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See detailThe lichen flora of the Boulonnais (France, Pas-de-Calais)
Sparrius, L.B.; Diederich, Paul; Signoret, Jonathan et al

in Belgian Journal of Botany (2002), 135

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See detailPost-mortem findings and causes of death of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) stranded from 1990 to 2000 along the coastlines of Belgium and northern France
Jauniaux, Thierry ULg; Petitjean, D.; Brenez, C. et al

in Journal of Comparative Pathology (2002), 126(4), 243-253

Between the,ears 1990 and 2000, an attempt was made to determine the causes of death of 55 harbour porpoises stranded along the Belgian and northern French coasts. From 1990 to 1996, only five carcasses ... [more ▼]

Between the,ears 1990 and 2000, an attempt was made to determine the causes of death of 55 harbour porpoises stranded along the Belgian and northern French coasts. From 1990 to 1996, only five carcasses were collected as against seven in 1997, eight in 1998, 27 in 1999 and eight in 2000. The sex ratio was normal and most of the animals were juvenile. The most common findings were emaciation, severe parasitosis and pneumonia. A few cases of fishing net entanglement were observed. The main microscopical lesions were acute pneumonia, massive lung oedema, enteritis, hepatitis and gastritis. Encephalitis was observed in six cases. No evidence of morbillivirus infection was detected. Pneumonia was associated with bacteria or parasites, or both. The causes of death and the lesions were similar to those previously reported in other countries bordering the North Sea. The cause of the increased numbers of carcasses in 1999 was unclear but did not include viral epizootics or net entanglement. A temporary increase in the porpoise populatiou in the southern North Sea may have been responsible. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailLes facteurs neurotrophiques : un mythe thérapeutique ?
Rogister, Bernard ULg

in Ahead in Neurology (2002), 5(1), 3-20

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See detailHeat shock transcription factor 2 is not essential for embryonic development, fertility, or adult cognitive and psychomotor function in mice.
McMillan, D Randy; Christians, Elisabeth; Forster, Michael et al

in Molecular & Cellular Biology (2002), 22(22), 8005-14

Members of the heat shock factor (HSF) family are evolutionarily conserved regulators that share a highly homologous DNA-binding domain. In mammals, HSF1 is the main factor controlling the stress ... [more ▼]

Members of the heat shock factor (HSF) family are evolutionarily conserved regulators that share a highly homologous DNA-binding domain. In mammals, HSF1 is the main factor controlling the stress-inducible expression of Hsp genes while the functions of HSF2 and HSF4 are less clear. Based on its developmental profile of expression, it was hypothesized that HSF2 may play an essential role in brain and heart development, spermatogenesis, and erythroid differentiation. To directly assess this hypothesis and better understand the underlying mechanisms that require HSF2, we generated Hsf2 knockout mice. Here, we report that Hsf2(-/-) mice are viable and fertile and exhibit normal life span and behavioral functions. We conclude that HSF2, most probably because its physiological roles are integrated into a redundant network of gene regulation and function, is dispensable for normal development, fertility, and postnatal psychomotor function. [less ▲]

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See detailPhytoremediation to increase the degradation of PCBS and PCDD/Fs
Campanella, Bruno ULg; Bock, Claudia; Schröder, Peter

in Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2002), 9

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See detailComment j'explore.... Une sclérodermie cutanée d'une manière non invasive.
Fraiture, A. L.; Henry, Frédérique ULg; Goffin, Véronique ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(3), 179-82

There exists several clinical types of scleroderma. Most of them show cutaneous manifestations. Skin involvement may be isolated (morphea) or be part of a multi-organ systemic disease. Objective non ... [more ▼]

There exists several clinical types of scleroderma. Most of them show cutaneous manifestations. Skin involvement may be isolated (morphea) or be part of a multi-organ systemic disease. Objective non-invasive functional methods are useful in order to better assess the severity and evolution of the disease and the effects of treatments. Measurements of the thickness and mechanical properties of the skin as well as the visualization of the cutaneous blood flow prove to be informative. [less ▲]

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See detailA qui appartient le ragondin ?
Roussel, Laurence; Mougenot, Catherine ULg

in Espaces et Sociétés (Paris, France) (2002), (110-111), 225-247

La lutte contre le ragondin, espèce importée d'Amérique du Sud en Europe, aujourd'hui classée parmi les espèces invasives, a été inscrite simultanément dans deux législations différentes. Dans le ... [more ▼]

La lutte contre le ragondin, espèce importée d'Amérique du Sud en Europe, aujourd'hui classée parmi les espèces invasives, a été inscrite simultanément dans deux législations différentes. Dans le mondeagricole, c'est une action qui s'inspire de la guerre contre les ravageurs des cultures. Elle s'organise collectivement à l'aide d'un poison, la bromadiolone. Dans le monde de la chasse, elle est principalement du domaine des piégeurs. Solitaires, ceux-ci pourchassent le ragondin en tant qu'espèce nuisible. Cette division est héritée du Moyen Âge, de ses usages de l'espace et des droits qui leur étaient associés (droit de destruction pour les agriculteurs). Actuellement, l'espace rural peut être vu comme une mosaïque, òu ces deux principaux types de lutte coexistent, alors que certains milieux restent libres de toute intervention. Mais ces actions sont aussi l'objet de critiques qui mettent en cause l'utilisation de la bromadiolone et certaines formes de piégeage. Et aujourd'hui, on observe que les modalités de lutte contre le ragondin se combinent aux nouveaux usages de l'espace. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of a serum-free medium to produce in vitro Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites on Vero cells
De Meerschman, F.; Rettigner, C.; Focant, Charles ULg et al

in Veterinary Research (2002), 33(2, Mar-Apr), 159-168

Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are cyst-forming coccidian parasites of human and veterinary clinical relevance. In vitro cultivation of the protozoans using Vero cells is usually performed in ... [more ▼]

Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are cyst-forming coccidian parasites of human and veterinary clinical relevance. In vitro cultivation of the protozoans using Vero cells is usually performed in order to produce antigenic materials. Quantitative and qualitative comparisons of Vero cells grown in RPMI medium supplemented either with foetal calf serum (FCS), horse serum (HS) or a specific serum-free additive (DefCell) were performed. A serum-free cell culture system used to propagate N. caninum (NC-1 isolate) and T. gondii tachyzoites (Rh stain) were compared with the other two cell culture systems. FCS supplemented media was found to be more effective than the others in promoting Vero cells and N. caninum tachyzoites. However, it was found unable to support adequate T. gondii tachyzoite proliferation. Vero cells, T. gondii and N. caninum tachyzoite production gave similar growth patterns with either HS or DefCell supplemented media. Defcell was considered as a good alternative to supplement culture medium. [less ▲]

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See detailAccidental radiogenic ulcer of the fingers in an industrial setting.
Heymans, Olivier; Van Zeele, D.; Arrese Estrada, Jorge ULg et al

in Exogenous Dermatology : Physical, Chemical, Biological (2002), 1

The incidence of accidental radiogenic damage to the skin is low. We report a case of delayed ulcerative contact radiodermatitis following accidental industrial exposure. Recurrent ulcerations of the ... [more ▼]

The incidence of accidental radiogenic damage to the skin is low. We report a case of delayed ulcerative contact radiodermatitis following accidental industrial exposure. Recurrent ulcerations of the fingers were treated successfully by flap surgical reconstruction. [less ▲]

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See detailOn-line fruit grading according to their external quality using machine vision
Leemans, Vincent ULg; Magein, Hugo ULg; Destain, Marie-France ULg

in Biosystems Engineering (2002), 83(4), 397-404

This paper presents apple grading into four classes according to European standards. Two varieties were tested: Golden Delicious and Jonagold. The image database included more than a 1000 images of fruits ... [more ▼]

This paper presents apple grading into four classes according to European standards. Two varieties were tested: Golden Delicious and Jonagold. The image database included more than a 1000 images of fruits (528 Golden Delicious, 642 Jonagold) belonging to the three acceptable categories-Extra, I and II-and the reject (each class represents, respectively, about 60, 10 and 20% of the sample size). The image grading was achieved in six steps: image acquisition; ground colour classification; defect segmentation; calyx and stem recognition; defects characterisation and finally the fruit classification into quality classes. The proposed method for apple external quality grading showed correct classification rates of 78 and 72%, for Golden Delicious and Jonagold apples, respectively. Taking into account that the healthy fruit were far better graded and considering that this class was under represented in the sample compared with the fruit population, the results of the proposed method (an error rate which drops to 5 and 10%, respectively) are compatible with the requirements of European standards. (C) 2002 Silsoe Research Institute. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailRevue bibliographique: les methodes chimiques d'identification et de classification des champignons.
Verscheure, M.; Lognay, Georges ULg; Marlier, M.

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2002), 6(3), 131-142

For few years, advancements of molecular methods and analytical techniques enabled scientists to realise a classification of microorganisms based on biochemical characteristics. This classification ... [more ▼]

For few years, advancements of molecular methods and analytical techniques enabled scientists to realise a classification of microorganisms based on biochemical characteristics. This classification, called chemotaxonomy, includes molecular methods and chemical methods which provide additional data and lead to a better identification and/or classification. [less ▲]

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See detailExplorer les secrets du patrimoine cheveux.
Franchimont, Claudine ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Skin (2002), 5

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See detailIntroduction to the objective arbitrability of corporate disputes in Belgium
Caprasse, Olivier ULg

in I.B.A. of A. Bulletin (2002)

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See detailThe Use of Cardboard Bedding Material as Part of an Environmental Control Regime for Heaves-affected Horses: In Vitro Assessment of Airborne Dust and Aeroallergen Concentration and In Vivo Effects on Lung Function
Kirschvink, Nathalie; Di silvestro, F.; Sbai, Ilham ULg et al

in Veterinary Journal (2002), 163

This study aimed to test whether shredded cardboard is an appropriate minimum-dust bedding material for heaves-affected horses. Results of standardized in vitro measurement of airborne dust and ... [more ▼]

This study aimed to test whether shredded cardboard is an appropriate minimum-dust bedding material for heaves-affected horses. Results of standardized in vitro measurement of airborne dust and aeroallergen concentrations of cardboard bedding were significantly lower than those of common bedding materials. Six heaves-affected horses in clinical remission after pasturing were stabled for two months on cardboard bedding and fed grass silage. Pulmonary function tests (PFT: ventilatory mechanics, arterial blood gases, airway inflammation scoring, bronchoalveolar cytology) were performed before, during and after this period and after stabling the horses in poor hygienic conditions. PFT values measured during and after the stabling period on cardboard bedding were not significantly different from those recorded after the period at pasture or from those of healthy horses, but were significantly different from those recorded in poor hygienic conditions. On basis of the in vitro and in vivo results it can be concluded that cardboard bedding, used in conjunction with low-dust forage, may be appropriate in the provision of minimum-dust management of heaves-affected horses [less ▲]

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See detailRecension: "Le contrat d'entreprise. Chronique de jurisprudence (1990-2000)"
Kohl, Benoît ULg

in Actualités du Droit (2002)

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See detailLe beau et l’idée du beau: Les mots pour le dire
Winand, Jean ULg

in Beautés d’Égypte (2002)

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See detailAnalysis of variables related to intrinsic motivation in a boys’ physical education class
Cloes, Marc ULg; Motter, Pascale; Ledent, Maryse ULg et al

in AVANTE (2002), 8(1), 1-14

In physical education settings, the development of intrinsic motivation in students is a central concern for every teacher. However, most studies have focused on isolated variables using quantitative ... [more ▼]

In physical education settings, the development of intrinsic motivation in students is a central concern for every teacher. However, most studies have focused on isolated variables using quantitative approaches. The purpose of this study was to underline the existence of relationships between students’ intrinsic motivation (assessed by dispositional factors) and individual/collective situational factors. A secondary school boys’ class and its teacher were the subjects of the study. Questionnaires and interviews were used. Data were initially processed from the class point of view. Based on a cluster analysis determined by intrinsic motivation level, two groups of students were compared. Qualitative analysis was based on the answers of the two most and the two least motivated students of the class. Extracurricular practice (individual situational variable), teacher-students’ interaction and mastery climate (collective situational variables) were identified among the factors related to students’ intrinsic motivation. Inter-individual diversity of influencing variables was pointed out. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effect of pH on the alternative oxidase activity in isolated Acanthamoeba castellanii mitochondria.
Jarmuszkiewicz, W.; Hryniewiecka, L.; Sluse, Francis ULg

in Journal of Bioenergetics & Biomembranes (2002), 34(3), 221-226

Mitochondria of Acanthamoeba castellanii possess a cyanide-resistant GMP-stimulated ubiquinol alternative oxidase in addition to the cytochrome pathway. In a previous work it has been observed that an ... [more ▼]

Mitochondria of Acanthamoeba castellanii possess a cyanide-resistant GMP-stimulated ubiquinol alternative oxidase in addition to the cytochrome pathway. In a previous work it has been observed that an interaction between the two ubiquinol-oxidizing pathways exists in intact A. castellanii mitochondria and that this interaction may be due to a high sensitivity of the alternative oxidase to matrix pH. In this study we have shown that the alternative oxidase activity reveals a pH-dependence with a pH optimum at 6.8 whatever the reducing substrate may be. The GMP stimulation of alternative oxidase is also strongly dependent on pH implicating probably protonation/deprotonation processes at the level of ligand and protein with an optimum pH at 6.8. The ubiquinone redox state-dependence of alternative oxidase activity is modified by pH in such a way that the highest activity for a given ubiquinone redox state is observed at pH 6.8. Thus pH, binding of GMP, and redox state of ubiquinone collaborate to set the activity of the GMP-stimulated alternative oxidase in isolated A. castellanii mitochondria. The high pH sensitivity of the alternative oxidase could link inactivation of the cytochrome pathway proton pumps to activation of the alternative oxidase with acceleration of redox free energy dissipation as a consequence. [less ▲]

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See detailSpectral and crystallographic study of pyridinic analogues of nimesulide : determination of the active form of methanesulfonamides as COX-2 selective inhibitors
Julémont, F.; de Leval, X.; Michaux, C. et al

in Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2002), 45

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See detailPlacental GH, IGF-I, IGF-binding protein-1 and leptin during a glucose challenge test in pregnant women : relation with maternal body weight, glucose tolerance, and birth weight
Verhaeghe, J.; Pintiaux, Axelle ULg; Van Herck, E. et al

in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (2002), 87(6), 2875-2882

The prediction of birth weight may be improved by the measurement of hormones or growth factors in the mother. We measured body weight (BW) and plasma levels of placental GH (PGH), IGF-I, IGF-binding ... [more ▼]

The prediction of birth weight may be improved by the measurement of hormones or growth factors in the mother. We measured body weight (BW) and plasma levels of placental GH (PGH), IGF-I, IGF-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), and leptin at the time of the glucose challenge test (GCT) in 289 women, who were pregnant with a single fetus, between 24 and 29 wk gestational age (GA). Delivery occurred 12 +/- 2 (mean +/- SD) wk later. First, we examined which variables regulate these hormonal factors. Multiple regression showed that PGH concentrations were determined by GA at sampling and were negatively related to BW. IGF-I levels were mainly determined by PGH, and also by insulin, BW, and (negatively) age. IGFBP-1 concentrations were negatively determined by BW, insulin, and IGF-I. BW was also a powerful determinant of leptin levels, with insulin as a less robust determinant. Second, we examined the relation to glucose levels. PGH, IGF-I, and IGFBP-1 concentrations were not correlated with post-GCT glucose levels and were comparable in women with a normal or disturbed GCT (glucose >/=7.8 mmol/liter; n = 72). Finally, we examined the relation with birth weight and placental weight. Birth weight, corrected for GA and stratified into percentile groups, and the ponderal index at birth were strongly related to maternal BW, but not to maternal PGH, IGF-I, or IGFBP-1 levels. Neither was maternal leptin related to birth weight, but leptin concentrations were slightly higher in women who delivered obese babies. Placental weight was not related to any of the hormonal factors. This prospective study indicates that the variation in circulating PGH, IGF-I, IGFBP-1, and leptin between 24 and 29 wk of pregnancy is strongly dependent on maternal BW, but is unrelated to glucose tolerance. In addition, the measurement of PGH, IGF-I, IGFBP-1, or leptin at the time of the GCT is not useful clinically to predict birth weight. [less ▲]

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See detailBELL, regular 2002 issue
Delrez, Marc ULg

in Belgian Essays on Language and Literature (2002)

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See detailCompte rendu de R. GODDING, Prêtres en Gaule mérovingienne, Bruxelles, 2001
George, Philippe ULg

in Moyen Age (Le) (2002)

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See detailAnalyse de l'impact physiologique et economique de l'elagage des arbres d'alignement en port libre.
Toussaint, André ULg; Kervyn de Meerendre, V.; Delcroix, B. et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2002), 6(2), 99-107

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See detailOn the representation of real numbers using regular languages
Lecomte, Pierre ULg; Rigo, Michel ULg

in Theory of Computing Systems (2002), 35(1, JAN-FEB), 13-38

Using a lexicographically ordered regular language, we show how to represent an interval of R. We determine exactly the possible representations of any element in this interval and study the function ... [more ▼]

Using a lexicographically ordered regular language, we show how to represent an interval of R. We determine exactly the possible representations of any element in this interval and study the function which maps a representation onto its numerical value. We make explicit the relationship between the convergence of finite words to an infinite word and the convergence of the corresponding approximations to a real number. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of instillation into lung of autologous blood on pulmonary function and tracheobronchial wash cytology
Art, Tatiana ULg; Tack, S.; Kirschvink, Nathalie et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal. Supplement (2002), 34

This study aimed at measuring the functional consequences and the pulmonary cytology changes following a simulation of pulmonary haemorrhage. Pulmonary function tests including lobeline-induced ... [more ▼]

This study aimed at measuring the functional consequences and the pulmonary cytology changes following a simulation of pulmonary haemorrhage. Pulmonary function tests including lobeline-induced hyperventilation, cytology of tracheo-bronchial wash (TBW) and thoracic radiographs were performed before, as well as 1, 7, 14 and 28 days after, the instillation of 300 ml of blood into the lungs of 4 horses deemed free of exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (Group 1). Control data (Group 2) were obtained by instilling the same volume of saline into the lungs of the same horses in a crossover design (control). The instillation of blood or saline resulted in an increase in the number of neutrophils in the TBW. Thoracic radiographs showed increased opacity in the caudodorsal region of the lungs in 4/4 (Day 1) and 2/4 horses (Day 7), in Group 1, and in 2/4 (Day 1) and 0/4 horses (Day 7) in the control group. These changes were attributed to the instillation procedure rather than the nature of the instilled material. Breathing mechanics and arterial blood gases at rest were not affected in either Groups 1 or 2. However, the maximal expiratory peak flow recorded during lobeline-induced hyperventilation was significantly lower (P<0.05) and the total pulmonary resistance significantly higher (P<0.05) on Day 1 in Group 1, but not Group 2. These observations suggest that expiratory flows might be partly limited in bleeders when breathing at high airflow [less ▲]

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See detailResearch on Instruction in Physical Education. Review of the Research in Selected Roman Languages.
Piéron, Maurice ULg; Cloes, Marc ULg

in International Journal of Physical Education (2002), 39(1), 12-20

In French, the term "intervention" is used since a few years. The paper will: (1) deal with the topic of instruction limites to teachers' decisions and interventions during the interactive phase in ... [more ▼]

In French, the term "intervention" is used since a few years. The paper will: (1) deal with the topic of instruction limites to teachers' decisions and interventions during the interactive phase in teaching; during this phase, activities planned in the pre-interactive phase are implemented: the interactive phase concerns the task's presentation, the pupils' activity and the control of this activity in terms of behavioural management and of the quality of the eprformance (feedback); (2) refer to the main research methods used in gathering data, and (3) develop the main findings in the domain of instruction: teacher thinking and behaviour, pupils' thoughts and behaviour, management of the class or in other words control of pupils' behaviour. It is evident that thougts and behaviours are closely related and are part of the relationship between teachers and pupils. The paper focused only on texts appearing in French, Portuguese and Spanish published since 1997 in Physical eeducation journals and Proceeddings of international congresses. [less ▲]

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See detailObs. sous C.J.C.E., 14 juin 2001, aff. C-230/00
Delnoy, Michel ULg

in Aménagement - Environnement (2002), 1

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See detailUncoupling proteins outside the animal and plant kingdoms: functional and evolutionary aspects.
Sluse, Francis ULg; Jarmuszkiewicz, W.

in FEBS Letters (2002), 510

The appearance of intracellular oxidative phosphorylation at the time of acquisition of mitochondria in Eukarya was very soon accompanied by the emergence of uncoupling protein, a carrier specialized in ... [more ▼]

The appearance of intracellular oxidative phosphorylation at the time of acquisition of mitochondria in Eukarya was very soon accompanied by the emergence of uncoupling protein, a carrier specialized in free fatty acid-mediated H(+) recycling that can modulate the tightness of coupling between mitochondrial respiration and ATP synthesis, thereby maintaining a balance between energy supply and demand in the cell and defending cells against damaging reactive oxygen species production when electron carriers of the respiratory chain become over-reduced. The simultaneous occurrence of redox free energy-dissipating oxidase, which has the same final effect, could be related to the functional interactions between both dissipative systems [less ▲]

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See detailThe effect of health related quality of life on reported use of health care resources in patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: a longitudinal analysis.
Ethgen, Olivier ULg; Kahler, Kristijan H; Kong, Sheldon X et al

in Journal of Rheumatology (2002), 29(6), 1147-55

OBJECTIVE: In today's cost conscious environment, health services researchers are consistently trying to find ways to predict future health care resource utilization (HCRU) and its associated costs. We ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: In today's cost conscious environment, health services researchers are consistently trying to find ways to predict future health care resource utilization (HCRU) and its associated costs. We evaluated the impact of health related quality of life (HRQL) on future HCRU in patients with arthritis. METHODS: A total of 642 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 395 patients with osteoarthritis (OA) completed at least 2 and as many as 6 consecutive surveys at 6 mo intervals. Information collected included demographics, HRQL questionnaires [Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (SF-36), Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ)], and HCRU over the previous 6 months. Longitudinal data analysis was perfomed to assess the effect of HRQL on future HCRU. RESULTS: Statistically significant associations between HCRU and HRQL variables were noted. Higher rates of HCRU were found in those in the worst quarter compared with those in the best quarter of HRQL. With the HAQ, OA and RA patients in the worst quarter reported a 199% (p < 0.05) and 48% (p < 0.05) increase in rheumatologist visits, respectively. With the WOMAC Function, increases were as high as 196% (p < 0.05) in rheumatologist visits for patients with OA. Patients with RA with a high level of HRQL as measured by the SF-36 (physical component score) reported a decrease of 31% (p < 0.01) in general practitioner visits and a decrease of 52% (p < 0.01) in hospitalization (mental component score). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that HRQL may be used to predict future health care consumption. Such an approach may lead to a more efficient allocation of resources by providing useful information to health care providers and health care decision makers. [less ▲]

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See detailDe Mably à Marin. Dans le dédale ornemental de l'imprimeur parisien Quillau (XVIIIe siècle)
Droixhe, Daniel ULg

in Livre et l'Estampe (Le) (2002), 48(158), 43-69

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See detailLa châsse de saint Remacle (1263-1268) et Liège
George, Philippe ULg

in Bulletin de la Société Royale Le Vieux-Liège (2002), t. XIV, n° 298-299

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See detailImportance of pedogenic factors in the spatial distribution of some soils properties in the Belgian Loess Belt: II. Some loess-substratum contacts
Colinet, Gilles ULg; Lacroix, Daniel ULg; Bock, Laurent ULg

in Aardkundige Mededelingen (2002), 12

The geochemical influence of parent material on soil content in some metallic trace elements (MTE) is studied in the Belgian loess belt. The first results show straight sharp Transitions between loess and ... [more ▼]

The geochemical influence of parent material on soil content in some metallic trace elements (MTE) is studied in the Belgian loess belt. The first results show straight sharp Transitions between loess and substratum. This leads to the conclusion that most soils should have the same range of natural values of MTE content. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges in the development of the winter-spring phytoplankton bloom in the Bay of Calvi (NW Mediterranean) over the last two decades: a response to changing climate?
Goffart, Anne ULg; Hecq, Jean-Henri ULg; Legendre, Louis

in Marine Ecology. Progress Series (2002), 236

The development of the winter-spring phytoplankton bloom was investigated in the Bay of Calvi (Corsica, Ligurian Sea, northwestern Mediterranean) in 1979, 1986, 1988, 1997 and 1998. A drastic reduction of ... [more ▼]

The development of the winter-spring phytoplankton bloom was investigated in the Bay of Calvi (Corsica, Ligurian Sea, northwestern Mediterranean) in 1979, 1986, 1988, 1997 and 1998. A drastic reduction of phytoplankton biomass was evidenced over the last 2 decades, in relation to long-term changes in climatic and environmental conditions. Between 1979 and 1998, the monthly averaged chlorophyll a concentrations at 1 m decreased by about 80% during February, March and April. Simultaneously, major changes to hydrodynamic conditions include warmer water, overall decrease of salinity at 10 m depth, longer periods of bright sunshine and lower wind stress, The changes in environmental conditions were large enough to affect the vertical stability of the water column during the winter-spring period and to reduce nutrient replenishment of the surface layer prior to the usual period of phytoplankton growth. Until 1986, the main factor driving nutrient replenishment was the winter upward mixing of nutrient-rich deep waters, while the progressive reduction of mixing from 1988 induced nutrient limitation of surface waters in the last decade. The following hypotheses on changes in the development of the winter-spring phytoplankton bloom are made: (1) Until 1986, phytoplankton peaks took place in relatively high-nutrient waters and were diatom-dominated. (2) Between 1986 and 1988, decreasing Si availability led to Si limitation which caused a reduction in diatom abundance. This resulted in the disappearance of the diatom-dominated pulses and in lower phytoplankton biomass and was accompanied by a shift toward non-siliceous phytoplankton. (3) In 1988, 1997 and 1998, decreasing nitrate availability led to nitrate limitation, thus explaining the progressive reduction in non-siliceous phytoplankton biomass. Other, associated changes in benthos assemblages and ichthyofauna are documented. The conclusions from the Bay of Calvi are extended to the whole western Corsican coast. This confirms that the Mediterranean reacts rapidly to external perturbations, which are driven by climate change in that particular area. [less ▲]

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See detailA multistage field test of wheelchair users for evaluation of fitness and prediction of peak oxygen consumption
Vanderthommen, Marc ULg; Francaux, M.; Colinet, Cédrik et al

in Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development (2002), 39(6, Nov-Dec), 685-692

An incremental multistage field test (MFT) for wheelchair users was developed to evaluate physical fitness and predict peak oxygen consumption (VO2). Using auditory feedback, the participants (n = 37 ... [more ▼]

An incremental multistage field test (MFT) for wheelchair users was developed to evaluate physical fitness and predict peak oxygen consumption (VO2). Using auditory feedback, the participants (n = 37) were directed to wheel around an octagonal course, increasing their velocity every minute until exhaustion. Wheelchair velocity and metabolic parameters were recorded with the use of a speedometer and a portable spirometer system. The average number of exercise levels performed (MFT score) was 9.17 +/- 5.81, resulting in a peak heart rate (HR) of 99.0 +/- 13.9% of the theoretical maximum. A test-retest analysis (n = 10) showed that the MFT was reliable regarding MFT score, peak VO2, and peak HR reached. Stepwise multiple regression based on individual, wheelchair, propulsion technique, and physiological parameters revealed that the MFT score was the best and only predictor of peak VO2 (mL/min/kg) (= 18.03 + 0.78 MFT score, r(2) = 0.59). The MFT assesses wheelchair mobility and estimates peak VO2 encountered during the test. [less ▲]

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See detailGlacial-interglacial changes of continental weathering: estimates of the related CO2 and HCO3- flux variations and their uncertainties
Munhoven, Guy ULg

in Global and Planetary Change (2002), 33(1-2), 155-176

A range of estimates for the glacial-interglacial variations in CO, consumption and HCO3- production rates by continental weathering processes were calculated with two models of continental weathering ... [more ▼]

A range of estimates for the glacial-interglacial variations in CO, consumption and HCO3- production rates by continental weathering processes were calculated with two models of continental weathering: the Gibbs and Kump Weathering Model (GKWM) [Paleoceanography 9(4) (1994) 529] and an adapted version of Amiotte Suchet and Probst's Global Erosion Model for CO2 Consumption (GEM-CO2) [C. R, Acad. Sci. Paris, Ser. 11317 (1993) 615; Tellus 47B (1995) 273]. Both models link CO2 consumption and HCO3- production rates to the global distributions of lithology and runoff. A spectrum of 16 estimates for the runoff distribution at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was constructed on the basis of two different data sets for present-day runoff and climate results from eight GCM climate simulation experiments carried out in the framework of the Paleo Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP). With these forcings, GKWM produced 3.55-9.0 Tmol/year higher and GEM-CO2 4.7-13.25 Tmol/year higher global HCO3- (1 Tmol=10(12) mol) production rates at the LGM, Mean variations (plus/minus one standard error of the mean with 7 df) were 6.2+/-0.6 and 9.4+/-1.0 Tmol/year, respectively. The global CO2 consumption rates obtained with GKWM were 1.05-4.5 Tmol/year (mean: 2.8+/-0.4 Tmol/year) higher at the LGM than at present. With GEM-CO2 this increase was 1.95-7.15 Tmol/year (mean: 4.8+/-0.6 Tmol/year). The large variability in the changes obtained with each weathering model was primarily due to the variability in the GCM results. The increase in the CO2 consumption rate due to continental shelf exposure at the LGM was always more than 60% larger than its reduction due to ice cover. For HCOT production rates, the increase related to shelf exposure was always more than twice as large as the decrease due to ice cover. Flux variations in the areas exposed both now and at the LGM were, in absolute value, always more than 3.5 times lower than those in the shelf environment. The calculated CO2 consumption rates by carbonate weathering were consistently higher at the LGM, by 2.45-4.5 Tmol/year (mean: 3.4+/-0.2 Tmol/year) according to GKWM and by 2.75-6.25 Tmol/year (mean: 4.6+/-0.4 Tmol/year) according to GEM-CO, For silicate weathering, GKWM produced variations ranging between a 1.9 Tmol/year decrease and a 0.4 Tmol/year increase for the LGM (mean variation: -0.7+/-0.2 Tmol/year); GEM-CO, produced variations ranging between a 0.8 Tmol/year decrease and a 1.05 Tmol/year increase (mean variation: +0.2+/-0.2 Tmol/year). In the mean, the calculated variations of CO2 and HCO3- fluxes would contribute to reduce atmospheric p(CO2) by 5.7+/-1.3 ppmv (GKWM) or 3 12.1+/-1.7 ppmv (GEM-CO2), which might thus represent a non-negligible part of the observed glacial interglacial variation of similar to 75 ppmv. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailRecommendations for the design of clinical trials and the registration of drugs used in the treatment of asthma
Holgate, ST; Bousquet, J; Chung, KF et al

in International Journal of Pharmaceutical Medicine (2002), 16

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See detailMétastase synoviale d'un cancer colique se présentant comme une arthrite du genou. Caractérisation par tomographie à émission de positons au 18FDG
Beckers, C.; Foidart, J.; Thiry, Albert ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(5), 467-474

A case of carcinomatous monoarthritis involving the left knee due to colonic adenocarcinoma is described. Large recurrent synovial effusion, that will be later hematic, lytic lesion of the bones and ... [more ▼]

A case of carcinomatous monoarthritis involving the left knee due to colonic adenocarcinoma is described. Large recurrent synovial effusion, that will be later hematic, lytic lesion of the bones and chondrolysis were noted. Knee positron emitting tomography scan using FDG (FDG-PET) revealed a diffuse increased uptake in soft tissues assumed to be synovium, the hypertrophy of which was identified by ultrasonography. Whole body PET scan showed extensive lymph node, visceral and bone metastases, suggesting that the increase in the synovium could also be of metastatic origin. The final diagnosis of synovial carcinomatosis secondary to the known colonic adenocarcinoma was confirmed by histological analysis of biopsies obtained by arthroscopy. A review of the literature is realised. To our knowledge, this is the first synovial metastasis studied by FDG-PET. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment and validation of a new Fourier transform infrared spectrometric method for the quantification of urea in creams and ointments
Otte, X; Evrard, Brigitte ULg; Delattre, Luc ULg et al

in Analytica Chimica Acta (2002), 451

A new Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometric method for the quantification of urea in creams and ointments was developed and validated. The sample was solubilized in a mixture of chloroform ... [more ▼]

A new Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometric method for the quantification of urea in creams and ointments was developed and validated. The sample was solubilized in a mixture of chloroform/acetonitrile (1/1 v/v) which allows to solubilize the vaseline or other fats as well as urea and water. The solution was examined in a transmission cell with a pathlength of 500 μm provided with NaCI windows. The urea spectrum was obtained by subtraction of the reference solvent mixture spectrum and the reference water spectrum from the sample spectrum. The absorbance of the peak at ±1688 cm-1 was compared to those of calibration standards to quantify urea. The detection limit and the quantification limit (three times and 10 times the noise, respectively) were estimated as 0.4 and 1.3 μg ml-1, respectively. Validation of the method was realized and application of this method to stability tests was done. [less ▲]

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See detailPrimary Structure of Selected Archaeal Mesophilic and Extremely Thermophilic Outer Surface Layer Proteins
Claus, Harald; Akça, Erol; Debaerdemaeker, Tony et al

in Systematic & Applied Microbiology (2002), 25

The archaea are recognized as a separate third domain of life together with the bacteria and eucarya. The archaea include the methanogens, extreme halophiles, thermoplasmas, sulfate reducers and sulfur ... [more ▼]

The archaea are recognized as a separate third domain of life together with the bacteria and eucarya. The archaea include the methanogens, extreme halophiles, thermoplasmas, sulfate reducers and sulfur metabolizing thermophiles, which thrive in different habitats such as anaerobic niches, salt lakes, and marine hydrothermals systems and continental solfataras. Many of these habitats represent extreme environments in respect to temperature, osmotic pressure and pH-values and remind on the conditions of the early earth. The cell envelope structures were one of the first biochemical characteristics of archaea studied in detail. The most common archaeal cell envelope is composed of a single crystalline protein or glycoprotein surface layer (S-layer), which is associated with the outside of the cytoplasmic membrane. The S-layers are directly exposed to the extreme environment and can not be stabilized by cellular components. Therefore, from comparative studies of mesophilic and extremely thermophilic S-layer proteins hints can be obtained about the molecular mechanisms of protein stabilization at high temperatures. First crystallization experiments of surface layer proteins under microgravity conditions were successful. Here, we report on the biochemical features of selected mesophilic and extremely archaeal S-layer (glyco-) proteins. [less ▲]

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See detailCréation d'un site Internet d'Evidence-Based Medicine.
Delvenne, Catherine ULg; Pasleau, Françoise ULg

in Médi-Sphère (2002), (67), 41-43

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See detailEffect of deep digital flexor tendon orientation on magnetic resonance imaging signal intensity in isolated equine limbs - The magic angle effect
Busoni, Valeria ULg; Snaps, Frédéric ULg

in Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound (2002), 43(5, Sep-Oct), 428-430

Ten normal equine isolated limbs were imaged using a knee coil in a 1.5 Tesla magnetic field, with short echo time sequences (TE < 15 ms). Magnetic resonance imaging was performed on each isolated limb in ... [more ▼]

Ten normal equine isolated limbs were imaged using a knee coil in a 1.5 Tesla magnetic field, with short echo time sequences (TE < 15 ms). Magnetic resonance imaging was performed on each isolated limb in different positions, with and without extension of the metacarpophalangeal joint. Deep digital flexor tendon orientation ranged from 20 to 60 degrees in relation to the static magnetic field. Increased intratendinous signal intensity was observed when the angle between the deep digital flexor tendon and the constant magnetic field approached 55 degrees ("magic angle"). The increased signal intensity was independent from extension of the metacarpophalangeal joint. Recognition of the magic angle phenomenon is essential for proper evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging studies of the equine foot. [less ▲]

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See detailL'hyperglycemie post-prandiale. I. Physiopathologie, consequences cliniques et approaches dietetiques.
Scheen, André ULg; Paquot, Nicolas ULg; Jandrain, Bernard ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(3), 138-41

Postprandial hyperglycaemia depends on the amount and type of ingested carbohydrates and/or the degree of inhibition of hepatic glucose output following a meal. The kinetics of carbohydrate absorption is ... [more ▼]

Postprandial hyperglycaemia depends on the amount and type of ingested carbohydrates and/or the degree of inhibition of hepatic glucose output following a meal. The kinetics of carbohydrate absorption is directly influenced by the type of food (carbohydrates with variable glycaemic indices, fibre content of the meal) and by the speed of gastric emptying. Hepatic glucose output is remarkably inhibited by insulin and strongly stimulated by glucagon. It remains abnormally high after a meal in diabetic patients because of insufficient portal insulin concentrations, hepatic insulin resistance and/or hyperglucagonaemia. In diabetic patients, postprandial hyperglycaemia contributes to the aggravation of chronic hyperglycaemia, and thus to the increase of glycated haemoglobin levels. Furthermore, it has been recently demonstrated that postprandial hyperglycaemia increases the cardiovascular risk, even in nondiabetic subjects, probably by inducing endothelial dysfunction. Appropriate dietary counselling plays a key-role in the control of postprandial hyperglycaemia. Generally speaking, it includes a selection of carbohydrates with low glycaemic index and a higher fibre intake. Pharmacological interventions may also be considered when necessary. [less ▲]

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See detailAdvantages and disadvantages of a control programme against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis in Belgium
Limbourg, B.; Kerkhofs, P.; Massard, C. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2002), 146(2, APR-MAY), 57-69

A working party of the "Association d'Epidemiologie et de Sante Animale" assessed the strategy for a control of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) in Belgium and studied its feasability and the ... [more ▼]

A working party of the "Association d'Epidemiologie et de Sante Animale" assessed the strategy for a control of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) in Belgium and studied its feasability and the different programmes to be applied. Epidemiology of IBR in Belgium, vaccination, diagnostic methods, economic aspects of IBR control, Belgian laws regarding IBR and the motivation of people in the field were described. The advantages and disadvantages of three programmes were analysed: to maintain the current situation, to protect cattle against clinical disease and to control and eradicate IBR. [less ▲]

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See detailPositron emission tomography (PET) evaluation of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA)
SakalihasanN, Natzi ULg; Van Damme, Hendrik ULg; Gomez, P. et al

in European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (2002), 23(5), 431-436

Background: aneurysmal disease is associated with all inflammatory Cell infiltrate and enzymatic degradation of the vessel wall. Aim of the study: to detect increased metabolic activity in abdominal ... [more ▼]

Background: aneurysmal disease is associated with all inflammatory Cell infiltrate and enzymatic degradation of the vessel wall. Aim of the study: to detect increased metabolic activity in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) by means of positron emission tomography (PET-imaging). Study design: twenty-six patients with AAA underwent PET-imaging Results: in tell patients, PET-imaging revealed increased, fluoro-deoxy-glucose (18-FDG) uptake at the level of the aneurysm. Patients with positive PET-imaging had one or more of the following elements in their clinical history: history Of recent non-aortic surgery (n = 4) a painful inflammatory aortic aneurysm (n = 2). moderate low back pain (n = 2), rapid (>5 mm in 6 months) expansion (n = 4), discovery by PET-scan of a previously undiagnosed lung cancer (n = 3) or parotid tumour (n = 1). Five patients with a positive PET scan required urgent surgery within two to 30 days. Among the 16 patients with negative PET-imaging of their aneurysm, only one had recent non-aortic surgery, none of them required urgent surgery, only two had a rapidly expanding AAA, and in only one patient, PET-imaging revealed an unknown lung cancer. Conclusion: these data suggest a possible association between increased 18-FDG uptake and AAA expansion and rupture. [less ▲]

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See detailAsymmetrical international attitudes
Van Oudenhoven, J.; Askevis-Leherpeux, F.; Hannover, B. et al

in European Journal of Social Psychology (2002), 32(2), 275-289

In general, attitudes towards nations have a fair amount of reciprocity: nations either like each other are relatively indifferent to each other or dislike each other Sometimes, however international ... [more ▼]

In general, attitudes towards nations have a fair amount of reciprocity: nations either like each other are relatively indifferent to each other or dislike each other Sometimes, however international attitudes are asymmetrical. In this study, we use social identity theory in order to explain asymmetrical attitudes. Parting from social identity theory, asymmetrical attitudes can be predicted to occur most likely between countries that are linguistically either similar or closely related, but differ in size. Europe, more than any other continent, offers a rich variety of nations which represent natural conditions for our study, such as size and degree of linguistic similarity. In order to test hypotheses derived from social identity theory, we asked respondents (N = 405) from (Dutch- and French-speaking) Belgium, France, Germany, and The Netherlands to fill out a questionnaire on three large nations (Germany, Great Britain, France) and three smaller ones (The Netherlands, Belgium, and Denmark). Results strongly supported hypotheses and confirm that a social identity approach may help to better understand international attitudes. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes sulfide detoxication occur in the gills of the hydrothermal vent shrimp, Rimicaris exoculata?
Compère, Philippe ULg; Martinez, Anne-Sophie; Charmantier-Daures, Mireille et al

in Comptes Rendus Biologies (2002), 325

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See detailPrévention des cancers cutanés par les crèmes de protection solaire.
Uhoda, I.; Pierard, Claudine ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(8), 505-8

How do sunscreens protect against skin cancers? The answer to this question is a matter of controversy among scientist for several years. The doubt persists because the wise use of such products is only ... [more ▼]

How do sunscreens protect against skin cancers? The answer to this question is a matter of controversy among scientist for several years. The doubt persists because the wise use of such products is only one of the factors involved in sun behavior together with avoiding excessive sunlight exposure and wearing protective clothes. [less ▲]

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See detailLe vol du cheval sacré
Swennen, Philippe ULg

in Acta Orientalia Belgica (2002), XVI

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See detailRenouvellement des pédagogies musicales. Analyse et développement des innovations dans les cours d'instruments semi-collectifs
Giot, Bernadette ULg; Grifnée, Catherine

in Site du Ministère de la Communauté française de Belgique (2002)

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See detailA multicenter randomized trial of ketoconazole 2% and zinc pyrithione 1% shampoos in severe dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis.
Pierard, Claudine ULg; Goffin, Véronique ULg; Decroix, Jacques et al

in Skin Pharmacology & Applied Skin Physiology (2002), 15(6), 434-41

Ketoconazole (KET) and zinc pyrithione (ZPT) are compounds active against the Malassezia spp. yeasts, which are believed to play a major role in dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis. We compared the ... [more ▼]

Ketoconazole (KET) and zinc pyrithione (ZPT) are compounds active against the Malassezia spp. yeasts, which are believed to play a major role in dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis. We compared the efficacy and safety of KET 2% and ZPT 1% in shampoo formulations for the alleviation of severe dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis. This open randomized, parallel-group trial began with a 2-week run-in phase during which subjects applied a neutral non-antidandruff shampoo. It was followed by a 4-week randomized treatment phase and a subsequent 4-week follow-up phase without treatment. Shampooing during the treatment period was carried out twice weekly for the KET group and at least twice weekly for the ZPT group in accordance with the label instructions. A total of 343 subjects were recruited to enter the trial. Of the 331 eligible volunteers, 171 were randomized to KET 2% and 160 to ZPT 1%. Clinical assessments were performed. Beneficial effects were evidenced for both medicated shampoos, but the effect was significantly better for KET 2%, which achieved a 73% improvement in the total dandruff severity score compared with 67% for ZPT 1% at week 4 (p < 0.02). The recurrence rate of the disease was also significantly lower following KET 2% treatment than following ZPT 1% treatment. As a consequence, the overall clearing of the skin condition at the end of treatment and follow-up phase was in favor of the KET 2% formulation (p = 0.004). Side effects were minimal. It is concluded that after a 4-week treatment, KET 2% shampoo was significantly superior to ZPT 1% shampoo in the treatment of subjects with severe dandruff or seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp. It is our assumption that this difference is noticeable for the patient and as a consequence relevant. Both formulations were well tolerated. [less ▲]

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See detailAre all glitazones the same?
Van Gaal, Luc; Scheen, André ULg

in Diabetes/Metabolism Research & Reviews (2002), 18 Suppl 2

This supplement focuses on the benefits of targeting insulin resistance through therapy with a new class of oral antidiabetic agents, the thiazolidinediones (TZDs) or 'glitazones'. There are important ... [more ▼]

This supplement focuses on the benefits of targeting insulin resistance through therapy with a new class of oral antidiabetic agents, the thiazolidinediones (TZDs) or 'glitazones'. There are important differences between the three TZD class members that warrant discussion to enable physicians to make rational and informed therapeutic choices between the agents. Overall the TZDs appear to be similar in their effects on blood glucose, as all class members have demonstrated effective glycaemic control, both as monotherapy and in combination with sulphonylureas, metformin or exogenous insulin. The safety profiles of the three agents are more diverse, with what appear to be 'TZD class effects', (probably mediated via activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma [PPAR gamma]) and 'TZD-specific effects', which are unique to each agent and may be a consequence of differing chemical structures. While rosiglitazone and pioglitazone share some class effects with troglitazone, they have several characteristics that define them as unique agents. By tackling the control of type 2 diabetes through direct effects on insulin resistance, the TZDs represent an important new therapeutic tool for healthcare professionals. [less ▲]

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See detailHyperfine structure of neutral vanadium lines and livels
Lefèbvre, P.-H.; Garnir, Henri-Pierre ULg; Biémont, Emile ULg

in Physica Scripta (2002), 66

We have recorded hollow-cathode spectra of neutral vanadium by Fourier transform spectroscopy in the near infrared - visible region (9000-17 000 cm-1). 36 transitions showing hyperfine structure have been ... [more ▼]

We have recorded hollow-cathode spectra of neutral vanadium by Fourier transform spectroscopy in the near infrared - visible region (9000-17 000 cm-1). 36 transitions showing hyperfine structure have been analyzed, allowing us to deduce magnetic dipole constants for 27 levels belonging to the 3d44p and 3d34s4p configurations. For 22 of these levels no data were previously available. [less ▲]

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See detailDesign of a foil-coiled inductor for the heating of steel wires
De coster, Jeroen; Deliège, Geoffrey ULg; Henrotte, François et al

in IEE Proceedings - Science, Measurement & Technology (2002), 149(5), 203-206

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See detailAromatic Side-Chain Interactions In Proteins. II. Near- And Far-Sequence Phe-X Pairs
Thomas, Annick ULg; Meurisse, R.; Brasseur, Robert ULg

in Proteins-Structure Function and Genetics (2002), 48(4), 635-44

We have collected all aromatic pairs (3152) involving an N-phenyl partner in a dataset of 593 proteins of the PDB: 728 of these pairs involve a partner residue less than 6 apart in the sequence. These ... [more ▼]

We have collected all aromatic pairs (3152) involving an N-phenyl partner in a dataset of 593 proteins of the PDB: 728 of these pairs involve a partner residue less than 6 apart in the sequence. These near-sequence Phe-X pairs correspond to specific conformations that stabilize secondary structures, mainly alpha-helices when the residues are 1, 3, and 4 apart, and beta-strands when they are 2 apart in the sequence. These conformations are not spatially random and have been examined in detail. The remaining phenylalanine pairs (2424) are between partners more than 5 apart in the sequence. Of these far-sequence pairs, 34% of occurrences are in sheets. Next in frequencies are pairs that bridge a beta-strand to a helix (24%), followed by pairs that bridge a beta-strand to a random coiled structure (15%). Helix to helix pairs only constitute 12% of these far-sequence pairs. Analysis of the pairing frequency supports the hypothesis that aromatic interactions are late events of protein folding. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of the ability of three radioimmunoassay to detect pregnancy-associated glycoproteins in bovine plasma
Perenyi, Z. S.; Szenci, Otto; Sulon, Joseph ULg et al

in Reproduction in Domestic Animals (2002), 37(2), 100-104

Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) constitute a large family of glycoproteins that are synthesized in the superficial layer of the ruminant placenta according to a spatial and temporal expression ... [more ▼]

Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) constitute a large family of glycoproteins that are synthesized in the superficial layer of the ruminant placenta according to a spatial and temporal expression pattern. When PAGs are released in the maternal blood they can be used for pregnancy diagnosis, pregnancy follow-up and for the monitoring of the trophoblastic function. Three different radioimmunoassay systems (RIA 1, RIA 2 and RIA 3) using antisera produced against PAG I67 (RIA 1), PAG55+62 (RIA 2) and PAG55+59 (RIA 3) were used in this investigation in order to measure the PAG concentration in plasma samples withdrawn from pregnant cows and heifers during different periods following artificial insemination (AI). These systems were able to detect PAG molecules in the maternal blood as early as 21 days after AI in different concentrations (RIA 1: 0.43 +/- 0.24 ng/ml, mean +/- SD; RIA 2: 0.48 +/- 0.24 ng/ml; RIA 3: 0.64 +/- 0.37 ng/ml). On days 32 and 42 RIA 2 (4.30 +/- 1.32 ng/ml and 5.56 +/- 1.95 ng/ml) and RIA 3 (4.17 +/- 1.15 ng/ml and 5.60 +/- 1.89 ng/ml) presented significantly (p < 0.0001) higher PAG concentrations than those of RIA 1 (2.43 +/- 0.81 ng/ml and 4.01 +/- 1.48 ng/ml), respectively. After day 21, significant correlations (p < 0.0001; r >/= 0.929) were determined between the three systems. Additionally the three individual PAG profiles presented in this study showed that PAG molecules secreted in the maternal blood between 21 and 50 days after AI were better recognized by the RIA 2 and RIA 3 systems. This study clearly indicated that the ability of a RIA test to recognize PAG molecules in the maternal blood can be improved by carefully selecting the antiserum. [less ▲]

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See detailEditorial. Ecrire...
Hindryckx, Geneviève ULg

in Cahiers du Service de Pédagogie Expérimentale (SPE) (2002), 11-12

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See detailComment etablir le bilan de fin de traitement des patients atteints de lymphomes non-hodgkiniens (LNH) de malignite intermediaire ou elevee?
Warland, V.; Jerusalem, Guy ULg; Hustinx, Roland ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(12), 779-84

Incomplete regression of a lymphomatous mass after chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy constitutes a major problem in the treatment of lymphoma. In patients with persisting tumor, it could be reasonable to ... [more ▼]

Incomplete regression of a lymphomatous mass after chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy constitutes a major problem in the treatment of lymphoma. In patients with persisting tumor, it could be reasonable to use salvage therapy and possibly hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at the time of minimal disease rather than at the time of clinically overt relapse. The authors reviewed the most appropriate imaging techniques for the assessment of response to treatment. The limitations of CT and MRI for predicting the nature of residual masses are well known. 67Ga scintigraphy has become a standard procedure for the posttreatment evaluation of patients with lymphoma, but it appears that 18F-FDG PET may be a more effective method. Personal experience in the field of PET scan is reported. Although PET should be considered the noninvasive imaging modality of choice, a histological confirmation of residual disease is always necessary before starting salvage therapy. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose is not a tumor specific radiotracer. [less ▲]

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See detailExpression of the green fluorescent protein in the oligodendrocyte lineage: a transgenic mouse for developmental and physiological studies.
Yuan, Xiaoqing; Chittajallu, Ramesh; Belachew, Shibeshih ULg et al

in Journal of Neuroscience Research (2002), 70(4), 529-45

We generated a transgenic mouse expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the 2'-3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP) promoter. EGFP(+) cells were visualized ... [more ▼]

We generated a transgenic mouse expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the 2'-3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP) promoter. EGFP(+) cells were visualized in live tissue throughout embryonic and postnatal development. Immunohistochemical analysis in brain tissue and in sciatic nerve demonstrated that EGFP expression was restricted to cells of the oligodendrocyte and Schwann cell lineages. EGFP was also strongly expressed in "adult" oligodendrocyte progenitors (OPs) and in gray matter oligodendrocytes. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting allowed high-yield purification of EGFP(+) oligodendrocyte-lineage cells from transgenic brains. Electrophysiological patch clamp recordings of EGFP(+) cells in situ demonstrated that OP cells displayed large outward tetraethylammonium (TEA)-sensitive K(+) currents and very small inward currents, whereas mature oligodendrocytes were characterized by expression of large inward currents and small outward K(+) currents. The proliferation rate of EGFP(+) cells in developing white matter decreased with the age of the animals and was strongly inhibited by TEA. Oligodendrocyte development and physiology can be studied in live tissue of CNP-EGFP transgenic mice, which represent a source of pure EGFP(+) oligodendrocyte-lineage cells throughout development. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential taurine responsiveness to ethanol in high- and low-alcohol sensitive rats : a brain microdialysis study
Quertemont, Etienne ULg; Linotte, Sylvie; De Witte, Philippe

in European Journal of Pharmacology (2002), 444(3), 143-150

Several microdialysis studies have investigated the effects of acute ethanol on extracellular amino acids in various rat brain regions, However, these studies led to conflicting results, suggesting that ... [more ▼]

Several microdialysis studies have investigated the effects of acute ethanol on extracellular amino acids in various rat brain regions, However, these studies led to conflicting results, suggesting that individual differences between rat strains and lines may play an important role. In the present study, high-alcohol sensitive (HAS) and low-alcohol sensitive (LAS) rats were used to investigate the possible relationship between ethanol sensitivity and the concentrations of extracellular amino acids in the nucleus accumbens. Several groups of HAS and LAS rats were injected with either saline or ethanol (1.0, 2.0 or 3.0 g/kg, i.p.) and the concentrations of amino acids in the nucleus accumbens microdialysates were assayed by electrochemical detection. Acute ethanol induced a dose-dependent increase in extracellular taurine concentrations. However, this increase was significantly reduced at 2,0 and 3.0 g,,kg ethanol in HAS rats relative to LAS rats. Since the biological functions of taurine suggest its implication in the reduction of ethanol adverse effects, a higher increase in taurine concentrations may contribute to the lower ethanol sensitivity of LAS rats. Although 2.0 and 3.0 g/kg ethanol did not affect extracellular glutamate concentrations, a significant increase in glutamate was observed after 1.0 g/kg ethanol to HAS rats but not to LAS rats. Such an effect remains unexplained but suggests that discrepancies between the results of previous microdialysate studies may be related to differences in the ethanol sensitivities of various rat strains. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailLes Parents maltraités
Malchair, Alain ULg

in Neurone (2002), 7(3), 83-86

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See detailSkin manifestations of Bartonella infections.
Chian, Cesar A; Arrese Estrada, Jorge ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in International Journal of Dermatology (2002), 41(8), 461-6

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See detailPrediction of response and other improvements on the limitations of recombinant human erythropoietin therapy in anemic cancer patients.
Beguin, Yves ULg

in Haematologica (2002), 87(11), 1209-21

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The majority of cancer patients suffer from chronic anemia. While recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) offers many of the advantages of blood transfusions, response rates ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The majority of cancer patients suffer from chronic anemia. While recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) offers many of the advantages of blood transfusions, response rates to this treatment are variable and in some trials a large proportion of patients (30 50%) did not respond. This failure may be due to factors related to the underlying disease, the chemotherapy given or functional iron deficiency. An accurate means of predicting response to rHuEPO would be beneficial to both healthcare providers and patients. EVIDENCE AND INFORMATION SOURCES: Data were identified by searches of the published literature, including PubMed, references from relevant reviews, and abstracts presented at recent international oncology and hematology meetings. Only papers in English published between 1990 and 2002 were included. References were selected according to direct relevance to the topic discussed and availability. STATE OF THE ART: The best algorithms for predicting response appear to be those combining an assessment of the adequacy of endogenous erythropoietin production together with some early indicators of erythropoietic marrow response. Further characterization of the dose-response relationship of erythropoietic agents may allow better understanding of ways in which response may be enhanced. Adequate iron availability could also contribute to better response rates. PERSPECTIVES: Further characterization of the predictors of response for current and upcoming erythropoietic agents may enhance the management of anemia associated with cancer, and provide more convenient, effective, and flexible therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailLa gestion des eaux par bassins hydrographiques
Pâques, Michel ULg; Leprince, Sylviane ULg

in Aménagement - Environnement (2002)

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See detailPierre Bourdieu: une sociologie de la désespérance/ paradigme économique, lutte de pouvoir et "violence inerte"
Robert, Jocelyne ULg

in Revue de l'Institut de Sociologie (2002), 1-4

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See detailThe use of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis for studies of genetic variation in populations of Coccinella septempunctata in Belgium.
Haubruge, Eric ULg; Vanlerberghe-Masutti, Flavie; Collignon, Pierre et al

in Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent) (2002), 67(3), 557-61

The movement and dispersion of Coccinella septempunctata and its efficacy as aphid control agent over large areas is not really understood because of the difficulty in identifying the origins of predators ... [more ▼]

The movement and dispersion of Coccinella septempunctata and its efficacy as aphid control agent over large areas is not really understood because of the difficulty in identifying the origins of predators. To quantify the genetic diversity within the species and monitor the spatial foraging, populations were sampled from Belgium and analysed for RAPD DNA variation. Twenty decamer primers generated more than hundred polymorphic RAPD bands and pairwise distances were calculated between populations according to Nei and Li, then used to construct a radial neighbour-joining dendrogram and examine intra- and inter-population variance coefficients, by analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA). This study shows that while a number of factors can complicate the use and interpretation of RAPD fragments as genetic markers, RAPD analysis can be a valuable technique for studies of intra-specific genetic variation in C. septempunctata. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of inhaled ipratropium bromide on breathing mechanics and gas exchange in exercising horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Bayly, W. M.; Duvivier, D. H.; Votion, D. et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal (2002), 34(1), 36-43

Six Warmblood horses suffering an acute exacerbation of COPD were tested to investigate whether inhalation of ipratropium bromide (IB) dry powder (2,400 microg) 30 min preexercise would improve their ... [more ▼]

Six Warmblood horses suffering an acute exacerbation of COPD were tested to investigate whether inhalation of ipratropium bromide (IB) dry powder (2,400 microg) 30 min preexercise would improve their exercise capacity. A cross-over protocol with an inert powder placebo (P) was used. Mechanics of breathing and arterial blood gases were determined before treatment, after treatment but pre-exercise, and during an incremental exercise test. Oxygen consumption (VO2) was also measured before and during exercise, and the time to fatigue recorded. Inhalation of IB reduced total pulmonary resistance (RL) and maximum intrapleural pressure changes (deltaPpl(max)) and increased dynamic compliance before exercise. The onset of exercise was associated with a marked decrease in RL in P-treated horses but not those receiving IB, so that RL during exercise was not affected by treatment. Although deltaPpl(max) was lower at 8,9 and 10 m/s with IB, there were no treatment-related changes in VO2, blood gases, time to fatigue or any other measurement of breathing mechanics. Therefore, although inhalation of IB prior to exercise may have improved deltaPpl(max), it had no apparent impact on the horses' capacity for exercise. [less ▲]

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See detailCuttings of the non-rooting rac tobacco mutant overaccumulate phenolic compounds
Faivre-Rampant, Odile; Charpentier, Jean Paul; Kevers, Claire ULg et al

in Functional Plant Biology (2002), 29(1), 63-71

The auxin and phenolic contents, as well as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity, were determined in in vitro cultured shoots of the recalcitrant-to-root rac mutant of tobacco, and compared with ... [more ▼]

The auxin and phenolic contents, as well as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity, were determined in in vitro cultured shoots of the recalcitrant-to-root rac mutant of tobacco, and compared with wild-type shoots. The mutant and wild-type shoots showed similar auxin changes during the culture cycle, but with higher contents for the mutant. A transient peak of auxin (corresponding to the achievement of the rooting inductive phase) occurred at day 14 in both types of shoots, but earlier in the basal parts of the wild-type stems. The rac shoots contained more phenolics, corresponding with an increased PAL activity. The most abundant phenolic compound found in the two types of tobacco was chlorogenic acid, which was more abundant in the rac shoots. Rutin was also detected at a higher concentration in the mutant shoots. Basal parts of wild-type shoots treated with 10(-3) chlorogenic acid reacted by accumulating auxins and, unlike untreated controls, did not form adventitious roots. The relationships between those biochemical analyses in relation to the growth limitation of the rac mutant, and the inhibition of its root development, are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailComposite structures optimization using sequential convex programming
Bruyneel, Michaël ULg; Fleury, Claude ULg

in Advances in Engineering Software (2002), 33(7-10), 697-711

The design of composite structures is considered here. The approximation concepts approach is used to solve the optimization problem. The convex approximations of the MMA family are briefly described ... [more ▼]

The design of composite structures is considered here. The approximation concepts approach is used to solve the optimization problem. The convex approximations of the MMA family are briefly described. Several modifications of these approximations are presented. They are now based on gradient information at two successive iterations, avoiding the use of the expensive second-order derivatives. A two-point fitting scheme is also described, where the function value at the preceding design point is used to improve the approximation. Numerical examples compare these new purely non-monotonous schemes to the existing ones for the selection of optimal fibers orientations in laminates. It is shown how these two-point based approximations are well adapted to the problem and can improve the optimization task, leading to reasonable computational efforts. A procedure is also derived for considering simultaneously monotonous and non-monotonous structural behaviors. The resulting generalized approximation scheme is well suited for the optimization of composite structures when both plies thickness and fibers orientations are considered as design variables. It is concluded that the newly developed approximation schemes of the MMA family are reliable for composite structures optimization. All the studied approximations are convex and separable: the optimization problem can then be solved using a dual approach. (C) 2002 Civil-Comp Ltd and Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSingle motor axon conduction velocities of human upper and lower limb motor units. A study with transcranial electrical stimulation
Dalpozzo, Francesca; GERARD, Pascale ULg; De Pasqua, Victor ULg et al

in Clinical Neurophysiology (2002), 113(2), 284-291

OBJECTIVES: To calculate conduction velocities (CV) of single motor axons innervating hand, forearm and leg muscles, weak anodal electrical transcranial stimuli were used and single motor unit potentials ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: To calculate conduction velocities (CV) of single motor axons innervating hand, forearm and leg muscles, weak anodal electrical transcranial stimuli were used and single motor unit potentials were recorded in 17 normal subjects. METHODS: The central motor conduction time and neuromuscular transmission delay were subtracted from the latency of unit response to cortical stimulation and single motor axon CV were calculated. RESULTS: In extensor indicis proprius (EIP) units, CV ranged from 30.3 to 76.1m/s (mean: 51.3 +/- 7.1m/s, 139 units). In first dorsal interosseous (FDI), they ranged from 45.1 to 66.2m/s (mean: 54.6 +/- 2.6m/s, 88 units). In tibialis anterior (TA), velocities ranged from 27.8 to 55.9m/s (mean: 41.3 +/- 7.5m/s, 123 units). In FDI units, velocities were compared with those obtained with the F-wave method (range: 50.3-64.5m/s, mean: 58.1 +/- 2.0m/s). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with previously published values, the present method gives better access to slow-conducting units, first recruited by transcranial stimulation and voluntary effort. The spectrum of individual CV was much broader for EIP and TA than for FDI. A linear decline of maximal CV with age was observed, while minimal CV were not affected, suggesting that aging causes a selective loss of the fastest-conducting units. [less ▲]

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See detailLa lecture littéraire avec les faibles lecteurs
De Croix, Séverine ULg; Ledur, Dominique

in Enjeux : Revue de Formation Continuée et de Didactique du Français (2002), 55

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See detailWater fluxes at an ocean margin in the presence of a submarine canyon
Skliris, Nikolaos ULg; Hecq, Jean-Henri ULg; Djenidi, Salim ULg

in Journal of Marine Systems (2002), 32(1-3), 239-251

A 3-D, unsteady, nonlinear, high-resolution model is used to estimate shelf/slope exchanges through Calvi Canyon (NW Corsica, Mediterranean Sea) in various regimes of stratification and wind patterns. To ... [more ▼]

A 3-D, unsteady, nonlinear, high-resolution model is used to estimate shelf/slope exchanges through Calvi Canyon (NW Corsica, Mediterranean Sea) in various regimes of stratification and wind patterns. To evaluate the alongshore and cross-shore fluxes within the canyon area as well as the water exchanges between the canyon and Calvi Bay, volume transports are computed at the sides of two closed, interconnected boxes encompassing the canyon on the shelf and slope domains. Model results show that water transports between Calvi Bay and the open sea are determined by flow modifications in the canyon area. The mean horizontal flow deviates southwestward upstream of the canyon, generating an onshore transport in the western part of Calvi Bay. Within the canyon, the circulation is cyclonic and is responsible for an offshore transport downstream of the canyon and in the eastern part of the bay. The effect of stratification is shown to limit the vertical extent of the influence of canyon topography so that the alongshore flow above the canyon is quasi-undisturbed in strong stratified conditions, resulting in weak cross-shore exchange. Wind events are shown to be responsible for a strong increase of cross-shore transports between the bay and the canyon area. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailPestiviroses des petits ruminants. La maladie des frontières chez les ovins
Thiry, Etienne ULg; Buonavoglia, C.

in Point Vétérinaire (2002), 33

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See detailMemory kernels and effective Hamiltonians from time dependent methods. II. Vibrational predissociation
Brems, Vincent; Desouter, Michèle ULg

in Journal of Chemical Physics (2002), 116

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See detailPhylogéographie mitochondriale du mulot sylvestre (Apodemus sylvaticus) dans la région paléarctique occidentale
Michaux, Johan ULg; Magnanou, Elodie; Nieberding, Caroline et al

in Biosystema, Systématique et biogéographie (2002), 20

We have sequenced 965 base pairs of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b from 102 woodmice (Apodemus sylvaticus) samples collected from 40 European localities. The aims of the study were to answer the ... [more ▼]

We have sequenced 965 base pairs of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b from 102 woodmice (Apodemus sylvaticus) samples collected from 40 European localities. The aims of the study were to answer the following questions: i) Did the Mediterranean peninsulas play a role as a refuge for small mammals? ii) Is the genetic variability of a small mammal like A. sylvaticus higher in the Mediterranean regions as compared with northern Europe? iii)Is it possible to find patterns of postglacial colonisation of Europe other than those presently recognised ? Sequence data were analysed using Distance and Maximum Parsimony phylogenetic reconstruction methods. A minimum spanning network was also calculated. Population genetic structure was determined by analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). A "mismatch distribution" analysis was also performed to estimate the patterns of expansion. The results provide a clear picture of the impact of Quaternary glaciations on the genetic and geographic structure of the woodmouse. Analyses indicate a higher genetic variability for the woodmouse in the Mediterranean peninsulas as compared to northern Europe and the role of these peninsulas as refuge regions for small mammals. A new pattern of postglacial colonisation is also proposed where the Iberian and southern France refuge populations colonised almost all the European regions. The Sicilian population appears to be highly differentiated and highly variable. This result emphasises the importance of this island as a "hot spot" for the intraspecific genetic diversity of the woodmouse. Finally, populations of this species in North Africa originated from south-western Europe and are probably the result of a recent anthropogenic introduction. [less ▲]

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See detailBPDZ 154 Activates Adenosine 5’-Triphosphate-Sensitive Potassium Channels; In Vitro Studies Using Rodent Insulin-Secreting Cells and Islets Isolated from Patients with Hyperinsulinism
Cosgrove, K. E.; Antoine, M.-H.; Lee, A. T. et al

in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (2002), 87

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See detailSociété civile et transition. Un regard sur l'évolution du projet de constitution d'une société civile en Roumanie postcommuniste
Pirotte, Gautier ULg

in Transitions : Ex-Revue des Pays de L'est (2002), XLIII(1),

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See detailCoCl2, a chemical inducer of hypoxia-inducible factor-1, and hypoxia reduce apoptotic cell death in hepatoma cell line HepG2.
Piret, Jean-Pascal; Mottet, Denis ULg; Raes, Martine et al

in Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (2002), 973

HIF-1 (hypoxia-inducible factor-1) is the major transcription factor that is specifically activated during hypoxia. This transcription factor is composed of two subunits: HIF-1alpha and ARNT (aryl ... [more ▼]

HIF-1 (hypoxia-inducible factor-1) is the major transcription factor that is specifically activated during hypoxia. This transcription factor is composed of two subunits: HIF-1alpha and ARNT (aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator). ARNT is constitutively expressed, whereas HIF-1alpha is targeted to proteasome degradation by ubiquitination during normoxia. In hypoxia, HIF-1alpha is stabilized and translocates to the nucleus, where it binds to ARNT. The active HIF-1 induces expression of various genes whose products play an adaptive role to the new conditions induced by hypoxia. Besides the role played by HIF-1 in the adaptation to hypoxia, recent data describe a possible role for HIF-1 in the modulation of apoptosis. According to some authors, hypoxia induces apoptosis. However, it has also been reported that hypoxia could protect cells against apoptotic cell death induced by various agents such as serum deprivation and incubation in the presence of chemotherapy agents. These contradictory data suggest that HIF-1 could display either a proapoptotic or an antiapoptotic role according to the conditions. In order to study how HIF-1 can modulate apoptosis, we studied whether hypoxia or cobalt chloride, a chemical inducer of HIF-1, could influence apoptosis induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP), serum deprivation, or both in hepatoma cell line HepG2. HepG2 cells were incubated 8 hours under normoxia or hypoxia in the presence of t-BHP with or without CoCl2. CoCl2 reduced the apoptotic death of HepG2 cells induced by t-BHP and serum deprivation, as measured by DNA fragmentation. This effect was confirmed by measurement of the caspase activity. Moreover, hypoxia also prevented t-BHP- or serum deprivation-induced DNA fragmentation and caspase activation-however, to a lower extent than CoCl2. These different data suggest a possible antiapoptotic role of HIF-1. More experiments are needed to define if HIF-1 actually plays an active role in cell death protection and to determine the exact mechanism underlying this effect. [less ▲]

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See detailEtalonnage de l’épreuve grapho-perceptive de Bender sur une population d’enfants de six à dix ans
Garcet, Serge ULg; Deltour, Jean-Jacques

in Revue Scientifique de l'AIGS (2002), 1

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See detailIncreased Cell Proliferation, But Not Reduced Cell Death, Induces Lymphocytosis In Bovine Leukemia Virus-Infected Sheep
Debacq, C.; Asquith, B.; Kerkhofs, P. et al

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2002), 99(15),

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See detailL'engoument pour la "Cène" de Léonard de Vinci à la cour de France, sous les règnes de Louis XII et de François Ier
Fagnart, Laure ULg

in Bulletin des amis du château et des musées de Blois (2002), 33

Cette contribution présente les copies de la "Cène" de Léonard de Vinci qui ont été réalisées à la demande de Français dans la première moitié du XVIe siècle. Elle s’attache à comprendre comment et ... [more ▼]

Cette contribution présente les copies de la "Cène" de Léonard de Vinci qui ont été réalisées à la demande de Français dans la première moitié du XVIe siècle. Elle s’attache à comprendre comment et pourquoi autant de Français, souvent en poste dans l’administration française à Milan, ont commandé des copies du chef-d’œuvre du maître italien, définissant de ce fait les mécanismes de l’engouement pour la peinture murale à la cour de France, sous les règnes de Louis XII et de François Ier. [less ▲]

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See detailUne étude inédite de Franz Cumont sur le vocabulaire des inscriptions funéraires chrétiennes de Gaule
Rochette, Bruno ULg

in Bulletin de l'Institut Historique Belge de Rome (2002), 72

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See detailLe mélange épicéa-douglas, une association intéressante pour le sylviculteur ? 2e partie
Colson, Vincent ULg; Claessens, Hugues ULg; Pauwels, D. et al

in Silva Belgica (2002), 109(4), 25-31

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See detailLe medicament du mois. La rosiglitazone (Avandia).
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(4), 236-9

Rosiglitazone (Avandia, Glaxo-SmithKline) belongs to a new family of oral hypoglycaemic agents, thiazolidinediones or glitazones. These molecules act as selective agonists of nuclear receptors (PPAR gamma ... [more ▼]

Rosiglitazone (Avandia, Glaxo-SmithKline) belongs to a new family of oral hypoglycaemic agents, thiazolidinediones or glitazones. These molecules act as selective agonists of nuclear receptors (PPAR gamma) and improve insulin sensitivity. In Belgium as in all European countries, rosiglitazone is indicated for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, only in combination with another antidiabetic oral agent, in patients insufficiently controlled with metformin or a sulphonylurea at a maximal tolerated dose. In these patients, rosiglitazone, at a daily dose of 4 mg (sometimes 8 mg/day with metformin), reduces fasting glycaemia by 2-3 mmol/l and glycated haemoglobin level by about 1%. It exerts also favourable effects on some risk factors related to insulin resistance syndrome, which may contribute to improve cardiovascular prognosis of patients with type 2 diabetes. Hepatic safety of rosiglitazone seems to be good, although it is still recommended to check liver enzymes regularly. As all glitazones, rosiglitazone moderately promotes weight gain. It can also induce some fluid retention which may reveal or aggravate heart failure in at risk patients. [less ▲]

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See detailLa forêt et la protection du sol dans le cadre d'aménagement forestiers intégrés
Huart, O.; Adam, V.; Quevy, B. et al

in Fiche technique (2002), (14),

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See detailMutations des localisations des services et mutations urbaines. Questionnements et perspectives
Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULg

in Revista de Geografia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (2002), 17(2), 41-56

The aim of this paper is to analyse the relationships between urban mutations and service locations. Work is developed in four times: facts, causes, consequences and prospects. Without doubt, the spatial ... [more ▼]

The aim of this paper is to analyse the relationships between urban mutations and service locations. Work is developed in four times: facts, causes, consequences and prospects. Without doubt, the spatial transfers of service activities can be considered as both, a cause and a consequence of urban sprawl. It is related to the release of mobility constraints, to the specific changes that affected many economic activities, and also to the new behaviours of many actors (customers/ visitors, property developers and public authorities). As this evolution is incompatible with the objectives of sustainable urban development, several action possibilities can be proposed: new management of the daily mobilities, reduction in space consumption and new governance. [less ▲]

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See detailEmbryo transfer as a method to eliminate pathogenic agents in a rabbit colony
Ectors, Fabien ULg; Delfosse, Henri; De Weder, L. et al

in Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift (2002), 71

To regain the SPF status of a contaminated but genetically valuable rabbit breeding unit, embryos from the contaminated does were transferred into SPF recipient females. Embryos were collected on day 3 of ... [more ▼]

To regain the SPF status of a contaminated but genetically valuable rabbit breeding unit, embryos from the contaminated does were transferred into SPF recipient females. Embryos were collected on day 3 of gestation by flushing uterine horns. All usable embryos were frozen, part of them were not transferred and kept in liquid nitrogen forming a stock of highly valuable genotypes. Thirty-two stimulated does produced 893 embryos, among which 821 (92%) had an intact zona pellucida and were cryopreserved. From this stock, 478 embryos were thawed, 466 were recovered (97.5%) and 417 were of good quality (87.2%). In 30 does, 10 to 18 embryos were surgically transferred per recipient doe and 24.9% (104/417) of them developed to term after transfer. This corresponds to an average number of 3.47 (104/30) live newborns per recipient. Health screenings performed on sanitized rabbits confirmed the disappearance of pathogenic agents. [less ▲]

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See detailWave packet propagation for constrained molecular systems. Spectroscopic applications to triatomic molecules
Lauvergnat, David; Justum, David; Desouter, Michèle ULg et al

in Journal of Molecular Structure : Theochem (2002), 577

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See detailBiospheric carbon stocks reconstructed at the Last Glacial Maximum: comparison between general circulation models using prescribed and computed sea surface temperatures
Otto, D.; Rasse, Daniel; Kaplan, J. et al

in Global and Planetary Change (2002), 33(1-2), 117-138

The terrestrial biosphere model Carbon Assimilation in the Biosphere (CARAIB) was improved by introducing two vegetation storeys and implementing a new module which simulates the equilibrium distribution ... [more ▼]

The terrestrial biosphere model Carbon Assimilation in the Biosphere (CARAIB) was improved by introducing two vegetation storeys and implementing a new module which simulates the equilibrium distribution of the vegetation inferred from physiological processes and climatic constraints. In this fourth version of CARAIB, we differentiate ground-level grasses from tree canopies, which allows us to determine the light available to grasses as a direct function of the leaf area index (LAI) of the forest canopy. Both of these storeys are potentially composed of several plant functional types (PFT). The cover fraction of each PFT within each storey is estimated according to its respective net primary productivity (NPP). A biome is assigned to each grid cell on the basis of three physiological criteria: (1) the cover fraction, (2) the NPP, and (3) the LAI; and two climatic constraints: (1) the growing degree-days (GDD) and (2) the lowest temperature reached during the cold season (T-min), which are well-known indices of vegetation expansion boundaries. Total biospheric carbon stocks (vegetation + soil) are reconstructed by forcing the model with eight climatic scenarios of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21 ka BP), which were obtained from the Palco-Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP) from four general circulation models (MRI2, UGAMP, LMD4, and GEN2) using prescribed and computed sea surface temperatures (SSTs). The model was also forced with a current climate together with a preindustrial atmospheric CO2 level of 280 ppm as reference simulation, To validate the model, current biome distribution is reconstructed and compared, for the modem climate, with two distributions of potential vegetation and, for the LGM, with pollen data. The model simulations are in good agreement with broad-scale patterns of vegetation distribution, The results indicate an increase in the total biospheric carbon stock of 827.8-1106.1 Gt C since the LGM. Sensitivity analyses were performed to discriminate the relative effects of the atmospheric CO, level ("fertilization effect"), the climate (present or LGM), and the sea level. Our results suggest that the CO, fertilization effect is mostly responsible for the total increase in vegetation and soil carbon stocks. The four GCMs diverged in their predicted responses of continental climate to calculated SSTs. Only one of them, i.e., MRI2, predicted a marked decline of the continental temperatures in response to lower calculated SSTs. For this GCM, the effect of reduced SSTs on continental biospheric carbon stocks was a decrease of 544.1 Gt for the soil carbon stock and of 283.7. [less ▲]

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See detailLe miracle 'flamand' n'est pas prêt-à-porter…
Lafontaine, Dominique ULg

in Cahiers du Service de Pédagogie Expérimentale (SPE) (2002), 9-10

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See detailInfiltrative lipoma in the foreleg of a horse
Olle, Edwin; Saunders, Jimmy; Desmecht, Daniel ULg

in Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift (2002), 71

This case report describes an infiltrative lipoma in a horse. A slow-growing mass, detected early afterbirth, was present at the caudal aspect of the foreleg (antebrachium) of a 2-year-old gelding ... [more ▼]

This case report describes an infiltrative lipoma in a horse. A slow-growing mass, detected early afterbirth, was present at the caudal aspect of the foreleg (antebrachium) of a 2-year-old gelding. Cytological fea-tures were that of a benign lipoma. Surgical resection was attempted but failed due to the infiltrative natureof the mass. Consequently, the horse was euthanized. Histopathology revealed an infiltrative lipoma. Thistumor is histologically benign but surgical resection is usually impossible due to its infiltrative nature. [less ▲]

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See detailIsokinetic assessment of the forearm and wrist muscles
Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Foidart-Dessalle, Marguerite ULg et al

in Isokinetics & Exercise Science (2002), 10(3), 121-128

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