References of "Scientific journals"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMotor and phosphene thresholds to transcranial magnetic stimuli: a reproducibility study
Fumal, Arnaud ULg; Bohotin, V.; Vandenheede, Michel et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2002), 102(4), 171-175

OBJECTIVES: As repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is often applied on different days, it is of interest to know whether motor (MT) and phosphene (PT) thresholds are reproducible across ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: As repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is often applied on different days, it is of interest to know whether motor (MT) and phosphene (PT) thresholds are reproducible across time and whether the intensity determined on the first day can be used in subsequent sessions. METHODS: We studied MT and PT over 5 separate recordings in 10 healthy volunteers using a focal coil and a Magstim(Rapid stimulator. After the initial recording (session 1), the others (2 to 5) were performed respectively after 1 day, 7 days, 1 month and 4 months. RESULTS: Mean MT at rest were 65.30 +/- 5.54%, 65.7 +/- 7.18%, 60.4 +/- 4.27%, 61.8 +/- 4.34%, and 63 +/- 9.1% at sessions 1 to 5. Mean PT were 71.43 +/- 6.68%, 66.29 +/- 10.67%, 60.71 +/- 8.64%, 60.57 +/- 8.08%, and 68.71 +/- 15.48% at sessions 1 to 5. MT and PT were reproducible (ANOVA analysis), however, as shown by coefficients of variation, variability between the first 3 sessions exceeded 10% for MT in 3 subjects and in 4 subjects for PT. CONCLUSIONS: It seems preferable to determine thresholds and adapt output intensity of the stimulator at each rTMS session. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSynthesis of CMR manganate compounds: the consequences of the choice of a precursor method
Vertruyen, Bénédicte ULg; Rulmont, André ULg; Cloots, Rudi ULg et al

in Materials Letters (2002), 57(3), 598-603

We have studied the electrical transport properties of manganate samples synthesized by different precursor methods. Differences in the synthesis process of the materials can result in samples with ... [more ▼]

We have studied the electrical transport properties of manganate samples synthesized by different precursor methods. Differences in the synthesis process of the materials can result in samples with similar grain size but very different physical properties, contrary to what happens in samples prepared by the same method. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 48 (13 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailIntermittent Versus Continuous Total Androgen Blockade in the Treatment of Patients with Advanced Hormone-Naive Prostate Cancer: Results of a Prospective Randomized Multicenter Trial
De Leval, Jean ULg; Boca, Philippe; Yousef, Enis et al

in Clinical Prostate Cancer (2002), 1(3), 163-71

The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of total intermittent androgen deprivation (IAD) versus total continuous androgen deprivation (CAD) for treating patients with advanced prostate cancer in ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of total intermittent androgen deprivation (IAD) versus total continuous androgen deprivation (CAD) for treating patients with advanced prostate cancer in a phase III randomized trial. A total of 68 evaluable patients with hormone-naive advanced or relapsing prostate cancer were randomized to receive combined androgen blockade according to a continuous (n = 33) or intermittent (n = 35) regimen. Therapeutic monitoring was assessed by use of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurements. Patients in the CAD and IAD groups were equally stratified for age, biopsy Gleason score, and baseline serum PSA levels. The outcome variable was time to androgen-independence of the tumor, which was defined as increasing serum PSA levels despite androgen blockade. Mean follow-up was 30.8 months. The 35 IAD-treated patients completed 91 cycles, and 19 of them (54.3%) completed > or = 3 cycles. Median cycle length and percentage of time off therapy were 9.0 months and 59.5, respectively. The estimated 3-year progression rate was significantly lower in the IAD group (7.0% +/- 4.8%) than in the CAD group (38.9% +/- 11.2%, P = 0.0052). Our data suggest that IAD treatment may maintain the androgen-dependent state of advanced human prostate cancer, as assessed by PSA measurements, at least as long as CAD treatment. Further studies with longer follow-up times and larger patient cohorts are needed to determine the comparative impacts of CAD and IAD on survival. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 74 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMise au point et traitement des traumatismes pancreatiques chez l'enfant
Devoitille, A.; Dominé, Françoise; De Roover, Arnaud ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(12), 760-4

Pancreatic injury after trauma can occur in the child as an isolated lesion after a minor injury. The consequences can be severe in the absence of prompt diagnosis and treatment. Determination of ... [more ▼]

Pancreatic injury after trauma can occur in the child as an isolated lesion after a minor injury. The consequences can be severe in the absence of prompt diagnosis and treatment. Determination of mechanism of injury, clinical examination, blood amylase levels and abdominal CT-scan are first line steps for the evaluation of the injury. ERCP and MRI can be useful tools to further document injury to the pancreatic duct. In the absence of duct injury, conservative treatment can be applied. For the other cases, the treatment is surgical although newer techniques may be applied in selected cases. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 126 (7 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAsthénie et troubles visuels chez un peintre de 48 ans
Pirenne, Danièle ULg; Mairiaux, Philippe ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(12), 785-8

Tiredness is a common complaint which may have multiple causes, sometimes difficult to ascertain. As occupational activities can play a major role in the incidence of various diseases, failure to ... [more ▼]

Tiredness is a common complaint which may have multiple causes, sometimes difficult to ascertain. As occupational activities can play a major role in the incidence of various diseases, failure to investigate the patient's work history may hinder an adequate patient care. In the clinical case described hereafter, the patient symptoms could eventually be ascribed to a psycho-organic syndrome (POS) caused by the chronic exposure to organic solvents in the painting material used. This syndrome is non specific, evolves with time in an insidious manner, and, in its last stages, may cause non reversible brain damages. When facing non typical neurological symptoms in a working age adult, one has thus to consider the possibility of this diagnosis since the workers populations exposed to solvents are large in several occupations, and because the recent legal recognition in Belgium of this syndrome as an occupational disease does provide some interesting means for a better follow-up and protection of the patients concerned. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 119 (7 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailApplication of Supercritical carbon dioxide for the preparation of drug-cyclodextrin inclusion compounds
Van Hees, Thierry ULg; Barillaro, Valery; Piel, Géraldine ULg et al

in Journal of Inclusion Phenomena and Macrocyclic Chemistry (2002), 44(1-4), 271-274

Inclusion complexes of drugs into cyclodextrins (CDs) can be obtained at the solid state by means of supercritical dioxide (SCCO2). A successful inclusion with a yield >98.5% has been achieved with ... [more ▼]

Inclusion complexes of drugs into cyclodextrins (CDs) can be obtained at the solid state by means of supercritical dioxide (SCCO2). A successful inclusion with a yield >98.5% has been achieved with piroxicam and beta-CD. The temperature and the time of exposure to SCCO2 have a significant effect on the inclusion yield while the pressure has a negative effect. However, there is a strong interaction between temperature and pressure and this interaction has a positive influence. The molar ratio piroxicam-beta-CD and the addition of ternary alkaline agents were also found to be significant factors. The dissolution rate of the complexes formed using SCCO2 was found to be significantly higher than that of the physical mixture. Inclusion complexes have also been obtained with miconazole treating mixtures of miconazole, CDs and citric acid by SCCO2. This new technique of inclusion of poorly soluble drugs into CDs allows the preparation of solid complexes without using organic solvents and thus without residues. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 36 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailChanges in the arginine-vasopressin immunoreactive systems in male mice lacking a functional aromatase gene
Plumari, L.; Viglietti-Panzica, C.; Allieri, F. et al

in Journal of Neuroendocrinology (2002), 14(12), 971-978

In male rodents, the arginine-vasopressin-immunoreactive (AVP-ir) neurones of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and medial amygdala are controlled by plasma testosterone levels (decreased ... [more ▼]

In male rodents, the arginine-vasopressin-immunoreactive (AVP-ir) neurones of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and medial amygdala are controlled by plasma testosterone levels (decreased after castration and restored by exogenous testosterone). AVP transcription in these nuclei is increased in adulthood by a synergistic action of the androgenic and oestrogenic metabolites of testosterone and, accordingly, androgen and oestrogen receptors are present in both BNST and medial amygdala. We used knockout mice lacking a functional aromatase enzyme (ArKO) to investigate the effects of a chronic depletion of oestrogens on the sexually dimorphic AVP system. Wild-type (WT) and ArKO male mice were perfused 48 h after an i.c.v. colchicine injection and brain sections were then processed for AVP immunocytochemistry. A prominent decrease (but not a complete suppression) of AVP-ir structures was observed in the BNST and medial amygdala of ArKO mice by comparison with the WT. Similarly, AVP-ir fibres were reduced in the lateral septum of ArKO mice and but not in the medial preoptic area, a region where the AVP system is not sexually dimorphic in rats. No change was detected in the supraoptic and suprachiasmatic nuclei. However, a decrease in AVP-ir cell numbers was however, detected in one subregion of the paraventricular nucleus. These data support the hypothesis that the steroid-sensitive sexually dimorphic AVP system of the mouse forebrain is mainly under the control of aromatized metabolites of testosterone. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 50 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSevere lower gastrointestinal bleeding in Crohn's disease: Successful control with infliximab
Berlaiche, J.; Louis, Edouard ULg

in American Journal of Gastroenterology (2002), 97(12), 3210-3211

Detailed reference viewed: 35 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEU-MERCOSUR interregionalism: Facing Up to the South American Crisis and the Free Trade Area of the Americas
Santander, Sébastian ULg

in European Foreign Affairs Review (2002), 7

As part of their plans to diversify and globalize their foreign relations, the EU and MERCOSUR have been working to establish closer links. They have a project to create an interregional Association based ... [more ▼]

As part of their plans to diversify and globalize their foreign relations, the EU and MERCOSUR have been working to establish closer links. They have a project to create an interregional Association based on political dialogue, cooperation and trade issues. To understand the evolution of this interregional relationship, it is also important to take into account the USAs’ project, which seeks to create a hemispheric market for 2005 and in which MERCOSUR is participating. There is competition between Europe and the USA in the Southern Cone. While the EU has often provided support for institution building in MERCOSUR, the latter has frequently been destabilized by US regionalist strategy. The USA has often taken advantage of its special relationship with Argentina. However, the open crises that Argentina has faced since December 2001, and the US attitude towards the crises, appear to have affected the Buenos Aires foreign policy alignment with Washington. What geopolitical consequences could this have for the area? And what is the US position on this development? Has the EU taken advantage of the situation to reinforce its interregional partnership with MERCOSUR and to counteract US influence in the region? [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 369 (8 ULg)
Full Text
See detailHyperpaysages - Sensibiliser à l'aménagement du territoire par les nouvelles technologies
Partoune, Christine ULg; Pirenne, Marie; Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULg

in Point sur la Recherche en Education (Le) (2002)

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSite effect analysis around the seismically induced Ananevo, Rockslide, Kyrgyzstan
Havenith, Hans-Balder ULg; Jongmans, D.; Faccioli, E. et al

in Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (2002), 92(8), 3190-3209

In 1911, the surface-wave magnitude 8.2 Kemin earthquake hit northeastern Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan), close to the cities of Bishkek and Almaty, the capitals of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan, respectively ... [more ▼]

In 1911, the surface-wave magnitude 8.2 Kemin earthquake hit northeastern Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan), close to the cities of Bishkek and Almaty, the capitals of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan, respectively. Several hundreds of people were killed by the earthquake, some by indirect effects such as landslides and mudflows. A particular but nonfatal landslide triggered by the Kemin event was a rockslide in the vicinity of Ananevo, north of lake Issyk Kul (Kyrgyzstan) rockslide located above the fault zone activated in 1911. In the summer of 1999, a geophysical-seismological field trip was organized to study geology and to record seismic ground motions on and around the Ananevo rockslide. The work was part of project assessing seismogenic landslide hazard in northern Kyrgyzstan, based on various case studies of slope failures in connection with site-specific ground-motion dynamics. The geophysical investigations consisted of seismic refraction tests processed as 2D seismic tomographies and surface-wave inversion, which were combined to build a 3D geophysical model of the landslide site. Ground motions from small earthquakes were analyzed using several techniques to define site effects over the mountain massif. Both H/V and standard spectral ratios indicated lower dominant frequencies with stronger amplification in the crest region with respect to the mountain slope. These effects could be partially simulated by I D, 2D, and 3D finite-element modeling. By comparing the numerical results with the experimental data, the presence of a surficial low-velocity layer of varying thickness appeared to be the key factor controlling the ground motion around the rockslide. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 91 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe north-eastern Polish anorthosite massifs: petrological, geochemical and isotopic evidence for a crustal derivation
Wiszniewska, Janina; Claesson, Stefan; Stein, Holly et al

in Terra Nova (2002), 14(6), 451-460

Deeply buried 1.5 Ga Polish anorthosites, accessible only by bore holes, reveal diagnostic features of some massif-type anorthosites (polybarism, jotunitic parent magma), diapirically emplaced in the mid ... [more ▼]

Deeply buried 1.5 Ga Polish anorthosites, accessible only by bore holes, reveal diagnostic features of some massif-type anorthosites (polybarism, jotunitic parent magma), diapirically emplaced in the mid crust together with the rapakivi granites of the EW-trending Mazury complex, intruded along a major crustal discontinuity. Geochemical modelling and isotope data corroborate recent experimental work on the basaltic system in dry conditions: the source rock of the parental magma is a gabbronorite, necessarily lying in the lower crust. Since no Archaean crust is known in the region, high initial Os-188/Os-187 ratios for sulphide-oxide isochrons and negative epsilon(Nd) values are best accounted for by melting a similar to 2.0 Ga mafic crust. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 75 (8 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailExploring the effect of action familiarity on SPTs recall performance in Alzheimer's disease
Lekeu, Françoise ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Moonen, Gustave ULg et al

in Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology (2002), 24(8), 1057-1069

This study examined the performance of normal controls (NC) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients on free recall, semantic cued recall and object cued recall of both subject-performed tasks (SPTs) and ... [more ▼]

This study examined the performance of normal controls (NC) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients on free recall, semantic cued recall and object cued recall of both subject-performed tasks (SPTs) and verbal descriptions of actions, by controlling familiarity of actions associated to objects. The results showed that both groups performed better after SPT encoding than after verbal encoding. in all three types of recall. In addition, this SPT advantage was greater for AD patients than for NC in the object cued recall test, emphasizing AD patients' sensibility to the congruence of cues between encoding and retrieval conditions. Following verbal encoding. NC showed a better recall for less familiar actions than for highly familiar actions, whereas AD patients exhibited the opposite pattern. These results reflect that AD patients did not benefit from a distinctiveness effect at encoding for improving subsequent retrieval of verbal information, probably due to a reduced level of elaboration during encoding. However, there was no effect of action familiarity on recall performance by both groups following SPT encoding. These results suggest that memory for verbal actions and SPTs is governed by different principles. In addition. they demonstrate the robustness of the SPT effect in AD patients, who were able to improve memory performance in the SPT condition not only with highly familiar actions but also with less familiar actions. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 114 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailVenlafaxine: the relationship between dose, plasma concentration and clinical response in depressive patients
Charlier, Corinne ULg; Pinto, Emmanuel ULg; Ansseau, Marc ULg et al

in Journal of Psychopharmacology (2002), 16(4), 369-372

The relationship between plasma drug level of venlafaxine and daily intake was studied in 89 major depressive inpatients. In addition, changes over time in severity were assessed weekly in a subgroup of ... [more ▼]

The relationship between plasma drug level of venlafaxine and daily intake was studied in 89 major depressive inpatients. In addition, changes over time in severity were assessed weekly in a subgroup of 22 depressed patients using the Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Clinical Global Impression improvement scale. The results indicate a moderate correlation between daily doses and plasma concentrations, together with a higher relationship between improvement on the MADRS scale and concentration. Moreover, plasma concentrations (for venlafaxine and its predominant metabolite, O-desmethylvenlafaxine) up to 400 microg/l can be considered as effective, as already suggested in a previous study. No case of venlafaxine discontinuation occurred during the longitudinal study, and the incidence of adverse event, as estimated by the Target Emergent Symptoms and Side-effects scale, was low, suggesting that the drug is well tolerated for such plasma concentrations. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 68 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailBrain function in the vegetative state
Laureys, Steven ULg; Antoine, S.; Boly, Mélanie ULg et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2002), 102(4), 177-185

Positron emission tomography (PET) techniques represent a useful tool to better understand the residual brain function in vegetative state patients. It has been shown that overall cerebral metabolic rates ... [more ▼]

Positron emission tomography (PET) techniques represent a useful tool to better understand the residual brain function in vegetative state patients. It has been shown that overall cerebral metabolic rates for glucose are massively reduced in this condition. However, the recovery of consciousness from vegetative state is not always associated with substantial changes in global metabolism. This finding led us to hypothesize that some vegetative patients are unconscious not just because of a global loss of neuronal function, but rather due to an altered activity in some critical brain regions and to the abolished functional connections between them. We used voxel-based Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) approaches to characterize the functional neuroanatomy of the vegetative state. The most dysfunctional brain regions were bilateral frontal and parieto-temporal associative cortices. Despite the metabolic impairment, external stimulation still induced a significant neuronal activation (i.e., change in blood flow) in vegetative patients as shown by both auditory click stimuli and noxious somatosensory stimuli. However this activation was limited to primary cortices and dissociated from higher-order associative cortices, thought to be necessary for conscious perception. Finally, we demonstrated that vegetative patients have impaired functional connections between distant cortical areas and between the thalami and the cortex and, more importantly, that recovery of consciousness is paralleled by a restoration of this cortico-thalamo-cortical interaction. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 122 (32 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCytokine production from sputum cells after allergenic challenge in IgE-mediated asthma
Bettiol, Jeanne; Sele, Jocelyne ULg; Henket, Monique ULg et al

in Allergy (2002), 57(12), 1145-1150

Background: Th2 cytokine production from airway cells is thought to govern the eosinophilic airways in ammation in allergic asthma. Induced sputum has become a widely used technique to assess airways in ... [more ▼]

Background: Th2 cytokine production from airway cells is thought to govern the eosinophilic airways in ammation in allergic asthma. Induced sputum has become a widely used technique to assess airways in ammation. Methods: By applying the technique of induced sputum to collect airways cells, we have assessed the spontaneous production of a set of cytokines, including interleukin-4, 6, 10, interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha 6 h after a bronchial allergenic hallenge with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt) in 12 sensitized asthmatics and compared the results obtained after inhalation of saline as control. A group of eight healthy non-allergic subjects was enrolled to control for any non-specific effect of Dpt. Cytokines were measured by a dynamic immunoassay during a 24-h sputum cell culture. Results: Allergen challenge in sensitized asthmatics caused an acute and a late bronchospasm together with a rise in sputum eosinophil counts. Afterwards allergen sputum cells from allergic asthmatics displayed a rise in their production of IL-4 (P < 0.01), IL-6 (P < 0.05) and IL- 10 (P < 0.05) when compared to saline. By this time sputum generation of IL- 4 in atopic asthmatics was greater than in healthy subjects (P < 0.001). Furthermore, in allergic asthmatics there was a strong correlation between the rise in interleukin-4 production from sputum cells and the rise in sputum eosinophils (r = 0.87, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Sputum cell culture is a useful model to assess cytokine production in allergic asthmatics who show a marked up-regulation of Th2 cytokines following acute allergen exposure. The rise in sputum eosinophil count following allergen challenge strongly correlates with the rise in IL-4 generation from sputum cells. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 54 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDo Bovine Lymphocytes Express a Peculiar Prion Protein?
Mélot, France ULg; Thielen, Caroline ULg; Labiet, T. et al

in Developmental Immunology (2002), 9(4), 245-52

The cellular prion protein (PrPc) is a glycolipid-anchored cell surface protein that usually exhibits three glycosylation states. Its post-translationally modified isoform, PrPsc, is involved in the ... [more ▼]

The cellular prion protein (PrPc) is a glycolipid-anchored cell surface protein that usually exhibits three glycosylation states. Its post-translationally modified isoform, PrPsc, is involved in the pathogenesis of various transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). In bovine species, BSE infectivity appears to be restricted to the central nervous system; few or no detectable infectivity is found in lymphoid tissues in contrast to scrapie or variant CJD. Since expression of PrPc is a prerequisite for prion replication, we have investigated PrPc expression by bovine immune cells. Lymphocytes from blood and five different lymph organs were isolated from the same animal to assess intra- and interindividual variability of PrPc expression, considering six individuals. As shown by flow cytometry, this expression is absent or weak on granulocytes but is measurable on monocytes, B and T cells from blood and lymph organs. The activation of the bovine cells produces an upregulation of PrPc. The results of our in vitro study of PrPc biosynthesis are consistent with previous studies in other species. Interestingly, western blotting experiments showed only one form of the protein, the diglycosylated band. We propose that the glycosylation state could explain the lack of infectivity of the bovine immune cells. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 62 (11 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailBiochemistry and comparative genomics of SxxK superfamily acyltransferases offer a clue to the mycobacterial paradox: Presence of penicillin-susceptible target proteins versus lack of efficiency of penicillin as therapeutic agent
Goffin, Colette ULg; Ghuysen, Jean-Marie ULg

in Microbiology & Molecular Biology Reviews (2002), 66(4), 702-738

The bacterial acyltransferases of the SxxK superfamily vary enormously in sequence and function, with conservation of particular amino acid groups and all-alpha and alpha/beta folds. They occur as ... [more ▼]

The bacterial acyltransferases of the SxxK superfamily vary enormously in sequence and function, with conservation of particular amino acid groups and all-alpha and alpha/beta folds. They occur as independent entities (free-standing polypeptides) and as modules linked to other polypeptides (protein fusions). They can be classified into three groups. The group I SxxK D,D-acyltransferases are ubiquitous in the bacterial world. They invariably bear the motifs SxxK, SxN(D), and KT(S)G. Anchored in the plasma membrane with the bulk of the polypeptide chain exposed on the outer face of it, they are implicated in the synthesis of wall peptidoglycans of the most frequently encountered (4-->3) type. They are inactivated by penicillin and other beta-lactam antibiotics acting as suicide carbonyl donors in the form of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). They are components of a morphogenetic apparatus which, as a whole, controls multiple parameters such as shape and size and allows the bacterial cells to enlarge and duplicate their particular pattern. Class A PBP fusions comprise a glycosyltransferase module fused to an SxxK acyltransferase of class A. Class B PBP fusions comprise a linker, i.e., protein recognition, module fused to an SxxK acyltransferase of class B. They ensure the remodeling of the (4-->3) peptidoglycans in a cell cycle-dependent manner. The free-standing PBPs hydrolyze D,D peptide bonds. The group II SxxK acyltransferases frequently have a partially modified bar code, but the SxxK motif is invariant. They react with penicillin in various ways and illustrate the great plasticity of the catalytic centers. The secreted free-standing PBPs, the serine beta-lactamases, and the penicillin sensors of several penicillin sensory transducers help the D,D-acyltransferases of group I escape penicillin action. The group III SxxK acyltransferases are indistinguishable from the PBP fusion proteins of group I in motifs and membrane topology, but they resist penicillin. They are referred to as Pen(r) protein fusions. Plausible hypotheses are put forward on the roles that the Pen(r) protein fusions, acting as L,D-acyltransferases, may play in the (3-->3) peptidoglycan-synthesizing molecular machines. Shifting the wall peptidoglycan from the (4-->3) type to the (3-->3) type could help Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae survive by making them penicillin resistant. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 625 (19 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailFun stories about Brucella: the "furtive nasty bug".
Letesson, Jean-Jacques; Lestrate, Pascal; Delrue, Rose-May et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (2002), 90(1-4), 317-28

Although Brucella is responsible for one of the major worldwide zoonosis, our understanding of its pathogenesis remains in its infancy. In this paper, we summarize some of the research in progress in our ... [more ▼]

Although Brucella is responsible for one of the major worldwide zoonosis, our understanding of its pathogenesis remains in its infancy. In this paper, we summarize some of the research in progress in our laboratory that we think could contribute to a better understanding of the Brucella molecular virulence mechanisms and their regulation. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEquivariant symbol calculus for differential operators acting on forms
Boniver, Fabien; Hansoul, Sarah ULg; Mathonet, Pierre ULg et al

in Letters in Mathematical Physics (2002), 62(3), 219-232

We prove the existence and uniqueness of a projectively equivariant symbol map (in the sense of Lecomte and Ovsienko) for the spaces D_p of differential operators transforming p-forms into functions, over ... [more ▼]

We prove the existence and uniqueness of a projectively equivariant symbol map (in the sense of Lecomte and Ovsienko) for the spaces D_p of differential operators transforming p-forms into functions, over R^n. As an application, we classify the Vect(M)-equivariant maps from D_p to D_q over a smooth manifold M, recovering and improving earlier results of N. Poncin. This provides the complete answer to a question raised by P. Lecomte about the extension of a certain intrinsic homotopy operator. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailStructure and dynamics of candidate O star bubbles in N44
Nazé, Yaël ULg; Chu, Y. H.; Guerrero, M. A. et al

in Astronomical Journal (The) (2002), 124(6), 3325-3335

Dynamical studies of superbubbles and Wolf-Rayet ring nebulae show discrepancies from the standard adiabatic model for windblown bubbles. We therefore study the physical properties and kinematics of three ... [more ▼]

Dynamical studies of superbubbles and Wolf-Rayet ring nebulae show discrepancies from the standard adiabatic model for windblown bubbles. We therefore study the physical properties and kinematics of three candidate bubbles blown by single O stars to evaluate whether these discrepancies are also found in these simpler objects. Our sample candidates are N44 F, N44 J, and N44 M, in the outskirts of the H II complex N44 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We have obtained ground-based and Hubble Space Telescope emission-line images and high-dispersion echelle spectra for these objects. From the Halpha luminosities and the [ O III]/ Halpha ratios of these nebulae, we estimate the spectral types of the ionizing stars to be O7 V, O9.5 V, and O9.5 V for N44 F, N44 J, and N44 M, respectively. We. find that the observed expansion velocity of 12 km s(-1) for N44 F is consistent with the stellar wind luminosity expected from the central ionizing star, as predicted by the standard bubble model. The observed upper limits for the expansion velocities of N44 J and N44 M are also compatible with the expected values, within the uncertainties. We also report the discovery in N44 F of strongly defined dust columns, similar to those seen in the Eagle Nebula. The photoevaporation of these dense dust features may be kinematically important and may actually govern the evolution of the shell. The inclusion of photoevaporation processes may thus undermine the apparent agreement between the observed bubble dynamics and the simple adiabatic models. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (2 ULg)
Full Text
See detailLa Révision avant sa révision : réflexions sur une nouvelle formulation de l'article 195 de la Constitution belge
Behrendt, Christian ULg

in Actualités du Droit (2002)

This article studies the current debate on whether a change of the amendment procedure of the Belgian Constution ought to be envisaged.

Detailed reference viewed: 235 (31 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPercutaneous stereotactic en bloc excision of nonpalpable breast carcinoma: a step in the direction of supraconservative surgery
Lifrange, Eric ULg; Dondelinger, Robert ULg; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg et al

in Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland ) (2002), 11(6), 501-508

Recently, the advanced breast biopsy instrumentation (ABBI) system has been introduced as an alternative to conventional breast biopsy techniques. This study was prospectively conducted to evaluate the ... [more ▼]

Recently, the advanced breast biopsy instrumentation (ABBI) system has been introduced as an alternative to conventional breast biopsy techniques. This study was prospectively conducted to evaluate the potential of the ABBI method in locoregional management of a consecutive series of patients with nonpalpable mammographically detected breast carcinomas. Sixty-one consecutive patients underwent an ABBI procedure as a first step before possible surgery for nonpalpable breast lesions that would in any case require complete excision. For the 27 patients in whom the ABBI biopsy revealed malignancy further surgery was recommended, including re-excision of the biopsy site and axillary dissection in cases of infiltrating carcinoma. We calculated the probabilities that the ABBI specimen would have tumor-free margins and that a definitely complete excision had been achieved as a function of the mammographic or pathological diameter of the cancer. For cancer with a pathological diameter less than 10 mm, measured on the ABBI specimen, the probability (92%) of obtaining complete resection was significantly better than for larger lesions (P = 0.01, Fisher's exact test). Although the therapeutic perspectives for the ABBI method are limited at present, we suggest that this approach is a first step in the direction of a surgical strategy that is better adapted to the pathological characteristics peculiar to these small tumors, whose incidence is increasing. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 62 (11 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLe cas clinique du mois. Decouverte fortuite d'une fistule coronarienne
Gach, Olivier ULg; Legrand, Victor ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(12), 757-9

We report the case of a 54 year old man presenting atypical chest pain. The echocardiogram showed a dilatation of the coronary sinus. Subsequently the angiographic evaluation with cardiac catheterization ... [more ▼]

We report the case of a 54 year old man presenting atypical chest pain. The echocardiogram showed a dilatation of the coronary sinus. Subsequently the angiographic evaluation with cardiac catheterization demonstrated a coronary artery fistula between the circumflex artery and the coronary sinus and between a megaanevrysmal right coronary artery and the coronary sinus. No significant left to right shunt was discovered, however. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (1 ULg)
Full Text
See detailL'Intérêt herpétologique des gares de triage de l'Entre-Sambre-et-Meuse (Belgique)
Graitson, Eric ULg

in Natura Mosana (2002), 55(4), 63-69

Detailed reference viewed: 55 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDependence of the morphology development on the kinetics of reactive melt blending of immiscible polymers
Yin, Zhiyui; Koulic, Christian; Pagnoulle, Christophe et al

in Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering (2002), 80(6), 1044-1050

Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) containing 50 wt% of anthracene (anth) labeled reactive PMMA chains [thus end-capped by an anhydride (anh) or an isocyanate (NCO)] has been melt blended with polystyrene ... [more ▼]

Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) containing 50 wt% of anthracene (anth) labeled reactive PMMA chains [thus end-capped by an anhydride (anh) or an isocyanate (NCO)] has been melt blended with polystyrene containing 33 wt% of chains end-capped by an aliphatic amine (PS-NH2) at 180degreesC. Conversion of anth-PMMA-anh and anth-PMMA-NCO into PMMA-b-PS copolymers has been determined by SEC with a UV detector. The interfacial reaction mainly occurs in the initial mixing stage (less than or equal to1.0 min), although at a rate which depends on the reactive groups attached to PMMA. Moreover, this interfacial reaction rate controls how the phase morphology is developed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 8 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailBronchoalveolar lavage fluids of patients with lung injury activate the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa beta in an alveolar cell line
Nys, Monique ULg; Deby-Dupont, G.; Habraken, Yvette ULg et al

in Clinical Science (2002), 103(6), 577-585

In bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from ventilated patients, cytotoxic oxidant activity is correlated with neutrophil activation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that BAL ... [more ▼]

In bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from ventilated patients, cytotoxic oxidant activity is correlated with neutrophil activation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that BAL fluid induces activation of the transcription nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in human alveolar cells, in correlation with inflammatory mediators. We measured endotoxin, inflammatory cytokines [Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-8], nitrated proteins and the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in BAL fluid from ventilated patients developing bronchopneumonia (n = 19 samples) or with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (n = 14), and from ARDS/infection-free patients (n = 11). We also exposed alveolar cells to the BAL fluid or to human MPO, H2O2 or HOCl, and tested nuclear extracts for the activation of NF-kappaB. IL-1beta, IL-8, nitrated protein, MPO and endotoxin levels were significantly higher in BAL fluid from patients with bronchopneumonia than in that from the ARDS and ARDS/infection-free groups. A correlation was observed between IL-8 and MPO values (r = 0.82). The level of NF-kappaB activity induced by the BAL fluid was correlated with levels of IL-1beta (P < 0.001), IL-8 (P < 0.005) and MPO (P < 0.002), and with the neutrophil count (P < 0.002), and was higher for BAL fluid from the bronchopneumonia group. NF-kappaB activation by MPO was also demonstrated. The activation of NF-kappaB by BAL fluid, especially that from bronchopneumonia patients, suggests that a similar phenomenon may occur in vivo, leading to potential amplification of the inflammatory reaction. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 51 (8 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPsychomotor retardation, spastic paraplegia, cerebellar ataxia and dyskinesia associated with low 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in cerebrospinal fluid: A novel neurometabolic condition responding to folinic acid substitution
Ramaekers, Vincent ULg; Häusler, M.; Opladen, T. et al

in Neuropediatrics (2002), 33(6), 301-308

Introduction: Normal brain development and function depend on the active transport of folates across the blood-brain barrier. The folate receptor-1 (FR1) protein is localized at the basolateral surface of ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Normal brain development and function depend on the active transport of folates across the blood-brain barrier. The folate receptor-1 (FR1) protein is localized at the basolateral surface of the choroid plexus, which is characterized by a high binding affinity for circulating 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5- MTHF). Patients and Methods: We report on the clinical and metabolic findings among five children with normal neurodevelopmental progress during the first four to six months followed by the acquisition of a neurological condition which includes marked irritability, decelerating head growth, psychomotor retardation, cerebellar ataxia, dyskinesias (choreoathetosis, ballism), pyramidal signs in the lower limbs and occasional seizures. After the age of six years the two oldest patients also manifested a central visual disorder. Known disorders have been ruled out by extensive investigations. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis included determination of biogenic monoamines, pterins and 5-MTHF. Results: Despite normal folate levels in serum and red blood cells with normal homocysteine, analysis of CSF revealed a decline towards very low values for 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF), which suggested disturbed transport of folates across the blood-brain barrier. Genetic analysis of the FR1 gene revealed normal coding sequences. Oral treatment with doses of the stable compound folinic acid (0.5-1 mg/kg/day Leucovorin®) resulted in clinical amelioration and normalization of 5-MTHF values in CSF. Conclusion: Our findings identified a new condition manifesting after the age of 6 months which was accompanied by low 5-MTHF in cerebrospinal fluid and responded to oral supplements with folinic acid. However, the cause of disturbed folate transfer across the blood-brain barrier remains unknown. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 105 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailStudy of color centers induced by PIXE irradiation
Absil, J.; Garnir, Henri-Pierre ULg; Strivay, David ULg et al

in Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section B, Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms (2002), 198(1-2), 90-97

The particle induced X-ray emission method is perfectly adapted to the study, by external beam, of art objects (like paintings) and allows non-destructive analysis of the atomic composition of the target ... [more ▼]

The particle induced X-ray emission method is perfectly adapted to the study, by external beam, of art objects (like paintings) and allows non-destructive analysis of the atomic composition of the target. However, a strange phenomenon occurs during irradiation on some pigments: dark brownish stains appear, and this could be due to the formation of color centers. In fact, these darkening spots progressively fade out and disappear after a few weeks. Heat and UV light accelerate the decreasing process. The aim of this study is to understand the physical processes of the stain creation and to find a way to make stains disappear, avoiding any damage for the painting. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 44 (11 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLes yeux de la nuit : Chats, chouettes, chauve-souris...
Strivay, Lucienne ULg

in Voir (2002), 24-25

Detailed reference viewed: 74 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailIncreased expression of the putative axon growth-repulsive extracellular matrix molecule, keratan sulphate proteoglycan, following traumatic injury of the adult rat spinal cord
Krautstrunk, M.; Scholtes, Félix ULg; Martin, Didier ULg et al

in Acta Neuropathologica (2002), 104(6), 592-600

Keratan sulphate proteoglycan (KSPG) is a developmentally regulated barrier molecule, directing axonal growth during central nervous system (CNS) formation. The possible re-expression and functional ... [more ▼]

Keratan sulphate proteoglycan (KSPG) is a developmentally regulated barrier molecule, directing axonal growth during central nervous system (CNS) formation. The possible re-expression and functional significance of KSPG in preventing axon regeneration following spinal cord injury (SCI) is poorly understood. In the present investigation, the spatio-temporal expression of KSPG was studied following experimental SCI. There was no indication of sparing of axons at the lesion epicentre following severe compression injury. By 7 days post operation (p.o.) a diffuse increase of KSPG immunoreactivity (KSPG-IR) was observed in the parenchyma surrounding the lesion. This was followed by a delayed (21-28 days p.o.) and largely heterogeneous increase of KSPG-IR in the lesion epicentre, which revealed both cellular and extracellular matrix-like distribution patterns. Although no re-growth of anterogradely labelled corticospinal axons was observed, many 200-kDa neurofilament (NF)-positive axon could be detected growing into the connective tissue scar. This phase of spontaneous axonal re-growth was closely associated with a framework of glial cells (including Schwann cells from damaged local spinal nerve roots) that had migrated into the lesion site. The spontaneous nerve fibre re-growth could be detected in both KSPG-rich and KSPG-poor territories. The present data suggest that the lesion-induced up-regulation of KSPG-IR may have contributed to the lack of corticospinal axon re-growth. However, the lack of any direct spatio-temporal correlation between the distribution of raised KSPG-IR and spontaneous NF-positive axonal regeneration suggests that at least some populations of axons can resist the putative inhibitory effects of this extracellular matrix molecule. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 45 (11 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailActive-site mutants of class B beta-lactamases: substrate binding and mechanistic study
Prosperi-Meys, C.; De Seny, Dominique ULg; Llabres, Gabriel ULg et al

in Cellular & Molecular Life Sciences (2002), 59(12), 2136-2143

Increased resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics is mainly due to beta-lactamases. X-ray structures of zinc beta-lactamases unraveled the coordination of the metal ions, but their mode of action remains ... [more ▼]

Increased resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics is mainly due to beta-lactamases. X-ray structures of zinc beta-lactamases unraveled the coordination of the metal ions, but their mode of action remains unclear. Recently, enzymes in which one of the zinc ligands was mutated have been characterized and their catalytic activity against several beta-lactam antibiotics measured. A molecular modeling study of these enzymes was performed here to explain the catalytic activity of the mutants. Coordination around the zinc ions influences the way the tetrahedral intermediate is bound; any modification influences the first recognition of the substrate by the enzyme. For all the studied mutants, at least one of the interactions fails, inducing a loss of catalytic efficiency compared to the wild type. The present studies show that the enzyme cavity is a structure of high plasticity both structurally and mechanistically and that local modifications may propagate its effects far from the mutated amino acid. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLa carcinomatose hepatique du cancer colorectal: actualites therapeutiques
Polus, Marc ULg; Honore, Pierre ULg; De Roover, Arnaud ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(12), 771-8

Important progress has been made in the treatment of liver metastases of advanced colorectal cancer. Surgery with curative intent, when possible, shows evidence of prolonged survival. Response rate and ... [more ▼]

Important progress has been made in the treatment of liver metastases of advanced colorectal cancer. Surgery with curative intent, when possible, shows evidence of prolonged survival. Response rate and overall survival can be improved with modern polychemotherapy. Cytotoxic drug combinations and sequential treatments sometimes make surgery possible for initially non resectable lesions. Impact of loco-regional treatment such as hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy must be defined in randomised trials. Radiofrequency ablation is also currently evaluated in clinical trials. In this review the benefit of each treatment is discussed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 285 (10 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDual effects of an extra disulfide bond on the activity and stability of a cold-adapted alpha-amylase
D'Amico, Salvino ULg; Gerday, Charles ULg; Feller, Georges ULg

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2002), 277(48), 46110-46115

Chloride-dependent alpha-amylases constitute a well conserved family of enzymes thereby allowing investigation of the characteristics of each member to understand, for example, relevant properties ... [more ▼]

Chloride-dependent alpha-amylases constitute a well conserved family of enzymes thereby allowing investigation of the characteristics of each member to understand, for example, relevant properties required for environmental adaptation. In this context, we have constructed a double mutant (Q58C/A99C) of the cold-active and heat-labile alpha-amylase from the Antarctic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis, defined on the basis of its strong similarity with the mesophilic enzyme from pig pancreas. This mutant was characterized to understand the role of an extra disulfide bond specific to warm-blooded animals and located near the entrance of the catalytic cleft. We show that the catalytic parameters of the mutant are drastically modified and similar to those of the mesophilic enzyme. Calorimetric studies demonstrated that the mutant is globally stabilized (DeltaDeltaG = 1.87 kcal/mol at 20 degrees C) when compared with the wild-type enzyme, although the melting point (T-m) was not increased. Moreover, fluorescence quenching experiments indicate a more compact structure for the mutated a-amylase. However, the strain imposed on the active site architecture induces a 2-fold higher thermal inactivation rate at 45 degreesC as well as the appearance of a less stable calorimetric domain. It is concluded that stabilization by the extra disulfide bond arises from an enthalpy-entropy compensation effect favoring the enthalpic contribution. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLifetime measurements and calculations in singly ionized ytterbium
Biémont, Emile ULg; Quinet, Pascal ULg; Dai, Z. W. et al

in Journal of Physics B-Atomic Molecular and Optical Physics (2002), 35(22), 4743-4749

New radiative lifetimes, measured by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy, are reported for five Rydberg states of singly ionized ytterbium. Free Yb+ ions were produced in a laser-induced ... [more ▼]

New radiative lifetimes, measured by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy, are reported for five Rydberg states of singly ionized ytterbium. Free Yb+ ions were produced in a laser-induced plasma. The experimental results have been compared with HFR calculations, taking core-polarization effects into account, and a good agreement (within 25%) between theory and experiment is observed for four levels. HFR results are also proposed for np (n less than or equal to 7) and nf (n less than or equal to 8) Rydberg states and compared with available data. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAn X-ray investigation of the NGC 346 field in the Small Magellanic Cloud - I. The luminous blue variable HD 5980 and the NGC 346 cluster
Nazé, Yaël ULg; Hartwell, J. M.; Stevens, I. R. et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2002), 580(Part 1), 225-234

We present results from a Chandra observation of the NGC 346 cluster. This cluster contains numerous massive stars and is responsible for the ionization of N66, the most luminous H II region and the ... [more ▼]

We present results from a Chandra observation of the NGC 346 cluster. This cluster contains numerous massive stars and is responsible for the ionization of N66, the most luminous H II region and the largest star formation region in the SMC. In this first paper we will focus on the characteristics of the main objects of the field. The NGC 346 cluster itself shows only relatively faint X-ray emission (with L-X(unabs) similar to 1.5x10(34) ergs s(-1)), tightly correlated with the core of the cluster. In the field also lies HD 5980, a luminous blue variable star in a binary (or possibly a triple) system that is detected for the first time at X-ray energies. The star is X-ray bright, with an unabsorbed luminosity of L-X(unabs) similar to 1.7x10(34) ergs s(-1), but needs to be monitored further to investigate its X-ray variability over a complete 19 day orbital cycle. The high X-ray luminosity may be associated either with colliding winds in the binary system or with the 1994 eruption. HD 5980 is surrounded by a region of diffuse X-ray emission, which is a supernova remnant. While it may be only a chance alignment with HD 5980, such a spatial coincidence may indicate that the remnant is indeed related to this peculiar massive star. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAtmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment version 3 data retrievals
Irion, Fredrick W.; Gunson, Michael R.; Toon, Geoff C. et al

in Applied Optics (2002), 41(33), 6968-6979

Version 3 of the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment data set for some 30 trace and minor gas profiles is available. From the IR solar-absorption spectra measured during four Space ... [more ▼]

Version 3 of the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment data set for some 30 trace and minor gas profiles is available. From the IR solar-absorption spectra measured during four Space Shuttle missions (in 1985, 1992, 1993, and 1994), profiles from more than 350 occultations were retrieved from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere. Previous results were unreliable for tropospheric retrievals, but with a new global-fitting algorithm profiles are reliably returned down to altitudes as low as 6.5 km (clouds permitting) and include notably improved retrievals of H2O, CO, and other species. Results for stratospheric water are more consistent across the ATMOS spectral filters and do not indicate a net consumption of H-2 in the upper stratosphere. A new sulfuric-acid aerosol product is described. An overview of ATMOS Version 3 processing is presented with a discussion of estimated uncertainties. Differences between these Version 3 and previously reported Version 2 ATMOS results are discussed. Retrievals are available at http://atmos.jpl.nasa.gov/atmos. (C) 2002 Optical Society of America. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 59 (8 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEffect of molecular weight of the reactive precursors in melt reactive blending
Yin, Zhihui; Koulic, Christian; Jeon, H. K. et al

in Macromolecules (2002), 35(24), 8917-8919

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPitx factors are involved in basal and hormone-regulated activity of the human prolactin promoter
Quentien, M. H.; Manfroid, Isabelle ULg; Moncet, D. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2002), 277(46), 44408-44416

The pituitary-specific POU homeodomain factor Pit-1 likely interacts with other factors for cell-specific expression of prolactin. Here we identify the paired-like homeobox transcription factors Pitx1 and ... [more ▼]

The pituitary-specific POU homeodomain factor Pit-1 likely interacts with other factors for cell-specific expression of prolactin. Here we identify the paired-like homeobox transcription factors Pitx1 and Pitx2 as factors functionally activating the proximal human prolactin promoter (hPRL-164luc). Using in vitro binding assays and a series of site-specific mutations of the proximal hPRL promoter, we mapped the 131 and B2 bicoid sites involved in Pitx-mediated transactivation of the hPRL-164luc construct. In somatolactotroph GH4C1 cells, basal proximal hPRL promoter activity was inhibited by a Pitx2 dominant-negative form in a dose-dependent manner, whereas binding disruptive mutations in the Pitx sites significantly reduced basal activity of the promoter. We also show that synergistic activation of hPRL-164luc by Pitx2 and Pit-1 requires the integrity of the B2 Pitx binding site, and at least one of the P1 and P2 Pit-1 response elements. In addition, mutation in the B2 Pitx site results in attenuation of the promoter's responsiveness to forskolin, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, and epidermal growth factor. Conversely, Pitx1 or Pitx2 overexpression in GH4C1 cells leads to an enhancement of the drugs stimulatory effects. Altogether, these results suggest that full responsiveness to several signaling pathways regulating the hPRL promoter requires the B2 Pitx binding site and that Pitx factors may be part of the proteic complex involved in these regulations. Finally, in situ hybridization analysis showing coexpression of the PRL and Pitx2 genes in rat and human lactotroph cells corroborates the physiological relevance of these results. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCutting balloon angioplasty for the prevention of restenosis: Results of the cutting balloon global randomized trial
Mauri, L.; Bonan, R.; Weiner, B. H. et al

in American Journal of Cardiology (2002), 90(10), 1079-1083

The cutting balloon (CB) is a specialized device designed to create discrete longitudinal incisions in the atherosclerotic target coronary segment during balloon inflation. Such controlled dilatation ... [more ▼]

The cutting balloon (CB) is a specialized device designed to create discrete longitudinal incisions in the atherosclerotic target coronary segment during balloon inflation. Such controlled dilatation theoretically reduces the force needed to dilate an obstructive lesion compared with standard percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). We report a multicenter, randomized trial comparing the incidence of restenosis after CB angioplasty versus conventional balloon angioplasty in 1,238 patients. Six hundred seventeen patients were randomized to CB treatment, and 621 to PTCA. The mean reference vessel diameter was 2.86 +/- 0.49 mm, mean lesion length 8.9 +/- 4.3 mm, and prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients was 13%. The primary end point, the 6-month binary angiographic restenosis rate, was 31.4% for CB and 30.4% for PTCA (p = 0.75). Acute procedural success, defined as the attainment of <50% diameter stenosis without in-hospital major adverse cardiac events, was 92.9% for CB and 94.7% for PTCA (p = 0.24). Freedom from target vessel revascularization was slightly higher in the CB arm (88.5% vs 84.6%, log-rank p = 0.04). Five coronary perforations occurred in the CB arm only (0.8% vs 0%, p = 0.03). At 270 days, rates of myocardial infarction, death, and total major adverse cardiac events for CB and PTCA were 4.7% versus 2.4% (p = 0.03), 1.3% versus 0.3% (p = 0.06), and 13.6% versus 15.1% (p = 0.34), respectively. In summary, the proposed mechanism of controlled dilatation did not reduce the rate of angiographic restenosis for the CB compared with conventional balloon angioplasty. CB angioplasty should be reserved for difficult lesions in which controlled dilatation is believed to provide a better acute result compared with balloon angioplasty alone. (C) 2002 by Excerpta Medica, Inc. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailProduction planning problems in printed circuit board assembly
Crama, Yves ULg; van de Klundert, Joris; Spieksma, Frits CR

in Discrete Applied Mathematics (2002), 123(1-3), 339-361

This survey describes some of the main optimization problems arising in the context of production planning for the assembly of printed circuit boards. The discussion is structured around a hierarchical ... [more ▼]

This survey describes some of the main optimization problems arising in the context of production planning for the assembly of printed circuit boards. The discussion is structured around a hierarchical decomposition of the planning process into distinct optimization subproblems, addressing issues such as the assignment of board types to machine groups, the allocation of component feeders to individual machines, the determination of optimal production sequences, etc, The paper reviews the literature on this topic with an emphasis on the most recent developments, on the fundamental structure of the mathematical models and on the relation between these models and some 'environmental' variables such as the layout of the shop or the product mix. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V, All rights reserved. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 413 (7 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailOptical spectroscopy of X-Mega targets - IV. CPD-59 degrees 2636: a new O-type multiple system in the Carina Nebula
Albacete Colombo, J. F.; Morrell, N. I.; Rauw, Grégor ULg et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2002), 336(4), 1099-1108

High-resolution optical spectroscopy of CPD -59degrees2636, one of the O-type stars in the open cluster Trumpler 16 in the Carina Nebula, reveals this object to be a multiple system displaying triple ... [more ▼]

High-resolution optical spectroscopy of CPD -59degrees2636, one of the O-type stars in the open cluster Trumpler 16 in the Carina Nebula, reveals this object to be a multiple system displaying triple lines which we label as components A, B and C of spectral types O7 V, O8 V and O9 V, respectively. From our radial velocity measurements we find that the components A and B form a close binary with a period of 3.6284 d, and we obtain the first circular radial velocity orbit for this system with semi-amplitudes of 184 and 192 km s(-1), leading to minimum masses of 10.1 and 9.7 M-.. We find that the component C is a single lined binary with a period of 5.034 d and semi-amplitude of 48 km s(-1). We also analyse the X-ray radiation from CPD -59degrees2636, finding neither appreciable overluminosity nor phase-related X-ray flux variations. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailBenchmarks for the forward observables at RHIC, the Tevatron-run II, and the LHC
Cudell, Jean-René ULg; Ezhela, Vladimir V.; Gauron, P. et al

in Physical Review Letters (2002), 89(20), 201801

We present predictions on the total cross sections and on the ratio of the real part to the imaginary part of the elastic amplitude (rho parameter) for present and future pp and pbar p colliders, and on ... [more ▼]

We present predictions on the total cross sections and on the ratio of the real part to the imaginary part of the elastic amplitude (rho parameter) for present and future pp and pbar p colliders, and on total cross sections for gamma p -> hadrons at cosmic-ray energies and for gamma gamma-> hadrons up to sqrt{s}=1 TeV. These predictions are based on an extensive study of possible analytic parametrisations invoking the biggest hadronic dataset available at t=0. The uncertainties on total cross sections, including the systematic errors due to contradictory data points from FNAL, can reach 1.9% at RHIC, 3.1% at the Tevatron, and 4.8% at the LHC, whereas those on the rho parameter are respectively 5.4%, 5.2%, and 5.4%. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 44 (7 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCore-polarization effects in doubly ionized cerium (Ce III) for transitions of astrophysical interest
Biémont, Emile ULg; Quinet, Pascal ULg; Ryabchikova, T. A.

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2002), 336(4), 1155-1160

The importance of core-polarization effects on oscillator strength determination in Ce III is emphasized. The inclusion of these effects in relativistic Hartree-Fock (HFR) calculations leads to ... [more ▼]

The importance of core-polarization effects on oscillator strength determination in Ce III is emphasized. The inclusion of these effects in relativistic Hartree-Fock (HFR) calculations leads to theoretical lifetime values for some 4f6p levels of this ion in close agreement with recent time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence measurements. These new atomic data, the most accurate to date, have allowed the refinement of the stellar abundance determination of cerium in the chemically peculiar star HD 192913, but have not altered in a drastic way the conclusions derived in recent analyses regarding the overabundance of this element. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA model for the pion structure function
Bissey, F.; Cudell, Jean-René ULg; Cugnon, Joseph ULg et al

in Physics Letters B (2002), 547(3-4), 210-218

The pion structure function is investigated in a simple model, where pion and constituent quark fields are coupled through the simplest pseudoscalar coupling. The imaginary part of the forward gamma*pi ... [more ▼]

The pion structure function is investigated in a simple model, where pion and constituent quark fields are coupled through the simplest pseudoscalar coupling. The imaginary part of the forward gamma*pi --> gamma*pi evaluated and related to the structure functions. It is shown that the introduction of non-perturbative effects linked to the size of the pion and preserving gauge invariance, allows a connection with the quark distribution. It is predicted that higher-twist terms become negligible for Q(2) larger than similar to 2 GeV2 and that quarks in the pion have a momentum fraction smaller than in the proton case. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 40 (17 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailNew pyridobenzodiazepine derivatives: Modifications of the basic side chain differentially modulate binding to dopamine (D-4.2, D-2L) and serotonin (5-HT2A) receptors
Liégeois, Jean-François ULg; Eyrolles, L.; Ellenbroek, B. A. et al

in Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2002), 45(23), 5136-5149

A series of new pyridobenzodiazepines with variation of the basic side chain were synthesized and evaluated for their binding to D-4.2, D-2L, and 5-HT2A receptors in comparison with clozapine, haloperidol ... [more ▼]

A series of new pyridobenzodiazepines with variation of the basic side chain were synthesized and evaluated for their binding to D-4.2, D-2L, and 5-HT2A receptors in comparison with clozapine, haloperidol, and two parent compounds previously described, 8-chloro-6-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-11H-pyrido[2,3-b][1,4]benzodiazepine (8) and 8-methyl-6-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-11H-pyrido[2,3-b][1,4]benzodiazepine (9). In the piperazine series, replacing the N-methyl group by a N-phenyl moiety (15-17, 30-32) provided a dramatic decrease of affinity for all receptors (K-i > 1000 nM). A N-cyclohexyl group (20, 35) restored some affinity. Compounds with a N-benzyl (18, 33) or N-phenethyl side chain (19, 34) had significant affinities at D-4.2 and 5-HT2A receptors. Homologation of the piperazine nucleus (29, 44) led to a significant decrease of the affinity at all receptors investigated. In the 4-aminopiperidine series, N-methyl derivatives (21, 36) possessed less affinity in comparison with the N-metbylpiperazine analogues (8, 9) while the N-benzyl congeners (22, 37) showed similar affinities. The rigidification of piperidine nucleus as obtained in azabicyclo [3.2.1] octane derivatives (23, 38) involved a slight reduction of the affinity at D-4.2 and 5-HT2A receptors while the affinity at D-2L receptors was dramatically increased. The introduction of N-substituted aminoalkylamines to replace N-methylpiperazine generally led to a significant decrease in the affinity for D-4.2 receptors but some of these molecules (24, 25, 41) presented a significant 5-HT2A binding affinity. The presence of a more flexible side chain induced an increased conformational freedom. Consequently, the preferential position of the distal nitrogen or its basicity in piperazine derivatives was greatly modified. 19 with a high D-4.2 and 5-HT2A affinity (K-i = 40 and 103 nM, respectively) did not induce cataleptic phenomenon in the paw test in rats but significantly reduced the immobility time in Porsolt's test in mice suggesting antidepressant properties. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 38 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailElectron and proton excitation of the FUV aurora: Simultaneous IMAGE and NOAA observations
Coumans, Valérie ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Hubert, Benoît ULg et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics (2002), 107

The Far Ultraviolet (FUV) imaging system on board the IMAGE satellite provides a global view of the north auroral region in different spectral channels. The Wideband Imaging Camera (WIC) is sensitive to ... [more ▼]

The Far Ultraviolet (FUV) imaging system on board the IMAGE satellite provides a global view of the north auroral region in different spectral channels. The Wideband Imaging Camera (WIC) is sensitive to the N[SUB]2[/SUB] LBH emission and NI emissions produced by both electron and proton precipitations. The SI12 camera images the Lyman-alpha emission due to incident protons only. We compare WIC and SI12 observations with model predictions based on particle measurements from the TED and the MEPED detectors on board NOAA-TIROS spacecraft. Models of the interaction of auroral particles with the atmosphere are used together with the in situ proton and electron flux and characteristic energy data to calculate the auroral brightness at the magnetic footprint of the NOAA-15 and NOAA-16 orbital tracks. The MEPED experiment measures the precipitating particles with energy higher than 30 keV, so that these comparisons include all auroral energies, in contrast to previous comparisons. A satisfactory agreement in morphology and in magnitude is obtained for most satellite overflights. The observed FUV-WIC signal is well modeled if the different spatial resolution of the two sensors is considered and the in situ measurements properly smoothed. The calculated count rate includes contributions from LBH emission, the NI 149.3 nm line, and the OI 135.6 nm line excited by electrons and protons. The proton contribution in WIC can locally dominate the electrons. The comparisons indicate that protons can significantly contribute to the FUV aurora at specific times and places and cannot be systematically neglected. The results confirm the shift of the proton auroral oval equatorward of the electron oval in the dusk sector. We also show that in some regions, especially in the dusk sector, high-energy protons dominate the proton energy flux and account for a large fraction of the Lyman-alpha and other FUV emissions. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailOn-axis spatially resolved spectroscopy of low redshift quasar host galaxies: HE 1503+0228, at z=0.135
Courbin, F.; Letawe, Géraldine ULg; Magain, Pierre ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2002), 394

We present the first result of a comprehensive spectroscopic study of quasar host galaxies. On-axis, spatially resolved spectra of low redshift quasars have been obtained with FORS1, mounted on the 8.2 m ... [more ▼]

We present the first result of a comprehensive spectroscopic study of quasar host galaxies. On-axis, spatially resolved spectra of low redshift quasars have been obtained with FORS1, mounted on the 8.2 m ESO Very Large Telescope, Antu. The spectra are spatially deconvolved using a spectroscopic version of the ``MCS deconvolution algorithm''. The algorithm decomposes two dimensional spectra into the individual spectra of the central point-like nucleus and of its host galaxy. Applied to HE 1503+0228 at z=0.135 (M[SUB]B[/SUB]=-23.0), it provides us with the spectrum of the host galaxy between 3600 Å and 8500 Å (rest-frame), at a mean resolving power of 700. The data allow us to measure several of the important Lick indices. The stellar populations and gas ionization state of the host galaxy of HE 1503+0228 are very similar to the ones measured for normal non-AGN galaxies. Dynamical information is also available for the gas and stellar components of the galaxy. Using deconvolution and a deprojection algorithm, velocity curves are derived for emission lines, from the center up to 4\arcsec away from the nucleus of the galaxy. Fitting a simple three-components mass model (point mass, spherical halo of dark matter, disk) to the position-velocity diagram, we infer a mass of M(r<1 kpc) = (2.0 +/- 0.3)x 10[SUP]10[/SUP] M[SUB]sun[/SUB] within the central kiloparsec of the galaxy, and a mass integrated over 10 kpc of M(r<10 kpc) = (1.9 +/- 0.3) x 10[SUP]11[/SUP] M[SUB]sun[/SUB], with an additional 10% error due to the uncertainty on the inclination of the galaxy. This, in combination with the analysis of the stellar populations indicates that the host galaxy of HE 1503+0228, is a normal spiral galaxy. Based on observations made with ANTU/UT1 at ESO-Paranal observatory in Chile (program 65.P-0361(A)), and with the ESO 3.5 m NTT, at La Silla observatory (program 62.P-0643(B)). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 46 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMagnon-polaron and spin-polaron signatures in the specific heat and electrical resistivity of La0.6Y0.1Ca0.3MnO3 in zero magnetic field and the effect of Mn - O - Mn bond environment
Ausloos, Marcel ULg; Hubert, L.; Dorbolo, Stéphane ULg et al

in Physical Review B (2002), 66(17),

La0.6Y0.1Ca0.3MnO3, an ABO(3) perovskite manganite oxide, exhibits a nontrivial behavior in the vicinity of the sharp peak found in the resistivity rho as a function of temperature T in zero magnetic ... [more ▼]

La0.6Y0.1Ca0.3MnO3, an ABO(3) perovskite manganite oxide, exhibits a nontrivial behavior in the vicinity of the sharp peak found in the resistivity rho as a function of temperature T in zero magnetic field. The various features seen on drho/dT are discussed in terms of competing phase transitions. They are related to the Mn-O-Mn bond environment depending on the content of the A crystallographic site. A Ginzburg-Landau type theory is presented for incorporating concurrent phase transitions. The specific heat C of such a compound is also examined from 50 to 200 K. A log-log analysis indicates different regimes. In the low temperature conducting ferromagnetic phase, a collective magnon signature (Csimilar or equal toT(3/2)) is found as for what are called magnon-polaron excitations. A Csimilar or equal toT(2/3) law is found at high temperature and discussed in terms of the fractal dimension of the conducting network of the weakly conducting (so-called insulating) phase and an Orbach estimate of the excitation spectral behaviors. The need of considering both independent spin scattering and collective spin scattering is thus emphasized. The report indicates a remarkable agreement for the Fisher-Langer formula, i.e., Csimilar todrho/dT at second order phase transitions. Within the Attfield model, we find an inverse square root relationship between the critical temperature(s) and the total local Mn-O-Mn strain. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDopamine activates noradrenergic receptors in the preoptic area
Cornil, Charlotte ULg; Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Motte, Patrick ULg et al

in Journal of Neuroscience (2002), 22(21), 9320-9330

Dopamine (DA) facilitates male sexual behavior and modulates aromatase activity in the quail preoptic area (POA). Aromatase neurons in the POA receive dopaminergic inputs, but the anatomical substrate ... [more ▼]

Dopamine (DA) facilitates male sexual behavior and modulates aromatase activity in the quail preoptic area (POA). Aromatase neurons in the POA receive dopaminergic inputs, but the anatomical substrate that mediates the behavioral and endocrine effects of DA is poorly understood. Intracellular recordings showed that 100 muM DA hyperpolarizes most neurons in the medial preoptic nucleus (80%) by a direct effect, but depolarizes a few others (10%). DA-induced hyperpolarizations were not blocked by D1 or D2 antagonists (SCH-23390 and sulpiride). Extracellular recordings confirmed that DA inhibits the firing of most cells (52%) but excites a few others (24%). These effects also were not affected by DA antagonists (SCH-23390 and sulpiride) but were blocked by alpha(2)-(yohimbine) and alpha(1)-(prazosin) noradrenergic receptor antagonists, respectively. Two dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) inhibitors (cysteine and fusaric acid) did not block the DA-induced effects, indicating that DA is not converted into norepinephrine (NE) to produce its effects. The pK(B) of yohimbine for the receptor involved in the DA- and NE-induced inhibitions was similar, indicating that the two monoamines interact with the same receptor. Together, these results demonstrate that the effects of DA in the POA are mediated mostly by the activation of alpha(2) (inhibition) and alpha(1) (excitation) adrenoreceptors. This may explain why DA affects the expression of male sexual behavior through its action in the POA, which contains high densities of alpha(2)-noradrenergic but limited amounts of DA receptors. This study thus clearly demonstrates the existence of a cross talk within CNS catecholaminergic systems between a neurotransmitter and heterologous receptors. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 50 (26 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCascades of popping bubbles
Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Caps, Hervé ULg; Dorbolo, Stéphane ULg

in Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications (2002), 314(1-4), 320-324

We study the intermittent dynamics of collapsing foams. Avalanches of popping bubbles are observed. Although correlations between successive popping bubbles are emphasized, film raptures at the air/foam ... [more ▼]

We study the intermittent dynamics of collapsing foams. Avalanches of popping bubbles are observed. Although correlations between successive popping bubbles are emphasized, film raptures at the air/foam interface seem to be independent of the bubble size. Possible mechanisms for cascades of bubble pops are proposed and discussed. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailExcitation of the FUV Io tail on Jupiter: Characterization of the electron precipitation
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Gustin, Jacques ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics (2002), 107(A11),

[1] Spectral observation of both polar regions of Jupiter in the far ultraviolet (FUV) obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS), on board the Hubble Space Telescope from July 1997 to ... [more ▼]

[1] Spectral observation of both polar regions of Jupiter in the far ultraviolet (FUV) obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS), on board the Hubble Space Telescope from July 1997 to January 2001 have been combined with FUV images to map the FUV color ratio along the STIS slit. Spatially resolved spectra of the aurora carried at similar to12 Angstrom resolution have been used to determine the amount of methane absorption as measured by the FUV color ratio of the Io magnetic footprint and its trailing tail. It is found that the absorption is systematically less than in the main polar aurora, indicating a higher altitude source region. The color ratio of the north tail is shown to slowly decrease downstream from the footprint. The combination of these spectral data with a two-stream model of the interaction of energetic electrons with the Jovian thermosphere indicates that the mean energy of the electrons creating the north FUV emission ranges from similar to55 keV at the Io footprint to similar to40 keV, 20 degrees downstream in the tail. In parallel, the incident electron energy flux drops by a factor similar to6 over the same angular distance. These observations are consistent with the steady state slippage picture where the subcorotating flux tube is accelerated very slowly up to corotation owing to the nonideal coupling. It is argued that small deviations from corotation can supply sufficient energy to fuel the observed auroral emissions. It is suggested that the parallel electric field accelerating electrons out of the flux tube only moderately depends on the time elapsed since the contact with Io, although the mapping between a point in the tail and Io is very uncertain in the presence of magnetic field line slippage. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailImprovement of the interaction formulae for beam columns in Eurocode 3
Boissonnade, N.; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg; Muzeau, J. P. et al

in Computers & Structures (2002), 80(27-30), 2375-2385

This paper presents a new proposal for beam-column interaction formulae initially based on second-order in-plane elastic theory, as an alternative to those proposed in the Eurocode 3 pre-standard [1]. It ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a new proposal for beam-column interaction formulae initially based on second-order in-plane elastic theory, as an alternative to those proposed in the Eurocode 3 pre-standard [1]. It has been derived according to the following requirements: theoretical background, clear physical meaning, consistency with the other related formulae of Eurocode 3 and accuracy. Besides that, the suggested formulae cover all required continuities: between the cross-section classes, from plasticity to elasticity as slenderness and axial force increase, and continuity between all the individual stability member checks and cross-section verifications. Further to the presentation of the formulae and their background, the good agreement of the proposal is shown through an extensive comparison with more than 15,000 results of finite element numerical simulations. (C) 2002 Civil-Comp Ltd. and Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 92 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailTranscription of the human prolactin gene in mammary cells
Baudhuin, A.; Manfroid, Isabelle ULg; Van de Weerdt, Cécile ULg et al

in Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (2002), 973

Expression of human prolactin in the Mammary gland, one of the main target organs of this hormone, leads to the formation of an autocrine-paracrine proliferative loop in this tissue. Involvement of ... [more ▼]

Expression of human prolactin in the Mammary gland, one of the main target organs of this hormone, leads to the formation of an autocrine-paracrine proliferative loop in this tissue. Involvement of prolactin in normal and neoplastic mammary development triggered the interest in transcriptional regulation of the human prolactin gene in mammary cells. Analysis of this regulation, and comparison to that in the pituitary, will contribute to a better understanding of mammary gland development and tumor formation. Here we present the first extensive analysis of the transcriptional regulation of the human prolactin gene in human mammary tumor cells. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 40 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCerium: The lithium substitute in post-AGB stars
Reyniers, M.; Winckel, H. V.; Biémont, Emile ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2002), 395(2), 35-38

In this letter we present an alternative identification for the line detected in the spectra of s-process enriched low-mass post-AGB stars around 6708 Angstrom and which was interpreted in the literature ... [more ▼]

In this letter we present an alternative identification for the line detected in the spectra of s-process enriched low-mass post-AGB stars around 6708 Angstrom and which was interpreted in the literature as due to Li. Newly released line lists of lanthanide species reveal, however, the likely identification of the line to be due to a Ce II transition. We argue that this identification is consistent with the Ce abundance of all the objects discussed in the literature and conclude that in none of the low-mass s-process enriched post-AGB stars there is indication for Li-production. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (0 ULg)
Full Text
See detailLe mélèze, un résineux à (re) découvrir
Rondeux, Jacques ULg

in Forêt Wallonne (2002), (61), 3

Detailed reference viewed: 41 (9 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailConnexin expression and gap junctional intercellular communication in human first trimester trophoblast
Cronier, L.; Defamie, N.; Dupays, L. et al

in Molecular Human Reproduction (2002), 8(11), 1005-1013

Connexin (Cx) expression and gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) are involved in development and differentiation processes, and recently mutation of connexin genes has been implicated in ... [more ▼]

Connexin (Cx) expression and gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) are involved in development and differentiation processes, and recently mutation of connexin genes has been implicated in pathologies. In the human placenta, two distinct differentiation pathways of cytotrophoblastic cells coexist and lead to a fusion phenotype (villous trophoblast) and a proliferative/invasive phenotype (extravillous trophoblast). Here we characterized in situ and in vitro the expression of Cx transcripts and proteins in the villous and extravillous trophoblast of first trimester placenta. In addition, the GJIC functionality was investigated using the gap-fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (gap-FRAP) method. We demonstrated in the villous trophoblast the presence of Cx43 mRNA and of Cx43 protein localized between cytotrophoblastic cells and between cytotrophoblastic cells and syncytiotrophoblast. In vitro, a transient functional gap junctional intertrophoblastic communication was demonstrated during the trophoblast fusion leading to the multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast. During the proliferative process of the extravillous trophoblast, Cx40 is expressed in the proximal part of the cell columns. When cytotrophoblastic cells were cultured on Matrigel(R) for 2 days, alpha5beta1 integrin expression was observed concomitant with the presence of Cx40 mRNA and of Cx40 protein between the cells. No evidence for a GJIC was detected in this induced extravillous phenotype. In addition, Cx32 was detected between some aggregated cells after 72 h of culture. Our data show that the presence of Cx43 allows an inter-trophoblastic GJIC and is associated with the fusion process leading to the villous syncytiotrophoblast and that the presence of Cx40 does not allow GJIC and is associated with the extravillous phenotype. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailL'evaluation de la qualite de vie dans les essais therapeutiques: un pas vers une approche holistique de la sante
Ethgen, Olivier ULg; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(11), 695-700

The concept of quality of life has been widely developed over the last two decades. As they provide subjective assessment of health, quality of life measures may be broadly and relevantly applied in many ... [more ▼]

The concept of quality of life has been widely developed over the last two decades. As they provide subjective assessment of health, quality of life measures may be broadly and relevantly applied in many areas. Numerous measures are available today to perform discriminative, evaluative or analytical studies in the epidemiological, the therapeutic or the health economic fields. Such measures are increasingly used and may be added to clinical, biological or radiographical criteria to assess medical benefits and health outcomes in order to strengthen decisional choice in health. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 109 (8 ULg)
Full Text
See detailHistoire et philosophie : un couple plusieurs fois millénaire
Jadoulle, Jean-Louis ULg

in Cahiers du SERDEP (2002)

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailGround-based infrared spectroscopic measurements of carbonyl sulfide: Free tropospheric trends from a 24-year time series of solar absorption measurements
Rinsland, Curtis P.; Goldman, Aaron; Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres (2002), 107(D22),

[1] Solar absorption spectra recorded over a 24-year time span have been analyzed to retrieve average free tropospheric mixing ratios of carbonyl sulfide (OCS). The measurements were recorded with the ... [more ▼]

[1] Solar absorption spectra recorded over a 24-year time span have been analyzed to retrieve average free tropospheric mixing ratios of carbonyl sulfide (OCS). The measurements were recorded with the Fourier transform spectrometer located in the U. S. National Solar Observatory McMath solar telescope facility on Kitt Peak (altitude 2.09 km, lat. 31.9degreesN, long. 111.6degreesW), southwest of Tucson, Arizona, and were obtained on 167 days between May 1978 and February 2002, typically at 0.01-cm(-1) spectral resolution. A best fit to the time series shows an average mixing ratio of 566 pptv (1 pptv = 10(-12) per unit volume) between 2.09 and 10 km, a small but statistically significant long-term decrease equal to (-0.25 +/- 0.04)% yr(-1), 1 sigma, and a seasonal variation with a summer maximum, a winter minimum, and a peak amplitude of (1.3 +/- 0.4)%, 1 sigma, relative to the mean. Although a statistically significant decline and seasonal variation have been detected, both are exceedingly small. The present results confirm and extend earlier studies showing that the OCS free tropospheric abundance at northern midlatitudes has remained nearly constant over the last decades. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (7 ULg)
Full Text
See detailLe mélèze en Région wallonne. Etat des lieux et stations potentielles
Claessens, Hugues ULg; Lecomte, H.; Pauwels, D.

in Forêt Wallonne (2002), (61), 4-9

Le mélèze a été introduit en Belgique dans la deuxième moitié du XVIIIe siècle. Il s’agissait alors du mélèze d’Europe, surtout implanté à des fins esthétiques ou d’enrichissement de forêts feuillues ... [more ▼]

Le mélèze a été introduit en Belgique dans la deuxième moitié du XVIIIe siècle. Il s’agissait alors du mélèze d’Europe, surtout implanté à des fins esthétiques ou d’enrichissement de forêts feuillues. Quant au mélèze du Japon, il a été importé en Europe à la fin du XIXe siècle. Ce n’est qu’à partir des années ’50 que les mélèzes ont eu du succès auprès des sylviculteurs. Ils l’ont planté le plus souvent par parquets purs après d’autres résineux ou en transformation de peuplements feuillus de faible qualité sylvicole. Mais comme le montrera l’inventaire forestier wallon en 1980, ce succès fut de courte durée. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 106 (12 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailRole of endocrine status and cell type in adhesion of human endometrial cells to the peritoneum in nude mice
Beliard, Aude ULg; Noël, Agnès ULg; Goffin, Frédéric ULg et al

in Fertility and Sterility (2002), 78(5), 973-978

Objective: To investigate the role of different cellular types (epithelial and stromal endometrial cells and peritoneal cells) in the ectopic implantation of endometrium and to evaluate the importance of ... [more ▼]

Objective: To investigate the role of different cellular types (epithelial and stromal endometrial cells and peritoneal cells) in the ectopic implantation of endometrium and to evaluate the importance of endocrine environment on the adhesion of endometrial cells to the peritoneum. Design: Experimental prospective study. Setting: University hospital, department of cell biology. Animal(s): One hundred one nude mice. Intervention(s): Monolayer culture of human epithelial and stromal endometrial cells obtained from patients undergoing hysterectomy or laparoscopy for benign disease. Intraperitoneal injection of cells into nude mice. Main Outcome Measure(s): Two weeks after cell injection, adhesion of endometrial cells was evaluated by histological and immunohistochemical examination. Result(s): Mixed cultures of stromal and epithelial cells, but not purified epithelial or stromal cells alone, adhered to the mouse peritoneum and led to endometriotic-like nodules. Pretreatment of cells with estrogen alone or with estrogen and progestin resulted in a higher percentage of animals developing endometriotic-like nodules, whereas treatment with progestin alone did not affect endometriotic implantation. Conclusion(s): Our data indicate that the success of endometrial cell implantation is dependent on the cooperativeness between stromal and epithelial endometrial cells, as well as on the endocrine environment of endometrial cells, but not that of recipient animals. The results emphasize the role of both endometrial cell types for ectopic implantation. (C) 2002 by American Society for Reproductive Medicine. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 43 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEffect of matrigel on human extravillous trophoblasts differentiation: Modulation of protease pattern gene expression
Tarrade, A.; Goffin, Frédéric ULg; Munaut, Carine ULg et al

in Biology of Reproduction (2002), 67(5), 1628-1637

The human placenta is characterized by extensive trophoblast invasion of the uterus. Indeed, extravillous cytotrophoblast cells invade the. decidua and the upper third of uterine spiral arteries in the ... [more ▼]

The human placenta is characterized by extensive trophoblast invasion of the uterus. Indeed, extravillous cytotrophoblast cells invade the. decidua and the upper third of uterine spiral arteries in the myometrium. This invasion is reflected in situ by the expression of specific markers. In order to study this invasion process, we have established an in vitro culture model of human extravillous trophoblast isolated from first trimester chorionic villi. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a composite matrix, the Matrigel required for the culture of this homogenous population of extravillous trophoblasts (EVCT), on their in vitro differentiation. The effect of Matrigel was studied on different markers characterized by immunocytochemistry and by real-time polymerase chain reaction assay of transcripts. In addition, the expression of 12 different matrix metalloproteases and their inhibitors were investigated. We show that human extravillous cytotrophoblasts acquire an invasive phenotype on Matrigel associated with a specific pattern of protease gene expression. This in vitro model will be of interest to study the cellular mechanisms involved in abnormal trophoblast invasion observed in poor placentation and preeclampsia. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailNumerical Simulation of Viscoplastic and Frictional Heating during Finite Deformation of Metal. Part II: Applications
Adam, Laurent; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg

in Journal of Engineering Mechanics (2002), Vol. 128

In this paper we will apply the theoretical framework developed in Part I to various metal forming processes. These numerical simulations are exposed showing the capability of the formulation to simulate ... [more ▼]

In this paper we will apply the theoretical framework developed in Part I to various metal forming processes. These numerical simulations are exposed showing the capability of the formulation to simulate finite anisothermal deformation of solids and thermal field evolution due to viscoplastic and frictional heating. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 40 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailHuman exposure to endocrine disrupters: consequences of gastroplasty on plasma concentration of toxic pollutants
Charlier, Corinne ULg; Desaive, Claude ULg; Plomteux, Guy ULg

in International Journal of Obesity (2002), 26(11), 1465-1468

BACKGROUND: Body weight loss occurring after a hypoenergetic diet or a gastroplasty could be followed by an increase in blood concentration of potentially toxic pollutants that can interfere with the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Body weight loss occurring after a hypoenergetic diet or a gastroplasty could be followed by an increase in blood concentration of potentially toxic pollutants that can interfere with the hormonal system (endocrine disrupters). DESIGN: Thirty obese individuals recruited for gastroplasty were compared before and after treatment with 45 normal-weight people. MEASUREMENTS: Blood samples were analyzed for DDT, DDE, HCB and PCBs no. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The results indicate clearly that body weight loss occurring after gastroplasty increases plasma concentration of lipophilic pollutants. CONCLUSION: Gastroplasty increases plasma concentration of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs, which could be a risk factor of endocrine disruption. Future longitudinal research will have to determine if the advantages of body weight loss are reduced by this potentially harmful effect. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMatrix metalloproteinase-9, but not tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1, increases in the sputum from allergic asthmatic patients after allergen challenge
Cataldo, Didier ULg; Bettiol, J.; Noël, Agnès ULg et al

in CHEST (2002), 122(5), 1553-1559

Objective: The aim of the study was to determine whether allergen inhalation modulates the levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metallloproteinase (TIMP)-1 in the ... [more ▼]

Objective: The aim of the study was to determine whether allergen inhalation modulates the levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metallloproteinase (TIMP)-1 in the induced sputum recovered from patients during a late-phase reaction. Method: Eight allergic asthma patients and five healthy control subjects inhaled a dose of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus extract corresponding to the provocative concentration of the allergen causing a 20% fall in FEV1 and saline solution. Lung function was carefully monitored for 6 h, and an induced sputum test was performed at 6 h after sham challenge or allergen challenge. The total and differential cell counts were analyzed, and the levels of MMP-9 (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] and zymography), TIMP-1 (by ELISA), and albumin (by rocket immunoelectrophoresis) were measured. Results: The sputum eosinophil counts (p < 0.01) and MMP-9 levels (p < 0.05) increased significantly in atopic asthma patients after undergoing the allergen challenge but did not in the control subjects. By contrast, TIMP-1 and albumin levels were not significantly increased in any group. MMP-9 levels, measured after the allergen challenge in asthmatic patients, were significantly correlated with FEV1 variations after allergen inhalation (r = 0.51; p < 0.05) and with the sputum neutrophil percentage (r = 0.71; p < 0.01). Conclusion: The levels of MMP-9, but not TIMP-1, increase after inhaled allergen challenge in the sputum of allergic asthmatic patients. This protease increase may lead to a transient imbalance between MMP-9 and TIMP-1 favoring proteolytic extracellular matrix degradation. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAn XMM-Newton observation of the Lagoon Nebula and the very young open cluster NGC 6530
Rauw, Grégor ULg; Nazé, Yaël ULg; Gosset, Eric ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2002), 395(2), 499-513

We report the results of an XMM-Newton observation of the Lagoon Nebula (M8). Our EPIC images of this region reveal a cluster of point sources, most of which have optical counterparts inside the very ... [more ▼]

We report the results of an XMM-Newton observation of the Lagoon Nebula (M8). Our EPIC images of this region reveal a cluster of point sources, most of which have optical counterparts inside the very young open cluster NGC6530. The bulk of these X-ray sources are probably associated with low and intermediate mass pre-main sequence stars. One of the sources experienced a flare-like increase of its X-ray flux making it the second brightest source in M8 after the O4 star 9 Sgr. The X-ray spectra of most of the brightest sources can be fitted with thermal plasma models with temperatures of kT similar to a few keV. Only a few of the X-ray selected PMS candidates are known to display Halpha emission and were previously classified as classical T Tauri stars. This suggests that most of the X-ray emitting PMS stars in NGC6530 are weak-line T Tauri stars. In addition to 9 Sgr, our EPIC field of view contains also a few early-type stars. The X-ray emission from HD 164816 is found to be typical for an O9.5 III-IV star. At least one of the known Herbig Be stars in NGC6530 ( LkHalpha 115) exhibits a relatively strong X-ray emission, while most of the main sequence stars of spectral type B1 and later are not detected. We also detect ( probably) diffuse X-ray emission from the Hourglass Region that might reveal a hot bubble blown by the stellar wind of Herschel 36, the ionizing star of the Hourglass Region. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 52 (10 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSynergistic activation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 promoter activity by NF-kappa B and inhibitors of deacetylases: Potential perspectives for the development of therapeutic strategies
Quivy, Vincent; Adam, Emmanuelle; Collette, Yves et al

in Journal of Virology (2002), 76(21), 11091-11103

The transcription factor NF-kappaB plays a central role in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) activation pathway. HIV-1 transcription is also regulated by protein acetylation, since treatment ... [more ▼]

The transcription factor NF-kappaB plays a central role in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) activation pathway. HIV-1 transcription is also regulated by protein acetylation, since treatment with deacetylase inhibitors such as trichostatin A (TSA) or sodium butyrate (NaBut) markedly induces HIV-1 transcriptional activity of the long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter. Here, we demonstrate that TSA (NaBut) synergized with both ectopically expressed p50/p65 and tumor necrosis factor alpha/SF2 (TNF)-induced NF-kappaB to activate the LTR. This was confirmed for LTRs from subtypes A through G of the HIV-1 major group, with a positive correlation between the number Of kappaB sites present in the LTRs and the amplitude of the TNF-TSA synergism. Mechanistically, TSA (NaBut) delayed the cytoplasmic recovery of the inhibitory protein IkappaBalpha. This coincided with a prolonged intranuclear presence and DNA binding activity of NF-kappaB. The physiological relevance of the TNF-TSA (NaBut) synergism was shown on HIV-1 replication in both acutely and latently HIV-infected cell lines. Therefore, our results open new therapeutic strategies aimed at decreasing or eliminating the pool of latently HIV-infected reservoirs by forcing viral expression. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA multi-wavelength investigation of the non-thermal radio emitting O-star 9 Sgr
Rauw, Grégor ULg; Blomme, R.; Waldron, W. L. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2002), 394(3), 993-1008

We report the results of a multi-wavelength investigation of the O4 V star 9 Sgr (= HD164794). Our data include observations in the X-ray domain with XMM-Newton, in the radio domain with the VLA as well ... [more ▼]

We report the results of a multi-wavelength investigation of the O4 V star 9 Sgr (= HD164794). Our data include observations in the X-ray domain with XMM-Newton, in the radio domain with the VLA as well as optical spectroscopy. 9 Sgr is one of a few presumably single OB stars that display non-thermal radio emission. This phenomenon is attributed to synchrotron emission by relativistic electrons accelerated in strong hydrodynamic shocks in the stellar wind. Given the enormous supply of photospheric UV photons in the wind of 9 Sgr, inverse Compton scattering by these relativistic electrons is a priori expected to generate a non-thermal power law tail in the X-ray spectrum. Our EPIC and RGS spectra of 9 Sgr reveal a more complex situation than expected from this simple theoretical picture. While the bulk of the thermal X-ray emission from 9 Sgr arises most probably in a plasma at temperature similar to3 x 10(6) K distributed throughout the wind, the nature of the hard emission in the X-ray spectrum is less clear. Assuming a non-thermal origin, our best fitting model yields a photon index of greater than or equal to2.9 for the power law component which would imply a low compression ratio of less than or equal to1.79 for the shocks responsible for the electron acceleration. However, the hard emission can also be explained by a thermal plasma at a temperature greater than or equal to2 x 10(7) K. Our VLA data indicate that the radio emission of 9 Sgr was clearly non-thermal at the time of the XMM-Newton observation. Again, we derive a low compression ratio (1.7) for the shocks that accelerate the electrons responsible for the synchrotron radio emission. Finally, our optical spectra reveal long-term radial velocity variations suggesting that 9 Sgr could be a long-period spectroscopic binary. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCharacterization of serracin P, a phage-tail-like bacteriocin, and its activity against Erwinia amylovora, the fire blight pathogen
Jabrane, A.; Sabri, Ahmed ULg; Compère, Philippe ULg et al

in Applied and Environmental Microbiology (2002), 68(11), 5704-5710

Serratia plymithicum J7 culture supernatant displayed activity against many pathogenic strains of Erwinia amylovora,the causal agent of the most serious bacterial disease of apple and pear trees, fire ... [more ▼]

Serratia plymithicum J7 culture supernatant displayed activity against many pathogenic strains of Erwinia amylovora,the causal agent of the most serious bacterial disease of apple and pear trees, fire blight, and against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia liquefaciens, Serratia marcescens, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. This activity increased significantly upon induction with mitomycin C. A phage-tail-like bacteriocin, named serracin P, was purified from an induced culture supernatant of S. plymithicum J7. It was found to be the only compound involved in the antibacterial activity against sensitive strains. The N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of the two major subunits (23 and 43 kDa) of serracin P revealed high homology with the Fels-2 prophage of Salmonella enterica, the coliphages P2 and 168, the CTX prophage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a prophage of Yersinia pestis. This strongly suggests a common ancestry for serracin P and these bacteriophages. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 40 (7 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailNumerical simulation of viscoplastic and frictional heating during finite deformation of metal. Part I: Theory
Adam, Laurent; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg

in Journal of Engineering Mechanics (2002), 128(11), 1215-1221

In this paper we will apply the theoretical framework developed in Part I to various metal forming processes. These numerical simulations are exposed showing the capability of the formulation to simulate ... [more ▼]

In this paper we will apply the theoretical framework developed in Part I to various metal forming processes. These numerical simulations are exposed showing the capability of the formulation to simulate finite anisothermal deformation of solids and thermal field evolution due to viscoplastic and frictional heating. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (6 ULg)
Full Text
See detailAnalyse des opportunités de transport de conteneurs par la voie fluviale entre les ports de Liège, d'Anvers et de Rotterdam
Marchal, Jean ULg

in Special Lloyd, Annuaire du Port de Liège 2002 (2002)

Le transport est une activité socio-économique fondamentale qui joue un rôle complexe et multiple dans le fonctionnement et dans le mécanisme du développement d’un pays ou d’une région. Une bonne marche ... [more ▼]

Le transport est une activité socio-économique fondamentale qui joue un rôle complexe et multiple dans le fonctionnement et dans le mécanisme du développement d’un pays ou d’une région. Une bonne marche couronnée de succès du système économique et social d’une région est en effet étroitement liée au transport de qualité organisé rationnellement. Sur base de ces considérations, il est clair que l’activité « transport » intègre un grand nombre de composantes et son impact déborde largement les seuls utilisateurs. A cet aspect pluridisciplinaire de l’activité « transport », il faut ajouter son évolution vers des solutions intermodales ; il faut en effet dépasser la simple organisation de la concurrence pour assurer la complémentarité des modes de transport, ce qui naturellement génère l’émergence de la logistique intégrée devenue une activité majeure pour tendre vers un optimum du transfert origine-destination. Dans une perspective de concurrence intermodale équitable, il convient que l’évaluation comparative se fasse sur un plan socio-économique, tenant compte à la fois des coûts internes et externes. Il faut mobiliser les différents niveaux de pouvoir et de compétence et veiller particulièrement à ce que les avancées en matière de libéralisation et de mise en concurrence et les politiques sectorielles s’inscrivent pleinement dans l’objectif d’une mobilité durable. Ces principes de base ont sous-tendus la présente analyse du « Pôle Transport de la région liégeoise » relative à l’opportunité de transférer du conteneur du port de Liège (plate-forme de Renory) vers les ports d’Anvers et de Rotterdam, principalement par la voie d’eau, alors qu’actuellement ce transfert est réalisé par la route. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 123 (9 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLocalization of oestrogen receptors in the sensory and motor areas of the spinal cord in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)
Evrard, H. C.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg

in Journal of Neuroendocrinology (2002), 14(11), 894-903

In Japanese quail, the presence of aromatase (oestrogen synthase) in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord suggests that spinal sensory processes might be controlled by local actions of oestrogens. This is ... [more ▼]

In Japanese quail, the presence of aromatase (oestrogen synthase) in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord suggests that spinal sensory processes might be controlled by local actions of oestrogens. This is supported by the presence of oestrogen receptors and aromatase in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in rats, and by the alteration of sensitivity by oestrogens in various mammalian species and also in canaries. We investigated whether oestrogens that are locally produced in the quail spinal cord can bind to specific receptors in the vicinity of their site of synthesis. We demonstrate the presence of numerous oestrogen receptor alpha-immunoreactive (ERalpha-ir) cell nuclei, predominantly in laminae II and, to a lesser extent, I and III of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord (i.e. in the area where aromatase was previously identified). ERalpha-ir cells were also seen in various parts of the intermediate zone (laminae V-VII). This presence of ERalpha-ir cells in the dorsal horn and intermediate zone fits in well with the distribution of ERalpha-ir cells in homologous areas in mammals, including rats. Only a few labelled cells were found in the ventral horn in the cervical, brachial, thoracic and first lumbar segments, but a conspicuous dense group of large ERalpha-ir cells was identified in lamina IX of the ventral horn in synsacral segments 8-10, which contain the motoneurones innervating the muscles of the cloacal gland. The presence of ERalpha-ir cells in lamina IX of these synsacral segments in quail contrasts with the finding that motoneurones innervating penile muscles in rats contain androgen, but not oestrogen receptors, and are influenced by androgens rather than by oestrogens. Together, these data suggest that spinal actions of oestrogens may modulate the sensory and motor systems that participate in reproduction, as well as other nonreproductive functions in quail. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailQuaternary folding in the south piedmont of central segment of Tianshan Mountains
Huafu, Lu; Dong, Jia; Suppe, J. et al

in Chinese Science Bulletin (2002), 47

The Tianshan Mountains are an important active structural belt in the interior of Eurasia. By integrated methods of surface geology survey and interpretation of seismic profiles, we distinguish fold ... [more ▼]

The Tianshan Mountains are an important active structural belt in the interior of Eurasia. By integrated methods of surface geology survey and interpretation of seismic profiles, we distinguish fold scarps located at the south limb of the Kuqatawu anticline and the north limb of the Dongqiulitag anticline in the Kuqa rejuvenation foreland thrust belt, south piedmont of central segment of the Tian- shan Mountains. Fold scarp is a newly found structural phenomenon. Because of the bend of thrust plane and the movement of hanging wall above the thrust plane, the origi- nal horizontal deposits of hanging wall and their surface become a monocline structure, resulting from the separating and migration of the active and fixed axial surfaces. Meas- uring the geometry of fold scarp and using the data of age of the deformed deposits, the crustal shortening rate resulting from the deeply seated subsurface thrust is calculated. The crustal shortening rate reflected by the fold scarp located at the north limb of the Dngqiulitag anticline is (1␣0.1) mm/a. The fold scarps of the Dongqiulitag anticline and the Ku- qatawu anticline identify that the deformation process of the crustal compressive structures in the Kuqa area extends into the Late Quaternary. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLe medicament du mois. L'association budesonide 160 micrograms/formoterol 4.5 micrograms (Symbicort TH)
Louis, Renaud ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(11), 741-4

The combination of budesonide 160 micrograms/formoterol 4.5 micrograms (Symbicort TH) in the same dry powder inhaler (turbohaler) results in a drug that possesses powerful bronchial anti-inflammatory ... [more ▼]

The combination of budesonide 160 micrograms/formoterol 4.5 micrograms (Symbicort TH) in the same dry powder inhaler (turbohaler) results in a drug that possesses powerful bronchial anti-inflammatory, bronchoprotective and bronchodilating activities. Symbicort TH is registered as a maintenance treatment for asthma from the age of 12 years. This drug is indicated in the treatment of moderate and severe persistent asthma as well as in asthma which remains mild persistent despite the regular use of low doses of inhaled corticoids alone. Symbicort TH rapidly improves asthma control by reducing symptoms, relief medication consumption and by improving lung function. Importantly, when taken regularly over a prolonged period, the drug reduces the number of mild and severe exacerbations. The dose of Symbicort TH is adjustable according to the disease severity and generally fluctuates between 2 x 1/24 h and 4 x 2/24 h. Symbicort TH is a simple and a efficient treatment likely to improve the compliance of asthmatics to their treatment in real life. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 68 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLe point sur l'immunité civile
Michiels, Olivier ULg

in Lexius Actua (2002), 9

La loi du 10 avril 1971 sur les accidents du travail organise un régime de réparation forfaitaire du préjudice professionnel subi par la victime d’un accident du travail. Comme l’écrit M. JAMOULLE « la ... [more ▼]

La loi du 10 avril 1971 sur les accidents du travail organise un régime de réparation forfaitaire du préjudice professionnel subi par la victime d’un accident du travail. Comme l’écrit M. JAMOULLE « la règle de la responsabilité patronale a disparu ; l’employeur n’est jamais plus le débiteur personnel des indemnités forfaitaire ; en revanche, il devient le titulaire d’une obligation de contracter une assurance accident en faveur de ses salariés, assurance dont il supporte le coût par le payement des primes qui demeurent à sa charge exclusive. » La loi de 1971 n’évince toutefois pas le droit commun si ce n’est en conférant à l’employeur, à ses préposés et à ses mandataires, dans des hypothèses strictement réglementées, une immunité civile. C'est pourquoi la loi sur les accidents du travail organise la coexistence entre la réparation forfaitaire et la réparation selon les règles du droit commun. Si la volonté du législateur fut de permettre à la victime d’un accident du travail d’obtenir une indemnisation du risque professionnel qui se concrétise par l’intervention d’une assurance privée, il n’a jamais été question de libérer le tiers responsable de l’accident de son obligation de réparation. L’exonération de la responsabilité civile telle qu’elle est prévue par l’article 46 de la loi sur les accidents du travail a suscité diverses questions préjudicielles posées à la Cour d’Arbitrage. Nous nous proposons d’en faire le point. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 255 (9 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMorphological and hormonal characterisation of strawberry vitroplants raised through axillary or stipular adventitious shooting
Jemmali, Ahmed; Elloumi, Nedra; Kevers, Claire ULg et al

in Plant Growth Regulation (2002), 38(3), 273-278

Adventitious stipular bud formation occurred in vitro in many strawberry cultivars during the proliferation phase on medium containing Knop macronutrients, MS micronutrients, vitamins, aminoacids, 2.22 ... [more ▼]

Adventitious stipular bud formation occurred in vitro in many strawberry cultivars during the proliferation phase on medium containing Knop macronutrients, MS micronutrients, vitamins, aminoacids, 2.22 muM BAP, 2.46 muM IBA and 0.29 muM GA(3). As described previously for cultivar Gorella, cultivar Elsanta also showed adventitious stipular buds developing on the abaxial median zone between the stipule tips. To compare the shoots produced from both types of buds, clonal propagation was initiated from stipular buds and from axillary buds on the above mentioned medium. Stipular buds were separated from the meristem-tip initiated plantlet and cultivated in the presence of a lower BAP concentration (1.33 muM) to prevent further stipular bud formation. During proliferation cycles, stipular originated propagules were very easily distinguished by their specific leaf phenotype and light green colour in comparison to plantlets cloned for an axillary bud. Their multiplication rate and cytokinin content were also higher than for axillary buds. No significant difference was observed in auxin content. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 86 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEffect of aggregation on bacteriochlorin a triplet-state formation: A laser flash photolysis study
Damoiseau, Xavier; Tfibel, Francis; Hoebeke, Maryse ULg et al

in Photochemistry & Photobiology (2002), 76(5), 480-485

Bacteriochlorin a (BCA) is a potential photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy of cancer. It has been shown previously that the photoefficiency of the dye is mainly dependent on singlet oxygen (O-1(2 ... [more ▼]

Bacteriochlorin a (BCA) is a potential photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy of cancer. It has been shown previously that the photoefficiency of the dye is mainly dependent on singlet oxygen (O-1(2)) generation. Nanosecond laser flash photolysis was used to produce and to investigate the excited triplet state of the dye in methanol, phosphate buffer and dimiristoyl-L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) liposomes. The transients were characterized in terms of their absorption spectra, decay kinetics, molar absorption coefficients and formation quantum yield of singlet-triplet intercrossing. The lifetime of the BCA triplet state was measured at room temperature. The triplet-state quantum yield is quite high in methanol (0.7) and in DMPC (0.4) but only 0.095 in phosphate buffer. In the last case, BCA is in a monomer-dimer equilibrium, and the low value of the quantum yield observed was ascribed to the fact the triplet state is only formed by the monomers. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 54 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCannabis, situation en 2001-2002
Noirfalise, Alfred ULg; Gosset, Christiane ULg; Maisse, L.

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(11), 692-4

Even though its use becomes common, cannabis remains a narcotic, the risks of which are nowadays better known. Its therapeutic value still needs to be scientifically demonstrated.

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailContext-dependent effects of castration and testosterone treatment on song in male European starlings
Pinxten, R.; De Ridder, E.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg et al

in Hormones & Behavior (2002), 42(3), 307-318

Most seasonally breeding songbirds display dramatic seasonal fluctuations in plasma testosterone (T) levels and mate attraction behaviors, including song. However, males of some songbird species, such as ... [more ▼]

Most seasonally breeding songbirds display dramatic seasonal fluctuations in plasma testosterone (T) levels and mate attraction behaviors, including song. However, males of some songbird species, such as the European starling (Stumus vulgaris), continue to sing at high levels after the breeding season, when T levels are basal. In male starlings song during the breeding season functions mainly to attract mates, whereas song during the nonbreeding season appears unrelated to reproduction. This suggests that song produced in a context unrelated to female courtship, unlike song directed toward females, is not regulated by plasma T. In captive males housed in large outdoor aviaries we explored the relationship between plasma T and song produced during the breeding season within and outside a courtship context. This was achieved by determining the effects of castration and subsequent T treatment on song and mate attraction behaviors in both the presence and the absence of a female. Compared to intact males, castrated males did not show reduced song activity in the absence of a female for at least 6 months after the operation, strongly suggesting that the expression of noncourtship song is not regulated by plasma T. Likewise, we found that experimentally elevating T levels in castrated males did not affect noncourtship song rates. However, control castrated males receiving empty implants tended to show reduced noncourtship song rates after implantation. This may have been due to a suppressive effect caused by the presence of the T-implanted castrated males in the same aviary. In contrast, courtship singing was clearly controlled by plasma T: it was abolished by castration and restored by subsequent T replacement when males were housed both individually and in a group situation. High plasma levels of T also appeared necessary for the activation of three other behavioral traits critical for mate attraction, namely, nesthole occupancy, spending time (singing) in a nesthole, and carrying green nesting material into a nesthole. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailExperimental evidence for N recycling in the leaves of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica
Lepoint, Gilles ULg; Defawe, Olivier; Gobert, Sylvie ULg et al

in Journal of Sea Research (2002), 48(3), 173-179

A one-year in situ experiment using N-15 as a tracer was designed to assess the N recycling in the leaves of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile. R oceanica was shown to partly recycle the ... [more ▼]

A one-year in situ experiment using N-15 as a tracer was designed to assess the N recycling in the leaves of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile. R oceanica was shown to partly recycle the internal nitrogen pool of its leaves in order to contribute to new leaf growth. The leaves sampled in June 1999 contained 20% of the quantity of N-15 found in June 1998. N recycling caused a difference between N and biomass turnover rate (0.8 vs 1.3 y(-1)) of Posidonia leaves. This 40% difference should correspond to the contribution of recycled N to the annual N requirement of Posidonia leaves. The N recycling appears to be insufficient to significantly reduce the quantitative impact of N loss due to autumnal leaf fall. However, new leaf growth between June and October is mainly sustained by this recycling because the tracer concentration in new leaves was the same as in the other leaves. By contrast, tracer concentration decreased drastically between October 1998 and June 1999, showing the more important contribution of N uptake during winter and spring. Nevertheless, recycling occurs throughout the year as demonstrated by the presence of tracer in the youngest leaves of shoots sampled one year after the tracer addition. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 52 (8 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLe cas clinique du mois. Constipation et syndrome de masse abdominale chez une patiente de 51 ans
Detrembleur, Nancy ULg; Delbecque, Katty ULg; Thiry, Albert ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(11), 688-91

A 51-year old patient consults for abdominal swelling and persistent constipation. Clinical exploration shows the presence of a left iliac fossa tumor corresponding to a papillary serous adenocarcinoma of ... [more ▼]

A 51-year old patient consults for abdominal swelling and persistent constipation. Clinical exploration shows the presence of a left iliac fossa tumor corresponding to a papillary serous adenocarcinoma of the fallopian tube after macroscopic and microscopic examination. The diagnostic and therapeutic problems caused by this rare gynecologic tumor are discussed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 201 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMouse Aortic Ring Assay: A New Approach of the Molecular Genetics of Angiogenesis
Masson, Véronique ULg; Devy, L.; Grignet-Debrus, Christine ULg et al

in Biological Procedures Online (2002), 4

Angiogenesis, a key step in many physiological and pathological processes, involves proteolysis of the extracellular matrix. To study the role of two enzymatic families, serine-proteases and matrix ... [more ▼]

Angiogenesis, a key step in many physiological and pathological processes, involves proteolysis of the extracellular matrix. To study the role of two enzymatic families, serine-proteases and matrix metalloproteases in angiogenesis, we have adapted to the mouse, the aortic ring assay initially developed in the rat. The use of deficient mice allowed us to demonstrate that PAI-1 is essential for angiogenesis while the absence of an MMP, MMP-11, did not affect vessel sprouting. We report here that this model is attractive to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of angiogenesis, to identify, characterise or screen "pro- or anti-angiogenic agents that could be used for the treatment of angiogenesis-dependent diseases. Approaches include using recombinant proteins, synthetic molecules and adenovirus-mediated gene transfer. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 73 (8 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailUse of a novel cation-exchange restricted-access material for automated sample clean-up prior to the determination of basic drugs in plasma by liquid chromatography
Chiap, Patrice ULg; Rbeida, O.; Christiaens, B. et al

in Journal of Chromatography. A (2002), 975(1), 145-155

Detailed reference viewed: 8 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailp53-dependent downregulation of metastasis-associated laminin receptor
Modugno, Michele; Tagliabue, Elda; Ardini, Elena et al

in Oncogene (2002), 21(49), 7478-7487

Based on observations suggesting a role for the tumor suppressor protein p53 in regulating expression of the 67-kDa laminin receptor precursor, 37LRP, we analysed the 37LRP promoter activity in a wild ... [more ▼]

Based on observations suggesting a role for the tumor suppressor protein p53 in regulating expression of the 67-kDa laminin receptor precursor, 37LRP, we analysed the 37LRP promoter activity in a wild-type p53 (wt p53) ovarian carcinoma cell line and in a cisplatin-resistant subline with mutated p53. We observed an increased promoter activity in wt p53 cells as compared to the mutated-p53 line when the first intron of the 37LRP gene was present in the reporter construct. Cotransfection experiments showed that the promoter is downregulated by both wt and mutated p53. Deletion analysis of the first intron localized an enhancer activity in the first 5' 214 bp that upregulates both 37LRP and SV40 promoter activity and is repressed by both wt and mutant p53. Cotransfection, mutagenesis and gel-shift experiments identified a functional AP-2 cis-acting element in this intron region that is repressed by increased levels of both wt and mutated p53. Coimmunoprecipitation studies revealed AP-2 in physical association in vivo with both wt and mutated p53, indicating for the first time that interaction of p53 with AP-2 is involved in the repression mechanism and in the regulation of genes involved in cancer growth and progression. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPoly(epsilon-caprolactone)/clay nanocomposites by in-situ intercalative polymerization catalyzed by dibutyltin dimethoxide
Lepoittevin, Bénédicte; Pantoustier, Nadège; Devalckenaere, Myriam et al

in Macromolecules (2002), 35(22), 8385-8390

Poly(epsilon-caprolactone)/clay nanocomposites were prepared by in-situ ring-opening polymerization of epsilon-caprolactone by using dibutyltin dimethoxide as an initiator/catalyst. A nonmodified Na ... [more ▼]

Poly(epsilon-caprolactone)/clay nanocomposites were prepared by in-situ ring-opening polymerization of epsilon-caprolactone by using dibutyltin dimethoxide as an initiator/catalyst. A nonmodified Na+-montmorillonite and two montmorillonites surface-modified by dimethyl 2-ethylhexyl (hydrogenated tallow alkyl) and methyl bis(2-hydroxyethyl) (hydrogenated tallow alkyl) ammonium cations, respectively, were used. The evolution of molecular weights was followed in relation to silicate surface modification and clay concentration. The alcohol-bearing organo-modified clay was a co-initiator for the polymerization reaction and thus controlled the molecular weight of the PCL chains. Furthermore, the number-average molecular weight of the growing PCL chains linearly increased with the monomer conversion. Nanocomposites were analyzed by small-angle X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and thermogravimetry. The clay dispersion depended on the structure of the alkylammonium used to make the clay more hydrophobic. Exfoliated nanocomposites were formed when hydroxyl-containing alkylammonium. was used; otherwise, intercalated structures were reported. Thermogravimetric analyses showed a higher degradation temperature for the exfoliated structures than for the intercalated ones, both of them exceeding the degradation temperature of unfilled poly(epsilon-caprolactone). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 53 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailIsolation of Mycoplasma species from the lower respiratory tract of healthy cattle and cattle with respiratory disease in Belgium
Thomas, Anne; Ball, H.; Dizier, Isabelle ULg et al

in Veterinary Record (2002), 151(16), 472-476

Between 1997 and 2000, a total of 150 healthy cattle and 238 animals with respiratory disease were examined for six Mycoplasma species. Attempts were made to detect Mycoplasma canis, Mycoplasma dispar and ... [more ▼]

Between 1997 and 2000, a total of 150 healthy cattle and 238 animals with respiratory disease were examined for six Mycoplasma species. Attempts were made to detect Mycoplasma canis, Mycoplasma dispar and Ureaplasma diversum in calves with recurrent disease, and all three of these species were identified in calves with recurrent disease and in healthy lungs. In healthy calves, 84 per cent of bronchoalveolar lavage fluids were mycoplasma free; when cultures were positive, Mycoplasma bovirhinis was the only species isolated. Mycoplasmas were isolated from 78 per cent of animals suffering recurrent respiratory disease and from 65 per cent of acute respiratory cases. Mycoplasma bovis was isolated from bronchoalveolar lavages from 35 per cent of calves suffering recurrent respiratory disease, and from 50 per cent of acute cases, and from 20 per cent of pneumonic cases examined postmortem. M bovis was associated with other Mycoplasma species in 44 per cent of cases. M dispar was also isolated from 45.5 per cent of calves suffering recurrent respiratory disease, often in association with M bovis. M canis was identified for the first time in diseased Belgian cattle. Other mycoplasmas, including Mycoplasma arginini, Mycoplasma alkalescens and U diversum, were isolated less frequently. Associations between mycoplasmas and other pathogens were often observed. Among lungs infected with Pasteurella and/or Mannheimia species, more than 50 per cent were mixed infections with M bovis. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (8 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailControlled synthesis of anthracene-labeled omega-amine polystyrene to be used as a probe for interfacial reaction with mutually reactive PMMA
Yin, Zhihui; Koulic, Christian; Pagnoulle, Christophe et al

in Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics (2002), 203(14), 2021-2028

Anthracene-labeled polystyrene (PS) end-capped by a primary amine has been synthesized by atom transfer radical copolymerization of styrene with 3-isopropenyl-alpha,alpha-dimethylbenzyl isocyanate (m-TMI ... [more ▼]

Anthracene-labeled polystyrene (PS) end-capped by a primary amine has been synthesized by atom transfer radical copolymerization of styrene with 3-isopropenyl-alpha,alpha-dimethylbenzyl isocyanate (m-TMI). The m-TMI co-monomer (5.7 mol-%) does not perturb the control of the radical polymerization of styrene. The pendant isocyanate groups of the copolymer chains of low polydispersity (M-w/M-n = 1.25) and controlled molecular weight (up to 35 000) have been derivatized into anthracene by a reaction with 9-methyl(aminomethyl)anthracene. The anthracene-labeled PS (ca. 2 mol-% label) has been conveniently analyzed by size-exclusion chromatography with a UV detector (SEC-UV). Moreover, the omega-bromide end-group of the copolymer chains has been derivatized into a primary amine, making the labeled PS chains reactive towards non-miscible poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) chains end-capped by an anhydride. The interfacial coupling of the mutually reactive PS and PMMA chains has been studied under static conditions (i.e., at the interface between thin PS and PMMA films) and successfully analyzed by SEC-UV. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 62 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe aromatase knock-out mouse provides new evidence that estradiol is required during development in the female for the expression of sociosexual behaviors in adulthood
Bakker, Julie ULg; Honda, S. I.; Harada, N. et al

in Journal of Neuroscience (2002), 22(20), 9104-9112

We used estrogen-deficient aromatase knock-out (ArKO) mice to determine whether estrogens contribute to the development of the brain and behavior in females. Female mice of three different genotypes [i.e ... [more ▼]

We used estrogen-deficient aromatase knock-out (ArKO) mice to determine whether estrogens contribute to the development of the brain and behavior in females. Female mice of three different genotypes [i.e., wild type (WT), heterozygous (HET), and homozygous (ArKO)] were ovariectomized in adulthood and subsequently tested for odor preferences (choice: intact male vs estrous female) in a Y-maze. When treated with testosterone, ArKO females spent significantly less time sniffing odors (both volatile and nonvolatile) from either male or female stimuli compared with WT and HET females. When given direct access to anesthetized stimulus animals or when given a choice between odor and visual cues from both stimulus animals, ArKO females continued to spend less time investigating the stimuli compared with WT and HET females. These defects in olfactory investigation of ArKO females were partially corrected with estradiol treatment in adulthood. Estradiol-treated ArKO females no longer differed from WT and HET females in the time spent investigating either nonvolatile odors or the anogenital region of anesthetized animals. However, ArKO females still investigated volatile odors and/or visual cues less than WT and HET females. Sexual receptivity was severely impaired in ArKO females after treatments with estradiol and progesterone that successfully induced receptivity in WT and HET females. Furthermore, ArKO females showed diminished levels of male sexual behaviors, whereas WT and HET females readily mounted an estrous female. Together, these findings demonstrate that estrogen is required for normal female development. The concept that the female brain develops in the absence of any hormonal stimulation should therefore be reconsidered. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPatterns in hydraulic ripples with binary granular mixtures
Caps, Hervé ULg; Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg

in Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications (2002), 313(3-4), 357-364

An experimental study of a binary granular mixture submitted to a transient shear flow in a cylindrical container is reported. The formation of ripples with a spiral shape is observed. The appearance of ... [more ▼]

An experimental study of a binary granular mixture submitted to a transient shear flow in a cylindrical container is reported. The formation of ripples with a spiral shape is observed. The appearance of phase segregation in those spiral patterns is shown. The relative grain size between sand species is found to be a relevant parameter leading to phase segregation. However, the relative repose angle is an irrelevant parameter. The formation of sedimentary structures is also presented. They result from a ripple climbing process. The "sub-critical" or "super-critical" character of the lamination patterns is shown to depend on the rotation speed of the container. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPersistent negative T waves in the infarct-related leads as an independent predictor of poor long-term prognosis after acute myocardial infarction
Lancellotti, Patrizio ULg; Gerard, P. L.; Kulbertus, Henri ULg et al

in American Journal of Cardiology (2002), 90(8), 833-837

This study sought to determine the long-term prognostic significance of persistent or transient, negative T waves in infarct-related leads. After acute myocardial infarction (AMI), QRS and T wave ... [more ▼]

This study sought to determine the long-term prognostic significance of persistent or transient, negative T waves in infarct-related leads. After acute myocardial infarction (AMI), QRS and T wave alterations may resolve. No clinical study has investigated the prognostic importance of persistent versus transient negative T waves. We studied 147 consecutive patients with first AMI and greater than or equal to2 negative T waves in the infarct-related leads on the electrocardiogram. One hundred twenty patients developed Q waves. Patients were followed clinically for 60 +/- 21 months. T-wave normalization was observed early (before hospital discharge) in 34 patients and late (at 4 +/- 1 months) in 65. Thirty patients had Q-wave regression. Adverse outcome occurred in 57 patients. There were 23 hard events (cardiac death in 12 patients and nonfatal AMI in 11). Patients with early or late T-wave normalization had similar event-free survival curves that diverged rapidly from that of patients with persistent negative T waves, who had a worse outcome (p <0.0001). Patients with or without Q-wave regression had similar survival curves. Using multivariate Cox regression analysis, higher end-systolic volume (hazard ratio [HR] 1.01, p = 0.007), the presence of multivessel disease (HR 3.33, p = 0.009), and persistent negative T waves (HR 2.92, p = 0.024) predicted hard events. Persistent negative T waves 4 months after first AMI were independently associated with a worse outcome, whereas Q-wave regression has no long-term prognostic importance. (C) 2002 by Excerpta Medica, Inc. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (4 ULg)
Full Text
See detailBulletin météorologique - Septembre 2002
Tychon, Bernard ULg; Ozer, Pierre ULg; Eerens, H. et al

in Bulletin Agrométéorologique (2002)

Le mois de septembre a été caractérisé par des précipitations et des vitesses moyennes du vent anormalement faibles. Par contre, les températures, l’humidité et le rayonnement furent proche de la moyenne ... [more ▼]

Le mois de septembre a été caractérisé par des précipitations et des vitesses moyennes du vent anormalement faibles. Par contre, les températures, l’humidité et le rayonnement furent proche de la moyenne sur l’ensemble du pays. Concernant les cultures de printemps, les rendements s’annoncent, à l’échelle nationale, légèrement supérieurs à ceux de 2001 pour la betterave sucrière et inférieurs à ceux-ci dans le cas du maïs fourrager. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detail2-oxepane-1,5-dione: A precursor of a novel class of versatile semicrystalline biodegradable (Co)polyesters
Latere, Jean-Pierre; Lecomte, Philippe ULg; Dubois, Philippe ULg et al

in Macromolecules (2002), 35(21), 7857-7859

Detailed reference viewed: 72 (9 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailRadiative lifetime measurements and transition probability calculations in lanthanide ions
Quinet, Pascal ULg; Palmeri, P.; Biémont, Emile ULg et al

in Journal of Alloys and Compounds (2002), 344(1-2), 255-259

We have undertaken a systematic investigation of spectroscopic properties of lanthanide ions (Z=57-71). Using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence following one- or two-photon excitations, a large ... [more ▼]

We have undertaken a systematic investigation of spectroscopic properties of lanthanide ions (Z=57-71). Using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence following one- or two-photon excitations, a large number of radiative lifetimes have been measured at the Lund Laser Centre for singly, doubly and trebly ionized atoms. These new measurements have been used for testing theoretical calculations performed within the framework of a relativistic Hartree-Fock approach taking core-polarization effects into account. Using the experimental lifetimes (when available) and the theoretical branching fractions, a large number of transition probabilities, most of them of astrophysical interest, have been deduced and are stored in a new database (DREAM). Up to now, the results obtained concern the following ions: La2+, Ce2+, Ce2+, Pr2+, Ho2+, Er2+, Tm2+, Tm2+, Yb2+, Yb2+, Yb2+, Lu2+ and Lu2+. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLes nouveautés de l'urbanisme wallon après le décret d'optimalisation du CWATUP
Delnoy, Michel ULg

in Immobilier (2002), n° spécial

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAssociation of the adaptor TANK with the IκB kinase (IKK) regulator NEMO connects IKK complexes with IKKε and TBK1 kinases
Chariot, Alain ULg; Leonardi, Antonio; Muller, Jean-Noel ULg et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2002), 277(40), 37029-37036

Canonical activation of NF-kappaB is mediated via phosphorylation of the inhibitory IkappaB proteins by the IkappaB kinase complex (IKK). IKK is composed of a heterodimer of the catalytic IKKalpha and ... [more ▼]

Canonical activation of NF-kappaB is mediated via phosphorylation of the inhibitory IkappaB proteins by the IkappaB kinase complex (IKK). IKK is composed of a heterodimer of the catalytic IKKalpha and IKKbeta subunits and a presumed regulatory protein termed NEMO (NF-kappaB essential modulator) or IKKgamma. NEMO/IKKgamma is indispensable for activation of the IKKs in response to many signals, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Here we identify TANK (TRAF family member-associated NF-kappaB activator) as a NEMO/IKKgamma-interacting protein via yeast two-hybrid analyses. This interaction is confirmed in mammalian cells, and the domains required are mapped. TANK was previously shown to assist NF-kappaB activation in a complex with TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) or IKKepsilon, two kinases distantly related to IKKalpha/beta, but the underlying mechanisms remained unknown. Here we show that TBK1 and IKKepsilon synergize with TANK to promote interaction with the IKKs. The TANK binding domain within NEMO/IKKgamma is required for proper functioning of this IKK subunit. These results indicate that TANK can synergize with IKKepsilon or TBK1 to link them to IKK complexes, where the two kinases may modulate aspects of NF-kappaB activation. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 42 (13 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSecond Fundamental Model of Resonance with Asymmetric Equilibria
Jancart, Sylvie ULg; Lemaitre, Anne; Istace, Anne

in Celestial mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy (2002), 84

We study the position and the stability of the equilibria for a generic Hamiltonian function developed up to the second harmonic and depending on two parameters; we describe the topology of the phase ... [more ▼]

We study the position and the stability of the equilibria for a generic Hamiltonian function developed up to the second harmonic and depending on two parameters; we describe the topology of the phase space for fixed values of these parameters. We show that for some values of the parameters asymmetric equilibria (unstable or stable) may appear. We deduce the conditions of capture into first order resonances for slowly drifting systems. We apply this model to the restricted three-body problem. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 4 (0 ULg)