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See detailAchieving 1% photometric accuracy with the ESO Wide Field Imager
Manfroid, Jean ULg; Selman, F.; Jones, H.

in The Messenger (2001), 104

The highly successful Wide Field Imager on the ESO/MPG 2.2-m telescope offers the possibility of undertaking photometry over a half-degree field. The authors discuss findings concerning the photometric ... [more ▼]

The highly successful Wide Field Imager on the ESO/MPG 2.2-m telescope offers the possibility of undertaking photometry over a half-degree field. The authors discuss findings concerning the photometric performance of the camera. They describe strategies for dealing with the flat-field calibration error, which is often underestimated by observers. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation of the interactions of polyvinylpyrrolidone with mixtures of anionic and nonionic surfactants or anionic and zwitterionic surfactants by pulsed field gradient NMR
Misselyn-Bauduin, Anne-Marie; Thibaut, André ULg; Grandjean, Jean ULg et al

in Journal of Colloid & Interface Science (2001), 238(1), 1-7

The interaction of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) with an anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS), a nonionic surfactant (pentaethylene glycol monodecyl ether, C(10)E(5)), and a zwitterionic ... [more ▼]

The interaction of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) with an anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS), a nonionic surfactant (pentaethylene glycol monodecyl ether, C(10)E(5)), and a zwitterionic surfactant (lauryl amido propyl betaine, LAPB) has been investigated by means of pulsed gradient spin-echo NMR (FT-PGSE NMR), allowing self-diffusion coefficients to be determined. The results confirm the strong interaction prevailing in the PVP/SDS system, whereas no association has been observed in the PVP/C(10)E(5) and PVP/LAPB systems. Mixing PVP with two surfactants, namely SDS and C(10)E(5) or SDS and LAPB, results in the formation of ternary aggregates between the polymer and the mixed micelles. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat is the real nature of HD 108?
Nazé, Yaël ULg; Vreux, Jean-Marie ULg; Rauw, Grégor ULg

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2001), 372

Since the beginning of the past century, the nature of HD 108 has been a subject of intense debate. One after another, astronomers explored its variability and attributed it either to binarity, or to ... [more ▼]

Since the beginning of the past century, the nature of HD 108 has been a subject of intense debate. One after another, astronomers explored its variability and attributed it either to binarity, or to changes in the stellar wind of a single star. In this article, we analyse a 30 year campaign of spectroscopic observations of this star with special emphasis on the last 15 years during which photographic plates have been replaced by CCD detectors. Our investigation of the radial velocities of HD 108 yields no significant short- or long-term period and does not confirm the published periodicities either. Though the radial velocity of HD 108 appears clearly variable, the variations cannot be explained by the orbital motion in a spectroscopic binary. However, our data reveal spectacular changes in the H I Balmer lines and some He I profiles over the years. These lines continuously evolved from P Cygni profiles to ``pure'' absorption lines. A similar behaviour has already been observed in the past, suggesting that these changes are recurrent. HD 108 seems to share several characteristics of Oe stars and we discuss different hypotheses for the origin of the observed long-term variations. As we are now in a transition period, a continuous monitoring of HD 108 should be considered for the next few years. Based on observations collected at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (France). [less ▲]

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See detailCenta as a Chromogenic Substrate for Studying Beta-Lactamases
Bebrone, Carine ULg; Moali, C.; Mahy, F. et al

in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (2001), 45(6), 1868-71

CENTA, a chromogenic cephalosporin, is readily hydrolyzed by beta-lactamases of all classes except for the Aeromonas hydrophila metalloenzyme. Although it cannot practically be used for the detection of ... [more ▼]

CENTA, a chromogenic cephalosporin, is readily hydrolyzed by beta-lactamases of all classes except for the Aeromonas hydrophila metalloenzyme. Although it cannot practically be used for the detection of beta-lactamase-producing strains on agar plates, it should be quite useful for kinetic studies and the detection of the enzymes in crude extracts and chromatographic fractions. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of ARMAV models to identification and damage detection of mechanical and civil engineering structures
Bodeux, Jean-Bernard; Golinval, Jean-Claude ULg

in Smart Materials & Structures (2001), 10(3), 479-489

In this paper, the application of auto-regressive moving average vector models to system identification and damage detection is investigated. These parametric models have already been applied for the ... [more ▼]

In this paper, the application of auto-regressive moving average vector models to system identification and damage detection is investigated. These parametric models have already been applied for the analysis of multiple input-output systems under ambient excitation. Their main advantage consists in the capability of extracting modal parameters from the recorded time signals, without the requirement of excitation measurement. The excitation is supposed to be a stationary Gaussian white noise. The method also allows the estimation of modal parameter uncertainties. On the basis of these uncertainties, a statistically based damage detection scheme is performed and it becomes possible to assess whether changes of modal parameters are caused by, e.g. some damage or simply by estimation inaccuracies. The paper reports first an example of identification and damage detection applied to a simulated system under random excitation. The `Steel-Quake' benchmark proposed in the framework of COST Action F3 `Structural Dynamics' is also analysed. This structure was defined by the Joint Research Centre in Ispra (Italy) to test steel building performance during earthquakes. The proposed method gives an excellent identification of frequencies and mode shapes, while damping ratios are estimated with less accuracy. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of Aspergillus spp. by PCR in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid
Hayette, Marie-Pierre ULg; Vaira, Dolorès ULg; Suzin, Fabrice et al

in Journal of Clinical Microbiology (2001), 39(6), 2338-2340

The usefulness of a nested PCR assay for detection of Aspergillus sp. DNA was evaluated in 177 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid specimens. This test was accurate both to diagnose culture-negative BAL ... [more ▼]

The usefulness of a nested PCR assay for detection of Aspergillus sp. DNA was evaluated in 177 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid specimens. This test was accurate both to diagnose culture-negative BAL fluid specimens from patients with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and to confirm culture-positive samples. However, it did not differentiate between infection and colonization. [less ▲]

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See detailStigmates professionnels chez le musicien instrumentiste
Claessens, N.; Hermanns-Lê, Trinh ULg; Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(6), 453-5

The frequent practice of a music instrument represents a risk for frictional or allergic contact dermatitis. The localisation and type of lesions are often typical for the musician specialty.

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See detailL’évaluation de la performance économique des entreprises publiques africaines par la méthode des comptes de surplus
Mbangala, Mapapa ULg

in Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics = Annales de l'Economie Publique, Sociale et Coopérative (2001), 72

This paper focuses on the assessment of the economic performance of seven African railway enterprises using a Total Factor Productivity index decomposition. This method shows the role of these public ... [more ▼]

This paper focuses on the assessment of the economic performance of seven African railway enterprises using a Total Factor Productivity index decomposition. This method shows the role of these public enterprises in the production and distribution of added value. The analysis allows to identify the, positive or negative, contribution of each production factor to productivity growth. At the same time, it shows how the firm's partners do, or do not benefit from the added value created by these companies. [less ▲]

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See detailTranslocation Frequencies Measured in Patients One Year after Radioactive Iodine Therapy for Thyrotoxicosis
Lambert, Vincent ULg; Thierens, H.; Monsieurs, M. et al

in International Journal of Radiation Biology (2001), 77(6), 679-85

PURPOSE: To investigate the incidence of translocations induced by iodine-131 therapy in thyrotoxicosis patients 1 year after the administration of the radiolabelled compound. MATERIALS AND METHODS ... [more ▼]

PURPOSE: To investigate the incidence of translocations induced by iodine-131 therapy in thyrotoxicosis patients 1 year after the administration of the radiolabelled compound. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tricolour FISH with whole-chromosome-specific probes for chromosomes 2, 4 and 8 was used for scoring translocations. From the genomic translocation frequencies, derived using the Lucas formula, equivalent whole-body doses were calculated, based on the in vitro (60)Co gamma-ray dose-response curve. RESULTS: A total of 101 translocations were observed in 4864 metaphases, 63% being of the two-way type. In the control group used for obtaining dose-response data, nine translocations were observed in 5278 metaphases, 55% being two-way translocations. No correlation was found between the observed frequency of translocations and administered radioactivity. Using the in vitro dose-response, an estimated average dose for the group of nine patients of 0.79 +/- 0.22Gy was obtained. Compared with frequencies following the assumption that the involvement of a particular chromosome in a two-break exchange-type aberration is proportional to its DNA content, chromosome 4 was more frequently involved and chromosomes 2 and 8 less frequently involved in chromosomal rearrangements. CONCLUSION: This study shows that (131)I therapy for thyrotoxicosis patients induced translocations, especially in chromosome 4, which could be detected 1 year after the administration of the radiolabelled compound. [less ▲]

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See detailAdipose tissue expression of gelatinases in mouse models of obesity.
Lijnen, roger; Maquoi, Erik ULg; Holvoet, P. et al

in Thrombosis and Haemostasis (2001), 85(6), 1111-1116

Following the observation by Brown et al. (Am J Physiol 1997; 272: C937-49) that primary rat adipocytes in culture secrete gelatinase A (MMP-2), we have evaluated gelatinase expression in adipose tissue ... [more ▼]

Following the observation by Brown et al. (Am J Physiol 1997; 272: C937-49) that primary rat adipocytes in culture secrete gelatinase A (MMP-2), we have evaluated gelatinase expression in adipose tissue with the use of mouse models of obesity. Wild-type mice were kept on a standard fat diet (SFD) or on a high fat diet (42% fat, HFD) and- genetically obese db/db mice were kept on SFD; gonadal and subcutaneous fat pads were removed and analysed ex vivo. These studies revealed that: 1) the HFD induced adipocyte hypertrophy; 2) after 32 weeks, significantly higher levels of 70 kDa (p <0.05) and 65 kDa proMMP-2 (p <0.01) were observed in extracts of gonadal fat pads of mice on HFD; 3) the contribution of active MMP-2 to the total level was comparable in SFD and HFD groups (20 to 30%); and 4) gelatinase B (MMP-9) was not consistently detected. These findings were confirmed by gelatin zymography and by mRNA determination using competitive RT-PCR. The presence of MMP-2 in the adipose tissue was confirmed immunologically and its localization in adipocytes revealed by immunogold electron microscopy. The potential functional role of MMP-2 in adipose tissue remains to be determined. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization Methods for Inverse Problems in Metal Forming Simulation
Kleinermann, Jean-Pascal; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg

in STEELS-Mechanical Technology (2001)

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See detailIpsilateral motor responses to focal transcranial magnetic stimulation in healthy subjects and acute-stroke patients
Alagona, Giovanna; DELVAUX, Valérie ULg; GERARD, Pascale ULg et al

in Stroke (2001), 32(6), 1304-1309

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Prevalence and characteristics of ipsilateral upper limb motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were compared in healthy subjects ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Prevalence and characteristics of ipsilateral upper limb motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were compared in healthy subjects and patients with acute stroke. METHODS: Sixteen healthy subjects and 25 patients with acute stroke underwent focal TMS at maximum stimulator output over motor and premotor cortices. If present, MEPs evoked in muscles ipsilateral to TMS were analyzed for latency, amplitude, shape, and center of gravity (ie, preferential coil location to elicit them). In stroke patients, possible relationships between early ipsilateral responses and functional outcome at 6 months were sought. RESULTS: With relaxed or slightly contracting target muscle, maximal TMS over the motor cortex failed to elicit ipsilateral MEPs in the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) or biceps of any of 16 normal subjects. In 5 of 8 healthy subjects tested, ipsilateral MEPs with latencies longer than contralateral MEPs were evoked in FDI muscle (in biceps, 6 of 8 subjects) during strong (>50% maximum) contraction of the target muscle. In 15 of 25 stroke patients, ipsilateral MEPs in the unaffected relaxed FDI (in biceps, 6 of 25 stroke patients) were evoked by stimulation of premotor areas of the affected hemisphere. Their latencies were shorter than those that MEPs evoked in the same muscle by stimulation of the motor cortex of the contralateral unaffected hemisphere. Such responses were never obtained in normal subjects and were mostly observed in patients with subcortical infarcts. Patients harboring these responses had slightly better bimanual dexterity after 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: Ipsilateral MEPs obtained in healthy individuals and stroke patients have different characteristics and probably different origins. In the former, they are probably conveyed via corticoreticulospinal or corticopropriospinal pathways, whereas in the latter, early ipsilateral MEPs could originate in hyperexcitable premotor areas. [less ▲]

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See detailObituary : WILSON BOOZOO CHAVIS
Sacré, Robert ULg

in Soul Bag (2001), (135), 42-43

Wilson " Boozoo" CHAVIS 1931-2001

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See detailShort-term contextual sensitisation and conditioned hyperkinesia produced by cocaine in suckling rats aged 4-10 days and 14-20 days
Tirelli, Ezio ULg

in Psychopharmacology (2001), 156(1), 46-52

RATIONALE: It was hypothesised that the failure to generate sensitisation to the behavioural effects of a motor stimulant in suckling rats was mainly due to not pairing the drug with the test context ... [more ▼]

RATIONALE: It was hypothesised that the failure to generate sensitisation to the behavioural effects of a motor stimulant in suckling rats was mainly due to not pairing the drug with the test context during chronic pretreatment. OBJECTIVE: This study probed the capabilities of neonatal and infant rat pups to show short-term context-specific sensitisation and conditioned drug activity produced by cocaine. METHODS: Two similar experiments were conducted on rat pups aged 4-10 days or 14-20 days, each experiment comprising three phases: a sensitisation phase (days 4-8 and days 14-18 of age), a test session under cocaine for context specificity of sensitisation (day 9 and day 19 of age) and a test session under saline for conditioned drug effects (day 10 and day 20 of age). Over five daily sessions, pups first received an injection of either 16 mg/kg cocaine (paired group) or saline (unpaired group) in test chambers, and 110 min later the converse injections in the vivarium (in a cage that was different from the home cage). A third group received saline in both contexts. Behaviour was scored using videotapes. RESULTS: Sensitisation developed in the paired groups at both ages. In 4- to 10-day-old pups, sensitisation was expressed via locomotion (matrix crosses) and also horizontal and vertical activities (categories comprising several age-specific movements). In 14- to 18-day-old pups, it was displayed by increases in head movements and vertical activity, and by a decline in stationary position. These effects were confirmed to be context specific on the test sessions (day 9 or day 19), the paired groups producing by far the greatest values. On the conditioning test, the paired groups also produced the greatest amounts of the above-mentioned behaviours, revealing a conditioned drug effect. Additionally, the conditioned effect scores were higher than those of two additional groups that had been treated similarly to the others but outside the chamber until the two tests (controlling for a withdrawal effect and possible novelty-induced activity in the test context). There were no differences between these unexposed groups, indicating that no abstinence effect occurred. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that neonatal rats are capable of showing physiological/non-contextual cocaine-induced behavioural sensitisation as well as its context-specific expression and the conditioned activity following its establishment. [less ▲]

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See detailEffectors of Inflammation in Actinic Prurigo
Arrese, J. E.; Dominguez-Soto, L.; Hojyo-Tomoka, M. T. et al

in Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology (2001), 44(6), 957-61

BACKGROUND: Actinic prurigo is a specific familial photodermatosis of uncertain pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate the immunohistologic presentation of actinic prurigo to explore the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Actinic prurigo is a specific familial photodermatosis of uncertain pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate the immunohistologic presentation of actinic prurigo to explore the involved pathomechanisms. METHODS: The present immunohistochemical study was performed on biopsy specimens from 20 Mexican patients presenting with a severe and perennial form of the disease. RESULTS: The dense inflammatory infiltrate was composed predominantly of helper T type 1 lymphocytes admixed with scattered B-cell lymphoid follicles and numerous dermal dendrocytes. Keratinocytes contained abundant tumor necrosis factor-alpha and calprotectin. CONCLUSION: In subjects genetically predisposed to actinic prurigo, ultraviolet light may trigger excessive tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by keratinocytes whose sustained release in turn exerts its proinflammatory activity and deleterious epidermal effects. Such a cascade of events is in line with the therapeutic benefit already reported when thalidomide is used to treat actinic prurigo. [less ▲]

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See detailPharma clinics. Le medicament du mois. Le montelukast (Singulair)
Louis, Renaud ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(6), 460-2

Montelukast (Singulair, Merck Sharp

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See detailAntioxydant activity of β-carboline derivatives in the LDL oxidation model
Hadjaz, Fariza; Besret, Soizic; Martin-Nizard, Françoise et al

in European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2001), 46

A series of b-carboline compounds were synthesized, starting from compound GWC22, their antioxidant activity was determined by inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The oxidation of LDL was induced in the ... [more ▼]

A series of b-carboline compounds were synthesized, starting from compound GWC22, their antioxidant activity was determined by inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The oxidation of LDL was induced in the presence of CuSO4 or 2,20-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH). The protective actions of these compounds against the cytotoxicity were evaluated with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) and cellular vitality by measuring mitochondrial activity in the presence of MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide). Most of compounds showed an higher antioxidant activity than GWC22 derivative (R = 1.6 for 5 mM CuSO4). The best antioxidant activities are phenolic and benzyloxy derivatives with ratio R = 1.9 to 2.8 for 1 mM CuSO4. These substances have protective actions and increase significantly the cell viability. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular Modeling Study of Beta- and Gamma-Cyclodextrin Complexes with Miconazole
Piel, Géraldine ULg; Dive, Georges ULg; Evrard, Brigitte ULg et al

in European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (2001), 13(3), 271-9

Different authors have demonstrated the inclusion of miconazole in cyclodextrins (CD). Miconazole can be included in the CD cavity both in the neutral and in the ionized form. The present study tries to ... [more ▼]

Different authors have demonstrated the inclusion of miconazole in cyclodextrins (CD). Miconazole can be included in the CD cavity both in the neutral and in the ionized form. The present study tries to understand which fragment of the miconazole molecule is involved in the inclusion. Austin Model 1 approximate molecular orbital calculations have been performed on several complexes between beta-cyclodextrin (betaCD) or gamma-cyclodextrin (gammaCD) and miconazole in the ionized and the non-ionized forms of the two R and S enantiomers in three different orientations. We observed that betaCD is a good vehicle to transport miconazole which can be very easily released. The complexation energy between miconazole and betaCD is not very high but the entropic factor has a great incidence on the stability of the formed complex. The inclusion of the dichlorobenzene-CH(2)-O- and of the imidazole part of the S isomer gives rise to the most probable complex in acidic conditions (ionized miconazole). Nevertheless, the inclusion should be considered as a dynamic process in which different parts of the molecule could be alternatively included in betaCD. The present work demonstrates the high capability of deformation of betaCD which could easily accommodate several types of ligand. By opposite, the cycle extension in gammaCD leads to a more rigid vehicle with regards to miconazole. [less ▲]

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See detailComment je traite ... une epilepsie refractaire par stimulation du nerf vague
Sadzot, Bernard ULg; Martin, Didier ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(6), 407-10

Intermittent left vagus nerve stimulation is a novel therapeutic modality that can be proposed to patients with a refractory epilepsy and for whom resective surgery is not an option. Its precise mechanism ... [more ▼]

Intermittent left vagus nerve stimulation is a novel therapeutic modality that can be proposed to patients with a refractory epilepsy and for whom resective surgery is not an option. Its precise mechanism of action is not known. Controlled studies have shown that its efficacy is similar to that of antiepileptic drugs: 50% decrease in seizure frequency in 40% patients after two years. Side effects which are generally mild to moderate are the result of a diffusion of the stimulation to the larynx. No CNS side effect has been reported. [less ▲]

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See detailLes mediateurs biochimiques de l'inflammation
Henrotin, Yves ULg; Deby-Dupont, G.; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(6), 433-42

Inflammatory processes are the physiological response of the organism to different stimuli such as trauma, infections or immunological reactions. The events leading to inflammation are characterized by ... [more ▼]

Inflammatory processes are the physiological response of the organism to different stimuli such as trauma, infections or immunological reactions. The events leading to inflammation are characterized by leukocytes adhesion to the endothelium, diapedesis and migration, cells activation and tissue remodelling. These processes are initiated and regulated by a great variety of inflammatory mediators including cytokines, prostanoids, leukotrienes, neuropeptides, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, complement components, coagulation factors and metalloproteases. This paper is devoted to the description of the major local effects of these mediators in the inflammatory reaction. [less ▲]

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See detailEffectifs des populations, répartition et statut du petit nacré, Issoria lathonia L., sur les terrains calaminaires du bassin de la Vesdre (province de Liège, Belgique) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)
Ertz, Damien; Graitson, Eric ULg

in Linneana Belgica : Revue Belge d'Entomologie (2001), 18(2), 87-92

La recherche d'issoria lathonia sur l'ensemble des terrains calaminaires du bassin de la Vesdre a permis de mettre en évidence la présence de ce papillon sur tous les sites où sa plante-hôte, viola ... [more ▼]

La recherche d'issoria lathonia sur l'ensemble des terrains calaminaires du bassin de la Vesdre a permis de mettre en évidence la présence de ce papillon sur tous les sites où sa plante-hôte, viola calaminaria, est bien représentée. Un seul site offre actuellement, avec plus de 1000 individus, une population stable de cette espèce. L'hypothèse de l'existence d'une métapopulation est avancée. La protection des terrains calaminaires semble capitale pour le maintien de populations permanentes d'I. lathonia dans cette région. [less ▲]

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See detailProblématique de l'authenticité vs artificialité dans l'enseignement des langues germaniques : pistes de réflexion et esquisses de solutions
Simons, Germain ULg; Dahmen, Manfred

in Puzzle (2001), (10), 37-41

L'authenticité est un concept-clé de l'approche communicative. L'input langagier auquel les élèves sont exposés doit/devrait être "authentique", de même que les situations de communication qui leur sont ... [more ▼]

L'authenticité est un concept-clé de l'approche communicative. L'input langagier auquel les élèves sont exposés doit/devrait être "authentique", de même que les situations de communication qui leur sont proposées. Cet article questionne le concept d'authenticité qui est, selon les auteurs, un concept particulièrement "mou" et relatif, surtout lorsque l'on tient compte des caractéristiques du contexte SCOLAIRE de l'apprentissage d'une langue étrangère. Dans la deuxième partie de l'article, les auteurs proposent quelques pistes de réflexion et esquisses de solutions pour rendre l'enseignement/apprentissage des langues étrangères moins "artificiel". [less ▲]

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See detailL'atelier d'écriture. Mémoire, désenchantement, idéal
Havelange, Carl ULg

in Santé Conjuguée (2001), (17), 7-832-116

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See detailImages in Clinical Medicine. A Medical Mystery: Alkaptonuric ochronosis
Nikkels, Arjen ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in New England Journal of Medicine (2001), 344(21), 1642-1643

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See detailProbing thermoplastic matrix-carbon fiber interphases. 1. Preferential segregation of low molar mass chains to the interface
Carlier, V.; Sclavons, M.; Jonas, Alain M et al

in Macromolecules (2001), 34(11), 3725-3729

The molecular mobility of polystyrene (PS) chains near the surface of carbon fibers was investigated. The glass transition temperature of very thin coatings deposited on carbon fibers was measured by ... [more ▼]

The molecular mobility of polystyrene (PS) chains near the surface of carbon fibers was investigated. The glass transition temperature of very thin coatings deposited on carbon fibers was measured by supported DMTA in order to probe the properties of the thermoplastic interphase. Depending on the fiber impregnation method from the melt or from solution, Tg changed in an opposite way for the thinnest coatings, decreasing with coating thickness in the case of impregnation in the melt and increasing when a polymer solution was used. This observation is explained by degradation of PS in the melt and subsequent preferential segregation of low molar mass chains to the interface. This conclusion is supported by the study of the Tg of coatings made from a bimodal molar mass distribution. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of the Solvent Polarity on the Living Ligated Anionic Polymerization of tert-Butyl Methacrylate and Copolymerization with Methyl Methacrylate
Zune, Catherine; Archambeau, C.; Dubois, Philippe ULg et al

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry (2001), 39(10), 1774-1785

An anionic polymerization of t-butyl methacrylate and a copolymerization with methyl methacrylate were initiated with an organolithium ligated with 10 equiv of LiCl. As a rule, the complexation of the ... [more ▼]

An anionic polymerization of t-butyl methacrylate and a copolymerization with methyl methacrylate were initiated with an organolithium ligated with 10 equiv of LiCl. As a rule, the complexation of the active species by LiCl masked the effect that the polarity of the solvent might have on the molecular structure of the chains. [less ▲]

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See detailInhibition of the Nf-Kappa B Transcription Factor Increases Bax Expression in Cancer Cell Lines
Bentires-Alj, M.; Dejardin, Emmanuel ULg; Viatour, Patrick ULg et al

in Oncogene (2001), 20(22), 2805-13

The NF-kappa B transcription factor has been shown to inhibit apoptosis in several experimental systems. We therefore investigated whether the expression of the Bax proapoptotic protein could be ... [more ▼]

The NF-kappa B transcription factor has been shown to inhibit apoptosis in several experimental systems. We therefore investigated whether the expression of the Bax proapoptotic protein could be influenced by NF-kappa B activity. Increased Bax protein expression was detected in HCT116, OVCAR-3 and MCF7 cells stably expressing a mutated unresponsive I kappa B-alpha inhibitory protein that blocks NF-kappa B activity. Northern blots showed that bax mRNA expression was increased as a consequence of mutated I kappa B-alpha expression in HCT116 cells. A careful examination of the human bax gene promoter sequence showed three putative binding sites for NF-kappa B, and the kappa B2 site at position -687 could indeed bind NF-kappa B complexes in vitro. Transient transfection of a bax promoter luciferase construct in HCT116 cells showed that NF-kappa B proteins could partially inhibit the transactivation of the bax promoter by p53. Mutations or deletions of the kappa B sites, including kappa B2, indicated that this NF-kappa B-dependent inhibitory effect did not require NF-kappa B DNA-binding, and was thus an indirect effect. However, cotransfection of expression vectors for several known cofactors failed to identify a competition between p53 and NF-kappa B for a transcription coactivator. Our findings thus demonstrate for the first time that NF-kappa B regulates, through an indirect pathway, the bax gene expression. [less ▲]

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See detailWater-soluble complexes formed by poly(2-vinylpyridinium)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(sodium methacrylate)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) copolymers
Gohy, Jean-François; Varshney, Sunil K; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Macromolecules (2001), 34(10), 3361-3366

Formation of interpolyelectrolyte complexes (IPEC) by mixing protonated poly(2-vinylpyridine)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (P2VP-b-PEO) with neutralized poly(methacrylic acid)-block-poly(ethylene oxide ... [more ▼]

Formation of interpolyelectrolyte complexes (IPEC) by mixing protonated poly(2-vinylpyridine)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (P2VP-b-PEO) with neutralized poly(methacrylic acid)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PMAA-b-PEO) has been investigated in water. It was observed that (i) IPEC are formed in a limited pH range, which is controlled by the degree of ionization of the PMAA and P2VP blocks; (ii) IPEC self-assemble to form the core of monodisperse spherical micelles surrounded by a corona of PEO blocks; (iii) IPEC are salt-sensitive, falling apart above a critical salt concentration; (iv) IPEC are not observed at high pH, but micelles are formed by the P2VP-b-PEO copolymers, which contain an uncharged P2VP core surrounded by a PEO corona; (v) IPEC are not observed at low pH, but the PMAA-b-PEO diblocks aggregate into micelles, the core of which is formed by a hydrogen-bonded complex between PMAA and PEO; and (vi) these PMAA-b-PEO micelles, which are temperature-sensitive, show a complete reorganization of the micellar core above a critical temperature. [less ▲]

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See detailComet C/2001 A2 (LINEAR)
Jehin, Emmanuel ULg; Jaunsen, A.; Boehnhardt, H. et al

in International Astronomical Union Circulars [=IAUCs] (2001), 7627

IAUC 7627 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams.

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See detailFull-electrochemical preparation of conducting/insulating binary polymer films
Jérôme, Christine ULg; Geskin, V.; Lazzaroni, Roberto et al

in Chemistry of Materials (2001), 13(5), 1656-1664

Binary polymer films consisting of an insulating polymer and a conducting polymer have been successfully prepared by sequential electropolymerization of the parent monomers. The insulating polymer ... [more ▼]

Binary polymer films consisting of an insulating polymer and a conducting polymer have been successfully prepared by sequential electropolymerization of the parent monomers. The insulating polymer (polyacrylonitrile or polyethylacrylate) is formed under cathodic polarization in a potential range where the growing chains are chemically grafted onto the nickel or carbon electrode. The conducting polymer (polybithiophene or polypyrrole) is formed by electrooxidation of the parent monomer. The electrochemical reactions and the electrochemical properties of the films have been analyzed by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The influence of the main experimental parameters on the composition and morphology of the films has been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. This approach strongly improves the adhesion of the conducting polymer as a result of its combination with the grafted polyacrylonitrile. This combination of insulating and conducting polymers is a way to tune the electroactivity of the conjugated chains. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of an Alfexpress DNA Sequencer to Analyze Protein-Nucleic Acid Interactions by Band Shift Assay
Filée, Patrice ULg; Delmarcelle, Michaël ULg; Thamm, Iris ULg et al

in BioTechniques (2001), 30(5), 1044-81050-1

Gel retardation analysis, or band shift assay, is technically the simplest method to investigate protein-nucleic acid interactions. In this report, we describe a nonradioactive band shift assay using a ... [more ▼]

Gel retardation analysis, or band shift assay, is technically the simplest method to investigate protein-nucleic acid interactions. In this report, we describe a nonradioactive band shift assay using a fluorescent DNA target and an ALFexpress automatic DNA sequencer in place of the current method that utilizes radioactively end-labeled DNA target and a standard electrophoresis unit. In our study, the dsDNA targets were obtained by annealing two synthetic oligonucleotides or by PCR. In both cases, a molecule of indodicarbocyanine (CY5) was attached at the 5' OH end of one of the two synthetic oligonucleotides, with a ratio of one molecule of fluorescent dye per molecule of dsDNA. To demonstrate the feasibility of this new band shift assay method, the DNA-binding proteins selected as models were the BlaI and AmpR repressors, which are involved in the induction of the Bacillus licheniformis 749/I and Citrobacter freundii beta-lactamases, respectively. The results show that the use of an automatic DNA sequencer allows easy gel retardation analysis and provides a fast, sensitive, and quantitative method. The ALFexpress DNA sequencer has the same limit of detection as a laser fluorescence scanner and can be used instead of a FluorImager or a Molecular Imager. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-synoptic versus pseudo-synoptic data sets: an assimilation experiment
Rixen, Michel; Allen, J. T.; Beckers, Jean-Marie ULg

in Journal of Marine Systems (2001), 29(1-4), 313-333

Several first-order correction methods are implemented to compute pseudo-synoptic data sets from non-synoptic raw data sets. These include a geostrophic relocation method, a linear and a quadratic ... [more ▼]

Several first-order correction methods are implemented to compute pseudo-synoptic data sets from non-synoptic raw data sets. These include a geostrophic relocation method, a linear and a quadratic interpolation method, and a method using spatio-temporal correlation functions. The relocation method involves analyses and geostrophic velocity computations to allow the relocation of stations in time and space to a particular analysis time. Interpolation methods involve several almost identical and consecutive surveys interpolated in time. Temporal weighting methods are based upon a spatio-temporal function modifying the weight on data with respect to the time at which they have been sampled. These techniques are tested on the OMEGA data set and are validated by simple nudging assimilation into a 3D primitive equation model (PE). It is shown that, under certain hypothesis, these methods are able to correct the lack of synopticity in hydrographic data sets, and improve the diagnosis of vertical velocities computed from the Omega equation. These methods are of particular interest for the scientific community. They might be used together with diagnostic models. They might provide suitable pseudo-synoptic fields required by 3D PE models as initial conditions, boundary conditions or assimilation data sets. They may also be useful in the design of mesoscale samplings. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailFull Recovery of Contraction Late after Acute Myocardial Infarction: Determinants and Early Predictors
Lancellotti, Patrizio ULg; Albert, Adelin ULg; Berthe, Christian ULg et al

in Heart (2001), 85(5), 521-6

OBJECTIVES: To assess the relative value of electrocardiographic, echocardiographic, angiographic, and in-hospital therapeutic indices for predicting late functional recovery after acute myocardial ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: To assess the relative value of electrocardiographic, echocardiographic, angiographic, and in-hospital therapeutic indices for predicting late functional recovery after acute myocardial infarction, and to determine the variables associated with absence of recovery, partial recovery, and full recovery. DESIGN: Prospective observational follow up study. SETTING: Teaching hospital. PATIENTS: 74 consecutive patients with a first uncomplicated acute myocardial infarct. INTERVENTIONS: Dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography was performed mean (SD) 5 (2) days after the acute event. Quantitative angiography was available in all patients before hospital discharge. A follow up resting echocardiogram was obtained 12 (2) months later. RESULTS: Functional recovery (partial, n = 18; full, n = 27) was observed in 45 of the 74 patients. Recovery was associated with earlier thrombolytic treatment (p = 0.008), earlier peak concentration of creatine kinase (p = 0.009), greater contractile reserve (p = 0.0001), non-Q wave acute myocardial infarction (p = 0.002), and more frequent elective angioplasty of the infarct related vessel (p = 0.0004). Three independent variables were selected stepwise from multivariate analysis for predicting late recovery: contractile reserve (chi(2) = 24.2, p < 0.0001); non-Q wave infarction (chi(2) = 15.7, p = 0.0001); and the time from symptom onset to thrombolysis (chi(2) = 4.94, p = 0.026). Three independent variables predicted full recovery: contractile reserve (chi(2) = 17.2, p = 0.0001); non-Q wave infarction (chi(2) = 10.1, p = 0.0016); and elective angioplasty of the infarct related artery (chi(2) = 4.53, p = 0.033). Only contractile reserve (chi(2) = 17.0, p < 0.001) was selected from the multivariate analysis for its ability to distinguish between partial recovery and absence of recovery. CONCLUSIONS: Late recovery of contraction relates to earlier treatment, which is associated with lower infarct size unmasked by a non-Q wave event and the presence of contractile reserve. Elective coronary angioplasty of the infarct related artery before hospital discharge is associated with full recovery. [less ▲]

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See detailGiant electrical fluctuations in metallic disordered packings
Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Dorbolo, Stéphane ULg

in European Physical Journal E -- Soft Matter (2001), 5(2), 129-131

We have experimentally studied granular arches through electrical measurements. The packing is composed of 2d metallic pentagons and is submitted to small taps. Large electrical fluctuations are observed ... [more ▼]

We have experimentally studied granular arches through electrical measurements. The packing is composed of 2d metallic pentagons and is submitted to small taps. Large electrical fluctuations are observed and they are distributed along power laws. The indicates the presence of long-time memory effects event the packing density remains constant around a value rho = 0.72 +/- 0.02. Large electrical fluctuations should be associated with the breaking/creation of granular arches. [less ▲]

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See detailLe réentrainement à l'effort du patient BPCO
Bury, Thierry ULg; Lange, B.; Pirnay, Freddy ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(5), 289-92

Rehabilitation for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is well established and widely accepted as a means of enhancing standard therapy in order to alleviate symptoms and optimize ... [more ▼]

Rehabilitation for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is well established and widely accepted as a means of enhancing standard therapy in order to alleviate symptoms and optimize function. The primary goal of rehabilitation is to restore the patient to the highest possible level of independent function. There is, however, no consensus on the optimal training modalities. Both walking and cycling improve exercise performance; there is substantial evidence that lower extremity exercise training should be included in rehabilitation programs for patients with COPD. [less ▲]

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See detailInfections cutanees contractees a l'occasion d'activites sportives ou de loisirs recreatifs
Ledoux, Didier ULg; Goffin, Véronique ULg; Fumal, I. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(5), 339-42

Going in for sports is at increased risk for cutaneous infections that can be viral, bacterial, mycotic and parasitic in nature. The specific conditions of sports practice have a major influence on their ... [more ▼]

Going in for sports is at increased risk for cutaneous infections that can be viral, bacterial, mycotic and parasitic in nature. The specific conditions of sports practice have a major influence on their occurrence. Other factors such as age, gender and genetic predisposition can also play a role. The cutaneous infections should be the target of preventive measures. To assume the worse, they should be recognized and treated without delay in order to avoid the more or less prolonged arrest of the sports activity and the disease transmission to partners. [less ▲]

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See detailArchaeopteris from the Upper Famennian of Belgium: Heterospory, Nomenclature, and Palaeobiogeography
Fairon-Demaret, Muriel ULg; Leponce, Isabelle ULg; Streel, Maurice ULg

in Review of Palaeobotany & Palynology (2001), 115(1-2), 79-97

New fertile specimens of Archaeopteris roemeriana from Upper (but not uppermost) Famennian strata of Belgium have been studied. Crowded sporangia are borne on non-laminate, three times bifurcate fertile ... [more ▼]

New fertile specimens of Archaeopteris roemeriana from Upper (but not uppermost) Famennian strata of Belgium have been studied. Crowded sporangia are borne on non-laminate, three times bifurcate fertile leaves helically arranged around the fertile ultimate axes. Vegetative leaves occur both proximal and distal to the fertile leaves. Heterospory is demonstrated with miospores belonging to the Geminospora-Aneurospora complex and macrospores most probably to Contagisporites genus. The established morphological traits allow us to substantiate a synonymy between A. roemeriana and A. halliana. The apparent dominance of A. halliana on the eastern side of the Acadian mountains during Late Famennian times is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailDutch Studies Abroad
Steyaert, Kris ULg

in ALCS Newsletter (2001), 5(1), 4-6

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See detailLes mécanismes du déclenchement pubertaire : signaux périphériques, hypothalamiques et environnementaux
LEBRETHON, Marie-Christine ULg; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Actualités Médicales Internationales. Métabolismes-Hormones-Nutrition (2001), V(3), 101-106

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See detailPoly(D,L-lactide) foams modified by poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(D,L-lactide) copolymers and a-FGF: in vitro and in vivo evaluation for spinal cord regeneration
Maquet, Véronique; Martin, Didier ULg; Scholtes, Félix ULg et al

in Biomaterials (2001), 22(10), 1137-1146

The first goal of this study was to examine the influence that poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(D,L-lactide) (PELA) copolymer can have on the wettability, the in vitro controlled delivery capability, and ... [more ▼]

The first goal of this study was to examine the influence that poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(D,L-lactide) (PELA) copolymer can have on the wettability, the in vitro controlled delivery capability, and the degradation of poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA) foams. These foams were prepared by freeze-drying and contain micropores (10 μm) in addition of macropores (100 μm) organized longitudinally. Weight loss, water absorption, changes in molecular weight, polymolecularity (Mw/Mn) and glass transition temperature ( Tg) of PDLLA foams mixed with various amounts of PELA were followed with time. It was found that 10 wt% of PELA increased the wettability and the degradation rate of the polymer foams. The release of sulforhodamine (SR) was compared for PDLLA and PDLLA-PELA foams in relation with the foam porosity. An initial burst release was observed only in the case of the 90:10 PDLLA/PELA foam. The ability of the foam of this composition to be integrated and to promote tissue repair and axonal regeneration in the transected rat spinal cord was investigated. After implantation of ca. 20 polymer rods assembled with fibrin-glue, the polymer construct was able to bridge the cord stumps by forming a permissive support for cellular migration, angiogenesis and axonal regrowth. [less ▲]

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See detailExercise Versus Dobutamine-Induced St Elevation in the Infarct-Related Electrocardiographic Leads: Clinical Significance and Correlation with Functional Recovery
Lancellotti, Patrizio ULg; Seidel, Laurence ULg; Hoffer, E. et al

in American Heart Journal (2001), 141(5), 772-9

BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of stress-induced ST elevation early after acute myocardial infarction and its relation to functional recovery remain controversial. The aims of this study were (1 ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of stress-induced ST elevation early after acute myocardial infarction and its relation to functional recovery remain controversial. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the incidence of ST elevation during dobutamine and exercise tests and (2) to assess the relative accuracy of exercise and dobutamine ST elevation for predicting functional recovery after acute myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated 52 patients who underwent supine exercise (from 25 W to maximal charge) and dobutamine (from 5 to 40 microg/kg per minute and up to 1 mg atropine) stress electrocardiography in the same position. ST elevation was defined as new or worsening at >1 mm, 80 ms after J point. Echocardiography and quantitative angiography were available in all patients before hospital discharge. The follow-up resting echocardiogram was recorded 30 +/- 6 days after the acute event. ST elevation developed during 30 (58%) dobutamine and 24 (46%) exercise tests. The sum of ST elevation was higher during dobutamine testing (7.7 +/- 3.8 mm) than during exercise (5.5 +/- 2.5 mm) (P =.03). A low peak creatine kinase level was the single independent predictor of dobutamine-induced ST elevation. Functional improvement occurred in 35 patients. Two independent predictors of functional recovery were selected from multivariate analysis: dobutamine ST elevation (chi(2) = 9.1; P =.0026) and low peak creatine kinase level (chi(2) = 5.1; P =.025). When dobutamine ST elevation was not included in multivariate analysis, exercise-induced ST elevation emerged as an independent predictor of functional recovery (chi(2) = 5.0; P =.023). Significant linear correlation was found between the sum of ST elevation at peak dobutamine stress and the extent of functional recovery (r = 0.87; P <.0001). In contrast, no correlation was observed with exercise ST elevation (r = 0.06; P = not significant). CONCLUSIONS: Stress-induced ST elevation is an ancillary sign of viable myocardium that can recover. The sum of ST elevation at peak dobutamine stress correlates with the extent of functional recovery. [less ▲]

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See detailElectromyostimulation en medecine du sport
Vanderthommen, Marc ULg; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(5), 391-5

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is frequently used to strengthen the normal muscle. In medicine, several investigators have highlighted the value of NMES when treating amyotrophy related to ... [more ▼]

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is frequently used to strengthen the normal muscle. In medicine, several investigators have highlighted the value of NMES when treating amyotrophy related to immobilization. The efficacy of NMES of the quadriceps during rehabilitation following anterior cruciate ligament surgery has been well documented. These electrical stimulation programs are composed of stimulation--rest cycles and are performed with the aid of percutaneous electrodes situated in regard to muscle motor points. The stimulation frequency is chosen to induce tetanic contractions and is generally situated between 50 and 100 Hz. During NMES, the trainer or the physiotherapist can accurately modulate a large number of parameters but the sensory discomfort linked to the current intensity remains the major limitation for strength improvement. In the context of rehabilitation, the association of NMES with voluntary exercises is superior to the isolated utilization of the classic program composed of isometric voluntary contractions. To explain this advantage of associating NMES with voluntary contractions, it has been hypothesized that the electrically induced contractions impose specific patterns of muscle recruitment and a particular metabolic solicitation. [less ▲]

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See detailLa readaptation cardio-vasculaire
Pierard, Luc ULg; Louis, Olivier ULg; Gobin, Eric ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(5), 293-9

In industrialized countries, coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality. Cardiovascular rehabilitation is one of the most important components of secondary prevention and is mainly ... [more ▼]

In industrialized countries, coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality. Cardiovascular rehabilitation is one of the most important components of secondary prevention and is mainly prescribed after acute myocardial infarction or coronary artery revascularization. The aims of rehabilitation are not only the improvement of functional capacity but also the correction of risk factors and assistance to social and professional reintegration. There are numerous indications, including not only patients with coronary artery disease but also patients with heart failure and those who underwent cardiac surgery or heart transplantation. Cardiac rehabilitation consists in 3 successive stages. The first is performed during hospital stay. The two others take place in an approved center of multidisciplinary cardiac rehabilitation. The intensity of exercise is determined for each individual patient from the results of stress testing. The beneficial effects are well established: reduction in morbidity and mortality, improvement of quality of life and of pulmonary, cardiac, muscular and metabolic parameters. Its efficacy is only maximal when patients continue performing exercise regularly. [less ▲]

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See detailIsocinétisme et traumatologie sportive
Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(5), 360-8

The assessment of human muscle strength is of considerable value in various pathological states with modifications of the performance level. The original concept of isokinetic dynamometry provides a ... [more ▼]

The assessment of human muscle strength is of considerable value in various pathological states with modifications of the performance level. The original concept of isokinetic dynamometry provides a precise and reliable quantification of strength. Identification of underlying deficits in bilateral and reciprocal muscle group relationships plays a great role in the treatment of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and muscle injuries. The value of this type of assessment for prevention in uninjured subjects practicing sports at risk is suggested. Rehabilitative use of isokinetic includes muscle strengthening and tendinitis treatment by means of eccentric exercises. [less ▲]

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See detailAspects echographiques du coeur du sportif
Pierard, Luc ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(5), 313-7

Sporting activities and athletic training induce not only physiologic, but also morphologic changes. Dynamic training is associated with an enlarged left ventricle and a small increase in wall thickness ... [more ▼]

Sporting activities and athletic training induce not only physiologic, but also morphologic changes. Dynamic training is associated with an enlarged left ventricle and a small increase in wall thickness. Athletes who perform predominantly static or isometric exercise have increased wall thickness with normal left ventricular internal diameter. Systolic and diastolic function are normal. Echocardiography is the method of choice to identify and follow the athlete's heart and to distinguish between physiologic and pathologic hypertrophy. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrochemical strategies for the strengthening of polymer – metal interfaces
Baute, Noëlle; Jérôme, Christine ULg; Martinot, Lucien et al

in European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry (2001), 2001(5), 1097-1107

Polymers have been widely used for the protection of metals against corrosion and for improving the performance of structural adhesive joints. In this contribution, the weakness and short-term durability ... [more ▼]

Polymers have been widely used for the protection of metals against corrosion and for improving the performance of structural adhesive joints. In this contribution, the weakness and short-term durability of these polymer-metal interactions and some common approaches for alleviating this problem are briefly reviewed. Among the existing techniques, electrochemical processes offer the advantage of controlled interfacial reactions. Promising results have been reported by Strat-mann et al. and Le´cayon et al., who have emphasized the interest and opportunity to create strong chemical bonds between the organic coating and the metallic substrate. Their work is discussed in this review, along with results recently obtained in our group [less ▲]

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See detailLes fractures de fatigue chez le sportif
Pirnay, Laurence ULg; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(5), 369-74

Stress fractures are very frequent injuries which account for 10% of all consultations in sports medicine, in a majority of cases affecting the lower limbs in young adults. They can be defined as a ... [more ▼]

Stress fractures are very frequent injuries which account for 10% of all consultations in sports medicine, in a majority of cases affecting the lower limbs in young adults. They can be defined as a modification of the bone structure not necessarily associated with cortical infraction which occurs in the absence of injury. They happen as a result of an imbalance between the bone's capacity for adaptation and the overloading of mechanical constraints applied. This imbalance is adjusted by different favourable factors thus explaining the individual threshold to external demands. In theory, any bone might be damaged although more frequently they are to be found at the level of the tibia or the second and third metatarsals. The clinical picture is dominated by a symptomatology of pain which appears progressively strictly mechanical at the development stage. Further medical examination will include an x-ray (late diagnosis which often gives false-negative results) but, more importantly, a scintigraphy (which is very sensitive at an early stage but which is not specific enough). More recently, MRI has been a preferred means of detection. The treatment consists of obligatory segmented rest for a period of between two and six weeks. The intensity and length of treatment vary in function of the location of the injury and the reoccurrence of pain when the offending activity is restarted again. Rest is of utmost importance in order to avoid an evolution towards a true fracture which would result in long-term isolation from sport and social activities. [less ▲]

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See detailSport et hypertension artérielle
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg; Ancion, G.

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(5), 306-312

Regular physical exercise belongs to the non pharmacological tools for the control of high blood pressure. When practising it almost daily at low intensity during 30 minutes, and mainly on a dynamic mode ... [more ▼]

Regular physical exercise belongs to the non pharmacological tools for the control of high blood pressure. When practising it almost daily at low intensity during 30 minutes, and mainly on a dynamic mode, blood pressure can decrease almost of the same order of magnitude as with an antihypertensive drug. In severe hypertension, blood pressure must be first controlled by drugs before starting the physical exercise training. An exercise test is preferable before exercise suggestion in sedentary people older than 40 years. In hypertensive people who enter sportive competition, diuretics and betablockers are forbidden. These agents can also reduce performance. [less ▲]

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See detailTranslocation (16;17)(Q22;P13) Is a Recurrent Anomaly of Aneurysmal Bone Cysts
Herens, Christian ULg; Thiry, Anne-Marie ULg; Dresse, M. F. et al

in Cancer Genetics & Cytogenetics (2001), 127(1), 83-4

Recently, Panoutsakopoulos et al. (1999) reported 2 cases of aneurysmal bone cysts with a recurrent (16;17)(q22;p13) translocation. We present here two additional cases harboring the same translocation as ... [more ▼]

Recently, Panoutsakopoulos et al. (1999) reported 2 cases of aneurysmal bone cysts with a recurrent (16;17)(q22;p13) translocation. We present here two additional cases harboring the same translocation as well as additional chromosomal changes. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Distribution of Tyrosine Hydroxylase in the Canary Brain: Demonstration of a Specific and Sexually Dimorphic Catecholaminergic Innervation of the Telencephalic Song Control Nulcei
Appeltants, D.; Ball, G. F.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg

in Cell & Tissue Research (2001), 304(2), 237-59

Singing and the processing of auditory information related to song can be affected by experimental manipulations of catecholamine activity in the brain of zebra finches. We investigated, by ... [more ▼]

Singing and the processing of auditory information related to song can be affected by experimental manipulations of catecholamine activity in the brain of zebra finches. We investigated, by immunocytochemistry in the brain of male and female canaries, the distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of catecholamines. Fibers immunoreactive for TH (TH-ir) were particularly abundant in the lobus parolfactorius, the paleostriatum primitivum, and the nucleus septalis lateralis. A high density of TH-ir basket-like structures was observed in the caudomedial neostriatum, an area involved in song perception and recognition. In most males, a high density of TH-ir fibers outlined the telencephalic song control nuclei including the high vocal center, the nucleus robustus archistriatalis, the nucleus interfascialis, the lateral and medial parts of the magnocellular nucleus of the anterior neostriatum, and area X of the lobus parolfactorius. The higher density of fibers immunoreactive for TH in these nuclei, compared with the surrounding telencephalon, supports the notion that the morphological evolution of the song control nuclei was accompanied by a neurochemical specialization. This specific innervation of the song control regions was, in general, not found in females. The specific presence of high densities of TH-ir fibers in the song system of male canaries and the sex difference of this innervation provide anatomical evidence in support of the claim that dopamine and/or norepinephrine play important roles in the modulation of song learning and production. [less ▲]

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See detailRaynaud Phenomenon after Treatment of Verruca Vulgaris of the Sole with Intralesional Injection of Bleomycin
Vanhooteghem, Olivier ULg; Richert, Bertrand ULg; de LA BRASSINNE, Michel ULg

in Pediatric Dermatology (2001), 18(3), 249-251

Intralesional injection of bleomycin (BLM) for the treatment of warts resistant to all conventional therapies is of certain interest because of the drug's low toxicity and its efficacy. However, delayed ... [more ▼]

Intralesional injection of bleomycin (BLM) for the treatment of warts resistant to all conventional therapies is of certain interest because of the drug's low toxicity and its efficacy. However, delayed side effects may appear, particularly Raynaud phenomenon. Accordingly, some precautions must be taken in patients with vascular or collagen diseases and, as a precaution, pregnant or lactating women and infants should not be treated with this drug. [less ▲]

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See detailLe recours de l'assureur-loi : son objet et son assiette.
Michiels, Olivier ULg

in Lexius Actua (2001), 5

L’article 47 de la loi sur les accidents du travail permet à l’assureur loi et au Fonds des accidents du travail d’exercer une action subrogatoire contre le responsable du sinistre à concurrence des ... [more ▼]

L’article 47 de la loi sur les accidents du travail permet à l’assureur loi et au Fonds des accidents du travail d’exercer une action subrogatoire contre le responsable du sinistre à concurrence des sommes versées à la victime ou à ses ayants droit. Cette action ne peut toutefois excéder les montants que la victime ou ses ayants droit auraient pu réclamer du chef du même dommage en vertu du droit commun. Le recours de l’assurance loi ou du Fonds des accidents du travail est limité au montant de la plus faible de ces deux sommes. Aux fins de pouvoir apprécier l’étendue du recours de l’assureur, l'article propose de différencier son objet et son assiette. [less ▲]

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See detailPreparation and properties of layered silicate nanocomposites based on ethylene vinyl acetate copolymers
Alexandre, Michaël ULg; Beyer, Günter; Henrist, Catherine ULg et al

in Macromolecular Rapid Communications (2001), 22(8), 643-646

(Nano)composites based on ethylene vinyl acetate copolymers (EVA) and montmorillonite modified by various alkylammonium cations were processed by mechanical kneading. Polymer intercalation and filler ... [more ▼]

(Nano)composites based on ethylene vinyl acetate copolymers (EVA) and montmorillonite modified by various alkylammonium cations were processed by mechanical kneading. Polymer intercalation and filler exfoliation were evidenced by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Nano-composites tensile properties showed that Young's modulus increases significantly even at very low content of the organo-modified filler while preserving high ultimate elongation and tensile stress. The matrix thermal stability in air was increased by 40°C and, interestingly, the obtained nanocomposites present flame retardant properties. TEM micrograph of the nanocomposite based on EVA3 filled with 5 wt.-% of Mont-2CN2C18. [less ▲]

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See detailSexual Precocity after Immigration from Developing Countries to Belgium: Evidence of Previous Exposure to Organochlorine Pesticides
Krstevska-Konstantinova, M.; Charlier, Corinne ULg; Craen, M. et al

in Human Reproduction (2001), 16(5), 1020-6

In a retrospective auxological study of 145 patients seen in Belgium during a 9-year period for treatment of precocious puberty, 28% appeared to be foreign children (39 girls, one boy) who immigrated 4 to ... [more ▼]

In a retrospective auxological study of 145 patients seen in Belgium during a 9-year period for treatment of precocious puberty, 28% appeared to be foreign children (39 girls, one boy) who immigrated 4 to 5 years earlier from 22 developing countries, without any link to a particular ethnic or country background. The patients were either adopted (n = 28) or non-adopted (n = 12), the latter having normal weight and height at immigration and starting early puberty without evidence of earlier deprivation. This led to the hypothesis that the mechanism of precocious puberty might involve previous exposure to oestrogenic endocrine disrupters. A toxicological plasma screening for eight pesticides detected p,p'-DDE, which is derived from the organochlorine pesticide DDT. Median p,p'-DDE concentrations were respectively 1.20 and 1.04 ng/ml in foreign adopted (n = 15) and non-adopted (n = 11) girls with precocious puberty, while 13 out of 15 Belgian native girls with idiopathic or organic precocious puberty showed undetectable concentrations (<0.1 ng/ml). A possible relationship between transient exposure to endocrine disrupters and sexual precocity is suggested, and deserves further studies in immigrant children with non-advanced puberty. [less ▲]

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See detailPathologie tendineuse du sujet sportif veteran
Bartsch, Valérie ULg; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(5), 375-81

Tendonitis and tendons ruptures are mainly seen above 40 years of age, especially in sport practice. We discuss the physiopathology, diagnosis and treatment.

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See detailSurentrainement et efforts d'endurance
Jidovtseff, Boris ULg; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(5), 343-52

Optimal training results in exercise-recovery harmonious balance. High frequency and volumic training, associated with insufficient recovery may induce overtraining. It depends on the kind of exercise but ... [more ▼]

Optimal training results in exercise-recovery harmonious balance. High frequency and volumic training, associated with insufficient recovery may induce overtraining. It depends on the kind of exercise but occurs mainly in endurance sports. The high frequency of upper respiratory track infection in endurance sportsmen results from a temporary immunosuppression state, possibly associated with overtraining. Many immune and haematological parameters have been associated with overtraining, but none seemed really efficient for diagnosis. Hormonal parameters, despite contradictions in studies, appear to give a good insight of athlete's staleness and are more predictive of overtraining. Actually, overtraining detection needs a combination of different parameters, and cannot sustain on isolated factors. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic Imbalances in Preleukemic Thymuses
Verlaet, Myriam ULg; Deregowski, Valérie; Denis, Ghislaine et al

in Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (2001), 283(1), 12-8

To understand the molecular mechanisms involved in preleukemia, the suppression subtractive hybridization method was used in a murine radiation-induced thymic lymphoma model. Seventeen mRNAs overexpressed ... [more ▼]

To understand the molecular mechanisms involved in preleukemia, the suppression subtractive hybridization method was used in a murine radiation-induced thymic lymphoma model. Seventeen mRNAs overexpressed in preleukemic thymuses were identified: mouse laminin binding protein (p40/37LBP), E25 protein, Rattus norvegicus clone BB.1.4.1, profilin, poly(A) binding protein (PABP), mouse high mobility group protein 1, topoisomerase I, clusterin, proteasome RC1 subunit, rat prostatein C3 and C1 subunits; two ESTs and four unknown genes. The overexpression of PABP, clusterin, profilin, and the p40/37LBP mRNAs was confirmed in preleukemic thymuses and can be related to some cellular events observed during the preleukemic period, i.e., alterations of cell cycle and apoptosis properties. The p40/37LBP and 67-kDa laminin receptor proteins were upregulated during the preleukemic period. The data suggest that additional studies on p40/37LBP and 67-kDa laminin receptor regulation are required to evaluate their potential role in the lymphoma prevention by TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. [less ▲]

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See detailDown-Regulation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor by Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2: Effect on in Vivo Mammary Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis
Hajitou, Amin; Sounni, Nor Eddine ULg; Devy, Laetitia et al

in Cancer Research (2001), 61(8), 3450-7

The tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) has at least two independent functions, i.e., regulation of matrix metalloproteinases and growth promoting activity. We investigated the effects of ... [more ▼]

The tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) has at least two independent functions, i.e., regulation of matrix metalloproteinases and growth promoting activity. We investigated the effects of TIMP-2 overexpression, induced by retroviral mediated gene transfer, on the in vivo development of mammary tumors in syngeneic mice inoculated with EF43.fgf-4 cells. The EF43.fgf-4 cells established by stably infecting the normal mouse mammary EF43 cells with a retroviral expression vector for the fgf-4 oncogene, are highly tumorigenic and overproduce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Despite a promotion of the in vitro growth rate of EF43.fgf-4 cells overexpressing timp-2, the in vivo tumor growth was delayed. At day 17 post-cell injection, the volume of tumor derived from TIMP-2-overexpressing cells was reduced by 80% as compared with that obtained with control cells. Overexpression of TIMP-2 was associated with a down-regulation of VEGF expression in vitro and in vivo, a reduction of vessel size, density, and blood supply in the induced tumors. In addition, TIMP-2 completely inhibited the angiogenic activity of EF43.fgf-4 cell-conditioned medium in vitro using a rat aortic ring model. Our findings suggest that overexpression of TIMP-2 delays growth and angiogenesis of mammary carcinoma in vivo and that down-regulation of VEGF expression may play an important role in this TIMP-2-mediated antitumoral and antiangiogenic effects. Finally the in vivo delivery of TIMP-2, as assessed by i.v. injection of recombinant adenoviruses vectors, significantly reduced the growth of the EF43.fgf-4-induced tumors. This effect of TIMP-2 was shown to be equally comparable with that of angiostatin, a known potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailRadiothérapie vasculaire : un nouveau standard
Coucke, Philippe ULg; Hu Phuoc, Do; Urban, Ph. et al

in Médecine et Hygiène (2001), (3000),

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See detailCombination of Electrografting and Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization: An Efficient Way to Prepare Polynorbornene Brushes on Conducting Substrates
Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Jérôme, Christine ULg; Claes, Michaël et al

in Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English) (2001), 40(7), 1268-1271

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See detailHD 152248: Evidence for a colliding wind interaction
Sana, H.; Rauw, Grégor ULg; Gosset, Eric ULg

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2001), 370

We present the results of a four year spectroscopic campaign on the early-type binary system HD 152248. Our analysis yields a new classification as O7.5III(f) + O7III(f), in contradiction with previous ... [more ▼]

We present the results of a four year spectroscopic campaign on the early-type binary system HD 152248. Our analysis yields a new classification as O7.5III(f) + O7III(f), in contradiction with previous classifications of the components as supergiants. We derive improved orbital elements and the corresponding masses (M_1=29.6 M[SUB]sun[/SUB] and M_2=29.9 M[SUB]sun[/SUB]) are somewhat larger than previously reported in the literature, although they are still significantly lower than the ones expected from evolutionary tracks. Both components of the system are close to filling their Roche lobe at periastron passage. We also investigate the equivalent width variations of the lines of the two components and we discuss their relation to the Struve-Sahade effect. Finally, we show that the line profile variability of the He Iil4686 and Halpha lines is consistent with a strong wind interaction between the two stars, quite as predicted by current colliding wind models. Based on data collected at the European Southern Observatory (La Silla, Chile) and at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (Cerro Tololo, Chile). [less ▲]

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See detailThe European Large Area ISO Survey - IV. The preliminary 90-microns luminosity function
Serjeant, S.; Efstathiou, A.; Oliver, S. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2001), 322

We present the luminosity function of 90-μm-selected galaxies from the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS), extending to z=0.3. Their luminosities are in the range 10[SUP]9[/SUP]< h 65 -2L/L[SUB]solar ... [more ▼]

We present the luminosity function of 90-μm-selected galaxies from the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS), extending to z=0.3. Their luminosities are in the range 10[SUP]9[/SUP]< h 65 -2L/L[SUB]solar[/SUB]<10[SUP]12[/SUP], i.e. non-ultraluminous. From our sample of 37 reliably detected galaxies in the ELAIS S1 region from the Efstathiou et al. S[SUB]90[/SUB]>=100mJy data base, we have found optical, 15-μm or 1.4-GHz identifications for 24 (65 per cent). We have obtained 2dF and UK Schmidt FLAIR spectroscopy of 89 per cent of identifications to rigid multivariate flux limits. We construct a luminosity function assuming that (i) our spectroscopic subset is an unbiased sparse sample, and (ii) there are no galaxies that would not be represented in our spectroscopic sample at any redshift. We argue that we can be confident of both assumptions. We find that the luminosity function is well described by the local 100-μm luminosity function of Rowan-Robinson, Helou & Walker. Assuming this local normalization, we derive luminosity evolution of (1+z)[SUP]2.45+/-0.85[/SUP] (95 per cent confidence). We argue that star formation dominates the bolometric luminosities of these galaxies, and we derive comoving star formation rates in broad agreement with the Flores et al. and Rowan-Robinson et al. mid-infrared-based estimates. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation physiologique de la force explosive du sportif
Lange, B.; Bury, Thierry ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(4), 233-8

Although we all possess the capability for anaerobic and aerobic energy metabolism, the capacity for each form of energy transfer varies considerably among individuals. Sports such as football or ... [more ▼]

Although we all possess the capability for anaerobic and aerobic energy metabolism, the capacity for each form of energy transfer varies considerably among individuals. Sports such as football or weightlifting, rely almost exclusively on energy derived from the muscles's pool of high-energy phosphates. Researchers have proposed different tests to estimate the power-generating capacity of high energy phosphates: stair-sprinting power tests, jumping-power tests or sprint cycling. In reality, however, it is difficult to obtain precise physiological or biochemical data during all-out exercise of brief duration. [less ▲]

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See detailLa peau, le froid et les sports d'hiver
Claes, G.; Henry, Frédérique ULg; Letawe, C. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(4), 257-60

Winter sports are responsible for various dermatoses which could be often avoided by simple preventive procedures. Both the severity and duration of cold exposure combined with wind speed, altitude and ... [more ▼]

Winter sports are responsible for various dermatoses which could be often avoided by simple preventive procedures. Both the severity and duration of cold exposure combined with wind speed, altitude and environmental hygrometric value govern the potential types of cold injuries. [less ▲]

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See detailOn-Line Coupling of Partial Filling-Capillary Zone Electrophoresis with Mass Spectrometry for the Separation of Clenbuterol Enantiomers
Toussaint, B.; Palmer, M.; Chiap, Patrice ULg et al

in Electrophoresis (2001), 22(7), 1363-72

The on-line coupling of capillary zone electrophoresis with mass spectrometry (CZE-MS) for the separation of enantiomers is hampered by the presence of nonvolatile chiral selectors such as cyclodextrins ... [more ▼]

The on-line coupling of capillary zone electrophoresis with mass spectrometry (CZE-MS) for the separation of enantiomers is hampered by the presence of nonvolatile chiral selectors such as cyclodextrins in the separation buffer. This problem can be overcome by use of the partial filling technique where only a part of the capillary is filled with the separation buffer containing chiral selectors. Since the electroosmotic flow is almost completely suppressed at acidic pH, that dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin is neutral, no free cyclodextrin would reach the MS detector when using a partially filled capillary. By this method, clenbuterol enantiomers were successfully resolved and separated from salbutamol (internal standard) in aqueous solution and in plasma samples. A solid-phase extraction (SPE) was used for the preparation of plasma samples before analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of two genes encoding the mitochondrial alternative oxidase in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
Dinant, Monique; Baurain, Denis ULg; Coosemans, Nadine ULg et al

in Current Genetics (2001), 39(2), 101-108

Two cDNA clones (AOX1 and AOX2) and the corresponding genes encoding the alternative oxidases (AOXs) from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were isolated and sequenced. The cDNAs, AOX1 and AOX2, contained open ... [more ▼]

Two cDNA clones (AOX1 and AOX2) and the corresponding genes encoding the alternative oxidases (AOXs) from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were isolated and sequenced. The cDNAs, AOX1 and AOX2, contained open reading frames (ORFs) encoding putative proteins of 360 amino acids and 347 amino acids, respectively. For each of the ORFs, a potential mitochondrial-targeting sequence was found in the 5'-end regions. In comparison to AOX enzymes from plants and fungi, the predicted amino acid sequences of the ORFs showed their highest degree of identity with proteins from Aspergillus niger (38.1% and 37.2%) and Ajellomyces capsulatus (37% and 34.9%). Several residues supposed either to be Fe ligands or to be involved in the ubiquinol-binding site were fully conserved in both C. reinhardtii putative AOX proteins. In contrast, a cysteine residue conserved in the sequences of all higher plants and probably involved in the regulation of the enzyme activity was missing both from the AOX1 and AOX2 amino acid sequences and from protein sequences from various other microorganisms. The transcriptional expression of the AOX1 and AOX2 genes in wild-type cells and in mutant cells deficient in mitochondrial complex III activity was also investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailOn Comparison Meaningfulness of Aggregation Functions
Marichal, Jean-Luc; Mathonet, Pierre ULg

in Journal of Mathematical Psychology (2001), 45(2), 213-223

This paper will give a description of all continuous functions which are comparison meaningful in the sense of measurement theory.

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See detailCold-Adapted Beta-Galactosidase from the Antarctic Psychrophile Pseudoalteromonas Haloplanktis
Hoyoux, A.; Jennes, I.; Dubois, P. et al

in Applied and Environmental Microbiology (2001), 67(4), 1529-35

The beta-galactosidase from the Antarctic gram-negative bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAE 79 was purified to homogeneity. The nucleotide sequence and the NH(2)-terminal amino acid sequence of ... [more ▼]

The beta-galactosidase from the Antarctic gram-negative bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAE 79 was purified to homogeneity. The nucleotide sequence and the NH(2)-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified enzyme indicate that the beta-galactosidase subunit is composed of 1,038 amino acids with a calculated M(r) of 118,068. This beta-galactosidase shares structural properties with Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase (comparable subunit mass, 51% amino sequence identity, conservation of amino acid residues involved in catalysis, similar optimal pH value, and requirement for divalent metal ions) but is characterized by a higher catalytic efficiency on synthetic and natural substrates and by a shift of apparent optimum activity toward low temperatures and lower thermal stability. The enzyme also differs by a higher pI (7.8) and by specific thermodynamic activation parameters. P. haloplanktis beta-galactosidase was expressed in E. coli, and the recombinant enzyme displays properties identical to those of the wild-type enzyme. Heat-induced unfolding monitored by intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy showed lower melting point values for both P. haloplanktis wild-type and recombinant beta-galactosidase compared to the mesophilic enzyme. Assays of lactose hydrolysis in milk demonstrate that P. haloplanktis beta-galactosidase can outperform the current commercial beta-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces marxianus var. lactis, suggesting that the cold-adapted beta-galactosidase could be used to hydrolyze lactose in dairy products processed in refrigerated plants. [less ▲]

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See detailRobust global state feedback stabilization of cement mills
Grognard, F.; Jadot, F.; Magni, L. et al

in IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control (2001), 46(4), 618-623

Plugging is well known to be a major cause of instability in industrial cement mills. A simple nonlinear model able to simulate the plugging phenomenon is presented. It is shown how a nonlinear robust ... [more ▼]

Plugging is well known to be a major cause of instability in industrial cement mills. A simple nonlinear model able to simulate the plugging phenomenon is presented. It is shown how a nonlinear robust controller can be designed in order to fully prevent the mill from plugging [less ▲]

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See detailErgospirométrie en pratique médicale
Lange, B.; Close, Patricia ULg; Bury, Thierry ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(4), 228-32

Cardiopulmonary exercise testing is a unique tool to assess the limits and mechanisms of exercise tolerance. It is also useful for establishing the profiles and adequacy of the responses of the systems at ... [more ▼]

Cardiopulmonary exercise testing is a unique tool to assess the limits and mechanisms of exercise tolerance. It is also useful for establishing the profiles and adequacy of the responses of the systems at submaximal and maximal exercises. The measure of VO2 max (maximal oxygen uptake) has become the "benchmark" to quantify cardiovascular functional capacity and aerobic fitness. [less ▲]

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See detailMating Induces Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neuronal Activation in Anosmic Female Ferrets
Bakker, Julie ULg; Kelliher, K. R.; Baum, M. J.

in Biology of Reproduction (2001), 64(4), 1100-5

In females of both spontaneously and induced ovulating species, pheromones from male conspecifics can directly stimulate GnRH neuronal activity, thereby inducing pituitary LH secretion and stimulating the ... [more ▼]

In females of both spontaneously and induced ovulating species, pheromones from male conspecifics can directly stimulate GnRH neuronal activity, thereby inducing pituitary LH secretion and stimulating the onset of estrus. However, whether pheromones contribute to the steroid- or mating-induced preovulatory activation of GnRH neurons is less clear. Previous studies in the ferret, an induced ovulator, raised the possibility that olfactory cues contribute to the ability of genital-somatosensory stimulation to activate GnRH neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH). In the present study the percentage of GnRH neurons colabeled with Fos-immunoreactivity (IR), used as a marker for neuronal activation, was investigated in the MBH of mated gonadectomized, estradiol-treated female ferrets in which both nares were occluded. In addition, the percentage of GnRH neurons colabeled with Fos-IR was examined in the MBH of gonadectomized, estradiol-treated female ferrets exposed to male bedding. Bilateral nares occlusion successfully blocked mating or odor-induced increments in Fos-IR in central olfactory regions, including the cortical and medial amygdala. By contrast, the percentage of GnRH neurons expressing Fos-IR did not differ between mated nares- and sham-occluded females. Exposure to male bedding alone failed to induce Fos-IR in MBH GnRH neurons. Thus, the mating-induced preovulatory activation of GnRH neurons in the female ferret's MBH appears to rely solely on genital-somatosensory as opposed to olfactory inputs. [less ▲]

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See detailL'alimentation du sportif
Paquot, Nicolas ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(4), 200-3

All nutrition recommendations for athletes must be based on current scientific data and the needs of athletes as individuals. Exercise performance may be improved by adequate food intake. Adequate energy ... [more ▼]

All nutrition recommendations for athletes must be based on current scientific data and the needs of athletes as individuals. Exercise performance may be improved by adequate food intake. Adequate energy intake needs to be consumed during times of high-intensity training to maintain body weight and maximize the training effect. Carbohydrates are important to maintain blood-glucose and replace muscle glycogen. During exercise, carbohydrates must be provided at the rate of 30 to 60 g per h. Fat intake should not be restricted. No vitamin and mineral supplements should be required if an athlete is consuming adequate energy from a variety of foods. Deshydratation decreases exercise performance. Two hours before exercise 400 to 600 ml of fluid should be consumed and during exercise 150 to 350 ml of fluid every 15 to 20 min. After exercise, the dietary goal is to provide adequate energy and carbohydrate to replace muscle glycogen and ensure rapid recovery. [less ▲]

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See detailObservations
Lecocq, Pascale ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2001), (15), 652-654

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See detailReduced dopaminergic activity in depressed suicides
PITCHOT, William ULg; Reggers, Jean ULg; Pinto, Emmanuel ULg et al

in Psychoneuroendocrinology (2001), 26(3), 331-335

Several data are available about the implication of the dopaminergic system in the control of inward-directed aggression. Previously, we suggested an involvement of D2-dopaminergic function in the ... [more ▼]

Several data are available about the implication of the dopaminergic system in the control of inward-directed aggression. Previously, we suggested an involvement of D2-dopaminergic function in the expression of suicidal behavior by demonstrating a smaller growth hormone (GH) response to apomorphine, a dopaminergic agonist, in depressed patients with a history of suicide attempts in comparison to nonattempters. In the present study, the purpose was to analyze GH responses to apomorphine in depressive patients who later died by suicide. Our sample comprised eight male depressive inpatients who died by suicide within one year after hospitalisation. These patients were compared to 18 male major depressed inpatients who never attempted suicide. Mean GH peak responses to apomorphine differed significantly between suicide completers and controls (mean +/- SD): for GH peak, 7.6 +/- 4.1 ng/ml vs 18.9 +/- 14.2 ng/ml, U = 30, Z = -2.33, P = 0.02. Our results tend to confirm the role of dopamine in the biology of suicide in depression. [less ▲]

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See detailMicellization of quaternized poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) copolymers in water
Antoun, Sayed; Gohy, Jean-François; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Polymer (2001), 42(8), 3641-3648

Micellization of a series of amphiphilic quaternized poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PQDMAEMA-b-PMMA) copolymers has been studied in water. The alkyl halide used ... [more ▼]

Micellization of a series of amphiphilic quaternized poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PQDMAEMA-b-PMMA) copolymers has been studied in water. The alkyl halide used for the quaternization of the aminated block has an effect on the solution properties of the diblocks, that have been investigated by dynamic light scattering and surface tension measurements. When a short length alkyl halide is used, the diblock copolymers behave like traditional amphiphiles, whereas their behavior is similar to polysoaps in case of long alkyl halides. The size of the micelles increases when 1-bromopropan-3-ol is substituted for 1-bromopropane in the quaternization reaction. It is, however, independent of the structure of butyl bromide, i.e. n-butyl vs tert-butyl bromide. The solution properties of a star-shaped PQDMAEMA-b-PMMA copolymer have also been studied and compared to the linear counterpart. The star-shaped architecture actually prevents the block copolymer to be properly oriented at the air/water interface in agreement with the formation of unimer micelles. [less ▲]

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See detailBiochemical Characterization of the Fez-1 Metallo-Beta-Lactamase of Legionella Gormanii Atcc 33297t Produced in Escherichia Coli
Mercuri, Paola ULg; Bouillenne, Fabrice ULg; Boschi, L. et al

in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (2001), 45(4), 1254-62

The bla(FEZ-1) gene coding for the metallo-beta-lactamase of Legionella (Fluoribacter) gormanii ATCC 33297T was overexpressed via a T7 expression system in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)(pLysS). The product ... [more ▼]

The bla(FEZ-1) gene coding for the metallo-beta-lactamase of Legionella (Fluoribacter) gormanii ATCC 33297T was overexpressed via a T7 expression system in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)(pLysS). The product was purified to homogeneity in two steps with a yield of 53%. The FEZ-1 metallo-beta-lactamase exhibited a broad-spectrum activity profile, with a preference for cephalosporins such as cephalothin, cefuroxime, and cefotaxime. Monobactams were not hydrolyzed. The beta-lactamase was inhibited by metal chelators. FEZ-1 is a monomeric enzyme with a molecular mass of 29,440 Da which possesses two zinc-binding sites. Its zinc content did not vary in the pH range of 5 to 9, but the presence of zinc ions modified the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme. A model of the FEZ-1 three-dimensional structure was built. [less ▲]

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See detailNew Functions of Stromal Proteases and Their Inhibitors in Tumor Progression
Noël, Agnès ULg; Albert, V.; Bajou, Khalid ULg et al

in Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America (2001), 10(2), 417-32

Acquisition of invasive metastatic potential through protease expression is a key event in tumor progression. In carcinomas, the production of metalloproteinases and serine proteinases is regulated by a ... [more ▼]

Acquisition of invasive metastatic potential through protease expression is a key event in tumor progression. In carcinomas, the production of metalloproteinases and serine proteinases is regulated by a cross talk between stromal cells and cancer cells. Paradoxically, high rather than low levels of their inhibitors predict poor survival of patients suffering from a variety of cancers. Recent observations suggest a much more complex role of these inhibitors in tumor progression than expected initially. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphology and mechanical properties of poly(methylmethacrylate)-b-poly(alkylacrylate)-b-poly(methylmethacrylate)
Tong, J. D.; Leclère, Philippe; Doneux, C. et al

in Polymer (2001), 42(8), 3503-3514

A series of well-defined poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA)-b-poly(alkylacrylate)-b-PMMA triblock copolymers (MAM) has been synthesized by transalcoholysis of PMMA-b-poly(tert-butylacrylate)-b-PMMA ... [more ▼]

A series of well-defined poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA)-b-poly(alkylacrylate)-b-PMMA triblock copolymers (MAM) has been synthesized by transalcoholysis of PMMA-b-poly(tert-butylacrylate)-b-PMMA precursors by alkyl alcohols. The molecular weight (MW) of the outer PMMA blocks is in the 10,000-50,000 range, compared to 50,000-200,000 for the inner poly(alkylacrylate) block. Phase separation, as studied in direct space by atomic force microscopy, is observed for all the investigated triblock copolymers, except for the PMMA-b-poly(ethylacrylate)-b-PMMA and the PMMA-b-poly(n-propylacrylate)-b-PMMA triblocks of 10,000-50,000-10,000 MW. The ultimate tensile strength measured for the MAM triblocks is strongly dependent on the MW between chain entanglements for the central block. The tensile behavior is however affected by the partial miscibility of the outer and inner blocks when the PMMA MW is low. When this situation prevails, it makes the melt processing possible at temperatures lower than 200°C. [less ▲]

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See detailLe dépôt et la délivrance du brevet
Bougrine, Hassan ULg

in Cahiers de la Documentation = Bladen voor Documentatie (2001), (N/r1), 5-10

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See detailDetection of Cytokines in Human Sural Nerve Biopsies: An Immunohistochemical and Molecular Study
Deprez, Manuel ULg; Lübke, U.; Verlaet, Myriam ULg et al

in Acta Neuropathologica (2001), 101(4), 393-404

In vitro and in vivo models have implicated numerous cytokines as major modulators of inflammation, destruction and repair in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The in situ production of cytokines in ... [more ▼]

In vitro and in vivo models have implicated numerous cytokines as major modulators of inflammation, destruction and repair in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The in situ production of cytokines in human peripheral nerve disorders is still poorly documented. We studied the expression of interleukin (IL)-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, IL-6, IL-10, IL-4, IL-3 and nerve growth factor (NGF) in 35 human sural nerve biopsies using immunohistochemistry; additional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and mRNA in situ hybridization were performed for IL-4 and NGF. Expression of IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha was shown in both morphologically normal nerves and various neuropathies, and macrophages appeared as their predominant source. Levels of IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha expression were significantly correlated (P < 0.01) with each other and with expression of NGF. Multiple endoneurial sources were suggested for IL-6 and IL-10 with low immunoreactivity in the vast majority of cases. Conversely, IL-4 and IL-3 expression were found in neuropathies of various etiologies and Schwann cells appeared to be a predominant source of IL-4 in double-labeling immunofluorescence studies. IL-3 immunoreactivity correlated with IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha and IL-6. In this retrospective study, no specific cytokine profile of expression could be assigned to a precise subgroup of neuropathies. This is the first report of IL-4 and IL-3 expression in human neuropathies, and it may be important given the potential role of these cytokines in modulating macrophage activity in the PNS. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 on Choroidal Neovascularization
Lambert, Vincent ULg; Munaut, Carine ULg; Frankenne, F. et al

in FASEB Journal (2001), 15(6), 1021-7

High levels of the plasminogen activators, but also their inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), have been documented in neovascularization of severe ocular pathologies such as diabetic ... [more ▼]

High levels of the plasminogen activators, but also their inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), have been documented in neovascularization of severe ocular pathologies such as diabetic retinopathy or age-related macular degeneration (AMD). AMD is the primary cause of irreversible photoreceptors loss, and current therapies are limited. PAI-1 has recently been shown to be essential for tumoral angiogenesis. We report here that deficient PAI-1 expression in mice prevented the development of subretinal choroidal angiogenesis induced by laser photocoagulation. When systemic and local PAI-1 expression was achieved by intravenous injection of a replication-defective adenoviral vector expressing human PAI-1 cDNA, the wild-type pattern of choroidal angiogenesis was restored. These observations demonstrate the proangiogenic activity of PAI-1 not only in tumoral models, but also in choroidal experimental neovascularization sharing similarities with human AMD. They identify therefore PAI-1 as a potential target for therapeutic ocular anti-angiogenic strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychological Evolution and Assessment in Patients Undergoing Orthotopic Heart Transplantation
Triffaux, Jean-Marc ULg; Wauthy, Jacques ULg; Bertrand, Jean-Marie ULg et al

in European Psychiatry (2001), 16(3), 180-5

BACKGROUND: Orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) is a major surgical intervention inducing distress and anxiety. Psychiatric evaluation of organ transplant candidates is now routinely proposed. This ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) is a major surgical intervention inducing distress and anxiety. Psychiatric evaluation of organ transplant candidates is now routinely proposed. This study purposed to assess the psychological evolution in patients having received psychological and/or psychiatric assistance before and during 1-6 postoperative months. METHODS: Twenty-two consecutive transplant candidates were psychically evaluated as part of the preoperative protocol. In the waiting period, 1 and 6 months after OHT, they were asked to fill out the following questionnaires: the General Health Questionnaire, the Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Perceived Social Support Scale, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale and the Personal Reaction Inventory. RESULTS: A DSM-IV Axis I diagnosis was found in nine patients (41%); four patients (18%) presented with an Axis II diagnosis. One month after OHT, scores of depression, anxiety and general health significantly improved, while scores of social support, alexithymia and social desirability did not differ. In the sixth postoperative month, all psychological scores remained stable. CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of preoperative psychopathology was reported in 22 candidates who received OHT. Surgical intervention obviously improved the quality of life after cardiac transplantation. If the impact of psychological and/or psychiatric aid remains difficult to appraise, these results emphasize the positive impact of surgery on psychological status and the appropriateness of the psychosomatician's social support intervention on patients facing the transplant process. [less ▲]

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See detailSport et grossesse
Emonts, Patrick ULg; Thoumsin, H.; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(4), 216-8

Pregnant women consult often their obstetricians for counselling about their way of living. Particularly answering questions concerning physical activity and sports during pregnancy require a profound ... [more ▼]

Pregnant women consult often their obstetricians for counselling about their way of living. Particularly answering questions concerning physical activity and sports during pregnancy require a profound knowledge on the physiological adaptations of pregnancy and, on the other hand, on performance and sports physiology. On the basis of the current state of research, physical exercise and sport are to be recommended during pregnancy so long as women are aware of potential dangers and contraindications. Maternal benefits and fetal benefits have today been demonstrated. [less ▲]

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See detailIncrease of the Photosensitizing Efficiency of the Bacteriochlorin a by Liposome-Incorporation
Damoiseau, X.; Schuitmaker, H. J.; Lagerberg, J. W. et al

in Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B : Biology (2001), 60(1), 50-60

To describe the action mechanisms of Bacteriochlorin a (BCA), a second generation photosensitizer, in phosphate buffer (PB) and in dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) liposomes we carried out oxygen ... [more ▼]

To describe the action mechanisms of Bacteriochlorin a (BCA), a second generation photosensitizer, in phosphate buffer (PB) and in dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) liposomes we carried out oxygen consumption and ESR measurements. In PB, where BCA was in a monomer-dimer equilibrium, our results suggested that the oxygen consumption was related to the BCA monomers concentration in solution. Incorporation of BCA in DMPC liposomes, by promoting the monomerization of BCA, increased 9-fold the oxygen consumption in comparison to the value in PB. The use of specific singlet oxygen quenchers (Azide and 9,10-Anthracenedipropionic acid) in ESR and oxygen consumption experiments allowed us to assert that BCA was mainly a type II sensitizer when it was incorporated in DMPC. Finally, the cell survival of WiDr cells after a PDT treatment was measured for cells incubated with BCA in cell culture medium and cells incubated with BCA in DMPC. Irrespective of the dye concentration, the cell survival was lower when liposomes were used. This effect could be the result of a better BCA monomerization and/or a different BCA uptake in cells. [less ▲]

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See detailAu-dela de la performance athletique, la trahison de la peau
Martalo, O.; Claessens, N.; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(4), 261-4

Several compounds listed as illicit doping agents can express some effects on the skin. The cutaneous signs are diverse. The clue of the intake of such compounds can be supported by objective non-invasive ... [more ▼]

Several compounds listed as illicit doping agents can express some effects on the skin. The cutaneous signs are diverse. The clue of the intake of such compounds can be supported by objective non-invasive biometrological assessments. However, such evaluations do not bring the irrefutable proof. The skin can also present unwanted reactions indicating intolerance to the doping agent. Such physiopathological manifestations are not limited to the sport competition, but can also affect some groups of the population searching for a look reminiscent of the ideal young and performing athlete. [less ▲]

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See detailDiblock polyampholytes at the silicon-water interface: adsorption as a function of block ratio and molecular weight
Mahltig, Boris; Gohy, Jean-François; Jérôme, Robert ULg et al

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part B, Polymer Physics (2001), 39(6), 709-718

Polyampholytes are highly charged macromolecules carrying oppositely charged functional groups. This article reports on the adsorption of a weak diblock polyampholyte, poly(methacrylic acid)-block-poly ... [more ▼]

Polyampholytes are highly charged macromolecules carrying oppositely charged functional groups. This article reports on the adsorption of a weak diblock polyampholyte, poly(methacrylic acid)-block-poly[(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate], as a function of the copolymer composition and molecular weight. The adsorption experiments were performed on silicon substrates from aqueous polymer solutions at different pHs. The amount of adsorbed polyampholyte chains to the surface was determined by ellipsometry, whereas lateral structures were investigated by scanning force microscopy. A strong influence of pH on the adsorbed amount and the lateral structure formation at the surface was observed. Especially at the isoelectric point, drastic changes in adsorption behavior were detected. At low molecular weights, an increased adsorbed amount was detected, a behavior in contrast to common theoretical predictions. This phenomenon is explained by the high stability of absorbed micelles, which cover the silicon surface as a dense layer. We conclude that micelle formation is an important process for polyampholyte adsorption, which needs to be taken into account more explicitly. [less ▲]

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See detailL'avenir du nucléaire militaire
Dumoulin, André ULg

in Problèmes politiques et sociaux (2001), (854),

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See detailPolylactide implants and bacterial contamination: an animal study
Mainil-Varlet, Pierre; Hauke, Christian; Maquet, Véronique et al

in Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, Part A (2001), 54(3), 335-343

Although bioresorbable aliphatic polyesters derived from lactic acid are now used clinically as sutures, bone-fracture fixation devices and sustained-release drug-delivery systems, very little is known ... [more ▼]

Although bioresorbable aliphatic polyesters derived from lactic acid are now used clinically as sutures, bone-fracture fixation devices and sustained-release drug-delivery systems, very little is known about their behavior in the infected environment. The aim of the present study was to compare the resistance to infection of two polylactide implants with different degradation characteristics, and to evaluate the influence of a bacterial challenge on their mechanical and physicochemical properties. Various quantities of a beta-haemolyzing strain of Staphylococus aureus (V 8189-94) were inoculated into the medullary cavity of rabbit tibiae, and an extruded polylactide rod composed of either P(L)LA (Poly(L-Lactide)) or P(L/DL)LA (Poly(L/DL-Lactide)) was then inserted. Animals were sacrificed four weeks after surgery. The tibiae and implants were removed under sterile conditions and evaluated microbiologically by culturing. The severity of infection was graded according to positive colony-forming units in the bone. The mechanical properties of the retrieved implants were assessed by 4-point bending and shear tests, performed in compliance with the ASTM D790 standard and their physicochemical characteristics also were characterized. P(L)LA and P(L/DL)LA implants were equally resistant to local infection, their mechanical and physicochemical properties being unaffected by bacterial challenge. Hence, once an infection has become established, the release of bactericidal/bacteriostatic by-products during implant degradation does not appear to affect its natural course. The release of bactericidal/bacteriostatic degradation products at the implantation site is unlikely to affect the natural course of an established infection. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrooxidation Potential as a Tool in the Early Screening for New Safer Clozapine-Like Analogues
Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange ULg; Kauffmann, J. M.; Petit, C. et al

in Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2001), 44(5), 769-76

The chemical modification of clozapine (1) has permitted the finding of new analogues, e.g., olanzapine (2), quetiapine (3), 5-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-8-chloropyrido[2,3-b][1,5]benzoxazepine fumarate (9 ... [more ▼]

The chemical modification of clozapine (1) has permitted the finding of new analogues, e.g., olanzapine (2), quetiapine (3), 5-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-8-chloropyrido[2,3-b][1,5]benzoxazepine fumarate (9), with a clinical or psychopharmacological profile similar to that of clozapine. However, when developing new derivatives, the designers are discouraged by the development of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis. Different researchers have raised the role played by the oxidizability of the molecule in such a deleterious effect. In the present paper, we examined the oxidation profile (direct scavenging abilities, efficacy in inhibiting lipid peroxidation, and electrooxidation potential) of newly developed methoxy and trifluoromethylsulfonyloxy analogues related to clozapine, some of them being described as putative antipsychotic. The oxazepine derivative 7, unlike the other diazepine derivatives (6, 10--12), was not readily oxidized. Using a statistical predictive model for hematotoxicity previously described, 7 was found in the cluster of potentially nontoxic compounds while diazepine derivatives 6 and 10-12 were classified as potentially toxic compounds. Among these original compounds, 7, which presents a preclinical clozapine-like profile and a low sensitivity to oxidation, could be a promising antipsychotic candidate with low side effects. Considering the tricyclic derivatives examined so far, some elements of structure-oxidation relationship (SOR) might be pointed out. Regarding the nature of the tricyclic ring substituent, from the most to the least sensitive to oxidation, the sequence was as follows: HO > Cl > CH(3)O > CF(3)SO(2)O. The nature of the tricyclic ring influenced also the sensitivity to oxidation; the diazepine moiety appeared to be the most reactive ring compared to oxa- and thiazepine congeners. These parameters could be advantageously integrated in the early design of new safer clozapine-like analogues. [less ▲]

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See detailA fluorescence model of the C[SUB]3[/SUB] radical in comets
Rousselot, P.; Arpigny, Claude ULg; Rauer, H. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2001), 368

Theoretical resonance fluorescence calculations are presented of the triatomic C[SUB]3[/SUB] radical and are compared with observations of the C[SUB]3[/SUB] emission in comets Hale-Bopp and de Vico. A ... [more ▼]

Theoretical resonance fluorescence calculations are presented of the triatomic C[SUB]3[/SUB] radical and are compared with observations of the C[SUB]3[/SUB] emission in comets Hale-Bopp and de Vico. A theoretical model of the C[SUB]3[/SUB] vibration-rotational structure in the A[SUP]1[/SUP]Pi[SUB]u[/SUB] - X[SUP]1[/SUP]Sigma[SUB]g[/SUB] [SUP]+[/SUP] electronic system is introduced. The model takes into account the detailed structure of the bending mode nu[SUB]2[/SUB] which is responsible for the emission of the 4050 à group. A total of 1959 levels are considered, with 515 levels in the ground state. The main effort is to model high-resolution spectra of the 4050 à emission in comets C/1995 O1 Hale-Bopp and 122P/1995 S1 de Vico. The agreement between observed and theoretical spectra is good for a value of the dipole moment derivative of dmu/dr ~ 2.5 Debye à [SUP]-1[/SUP]. The modeled C[SUB]3[/SUB] emission exhibits a pronounced Swings effect. Based on observations made with William Herschel Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, and on observations made at the McDonald Observatory, which is operated by the University of Texas at Austin, USA. [less ▲]

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See detailThe electron and proton aurora as seen by IMAGE-FUV and FAST
Frey, H. U.; Mende, S. B.; Carlson, C. W. et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2001), 28

The Far Ultraviolet Instrument (FUV) on the IMAGE spacecraft observes the aurora in three different channels. One of them (SI12) is sensitive to the signal from precipitating protons, while the other two ... [more ▼]

The Far Ultraviolet Instrument (FUV) on the IMAGE spacecraft observes the aurora in three different channels. One of them (SI12) is sensitive to the signal from precipitating protons, while the other two (WIC and SI13) observe auroral emissions which are not only excited by precipitating electrons, but also by protons. We examine a period when in-situ particle measurements by the FAST spacecraft were available simultaneously with global imaging with FUV. The measured electron and proton energy spectra are used to calculate the auroral brightness along the FAST orbit. The comparison with the FUV/IMAGE observations shows good quantitative agreement and demonstrates that under certain circumstances high proton fluxes may produce significant amounts of auroral FUV emission. [less ▲]

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See detailIon outflow observed by IMAGE: Implications for source regions and heating mechanisms
Fuselier, S. A.; Ghielmetti, A. G.; Moore, T. E. et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2001), 28

Images of the Earth's proton aurora from the IMAGE spacecraft on 8 June 2000 indicate a temporally and spatially isolated ionospheric response to a shock that impinged on the Earth's magnetopause ... [more ▼]

Images of the Earth's proton aurora from the IMAGE spacecraft on 8 June 2000 indicate a temporally and spatially isolated ionospheric response to a shock that impinged on the Earth's magnetopause. Sometime after this ionospheric response, the Low Energy Neutral Atom imager on IMAGE detected enhanced ionospheric outflow. The time delay between the ionospheric response and the enhanced outflow is consistent with the travel time of ~30 eV neutral Oxygen (created by charge exchange of outflowing O[SUP]+[/SUP] with the exosphere) from the low altitude ionosphere to the spacecraft. The prompt ionospheric outflow implies that the shock deposited sufficient energy in the topside ionosphere near or above the O[SUP]+[/SUP] exobase to initiate the outflow. [less ▲]

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See detailThe strange case of the massive binary HD 149404
Rauw, Grégor ULg; Nazé, Yaël ULg; Carrier, F. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2001), 368

We report the analysis of an extensive set of high-resolution spectroscopic observations of the massive binary system HD 149404. We compare different techniques to measure the radial velocities of the ... [more ▼]

We report the analysis of an extensive set of high-resolution spectroscopic observations of the massive binary system HD 149404. We compare different techniques to measure the radial velocities of the heavily blended absorption lines and we derive a new orbital solution. The absorption lines display strong variability that slightly affects the orbital solution and the determination of the spectral types of the components of the binary. We find that the primary is probably of spectral type O7.5 I(f), while the secondary is most likely an ON9.7 I supergiant. The secondary seems to be the most evolved component of the system and its current evolutionary status could best be explained if the system has undergone a Roche lobe overflow episode during the past. The secondary could actually still be rather close to filling its critical volume and this could lead to an enhanced mass loss of the secondary. The spectrum of HD 149404 displays many emission lines some of which show phase-locked line profile variations. In particular, the Halpha line displays a double-peaked morphology at orbital phases near conjunction. We investigate the radial velocity behaviour of the emission lines and we find that some of them must be formed in an interaction region. We propose a simple model where some of the optical emission lines arise in a heavily bended shock region. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory (La Silla, Chile) and at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). [less ▲]

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See detailGlobal observations of proton and electron auroras in a substorm
Mende, S. B.; Frey, H. U.; Lampton, M. et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2001), 28

This is the first report of a substorm observed by the IMAGE FUV instruments permitting global observations of electron and proton produced auroras. On the 28th of June 2000 at 1956 UT in the pre-substorm ... [more ▼]

This is the first report of a substorm observed by the IMAGE FUV instruments permitting global observations of electron and proton produced auroras. On the 28th of June 2000 at 1956 UT in the pre-substorm phase at early evening local time the proton aurora was equatorward of the electron precipitation and near midnight they were collocated. There was bright electron and proton aurora in the post midday afternoon side. The sudden brightening of the aurora at substorm onset near midnight is seen in the electrons only although there are protons present at this location. During the expansive phase both the electrons and protons expand poleward. The electron aurora forms a bright surge at the poleward boundary while the protons just show diffuse spreading. The peak intensity of the protons did not change substantially during the entire event. The proton aurora is brighter on the dusk while the electron aurora on the dawn side. As the electron surge expands poleward it leaves the protons behind. The electrons form a discrete auroral feature near the aurora-polar cap boundary, which is devoid of substantial energetic (>1 keV) proton precipitation. The presence of precipitating protons at the point where the initial brightening is seen shows that substorms are initiated on closed field lines. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment and Validation of an Automated Method for the Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Sotalol in Plasma Using Dialysis and Trace Enrichment on a Cation-Exchange Pre-Column as on-Line Sample Preparation
Chiap, Patrice ULg; Ceccato, Attilio ULg; Miralles Buraglia, B. et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2001), 24(5-6), 801-14

A fully automated method for the determination of sotalol in human plasma was developed, involving dialysis through a cellulose acetate membrane, clean-up and enrichment of the dialysate on a strong ... [more ▼]

A fully automated method for the determination of sotalol in human plasma was developed, involving dialysis through a cellulose acetate membrane, clean-up and enrichment of the dialysate on a strong cation-exchange pre-column and subsequent liquid chromatographic (LC) analysis with UV detection. All sample handling operations were carried out by means of an ASTED system. Before starting dialysis, the trace enrichment column (TEC) was conditioned. The plasma sample, to which the internal standard (atenolol) was automatically added, was then loaded in the donor channel and was kept static while the dialysis liquid, consisting of 0.017 M acetic acid, was passed through the acceptor channel in successive pulses. After each pulse, the dialysate was dispensed onto the TEC. When dialysis was discontinued, the analytes were eluted from the TEC by the LC mobile phase by rotation of a switching valve and transferred to the analytical column packed with octyl silica. The LC mobile phase was a mixture of methanol and pH 7.0 phosphate buffer containing 1-octanesulfonate at a concentration of 7.5 x 10(-4) M (19:81; v/v). The UV detection was performed at 230 nm. The influence of several parameters of the dialysis and trace enrichment processes on analyte recovery and method selectivity was investigated. The method was then validated. The mean absolute recovery for sotalol was about 60%. The limit of quantitation was 25 ng/ml and R.S.D. for repeatability and intermediate precision obtained at a concentration level of 50 ng/ml were 4.3 and 5.8%, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailNew generation antiepileptics for facial pain and headache
DELVAUX, Valérie ULg; Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2001), 101(1), 42-46

The prophylactic management of recurrent head and facial pains may be challenging because of lack of efficacy and/or bothersome adverse effects of available drug therapies. New generation antiepileptic ... [more ▼]

The prophylactic management of recurrent head and facial pains may be challenging because of lack of efficacy and/or bothersome adverse effects of available drug therapies. New generation antiepileptic drugs offer new perspectives in difficult cases. We will review the available published data and present our experience with lamotrigine in various head and facial pains such as migraine, cluster headache, neuropathic trigeminal pain, atypical facial pain, and chronic tension-type headache. Twenty-five patients were enrolled and followed for 18 months. The dose was gradually increased in steps of 25 mg up to the effective dose (mean 250 mg/d). Lamotrigine was most effective in trigeminal neuralgia and dysesthesia, but was of little utility in the other head or facial pains. [less ▲]

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