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See detailUreteral endometriosis: a complication of rectovaginal endometriotic (adenomyotic) nodules
Donnez, Jacques; NISOLLE, Michelle ULg; Squifflet, Jean

in Fertility and Sterility (2002), 77(1), 32-37

Objective: To present data from 18 cases of ureteral endometriosis. Design: Prospective clinical study. Setting: Department of gynecology at a university hospital. Patient(s): Four hundred and five ... [more ▼]

Objective: To present data from 18 cases of ureteral endometriosis. Design: Prospective clinical study. Setting: Department of gynecology at a university hospital. Patient(s): Four hundred and five patients with severe dysmenorrhea or deep dyspareunia due to a rectovaginal endometriotic (adenomyotic) nodule. Intervention(s): Patients were prospectively evaluated using intravenous pyelography. All patients underwent laparoscopic surgery to remove rectovaginal adenomyosis and ureterolysis. Main Outcome Measure(s): Presurgical and postsurgical evaluation and histologic analysis. Result(s): Preoperative intravenous pyelography revealed ureteral stenosis with ureterohydronephrosis in 18 patients (4.4%). A significantly higher prevalence (11.2%) was observed in nodules ≥ 3 cm in diameter. Five women (20%) had complete ureteral stenosis. Kidney scintigraphy revealed damaged kidney parenchymal function, which ranged from 18% to 42%. Laparoscopic ureterolysis was done in 16 women; 2 women underwent ureteral resection and uretero-ureterostomy. A significant postoperative decrease in ureterohydronephrosis was noted in all patients; however, renal function improved only slightly. Conclusion(s): Ureteral endometriosis was found in 4.4% of patients with rectovaginal endometriotic (adenomyotic) nodules. Ureterolysis and removal of associated adenomyotic lesions was sufficient therapy in most patients; two required resection of the ureteral stenotic segment. Intravenous pyelography should be performed in all women with rectovaginal nodules ≥ 3 cm to prevent nonreversible loss of renal function. [less ▲]

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See detailStatut et tendances des effectifs d’éléphants dans les aires protégées de l’Est du Burkina Faso
Bouché, Philippe ULg; Lungren, Clark; Ouédraogo, Léonard

in Pachyderm (2002), 32

Le Burkina Faso abrite l’effectif d’éléphants de savane le plus important de toute l’Afrique de l’Ouest, là où cette espèce jouit d’une protection intégrale. Un recensement aérien par échantillon a été ... [more ▼]

Le Burkina Faso abrite l’effectif d’éléphants de savane le plus important de toute l’Afrique de l’Ouest, là où cette espèce jouit d’une protection intégrale. Un recensement aérien par échantillon a été mené dans le sud-est du Burkina Faso en avril et mai 2000. L’effectif total moyen atteignait 1.743 ± 648 éléphants, ce qui constitue la plus grande population d’éléphants de savane en Afrique de l’Ouest. La moyenne des groupes observés était de: 5,42 (Erreur standard = 11,68 animaux) (1 à 32 individus / groupe). La distribution des éléphants enregistrée confirme largement la distribution enregistrée les années précédentes. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreased fecundity of malathion-specific resistant beetles in absence of insecticide pressure
Arnaud, Ludovic; Brostaux, Yves ULg; Assie, Lazare Komenan et al

in Heredity (2002), 89(6), 425-429

Despite that resistance frequency is assumed to decline when selective pressure is relaxed, the stability of resistance frequency has been observed in some insects in the absence of insecticide. In the ... [more ▼]

Despite that resistance frequency is assumed to decline when selective pressure is relaxed, the stability of resistance frequency has been observed in some insects in the absence of insecticide. In the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, the first case of malathion-resistance was reported in the early 1960s. The malathion-specific resistant phenotype has now almost completely replaced the susceptible one in red flour beetle populations. In the present study, several life-history traits that could influence the fitness of the insects were compared between insecticide-susceptible and malathion-specific resistant populations of the red flour beetle. On average, egg fertility and egg-to-adult development time did not differ between susceptible and resistant populations. However, the fecundity of resistant females was greater than that of susceptible ones. Generally, differences in development time between insecticide resistant and susceptible populations are considered as having more effect on fitness than do differences in fecundity. However, the observed increased female fecundity may participate, in combination with the previously observed increased male reproductive success, to the development and the stability of malathion-specific resistance in T. castaneum. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of organochlorine pesticide residues in the blood of healthy individuals
Charlier, Corinne ULg; Plomteux, Guy ULg

in Clinical Chemistry & Laboratory Medicine (2002), 40(4), 361-364

Pesticide use is one of several factors that have permitted maintenance of our supply of food in spite of continuing increase of the population. However, the use of biologically active compounds poses ... [more ▼]

Pesticide use is one of several factors that have permitted maintenance of our supply of food in spite of continuing increase of the population. However, the use of biologically active compounds poses potential problems of toxicity. If the compound is used at any stage of food production, residues or derivatives may persist in food and the entire population may be exposed to the trace amounts of the material. The human body burden associated with long-term exposure may or may not be associated with illness. Persistent environmental contaminants such as pesticide residues have long been suspected to be implicated in cancer etiology. Organochlorine chemicals are persistent, lipophilic compounds commonly present in the environment. Some of them demonstrated carcinogenic activity in laboratory animals. Controversy still exists concerning their carcinogenic potential in humans. To answer this question, clinical toxicology laboratories should propose validated methodologies able to identify and quantify pesticide residues in biological samples. An example of chromatographic method dedicated to organochlorine residues is presented here and illustrated by results obtained in a healthy population (104 men, 147 women). Only 17.9% of the samples were free from detectable amounts of pesticides and p,p’-DDE 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene was the most frequently detected residue (66.5%). Hexachlorobenzene was found at detectable level in 13.5% of the samples. [less ▲]

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See detailPositron emission tomography (PET) evaluation of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA)
SakalihasanN, Natzi ULg; Van Damme, Hendrik ULg; Gomez, P. et al

in European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (2002), 23(5), 431-436

Background: aneurysmal disease is associated with all inflammatory Cell infiltrate and enzymatic degradation of the vessel wall. Aim of the study: to detect increased metabolic activity in abdominal ... [more ▼]

Background: aneurysmal disease is associated with all inflammatory Cell infiltrate and enzymatic degradation of the vessel wall. Aim of the study: to detect increased metabolic activity in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) by means of positron emission tomography (PET-imaging). Study design: twenty-six patients with AAA underwent PET-imaging Results: in tell patients, PET-imaging revealed increased, fluoro-deoxy-glucose (18-FDG) uptake at the level of the aneurysm. Patients with positive PET-imaging had one or more of the following elements in their clinical history: history Of recent non-aortic surgery (n = 4) a painful inflammatory aortic aneurysm (n = 2). moderate low back pain (n = 2), rapid (>5 mm in 6 months) expansion (n = 4), discovery by PET-scan of a previously undiagnosed lung cancer (n = 3) or parotid tumour (n = 1). Five patients with a positive PET scan required urgent surgery within two to 30 days. Among the 16 patients with negative PET-imaging of their aneurysm, only one had recent non-aortic surgery, none of them required urgent surgery, only two had a rapidly expanding AAA, and in only one patient, PET-imaging revealed an unknown lung cancer. Conclusion: these data suggest a possible association between increased 18-FDG uptake and AAA expansion and rupture. [less ▲]

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See detailSteroid perfusion of the inner ear for sudden sensorineural hearing loss after failure of conventional therapy: a pilot study.
Lefèbvre, Philippe ULg; Staecker, Hinrich

in Acta Oto-Laryngologica (2002), 122(7), 698-702

The aim of this study was to determine if high-dose delivery of methylprednisolone to the round window can improve hearing after the failure of conventional treatment for sudden sensorineural hearing loss ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to determine if high-dose delivery of methylprednisolone to the round window can improve hearing after the failure of conventional treatment for sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL). In 6 patients with SSHL an Intraear microcatheter was placed in the round window niche and methylprednisolone (62.5 mg/ml) was infused at a rate of 10 microl/h for 8-10 days. Audiometric assessments (including measurement of speech discrimination) were made at presentation, either every day or every other day during treatment and 5 days after the completion of perfusion. Perfusion of methylprednisolone was beneficial for all 6 patients, with a 16.25-25 dB improvement in hearing threshold. A dramatic improvement in speech discrimination was also noted in all patients. In conclusion, methylprednisolone perfused at the level of the round window membrane resulted in significant recovery of hearing function after the failure of standard treatment of SSHL. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of nutritional antioxidant supplementation on systemic and pulmonary antioxidant status, airway inflammation and lung function in heaves-affected horses
Kirschvink, Nathalie; Fievez, Laurence ULg; Bougnet, V. et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal (2002), 34

An oxidant/antioxidant imbalance in favour of oxidants has been identified as playing a decisive role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Nutritional antioxidant supplementation ... [more ▼]

An oxidant/antioxidant imbalance in favour of oxidants has been identified as playing a decisive role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Nutritional antioxidant supplementation might reduce oxidative damage by enhancement of the antioxidant defence, thereby modulating inflammatory processes. In a placebo-controlled, blind study, it was tested whether a dietary antioxidant supplement administered for 4 weeks would improve lung function and reduce airway inflammation in heaves-affected horses. Eight horses in clinical remission of heaves were investigated at rest and after a standardised exercise test before and after treatment with an antioxidant supplement (consisting of a mixture of natural antioxidants including vitamins E and C and selenium from a variety of sources) or placebo (oatfeed pellets without additive). Pulmonary function and exercise tolerance were monitored; systemic and pulmonary lining fluid uric acid, glutathione and 8-epi-PGF(2alpha) were analysed, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytology and inflammatory scoring of the airways were performed. The antioxidant treatment significantly improved exercise tolerance and significantly reduced endoscopic inflammatory score. Plasma uric acid concentrations were significantly reduced, suggesting downregulation of the xanthine-dehydrogenase and xanthine-oxydase pathway. Haemolysate glutathione showed a nonsignificant trend to increase, while plasma 8-epi-PGF(2alpha) remained unchanged. Pulmonary markers and BAL cytology were not significantly affected by antioxidant supplementation. The present study suggests that the antioxidant supplement tested modulated oxidant/antioxidant balance and airway inflammation of heaves-affected horses [less ▲]

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See detailA randomized comparison of the value of additional stenting after optimal balloon angioplasty for long coronary lesions: final results of the additional value of NIR stents for treatment of long coronary lesions (ADVANCE) study.
Serruys, Patrick W.; Foley, David P.; Suttorp, Martin Jan et al

in Journal of the American College of Cardiology (2002), 39(3), 393-9

OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate the clinical benefit of additional stent implantation after achieving an optimal result of balloon angioplasty (BA) in long coronary lesions (>20 mm). BACKGROUND: Long ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate the clinical benefit of additional stent implantation after achieving an optimal result of balloon angioplasty (BA) in long coronary lesions (>20 mm). BACKGROUND: Long coronary lesions are associated with increased early complications and late restenosis after BA. Stenting improves the early outcome, but stent restenosis is also related to both lesion length and stent length. METHODS: A total of 437 patients with a single native lesion 20 to 50 mm in length were included and underwent BA, using long balloons matched to lesion length and vessel diameter (balloon/artery ratio 1.1) to achieve a diameter stenosis (DS) <30% by on-line quantitative coronary angiography (QCA). "Bail-out stenting" was performed for flow-limiting dissections or >50% DS. Patients in whom an optimal BA result was achieved were randomized to additional stenting (using NIR stents) or no stenting. The primary end point was freedom from major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at nine months, and core laboratory QCA was performed on serial angiograms. RESULTS: Bailout stenting was necessary in 149 patients (34%) and was associated with a significantly increased risk of peri-procedural infarction (p < 0.02). Among the 288 randomized patients, the mean lesion length was 27+/-9 mm, and the vessel diameter was 2.78+/-0.52 mm. The procedural success rate was 90% for the 143 patients assigned to BA alone (control group), as compared with 93% in the 145 patients assigned to additional stenting (stent group), which resulted in a superior early minimal lumen diameter (0.54 mm, p < 0.001) and led to reduced angiographic restenosis (27% vs. 42%, p = 0.022). Freedom from MACE at nine months was 77% in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: A strategy of provisional stenting for long coronary lesions led to bailout stenting in one-third of patients, with a threefold increase in peri-procedural infarction. Additional stenting yielded a lower angiographic restenosis rate, but no reduction in MACE at nine months. [less ▲]

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See detailEchouage de mammifères marins : guide d'intervention et procédures d'autopsie
Jauniaux, Thierry ULg; Garcia-Hartmann, M.; Haelters, J. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2002), 146(5, OCT-NOV), 261-276

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See detailMechanisms controlling the oxygen consumption in experimentally induced hypochloremic alkalosis in calves
Cambier, Carole ULg; Clerbaux, Thierry; Amory, Hélène ULg et al

in Veterinary Research (2002), 33

The study was carried out on healthy Friesian calves (n = 10) aged between 10 and 30 days. Hypochloremia and alkalosis were induced by intravenous administration of furosemide and isotonic sodium ... [more ▼]

The study was carried out on healthy Friesian calves (n = 10) aged between 10 and 30 days. Hypochloremia and alkalosis were induced by intravenous administration of furosemide and isotonic sodium bicarbonate. The venous and arterial blood samples were collected repeatedly. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), hemoglobin and plasmatic chloride concentrations were determined. The red blood cell chloride concentration was also calculated. pH, PCO2 and PO2 were measured in arterial and mixed venous blood. The oxygen equilibrium curve (OEC) was measured in standard conditions. The correspondence of the OEC to the arterial and mixed venous compartments was calculated, taking blood temperature, pH and PCO2 values into account. The oxygen exchange fraction (OEF%), corresponding to the degree of blood desaturation between the arterial and mixed venous compartments and the amount of oxygen released at the tissue level by 100 mL of blood (OEF Vol%) were calculated from the arterial and mixed venous OEC, combined with PO2 and hemoglobin concentration. Oxygen delivery (DO2) was calculated using the arterial oxygen content, the cardiac output measured by thermodilution, and the body weight of the animal. The oxygen consumption (VO2) was derived from the cardiac output, OEF Vol% and body weight values. Despite the plasma hypochloremia, the erythrocyte chloride concentration was not influenced by furosemide and sodium bicarbonate infusion. Due to the alkalosis-induced increase in the 2,3-DPG, the standard OEC was shifted to the right, allowing oxygen to dissociate from hemoglobin more rapidly. These changes opposed the increased affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen induced by alkalosis. Moreover, respiratory acidosis, hemoconcentration, and the slight decrease in the partial oxygen pressure in mixed venous blood (Pvo(2)) tended to improve the OEF Vol% and maintain the oxygen consumption in a physiological range while the cardiac output, and the oxygen delivery were significantly decreased. It may be concluded that, despite reduced oxygen delivery, oxygen consumption is maintained during experimentally induced hypochloremic alkalosis in healthy 10-30 day old calves [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction to the objective arbitrability of corporate disputes in Belgium
Caprasse, Olivier ULg

in I.B.A. of A. Bulletin (2002)

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See detailFracture prevention in postmenopausal women.
Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Edwards, John; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in Clinical Evidence (2002), 8

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See detailPéritexte auctorial ou éditorial ? Réflexions théoriques et suggestions pratiques
Vanhaegendoren, Koen ULg

in Annales de l’Université de Craiova, Série de littérature roumaine et comparée (2002), 24(1-2), 184-192

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See detailNitrosomonas europaea-like bacteria detected as the dominant beta-subclass Proteobacteria ammonia oxidisers in reference and limed acid forest soils
Carnol, Monique ULg; Kowalchuk, G. A.; De Boer, W.

in Soil Biology & Biochemistry (2002), 34

Net nitrification in intact soil cores and the community of ammonia-oxidising bacteria were studied in acid Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) and sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt. Lieb.)) soils ... [more ▼]

Net nitrification in intact soil cores and the community of ammonia-oxidising bacteria were studied in acid Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) and sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt. Lieb.)) soils (Haute Ardenne, east Belgium) 18 months after treatment with 5 t ha(-1) dolomite lime. Liming caused a significant increase in nitrification in the upper soil layers (0.15 m) of both stands. DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) profiling after P-subclass ammonia oxidiser-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR), combined with hybridisation and sequencing of excised DGGE bands revealed a dominance of Nitrosomonas europaea-like sequences, independent of soil horizon, tree species and lime treatment. A minority Nitrosospira-like population was detected, which showed affinity to nitrosospiras previously detected in acid soil. These results contrast with several reports suggesting a dominance of Nitrosospira-like organisms among ammonia oxidiser communities in acid soils. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailProblèmes, situations-problèmes en mathématique : un regard pluraliste.
Schneider, Marguerite ULg

in Mathématique et Pédagogie (2002), 137

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See detailRole of methalothionein in irradiated human rectal carcinoma.
Bouzourene, H; Chabert, P; Gebhardt, S et al

in Cancer (2002), 95(5), 1003-1008

BACKGROUND. Metallothioneins (MT) are low-molecular weight, metal-binding proteins that play a role in cellular proliferation and differentiation, as well as in cellular defense mechanisms. They act as ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND. Metallothioneins (MT) are low-molecular weight, metal-binding proteins that play a role in cellular proliferation and differentiation, as well as in cellular defense mechanisms. They act as scavengers of free radicals produced by irradiation. A number of in vitro and in vivo studies have linked overexpression of cellular MT with tumor cell resistance to radiation. This is the first study that investigates whether MT expression is involved in the radioresistance of rectal carcinoma. METHODS. Using a mouse monoclonal antibody, MT expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry on surgical samples (n 85) from 85 patients with locally advanced rectal carcinoma who were treated preoperatively with a hyperfractionated and accelerated radiotherapy schedule and on tumor biopsies (n 13) obtained before treatment. The potential correlations between MT expression and pathologic variables and survival were examined. RESULTS. MT were expressed strongly in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of tumor cells in 7 biopsy and 42 surgical samples. A comparison of MT expression in biopsy and surgical specimens showed that MT expression did not change after irradiation in most cases. Against all expectations, MT were expressed more frequently in tumors from responders than in those from the nonresponders (P 0.02). There was no correlation between MT expression and tumor stage, histology after radiotherapy, or survival. CONCLUSION. These findings do not support the hypothesis that MT overexpression at the end of radiotherapy is a marker for radiation resistance. Cancer 2002;95: 1003–8. © 2002 American Cancer Society. DOI 10.1002/cncr.10780 [less ▲]

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See detailPrediction of carcass lean content by real-time ultrasound in Piétrain and negative stress Piétrain
Youssao, A. K. L.; Verleyen, Vincent ULg; Leroy, Pascal ULg

in Animal Science (2002), 75

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See detailMechanisms of cell death in the injured auditory system: Otoprotective strategies
Lefèbvre, Philippe ULg; Malgrange, Brigitte ULg; Lallemend, François et al

in Audiology & Neuro-otology (2002), 7(3, May-Jun), 165-170

Oxidative stress insults such as neurotrophin withdrawal, sound trauma, hypoxia/ischemia, ototoxic antibiotics, and chemotherapeutic agents have been shown to induce apoptosis of both auditory hair cells ... [more ▼]

Oxidative stress insults such as neurotrophin withdrawal, sound trauma, hypoxia/ischemia, ototoxic antibiotics, and chemotherapeutic agents have been shown to induce apoptosis of both auditory hair cells and neurons. In this paper, we review some components of the apoptotic pathways leading to the death of hair cells and auditory induced by growth factor withdrawal or cisplatin intoxication: (1) reactive oxygen species and free radicals are formed as by-products of several metabolic pathways and these molecules can themselves cause cell damage by reacting with cellular proteins; (2) activation of caspases, and (3) activation of calpain. These mechanisms have several different points at which inhibitors could be targeted to protect cells from programmed cell death, including the prevention of oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and the activation of caspases and calpains. Copyright (C) 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel. [less ▲]

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See detailExpression of the zinc finger Egr1 gene during zebrafish embryonic development
Close, Renaud; Toro, Sabrina; Martial, Joseph ULg et al

in Mechanisms of Development (2002), 118(1-2), 269-72

Egr1 is a highly conserved zinc finger protein which plays important roles in many aspects of vertebrate development and in the adult. The cDNA coding for zebrafish Egr1 was obtained and its expression ... [more ▼]

Egr1 is a highly conserved zinc finger protein which plays important roles in many aspects of vertebrate development and in the adult. The cDNA coding for zebrafish Egr1 was obtained and its expression pattern was examined during zebrafish embryogenesis using whole-mount in situ hybridization. Egr1 mRNA is first detected in adaxial cells in the presomitic mesoderm between 11 and 20 h post-fertilization (hpf), spanning the 4-24 somite stages. Later, Egr1 expression is observed only in specific brain areas, starting at 21 hpf and subsequently increasing in distinct domains of the central nervous system, e.g. in the telencephalon, diencephalon and hypothalamus. Between 24 and 48 hpf, Egr1 is expressed in specific domains of the hypothalamus, mesencephalon, tegmentum, pharynx, retina, otic vesicle and heart. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence for a persistent and extensive greening trend in Eurasia inferred from satellite vegetation index data.
Bogaert, Jan ULg; Zhou, L; Tucker, C J et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research (2002), 107(D11),

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See detailChanges in motor unit numbers in patients with ALS: a longitudinal study using the adapted multiple point stimulation method.
Wang, François-Charles ULg; Bouquiaux, Olivier ULg; De Pasqua, Victor ULg et al

in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis & Other Motor Neuron Disorders (2002), 3(1), 31-8

METHOD: The adapted multiple point stimulation (AMPS) method for calculating motor unit numbers (MUNE) was applied in 12 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) before riluzole therapy (T(0 ... [more ▼]

METHOD: The adapted multiple point stimulation (AMPS) method for calculating motor unit numbers (MUNE) was applied in 12 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) before riluzole therapy (T(0)) and again after 4, 8 and 12 months of treatment. RESULTS: Paired Student's t-test indicated a significant decrease of thenar MUNE and compound muscle action potential (CMAP) size at each 4-monthly interval, while average surface motor unit potential (SMUP) size did not change significantly over time. The rate of motor unit (MU) loss at month 4 was more than 20% in six patients (group 1) and less than 20% in six other patients (group 2). Comparison of groups 1 and 2 by Mann-Whitney U-testing indicated that percent changes in thenar MUNE and CMAP size compared to baseline were significantly different at months 4, 8 and 12, while no difference between the two groups was found for average SMUP size variations. In the group with a slow rate of MU loss, CMAP size remained stable, while in the group with a rapid rate of MU loss, there was a dramatic reduction in size of the CMAP. A positive correlation was found between percent change in thenar MUNE at T(4) and at T(12) (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: AMPS is a useful technique to document MUNE, SMUP size and CMAP size changes over time in patients with ALS. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the joint analysis of longitudinal responses and early discontinuation in randomized trials
Vandenhende, François; Lambert, Philippe ULg

in Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics (2002), 12

Our focus is on the joint analysis of longitudinal nonnormal responses and early discontinuation in (pre)-clinical trials. Separate models are fitted to the two series (response and discontinuation) to ... [more ▼]

Our focus is on the joint analysis of longitudinal nonnormal responses and early discontinuation in (pre)-clinical trials. Separate models are fitted to the two series (response and discontinuation) to account for covariate and time effects. The serial dependence and the dependence between response and drop-out are also modeled. This is done using particular dependence functions, called copulas. Copulas are used to create a joint distribution with given marginal distributions. Applications are given for the analysis of heart rate/morbidity in toxicology and pain severity/intake of rescue medications in a trial on migraine. Using copulas, the level of dependence between two variables remains invariant to changes in the marginal distribution of either variable. This proves interesting in modeling the association in a longitudinal setting when responses change over time. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of variables related to intrinsic motivation in a boys’ physical education class
Cloes, Marc ULg; Motter, Pascale; Ledent, Maryse ULg et al

in AVANTE (2002), 8(1), 1-14

In physical education settings, the development of intrinsic motivation in students is a central concern for every teacher. However, most studies have focused on isolated variables using quantitative ... [more ▼]

In physical education settings, the development of intrinsic motivation in students is a central concern for every teacher. However, most studies have focused on isolated variables using quantitative approaches. The purpose of this study was to underline the existence of relationships between students’ intrinsic motivation (assessed by dispositional factors) and individual/collective situational factors. A secondary school boys’ class and its teacher were the subjects of the study. Questionnaires and interviews were used. Data were initially processed from the class point of view. Based on a cluster analysis determined by intrinsic motivation level, two groups of students were compared. Qualitative analysis was based on the answers of the two most and the two least motivated students of the class. Extracurricular practice (individual situational variable), teacher-students’ interaction and mastery climate (collective situational variables) were identified among the factors related to students’ intrinsic motivation. Inter-individual diversity of influencing variables was pointed out. [less ▲]

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See detailAcute cardiovascular protective effects of corticosteroids are mediated by non-transcriptional activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.
Hafezi-Moghadam, Ali; Simoncini, Tommaso; Yang, Zequan et al

in Nature Medicine (2002), 8(5), 473-9

Corticosteroids have been shown to exert beneficial effects in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction, but the precise mechanisms underlying their protective effects are unknown. Here we show that ... [more ▼]

Corticosteroids have been shown to exert beneficial effects in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction, but the precise mechanisms underlying their protective effects are unknown. Here we show that high-dose corticosteroids exert cardiovascular protection through a novel mechanism involving the rapid, non-transcriptional activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Binding of corticosteroids to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) stimulated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase Akt, leading to eNOS activation and nitric oxide dependent vasorelaxation. Acute administration of pharmacological concentrations of corticosteroids in mice led to decreased vascular inflammation and reduced myocardial infarct size following ischemia and reperfusion injury. These beneficial effects of corticosteroids were abolished by GR antagonists or eNOS inhibitors in wild-type mice and were completely absent in eNOS-deficient (Nos3(-/-)) mice. The rapid activation of eNOS by the non-nuclear actions of GR, therefore, represents an important cardiovascular protective effect of acute high-dose corticosteroid therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailEffets perturbateurs endocriniens des pesticides organochlorés
Charlier, Corinne ULg; Plomteux, Guy ULg

in Acta Clinica Belgica. Supplementum (2002), (1), 2-7

Xenoestrogens such organochlorine pesticides are known to induce changes in reproductive development, function or behaviour in wildlife. Because these compounds are able to modify the estrogens metabolism ... [more ▼]

Xenoestrogens such organochlorine pesticides are known to induce changes in reproductive development, function or behaviour in wildlife. Because these compounds are able to modify the estrogens metabolism, or to compete with estradiol for binding to the estrogen receptor, it may be possible that these products affect the risk of developing impaired fertility, precocious puberty or some kinds of cancer in man. Le plus ancien récit de lutte contre la pollution remonte à une légende indienne racontant que la divinité Sing-bonga était incommodée par les émanations des fours dans lesquels les Asuras fondaient leurs métaux (1). Evidemment depuis, la problématique n–a cessé de s–accroître et la contamination de la Terre par de nombreux polluants est devenue aujourd–hui un problème majeur de notre Société. La protection de notre environnement est une question capitale qui doit être respectée malgré la pression économique actuelle et qui ne cessera de croître au cours des prochaines années même si l–identification objective et indiscutable de ce qui est essentiel – donc devant être prioritairement garanti sur la planète – est difficile à cerner (2). « Un oiseau en mauvais état ne pond pas de bons oeufs » disait un proverbe grec. Mais ce n–est qu–à partir de la seconde moitié du XXème siècle que les toxicologues ont commencé à identifier les effets qu–avaient entraînés à l–échelle mondiale les pollutions émises aux XIXème siècle sur la faune sauvage et sur le cheptel (3). L–histoire contemporaine des pesticides industriels commence vers 1874 (synthèse des organochlorés) et se poursuit tout au long de ces 2 siècles en passant par la synthèse des organophosphorés (1950), des carbamates (1970) et des pyréthroïdes (1975) (4). Le dichlorodiphényltrichloroéthane (DDT) a été synthétisé pour la première fois par un étudiant en cours de préparation de sa thèse de doctorat : Othmer Zeidler. La production, reprise par les entreprises F.Mayo puis par la Geigy Co. a d–abord intéressé l–armée, puis l–agriculture. Dès la fin de la 2ème guerre mondiale, des mises en garde furent lancées à propos des effets nocifs du produit (4). Un déclin des populations de grives, d–aigles chauves, d–orfaies et de mammifères consommateurs de poissons fut constaté à partir des années 50 et dénoncé par Rachel Carson dans son célèbre appel du « Silent Spring » de 1962. Bien qu–il soit interdit en Occident depuis les années 70, ce produit a été tellement utilisé et présente une rémanence si longue qu–une contamination ubiquitaire existe aujourd–hui encore. De plus, ce produit continue à être produit aux USA pour être utilisé à des fins de démoustification dans les pays en voie de développement. Il en va de même de l–Hexachlorobenzène (HCB), un autre organochloré dont l–usage est interdit sous nos latitudes, mais reste fréquent dans d–autres pays. Ces deux exemples indiquent que le problème de la contamination continue à nous concerner, même pour des produits dont l–usage est aujourd–hui strictement réglementé ou interdit. Des effets sur la faune semblent encore actuellement devoir être attribués à ces produits. La diminution de la population des phoques dans la mer de Wadden pourrait être due à la forte contamination en composants organochlorés des poissons dont ces phoques se nourrissent (5). Exposé au DDT et à son métabolite dichlorodiphenyldichloroéthylène (DDE), le Seratherodon mossambicus présente une réduction de la sécrétion de cortisol par une action toxique cytospécifique sur l–axe hypothalamo-hypophysaire (6). Des travaux récents ont montré que le DDT et le DDE se lient chez les oiseaux et les mammifères au moyen de liaisons covalentes aux cellules de la zona fasciculata - homologue du tissu interrénal du poisson - induisant des microhémorragies. Cette « défaillance » cortisolique peut s–accompagner d–une perturbation du métabolisme glucidique et notamment d–un taux élevé de glycogène hépatique (7). Les pesticides organochlorés (DDT, DDE) entraînent également des perturbations d–ordre métabolique chez certaines espèces d–oiseaux, notamment le faucon pèlerin en Grande Bretagne et les oiseaux piscivores des grands lacs nord américains où l–on a constaté au cours des années 1960 que leur reproduction était menacée et qu–une des manifestations les plus évidentes des perturbations observées était le taux élevé de malformations (8). Des mortalités élevées de poissons ou de coquillages ont été rapportées dans des élevages situés à proximité des zones d–épandage de pesticides organophosphorés et de carbamates. En 1991, la dispersion aérienne de fenitrothion dans le but de provoquer la démoustication en Languedoc a été à l–origine de la perte de plusieurs tonnes de crevettes japonaises. L–utilisation de trichlorfon et de dichlorvos comme antiparasitaires dans des fermes d–élevages de saumons a provoqué des épisodes de mortalité importante (9). [less ▲]

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See detailPositron emission tomography in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL): relationship between tracer uptake and pathological findings, including preliminary experience in the staging of low-grade NHL.
Jerusalem, Guy ULg; Beguin, Yves ULg

in Clinical Lymphoma (2002), 3(1), 56-61

Advances in imaging techniques have allowed more precise staging and better evaluation of the effect of new treatment modalities. The limitations of conventional morphologic imaging techniques are well ... [more ▼]

Advances in imaging techniques have allowed more precise staging and better evaluation of the effect of new treatment modalities. The limitations of conventional morphologic imaging techniques are well known. Positron emission tomography (PET) using fluorine-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose is now routinely used for initial staging and re-evaluation during or after treatment of Hodgkin's disease and aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), but not in low-grade NHL. In the first part of this review, the relationship between glucose metabolism as measured by PET, pathological findings including histological grade and proliferative activity, and prognosis are analyzed. In the second part, the potential role of PET in the staging and follow-up of low-grade NHL is discussed. Published data indicate that PET may contribute to the management of low-grade follicular NHL. [less ▲]

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See detailComparaison des cahiers des charges de filières de production porcine sous « signe de qualité » en Région wallonne.
Degre, Aurore ULg; Verheve, Didier; Debouche, Charles ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2002), 6(4), 221-230

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See detailFlexihealth : une méthodologie d'évaluation du stress en situation de changement
De Zanet, Fabrice ULg; Vandenberghe, C.; Bossut, Muriel ULg et al

in Médecine du Travail & Ergonomie= Arbeidsgezondheidszorg & Ergonomie (2002), 39(2), 82-83

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See detailLes figures féminines dans le théâtre de Jean-Marie Piemme
Delhalle, Nancy ULg

in Alternatives Théâtrales (2002), (75),

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See detailL'entrée en vigueur du permis d'environnement et du permis unique
Pâques, Michel ULg

in Actualité législative en droit immobilier (2002)

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See detailLa science au service de l'apostolat. L'enseignement des Jésuites anglais à Liège aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles
Opsomer, Carmélia ULg

in Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences (2002), 52(148), 212-226

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See detailCréation d'un site Internet d'Evidence-Based Medicine.
Delvenne, Catherine ULg; Pasleau, Françoise ULg

in Médi-Sphère (2002), (67), 41-43

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See detailRecommendations for a standardized report for adult transthoracic echocardiography: a report from the American Society of Echocardiography's Nomenclature and Standards Committee and Task Force for a Standardized Echocardiography Report.
Gardin, Julius M.; Adams, David B.; Douglas, Pamela S. et al

in Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography (2002), 15(3), 275-90

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See detailDoes sulfide detoxication occur in the gills of the hydrothermal vent shrimp, Rimicaris exoculata?
Compère, Philippe ULg; Martinez, Anne-Sophie; Charmantier-Daures, Mireille et al

in Comptes Rendus Biologies (2002), 325

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See detailLes bancs solaires au banc des accusés.
Uhoda, I.; Petite, Louicette ULg; Pierard, Claudine ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(1), 29-32

Sunbeds used in sun parlours do not garantee a controlled innocuity. By contrast, health hazards are obvious in many instances. Forceful tanning is a transitory aspect behind which the spectrum of many ... [more ▼]

Sunbeds used in sun parlours do not garantee a controlled innocuity. By contrast, health hazards are obvious in many instances. Forceful tanning is a transitory aspect behind which the spectrum of many skin changes includes accelerated photoageing, irreversible pigmentary and keratotic changes, and cutaneous malignancies including malignant melanoma. In the absence of protection, the eye is also affected. Even if tanning salon exposure increases the risk for skin cancer by a small amount, it represents a significant potential public health hazard given the number of people attending salons. Digital dermoscopy and ultraviolet light videoscopy are new methods allowing to predict the cutaneous ransom to be paid by the sunbed worshippers. [less ▲]

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See detailExpression of TGF-betas and their receptors is differentially modulated by reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in human articular chondrocytes.
Ayache, N.; Boumediene, K.; Mathy, Marianne ULg et al

in Osteoarthritis and Cartilage (2002), 10(5), 344-52

OBJECTIVES: To study the effects exerted by two antioxidants, N-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), as an inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a reactive oxygen species (ROS ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: To study the effects exerted by two antioxidants, N-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), as an inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, on the expression of the major growth factor involved in cartilage repair, TGF-beta, under the three isoforms beta1, beta2 and beta3, and the receptors I and II of this factor, using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated human chondrocytes in culture. METHODS: Suspension cultures of human chondrocytes derived from the knee of osteoarthritic patients were treated for 48 h with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (10 microg/ml), L-NMMA (0.5 mM) or NAC (1 mM). Nitrite levels were assayed on the culture media using the Griess spectrophotometric method. After total RNA extraction, the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3, TGF-beta receptors I and II, was determined by semi-quantitative polymerase chain-reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: LPS induced a dramatic increase of both NO production and iNOS mRNA level. The addition of L-NMMA (0.5 mM) abolished NO production without affecting iNOS mRNA levels. In contrast NAC (1 mM) strongly synergized with LPS to stimulate NO synthesis. LPS treatment did not significantly alter TGF-beta1 expression whereas L-NMMA inhibited its production. TGF-beta2 mRNA level was decreased by LPS and was not changed in the presence of L-NMMA. On the other hand, NAC was capable of counteracting the LPS-induced inhibition of TGF-beta2 expression. TGFbeta3 mRNA level was markedly reduced by LPS alone, or with both L-NMMA and NAC. Finally, the expression of TGF-betaRI was slightly increased in the presence of combined LPS and L-NMMA or NAC whereas that of TGFbeta-RII was reduced in the same conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The modulation of TGF-beta system was found to be differentially controlled by NO and ROS productions. Indeed, the control exerted on TGF-beta expression varied according to the isoform: TGF-beta1 mRNA level depends on NO whereas that of TGF-beta2 is regulated by ROS and TGF-beta3 seems to be unaffected by both of them. The expression of TGF-beta receptors appeared to be modulated by NO and ROS levels. The relevance of the present findings to osteoarthritis (OA) physiopathology and the potential use of antioxidant therapy to treat this disease are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact des méthodes d'application sur l'efficacité d'un traitement à base de Pichia anomala souche K contre les maladies de post-récolte des pommes
Jijakli, Haissam ULg; Dickburt, Catherine; Lepoivre, Philippe ULg et al

in VIII journées scientifiquesBiotechnologies végétales: valorisation pour une agriculture durable (2002)

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See detailObservational survey of NSAID-related upper gastro-intestinal adverse events in Belgium
Belaiche, Jacques ULg; Burette, A.; De Vos, M. et al

in Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica (2002), 65(2, Apr-Jun), 65-73

Objectives : To evaluate the impact of NSAID use on current routine upper GI endoscopy (UGIE) and to compare the lesions found in NSAID users and non-users. Methods : Participating gastroenterologists ... [more ▼]

Objectives : To evaluate the impact of NSAID use on current routine upper GI endoscopy (UGIE) and to compare the lesions found in NSAID users and non-users. Methods : Participating gastroenterologists; consecutively documented outpatients with and without suspicion of bleeding, referred for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Patient characteristics, presence of risk factors, NSAID use and endoscopic findings were reported on standard data collection forms. Main results : A total of 2685 non-bleeding and 159 bleeding patients were enrolled within a time period of 2 months. NSAID therapy was present in 20% of the non-bleeding patients and at least 9% of referrals for endoscopy were directly related to suspected NSAID adverse events. Nearly half of acute bleeding patients (42%) were NSAID users, including aspirin for cardioprevention. Warning digestive symptoms prior to acute bleeding were frequently absent (56%). Oesophagitis was the main endoscopic diagnosis (51% of patients). Gastroduodenal (GD) ulcer was significantly more frequent in NSAID users, whereas oesophagitis and bleeding oesophageal varices were more frequent among non-users. Analysis of odds ratio's demonstrated NSAID use to significantly increase the risk for gastric ulcer in the whole patient group (OR = 2.73; 95% confidence interval (CI) : 1.983.77; p < 0.001) and, in addition, for duodenal ulcer in the elderly (>65y) subgroup (OR = 2.91; 95 % CI : 1.52-5.59; p < 0.05). Conclusions : This survey confirms the high incidence of GD ulcers in NSAID users and the risk for serious gastrointestinal complications, often occurring without warning symptoms. It underlines the impact of NSAID use on the routine endoscopy load, the necessity of careful selection of patients for NSAID prescriptions and the need for gastropreventive measures, particularly in elderly patients and patients associating multiple risk factors. [less ▲]

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See detailVolumineuse masse pelvienne chez un homme jeune
Andrianne, Robert ULg; Detroz, Bernard ULg; Delbecque, Katty ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(3), 148-154

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See detailSpectral and crystallographic study of pyridinic analogues of nimesulide : determination of the active form of methanesulfonamides as COX-2 selective inhibitors
Julémont, F.; de Leval, X.; Michaux, C. et al

in Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2002), 45

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See detailDifferential pathomechanisms of epidermal necrolytic blistering diseases.
Paquet, Philippe ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in International Journal of Molecular Medicine (2002), 10(6), 695-9

Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) results from the effect of exfoliative-toxins produced by staphylococcal strains. The disease affects predominantly children, and is rare in adults. We report ... [more ▼]

Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) results from the effect of exfoliative-toxins produced by staphylococcal strains. The disease affects predominantly children, and is rare in adults. We report two cases of the adult type of SSSS. Corticotherapy, chronic alcohol abuse and epilepsy-related immune changes might have been predisposing factors in these patients. The immunopathological characteristics of the inflammatory cell infiltrate in adults SSSS have not been thoroughly explored so far in the literature. Biopsies from 2 patients with bullous SSSS skin were studied by means of immunochemistry using a panel of 10 antibodies directed to FXIIIa, CD15, CD31, CD45R0, CD50, CD54, CD62E, CD95, CD106, and L1-protein, respectively. Cutaneous biopsies from related blistering diseases were compared. They included drug-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), bullous impetigo and superficial pemphigus. A dense cell infiltrate composed of granulocytes (CD15+), macrophages (L1 protein+) and memory T cells (CD45R0+) and a strong expression of ICAM-3 (CD50) were present in the epidermis. CD95+ keratinocytes were lining the intraepidermal blisters. Type I dermal dendrocytes (Factor XIIIa+) were numerous and plump in the dermis. Bullous impetigo exhibited the same pattern of inflammatory cells, but with a lower density in type I dermal dendrocytes. TEN differed from SSSS by both the absence of CD15+ granulocytes and a stronger expression of the pro-apoptotic CD95 antigen in the epidermis. In superficial pemphigus, CD95 antigen was not expressed, and CD15+ granulocytes, CD45R0+ lymphocytes and L1 protein+ monocytes were much less numerous. It is concluded that the specific binding of SSSS-induced exotoxins to the desmosomes alters the keratinocyte metabolism leading to an inflammatory reaction followed by focal apoptosis. Our findings are in line with the concept that SSSS exotoxins might be superantigens. A common pathomechanism leading to epidermal destruction is likely operative in SSSS and bullous impetigo. The inflammatory cell composition in TEN and superficial pemphigus markedly differs from that in SSSS. [less ▲]

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See detailOn-line fruit grading according to their external quality using machine vision
Leemans, Vincent ULg; Magein, Hugo ULg; Destain, Marie-France ULg

in Biosystems Engineering (2002), 83(4), 397-404

This paper presents apple grading into four classes according to European standards. Two varieties were tested: Golden Delicious and Jonagold. The image database included more than a 1000 images of fruits ... [more ▼]

This paper presents apple grading into four classes according to European standards. Two varieties were tested: Golden Delicious and Jonagold. The image database included more than a 1000 images of fruits (528 Golden Delicious, 642 Jonagold) belonging to the three acceptable categories-Extra, I and II-and the reject (each class represents, respectively, about 60, 10 and 20% of the sample size). The image grading was achieved in six steps: image acquisition; ground colour classification; defect segmentation; calyx and stem recognition; defects characterisation and finally the fruit classification into quality classes. The proposed method for apple external quality grading showed correct classification rates of 78 and 72%, for Golden Delicious and Jonagold apples, respectively. Taking into account that the healthy fruit were far better graded and considering that this class was under represented in the sample compared with the fruit population, the results of the proposed method (an error rate which drops to 5 and 10%, respectively) are compatible with the requirements of European standards. (C) 2002 Silsoe Research Institute. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailLa colibacillose aviaire
Stordeur, Philippe; Mainil, Jacques ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2002), 146(1, FEB-MAR), 11-18

The avian pathogenic E. coli strains, although considered by almost like opportunist pathogen, represent actually one of the most important cause of economic losses in the poultry sector and is one of the ... [more ▼]

The avian pathogenic E. coli strains, although considered by almost like opportunist pathogen, represent actually one of the most important cause of economic losses in the poultry sector and is one of the most frequent cause of carcase rejection in the slaughter house. Colibacillosis, which the major way of penetration is the respiratory tract, affect essentially broilers and give variable lesions and manifestations in function of the age of the animals. Actually, some virulence factors have been studied and associated with avian pathogenic E. coli strains : P and F1 fimbriae, hemagglutination, serum resistance, aerobactin system. Recent studies have also showed that other virulence factors (F17 and Afa adhesins) were also present in the avian pathogenic E. coli, but their rule in the pathogenicity must to be established. Because of the diversity of virulence factors and the little of knowledge about us, no vaccine is actually available to protect efficacely poultries against colibacillosis. Thus, the antibiotherapy based on a good diagnostic and a good prevention remained the only things to do in order to overcome the disease, despite the augmentation of antibiotics resistance and the risk of transferring to humans. [less ▲]

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See detailLa loi du 17 avril 2002 instaurant la peine de travail comme peine autonome en matière correctionnelle et de police
Jacobs, Ann ULg; Dantinne, Michaël ULg

in Revue de Droit Pénal et de Criminologie (2002)

Présentation et analyse juridique et criminologique de la loi du 17 avril 2002 introduisant la peine de travail en droit belge.

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See detailRéduire la taille des classes dans l'enseignement fondamental : pour des discriminations vraiment positives...
Lafontaine, Dominique ULg

in Cahiers du Service de Pédagogie Expérimentale (SPE) (2002), 11-12

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See detailThe Use of Cardboard Bedding Material as Part of an Environmental Control Regime for Heaves-affected Horses: In Vitro Assessment of Airborne Dust and Aeroallergen Concentration and In Vivo Effects on Lung Function
Kirschvink, Nathalie; Di silvestro, F.; Sbai, Ilham ULg et al

in Veterinary Journal (2002), 163

This study aimed to test whether shredded cardboard is an appropriate minimum-dust bedding material for heaves-affected horses. Results of standardized in vitro measurement of airborne dust and ... [more ▼]

This study aimed to test whether shredded cardboard is an appropriate minimum-dust bedding material for heaves-affected horses. Results of standardized in vitro measurement of airborne dust and aeroallergen concentrations of cardboard bedding were significantly lower than those of common bedding materials. Six heaves-affected horses in clinical remission after pasturing were stabled for two months on cardboard bedding and fed grass silage. Pulmonary function tests (PFT: ventilatory mechanics, arterial blood gases, airway inflammation scoring, bronchoalveolar cytology) were performed before, during and after this period and after stabling the horses in poor hygienic conditions. PFT values measured during and after the stabling period on cardboard bedding were not significantly different from those recorded after the period at pasture or from those of healthy horses, but were significantly different from those recorded in poor hygienic conditions. On basis of the in vitro and in vivo results it can be concluded that cardboard bedding, used in conjunction with low-dust forage, may be appropriate in the provision of minimum-dust management of heaves-affected horses [less ▲]

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See detailLes souches pathogènes d'Escherichia coli chez les chiens et les chats : IV) Discussion générale
Mainil, Jacques ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2002), 146(4, AUG-SEP), 219

This manuscript reviews the current knowledge on the main classes of pathogenic Escherichia coli in dogs and cats: type 1 necrotoxigenic strains (NTEC1), adhesin-positive strains (AdEC), enteropathogenic ... [more ▼]

This manuscript reviews the current knowledge on the main classes of pathogenic Escherichia coli in dogs and cats: type 1 necrotoxigenic strains (NTEC1), adhesin-positive strains (AdEC), enteropathogenic strains (EPEC) and enterotoxigenic strains (ETEC). They represent primary or secondary (to other bacterial, parasitic and/or viral infections) infectious agents. NTEC1 and AdEC are the most frequent and are responsible for intestinal, urinary tract and invasive infections, while EPEC and ETEC limit their infections to the intestinal tract. ETEC are the less frequent but EPEC are more and more often observed. The specific virulence factors and other properties of these pathogenic E. coli strains are similar to those of their bovine, human and porcine counterparts, for their identity and their genetic determinism. This similarity allows the use of an identical approach in their diagnosis and typing. But for some NTEC1, AdEC and EPEC strains the similarity is so close that it also raises the question of their zoonotic potential, though there is up to now no epidemiological evidence of such cross contamination of man by canine or feline pathogenic E. coli (or vice versa). [less ▲]

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See detailRésumé C.E. n°97.612, du 10 juillet 2001, SA ITM Belgium
Delnoy, Michel ULg

in Aménagement - Environnement (2002), 1

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See detailSaberes e instrumentos para ler os territórios próximos e distantes
Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULg

in Educação Geográfica (2002), (15), 43-54

Cet article rend compte de l'expérience de la Fédération des Professeurs de Géographie de la Communauté française de Belgique pour aider à la mise en place d'une pédagogie par compétences et plus ... [more ▼]

Cet article rend compte de l'expérience de la Fédération des Professeurs de Géographie de la Communauté française de Belgique pour aider à la mise en place d'une pédagogie par compétences et plus spécifiquement du guide conceptuel que nous avons rédigé pour apprendre aux élèves à lire les territoires du monde [less ▲]

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See detailExplorer les secrets du patrimoine cheveux.
Franchimont, Claudine ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Skin (2002), 5

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See detailEditorial. Ecrire...
Hindryckx, Geneviève ULg

in Cahiers du Service de Pédagogie Expérimentale (SPE) (2002), 11-12

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See detailSelf-esteem, social adjustment and suicidality in affective disorders
Daskalopoulou, E; Dikeos, D; Papadimitriou, G et al

in European Psychiatry (2002), 17

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See detailPolyester layered silicate nanohybrids by controlled grafting polymerization
Lepoittevin, Bénédicte; Pantoustier, Nadège; Alexandre, Michaël ULg et al

in Journal of Materials Chemistry (2002), 12(12), 3528-3535

Poly( epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) layered silicate nanohybrids were synthesized by ring opening polymerization of epsilon-caprolactone according to a well-controlled coordination-insertion mechanism ... [more ▼]

Poly( epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) layered silicate nanohybrids were synthesized by ring opening polymerization of epsilon-caprolactone according to a well-controlled coordination-insertion mechanism. Montmorillonites were surface-modified by non functional (trimethylhexadecylammonium) and hydroxy functional alkylammonium cations, i.e., (2-hydroxyethyl) dimethylhexadecylammonium. The hydroxy functions available at the clay surface were activated into tin( II or IV) or Al(III) alkoxide initiators for lactone polymerization, thus yielding surface-grafted PCL chains. The surface-grafted PCL chains were recovered by an ionic exchange reaction with lithium chloride and they were analyzed by size exclusion chromatography. The PCL molar mass was measured as a function of the hydroxy content of the clay that was modulated by exchanging the Na cations with mixtures of non-functional and hydroxy functional ammonium cations of different compositions. Nanohybrids were also characterized by small-angle X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and thermogravimetry. The PCL molar mass and the nanocomposite morphology (i.e., exfoliation and/or intercalation) were readily tuned by the content of the hydroxy groups available at the clay surface. Surface-grafted aluminium trialkoxide species proved highly efficient in initiating polymerization that leads to PCL chains of controlled molar mass and narrow molecular weight distribution with polydispersity indices as low as 1.2. [less ▲]

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See detailUlcère veineux chronique et colonisation bactérienne critique. Quand antiseptique rime avec cytotoxicité bénéfique.
Henry, Frédérique ULg; Franchimont, Claudine ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Angeiologie (2002), 54

The pathogenesis of venous ulcers is complex. A critical bacterial colonization may play a harmfull role. The use of topical antibiotics is unwise, and that of antiseptics is still a matter of debate ... [more ▼]

The pathogenesis of venous ulcers is complex. A critical bacterial colonization may play a harmfull role. The use of topical antibiotics is unwise, and that of antiseptics is still a matter of debate. Some authors contend that antiseptics mitigate wound healing through a toxic effect upon keratinocytes and fibroblasts. However, sound arguments support the paradoxical concept of beneficial cytotoxicity of antiseptics in the treatment of chronic venous ulcers. [less ▲]

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See detailPhylogéographie mitochondriale du mulot sylvestre (Apodemus sylvaticus) dans la région paléarctique occidentale
Michaux, Johan ULg; Magnanou, Elodie; Nieberding, Caroline et al

in Biosystema, Systématique et biogéographie (2002), 20

We have sequenced 965 base pairs of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b from 102 woodmice (Apodemus sylvaticus) samples collected from 40 European localities. The aims of the study were to answer the ... [more ▼]

We have sequenced 965 base pairs of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b from 102 woodmice (Apodemus sylvaticus) samples collected from 40 European localities. The aims of the study were to answer the following questions: i) Did the Mediterranean peninsulas play a role as a refuge for small mammals? ii) Is the genetic variability of a small mammal like A. sylvaticus higher in the Mediterranean regions as compared with northern Europe? iii)Is it possible to find patterns of postglacial colonisation of Europe other than those presently recognised ? Sequence data were analysed using Distance and Maximum Parsimony phylogenetic reconstruction methods. A minimum spanning network was also calculated. Population genetic structure was determined by analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). A "mismatch distribution" analysis was also performed to estimate the patterns of expansion. The results provide a clear picture of the impact of Quaternary glaciations on the genetic and geographic structure of the woodmouse. Analyses indicate a higher genetic variability for the woodmouse in the Mediterranean peninsulas as compared to northern Europe and the role of these peninsulas as refuge regions for small mammals. A new pattern of postglacial colonisation is also proposed where the Iberian and southern France refuge populations colonised almost all the European regions. The Sicilian population appears to be highly differentiated and highly variable. This result emphasises the importance of this island as a "hot spot" for the intraspecific genetic diversity of the woodmouse. Finally, populations of this species in North Africa originated from south-western Europe and are probably the result of a recent anthropogenic introduction. [less ▲]

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See detailFurther evidence on the relationship between dopamine and novelty seeking: a neuroendocrine study
Hansenne, Michel ULg; Pinto, Emmanuel ULg; Pitchot, William ULg et al

in Personality & Individual Differences (2002), 33(6), 967-977

In the biosocial model of Cloninger, three major personality dimensions, novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), and reward dependence (RD) are dependent on central monoaminergic systems, respectively ... [more ▼]

In the biosocial model of Cloninger, three major personality dimensions, novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), and reward dependence (RD) are dependent on central monoaminergic systems, respectively dopaminergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic. This study investigated the relationships between these major personality dimensions and growth hormone (GH) responses to both apomorphine and clonidine challenge tests in healthy subjects. GH responses to apomorphine were significantly correlated with NS when peak relative values were considered (r=0.47, P=0.03). HA and RD did not show any relationships with the endocrine responses. In contrast, no significant relationship existed between GH responses to clonidine and any of the three temperament dimensions. These results gave another support of the hypothesized link between NS and dopaminergic central neurotransmission. In contrast, the results did not confirm the association between RD and noradrenergic central neurotransmission, probably because RD is poorly validated. This partial confirmation might suggest that the link between personality traits and neurotransmission systems is probably indirect. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailThe efficacy of medical and surgical treatment of endometriosis-associated infertility: arguments in favour of a medico-surgical aproach
Donnez, Jacques; Chantraine, Frédéric ULg; Nisolle, Michelle ULg

in Human Reproduction Update (2002), 8(1), 89-94

This review discusses the efficacy of a combined, medical (GnRH agonist) and surgical, therapy in endometriosis- associated infertility. Because of the limited information currently available on the ... [more ▼]

This review discusses the efficacy of a combined, medical (GnRH agonist) and surgical, therapy in endometriosis- associated infertility. Because of the limited information currently available on the activity of lesions in minimal and mild endometriosis, any absolute statement is inappropriate at this time, although some arguments exist in favour of treating endometriosis at laparoscopy. In moderate and severe endometriosis, this review provides arguments in favour of a medico-surgical approach and discusses the possibility of combining medical and surgical therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of instillation into lung of autologous blood on pulmonary function and tracheobronchial wash cytology
Art, Tatiana ULg; Tack, S.; Kirschvink, Nathalie et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal. Supplement (2002), 34

This study aimed at measuring the functional consequences and the pulmonary cytology changes following a simulation of pulmonary haemorrhage. Pulmonary function tests including lobeline-induced ... [more ▼]

This study aimed at measuring the functional consequences and the pulmonary cytology changes following a simulation of pulmonary haemorrhage. Pulmonary function tests including lobeline-induced hyperventilation, cytology of tracheo-bronchial wash (TBW) and thoracic radiographs were performed before, as well as 1, 7, 14 and 28 days after, the instillation of 300 ml of blood into the lungs of 4 horses deemed free of exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (Group 1). Control data (Group 2) were obtained by instilling the same volume of saline into the lungs of the same horses in a crossover design (control). The instillation of blood or saline resulted in an increase in the number of neutrophils in the TBW. Thoracic radiographs showed increased opacity in the caudodorsal region of the lungs in 4/4 (Day 1) and 2/4 horses (Day 7), in Group 1, and in 2/4 (Day 1) and 0/4 horses (Day 7) in the control group. These changes were attributed to the instillation procedure rather than the nature of the instilled material. Breathing mechanics and arterial blood gases at rest were not affected in either Groups 1 or 2. However, the maximal expiratory peak flow recorded during lobeline-induced hyperventilation was significantly lower (P<0.05) and the total pulmonary resistance significantly higher (P<0.05) on Day 1 in Group 1, but not Group 2. These observations suggest that expiratory flows might be partly limited in bleeders when breathing at high airflow [less ▲]

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See detailUse of a serum-free medium to produce in vitro Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites on Vero cells
De Meerschman, F.; Rettigner, C.; Focant, Charles ULg et al

in Veterinary Research (2002), 33(2, Mar-Apr), 159-168

Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are cyst-forming coccidian parasites of human and veterinary clinical relevance. In vitro cultivation of the protozoans using Vero cells is usually performed in ... [more ▼]

Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are cyst-forming coccidian parasites of human and veterinary clinical relevance. In vitro cultivation of the protozoans using Vero cells is usually performed in order to produce antigenic materials. Quantitative and qualitative comparisons of Vero cells grown in RPMI medium supplemented either with foetal calf serum (FCS), horse serum (HS) or a specific serum-free additive (DefCell) were performed. A serum-free cell culture system used to propagate N. caninum (NC-1 isolate) and T. gondii tachyzoites (Rh stain) were compared with the other two cell culture systems. FCS supplemented media was found to be more effective than the others in promoting Vero cells and N. caninum tachyzoites. However, it was found unable to support adequate T. gondii tachyzoite proliferation. Vero cells, T. gondii and N. caninum tachyzoite production gave similar growth patterns with either HS or DefCell supplemented media. Defcell was considered as a good alternative to supplement culture medium. [less ▲]

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See detailQuelques tournures péjoratives dans le débat philosophiques en sanskrit
Verpoorten, Jean-Marie ULg

in Indologica Taurinensia (2002)

Répertoire de 48 termes méprisants ou insultants utilisés par des philosophes antagonistes pour qualifier leurs adversaires et leurs doctrines. On notera d’ailleurs qu’il existe également des auteurs qui ... [more ▼]

Répertoire de 48 termes méprisants ou insultants utilisés par des philosophes antagonistes pour qualifier leurs adversaires et leurs doctrines. On notera d’ailleurs qu’il existe également des auteurs qui écrivent leurs œuvres en igorant toute polémique et toute attaque personnelle. Ainsi Maņḍanamiśra (vers 700.). D’autres, au nombre de 26 ci-après, se laissent aller à la critique personnelle (sans d’ailleurs citer l’opposant par son nom) et à l’invective. L’article énumère les mots ainsi utilisés dans l’ordre alphabétique du sanskrit et y joint un bref commentaire. Voici quelques exemples. Le bouddhiste Dignāga décrit ses adversaires comme de « mauvais logiciens » (kutarka) imbus de leurs vues erronées (abhimāna). Tout en utilisant le terme de « votre honneur » (āyuṣmant , tatrabhavant) , on traitera l’opposant de « fou » (unmatta, jaḍa, mūrkha, pramatta, manda, mūḍha), de « gosse » (bāla), d’ « animal » (paśu). A noter l’expression devānāṃpriya « chéri des dieux » synonyme de « fou », qui équivaut mutatis mutandis à « imbécile heureux ». On peut ajouter des expressions d’indignation et de mépris comme « ah, la grande folie ! propos totalement stupide, propos d’aveugle, divagation, énormité ». [less ▲]

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See detailQuelques résultats d'une épreuve externe en éveil : initiation scientifique soumise aux élèves de cinquième année primaire en octobre 2001
Demonty, Isabelle ULg; Fagnant, Annick ULg; Straeten, Marie-Hélène

in Cahiers du Service de Pédagogie Expérimentale (SPE) (2002), 9-10

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See detailTransient aurora on Jupiter from injections of magnetospheric electrons
Mauk, B. H.; Clarke, J. T.; Grodent, Denis ULg et al

in Nature (2002), 415(6875), 1003-1005

Energetic electrons and ions that are trapped in Earth's magnetosphere can suddenly be accelerated towards the planet(1-5). Some dynamic features of Earth's aurora (the northern and southern lights) are ... [more ▼]

Energetic electrons and ions that are trapped in Earth's magnetosphere can suddenly be accelerated towards the planet(1-5). Some dynamic features of Earth's aurora (the northern and southern lights) are created by the fraction of these injected particles that travels along magnetic field lines and hits the upper atmosphere(4). Jupiter's aurora appears similar to Earth's in some respects; both appear as large ovals circling the poles and both show transient events(6-11). But the magnetospheres of Jupiter and Earth are so different-particularly in the way they are powered-that it is not known whether the magnetospheric drivers(12) of Earth's aurora also cause them on Jupiter. Here we show a direct relationship between Earth-like injections of electrons in Jupiter's magnetosphere and a transient auroral feature in Jupiter's polar region. This relationship is remarkably similar to what happens at Earth, and therefore suggests that despite the large differences between planetary magnetospheres, some processes that generate aurorae are the same throughout the Solar System. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effect of health related quality of life on reported use of health care resources in patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: a longitudinal analysis.
Ethgen, Olivier ULg; Kahler, Kristijan H; Kong, Sheldon X et al

in Journal of Rheumatology (2002), 29(6), 1147-55

OBJECTIVE: In today's cost conscious environment, health services researchers are consistently trying to find ways to predict future health care resource utilization (HCRU) and its associated costs. We ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: In today's cost conscious environment, health services researchers are consistently trying to find ways to predict future health care resource utilization (HCRU) and its associated costs. We evaluated the impact of health related quality of life (HRQL) on future HCRU in patients with arthritis. METHODS: A total of 642 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 395 patients with osteoarthritis (OA) completed at least 2 and as many as 6 consecutive surveys at 6 mo intervals. Information collected included demographics, HRQL questionnaires [Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (SF-36), Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ)], and HCRU over the previous 6 months. Longitudinal data analysis was perfomed to assess the effect of HRQL on future HCRU. RESULTS: Statistically significant associations between HCRU and HRQL variables were noted. Higher rates of HCRU were found in those in the worst quarter compared with those in the best quarter of HRQL. With the HAQ, OA and RA patients in the worst quarter reported a 199% (p < 0.05) and 48% (p < 0.05) increase in rheumatologist visits, respectively. With the WOMAC Function, increases were as high as 196% (p < 0.05) in rheumatologist visits for patients with OA. Patients with RA with a high level of HRQL as measured by the SF-36 (physical component score) reported a decrease of 31% (p < 0.01) in general practitioner visits and a decrease of 52% (p < 0.01) in hospitalization (mental component score). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that HRQL may be used to predict future health care consumption. Such an approach may lead to a more efficient allocation of resources by providing useful information to health care providers and health care decision makers. [less ▲]

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See detailComment j'explore ... une métastase orpheline d'un mélanome.
Henry, Frédérique ULg; Pierard, Claudine ULg; Arrese Estrada, Jorge ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(6), 405-7

A presumed melanoma metastasis is sometimes found without any evidence for the primary neoplasm. Such an orphan metastasis merits a complementary exploration. Searching for the primary melanoma must then ... [more ▼]

A presumed melanoma metastasis is sometimes found without any evidence for the primary neoplasm. Such an orphan metastasis merits a complementary exploration. Searching for the primary melanoma must then be performed using non invasive and clinically oriented methods. Beside a thorough skin examination, otorhinolaryngological, ophtalmic and gynecologic searches are recommended. In addition, paraclinical investigations are conducted according to the metastatic location, the gender and the functional complaints of the patient. The prognosis of these orphan metastases is not more dramatic than when the primary lesion is identified. Therapies are similar to those proposed in the classical presentation of the disease. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of inhaled ipratropium bromide on breathing mechanics and gas exchange in exercising horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Bayly, W. M.; Duvivier, D. H.; Votion, D. et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal (2002), 34(1), 36-43

Six Warmblood horses suffering an acute exacerbation of COPD were tested to investigate whether inhalation of ipratropium bromide (IB) dry powder (2,400 microg) 30 min preexercise would improve their ... [more ▼]

Six Warmblood horses suffering an acute exacerbation of COPD were tested to investigate whether inhalation of ipratropium bromide (IB) dry powder (2,400 microg) 30 min preexercise would improve their exercise capacity. A cross-over protocol with an inert powder placebo (P) was used. Mechanics of breathing and arterial blood gases were determined before treatment, after treatment but pre-exercise, and during an incremental exercise test. Oxygen consumption (VO2) was also measured before and during exercise, and the time to fatigue recorded. Inhalation of IB reduced total pulmonary resistance (RL) and maximum intrapleural pressure changes (deltaPpl(max)) and increased dynamic compliance before exercise. The onset of exercise was associated with a marked decrease in RL in P-treated horses but not those receiving IB, so that RL during exercise was not affected by treatment. Although deltaPpl(max) was lower at 8,9 and 10 m/s with IB, there were no treatment-related changes in VO2, blood gases, time to fatigue or any other measurement of breathing mechanics. Therefore, although inhalation of IB prior to exercise may have improved deltaPpl(max), it had no apparent impact on the horses' capacity for exercise. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyse de l'impact physiologique et economique de l'elagage des arbres d'alignement en port libre.
Toussaint, André ULg; Kervyn de Meerendre, V.; Delcroix, B. et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2002), 6(2), 99-107

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See detailLa lecture littéraire avec les faibles lecteurs
De Croix, Séverine ULg; Ledur, Dominique

in Enjeux : Revue de Formation Continuée et de Didactique du Français (2002), 55

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See detailAdaptation to multiday ozone exposure is associated with a sustained increase of bronchoalveolar uric acid.
Kirschvink, Nathalie; Fievez, Laurence ULg; Bureau, Fabrice ULg et al

in Free Radical Research (2002), 36(1), 23-32

The phenomenon of ozone tolerance is described, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We tested whether adaptation to multiday ozone exposure was related to an upregulated pulmonary antioxidant ... [more ▼]

The phenomenon of ozone tolerance is described, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We tested whether adaptation to multiday ozone exposure was related to an upregulated pulmonary antioxidant defence. Six calves were exposed to 0.75 ppm ozone, 12 h day(-1) for seven consecutive days. Pulmonary function tests and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were performed before, after the first (D1), third (D3) and seventh (D7) exposure. Differential cell count, total proteins, 8-epi-PGF2alpha, glutathione and uric acid were determined in BAL. Dynamic lung compliance and arterial oxygen tension were significantly decreased and lung oedema impaired pulmonary function on D1. By repeating ozone exposures, progressive functional adaptation occurred. Ozone induced a significant increase of BAL neutrophil percentage on D1. On D3 and D7, neutrophil percentage was progressively decreased, but remained significantly elevated. BAL total proteins were significantly increased on D1 and decreased progressively until D7. 8-Epi-PGF2alpha was significantly increased on D1 and was returned to baseline on D3 and D7, whilst glutathione significantly increased on D3 and returned to baseline on D7. Uric acid was increased ten-fold on D1. On D3, uric acid was increased six-fold and was persistently elevated at D7. This study suggests that ozone adaptation of functional and inflammatory variables is accompanied with sustained BAL uric acid elevation. [less ▲]

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See detailUtilisation de la ropivacaine par voie peridurale pour l'analgesie postoperatoire.
Senard, Marc ULg; Joris, Jean ULg

in Annales Françaises d'Anesthésie et de Réanimation (2002), 21(9), 713-24

OBJECTIVES: To describe pharmacology and toxicology of ropivacaine. To assess the clinical efficacy of ropivacaine when used for postoperative epidural analgesia and to provide recommendations for ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: To describe pharmacology and toxicology of ropivacaine. To assess the clinical efficacy of ropivacaine when used for postoperative epidural analgesia and to provide recommendations for clinical practice. DATA SOURCES: Search in the Medline data base of original articles in French and English published since 1995, using the following key words: ropivacaine, postoperative analgesia, epidural, caudal block. STUDY SELECTION: Prospective randomised studies in adults and children were selected. Letters to editors and editorials were excluded. DATA EXTRACTION: Articles have been analyzed: to determine the dose of ropivacaine required for postoperative epidural analgesia, to assess the benefits of combination of epidural ropivacaine and additives (opioids or other), to compare epidural ropivacaine and bupivacaine and to assess the use of ropivacaine via caudal route for paediatric postoperative analgesia. DATA SYNTHESIS: 20 mg h-1 of ropivacaine is required to provide effective analgesia. This dose produces a motor block in a significant number of patients. Combination with an opioid allows for a reduction in ropivacaine requirement and subsequently in the incidence of motor blockade. In adults, equipotency ratio of ropivacaine and bupivacaine varies between 1.5/1 and 1/1 depending upon the concentration used. At equipotent doses, early postoperative mobilisation is facilitated with ropivacaine. In case of paediatric caudal analgesia, this ratio is close to 1. CONCLUSIONS: Epidural ropivacaine combined with opioid provide good postoperative pain relief. Reduction in the incidence of motor blockade and safe toxicological profile make this local anaesthetic a suitable alternative of bupivacaine for postoperative epidural analgesia. [less ▲]

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See detailStunting may determine the severity of malaria-associated anemia in African children.
Verhoef, Hans; West, Clive E; Veenemans, Jacobien et al

in Pediatrics (2002), 110(4), 48

OBJECTIVE: Evidence from previous studies that malnourished children are protected against malaria is controversial. In individuals repeatedly exposed to malaria, immunity may develop first against severe ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: Evidence from previous studies that malnourished children are protected against malaria is controversial. In individuals repeatedly exposed to malaria, immunity may develop first against severe disease, then against pyrogens, and last, against parasites. If this is true, this would suggest that reduced immune function that may exist in stunted children exacerbates the severity of malarial signs and symptoms, rather than the occurrence of parasitemia. On the other hand, several studies have suggested that malnourished children are protected to some degree against malaria. Our aim was to evaluate whether observational data support the hypothesis that nutritional inadequacies that cause stunting modify the associations between malaria and hematologic indicators such as hemoglobin concentration and serum concentrations of C-reactive protein and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR). We showed earlier that increased serum concentrations of these receptors in asymptomatic malaria may be explained, at least in part, by increased erythropoiesis to compensate for malaria-induced hemolysis. METHODOLOGY: Community-based cluster survey among Kenyan children aged 2 to 36 months asymptomatic for malaria or anemia (n = 318). RESULTS: When adjusted for age and wasting, the malaria-associated decrease in mean hemoglobin concentration was 8.5 g/L and 15.8 g/L in nonstunted and stunted children, respectively. The malaria-associated increase in geometric mean serum concentrations of sTfR was 1.1-fold and 1.8-fold in nonstunted and stunted children, respectively. The malaria-associated increase in geometric mean serum concentrations of C-reactive protein was 1.4-fold and 2.3-fold in nonstunted and stunted children, respectively. Thus, children with malaria and those who were stunted suffered from more severe anemia and had higher serum concentrations of C-reactive protein and sTfR than would be expected from the combined effect of the 2 working independently. CONCLUSIONS: Our results are consistent with the notion that the nutritional inadequacies causing stunting also impair host immunity, thus increasing the degree to which malaria is associated with decreased concentrations of hemoglobin, with increased inflammation, and with increased iron demand in developing erythroblasts. Increased intake of micronutrients may not only reduce stunting and nutritional anemia, but also reduce malaria-associated anemia. [less ▲]

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See detailDétermination automatique de la taille du pas de temps pour les schémas implicites en dynamique non-linéaire
Noels, Ludovic ULg; Stainier, Laurent ULg; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg et al

in Mécanique & Industries (2002), 3(1), 63-77

Pour les problèmes caractérisés par de fortes non-linéarités, ainsi que des phénomènes d'impacts et de contacts, une stratégie d'intégration à pas de temps variables est particulièrement intéressante. Ces ... [more ▼]

Pour les problèmes caractérisés par de fortes non-linéarités, ainsi que des phénomènes d'impacts et de contacts, une stratégie d'intégration à pas de temps variables est particulièrement intéressante. Ces phénomènes sont par exemple rencontrés lors de l'étude dynamique d'une interaction aube-carter d'un moteur d'avion, le cas le plus critique étant la perte de l'aube. Une stratégie d'intégration implicite à pas de temps constant donne rarement satisfaction du fait qu'il est pratiquement impossible de déterminer une durée de pas qui ne conduise pas à la divergence ou à un coût de calcul prohibitif. Une gestion automatique du pas de temps, qui tient compte de l'histoire récente des accélérations dans le corps considéré, est proposée. En fait, l'algorithme est basé sur la mesure de l'erreur d'intégration des équations d'équilibre. Cela permet d'intégrer correctement les phénomènes transitoires avec un pas de temps très long (en régime) ou très petit (lors de la perte d'aube), en garantissant une bonne précision en un temps de calcul raisonnable. De plus, un algorithme qui décide automatiquement de recalculer ou non, la matrice hessienne est proposé. Cet algorithme permet d'éviter un nombre important de remises à jour de cette matrice, ce qui permet de réduire le coût de calcul tout en assurant la convergence. Enfin, un critère de divergence des itérations est proposé. Afin d'illustrer l'efficacité des algorithmes développés, des simulations numériques sont présentées. Il s'agit aussi bien de problèmes académiques que de problèmes industriels (contacts aubes carter). [less ▲]

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See detailModelling of an accelerometer based on a levitated proof mass
Houlihan, Ruth; Kraft, Michael ULg

in Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering (2002), 12(4), 495--503

A triaxial accelerometer is presented which employs as its proof mass a mechanically free micromachined disc that is electrostatically levitated. Air damping plays a critical role in the operation of the ... [more ▼]

A triaxial accelerometer is presented which employs as its proof mass a mechanically free micromachined disc that is electrostatically levitated. Air damping plays a critical role in the operation of the accelerometer, providing stability to an inherently unstable system. Systems that operate beyond the cut-off frequency, however, suffer reduced gain due to the spring component of the squeeze film damping, resulting in decreased sensitivity. A finite-element model for extracting squeeze film damping coefficients for transverse and rotational motion of the disc, via an analogy to heat transfer theory, is presented. The use of the analogy enables a reduction of the problem from a complex three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics domain to a two-dimensional heat transfer domain. The model is used to evaluate the effect of including damping holes in the proof mass. The high-frequency oscillation and physical size of the proof mass dictate that the accelerometer is operated well beyond its cut-off frequency and so the inclusion of damping holes in the proof mass can result in an increase rather than decrease in the damping coefficient. The resulting system-level model, implemented in Matlab/Simulink, is then used to evaluate the effect of the squeeze film damping on the device performance. [less ▲]

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See detailDesign of a foil-coiled inductor for the heating of steel wires
De coster, Jeroen; Deliège, Geoffrey ULg; Henrotte, François et al

in IEE Proceedings - Science, Measurement & Technology (2002), 149(5), 203-206

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See detailLes Parents maltraités
Malchair, Alain ULg

in Neurone (2002), 7(3), 83-86

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See detailCoCl2, a chemical inducer of hypoxia-inducible factor-1, and hypoxia reduce apoptotic cell death in hepatoma cell line HepG2.
Piret, Jean-Pascal; Mottet, Denis ULg; Raes, Martine et al

in Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (2002), 973

HIF-1 (hypoxia-inducible factor-1) is the major transcription factor that is specifically activated during hypoxia. This transcription factor is composed of two subunits: HIF-1alpha and ARNT (aryl ... [more ▼]

HIF-1 (hypoxia-inducible factor-1) is the major transcription factor that is specifically activated during hypoxia. This transcription factor is composed of two subunits: HIF-1alpha and ARNT (aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator). ARNT is constitutively expressed, whereas HIF-1alpha is targeted to proteasome degradation by ubiquitination during normoxia. In hypoxia, HIF-1alpha is stabilized and translocates to the nucleus, where it binds to ARNT. The active HIF-1 induces expression of various genes whose products play an adaptive role to the new conditions induced by hypoxia. Besides the role played by HIF-1 in the adaptation to hypoxia, recent data describe a possible role for HIF-1 in the modulation of apoptosis. According to some authors, hypoxia induces apoptosis. However, it has also been reported that hypoxia could protect cells against apoptotic cell death induced by various agents such as serum deprivation and incubation in the presence of chemotherapy agents. These contradictory data suggest that HIF-1 could display either a proapoptotic or an antiapoptotic role according to the conditions. In order to study how HIF-1 can modulate apoptosis, we studied whether hypoxia or cobalt chloride, a chemical inducer of HIF-1, could influence apoptosis induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP), serum deprivation, or both in hepatoma cell line HepG2. HepG2 cells were incubated 8 hours under normoxia or hypoxia in the presence of t-BHP with or without CoCl2. CoCl2 reduced the apoptotic death of HepG2 cells induced by t-BHP and serum deprivation, as measured by DNA fragmentation. This effect was confirmed by measurement of the caspase activity. Moreover, hypoxia also prevented t-BHP- or serum deprivation-induced DNA fragmentation and caspase activation-however, to a lower extent than CoCl2. These different data suggest a possible antiapoptotic role of HIF-1. More experiments are needed to define if HIF-1 actually plays an active role in cell death protection and to determine the exact mechanism underlying this effect. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the representation of real numbers using regular languages
Lecomte, Pierre ULg; Rigo, Michel ULg

in Theory of Computing Systems (2002), 35(1, JAN-FEB), 13-38

Using a lexicographically ordered regular language, we show how to represent an interval of R. We determine exactly the possible representations of any element in this interval and study the function ... [more ▼]

Using a lexicographically ordered regular language, we show how to represent an interval of R. We determine exactly the possible representations of any element in this interval and study the function which maps a representation onto its numerical value. We make explicit the relationship between the convergence of finite words to an infinite word and the convergence of the corresponding approximations to a real number. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization of recombinant human erythropoietin therapy after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Baron, Frédéric ULg; Sautois, Brieuc ULg; Baudoux, Etienne ULg et al

in Experimental hematology (2002), 30(6), 546-54

OBJECTIVE: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is associated with prolonged anemia caused by defective erythropoietin (Epo) production. We enrolled 34 recipients of an allogeneic ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is associated with prolonged anemia caused by defective erythropoietin (Epo) production. We enrolled 34 recipients of an allogeneic HSCT in three consecutive trials to determine the optimal utilization of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEpo) therapy in this setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the first trial (n = 7), rhEpo 1400 U/kg/week was given from day 1 until a hemoglobin (Hb) level of 10 g/dL was achieved, for a maximum of 60 days. In the second trial, rhEpo 500 U/kg/week was given to achieve Hb levels of 13 to 14 g/dL in 13 anemic patients with fatigue 56 to 1440 days after transplant. In the third trial, rhEpo was scheduled to start on day 35 in 14 patients at a dose of 500 U/kg/week with the aim of achieving Hb levels of 13 to 14 g/dL. RESULTS: In trial 1, erythroid recovery to 1% reticulocytes and red blood cell transfusion independence were faster, but the number of transfusions was not reduced compared to 10 controls. Responses were brisk in trial 2, with transfusion independence achieved after a median of 1 week in 12 of 13 patients, and 2-g Hb increments or Hb values of 11, 12, and 13 g/dL after 6, 7, 10, and 10 weeks, respectively. Transfusions were significantly reduced in the first month of rhEpo therapy. In trial 3, transfusion independence was obtained after a median of 1 week in 13 of 14 patients, and 2-g Hb increments or Hb values of 11, 12, and 13 g/dL after 3, 4, 6, and 8 weeks, respectively. Transfusions rates were considerably reduced compared to the previous month in the same patients or compared to controls undergoing peripheral blood or marrow transplant without rhEpo. CONCLUSIONS: Anemia after allogeneic HSCT is exquisitely sensitive to rhEpo. The benefit is minimal when it is given early post-transplant, as used in all trials to date. However, the rate of major response is greater than 90% when rhEpo is started after day 35. These data provide the basis on which to conduct a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of rhEpo therapy after allogeneic HSCT. [less ▲]

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See detailComposite structures optimization using sequential convex programming
Bruyneel, Michaël ULg; Fleury, Claude ULg

in Advances in Engineering Software (2002), 33(7-10), 697-711

The design of composite structures is considered here. The approximation concepts approach is used to solve the optimization problem. The convex approximations of the MMA family are briefly described ... [more ▼]

The design of composite structures is considered here. The approximation concepts approach is used to solve the optimization problem. The convex approximations of the MMA family are briefly described. Several modifications of these approximations are presented. They are now based on gradient information at two successive iterations, avoiding the use of the expensive second-order derivatives. A two-point fitting scheme is also described, where the function value at the preceding design point is used to improve the approximation. Numerical examples compare these new purely non-monotonous schemes to the existing ones for the selection of optimal fibers orientations in laminates. It is shown how these two-point based approximations are well adapted to the problem and can improve the optimization task, leading to reasonable computational efforts. A procedure is also derived for considering simultaneously monotonous and non-monotonous structural behaviors. The resulting generalized approximation scheme is well suited for the optimization of composite structures when both plies thickness and fibers orientations are considered as design variables. It is concluded that the newly developed approximation schemes of the MMA family are reliable for composite structures optimization. All the studied approximations are convex and separable: the optimization problem can then be solved using a dual approach. (C) 2002 Civil-Comp Ltd and Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailPlacental GH, IGF-I, IGF-binding protein-1 and leptin during a glucose challenge test in pregnant women : relation with maternal body weight, glucose tolerance, and birth weight
Verhaeghe, J.; Pintiaux, Axelle ULg; Van Herck, E. et al

in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (2002), 87(6), 2875-2882

The prediction of birth weight may be improved by the measurement of hormones or growth factors in the mother. We measured body weight (BW) and plasma levels of placental GH (PGH), IGF-I, IGF-binding ... [more ▼]

The prediction of birth weight may be improved by the measurement of hormones or growth factors in the mother. We measured body weight (BW) and plasma levels of placental GH (PGH), IGF-I, IGF-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), and leptin at the time of the glucose challenge test (GCT) in 289 women, who were pregnant with a single fetus, between 24 and 29 wk gestational age (GA). Delivery occurred 12 +/- 2 (mean +/- SD) wk later. First, we examined which variables regulate these hormonal factors. Multiple regression showed that PGH concentrations were determined by GA at sampling and were negatively related to BW. IGF-I levels were mainly determined by PGH, and also by insulin, BW, and (negatively) age. IGFBP-1 concentrations were negatively determined by BW, insulin, and IGF-I. BW was also a powerful determinant of leptin levels, with insulin as a less robust determinant. Second, we examined the relation to glucose levels. PGH, IGF-I, and IGFBP-1 concentrations were not correlated with post-GCT glucose levels and were comparable in women with a normal or disturbed GCT (glucose >/=7.8 mmol/liter; n = 72). Finally, we examined the relation with birth weight and placental weight. Birth weight, corrected for GA and stratified into percentile groups, and the ponderal index at birth were strongly related to maternal BW, but not to maternal PGH, IGF-I, or IGFBP-1 levels. Neither was maternal leptin related to birth weight, but leptin concentrations were slightly higher in women who delivered obese babies. Placental weight was not related to any of the hormonal factors. This prospective study indicates that the variation in circulating PGH, IGF-I, IGFBP-1, and leptin between 24 and 29 wk of pregnancy is strongly dependent on maternal BW, but is unrelated to glucose tolerance. In addition, the measurement of PGH, IGF-I, IGFBP-1, or leptin at the time of the GCT is not useful clinically to predict birth weight. [less ▲]

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See detailResearch on Instruction in Physical Education. Review of the Research in Selected Roman Languages.
Piéron, Maurice ULg; Cloes, Marc ULg

in International Journal of Physical Education (2002), 39(1), 12-20

In French, the term "intervention" is used since a few years. The paper will: (1) deal with the topic of instruction limites to teachers' decisions and interventions during the interactive phase in ... [more ▼]

In French, the term "intervention" is used since a few years. The paper will: (1) deal with the topic of instruction limites to teachers' decisions and interventions during the interactive phase in teaching; during this phase, activities planned in the pre-interactive phase are implemented: the interactive phase concerns the task's presentation, the pupils' activity and the control of this activity in terms of behavioural management and of the quality of the eprformance (feedback); (2) refer to the main research methods used in gathering data, and (3) develop the main findings in the domain of instruction: teacher thinking and behaviour, pupils' thoughts and behaviour, management of the class or in other words control of pupils' behaviour. It is evident that thougts and behaviours are closely related and are part of the relationship between teachers and pupils. The paper focused only on texts appearing in French, Portuguese and Spanish published since 1997 in Physical eeducation journals and Proceeddings of international congresses. [less ▲]

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See detailLa certification des modes de production de la viande sous label
De Longueville, Bertrand; Peeters, Alain; Stassart, Pierre M ULg

in Wallonie : Revue du Conseil Economique et Social de la Région Wallonne (2002)

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See detailThe genetic absence epilepsy rat from Strasbourg (GAERS), a rat model of absence epilepsy: Computer modeling and differential gene expression
Lakaye, Bernard ULg; Thomas, E.; Minet, Arlette ULg et al

in Epilepsia (2002), 43(Suppl. 5), 123-129

Purpose: We present results obtained by computer modeling of the thalamic network and differential gene expression analysis in a rat strain with absence epilepsy, the genetic absence epilepsy rat from ... [more ▼]

Purpose: We present results obtained by computer modeling of the thalamic network and differential gene expression analysis in a rat strain with absence epilepsy, the genetic absence epilepsy rat from Strasbourg (GAERS). Methods: (a) Computer modeling used equations from the Hodgking-Huxley model with a circuit of 13 reticular thalamic (nRt) and 39 thalamocortical (TC) neurons; (b) gene-expression analysis using differential mRNA display (DD), in situ hybridization, Northern blotting, and competitive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: (a) Computer modeling showed an increased network synchrony in the thalamic circuit as the value of conductance of low-voltage activated calcium channel (LVACC) is increased. (b) Using differential mRNA display, a 40% upregulation of the H-ferritin mRNA in the hippocampus was demonstrated. Looking for some candidate genes of the VACC family, no difference was found in the alpha1G mRNA expression between GAERS and control animals, whereas a decreased expression of the alpha1E subunit was observed in the cerebellum and the brainstem of the GAERS. This phenomenon was not observed in young animals when the epileptic phenotype is not expressed. Conclusions: The use of computer modeling appeared to be an efficient way to evaluate the impacts of electrophysiologic findings in vivo from single cells on an entire circuit. No clear single gene defect was revealed so far in GAERS. More information could arise from linkage analysis. However, some brain structures like hippocampus or cerebellum classically not known to be involved in the production of absence spike-and-wave discharges could in fact participate in the development of this phenotype. [less ▲]

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See detailHarmonic-Balance Finite-Element Modelling of Electromagnetic Devices: A Novel Approach
Gyselinck, J.; Dular, Patrick ULg; Geuzaine, Christophe ULg et al

in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics (2002), 38(2), 521--524

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See detailCompte rendu de A. BRÄM, Das Andachtsbuch der Marie de Gavre
George, Philippe ULg

in Moyen Age (Le) (2002)

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See detailLe vol du cheval sacré
Swennen, Philippe ULg

in Acta Orientalia Belgica (2002), XVI

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See detailTexture evolution during deep-drawing processes
Duchene, Laurent ULg; Godinas, A.; Cescotto, Serge ULg et al

in Journal of Materials Processing Technology (2002), 125-126

This paper presents a constitutive law based on Taylor’s model implemented in our non-linear finite element code LAGAMINE. The yield locus is only locally described and a particular interpolation method ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a constitutive law based on Taylor’s model implemented in our non-linear finite element code LAGAMINE. The yield locus is only locally described and a particular interpolation method has been developed. This local yield locus model uses a discrete representation of the material’s texture. The interpolation method is presented and a deep-drawing application is simulated in order to show up the influence of the texture evolution during forming processes. [less ▲]

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See detailA multicenter randomized trial of ketoconazole 2% and zinc pyrithione 1% shampoos in severe dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis.
Pierard, Claudine ULg; Goffin, Véronique ULg; Decroix, Jacques et al

in Skin Pharmacology & Applied Skin Physiology (2002), 15(6), 434-41

Ketoconazole (KET) and zinc pyrithione (ZPT) are compounds active against the Malassezia spp. yeasts, which are believed to play a major role in dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis. We compared the ... [more ▼]

Ketoconazole (KET) and zinc pyrithione (ZPT) are compounds active against the Malassezia spp. yeasts, which are believed to play a major role in dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis. We compared the efficacy and safety of KET 2% and ZPT 1% in shampoo formulations for the alleviation of severe dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis. This open randomized, parallel-group trial began with a 2-week run-in phase during which subjects applied a neutral non-antidandruff shampoo. It was followed by a 4-week randomized treatment phase and a subsequent 4-week follow-up phase without treatment. Shampooing during the treatment period was carried out twice weekly for the KET group and at least twice weekly for the ZPT group in accordance with the label instructions. A total of 343 subjects were recruited to enter the trial. Of the 331 eligible volunteers, 171 were randomized to KET 2% and 160 to ZPT 1%. Clinical assessments were performed. Beneficial effects were evidenced for both medicated shampoos, but the effect was significantly better for KET 2%, which achieved a 73% improvement in the total dandruff severity score compared with 67% for ZPT 1% at week 4 (p < 0.02). The recurrence rate of the disease was also significantly lower following KET 2% treatment than following ZPT 1% treatment. As a consequence, the overall clearing of the skin condition at the end of treatment and follow-up phase was in favor of the KET 2% formulation (p = 0.004). Side effects were minimal. It is concluded that after a 4-week treatment, KET 2% shampoo was significantly superior to ZPT 1% shampoo in the treatment of subjects with severe dandruff or seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp. It is our assumption that this difference is noticeable for the patient and as a consequence relevant. Both formulations were well tolerated. [less ▲]

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See detailLa dignité humaine comme concept juridique
Fierens, Jacques ULg

in Journal des Tribunaux (2002)

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See detailThe flowering process: On the track of controlling factors in Sinapis alba
Bernier, Georges ULg; Corbesier, Laurent; Périlleux, Claire ULg

in Russian Journal of Plant Physiology (2002), 49(4, JUL-AUG), 445-450

The major physiological theories of the control of the flowering process are first presented and their inferences tested in the long-day plant Sinapis alba. Then, the genetic analyses of the control of ... [more ▼]

The major physiological theories of the control of the flowering process are first presented and their inferences tested in the long-day plant Sinapis alba. Then, the genetic analyses of the control of flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana are also summarized with a brief overview of the several pathways, each including several genes, identified. Clearly, both the experimental data of physiological experiments and the multiplicity of interacting genetic pathways best support the theory of the multifactorial control of flowering. This is further shown by the fact that a critical gene expressed in the shoot meristem at floral transition in S. alba, MADS A (orthologous to A. thaliana SOC1), can be upregulated by a single dose of a cytokinin or a gibberellin, without leading to flowering. This indicates that the floral shift requires upregulation of other genes by other factors. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of peripartum dietary supplements on productive/reproductive parameters in plasma concentration of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I in camels.
Hammadi, M.; Khorchani, T.; Moslah, M. et al

in Advances in Reproduction (2002), 6

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See detailL'école médicale d'Alexandrie et son influence sur la médecine de l'Egypte gréco-romaine
Marganne, Marie-Hélène ULg

in Medicina nei Secoli : Arte e Scienza (2002), 14(2), 359-82

The paper provides new information on the most famous centre of rational medicine in the Graeco-Roman world and its influence in Egypt. It uses at its point of departure a remarkable but insufficiently ... [more ▼]

The paper provides new information on the most famous centre of rational medicine in the Graeco-Roman world and its influence in Egypt. It uses at its point of departure a remarkable but insufficiently known documentation: Greek literary papyri (from IV/III B.C. to A.D. VI/VII), which often are unique witnesses to lost medical works, bearing testimony to original theories, practices and vocabulary. [less ▲]

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