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See detailThe Topology Of Lysine-Containing Amphipathic Peptides In Bilayers By Circular Dichroism, Solid-State Nmr, And Molecular Modeling
Vogt, B.; Ducarme, P.; Schinzel, S. et al

in Biophysical Journal (2000), 79(5), 2644-56

In order to better understand the driving forces that determine the alignment of amphipathic helical polypeptides with respect to the surface of phospholipid bilayers, lysine-containing peptide sequences ... [more ▼]

In order to better understand the driving forces that determine the alignment of amphipathic helical polypeptides with respect to the surface of phospholipid bilayers, lysine-containing peptide sequences were designed, prepared by solid-phase chemical synthesis, and reconstituted into membranes. CD spectroscopy indicates that all peptides exhibit a high degree of helicity in the presence of SDS micelles or POPC small unilamellar vesicles. Proton-decoupled (31)P-NMR solid-state NMR spectroscopy demonstrates that in the presence of peptides liquid crystalline phosphatidylcholine membranes orient well along glass surfaces. Thenorientational distribution and dynamics of peptides labeled with (15)N at selected sites were investigated by proton-decoupled (15)N solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Polypeptides with a single lysine residue adopt a transmembrane orientation, thereby locating this polar amino acid within the core region of the bilayer. In contrast, peptides with > or = 3 lysines reside along the surface of the membrane. With 2 lysines in the center of an otherwise hydrophobic amino acid sequence the peptides assume a broad orientational distribution. The energy of lysine discharge, hydrophobic, polar, and all other interactions are estimated to quantitatively describe the polypeptide topologies observed. Furthermore, a molecular modeling algorithm based on the hydrophobicities of atoms in a continuous hydrophilic-hydrophobic-hydrophilic potential describes the experimentally observed peptide topologies well. [less ▲]

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See detailSerotonergic-1a activity and contingent negative variation.
Hansenne, Michel ULg; Pitchot, William ULg; Pinto, Emmanuel ULg et al

in Biological Psychology (2000), 52(3), 259-65

While cholinergic, dopaminergic, noradrenergic, and gabaergic effects on contingent negative variation (CNV) have been largely described, little is known about serotonergic influence. Therefore, the ... [more ▼]

While cholinergic, dopaminergic, noradrenergic, and gabaergic effects on contingent negative variation (CNV) have been largely described, little is known about serotonergic influence. Therefore, the relationship between CNV and serotonergic activity as reflected by prolactin (PRL) response to flesinoxan, a 5-HT(1A) full agonist, has been investigated in 28 healthy volunteers. To investigate the clinical implications of the relationship between CNV and serotonergic-1a activity, a group of 43 depressed patients was included in the study. Results among healthy volunteers showed a significant negative relationship between PRL response to flesinoxan and CNV amplitude at Fz, but no relationship for the other electrodes (Cz and Pz). In depressed patients, the relationships were not significant. Overall, this study does not support serotonergic effects on CNV. However, this information is indirect (correlations) and is limited to 5-HT(1A) activity. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Efficacy of Two Vaccination Schemes against Experimental Infection with a Virulent Amyxomatous or a Virulent Nodular Myxoma Virus Strain
Marlier, Didier ULg; Mainil, Jacques ULg; Boucraut-Baralon, C. et al

in Journal of Comparative Pathology (2000), 122(2-3, Feb-Apr), 115-22

Two types of myxomatosis vaccine are available commercially, namely, vaccine prepared from the Shope fibroma virus (SFV) and that prepared from an attenuated myxoma virus (MV) strain, e.gSG33. An ... [more ▼]

Two types of myxomatosis vaccine are available commercially, namely, vaccine prepared from the Shope fibroma virus (SFV) and that prepared from an attenuated myxoma virus (MV) strain, e.gSG33. An experiment was designed to compare two vaccination schemes for their ability to protect rabbits against challenge with either a virulent amyxomatous MV strain or a virulent nodular MV strain. Apart from a difference in the cutaneous expression of the disease, the two challenge strains resembled each other in respect of mortality rate, naso-conjunctival shedding of virus, and tissue infection. Vaccination with SFV alone failed to prevent clinical signs, naso-conjunctival shedding or tissue infection. Vaccination with SFV followed by a booster inoculation with SG33 protected rabbits against the development of clinical signs and significantly reduced both viral shedding in naso-conjunctival exudates and viral infection of eyelids, lungs and testes; virus was, however, isolated from testes of some surviving animals. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh Resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy Investigation of the Vibrational Structure and Order of an Octadecanethiol Monolayer on Gold Substrates
Duwez, Anne-Sophie ULg; Yu, Li-Ming; Riga, Joseph et al

in Journal of Physical Chemistry B (2000), 104

The vibrational spectra induced by electron beam from octadecanethiol monolayers adsorbed on gold are reported as a contribution to study in detail the structure of the layers, through an analysis of the ... [more ▼]

The vibrational spectra induced by electron beam from octadecanethiol monolayers adsorbed on gold are reported as a contribution to study in detail the structure of the layers, through an analysis of the interaction mechanisms between the electrons and these organic ultrathin films. To show the different spatial distribution of scattered electrons from dipole and impact interactions with the monolayer, angular distributions of elastic and inelastic scattered electrons were measured for various primary energies. The absolute electron scattering loss probabilities from both dipole and impact interactions were estimated for different vibrational modes. The study of these different mechanisms was first hampered by the poor order of the layers adsorbed on evaporated gold. It became therefore highly desirable to perform the experiments on a single-crystal substrate. Using Au(111) and Au(100) single crystals as substrates, it was possible to separate the spectral response from impact and dipole interacting electrons. A negative ion resonant behavior has been observed in the energy dependence of the electron scattering differential cross sections [less ▲]

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See detailThe afa-related gene cluster in necrotoxigenic and other Escherichia coli from animals belongs to the afa-8 variant
Gérardin, J.; Lalioui, L.; Jacquemin, E. et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (2000), 76

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See detailTaurine and ethanol preference : a microdialysis study using Sardinian alcohol-preferring and non-preferring rats
Quertemont, Etienne ULg; Lallemand, Frédéric; Colombo, Giancarlo et al

in European Neuropsychopharmacology (2000), 10

Recent intracerebral microdialysis studies of different rat brain regions have shown that an acute ethanol injection induced a rapid dose-dependent increase in taurine microdialysate content during the ... [more ▼]

Recent intracerebral microdialysis studies of different rat brain regions have shown that an acute ethanol injection induced a rapid dose-dependent increase in taurine microdialysate content during the first 60-min period. In taurine-supplemented rats, a reduced aversion for high ethanol doses was observed in a place conditioning paradigm, suggesting that taurine may be implicated in the regulation of some adverse effects of ethanol. The present study compares the effects of acute ethanol injections (1.0 and 2.0 g/ kg, i.p.) on taurine nucleus accumbens microdialysate content in Sardinian ethanol-preferring (sP) and Sardinian ethanol-non preferring (sNP) rats. While neither saline nor 1.0 g/kg ethanol injections had significant effect on taurine microdialysate concentration, 2.0 g/kg ethanol administration induced a rapid and significant increase in taurine microdialysate content in both sP and sNP rats. However, this ethanol-induced taurine release was significantly reduced in sP rats by comparison to sNP rats. As taurine is suggested to be released by brain cells to modulate different ethanol adverse effects, this lower taurine responsiveness to ethanol in sP rats by comparison to both sNP and Wistar rats may be a relevant indicator of reduced ethanol aversive effects in such animals and therefore be related to their higher alcohol consumption. [less ▲]

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See detailSuccessful mobilization of peripheral blood HPCs with G-CSF alone in patients failing to achieve sufficient numbers of CD34+ cells and/or CFU-GM with chemotherapy and G-CSF.
Fraipont, V.; Sautois, Brieuc ULg; Baudoux, Etienne ULg et al

in Transfusion (2000), 40(3), 339-47

BACKGROUND: Mobilization with chemotherapy and G-CSF may result in poor peripheral blood HPC collection, yielding <2 x 10(6) CD34+ cells per kg or <10 x 10(4) CFU-GM per kg in leukapheresis procedures ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Mobilization with chemotherapy and G-CSF may result in poor peripheral blood HPC collection, yielding <2 x 10(6) CD34+ cells per kg or <10 x 10(4) CFU-GM per kg in leukapheresis procedures. The best mobilization strategy for oncology patients remains unclear. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: In 27 patients who met either the CD34 (n = 3) or CFU-GM (n = 2) criteria or both (n = 22), the results obtained with two successive strategies-that is, chemotherapy and G-CSF at 10 microg per kg (Group 1, n = 7) and G-CSF at 10 microg per kg alone (Group 2, n = 20) used for a second mobilization course-were retrospectively analyzed. The patients had non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (5), Hodgkin's disease (3), multiple myeloma (5), chronic myeloid leukemia (1), acute myeloid leukemia (1), breast cancer (6), or other solid tumors (6). Previous therapy consisted of 10 (1-31) cycles of chemotherapy with additional chlorambucil (n = 3), interferon (n = 3), and radiotherapy (n = 7). RESULTS: The second collection was undertaken a median of 35 days after the first one. In Group 1, the results of the two mobilizations were identical. In Group 2, the number of CD34+ cells per kg per apheresis (0.17 [0.02-0.45] vs. 0.44 [0.11-0.45], p = 0. 00002), as well as the number of CFU-GM (0.88 [0.00-13.37] vs. 4.19 [0.96-21.61], p = 0.00003), BFU-E (0.83 [0.00-12.72] vs. 8.81 [1. 38-32.51], p = 0.00001), and CFU-MIX (0.10 [0.00-1.70] vs. 0.56 [0. 00-2.64], p = 0.001134) were significantly higher in the second peripheral blood HPC collection. However, yields per apheresis during the second collection did not significantly differ in the two groups. Six patients in Group 1 and 18 in Group 2 underwent transplantation, and all but one achieved engraftment, with a median of 15 versus 12 days to 1,000 neutrophils (NS), 22 versus 16 days to 1 percent reticulocytes (NS), and 26 versus 26 days to 20,000 platelets (NS), respectively. However, platelet engraftment was particularly delayed in many patients. CONCLUSION: G-CSF at 10 microg per kg alone may constitute a valid alternative to chemotherapy and G-CSF to obtain adequate numbers of peripheral blood HPCs in patients who previously failed to achieve mobilization with chemotherapy and G-CSF. This strategy should be tested in prospective randomized trials. [less ▲]

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See detailp63 is a prostate basal cell marker and is required for prostate development.
Signoretti, Sabina; Waltregny, David ULg; Dilks, James et al

in American Journal of Pathology (2000), 157(6), 1769-75

The p53 homologue p63 encodes for different isotypes able to either transactivate p53 reporter genes (TAp63) or act as p53-dominant-negatives (DeltaNp63). p63 is expressed in the basal cells of many ... [more ▼]

The p53 homologue p63 encodes for different isotypes able to either transactivate p53 reporter genes (TAp63) or act as p53-dominant-negatives (DeltaNp63). p63 is expressed in the basal cells of many epithelial organs and its germline inactivation in the mouse results in agenesis of organs such as skin appendages and the breast. Here, we show that prostate basal cells, but not secretory or neuroendocrine cells, express p63. In addition, prostate basal cells in culture predominantly express the DeltaNp63alpha isotype. In contrast, p63 protein is not detected in human prostate adenocarcinomas. Finally, and most importantly, p63(-/-) mice do not develop the prostate. These results indicate that p63 is required for prostate development and support the hypothesis that basal cells represent and/or include prostate stem cells. Furthermore, our results show that p63 immunohistochemistry may be a valuable tool in the differential diagnosis of benign versus malignant prostatic lesions. [less ▲]

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See detailLa spatio-cartographie
Donnay, Jean-Paul ULg

in Bulletin de la Société Géographique de Liège (2000), 38(1),

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See detailP300 event-related brain potential and personality in depression.
Hansenne, Michel ULg; Pitchot, William ULg; Pinto, Emmanuel ULg et al

in European Psychiatry (2000), 15(6), 370-7

P300 is an event-related brain potential (ERP) particularly interesting to the study of cognitive processes in normal subjects and in psychopathology. P300 has been applied in depression with ... [more ▼]

P300 is an event-related brain potential (ERP) particularly interesting to the study of cognitive processes in normal subjects and in psychopathology. P300 has been applied in depression with controversial results. A major source for these controversial results could result from the diversity of depressed patients included in the different studies. Supporting this assumption, impulsivity, blunted affect, suicidal behavior and psychotic features significantly influence P300 amplitude. However, no data are available on the possible influences of the personality of depressed patients on P300. Since personality is related to P300 in normal subjects, the aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between ERPs (P200, N200, and P300) and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) in 54 depressed patients. The main results of the study concern the absence of major correlations between personality dimensions as assessed by the TCI and ERP parameters among depressed patients. Only weak partial positive correlations relate N200 latency with harm avoidance, and P300 amplitude (Pz) with the self-directedness dimension. N200 amplitude is also negatively correlated to persistence. However, the preliminary nature of the presented results with respect to the weak statistical significance should be underlined. [less ▲]

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See detailParticipation d'élèves de l'enseignement secondaire à des activités sportives extrascolaires. Comparaison selon leur niveau d'habileté
Piéron, Maurice ULg; Ledent, Maryse ULg; Delfosse, Catherine ULg et al

in Revue de l'Education Physique (2000), 40(2), 61-72

Les auteurs font partie du service de Pédagogie des activités physiques et sportives de l’Université de Liège. Ils ont effectué une étude portant sur le traitement différencié des élèves par les ... [more ▼]

Les auteurs font partie du service de Pédagogie des activités physiques et sportives de l’Université de Liège. Ils ont effectué une étude portant sur le traitement différencié des élèves par les enseignements en éducation physique, subventionnée par la Communauté française de Belgique, Administration de l’Enseignement et de la Recherche Scientifique. [less ▲]

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See detailLes spatiocartes d'occupation du sol
Binard, Marc ULg; Donnay, Jean-Paul ULg

in Bulletin de la Société Géographique de Liège (2000), 38(2000/1), 63-78

Les spatiocartes d'occupation du sol sont dérivées de la classification d'une ou plusieurs images satellite selon une nomenclature conventionnelle des affectations du sol. En importance, elles constituent ... [more ▼]

Les spatiocartes d'occupation du sol sont dérivées de la classification d'une ou plusieurs images satellite selon une nomenclature conventionnelle des affectations du sol. En importance, elles constituent sans doute le second type de spatiocartes le plus couramment produit, après les spatiocartes en composition colorée. Vis-à-vis de ces dernières, les spatiocartes d'occupation du sol relèvent cependant d'une toute autre logique et procèdent d'une méthodologie très différente. La composition colorée est conçue pour laisser au lecteur le soin d'interpréter l'image en fonction de ses propres centres d'intérêt, et les techniques sélectionnées pour son élaboration doivent précisément favoriser la reconnaissance et l'identification visuelle d'un maximum de détails. La spatiocarte d'occupation du sol, par contre, répond à un objectif précis et déterminé a priori. Tout, depuis la sélection des images sources jusqu'à la sélection des couleurs, en passant par le choix de l'échelle et la fixation de la nomenclature, est dicté par une thématique unique. Les méthodes de classification, elles-mêmes, ne sont pas indépendantes de l'objectif poursuivi. Le but de ce chapitre n'est pourtant pas de discourir sur les multiples algorithmes de classification des images. Une très volumineuse littérature, en constante évolution, y est consacrée (Atkinson & Lewis, 2000, Chin-Teng et al., 2000, Simpson et al., 2000). Les méthodes les plus traditionnelles, relevant de l'interprétation d'images assistée par ordinateur, co-existent avec les méthodes les plus récentes, telles les classifications par réseaux de neurones ou les classifications bayesiennes. L'utilisation de l'une ou l'autre méthode, voire de plusieurs en chaîne, se justifie à l'occasion de tel ou tel cas de figure mais elles n'interfèrent guère sur la préoccupation présente qui consiste à transformer une image classée en une carte. On conçoit dès lors que les traitements dont il sera question se situent en aval du processus de classification proprement dit. Quelques considérations seront pourtant émises sur les préalables de la classification et sur la nature et la qualité de l'image classée, dans la mesure où elles peuvent orienter l'élaboration de la spatiocarte. Par contre, les divers traitements relevant de l'habillage ou de l'impression, communs à toute spatiocarte quelle qu'en soit la facture, sont réservés à des chapitres ultérieurs. De même, quelques opérations complexes, susceptibles d'intervenir dans la réalisation de certaines spatiocartes de l'occupation du sol, mais exigeant un bagage méthodologique important, sont développées dans des chapitres spécifiques auxquels nous renverrons le moment venu. [less ▲]

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See detailL'immigrazione italiana in Belgio
Martiniello, Marco ULg

in I Viaggi di Erodoto (2000), 40

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See detailDétermination des puissances spécifiques critiques dans des rivières à charge de fond caillouteuse
Petit, François ULg; Perpinien, G.; Deroanne, Claude ULg

in Revue Géographique de l'Est (2000)

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See detailMeasurements of the ground state ionization energy and wavelengths for the nl-nl' transitions of Ni XIX (n=4-15) and Ge XXIII (n=7-9)
Biémont, Emile ULg; Magunov, A. I.; Dyakin, V. M. et al

in Journal of Physics : B Atomic Molecular & Optical Physics (2000), 33

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See detailLa prescription des pensions alimentaires allouées par décision de justice. Note sous Liège, 18 octobre 1999
Kohl, Benoît ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2000)

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See detailPart 9: Shrinkage for service and accident conditions
Schneider, Ulrich; Schwesinger, P.; Debicki, Gérard et al

in Materials and Structures (2000), 33

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See detailOnze ans de responsabilité médicale pénale sur le ressort de la Cour d'appel de Liège du 01.01.1985 au 31.12.1995
Boxho, Philippe ULg

in Journal de Médecine Légale, Droit Médical (2000), 78/43

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See detailEating and Body Representations and Practices in Adolescence. Preliminary Results.
D'Amore, Salvatore ULg

in European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2000), 54(4), 9

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See detailCompte-rendu de Sandra Laugier, Quelle philosophie du langage aujourd'hui ?
Leclercq, Bruno ULg

in Recherches Husserliennes (2000), 13

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See detailPAM, sediments, and interrupted flow effects on rill erosion and Intake rate
Sirjacobs, Damien ULg; Shainberg, Itzhak; Rapp, Iddo et al

in Soil Science Society of America Journal (2000), 64

The reduction in the intake rate (IR) during interrupted irrigation is difficult to predict. Sediments in irrigation water decrease the effect of interrupted irrigation on IR. Polyacrylamide (PAM) reduces ... [more ▼]

The reduction in the intake rate (IR) during interrupted irrigation is difficult to predict. Sediments in irrigation water decrease the effect of interrupted irrigation on IR. Polyacrylamide (PAM) reduces rill erosion, but its effect on IR is controversial. The effects of water quality (tap water, tap water containing sediments, and 10 g m−3 PAM solution) and interrupted flow on IR and rill erosion in an Alfisol (Calcic Haploxeralf) and a Vertisol (Typic Chromoxerert) were studied using laboratory miniflumes. Rill erosion in both soils was eliminated by the PAM treatment in both continuous and interrupted flow. The PAM application reduced IR in the Alfisol and increased it in the Vertisol. In the Alfisol, interrupted flow reduced IR of the PAM solution by 37% compared with only 18% for tap water. In the Vertisol, interrupted flow reduced IR only slightly and the decrease was not affected by the polymer. When the water contained sediments, cumulative infiltration was reduced by 22% for the Vertisol and 59% for the Alfisol in comparison with tap water. These reductions were attributed to depositional seal formation. The IR of the Alfisol was more susceptible to depositional seal formation than the Vertisol. The presence of sediments in water was effective in reducing rill erosion. The effects of interrupted flow with PAM on reducing IR were explained by partial blocking of the conducting pores leading to greater suction and compaction of the soil surface. For sediment-laden irrigation water, interrupted flow had no advantage over continuous flow in reducing IR because of depositional seal formation associated with the sediments in the water. [less ▲]

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See detailBinding and release of metallic cations by a polyaniline-based resin
Jérôme, Christine ULg; Martinot, Lucien; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Radiochimica Acta (2000), 88(1), 39-46

The electrochemical control of the binding of metallic ions (actinides and a lanthanide) by redox active polyaniline resin, i.e., polyaniline doped by polystyrene sulfonate (Pani/PSSO3), has been studied ... [more ▼]

The electrochemical control of the binding of metallic ions (actinides and a lanthanide) by redox active polyaniline resin, i.e., polyaniline doped by polystyrene sulfonate (Pani/PSSO3), has been studied. Electrochemical and nuclear techniques (cyclic voltammetry, α -counting, Rutherford backscattering) have been used in order to characterize the exchange of thorium, lanthanum and uranium cations, particularly in terms of reversibility and efficiency. This electrochemical process has been compared with the chemical one promoted merely by pH variation, and the efficiency of the two methods has been discussed for each type of cation. [less ▲]

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See detailReactions involving inorganic compounds
Krief, A.; Delmotte, C.; Colaux, Catherine ULg

in Pure & Applied Chemistry (2000), 72(9), 1709-1713

Selenium chemistry became, over the last 30 years, particularly useful for synthetic organic chemistry [1]. Inorganic as well as organic selenium compounds allow transformation which otherwise cannot be ... [more ▼]

Selenium chemistry became, over the last 30 years, particularly useful for synthetic organic chemistry [1]. Inorganic as well as organic selenium compounds allow transformation which otherwise cannot be done or require much more drastic conditions to proceed. We have over the last 25 years explored the reactivity of elemental selenium as well as its inorganic and organic derivatives. We report here our recent finding concerning (i) organic diselenols and -diselenolates and (ii) the role of selenoxides in the enantioselective dihydroxylation of C,C double bonds using catalytic amounts of osmium tetroxide. [less ▲]

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See detailA quantitative study of peripheral blood stem cell contamination in diffuse large-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: one-half of patients significantly mobilize malignant cells.
Jacquy, C.; Soree, A.; Lambert, Frédéric ULg et al

in British Journal of Haematology (2000), 110(3), 631-7

Autologous transplantation using peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) collected after chemotherapy, followed by growth factor administration (ASCT), is increasingly used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's ... [more ▼]

Autologous transplantation using peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) collected after chemotherapy, followed by growth factor administration (ASCT), is increasingly used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). However, quantitative data regarding contaminating malignant cells in the harvests are still scarce. We prospectively investigated 37 diffuse large-cell lymphomas (DLCLs) in complete remission (CR) that were treated according to multicentric protocols at our centre. DNA was extracted from the diagnostic lymph node. The complementarity-determining region (CDR) III was sequenced and a patient-specific oligomer synthesized. Contamination was evaluated semiquantitatively by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and was confirmed by a limiting dilution analysis. PBSCs collected at regeneration after administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), steady-state bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood samples at CR were compared. DNA was available in 37 patients, from which 22 rearrangements could be sequenced. Patients (n = 15) who had both the required follow-up samples and a suitable clonal marker were investigated. In two cases, the patient-specific PCR assay set up at diagnosis later gave false-negative results in samples in which clonal DNA was still detectable by other sets of primers. PBSC contamination was highly variable: 7 out of 15 patients showed a PBSC/BM ratio of NHL cells greater than 1 log, whereas 8 out of 15 patients showed no difference and could vary from one apheresis to another. Eight ASCTs were performed, five of which used highly contaminated PBSCs: four patients relapsed early, three with disseminated lymphoma. Thus, 50% of DLCLs in CR seem to mobilize significantly malignant cells at regeneration under G-CSF. Considering the higher numbers of cells reinfused, this translates into a much higher number of lymphoma cells reinfused when compared with autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT). However, their clonogenic potential remains unknown and, despite concerning observations in certain cases, it is still unclear whether this has an impact upon the outcome of ASCT. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of ciliogenesis in the diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia in a dog
Clercx, Cécile ULg; Peeters, Dominique ULg; Beths, T. et al

in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association [=JAVMA] (2000), 11

Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a congenital condition that may cause chronic rhinitis and bronchopneumonia. Primary ciliary dyskinesia may be diagnosed by induction of ciliogenesis by use of in vitro cell ... [more ▼]

Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a congenital condition that may cause chronic rhinitis and bronchopneumonia. Primary ciliary dyskinesia may be diagnosed by induction of ciliogenesis by use of in vitro cell culture. Induction of ciliogenesis allows for differentiation between primary and secondary ciliary dyskinesia. [less ▲]

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See detailSucceeded plant regeneration from very immature embryos of Phaseolus vulgaris
Geerts, P.; Mergeai, Guy ULg; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Annual Report of the Bean Improvment Cooperative (2000), (43), 206-207

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See detailLe mélèze, une essence à haut potentiel de production
Pauwels, Dominique; Rondeux, Jacques ULg

in Silva Belgica (2000), 107(3), 6-10

Dans un précédent article "le mélèze, un atout dans les objectifs de diversification de notre sylviculture" (PAUWELS et RONDEUX, 2000), nous nous sommes efforcés de montrer que la culture du mélèze ... [more ▼]

Dans un précédent article "le mélèze, un atout dans les objectifs de diversification de notre sylviculture" (PAUWELS et RONDEUX, 2000), nous nous sommes efforcés de montrer que la culture du mélèze méritait, à plusieurs égards, d'être davantage prise en compte en Région wallonne et ce, pour autant qu'une sylviculture adaptée à l'essence et aux conditions du milieu soit appliquée. Les lignes qui suivent sont consacrées à des résultats originaux résultant d'une étude menée par l'Unité de Gestion et Economie forestières de la Faculté universitaire des Sciences agronomiques de Gembloux, sur la croissance des mélèzes en Région wallonne. Le potentiel de croissance du mélèze a été évalué à partir d'analyses de tiges ou de mesures réalisées au sein de placettes de production (figure 1) remesurées tous les 3 ans. A partir d'une exploitation appropriée de ces données, on a déduit une gamme de traitements sylvicoles capables de rencontrer les objectifs de production que l'essence permet d'atteindre. [less ▲]

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See detailLes encéphalopathies à herpèsvirus bovins
Meyer, Gilles; D'Offay, Jean; Thiry, Etienne ULg

in Point Vétérinaire (2000), 31

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See detailDexamethasone Ester Treatment Alters Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I, Its Binding Proteins And Thyroid Status In Finishing Calves
Bertozzi, C.; Portetelle, Daniel ULg; Massart, Serge et al

in Canadian Journal of Animal Science (2000), 80(2),

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See detailSimplification of boolean verification conditions
Gribomont, Pascal ULg

in Theoretical Computer Science (2000), 239(1), 165-185

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See detailModulation if growth hormone action by active immunization in dairy cows
Vleurick, Lieve; Deaver, Daniel; Bertozzi, Carlo et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2000), 4

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See detailSystèmes d’information géographique répartis ou distribués
Donnay, Jean-Paul ULg

in AM/FM-GIS BELUX News (2000), 17

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See detailA random matrix model for color superconductivity at zero chemical potential
Vanderheyden, Benoît ULg; Jackson, A. D.

in Physical Review. D : Particles and Fields (2000), 61(7), 076004

We discuss random matrix models for the spontaneous breaking of both chiral and color symmetries at zero chemical potential and finite temperature. Exploring different Lorentz and gauge symmetric color ... [more ▼]

We discuss random matrix models for the spontaneous breaking of both chiral and color symmetries at zero chemical potential and finite temperature. Exploring different Lorentz and gauge symmetric color structures of the random matrix interactions, we find that spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking is always thermodynamically preferred over diquark condensation. Stable diquark condensates appear only as SU(2) rotated chiral condensates, which do not represent an independent thermodynamic phase. Our analysis is based on general symmetry arguments and hence suggests that no stable and independent diquark phase can form in QCD with two flavors at zero quark chemical potential. [less ▲]

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See detailLes évaluations externes en Communauté française de Belgique : quel sens donner à la mesure ?
Lafontaine, Dominique ULg

in Cahiers du Service de Pédagogie Expérimentale (SPE) (2000), (1-2), 110-114

Quelles sont les origines et les modalités du dispositif d'évaluation externe mis en place en Communauté française de Belgique à partir de 1994-1995 ? Quelle(s) fonction(s) est-il supposé remplir ? L ... [more ▼]

Quelles sont les origines et les modalités du dispositif d'évaluation externe mis en place en Communauté française de Belgique à partir de 1994-1995 ? Quelle(s) fonction(s) est-il supposé remplir ? L'analyse met en évidence le paradoxe d'un dispositif institutionnel rejeté à la marge du cadre législatif et dont la définition des finalités est laissée à l'appréciation des acteurs appelés à le mettre en oeuvre. [less ▲]

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See detailRelative impact of a seagrass bed and its adjacent epilithic algal community in consumer diets
Lepoint, Gilles ULg; Nyssen, Fabienne ULg; Gobert, Sylvie ULg et al

in Marine Biology (2000), 136

The aim of this work was to identify and compare, using nitrogen and carbon stable isotope data, the food sources supporting consumer communities in a Mediterranean seagrass bed (Gulf of Calvi, Corsica ... [more ▼]

The aim of this work was to identify and compare, using nitrogen and carbon stable isotope data, the food sources supporting consumer communities in a Mediterranean seagrass bed (Gulf of Calvi, Corsica) with those in an adjacent epilithic algal dominated community. Isotopic data for consumers are not significantly different in the two communities. Particulate matter and algal material (seagrass epiflora and dominant epilithic macroalgae) appear to be the main food sources in both communities. Generally, the 13C of animals suggests that the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile represents only a minor component of their diet or of the diet of their prey, but the occurrence of a mixed diet is not excluded. P.oceanica dominates the diet of only of few species, among which holothurians appear as key components in the cycling of seagrass material. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Mild Hypothermic Cardiopulmonary Bypass on Eeg Bispectral Index
Dewandre, Pierre-Yves; Hans, Pol ULg; Bonhomme, Vincent ULg et al

in Acta Anaesthesiologica Belgica (2000), 51(3), 187-90

We studied the effect of mild hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (30 degrees C) on the EEG Bispectral Index in 10 patients undergoing elective CABG. BIS was recorded at 11 event-related time points during ... [more ▼]

We studied the effect of mild hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (30 degrees C) on the EEG Bispectral Index in 10 patients undergoing elective CABG. BIS was recorded at 11 event-related time points during the procedure. After a significant decrease at the induction of anaesthesia, BIS was not further modified during the procedure. BIS was neither affected by surgical stimulation nor by CPB and mild hypothermia. We conclude that we did not find any reason to preclude the use of BIS to assess the hypnotic effects of anaesthetics during normothermic or mild hypothermic CPB. [less ▲]

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See detailA FETD Approach for the Modeling of Antennas
Geuzaine, Christophe ULg; Meys, B.; Beauvois, Véronique ULg et al

in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics (2000), 36(4), 892--896

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See detailSpectroscopic properties of protochlorophyllide analyzed in situ in the course of etiolation and in illuminated leaves
Schoefs, B.; Bertrand, M.; Franck, Fabrice ULg

in Photochemistry & Photobiology (2000), 72(1), 85-93

The spectroscopic properties of photoactive (ie. flash-transformable) and nonphotoactive protochlorophyll(ide)s (Pchl(ide)) were reinvestigated during the development of bean leaves in darkness. Two ... [more ▼]

The spectroscopic properties of photoactive (ie. flash-transformable) and nonphotoactive protochlorophyll(ide)s (Pchl(ide)) were reinvestigated during the development of bean leaves in darkness. Two phases in the process of Pchl(ide) accumulation were apparent from quantitative measurements of pigment content: a lag phase (first week) during which photoactive Pchl(ide) accumulated faster than nonphotoactive Pchl(ide); and a fast phase (second week), showing parallel accumulation of both types of Pchl(ide). 'Flashed-minus-dark' absorbance difference spectra recorded in situ at 77 K showed that P650-655 was the predominant form of photoactive protochlorophyllide regardless of developmental stage. Quantitative analysis of energy migration processes between the Pchl(ide) forms showed the existence of energy transfer units containing a 1:8 ratio of nonphotoactive and photoactive Pchl(ide)s during development. Gaussian deconvolution of in situ 77 K fluorescence spectra indicated that the 633 nm band of nonphotoactive Pchl(ide) was made of four bands, at 625, 631, 637 and 643 nm, whose relative amplitudes only slightly changed during development. The emission band of photoactive Pchlide was also analyzed using the same method. Three components were found at 644, 652 and 657 nm, The emission band of P650-655 included the last two components, which become predominant only in fully etiolated plants. Photoactive Pchlide with an emission maximum at 653 nm was detected in the light during development of leaves of photoperiodically grown plants. [less ▲]

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See detailLa mémoire de travail : une approche neuropsychologique et par imagerie cérébrale
Collette, Fabienne ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in Thérapie (2000), 55(4), 455-460

The working memory model proposed by Baddeley and Hitch has frequently been used in cognitive psychology and neuropsychological studies. This model consists of several interacting components, responsible ... [more ▼]

The working memory model proposed by Baddeley and Hitch has frequently been used in cognitive psychology and neuropsychological studies. This model consists of several interacting components, responsible for the storage and processing of the information stored in working memory. Many neuropsychological and functional imagery data are consistent with that formulation of working memory. Moreover, many cognitive tasks have been specifically designed to explore particular aspects of working memory functioning. Taken as a whole, these data confirm that the working memory model remains a useful theoretical framework to explore memory functioning both in normal subjects and in pathological conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailJeux vidéos : enjeux et leurres
Leclercq, Dieudonné ULg; Denis, Brigitte ULg

in Education-Formation (2000)

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See detailConstruire l'esprit du dauphin
Servais, Véronique ULg

in Terrain (2000), 34

Comparisons are made of how the dolphin’s “mind” is “constructed” in six interactional contexts distinguished by the degree of participation (in the ethnological sense of the term) by human beings or even ... [more ▼]

Comparisons are made of how the dolphin’s “mind” is “constructed” in six interactional contexts distinguished by the degree of participation (in the ethnological sense of the term) by human beings or even by the dolphins themselves: the study of the brain, the study of sensorial capabilities, research on cognition, naturalistic observations, communication among dolphins, and meetings on the high sea. On the basis of these comparisons, it is argued that whether or not people attribute a “mind” to the dolphin very much depends on the degree of likeness that they recognize with these animals, which, in turn, depends on the person’s capacity to let himself be “affected” by them. [less ▲]

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See detailÀ la recherche du Candide liégeois
Droixhe, Daniel ULg

in Australian Journal of French Studies (2000), 37(2), 127-164

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See detailAnalysis of plasma IGF-I hormone levels in Holstein-Friesian Heifers
Horvai-Szabo, M.; Renaville, Robert ULg; Dohy, J.

in Journal of Dairy Science (2000), 83(suppl 1), 48

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See detailDielectronic structure of 2l-1s Transitions of Multicharged Ions of Argon with nuclear charges Z = 10 - 17
Biémont, Emile ULg; Quinet, Pascal ULg; Faenov, A.Ya et al

in Physica Scripta (2000), 61

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See detailHydrodynamical and ecosystem processes in ice-covered seas of the Southern and Northern Hemispheres
Goffart, Anne ULg; Hecq, Jean-Henri ULg

in Journal of Marine Systems (2000), 27

Preface of the 30th International Liège Colloquium on Ocean Hydrodynamics Liège, Belgium (May 4–8 1998) : Hydrodynamical and ecosystem processes in ice-covered seas of the Southern and Northern ... [more ▼]

Preface of the 30th International Liège Colloquium on Ocean Hydrodynamics Liège, Belgium (May 4–8 1998) : Hydrodynamical and ecosystem processes in ice-covered seas of the Southern and Northern Hemispheres. Issue of JMS edited by Anne Goffart and Jean-Henri Hecq. [less ▲]

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See detailAmphipods of a stony beach in the maritime Antarctic
Jazdzewski, Krzystov; De Broyer, Claude; Pudlarz, M. et al

in Polish Archives for Hydrobiology (2000), 47

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See detailEcoliers et apprentis-lecteurs : quelle est la motivation des enfants en première primaire ?
Hindryckx, Geneviève ULg; Lafontaine, Annette ULg; Schockert, C.

in Point sur la Recherche en Education (Le) (2000)

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See detailNew strictosidine beta-glucosidase from Strychnos mellodora
Brandt, Viviane; Geerlings, Arjan; Tits, Monique ULg et al

in Plant Physiology & Biochemistry (2000), 38(3), 187-192

A stable strictosidine glucosidase was isolated from dried powdered material of Strychnos mellodora. The kinetic parameters Km and Vmax of the purified glucosidases from catharanthus roseus and S ... [more ▼]

A stable strictosidine glucosidase was isolated from dried powdered material of Strychnos mellodora. The kinetic parameters Km and Vmax of the purified glucosidases from catharanthus roseus and S. mellodora towards strictosidine, dolichantoside and palicoside were determined and compared. [less ▲]

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See detailLa progression au sein de la narration en égyptien: Éléments d’une grammaire du texte
Winand, Jean ULg

in Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale (2000), (100), 403-435

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See detailCyanures et thiocyanates en toxicologie hospitalière
Charlier, Corinne ULg; Gougnard, Th; Lamiable, D. et al

in Annales de Toxicologie Analytique (2000), XII(2), 131-136

Cyanide is a highly toxic poison, able to very rapidly induce the death. Thiocyanate anion (SCN-) is a metabolic product of cyanide and cyano-containing organic substances, produced by two major enzymes ... [more ▼]

Cyanide is a highly toxic poison, able to very rapidly induce the death. Thiocyanate anion (SCN-) is a metabolic product of cyanide and cyano-containing organic substances, produced by two major enzymes : thiosulfate sulfure transferase and β mercaptopyruvate transsulfurase. Determinations of blood cyanide is important to confirm the diagnostic of intoxication. A survey of methods for the quantitative determination of cyanide and thiocyanate in biological matrices is presented. Particular attention is paid to the rapidity and to the sensitivity of the method. [less ▲]

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See detailMutagenesis of plants overexpressing CONSTANS demonstrates novel interactions among Arabidopsis flowering-time genes.
Onouchi, Hitoshi; Igeno, M. Isabel; Périlleux, Claire ULg et al

in Plant Cell (2000), 12(6), 885-900

CONSTANS (CO) promotes flowering of Arabidopsis in response to long photoperiods. Transgenic plants carrying CO fused with the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (35S::CO) flowered earlier than did the ... [more ▼]

CONSTANS (CO) promotes flowering of Arabidopsis in response to long photoperiods. Transgenic plants carrying CO fused with the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (35S::CO) flowered earlier than did the wild type and were almost completely insensitive to length of day. Genes required for CO to promote flowering were identified by screening for mutations that suppress the effect of 35S::CO. Four mutations were identified that partially suppressed the early-flowering phenotype caused by 35S::CO. One of these mutations, suppressor of overexpression of CO 1 (soc1), defines a new locus, demonstrating that the mutagenesis approach is effective in identifying novel flowering-time mutations. The other three suppressor mutations are allelic with previously described mutations that cause late flowering. Two of them are alleles of ft, indicating that FT is required for CO to promote early flowering and most likely acts after CO in the hierarchy of flowering-time genes. The fourth suppressor mutation is an allele of fwa, and fwa soc1 35S::CO plants flowered at approximately the same time as co mutants, suggesting that a combination of fwa and soc1 abolishes the promotion of flowering by CO. Besides delaying flowering, fwa acted synergistically with 35S::CO to repress floral development after bolting. The latter phenotype was not shown by any of the progenitors and was most probably caused by a reduction in the function of LEAFY. These genetic interactions suggest models for how CO, FWA, FT, and SOC1 interact during the transition to flowering. [less ▲]

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See detailInitial Medical Management of Severe Acute Ulcerative Colitis
Belaiche, Jacques ULg; Louis, Edouard ULg

in Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica (2000), 63(3, Jul-Sep), 275-8

Severe colitis is life-threatening complication of ulcerative colitis. Early recognition of the severity of the colitis, intensive medical therapy and prompt surgery when necessary have all contributed to ... [more ▼]

Severe colitis is life-threatening complication of ulcerative colitis. Early recognition of the severity of the colitis, intensive medical therapy and prompt surgery when necessary have all contributed to improved outcome. Initial medical treatment should be instituted as soon as the diagnosis is made with an intravenous corticosteroid associated with supportive treatment. If the patient fails to response to this intensive treatment after 5-7 days, cyclosporin should be initiated. If cyclosporin is not used then colectomy should be performed immediately. Moreover, significant deterioration at any point during medical therapy is an indication for colectomy. The gravity of the patient's condition require close interaction between physician an surgeon. [less ▲]

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See detailGeochemistry of granitoids from the south Carpathians: A review
Berza, Tudor; Andar, Petre; Tatu, Mihai et al

in Anuarul Institutului Geologic al României (2000), 71

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See detailLe point des connaissances sur les entérites à Escherichia coli chez le veau
Mainil, Jacques ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2000), 144

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See detailAb initio study of organic mixed valency
Dehareng, Dominique ULg; Dive, Georges ULg; Moradpour, Alec

in International Journal of Quantum Chemistry (2000), 76(4), 552-573

A series of six radical cations of the type (D-L-B)(+) was investigated at the ab initio unrestricted Hartree-Fock level. One localized and one delocalized conformation were systematically searched by ... [more ▼]

A series of six radical cations of the type (D-L-B)(+) was investigated at the ab initio unrestricted Hartree-Fock level. One localized and one delocalized conformation were systematically searched by full geometry optimization At both nuclear arrangements, mostly found as being minima in the symmetry-restrained Hartree-Fock framework, excitation energies were calculated through the expansion of the wave function on single electronic excitations of the Hart ee-Fock fundamental determinant and at the unrestricted Hartree-Fock or at the multiconfigurational self consistent field levels. Few calculations were also performed by taking into account some part of the electronic correlation. Except for N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl p-phenylenediamine, all the studied compounds are localized stable cations, at the symmetry-restrained Hartree-Fock level. However, the reoptimization of their wave function changes this observation since only three of them seem to conserve a localized stable conformation. Most of the studied systems are characterized by one or two excited electronic states very dose to the fundamental one and should thus present an unresolved broadened first absorption band in the near-infrared region These features are in agreement with the available experimental data. Strong Hartree-Fock instabilities are found for the delocalized structure and put in relation with the existence of the large nonadiabatic coupling in this conformational region. The solvent influence is discussed in the Onsager dipolar reaction field framework. (C) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailHyperthermic induction of the 27-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp27) in neuroglia and neurons of the rat central nervous system.
Krueger-Naug, A. M.; Hopkins, D. A.; Armstrong, J. N. et al

in Journal of Comparative Neurology (The) (2000), 428(3), 495-510

The 27-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp27) is constitutively expressed in many neurons of the brainstem and spinal cord, is strongly induced in glial cells in response to ischemia, seizures, or spreading ... [more ▼]

The 27-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp27) is constitutively expressed in many neurons of the brainstem and spinal cord, is strongly induced in glial cells in response to ischemia, seizures, or spreading depression, and is selectively induced in neurons after axotomy. Here, the expression of Hsp27 was examined in brains of adult rats from 1.5 hours to 6 days after brief hyperthermic stress (core body temperature of 42 degrees C for 15 minutes). Twenty-four hours following hyperthermia, Western blot analysis showed that Hsp27 was elevated in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, and brainstem. Immunohistochemistry for Hsp27 revealed a time-dependent, but transient, increase in the level of Hsp27 immunoreactivity (Hsp27 IR) in neuroglia and neurons. Hsp27 IR was detected in astrocytes throughout the brain and in Bergmann glia of the cerebellum from 3 hours to 6 days following heat shock. Peak levels were apparent at 24 hours, gradually declining thereafter. In addition, increases in Hsp27 IR were detected in the ependyma and choroid plexus. Hyperthermia induced Hsp27 IR in neurons of the subfornical organ and the area postrema within 3 hours and reached a maximum by 24 hours with a return to control levels 4-6 days after hyperthermia. Specific populations of hypothalamic neurons also showed Hsp27 IR after hyperthermia. These results demonstrate that hyperthermia induces transient expression of Hsp27 in several types of neuroglia and specific populations of neurons. The pattern of induced Hsp27 IR suggests that some of the activated cells are involved in physiological responses related to body fluid homeostasis and temperature regulation. [less ▲]

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See detailComparaison de l'usage d'huiles d'origine végétale ou minérale pour la lubrification de chaines de tronconneuse.
Bieswal, Marc; Debouche, Charles ULg; van Belle, Laurent

in Silva Belgica (2000), 107(2), 18-21

Des études en laboratoire ont montré que les huiles végétales présentent un pouvoir lubrifiant supérieur aux huiles minérales dans le domaine de la lubrification limite (Kabuya 1995). Par ailleurs, des ... [more ▼]

Des études en laboratoire ont montré que les huiles végétales présentent un pouvoir lubrifiant supérieur aux huiles minérales dans le domaine de la lubrification limite (Kabuya 1995). Par ailleurs, des chiffres avancés dans la littérature ou par des fournisseurs de lubrifiants annoncent la possibilité de réduire la consommation de lubrifiant en passant à un lubrifiant à base d'huile végétale. Des chiffres de réduction d'usure sont aussi avancés par des constructeurs de tronçonneuses. L'essai décrit dans cet article n'a pas permis de confirmer ces réductions de consommation et de frottement. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of visual and auditory evoked cortical potentials in migraine patients between attacks.
Afra, J.; Proietti Cecchini, A.; Sandor, P. S. et al

in Clinical Neurophysiology (2000), 111(6), 1124-9

OBJECTIVE: As both habituation of pattern reversal visual evoked potentials (PR-VEP) (Schoenen J, Wang W, Albert A, Delwaide PJ. Potentiation instead of habituation characterizes visual evoked potentials ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: As both habituation of pattern reversal visual evoked potentials (PR-VEP) (Schoenen J, Wang W, Albert A, Delwaide PJ. Potentiation instead of habituation characterizes visual evoked potentials in migraine patients between attacks. Eur J Neurol 1995;2:115-122) and intensity dependence of auditory evoked cortical potentials (IDAP) (Wang W, Timsit-Berthier M, Schoenen J. Intensity dependence of auditory evoked potentials in migraine: an indication of cortical potentiation and low serotonergic neurotransmission? Neurology 1996;46:1404-1409) were found abnormal in migraine between attacks, we have searched for intraindividual correlations between both tests in 59 migraine patients (22 with aura [MA], 37 without aura [MO]) and in 23 healthy volunteers (HV). METHODS: Amplitude change of the PR-VEP N1-P1 was measured between the 1st and 5th block of 50 sequential averagings during continuous stimulation at 3.1 Hz. IDAP was computed from N1-P2 amplitudes of 100 averagings during stimulations at 40, 50, 60 and 70 dB SL. Amplitude-stimulus intensity function (ASF) slopes and amplitude changes between 40 and 70 dB were calculated. MO and MA differed from HV in PR-VEP amplitude change (P=0.007) and IDAP slope (P = 0.0004). RESULTS: There was no significant correlation between VEP amplitude changes and IDAP slopes, nor between the latter two and attack frequency or disease duration. A negative correlation was found between the amplitude of the first block of averaged responses and potentiation of VEP in all subject groups (P = 0.03) as well as between the amplitude of the auditory evoked potential, at 40 dB, and the percentage of amplitude increase between 40 and 70 dB in MO (P = 0.004) and MA (P = 0.007). ASF slopes and 40 dB amplitudes were significantly correlated only in the MA group (P = 0.002). These results confirm the interictal deficit of habituation in cortical processing of repetitive visual and auditory information in migraine. Since there is no intraindividual correlation between the cortical responses to these sensory modalities they are complementary tools for the study of migraine and may help to identify subgroups of patients with distinct pathophysiological mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS: The strong negative correlation between the initial amplitude of evoked potentials and their amplitude increase during subsequent averaging confirms that the response potentiation in migraine is likely to be due to a reduced preactivation level of sensory cortices. [less ▲]

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See detailExport production in the Bay of Biscay as estimated from barium - barite in settling material: a comparison with new production
Dehairs, F.; Fagel, Nathalie ULg; Antia, A. et al

in Deep-Sea Research Part I, Oceanographic Research Papers (2000), 47(4), 583-601

We present barium data for sediment traps deployed in a northeast Atlantic margin environment (Bay of Biscay). Fluxes of excess barium were measured with the objective of calculating carbon export ... [more ▼]

We present barium data for sediment traps deployed in a northeast Atlantic margin environment (Bay of Biscay). Fluxes of excess barium were measured with the objective of calculating carbon export production rates from the surface mixed layer and thus contribute to the understanding of organic carbon transport in a margin environment. Therefore, it was necessary to properly understand the different processes that affected the barium fluxes in this margin environment. Seasonal variability of POC/Ba flux ratios and decrease of barium solubilisation in the trap cups with increasing depth in the water column probably indicate that the efficiency of barite formation in the organic micro-environment varies with season and that the process is relatively slow and not yet completed in the upper 600 m of water column. Thus barite presence in biogenic aggregates will significantly depend on water column transit time of these aggregates. Furthermore, it was observed that significant lateral input of excess-Ba can occur, probably associated with residual currents leaving the margin. This advected excess-Ba affected especially the recorded fluxes in the deeper traps (>1000 m) of the outer slope region. We have attempted to correct for this advected excess-Ba component, using Th (reported by others for the same samples) as an indicator of enhanced lateral flux and assigning a characteristic Ba/Th ratio to advected material, Using transfer functions relating excess-Ba flux with export production characteristic of margin areas, observed Ba fluxes indicate an export production between 7 and 18 g C m(-2) yr(-1). Such values are 3-7 times lower than estimates based on N-nutrient uptake and nutrient mass balances, but larger and more realistic than is obtained when a transfer function characteristic of open ocean systems is applied. The discrepancy between export production estimates based on excess-Ba fluxes and nutrient uptake could be resolved if part of the carbon is exported as dissolved organic matter. Results suggest that margin systems function differently from open ocean systems, and therefore Ba-proxy rationales developed for open ocean sites might not be applicable in margin areas. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailWanze/Huccorgne : la grotte du Docteur
Miller, Rebecca ULg; Otte, Marcel ULg

in Chronique de l'Archéologie Wallonne (2000), 8

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See detailSensitivity analysis for the EPIK vulnerability assessment in a local karstic aquifer
Gogu, Radu Constantin; Dassargues, Alain ULg

in Hydrogeology Journal (2000), 8(3), 337-345

Applying the EPIK parametric method, a vulnerability assessment has been made for a small karstic groundwater system in southern Belgium. The aquifer is a karstified limestone of Devonian age. A map of ... [more ▼]

Applying the EPIK parametric method, a vulnerability assessment has been made for a small karstic groundwater system in southern Belgium. The aquifer is a karstified limestone of Devonian age. A map of intrinsic vulnerability of the aquifer and of the local water-supply system shows three vulnerability areas. A parameter-balance study and a sensitivity analysis were performed to evaluate the influence of single parameters on aquifer-vulnerability assessment using the EPIK method. This approach provides a methodology for the evaluation of vulnerability mapping and for more reliable interpretation of vulnerability indices for karst groundwater resources. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychiatrie en osteoporose
Halkin, V; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in Agenda Psychiatrie (L') (2000), 14

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See detailSomatic embryogenesis of Panax ginseng in liquid cultures: a role for polyamines and their metabolic pathways
Kevers, Claire ULg; Le Gal, Nathalie; Monteiro, Marta et al

in Plant Growth Regulation (2000), 31(3), 209-214

A callus with embryogenic capacity was generated from root sections of Panax ginseng and used as an inoculum source for embryogenic liquid cultures in a three-step process: - a suspension culture of cell ... [more ▼]

A callus with embryogenic capacity was generated from root sections of Panax ginseng and used as an inoculum source for embryogenic liquid cultures in a three-step process: - a suspension culture of cell aggregates in the presence of an auxin/cytokinin mixture, - an induction medium containing auxin only (for 5 to 30 days), - a regeneration medium containing cytokinin only (for one month). Up to 25 embryos were recovered per 2.5 g of aggregates in these conditions. Incorporation of polyamines or their precursors arginine and ornithine into either the induction or regeneration media increased the number of embryos produced by up to 4 times. Inhibitors of both biosynthesis and biodegradation of polyamines reduced the number of embryos. These results support earlier findings of the role of polyamines in the process of somatic embryogenesis. The success of these liquid cultures opens up the possibility of producing somatic embryos of Panax ginseng in bioreactors. [less ▲]

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See detailLes brulis, un outil de gestion de la faune en region Afrique inter-tropicale.
Cornelis, D.; Lungren, C.; Ouedraogo, Mohamar moussa ULg et al

in Parcs & Réserves (2000), 55(3-4),

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See detailSurveillance thérapeutique des traitements anticancéreux
Gougnard, Th; Charlier, Corinne ULg; Plomteux, Guy ULg

in Immuno-Analyse & Biologie Spécialisée [=IBS] (2000), 15(4), 258-261

Drug monitoring of anticancer chemotherapies.Drug doses used in anticancer treatments are mostly calculated by the use of clinical criteria, sometimes by using nomograms providing a posology based on the ... [more ▼]

Drug monitoring of anticancer chemotherapies.Drug doses used in anticancer treatments are mostly calculated by the use of clinical criteria, sometimes by using nomograms providing a posology based on the body surface area (BSA) but rarely by taking into account classical pharmacokinetic parameters, as usually for optimizing the treatment with other pharmaceutical classes of drugs (antibiotics, antiepileptics,…). Because the narrow therapeutic index and important intra- and interindividual variations of the pharmacokinetic parameters, anticancer drugs could constitute a pharmacological class for which the posology could be defined by a classical therapeutic drug monitoring. Of course, the determination of the plasmatic level of anticancer drug does not always permit to predict their pharmacological efficacy and toxicity. To reach it, it is necessary to calculate the area under the curve obtained on base of several blood concentrations. [less ▲]

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See detailLe désistement d'appel et l'acquiescement sont-ils (encore) prohibés en matière de divorce
Boularbah, Hakim ULg

in Divorce : Actualité Juridique, Sociale et Fiscale (2000)

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See detailExperimental and theoretical radiative lifetimes, branching fractions, and oscillator strengths for Lu I and experimental lifetimes for Lu II and Lu III
Fedchak, J. A.; Den Hartog, E. A.; Lawler, J. E. et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2000), 542

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See detailEfficiency measurement, multiple-output technologies and distance functions: with application to European Railways
Coelli, Tim; Perelman, Sergio ULg

in Applied Economics (2000), (32), 1967-1976

The single-output production function has long been regarded as one of the principle limitations of the econometric approach to technical efficiency measurement. If one wished to investigate efficiency in ... [more ▼]

The single-output production function has long been regarded as one of the principle limitations of the econometric approach to technical efficiency measurement. If one wished to investigate efficiency in a multiple-output industry using econometric methods one would usually either: (a) aggregate outputs into a single index of output (e.g., total revenue or a multilateral Tornqvist output index); or (b) attempt to model the technology using a dual cost function. The first of these methods require that output prices be observable (and reflect revenue maximising behaviour), while the latter approach requires an assumption of cost-minimising behaviour. There are a number of instances, however, when neither of these requirements are met (the public sector contains many examples). In this study we outline the recently developed distance function solution to the multi-output problem. The method is illustrated using data on European railways. Output-orientated, input-orientated and constant returns to scale distance functions are estimated using corrected ordinary least squares. The distance function estimates are also compared with production function estimates involving aggregate output measures. These comparisons indicate that, for the case of European railways, a production function involving a multilateral Tornqvist output index exhibits substantially less aggregation bias relative to a production function that uses total revenue as a measure of aggregate output. [less ▲]

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See detailHeadache tutorial.
Russell, M. B.; Nielsen, K. D.; Rasmussen, C. et al

in Studies in Health Technology & Informatics (2000), 78

The headache multimedia educational tool for the general practitioners, consists of five different modules, i.e. classification, clinical data, headache tutorial, diagnostic headache diary and ... [more ▼]

The headache multimedia educational tool for the general practitioners, consists of five different modules, i.e. classification, clinical data, headache tutorial, diagnostic headache diary and nomenclature. It is possible to move between the modules both vertically and horizontally. This paper concerns the headache tutorial. It consist of case records that the user can test his diagnostic abilities on. Each case record is subdivided into an interview by the physician, physical and neurological examination, laboratory test, sum of positive diagnostic elements, suggestions of diagnoses and management. A total of 12 case records are provided. The system will be available on a CD-ROM. [less ▲]

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See detailMicro-phonochirurgie assistée au laser CO2 des lésions bénignes des cordes vocales
Remacle, Marc; Giovanni, Antoine; Lawson, George et al

in Cahiers d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie, de Chirurgie Cervico-faciale et d'Audiophonologie (Les) (2000), 35(6), 293-300

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See detailFormes et formalités. Remarques sur la poétique du nom chez Mallarmé
Durand, Pascal ULg

in Formules (2000), 4

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See detailLes rhyncholites.
Pierard, Sébastien ULg; Franchimont, Claudine ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Association des Géologues Amateurs de Belgique Minibul (2000), 33

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See detailLa Forêt fossile d'Overlaar, Belgique (transition Paléocène-Eocène).
Gerrienne, Philippe ULg; Damblon, Freddy ULg; Fairon-Demaret, Muriel ULg et al

in Monografias Academia Ciencias, Exactas Fisicas, Quimicas y Naturales de Zaragoza (2000), 16

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See detailChronic hepatitis B therapy with lamivudine in clinical practice - Summary of the discussion
Dixon, J.; Delwaide, Jean ULg; Horsmans, Y. et al

in Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica (2000), 63(4), 357-358

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See detailCharacterization of two Acacia gums and their fractions using a Langmuir film balance
Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULg; Blecker, Christophe ULg; Groyne, J. et al

in Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2000), 48(7), 2709-2712

The mechanical properties of monolayers from two Acacia gums [Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. and Acacia seyal Del.] and their three fractions isolated by hydrophobic interaction chromatography were studied ... [more ▼]

The mechanical properties of monolayers from two Acacia gums [Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. and Acacia seyal Del.] and their three fractions isolated by hydrophobic interaction chromatography were studied with a Langmuir film balance to obtain a more complete understanding of their action mode. The analysis of compression isotherms revealed that A. senegal gums globally exhibit better interfacial properties than A. seyal ones. The behavior of the whole gums appeared to be strongly influenced by their arabinogalactan-protein complex. [less ▲]

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See detailLes Scarabées.
Pierard, Sébastien ULg; Franchimont, Claudine ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Revue Verviétoise d'Histoire Naturelle (2000), 57

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See detailTrophics relationships between planktonic micro-organisms in the river Meuse (Belgium): a carbon budget
Servais, Pierre; Gosselain, Véronique; Joaquim-Justo, Célia ULg et al

in Arch. Hydrobiol (2000)

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See detailInternal and International migration. Chinese Perspectives.
Florence, Eric ULg

in Revue Bibliographique de Sinologie = Review of Bibliography in Sinology (2000), Vol. XVII

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See detailMelanoma screening: results of the first one-day campaign in Belgium (‘Melanoma Monday’)
Vandaele, M.; Richert, Bertrand ULg; Van der Endt, J. M. et al

in Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology & Venereology (2000), 14

Background: Although the incidence of melanoma is increasing and many informative campaigns have been organized. The general population is still little informed about this tumour. Aims: To organize a ... [more ▼]

Background: Although the incidence of melanoma is increasing and many informative campaigns have been organized. The general population is still little informed about this tumour. Aims: To organize a media campaign, with more relevant information and the opportunity for free skin inspections. Methods: A ‘Task Force’ organized a media campaign in April 1999 and convinced 65% of the Belgian dermatologists to give up 4 h of their time to do free skin examinations for skin cancer on Monday 26 April 1999; it was called ‘Melanoma Monday’. Results: A total 2767 patients were screened. We found 25 melanomas and suspected 59 basal cell carcinomas. In the following 4 weeks another 141 melanomas were found. These 166 melanomas found in one month represent 15 –20% of the total number of melanomas per year in Belgium. Summary: A media campaign with relevant information combined with screening opportunities can lead to the early detection of melanomas in a large number of patients and can continue to alert people at risk in the following weeks. [less ▲]

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See detailLe capital osseux : une épargne qui débute au berceau
Halkin, V; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in L'agenda Pédiatrie (2000), 22

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See detailLa quittance BGU VII 1589
Straus, Jean ULg

in Chronique d'Egypte : Bulletin Périodique de la Fondation Egyptologique Reine Elisabeth (2000), LXXV(149), 111-117

BGU VII, 1589 (Philadelphia, 166/7 A.D.) in an intermediate receipt (antisymbolon). The nomographos is no tax collector.

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See detailNative gold, native silver, and secondary minerals in the quartz veins from Bastogne, Belgium
Hatert, Frédéric ULg; Deliens, Michel; Houssa, Michel et al

in Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique. Sciences de la Terre (2000), 70

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See detailMotivations et apports d'une prise en charge ambulatoire pluridisciplinaire de la santé des adolescents
Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre ULg; Grignard, Sophie ULg; Glowacz, Fabienne ULg et al

in Bulletin d'Education du Patient à sa Maladie (2000), 19(3), 126-129

D’importants problèmes de santé sont identifiés par les professionnels chez les adolescents. Toutefois, ces problèmes de santé ne sont que peu ou pas soulevés par les adolescents eux-mêmes car ils ... [more ▼]

D’importants problèmes de santé sont identifiés par les professionnels chez les adolescents. Toutefois, ces problèmes de santé ne sont que peu ou pas soulevés par les adolescents eux-mêmes car ils consultent peu à ce sujet. En particulier, ils évoquent rarement les aspects psychosociaux des problèmes auxquels ils sont confrontés. Ils fonctionnent dans le clivage entre somatique et psychologique bien que ces deux aspects soient indissociables. Les adolescents sont souvent amenés en consultation par d’autres, dont les parents. Un travail d’identification de la demande réelle de l’adolescent est donc nécessaire pour que celui-ci puisse se mobiliser vers une prise en charge. La confidentialité est cruciale de même que le respect de l’adolescent, ainsi que la reconnaissance de ses craintes et des limites qu’il met à l’accès aux informations par l’anamnèse et l’examen clinique. Il appartient au médecin de lire la demande de l’adolescent dans un double registre, à la fois somatique et psychique et de resituer cette demande dans le contexte de vie particulier à l’adolescent. Aussi, la lecture de la demande intégrera non seulement les problèmes invoqués par l’adolescent mais aussi ceux relevés par l’anamnèse et l’examen clinique. Une telle lecture peut prendre du temps pour les intervenants de santé mais aussi pour l’adolescent, avant qu’il n’aboutisse à l’émergence de sa demande et, dès lors, à une demande de prise en charge. Celle-ci devra parfois faire appel à une équipe spécifique et pluridisciplinaire telle que celle où collaborent les auteurs du présent article, au Centre de Santé de l’Adolescent à Liège. [less ▲]

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See detailLa probatio internetica
Vanbrabant, Bernard ULg

in Actualités du Droit (2000)

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See detailExperimental gerontology in Belgium: from model organisms to age-related pathologies
Toussaint, Olivier; Baret, P. V.; Brion, J.-P. et al

in Experimental Gerontology (2000), 35(8), 901-916

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See detailNo increased insulin sensitivity after a single intravenous administration of a recombinant human tumor necrosis factor receptor: Fc fusion protein in obese insulin-resistant patients.
Paquot, Nicolas ULg; Castillo, M. J.; Lefebvre, Pierre ULg et al

in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (2000), 85(3), 1316-9

Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha results in a marked increase in insulin sensitivity in obese rodents. We investigated the influence of a TNF antagonist [Ro 45-2081, a recombinant fusion ... [more ▼]

Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha results in a marked increase in insulin sensitivity in obese rodents. We investigated the influence of a TNF antagonist [Ro 45-2081, a recombinant fusion protein that consists of the soluble TNF-receptor (p55) linked to the Fc portion of human IgG1] on insulin sensitivity of patients with android obesity. Seven patients (five women and two men; mean +/- SD age, 41 +/- 4 yr; body mass index, 36.1 +/- 4.7 kg/m2; waist to hip ratio, 0.99 +/- 0.11) were studied (three patients with normal glucose tolerance and four patients with impaired glucose tolerance or mild diabetes; all were hyperinsulinemic). Each patient underwent two consecutive euglycemic hyperinsulinemic glucose-clamp tests: 48 h after injection of placebo and 48 h after a single i.v. injection of 50 mg Ro 45-2081. In both tests, steady-state plasma glucose and insulin levels were similar. Insulin-mediated glucose disposal (2.23 +/- 0.74 vs. 2.38 +/- 0.99 mg/kg(-1) x min(-1)) and glucose metabolic clearance rate (2.28 +/- 0.85 vs. 2.48 +/- 1.03 mL/kg(-1) x min(-1)) were similar after placebo and after the drug. Indirect calorimetry showed no difference in substrate oxidation rates between the two experimental conditions. In conclusion, under the conditions of this study, no improvement in insulin sensitivity was observed in obese insulin-resistant patients following a single i.v. administration of a recombinant TNF receptor: Fc fusion protein. [less ▲]

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See detailLa variation de l’équilibre glycémique (mais pas du poids) est corrélée positivement à la modification du risque cardiovasculaire absolu chez le patient diabétique
Hadjadj, Samy; Guilloteau, Gérard; Weekers, Laurent ULg et al

in Archives des Maladies du Coeur et des Vaisseaux (2000), 93(8), 1033-1036

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See detailAffections cardiaques et intolérances à l'effort. 2-Les souffles.
Amory, Hélène ULg; Art, Tatiana ULg

in Pratique Vétérinaire Equine (2000), 32(Numéro Spécial), 79-86

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See detailMajor histocompatibility complex class II expression by activated microglia caudal to lesions of descending tracts in the human spinal cord is not associated with a T cell response.
Schmitt, A. B.; Buss, A.; Breuer, S. et al

in Acta Neuropathologica (2000), 100(5), 528-36

Lesion-induced microglial/macrophage responses were investigated in post-mortem human spinal cord tissue of 20 patients who had died at a range of survival times after spinal trauma or brain infarction ... [more ▼]

Lesion-induced microglial/macrophage responses were investigated in post-mortem human spinal cord tissue of 20 patients who had died at a range of survival times after spinal trauma or brain infarction. Caudal to the spinal cord injury or brain infarction, a strong increase in the number of activated microglial cells was observed within the denervated intermediate grey matter and ventral horn of patients who died shortly after the insult (4-14 days). These cells were positive for the leucocyte common antigen (LCA) and for the major histocompatibility complex class II antigen (MHC II), with only a small proportion staining for the CD68 antigen. After longer survival times (1-4 months), MHC II-immunoreactivity (MHC II-IR) was clearly reduced in the grey matter but abundant in the white matter, specifically within the degenerating corticospinal tract, co-localising with CD68. In this fibre tract, elevated MHC II-IR and CD68-IR were still detectable 1 year after trauma or stroke. It is likely that the subsequent expression of CD68 on MHC II-positive microglia reflects the conversion to a macrophage phenotype, when cells are phagocytosing degenerating presynaptic terminals in grey matter target regions at early survival times and removing axonal and myelin debris in descending tracts at later survival times. No T or B cell invasion or involvement of co-stimulatory B7 molecules (CD80 and CD86) was observed. It is possible that the up-regulation of MHC II on microglia that lack the expression of B7 molecules may be responsible for the prevention of a T cell response, thus protecting the spinal cord from secondary tissue damage. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence for expression of some Microtubule-associated Protein 1B in neurons as a plasma membrane glycoprotein.
Franzen, Rachelle ULg; Tanner, Sandy; Jaffe, Howard et al

in Journal of Neurochemistry (2000), 75

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See detailInverse vegetation modelling : a tool to reconstruct palaeoclimates under changed CO2 conditions
Guiot, J.; Torre, F.; Jolly, D. et al

in Ecological Modelling (2000), 127

Atmospheric CO2 concentration has greatly fluctuated during the Quaternary. These variations have influenced the vegetation changes. The assumption that the relationship vegetation–climate sensu stricto ... [more ▼]

Atmospheric CO2 concentration has greatly fluctuated during the Quaternary. These variations have influenced the vegetation changes. The assumption that the relationship vegetation–climate sensu stricto was constant through time should be reconsidered taking into account the impact of the atmospheric CO2 content on the plants. Here we propose to use a process-based vegetation model (BIOME3) in an inverse mode to reconstruct from pollen data the most probable climate under precipitation seasonality change and under lowered CO2 concentration in the biosphere. Appropriate tools to match the model outputs with the pollen data are developed to generate a probability distribution associated with the reconstruction (Monte Carlo sampling and neural network techniques). The method is validated with modern pollen samples from Greece and Italy: it proves to be able to reconstruct modern climate with a more or less large error bar from pollen data. The error bar depends in fact on the tolerance of the vegetation to the corresponding climatic variable. The application to six pollen assemblages from Greece and Italy, representing the last glacial maximum (LGM: 18 000 14C-year B.P.), is done into three experiments: (1) modern CO2 concentration; (2) LGM CO2 concentration; (3) LGM CO2 concentration and high winter precipitation. The latter experiment is motivated by evidence of high lake-levels in Greece during the LGM which has been attributed to winter rainfall. These experiments show that winter was ca. 15–20°C colder than the present, in agreement with previous climate reconstruction. The apparent discrepancy between the high lake-levels and the steppe vegetation during the LGM, can be explained by an increase of the winter precipitation (which leads to high lake level) while the summer season is mild and dry (which affects the vegetation). The summer temperature has three stable states (−16°C, −10°C, −2°C), but the warmest one is the most probable if we take into account the lowered CO2 and the high lake-levels. [less ▲]

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See detail1re campagne de fouille à Chagar Bazar (Syrie)
Tunca, Önhan ULg; McMahon, A.; Baghdo, Abd el-Massih

in Orient-Express 2000/1 (2000)

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See detailSeismic hazard in the Sea of Marmara following the Izmit Earthquake
Hubert, Aurelia ULg; Barka, Aykut; Jacques, Eric et al

in Nature (2000), 404

On 17 August 1999, a destructive magnitude 7.4 earthquake occurred 100 km east of Istanbul, near the city of Izmit, on the North Anatolian fault. This 1,600-km-long plate boundary1,2 slips at an average ... [more ▼]

On 17 August 1999, a destructive magnitude 7.4 earthquake occurred 100 km east of Istanbul, near the city of Izmit, on the North Anatolian fault. This 1,600-km-long plate boundary1,2 slips at an average rate of 2–3 cm yr−1 (refs 3–5), and historically has been the site of many devastating earthquakes6,7. This century alone it has ruptured over 900 km of its length6. Models of earthquake-induced stress change8 combined with active fault maps9 had been used to forecast that the epicentral area of the 1999 Izmit event was indeed a likely location for the occurrence of a large earthquake9,10. Here we show that the 1999 event itself significantly modifies the stress distribution resulting from pre- vious fault interactions9,10. Our new stress models take into account all events in the region with magnitudes greater than 6 having occurred since 1700 (ref. 7) as well as secular interseismic stress change, constrained by GPS data11. These models provide a consistent picture of the long term spatio–temporal behaviour of the North Anatolian fault and indicate that two events of magnitude equal to, or greater than, the Izmit earthquake are likely to occur within the next decades beneath the Marmara Sea, south of Istanbul. [less ▲]

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See detailPerturbed Proximal Point Algorithm with Nonquadratic Kernel
Brohé, Myrana; Tossings, Patricia ULg

in Serdica Mathematical Journal (2000), 26

Let H be a real Hilbert space and T be a maximal monotone operator on H. A well-known algorithm, developed by R.T. Rockafellar, for solving the problem "To find x in H such that 0 in Tx" is the proximal ... [more ▼]

Let H be a real Hilbert space and T be a maximal monotone operator on H. A well-known algorithm, developed by R.T. Rockafellar, for solving the problem "To find x in H such that 0 in Tx" is the proximal point algorithm. Several genaralizations have been considered by several authors: introduction of a perturbation, introduction of a variable metric in the perturbed algorithm, introduction of a pseudo-metric in place of the classical regularization, ... We summarize some of these extensions by taking into account a pseudo-metric as regularization and a perturbation in an inexact version of the algorithm. [less ▲]

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