is a commonly performed procedure in various pathologic conditions of the spine. Its role remains debated, and moreover, delayed complications may occur, among which is transitional ... [more ▼]

Lumbar spine fusion is a commonly performed procedure in various pathologic conditions of the spine. Its role remains debated, and moreover, delayed complications may occur, among which is transitional segment alteration leading to recurrence of back pain, gross instability, and neurologic symptoms. Little is known about the long-term prevalence of this complication because of a lack of specific studies. We analyzed the fate of the transitional segments in a homogeneous group of patients operated on during a 14-year period for degenerative conditions of the lumbar spine resistant to conservative treatment. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 15 years. Seventy-five percent of our study group had a minimal 5-year follow-up. In this subgroup, 41% of the patients developed transitional segment alterations, and 20% needed a secondary operation for extension of the fusion. Potential risk factors such as postoperative delay, length of fusion, and spine imbalance were recognized. The frequency of delayed alterations of the adjacent segment and the severity of symptoms related to this complication in this study raise questions about the justification of fusion procedures in degenerative conditions of the spine without threatening instability. Data from the literature confirm the severity of the problem, but many uncertainties remain because of the lack of homogeneous and complete data on both the normal evolution of motion segments of the lumbar spine with age and the fate of the same segments when transformed in transitional segments. Future prospective studies on the subject are needed and must deal with homogeneous groups of patients. More reconstructive surgical procedures need to be developed to lessen the need for fusion procedures. [less ▲]

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See detailLes onychomycoses--echec et mat?
Arrese Estrada, Jorge ULiege; Quatresooz, Pascale ULiege; Pierard, Claudine ULiege et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(9), 559-62

According to individuals, onychomycoses or their treatments can be held in check. Some of the "promises" sometimes offered by pharmaceutical companies are not fully kept and hopes of cure may remain wild ... [more ▼]

According to individuals, onychomycoses or their treatments can be held in check. Some of the "promises" sometimes offered by pharmaceutical companies are not fully kept and hopes of cure may remain wild. Some special therapeutic strategies should be employed in case of recalcitrant or recurrent onychomycosis. [less ▲]

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See detailThermometer ions for matrix-enhanced laser desorption/ionization internal energy calibration
Greisch, Jean-François ULiege; Gabelica, Valérie ULiege; Remacle, Françoise ULiege et al

in Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry : RCM (2003), 17(16), 1847-1854

This work describes a method to use relative fragmentation yields to characterize the internal energy distribution of ions produced by matrix-enhanced laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MELDI ... [more ▼]

This work describes a method to use relative fragmentation yields to characterize the internal energy distribution of ions produced by matrix-enhanced laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MELDI-MS, see: Wright LG, Cooks RG, Wood KL. Biomed. Mass Spectrom. 1985; 12:153162). Assuming that the fragmentation proceeds statistically and that the collisions in the source lead to a Boltzmann-like distribution of the internal energy, a characteristic parameter, the effective temperature, is introduced to describe the internal energy distribution of the ions observed. The hypotheses, advantages and drawbacks of the implementation of the method that uses substituted benzylpyridinium salts as thermometer ions are discussed. Use is made of two matrices that produce no matrix cations in MELDI and are suitable for small cationic salts. The actual value of this effective temperature significantly depends on an accurate determination of the threshold dissociation energies and on the time spent in the source, in addition to the statistical hypothesis itself. The method could be applied to normalize spectra in order to compare results issued from different instruments. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of false transrectal ultrasonographic pregnancy diagnoses in sheep by measuring the plasma level of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins
Karen, A.; Beckers, Jean-François ULiege; Sulon, Joseph ULiege et al

in Reproduction Nutrition Development (2003), 43(6, NOV-DEC), 577-586

The present study was undertaken to investigate to what extent pregnancy diagnoses made by transrectal ultrasonography could be confirmed by measurements of plasma concentration of ovine pregnancy ... [more ▼]

The present study was undertaken to investigate to what extent pregnancy diagnoses made by transrectal ultrasonography could be confirmed by measurements of plasma concentration of ovine pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (ovPAG). A total of 424 Awassi x Merino ewes were synchronized for estrus and examined by transrectal ultrasonography. In Experiment 1, the ewes (n = 156) were repeatedly scanned in a standing position on d 29, 36 and 50 of gestation. Similarly, the ewes (n = 268) in Experiment 2 were scanned on d 24, 29 and 34 of gestation, but these ewes were fasted for 12 h prior to the examination and the abdominal wall of each animal was lifted up by the hands of the assistant during the scanning. Blood samples were withdrawn after each transrectal ultrasonographic examination in both experiments. Ovine PAG concentrations were measured in plasma by a heterologous radioimmunoassay and the cut-off value for pregnancy was greater than or equal to 1 ng.mL(-1). Based on the lambing performance, in Experiment 1, altogether 47 false negative and 38 false positive diagnoses were made by transrectal ultrasonography in 24 and 33 ewes, respectively between d 29 and 50 of gestation. In Experiment 2, altogether 8 false negative and 13 false positive diagnoses both were made in 7 ewes between d 24 and 34 of gestation. In both experiments, all ewes with false negative diagnoses had ovPAG concentrations higher than the threshold level for pregnancy diagnosis and all ewes with false positive diagnoses had ovPAG concentrations lower than the threshold of pregnancy. Furthermore, by the PAG-RIA test all lambed or aborted ewes (n = 63) were correctly diagnosed as pregnant and with three exceptions, all non-lambed ewes (n = 361) were correctly diagnosed as non-pregnant during the examined periods of both experiments. [less ▲]

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See detailInterlaboratory study of a liquid chromatography method for erythromycin: determination of uncertainty.
Dehouck, P.; Vander Heyden, Y.; Smeyers-Verbeke, J. et al

in Journal of Chromatography. A (2003), 1010(1), 63-74

Erythromycin is a mixture of macrolide antibiotics produced by Saccharopolyspora erythreas during fermentation. A new method for the analysis of erythromycin by liquid chromatography has previously been ... [more ▼]

Erythromycin is a mixture of macrolide antibiotics produced by Saccharopolyspora erythreas during fermentation. A new method for the analysis of erythromycin by liquid chromatography has previously been developed. It makes use of an Astec C18 polymeric column. After validation in one laboratory, the method was now validated in an interlaboratory study. Validation studies are commonly used to test the fitness of the analytical method prior to its use for routine quality testing. The data derived in the interlaboratory study can be used to make an uncertainty statement as well. The relationship between validation and uncertainty statement is not clear for many analysts and there is a need to show how the existing data, derived during validation, can be used in practice. Eight laboratories participated in this interlaboratory study. The set-up allowed the determination of the repeatability variance, s(2)r and the between-laboratory variance, s(2)L. Combination of s(2)r and s(2)L results in the reproducibility variance s(2)R. It has been shown how these data can be used in future by a single laboratory that wants to make an uncertainty statement concerning the same analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards an Understanding of Hafting: the macro- and microscopic evidence
Rots, Veerle ULiege

in Antiquity (2003), 77(298), 805-815

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See detailCommentaires sur la correction d'un travail écrit
Dumortier, Jean-Louis ULiege

in Puzzle (2003), 14

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See detailHow do paedomorphic newts cope with lake drying?
Denoël, Mathieu ULiege

in Ecography (2003), 26(4), 405-410

Paedomorphosis, in which adult individuals retain larval traits, is widespread in newts and salamanders. Most evolutionary models predict the maintenance of this life-history trait in favourable aquatic ... [more ▼]

Paedomorphosis, in which adult individuals retain larval traits, is widespread in newts and salamanders. Most evolutionary models predict the maintenance of this life-history trait in favourable aquatic habitats surrounded by hostile terrestrial environments. Nevertheless, numerous ponds inhabited by paedomorphic individuals are unpredictable and temporary. In an experimental framework, I showed that paedomorphic newts were able to metamorphose and thus survive in the absence of water. However, the mere decrease of water level or the life space do not seem to induce metamorphosis in paedomorphs. On the contrary, drying up induces almost all individuals to move on land and after that to colonize other aquatic sites located nearby. Such terrestrial migrations allow survival in drying conditions without metamorphosis as long as the distances of terrestrial migration are short. These results are consistent with the presence of paedomorphs in drying ponds and are in favor of classic optimality models predicting metamorphosis in unfavorable environments. [less ▲]

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See detailChronique de la 56ème Session de la Société Internationale Fernand de Visscher à Cagliari (17-21 Septembre 2002)
Gerkens, Jean-François ULiege

in Revue Internationale des Droits de l'Antiquité (2003), L

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See detailNew or interesting lichens and lichenicolous fungi from Belgium, Luxembourg and northern France. IX.
Sérusiaux, Emmanuël ULiege; Diederich, Paul; Ertz, Damien et al

in Lejeunia, Revue de Botanique (2003), 173

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See detailIneffectiveness of chloroquine antenatal prophylaxis in East of Democratic Republic of Congo (RDC).
Mugisho, E.; Dramaix, M.; Porignon, Denis ULiege et al

in Tropical doctor (2003), 33(3), 177-178

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See detailLa figure de la Vierge Marie dans l’histoire des femmes et du féminisme
Delfosse, Annick ULiege

in Hieros : Bulletin Annuel de la Société Belgo-luxembourgeoise d'Histoire des Religions (2003), 8

The A. offers to study the place of the Marian figure in the women story. She proves to show various points of view: the masculine cleric authorities’ use of the Virgin as an identification norm imposed ... [more ▼]

The A. offers to study the place of the Marian figure in the women story. She proves to show various points of view: the masculine cleric authorities’ use of the Virgin as an identification norm imposed to the women as well as the claim of these latter to define the Virgin also as an emancipation tool. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of reactive oxygen species in homeostasis and degradation of cartilage.
Henrotin, Yves ULiege; Bruckner, P.; Pujol, J. P.

in Osteoarthritis and Cartilage (2003), 11(10), 747-55

OBJECTIVES: The metabolism of cells in articular joint tissues in normal and pathological conditions is subject to a complex environmental control. In addition to soluble mediators such as cytokines and ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: The metabolism of cells in articular joint tissues in normal and pathological conditions is subject to a complex environmental control. In addition to soluble mediators such as cytokines and growth factors, as well as mechanical stimuli, reactive oxygen species (ROS) emerge as major factors in this regulation. ROS production has been found to increase in joint diseases, such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, but their role in joint diseases initiation and progression remains questionable. METHOD: This review is focused on the role of ROS, mainly nitric oxide, peroxynitrite and superoxide anion radicals, in the signaling mechanisms implied in the main cellular functions, including synthesis and degradation of matrix components. The direct effects of ROS on cartilage matrix components as well as their inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects are also considered. RESULTS: Some intracellular signaling pathways are redox sensitive and ROS are involved in the regulation of the production of some biochemical factors involved in cartilage degradation and joint inflammation. Further, ROS may cause damage to all matrix components, either by a direct attack or indirectly by reducing matrix components synthesis, by inducing apoptosis or by activating latent metalloproteinases. Finally, we have highlighted the uncoupling effect of ROS on tissue remodeling and synovium inflammation, suggesting that antioxidant therapy could be helpful to treat structural changes but not to relieve symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: This review of the literature supports the concept that ROS are not only deleterious agents involved in cartilage degradation, but that they also act as integral factors of intracellular signaling mechanisms. Further investigation is required to support the concept of antioxidant therapy in the management of joint diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiple mechanisms control brain aromatase activity at the genomic and non-genomic level
Balthazart, Jacques ULiege; Baillien, Michelle; Charlier, Thierry ULiege et al

in Journal of Steroid Biochemistry & Molecular Biology (2003), 86

Evidence has recently accumulated indicating that aromatase activity in the preoptic area is modulated in parallel by both slow (hours to days) genomic and rapid (minutes to hours) non-genomic mechanisms ... [more ▼]

Evidence has recently accumulated indicating that aromatase activity in the preoptic area is modulated in parallel by both slow (hours to days) genomic and rapid (minutes to hours) non-genomic mechanisms. We review here these two types of control mechanisms and their potential contribution to various aspects of brain physiology in quail. High levels of aromatase mRNA, protein and activity (AA) are present in the preoptic area of this species where the transcription of aromatase is controlled mainly by steroids. Estrogens acting in synergy with androgens play a key role in this control and both androgen and estrogen receptors (ER; alpha and beta subtypes) are present in the preoptic area even if they are not necessarily co-localized in the same cells as aromatase. Steroids have more pronounced effects on aromatase transcription in males than in females and this sex difference could be caused, in part, by a sexually differentiated expression of the steroid receptor coactivator 1 in this area. The changes in aromatase concentration presumably control seasonal variations as well as sex differences in brain estrogen production. Aromatase activity in hypothalamic homogenates is also rapidly (within minutes) down-regulated by exposure to conditions that enhance protein phosphorylation such as the presence of high concentrations of calcium, magnesium and ATP. Similarly, pharmacological manipulations such as treatment with thapsigargin or stimulation of various neurotransmitter receptors (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA), kainate, and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)) leading to enhanced intracellular calcium concentrations depress within minutes the aromatase activity measured in quail preoptic explants. The effects of receptor stimulation are presumably direct: electrophysiological data confirm the presence of these receptors in the membrane of aromatase-expressing cells. Inhibitors of protein kinases interfere with these processes andWestern blotting experiments on brain aromatase purified by immunoprecipitation confirm that the phosphorylations regulating aromatase activity directly affect the enzyme rather than another regulatory protein. Accordingly, several phosphorylation consensus sites are present on the deduced amino acid sequence of the recently cloned quail aromatase. Fast changes in the local availability of estrogens in the brain can thus be caused by aromatase phosphorylation so that estrogen could rapidly regulate neuronal physiology and behavior. The rapid as well as slower processes of local estrogen production in the brain thus match well with the genomic and non-genomic actions of steroids in the brain. These two processes potentially provide sufficient temporal variation in the bio-availability of estrogens to support the entire range of established effects for this steroid. [less ▲]

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See detailImbalance between lipoxin A(4) and leukotriene B-4 in chronic mastitis-affected cows
Boutet, Philippe ULiege; Bureau, Fabrice ULiege; Degand, Guy ULiege et al

in Journal of Dairy Science (2003), 86(11), 3430-3439

Persistent accumulation of inflammatory cells in the udder, with neutrophils being the predominant cell type, is a characteristic feature of chronic mastitis in dairy cows. Leukotriene (LT) B-4 is a ... [more ▼]

Persistent accumulation of inflammatory cells in the udder, with neutrophils being the predominant cell type, is a characteristic feature of chronic mastitis in dairy cows. Leukotriene (LT) B-4 is a potent chemotactic agent, known to induce recruitment and accumulation of neutrophils in the bovine mammary gland. The LTB4-stimulated neutrophil functional responses are closely opposed by lipoxin (LX) A(4), which promotes the resolution of inflammation. We thus hypothesized that the chronic inflammation of the udder could be associated with an unfavorable ratio between these two eicosanoids and that the persistence of neutrophil accumulation could be due to an increase in LTB4 synthesis and/or an impaired LXA(4) production. In an attempt to verify this hypothesis, we first measured LXA(4), LTB4, and their ratio in the milk of healthy and acute and chronic mastitis-affected quarters. Next, we studied the relationships between these variables and the degree of udder inflammation as assessed by somatic cell count measurement. The LTB4 concentration was low in healthy quarters, drastically increased in acute mastitis, and reached intermediate levels in chronic mastitis-affected quarters. However, whereas LXA(4) concentration was highly increased in acute mastitis, healthy and chronic quarters had similarly low values. The LXA(4):LTB4 ratio was thus significantly lower in chronic mastitis-affected cows. The LTB4 concentrations measured in chronic quarters were highly correlated to somatic cell count and to milk neutrophil and macrophage numbers. A weaker correlation was observed between LXA(4) and these variables. For both eicosanoids, the highest correlation was observed with the number of neutrophils. These results show the existence of an LXA(4):LTB4 imbalance in chronic mastitis-affected cows because of low LXA(4) concentrations. Further studies are needed to determine whether administration of LX or stable analogs could have therapeutic potential in the control of chronic bovine mastitis. [less ▲]

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See detailPostexposure management of hepatitis A, B or C: treatment, postexposure prophylaxis and recommendations
Delwaide, Jean ULiege

in Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica (2003), 66(3), 250-254

Although there is no consensus on the best management of acute hepatitis C or on optimal strategy of follow-up after potential contamination, certain guidelines can nevertheless be proposed for the care ... [more ▼]

Although there is no consensus on the best management of acute hepatitis C or on optimal strategy of follow-up after potential contamination, certain guidelines can nevertheless be proposed for the care of these patients in practice. It is now recommended that acute hepatitis C be treated by interferon monotherapy in the presence of a C viremia, detectable by polymerase chain reaction, and an elevation of the transaminases. The earlier the treatment is started after appearance of symptoms, the more effective it is. Management of a potentially contaminated individuals consists of screening for the C virus as early as the fifteenth day after the potentially contaminating act and, in the case of virus transmission, starting interferon treatment as soon as elevation of the transaminases appears. No special precautions are to be taken by the person potentially contaminated for avoiding possible secondary C virus transmission during the follow-up period. In the case of acute hepatitis B, antiviral treatment should not be started, in view of the high percentage of spontaneous recoveries and the potentially negative effect of treatment on the chances of spontaneous recovery. Post-exposure prophylaxis by anti-hepatitis B immunoglobin injections and/or vaccination should be considered after evaluation of the hepatitis B surface antigen status of the source and of the vaccination and vaccine-response status of the exposed person. The classic scheme for selecting the most appropriate postexposure prophylaxis is reminded. In post-exposure prophylaxis for hepatitis A virus, although there have been no studies comparing the effectiveness of vaccination with that of immunoglobin injections, it is at present proposed to provide only vaccination. The target groups eligible for post-exposure prophylaxis are evoked. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimisation de la transformation génétique de la pomme de terre par Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Utilisation de la résistance à l'hygromycine comme marqueur sélectif.
M'Hamdi, M.; Rouvière, C.; Rojas-Beltran J et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2003), 7

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See detailHépatite C: dépistage, traitement et prévention. Recommandations pratiques-résumé
Brenard, R.; Michielsen, P.; Bourgeois, N. et al

in La Revue de la Medicine Generale (2003), 205

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See detailLa transplantation d'ilots de Langerhans ou de cellules B: un pas vers la guerison du diabete?
Philips, Jean-Christophe ULiege; Radermecker, Régis ULiege; Scheen, André ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(2), 83-7

Diabetes mellitus places an enormous burden on patients, their relatives and the society. Current therapies do not provide sufficiently tight control of blood glucose to avoid diabetic complications. Some ... [more ▼]

Diabetes mellitus places an enormous burden on patients, their relatives and the society. Current therapies do not provide sufficiently tight control of blood glucose to avoid diabetic complications. Some recent developments try to restore normal glucose homeostasis. Research is islet and stem cell transplantation is developing rapidly and this article summarizes the new approaches that could cure and not simply treat diabetes in the future. [less ▲]

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See detailL'image du mois. Sous le pont myocardique coule la coronaire.
ROUSSEAU, Anne-Françoise ULiege; MIEVIS, Eric

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(10), 601-604

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See detailSynergistic effects of ion-pairing in the enantiomeric separation of basic compounds with cyclodextrin derivatives in nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis
Servais, Anne-Catherine ULiege; Fillet, Marianne ULiege; Abushoffa, Adel M. et al

in Electrophoresis (2003), 24(3), 363-369

The enantiomeric separation of various kinds of basic pharmaceuticals has been investigated in nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE) systems using an ion-pairing reagent in combination with ... [more ▼]

The enantiomeric separation of various kinds of basic pharmaceuticals has been investigated in nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE) systems using an ion-pairing reagent in combination with cyclodextrins (CDs). The simultaneous addition to the methanolic background electrolyte (BGE) of (+)-S-camphorsulfonate or alkanesulfonates and an anionic beta-cyclodextrin derivative, heptakis(2,3-dimethyl-6-sulfato)-beta-cyclodextrin (HDMS-beta-CD), led to partial or complete enantioresolution in most cases. In the absence of ion-pairing reagent, the enantiomeric resolution obtained with this CD derivative was most often completely lost or strongly reduced, indicating the important role of ion-pairing in the chiral recognition mechanism in these NACE systems. The influence of the nature and concentration of the counterion and the anionic CD derivative on the enantioseparation of basic compounds was studied. Synergistic effects between these two kinds of charged additives were clearly observed. [less ▲]

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See detailHow Daphnia copes with excess carbon in its food
Darchambeau, François ULiege; Faerovig, P. J.; Hessen, D. O.

in Oecologia (2003), 136(3), 336-346

Animals that maintain near homeostatic elemental ratios may get rid of excess ingested elements from their food in different ways. C regulation was studied in juveniles of Daphnia magna feeding on two ... [more ▼]

Animals that maintain near homeostatic elemental ratios may get rid of excess ingested elements from their food in different ways. C regulation was studied in juveniles of Daphnia magna feeding on two Selenastrum capricornutum cultures contrasting in P content (400 and 80 C:P atomic ratios). Both cultures were labelled with C-14 in order to measure Daphnia ingestion and assimilation rates. No significant difference in ingestion rates was observed between P-low and P-rich food, whereas the net assimilation of C-14 was higher in the treatment with P-rich algae. Some Daphnia were also homogeneously labelled over 5 days on radioactive algae to estimate respiration rates and excretion rates of dissolved organic C (DOC). The respiration rate for Daphnia fed with high C:P algae (38.7% of body C day(-1)) was significantly higher than for those feeding on low C:P algae (25.3% of body C day(-1)). The DOC excretion rate was also higher when animals were fed on P-low algae (13.4% of body C day(-1)) than on P-rich algae (5.7% of body C day(-1)) . When corrected for respiratory losses, total assimilation of C did not differ significantly between treatments (around 60% of body C day(-1)). Judging from these experiments, D. magna can maintain its stoichiometric balance when feeding on unbalanced diets (high C:P) primarily by disposing of excess dietary C via respiration and excretion of DOC. [less ▲]

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See detailNullité et réduction, note sous Rb. Gent, 4 février 2002
Biquet, Christine ULiege

in Journal des Juges de Paix = Tijdschrift van de Vrederecters (2003)

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See detailBulletin bibliographique de la Société Rencesvals, 2002-2003
Henrard, Nadine ULiege

in Bulletin bibliographique de la Société Rencesvals (2003), (34), 1-193

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See detaille monument à Léopold Ier: aux origines de l'urbanisation de Laeken
Houbart, Claudine ULiege

in Notre Comté. Annales du cercle d'histoire, d'archéologie et de folklore du comté de Jette et de sa région (2003), XXX

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See detailCase 61: ileocecal sarcoidosis.
NCHIMI LONGANG, Alain ULiege; Francotte, Nadine; Rausin, Leon et al

in Radiology (2003), 228(2), 452-5

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See detailEtude rétrospective de quarante et un cas d’insuffisance mitrale chez le cheval (1995-2001).
Maurin, Emmanuel; Amory, Hélène ULiege; Sandersen, Charlotte ULiege

in Pratique Vétérinaire Equine (2003), 35

Une étude rétrospective portant sur quarante et un chevaux qui présentent une insuffisance cardiaque mitrale a été réalisée afin de mieux décrire cette affection et de préciser les répercussions médicales ... [more ▼]

Une étude rétrospective portant sur quarante et un chevaux qui présentent une insuffisance cardiaque mitrale a été réalisée afin de mieux décrire cette affection et de préciser les répercussions médicales et sportives liées à cette maladie. L'insuffisance mitrale est diagnostiquée grâce à des examens cliniques et échographiques, puis un questionnaire (évolution clinique et sportive) est adressé aux propriétaires des animaux. L’analyse de ces dossiers permet en particulier d’évaluer, d'une part, l’existence d’une association entre les signes d’insuffisance cardiaque congestive et certaines lésions cardio-vasculaires (lésions valvulaires, dilatation de l’atrium gauche, etc.) ou d'autres symptômes (fibrillation auriculaire, etc.), d'autre part, d’apprécier la corrélation éventuelle entre ces différents symptômes ou lésions et la survie des chevaux affectés. Les résultats ainsi que les biais possibles de cette étude sont ensuite discutés. [less ▲]

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See detailA General Method for the Frequency Domain FE Modelling of Rotating Electromagnetic Devices
Gyselinck, J.; Vandevelde, L.; Dular, Patrick ULiege et al

in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics (2003), 39(3), 1147--1150

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See detailBook Review: Theories of Endogenous Regional Growth: Lessons for Regional Policies,
Artige, Lionel ULiege; Nicolini, Rosella

in Journal of Regional Science (2003), 43(2), 403-406

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See detailGolden shares, droit des sociétés et marché intérieur
Thirion, Nicolas ULiege

in Cahiers de Droit Européen (2003)

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See detailBiomarqueurs de toxicité et anomalies métaboliques dans les principales intoxications graves. Symptomatologie clinique et toxique. Le prélèvement conservatoire.
Goullé, Jean-Pierre; Lhermitte, Michel; Bartholi, M. et al

in Annales de Biologie Clinique (2003), 61(4), 421-433

Les membres du groupe de travail pluridisciplinaire « Toxicologie et biologie clinique » appartenant à la Société française de biologie clinique (SFBC), à la Société française de toxicologie analytique ... [more ▼]

Les membres du groupe de travail pluridisciplinaire « Toxicologie et biologie clinique » appartenant à la Société française de biologie clinique (SFBC), à la Société française de toxicologie analytique (SFTA), à la Société de toxicologie clinique (STC), proposent une aide méthodologique à l’intention des biologistes non spécialistes en toxicologie. Ils formulent également pour respecter les bonnes pratiques de laboratoire un certain nombre de recommandations. Trois documents de synthèse ont été élaborés. Ils concernent d’une part, les biomarqueurs de toxicité et les anomalies métaboliques dans les principales intoxications graves et, d’autre part, les symptômes cliniques essentiels correspondant à ces intoxications, enfin des recommandations sur le prélèvement conservatoire. Pour les biomarqueurs de toxicité, le tableau de synthèse concerne une cinquantaine de xénobiotiques : les principaux symptômes, les méthodes d’identification ou de dosage disponibles en urgence, les marqueurs biologiques utiles, la décision clinique correspondante, les dosages éventuels nécessaires à la prise en charge du patient, ainsi que l’antidote lorsque celui-ci existe. En ce qui concerne les techniques, le groupe propose un certain nombre de recommandations relatives au domaine clinique et médico-légal. Le groupe insiste également sur la nécessité de procéder dans certains cas à des prélèvements biologiques conservatoires dès la prise en charge du malade, prélèvements qui seront ou ne seront pas analysés en fonction du contexte et/ou de l’évolution de l’intoxication. [less ▲]

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See detailVitamine E : état des connaissances chez les carnivores domestiques.I. Chimie, sources alimentaires et dosage
Cuvelier, Christine ULiege; Dotreppe, Olivier ULiege; Diez, Marianne ULiege et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2003), 147

Vitamin E is a part of the defence mechanism for the inactivation of free radicals and is therefore implicated in the oxidative stress. Chemistry of vitamin E is relatively complex. Vitamin E includes 2 ... [more ▼]

Vitamin E is a part of the defence mechanism for the inactivation of free radicals and is therefore implicated in the oxidative stress. Chemistry of vitamin E is relatively complex. Vitamin E includes 2 large groups of molecules, tocopherols and tocotrienols, each including 32 stereoisomers. Vitamin E is synthesized in plants, algae, and moulds but not in animals. The greatest quantities of vitamin E are found in cereals and vegetable oils. Vitamin E analyses are difficult to perform. After treatment of a sample with an organic solvent such as ethanol, vitamin E is usually extracted into hexane. Identification and quantification are carried out mainly by chromatography such as normal-phase liquid chromatography and reversed-phase liquid chromatography. [less ▲]

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See detailObservation récente en Province de Liège de Velleius dilatatus (F., 1787) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae)
Thieren, Yves; Fagot, Jean ULiege; Lhoir, Jonathan

in Notes Fauniques de Gembloux (2003), 50

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See detailRivers, chemical weathering and Earth's climate
Dupre, B.; Dessert, C.; Oliva, P. et al

in Comptes Rendus Geoscience (2003), 335(16), 1141-1160

We detail the results of recent studies describing and quantifying the large-scale chemical weathering of the main types of continental silicate rocks: granites and basalts. These studies aim at ... [more ▼]

We detail the results of recent studies describing and quantifying the large-scale chemical weathering of the main types of continental silicate rocks: granites and basalts. These studies aim at establishing chemical weathering laws for these two lithologies, describing the dependence of chemical weathering on environmental parameters, such as climate and mechanical erosion. As shown within this contribution, such mathematical laws are of primary importance for numerical models calculating the evolution of the partial pressure of atmospheric CO2 and the Earth climate at geological timescales. The major results can be summarized as follow: (1) weathering of continental basaltic lithologies accounts for about 30% of the total consumption of atmospheric CO2 through weathering of continental silicate rocks. This is related to their high weatherability (about eight times greater than the granite weatherability); (2) a simple weathering law has been established for basaltic lithologies, giving the consumption of atmospheric CO2 as a function of regional continental runoff, and mean annual regional temperature; (3) no such simple weathering law can be proposed for granitic lithologies, since the effect of temperature can only be identified for regions displaying high continental runoff; (4) a general law relating mechanical erosion and chemical weathering has been validated on small and large catchments. The consequences of these major advances on the climatic evolution of the Earth are discussed. Particularly, the impacts of the onset of the Deccan trapps and the Himalayan orogeny on the global carbon cycle are reinvestigated. (C) 2003 Academie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailA review of the major causes of digestive disorders in the European rabbit
Marlier, Didier ULiege; Dewrée, Roxane; Delleur, Valéry et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2003), 147(6, DEC-JAN), 385-392

Digestive diseases frequently occur in rabbitries, inducing high mortality rates and huge economic losses. The major causes of these pathological conditions are described in this review. The current state ... [more ▼]

Digestive diseases frequently occur in rabbitries, inducing high mortality rates and huge economic losses. The major causes of these pathological conditions are described in this review. The current state of knowledge on two diseases of unknown origin, the so called Rabbit Epizootic Enteropathy and Mucoid Enteropathy is also presented. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Sturtian 'snowball' glaciation: fire and ice
Godderis, Y.; Donnadieu, Y.; Nedelec, A. et al

in Earth And Planetary Science Letters (2003), 211(1-2), 1-12

The Sturtian 'snowball' glaciation (730 Ma) is contemporary with the dislocation of the Rodinia supercontinent. This dislocation is heralded and accompanied by intense magmatic events, including the onset ... [more ▼]

The Sturtian 'snowball' glaciation (730 Ma) is contemporary with the dislocation of the Rodinia supercontinent. This dislocation is heralded and accompanied by intense magmatic events, including the onset of large basaltic provinces between 825 and 755 Ma. Among these magmatic events, the most important one is the onset of a Laurentian magmatic province at 780 Ma around a latitude of 30degreesN. The presence of these fresh basaltic provinces increases the weatherability of the continental surfaces, resulting in an enhanced consumption of atmospheric CO2 through weathering, inducing a global long-term climatic cooling. Based on recent weathering laws for basaltic lithology and on climatic model results, we show that the weathering of a 6 x 10(6) km(2) basaltic province located within the equatorial region (where weathering of the province and consumption of CO2 are boosted by optimal climatic conditions) is sufficient to trigger a snowball glaciation, assuming a pre-perturbation PCO2 value of 280 ppmv. We show that the Laurentian magmatic province might be the main culprit for the initiation of the Sturtian 'snowball' glaciation, since the Laurentian magmatic province had drifted within the equatorial region by the time of the glaciation. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailLiodopria serricornis (Gyllenhal, 1813) (Coleoptera: Liodidae), nouvelle espèce pour la faune belge
Thieren, Yves; Fagot, Jean ULiege; Lhoir, Jonathan

in Notes Fauniques de Gembloux (2003), 50

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See detailBasalt weathering laws and the impact of basalt weathering on the global carbon cycle
Dessert, C.; Dupre, B.; Gaillardet, J. et al

in Chemical Geology (2003), 202(3-4), 257-273

This study attempts to characterise the chemical weathering of basalts and to quantify the flux of carbon transferred from the atmosphere to the ocean during this major process at the surface of the Earth ... [more ▼]

This study attempts to characterise the chemical weathering of basalts and to quantify the flux of carbon transferred from the atmosphere to the ocean during this major process at the surface of the Earth. To this aim, we have compiled different published chemical compositions of small rivers draining basalts. Basaltic river waters are characterised by relatively high Na-normalized molar ratios (Ca/Na: 0.2-3.9; HCO3/Na: 1-10; Mg/Na: 0.15-6) in comparison with those usually observed for river draining silicates. The data also show the climatic influence on basalt weathering and associated CO2 consumption. Runoff and temperature are the main parameters controlling the chemical weathering rate and derived CO2 consumption during basaltic weathering. From these relationships and digital maps, we are able to define the contribution of basalts to the global silicate flux. Taking account of this result, we estimate that the CO2 flux consumed by chemical weathering of basalts is about 4.08 x 10(12) mol/year. The fluxes from the islands of Indonesia and regions of central America represent around 40% of this flux. The global flux of CO2 consumed by chemical weathering of basalts represents between 30% and 35% of the flux derived from continental silicate determined by Gaillardet et al. [Chem. Geol. 159 (1999) 3]. Finally, it appears that volcanic activity not only acts as a major atmospheric CO2 source, but also creates strong CO2 sinks that cannot be neglected to better understand the geochemical and climatic evolution of the Earth. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailModélisation 3D d’un groupe de pieux pour le pont-canal de Houdeng
Trevisan, Stefano; Li, Xian Ling; Collin, Frédéric ULiege et al

in Revue Française de Géotechnique (2003), 105

A satisfactory prediction of the settlements of hyperstatic structures is becoming more and more important in their design and construction. In this paper, the problems related to the behaviour of a group ... [more ▼]

A satisfactory prediction of the settlements of hyperstatic structures is becoming more and more important in their design and construction. In this paper, the problems related to the behaviour of a group of piles and to the quality of the drilled piles of the canal-bridge of Houdeng (Belgium) are analysed in a non conventional fashion, based on a finite element analysis, thanks to sufficient experimental data. The influence of an imperfectly cleaned excavation bottom and of the destructuration of the bottom rocks caused by the drilling of the piles is investigated. A particular attention is also given to the behaviour of a group of piles. [less ▲]

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See detailQu'est-ce qu'un éditeur ? Naissance de la fonction éditoriale
Durand, Pascal ULiege

in Texte : Revue de Critique et de Théorie Littéraire (2003), (31-32), 13-55

Cet article, après avoir mis en évidence les transformations du système de production du livre au XVIIIe siècle, envisage les facteurs divers ayant déterminé, en France, l'émergence commune, sous la ... [more ▼]

Cet article, après avoir mis en évidence les transformations du système de production du livre au XVIIIe siècle, envisage les facteurs divers ayant déterminé, en France, l'émergence commune, sous la Monarchie de Juillet, des deux figures à la fois sociales et symboliques de l'Auteur et de l'Editeur : facteurs politico-juridiques, socio-économiques, mais aussi culturels et esthétiques. Il décrit ensuite la morphologie du champ éditorial du XIXe siècle et met en lumière les articulations étroites que celui-ci entretient avec les structures du champ littéraire. [less ▲]

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See detailDépression, anxiété, agressivité, impulsivité et comportement suicidaire
PAQUAY, Catherine ULiege; PITCHOT, William ULiege; Reggers, Jean et al

in Acta Psychiatrica Belgica (2003), 103

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See detailThe Prose Poem Now
Delville, Michel ULiege; Alkhateeb, Tahseen

in AL-QUDS Al-arabi (2003)

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See detailOrchesia luteipalpis Mulsant et Guillebeau, 1857 (Coleoptera: Serropalpidae), nouvelle espèce pour la faune belge
Thieren, Yves; Fagot, Jean ULiege; Lhoir, Jonathan

in Notes Fauniques de Gembloux (2003), 50

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See detailL'etude clinique du mois. L'etude ALLHAT-LLT.
Kulbertus, Henri ULiege; Scheen, André ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(1), 53-8

ALLHAT-LLT was part of the ALLHAT study. The purpose was to determine whether pravastatin compared with usual care reduces all-cause mortality in older, moderately hypercholesterolaemic, hypertensive ... [more ▼]

ALLHAT-LLT was part of the ALLHAT study. The purpose was to determine whether pravastatin compared with usual care reduces all-cause mortality in older, moderately hypercholesterolaemic, hypertensive patients with at least one additional coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factor. 10,355 ambulatory patients, aged 55 years or more, with LDL cholesterol of 120-189 mg/dl (or, 100-129 mg/dl if known CHD) and triglycerides < 350 mg/dl, were randomised to pravastatin (40 mg/d; n = 5,170), or usual care (n = 5,185). Mean age was 66 years; 49% were women; 38% were black and 23% hispanic; 14% had a history of CHD and 35%, type 2 diabetes. Baseline mean total cholesterol was 224 mg/dl; LDL-C, 146 mg/dl; HDL-C, 48 mg/dl, and triglycerides, 152 mg/dl. Mean follow-up was 4.8 years. Among usual care patients, 32% of those with known CHD and 29% of those without CHD started taking lipid-lowering drugs. At year 4, total cholesterol was reduced by 17.2% with pravastatin and by 7.6% with usual care. A random sample had their LDL-C levels assessed: there was a reduction of 28% with pravastatin and of 11% with usual care. All-cause mortality was similar in the two groups (RR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.89-1.11; p = 0.88), with 6-year mortality rates of 14.9% (pravastatin) and 15.3% (usual care). CHD event-rates were not different between the two groups (RR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.79-1.04; p = 0.16); 6-year CHD event rates were 9.3% (pravastatin) and 10.4% (usual care), respectively. These results are likely due to the small differential in total cholesterol (9.6%) and LDL-C (16.7%) between pravastatin and usual care, compared with prior statin trials. Such an unusual differential essentially results from the open table of the study and from the possibility of prescribing a statin in the usual care group. [less ▲]

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See detailNa-23 2D 3QMAS NMR and Si-29, Al-27 MAS NMR investigations of Laponite and synthetic saponites of variable interlayer charge
Delevoye, Laurent; Robert, Jean-Louis; Grandjean, Jean ULiege

in Clay Minerals (2003), 38

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See detailL’idole brisée : la droite belge francophone et la crise morale de la France (1934-1938)
Lanneau, Catherine ULiege

in Journal of Belgian History = Revue Belge d'Histoire Contemporaine = Belgisch Tijdschrift voor Nieuwste Geschiedenis (2003), XXXIII(1-2), 177-214

The French-speaking right wing in Belgium has always granted a paramount place to France in its ideological cosmography. The concept of everlasting France, of her “mission”, of the part she could play on ... [more ▼]

The French-speaking right wing in Belgium has always granted a paramount place to France in its ideological cosmography. The concept of everlasting France, of her “mission”, of the part she could play on the international scene are topics wondered about constantly in intellectual and middle-class circles. The thirties and mostly the Popular Front era provide the Conservatives with a splendid opportunity to describe the future of their cultural icon with awe: the more the international context is threatening, the more France seems to have become fragile, isolated and going down the slope. Using the news given by the national papers or the widely circulated Parisian press, right-wing Belgians brood, of course, about the eclipse of France’s might, but point chiefly to the moral crisis as its cause. Very often they feel some nostalgia for the “Ancien Régime” and see the origin of the worrying current phenomenon in the hated French Revolution. Lot of factors are intertwined in the definition of the moral decay, but some are particularly highlighted. France is accused to be invaded by foreigners (their Jewish origins and Marxist creeds being stressed); Free-Masonry has a bad influence, as well as laic teaching, perverting youth by its pacifist and internationalist leanings. The degeneration of the religious spirit is lamented on account of its influence on the birth rate: the “Elder Daughter of the Church” gets emptier and emptier, whereas the populations of Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany are blooming. Opposition to parliamentary system is to the fore, as the politico-financial scandals, the governmental instability, the disreputable ways of the politicians themselves contribute all to the idea of the moral crisis. A cultural decline is parallel, with a loss of spirituality in the French society, engulfed in materialism and coarseness. Their stinging attacks, their bombastic style show how deeply rooted is the “decay of France” thesis among Belgian Conservatives. Beyond the French case, they fear a possible contamination of Belgium and the disappearance of their own traditional but vanishing values. Their fears and frights have certainly played a part in the 1936 turn-around towards the so-called Belgian “politique d’indépendance” in foreign affairs. [less ▲]

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See detailDu Séminaire de Géographie au Département de Géographie, Cent ans de géographie à l’Université de Liège, 1903-2003
Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULiege

in Bulletin de la Société Géographique de Liège (2003), (43), 3-17

100-year history of teaching and research in geography at the University of Liege

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See detailRelB/p50 dimers are differentially regulated by tumor necrosis factor-alpha and lymphotoxin-beta receptor activation: critical roles for p100.
Derudder, Emmanuel; Dejardin, Emmanuel ULiege; Pritchard, Linda L. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2003), 278(26), 23278-84

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and lymphotoxin-beta receptor (LTbetaR) signaling both play important roles in inflammatory and immune responses through activation of NF-kappaB. Using various ... [more ▼]

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and lymphotoxin-beta receptor (LTbetaR) signaling both play important roles in inflammatory and immune responses through activation of NF-kappaB. Using various deficient mouse embryonic fibroblast cells, we have compared the signaling pathways leading to NF-kappaB induction in response to TNF-alpha and LTbetaR activation. We demonstrate that LTbetaR ligation induces not only RelA/p50 dimers but also RelB/p50 dimers, whereas TNF-alpha induces only RelA/p50 dimers. LTbetaR-induced binding of RelB/p50 requires processing of p100 that is mediated by IKKalpha but is independent of IKKbeta, NEMO/IKKgamma, and RelA. Moreover, we show that RelB, p50, and p100 can associate in the same complex and that TNF-alpha but not LTbeta signaling increases the association of p100 with RelB/p50 dimers in the nucleus, leading to the specific inhibition of RelB DNA binding. These results suggest that the alternative NF-kappaB pathway based on p100 processing may account not only for the activation of RelB/p52 dimers but also for that of RelB/p50 dimers and that p100 regulates the binding activity of RelB/p50 dimers via at least two distinct mechanisms depending on the signaling pathway involved. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman platelet glycoprotein VI function is antagonized by monoclonal antibody-derived Fab fragments.
Lecut, Christelle ULiege; Feeney, L. A.; Kingsbury, G. et al

in Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis [=JTH] (2003), 1(12), 2653-62

Platelet interactions with adhesive ligands exposed at sites of vascular injury initiate the normal hemostatic response but may also lead to arterial thrombosis. Platelet membrane glycoprotein (GP)VI is a ... [more ▼]

Platelet interactions with adhesive ligands exposed at sites of vascular injury initiate the normal hemostatic response but may also lead to arterial thrombosis. Platelet membrane glycoprotein (GP)VI is a key receptor for collagen. Impairment of GPVI function in mice results in a long-term antithrombotic protection and prevents neointimal hyperplasia following arterial injury. On the other hand, GPVI deficiency in humans or mice does not result in serious bleeding tendencies. Blocking GPVI function may thus represent a new and safe antithrombotic approach, but no specific, potent anti-GPVI directed at the human receptor is yet available. Our aim was to produce accessible antagonists of human GPVI to evaluate the consequences of GPVI blockade. Amongst several monoclonal antibodies to the extracellular domain of human GPVI, one, 9O12.2, was selected for its capacity to disrupt the interaction of GPVI with collagen in a purified system and to prevent the adhesion of cells expressing recombinant GPVI to collagen and collagen-related peptides (CRP). While 9O12.2 IgGs induced platelet activation by a mechanism involving GPVI and Fc gamma RIIA, 9O12.2 Fab fragments completely blocked collagen-induced platelet aggregation and secretion from 5 microg mL-1 and fully prevented CRP-induced activation from 1.5 microg mL-1. 9O12.2 Fabs also inhibited the procoagulant activity of collagen-stimulated platelets and platelet adhesion to collagen in static conditions. Furthermore, 9O12.2 Fabs impaired platelet adhesion, and prevented thrombi formation under arterial flow conditions. We thus describe here for the first time a functional monoclonal antibody to human GPVI and demonstrate its effect on collagen-induced platelet aggregation and procoagulant activity, and on thrombus growth. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the use of control surface excitation in flutter testing
Wright, Jan R; Wong, Jerry; Cooper, Jonathan E et al

in Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers - Part G - Journal of Aerospace Engineering (2003), 217(6), 317-332

Flutter testing is aimed at demonstrating that the aircraft flight envelope is flutter free. Response measurements from deliberate excitation of the structure are used to identify and track frequency and ... [more ▼]

Flutter testing is aimed at demonstrating that the aircraft flight envelope is flutter free. Response measurements from deliberate excitation of the structure are used to identify and track frequency and damping values against velocity. In this paper, the common approach of using a flight control surface to provide the excitation is examined using a mathematical model of a wing and control surface whose rotation is restrained by a simple actuator. In particular, it is shown that it is essential to use the demand signal to the actuator as a reference signal for data processing. Use of the actuator force (or strain) or control angle (or actuator displacement) as a reference signal is bad practice because these signals contain response information. It may also be dangerous in that the onset of flutter may not be seen in the test results. [less ▲]

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See detailChanging concepts in plant hormone action
Gaspar, Thomas ULiege; Kevers, Claire ULiege; Faivre-Rampant, Odile et al

in In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Plant (2003), 39(2, MAR-APR), 85-106

A plant hormone is not, in the classic animal sense, a chemical synthesized in one organ, transported to a second organ to exert a chemical action to control a physiological event. Any phytohormone can be ... [more ▼]

A plant hormone is not, in the classic animal sense, a chemical synthesized in one organ, transported to a second organ to exert a chemical action to control a physiological event. Any phytohormone can be synthesized everywhere and can influence different growth and development processes at different places. The concept of physiological activity under hormonal control cannot be dissociated from changes in concentrations at the site of action, from spatial differences and changes in the tissue's sensitivity to the compound, from its transport and its metabolism, from balances and interactions with the other phytohormones, or in their metabolic relationships, and in their signaling pathways as well. Secondary messengers are also involved. Hormonal involvement in physiological processes can appear through several distinct manifestations (as environmental sensors, homeostatic regulators and spatio-temporal synchronizers, resource allocators, biotime adjusters, etc.), dependent on or integrated with the primary biochemical pathways. The time has also passed for the hypothesized 'specific' developmental hormones, rhizocaline, caulocaline, and florigen: root, stem, and flower formation result from a sequential control of specific events at the right places through a coordinated control by electrical signals, the known phytohormones and nonspecific molecules of primary and secondary metabolism, and involve both cytoplasmic and apoplastic compartments. These contemporary views are examined in this review. [less ▲]

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See detailMosaicism of Solid Gold supports the causality of a noncoding A-to-G transition in the determinism of the callipyge phenotype.
Smit, Maria; SEGERS, Karin ULiege; Carrascosa, Laura Garcia et al

in Genetics (2003), 163(1), 453-6

To identify the callipyge mutation, we have resequenced 184 kb spanning the DLK1-, GTL2-, PEG11-, and MEG8-imprinted domain and have identified an A-to-G transition in a highly conserved dodecamer motif ... [more ▼]

To identify the callipyge mutation, we have resequenced 184 kb spanning the DLK1-, GTL2-, PEG11-, and MEG8-imprinted domain and have identified an A-to-G transition in a highly conserved dodecamer motif between DLK1 and GTL2. This was the only difference found between the callipyge (CLPG) allele and a phylogenetically closely related wild-type allele. We report that this SNP is in perfect association with the callipyge genotype. The demonstration that Solid Gold-the alleged founder ram of the callipyge flock-is mosaic for this SNP virtually proves the causality of this SNP in the determinism of the callipyge phenotype. [less ▲]

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See detailThe treatment of sporadic versus MEN1-related pituitary adenomas.
Beckers, Albert ULiege; Betea, Daniela ULiege; Valdes Socin, Hernan Gonzalo ULiege et al

in Journal of Internal Medicine (2003), 253(6), 599-605

The treatment of pituitary tumours strongly depends on their clinical presentation. In general, the treatment aims are reducing tumour volume and/or decreasing hormone hypersecretion. It relies on single ... [more ▼]

The treatment of pituitary tumours strongly depends on their clinical presentation. In general, the treatment aims are reducing tumour volume and/or decreasing hormone hypersecretion. It relies on single or a combination of three different methods: surgery, medication and radiotherapy. The rationale for deciding the treatment are many but include the aggressiveness of the tumour. The aetiologies of sporadic pituitary adenomas are not fully understood. However, several causes have been identified resulting in specific familial phenotypes like multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN1). MEN1 is related to mutations in the MEN1 gene, a tumour suppressor gene localized on chromosome 11q13 and which encodes menin, a 610 amino acid protein. During the last years, an evidence progressively emerged that MEN1-related adenomas were more aggressive and less responsive to therapy than their sporadic counterparts. In this article, we review the differences between sporadic and MEN1-related adenomas and suggest specific ways of treatment and follow-up for MEN1-related tumours. [less ▲]

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See detailTwo new atrypid brachiopod species from the late Frasnian of Belgium
Mottequin, Bernard ULiege

in Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique. Sciences de la Terre (2003), 73

Two new species of atrypid brachiopods from the late Frasnian Lambermont and Barvaux formations of Belgium are described (south-east border of the Dinant and the Vesdre Nappe), Iowatrypa ultima n. sp. and ... [more ▼]

Two new species of atrypid brachiopods from the late Frasnian Lambermont and Barvaux formations of Belgium are described (south-east border of the Dinant and the Vesdre Nappe), Iowatrypa ultima n. sp. and Spinatrypa (Spinatrypa) lambermontensis n. sp. These species rank among the last representatives of the order Atrypida in the Ardennes (Upper Palmatolepis rhenana Zone). [less ▲]

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See detailEffet de l'intensité d'un stimulus gravitationnel induit artificiellement sur la croissance et la formation du bois de tension dans de jeunes pousses de peuplier (Populus euramericana cv. Ghoy).
Jourez, Benoit; Vaianopoulos, Céline; Hebert, Jacques ULiege

in Annals of Forest Science : a Multidisciplinary and International Journal (2003), 60(8), 789-802

The formation of tension wood tissue is artificially induced by means of a gravitational stimulus obtained by inclining young shoots of poplar at different intensities, from 0 to 30°, during a growing ... [more ▼]

The formation of tension wood tissue is artificially induced by means of a gravitational stimulus obtained by inclining young shoots of poplar at different intensities, from 0 to 30°, during a growing season. At the end of the experiment, it appears that shoot elongation as well as the angle of tension wood arc are not affected by the stimulus intensity. In contrast, the upright reorientation of the axis, the amount of gelatinous fibres, the secondary growth over bark, the cross-section area of the stem and of the secondary xylem, the different rays, the diameter under bark and the pith eccentricity, react quantitatively to the lean intensity. The amount of tension wood is correlated with the upright reorientation, the secondary growth over bark and the radial growth under bark. Tension wood formation and eccentricity react to the gravitational stimulus but they are not causally linked. Finally, it exists a natural equilibrium position, different from the vertical, to which moved shoots try to return via the formation of a tension wood tissue. [less ▲]

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See detailFeasibility and reproducibility of off-line tissue Doppler measurement of regional myocardial function during dobutamine stress echocardiography.
Fraser, A. G.; Payne, N.; Madler, C. F. et al

in European journal of echocardiography : the journal of the Working Group on Echocardiography of the European Society of Cardiology (2003), 4(1), 43-53

AIMS: Off-line post-processing of colour tissue Doppler from digital loops may allow objective quantification of dobutamine stress echocardiography. We assessed the reproducibility of off-line ... [more ▼]

AIMS: Off-line post-processing of colour tissue Doppler from digital loops may allow objective quantification of dobutamine stress echocardiography. We assessed the reproducibility of off-line measurements of regional myocardial velocities. METHODS AND RESULTS: Nine observers analysed 10 studies, each making 2400 observations. Coefficients of variation in basal segments from apical windows, at rest and maximal stress, were 9-14% and 11-18% for peak systolic velocity, 16-18% and 17-19% for time-to-peak systolic velocity, 9-17% and 18-24% for systolic velocity time integral, and 18-23% and 21-27% for systolic acceleration. Coefficients of variation for diastolic velocities in basal segments at rest were 11-40%. Coefficients of variation for peak systolic velocity were 10-24% at rest and 14-28% at peak in mid segments, and 19-53% and 29-69% in apical segments. From parasternal windows coefficients of variation for peak systolic velocity were 14-16% in basal posterior, and 19-29% in mid-anterior segments. High variability makes measurement unreliable in apical and basal anterior septal segments. The feasibility of obtaining traces was tested in 92 subjects, and >90% in all basal and mid segments apart from the anterior septum. CONCLUSION: Quantification of myocardial functional reserve by off-line analysis of colour tissue Doppler acquired during dobutamine stress is feasible and reproducible in 11 segments of the left ventricle. The most reliable measurements are systolic velocities of longitudinal motion in basal segments. [less ▲]

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See detailA model of the seasonal dynamics of biomass and production of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica in the Bay of Calvi (Northwestern Mediterranean)
Elkalay, Khalid; Frangoulis, Constantin; Skliris, Nikolaos ULiege et al

in Ecological Modelling (2003), 167(1-2), 1-18

Modelling of seagrasses can be an effective tool to assess factors regulating their growth. Growth and production model of Posidonia oceanica, the dominant submerged aquatic macrophyte occurring in the ... [more ▼]

Modelling of seagrasses can be an effective tool to assess factors regulating their growth. Growth and production model of Posidonia oceanica, the dominant submerged aquatic macrophyte occurring in the Bay of Calvi (Corsica, Ligurian Sea, Northwestern (NW) Mediterranean) was developed. The state variables are the above- and below-ground biomass of P oceanica, the epiphyte biomass, and the internal nitrogen concentration of the whole plant. Light intensity and water temperature are the forcing variables. The model reproduces successfully seasonal growth and production for each variable at various depths (10, 20 and 30 m). The model can simulate also a number of consecutive years. Sensitivity analysis of model's parameters showed that the maximum nitrogen quota n(max) rate is the most sensitive parameter in this model. The results simulations imply that light intensity is one of the most important abiotic factors, the diminution of which can cause an important reduction in seagrass density. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailInteractions of cryptolepine and neocryptolepine with unusual DNA structures
Guittat, Lionel; Alberti, Patrizia; Rosu, Frédéric ULiege et al

in Biochimie (2003), 85(5), 535-547

Cryptolepine, the main alkaloid present in the roots of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, presents a large spectrum of biological properties. It has been reported to behave like a DNA intercalator with a ... [more ▼]

Cryptolepine, the main alkaloid present in the roots of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, presents a large spectrum of biological properties. It has been reported to behave like a DNA intercalator with a preference for GC-rich sequences. In this study, dialysis competition assay and mass spectrometry experiments were used to determine the affinity of cryptolepine and neocryptolepine for DNA structures among duplexes, triplexes, quadruplexes and single strands. Our data confirm that cryptolepine and neocryptolepine prefer GC over AT-rich duplex sequences, but also recognize triplex and quadruplex structures. These compounds are weak telomerase inhibitors and exhibit a significant preference for triplexes over quadruplexes or duplexes. (C) 2003 Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS and Societe francaise de biochimie et biologic moleculaire. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailKorean experience with the OSTA risk index for osteoporosis: a validation study.
Park, H. M.; Sedrine, W Ben; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULiege et al

in Journal of Clinical Densitometry : The Official Journal of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry (2003), 6(3), 247-50

The Osteoporosis Self-assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA) was developed to help physicians focus their efforts on patients at increased risk, and encourage appropriate use of bone mineral density (BMD ... [more ▼]

The Osteoporosis Self-assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA) was developed to help physicians focus their efforts on patients at increased risk, and encourage appropriate use of bone mineral density (BMD) measurements. Previously, OSTA performed well in a sample of women from eight countries in Asia, and in a validation group of Japanese women. In this study, we evaluate the performance of OSTA using a sample of 1101 postmenopausal women from a clinic in Korea who had femoral neck BMD measurements by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The OSTA had a high sensitivity (87%), and good specificity (67%) for identifying osteoporosis (BMD T-scores <or= -2.5); the corresponding values were 80% and 72% for identifying T-scores <or= -2.0. The prevalence of osteoporosis ranged from 2% among women classified as low risk (OSTA > -1) to 64% among those classified as high risk (OSTA < -4); these results were almost identical to those reported earlier for a sample of women from eight Asian countries. We conclude that the OSTA risk tool performed well in this sample of postmenopausal Korean women, similar to previous results in other Asian women. The OSTA tool is free and very easy to use; risk can be tabulated by age and weight, so that calculations are not necessary. Using OSTA could encourage patients and clinicians to actively assess osteoporosis, and measure BMD when appropriate, before fractures occur. [less ▲]

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See detailEEMCO guidance for the efficacy assessment of antiperspirants and deodorants.
Pierard, Gérald ULiege; Elsner, P.; Marks, R. et al

in Skin Pharmacology & Applied Skin Physiology (2003), 16(5), 324-42

Overproduction of sweat, sweaty skin and body odours are unpleasant for many social groups. Body cleansing products are designed to combat these undesirable features of skin. In addition, antiperspirant ... [more ▼]

Overproduction of sweat, sweaty skin and body odours are unpleasant for many social groups. Body cleansing products are designed to combat these undesirable features of skin. In addition, antiperspirant and deodorant products are more specifically used in the underarm site by a large part of the adult population. Antiperspirants are offered to control emotionally triggered sweating in the armpit. Deodorants are designed to combat malodour generated from bacteria-modified sweat. This review summarizes the physiology of eccrine, apocrine and apoeccrine sweat glands. The mechanisms of action of antiperspirants and deodorants are described as well as the factors influencing their efficacies. A series of tests using various measurement methods can be used to demonstrate the efficacy of antiperspirants. These include the gravimetric method, water evaporation quantification, electrodermal measurements, staining procedures, dye injections and cyanoacrylate skin surface strippings and casting replicas. Deodorant efficacy can be evaluated by sensory assessments performed by an expert panel. Indirect support is provided by visualization of apocrine gland excretion and collection of sweat and volatile compounds. Microbiological assessments and chromatographic analysis also provide indirect information. [less ▲]

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See detailSH2 domain containing inositol 5-phosphatases 1 and 2 in blood platelets: interaction and respective role in the control of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate levels
Giuriato, S.; Pesesse, X.; Bodin, S. et al

in Biochemical Journal (2003), 376

Src homology domain 2-containing inositol 5-phosphatases 1 and 2 (SHIP1 and SHIP2) are capable of dephosphorylating the second messenger PtdIns(3,4,5) P3 (phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate) and ... [more ▼]

Src homology domain 2-containing inositol 5-phosphatases 1 and 2 (SHIP1 and SHIP2) are capable of dephosphorylating the second messenger PtdIns(3,4,5) P3 (phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate) and interacting with several signalling proteins. SHIP1 is essentially expressed in haematopoietic cells, whereas SHIP2, a closely related enzyme, is ubiquitous. In the present study, we show that SHIP1 and SHIP2 are expressed as functional PtdIns(3,4,5) P3 5-phosphatases in human blood platelets and are capable of interacting when these two lipid phosphatases are co-expressed, either naturally (platelets and A20 B lymphoma cells) or artificially (COS-7 cells). Using COS-7 cells transfected with deletion mutants of SHIP2, we demonstrate that the Src homology domain 2 of SHIP2 is the minimal and sufficient protein motif responsible for the interaction between the two phosphatases. These results prompted us to investigate the relative importance of SHIP1 and SHIP2 in the control of PtdIns(3,4,5) P3 levels in platelets using homozygous or heterozygous SHIP1- or SHIP2-deficient mice. Our results strongly suggest that SHIP1, rather than SHIP2, plays a major role in controlling PtdIns(3,4,5) P3 levels in response to thrombin or collagen activation of mouse blood platelets [less ▲]

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See detailLa résolution de problèmes : un processus complexe de 'modélisation mathématique'
Fagnant, Annick ULiege; Demonty, Isabelle ULiege; Lejong, Michèle ULiege

in Informations pédagogiques (2003), 54

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See detailAnalyses technologiques d’un atelier de taille aurignacien à Maisières-Canal (Province du Hainaut, Belgique)
Miller, Rebecca ULiege; Flas, Damien ULiege; Guillaume, Alain et al

in Notae Praehistoricae (2003), 23

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See detailLa majoration des quotités insaisissables pour enfant à charge
Georges, Frédéric ULiege

in Actualités du Droit (2003)

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See detailProstaglandin D2 inhibits the production of interleukin-12 in murine dendritic cells through multiple signaling pathways.
Faveeuw, Christelle; Gosset, Philippe; Bureau, Fabrice ULiege et al

in European Journal of Immunology (2003), 33(4), 889-898

Prostaglandin (PG) D(2), and its metabolites, are known to be important mediators during acute and chronic inflammation. However, their functions during the early phases of the immune response are poorly ... [more ▼]

Prostaglandin (PG) D(2), and its metabolites, are known to be important mediators during acute and chronic inflammation. However, their functions during the early phases of the immune response are poorly documented. In the present study, we show that PGD(2 )inhibits, in a dose-dependent manner, the CD40- and LPS-induced secretion of the Th1-driving factor IL-12 by murine splenic dendritic cells (DC), the most potent antigen-presenting cells. The inhibition of IL-12 production is mediated only in part by the cell surface G alpha s protein-coupled D prostanoid receptor (termed DP1) but not by the G alpha i protein-coupled DP receptor, DP2. We show that recruitment of DP1 in DC results in the activation of a cyclic AMP/protein kinase A pathway that is partially responsible for the inhibition of IL-12 production. We also suggest that the DP1-independent effects exerted by PGD(2) on IL-12 production may be due to the action of ist PGJ(2), but not PGF(2)alpha, metabolites. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that PGD(2) affects NF-kappa B activation through (the) DP1-independent pathway(s). Together these data suggest that PGD(2), by interacting with DP1 and by binding to other target cellular proteins, may regulate immune responses by affecting IL-12 production in DC [less ▲]

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See detailA spline interpolation technique that preserves mass budgets
Delhez, Eric ULiege

in Applied Mathematics Letters (2003), 16(1), 17-26

The usual practice of forcing budget models by linear interpolations of mean data does not produce a forcing whose mean is the data value required. The usual third-order spline is modified into a fourth ... [more ▼]

The usual practice of forcing budget models by linear interpolations of mean data does not produce a forcing whose mean is the data value required. The usual third-order spline is modified into a fourth-order spline, called mc-spline, to cope with this issue. The technique provides a smooth and faithful continuous interpolation of the original data that is well suited for its graphical representations or for the forcing of numerical models. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailProstaglandin D2 affects the maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells: consequence on the polarization of naive Th cells.
Gosset, Philippe; Bureau, Fabrice ULiege; Angeli, Veronique et al

in Journal of Immunology (2003), 170(10), 4943-52

Among the factors produced at inflammatory sites and those capable of modulating dendritic cell (DC) functions, PGD(2) may be important in the outcome of immune responses. The biological roles for PGD(2 ... [more ▼]

Among the factors produced at inflammatory sites and those capable of modulating dendritic cell (DC) functions, PGD(2) may be important in the outcome of immune responses. The biological roles for PGD(2) are in part effected through two plasma membrane G protein-coupled receptors: the D prostanoid (DP) receptor and the chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 lymphocytes (CRTH2). In this report, we studied the effects of PGD(2) and of its major physiological metabolite, 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-PGJ(2) (15d-PGJ(2)), on the functions of human monocyte-derived DC. First, we show that PGD(2) exerts in vitro chemotactic effects on monocytes via CRTH2 activation while it inhibits the chemokine-driven migration of monocyte-derived DC through DP. We also report that PGD(2) and 15d-PGJ(2) alter the LPS- and allergen-induced DC maturation and enhance the CD80/CD86 ratio on mature DC in a DP- and CRTH2-independent manner. Moreover, PGD(2) and 15d-PGJ(2) strongly reduce the secretion of the Th1 promoting cytokine IL-12 and affect the synthesis of chemokines involved in Th1 cell chemotaxis, particularly CXCL10. Inhibition of cytokine/chemokine secretion implicates at least in part DP, but not CRTH2. The effects exerted by PGD(2) are associated with the phosphorylation of CREB, but do not parallel with the deactivation of the NF-kappa B and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. In contrast, 15d-PGJ(2) seems to target other cellular proteins. Finally, in a model of Th CD45RA(+) differentiation induced by allergen- and superantigen-pulsed DC, PGD(2) impacts on the orientation of the immune response by favoring a Th2 response [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of aquifer vulnerability assessment techniques. Application to the Neblon river basin (Belgium)
Gogu, Radu Constantin; Hallet, Vincent; Dassargues, Alain ULiege

in Environmental Geology (2003), 44(8), 881-892

Five different methods for assessing intrinsic aquifer vulnerability were tested in a case study and their results compared. The test area was a slightly karstified district in the Condroz region of ... [more ▼]

Five different methods for assessing intrinsic aquifer vulnerability were tested in a case study and their results compared. The test area was a slightly karstified district in the Condroz region of Belgium. The basin covers about 65 km(2) and the karst aquifer provides a water-supply of about 28,000 m(3)d(-1). The methods tested were: EPIK (Doerfliger et al. 1999), DRASTIC (Aller et al.1987), 'German method' (von Hoyer and Sofner 1998), GOD (Foster 1987) and ISIS (Civita and De Regibus 1995). The results are compared and critically examined. From the analysis, it seems that reducing the number of parameters is unsatisfactory, due to the variety of geological conditions. The various methods produce very different results at any given site. As only physically-based methods can be checked for their reliability, it is clear that future vulnerability mapping techniques must incorporate such methods. [less ▲]

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See detailThe new concept-temporary stents, an experimental study.
Kavteladze, Z. A.; Dundua, D. P.; Dondelinger, R. F. et al

in International Journal of Interventional Cardioangiology (2003), 1

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See detailLetter To The Editor
Groß-Hardt, E; Henschke, M; Pfennig, Andreas ULiege

in AIChE Journal (2003), 49(6), 1610-1611

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