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See detailLa formation des agents de santé scolaire dans le cadre du programme "Je mange bien à l'école"
Vandoorne, Chantal ULg

in Observatoire : Revue d'Action Sociale & Médico-Sociale (1994), (3),

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See detailInsulin expression in pancreatic islet cells relies on cooperative interactions between the helix loop helix factor E47 and the homeobox factor STF-1.
Peers, Bernard ULg; Sharma, S.; Teitelman, G. et al

in Molecular Endocrinology (1994), 8(12), 1798-806

The development of endocrine cell types within the pancreas is thought to involve the progressive restriction of pluripotential stem cells, which gives rise to the four major cell types: insulin ... [more ▼]

The development of endocrine cell types within the pancreas is thought to involve the progressive restriction of pluripotential stem cells, which gives rise to the four major cell types: insulin-, glucagon-, somatostatin-, and pancreatic polypeptide-expressing cells. The mechanism by which these peptide hormone genes are induced and then either maintained or repressed during development is unknown, but their coexpression in early precursor cells suggests the involvement of common regulatory factors. Here we show that the somatostatin transcription factor STF-1 is also a principal regulator of insulin expression in beta-cells of the pancreas. STF-1 stimulates the insulin gene by recognizing two well defined islet-specifying elements on the insulin promoter and by subsequently synergizing in trans with the juxtaposed helix-loop-helix protein E47. Within the STF-1 protein, an N-terminal trans-activation domain functions cooperatively with E47 to stimulate insulin transcription. As truncated STF-1 polypeptides lacking the N-terminal activation domain strongly inhibit insulin promoter activity in beta-islet cells, our results suggest that the specification of islet cell types during development may be in part determined by the expression of STF-1 relative to other islet cell factors. [less ▲]

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See detailUtilisation des dossiers de contenus préparés dans le cadre d’une expérience de rénovation de l’enseignement fondamental en Communauté Française de Belgique
Delfosse, Catherine; Ledent, Maryse; Cloes, Marc ULg et al

in Revue de l'Education Physique (1994), 34(2-3), 99-102

Dans toute expérience d'éducation physique quotidienne de longue durée, impliquant les instituteurs titulaires des classes, soit en responsabilité totale ou en partage de responsabilités avec le maître ... [more ▼]

Dans toute expérience d'éducation physique quotidienne de longue durée, impliquant les instituteurs titulaires des classes, soit en responsabilité totale ou en partage de responsabilités avec le maître spécial comme dans l'expérience de rénovation de l'enseignement fondamental en Communauté française de Belgique, il est primordial de fournir une aide en matière de contenus d'enseignement. Il est évident qu'un généraliste comme l'est l'instituteur ne dispose que d'un éventail relativement limité d'exercices ou de situations à proposer aux enfants. Deux types d'aide sont généralement proposées: des documents et des consultations régulières avec des spécialistes. ... [less ▲]

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See detailOpportunities for fine gold recovery from a copper flotation circuit using Knelson concentrator
Patchejieff, B.; Gaydardzhiev, Stoyan ULg; Lazarov, D.

in Minerals Engineering (1994), 7(2/3), 405-408

Experiments aimed at determination of the character of the gold observed in a copper ore processed by flotation, and also to evaluate the possibilities of improvement of the total gold recovery have been ... [more ▼]

Experiments aimed at determination of the character of the gold observed in a copper ore processed by flotation, and also to evaluate the possibilities of improvement of the total gold recovery have been carried out. The gravity equipment used was a 7.5" Knelson screen hydrostatic concentrator, reported of being capable of treatment and upgrading of up to 1000 times raw material with about 30% hypothetical concentration of heavy flotation sized particles. The gold-to-sulfides ratio obtained during the various runs was chosen as a general criterion for the type of gold presented (free or locked) and for the gravity approach feasibility. [less ▲]

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See detailR. Sacré, « Les Negro Spirituals et les Gospel Songs »
Pirenne, Christophe ULg

in Cahiers de Clio (1994), 119

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See detailENANTIOSELECTIVE SYNTHESIS OF NCA (S)-L-([ALPHA-C-11]METHYL)-TRYPTOPHAN
Plenevaux, Alain ULg; Lemaire, Christian ULg; Delfiore, Guy et al

in Applied Radiation & Isotopes (1994), 45(6), 651-653

N.c.a. (S)-L-([alpha-C-11]methyl)-tryptophan was prepared by treatment at -78-degrees-C of (2S,3aR,8aS)-1,2-bis(-methoxycarbonyl)-1,2,3,3a,8,8a-hexahydropyrrolo[2, 3-b]-indole with lithium ... [more ▼]

N.c.a. (S)-L-([alpha-C-11]methyl)-tryptophan was prepared by treatment at -78-degrees-C of (2S,3aR,8aS)-1,2-bis(-methoxycarbonyl)-1,2,3,3a,8,8a-hexahydropyrrolo[2, 3-b]-indole with lithium diisopropylamide and [C-11]CH3I. After hydrolysis with HI and HPLC purification, the title compound was isolated with a radiochemical yield of 36% (EOB corrected) within 22 min; e.e. was shown > 97% (n = 20); specific activity was ranging between 0.8 and 1.2 Ci (30-45 GBq)/mu mol EOB. [less ▲]

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See detailTechniques moleculaires de detection et d'identification des agents phytopathogenes.
Lepoivre, Philippe ULg; Kummert, J.; Colinet, D. et al

in Cahiers Agricultures (1994), 3(4),

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See detailLa pompe musculo-veineuse de la personne âgée
Petermans, Jean ULg; Zicot, M.

in Journal des Maladies Vasculaires (1994), 19(2), 115-8

We study the musculo-venous pump in an elderly population, free of venous disease, by use of a digitized photoplethysmograph. We measure the venous refilling time (To) and the venous drainage (Vo) during ... [more ▼]

We study the musculo-venous pump in an elderly population, free of venous disease, by use of a digitized photoplethysmograph. We measure the venous refilling time (To) and the venous drainage (Vo) during active and passive movement. In the first part, we measure Vo and To during active and passive ankle flexions among 17 patients (34 limbs) aged 82.2 years. These variables are compared to the results of the same measurements obtained among 15 young adults aged 45.1 years (30 limbs). We find that To and Vo are significantly lower in the oldest population (To j 35.9 +/- 4.8 sec, To aged 16.1 +/- 5.2 sec, p < 0.001, Vo j 4.98 +/- 1.1%, Vo ag 2.97 +/- 1%, p < 0.001). In the second part of this work, a passive massage of the calf is substituted to the ankle flexions. This technique is applied to 19 elderly people aged 80.4 years (37 limbs) compared to 6 young adults aged 24 years (12 limbs). In these conditions the comparison is no more in favour of the younger group (To j 37 +/- 7.5 sec, To ag 30.6 +/- 4.1 sec, Vo j 4.03 +/- 1.5%, Vo ag 3.8 +/- 0.06%). The values measured in the elderly group are in the range of normal values. We conclude that senescence does not alter the venous system itself. The present work confirms the influence of extravascular factors as muscles, understanding and coordination of the motions, articular flexibility, on the performance of the musculo venous pomp. As far as possible, the muscular and articular activity has to be encouraged in elderly people in order to reduce the venous stasis. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychophysiological correlates of suicidal behavior in depression. A preliminary study.
Hansenne, Michel ULg; Pitchot, William ULg; Gonzalez Moreno, A. et al

in Neuropsychobiology (1994), 30(1), 1-3

P300 and contingent negative variation (CNV) were recorded in depressive inpatients with and without history of suicide attempt. The results show a significant reduction of both P300 and CNV in patients ... [more ▼]

P300 and contingent negative variation (CNV) were recorded in depressive inpatients with and without history of suicide attempt. The results show a significant reduction of both P300 and CNV in patients who had attempted suicide as compared with patients who had not. Moreover, a significant correlation was found between the suicidal risk scale and CNV amplitude. Psychophysiological and biochemical implications are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailMR1325693,Huang, Hou-Cheng and Usmani, Asif S.,Finite element analysis for heat transfer
Rochus, Pierre ULg

in Mathematical Reviews [=MR] (1994)

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See detailA propos d'un cas de kératite a Mycobacterium chelonae
Duchesne, Bernard ULg; Marechal-Courtois; Melin, Pierrette ULg

in Bulletin de la Société Belge d'Ophtalmologie (1994), 254

The authors presents one case of primitive corneal mycobacterium keratitis after corneal graft. This rare form of keratitis is analysed in the field of mycobacterial infections who's nowadays more ... [more ▼]

The authors presents one case of primitive corneal mycobacterium keratitis after corneal graft. This rare form of keratitis is analysed in the field of mycobacterial infections who's nowadays more developed in our industrialised countries. The description of the case point out the multiresistance of this mycobacterium and describe the different treatments. [less ▲]

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See detailNote sous l'arrêt de la CJCE du 19 janvier 1994, Eurocontrol
Partsch, Philippe-Emmanuel ULg

in Journal des Tribunaux Droit Européen (1994)

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See detailLaparoscopic adrenalectomy in pheochromocytoma and Cushing's syndrome. Reflections about two case reports.
Meurisse, Michel ULg; Joris, Jean ULg; Hamoir, Etienne ULg et al

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (1994), 94(6), 301-6

Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is possible as well on the left as on the right side using a percutaneous transabdominal approach. The exposure of the glands seems better than it could be achieved with an open ... [more ▼]

Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is possible as well on the left as on the right side using a percutaneous transabdominal approach. The exposure of the glands seems better than it could be achieved with an open method. In combination with intraoperative infusion of nicardipine, a calcium-channel blocker, the laparoscopic removal of a pheochromocytoma was performed safely and under stable conditions. In case of Cushing's syndrome, the laparoscopic approach reduces the problems related to poor healing. In all cases of laparoscopic adrenalectomy, this approach could offer the clear advantages of smaller incisions, reduced postoperative pain and incisional discomfort as well as complications related to large and invasive procedure and finally allows quicker recovery. Moreover, conversion to open surgery remains always possible, if needed. [less ▲]

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See detailDistribution of POC, PON and particulate Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ti, Zn and deltaC13 in the English Channel and adjacent areas
Dauby, Patrick ULg; Frankignoulle, Michel; Gobert, Sylvie ULg et al

in Oceanologica Acta (1994), 17(6), 643-657

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See detailCalcitropic effect of recombinant prolactins in Oreochromis mossambicus
Flik, G.; Rentier-Delrue, Françoise ULg; Wendelaar-Bonga, S. E.

in The American Physiological Society (1994)

Homologous recombinant tilapia prolactins 1 and 2 were tested for calcitropic activity in tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus. Injection of both PRLs induced hypercalcemia that resulted for an enhanced ... [more ▼]

Homologous recombinant tilapia prolactins 1 and 2 were tested for calcitropic activity in tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus. Injection of both PRLs induced hypercalcemia that resulted for an enhanced calcium influx via the gills and a decreased calcium efflux. Both PRLs increased the density of the Ca2+-transporting Ca2+-adenosinetriphosphatase in a plasma membrane preparation of the branchial epithelium. Dose-response studies demonstrated that the PRL-1 was roughly twofold more potent than PRL2 in inducing hypercalcemia, in enhacing basal levels of cortisol and in stimulating opercular ionocyte density. But both PRL were equipotent in stimulating the dermal mucocyte frequency. [less ▲]

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See detailSECULAR EVOLUTION OF THE VERTICAL COLUMN ABUNDANCES OF CHCLF2 (HCFC-22) IN THE EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE INFERRED FROM GROUND-BASED IR SOLAR OBSERVATIONS AT THE JUNGFRAUJOCH AND AT KITT-PEAK, AND COMPARISON WITH MODEL-CALCULATIONS
Zander, Rodolphe ULg; Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg; Demoulin, Philippe ULg et al

in Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry (1994), 18(2), 129-148

Series of high-resolution infrared solar spectra recorded at the International Scientific Station of the Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, between 06/1986 and 11/1992, and at Kitt Peak National Observatory ... [more ▼]

Series of high-resolution infrared solar spectra recorded at the International Scientific Station of the Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, between 06/1986 and 11/1992, and at Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, Arizona (U.S.A.), from 12/1980 to 04/1992, have been analyzed to provide a comprehensive ensemble of vertical column abundances of CHClF2 (HCFC-22; Freon-22) above the European and the North American continents. The columns were derived from nonlinear least-squares curve fittings between synthetic spectra and the observations containing the unresolved 2nu6 Q-branch absorption of CHClF2 at 829.05 cm-1. The changes versus time observed in these columns were modeled assuming both an exponential and a linear increase with time. The exponential rates of increase at one-sigma uncertainties were found equal to (7.0 +/- 0.35)%/yr for the Junfraujoch data and (7.0 +/- 0.23)%/yr for the Kitt Peak data. The exponential trend of 7.0%/yr found at both stations widely separated in location can be considered as representative of the global increase of the CHClF2 burden in the Earth's atmosphere during the period 1980 to 1992. When assuming two realistic vertical volume mixing ratio profiles for CHClF2 in the troposphere, one quasi constant and the other decreasing by about 13% from the ground to the tropopause, the concentrations for mid-1990 were found to lie between 97 and 111 pptv (parts per trillion by volume) at the 3.58 km altitude of the Jungfraujoch and between .97 and 103 pptv at Kitt Peak, 2.09 km above sea level. Corresponding values derived from calculations using a high vertical resolution-2D model and recently compiled HCFC-22 releases to the atmosphere, were equal to 107 and 105 pptv, respectively, in excellent agreement with the measurements. The model calculated lifetime of CHClF2 was found equal to 15.6 years. The present results are compared critically with similar data found in the literature. On average, the concentrations found here are lower by 15-20% than those derived from in situ investigations; this difference cannot be explained by the absolute uncertainty of +/- 11% assigned presently to the infrared remote measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailDerechef Ounamon, 2,13-14
Winand, Jean ULg

in Göttinger Miszellen (1994), 139

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See detailTEMPERATURE-DEPENDENCE OF GROWTH, ENZYME-SECRETION AND ACTIVITY OF PSYCHROPHILIC ANTARCTIC BACTERIA
Feller, Georges ULg; Narinx, E.; Arpigny, J. L. et al

in Applied Microbiology & Biotechnology (1994), 41(4), 477-479

Five psychrophilic Antarctic bacteria have been selected for their capacity to secrete exoenzymes into culture medium. These strains are able to grow from 0 to about 25 degrees C. However, production of ... [more ▼]

Five psychrophilic Antarctic bacteria have been selected for their capacity to secrete exoenzymes into culture medium. These strains are able to grow from 0 to about 25 degrees C. However, production of lipase from Moraxella, alpha-amylase from Alteromonas haloplanctis, beta-lactamase from Psychrobacter immobilis and protease from Bacillus is maximal at temperatures close to that of their environment (-2 to 4 degrees C) and is strongly inhibited at higher temperatures. This thermal effect involves alterations in the secretory pathway in the upper range of temperatures, losses due to the enzyme thermal lability and in some cases to reduction in cell development. The apparent optimal activity temperature of these enzymes is between 30 and 40 degrees C, i.e. about 20 degrees C lower than that of their mesophilic counterparts. [less ▲]

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See detailLe plan régional d'aménagement du territoire wallon
Delnoy, Michel ULg; Pâques, Michel ULg

in Aménagement - Environnement (1994), n° spécial

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See detailLa reproduction des poissons de nos rivières.
Poncin, Pascal ULg

in Cahiers d'Ethologie (1994), 13(3), 317-342

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See detailAssignment of the human ZNF83 (HPF1) zinc finger gene to chromosome 19q13.3-q13.4
Marine, Jean-Christophe; Bellefroid, Eric J.; Bourguignon, Catherine et al

in Genomics (1994), 21(1), 285-6

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See detailIncidence des aménagements hydrauliques sur le contrôle du développement de la bilharziose (shistosomiase)
Pliez, A.; Moens, R.; Debouche, Charles ULg

in Annales de Gembloux (1994), (100), 53-65

Le développement des irrigations dans les zones tropicales et subtropicales du monde, pour augmenter les productions de nourriture, a provoqué la prolifération de maladies liées à l'eau comme la ... [more ▼]

Le développement des irrigations dans les zones tropicales et subtropicales du monde, pour augmenter les productions de nourriture, a provoqué la prolifération de maladies liées à l'eau comme la bilharziose (également appelée shistosomiase), la dengue, la filariose et l'onchocercose. [less ▲]

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See detailLa rentabilité de l'activité hélicicole
Lebailly, Philippe ULg

in Agricontact (1994), (259 (mars)), 11-16

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See detailPlasma Beta-Endorphin Response of Thoroughbred Horses to Maximal Exercise
Art, Tatiana ULg; Franchimont, P.; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (1994), 135(21), 499-502

Ten horses underwent a standardised strenuous treadmill exercise test, before, during and after which measurements were made of plasma beta-endorphin and cortisol concentrations, blood lactate, glucose ... [more ▼]

Ten horses underwent a standardised strenuous treadmill exercise test, before, during and after which measurements were made of plasma beta-endorphin and cortisol concentrations, blood lactate, glucose, haemoglobin and pH, the activities of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate amino-transferase, and heart rate, oxygen uptake and expired minute volume. The correlations between the exercise-induced response of beta-endorphin and the changes observed in the other physiological measurements were examined. There was a large variation in the beta-endorphin response of the horses to exercise. The increase in beta-endorphin was correlated significantly and inversely with the treadmill velocity at which maximal oxygen uptake was reached. It was also significantly and directly correlated with the heart rate during recovery, the increase in plasma lactate concentration and the change in blood pH, indicating that the exercise-induced increase in beta-endorphin concentration was smaller in horses with a higher aerobic capacity [less ▲]

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See detailThe cognitive approach to familiar face processing in human subjects
Brédart, Serge ULg; Bruyer, R.

in Behavioural Processes (1994), 33(1-2), 213-232

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See detailDNase I hypersensitive sites far upstream of the rat tryptophan oxygenase gene direct developmentally regulated transcription in livers of transgenic mice.
Kaltschmidt, Christian; Muller, Marc ULg; Brem, Gottfried et al

in Mechanisms of Development (1994), 45(3), 203-10

Expression of the gene coding for tryptophan oxygenase (TO) is switched on in rat liver about two weeks after birth. We identified two clusters of DNaseI hypersensitive (HS) sites in the TO gene upstream ... [more ▼]

Expression of the gene coding for tryptophan oxygenase (TO) is switched on in rat liver about two weeks after birth. We identified two clusters of DNaseI hypersensitive (HS) sites in the TO gene upstream region; one near the promoter, the other at a distant upstream location (-8.5 kb). Hypersensitivity of upstream sites was present in adult and in 7 day old rat liver, but absent in kidney. To investigate their role in transcriptional regulation, a reporter gene controlled by both HS site regions was used to generate transgenic mice. In these animals the transgene followed the cell specific and developmental regulation of the endogenous gene: inactive after birth and active in adult liver. Transgenes containing only the promoter proximal HS site were non-functional. [less ▲]

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See detailLes dommages dus aux plans et leur indemnisation dans le cadre du CWATUP
Delnoy, Michel ULg

in Aménagement - Environnement (1994), 3

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See detailMuscle Fibre Type and Size, and Muscle Capillary Density in Young Double-Muscled Blue Belgian Cattle
Stavaux, D.; Art, Tatiana ULg; Mc Entee, Kathleen ULg et al

in Zentralblatt für Veterinarmedizin. Reihe A (1994), 41(3), 229-236

Bovine muscle biopsies were analysed for fiber type and capillary density by the acid ATP-ase and amylase-PAS methods respectively. Samples obtained from Belgian blue double muscled (DM) calves were ... [more ▼]

Bovine muscle biopsies were analysed for fiber type and capillary density by the acid ATP-ase and amylase-PAS methods respectively. Samples obtained from Belgian blue double muscled (DM) calves were compared for their fibre type, size and vascularization with samples from Friesian (F) calves. The animals were sampled both at 2 and 7 months of age. Changes in histochemical composition occurring with ageing, independently of the breed, and differences related to the muscle sampled by comparing biopsies obtained from the longissimus dorsi (LD) and gluteobiceps (GB) muscles in animals of both breed were also investigated. Independently of age and muscle, fibre type I percentage and area were significantly higher in F than in DM muscles. Type IIa area was significantly larger in F than in DM, while fibre type IIb percentage and area were higher in DM. The number of capillaries/mm2 was significantly higher in F than in DM. Fibre type IIa and IIb percentage as well as the diameter of the three fibre types was significantly higher in the oldest animals. Finally, independently of age and breed, fibre type I and IIb percentages were significantly higher in LD but lower in GB. The results mainly demonstrated that Belgian blue DM muscles present a higher proportion of IIb fibres and a lower capillary supply than F muscles. [less ▲]

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See detailThe treatment of amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism. Is there a place for surgery?
Meurisse, Michel ULg; Detroz, Bernard ULg; Messens, D. et al

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (1994), 94(1), 36-41

In many instances amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism has been reported as mild, thyroid functions returning to normal after discontinuation of the drug. Nevertheless, life-threatening amiodarone-induced ... [more ▼]

In many instances amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism has been reported as mild, thyroid functions returning to normal after discontinuation of the drug. Nevertheless, life-threatening amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis has also been described. Conventional treatments such as with antithyroid drugs (Thionamide) and corticosteroids are essentially ineffective or fail to stop the dramatic course of the thyroid crisis. This limited efficacy of medical therapy, particularly in patients with previously--neglected or unknown--thyroid disease, prompted us to intervene surgically. We report a series of six patients who underwent total or nearly total thyroidectomy as first line therapy for four of them. Surgery resulted in rapid resolution of thyrotoxicosis with an uneventful postoperative course. This approach has the advantage of immediate and safe efficacy, low risk of relapse and finally, appears to be the only antithyroid treatment that permits continued therapy with amiodarone. [less ▲]

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See detailCytochemical and immunocytochemical study of coiled bodies in different cultured cell lines.
Thiry, Marc ULg

in Chromosoma (1994), 103(4), 268-76

We analyzed by different cytochemical and immunocytochemical approaches the biochemical compositon of coiled bodies in three different cultured cell lines. Coiled bodies are stained by the AgNOR staining ... [more ▼]

We analyzed by different cytochemical and immunocytochemical approaches the biochemical compositon of coiled bodies in three different cultured cell lines. Coiled bodies are stained by the AgNOR staining method and by the EDTA regressive staining method preferential for ribonucleoprotein (RNP). Using the in situ polyadenylate nucleotidyl transferase-immunogold technique or anti-RNA antibodies, we decisively demonstrated the presence of appreciable amounts of RNA in coiled bodies. Neither the in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-immunogold technique nor anti-DNA antibodies revealed any DNA in coiled bodies. Coiled bodies thus appear as distinct regions of cell nuclei involved in some steps of RNA metabolism but not directly in RNA synthesis. Their relationships with the dense fibrillar component of the nucleolus and with interchromatin granule clusters are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailL'enseignement du français instrumental à l'université: quelles possibilités?
Vanden Berghe, Kristine ULg; Sanctobin, Véronique; Slootmaekers, An et al

in Rencontres (1994), 5

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See detailCLOE, A NEW RATE-TYPE CONSTITUTIVE MODEL FOR GEOMATERIALS THEORETICAL BASIS AND IMPLEMENTATION
CHAMBON, René; DESRUES, Jacques; HAMMAD, Wallid et al

in International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics (1994), 18(4), 253-278

The paper describes the basic ideas and the main features of a new class of constitutive laws, in the framework of incrementally non-linear constitutive equations. CLoE is a generic name for that new ... [more ▼]

The paper describes the basic ideas and the main features of a new class of constitutive laws, in the framework of incrementally non-linear constitutive equations. CLoE is a generic name for that new class of laws, with reference to consistency at the limit surface, and explicit localization analysis. A top-down analysis of the model is presented, and illustrated by examples. [less ▲]

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See detailEffet différentiel d'un didacticiel d'apprentissage de l'orthographe selon le mode d'utilisation de l'ordinateur
Crahay, Marcel ULg; Huberman, M.

in Education et Recherche (1994), 16(3), 300-326

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See detailCauses de mortalité et teneur en métaux lourds de Guillemots de Troïl Uria aalge échoués le long du littoral belge.
Bouquegneau, Jean-Marie ULg; Debacker, Virginie ULg; Antoine, Nathalie et al

in Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège (1994), 63(1-2), 211-217

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See detailLa structure de la typologie de Holland : une approche factorielle confirmatoire
Broonen, Jean-Paul ULg; El Ahmadi, A.

in Psychologie et Psychométrie (1994)

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See detailFood Consumption in Belgium
Reginster-Haneuse, G.; Gosset, Christiane ULg

in Bibliotheca Nutritio et Dieta (1994), (51), 108-12

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See detailLa châsse de saint Remacle à Stavelot : étude des éléments décoratifs
Van den Bossche, Benoît ULg

in Bulletin de l'Académie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de Belgique. Beaux-Arts (1994), V(1-6), 109-149

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See detailA complex composed of at least two HeLa nuclear proteins protects preferentially one DNA strand of the simple (gt)n(ga)m containing region of intron 2 in HLA-DRB genes.
Maueler, Winfried; Frank, G.; Muller, Marc ULg et al

in Journal of Cellular Biochemistry (1994), 56(1), 74-85

Electrophoretic mobility shift assays reveal that HeLa nuclear proteins bind fast and with measurable affinity to target DNAs containing mixed simple repetitive (gt)n(ga)m stretches. Preincubation of the ... [more ▼]

Electrophoretic mobility shift assays reveal that HeLa nuclear proteins bind fast and with measurable affinity to target DNAs containing mixed simple repetitive (gt)n(ga)m stretches. Preincubation of the proteins at elevated temperature prevents the formation of the major DNA/protein complex in favour of several distinct assemblies. A similar pattern of retarded bands was observed employing higher salt concentrations in the binding reaction. Thus conformational changes of different proteins appear to influence the complex rather than alternating DNA structures. Separation of the total nuclear extract into a water soluble and an insoluble protein fraction leads to a complete loss of target DNA binding capability of the fractions. The binding capacity is restored by combining the two fractions suggesting that at least two protein components are necessary to form a complex with the target sequence. The proteins can be differentiated into heat sensitive, water soluble and temperature stable, water insoluble, respectively. Furthermore, specifically binding polypeptides are not detectable by Southwestern analyses, probably because the essential components are separated during electrophoresis. DNase I footprint analyses yield four different protein binding regions only on the (gt)n(ga)m harbouring strand. The footprints cover larger portions of the mixed simple repeat in addition to a portion 5' of the (gt)n part. Hence at least two nuclear protein components of unknown biological function have to be present simultaneously to protect preferentially the (gt)n(ga)m-containing strand of intron 2 in HLA-DRB genes. [less ▲]

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See detailBovine Leukemia Virus
Kettmann, Richard ULg; Burny, A.; Callebaut, I. et al

in The Retroviridae (1994)

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See detailHST-FOC observations of a remarkable UV auroral event on Jupiter
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg; Prangé, R. et al

in NASA STI/Recon Technical Report N (1994), 95

Two sets of UV (ultraviolet) images of the Jovian north aurora were obtained with the Faint Object Camera (FOC) on Hubble. The first series shows a very intense discrete arc in corotation with the planet ... [more ▼]

Two sets of UV (ultraviolet) images of the Jovian north aurora were obtained with the Faint Object Camera (FOC) on Hubble. The first series shows a very intense discrete arc in corotation with the planet. The maximum apparent H2 emission rate corresponds to an electron precipitation of approximately 1/sq Wm, a very large flux in comparison with the solar EUV (extreme ultraviolet) heating. The hugh particle heating rate of the auroral upper atmosphere of Jupiter is expected to cause a large transient temperature increase and generate strong thermospheric winds. Twenty hours later, the discrete arc had considerably decreased in brightness. The timescale and magnitude of the change in the UV aurora strongly suggests that the discrete Jovian auroral precipitation is related to large scale current system variations as are the Earth's discrete aurorae. [less ▲]

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See detailPreliminary of observations on oribatid mites of riparian soils in Uruguay
Sarasola, M.; Vera, H.; Wauthy, G. et al

in Bulletin et Annales de la Société Royale Belge d’Entomologie = Bulletin en Annalen van de Koninklijke Belgische Vereniging voor Entomologie (1994), 130

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See detailComparison of Reproductive Performance in Belgian Dairy and Beef Cattle
Hanzen, Christian ULg; Laurent, Y.; Ward, W. R.

in Theriogenology (1994), 41(5), 1099-114

A computerized program was written to collect, evaluate and compare reproductive performance data of 2004 beef (Belgian Blue breed) and 1649 dairy (Friesian Holstein and German Red) cattle in 35 Belgian ... [more ▼]

A computerized program was written to collect, evaluate and compare reproductive performance data of 2004 beef (Belgian Blue breed) and 1649 dairy (Friesian Holstein and German Red) cattle in 35 Belgian herds (6 suckler beef herds, 9 milked beef herds and 20 dairy herds). Reproduction data were collected at monthly herd health visits. No difference in age at first calving was observed. Significant differences were observed among the 3 kinds of herds, and the best results were obtained in dairy herds for the calving interval, interval from calving to the first estrus, interval from calving to the first service and average number of days open. Concerning these parameters, first calvers had lower results than multiparous cows, mainly in suckler and milked beef herds. Significant differences were noted in the number of services per pregnancy. Heifers that had never calved presented the highest fertility. Primiparous beef cows had higher fertility than pluriparous cows. In dairy herds, pluriparous cows had higher fertility than primiparous cows. Estrus detection was better in milked beef herds than in suckled beef and dairy herds. Suckled beef herds had the lowest incidence of metritis and ovarian cysts of the three types of herds. Rates of abortion, overall culling and retained fetal membranes were similar in all the herds. The percentage of animals removed for infertility was highest in milked beef herds and lowest in dairy herds. Because 90% of the 1159 calvings recorded in the beef herds required a caesarean section, the reproductive performance of beef cattle represent results after caesarean section. [less ▲]

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See detailNescio als 'Animal Metaphysicum'
Yans, Baudoin ULg

in Spiegel der Letteren (1994), (1), 45-62

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See detailUtilisation des moules comme bioindicateurs de la pollution en métaux lourds du littoral belge
Gobert, Sylvie ULg; Langer, Alain; Daemers-Lambert, Claire et al

in Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège (1994), 63(1-2), 203-210

From 1991 till 1993, a study of the Belgian coast pollution by heavy metals using Mytilus edulis as a bioindicator was performed. The Pb, Cr, Cu and Ti concentrations decreased from 1987 till 1991 but ... [more ▼]

From 1991 till 1993, a study of the Belgian coast pollution by heavy metals using Mytilus edulis as a bioindicator was performed. The Pb, Cr, Cu and Ti concentrations decreased from 1987 till 1991 but then remained unchanged till 1993. Cd contamination is increasing from 1987. Hg, whose concentration had been shown to decrease from 1975 to 1991, now reaches the same values as in 1986. The O/N measurements performed on the mussels suggest an increase of the general pollution level of the Belgian coast. However, feeding, spawning and detoxification processes are also able to influence the O/N ratio and should be taken into account in the framework of a global assessment of the pollution level of the Belgian coast [less ▲]

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See detailVerticalization of behavior elicited by dopaminergic mobilization is qualitatively different between C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice
Tirelli, Ezio ULg; Witkin, J. M.

in Psychopharmacology (1994), 116(2), 191-200

Behavioral effects of dopaminergic stimulation were compared for C57BL/6J mice and DBA/2J mice. Effects of apomorphine (APO) alone and in combination with cocaine (COC) were assessed using a time-sampling ... [more ▼]

Behavioral effects of dopaminergic stimulation were compared for C57BL/6J mice and DBA/2J mice. Effects of apomorphine (APO) alone and in combination with cocaine (COC) were assessed using a time-sampling technique that classified climbing and leaning in separate categories. Climbing occurred in DBA/2J mice only at doses of APO that were 16 times higher than the smallest effective dose in C57BL/6J mice, but relative to baseline values, effects were comparable. Whereas DBA/2J mice showed dose-dependent leaning under APO, C57BL/6J mice exhibited significantly increased leaning only after the highest APO dose. When given alone, COC produced significant climbing, but not leaning or gnawing, in either strain. COC potentiated APO-induced climbing and gnawing in both strains but did not consistently change APO-induced leaning in either strain. APO alone reduced locomotor activity and attenuated COC-induced hyperkinesia. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved) [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyse de variables associées à l’action pédagogique dans un programme d’activités physiques quotidiennes au niveau élémentaire
Cloes, Marc ULg; Delfosse, Catherine; Ledent, Maryse et al

in Revue de l'Education Physique (1994), 34(2-3), 103-116

Dans notre société, où la notion d'effort physique régulier tend à disparaître, l'école devrait être investie d'une mission préventive. Elle devrait être à même de proposer aux enfants des occasions de ... [more ▼]

Dans notre société, où la notion d'effort physique régulier tend à disparaître, l'école devrait être investie d'une mission préventive. Elle devrait être à même de proposer aux enfants des occasions de pratique susceptibles de compenser les lacunes existantes. Les résultats de ces expériences soulignent fréquemment les effets favorables de l'activité quotidienne sur les aptitudes physiques et/ou motrices des enfants qui y participaient. ... [less ▲]

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See detailMechanism of Thiamine Transport in Neuroblastoma Cells. Inhibition of a High Affinity Carrier by Sodium Channel Activators and Dependence of Thiamine Uptake on Membrane Potential and Intracellular Atp
Bettendorff, Lucien ULg; Wins, Pierre

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (1994), 269(20), 14379-14385

Nerve cells are particularly sensitive to thiamine deficiency. We studied thiamine transport in mouse neuroblastoma (Neuro 2a) cells. At low external concentration, [14C]thiamine was taken up through a ... [more ▼]

Nerve cells are particularly sensitive to thiamine deficiency. We studied thiamine transport in mouse neuroblastoma (Neuro 2a) cells. At low external concentration, [14C]thiamine was taken up through a saturable high affinity mechanism (Km = 35 nM). This was blocked by low concentrations of the Na+ channel activators veratridine (IC50 = 7 +/- 4 microM) and batrachotoxin (IC50 = 0.9 microM). These effects were not antagonized by tetrodotoxin and were also observed in cell lines devoid of Na+ channels, suggesting that these channels are not involved in the mechanism of inhibition. At high extracellular concentrations, thiamine uptake proceeds essentially via a low affinity carrier (Km = 0.8 mM), insensitive to veratridine but blocked by divalent cations. In both cases, the uptake was independent on external sodium, partially inhibited (10-35%) by depolarization and sensitive to metabolic inhibitors. A linear relationship between the rate of thiamine transport and intracellular ATP concentration was found. When cells grown in a medium of low thiamine concentration (6 nM) were exposed to 100 nM extracellular thiamine, a 3-fold increase in intracellular thiamine diphosphate was observed after 2 h while the concomitant increase in intracellular free thiamine was barely significant. These data suggest a secondary active transport of thiamine, the main driving force being thiamine phosphorylation rather than the sodium gradient. [less ▲]

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See detailDe l'utopie en architecture
Tieleman, David ULg

in A+ (1994)

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See detailLATTICE-DYNAMICS AND DIELECTRIC-PROPERTIES OF INCIPIENT FERROELECTRIC TIO2 RUTILE
LEE, C.; Ghosez, Philippe ULg; GONZE, X.

in Physical Review. B : Condensed Matter (1994), 50(18), 13379-13387

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See detailNatural-Convection Above Line Heat-Sources In Greenhouse Canopies
Aubinet, Marc ULg; Deltour, Jules

in International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer (1994), 37(12),

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See detailDistribution and Regulation of Estrogen-2-Hydroxylase in the Quail Brain
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Stoop, R.; Foidart, Agnès ULg et al

in Brain Research Bulletin (1994), 35(4), 339-45

The anatomical distribution and endocrine regulation of the estrogen-2-hydroxylase activity were investigated in the brain of adult male and female Japanese quail. Significant levels of enzymatic activity ... [more ▼]

The anatomical distribution and endocrine regulation of the estrogen-2-hydroxylase activity were investigated in the brain of adult male and female Japanese quail. Significant levels of enzymatic activity were detected in all brain regions that were studied, but the highest levels were observed in preoptic and hypothalamic brain nuclei that are known to contain high levels of aromatase activity. These data are consistent with previous results suggesting that the placental aromatase is also responsible for the estrogen-2-hydroxylase activity. However, there is a marked sex difference and a control by T of aromatase activity in the quail brain, and no such difference in 2-hydroxylase activity could generally be detected except in the VMN. Further studies will be needed to know whether the previously published conclusions concerning the human placenta also apply to the brain. The present data are consistent with the idea that estrogens formed locally in the brain by testosterone aromatization could affect reproduction by interfering with the catecholaminergic transmission after being metabolized into catechol-estrogens. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of the emulsion stability on the morphology and porosity of semicrystalline poly-L-lactide micriparticles prepared by w/o/w double emulsion-evaporation
Schugens, Ch; Laruelle, N; Nihant, N et al

in Journal of Controlled Release (1994), 32

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See detailConnection and frame design for economy
Anderson, D.; Colson, A.; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Bouwen met Staal (1994), n°117

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See detailMéléagre dans les Argonautiques
Renaud, Jean-Michel ULg

in Uranie : Mythes et Littératures (1994), 4

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See detailPilgrimage out of Dispossession
Pagnoulle, Christine ULg

in Commonwealth : Essays and Studies (1994), 17(1), 100-106

Goodison's poems testify to her proud self-assertion, both as woman and as a descendant of African slaves.

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See detailDe réels progrès ont-ils été faits dans le traitement de l'ostéoporose ?
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; DEROISY, Rita ULg; Franchimont, P

in Les Nouvelles de Rhumatologie (1994), 4

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See detailVibration amplitudes caused by parametric excitation of cable stayed structures
Lilien, Jean-Louis ULg; Pinto da Costa, Antonio

in Journal of Sound & Vibration (1994), 174(N°1), 69-90

This paper deals with one kind of cable vibrations : the ones caused by parametric excitation.

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See detailPure red cell aplasia following peripheral stem cell transplantation: complete response to a short course of high-dose recombinant human erythropoietin.
Martelli, M.; Ponchio, L.; Beguin, Yves ULg et al

in Haematologica (1994), 79(5), 456-9

We studied a patient who developed pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) following peripheral stem cell transplantation for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Serum erythropoietin was appropriate for the degree of anemia ... [more ▼]

We studied a patient who developed pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) following peripheral stem cell transplantation for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Serum erythropoietin was appropriate for the degree of anemia. Corticosteroid treatment was ineffective. Four months after transplantation rHuEpo was administered subcutaneously at a dose of 150 U/Kg per day, five days a week for 8 weeks. Treatment induced an erythropoietic response and corrected anemia. Response was maintained following discontinuation of rHuEpo. This study and previous reports indicate that high doses of rHuEpo given over a short time can resolve PRCA following autologous or allogeneic stem cell transplantation. [less ▲]

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See detailFavoriser la reproduction des poissons à Lanaye.
Poncin, Pascal ULg; Keulen, C.

in Pêcheur Belge (Le) (1994), 6

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See detailInteractions between the biofilm growth and the hydrodynamics in an aerobic trickling filter
Lekhlif, B.; Toye, Dominique ULg; Marchot, Pierre ULg et al

in Water Science & Technology (1994), 29

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See detailThe experience of the CHU Liege with conservative surgery in the management of upper urinary tract tumors.
Bouffioux, Christian ULg; Andrianne, Robert ULg; Bonnet, Pierre ULg et al

in Acta Urologica Belgica (1994), 62(4), 39-43

A review of 20 cases of conservative surgery for urothelial tumors of the upper tract is presented. The morbidity is limited; the recurrence rate is around 15% in the ipsilateral urinary tract with a mean ... [more ▼]

A review of 20 cases of conservative surgery for urothelial tumors of the upper tract is presented. The morbidity is limited; the recurrence rate is around 15% in the ipsilateral urinary tract with a mean follow up of 41 months. Conservative surgery does not seem to carry a higher fatal risk as compared to more radical surgery. It has indications in some cases which are defined. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst-principles calculations of dielectric and effective charge tensors in Barium Titanate
Ghosez, Philippe ULg; Gonze, X.; Michenaud, J. P.

in Ferroelectrics (1994), 153

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See detailHooliganisme: approches descriptives et explicatives, avec une attention particulière aux faits observés en Belgique
Comeron, Manuel ULg

in Revue Internationale de Criminologie et de Police Technique (1994), 2

Etude du phénomène de violence dans les stades de football en Belgique avec une approche empirique des supporters et hooligans du Standard de Liège couplée avec une synthèse théorique des travaux anglo ... [more ▼]

Etude du phénomène de violence dans les stades de football en Belgique avec une approche empirique des supporters et hooligans du Standard de Liège couplée avec une synthèse théorique des travaux anglo-saxons. [less ▲]

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See detailLa Formation de Pepinster dans le Synclinorium de Verviers, entre Perpinster et Eupen (Belgique)-Contexte structural et stratigraphique
Dejonghe, L; Steemans, Philippe ULg

in Annales de la Société Géologique de Belgique (1994), 117

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See detailMagnesium et metabolisme glucidique.
Lefebvre, Pierre ULg; Paolisso, G.; Scheen, André ULg

in Thérapie (1994), 49(1), 1-7

The interrelationships between magnesium and carbohydrate metabolism have regained considerable interest over the last few years. Insulin secretion requires magnesium: magnesium deficiency results in ... [more ▼]

The interrelationships between magnesium and carbohydrate metabolism have regained considerable interest over the last few years. Insulin secretion requires magnesium: magnesium deficiency results in impaired insulin secretion while magnesium replacement restores insulin secretion. Furthermore, experimental magnesium deficiency reduces the tissues sensitivity to insulin. Subclinical magnesium deficiency is common in diabetes. It results from both insufficient magnesium intakes and increase magnesium losses, particularly in the urine. In type 2, or non-insulin-dependent, diabetes mellitus, magnesium deficiency seems to be associated with insulin resistance. Furthermore, it may participate in the pathogenesis of diabetes complications and may contribute to the increased risk of sudden death associated with diabetes. Some studies suggest that magnesium deficiency may play a role in spontaneous abortion of diabetic women, in fetal malformations and in the pathogenesis of neonatal hypocalcemia of the infants of diabetic mothers. Administration of magnesium salts to patients with type 2 diabetes tend to reduce insulin resistance. Long-term studies are needed before recommending systematic magnesium supplementation to type 2 diabetic patients with subclinical magnesium deficiency. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis and biodistribution of [5-131I]iodotropapride: a potential D2 dopamine receptor imaging agent.
Cantineau, Robert; Guillaume, Marcel; Damhaut, Philippe et al

in Nuclear Medicine & Biology (1994), 21(2), 255-62

[5-131I]Iodotropapride is a benzamidic compound which displays high affinity and selectivity for dopaminergic receptors. It was prepared from the corresponding brominated compound by a nucleophilic ... [more ▼]

[5-131I]Iodotropapride is a benzamidic compound which displays high affinity and selectivity for dopaminergic receptors. It was prepared from the corresponding brominated compound by a nucleophilic substitution with [131I]iodine (t1/2 = 8.02 days, E gamma = 364 keV) based on the use of Cu(I) as catalyst and high specific activity of [131I]NaI. After i.v. injection in rats the tracer crosses the blood-brain barrier (0.42 +/- 0.06% of injected dose in the total brain) and demonstrates a high affinity binding to the striatum. The striatum-to-cerebellum ratio increases with time and reaches values of 9 and 22 at 30 and 120 min after injection, respectively. This specific uptake in the striatum is saturable and can be blocked by pretreatment with different D2 antagonists. When labeled with 123I (t1/2 = 13 h, E1 = 159 keV), the corresponding [123I]iodotropapride may be useful for the investigation of the D2 dopamine receptors in humans with single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT). [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation de la fonction pulmonaire du cheval par la technique scintigraphique
Votion, Dominique ULg; Art, Tatiana ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1994), 138

Scintigraphy of the respiratory system, a technique used extensively in human medecine, provides a direct and non-invasive measure of both total and regional ventilation and perfusion of each lung. This ... [more ▼]

Scintigraphy of the respiratory system, a technique used extensively in human medecine, provides a direct and non-invasive measure of both total and regional ventilation and perfusion of each lung. This article remind you some nuclear notions and describes scintigraphical techniques for horses. The resuits of studies suggest that ventilation! perfusion scintigraphy provides valuable additionnai informations on regional lung function that are not obtainable from conventional investigations. The mucociliary clearance rates from the trachea can be determinated using scintigraphy and the differenttherapeutic drugs, which are claimed to increase mucokinesis, are successively presented. Methods of radiation protection in equine nuclear medecine are described [less ▲]

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See detailLe projet d'entreprise d'insertion: son impact en termes budgétaires et d'emplois
Defourny, Jacques ULg; Lequet, Nathalie; Tilkin, Michel

in Reflets et Perspectives de la Vie Economique (1994), XXIII(1-2), 157-171

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See detailCharacterization of a single strong tissue-specific enhancer downstream from the three human genes encoding placental lactogen
Jacquemin, Patrick; Oury, Cécile ULg; Peers, Bernard ULg et al

in Molecular & Cellular Biology (1994), 14(1), 93-103

The human genes coding for growth hormone (hGH) and placental lactogen (choriosomatomammotropic hormone [hCS]) are clustered on chromosome 17 in the following order: 5' hGH-N hCS-L hCS-A hGH-V hCS-B 3 ... [more ▼]

The human genes coding for growth hormone (hGH) and placental lactogen (choriosomatomammotropic hormone [hCS]) are clustered on chromosome 17 in the following order: 5' hGH-N hCS-L hCS-A hGH-V hCS-B 3'. So far, a single placenta-specific enhancer has been identified in the locus, 2 kb downstream from the hCS-B gene, and shown to comprise one in vitro binding site for a nuclear protein. We here provide evidence that the hCS-B enhancer is more complex: (i) protection against DNase I digestion in the 3' flanking region of the hCS-B gene reveals four binding sites (DF-1, DF-2, DF-3, and DF-4) for nuclear proteins from either placental or HeLa cells, and (ii) placenta-specific enhancer activity can be fully exerted in transient expression experiments by a 126-bp fragment comprising the DF-3 and DF-4 protein-binding sites. By dissecting this region, we show that enhancer activity is mediated by a synergy between DF-3 and DF-4. Competitions with various oligonucleotides in footprinting and gel retardation experiments indicate that the same protein or set of proteins, different in HeLa and placenta cell nuclei, interacts with sites DF-2, DF-3, and DF-4. We also studied the regions of the hCS-L and hCS-A genes which are highly similar to the hCS-B enhancer. Although they each present the same four protein-binding sites, they exhibit only minor enhancer activity. [less ▲]

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See detailEnantioselective synthesis of 6-[fluorine-18]-fluoro-L-dopa from no-carrier-added fluorine-18-fluoride.
Lemaire, Christian ULg; Damhaut, Philippe; Plenevaux, Alain ULg et al

in Journal of Nuclear Medicine : Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine (1994), 35(12), 1996-2002

METHODS: A trimethylammonium veratraldehyde triflate was synthesized and used as a precursor for the asymmetric synthesis of 6-[18F]fluoro-L-dopa. RESULTS: Its nucleophilic fluorination with 18F-fluoride ... [more ▼]

METHODS: A trimethylammonium veratraldehyde triflate was synthesized and used as a precursor for the asymmetric synthesis of 6-[18F]fluoro-L-dopa. RESULTS: Its nucleophilic fluorination with 18F-fluoride produced by the 18O(p,n)18F nuclear reaction on enriched 18O-water led to the corresponding no-carrier-added [18F]fluoroveratraldehyde (45 +/- 5% EOB). Diiodosilane was used to prepare the corresponding [18F]fluorobenzyl iodide (36.5 +/- 5.3% EOB). Akylation of (S)-1-tert-boc-2-tert-butyl-3-methyl-4-imidazolidinone with this electrophilic agent, hydrolysis and purification by preparative high-pressure liquid chromatography made 6-[18F]fluoro-L-dopa ready for human injection, in a 23% +/- 6% decay-corrected radiochemical yield. The enantiomeric purity and the specific activity were above 96% and 1 Ci/mumole respectively. CONCLUSION: Through this procedure, starting from 250 mCi of 18F-fluoride, multimillicurie amounts (32 +/- 8.5 mCi) of no-carrier-added 6-[18F]fluoro-L-dopa are now available at the end of synthesis (90 min) with a good radiochemical purity (more than 98%). [less ▲]

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See detailItinéraire d’une fable : le Loup et le Chien
Pietquin, Paul ULg; Dachy, Françoise; Debrux, Thomas et al

in Etudes Classiques (Namur, Belgium) (1994), 62

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See detailCoupling and carbonylation of iodoaromatics and terminal alkynes or alkynols catalyzed by a dimeric palladium hydroxide
Delaude, Lionel ULg; Masdeu, Anna M.; Alper, Howard

in Synthesis (1994), (11), 1149-1151

The palladium(II) complex [(Ph(3)P)Pd(Ph)mu-OH)](2) is an effective catalyst for the coupling and carbonylation of alkynes and iodoarenes to give acetylenic ketones in 63-94% yields. Acetylenic hydroxy ... [more ▼]

The palladium(II) complex [(Ph(3)P)Pd(Ph)mu-OH)](2) is an effective catalyst for the coupling and carbonylation of alkynes and iodoarenes to give acetylenic ketones in 63-94% yields. Acetylenic hydroxy ketones were formed using secondary or tertiary alkynols as reactants. [less ▲]

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See detailGeometric control of a pyridoxal-catalyzed aldol condensation
Koh, John T.; Delaude, Lionel ULg; Breslow, Ronald

in Journal of the American Chemical Society (1994), 116(25), 11234-11240

A chiral cyclophane derivative of pyridoxal has been synthesized that has amino groups oriented specifically over one face of the cofactor. The compound catalyzes the formation of threonine and allo ... [more ▼]

A chiral cyclophane derivative of pyridoxal has been synthesized that has amino groups oriented specifically over one face of the cofactor. The compound catalyzes the formation of threonine and allo-threonine from glycine and acetaldehyde with enantioinductions that are a function of pH, reversing the optical selectivity between low pH and high pH. The stereochemical results are compared with those of structurally related pyridoxal cyclophanes that lack titratable catalytic groups. Explanations are advanced for this stereochemical reversal and for the otherwise surprising preference of most of these compounds to react on the more hindered face of the pyridoxal. Models indicate that the transamination intermediate is distorted by the transannular chain, and stereoelectronic arguments predict that this distortion should lead to reaction on the face that carries the chain, as observed. The stereochemical reversal with the attached (dimethylamino)alkyl group, as a function of pH, may reflect catalysis by the protonated form, but metal coordination by the basic form cannot be excluded. [less ▲]

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See detailFate of unstimulated Latissimus Dorsi transposed into the chest and applied to cardiomyoplasty
Radermecker, M. A.; Reznik, M.; Vivario, M. et al

in Research in Surgery (1994), 6(1), 35-39

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See detailMassive Ketonuria During Sedation with Propofol in a 12 Year Old Girl with Severe Head Trauma
Canivet, Jean-Luc ULg; Gustad, K.; Leclercq, P. et al

in Acta Anaesthesiologica Belgica (1994), 45(1), 19-22

Severe ketonuria developed during sedation with propofol in a 12 year old girl with brain injury. Deep sedation with propofol (5.1 mg/kg/h) was required because of agitation and severe intracranial ... [more ▼]

Severe ketonuria developed during sedation with propofol in a 12 year old girl with brain injury. Deep sedation with propofol (5.1 mg/kg/h) was required because of agitation and severe intracranial hypertension; as a part of our management protocol, glucose intake was restricted to 5 Kcal/h. After 18 hours of propofol infusion there was intense ketonuria (8+ by Ketostix) without any evidence of metabolic acidosis (pH, HCO3- and anion gap were within normal values). At this time, indirect calorimetry (Deltatrac) confirmed that energy expenditure was principally based on fat consumption (70% of energy expenditure). Lowering the propofol infusion rate and increasing glucose intake reduced fat consumption to 39% within 8 hours: at this time, Ketostix was negative for ketone bodies. This case illustrates a potential risk of ketonuria during prolonged sedation with propofol (a 10% solution of intralipid), particularly if glucose intake is restricted. Monitoring urinary ketone bodies is recommended under these circumstances. [less ▲]

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See detailA TEF-1 binding motif that interacts with a placental protein is important for the transcriptional activity of the hCS-B enhancer
Jacquemin, P.; Oury, Cécile ULg; Belayew, A. et al

in DNA & Cell Biology (1994), 13(10), 1037-45

The transcriptional activity of the human placental lactogen genes (choriosomatomammotropic hormone, hCS) is controlled by tissue-specific enhancers located 4 kb downstream from their respective origins ... [more ▼]

The transcriptional activity of the human placental lactogen genes (choriosomatomammotropic hormone, hCS) is controlled by tissue-specific enhancers located 4 kb downstream from their respective origins of transcription. The hCS-B enhancer is the strongest; its activity is mediated by synergism between two protein-binding sites (DF-3 and DF-4). The DF-4 site possesses a potential binding sequence for TEF-1, a known transcription factor. In this paper, we show by electrophoretic mobility-shift assays and antibody supershift experiments that TEF-1 does not bind to site DF-4. Mutations in the TEF-1-like binding motif of site DF-4 prevent formation of the DNA-protein complex, called complex f, in the presence of placental JEG-3 cell extracts. When HeLa cell extracts are used, another complex (complex c) is also affected. In transient expression experiments, TKCAT constructs linked to this mutated DF-4 site exhibit greatly reduced transcriptional activity when introduced into JEG-3 cells. Some cell lines contain both protein c and protein f (the proteins forming complexes c and f); when transfected, these lines display reduced DF-4-driven activity, suggesting that the two proteins could compete for the same DF-4 sequence. We conclude that protein f is important for the placenta-specific activity of the hCS-B enhancer. By UV cross-linking, we show that protein f is actually three polypeptides ranging in size from about 12 to 21 kD. [less ▲]

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See detailTypage moléculaire de Clostridium perfringers.
Daube, Georges ULg; Simon, P.; Limbourg, B. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1994), 138

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See detailCompte rendu de Recherche de l'Ironie et ironie de la "Recherche", de P. Schoentjes
Defays, Jean-Marc ULg

in Revue Belge de Philologie et d'Histoire (1994), 72(3), 716-718

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See detailTransient hypersensitivity to apomorphine-induced gnawing after termination of acute effects high dose of cocaine
Tirelli, Ezio ULg; Witkin, J. M.

in Behavioural Pharmacology (1994), 5(3), 289-298

Male mice were tested for behavioral effects (BEs) of the dopamine (DA) agonist apomorphine (AP) at various times after acute administration of cocaine (COC). When most of the COC had disappeared from ... [more ▼]

Male mice were tested for behavioral effects (BEs) of the dopamine (DA) agonist apomorphine (AP) at various times after acute administration of cocaine (COC). When most of the COC had disappeared from brain and the BEs of COC had dissipated (2 hrs and 4 hrs after administration), effects of AP on gnawing were increased 4-fold. This dopaminergic hypersensitivity (DA-H) was induced by acute treatment with doses of 15 mg/kg COC and higher. Effects of AP were not enhanced 6-24 hrs after COC, indicating a rapid waning of the DA-H. Hypersensitivity to AP (AP-H) was not further augmented by 8 days of daily COC injections. COC did not influence climbing and hypomotility induced by AP 4 hrs after its injection, demonstrating selectivity in the BEs of the DA-H. Further, COC did not induce sensitization to its own effects, indicating that the AP-H was not due to a typical sensitization phenomenon. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved) [less ▲]

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See detailLe contrôle de l'infection par le virus de la rhinotrachéite infectieuse bovine
Lemaire, Mylène; Pastoret, Paul-Pierre ULg; Thiry, Etienne ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1994), 138

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See detailDe réels progrès ont-ils été faits dans le traitement de l'ostéoporose ?
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; DEROISY, Rita ULg; Franchimont, P

in Medisearch (1994), 81

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See detailModulatory Effect of Neuropeptide Y on Acetylcholine-Induced Oedema and Vasoconstriction in Isolated Perfused Lungs of Rabbit
Delaunois, Annie ULg; Gustin, Pascal ULg; Dessy-Doize, C. et al

in British Journal of Pharmacology (1994), 113(3), 973-81

1. The modulatory role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) on pulmonary oedema induced by acetylcholine and capsaicin was investigated. The effects of NPY on the haemodynamic response to acetylcholine, phenylephrine ... [more ▼]

1. The modulatory role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) on pulmonary oedema induced by acetylcholine and capsaicin was investigated. The effects of NPY on the haemodynamic response to acetylcholine, phenylephrine and substance P were also investigated. 2. Isolated, ventilated, exsanguinated lungs of the rabbit were perfused with a constant flow of recirculating blood-free perfusate. The double/arterial/venous occlusion method was used to partition the total pressure gradient (delta Pt) into four components: the arterial gradient (delta Pa), the pre- and post-capillary gradients (respectively delta Pa' and delta Pv') and the venous pressure gradient (delta Pv). Endothelial permeability was evaluated by measuring the capillary filtration coefficient (Kf,c). 3. Acetylcholine (10(-8) M to 10(-4) M) and substance P (SP, 10(-10) M to 10(-6) M) induced a concentration-dependent increase in the Kf,c. Capsaicin (10(-4) M) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) (10(-4) M) also increased this parameter. NPY (10(-8) M) completely inhibited the effects of acetylcholine and capsaicin on the Kf,c, without preventing the effects of substance P and 5-HT. 4. Acetylcholine induced concentration-dependent vasoconstriction in the precapillary segment. The effect was inhibited by NPY and aspirin, an inhibitor of cyclo-oxygenase, while ketanserin, a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, and SR140333, a new NK1 antagonist, had no protective effect. Phenylephrine increased delta Pa at high concentration, an effect also inhibited by NPY and aspirin. Substance P had no significant haemodynamic effect. When injected together with NPY, substance P (10(-6) M) induced a significant increase in the total pressure gradient.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) [less ▲]

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See detailELEMENT DIFFUSION IN THE SOLAR INTERIOR
Thoul, Anne ULg; BAHCALL, J. N.; LOEB, A.

in Astrophysical Journal (1994), 421(2), 828-842

We study the diffusion of helium and other heavy elements in the solar interior by solving exactly the set of flow equations developed by Burgers for a multicomponent fluid, including the residual heat ... [more ▼]

We study the diffusion of helium and other heavy elements in the solar interior by solving exactly the set of flow equations developed by Burgers for a multicomponent fluid, including the residual heat-flow terms. No approximation is made concerning the relative concentrations, and no restriction is placed on the number of elements considered. We give improved diffusion velocities for hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and iron, in the analytic form derived previously by Bahcall & Loeb. These expressions for the diffusion velocities are simple to program in stellar evolution codes and are expected to be accurate to similar to 15%. We find that the inclusion of the residual heat flow terms leads to an increase in the hydrogen diffusion velocity. We compare our numerical results-with those obtained analytically by Bahcall & Loeb using a simplified treatment, as well as with those derived numerically by Michaud & Proffitt. We find that for conditions characteristic of the Sun, the results of Bahcall & Loeb for the hydrogen diffusion velocity are smaller than our more accurate numerical results by similar to 30%, except very near the center where the error becomes larger. The Michaud & Proffitt results differ from the numerical results derived here by less than or similar to 15%. Our complete treatment of element diffusion can be directly incorporated in a standard stellar evolution code by means of an exportable subroutine, but, for convenience, we also give simple analytical fits to our numerical results. [less ▲]

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See detailMadin Darby Bovine Kidney Cell Synchronization by Lovastatin: Application to Bovine Herpesvirus-1 Gene Expression
Vanderplasschen, Alain ULg; Hanon, E.; Benarafa, C. et al

in Veterinary Research (1994), 25(6), 555-67

The number of investigations involving cell proliferation has increased rapidly in the last years. One of the major difficulties in studying cell-cycle-related events is obtaining highly synchronous cell ... [more ▼]

The number of investigations involving cell proliferation has increased rapidly in the last years. One of the major difficulties in studying cell-cycle-related events is obtaining highly synchronous cell populations without metabolic imbalance. This study demonstrates that the Madin Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells, a commonly used cell line in veterinary research, can be effectively synchronized using lovastatin (Lov), a drug used to treat hypercholesteremia in humans. This was demonstrated by the following results: (i) Lov inhibits cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner; (ii) Lov synchronizes MDBK cells mainly in the G1 and secondarily in the G2+M cell-cycle phases; (iii) the cytostatic effect of Lov can be specifically inhibited by addition of mevalonate (Mev) (Lov inhibits the synthesis of Mev); (iv) removal of Lov from G1-arrested cultures, followed by addition of Mev, resulted in the synchronous recovery of DNA synthesis; and (v) 5-bromo2'-deoxyuridine incorporation experiments revealed that MDBK cells synchronization by Lov can be followed for at least 3 cycles after removal of Lov and addition of Mev. Furthermore, as an application of investigations based on the availability of synchronized MDBK, we showed that bovine herpesvirus-1 gene expression is independent on the cell cycle. [less ▲]

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See detailModulation of the acetylcholine- and substance P-induced pulmonary edema by calcitonin gene-related peptide in the rabbit.
Delaunois, Annie ULg; Gustin, Pascal ULg; Ansay, Michel ULg

in Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (The) (1994), 270(1), 30-6

The effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) (6 x 10(-8) M) on hemodynamics and on pulmonary microvascular permeability were investigated in isolated, perfused rabbit lungs by measuring the ... [more ▼]

The effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) (6 x 10(-8) M) on hemodynamics and on pulmonary microvascular permeability were investigated in isolated, perfused rabbit lungs by measuring the arterial, capillary and venous pressures and the capillary filtration coefficient (Kf,c). CGRP was administered alone or in combination with capsaicin (10(-4) M), acetylcholine (ACh) (10(-11) M to 10(-7) M), substance P (SP) (10(-10) M to 10(-6) M) and serotonin (10(-4) M). The influence of a specific antagonist of CGRP receptors, CGRP8-37 (10(-8) M), on the pulmonary edema induced by these mediators was also considered. CGRP had no direct effect on the vascular pressures or on Kf,c. Capsaicin and serotonin induced an increase in Kf,c of 271 +/- 49% and 676 +/- 147% of base line, respectively. ACh and SP also increased the microvascular permeability, in proportion to the concentration. The effects of capsaicin, ACh and SP have been related to the activation of neurokinin NK1 receptors. Co-administration of CGRP with capsaicin and ACh enhanced the increase in Kf,c induced by these two drugs. By contrast, when co-injected with SP, CGRP inhibited the Kf,c increase induced by 10(-8) M and 10(-7) M of SP (P < .05) and significantly decreased the arterial and capillary pressures. CGRP also partly prevented the pulmonary edema induced by serotonin (P < .05). Pretreatment with CGRP8-37 partly prevented the effects of capsaicin and ACh on Kf,c but bestowed no protection against SP-induced pulmonary edema. These data suggest that CGRP is co-released with SP from the C-fibers upon the action of capsaicin and ACh in the rabbit lung. Because CGRP potentiated the pulmonary edema induced in capsaicin and ACh, but decreased the effects of SP, we hypothesize that CGRP exerts a positive retro-control on the release of neuropeptides by these fibers but can attenuate their effects on the target cells. [less ▲]

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See detailInvolvement Of The Cyclic Amp-Responsive Element-Binding Protein In Bovine Leukemia-Virus Expression In-Vivo
Adam, E.; Kerkhofs, P.; Mammerickx, M. et al

in Journal of Virology (1994), 68(9),

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See detailEvidence that two tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) prolactins have different osmoregulatory functions during adaptation to a hyperosmotic environment
Auperin, B.; Rentier-Delrue, Françoise ULg; Martial, Joseph ULg et al

in Journal of Molecular Endocrinology (1994), 12(1), 13-24

Two forms of prolactin (tiPRLI and tiPRLII), with only 69% sequence identity, have been previously described in the cichlid fish tilapia (Oreochromis species). In the present study we have attempted to ... [more ▼]

Two forms of prolactin (tiPRLI and tiPRLII), with only 69% sequence identity, have been previously described in the cichlid fish tilapia (Oreochromis species). In the present study we have attempted to investigate the biological activity of these two prolactin forms during adaptation to a hyperosmotic environment. For this purpose, we have developed two highly sensitive (sensitivity: 0.05 ng/ml) and specific (cross-reactivity < 0.04%) radioimmunoassays for tiPRLI and tiPRLII, using recombinant hormones. When fish were directly transferred from fresh to brackish water, the measured levels of plasma tiPRLI and tiPRLII dropped abruptly until 12 h after transfer. Thereafter, plasma tiPRLII remained stable (around 0.5 ng/ml) until the end of the experiment, whereas plasma tiPRLI continued to decrease to undetectable levels. These different patterns of change are reflected in the calculated ratio of plasma tiPRLII to tiPRLI, which increased from 2-3 in fresh water-adapted fish to over 10 in fish which had spent 3 days or more in brackish water. The pituitary contents of tiPRLI and tiPRLII varied in a qualitatively similar fashion after transfer to brackish water. The tiPRLI content dropped continuously after 12 h, reaching one-twelfth of its initial level after 2 weeks. The pituitary tiPRLII content, on the other hand, did not decrease significantly until day 7, and after a 2-week exposure to brackish water it had only decreased by 50%. When injected into tilapia adapted to brackish water, both ovine prolactin and recombinant tiPRLI induced a clear dose-dependent ion-retaining effect. In contrast, the effect induced by tiPRLII treatment was markedly smaller and not dose-dependent. Northern blot analysis of tiPRL mRNAs using either a tiPRLI or a tiPRLII cDNA probe indicated the presence of two mRNAs differing in size: a 1.7 kb mRNA coding for tiPRLI and a 1.3 kb mRNA coding for tiPRLII. After transfer to brackish water, levels of the two mRNAs decreased similarly. The present study indicates that, in O. niloticus, the two forms of prolactin have different osmoregulatory roles during adaptation to brackish water. Accordingly, their synthesis are differentially regulated after transfer to a hyperosmotic environment, presumably at a post-transcriptional level. [less ▲]

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See detailHooliganisme et extrémisme
Comeron, Manuel ULg

in Observatoire : Revue d'Action Sociale & Médico-Sociale (1994), 1

Les dimensions de racisme et d'extrémisme politique sont liés aux problèmes de sécurité et de violence posés par les supporters de football.

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See detailChoix d'une nouvelle variete pour les zones cotonnieres meridionales du Zaire. Resultats des essais varietaux preliminaires.
Mergeai, Guy ULg; Ndungo, V.; Folo, A. et al

in Bulletin des Recherches Agronomiques de Gembloux (1994), 29(4),

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See detailThe Compartmentation of Phosphorylated Thiamine Derivatives in Cultured Neuroblastoma Cells
Bettendorff, Lucien ULg

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (1994), 1222(1), 7-14

Thiamine transport in cultured neuroblastoma cells is mediated by a high-affinity carrier (KM = 40 nM). In contrast, the uptake of the more hydrophobic sulbutiamine (isobutyrylthiamine disulfide) is ... [more ▼]

Thiamine transport in cultured neuroblastoma cells is mediated by a high-affinity carrier (KM = 40 nM). In contrast, the uptake of the more hydrophobic sulbutiamine (isobutyrylthiamine disulfide) is unsaturable and its initial transport rate is 20-times faster than for thiamine. In the cytoplasm, sulbutiamine is rapidly hydrolyzed and reduced to free thiamine, the overall process resulting in a rapid and concentrative thiamine accumulation. Incorporation of radioactivity from [14C]thiamine or [14C]sulbutiamine into intracellular thiamine diphosphate is slow in both cases. Despite the fact that the diphosphate is probably the direct precursor for both thiamine monophosphate and triphosphate, the specific radioactivity increased much faster for the latter two compounds than for thiamine diphosphate. This suggests the existence of two pools of thiamine diphosphate, the larger one having a very slow turnover (about 17 h); a much smaller, rapidly turning over pool would be the precursor of thiamine mono- and triphosphate. The turnover time for thiamine triphosphate could be estimated to be 1-2 h. When preloading the cells with [14C]sulbutiamine was followed by a chase with the same concentration of the unlabeled compound, the specific radioactivities of thiamine and thiamine monophosphate decreased exponentially as expected, but labeling of the diphosphate continued to increase slowly. Specific radioactivity of thiamine triphosphate increased first, but after 30 min it began to slowly decrease. These results show for the first time the existence of distinct thiamine diphosphate pools in the same homogeneous cell population. They also suggest a complex compartmentation of thiamine metabolism. [less ▲]

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See detailCritical appraisal of pressure-frequency relation for estimation of diaphragm function in intact and conscious animals
Desmecht, Daniel ULg; Linden, Annick ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in American Journal of Veterinary Research (1994), 55(12), 1638-1646

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See detailTrickle flow in packed columns : new experimental and theoretical investigations
Crine, Michel ULg; Marchot, Pierre ULg; Toye, Dominique ULg et al

in Trends in Chemical Engineering (1994), 2

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See detailFactors influencing between-laboratory variability of C-reactive protein results as evidenced by the Belgian External Quality Assessement (EQA) Scheme
Devleeschouwer, N.; Libeer, J. C.; Chapelle, Jean-Paul ULg et al

in Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation (1994), 54(6), 435-40

Based on results from the Belgian External Quality Assessment (EQA) Scheme, we studied the main factors affecting the between-laboratory variation of C-reactive protein determination. Participants using ... [more ▼]

Based on results from the Belgian External Quality Assessment (EQA) Scheme, we studied the main factors affecting the between-laboratory variation of C-reactive protein determination. Participants using homogeneous systems with several calibration points generally achieved better performance. Working temperatures influenced the results to a lesser extent. The present study stresses the importance for EQA organizers to collect more detailed information about CRP analytical methods used by the participants. It also suggests that manufacturers should be more involved in the management of quality, in particular by striving for standardization of the material (kit and calibrator) they produce for CRP assay. [less ▲]

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See detailCoût dans le secteur de la distribution d'eau en Wallonie et à Bruxelles : estimation d'une fonction de coût hédonique
Evrard, Olivier; Lejeune, Bernard ULg; Thiry, Bernard

in Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics = Annales de l'Economie Publique, Sociale et Coopérative (1994), 65(2), 333-360

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See detailCharacterization of a single prolactin (PRL) receptor in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) which binds both PRLI and PRLII
Auperin, B.; Rentier-Delrue, Françoise ULg; Martial, Joseph ULg et al

in Journal of Molecular Endocrinology (1994), 13(3), 241-51

In tilapia, there are two forms of prolactin (PRL) whose effects on sodium and chloride movements differ and depend on the living environment of the fish. To see whether different receptors or the same ... [more ▼]

In tilapia, there are two forms of prolactin (PRL) whose effects on sodium and chloride movements differ and depend on the living environment of the fish. To see whether different receptors or the same receptor mediates these different effects, we have characterized the specific binding of both forms of tilapia (ti)PRL in two osmoregulatory organs, the gill and kidney. Two recombinant tiPRLs were used for this analysis. The recombinant hormones had the same properties as the native hormones in a tilapia gill radioreceptor assay. Specific binding to gill and kidney membranes was increased by optimizing the quality of the tissue preparations (physiological state of fish, membrane preparation) and the incubation conditions (pH, salt concentrations, temperature, time). Under these optimized conditions, we detected only one class of high affinity PRL receptor in gill and kidney. Its binding affinity was higher for tiPRLI than for tiPRLII in both gill and kidney (for tiPRLI the respective affinity values were 2.9 and 2.3 x 10(10) per M, for tiPRLII they were 1.9 and 0.5 x 10(10) per M). In competition studies, tiPRLI was more potent, followed by tiPRLII and ovine (o)PRL. tiGH and oGH did not significantly displace either tiPRL. The receptor we have characterized thus recognizes quite specifically both tiPRLs. [less ▲]

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See detailDe limite en frontière : le monde à la mesure de l'homme
Bachelet, Jean-François ULg

in Revue de l'Institut de Sociologie (1994), 3-4

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