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See detailEffet of dietary fat levels on growth, feed efficiency and biochemical compositions of Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis
Xu; Fontaine, P.; Mélard, Charles ULg et al

in Aquaculture International (2001), 9

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See detailImportance of post-transcriptional regulation of chemokine genes by oxidative stress.
JOSSE, Claire ULg; Boelaert, J. R.; Best-Belpomme, M. et al

in Biochemical Journal (2001), 360(Pt 2), 321-33

The transcription factor, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B), is activated by various stimuli including cytokines, radiation, viruses and oxidative stress. Here we show that, although induction with H(2 ... [more ▼]

The transcription factor, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B), is activated by various stimuli including cytokines, radiation, viruses and oxidative stress. Here we show that, although induction with H(2)O(2) gives rise to NF-kappa B nuclear translocation in both lymphocyte (CEM) and monocyte (U937) cells, it leads only to the production of mRNA species encoding interleukin-8 (IL-8) and macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha in U937 cells. Under similar conditions these mRNA species are not observed in CEM cells. With the use of a transient transfection assay of U937 cells transfected with reporter constructs of the IL-8 promoter and subsequently treated with H(2)O(2), we show that (1) IL-8-promoter-driven transcription is stimulated in both U937 and CEM cells and (2) the NF-kappa B site is crucial for activation because its deletion abolishes activation by H(2)O(2). The production of IL-8 mRNA in U937 cells is inhibited by the NF-kappa B inhibitors clasto-lactacystin-beta-lactone and E-64D (l-3-trans-ethoxycarbonyloxirane-2-carbonyl-L-leucine-3-methyl amide) but requires protein synthesis de novo. Moreover, inhibition of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase also decreases the IL-8 mRNA up-regulation mediated by H(2)O(2). Taken together, these results show the importance of post-transcriptional events controlled by a p38-dependent pathway in the production of IL-8 mRNA in U937. The much lower activation of p38 in CEM cells in response to H(2)O(2) could explain the lack of stabilization of IL-8 mRNA in these cells. [less ▲]

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See detailSensor arrays : an inspired idea or an objective measurement of environmental odours ?
Stuetz, R. M.; Nicolas, Jacques ULg

in Water Science & Technology (2001), 44(9), 53-58

The measure of annoyance odours from sewage treatment, landfill and agricultural practise has become highly significant in the control and prevention of odorous emissions from existing facilities and is ... [more ▼]

The measure of annoyance odours from sewage treatment, landfill and agricultural practise has become highly significant in the control and prevention of odorous emissions from existing facilities and is crucial for new planning applications. Current methods (such as GC-MS analysis, H2S and NH3 measurements) provide an accurate description of chemical compositions or act as surrogates for odour strength, but tell us very little about the perceived effect, whereas olfactometry gives the right human response but is very subjectivity and expensive. The use of non-specific sensor arrays may offer an objective and on-line instrument for assessing olfactive annoyance. Results have shown that sensor array systems can discriminate between different odour sources (wastewater, livestock and landfill). The response patterns from these sources can be significantly different and that the intensity of sensor responses is proportional to the concentration of the volatiles. The correlation of the sensors responses against odour strengths have also shown that reasonable fits can be obtained for a range of odour concentrations (100 - 800,000 ou/m3). However, the influence of environmental fluctuations (humidity and temperature) on sensor baselines still remains an obstacle, as well as the need for periodic calibration of the sensory system and the choice of a suitable gas for different environmental odours. [less ▲]

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See detailEvolutionary history of the most speciose mammals: molecular phylogeny of muroid rodents.
Michaux, Johan ULg; Reyes, A.; Catzeflis, F.

in Molecular Biology and Evolution (2001), 18(11), 2017-31

Phylogenetic relationships between 32 species of rodents representing 14 subfamilies of Muridae and four subfamilies of Dipodidae were studied using sequences of the nuclear protein-coding genes Lecithin ... [more ▼]

Phylogenetic relationships between 32 species of rodents representing 14 subfamilies of Muridae and four subfamilies of Dipodidae were studied using sequences of the nuclear protein-coding genes Lecithin Cholesterol Acyl Transferase (LCAT) and von Willebrand Factor (vWF). An examination of some evolutionary properties of each data matrix indicates that the two genes are rather complementary, with lower rates of nonsynonymous substitutions for LCAT. Both markers exhibit a wide range of GC3 percentages (55%-89%), with several taxa above 70% GC3 for vWF, which indicates that those exonic regions might belong to the richest class of isochores. The primary sequence data apparently harbor few saturations, except for transitions on third codon positions for vWF, as indicated by comparisons of observed and expected pairwise values of substitutions. Phylogenetic trees based on 1,962 nucleotidic sites from the two genes indicate that the 14 Muridae subfamilies are organized into five major lineages. An early isolation leads to the clade uniting the fossorial Spalacinae and semifossorial Rhizomyinae with a strong robustness. The second lineage includes a series of African taxa representing nesomyines, dendromurines, cricetomyines, and the sole living member of mystromyines. The third one comprises only the mouselike hamster CALOMYSCUS: The fourth clade represents the cricetines, myospalacines, sigmodontines, and arvicolines, whereas the fifth one comprises four "traditional" subfamilies (Gerbillinae, Murinae, Otomyinae, and Acomyinae). Within these groups, we confirm the monophyly of almost all studied subfamilies, namely, Spalacinae, Rhizomyinae, Nesomyinae, Cricetomyinae, Arvicolinae, Sigmodontinae, Cricetinae, Gerbillinae, Acomyinae, and Murinae. Finally, we present evidence that the sister group of Acomyinae is Gerbillinae, and we confirm a nested position of Myospalacinae within Cricetinae and Otomyinae within Murinae. From a biogeographical point of view, the five main lineages spread and radiated from Asia with different degrees of success: the first three groups are now represented by a limited number of species and genera localized in some regions, whereas the last two groups radiated in a large variety of species and genera dispersed all over the world. [less ▲]

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See detailResponsabilité pénale et faute pénale
Boxho, Philippe ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56

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See detailBiogeography and ecology of paedomorphosis in Triturus alpestris (Amphibia, Caudata)
Denoël, Mathieu ULg; Duguet, R.; Džukić, Georg et al

in Journal of Biogeography (2001), 28(10), 1271-1280

Aim Paedomorphosis is an evolutionary change in which larval structures are retained in adult animals. In newts and salamanders, this heterochronic process is widely represented and concerns the retention ... [more ▼]

Aim Paedomorphosis is an evolutionary change in which larval structures are retained in adult animals. In newts and salamanders, this heterochronic process is widely represented and concerns the retention of gill slits. We want to find out whether ecological and geographical determinants may be associated with paedomorphosis in the Alpine newt Triturus alpestris. Location Europe. Methods Determination of the main characteristics of all known aquatic sites containing paedomorphic Alpine newt individuals. Results Although metamorphs are common in Europe, paedomorphs are only found at the southern margin of the geographical range of the species: mainly in Italy and in the Balkans. They were recorded in eighty-seven aquatic sites. No single trend was outlined for the analysed ecological parameters of the aquatic and terrestrial habitats (e.g. altitude, maximum water depth, drying and presence of forest). Main conclusions Contrary to the first models of paedomorphosis, the main traits of aquatic and terrestrial habitat do not explain the occurrence of paedomorphs in natural populations. Although they were found in favourable aquatic habitats surrounded by hostile terrestrial landscapes, they also exist in temporary waters located at proximity of appropriate terrestrial environments. These results support models predicting paedomorphosis in varied environments, but require complementary investigations on the costs and benefits of the alternative ontogenetic pathways. On the other hand, the southern limitation of the heterochronic phenomenon suggests a genetic basis for paedomorphosis in the studied species. [less ▲]

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See detailQuelle évaluation externe des élèves pour quels socles de compétences ?
Bodin, A.; Delory, C.; Lafontaine, Dominique ULg et al

in Pédagogies, réformes et innovations dans l'enseignement (2001), 14

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See detailAndrogen-driven prostate epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation in vivo involve the regulation of p27.
Waltregny, David ULg; Leav, Irwin; Signoretti, Sabina et al

in Molecular Endocrinology (2001), 15(5), 765-82

Androgens control both growth and differentiation of the normal prostate gland. However, the mechanisms by which androgens act upon the cell cycle machinery to regulate these two fundamental processes are ... [more ▼]

Androgens control both growth and differentiation of the normal prostate gland. However, the mechanisms by which androgens act upon the cell cycle machinery to regulate these two fundamental processes are largely unknown. The cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitor p27 is a negative cell cycle regulator involved in differentiation-associated growth arrest. Here, we investigate the role and regulation of p27 in the testosterone proprionate (TP)-stimulated regeneration of the ventral prostate (VP) of castrated rats. Continuous TP administration to castrated rats triggered epithelial cell proliferation, which peaked at 72 h, and then declined despite further treatment. Castration-induced atrophy of the VP was associated with a significant increase in p27 expression as compared with the VP of intact animals. Twelve hours after the initiation of androgen treatment, total p27 levels as well as its fraction bound to cdk2, its main target, significantly dropped in the VP of castrated rats. Thereafter, concomitantly to the induction of epithelial cell proliferation, the glandular morphology of VP was progressively restored at 48-96 h of TP treatment. During this period of the regenerative process, whereas both proliferating basal and secretory epithelial cells did not express p27, the protein was selectively up-regulated in the nonproliferating secretory epithelial compartment. This up-regulation of p27 expression was coincident with an increase in its association with, and presumably inhibition of, cdk2. At each time point of TP treatment, p27 abundance in the VP was inversely correlated with the level of its proteasome-dependent degradation activity measured in vitro in VP lysates, whereas only slight changes in the amount of p27 transcripts were detected. In addition, the antiandrogen flutamide blocked maximal TP-induced p27 degradation completely. Finally, the expression of skp2, the ubiquitin ligase that targets p27 for degradation, was seen to increase with androgen administration, preceding maximal proliferation and concomitantly to augmented p27 degradation activity. Taken together, our data indicate that androgens mediate both proliferation and differentiation signals in normal prostate epithelial cells in vivo, through regulation of p27. [less ▲]

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See detailUrethral sphincterotomy for delivery of a vesical calculus in the mare: a case report
Deleuze, Stefan ULg; Hanzen, Christian ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2001), 145(6, Suppl. S), 373-376

A case of a cystic calculus in a mare and the pathophysiology of urolithiasis are described. In this case a 268 g calculus measuring 9 x 6 cm was removed after urethro-sphincterotomy was performed on the ... [more ▼]

A case of a cystic calculus in a mare and the pathophysiology of urolithiasis are described. In this case a 268 g calculus measuring 9 x 6 cm was removed after urethro-sphincterotomy was performed on the standing mare. [less ▲]

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See detailIleo-caecal actinomycosis: Report of a case simulating complicated inflammatory bowel disease
Postal, Alain; Detry, Olivier ULg; Louis, Edouard ULg et al

in Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica (2001), 64(4, Oct-Dec), 318-320

Abdominal actinomycosis is a rare infectious disease caused by Actinomyces israelii, a gram-positive anaerobic saprophyte germ that is a normal inhabitant of the upper intestinal tract in humans ... [more ▼]

Abdominal actinomycosis is a rare infectious disease caused by Actinomyces israelii, a gram-positive anaerobic saprophyte germ that is a normal inhabitant of the upper intestinal tract in humans. Actinomyces israelii rarely cause abdominal infections or actinomycosis. Abdominal actinomysosis is characterised by fistulae and abscesses and may mimic cancer or inflammatory bowel disease. Abdominal actinomycosis is difficult to diagnose preoperatively, and often require surgical removal of the diseased tissue, allowing pathologists for giving the definitive diagnosis, revealed by characteristic "sulfur granules". The authors report herein the case of a 47-year-old man who presented with diarrhoea and abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography evoked complicated inflammatory bowel disease and surgical procedure was decided. Laparoscopic exploration did not provide further significant information, and laparotomy with diseased bowel resection was performed. Pathology demonstrated "sulfur granules" and allowed the diagnosis of abdominal actinomycosis. This case demonstrated that abdominal actinomycosis should be included in the differential diagnosis when computed tomography shows an infiltrative and inflammatory mass. [less ▲]

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See detailReticulocyte transferrin receptor (TfR) expression and contribution to soluble TfR levels.
R'Zik, Samir ULg; Loo, Martine; Beguin, Yves ULg

in Haematologica (2001), 86(3), 244-51

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Transferrin receptor (TfR) expression in erythroid cells is regulated by a number of factors, including iron status and erythropoietin (Epo) stimulation. However, the impact of ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Transferrin receptor (TfR) expression in erythroid cells is regulated by a number of factors, including iron status and erythropoietin (Epo) stimulation. However, the impact of these factors on reticulocyte TfR expression in vivo has never been studied. A soluble form of TfR (sTfR) is present in serum in proportion to the mass of cellular TfR. Although sTfR shedding by reticulocytes and erythroblasts has been demonstrated in vitro, the contribution of reticulocyte TfR to serum sTfR has never been evaluated in vivo. DESIGN AND METHODS: We measured directly the total number of reticulocyte TfR in normal rats of different age and iron status, as well as in animals experiencing various conditions and treatments aimed at altering erythropoietic activity and iron status, including rHuEpo therapy, hemolytic anemia, phlebotomies, hypertransfusions, thiamphenicol-induced red cell aplasia or inflammation. In addition, we examined the impact of repeated hypertransfusions with normal, reticulocyte-poor and reticulocyte-rich blood on serum sTfR levels. RESULTS: The number of TfR molecules per reticulocyte was around 50,000 in young rats but was around 100,000 in older animals. These values remained constant in most conditions and in particular were not influenced by iron supplementation or iron overload. However, functional iron deficiency as well as rHuEpo therapy resulted in increased reticulocyte TfR expression. In addition, TfR numbers in reticulocytes were elevated in the early phase of recovery after acute hemolysis or red cell aplasia but normalized soon after. Hypertransfusion experiments clearly demonstrated that reticulocytes can contribute substantially to sTfR levels in vivo. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: TfR numbers are regulated in vivo by the same factors as in vitro, in particular iron deficiency and erythropoietin stimulation. Circulating reticulocytes contribute significantly to serum sTfR levels. [less ▲]

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See detailSerum soluble transferrin receptor concentration is an accurate estimate of the mass of tissue receptors.
R'Zik, Samir ULg; Beguin, Yves ULg

in Experimental hematology (2001), 29(6), 677-85

OBJECTIVE: Serum levels of the soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) vary depending on the erythropoietic activity and iron status. In vitro, sTfR shed in the incubation medium correlates well with cellular ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: Serum levels of the soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) vary depending on the erythropoietic activity and iron status. In vitro, sTfR shed in the incubation medium correlates well with cellular TfR, but this relationship has never been established in vivo. To determine the value of serum sTfR as a quantitative marker of the body mass of tissue TfR, we designed experiments to examine the correlation between serum sTfR and tissue TfR in rats with various degrees of erythropoietic activity or iron status. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied changes in erythropoietic activity in normal rats as well as in animals experiencing hemolysis, phlebotomy-induced iron deficiency, transfusion- or thiamphenicol-induced erythroid aplasia, or inflammation. At the end of follow-up, ferrokinetic studies were performed and animals were sacrificed. Organs were isolated and homogenized to determine the total mass of tissue TfR from the sum of tissue solubilized TfR in the bone marrow, spleen, liver, and blood cells (direct method). An indirect method was developed to derive the corporeal mass of tissue TfR from a representative marrow sample. RESULTS: As expected, serum sTfR and total mass of tissue TfR varied as a function of iron status and erythropoiesis. Relative erythroid expansion in the spleen was greater than in the bone marrow. With the exception of phlebotomized animals, the indirect method correlated very well with direct measurements of the total mass of tissue TfR (r = 0.97, p < 0.0001). There was a close relationship between the total mass of tissue TfR and the total mass of serum sTfR (r = 0.79, p < 0.0001). Serum sTfR represented approximately 5-6% of the total mass of tissue TfR in most experimental situations, but this ratio was twice as high during iron-restricted erythropoiesis. In addition, the ratio could be higher or lower in nonsteady-state situations, because changes in tissue TfR occurred faster than those of serum sTfR. CONCLUSIONS: Serum sTfR represents a constant proportion of the total mass of tissue TfR over a wide range of erythropoietic activity. However, iron deficiency results in a higher proportion of serum sTfR, and the pace of change in serum sTfR levels is slower than that of tissue TfR mass. [less ▲]

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See detailLandscape ecology in action (A. Farina).
Bogaert, Jan ULg

in Landscape & Urban Planning (2001), 53(1-4), 181-182

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See detailRespiratory chain network in mitochondria of Candida parapsilosis: ADP/O appraisal of the multiple electron pathways.
Milani, G.; Jarmuszkiewicz, W.; Sluse-Goffart, C. et al

in FEBS Letters (2001), 508

In this study we demonstrated that mitochondria of Candida parapsilosis contain a constitutive ubiquinol alternative oxidase (AOX) in addition to a classical respiratory chain (CRC) and a parallel ... [more ▼]

In this study we demonstrated that mitochondria of Candida parapsilosis contain a constitutive ubiquinol alternative oxidase (AOX) in addition to a classical respiratory chain (CRC) and a parallel respiratory chain (PAR) both terminating by two different cytochrome c oxidases. The C. parapsilosis AOX is characterized by a fungi-type regulation by GMP (as a stimulator) and linoleic acid (as an inhibitor). Inhibitor screening of the respiratory network by the ADP/O ratio and state 3 respiration determinations showed that (i) oxygen can be reduced by the three terminal oxidases through four paths implying one bypass between CRC and PAR and (ii) the sum of CRC, AOX and PAR capacities is higher than the overall respiration (no additivity) and that their engagement could be progressive according to the redox state of ubiquinone, i.e. first cytochrome pathway, then AOX and finally PAR. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of the human Fc gamma RIIB gene promoter: human zinc-finger proteins (ZNF140 and ZNF91) that bind to different regions function as transcription repressors
Nishimura, Tadahiro; Narita, Tadashi; Miyazaki, Emi et al

in International Immunology (2001), 13(8), 1075-84

Expression of the human low-affinity Fc receptors for IgG (human Fc gamma RII) is differentially regulated. We report here the characterization of the promoter structure of the human Fc gamma RIIB gene ... [more ▼]

Expression of the human low-affinity Fc receptors for IgG (human Fc gamma RII) is differentially regulated. We report here the characterization of the promoter structure of the human Fc gamma RIIB gene and the isolation of the promoter region-binding proteins by a yeast one-hybrid assay. The minimal 154-bp region upstream from the transcription start site of the human Fc gamma RIIB gene was shown to possess promoter activity in a variety of cells. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay indicated that multiple nuclear factors in cell extracts bind to the two regions [F2-3 (-110 to -93) and F4-3 (-47 to -31)] of the human Fc gamma RIIB gene promoter. Mutation analysis indicated that GGGAGGAGC (-105 to -97) and AATTTGTTTGCC (-47 to -36) sequences are responsible for binding to nuclear factors respectively. By using GGGAGGAGC and AATTTGTTTGCC as bait sequences, we cloned two zinc-finger proteins (ZNF140 and ZNF91) that bind to the F2-3 and F4-3 regions within the promoter of the human Fc gamma RIIB gene respectively. When the ZNF140 and ZNF91 were transfected with reporter plasmid, both showed repressor activity with additive effects. Thus, these results indicate that these cloned ZNF140 and ZNF91 proteins function as repressors for the human Fc gamma RIIB transcription. [less ▲]

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See detailN content of phloem and xylem exudates during the transition to flowering in Sinapis alba and Arabidopsis thaliana
Corbesier, Laurent; Havelange, Andrée ULg; Lejeune, Pierre et al

in Plant, Cell & Environment (2001), 24

The involvement of nitrogenous substances in the transition to flowering was investigated in Sinapis alba and Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia). Both species grown in short days (SD) are induced to flower ... [more ▼]

The involvement of nitrogenous substances in the transition to flowering was investigated in Sinapis alba and Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia). Both species grown in short days (SD) are induced to flower by one long day (LD). In S. alba, the phloem sap (leaf and apical exudates) and the xylem sap (root exudate) were analysed in LD versus SD. In A. thaliana, only the leaf exudate could be analysed but an alternative system for inducing flowering without day-length extension was used: the displaced SD (DSD). Significant results are: (i) in both species, the leaf exudate was enriched in Gln during the inductive LD, at a time compatible with export of the floral stimulus; (ii) in S. alba, the root export of amino acids decreased in LD, whereas the nitrate remained unchanged - thus the extra-Gln found in the leaf exudate should originate from the leaves; (iii) extra-Gln was also found very early in the apical exudate of S. alba in LD, together with more Glu; (iv) in A. thaliana induced by one DSD, the leaf export of Asn increased sharply, instead of Gln in LD. This agrees with Asn prevalence in C-limited plants. The putative role of amino acids in the transition to flowering is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailLes rudistes de la Mésogée. Anatomie et biotope.
Pierard, Sébastien ULg; Franchimont, Claudine ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Revue Verviétoise d'Histoire Naturelle (2001), 58

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See detailEffects of liming on forest soil algal communities
Kostinov, I.; Carnol, Monique ULg; Dulière, J.-F. et al

in Algological Studies (2001), 102

The effects of the application of dolomite lime (5 t ha-1) on soil algal communities were investigated in sessile oak (Quercus petraea (MATT.) LIEB.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) KARST.) plots ... [more ▼]

The effects of the application of dolomite lime (5 t ha-1) on soil algal communities were investigated in sessile oak (Quercus petraea (MATT.) LIEB.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) KARST.) plots situated in the Belgian Ardenne. Chlorophyta (60 taxa) were by far the most diverse group, followed by Xanthophyceae (10 taxa), Bacillariophyceae (3 taxa), Cyanophyceae (2 taxa) and Euglenophyceae (1 taxon). In both forest types, liming lead to a significant increase in soil pH, exchangeable magnesium and calcium. In the limed Quercus plots available phosphorus and soil solution nitrate concentrations were also increased. The soil algal diversity was similar in oak and spruce control plots and in limed spruce plots. However, in the limed oak plots a significantly higher algal diversity was observed. On the basis of a CCA analysis, three clusters of plots could be distinguished: a) Picea control plots, b) limed Picea and control Quercus plots, c) limed Quercus plots. Both soil pH and nutrient availability seem to be important in determining algal species composition in these forest soils. [less ▲]

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See detailBone sialoprotein, bone morphogenetic protein 6 and thymidine phosphorylase expression in localized human prostatic adenocarcinoma as predictors of clinical outcome: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of 43 cases.
De Pinieux, Gonzague; Flam, Thierry; Zerbib, Marc et al

in Journal of Urology (The) (2001), 166(5), 1924-30

PURPOSE: Skeletal metastases are the hallmark of advanced prostate cancer and recurrence after local surgery is common. Currently to our knowledge no biological markers predict the risk of disease ... [more ▼]

PURPOSE: Skeletal metastases are the hallmark of advanced prostate cancer and recurrence after local surgery is common. Currently to our knowledge no biological markers predict the risk of disease progression in individuals with localized prostate cancer. In a search for predictive markers we evaluated the expression of bone sialoprotein and bone morphogenetic protein 6, 2 bone related proteins, and the angiogenic factor thymidine phosphorylase. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population included 43 men who presented with localized prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy. Bone sialoprotein, bone morphogenetic protein 6 and thymidine phosphorylase expression was assessed by immunohistochemical testing. Results were analyzed in relation to pathological disease stage, Gleason score and clinical outcome. Clinical followup was 4.3 to 11.4 years after surgery (median 7.9). RESULTS: Disease did not progress in 17 of the 43 cases, while recurrence and/or metastasis developed in the other 26 at a median of 6.5 and 6.9 years, respectively. Bone sialoprotein and bone morphogenetic protein 6 expression detected in 28 (65%) and 29 (67%) of the 43 samples, respectively, was significantly associated (p = 0.0001). Thymidine phosphorylase detected in 26 samples (60%) was not related to bone sialoprotein and/or bone morphogenetic protein 6 positivity. Bone sialoprotein and/or bone morphogenetic protein 6 expression correlated with bone metastasis, while thymidine phosphorylase expression was related to local recurrence (p = 0.002 and/or 0.007, and 0.00007, respectively). On multivariate analysis only the correlation of thymidine phosphorylase expression with recurrence remained statistically significant (p = 0.002). Co-expression of the 3 markers was observed in the samples of 10 of the 11 patients (90%) with bone metastases and only in 5 of the 17 (29%) who were disease-free. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that the expression of bone sialoprotein, bone morphogenetic protein 6 and thymidine phosphorylase determined at a clinically early stage of disease by a simple immunohistochemical technique would enable subgroups of patients to be identified that are at different risks of bone metastasis or recurrence. Detection of such markers would provide additional prognostic information that would be useful for patients with intermediate or low Gleason score or stage disease. These patients would benefit from a more adapted clinical follow-up. [less ▲]

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See detailRandom matrix study of the phase structure of QCD with two colors
Vanderheyden, Benoît ULg; Jackson, A. D.

in Physical Review. D : Particles and Fields (2001), 64(7), 074016

We apply a random matrix model to the study of the phase diagram of QCD with two colors, two flavors, and a small quark mass. Although the effects of temperature are only included schematically, this ... [more ▼]

We apply a random matrix model to the study of the phase diagram of QCD with two colors, two flavors, and a small quark mass. Although the effects of temperature are only included schematically, this model reproduces most of the ground state predictions of chiral perturbation theory and also gives a qualitative picture of the phase diagram at all temperatures. It leads, however, to an unphysical behavior of the chiral order parameter and the baryon density in vacuum and does not support diquark condensation at arbitrarily high densities. A better treatment of temperature dependence leads to correct vacuum and small temperature properties. We compare our results at both high and low densities with the results of microscopic calculations using the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model and discuss the effects of large momentum scales on the variations of condensation fields with chemical potential. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of insecticide treatments on insect density and diversity in vegetable open fields.
Colignon, P.; Hastir, Pierre; Gaspar, Charles ULg et al

in Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent) (2001), 66(2a), 403-411

Vegetable open field areas increased for 15 years in Wallonia, mainly in Hesbaye. To be in accordance with quality standards, especially in terms of agro-chimical residues (R.M.L.), biological pest ... [more ▼]

Vegetable open field areas increased for 15 years in Wallonia, mainly in Hesbaye. To be in accordance with quality standards, especially in terms of agro-chimical residues (R.M.L.), biological pest control was developed and allowed to reduce the insecticide use, leading to have safer fresh products. Among cultivated species in Wallonia, leguminous crops represent more than 85% of the vegetable production. To assess the impact of insecticide treatment on both pests (mainly aphids) and beneficial insects (predators and parasitoids), broad bean (Vicia faba L.) fields were investigated during all the production duration. Twelve fields between Waremme and Hannut were visited weakly from May to July. In each field, control untreated and treated plots were investigated. Insects were caught using yellow traps and determined until the family level. Approximately 90.000 insects belonging to 59 major families (99% of captures) and 64 minor families were identified. These results showed that biodiversity in terms of family numbers was significantly higher in unsprayed plots. In addition, biodiversity and biomass (insect density) increased gradually during the season. Evaluation of pest and beneficial diversity and density was discussed in relation to aphicid (lambda-cyhalothrin, pirimicarb) treatments and the development of I.P.M. program in vegetable crops. [less ▲]

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See detailFracture prevention in postmenopausal women
Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in Clinical Evidence (2001), 6

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See detailInfluence of moderate temperatures on myristoyl-CoA metabolism and acyl-CoA thioesterase activity in the psychrophilic antarctic yeast Rhodotorula aurantiaca.
Sabri, Ahmed ULg; Bare, G.; Jacques, Philippe ULg et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2001), 276(16), 12691-6

The inability of psychrophilic microorganisms to grow at moderate temperatures (>20 degrees C) presently represents an unresolved thermodynamic paradox. Here we report for the psychrophilic yeast ... [more ▼]

The inability of psychrophilic microorganisms to grow at moderate temperatures (>20 degrees C) presently represents an unresolved thermodynamic paradox. Here we report for the psychrophilic yeast Rhodotorula aurantiaca A19, isolated from Antarctic ice, that the inability to grow at temperatures close to 20 degrees C is associated with profound alterations in cell morphology and integrity. High performance liquid chromatography analysis of the intracellular acyl-CoA esters revealed an abnormal accumulation of myristoyl-CoA (C14-CoA) in cells cultivated close to the nonpermissive temperature. Its concentration (500 microm) was found to be 28-fold higher than in cells cultivated at 0 degrees C. If one considers its ability to disrupt membrane bilayers and to inhibit many cellular enzymes and functions, intracellular myristoyl-CoA accumulation in the psychrophile R. aurantiaca represents one of the principal causes of growth arrest at moderate temperatures. Intracellular acyl-CoA concentrations are believed to be regulated by thioesterase activity. Thus in an attempt to explore the mechanism by which temperature disrupts myristoyl-CoA metabolism, we isolated and characterized a long chain acyl-CoA thioesterase. The monomeric 80-kDa thioesterase from the psychrophilic yeast shows a very strong specificity for myristoyl-CoA. The affinity for substrate and the catalytic efficiency of the thioesterase are optimal below 5 degrees C (temperatures habitually experienced by the strain) and dramatically decrease with increasing temperature. The loss of affinity for substrate is related to the intracellular increase of myristoyl-CoA concentration. Our observations reveal one of the probable mechanisms by which temperature fixes the limit of growth for this psychrophilic yeast. [less ▲]

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See detailReply to Letter to the Editor
PITCHOT, William ULg; ANSSEAU, Marc ULg

in Psychoneuroendocrinology (2001)

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See detailThe NETLANDER Ionosphere and Geodesy Experiment
Barriot, Jean-Pierre; Dehant, Véronique; Folkner, W. et al

in Advances in Space Research (2001), 28(8), 1237-1249

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See detailPeter Johnson, Love Poems for the Millenium
Delville, Michel ULg

in Literary Review (2001)

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See detailRecent Progress in Livestock Genomics and Potential Impact on Breeding Programs
Georges, Michel ULg

in Theriogenology (2001), 55(1), 15-21

Most of the major livestock breeding organizations in the world are actively involved in using the emerging tools for genome analysis to obtain a better understanding of the molecular architecture of ... [more ▼]

Most of the major livestock breeding organizations in the world are actively involved in using the emerging tools for genome analysis to obtain a better understanding of the molecular architecture of their favourite production traits. This is bound to generate a considerable amount of novel biological information that will provide a competitive advantage to those that have access to it. At present, the preferred avenue to exploit this information is via marker-assisted selection (MAS), and several breeding organisations are starting to implement MAS in breeding programs. However, it seems unlikely that the exploitation of genomics information will be limited to MAS in the future. Even though it is difficult to anticipate the ultimate impact of genomics on animal production, it would be very surprising if it were not to revolutionize this industry as it is already revolutionizing the biomedical and plant breeding industries. [less ▲]

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See detailLiver transplantation for hepatitis B virus infection: improving long-term outcomes
Detry, Olivier ULg; Delwaide, Jean ULg

in Medscape Transplantation (2001)

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See detailLes médias belges et l'"Etat social actif" : genèse, reproduction et diffusion du nouveau sens commun socio-économique
Geuens, Geoffrey ULg

in Quaderni : la Revue de la Communication (2001), 45 ("Figures du journalisme")

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See detailReconnaissance mutuelle, double incrimination et territorialité
Flore, Daniel ULg

in La reconnaissance mutuelle des décisions judiciaires pénales dans l’Union européenne (2001)

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See detailRadiative lifetime measurements and transition probabilities of astrophysical interest in Er III
Biémont, Emile ULg; Garnir, Henri-Pierre ULg; Bastin, Thierry ULg et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2001), 321

Radiative lifetimes of seven excited states of Er III have been measured using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence following two-photon excitation. Relativistic Hartree-Fock calculations taking core ... [more ▼]

Radiative lifetimes of seven excited states of Er III have been measured using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence following two-photon excitation. Relativistic Hartree-Fock calculations taking core-polarization effects into account are found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental results. A large set of new calculated transition probabilities is presented for many transitions of astrophysical interest. These results will be useful for investigating the composition of chemically peculiar stars. [less ▲]

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See detailRe-inventing the wheel or adding one to the headache pathogenesis vehicle.
Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2001), 21(8), 796-7

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See detailAbout the relationship between the kallikrein-kinin system and insulin
Damas, Jacques ULg; Liégeois, Jean-François ULg

in Current Topics in Peptide and Protein Research (2001), 4

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See detailNew Insights into Pervaporation Mass Transport under Increasing Downstream Pressure Conditions: Critical Role of Inert Gas Entrance.
Vallières, Cécile; Favre, Eric; Roizard, Denis et al

in Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research (2001), 40

The influence of the total downstream pressure on the pervaporation flux of a pure compound through a dense polymer membrane has been the subject to controversial debates recently. Experimental arguments ... [more ▼]

The influence of the total downstream pressure on the pervaporation flux of a pure compound through a dense polymer membrane has been the subject to controversial debates recently. Experimental arguments in favor of either the solution−diffusion model or the newly proposed pore-flow model are alternatively reported on different systems. To critically reexamine this debate, an experimental study under controlled downstream conditions has been performed for pure methanol and pure 2-propanol pervaporation through a poly(dimethylsiloxane) film, the latter having been previously reported to follow pore-flow model predictions. It is shown that a rational analysis of the effects of the downstream pressure on the results can be achieved according to the classical solution−diffusion model, provided that the influence of air leaks in the installation is properly taken into account. Based on this observation, the implications of an inert gas contribution, generally speaking, on pervaporation operation are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of Intravenous Platelet-Activating Factor on Bovine Pulmonary Mast Cells
Jolly, Sandra ULg; Thomas, Cédric; Genicot, Bruno et al

in Journal of Comparative Pathology (2001), 125(Aug-Oct), 81-89

The effect of platelet-activating factor (PAF) on bovine pulmonary mast cells (MCs) was investigated in calves aged 1-4 months. PAF was administered over a 5-min period at a rate of 50 ng/kg/min to six ... [more ▼]

The effect of platelet-activating factor (PAF) on bovine pulmonary mast cells (MCs) was investigated in calves aged 1-4 months. PAF was administered over a 5-min period at a rate of 50 ng/kg/min to six animals, which were killed approximately 10 min later. No macroscopical lesions were observed in the lung tissue of five control calves. On semi-thin toluidine-blue stained sections, MC cytoplasm showed profuse deep-blue granulation. In the lung tissues of PAF-treated calves, striking interstitial, alveolar and interlobular oedema and emphysema were observed. MC granules occurred at the periphery of the cytoplasm and MC nuclei were easily detectable. Moreover, the number of granules in the MC cytoplasm was remarkably low. A few granules with some metachromatic material were sometimes detected outside the cell limits. Ultrastructurally, the matrix pattern of the MC granules in lung tissues of control calves was either amorphous or granular. In lung tissues of the PAF-treated calves, the granular matrix pattern was pronounced, varying from fine- to coarse-grained, and the MCs were of reduced size, with many filiform processes and exocytotic vesicles. These findings indicate that pulmonary MC degranulation was induced by PAF in healthy calves. [less ▲]

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See detailLe médicament parmi les thérapies relationnelles : Enquête et réflexions.
David, Claire; WAUTHY, Jacques ULg; Vaulet, Véronique et al

in Revue des Hôpitaux de Jour Psychiatriques et des Thérapies Institutionnelles (2001)

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See detailDiblock polyampholytes at the silicon/water interface: adsorption at various modified silicon substrates
Mahltig, Boris; Jérôme, Robert ULg; Stamm, Manfred

in Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics [=PCCP] (2001), 3(19), 4371-4375

The adsorption behaviour of the ampholytic diblock copolymer poly(methacrylic acid)-block-poly((dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate), PMAA-b-PDMAEMA, was investigated on differently prepared silicon surfaces ... [more ▼]

The adsorption behaviour of the ampholytic diblock copolymer poly(methacrylic acid)-block-poly((dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate), PMAA-b-PDMAEMA, was investigated on differently prepared silicon surfaces. All adsorption experiments were performed from aqueous solutions as a function of pH. The polyampholyte amount adsorbed was determined ellipsometrically, while the topographies of the adsorbed polymer were investigated using scanning force microscopy (SFM). Three polyampholyte systems with similar molecular weight around 60000 g mol–1 and different block ratios were adsorbed on three different types of silicon substrates. Depending on the pretreatment the silicon substrates contained different isoelectric points (IEP) and hydrophobicity. The adsorbed amount, as a function of pH, was characterized by maxima and minima near the IEP of the polyampholytes. In the case of polyampholytes containing an IEP close to the IEP of the silicon substrates, the nature of the substrate strongly influenced the adsorption behaviour. Even a complete erasure of one adsorption maximum could be observed in some cases. In contrast to this, polyampholytes with an IEP in a pH area far away from the IEP of the substrates adsorbed in a quite similar manner on the different substrates. [less ▲]

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See detailPathology of morbillivirus infections in marine mammals
Jauniaux, Thierry ULg; Coignoul, Freddy ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2001), 145(2), 76-

Morbillivirus infections were described since 1988 in marine mammals including pinnipeds and cetaceans. Since, numerous outbreaks, responsible for thousands marine mammals death, as well as sporadic cases ... [more ▼]

Morbillivirus infections were described since 1988 in marine mammals including pinnipeds and cetaceans. Since, numerous outbreaks, responsible for thousands marine mammals death, as well as sporadic cases, have occurred in various populations from North Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea, Baikal Lake, Caspian Sea, and recently from northern Pacific. Clinical signs and macroscopic lesions are similar between species infected by morbillivirus and are close to those reported in dog with canine distemper. Under microscope, characteristic les ions are interstitial bronchopneumonia, lymphoid depletion and subacute encephalitis. Syncytia and inclusion bodies are frequently observed in lesions and epithelia. Lymphoid depletion promotes secondary infections by opportunistic pathogens, responsible in many cases of the animals death. Various parameters explain the high sensibility of certain population such as the species, the naive immunological status and vectors intervention for the disease. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the origin and systematics of the northern African wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) populations: a comparative study of mtDNA restriction patterns
Libois, Roland ULg; Michaux, Johan ULg; Ramalhinho, M. G. et al

in Canadian Journal of Zoology (2001), 79(8), 1503-1511

Conflicting hypotheses have been formulated regarding the origin of wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) populations in northern Africa. In this study, the mtDNA restriction patterns of mice (n = 28 ... [more ▼]

Conflicting hypotheses have been formulated regarding the origin of wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) populations in northern Africa. In this study, the mtDNA restriction patterns of mice (n = 28) collected in Tunisia and Morocco are compared with those of representatives from southern Europe (n = 102). The neighbour-joining tree confirms the existence of the three lineages previously found in the Mediterranean area: western, Tyrrhenian-Balkan, and Sicilian. The western group is isolated from the two others, with bootstrap values of 89 and 95%. Northern African patterns are included in the western group. Their variability is low, the same pattern being shared by five Tunisian and all Moroccan animals (n = 18), caught either in the north of the country (Cap Spartel) or in the south (Marrakech). This implies that northern African wood mouse populations have a southwestern European origin and that their presence in the region is probably recent, which corresponds to both paleontological data and the hypothesis of anthropogenic introduction. [less ▲]

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See detailThe occurrence of the ilio-lumbar syndrome in a spinal cord injury patient
Chantraine, A.; Bosson, L.; Malaise, Michel ULg et al

in Spinal Cord : The Official Journal of the International Medical Society of Paraplegia (2001), 39(4), 237-239

STUDY DESIGN: Case report of a 71-year-old man having sustained a spinal cord injury (SCI) for 26 years. He started to suffer from low back pain 21 years after his onset and this was diagnosed as ilio ... [more ▼]

STUDY DESIGN: Case report of a 71-year-old man having sustained a spinal cord injury (SCI) for 26 years. He started to suffer from low back pain 21 years after his onset and this was diagnosed as ilio-lumbar syndrome (ILS). OBJECTIVES: To describe the problem of low back pain occurring after a change of wheelchair in a SCI, and to indicate the importance of the ilio-lumbar syndrome as a possible cause of low back complaint. OUTCOME: Clinical findings supported by echotomography confirmed the diagnosis of ILS in our case. CONCLUSION: ILS should be considered when some changes and deterioration of the status of SCI occur due to low back complaint. [less ▲]

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See detailCombined Effects of Experimental Heavy-Metal Contamination (Cu, Zn, and CH3Hg) and Starvation on Quail's Body Condition: Parallelism with a Wild Common Guillemot (Uria aalge) Population Found Stranded at the Belgian Coast
Debacker, Virginie ULg; Rutten, Astrid; Jauniaux, Thierry ULg et al

in Biological Trace Element Research (2001), 82(1-3, Summer), 87-107

Combined effects of heavy-metal contamination (Cu, Zn, and CH3Hg) and starvation were tested on common quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and used as a model for comparison with a wild common guillemot ... [more ▼]

Combined effects of heavy-metal contamination (Cu, Zn, and CH3Hg) and starvation were tested on common quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and used as a model for comparison with a wild common guillemot (Uria aalge) population found stranded at the Belgian coast. Appropriate heavy-metal levels were given to the quails to obtain concentrations similar to those found in the seabirds's tissues. The contaminated animals were then starved for 4 d to simulate the evident malnutrition symptoms observed at the guillemot's level. In such conditions, food intake and total-body weight are shown to decrease in contaminated individuals with simultaneous significant hepatic and renal increase of the heavy-metal concentrations. Like guillemots, higher heavy-metal levels were observed in those contam- inated quails that had also developed a cachectic status characterized by a general atrophy of their pectoral muscle and complete absence of subcutaneous and/or abdominal fat depots. Although likely the result of a general protein catabolism during starvation, it is suggested that these higher metal levels could as well enhance a general muscle wasting process (cachectic status). [less ▲]

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See detailPlace de la tomographie d'émission de positons dans le suivi thérapeutique du cancer du sein
Jerusalem, Guy ULg; Belhocine, Tarik; Silvestre, Rose-Marie et al

in Médecine Nucléaire : Imagerie Fonctionnelle et Métabolique (2001), 25(6), 341-346

La tomographie à émission de positons (TEP) au 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) fait l'objet d'un nombre croissant d'applications cliniques en oncologie surtout dans le bilan d'extension et le bilan de fin de ... [more ▼]

La tomographie à émission de positons (TEP) au 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) fait l'objet d'un nombre croissant d'applications cliniques en oncologie surtout dans le bilan d'extension et le bilan de fin de traitement. Un domaine très prometteur mais peu étudié est l'utilisation de la TEP dans l'évaluation thérapeutique précoce. Nous passons en revue les données de la littérature concernant la place de la TEP dans l'évaluation précoce de la réponse thérapeutique chez des patientes atteintes de cancer du sein. La TEP permet d'identifier précocement les patientes qui ont une grande probabilité de présenter une réponse tumorale facorable à une chimiothérapie néoadjuvante (chimiothérapie première). Cependant, non propres travaux chez des patientes atteintes de cancer du sein métastatique sont moins prometteurs. La poursuite des travaux de recherche est indispensable pour mieux connaître le bénéfice réel et les limites d'une évaluation thérapeutique précoce. [less ▲]

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See detailEpdémiosurveillance de l'encéphalopathie spongiforme bovine en Belgique : bilan de l'année 1999
Saegerman, Claude ULg; Dechamps, P.; Roels, S. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2001), 145

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See detailA comparative study of oral acetylsalicyclic acid and metoprolol for the prophylactic treatment of migraine. A randomized, controlled, double-blind, parallel group phase III study.
Diener, H. C.; Hartung, E.; Chrubasik, J. et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2001), 21(2), 120-8

This study was a multinational, multicentre, double-blind, active controlled phase III trial designed to investigate efficacy and safety of 300 mg acetylsalicyclic acid (ASA) (n = 135) vs. 200 mg ... [more ▼]

This study was a multinational, multicentre, double-blind, active controlled phase III trial designed to investigate efficacy and safety of 300 mg acetylsalicyclic acid (ASA) (n = 135) vs. 200 mg metoprolol (n = 135) in the prophylaxis of migraine. In total 270 (51 male and 219 female) patients, aged 18-65 years, suffering between two and six migraine attacks per month were recruited. The main objective was to show equivalence with respect to efficacy, defined as a 50% reduction in the rate of migraine attacks. A run-in phase was carried out with placebo for 4 weeks, followed by a 16-week drug phase. In both treatment groups the median frequency of migraine attacks improved during the study period, from three to two in the ASA group and from three to one in the metoprolol group; 45.2% of all metoprolol patients were responders compared with 29.6% with ASA. Medication-related adverse events were less frequent in the ASA group (37) than in the metoprolol group (73). The findings from this trial show that metoprolol is superior to ASA for migraine prophylaxis but has more side-effects. Acetylsalicylic acid is better tolerated than metoprolol. Using a strict responder criterion ASA showed a responder rate comparable with the placebo rate in the literature. [less ▲]

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See detailBELL, regular 2001 issue
Delrez, Marc ULg

in Belgian Essays on Language and Literature (2001)

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See detailMorbillivirus in common seals stranded on the coasts of Belgium and northern France during summer 1998
Jauniaux, Thierry ULg; Boseret, Géraldine ULg; Desmecht, M. et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2001), 148(19), 587-591

Sixteen common seals (Phoca vitulina) were stranded on the Belgian and northern French coasts during the summer of 1998. Eleven (10 pups and one adult) were sampled for histopathological ... [more ▼]

Sixteen common seals (Phoca vitulina) were stranded on the Belgian and northern French coasts during the summer of 1998. Eleven (10 pups and one adult) were sampled for histopathological, immunohistochemical, serological. bacteriological, parasitological and virological investigations. The main gross findings were severe emaciation, acute haemorrhagic enteritis, acute pneumonia, interstitial pulmonary emphysema and oedema, and chronic ulcerative stomatitis. Microscopical lung findings were acute to subacute pneumonia with interstitial oedema and emphysema. Severe lymphocytic depletion was observed in lymph nodes. Severe acute to subacute meningoencephalitis was observed in one animal. Specific staining with two monoclonal antibodies directed against canine distemper virus (CDV) and phocine distemper virus was observed in a few lymphocytes in the spleen and lymph nodes of three seals. Anti-CDV neutralising antibodies were detected in sera from six animals. Seven of the seals were positive by reverse transcriptase-PCR for the morbillivirus phosphoprotein gene. The lesions observed were consistent with those in animals infected by a morbillivirus, and demonstrated that distemper has recently recurred in North Sea seals. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of the scattering coefficient of random rough diffusing surfaces for room acoustics applications
Embrechts, Jean-Jacques ULg; Archambeau, Dominique; Stan, Guy-Bart

in Acta Acustica United with Acustica (2001), 87

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See detailA simplified one-pot synthesis of 9-[(3-[18F]fluoro-1-hydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]guanine([18F]FHPG) and 9-(4-[18F]fluoro-3-hydroxymethylbutyl)guanine ([18F]FHBG) for gene therapy.
Shiue, Grace G.; Shiue, Ching-Yann; Lee, Roland L. et al

in Nuclear Medicine & Biology (2001), 28(7), 875-83

9-[(3-[18F]Fluoro-1-hydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]guanine ([18F]FHPG, 2) has been synthesized by nucleophilic substitution of N(2)-(p-anisyldiphenylmethyl)-9-[[1-(p-anisyldiphenylmethoxy)-3-toluenesulfonylox y ... [more ▼]

9-[(3-[18F]Fluoro-1-hydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]guanine ([18F]FHPG, 2) has been synthesized by nucleophilic substitution of N(2)-(p-anisyldiphenylmethyl)-9-[[1-(p-anisyldiphenylmethoxy)-3-toluenesulfonylox y-2-propoxy]methyl]guanine (1) with potassium [18F]fluoride/Kryptofix 2.2.2 followed by deprotection with 1 N HCl and purification with different methods in variable yields. When both the nucleophilic substitution and deprotection were carried out at 90 degrees C and the product was purified by HPLC (method A), the yield of compound 2 was 5-10% and the synthesis time was 90 min from EOB. However, if both the nucleophilic substitution and deprotection were carried out at 120 degrees C and the product was purified by HPLC, the yield of compound 2 decreased to 2%. When compound 2 was synthesized at 90 degrees C and purified by Silica Sep-Pak (method B), the yield increased to 10-15% and the synthesis time was 60 min from EOB. Similarly, 9-(4-[18F]fluoro-3-hydroxymethylbutyl)guanine ([18F]FHBG, 4) was synthesized with method A and method B in 9% and 10-15% yield, respectively, in a synthesis time of 90 and 60 min, respectively, from EOB. Compound 2 was relatively unstable in acidic medium at 120 degrees C while compound 4 was stable under the same condition. Both compound 2 and compound 4 had low lipid/water partition coefficient (0.126 +/- 0.022, n=5 and 0.165 +/- 0.023, n=5, respectively). Although it contains non-radioactive ganciclovir ( approximately 5-30 microg) as a chemical by-product, compound 2 synthesized by method B has a similar uptake in 9L glioma cells as that synthesized by method A, and is a potential tracer for imaging herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene expression in tumors using PET. Similarly, compound 4 synthesized by method B contains approximately 10-25 microg of penciclovir as a chemical by-product. Thus, the simplified one pot synthesis (method B) is a useful method for synthesizing both compound 2 and compound 4 in good yield for routine clinical use, and the method is readily amenable for automation. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes F2 need a hard pomeron?
Cudell, Jean-René ULg; Soyez, G.

in Physics Letters B (2001), 516

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See detailIntérêt économique de la « poldérisation fluviale ».
Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULg

in Revue du CEBEDEAU (2001), 54(609), 24-26

Economic valuation of goods and jobs protected from flooding through the demerger in Wallonia

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See detailEnhanced survival of lung granulocytes in an animal model of asthma: evidence for a role of GM-CSF activated STAT5 signalling pathway
Turlej, Renata K; Fievez, Laurence ULg; Sandersen, Charlotte ULg et al

in Thorax (2001), 56(9), 696-702

As granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) mediated delay of granulocyte apoptosis contributes to the accumulation of inflammatory cells at the site of inflammation in many diseases, we ... [more ▼]

As granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) mediated delay of granulocyte apoptosis contributes to the accumulation of inflammatory cells at the site of inflammation in many diseases, we sought to determine whether asthma is also associated with a GM-CSF dependent increase in lung granulocyte survival. Moreover, because GM-CSF mediates its effects through activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5), we also investigated the potential role of STAT5 in allergic inflammation. METHODS: Blood granulocytes were recovered from six healthy and six heaves affected horses, a model of asthma. Lung granulocytes were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from the same horses. Granulocytes were cultured in the presence or absence of anti-GM-CSF receptor antibodies for different times and apoptosis was determined using the Annexin-V/propidium iodide detection method. Nuclear protein extracts from cultured granulocytes were analysed for STAT5 binding activity by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. RESULTS: BAL fluid granulocytes from heaves affected horses demonstrated a significant delay in apoptosis compared with blood granulocytes from the same horses and blood and BAL fluid granulocytes from healthy horses. Conversely, the rate of apoptosis in blood granulocytes from healthy and heaves affected horses was comparable. The enhanced survival of BAL fluid granulocytes from affected horses was suppressed in the presence of antibodies directed against GM-CSF receptors. Increased levels of active STAT5 were found in BAL fluid granulocytes from heaves affected horses and were markedly reduced after treatment with anti-GM-CSF receptor antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that granulocyte survival is enhanced in the lung of heaves affected horses and suggest a role for a GM-CSF activated STAT5 pathway in delaying apoptosis of lung granulocytes in this model of asthma. [less ▲]

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See detailPrognostic value of decremental responses to repetitive nerve stimulation in ALS patients.
Wang, François-Charles ULg; De Pasqua, Victor ULg; Gerard, Pascale ULg et al

in Neurology (2001), 57(5), 897-9

Decrement of the thenar compound muscle action potentials (CMAP), after repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) of the median nerve at 3 Hz, was evaluated in patients with ALS before riluzole therapy. CMAP ... [more ▼]

Decrement of the thenar compound muscle action potentials (CMAP), after repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) of the median nerve at 3 Hz, was evaluated in patients with ALS before riluzole therapy. CMAP size as well as motor unit number and size estimates were evaluated twice before and after 1 year of riluzole therapy. The correlation between decrement and CMAP size reduction per year was highly significant (r = 0.77), but no relationship could be demonstrated between decrement and other variables. The authors thus propose that decrement after RNS may be used as a predictor of further drop in CMAP size. [less ▲]

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See detailA New Design of Equilibrator to Monitor Carbon Dioxide in Highly Dynamic and Turbid Environments
Frankignoulle, M.; Borges, Alberto ULg; Biondo, Renzo ULg

in Water Research (2001), 35(5), 1344-7

A new design of equilibrator for carbon dioxide monitoring in natural waters is described. It consists in a vertical tube filled with marbles through which water is flowing while equilibrating with a ... [more ▼]

A new design of equilibrator for carbon dioxide monitoring in natural waters is described. It consists in a vertical tube filled with marbles through which water is flowing while equilibrating with a closed air circuit. It offers several advantages compared with classical equilibrators, among which is a fast response time (half-life constant approximately 30 s) and the potential to work in very turbid water. The proposed equilibrator is of particular interest to monitor carbon dioxide in coastal ecosystems, such as estuaries, which are known to be turbid and highly dynamic. Two performance tests and some field results are presented to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed system. [less ▲]

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See detailLa sensibilisation du personnel dans le cadre de la mise en place d'un système de management environnemental : une porte d'entrée pour l'éducation relative à l'environnement dans l'entreprise ?
Domasik, Marie-Claire ULg; Semal, Nathalie ULg; Von Frenckell, Marianne ULg

in Education relative à l'environnement- Regards, recherches, réflexions (2001), 3

The increasing needs of enterprises in environmental training, in relation with the rise in environmental management systems in Belgium, generate new research needs in environmental education (EE) scope ... [more ▼]

The increasing needs of enterprises in environmental training, in relation with the rise in environmental management systems in Belgium, generate new research needs in environmental education (EE) scope. The authors experience shows that the entreprises’ expectations can meet EE objectives, and that environmental awareness programs for corporate employees can enable them to adapt their professionnal and private behaviour. This efficiency is based on interactive designing of training actions, responsability sharing and mutual learning. However, EE efficiency in enterprises depends on corporate culture and its capacity to evolve. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of allelochemicals from first (Brassicaceae) and second (Myzus persicae and Brevicoryne brassicae) trophic levels on Adalia bipunctata
Francis, Frédéric ULg; Lognay, Georges ULg; Wathelet, Jean-Paul ULg et al

in Journal of Chemical Ecology (2001), 27(2), 243-256

Three Brassicaceae species, Brassica napus (low glucosinolate content), Brassica nigra (including sinigrin), and Sinapis alba (including sinalbin) were used as host plants for two aphid species: the ... [more ▼]

Three Brassicaceae species, Brassica napus (low glucosinolate content), Brassica nigra (including sinigrin), and Sinapis alba (including sinalbin) were used as host plants for two aphid species: the generalist Myzus persicae and the specialist Brevicoryne brassicae. Each combination of aphid species and prey host plant was used to Feed the polyphagous ladybird beetle, Adalia bipunctata. Experiments with Brassicaceae species including different amounts and kinds of glucosinolates (GLS) showed increased ladybird larval mortality at higher GLS concentrations. When reared on plants with higher GLS concentrations, the specialist aphid, B. brassicae, was found to be more toxic than M. persicae. Identification of GLS and related degradation products, mainly isothiocyanates (ITC), was investigated in the first two trophic levels, plant and aphid species, by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. While only GLS were detected in M. persicae on each Brassicaceae species, high amounts of ITC were identified in B. brassicae samples (allyl-ITC and benzyl-ITC from B. nigra and S. alba, respectively) from all host plants. Biological effects of allelochemicals from plants on predators through aphid prey are discussed in relation to aphid species to emphasize the role of the crop plant in integrated pest management in terms of biological control efficacy. [less ▲]

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See detailWhen should triptans be taken during a migraine attack?
Schoenen, Jean ULg

in CNS Drugs (2001), 15(8), 583-7

The common strategy to treat a migraine attack as soon as it begins, made for classical acute antimigraine treatments such as ergotamine and analgesics, has not been transposed to the triptans. The ... [more ▼]

The common strategy to treat a migraine attack as soon as it begins, made for classical acute antimigraine treatments such as ergotamine and analgesics, has not been transposed to the triptans. The recommendation to delay triptan intake until headache intensity is at least moderate is merely a habit generated by the protocol used in triptan trials and a nonvalidated attempt to reduce costs. It is also favoured by the few studies suggesting that sumatriptan is less effective when given early in an attack, especially during the aura phase. Recent retrospective analyses of small numbers of 'protocol violators' in controlled trials of sumatriptan suggest that the drug is more efficient when taken while the headache is mild. Pain-free responses and therapeutic gains over aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid)-metoclopramide or ergotamine-caffeine combinations were increased under these conditions. The available circumstantial evidence is reviewed and discussed. Before any conclusion can be drawn and recommendation made, results are awaited from randomised controlled trials specifically addressing whether or not triptans are more efficient in mild headache. Meanwhile, there seems to be no medical reason to withhold treatment of a mild headache with a triptan as long as triptan intake does not exceed 1 or 2 doses per week. Most mild headaches in patients with migraine appear indeed to be mild migraine attacks, even when the headache characteristics are those of tension-type headache. [less ▲]

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See detailTransduction pathways involved in Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 phosphorylation and activation.
Minet, E.; Michel, G.; Mottet, Denis ULg et al

in Free Radical Biology & Medicine (2001), 31(7), 847-55

Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor which is activated by hypoxia and involved in the adaptative response of the cell to oxygen deprivation. During hypoxic stress, HIF-1 triggers ... [more ▼]

Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor which is activated by hypoxia and involved in the adaptative response of the cell to oxygen deprivation. During hypoxic stress, HIF-1 triggers the overexpression of genes coding for glycolytic enzymes and angiogenic factors. To be active HIF-1 must be phosphorylated. HIF-1 is a substrate for various kinase pathways including PI-3K and the MAP kinases ERK and p38. Several transduction pathways have been proposed which act downstream of putative oxygen sensors and lead to the activation of these kinases. In this review, we summarize some of the latest advances describing the possible signaling pathways leading to HIF-1 phosphorylation and subsequent activation. The physiological relevance of these regulations is also discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailOrdovician cryptospores from the Oostduinkerke borehole, Brabant Massif, Belgium
Steemans, Philippe ULg

in Geobios (2001), 34(1), 3-12

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See detailPharmacology of the Thromboxane Receptor Antagonist and Thromboxane Synthase Inhibitor Bm-531
Dogné, J. M.; Rolin, S.; de Leval, X. et al

in Cardiovascular Drug Reviews (2001), 19(2, Summer), 87-96

BM-531 (N-tert-butyl-N'-[(2-cyclohexylamino-5-nitrobenzene)sulfonyl]urea), a torasemide derivative, is a novel noncarboxylic thromboxane receptor antagonist and thromboxane synthase inhibitor. Indeed, its ... [more ▼]

BM-531 (N-tert-butyl-N'-[(2-cyclohexylamino-5-nitrobenzene)sulfonyl]urea), a torasemide derivative, is a novel noncarboxylic thromboxane receptor antagonist and thromboxane synthase inhibitor. Indeed, its affinity for human washed platelet TXA2 receptors labeled with [3H]SQ-29548 (IC50 = 0.0078 microM) is higher than sulotroban (IC50 = 0.93 microM) and SQ-29548 (IC50 = 0.021 microM). Moreover, BM-531 is characterized by a potent antiaggregatory property. Indeed, on one hand, in human citrated platelet-rich plasma BM-531 prevents platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid (600 microM) (ED100 = 0.125 microM), U-46619, a stable TXA2 agonist (1 microM) (ED50 = 0.482 microM) or collagen (1 microgram/mL) (percentage of inhibition: 42.9% at 10 microM) and inhibits the second wave of ADP (2 microM)-induced aggregation. On the other hand, when BM-531 is incubated in whole blood from healthy donors, the closure time measured by the recently developed platelet function analyser (PFA-100) is significantly prolonged. In addition, at the concentrations of 10 and 1 microM, BM-531 totally prevents the production of TXB2 by human platelets activated by arachidonic acid. Finally, at 10 microM, BM-531 significantly prevents rat fundus contractions induced by U-46619 but not by prostacyclin. These results suggest that BM-531, which is devoid of the diuretic property of torasemide, can be regarded as a promising antiplatelet agent. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of the 67-kD laminin receptor in prostate cancer biopsies as a predictor of recurrence after radical prostatectomy.
Waltregny, David ULg; De Leval, Laurence ULg; Coppens, Luc ULg et al

in European Urology (2001), 40(5), 495-503

OBJECTIVES: Reliable prognostic indicators are needed for a better pretherapeutic assessment of the agressiveness of organ-confined prostate cancer (PC) lesions. The 67-kD laminin receptor (67LR) is a ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: Reliable prognostic indicators are needed for a better pretherapeutic assessment of the agressiveness of organ-confined prostate cancer (PC) lesions. The 67-kD laminin receptor (67LR) is a cell-surface-associated protein involved in the acquisition of the invasive and metastatic phenotype of a variety of human cancer cell types. We have previously shown that 67LR detection in PC tissues from radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens is an independent predictor of biochemical (PSA) relapse in patients with clinically localized PC. In this study, we assessed 67LR detection in diagnostic PC biopsies as a predictor of biochemical relapse after RP. METHODS: Diagnostic biopsy and subsequent RP tissue specimens from 151 patients with clinically localized PC were immunohistochemically analyzed for 67LR expression. The level of 67LR expression was evaluated by both intensity and extent of the staining. Clinicopathological preoperative and postoperative parameters, including 67LR expression, were correlated with each other and tested as predictors of biochemical relapse. RESULTS: 67LR was detected in 67.5 and 68.2% of biopsies and RPs, respectively. 67LR detection in RP specimens was an independent predictor of relapse. The level of 67LR expression in the biopsy was significantly associated with the biopsy Gleason score (p<0.05) but failed to predict the pathological stage (p>0.1). Biochemical progression-free estimates for patients whose biopsy did or did not express the protein differed with only borderline statistical significance (p = 0.05). Multivariate analysis identified biopsy Gleason score as the only independent preoperative predictor of recurrence. Significant discrepancies in levels of 67LR expression were found between matched biopsy and RP specimens (p<0.05), with exact agreement rates <40%. CONCLUSIONS: 67LR detection in PC biopsies was not a significant preoperative predictor of outcome after RP. Heterogeneity of 67LR expression and biopsy sampling errors most likely represented the main reasons for discordant results between biopsy and RP specimens. [less ▲]

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See detailUmetnost Čarlsa Simića
Delville, Michel ULg

in ProFemina : Časopis za żensku knjiżevnost I kulturu (2001), 27

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See detailEmissions d'ammoniac, de protoxyde d'azote, de méthane, de gaz carbonique et de vapeur d'eau lors de l'élevage de porcs charcutiers sur litière accumulée de sciure: quantification et corrélations avec le niveau d'activités des animaux
Delcourt, M.; Vandenheede, Marc ULg; Desiron, A. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2001), 145(6), 357-364

During a 4-month fattening period, emissions of NH3, N2O, CH4, CO2 and H2O from a pig house with fattening pigs on deep litter was measured once a month during four days (one measurement every 30 min ... [more ▼]

During a 4-month fattening period, emissions of NH3, N2O, CH4, CO2 and H2O from a pig house with fattening pigs on deep litter was measured once a month during four days (one measurement every 30 min). The activity rate of the animals was also measured hourly as the mean proportion of standing animals observed each two minutes. The mean daily emissions of gas, calculated per pig, were 9,5 g NH3, 3,2 g N2O, 4,8 g CH4, 1,3 kg CO2 and 3,3 kg water vapour. Emissions increased during the fattening period, the values observed at the end being 50%, 50%, 680% and 1000% higher than those at the beginning, for CO2, H2O, CH4 and NH3 respectively. Emissions of N2O were however higher at the beginning than at the end of the fattening period. The activity rate of the pigs followed a circadian rhythm, pigs being observed in a standing position much more frequently during the day than during the night, especially in the morning, at the end of the afternoon and at the beginning of the evening. The activity rate decreased continuously during the fattening period, from 22,6 +/- 4,1% to 8,8 +/- 0,5%. Within each monthly observation period, the hourly emissions of NH3, CO2 and H2O were positively correlated with the pigs' activity rate, the mean correlation coefficients being 0,61 for NH3, 0,71 for CO2 and 0,75 for water vapour. The correlation coefficients were not significant for N2O and CH4 in periods 2 et 3 but significant in periods 1 and 4 with mean values of -0,55 for N2O and +0,26 for CH4. [less ▲]

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See detailDroits de la défense et informations relatives à la situation judiciaire du prévenu figurant indûment au dossier
Jacobs, Ann ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2001)

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See detailLa prescription extinctive en droit du travail
Kefer, Fabienne ULg; Clesse, Jacques ULg

in Journal des Tribunaux du Travail (2001)

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See detailIncidences morphodynamiques et biologiques de réaménagements de rivières : le cas de l’Ourthe occidentale à Moircy
Jonet; Petit, François ULg; Dupont, E. et al

in Bulletin de la Société Géographique de Liège (2001)

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See detailThe anatomical distribution of radiological abnormalities in Kashin-Beck disease in Tibet
Hinsenkamp, Maurice; Ryppens, F.; Mathieu, F. et al

in International Orthopaedics (2001), 25

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See detailSynthesis and characterisation of a quinolinonic compound activating ATP-sensitive K+ channels in endocrine and smooth muscle tissues
Becker, B.; Antoine, M.-H.; Nguyen, Q.-A. et al

in British Journal of Pharmacology (2001), 134

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See detailThe metropolis-hastings algorithm, a handy tool for the practice of environmental model estimation : illustration with the biochemical oxygen demand data
Torre, F.; Boreux, Jean-Jacques ULg; Parent, E.

in Cybergeo : Revue Européenne de Géographie = Cybergeo - European Journal of Geography (2001), 187

Environmental scientists often face situations where: (i) stimulus-response relationships are non-linear; (ii) data are rare or imprecise; (iii) facts are uncertain and stimulus-responses relationships ... [more ▼]

Environmental scientists often face situations where: (i) stimulus-response relationships are non-linear; (ii) data are rare or imprecise; (iii) facts are uncertain and stimulus-responses relationships are questionable.In this paper, we focus on the first two points. A powerful and easy-to-use statistical method, the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, allows the quantification of the uncertainty attached to any model response. This stochastic simulation technique is able to reproduce the statistical joint distribution of the whole parameter set of any model. The Metropolis-Hastings algorithm is described and illustrated on a typical environmental model: the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). The aim is to provide a helpful guideline for further, and ultimately more complex, models. As a first illustration, the MH-method is also applied to a simple regression example to demonstrate to the practitioner the ability of the algorithm to produce valid results. [less ▲]

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See detailPoly(e-caprolactone) layered silicate nanocomposites: effect of clay surface modifiers on the melt intercalation process
Pantoustier, Nadège; Alexandre, Michaël ULg; Degée, Philippe et al

in e-Polymers (2001), (9), 1-9

Nanocomposites based on biodegradable poly(e-caprolactone) (PCL) and layered silicates (montmorillonite) modified by various alkylammonium cations were prepared by melt intercalation. Depending on whether ... [more ▼]

Nanocomposites based on biodegradable poly(e-caprolactone) (PCL) and layered silicates (montmorillonite) modified by various alkylammonium cations were prepared by melt intercalation. Depending on whether the ammonium cations contain non-functional alkyl chains or chains terminated by carboxylic acid or hydroxyl functions, microcomposites or nanocomposites were recovered as shown by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Mechanical and thermal properties were examined by tensile testing and thermogravimetric analysis. The layered silicate PCL nanocomposites exhibited some improvement of the mechanical properties (higher Young's modulus) and increased thermal stability as well as enhanced flame retardant characteristics as result of a charring effect. This communication aims at reporting that the formation of PCL-based nanocomposites strictly depends on the nature of the ammonium cation and its functionality, but also on the selected synthetic route, i.e. melt intercalation vs. in situ intercalative polymerization. Typically, protonated w-aminododecanoic acid exchanged montmorillonite allowed to intercalate e-caprolactone monomer and yielded nanocomposites upon in situ polymerization, whereas they exclusively formed microcomposites when blended with preformed PCL chains. In other words, it is shown that the formation of polymer layered silicate nanocomposites is not straightforward and cannot be predicted since it strongly depends on parameters such as ammonium cation type and functionality together with the production procedure, i.e., melt intercalation, solvent evaporation or in situ polymerization [less ▲]

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See detailThe SH2 domain containing 5-phosphatase SHIP2 is expressed in the germinal layers of embryo and adult mouse brain : increased expression in N_CAM deficient mice.
Muraille, Eric; Dassesse, Donald; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie et al

in Neuroscience (2001), 105

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See detailRheology of compatibilized immiscible viscoelastic polymer blends
Iza, Mustapha; Bousmina, Mosto; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Rheologica Acta (2001), 40(1), 10-22

Rheological behavior of a PS/PE model viscoelastic immiscible blend compatibilized by two types of inter facial modifiers was investigated. Dynamic, steady shear, and transient experiments were performed ... [more ▼]

Rheological behavior of a PS/PE model viscoelastic immiscible blend compatibilized by two types of inter facial modifiers was investigated. Dynamic, steady shear, and transient experiments were performed to probe the effect of the interfacial modification on the rheological behavior of the blend. While the effect was relatively small in dynamic and steady shear experiments, significant signature of the presence of the copolymer was observed in transient experiments after start up of shear flow. The magnitude of the departure from Doi-Otha theory (worked out for non-compatibilized blends) was evaluated. [less ▲]

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See detailEnhanced tropospheric HCN columns above Kitt Peak during the 1982-1983 and 1997-1998 El Nino warm phases
Rinsland, Curtis P.; Goldman, Aaron; Zander, Rodolphe ULg et al

in Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer (2001), 69(1), 3-8

Free tropospheric HCN columns have been derived from infrared solar spectra recorded with the National Solar Observatory Fourier transform spectrometer on Kitt Peak, Arizona (31.9ºN latitude, 111.6ºW ... [more ▼]

Free tropospheric HCN columns have been derived from infrared solar spectra recorded with the National Solar Observatory Fourier transform spectrometer on Kitt Peak, Arizona (31.9ºN latitude, 111.6ºW longitude, 2.09 km altitude) between May 1978 and May 2000. The time series show up to a factor of 2.4 enhancement during the strong El Ninos of 1982-1983 and 1997-1998, the most intense since 1970. The observations provide confirmation that HCN is a sensitive tracer of biomass burning emissions transported to the free troposphere. No statistically significant long-term trend in the HCN-free tropospheric column has been detected over the 22-year measurement period. The results illustrate the importance of long-term spectroscopic measurements for quantifying climate and atmospheric chemistry-related atmospheric changes. [less ▲]

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See detailEditorial: Les Systèmes de production agricole et la protection des cultures à la croisée des chemins
Lepoivre, Philippe ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2001), 5(4), 195-199

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See detailTibère, les cultes étrangers et les astrologues (Suétone, Vie de Tibère, 36)
Rochette, Bruno ULg

in Etudes Classiques (Namur, Belgium) (2001), 69

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See detailAnthesis effects on Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile phenology in the Bay of Calvi (Corsica, Mediterranean Sea)
Gobert, Sylvie ULg; Defawe, Olivier; Lepoint, Gilles ULg et al

in Hydrobiologia (2001), 455

In Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile, anthesis induces a decrease in the number of juvenile leaves resulting in a significant reduction in the number of leaves on the flowering shoots. All the leaves of the ... [more ▼]

In Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile, anthesis induces a decrease in the number of juvenile leaves resulting in a significant reduction in the number of leaves on the flowering shoots. All the leaves of the flowering shoots are narrower than the leaves of nonflowering shoots. A modification of the leaf growth also appears in flowering shoots: the oldest leaves are longer and the leaves induced during or after anthesis are shorter. At 10 m depth, in the Bay of Calvi, anthesis lasts roughly 3 months and the flowering is induced 7 months before anthesis. [less ▲]

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See detailRevising the judicial architecture of the European Union
Munoz, Rodolphe ULg

in Yearbook of European law (2001), 19

L'article reprend l'ensemble des propositions faites à l'époque par la doctrine concernant les modifications à apporter à l'architecture juridique de l'Union. Chacun des articles du contentieux est ... [more ▼]

L'article reprend l'ensemble des propositions faites à l'époque par la doctrine concernant les modifications à apporter à l'architecture juridique de l'Union. Chacun des articles du contentieux est analysée et des propositions concrètes de mofdifications sont faites. [less ▲]

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See detailNews on antifungal drugs registered in Belgium for the treatment of dermatophytosis in domestic carnivores.
Hamoir, J.; Goret, M.; Mignon, Bernard ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2001), 145

This note gives a progress report on the various molecules registered in Belgium which can be used for the treatment of dermatophytosis in domestic carnivores. Its purpose is not to develop the ... [more ▼]

This note gives a progress report on the various molecules registered in Belgium which can be used for the treatment of dermatophytosis in domestic carnivores. Its purpose is not to develop the therapeutic protocols used in this type of diseases but rather to describe these compounds according to their pharmacological and toxicological characteristics as well as to define their status in the current legal framework. [less ▲]

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See detailCardiac surgery in octogenarians: who, when and how?
Pierard, Luc ULg

in European heart journal (2001), 22(14), 1159-61

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See detailPumping picosecond optical parametric oscillators by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser mode locked using a nonlinear mirror
Mani, A. A.; Dreesen, Laurent ULg; Hollander, Ph. et al

in Applied Physics Letters (2001), 79(13), 1945-1947

We report on the performances of the mode locking of a flash-lamp-pumped Nd:YAG laser using a frequency-doubling nonlinear mirror combined with a two-photon absorber. Pulse lengths from 12 to 8 ps are ... [more ▼]

We report on the performances of the mode locking of a flash-lamp-pumped Nd:YAG laser using a frequency-doubling nonlinear mirror combined with a two-photon absorber. Pulse lengths from 12 to 8 ps are generated. We show that the flat shape of the pulse-train envelope generated by the oscillator is adapted for the synchronous pumping of optical parametric oscillators and we demonstrate the efficient generation of an infrared beam tunable from 3800 to 1100 cm-1 with bandwidth of 2 cm-1 in one single conversion stage in LiNbO3 or AgGaS2. The "all-solid-state" laser system enables surface sum-frequency generation spectroscopy to be performed with high sensitivity and high resolution. [less ▲]

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See detailExpression of Cu/Zn and Mn superoxide dismutases during bovine embryo development: influence of in vitro culture.
Lequarré, Anne-Sophie ULg; Feugang, Jean-Magloire; Malhomme, Olivier et al

in Molecular Reproduction and Development (2001), 58(1), 45-53

Temporal pattern of expression of Cu/Zn and Mn superoxide dismutases (SODs) was investigated in bovine oocytes and embryos produced in vitro in two different culture conditions and in vivo after ... [more ▼]

Temporal pattern of expression of Cu/Zn and Mn superoxide dismutases (SODs) was investigated in bovine oocytes and embryos produced in vitro in two different culture conditions and in vivo after superovulation. SODs were examined at a transcriptional level in single oocytes and embryos by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and, at a protein level, by Western blotting on pools of embryos. mRNA encoding Cu/Zn SOD were detected in in vitro bovine embryos throughout preattachment development as well as in in vivo derived morulae and blastocysts. Transcripts for Mn SOD gene were detected in most immature and in vitro matured oocytes as well as in some zygotes and 5- to 8-cell embryos while no transcript was found at the 9-to 16-cell stage in both culture conditions. In vitro embryonic expression of Mn SOD was detected earlier in the presence of serum. Half of the morulae showed the transcript if cultured with 5% serum while none without serum. At the blastocyst stage Mn SOD could be detected independently of culture conditions. For in vivo-derived embryos Mn SOD transcripts were detected both in morulae and blastocysts. Immunoblotting analyses revealed that Cu/Zn SOD and Mn SOD were also present at a protein level in in vitro-derived zygotes and blastocysts. Together these data demonstrate, for the first time, that Mn SOD is transcribed and that Cu/Zn and Mn SOD proteins are expressed in preimplantation bovine embryos. Finally, they suggest that Mn SOD transcription is altered by in vitro culture conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative study of twenty nine non parametric interaction tests in two-way layouts
Van Belle, Laurent; Claustriaux, Jean-Jacques ULg

in Multiciência (2001), 4(2), 179-196

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See detailPreparation of poly(D,L-lactide) nanoparticles assisted by amphiphilic poly(methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) copolymers
Gautier, Sandrine; Grudzielski, Nathalie; Goffinet, Gerhard ULg et al

in Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition (2001), 12(4), 429-450

When co-precipitated with amphiphilic copolymers from DMSO, poly(D,L-lactide) (PLA) can be readily converted into stable sub-200 nm nanoparticles by addition of an aqueous phase, free of any polymeric ... [more ▼]

When co-precipitated with amphiphilic copolymers from DMSO, poly(D,L-lactide) (PLA) can be readily converted into stable sub-200 nm nanoparticles by addition of an aqueous phase, free of any polymeric stabilizers such as poly(vinyl alcohol) or Poloxamer. In this work, the ability of random poly(methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) copolymers (PMMA-co-MA) to stabilize PLA nanoparticles was demonstrated, and the properties of PLA/PMMA-co-MA nanoparticles were investigated. When co-precipitated with PMMA-co-MA, PLA was totally converted into nanoparticles using a polymer concentration in DMSO (Cp) below 17.6 mg ml(-1), and a PMMA-co-MA proportion above a critical value depending on the content of MA repeating units (X). For instance, the lowest PMMA-co-MA proportion required was 0.9 mg mg(-1) PLA for X = 12%, and 0.5 mg mg(-1) PLA for X = 25% (for C(PLA) = 16 mg ml(-1) DMSO). The nanoparticle diameter was essentially independent of X, the proportion of PMMA-co-MA, and the PLA molecular weight, except for oligomers for which the nanoparticle diameter was smaller. It decreased when the organic phase was diluted (126 +/- 13 nm for Cp = 17.6 mg ml(-1), and 81 +/- 5 nm for C(P) = 5.6 mg ml(-1)). The time-dependence of the stability and the degradation of PLA/PMMA-co-MA nanoparticles was discussed. One of the main advantages of this technique is the ability to control surface properties and to bring functional groups to otherwise non-functionalized PLA nanoparticles. To illustrate this, a conjugate of PMMA-co-MA25 and biotin was synthesized, and used to prepare biotinylated nanoparticles that could be detected by fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy after infiltration into ligatured rat small intestine. [less ▲]

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See detailDidactique de l'énonciation, l'énonciation en didactique
Defays, Jean-Marc ULg

in Texte : Revue de Critique et de Théorie Littéraire (2001), (27-28), 209-218

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See detailUn oracle médical de Sarpédon à Séleucie du Calycadnos
Nissen, Cécile ULg

in Kernos : Revue Internationale et Pluridisciplinaire de Religion Grecque (2001), 14

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See detailLe polygraphe et les exigences de la preuve en matière pénale
Jacobs, Ann ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2001)

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See detailLes empreintes globales en prothèse fixée
Lamy, Marc ULg; Mainjot, Amélie ULg

in Revue Belge de Médecine Dentaire = Belgisch Tijdschrift voor Tandheelkunde (2001), 56(3), 168-80

The global impression technique allows to obtain in a single stage the impression of the abutment as well as their neighboring teeth. This technique often requires the placement of one or two retraction ... [more ▼]

The global impression technique allows to obtain in a single stage the impression of the abutment as well as their neighboring teeth. This technique often requires the placement of one or two retraction cords in the sulcus. The impression technique herein described is the double mix method. This method is based on the use of two elastomers with different viscosities, but from the same group thus allowing a simultaneous polymerization. [less ▲]

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See detailPharma-clinics. Le medicament du mois. Le celecoxib (Celebrex).
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(1), 53-5

Celecoxib (Celebrex, Pharmacia) is a potent and selective inhibitor of the COX-2 isoform of cyclooxygenase which is used as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Its current indications are ... [more ▼]

Celecoxib (Celebrex, Pharmacia) is a potent and selective inhibitor of the COX-2 isoform of cyclooxygenase which is used as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Its current indications are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. The usual recommended daily dosage of celecoxib is 200 mg (in one or two intakes per day), to be increased up to 400 mg (two intakes per day) if necessary. Its clinical efficacy seems to be similar to that of other NSAIDs. However, its safety profile, especially gastro-intestinal tolerance and perhaps renal safety, is much better because of the COX-2 selectivity. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of inulin with urea as dilutional markers of bronchoalveolar lavage in healthy and heaves-affected horses.
Kirschvink, Nathalie; Fievez, Laurence ULg; Dogne, S. et al

in Veterinary Research (2001), 32(2), 145-154

Solute analysis in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid involves the use of dilutional markers to correct for variable recovery of pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF). Urea is the best characterised ... [more ▼]

Solute analysis in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid involves the use of dilutional markers to correct for variable recovery of pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF). Urea is the best characterised endogenous marker, whereas inulin appears to meet the requirements of an exogenous marker. In horses, the use of inulin has never been investigated and the impact of lower airway diseases such as heaves, on PELF recovery is unknown. In this study, five healthy and five heaves-affected horses underwent airway endoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage. PELF recovery from bronchoalveolar lavage was calculated by the inulin and the urea method. The inulin method was compared to the urea method and differences between healthy and heaves-affected horses were analysed. From a technical and analytical point of view, inulin fulfilled the requirements of a marker of dilution as well as urea. When both healthy and heaves-affected horses groups were pooled together, PELF recovery calculated by the inulin method was significantly higher than by the urea method (6.43+/-4.08% versus 0.789+/-0.299%, P < 0.005). No significant differences were observed between healthy and heaves-affected horses, neither by the inulin nor by the urea method. Inulin did not present major advantages over urea, but the combined use of both markers can improve the standardisation of studies comparing PELF compounds, by providing upper limits (inulin dilution) and lower limits (urea dilution) of PELF recovery. [less ▲]

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See detailUtilisation des gènes à effet majeur en sélection laitière. Un exemple: le gène Pit-1
Renaville, Robert ULg; Parmentier, Isabelle; Fontaine, Sandrine et al

in Les Elevages belges (2001), 4

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See detailModèle de productivité et tarif de cubage des peuplements de teck (tectona grandis L. F.) au Sud-Bénin
Fonton, N. H.; Palm, Rodolphe ULg; Akossou, A. Y. J. et al

in Annales des Sciences Agronomiques du Bénin (2001), 2(2), 209-224

This study aims to build site index model and stem volume function of pure, even aged and relatively homogeneous teak stands in south Benin. The characteristics of the stands were obtained from the ... [more ▼]

This study aims to build site index model and stem volume function of pure, even aged and relatively homogeneous teak stands in south Benin. The characteristics of the stands were obtained from the inventory of 104 temporary plots sampled from stands with different ages and fertility. The stem analysis of 19 dominant trees wer used to establish, by serial regression, a model giving the evolution of top height according to the age. The site index curves were built in order to determine site index of the stands. The estimated volume function obtained shows that age, site index and basal area are the main stand parameters of stem volume funtion. [less ▲]

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See detailComment j'explore ... la musculature paravertebrale lombaire dans les radiculopathies par electromyographie.
Tomasella, Marco ULg; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg; WANG, François-Charles ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(10), 716-22

Lumbar paraspinal muscles examination is an interesting part of the electrodiagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected lumbosacral radiculopathy. However, many electromyographers hesitate to ... [more ▼]

Lumbar paraspinal muscles examination is an interesting part of the electrodiagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected lumbosacral radiculopathy. However, many electromyographers hesitate to routinely include that technique in their study of lower limbs. The purpose of this paper is to specify the anatomy and electrophysiologic data of multifidus lumbar paraspinal muscle. Previous anatomic studies indicate that the medial lumbar multifidus and lumbar interspinalis muscles share unisegmental innervation by the dorsal ram of the spinal nerve. Electromyography of these muscles can improve the sensitivity of lumbosacral radiculopathy detection. Multi-MUP analysis of quantitative electromyographic parameters in lumbar paraspinal muscles, in a population of 75 healthy subjects without back pain, allowed to set up normal values for the L5 myotome. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of the water/poly(ethylene glycol) interface by IR-visible sum-frequency generation spectroscopy
Dreesen, Laurent ULg; Humbert, C.; Hollander, P. et al

in Chemical Physics Letters (2001), 333

We used infrared-visible sum-frequency generation spectroscopy to investigate the vibrational properties of the water/poly(ethylene glycol) interface in the 2800-3800 cm-1 spectral range. The vibrational ... [more ▼]

We used infrared-visible sum-frequency generation spectroscopy to investigate the vibrational properties of the water/poly(ethylene glycol) interface in the 2800-3800 cm-1 spectral range. The vibrational fingerprint of the interface differs significantly from the one associated with the aire/poly(ethylene glycol) interface. It is shown that the poly(ethylene glycol) molecular arrangement, originally relatively well-ordered, becomes disorganised in the presence of water. Moreover, a new OH band is identified demonstrating the strong interaction of water with the polymer. [less ▲]

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