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See detailTowards a more versatile alpha-glucan biosynthesis in plants
Jacon, Géraldine ULg

in Journal of Plant Physiology (2003)

During the last 10 years, the increased need for starches with novel properties has occupied the research community, and many efforts were concentrated on unraveling the starch bio- synthesis pathways ... [more ▼]

During the last 10 years, the increased need for starches with novel properties has occupied the research community, and many efforts were concentrated on unraveling the starch bio- synthesis pathways. The knowledge generated in these investigations was subsequently used to produce tailor-made starches in higher plants using recombinant DNA technology. Examples of starches with new functionalities are those with a modified degree of branching (Schwall et al. 2000, Shewma- ker et al. 1994, Kortstee et al. 1996) and the amylose-free starch (Visser et al. 1991a, Kuipers et al.1994), some of which hold potential for applications in the paper-, textile-, plastics-, food and pharmaceutical industry. The accumulation of more starch has also been an objective, but this will not be dis- cussed further here, (see: Slattery et al. 2000). In our laboratory, we have embarked on two generic tech- nologies with a very wide range of applicability: (i) introduction of new linkages types and structural elements using glu- cansucrases, and (ii) engineering granule-boundness by using microbial starch-binding domains (SBDs). It is expected that these technologies will contribute substantially to the biosynthesis of more versatile α-glucans in the near future, leading to starches with altered functionalities that cannot be obtained by conventional breeding. In this study recent developments in starch modification using heterologous expression of microbial genes will be reviewed, with emphasis on the potato plant. [less ▲]

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See detailThe neuroendocrinology of reproductive behavior in Japanese quail
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Baillien, Michelle; Charlier, Thierry ULg et al

in Domestic Animal Endocrinology (2003), 25

Sex steroid hormones such as testosterone have widespread effects on brain physiology and function but one of their best characterized effects arguably involves the activation of male sexual behavior ... [more ▼]

Sex steroid hormones such as testosterone have widespread effects on brain physiology and function but one of their best characterized effects arguably involves the activation of male sexual behavior. During the past 20 years we have investigated the testosterone control of male sexual behavior in an avian species, the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).We briefly reviewhere the main features and advantages of this species relating to the investigation of fundamental questions in the field of behavioral neuroendocrinology, a field that studies inter-relationship among hormones, brain and behavior. Special attention is given to the intracellular metabolism of testosterone, in particular its aromatization into an estrogen, which plays a critical limiting role in the mediation of the behavioral effects of testosterone. Brain aromatase activity is controlled by steroids which increase the transcription of the enzyme, but afferent inputs that affect the intraneuronal concentrations of calcium also appear to have a pronounced effect on the enzyme activity through rapid changes in its phosphorylation status. The physiological significance of these slowgenomic and rapid, presumably non-genomic, changes in brain aromatase activity are also briefly discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailLa maladie du hêtre en Région wallonne : état des lieux chiffré de 2001 à 2003
Rondeux, Jacques ULg; Huart, O.; Lecomte, H. et al

in Silva Belgica (2003), 110(3), 18-28

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See detailEffect of plasma urea-N concentration on fertility in a Holstein-Friesian dairy herd
Szenci, Otto; Simonsen, I.; Bajcsy, C. A. et al

in Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja = Hungarian Veterinary Journal (2003), 125(8), 458-464

The objectives of this study were to relate the concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen (UN) to pregnancy rate in dairy cows. The cows were grouped, according to their production level and feed rations ... [more ▼]

The objectives of this study were to relate the concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen (UN) to pregnancy rate in dairy cows. The cows were grouped, according to their production level and feed rations according to the NRC recommendations for essential nutrients, Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n=103), randomly selected, were inseminated between Days 39 and 410 after calving. The cows were separated into two groups, where Group 1, was treated with GnRH i.m. injection on Day 12 after At. Group 2, was not treated and served as a control group. Heparinized blood samples were taken from the tall vein, immediately taken after artificial insemination (Day 0) and subsequently on Days 12, 21, 32 and 55 after Al, respectively. Diagnosis of pregnancy and late embryonic mortality was made by ultrasonography and the measurement of pregnancy proteins (PAG) between Days 32 and 55 after Al. Changes in plasma UN concentrations were studied using multivariate repeated ANOVA procedures. Three cows in each group were insemineted in the lutheal phase therefore their data were not used in the calculation. There were no significant differences between the UN concentrations of the pregnant and non-pregnant cows within the groups. However, the time of sampling had a significant effect on the UN concentrations in both the control and the treated groups. The UN concentrations, in pregnant and non pregnant cows of both groups, were significantly decreasing from Day 0 to Day 32. Concentrations of UN (on Day 0) less than 5,8 mmol/l were associated with increased pregnancy rates (53.6%). The pregnancy rates for cows with UN concentrations within the ranges of 5,7-6,75 mmol/l and 6,76-7,82 mmol/l were 47.8% and 46.7%, respectively. The rate of late embryonic mortality was similar in the two groups (treated group: n=2, control group: n=3). [less ▲]

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See detailWhat are the realistic hopes for remyelinisation in the central nervous system ?
Rogister, Bernard ULg

in Bulletin de l'Académie Nationale de Médecine (2003), 158

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See detailPetit rappel concernant le cacul de la prescription de l'action publique en matière de moeurs
Monville, Pierre ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2003)

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See detailClassification des rongeurs
Mignon, Jacques ULg; Hardouin, Jacques

in Bulletin BEDIM (2003), 12(1), 12-13

The note aims at providing the main characteristics of the principal families of rodents relevant to minilivestock.

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See detailCTD measurements, with emphasis on Elephant Island surroundings
Dauby, Patrick ULg

in Berichte zur Polar- und Meeresforschung (2003), 470

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See detailLe medicament du mois. Glucovance dans le diabete de type 2, une association fixe metformine-glibenclamide pour faciliter le traitement d'une maladie bipolaire.
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(6), 448-52

Glucovance, recently launched by Merck-Lipha (Glucovance 500 mg/2.5 mg and Glucovance 500 mg/5 mg), is a fixed combined therapy of a sulphonylurea (glibenclamide 2.5 or 5 mg) and a biguanide (metformin ... [more ▼]

Glucovance, recently launched by Merck-Lipha (Glucovance 500 mg/2.5 mg and Glucovance 500 mg/5 mg), is a fixed combined therapy of a sulphonylurea (glibenclamide 2.5 or 5 mg) and a biguanide (metformin 500 mg), indicated for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in adult patients. The only current official indication in Belgium is the substitution of a dual therapy with metformin and glibenclamide in patients with a stable and adequate metabolic control. The fixed combination aims at simplifying patient's treatment in order to improve compliance despite polymedication. In addition, it allows targeting synergistically the two main abnormalities of type 2 diabetes, i.e. the insulin secretory defect and the insulin resistance. [less ▲]

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See detailAge, sex, and weight at weaning influence organ weight and gastrointestinal development of weanling pigs
Pluske, J. R.; Kerton, D. J.; Cranwell, P. D. et al

in Australian Journal of Agricultural Research (2003), 54(5), 515-527

The present study was designed to determine the interrelationships between sex, weaning age, and weaning weight on aspects of physiological and gastrointestinal development in pigs. Forty-eight Large ... [more ▼]

The present study was designed to determine the interrelationships between sex, weaning age, and weaning weight on aspects of physiological and gastrointestinal development in pigs. Forty-eight Large White x Landrace pigs were used in a factorial arrangement with the respective factors being: age at weaning ( 14 or 28 days), weight at weaning ( heavy or light), sex ( boar or gilt), and time after weaning ( 1, 7, and 14 days). At weaning, 48 pigs were removed from the sow; 16 pigs were then fasted for 24 h before euthanasia for determination of organ weights, gut histology, and enzymology, and 32 pigs were offered a high quality pelleted weaner diet ad libitum for subsequent assessment of organ weights, histology, and enzymology at 7 and 14 days after weaning. On Day 6 and 13 after weaning, 2 pigs from each group had their feed removed, and 24 h later were euthanased and similar measurements were taken. In general, the data highlighted the overall gastrointestinal underdevelopment of pigs weaned at 2 weeks of age and of pigs weaned light-for-age at either 2 or 4 weeks. Heavier body organs, gastrointestinal organs, and accessory digestive organs observed after weaning, except for the spleen, presumably reflected the increase in substrates available for cellular growth as feed intake increased after weaning, and the development of organs required to process this feed. Interestingly, the relative weights (% of liveweight) of the stomach and small intestine and, to a lesser extent, the caecum and colon, were greater in the light, 14-day-old weaned pigs, but these differences diminished with increasing time after weaning. Consistent effects due to age, weight, and sex were not observed for villous height and crypt depth, or for the specific activities of the brush-border and pancreatic enzymes measured. However, increases (P < 0.001) in the activities of maltase (P < 0.001), glucoamylase ( P < 0.001), and sucrase (P = 0.020) ( all expressed per gram of mucosa), and that of trypsin ( per gram of pancreas), occurred by 14 days after weaning. This most likely reflected the inducible nature of these enzymes in response to the increasing intake of substrates provided in the diet. In contrast, the specific activity of lactase declined (P = 0.012) in the first 14 days after weaning. These data suggest that pigs weaned at 2 weeks of age and pigs weaned light-for-age at either 2 or 4 weeks have a less developed gastrointestinal tract, and that its development after weaning might proceed differently to that of pigs weaned older and heavier. [less ▲]

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See detailRosuvastatin decreases caveolin-1 and improves nitric oxide-dependent heart rate and blood pressure variability in apolipoprotein E-/- mice in vivo.
Pelat, Michel; Dessy, Chantal; MASSION, Paul ULg et al

in Circulation (2003), 107(19), 2480-6

BACKGROUND: Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) and increased blood pressure variability (BPV), determined in part by nitric oxide (NO)-dependent endothelial dysfunction, are correlated with adverse ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) and increased blood pressure variability (BPV), determined in part by nitric oxide (NO)-dependent endothelial dysfunction, are correlated with adverse prognosis in cardiovascular diseases. We examined potential alterations in BPV and HRV in genetically dyslipidemic, apolipoprotein (apo) E-/-, and control mice and the effect of chronic statin treatment on these parameters in relation to their NO synthase (NOS)-modifying properties. METHODS AND RESULTS: BP and HR were recorded in unrestrained, nonanesthetized mice with implanted telemetry devices with or without rosuvastatin. Cardiac and aortic expression of endothelial NOS and caveolin-1 were measured by immunoblotting. Both systolic BP and HR were elevated in apoE-/- mice, with abolition of their circadian cycles. Spectral analysis showed an increase in their systolic BPV in the very-low-frequency (+17%) band and a decrease in HRV in the high-frequency (-57%) band, reflecting neurohumoral and autonomic dysfunction. Decreased sensitivity to acute injection of atropine or an NOS inhibitor indicated basal alterations in both parasympathetic and NOS regulatory systems in apoE-/- mice. Aortic caveolin-1 protein, an inhibitor of endothelial NOS, was also increased in these mice by 2.0-fold and correlated positively with systolic BPV in the very-low-frequency band. Rosuvastatin treatment corrected the hemodynamic and caveolin-1 expression changes despite persisting elevated plasma cholesterol levels. CONCLUSIONS: Rosuvastatin decreases caveolin-1 expression and promotes NOS function in apoE-/-, dyslipidemic mice in vivo, with concurrent improvements in BPV and HRV. This highlights the beneficial effects of rosuvastatin on cardiovascular function beyond those attributed to lipid lowering. [less ▲]

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See detailGas chromatography-olfactometry analysis of the volatile compounds of two commercial Irish beef meats
Machiels, D.; van Ruth, S. M.; Posthumus, M. A. et al

in Talanta (2003), 60(4), 755-764

The volatile flavour compounds of two commercial Irish beef meats (labelled as conventional and organic) were evaluated by gas chromatography-olfactometry and were identified by gas chromatography-mass ... [more ▼]

The volatile flavour compounds of two commercial Irish beef meats (labelled as conventional and organic) were evaluated by gas chromatography-olfactometry and were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The volatile compounds were isolated in a model mouth system. Gas chromatography-olfactometry was performed by a group of eight assessors using the detection frequency methodology. The odours of the detected compounds were described as well. Eighty-one volatile compounds were identified, 11 compounds of which possessed odour activity in the first beef sample and 14 of which in the second meat sample. Ten volatile flavour compounds were common to both: methanethiol, dimethyl sulphide, 2-butanone, ethyl acetate, 2- and 3-methylbutanal, an unknown compound, 2-octanone, decanal and benzothiazole. Two unknown compounds were only detected in the first sample while 2,3-pentanedione, 4-methyl-3-penten-2-one, 2-heptanone, dimethyl trisulphide and nonanal were only perceived in the second beef. Significant differences in terms of detection frequency, odour characteristics and in nature of the volatile flavour compounds were emphasised between the two samples. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detail3D spatial relationships model: a useful concept for 3D cadastre?
Billen, Roland ULg; Zlatanova, Siyka

in Computers, Environment & Urban Systems (2003), 27(4), 411-425

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See detailDaily induction combination treatment with alpha 2b interferon and ribavirin or standard combination treatment in naive chronic hepatitis C patients. A multicentre randomized controlled trial
Van Vlierberghe, H.; Leroux-Roels, G.; Adler, M. et al

in Journal of Viral Hepatitis (2003), 10(6), 460-466

The standard treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis C is a 6-12-month combination therapy with interferon alpha and ribavirin. Induction treatment could result in a faster early decline of the ... [more ▼]

The standard treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis C is a 6-12-month combination therapy with interferon alpha and ribavirin. Induction treatment could result in a faster early decline of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) load and a better response rate. Naive chronically infected HCV patients (n = 454) were randomized into two arms to receive either induction treatment with interferon alpha 2b 5 million units (MU) subcutaneously (s.c.) daily during a period of 8 weeks (arm A); or treatment with interferon alpha 2b 5 MU s.c. three times a week (TIW) for a period of 8 weeks (arm B). After week 8, interferon treatment in both arms was 3 MU s.c. TIW for a total period of 12 months. In both arms, ribavirin (1000-1200 mg orally per day) was added at week 4. Induction treatment resulted in a higher virological response at week 8 of treatment (66%vs 47%; P < 0.01). However, response at the end of treatment and at 6 months follow-up was not different (53%vs 50%, 41%vs 33%). The occurrence of adverse events and the drop-out rate were similar in both arms. Although an early virological response is observed more frequently in the induction treatment, end of treatment response and sustained responses did not differ. [less ▲]

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See detailStromatopogon cladoniae sp. nova, a remarkable new lichenicolous coelomycete from Belgium
Diederich, Paul; Sérusiaux, Emmanuël ULg

in Bibliotheca Lichenologica (2003), 86

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See detailProstaglandin D2 inhibits the production of interleukin-12 in murine dendritic cells through multiple signaling pathways.
Faveeuw, Christelle; Gosset, Philippe; Bureau, Fabrice ULg et al

in European Journal of Immunology (2003), 33(4), 889-898

Prostaglandin (PG) D(2), and its metabolites, are known to be important mediators during acute and chronic inflammation. However, their functions during the early phases of the immune response are poorly ... [more ▼]

Prostaglandin (PG) D(2), and its metabolites, are known to be important mediators during acute and chronic inflammation. However, their functions during the early phases of the immune response are poorly documented. In the present study, we show that PGD(2 )inhibits, in a dose-dependent manner, the CD40- and LPS-induced secretion of the Th1-driving factor IL-12 by murine splenic dendritic cells (DC), the most potent antigen-presenting cells. The inhibition of IL-12 production is mediated only in part by the cell surface G alpha s protein-coupled D prostanoid receptor (termed DP1) but not by the G alpha i protein-coupled DP receptor, DP2. We show that recruitment of DP1 in DC results in the activation of a cyclic AMP/protein kinase A pathway that is partially responsible for the inhibition of IL-12 production. We also suggest that the DP1-independent effects exerted by PGD(2) on IL-12 production may be due to the action of ist PGJ(2), but not PGF(2)alpha, metabolites. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that PGD(2) affects NF-kappa B activation through (the) DP1-independent pathway(s). Together these data suggest that PGD(2), by interacting with DP1 and by binding to other target cellular proteins, may regulate immune responses by affecting IL-12 production in DC [less ▲]

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See detailPostnatal NG2 proteoglycan-expressing progenitor cells are intrinsically multipotent and generate functional neurons.
Belachew, Shibeshih ULg; Chittajallu, Ramesh; Aguirre, Adan A. et al

in Journal of Cell Biology (2003), 161(1), 169-86

Neurogenesis is known to persist in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS). The identity of the cells that generate new neurons in the postnatal CNS has become a crucial but elusive issue. Using ... [more ▼]

Neurogenesis is known to persist in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS). The identity of the cells that generate new neurons in the postnatal CNS has become a crucial but elusive issue. Using a transgenic mouse, we show that NG2 proteoglycan-positive progenitor cells that express the 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase gene display a multipotent phenotype in vitro and generate electrically excitable neurons, as well as astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. The fast kinetics and the high rate of multipotent fate of these NG2+ progenitors in vitro reflect an intrinsic property, rather than reprogramming. We demonstrate in the hippocampus in vivo that a sizeable fraction of postnatal NG2+ progenitor cells are proliferative precursors whose progeny appears to differentiate into GABAergic neurons capable of propagating action potentials and displaying functional synaptic inputs. These data show that at least a subpopulation of postnatal NG2-expressing cells are CNS multipotent precursors that may underlie adult hippocampal neurogenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailMarocains de Belgique : du travailleur immigré au citoyen transnational
Bousetta, Hassan ULg; Martiniello, Marco ULg

in Hommes & Migrations (2003), 1242(Mars-Avril), 94-106

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See detailCatabolism of hydroxyacids and biotechnological production of lactones by Yarrowia lipolytica
Waché, Y.; Aguedo, Mario ULg; Nicaud, J.-M. et al

in Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology (2003), 61(5-6), 393-404

The γ- and δ-lactones of less than 12 carbons constitute a group of compounds of great interest to the flavour industry. It is possible to produce some of these lactones through biotechnology. For ... [more ▼]

The γ- and δ-lactones of less than 12 carbons constitute a group of compounds of great interest to the flavour industry. It is possible to produce some of these lactones through biotechnology. For instance, γ-decalactone can be obtained by biotransformation of methyl ricinoleate. Among the organisms used for this bioproduction, Yarrowia lipolytica is a yeast of choice. It is well adapted to growth on hydrophobic substrates, thanks to its efficient and numerous lipases, cytochrome P450, acylCoA oxidases and its ability to produce biosurfactants. Furthermore, genetic tools have been developed for its study. This review deals with the production of lactones by Y. lipolytica with special emphasis on the biotransformarion of methyl ricinoleate to γ-decalactone. When appropriate, information from the lipid metabolism of other yeast species is presented. [less ▲]

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See detailLes facteurs de virulence des alphaherpèsvirus
Muylkens, Benoît ULg; Meurens, François; Schynts, Frédéric et al

in Virologie (2003), 7

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See detailProstatic androgen repressed message-1 (PARM-1) may play a role in prostatic cell immortalisation.
Cornet, Anne ULg; Hanon, Emmanuel; Reiter, Eric R et al

in Prostate (The) (2003), 56(3), 220-30

BACKGROUND: Prostatic androgen-repressed message-1 (PARM-1) has been cloned from the prostate. The transcript of the PARM-1 gene is overexpressed during regression of the prostate after androgen ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Prostatic androgen-repressed message-1 (PARM-1) has been cloned from the prostate. The transcript of the PARM-1 gene is overexpressed during regression of the prostate after androgen withdrawal. The regulation of PARM-1 by androgens is limited to this organ. We have studied the effects of PARM-1 overexpression in malignant prostate cells. METHODS: The PARM-1 cDNA was introduced into the rat cancer cell line MAT LyLu along with a doxycycline-dependent regulator. RESULTS: Maximal expression of PARM-1 (fivefold induction) was achieved by incubating the cells with 2 microM doxycycline for 48 hr. A study investigating the effect of PARM-1 overexpression on the transcription of 588 genes has shown that the TLP1 gene (encoding rat telomerase protein component 1) was the most up-regulated (fourfold). In addition, a dose-dependent increase in telomerase activity was observed in cells overexpressing PARM-1. In vivo, the androgen-deprived prostate showed an increased TLP1 level and increased telomerase activity. CONCLUSIONS: Increased telomerase activity is often associated with the immortalisation of cancer cell lines, particularly prostatic ones. This could mean that PARM-1 is involved, via increased telomerase activity, in a survival program enabling certain prostatic cells to resist apoptosis, thus conferring a selective advantage to pre-cancerous or cancerous cells. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyses technologiques d'un atelier de taille aurignacien à Maisières - Canal (Province du Hainaut, Belgique)
Miller, Rebecca ULg; Flas, Damien; Guillaume, Alain et al

in Notae Praehistoricae (2003), 23

This articles presents the results of the spatial distribution of lithic refits and a dynamic technological analysis of the Aurignacian assemblage from the site of Maisières-Canal.

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See detailTIMP-2 and PAI-1 mRNA levels are lower in aneurysmal as compared to athero-occlusive abdominal aortas.
Defawe, Olivier D; Colige, Alain ULg; Lambert, Charles ULg et al

in Cardiovascular Research (2003), 60(1), 205-13

OBJECTIVE: Significant alterations of the vascular wall occurs in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and atherosclerotic occlusive disease (AOD) that ultimately may lead to either vascular rupture or ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: Significant alterations of the vascular wall occurs in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and atherosclerotic occlusive disease (AOD) that ultimately may lead to either vascular rupture or obstruction. These modifications have been ascribed to one or a group of proteases, their inhibitors or to the matrix macromolecules involved in the repair process without considering the extent of the observed variations. METHODS: The mRNA steady-state level of a large spectrum of proteolytic enzymes (matrix metalloproteinases: MMP-1, -2, -3, -8, -9, -11, -12, -13, -14; urokinase plasminogen activator: u-PA), their physiological inhibitors (tissue inhibitors of MMPs: TIMP-1, -2, -3; plasminogen activator inhibitor: PAI-1) and that of structural matrix proteins (collagens type I and III, decorin, elastin, fibrillins 1 and 2) was determined by RT-PCR made quantitative by using a synthetic RNA as internal standard in each reaction mixture. The profile of expression was evaluated in AAA (n=7) and AOD (n=5) and compared to non-diseased abdominal (CAA, n=7) and thoracic aorta (CTA, n=5). RESULTS: The MMPs -8, -9, -12 and -13 mostly associated with inflammatory cells were not or barely detected in CAA and CTA while they were largely and similarly expressed in AAA and AOD. Expression of protease inhibitors or structural proteins were only slightly increased in both pathological conditions with the exception of elastin which was reduced. The main significant difference between AAA and AOD was a lower expression of TIMP-2 and PAI-1 in the aneurysmal lesions. CONCLUSIONS: The remodeling of the aortic wall in AAA and AOD involves gene activation of a large and similar spectrum of proteolytic enzymes while the expression of two physiological inhibitors, TIMP-2 and PAI-1, is significantly lower in AAA compared to AOD. The repair process in the aneurysmal disease seems similar to that of the occlusive disease. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of type II and type III pyoverdine receptors from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
de Chial, Magaly; Ghysels, Bart ULg; Beatson, Scott A. et al

in Microbiology (Reading, England) (2003), 149(Pt 4), 821-31

Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces, under conditions of iron limitation, a high-affinity siderophore, pyoverdine (PVD), which is recognized at the level of the outer membrane by a specific TonB-dependent ... [more ▼]

Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces, under conditions of iron limitation, a high-affinity siderophore, pyoverdine (PVD), which is recognized at the level of the outer membrane by a specific TonB-dependent receptor, FpvA. So far, for P. aeruginosa, three different PVDs, differing in their peptide chain, have been described (types I-III), but only the FpvA receptor for type I is known. Two PVD-producing P. aeruginosa strains, one type II and one type III, were mutagenized by a mini-TnphoA3 transposon. In each case, one mutant unable to grow in the presence of the strong iron chelator ethylenediaminedihydroxyphenylacetic acid (EDDHA) and the cognate PVD was selected. The first mutant, which had an insertion in the pvdE gene, upstream of fpvA, was unable to take up type II PVD and showed resistance to pyocin S3, which is known to use type II FpvA as receptor. The second mutant was unable to take up type III PVD and had the transposon insertion in fpvA. Cosmid libraries of the respective type II and type III PVD wild-type strains were constructed and screened for clones restoring the capacity to grow in the presence of PVD. From the respective complementing genomic fragments, type II and type III fpvA sequences were determined. When in trans, type II and type III fpvA restored PVD production, uptake, growth in the presence of EDDHA and, in the case of type II fpvA, pyocin S3 sensitivity. Complementation of fpvA mutants obtained by allelic exchange was achieved by the presence of cognate fpvA in trans. All three receptors posses an N-terminal extension of about 70 amino acids, similar to FecA of Escherichia coli, but only FpvAI has a TAT export sequence at its N-terminal end. [less ▲]

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See detailChlamydomonas reinhardtii as a eukaryotic photosynthetic model for studies of heavy metal homeostasis and tolerance
Hanikenne, Marc ULg

in New Phytologist (2003), 159(2), 331-340

The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a useful model of a photosynthetic cell. This unicellular eukaryote has been intensively used for studies of a number of physiological processes such as ... [more ▼]

The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a useful model of a photosynthetic cell. This unicellular eukaryote has been intensively used for studies of a number of physiological processes such as photosynthesis, respiration, nitrogen assimilation, flagella motility and basal body function. Its easy-to-manipulate and short life cycle make this organism a powerful tool for genetic analysis. Over the past 15 yr, a dramatically increased number of molecular technologies (including nuclear and organellar transformation systems, cosmid, yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries, reporter genes, RNA interference, DNA microarrays, etc.) have been applied to Chlamydomonas . Moreover, as parts of the Chlamydomonas genome project, molecular mapping, as well as whole genome and extended expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing programs, are currently underway. These developments have allowed Chlamydomonas to become an extremely valuable model for molecular approaches to heavy metal homeostasis and tolerance in photosynthetic organisms. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanisms underlying the toxicity of lactone aroma compounds towards the producing yeast cells
Aguedo, Mario ULg; Beney, L.; Waché, Y. et al

in Journal of Applied Microbiology (2003), 94(2), 258-265

Aims: To study the fundamental mechanisms of toxicity of the fruity aroma compound γ-decalactone, that lead to alterations in cell viability during its biotechnological production by yeast cells; Yarrowia ... [more ▼]

Aims: To study the fundamental mechanisms of toxicity of the fruity aroma compound γ-decalactone, that lead to alterations in cell viability during its biotechnological production by yeast cells; Yarrowia lipolytica that is able to produce high amounts of this metabolite was used here as a model. Methods and Results: Lactone concentrations above 150 mg l-1 inhibited cell growth, depolarized the living cells and increased membrane fluidity. Infrared spectroscopic measurements revealed that the introduction of the lactone into model phospholipid bilayers, decreased the phase transition temperature. Moreover, the H+-ATPase activity in membrane preparations was strongly affected by the presence of the lactone. On the other hand, only a slight decrease in the intracellular pH occurred. Conclusions: We propose that the toxic effects of γ-decalactone on yeast may be initially linked to a strong interaction of the compound with cell membrane lipids and components. Significance and Impact of the Study: These findings may enable the elaboration of strategies to improve yeast cell viability during the process of lactones bioproduction. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis of a simplified bryostatin C-ring analogue that binds to the CRD2 of human PKC-alpha and construction of a novel BC-analogue by an unusual Julia olefination process
Hale, K. J.; Frigerio, M.; Manaviazar, S. et al

in Organic Letters (2003), 5(4), 499-502

[GRAPHICS] The synthesis of two truncated bryostatin analogues 2 and 3 is described. High-field NMR measurements on the C-ring analogue 3 in (CH3CN)-H-2 containing 25% (H2O)-H-2 have shown that it binds ... [more ▼]

[GRAPHICS] The synthesis of two truncated bryostatin analogues 2 and 3 is described. High-field NMR measurements on the C-ring analogue 3 in (CH3CN)-H-2 containing 25% (H2O)-H-2 have shown that it binds to the CRD2 of human PKC-alpha at virtually the same position as phorbol-13-acetate (PA) and bryostatin 1 (1). NMR titration studies have also revealed that 3 binds to the CRD2 with a potency similar in magnitude to PA but much less potently than 1. [less ▲]

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See detailEcoFerme: un logiciel d'évaluation environnementale de l'exploitation agricole
Debouche, Charles ULg

in Les Nouvelles de l'été (2003), (3e trimetre), 14-15

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See detailIndo-iranien *aruna
Swennen, Philippe ULg

in Journal Asiatique (2003), 291

In sanskrit, aruna- means "red, pink". In Avestan, occidental scholars translate auruna by "wild". Nothing explains this paradox between two words whose etymological equivalence is obvious. A precise ... [more ▼]

In sanskrit, aruna- means "red, pink". In Avestan, occidental scholars translate auruna by "wild". Nothing explains this paradox between two words whose etymological equivalence is obvious. A precise reading of the Rig-Vedic stanzas shows that the feminine form of this adjective always qualifies the Dawn. This systematic use modified the meaning of the adjective. Beyond its chromatic value, it indicates in the Rigvedic poetries the intermediate time linking day and night. [less ▲]

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See detailLe Droit des sociétés
Caprasse, Olivier ULg

in Chronique de Droit à l'Usage du Notariat (2003)

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See detailMilitantisme pas mort ?
Biquet, Véronique ULg; Jacquemain, Marc ULg; Stangherlin, Gregor

in Politique : Revue de Débats (2003), (29), 12-15

L'article reprend les thèses classiques sur la transformation du militantisme vers un engagement distancié (Ion) en montrant comment ces thèses peuvent s'appuyer sur les théories du postmatérialisme ... [more ▼]

L'article reprend les thèses classiques sur la transformation du militantisme vers un engagement distancié (Ion) en montrant comment ces thèses peuvent s'appuyer sur les théories du postmatérialisme (Inglehart). Il s'interroge aussi sur la capacité de l'altermondialisme, dans ce contexte, à constituer à terme une alternative au militantisme classique. [less ▲]

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See detailEphrinA1 inactivates integrin-mediated vascular smooth muscle cell spreading via the Rac/PAK pathway.
Deroanne, Christophe ULg; Vouret-Craviari, Valerie; Wang, Bingcheng et al

in Journal of Cell Science (2003), 116(Pt 7), 1367-76

Interactions between the Eph receptor tyrosine kinase and ephrin ligands transduce short-range signals regulating axon pathfinding, development of the cardiovascular system, as well as migration and ... [more ▼]

Interactions between the Eph receptor tyrosine kinase and ephrin ligands transduce short-range signals regulating axon pathfinding, development of the cardiovascular system, as well as migration and spreading of neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Some of these effects are believed to be mediated by alterations in actin dynamics. The members of the small Rho GTPase family elicit various effects on actin structures and are probably involved in Eph receptor-induced actin modulation. EphrinA1 is proposed to contribute to angiogenesis as it is strongly expressed at sites of neovascularization. Moreover, angiogenic factors induce the expression of ephrinA1 in endothelial cells. In this study, using rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), we investigated the contribution of the small Rho GTPases in ephrinA1-induced integrin inactivation. EphrinA1 did not significantly affect early adhesion of VSMCs on purified laminin or fibronectin, but strongly impaired cell spreading. The Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 partly reversed the ephrinA1 effect, suggesting involvement of Rho in this model. However, inhibition of RhoA synthesis with short interfering (si)RNA had a modest effect, suggesting that RhoA plays a limited role in ephrinA1-mediated inhibition of spreading in VSMCs. The ephrinA1-mediated morphological alterations correlated with inhibition of Rac1 and p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) activity, and were antagonized by the expression of a constitutively active Rac mutant. Moreover, repression of Rac1 synthesis with siRNA amplifies the ephrinA1-induced inhibition of spreading. Finally, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a lipid mediator known to inhibit Rac activation in VSMCs amplifies the ephrinA1 effect. In conclusion, our results emphasize the role of the Rac/PAK pathway in ephrinA1-mediated inhibition of spreading. In this way, ephrinA1, alone or in synergy with S1P, can participate in blood vessel destabilization, a prerequisite for angiogenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailLe cas clinique du mois. La maladie de still de l'adulte: une cause rare d'hepatite aigue febrile
Michels, V.; Delwaide, Jean ULg; Vermeulen, P. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(12), 729-733

A 63-year-old woman was hospitalized for the third time in one year for asthenia, fever and chills, jaundice, cytolysis and cholestasis. An adult onset Still's disease was diagnosed. Hepatic ... [more ▼]

A 63-year-old woman was hospitalized for the third time in one year for asthenia, fever and chills, jaundice, cytolysis and cholestasis. An adult onset Still's disease was diagnosed. Hepatic manifestations, diagnostic criteria and efficient therapy of AOSD will be reviewed. [less ▲]

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See detailRuthenium alkylidenes: a new class of catalysts for Kharasch addition and controlled radical polymerisation of vinyl monomers
Delfosse, Sébastien; Richel, Aurore ULg; Demonceau, Albert ULg et al

in e-polymers (2003)

Air-stable and readily available ruthenium benzylidene complexes of the general type (RuCl2 (=CHPh)(L)(L')) (L, L' = P(cC5H9)3, PCy3 and/or a N-heterocyclic carbene) constitute a new class of catalyst ... [more ▼]

Air-stable and readily available ruthenium benzylidene complexes of the general type (RuCl2 (=CHPh)(L)(L')) (L, L' = P(cC5H9)3, PCy3 and/or a N-heterocyclic carbene) constitute a new class of catalyst precursors for atom transfer radical addition (ATRA, also called Kharasch addition) and atom transfer radical polymerisation (ATRP) of methyl methacrylate and styrene, and provide an unprecedented example for the involvement of ruthenium alkylidenes in radical reactions. They promote the addition of carbon tetrachloride to methyl methacrylate and styrene in moderate to high yield (Table 1). They also promote the polymerisation of methyl methacrylate and styrene in a controlled way with good to excellent yields (Table 2). The ligands L (P(cC5H9)3, PCy3 and/or a N-heterocyclic carbene) play a particularly important role in determining the rate of the polymerisation. A similarly pronounced influence is exerted by the substituents on the N-heterocyclic carbene. Our results indicate that: 􀀀 The catalysts decompose quickly under ATRA and ATRP conditions; 􀀀 Polymerisations are mediated by both (RuCl2(=CHPh)(L)(L')) complexes and ruthenium species bereft of the benzylidene moiety. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization, continuation and lack of the one-step diphosphorylation reaction. Assay of modification of the tetraethyl(pyrrolidine-2,2-diyl)bisphosphonate
Olive, Gilles ULg; Jacques, Alain

in Phosphorus, Sulfur & Silicon & the Related Elements (2003), 178(1), 33-46

The optimization of the one-step diphosphorylation reaction is reported. The synthesis of new ®-aminobisphosphonates with four- and sixmembered rings and acyclic species with several substituents on the ... [more ▼]

The optimization of the one-step diphosphorylation reaction is reported. The synthesis of new ®-aminobisphosphonates with four- and sixmembered rings and acyclic species with several substituents on the nitrogen atom and on the carbon atom bearing the two phosphorus atoms is described. [less ▲]

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See detailEffets fonctionnels respiratoires induits par l'inhalation de glycopyrrolate chez le cheval poussif en crise
Art, Tatiana ULg; De Moffarts, Brieuc; Van Erck, Emmanuelle et al

in Pratique Vétérinaire Equine (2003), 35(139), 23-29

An acute respiratory attack with bronchospasm is associated with excessive stimulation of the parasympathic nervous system. It may be reduced by administration of anticholinergic agents. Atropine and ... [more ▼]

An acute respiratory attack with bronchospasm is associated with excessive stimulation of the parasympathic nervous system. It may be reduced by administration of anticholinergic agents. Atropine and ipratropium bromide have been tested. This study is to evaluate the efficacy of the synthetic antimuscarinic compound glycopyrrolate as a bronchodilator in horses. Respiratory crisis was induced in seven allergic horses by exposure to natural allergens. Prior to the study, it was established that the attack could be stopped using intravenous atropine sulphate. Pulmonary function tests (ventilation and arterial blood gas analysis) were performed on the horses before and then after aerosol administration of 1500 µg of glycopyrrolate (Robinul®). The attack was characterised by an increase in total pulmonary resis¬tance and maximum pleural pressure variation and by decreased compliance. This study demonstrates that glycopyrrolate exhibits affects that are just as rapid and effective as intravenous atropine or aerosol administration of 1200 µg dry powder Ipratropium. In addi¬tion the treatment was well tolerated and no side-effects were observed in contrast to those seen with intravenous administration of atro¬pine. Therefore this drug has an important role to play among the therapeutics available to practitioners for acute respiratory attacks in horses [less ▲]

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See detailFacteurs de virulence et propriétés spécifiques des souches invasives d'Escherichia coli : I) les adhésines et facteurs de colonisation
Mainil, Jacques ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2003), 147(2, APR-MAY), 105-126

Escherichia coli bacterial species is subdivided into several strains that are pathogenic for man and animals, on the basis of their specific properties and factors which are responsible for their ... [more ▼]

Escherichia coli bacterial species is subdivided into several strains that are pathogenic for man and animals, on the basis of their specific properties and factors which are responsible for their pathogenic characters. The pathogenic strains are classically subdivided into strains with intestinal tropism (enterotoxigenic, enteropathogenic, enterohaemmorrhagic, verotoxigenic and enteroinvasive) and with extraintestinal tropism (uropathogenic and invasive). Invasive strains cause septicaemia and/or bacteraemia with localisations in different internal organs (systemic infections): If specific virulence properties and factors of strains with intestinal tropism are quite well known and described, those of strains with extraintestinal tropism are much less characterised, especially in animals. The purpose of this serie of review articles is to present the current knowledge on specific properties and factors of extraintestinal strains: adhesins and colonisation factors, transmucosal transfer and survival in blood and internal organs, toxicity. The fourth manuscript will deal with the invasive strains themselves, focusing on the necrotoxigenic strains. This first manuscript presents the current knowledge on the receptors, roles in pathogenesis, structures, genetic determinism and identification methods of fimbrial adhesins of P (Pap, Prs), S (Sfa, F1C, Sfr) and F17 (Vir, Att25, FY, 20K, G, Att111) families and of afimbrial adhesins of Afa family (Afa, Nfa, F1845, Bma, Dr...). [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of aquifer vulnerability assessment techniques. Application to the Neblon river basin (Belgium)
Gogu, Radu Constantin; Hallet, Vincent; Dassargues, Alain ULg

in Environmental Geology (2003), 44(8), 881-892

Five different methods for assessing intrinsic aquifer vulnerability were tested in a case study and their results compared. The test area was a slightly karstified district in the Condroz region of ... [more ▼]

Five different methods for assessing intrinsic aquifer vulnerability were tested in a case study and their results compared. The test area was a slightly karstified district in the Condroz region of Belgium. The basin covers about 65 km(2) and the karst aquifer provides a water-supply of about 28,000 m(3)d(-1). The methods tested were: EPIK (Doerfliger et al. 1999), DRASTIC (Aller et al.1987), 'German method' (von Hoyer and Sofner 1998), GOD (Foster 1987) and ISIS (Civita and De Regibus 1995). The results are compared and critically examined. From the analysis, it seems that reducing the number of parameters is unsatisfactory, due to the variety of geological conditions. The various methods produce very different results at any given site. As only physically-based methods can be checked for their reliability, it is clear that future vulnerability mapping techniques must incorporate such methods. [less ▲]

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See detailProvider continuity in family medicine: does it make a difference for total health care costs?
De Maeseneer, Jan M; De Prins, Lutgarde; Gosset, Christiane ULg et al

in Annals of Family Medicine (2003), 1(3), 144-8

BACKGROUND: International comparisons of health care systems have shown a relationship at the macro level between a well-structured primary health care plan and lower total health care costs. The ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: International comparisons of health care systems have shown a relationship at the macro level between a well-structured primary health care plan and lower total health care costs. The objective of this study was to assess whether provider continuity with a family physician is related to lower health care costs using the individual patient as the unit of analysis. METHODS: We undertook a study of a stratified sample of patients (age, sex, region, insurance company) for which 2 cohorts were constructed based on the patients' utilization pattern of family medicine (provider continuity or not). Patient utilization patterns were observed for 2 years. The setting was the Belgian health care system. The participants were 4,134 members of the 2 largest health insurance companies in 2 regions (Aalst and Liege). The main outcome measures were the total health care costs of patients with and without provider continuity with a family physician, controlling for variables known to influence health care utilization (need factors, predisposing factors, enabling factors). RESULTS: Bivariate analyses showed that patients who were visiting the same family physician had a lower total cost for medical care. A multivariate linear regression showed that provider continuity with a family physician was one of the most important explanatory variables related to the total health care cost. CONCLUSIONS: Provider continuity with a family physician is related to lower total health care costs. This finding brings evidence to the debate on the importance of structured primary health care (with high continuity for family practice) for a cost-effective health policy. [less ▲]

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See detailLe monument à Léopold Ier: approche architecturale et typologique
Houbart, Claudine ULg

in Bulletin de la Classe des Beaux-Arts (2003)

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See detailLa responsabilité extra-contractuelle des dirigeants de sociétés
Caprasse, Olivier ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2003)

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See detailThéorie économique et marchandisation des services non marchands
Mertens de Wilmars, Sybille ULg; Lefebvre, Mathieu ULg

in Non Marchand : Management, Droit et Finance (2003), (11), 11-27

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See detailPrevention de la nephropathie diabetique: de la microalbuminurie a l'insuffisance renale terminale.
Weekers, Laurent ULg; Scheen, André ULg; Rorive, Georges ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(5), 297-306

Diabetic nephropathy is one of the leading causes of end-stage renal failure in western countries. This disease develops over several years. Early stages, if they are detected in time, can lead to ... [more ▼]

Diabetic nephropathy is one of the leading causes of end-stage renal failure in western countries. This disease develops over several years. Early stages, if they are detected in time, can lead to preventive treatment at a moment when the disease is still reversible. This paper reviews the main primary and secondary preventive measures that have been proven efficacious. Those are essentially the optimal treatment of hyperglycaemia and hypertension, and probably the use of agents that specifically block the renin-angiotensin axis. We briefly discuss the results of the main studies that have led to those conclusions. [less ▲]

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See detailTechnique de lombriculture au Sud Vietnam
Francis, Frédéric ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg; Pham Tat Thang et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2003), 7(3-4), 171-175

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See detailFreezing of water bound in lichen thallus as observed by H-1 NMR. 1. Freezing of loosely bound water in Cladonia mitis at different hydration levels
Haranczyk, Hubert; Grandjean, Jean ULg; Olech, M.

in Colloids and Surfaces B : Biointerfaces (2003), 28

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See detailPrevention du diabete de type 2: style de vie ou medicaments?
Scheen, André ULg; Letiexhe, Michel ULg; Ernest, Philippe ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(4), 206-10

The World Health Organisation strongly recommends strategies for the prevention of type 2 diabetes, knowing the epidemics of the disease and its strong association with that of obesity. Several ... [more ▼]

The World Health Organisation strongly recommends strategies for the prevention of type 2 diabetes, knowing the epidemics of the disease and its strong association with that of obesity. Several intervention studies, in China ("Da-Qing Study"), in Europe ("Malmo study", "Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study") and in the United States ("Diabetes Prevention Program"), showed that lifestyle change are able to reduce by around 50% the incidence of type 2 diabetes in at risk individuals. Various pharmacological approaches have also proven their efficacy in preventing type 2 diabetes, but in most cases with less impressive reductions, between 25% and 35%. It is the case for metformin, acarbose, orlistat or various inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system. After the report of promising results with troglitazone, large prospective studies are ongoing to test the efficacy of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone in such an indication, two insulinsensitizers of the thiazolidinedione family. We will briefly described the main results of intervention studies to prevent type 2 diabetes in at risk subjects, because of the presence of obesity, impaired glucose tolerance and/or arterial hypertension. [less ▲]

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See detailTierce décision obligatoire et motivation
Caprasse, Olivier ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2003)

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See detailLes partis et la politique de défense
Dumoulin, André ULg

in Courrier hebdomadaire du CRISP (2003), 1798

Le présent Courrier hebdomadaire a pour objet l’analyse de l’intégration des questions de défense nationale et européenne au sein des préoccupations des partis politiques belges. Cette analyse comprend ... [more ▼]

Le présent Courrier hebdomadaire a pour objet l’analyse de l’intégration des questions de défense nationale et européenne au sein des préoccupations des partis politiques belges. Cette analyse comprend deux volets. Le premier examine les activités parlementaires en rapport avec les affaires militaires belges et européennes. Nous procéderons, plus précisément, à l’analyse des travaux conduits par la commission de la Défense nationale de la Chambre au cours de la dernière législature. Le second repose sur un examen des propositions relatives à la défense belge et européenne (politique européenne de sécurité et de défense) au sein des programmes politiques des partis représentés au Parlement fédéral dans la perspective des élections législatives du 18 mai 2003. L’objet de cette étude est de déceler les lieux de convergences et de divergences entre les formations politiques du pays (mise à l’agenda politique des partis, définition des priorités, visions prospectives, etc.). Il s’est agi, plus exactement, de relever les principales thématiques abordées par les partis en matière de défense nationale et européenne. En effet, à l’instar d’un grand nombre de compétences régaliennes, le secteur de la défense constitue un lieu d’intersection de multiples problématiques de type économique, social, budgétaire, environnemental et politique au sens propre du terme. En outre, le concept même de défense peut être décliné en une variété de sous-thèmes qui lui sont constitutifs (structure de forces, choix des systèmes d’armes et des matériels, définition des tâches et missions, statut du personnel, intégration au sein des enceintes multilatérales, spécialisation,…). Il est, enfin, utile de préciser que cette étude ne prend en compte ni les divers documents internes (à diffusion publique ou restreinte), ni les notes de travail produites par les partis, ni les études spécialisées sur la place de la Belgique en matière de sécurité européenne. Ce choix a été opéré à dessein. Il s’agit, en effet, de s’intéresser aux seules dispositions programmatiques spécifiquement adressées à l’ensemble des concitoyens dans le cadre de travaux parlementaires et d’un choix électoral donné. Aussi, cette étude ne peut être assimilée à un bilan exhaustif des positions et conceptions des partis en la matière ; il est plutôt un indicateur des messages que les formations politiques entendent transmettre aux citoyens [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of a new high-speed steel with optimized carbide composition for mill rolls
Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline ULg; Tchuindjang, Jérôme Tchoufack ULg; Pirard, Eric ULg et al

in Stal' (2003), 2

High Speed Steel (HSS) cast rolls are used in front finishing stands of hot strip mills. Good wear resistance and hardness at high temperatures, are defining features of HSS. Many types of carbides are ... [more ▼]

High Speed Steel (HSS) cast rolls are used in front finishing stands of hot strip mills. Good wear resistance and hardness at high temperatures, are defining features of HSS. Many types of carbides are present in these alloys, each having different effect upon their final properties. As a result, nature, morphology and amount of these carbides are factors of important concern. Identification and characterisation of carbides were realised. MC, M2C, M7C3 carbides were found. Some relationships with mechanical properties were obtained especially in the field of the solidification sequence that affects grain size and carbides dispersion. [less ▲]

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See detailLa Zone Villageoise de Chasse de Sia (Ranch de Gibier de Nazinga, Burkina Faso)
Vermeulen, Cédric ULg; Ouédraogo, M.

in Parcs & Réserves (2003), 58(2), 32-44

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See detailFirst order elastic modeling of the Aden ridge propagation and the Anatolian extrusion process
Hubert, Aurelia ULg; King, G. C. P.; Manighetti, I. et al

in Geophysical Journal International (2003), 153

The evolution of the Gulf of Aden and the Anatolian Fault systems are modelled using the principles of elastic fracture mechanics usually applied to smaller scale cracks or faults. The lithosphere is ... [more ▼]

The evolution of the Gulf of Aden and the Anatolian Fault systems are modelled using the principles of elastic fracture mechanics usually applied to smaller scale cracks or faults. The lithosphere is treated as a plate, and simple boundary conditions are applied that correspond to the known plate boundary geometry and slip vectors. The models provide a simple explanation for many observed geological features. For the Gulf of Aden the model predicts why the ridge propagated from east to west from the Owen Fracture Zone towards the Afar and the overall form of its path. The smaller en echelon offsets can be explained by upward propagation from the initially created mantle dyke while the larger ones may be attributed to the propagating rupture interacting with pre-existing structures. For Anatolia the modelling suggests that the East Anatolian Fault was created before the North Anatolian Fault could form. Once both faults were formed however, activity could switch between them. The time scales over which this should take place are not known, but evidence for switching can be found in the historical seismicity. For Aden and Anatolia pre-existing structures or inhomogeneous stress fields left from earlier orogenic events have modified the processes of propagation and without an understanding of the existence of such features the propagation processes cannot be fully understood. Furthermore a propagating fault can extend into an active region where it would not have initiated. The North Anatolian Fault encountered slow but active extension when it entered the Aegean about 5 Ma and the stress field associated with the extending fault has progressively modified Aegean extension. In the central Aegean activity has been reduced while to the north-west on features such as the Gulfs of Evvia and Corinth activity has been increased. The field observation that major structures propagate and the success of simple elastic mod- els suggest that the continental crust behaves in an elastic-brittle or elastic-plastic fashion even though laboratory tests may be interpreted to suggest viscous behaviour. There are major prob- lems in scaling from the behaviour of small homogeneous samples to the large heterogeneous mantle and large-scale observations should be treated more seriously than extrapolations of the behaviour of laboratory experiments over many orders of magnitude in space and time. The retention of long-term elasticity and localised failure suggests a similar gross rheology for the oceanic and continental lithospheres. Even though it is incorrect to attribute differences in behaviour to the former being rigid (i.e. elastic) and the latter viscous, oceanic and continental lithosphere behave in different ways. Unlike oceanic crust, continental crust is buoyant and cannot be simply created or destroyed. The process of thickening or thinning works against gravity preventing large displacements on extensional or contractional features in the upper mantle. The equivalents of ridge or subduction systems are suppressed before they can accom- modate large displacements and activity must shift elsewhere. On the other hand, strike-slip boundaries and extrusion processes are favoured. [less ▲]

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See detailKCNQ2 and KCNQ3 potassium channel genes in benign familial neonatal convulsions: expansion of the functional and mutation spectrum.
Singh, Nanda A; Westenskow, Peter; Charlier, Carole ULg et al

in Brain : A Journal of Neurology (2003), 126(Pt 12), 2726-37

Benign familial neonatal convulsions (BFNC) is a rare autosomal dominant generalized epilepsy of the newborn infant. Seizures occur repeatedly in the first days of life and remit by approximately 4 months ... [more ▼]

Benign familial neonatal convulsions (BFNC) is a rare autosomal dominant generalized epilepsy of the newborn infant. Seizures occur repeatedly in the first days of life and remit by approximately 4 months of age. Previously our laboratory cloned two novel potassium channel genes, KCNQ2 and KCNQ3, and showed that they are mutated in patients with BFNC. In this report, we characterize the breakpoints of a previously reported interstitial deletion in the KCNQ2 gene and show that only KCNQ2 is deleted. We identify 11 novel mutations in KCNQ2 and one novel mutation in the KCNQ3 potassium channel genes. In one family, the phenotype extends beyond neonatal seizures and includes rolandic seizures, and a subset of families has onset of seizures in infancy. In the Xenopus oocyte expression system, we characterize five KCNQ2 and one KCNQ3 disease-causing mutations. These mutations cause a variable loss of function, and selective effects on the biophysical properties of KCNQ2/KCNQ3 heteromultimeric channels. We report here the first dominant negative mutation in KCNQ2 that has a phenotype of neonatal seizures without permanent clinical CNS impairment. [less ▲]

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See detailLa Société géographique de Liège
Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULg

in Bulletin de la Société Géographique de Liège (2003), (43), 185-194

75-year history of the Geographical Society of Liege

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See detailDiagnostic différentiel des troubles à expression nerveuse dans l’espèce bovine en Europe occidentale
Saegerman, Claude ULg; Claes, L.; Dewaele, A. et al

in Revue Scientifique et Technique (International Office of Epizootics) (2003), 22(1), 61-82

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See detailThe Sahelian drought may have ended during the 1990s
Ozer, Pierre ULg; Erpicum, Michel ULg; Demarée, Gaston et al

in Hydrological Sciences Journal = Journal des Sciences Hydrologiques (2003), 48(3), 489-492

The severe drought that affects the Sahel since the late 1960s has been very closely studied and monitored during the last three decades. Recently, after several wet years, it was questioned from a ... [more ▼]

The severe drought that affects the Sahel since the late 1960s has been very closely studied and monitored during the last three decades. Recently, after several wet years, it was questioned from a statistical point of view whether the drought was over. The conclusions of a recent study were that the rainfall deficit was not over at the end of 2000 and that the drought continues. The analysis of the change points in the station rainfall time series suggests differentiating these findings. There is now growing evidence that there is a potential shift towards a more humid state. However, the present analysis shows that the assumption that a significant increase in rainfall may have occurred around the early 1990s could only be verified at the customary confidence level in about 10 years from now. [less ▲]

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See detailLarval development of Myzostoma cirriferum (Myzostomida)
Eeckhaut, I.; Fievez, Laurence ULg; Muller, M. C.

in Journal of Morphology (2003), 258

The larval development of Myzostoma cirriferum is described by means of SEM, TEM, and cLSM. It is similar to that of other myzostomids and includes three stages: the protrochophore, the trochophore, and ... [more ▼]

The larval development of Myzostoma cirriferum is described by means of SEM, TEM, and cLSM. It is similar to that of other myzostomids and includes three stages: the protrochophore, the trochophore, and the metatrochophore. The protrochophore is a ball-shaped larva present in culture from 18-48 h after egg laying. It has no internal organs and its body is made of three cell types: covering cells and ciliated cells that are external and surrounded by a cuticle, and resting cells that fill the blastocoel. The trochophore is a pear-shaped larva that develops 20-72 h after egg laying; the body includes the same three cell types as the previous stage. The metatrochophore is a pear-shaped larva that develops between 40 h and 14 days and is characterized by the presence of two bundles of four chaetae. When fully developed, the metatrochophore has a digestive system (made of a pharynx, an esophagus, and a blind digestive pouch), two pairs of protonephridia, and a nervous system composed of a supraesophageal ganglion, circumesophageal connectives, and dorsal and ventral nerves. Metamorphosis generally occurs 7 days after egg laying. At that time, the metatrochophore loses its chaetae and becomes pleated ventrally. This ultrastructural analysis suggests that chaetae and the five ventral longitudinal nerve cords of M. cirriferum metatrochophores are homologous structures to those observed in some polychaete trochophores. Coupled with recent phylogenetic analyses, where the Myzostomida are placed outside the Annelida, homologies between myzostomid and polychaete larvae support the view that a trochophore appeared early during the spiralian evolution [less ▲]

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See detailBiomarquers d’exposition en milieu terrestre : impact d’hydrocarbures halogénés sur l’activité de trois systèmes enzymatiques chez Drosophila pseudoobscura
Dannau, Marie; Amichot, Marcel; Leenaers, Lionel et al

in Environnement Risques & Santé (2003), 2

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See detailMolecular dissection of a quantitative trait locus: a phenylalanine-to-tyrosine substitution in the transmembrane domain of the bovine growth hormone receptor is associated with a major effect on milk yield and composition.
Blott, Sarah; Kim, Jong-Joo; Moisio, Sirja et al

in Genetics (2003), 163(1), 253-66

We herein report on our efforts to improve the mapping resolution of a QTL with major effect on milk yield and composition that was previously mapped to bovine chromosome 20. By using a denser chromosome ... [more ▼]

We herein report on our efforts to improve the mapping resolution of a QTL with major effect on milk yield and composition that was previously mapped to bovine chromosome 20. By using a denser chromosome 20 marker map and by exploiting linkage disequilibrium using two distinct approaches, we provide strong evidence that a chromosome segment including the gene coding for the growth hormone receptor accounts for at least part of the chromosome 20 QTL effect. By sequencing individuals with known QTL genotype, we identify an F to Y substitution in the transmembrane domain of the growth hormone receptor gene that is associated with a strong effect on milk yield and composition in the general population. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term disease-free survival in patients with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation.
Schetelig, Johannes; Fetscher, Sebastian; Reichle, Albrecht et al

in Haematologica (2003), 88(11), 1272-8

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AIL) have a poor prognosis with conventional treatment. DESIGN AND METHODS: We initiated an EBMT-based survey studying the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AIL) have a poor prognosis with conventional treatment. DESIGN AND METHODS: We initiated an EBMT-based survey studying the impact of high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with AIL. Data on 29 patients, who were transplanted between 1992 and 1998 in 16 transplant centers, were collected on standardized documentation forms. RESULTS: The median age at transplantation was 53 years. HDCT was given as part of 1st-line therapy (N=14; 48%) or 2nd/3rd-line therapy (N=15; 52%). Regimens for the mobilization of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) included VIPE (N=7; 26%), DexaBEAM (N=6; 22%), CHOP-like regimens (N=6; 22%), other regimens (N=5; 19%) or alternatively growth factor alone (N=3; 11%). The median yield of PBSC was 3.8x106 CD34+cells/kg. Two patients received autologous bone marrow. The HDCT consisted of BEAM-type regimens in 16 patients, ICE-type regimens in 7, and other regimens in 6 patients. There was one treatment-related death. The rate of complete remissions increased from 45% before HDCT to 76% after HDCT. As of January 2003, after a median observation time of living patients of 5 years (range 2.5 to 10 years), 14 patients have died (13 from progressive disease), and 15 patients are alive. The probability of 5-year overall and event-free survival was 44% (95% CI, 22% to 66%) and 37% (95% CI, 17% to 57%), respectively. Long-term disease-free survival was observed in patients transplanted during 1st-line treatment as well as in the context of 2nd/3rd-line therapy. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence that AIL is susceptible to high-dose chemotherapy. HDCT and autologous stem cell transplantation should be considered in selected patients with AIL. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterisation of different inulin samples by DSC - Influence of polymerisation degree on melting temperature
Blecker, Christophe ULg; Chevalier, J. P.; Fougnies, C. et al

in Journal of Thermal Analysis & Calorimetry (2003), 71(1), 215-224

Melting behaviour of powder inulin has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry. DSC curves show two endothermic peaks, relative to water elimination and to inulin melting, respectively. The ... [more ▼]

Melting behaviour of powder inulin has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry. DSC curves show two endothermic peaks, relative to water elimination and to inulin melting, respectively. The second peak is dependent on inulin type and a shift to a higher temperature is observed with increasing average polymerisation degree (DP) of the sample. For similar crystallinity index, linear relations have been underlined and so predicting inulin mean DP can be done by DSC analysis. The study shows that a relatively high heating rate (25degreesC min(-1)) can be used and brings a supplementary interest by an important reduction of analysis time. [less ▲]

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See detailPrevention des hypoglycemies chez le patient diabetique de type 1.
Radermecker, Régis ULg; Jandrain, Bernard ULg; Paquot, Nicolas ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(6), 361-8

Hypoglycaemia is the most common metabolic disorder in type 1 diabetic patients. It is rarely dangerous, but significantly alters the quality of life and hinders the achievement of "normoglycaemia". Even ... [more ▼]

Hypoglycaemia is the most common metabolic disorder in type 1 diabetic patients. It is rarely dangerous, but significantly alters the quality of life and hinders the achievement of "normoglycaemia". Even if hypoglycaemia is impossible to be avoided, both its frequency and severity may be reduced if patients follow several practical recommendations. After having defined hypoglycaemia, we shall briefly describe its pathophysiology and its main causes in type 1 diabetic patients. Afterwards, the different approaches of prevention of hypoglycaemia will be discussed. We will particularly stress the need to revise the glycaemic target in high-risk patients, the role of optimising insulin therapy, the valuable help of blood glucose monitoring, the critical support of diet adjustments, and the appropriate management in case of physical activity. There is no doubt that patient's education plays a crucial role in such a strategy that aims at preventing severe hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetic individuals. [less ▲]

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See detailIn vitro paradigms for the study of GnRH neuron function and estrogen effects.
Matagne, Valerie; LEBRETHON, Marie-Christine ULg; Gerard, Arlette et al

in Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (2003), 1007

The elaboration of in vitro paradigms has enabled direct study of GnRH secretion and the regulation of this process. Common findings using different models are the pulsatile nature and calcium-dependency ... [more ▼]

The elaboration of in vitro paradigms has enabled direct study of GnRH secretion and the regulation of this process. Common findings using different models are the pulsatile nature and calcium-dependency of GnRH secretion, the excitatory effect of glutamate, and the inhibitory or excitatory effect of GABA. Among the different paradigms, the fetal olfactory placode cultures exhibit the unique property of migration in vitro and may retain the capacity to undergo maturational changes in vitro. The short-term incubation of hypothalamic explants obtained at different ages enables one to study developmental changes as well. Estrogens may have important roles in the regulation of GnRH function and can act indirectly via the neighboring neuronal/glial apparatus and directly on GnRH neurons at the cell body and terminal levels. A direct effect is supported by the recent localization of ERalpha and ERbeta transcripts in GnRH neurons using most paradigms. Discrepant effects of estrogens on GnRH neurons were observed since GnRH biosynthesis is inhibited while GnRH secretion can be either stimulated, unaffected, or reduced. It is likely that the regulatory role of sex steroids including estradiol is very complex since it could involve direct and indirect effects on GnRH neurons through genomic and/or non-genomic mechanisms. [less ▲]

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See detailCarbohydrates and resistance to Phytophthora infestans in potato plants
Evers, Danièle; Dommes, Jacques ULg; Hausman, Jean-François

in Acta Physiologiae Plantarum (2003), 25(2), 171-178

Plants generally deal with biotic or abiotic stresses by altering components as for example cell wall constituents and metabolites. Infection by Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight ... [more ▼]

Plants generally deal with biotic or abiotic stresses by altering components as for example cell wall constituents and metabolites. Infection by Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight, constitutes a stress condition for the plants and they react to it with changes arising in their metabolism depending on the resistance level of the plants. The present work compares two potato hybrids differing in their level of horizontal resistance to late blight. Carbohydrate content in stems and leaves of infected and uninfected plants was determined by HPLC. Some carbohydrates accumulated in the stems of the resistant hybrid infected by P. infestans, whereas they remained unchanged in the susceptible hybrid. On the other hand, in the leaves, these carbohydrates accumulated only in the infected susceptible hybrid. [less ▲]

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See detailProlactin Suppresses Glucocorticoid-Induced Thymocyte Apoptosis in Vivo
Krishnan, Nithya; Thellin, Olivier ULg; Buckley, Donna J. et al

in Endocrinology (2003), 144(5), 2102-2110

The hypothesis that prolactin (PRL) functions as an immunomodulator was based on studies showing lymphocyte PRL receptors, and its effects on growth, differentiation, and apoptosis in lymphoid cells ... [more ▼]

The hypothesis that prolactin (PRL) functions as an immunomodulator was based on studies showing lymphocyte PRL receptors, and its effects on growth, differentiation, and apoptosis in lymphoid cells. However, studies of PRL (PRL-/-) and PRL receptor knockout mice indicated that PRL was not required for immune system development or function under basal conditions. Because PRL maintains survival in glucocorticoid (GC)-treated Nb2-T lymphocytes in vitro, and PRL and GCs are elevated during stress, we investigated whether PRL protected T cells in vivo from GC-induced apoptosis. Adrenalectomized mice [PRL -/-, undetectable PRL; pituitary grafted PRL-/- (PRL-/-Graft), elevated PRL; and PRL+/-, normal PRL] were treated with dexamethasone (DEX) or PBS. Thymocytes and splenocytes were isolated and annexin V labeling of phosphatidylserine, DNA fragmentation, and caspase-3 activation were assessed as indices of apoptosis. Total thymocytes and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells obtained from DEX-treated PRL-/- mice exhibited significantly increased annexin V binding. In contrast, binding was not altered by DEX in PRL-/-Graft thymocytes. In addition, DEX induced classic DNA fragmentation in PRL-/- thymocytes. Elevated serum PRL reduced this effect. Thymocytes from DEX-treated PRL-/- mice exhibited increased caspase-3 activation, which was inhibited in cells from PRL-/-Graft mice. Finally, elevated expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis, XIAP, was observed in thymi from DEX-treated PRL -/-Graft mice. This is the first demonstration that elevated PRL antagonizes apoptosis in thymocytes exposed to GCs in vivo. These observations suggest that, under conditions of increased GCs, such as during stress, elevated PRL functions physiologically to maintain survival and function of T-lymphocytes. [less ▲]

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See detailLa possible modification de la procédure de révision de la Constitution belge
Behrendt, Christian ULg

in Revue Française de Droit Constitutionnel (2003)

The article examines the question whether it is appropriate to alter the current amendment procedure of the Belgian constitution. Furthermore, the articles enquires into the possible design of a new ... [more ▼]

The article examines the question whether it is appropriate to alter the current amendment procedure of the Belgian constitution. Furthermore, the articles enquires into the possible design of a new amendment procedure. [less ▲]

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See detailCatecholamine and HPA axis dysfunction in depression : relationship with suicidal behavior
Pitchot, William ULg; Reggers, Jean ULg; Pinto, Emmanuel ULg et al

in Neuropsychobiology (2003), 47(3), 152-157

A large body of evidence suggests a potential role for catecholaminergic function as a possible biological factor in the control of suicidal behavior. Recently, we have used a neuroendocrine strategy to ... [more ▼]

A large body of evidence suggests a potential role for catecholaminergic function as a possible biological factor in the control of suicidal behavior. Recently, we have used a neuroendocrine strategy to study dopaminergic and noradrenergic activities in depressed suicide attempters. However, some problems are associated with the use of growth hormone (GH) response to catecholaminergic challenge, because GH release could be decreased by a direct effect of corticosteroids at the pituitary level. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to assess GH response to both apornorphine, a dopaminergic agonist, and clonidine, an alpha2-adrenergic agonist, according to the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) status in a sample of 20 major depressed inpatients with a history of suicide attempt compared with nonattempters. Our results tended to show that hypercortisolemia as assessed by post-DST cortisol values did not inhibit GH response to apornorphine or clonidine, suggesting that hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis overactivity does not explain the impaired GH response to apornorphine in major depressed patients with a history of suicide attempt. [less ▲]

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See detailL'interférence virale chez les Alphaherpesvirinae
Meurens, François; Muylkens, Benoît ULg; Schynts, Frédéric et al

in Virologie (2003), 7

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See detailModeling tracer injection and well-aquifer interactions: A new mathematical and numerical approach
Brouyère, Serge ULg

in Water Resources Research (2003), 39(3),

[1] A new mathematical and numerical approach is presented to model solute exchange between a well and the surrounding aquifer for the interpretation of field tracer tests. On the basis of water and ... [more ▼]

[1] A new mathematical and numerical approach is presented to model solute exchange between a well and the surrounding aquifer for the interpretation of field tracer tests. On the basis of water and tracer mass balance equations integrated over the volume of water in the well, the approach allows for finite volumes of tracer fluid and water flush. It deals with tracer mixing and capturing in the well bore, local distortion of the flow field around the well, and possible tracer back-migration into the well. A numerical solution, implemented in the three-dimensional finite element groundwater flow and transport simulator SUFT3D, is proposed that allows for modeling nonuniform distributions of tracer mass fluxes along the well screens related to variations in aquifer hydraulic conductivity. Showing its ability to reproduce concentration evolutions monitored in a well during field tracer experiments, considering various injection conditions, validates the approach. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalytic quantification of solar lentigines lightening by a 2% hydroquinone-cyclodextrin formulation.
Petit, Ludivine; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology & Venereology (2003), 17(5), 546-9

BACKGROUND: The innate melanin pigmentation of skin is modulated during lifetime by a series of factors, including ageing and chronic ultraviolet light exposure. Actinic lentigines may be of particular ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The innate melanin pigmentation of skin is modulated during lifetime by a series of factors, including ageing and chronic ultraviolet light exposure. Actinic lentigines may be of particular concern from a cosmetic point of view. Conventional hypopigmenting agents are usually deceptive. Using cyclodextrins to form inclusion compounds with these agents might represent a more active drug delivery system. OBJECTIVE: To assess sensitive and objective methods predicting the effects of a 2% hydroquinone-cyclodextrin formulation on solar lentigines. STUDY DESIGN: Thirty Asian adults applied a 2% hydroquinone-cyclodextrin formulation once daily on solar lentigines of a forearm for 2 months. The other untreated forearm served as a control. Monthly assessments were performed using skin colorimetry and fluorescence video recording combined with image analysis. Corneomelametry following photodensitometry of cyanoacrylate skin surface strippings was performed after melanin staining of the samples. RESULTS: The control untreated solar lentigines showed no significant variations in the biometrological parameters. By contrast, the test formulation induced lightening of the solar lentigines. Corneomelametry disclosed improvement after 1 months' treatment, whereas the other assessments only reached significance after 2 months. CONCLUSIONS: A 2% hydroquinone-cyclodextrin formulation proved to be effective in lightening actinic lentigines. Corneomelametry predicted the effects discernible at a later stage by in vivo colour assessments of the melanin content. [less ▲]

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See detailRole of ERK and calcium in the hypoxia-induced activation of HIF-1.
Mottet, Denis ULg; Michel, Gaetan; Renard, Patricia et al

in Journal of Cellular Physiology (2003), 194(1), 30-44

Oxygen-dependent regulation of HIF-1 activity occurs at multiple levels in vivo. The mechanisms regulating HIF-1alpha protein expression have been most extensively analyzed but the ones modulating HIF-1 ... [more ▼]

Oxygen-dependent regulation of HIF-1 activity occurs at multiple levels in vivo. The mechanisms regulating HIF-1alpha protein expression have been most extensively analyzed but the ones modulating HIF-1 transcriptional activity remain unclear. Changes in the phosphorylation and/or redox status of HIF-1alpha certainly play a role. Here, we show that ionomycin could activate HIF-1 transcriptional activity in a way that was additive to the effect of hypoxia without affecting HIF-1alpha protein level. In addition, a calmodulin dominant negative mutant and W7, a calmodulin antagonist, as well as BAPTA, an intracellular calcium chelator, inhibited the hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation. These results indicate that elevated calcium in hypoxia could participate in HIF-1 activation. Furthermore, ERK but not JNK phosphorylation was evidenced in both conditions, ionomycin and hypoxia. PD98059, an inhibitor of the ERK pathway as well as a ERK1 dominant negative mutant also blocked HIF-1 activation by hypoxia and by ionomycin. A MEKK1 (a kinase upstream of JNK) dominant negative mutant had no effect. In addition, BAPTA, calmidazolium, a calmodulin antagonist and PD98059 inhibited VEGF secretion by hypoxic HepG2. All together, these results suggest that calcium and calmodulin would act upstream of ERK in the hypoxia signal transduction pathway. [less ▲]

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See detailReactive oxygen species downregulate the expression of pro-inflammatory genes by human chondrocytes.
Mathy, Marianne ULg; Martin, G.; Devel, P. et al

in Inflammation Research (2003), 52(3), 111-8

OBJECTIVES: To determine the regulatory effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the expression by human osteoarthritic chondrocytes of interleukin (IL)-1beta, -6 and -8, inducible nitric oxide ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: To determine the regulatory effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the expression by human osteoarthritic chondrocytes of interleukin (IL)-1beta, -6 and -8, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene in response to interleukin (IL)-1beta or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). METHODS: Human chondrocytes in monolayer culture were incubated for 3 h with ROS generating molecules such as S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine (SNAP, 100 microM), 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1, 100 microM), with chemically synthesised peroxynitrite (ONOO-, 10 microM) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 100 microM). After treatment by ROS, chondrocytes were washed and then cultured for the next 24 h with or without lipopolysaccharide LPS (10 microg/ml) or IL-1beta (1.10(-11) M). IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, iNOS and COX-2 gene expression was analysed by real time and quantitative RT PCR. IL-6, IL-8 and prostaglandin (PG) E2 productions were assayed by specific immunoassays. Nitrite was measured in the culture supernatants by the Griess procedure. RESULTS: LPS and IL-1beta stimulated IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, iNOS and COX-2 gene expression. SNAP significantly downregulated LPS induced overall gene expressions, whereas SIN-1 had no effect. ONOO- inhibited iNOS and COX-2 gene expression but not that of the cytokine genes. When chondrocytes were incubated with IL-1beta, SIN-1 and ONOO dramatically decreased all gene expressions while SNAP was inefficient. H2O2 treatment inhibited both LPS and IL-1beta induced gene expressions. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide an evidence that ROS may have anti-inflammatory properties by depressing inflammatory gene expression. Further, we demonstrate that ROS effects are dependent on the nature of radical species and the signalling pathway that is activated. These findings should be taken into consideration for the management of antioxidant therapy in treatment of inflammatory joint diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailHaplotype diversity of the myostatin gene among beef cattle breeds
Dunner, S.; Miranda, M. E.; Amigues, Y. et al

in Genetics, Selection, Evolution (2003), 35(1, JAN-FEB), 103-118

A total of 678 individuals from 28 European bovine breeds were both phenotyped and analysed at the myostatin locus by the Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) method. Seven new mutations were ... [more ▼]

A total of 678 individuals from 28 European bovine breeds were both phenotyped and analysed at the myostatin locus by the Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) method. Seven new mutations were identified which contribute to the high polymorphism (1 SNP every 100 bp) present in this small gene; twenty haplotypes were described and a genotyping method was set up using the Oligonucleotide Ligation Assay (OLA) method. Some haplotypes appeared to be exclusive to a particular breed; this was the case for 5 in the Charolaise (involving mutation Q204X) and 7 in the Maine-Anjou (involving mutation E226X). The relationships between the different haplotypes were studied, thus allowing to test the earlier hypothesis on the origin of muscular hypertrophy in Europe: muscular hypertrophy (namely m821 (del11)) was mainly spread in different waves from northern Europe milk purpose populations in most breeds; however, other mutations (mostly disruptive) arose in a single breed, were highly selected and have since scarcely evolved to other populations. [less ▲]

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See detailDiurnal Centroid Of Ecosystem Energy And Carbon Fluxes At Fluxnet Sites
Wilson, Kb.; Baldocchi, D.; Falge, E. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres (2003), 108(D21),

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See detailLa varicelle et le zona ou les mystères de la latence d'un virus et de sa réactivation
Rentier, Bernard ULg

in Bulletin et Mémoires de l'Académie Royale de Médecine de Belgique (2003), 158(3-4), 169-73174-5

Varicella-zoster virus is a Herpesvirus responsible for three distinct clinical features: chicken pox (varicella), shingles (herpes zoster) and post-zosterian pain (post-herpetic neuralgia). Neurological ... [more ▼]

Varicella-zoster virus is a Herpesvirus responsible for three distinct clinical features: chicken pox (varicella), shingles (herpes zoster) and post-zosterian pain (post-herpetic neuralgia). Neurological features of these diseases such as complications of chicken pox, viral latency in sensory ganglia and reactivation as shingles with concurrent and possibly subsequent prolonged pain, are the sequels of the invasion of the peripheral nervous system during primary infection. Prevention is achieved by vaccination with a live attenuated virus strain and therapy calls for specific antiviral agents. In many respects, vzv behaves differently from close relatives. In particular, viral latency in the nervous system is basically different from that of other Herpesviridae. The recent discovery of the expression of some viral regulatory proteins during latency, although it had always been considered that vzv latency was silent, and demonstration that these proteins are immunogenic open new avenues concerning the immune control of vzv reactivation. [less ▲]

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See detailRuthenium catalysts bearing N-heterocyclic carbene ligands in atom transfer radical reactions
Richel, Aurore ULg; Delfosse, Sébastien ULg; Cremasco, Cédric et al

in Tetrahedron Letters (2003), 44(32), 6011-6015

The catalytic activity of ruthenium-p-cymene complexes bearing N-heterocyclic carbene ligands in atom transfer radical addition (ATRA) or polymerisation (ATRP) strongly depends on the substituents of the ... [more ▼]

The catalytic activity of ruthenium-p-cymene complexes bearing N-heterocyclic carbene ligands in atom transfer radical addition (ATRA) or polymerisation (ATRP) strongly depends on the substituents of the carbene ligand, thereby providing a nice illustration of the importance of organometallic engineering and ligand fine tuning in homogeneous catalysis. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailEstrogens reduce the expression of YKL-40 in the retina: Implications for eye and joint diseases
Rakic, Jean-Marie ULg; Lambert, Vincent ULg; Deprez, Manuel ULg et al

in Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science (2003), 44(4), 1740-1746

PURPOSE. To identify modifications in the gene expression profile of the ocular posterior segment in ovariectomized (OVX) mice with and without substitutive estradiol therapy and to select differentially ... [more ▼]

PURPOSE. To identify modifications in the gene expression profile of the ocular posterior segment in ovariectomized (OVX) mice with and without substitutive estradiol therapy and to select differentially expressed genes that could be relevant to the natural history of human age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS. Chorioretinal tissues from two groups of 25 treated and untreated OVX mice were analyzed by using cDNA array technology. The expression level of selected genes was confirmed in triplicate by RT-PCR and related to the estrogenic status of the animals. Expression of the YKL-40 gene was further investigated in intact or diseased human retinas and in a murine model of experimental choroidal neovascularization (CNV), using laser pressure catapulting. RESULTS. Of the approximately, 10,000 genes screened, only YKL-40 expression was significantly downregulated by 17-beta-estradiol. YKL-40 was expressed in intact human neural retina and in the RPE. The expression of YKL-40 was upregulated in experimental CNV and in neovascular membranes extracted from patients affected by the exudative form of AMD. CONCLUSIONS. These observations indicate that YKL-40 expression in the retina is modulated by serum levels of estradiol. This protein could be relevant to the development of AMD and is also a new mediator to take into account when evaluating the broad consequences of hormonal replacement therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailPatterns Of Bryophyte Diversity And Rarity At A Regional Scale
Vanderpoorten, Alain ULg; Engels, Patrick ULg

in Biodiversity & Conservation (2003), 12(3),

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See detailDroits de l'homme et nationalité
Carlier, Jean-Yves ULg

in Annales de Droit de Louvain (2003), 63(3), 243-257

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See detailImiquimod-responsive basal cell carcinomas and factor XIIIa-enriched dendrocytes.
Quatresooz, Pascale ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Clinical & Experimental Dermatology (2003), 28 Suppl 1

Dermal dendrocytes (DDs) are dendritic cells that exhibit immunoreactivity for factor XIIIa, and are frequently found in conjunction with basal cell carcinomas (BCCs). Imiquimod was applied to 12 ... [more ▼]

Dermal dendrocytes (DDs) are dendritic cells that exhibit immunoreactivity for factor XIIIa, and are frequently found in conjunction with basal cell carcinomas (BCCs). Imiquimod was applied to 12 superficial BCCs every 3 days for 8 weeks. One week after completion of treatment, seven lesions appeared to have resolved, while five displayed evidence of residual BCC. Prior to initiation of treatment, the seven imiquimod-responsive BCCs were surrounded by numerous DDs, whereas the five imiquimod-resistant BCCs had fewer DDs next to them at the time of entry into the study. It appears that the pretreatment density in DDs may affect the efficacy of imiquimod in eradicating skin tumours. [less ▲]

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See detail2. “La Parure“ di Maupassant. Strategie conclusive ed echi flaubertiani
Benzoni, Pietro ULg

in Strumenti Critici (2003), 103(3), 417-438

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See detailEnquête sur les "contes" de Voltaire (II)
Tilkin, Françoise ULg

in Cahiers Voltaire : Revue Annuelle de la Société Voltaire (2003), 2

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See detailTraitement de données volumineuses par ensemble d'arbres aléatoires
Geurts, Pierre ULg

in Revue des nouvelles technologies de l'information, Numéro spécial entreposage et fouille de données (2003), 1

Cet article présente une nouvelle méthode d'apprentissage ba-sée sur un ensemble d'arbres de décision. Par opposition à la méthode traditionnelle d'induction, les arbres de l'ensemble sont construits en ... [more ▼]

Cet article présente une nouvelle méthode d'apprentissage ba-sée sur un ensemble d'arbres de décision. Par opposition à la méthode traditionnelle d'induction, les arbres de l'ensemble sont construits en choisissant les tests durant le développement de manière complètement aléatoire. Cette méthode est comparée aux arbres de décision et au bagging sur plusieurs problèmes de classification. Grâce aux choix aléatoires des tests, les temps de calcul de cet algorithme sont comparables à ceux des arbres traditionnels. Dans le même temps, la méthode se révèle beaucoup plus précise que les arbres et souvent significativement meilleure que le bagging. Ces caractéristiques rendent cette méthode particulièrement adaptée pour le traitement de bases de données volumineuses. [less ▲]

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See detailAbsolute and relative quantification : beyond mutually exclusive word classes.
Brems, Lieselotte ULg; Davidse, Kristin

in Belgian Journal of English Language and Literatures. New Series (2003), 1

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See detailFronts and mesoscale variability in the southern Indian Ocean as inferred from the TOPEX/POSEIDON and ERS-2 altimetry data
Kostianoy, Andrey G.; Ginzburg, Anna I.; Lebedev, Sergey Anatolievich et al

in Oceanology (2003), 43(5, SEP-OCT), 632-642

Charts of sea level anomalies (SLA) based on the combined altimetry data from the TOPEX/POSEIDON and ERS-2 satellites, as well as the corresponding charts of the sea surface dynamic heights (constructed ... [more ▼]

Charts of sea level anomalies (SLA) based on the combined altimetry data from the TOPEX/POSEIDON and ERS-2 satellites, as well as the corresponding charts of the sea surface dynamic heights (constructed by the superposition of SLA distributions over the climatic dynamic topography) and the temperature gradients at the ocean surface on the basis of the satellite Multi-Channel Sea Surface Temperature (MCSST) data, were used to study the mesoscale variability related to the fronts in the Southern Indian Ocean (30degrees-60degrees S, 20degrees-150degrees E). An analysis of these three types of satellite information for the central weeks of each month during the period from 1997 to 1999 allowed us to distinguish zones of enhanced meandering (eddy formation) within the basin under study, as well as the contributions of individual fronts and their interaction to the regional mesoscale variability. The problems of the correlation between the intensity of mesoscale variability and peculiarities of the local bottom topography and seasonal/interannual variability of mesoscale dynamics are addressed. [less ▲]

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See detailCent ans de géographie humaine à Liège
Schmitz, Serge ULg

in Bulletin de la Société Géographique de Liège (2003), 43

Numéro spécial édité à l'occasion du centenaire de l'enseignement et de la géographie à l'Université de Liège et comportant les contributions des responsables des divers services de géographie au sein de ... [more ▼]

Numéro spécial édité à l'occasion du centenaire de l'enseignement et de la géographie à l'Université de Liège et comportant les contributions des responsables des divers services de géographie au sein de l'Université de Liège. [less ▲]

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See detailEffets de la nicotine et du cannabis sur le systeme nerveux central.
Seutin, Vincent ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(1), 19-21

We describe the molecular mechanisms of action of nicotine and delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the most potent component of cannabis. Like other drugs of abuse, these compounds enhance dopamine release in a ... [more ▼]

We describe the molecular mechanisms of action of nicotine and delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the most potent component of cannabis. Like other drugs of abuse, these compounds enhance dopamine release in a precise area of the limbic system when administered acutely. It has recently been shown that the cannabinoid receptors on which delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol acts are also activated by endogenous ligands such as anandamide. This unconventional neurotransmitter appears to have important physiological effects in the central nervous system. Both preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that nicotine is more addictive than delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol. However, the intimate interactions that exist between cannabinoid and opioid systems within the brain suggest that cannabinoids should not be considered as harmless drugs of abuse. [less ▲]

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See detailLes décrets oraculaires pris en l’honneur d’Hénouttaouy et de Maatkarê (Xe et VIIe pylônes)
Winand, Jean ULg

in Cahiers de Karnak (2003), (11), 603-710

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See detailPhylogeny
Baudoin, Jean-Pierre ULg; Maquet, A.

in Plant and Soil (2003), 252(1), 55-128

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See detailHistometric assessment of psoriatic plaques treated by vitamin D3 derivatives.
Uhoda, Isabelle; Quatresooz, Pascale ULg; Hermanns-Lê, Trinh ULg et al

in Dermatology : International Journal for Clinical & Investigative Dermatology (2003), 206(4), 366-9

BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is an immunogenetic disorder. Factor XIIIa+ dermal dendrocytes (DD) are part of the pathobiological changes in the plaque type of the disease. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed at ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is an immunogenetic disorder. Factor XIIIa+ dermal dendrocytes (DD) are part of the pathobiological changes in the plaque type of the disease. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed at comparing the effect of 3 vitamin D(3) derivatives on the epidermis, microvasculature and DD in psoriasis. METHOD: Twenty men suffering from chronic plaques of psoriasis on the trunk were enrolled in this study. They applied twice a day for 3 weeks calcipotriol, tacalcitol and calcitriol, each to one plaque. Another similar lesion received petrolatum as a placebo treatment. Skin biopsies were taken at entry and at completion of the 3-week treatment phase. Immunohistochemistry was performed using the lectin of Ulex europaeus and an antibody to factor XIIIa. Computerized image analysis served to measure the stratum Malpighii area, the microvasculature area and the DD numerical density in the papillary dermis. RESULTS: At entry in the study, the 4 test sites were indistinguishable with regard to the stratum Malpighii area, the papillary microvasculature area and the papillary DD density. The 3 histometric parameters appeared correlated with each other. At completion of the 3-week treatment phase, the 3 vitamin D derivatives had decreased the size of the stratum Malpighii. In addition, calcitriol had also reduced the DD density in the papillary dermis. No other significant changes were yielded. CONCLUSION: As assessed by histometry, the psoriatic epidermis responded to a short treatment using the 3 vitamin D derivatives. The better result compared to the control site was achieved by calcitriol. DD appeared to be most controlled by the same drug. The microvasculature did not appear to be decreased at the 3-week time point in treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailCreolization in Robert Antoni's Blessed Is the Fruit: A Linguistic Analysis
Ledent, Bénédicte ULg

in Matatu : Journal for African Culture and Society (2003), 27-28

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See detailReal sex in bacteria !
Gratia, Jean-Pierre; Thiry, Marc ULg

in Microbiology Today (2003), 30

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