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See detailA new poly (ε-caprolactone) containing hybrid ceramer prepared by the sol-gel process
Tian, Dong; Dubois, Philippe ULg; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Polymer (1996), 37(17), 3983-3987

A new inorganic-organic hybrid material, known as ceramer, has been prepared by the sol-gel process. α,ω-Hydroxyl poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) has been used as an organic reagent, as such or after ... [more ▼]

A new inorganic-organic hybrid material, known as ceramer, has been prepared by the sol-gel process. α,ω-Hydroxyl poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) has been used as an organic reagent, as such or after conversion of the hydroxyl end-groups into triethoxysilane end-groups. The novelty has to be found in the biocompatibility and biodegradability of the organic constitutive component. Since the hydroxyl end-groups of PCL are less reactive than the triethoxysilane counterparts, the preliminary reaction of the hydroxyl end-groups with 3-isocyanatopropyltriethoxysilane is recommended for decreasing the gelation time and the amount of PCL extractable from the final hybrid material. In this respect, it has been observed that the amount of PCL incorporated into the network is limited by the early vitrification of the reactive system. This drawback can be alleviated by curing the sample at a high enough temperature (100°C). TEM observations have shown that the organic and inorganic phases are intimately mixed when the weight composition in SiO2 and PCL is close to 50%. [less ▲]

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See detailHerpesviridae granulomas. Letter
Nikkels, Arjen ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in European Journal of Dermatology (1996), 6(5), 394

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See detailExpression of the 67 Kd Laminin Receptor in Human Ovarian Carcinomas as Defined by a Monoclonal Antibody, Mluc5
van den Brule, F. A.; Castronovo, Vincenzo ULg; Menard, S. et al

in European Journal of Cancer (1996), 32A(9), 1598-602

Previous immunohistochemical data from our laboratory have demonstrated that expression of the 67 kD laminin receptor (67LR), a cancer-associated, high-affinity laminin-binding protein, is upregulated in ... [more ▼]

Previous immunohistochemical data from our laboratory have demonstrated that expression of the 67 kD laminin receptor (67LR), a cancer-associated, high-affinity laminin-binding protein, is upregulated in ovarian carcinoma cells compared with normal serosal cells, and that this increased expression in cancer cells could be related to patient outcome. The aim of this study was to validate MLuC5, a monoclonal antibody that recognises the 67LR, as a tool to perform future immunohistochemical studies on larger populations of ovarian carcinoma patients. Expression of the 67LR was determined in 51 primary human ovarian carcinoma samples using immunohistochemistry and MLuC5. The 67LR was detected in ovarian carcinoma cell clusters of variable extent. Analysis of the data determined that 67LR expression was significantly increased in the samples from patients with disease progression, compared with those with no evidence of disease after completion of primary therapy, and in pooled grade 2 and 3 tumours compared to borderline and grade 1 tumours (P < 0.05, chi-squared test). No other significant correlation between 67LR expression and other clinicopathological parameters could be established. These data suggest that the 67LR is correlated to ovarian tumour progression. Detection of the 67LR using this monoclonal antibody could constitute an interesting parameter in prognosis determination of ovarian cancer. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of Bone Sialoprotein in Human Breast Cancer Tissue and Cell Lines at Both Protein and Messenger Ribonucleic Acid Levels
Bellahcene, Akeila ULg; Antoine, Nadine ULg; Clausse, N. et al

in Laboratory Investigation : Journal of Technical Methods & Pathology (1996), 75(2), 203-10

The recent demonstration that bone sialoprotein (BSP) can be detected in human breast cancer tissue by immunoperoxidase suggests that this phosphoprotein is ectopically expressed by malignant mammary ... [more ▼]

The recent demonstration that bone sialoprotein (BSP) can be detected in human breast cancer tissue by immunoperoxidase suggests that this phosphoprotein is ectopically expressed by malignant mammary epithelial cells. Its detection in human breast cancer cells raises questions about its potential role(s) during breast cancer progression. Because BSP is secreted and is present in the serum, the positivity of breast cancer cells for BSP could have been the result of an uptake of the circulating phosphoprotein by the cells rather than of an intrinsic expression. We examined the expression of BSP at both the protein and mRNA levels in nine human breast cancer samples as well as in three human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47-D, and MDA-MB-231) using immunohistochemistry, flow cytometric analysis, immunoblot, and reverse-transcriptase PCR. BSP was detected at both protein and mRNA levels in human breast cancer tissue and in the three human breast cancer cell lines. Using a specific polyclonal anti-BSP antibody, we showed by both fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis and immunohistochemistry experiments that all of the human breast cancer cell lines studied express BSP. This was localized at the cell surface and in the cytosol of the estrogen receptor-positive MCF-7 and T47-D cell lines, whereas it was detected only in the cytosol of the estrogen receptor-negative MDA-MB-231 cells. Using the same polyclonal anti-BSP antibody, we were able to identify an approximately 97-kd band on total protein extracts from the three cell lines by immunoblotting. Reverse-transcriptase PCR reactions using specific oligonucleotides performed on total RNA of nine human breast cancer biopsy samples and the three cell lines demonstrated the presence of BSP mRNA in all of the samples examined. This study is the first demonstration that human malignant breast epithelial cell lines express BSP at the protein and mRNA levels. Our study identified MCF-7, T47-D, and MDA-MB-231 cells as useful models for the examination of the molecular mechanisms involved in the ectopic expression of BSP in breast malignant lesions. [less ▲]

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See detailDifunctional initiator based on 1,3-diisopropenylbenzene. 4. Synthesis and modification of poly(alkyl methacrylate-b-styrene-b-butadiene-b-styrene-b-alkyl methacrylate (MSBSM) thermoplastic elastomers
Yu, Y. S.; Dubois, Philippe ULg; Jérôme, Robert ULg et al

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry (1996), 34(11), 2221-2228

MSBSM five-block copolymers where B stands for butadiene, S for styrene, and M for either methyl methacrylate (MMA) or tert-butyl methacrylate (tBMA) have been synthesized by sequential anionic ... [more ▼]

MSBSM five-block copolymers where B stands for butadiene, S for styrene, and M for either methyl methacrylate (MMA) or tert-butyl methacrylate (tBMA) have been synthesized by sequential anionic polymerization in an apolar solvent by using a difunctional anionic initiator derived from 1,3-diisopropenylbenzene. These block copolymers show improved mechanical properties and an extended service temperature compared to traditional SBS thermoplastic elastomers. Upon hydrolysis and further neutralization of the PolytBMA end-blocks, the upper glass transition temperature (Tg) of the five-block copolymers has been raised up to about 150°C. A further increase in this service temperature (up to ca. 160°C) has resulted from the blending of sPMMA-SBS-sPMMA five-block copolymers with isotactic poly(methacrylate) (iPMMA), due to the formation of a stereocomplex. The tensile properties of these modified five-block copolymers have remained essentially unchanged. [less ▲]

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See detailDy2BaCu05 pattern formation in isothermally non-seeded melt-textured DyBa2Cu307-delta with 15 wt% Dy203 addition
Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Ausloos, Marcel ULg; Mineur, N. et al

in Superconductor Science and Technology (1996), 9(8), 665-670

Optically polarized light micrographs of isothermally melt-textured DyBa2Cu307-delta compounds (with 15 wt% Dy203 addition) are presented to show evidence for pattern formation of DyBa2Cu305 particles in ... [more ▼]

Optically polarized light micrographs of isothermally melt-textured DyBa2Cu307-delta compounds (with 15 wt% Dy203 addition) are presented to show evidence for pattern formation of DyBa2Cu305 particles in DyBa2Cu307-delta grains. Different types of pattern were observed and were understood as arising from the crystal growth mechanism of 123 melt-textured materials. In an appendix, the case of patterns in magnetically textured samples is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailTelechelic ionomers studied by light scattering and dynamic mechanical measurements
Chassenieux, Christophe; Johannsson, Ragnar; Durand, Dominique et al

in Colloids and Surfaces A : Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects (1996), 112(2-3), 155-162

The formation of a transient network by sulfonato polyisoprene and sulfonato polystyrene in toluene is studied using static and dynamic light scattering and dynamic mechanical analysis. It is shown that ... [more ▼]

The formation of a transient network by sulfonato polyisoprene and sulfonato polystyrene in toluene is studied using static and dynamic light scattering and dynamic mechanical analysis. It is shown that at low concentrations aggregates are formed with increasing molar mass and polydispersity as the polymer concentration is increased. Above a certain concentration well below the overlap concentration of the polymer chains (C*), a transient network is formed. This is characterised by a plateau modulus at high frequencies and a relatively narrow viscoelastic relaxation time distribution. The intensity auto-correlation function of the transient network shows two relaxational modes: a relatively fast diffusional mode close to the co-operative diffusional mode of semidilute solutions of the unfunctionalised polymers, and a slow broader mode which becomes independent of the scattering angle at concentrations close to C*. The relation between this slow mode and the viscoelastic relaxation is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailTriblock copolymer based thermoreversible gels. 2. Analysis of the sol-gel transition
Yu, Jian Ming; Dubois, Philippe ULg; Teyssié, Philippe et al

in Macromolecules (1996), 29(16), 5384-5391

Syndiotactic poly(methyl methacrylate) (sPMMA)−polybutadiene (PBD)−sPMMA triblock copolymers of various chemical compositions and different molecular weights have been studied in the presence of o-xylene ... [more ▼]

Syndiotactic poly(methyl methacrylate) (sPMMA)−polybutadiene (PBD)−sPMMA triblock copolymers of various chemical compositions and different molecular weights have been studied in the presence of o-xylene, which is a selective solvent for the central PBD block. Thermoreversible gels can be formed in a suitable curing temperature range (<35 °C) and at a high enough concentration (>1 wt %). The time dependence of the storage (G‘) and the loss (G‘‘) moduli has been measured in a frequency range of 0.08−1 Hz. The static and dynamic properties of the gels have been discussed on the basis of the scaling theory. At the gel point, where the loss angle (tan δc = G‘‘/G‘) is independent of frequency, typical power laws G‘(ω) G‘‘(ω) ωΔ have been observed. The scaling exponent Δ has been found equal to 0.70 ± 0.02 independently of the PBD and PMMA molecular weight, i.e., 36 000 < Mn (PBD) < 100 000 and 20 000 < Mn (PMMA) < 51 000. This exponent is also independent of the copolymer concentration and temperature in the investigated range, i.e., 2−7 wt % and 8−24 °C, respectively. This value of Δ agrees with theoretical predictions as well as with experimental values reported for some chemical gels; it is however different from the experimental values published for most physical gels. A PBD−PMMA diblock copolymer also forms a gel in o-xylene, although at higher concentration and lower temperature compared to the parent triblock copolymer. The scaling exponent Δ is then somewhat smaller, i.e., 0.61. [less ▲]

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See detailDiblock Copolymers as Emulsifying Agents in Polymer Blends: Influence of Molecular Weight, Architecture, and Chemical Composition
Cigana, P.; Favis, B. D.; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part B, Polymer Physics (1996), 34(9), 1691-1700

Interfacial agents used in the compatibilization of immiscible polymer blends often consist of block copolymers containing at least one segment compatible with each of the two phases of the blend. This ... [more ▼]

Interfacial agents used in the compatibilization of immiscible polymer blends often consist of block copolymers containing at least one segment compatible with each of the two phases of the blend. This work examines the influence of the molecular weight, architecture, and chemical composition of the interfacial agent on its ability to emulsify a polymer blend. The system chosen is a blend containing 80% polystyrene and 20% ethylene-propylene rubber, compatibilized by diblock copolymers of poly(styrene-hydrogenated butadiene). The emulsification curve, which relates the dispersed phase particle size to the concentration of interfacial agent added to the system, was used as a tool to characterize the efficacy of the different interfacial agents. The observed behavior is similar to that of classical emulsions: a rapid drop in phase size at low concentrations of interfacial modifier, followed by a levelling off to an equilibrium diameter value once a critical concentration has been reached. For systems compatibilized by symmetrical diblocks (i.e., containing approximately 50% styrene by weight), the volume average particle diameter decreased from 2.7 m for the unmodified system to about 0.4 m once interfacial saturation is reached. The critical concentration for emulsification decreased with increasing interfacial agent molecular weight, due to the higher interfacial area occupied by longer molecules; however, this parameter did not affect the equilibrium particle diameter. The asymmetrical diblock copolymer (30% styrene) was found to be less effective than the symmetrical ones over the entire range of concentrations studied (5 to 35% modifier, based on the volume of the minor phase). Asymmetrical diblock copolymers would tend to form micelles, whereas symmetrical copolymers are less constrained at the interface. No significant difference was observed between the emulsifying capability of tapered and pure diblocks of similar composition and molecular weight. [less ▲]

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See detailInner patterns and front propagation of dynamic random impurity model
Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Ausloos, Marcel ULg

in Physical Review Letters (1996), 77(3), 510-513

We investigate a simple model, the so-called dynamic epidemic model, for the evolution of an advancing interface through a medium containing mobile impurities. A short range repulsion between the front ... [more ▼]

We investigate a simple model, the so-called dynamic epidemic model, for the evolution of an advancing interface through a medium containing mobile impurities. A short range repulsion between the front and the impurities leads to an aggregation process along the front, and to the trapping of aggregates. The amplitude of this self-organization for collective impurity trapping is analyzed in two dimensions. A relationship exists between individual motion and the aggregation of particles. The results indicate that self-organizing features are different behind and on the front. [less ▲]

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See detailThe electroreduction of acrylonitrile : a new insight into the mechanism
Mertens, Marc; Calberg, Cédric ULg; Martinot, Lucien et al

in Macromolecules (1996), 29(14), 4910-4918

Several complementary electrochemical techniques have been used in order to clear up the mechanism of the electrochemical reduction of acrylonitrile (AN) on nickel. According to Lecayon et al., the ... [more ▼]

Several complementary electrochemical techniques have been used in order to clear up the mechanism of the electrochemical reduction of acrylonitrile (AN) on nickel. According to Lecayon et al., the electropolymerization of AN occurs in acetonitrile in the presence of tetraethylammonium perchlorate in such a way that polyacrylonitrile (PAN) is “grafted” onto the cathode. This electrochemical reaction has been reinvestigated both in acetonitrile, a nonsolvent of PAN, and in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), a good solvent for the polymer. The key role of the reduction potential on the electrografting reaction has been emphasized. The two electrochemical phenomena previously reported by Lecayon et al. have indeed been confirmed, but now it is clear that the “electrografting” of PAN selectively occurs at the less cathodic potential. At this potential, a PAN film is formed by a radical process and firmly secured onto the electrode, even in DMF. If the cathodic potential is further increased, the PAN film is easily removed from the metal and dissolves quickly in DMF. The transfer of one electron from the metal to the monomer occurs when the reduction is carried out at the more cathodic potential. A nonadherent PAN film is then formed onto Ni in acetonitrile, although the AN polymerization occurs in solution when acetonitrile is replaced by DMF. The AN polymerization is then consistent with an anionic process. [less ▲]

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See detailA Strategy for Multiple Immunophenotyping by Image Cytometry: Model Studies Using Latex Microbeads Labeled with Seven Streptavidin-Bound Fluorochromes
Gothot, André ULg; Grosdent, J. C.; Paulus, Jean-Michel ULg

in Cytometry (1996), 24(3), 214-25

Multiple immunophenotyping is aimed at identifying several cell populations in a single labeling procedure by their ability to bind combinations of specific labeled antibodies. The present work ... [more ▼]

Multiple immunophenotyping is aimed at identifying several cell populations in a single labeling procedure by their ability to bind combinations of specific labeled antibodies. The present work demonstrates the simultaneous discrimination by using image cytometry of aminomethylcoumarin acetate (AMCA), Lucifer yellow (LY), fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), R-phycoerythrin (PE), PE-Texas red tandem (Red613), peridinin-chlorophyll protein (PerCP), and allophycocyanin (APC), which were all bound to latex beads as streptavidin-conjugated fluorochromes. This has been the result of a step-by-step optimization of the several factors affecting the sensitivity and specificity of multiple immunofluorescence analysis. First, 14 streptavidin-conjugated fluorochromes were evaluated by using spectrofluorometry. A primary selection was then made of ten spectrally separable dyes that could be evaluated by using image cytometry. These dyes were bound to latex particles, and specific filter combinations were assembled to minimize crosstalk between fluorophores while preserving sufficient fluorescence intensity and counting statistics. Potential probe associations were then assessed by measuring the emissions of all fluorochromes that were detected by each filter combination. The resulting crosstalk matrix served as the basic tool both for final selection of the optimal filter combination and for dye set (composed, in this case, of the seven fluorochromes described above) and for mathematical correction of residual spectral overlap. Next, an image cytometry system was adapted to collect seven images of matched brightness with the selected combination of excitation/emission filters and dichroic mirrors. Finally, seven-parameter synthetic images were generated by digital image processing. [less ▲]

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See detailOscillations of bride stay cables induced by periodic motions of deck and/or towers
Pinto da Costa, Antonio; Martins, Joao; Branco, F. et al

in Journal of Engineering Mechanics (1996), 122(7), 613-622

Cables in stayed bridges may oscillate due to periodic motions of the deck or tower induced by wind or traffic.

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See detailThe Thymic Repertoire of Neuroendocrine Self-Antigens: Physiological Implications in T-Cell Life and Death
Martens, Henri ULg; Goxe, B.; Geenen, Vincent ULg

in Immunology Today (1996), 17(7), 312-7

During phylogeny aud ontogeny, the thymus appears as a crucial meeting point between the neuroendocrine aud immune systems. Through cryptocrine intercellular communication, thymic neuroendocrine-related ... [more ▼]

During phylogeny aud ontogeny, the thymus appears as a crucial meeting point between the neuroendocrine aud immune systems. Through cryptocrine intercellular communication, thymic neuroendocrine-related precursors can influence the early steps of the immune response, while T-cell precursors are educated to recognize the principal neuroendocrine families. Here, we summarize the observations that support the dual role of the thymic repertoire of neuroendocrine-related polypeptidte precursors in T-cell differentiation. [less ▲]

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See detailUne cause rare de lésion cardiaque opérable: la cardiopathie carcinoïde
Defraigne, Jean-Olivier ULg; Jerusalem, O.; Limet, Raymond ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1996), 51(7), 468-78

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See detailUltrastructural Modifications in Cultured Fetal Quail Hepatocytes Exposed to Pesticides and Pcbs
Hugla, J. L.; Goffinet, Gerhard ULg; Kremers, Pierre ULg et al

in Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety (1996), 34(2), 145-55

There is increasing interest in cultured hepatocytes as a tool for solving toxicological and pharmacological problems while reducing laboratory animal experimentation. In the present study, fetal ... [more ▼]

There is increasing interest in cultured hepatocytes as a tool for solving toxicological and pharmacological problems while reducing laboratory animal experimentation. In the present study, fetal hepatocytes from the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were used as an in vitro alternative model for evaluating the effects of PCBs and various pesticide-type chemicals on cell ultrastructure. Major alterations were demonstrated. The most striking effects of toxicants were an increase in the number of cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), various alterations of mitochondrial morphology, a decreased glycogen content, vacuolization of the cytoplasm, and the appearance of concentric membrane arrays (CMA's), also called myelin-like figures. Other changes were sometimes observed, such as altered cell junctions, an increased lipid content, deformations of the nuclei, or the appearance of crystalline structures. These ultrastructural modifications seem to be dose-dependent. The present in vitro findings are validated by similar observations previously made in vivo on Japanese quail. They confirm the effectiveness of this technique as a biomonitoring tool for the evaluation of environmental quality. Yet the multiplicity of possible toxic effects, even for xenobiotics of a same category, makes it necessary to screen additional indicators of toxicity, such as the detoxifying activity of monooxygenases. [less ▲]

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See detailFurther Characterization of Cytotoxic T Cells Generated by Short-Term Culture of Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes with Interleukin-2 and Anti-Cd3 Mab
Jacobs, Nathalie ULg; Greimers, Roland ULg; Mazzoni, Alexandra et al

in Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy (1996), 42(6), 369-75

In this study we have specifically investigated the participation of T cells in the cytotoxic activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) activated by interleukin-2 (IL-2, 50 U/ml) alone or in ... [more ▼]

In this study we have specifically investigated the participation of T cells in the cytotoxic activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) activated by interleukin-2 (IL-2, 50 U/ml) alone or in combination with an anti-CD3 mAb (BMA030, 10 ng/ml, IgG2a). Purified CD3+ T cells, incubated in the presence of the anti-CD3 mAb for 4 days, mediated a cytotoxic activity against HL60 and U937 tumor cell lines. Several findings suggested the involvement of a redirected-cytotoxicity phenomenon, since the lytic process was restricted to target cell lines bearing the high-affinity Fc gamma receptor (Fc gamma RI) and T lymphocytes stimulated by IL-2 alone did not lyse these cell lines. Furthermore, anti-CD3 mAb F(ab')2, anti-CD3 IgG1 (UCHT1), phytohemagglutinin or staphylococcal enterotoxin A did not induce a similar cytotoxic activity in T lymphocytes. The cytotoxic process occurred in the presence of a very low level of anti-CD3 antibodies (in the nanomolar range). The cytotoxic activity of T cells stimulated by IL-2 or by IL-2 + BMA030, against OVCAR-3 cells (MOv18+ ovarian tumor cell line), was also compared in the presence of a bispecific antibody OC/TR, anti-CD3 x MOv18). The stimulation by IL-2 + BMA030 induced approximately a twofold higher cytotoxic activity than IL-2-activated T cells. This could be related to the state of activation of effector cells stimulated by IL-2 + BMA030, since the phenotypic analysis showed an increased proportion of T cells expressing several activation/differentiation markers (CD25, HLA-DR, CD45R0, adhesion molecules). These findings could be applied to the design of therapeutic protocols using anti-CD3 x antitumoral bispecific antibodies. [less ▲]

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See detailIntracellular distribution of the ORF4 gene product of varicella-zoster virus is influenced by the IE62 protein
Defechereux, Patricia; Debrus, Serge; Baudoux, Laurence et al

in Journal of General Virology (1996), 77(Part 7), 1505-1513

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) open reading frame 4-encoded protein (IE4) possesses transactivating properties for VZV genes as well as for genes of heterologous viruses, The major regulatory immediate ... [more ▼]

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) open reading frame 4-encoded protein (IE4) possesses transactivating properties for VZV genes as well as for genes of heterologous viruses, The major regulatory immediate-early protein of VZV (IE62) is a transactivator of VZV gene expression, In transfection assays, IE4 has been shown to enhance activation induced by IE62, To investigate the functional interactions underlying this observation, indirect immunofluorescence studies were undertaken to determine whether IE62 could influence IE4 intracellular localization in transfected cells, In single transfections, IE4 was predominantly found in cytoplasm, In cotransfection with IE62, the IE4 localization pattern was altered, with nuclear staining predominating over cytoplasmic staining, This effect was specific to the IE62 protein since the gene products of ORF63 and ORF61, which are also regulatory proteins, did not influence IE4 distribution, The use of IE62 mutants indicated that IE62 influence is independent of its transactivation function and that the integrity of regions 3 and 4 is required, IE62 remained nuclear whether IE4 was present or not, These observations underline differences in the regulation of gene expression between VZV proteins and their herpes simplex virus type 1 homologues, In infected cells, IE4 was only sometimes found to colocalize with IE62 in nuclei, This observation suggests that when all VZV proteins are present, complex interactions probably occur which could diminish the influence of IE62. [less ▲]

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See detailInterfacial agents for polymer/liquid crystal dispersions
Gohy, Jean-François; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics (1996), 197(7), 2209-2217

Liquid crystals (LC) were covalently and ionically bonded to one (or both) end(s) of polystyrene chains. These compounds were tested as interfacial agents in polystyrene/ liquid crystal dispersions. In ... [more ▼]

Liquid crystals (LC) were covalently and ionically bonded to one (or both) end(s) of polystyrene chains. These compounds were tested as interfacial agents in polystyrene/ liquid crystal dispersions. In case of covalent bonding, the additive is too much "soluble" in polystyrene and no interfacial activity is observed. Ionic bonding of the LC to polystyrene chains deeply changes the situation, all the other conditions being the same, The dipolar interactions of the ion pairs are clearly favorable to the localization of the additive at the polymer/LC interface. The higher polarity of the ammonium sulfonate pairs com-pared to the parent ammonium carboxylate ion pairs accordingly accounts for a higher interfacial activity. [less ▲]

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See detailEstablishment of a Rabbit Model for Bovine Herpesvirus Type 5 Neurological Acute Infection
Meyer, Gilles; Lemaire, Mylène; Lyaku, J. et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (1996), 51(1-2), 27-40

This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of the rabbit as a model for bovine, herpesvirus 5 (BHV-5) acute infection. In a preliminary experiment, a total of 24 one-month old New Zealand white ... [more ▼]

This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of the rabbit as a model for bovine, herpesvirus 5 (BHV-5) acute infection. In a preliminary experiment, a total of 24 one-month old New Zealand white rabbits were inoculated with BHV-5 or bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) by the intraconjunctival, intracerebral or intranasal routes. BHV-5 or BHV-1 inoculated in the conjunctiva induced virus proliferation in the eye mucosae and the nasal cavity of rabbits without meningo-encephalitis. On the other hand, only BHV-5 infection by intranasal or intracerebral routes produced a fatal meningo-encephalitis. The intranasal route was used in a further experiment for the establishment of a rabbit model for BHV-5 infection. A total of 45 rabbits were inoculated intranasally with BHV-5 or BHV-1. The results showed that intranasal inoculation of BHV-5 strain N569 in rabbits was followed by the development of a lethal meningo-encephalitis for 66% of rabbits while all BHV-1 infected rabbits remained healthy throughout this experiment (28 days). Analysis between the mortalities of rabbits infected with BHV-5 and BHV-1 were highly significant (p < 0.001). The presence of BHV-5 in the central nervous system (CNS) was confirmed by virus isolation (essentially the cerebrum, midbrain and pons) and by immunohistochemical staining of BHV-5 antigen (essentially in the neurons of the cerebrum) only in BHV-5 infected rabbits showing clinical signs of meningo-encephalitis. The findings obtained confirmed the suitability of a rabbit model for the establishment of BHV-5 neurological acute infection and also as a valuable tool for the comparative study of BHV-5 and BHV-1 neuropathogenicity. [less ▲]

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See detailUn syndrome de Cushing d'origine inexpliquée
Geenen, Vincent ULg; Foidart, Jacqueline ULg; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

in Actualité Médicale Belge (1996), 513

Un homme de 25 ans est hospitalisé en août 1994 au CHU de Liége en vue de l'exploration de lombolgies chroniques et de manifestations cliniques d'hypercorticisme. Il présente en effet un visage boursouflé ... [more ▼]

Un homme de 25 ans est hospitalisé en août 1994 au CHU de Liége en vue de l'exploration de lombolgies chroniques et de manifestations cliniques d'hypercorticisme. Il présente en effet un visage boursouflé avec une érythrase discrète et une augmentation de poids (prise de 10 kg en quelques mois) à localisation tronculaire prédominante. Ces symptômes s'accompagnent d'une asthénie importante et de crampes musculaires au niveau des extrémités. [less ▲]

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See detailPrevention of Murine Radiogenic Thymic Lymphomas by Tumor Necrosis Factor or by Marrow Grafting
Humblet, Chantal ULg; Greimers, Roland ULg; Delvenne, Philippe ULg et al

in Journal of the National Cancer Institute (1996), 88(12), 824-31

BACKGROUND: Split-dose irradiation (1.75 Gy given weekly for 4 weeks) of C57BL/Ka mice induces the emergence of preleukemic cells (PLCs). These cells develop into leukemic cells after a latency period of ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Split-dose irradiation (1.75 Gy given weekly for 4 weeks) of C57BL/Ka mice induces the emergence of preleukemic cells (PLCs). These cells develop into leukemic cells after a latency period of 3-6 months. The survival and transformation of PLCs are dependent on radiation-induced alterations of the thymic epithelium and of resident lymphocyte (i.e., thymocyte) subpopulations in the thymus. PLCs can be eliminated, concomitantly with the restoration of the thymus, by grafting bone marrow cells immediately after the last irradiation. Our hypothesis was that any agent able to restore the thymus after leukemogenic irradiation would exert the same effects as a bone marrow graft. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is one such possible agent, since it has been shown to modulate some functions of the thymic epithelium and thymocyte subpopulations. PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to assess the ability of repeated intraperitoneal injections of TNF-alpha to functionally replace bone marrow transplantation in the restoration of normal intrathymic lymphopoiesis and in the prevention of thymic lymphomas in split-dose-irradiated mice. METHODS: We replaced the bone marrow graft with repeated injections of TNF-alpha (25 000 U/injection) in the split-dose-irradiated (4 x 1.75 Gy) C57BL/Ka mouse model. We analyzed the expression of the cell differentiation markers CD4 and CD8 on thymocytes by flow cytometry. We also studied the thymic environment by isolating thymic nurse cells, the bone marrow prothymocyte activity by analyzing thymic repopulation, and the evolution of PLCs by an in vivo transplantation assay. Local production of TNF-alpha after bone marrow grafting was examined by in situ hybridization. Injections of anti-TNF-alpha antibodies were given to split-dose-irradiated mice to test the effect of neutralizing TNF-alpha in vivo. One-way analysis of variance and Newman-Keuls two-tailed tests were used to test statistical significance. RESULTS: Multiple injections of TNF-alpha into split-dose-irradiated mice did not influence bone marrow prothymocyte activity but restored thymocyte subpopulations and thymic epithelium, induced the disappearance of PLCs, and prevented the development of lymphomas. Moreover, a bone marrow graft significantly stimulated intrathymic production of TNF-alpha messenger RNA (P<.01), and anti-TNF-alpha antibodies partially inhibited the antilymphomatous effects of bone marrow graft in split-dose-irradiated mice (P<.05). CONCLUSION: These data strongly suggest that TNF-alpha is a mediator that is involved in the mechanisms by which bone marrow transplantation functions to prevent thymic lymphomas in split-dose-irradiated mice. IMPLICATIONS: Cytokines might be used in some biological systems, particularly in the hemopoietic system, as a therapeutic agent for the secondary prevention of cancer. [less ▲]

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See detailChain end effects and dewetting in thin polymer films
Henn, G.; Bucknall, D. G.; Stamm, Manfred et al

in Macromolecules (1996), 29(12), 4305-4313

The dewetting of thin films of end-functionalized polymers, ω- and α,ω-barium sulfonato polystyrenes, on a silicon substrate has been investigated as a function of initial film thickness, molecular weight ... [more ▼]

The dewetting of thin films of end-functionalized polymers, ω- and α,ω-barium sulfonato polystyrenes, on a silicon substrate has been investigated as a function of initial film thickness, molecular weight, and functionality of the chains. The lower molecular weight monofunctional chains are found to dewet the substrate analogously to normal polystyrene but display an anomalous flow behavior at the surface. Moreover, after dewetting, the entire silicon surface still remains covered by a monolayer of monofunctional chains. The monolayer consists of a polymer brush of densely packed tethered chains, adsorbed via their ionic end groups. The dense packing and special conformations of the chains in the brush prevent interpenetration with other polymer chains, and the unadsorbed macromolecules dewet the brush. When the molecular weight of the monofunctional chains is increased, entanglements between the adsorbed polymer brush and the unadsorbed chains can occur and the dewetting process is retarded. Thin films of the difunctional chains do not dewet regardless of the molecular weight of the chains. The difference between mono- and difunctional materials is attributed to ionic aggregation, which is responsible for thermoreversible cross-linking and stabilization of thicker films by interaction of aggregates with dangling ends. It is suggested to use high molecular weight end-functionalized chains as polymeric additives to retard thin polymer film dewetting. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the influence of transuranium dilution in well-known U heavy-fermion compounds
Wastin, Frank; Zwirner, Stefan; Seret, Alain ULg et al

in Physica B: Condensed Matter (1996), 223-224

Synthesis and preliminary studies on U1−xNpxPd2Al3 and U1−xNpxRu2Si2 are presented. In all Np compounds measured here, no superconducting transition was found down to 1.4 K. In U1−xNpxPd2Al3 a small ... [more ▼]

Synthesis and preliminary studies on U1−xNpxPd2Al3 and U1−xNpxRu2Si2 are presented. In all Np compounds measured here, no superconducting transition was found down to 1.4 K. In U1−xNpxPd2Al3 a small amount (0.01 less-than-or-equals, slant x less-than-or-equals, slant 0.05) of Np induces an anomaly in the lattice parameters and presents in resistivity measurements a sharp minimum at low temperature. [less ▲]

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See detailMagnetic anisotropy of U2Pd2In
Prokes, Karel; Nakotte, Heinz; Havela, Ladislav et al

in Physica B: Condensed Matter (1996), 223-224

Magnetic susceptibility studies of the U2Pd2In single crystal show that in the paramagnetic state larger χ-values are found for field along the basal plane than along the c-axis. However, below TN = 37 K ... [more ▼]

Magnetic susceptibility studies of the U2Pd2In single crystal show that in the paramagnetic state larger χ-values are found for field along the basal plane than along the c-axis. However, below TN = 37 K, where U-moments form a non-collinear magnetic structure within the basal plane, a cross-over of the two χ-branches occurs. The single crystal results may explain the origin of the exotic magnetization results obtained on powder samples. [less ▲]

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See detailThe break-up of periodic comet Schwassmann-Wachmann 3: image documents from La Silla telescopes.
Boehnhardt, H.; Kaeufl, H. U.; Goudfrooij, P. et al

in The Messenger (1996), 84

The splitting of SW3 in 1995 was an other example of how brittle cometary nuclei are. Unlike in most previous events, however, the break-up of SW3 is well documented by high-quality ground-based ... [more ▼]

The splitting of SW3 in 1995 was an other example of how brittle cometary nuclei are. Unlike in most previous events, however, the break-up of SW3 is well documented by high-quality ground-based observations. SW3 represents an excellent candidate for a comprehensive analysis of cometary fragmentation, which could lead to a better understanding of the the disintegration processes involved in the evolution of comets. [less ▲]

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See detailLa dissection aortique. Des symptômes a l'indication opératoire
Defraigne, Jean-Olivier ULg; Limet, Raymond ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1996), 51(6), 411-25

La formation d'un hématome au sein de la média aortique à partir d'un orifice d'entrée définit la dissection aortique qui se caractérise par la présence de deux lumières aortiques: la vraie et la fausse ... [more ▼]

La formation d'un hématome au sein de la média aortique à partir d'un orifice d'entrée définit la dissection aortique qui se caractérise par la présence de deux lumières aortiques: la vraie et la fausse. Toute altération structurelle de la média (hypertension, médianécrose, maladie de Marfan, etc...) favorise la dissection. Le début de l'affection est brutal, avec un tableau polymorphe fait de douleurs intenses et migrantes, d'abolition du pouls dans certains territoires, voire d'une insuffisance aortique d'installation rapide. A partir des signes cliniques, le diagnostic est confirmé par des examens complémentaires (échographie, CT-scanner, résonance magnétique nucléaire, artériographie). L'échographie réalisée par voie transoesophagienne tend actuellement à constituer l'examen de premier choix. Dans les dissections qui concernent l'aorte ascendante (types 1, II et III rétrograde de DeBakey, ou type A de Stanford), une chirurgie rapide est impérative en raison de la fréquence des complications mortelles (rupture dans le péricarde avec tamponnade, ischémie myocardique par dissection des coronaires, insuffisance aortique massive avec défaillance ventriculaire gauche). L'intervention consiste à remplacer l'aorte ascendante en conservant ou non la valvule aortique; si l'on implante la prothèse artérielle sur l'annulus aortique, on doit procéder à la réimplantation des coronaires selon la technique de Bentall ou de Cabrol. En cas de dissection qui respecte l'aorte ascendante et ne concerne que l'aorte thoracique descendante (type III a ou b de DeBakey ou type B de Stanford), un traitement médical est d'abord instauré et la chirurgie, qui consiste à remplacer un segment plus ou moins long de l'aorte descendante, n'est appliquée qu'en cas de complications (rupture imminente avec formation d'un épanchement pleural, persistance des douleurs, ischémie viscérale, hypertension incontrôlable). Le traitement médical a pour but de diminuer les douleurs et repose sur l'induction d'une hypotension contrôlée et d'une dépression de la contractilité myocardique; ceci ralentit la vitesse d'établissement de l'onde de pression artérielle, qui constitue le moteur de la dissection. Ce traitement médical doit être instauré avant la chirurgie, après la chirurgie s'il y a lieu de la réaliser, et au long cours une fois le patient sorti de l'hôpital. [less ▲]

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See detailSodium Valproate in Severe Migraine and Tension-Type Headache: An Open Study of Long-Term Efficacy and Correlation with Blood Levels
Lenaerts, M.; Bastings, E.; Sianard, J. et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (1996), 96(2), 126-9

We performed an open prospective study of the prophylactic efficacy of sodium valproate in 56 patients among which 35 migraineurs, 7 chronic tension-type headache patients and 14 patients with combined ... [more ▼]

We performed an open prospective study of the prophylactic efficacy of sodium valproate in 56 patients among which 35 migraineurs, 7 chronic tension-type headache patients and 14 patients with combined headaches. We compared the mean number of headache days per month during a one-month-baseline period without prophylactic treatment and during the last month of a 6-month-treatment course. Among secondary parameters, we assessed headache intensity, adverse experiences and we measured valproate blood levels after one and after six months of treatment. Sixty percent of migraineurs had a 75% or more improvement in the number of headache days under sodium valproate, most of the remaining attacks being less severe. There was no significant improvement in chronic tension-type headache patients and only a mild effect in patients with combined headaches, almost exclusively on the migraine component. Thirty percent of patients reported adverse effects of which none was serious: there were 3 drop-outs. We found a moderate, but statistically significant, correlation between efficacy and blood levels of sodium valproate. [less ▲]

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See detailConstructive Lyapunov stabilization of nonlinear cascade systems
Jankovic, M.; Sepulchre, Rodolphe ULg; Kokotovic, Petar V.

in IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control (1996), 41(12), 1723-1735

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See detailInteractions between endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells after their activation by hypoxia. A possible etiology for venous disease.
Michiels, C.; Arnould, T.; Janssens, D. et al

in International Angiology : A Journal of the International Union of Angiology (1996), 15(5), 124-130

Because of their localization at the interface between blood and tissue, endothelial cells are responsible for the maintenance of vascular homeostasis. They fulfil a series of various functions and ... [more ▼]

Because of their localization at the interface between blood and tissue, endothelial cells are responsible for the maintenance of vascular homeostasis. They fulfil a series of various functions and constantly interact with circulating leukocytes and with the smooth muscle cells (SMC) present in the media. Any disturbance of their metabolism can thus lead to alterations of the blood vessel functions. We have shown that hypoxia, for example resulting from venous stasis, induces the activation of endothelial cells which then release inflammatory mediators able to activate neutrophils and to induce their infiltration as well as growth factors for SMC. We propose that these processes are the beginning of a cascade of events eventually leading to structural and functional modifications of the venous wall similar to the ones observed in varicose vein wall. The endothelium alterations resulting from venous stasis would thus be the origin of the development of the venous disease. Pharmacological and clinical evidence reinforce this hypothesis. [less ▲]

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See detailFrontal lobe dementia presenting as personality disorder
Salmon, Eric ULg; Degueldre, Christian ULg; Franco, Gianni ULg et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (1996), 96(2), 130-134

The early differential diagnosis of frontal lobe dementia is particularly difficult because changes of personality or behaviour overwhelm intellectual and cognitive impairments. We report the case of a ... [more ▼]

The early differential diagnosis of frontal lobe dementia is particularly difficult because changes of personality or behaviour overwhelm intellectual and cognitive impairments. We report the case of a patient presenting with paranoid personality disorder who refused to collaborate in neuropsychological testing. Initial functional imaging showed frontal hypometabolism that served as an early marker of frontal lobe dysfunction. [less ▲]

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See detailParasympathetic component of 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced pulmonary dysfunctions in health calves
Linden, Annick ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg; Amory, Hélène ULg et al

in American Journal of Veterinary Research (1996), 57(6), 896-901

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See detailHigh-temperature polyimide nanofoams for microelectronic applications
Hedrick, James L; Carter, K. R.; Cha, J. E. et al

in Reactive & Functional Polymers (1996), 30(1-3), 43-53

Foamed polyimides have been developed in order to obtain thin film dielectric layers with very low dielectric constants for use in microelectronic devices. In these systems the pore sizes are in the ... [more ▼]

Foamed polyimides have been developed in order to obtain thin film dielectric layers with very low dielectric constants for use in microelectronic devices. In these systems the pore sizes are in the nanometer range, thus, the term 'nanofoam'. The polyimide foams are prepared from block copolymers consisting of thermally stable and thermally labile blocks, the latter being the dispersed phase. Foam formation is effected by thermolysis of the thermally labile block, leaving pores of the size and shape corresponding to the initial copolymer morphology. Nanofoams prepared from a number of polyimides as matrix materials were investigated as well as from a number of thermally labile polymers. The foams were characterized by a variety of experiments including TEM, SAXS, WAXD, DMTA, density measurements. refractive index measurements and dielectric constant measurements. Thin film foams, with high thermal stability and low dielectric constants approaching 2.0, can be prepared using the copolymer/nanofoam approach. [less ▲]

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See detailResolution Improvement by Use of Carboxymethyl-Beta-Cyclodextrin as Chiral Additive for the Enantiomeric Separation of Basic Drugs by Capillary Electrophoresis
Fillet, Marianne ULg; Bechet, I.; Hubert, Philippe ULg et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (1996), 14(8-10), 1107-14

Three beta-cyclodextrin derivatives--carboxymethyl-, dimethyl- and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin--were tested as chiral selectors for the enantioseparation of seven basic drugs in free solution ... [more ▼]

Three beta-cyclodextrin derivatives--carboxymethyl-, dimethyl- and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin--were tested as chiral selectors for the enantioseparation of seven basic drugs in free solution capillary electrophoresis, using buffers made of 100 mM phosphoric acid adjusted to pH 3.0 with triethanolamine in fused silica capillaries thermostatted at 15 degrees C. The best results with respect to chiral resolution were obtained with carboxymethyl-beta-cyclodextrin (CMCD): the enantiomers of all compounds examined were completely resolved with this beta-cyclodextrin derivative. The influence of the CMCD concentration on the migration times, the apparent electrophoretic mobility difference and the resolution of the drug enantiomers was investigated thoroughly. Particularly impressive resolution values, up to 23.7, were obtained for several compounds in these capillary electrophoretic systems, using CMCD in the 5-15 mM concentration range. [less ▲]

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See detailAn empirical formula to estimate the resistance of a convoy in a restricted waterway
Marchal, Jean ULg; Shen, Yide ULg

in Marine Technology and SNAME News (1996), volume 40(2), 107-112

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See detailContribution of polyalky(meth)acrylates to the design of PVC melt viscosity
Vankan, R.; Fayt, Roger; Jérôme, Robert ULg et al

in Polymer Engineering & Science (1996), 36(12), 1675-1684

The shear viscosity of poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) at 200°C can be decreased by at least one order of magnitude by the addition of as little as 5 wt% poly n-alkyl-(meth)acrylates (PMA) of a much lower ... [more ▼]

The shear viscosity of poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) at 200°C can be decreased by at least one order of magnitude by the addition of as little as 5 wt% poly n-alkyl-(meth)acrylates (PMA) of a much lower dynamic viscosity than PVC. For this effect to be observed, the polymeric additive must be immiscible with PVC at 200°C. The average size of the dispersed phases is observed in the range of 0.5 to 5 m; size fluctuation in this domain has no significant effect. When these conditions are met, there is a linear increase in the shear viscosity ratio blend/PVC from 0.2 to 1.0 with increasing logarithmic values of the dynamic viscosity ratio of the additive over PVC [(log(/)) from -4 to -1]. [less ▲]

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See detailPercutaneous Balloon Pericardiotomy: A Case Report and Analysis of Mechanism of Action
Bertrand, O.; Legrand, Victor ULg; Kulbertus, Henri ULg

in Catheterization and Cardiovascular Diagnosis (1996), 38(2), 180-2

A 33-year-old man with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and cardiac tamponade underwent percutaneous balloon pericardiotomy. To elucidate the pathway of fluid elimination, at the end of the ... [more ▼]

A 33-year-old man with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and cardiac tamponade underwent percutaneous balloon pericardiotomy. To elucidate the pathway of fluid elimination, at the end of the procedure, we injected methylene blue into the pericardial space. Contrary to previous belief, we found no blue discoloration of the pleural fluids, and thus we postulate that most of the fluid was eliminated by peritoneal resorption. [less ▲]

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See detailSynchronization of estrus in goats: the relationship between PMSG binding in plasma, time of occurrence of estrus and fertility following artificial insemination
Baril, G.; Remy, Benoît ULg; Leboeuf, J. F. et al

in Theriogenology (1996), 45(8), 1553-1559

Radioimmunoassay (RIA) was used to measure plasma eCG binding in dairy goats (n = 524) at the beginning of a progestagen/eCG treatment and 25 d after eCG administration. The eCG binding was not dependent ... [more ▼]

Radioimmunoassay (RIA) was used to measure plasma eCG binding in dairy goats (n = 524) at the beginning of a progestagen/eCG treatment and 25 d after eCG administration. The eCG binding was not dependent on the age of the females but increased with the number of treatments they had previously received (3.4 % ± 4.8, N = 47 vs 9.6 % ± 13.2, N = 249; mean ± SD; P < 0.01 for goats treated 0 and 1 time vs those treated 2 to 5 times, respectively). The synchronization treatment led to an increase in the binding of eCG (7.1 % ± 10.9 before vs 28.3 ± 24.5 after treatment; P < 0.01). When eCG binding before treatment was higher than 5 % the onset of estrus was delayed: 37.9 % of goats came into estrus more than 30 h after sponge removal vs 7.4 % when eCG binding was lower than 5 % (P < 0.01). Fertility was significantly decreased when eCG binding was higher than 10 %. These results show that the repetition of treatment with eCG to induce estrus in goats increases eCG binding. This could explain the lowered efficiency of the hormonal treatment to synchronize estrus and the associated decrease in fertility when goats are inseminated at a predetermined time. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of Hoxa1 Expression in Human Breast Cancer
Chariot, Alain ULg; Castronovo, Vincenzo ULg

in Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (1996), 222(2), 292-7

Homeodomain-containing proteins are transcription factors that regulate the coordinated expression of multiple genes involved in development, differentiation and malignant transformation. To better ... [more ▼]

Homeodomain-containing proteins are transcription factors that regulate the coordinated expression of multiple genes involved in development, differentiation and malignant transformation. To better understand the role played by these proteins in breast cancer cells, we demonstrate, using semi-quantitative RT-PCR experiments, that progestin induces HOXA1 mRNAs in MCF7 cells. This is the first evidence of regulation of a HOX gene by steroids. Moreover, we detected HOXA1 expression in a variety of human breast cancer lesions, suggesting that HOXA1 may be required for the establishment of breast cancer cells phenotype. We propose that HOXA1 gene could be one of the orchestrators that regulate breast epithelial cell differentiation and that alteration of HOXA1 expression could play a role in breast cancer progression. [less ▲]

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See detailPolyimide nanofoams from caprolactone-based copolymers
Hedrick, James L; Russell, T. P.; Sanchez, M. et al

in Macromolecules (1996), 29(10), 3642-3646

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See detailSynthesis and preliminary characterization of model liquid crystalline ionomers
Gohy, Jean-François; Vanhoorne, Pierre ULg; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Macromolecules (1996), 29(10), 3376-3383

Model liquid crystalline ionomers have been synthesized that consist of low molecular weight linear chains selectively end-capped at one or both end(s) with an ionic mesogenic group. ω- and α,ω ... [more ▼]

Model liquid crystalline ionomers have been synthesized that consist of low molecular weight linear chains selectively end-capped at one or both end(s) with an ionic mesogenic group. ω- and α,ω-carboxylato and sulfonato polystyrene chains have been prepared by living anionic polymerization and associated with mesogenic counterions, the structure of which is a rigid azobenzene moiety attached to a quaternary ammonium halide through a flexible spacer. The thermotropic behavior of the liquid crystalline halato(semi)telechelic polymers (LC H(S)TP's) has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry and optical microscopy. Some of them show smectic mesophases in a large temperature range. Actually, the liquid crystalline properties of the LC H(S)TP's depend on the molecular weight and the nature of the ionic end groups. A model, based on a crystal close packing approach, shows that the bulkiness of the sulfonato end groups can prevent the formation of smectic mesophases. The supramolecular organization of the LC H(S)TP's has also been studied by small angle neutron scattering, which agrees with a microphase separation between the polymer chains and the mesogenic counterions. [less ▲]

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See detailAp stars periodicity (Catalano+ 1997)
Catalano, F. A.; Renson, Pierre ULg

in VizieR Online Data Catalog (1996), 412

New data on the periods of Ap stars with references are presented (Table 1). 21 further stars are introduced for which a periodic variability has recently been discovered or for which it was known before ... [more ▼]

New data on the periods of Ap stars with references are presented (Table 1). 21 further stars are introduced for which a periodic variability has recently been discovered or for which it was known before but it was not reported in previous issues of this catalogue. For many stars also present in previous issues of the catalogue new determinations of the periods are given. Recently attributed variable star names are also quoted. Note: this catalog is included in <III/199> (2 data files). [less ▲]

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See detailDecreased expression of galectin-3 is associated with progression of human breast cancer.
Castronovo, Vincenzo ULg; van den Brule, Frédéric; Jackers, Pascale ULg et al

in Journal of Pathology (The) (1996), 179(1), 43-48

Galectin-3, a member of the beta-galactoside-binding lectin family, is involved in several biological events including binding to the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin. Although the exact role of ... [more ▼]

Galectin-3, a member of the beta-galactoside-binding lectin family, is involved in several biological events including binding to the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin. Although the exact role of galectin-3 during the interactions between cells and laminin is not yet known, it has recently been observed that its expression is down-regulated at both the protein and the mRNA level in colon cancer tissues in correlation with progression of the disease. This study investigated the possibility that breast cancer cells might also exhibit decreased galectin-3 expression in association with their aggressiveness. The expression of galectin-3 was examined by immunoperoxidase staining, using a polyclonal antibody raised against recombinant galectin-3, in a collection of 98 human breast lesions including 12 fibroadenomas, 15 fibrocystic disease lesions, 22 in situ carcinomas, and 49 infiltrating ductal carcinomas, 19 of which had positive axillary lymph nodes. Normal breast tissue adjacent to the lesions was present in 59 biopsies. Normal breast tissue expressed high levels (3+) of galectin-3. High expression (2+ to 3+) was also found in most benign lesions examined. The expression of galectin-3 was significantly decreased in in situ carcinoma and this down-regulation was more pronounced in invasive ductal carcinoma, particularly when associated with infiltration of axillary lymph nodes. These data constitute the first observation that galectin-3 is down-regulated in breast cancer and suggest the decreased expression of this galactoside-binding lectin is associated with the acquisition of the invasive and metastatic phenotype. [less ▲]

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See detailTheoretical investigation of the molecular structure of aluminium triisopropoxide and its complexes in ring-opening polymerization
Parenté, Vincent; Brédas, Jean-Luc; Dubois, Philippe ULg et al

in Macromolecular Theory and Simulations (1996), 5(3), 525-546

We present a theoretical study on aluminium triisopropoxide (Al(O1Pr)3) using both empirical (Molecular Mechanics, MM, with Dreiding II force field) and quantum-chemical (Austin Model 1, AMI ... [more ▼]

We present a theoretical study on aluminium triisopropoxide (Al(O1Pr)3) using both empirical (Molecular Mechanics, MM, with Dreiding II force field) and quantum-chemical (Austin Model 1, AMI, semiempirical Hartree-Fock) techniques. We determine the most stable geometries for both the tetramer and tiimer of aluminium triisopropoxide as well as the thermodynamic characteristics of the equilibrium existing between these two aggregated structures. The theoretical results are compared to experimental data from X-ray diffraction and 27Al NMR measurements. For the tetramer, it appears that the optimal equilibrium geometries are in good agreement with the experimental X-ray diffraction geometry; another geometry is also obtained with both theoretical approaches, which is slightly less stable but of higher symmetry. On the basis of the most stable configurations for the tetramer and trimer aggregates, the variation of free enthalpy (AG) between the two aggregated structures has been estimated. The evolution of the theoretical AG values indicates a displacement of equilibrium towards the trimer species with temperature, in good agreement with experimental 1H and 27Al NMR data. Moreover, the AMI heats of formation show a gain of 33.9 kcal/mol due to the aggregation of four Al(O1Pr)3 instead of three, and thus a better stability of the tetramer. The molecular geometries being well described by the theoretical methods used in this study, we also present a model for the ring-opening polymerization complexes of ε-caprolactone and lactides. [less ▲]

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See detailLibre circulation des capitaux: jurisprudence récente et perspectives
Partsch, Philippe-Emmanuel ULg

in Journal des Tribunaux Droit Européen (1996)

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See detailIntensity Dependence of Auditory Evoked Potentials Is Pronounced in Migraine: An Indication of Cortical Potentiation and Low Serotonergic Neurotransmission?
Wang, W.; Timsit-Berthier, M.; Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Neurology (1996), 46(5), 1404-9

Migraine is associated with stimulus hypersensitivity, increased evoked cortical responses, and abnormal 5-HT levels in peripheral blood. We studied cortical auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) between ... [more ▼]

Migraine is associated with stimulus hypersensitivity, increased evoked cortical responses, and abnormal 5-HT levels in peripheral blood. We studied cortical auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) between attacks in 35 patients suffering from migraine without aura (MO, n = 25) or with aura (MA, n = 10) and in 25 healthy volunteers. Binaural tones were delivered at 40, 50, 60, and 70 dB sensation level (SL) in a pseudorandomized order. The intensity dependence of the auditory N1-P2 component was significantly greater in MO (p = 0.003) and MA (p = 0.02) patients than in healthy controls, resulting in a much steeper amplitude/stimulus intensity function slope. When three sequential blocks of 40 averaged responses were analyzed at the 40- and 70-dB SL intensities, N1-P2 amplitude decreased in second and third blocks at both intensities in controls, but increased in migraineurs, a difference that was significant in both blocks for the 70-dB SL stimulus. The strong interictal dependence of AEPs on stimulus intensity may thus be due to potentiation (instead of habituation) of the response during repetition of the high-intensity stimulation. In concordance with previous studies of visual evoked potentials, these results confirm that migraine is characterized between attacks by an abnormality of cortical information processing, which might be a consequence of low 5-HT transmission and favor cortical energy demands. [less ▲]

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See detailCombined study of cerebral glucose metabolism and [11C] methionine accumulation in probable Alzheimer's disease using positron emission tomography
Salmon, Eric ULg; Grégoire, M. C.; Delfiore, Guy et al

in Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism (1996), 16(3), 399-408

There is a characteristic decrease in glucose metabolism in associative frontal and temporo-parietal cortices of patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD). The decrease in metabolism might result ... [more ▼]

There is a characteristic decrease in glucose metabolism in associative frontal and temporo-parietal cortices of patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD). The decrease in metabolism might result from local neuronal loss or from a decrease of synaptic activity. We measured in vivo [11C]methionine accumulation into proteins with positron emission tomography (PET) to assess cortical tissue loss in AD. Both global regional activity and compartmental analysis were used to express [11C]methionine accumulation into brain tissue. Glucose metabolism was measures with [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose and autoradiographic method. Combined studies were performed in 10 patients with probable AD, compared to age-matched healthy volunteers. There was a significant 45% decrease of temporo-parietal glucose metabolism in patients with AD, and frontal metabolism was lowered in most patients. Temporo-parietal metabolism correlated to dementia severity. [11C]methionine incorporation into temporo-parietal and frontal cortices was not significantly decreased in AD. There was no correlation with clinical symptoms. Data suggest that regional tissue loss, assessed by the decrease of [11C]methionine accumulation, is not sufficient to explain cortical glucose hypometabolism, which reflects, rather, reduced synaptic connectivity. [less ▲]

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See detailOxidative Stress in Clinical Situations--Fact or Fiction?
Pincemail, Joël ULg; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier ULg; Limet, Raymond ULg

in European Journal of Anaesthesiology (1996), 13(3), 219-34

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See detailLes inhibiteurs de l'enzyme de conversion dans l'infarctus du myocarde: qui, quand, comment?
Pierard, Luc ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1996), 51(5), 336-40

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See detailLes assistances circulatoires. Partie II. Complications et résultats
Defraigne, Jean-Olivier ULg; Limet, Raymond ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1996), 51(5), 359-67

Le placement et le choix d'une assistance uni- ou biventriculaire reposent sur des critères hémodynamiques, cliniques et échographiques et sur certaines données qui imposent d'emblée le choix d'une ... [more ▼]

Le placement et le choix d'une assistance uni- ou biventriculaire reposent sur des critères hémodynamiques, cliniques et échographiques et sur certaines données qui imposent d'emblée le choix d'une assistance biventriculaire, telles les arythmies, l'ischémie du septum interventriculaire et des résistances vasculaires pulmonaires élevées. Le moment idéal pour transplanter un patient sous assistance n'est pas toujours aisé à déterminer. Par le passé, le patient était transplanté dès qu'un donneur était disponible, dans la crainte de la survenue de complications associées au système d'assistance et qui feraient contre-indiquer la transplantation. Actuellement, on sait qu'il est préférable de différer la transplantation jusqu'à la normalisation des fonctions hépatique et rénale, ce qui permet de transplanter le patient dans de meilleures conditions. Les complications principales sous assistance sont: les saignements qui accroissent le risque d'infection en raison des réopérations et des transfusions qu'ils imposent, l'infection, les accidents thromboemboliques et l'insuffisance rénale. Les résultats globaux actuels sont: 1) une survie initiale supérieure à 50% en cas d'assistance circulatoire en pont vers la transplantation, avec une survie actuarielle à 2 ans de l'ordre de 70% après transplantation; 2) une survie globale entre 25 et 30% en cas d'assistance post-cardiotomie. Ces résultats sont loin d'être parfaits, mais ces dispositifs s'adressent à des patients qui, sans assistance circulatoire, ont une espérance de vie nulle à très brève échéance. Néanmoins, des progrès restent à faire dans le domaine de la tolérance des matériaux utilisés ainsi que dans la sélection des patients. Dans le futur, des systèmes totalement implantables constitueront peut-être une alternative valable à la transplantation. [less ▲]

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See detailAndrew Bennett, 'Keats, Narrative and Audience: The Posthumous Life of Writing'
Steyaert, Kris ULg

in Romanticism on the Net (RoN) (1996), 1(2),

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See detailSystèmes d'aide à la décision en gestion forestière
Lejeune, Philippe ULg; Hebert, Jacques ULg; Rondeux, Jacques ULg

in Agricontact (1996), (282), 1-5

La planification et l'aménagement forestiers sont des activités qui nécessitent la prise en compte d'une quantité importante d'informations de natures variées entre autres écologiques, économiques et ... [more ▼]

La planification et l'aménagement forestiers sont des activités qui nécessitent la prise en compte d'une quantité importante d'informations de natures variées entre autres écologiques, économiques et sociales. Cette diversité d'informations, combinée à la multiplicité et l'interaction des échelles de référence spatiale (arbre, parcelle, massif, région) ou temporelle (court, moyen ou long terme) à considérer imposent la mise en oeuvre d'outils spécifiques d'aide à la décision capables d'intégrer ces contraintes et de maîtriser la complexité des processus à gérer. L'objectif des lignes qui suivent est de faire le point sur les systèmes d'aide à la décision (SAD) appliqués à la gestion forestière et de décrire les principaux outils que ceux-ci mettent habituellement en oeuvre. Après une définition des SAD et une description succincte de leurs constituants, nous envisagerons l'application de ces outils successivement au niveau local d'une parcelle, au niveau plus général d'une propriété forestière, avant de conclure sur les possibilités d'application de ces techniques dans le cadre de la gestion de forêts semblables à celles rencontrées en Belgique. [less ▲]

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See detailEcophysiologie de la production végétale: l'exemple du blé
Bodson, Bernard ULg; Falisse, André

in Probio-Revue (1996), 19(1-2), 85-92

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See detailEffects on Pcbs on Liver Ultrastructure and Monooxygenase Activities in Japanese Quail
Stouvenakers, Nadine ULg; Hugla, J. L.; Goffinet, Gerhard ULg et al

in Bulletin of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology (1996), 56(5), 839-46

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See detailEffects of Ingested Fructose and Infused Glucagon on Endogenous Glucose Production in Obese Niddm Patients, Obese Non-Diabetic Subjects, and Healthy Subjects
Paquot, Nicolas ULg; Schneiter, P.; Jequier, E. et al

in Diabetologia (1996), 39(5), 580-6

Increased endogenous glucose production (EGP) and gluconeogenesis contribute to the pathogenesis of hyperglycaemia in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). In healthy subjects, however, EGP ... [more ▼]

Increased endogenous glucose production (EGP) and gluconeogenesis contribute to the pathogenesis of hyperglycaemia in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). In healthy subjects, however, EGP remains constant during administration of gluconeogenic precursors. This study was performed in order to determine whether administration of fructose increases EGP in obese NIDDM patients and obese non-diabetic subjects. Eight young healthy lean subjects, eight middle-aged obese NIDDM patients and seven middle-aged obese non-diabetic subjects were studied during hourly ingestion of 13C fructose (0.3 g.kg fat free mass-1.h-1) for 3 h. Fructose failed to increase EGP (measured with 6,6 2H glucose) in NIDDM (17.7 +/- 1.9 mumol.kg fat free mass-1.min-1 basal vs 15.9 +/- 0.9 after fructose), in obese non-diabetic subjects (12.1 +/- 0.5 basal vs 13.1 +/- 0.5 after fructose) and in lean healthy subjects (13.3 +/- 0.5 basal vs 13.8 +/- 0.6 after fructose) although 13C glucose synthesis contributed 73.2% of EGP in lean subjects, 62.6% in obese non-diabetic subjects, and 52.8% in obese NIDDM patients. Since glucagon may play an important role in the development of hyperglycaemia in NIDDM, healthy subjects were also studied during 13C fructose ingestion + hyperglucagonaemia (232 +/- 9 ng/l) and during hyperglucagonaemia alone. EGP increased by 19.8% with ingestion of fructose + glucagon (p < 0.05) but remained unchanged during administration of fructose or glucagon alone. The plasma 13C glucose enrichment was identical after fructose ingestion both with and without glucagon, indicating that the contribution of fructose gluconeogenesis to the glucose 6-phosphate pool was identical in these two conditions. We concluded that during fructose administration: 1) gluconeogenesis is increased, but EGP remains constant in NIDDM, obese non-diabetic, and lean individuals; 2) in lean individuals, both an increased glucagonaemia and an enhanced supply of gluconeogenic precursors are required to increase EGP; this increase in EGP occurs without changes in the relative proportion of glucose 6-phosphate production from fructose and from other sources (i.e. glycogenolysis + gluconeogenesis from non-fructose precursors). [less ▲]

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See detailHistamine liberation related to cardiopulmonary bypass in children: Possible relation to transient postoperative arrhythmias
Seghaye, Marie-Christine ULg; Duchateau, J.; Grabitz, R. G. et al

in Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (1996), 111(5), 971-981

Tumor necrosis factor-α production and products of mast cell, basophil, and eosinophil degranulation (prostaglandin D2, histamine, and eosinophil cationic protein) were prospectively studied in 26 ... [more ▼]

Tumor necrosis factor-α production and products of mast cell, basophil, and eosinophil degranulation (prostaglandin D2, histamine, and eosinophil cationic protein) were prospectively studied in 26 children undergoing cardiac operations. The relationship between inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass and transient postoperative arrhythmias was analyzed. Cardiopulmonary bypass was conducted with circulatory arrest and deep hypothermia in 10 patients and with continuous low-flow and moderate hypothermia in 16 patients. Transient postoperative arrhythmias diagnosed on standard or atrial electrocardiograms (or both) were seen in eight of the 26 examined children: accelerated junctional rhythm (n = 3), junctional ectopic tachycardia (n = 3), second-degree atrioventricular block (n = 1), and third- degree atrioventricular block (n = 1). Children with transient postoperative arrhythmias were younger than those without (p < 0.05). Compared with baseline values, there was in all patients a significant release of histamine and eosinophil cationic protein (p < 0.05) related to cardiopulmonary bypass, reaching peak values 4 hours after the operation. In contrast, tumor necrosis factor-α production and prostaglandin D2 release were not significant. This suggests that activated basophils but not mast cells are the major sources of histamine liberated during and after cardiopulmonary bypass. Histamine release but not eosinophil cationic protein release correlated with circulatory arrest and deep hypothermia (p < 0.05), suggesting the participation of physicochemical alterations of circulating basophils leading to histamine liberation. Four hours after the operation, patients with transient postoperative arrhythmias had significantly higher blood concentrations of histamine (p < 0.02) and eosinophil cationic protein (p < 0.05) than did those without transient postoperative arrhythmias. On the first postoperative day, four of the eight patients with transient postoperative arrhythmias had persisting elevated histamine levels, whereas in patients without transient postoperative arrhythmias histamine reached baseline values. The multivariate analysis retained histamine release and eosinophil cationic protein variations related to cardiopulmonary bypass for the emerging model to predict transient postoperative arrhythmias. The results of this study show significant histamine release related to cardiopulmonary bypass. Furthermore, they document a possible relationship between circulating histamine and transient postoperative arrhythmias. The latter may therefore be suspected among the consequences of the inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass. [less ▲]

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See detailField Efficacy of Moxidectin 0.5% Pour-on against Chorioptes Bovis, Damalinia Bovis, Linognathus Vituli and Psoroptes Ovis in Naturally Infected Cattle
Losson, Bertrand ULg; Lonneux, J. F.

in Veterinary Parasitology (1996), 63(1-2), 119-30

Field efficacy of a pour-on formulation of moxidectin, a macrocyclic lactone endectocide, was evaluated in cattle naturally infested with Chorioptes bovis, Damalinia bovis, Linognathus vituli and ... [more ▼]

Field efficacy of a pour-on formulation of moxidectin, a macrocyclic lactone endectocide, was evaluated in cattle naturally infested with Chorioptes bovis, Damalinia bovis, Linognathus vituli and Psoroptes ovis. In trial 1, two experimental groups of cattle naturally infested with P. ovis were formed. Group 1 animals remained as untreated controls whereas Group 2 animals were treated on day 0 with 0.5% moxidectin cattle pour-on at a dose of 0.5 mg kg-1 bw. Efficacy was assessed by (a) taking skin samples from each animal on days -4, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42 and 56 post treatment (PT) and observing the numbers of viable P. ovis mites and (b) clinical examination of animals on days 7, 14, 21, 28, 42 and 56 with the percentage of affected body surface calculated and live body weights recorded for each animal on days 4, 28 and 42. The pour-on formulation of moxidectin yielded excellent efficacy as no live mites were found in treated animals at 14, 21, 28, 42 and 56 days PT, except in one animal from which one adult mite was collected on day 42. Clinical indices showed a regular decrease in the affected body surface area. All untreated animals but one remained positive until day 28 and their clinical condition worsened rapidly. In trial 2, two experimental groups of cattle naturally infested with D. bovis and L. vituli were selected. Group 1 remained as untreated controls whereas Group 2 individuals were treated on day 0 with 0.5% moxidectin cattle pour-on at a dose of 0.5 mg kg-1 bw. Efficacy was assessed by identifying and counting lice on eight 15 cm hair partings at predefined anatomical sites on days 0, 14, 28 and 42. On the basis of animals cured and lice count reduction, efficacies were 100% on day 14 and from then onwards for both species. In trial 3, 24 animals naturally infested with C. bovis were divided into three experimental groups comprising eight (Group I), seven (Group 2) and nine animals (Group 3). Group 1 was the untreated control group whereas Groups 2 and 3 animals were treated on day 0 with 0.5% moxidectin cattle pour-on at a dose of 0.25 mg and 0.5 mg kg-1 bw, respectively. Efficacy was assessed as in trial 1. Skin scrapings were collected on days -3, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 56 PT. A clinical index was calculated for each animal on days 0, 28 and 56 whereas body weights were recorded on days 0 and 56. At 0.25 mg kg-1 bw, the efficacy of moxidectin cattle pour-on against C. bovis was incomplete. In contrast, at a dose of 0.5 mg kg-1 bw, moxidectin cattle pour-on was fully effective and by day 14 PT all animals were negative for C. bovis and remained so until the end of the trial. No side effects were observed during these three trials. These results indicate that at a dose of 0.5 mg kg-1 bw, the pour-on formulation of moxidectin is highly effective against C. bovis, D. bovis, L. vituli and P. ovis. [less ▲]

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See detailPharma-clinics. Comment je traite... une acné du visage
Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1996), 51(5), 327-31

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See detailHemodynamic Responses to Pasteurella Haemolytica Inoculation in Calves Given Type 2 Serotonergic Antagonist
Desmecht, Daniel ULg; Linden, Annick ULg; Amory, Hélène ULg et al

in Canadian Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology (1996), 74(5), 572-9

The effects of saline (control, group C) and metrenperone (treated, group M) on systemic and pulmonary hemodynamics were determined in conscious 7- to 15-day-old calves after they were intratracheally ... [more ▼]

The effects of saline (control, group C) and metrenperone (treated, group M) on systemic and pulmonary hemodynamics were determined in conscious 7- to 15-day-old calves after they were intratracheally inoculated with Pasteurella haemolytica. Metrenperone, a specific serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) receptor antagonist, was injected intramuscularly (100 micrograms.kg-1) 2 h after the calves were inoculated. Central venous, pulmonary arterial and capillary wedge, and systemic arterial pressures were measured, using fluid-filled catheters. Cardiac output was measured by the thermodilution technique. Heart rate, stroke volume, and pulmonary and systemic vascular resistances were calculated. The parameters were measured hourly from the 1st to the 10th h after inoculation. In group C, cardiovascular response to P. haemolytica inoculation was marked and typically consisted of two systemic hypotensive phases and two pulmonary hypertensive phases. The first phase occurred by the 2nd h post inoculation and was induced by a transient bradycardia and a systemic vasodilation, leading to profound hypotension and reduced venous return. Cardiac performance then transiently recovered, but systemic hypotension persisted. The second hypotensive hypodynamic phase occurred by the 7th h after inoculation, and was associated with a decline in stroke volume, an increase in heart rate, and pulmonary hypertension and vasoconstriction. In group M, the early response to P. haemolytica exposure was similar to that in controls, indicating that, as in sheep, 5-hydroxytryptamine does not contribute to the early hypodynamic response to endotoxemia. In contrast, metrenperone completely abolished late increases in pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance, suggesting that 5-hydroxytryptamine contributes to the late pulmonary vasoconstriction. Metrenperone treatment also allowed better restoration of heart rate, and hence, cardiac output was maintained. In conclusion, 5-hydroxytryptamine might have a role in mediating pasteurellic endotoxin induced changes in pulmonary hemodynamics through its type-2 receptors. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges in the Concentrations of Auxins and Polyamines During Rooting of in-Vitro-Propagated Walnut Shoots
Heloir, Marie-Claire; Kevers, Claire ULg; Hausman, Jean-François et al

in Tree Physiology (1996), 16(5), 515-9

Rooting was induced in in-vitro-propagated walnut (Juglans regia L.) shoots by subculturing the shoots on rooting medium containing agar and 3 mg l(-1) indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for 7 days in darkness ... [more ▼]

Rooting was induced in in-vitro-propagated walnut (Juglans regia L.) shoots by subculturing the shoots on rooting medium containing agar and 3 mg l(-1) indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for 7 days in darkness. Changes in the concentrations of endogenous free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-acetylaspartic acid (IAAsp) and free polyamines were determined during culture on root-inducing medium. In extracts of whole shoots, the concentration of free IAA showed a transient peak at 60 h (around 48 h in extracts from basal shoot portions) and then remained at a relatively low concentration for the remainder of the 7-day culture period. The concentration of IAAsp in extracts of whole shoots peaked at about the same time as the concentration of free IAA, whereas the IAAsp concentration in extracts from basal shoot portions peaked earlier, at around 12 h. The concentrations of free polyamines in extracts of whole shoots increased soon after the shoots were transferred to root-inducing medium. The concentrations of IAA and IAAsp remained stable when the rooted shoots were transferred to a vermiculite/gelrite mixture (without auxin) and grown in light. [less ▲]

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See detailBone Sialoprotein Expression in Primary Human Breast Cancer Is Associated with Bone Metastases Development
Bellahcene, Akeila ULg; Kroll, M.; Liebens, F. et al

in Journal of Bone and Mineral Research (1996), 11(5), 665-70

Breast cancer metastasizes to bone more frequently than to any other organ, and over 80% of advanced breast cancer patients develop bone metastases. Our recent demonstration that human breast cancer cells ... [more ▼]

Breast cancer metastasizes to bone more frequently than to any other organ, and over 80% of advanced breast cancer patients develop bone metastases. Our recent demonstration that human breast cancer cells express bone sialoprotein (BSP), a bone matrix protein, provides a possible clue for the selective affinity of breast cancer cells for bone. We tested the hypothesis that detection of BSP in primary human breast cancer could be a potential indicator of the ability of breast cancer cells to metastasize to bone. BSP expression was evaluated in the primary breast cancers of 39 patients using immunoperoxidase and two specific anti-BSP antibodies. None of these patients presented clinically or scintigraphically detectable bone metastases at the time of surgery. In the course of their disease, 22 patients developed clinically diagnosed bone metastases. Expression of BSP in breast cancer cells from patients who developed bone metastases was significantly higher (p = 0.008, according to the Mann-Whitney test) than in patients with no bone involvement. No association was found between BSP expression in the primary breast lesions and axillary lymph node metastases. BSP expression was significantly increased in infiltrating ductal carcinoma compared with infiltrating lobular carcinoma (p = 0.0023). No correlation was found between immunoreactivity to BSP antibodies and estrogen receptor (ER) status, progesterone receptor (PR) status, or age. Our data suggest that BSP could help to identity which women will develop bone metastases and provide new bases for the understanding of the molecular mechanism(s) responsible for breast cancer cells osteotropism. [less ▲]

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See detailEnzyme immobilization in reactive nanoparticles produced by inverse microemulsion polymerization
Daubresse, Catherine; Grandfils, Christian ULg; Jérôme, Robert ULg et al

in Colloid and Polymer Science (1996), 274(5), 482-489

This paper deals with the immobilization of alkaline phosphatase by physical entrapment within colloidal particles produced by inverse microemulsion polymerization. Functionality has been imparted to the ... [more ▼]

This paper deals with the immobilization of alkaline phosphatase by physical entrapment within colloidal particles produced by inverse microemulsion polymerization. Functionality has been imparted to the nanoparticle surface by copolymerization of acrylamide (the main monomer), N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide (the cross-linking agent) with either N-acryloyl-l,6-diamino-hexane (an amine promoter) or acrylic acid (a carboxylic acid promoter). The effect of the functions comonomers on the size and zeta potential of the reactive latexes has been studied. Integrity of the immobilized enzyme has been ascertained from its catalytic activity towards hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl-phosphate. [less ▲]

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See detailAuto-formation et hypermédias : qu'est-ce qu'un bon apprenant ?
Denis, Brigitte ULg; Leclercq, Dieudonné ULg

in Les Cahiers d'Etudes du CUEEP (1996), (32-33), 155-161

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See detailCardiovascular response to exogenous serotonin in healthy calves
Linden, Annick ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg; Amory, Hélène ULg et al

in American Journal of Veterinary Research (1996), 57(5), 731-738

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the cardiovascular response to i.v. administration of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) in calves. ANIMALS: 5 healthy unsedated Friesian calves. PROCEDURE: 41 5-HT ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the cardiovascular response to i.v. administration of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) in calves. ANIMALS: 5 healthy unsedated Friesian calves. PROCEDURE: 41 5-HT administrations were performed: II slow infusions (duration, 5 minutes) and 30 bolus infusions (duration, 5 seconds). Cardiovascular function values were recorded before, during, and after the infusion. RESULTS: Slow infusion of 5HT first resulted in a brief period of severe bradycardia, then in sustained tachycardia with a concomitant increase in cardiac output. Systemic initial hypotension concomitant with bradycardia, then a pressor phase associated with an increase in systemic vascular resistance, and finally, a long-lasting hypotensive phase associated with decreased systemic vascular resistance. Pulmonary hypertension was associated with increased pulmonary vascular resistance, reflecting intense pulmonary vasoconstriction. Bolus infusion at increasing dosages resulted in dose-dependent bradycardia and systemic hypotension, followed by dose-dependent systemic hypertension. Unlike with slow infusion, neither the second tachycardiac nor the third systemic hypotensive phases were evident. CONCLUSIONS: 5-HT induces dose-dependent cardiovascular responses, including a reflex response followed by pulmonary and systemic vasoconstriction, in healthy calves. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Determining the type of serotonergic receptors responsible for these responses may help to determine whether 5-HT is involved in the mechanisms underlying brisket disease in cattle. [less ▲]

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See detailDifunctional initiators based on 1,3-diisopropenylbenzene. 3. Synthesis of a pure dilithium adduct and its use as difunctional anionic polymerization initiator
Yu, Y. S.; Dubois, Philippe ULg; Jérôme, Robert ULg et al

in Macromolecules (1996), 29(8), 2738-2745

The addition reaction of tert-butyllithium (t-BuLi) to 1,3-diisopropenylbenzene (1,3-DIB) has been studied. Under optimized conditions, i.e., reaction in cyclohexane at −20 °C and dropwise addition of 1,3 ... [more ▼]

The addition reaction of tert-butyllithium (t-BuLi) to 1,3-diisopropenylbenzene (1,3-DIB) has been studied. Under optimized conditions, i.e., reaction in cyclohexane at −20 °C and dropwise addition of 1,3-DIB to a 1:1 t-BuLi−triethylamine (Et3N) complex followed by a 1 h postreaction period, a pure diadduct is formed without concomitant oligomerization of 1,3-DIB. The behavior of this diadduct has been investigated, in apolar and polar solvents; triblock copolymers have been prepared and found to have interesting mechanical properties. [less ▲]

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See detailGeneral Catalogue of Ap and Am stars (Renson+ 2009)
Renson, Pierre ULg; Gerbaldi, M.; Catalano, F. A.

in VizieR Online Data Catalog (1996), 3162

A catalogue of 8205 known or suspected Ap, HgMn and Am stars is presented. This is a major update of the catalogue of Ap and Am stars (Renson et al., 1991, III/162A). It includes revised identifications ... [more ▼]

A catalogue of 8205 known or suspected Ap, HgMn and Am stars is presented. This is a major update of the catalogue of Ap and Am stars (Renson et al., 1991, III/162A). It includes revised identifications, additional stars and revised information. Bertaud and GC identifications were suppressed. HIP and TYC identifications were added. The GC number can be found in notes N for stars without HIP number and for double stars when the components have different numbers (the GC of the other component is then given in note D). (2 data files). [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of sodium nitroprusside on complement activation induced by cardiopulmonary bypass: A clinical and experimental study
Seghaye, Marie-Christine ULg; Duchateau, J.; Grabitz, R. G. et al

in Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (1996), 111(4), 882-892

Complement activation and leukocyte stimulation were prospectively studied during and after cardiopulmonary bypass in 16 children receiving sodium nitroprusside-a nitrovasodilator releasing nitric oxide ... [more ▼]

Complement activation and leukocyte stimulation were prospectively studied during and after cardiopulmonary bypass in 16 children receiving sodium nitroprusside-a nitrovasodilator releasing nitric oxide-for vasodilation during the cooling and rewarming periods of extracorporeal circulation. Results were compared with those in 29 patients who were not treated with sodium nitroprusside during the operation. Patients treated with sodium nitroprusside had significantly less C3 conversion during cardiopulmonary bypass as measured by the ratio C3d/C3 (p < 0.05) and significantly less C5a liberation immediately after cardiopulmonary bypass (p < 0.005) than patients not treated with sodium nitroprusside. C4 was not overtly consumed in our series. Leukocyte count during the rewarming period of cardiopulmonary bypass, but not leukocyte elastase release during cardiopulmonary bypass, was significantly reduced in patients treated with sodium nitroprusside (p < 0.05). In vitro experiments were conducted to analyze the effect of sodium nitroprusside on complement hemolytic activity initiated by the classic and the alternate pathways and on zymosan-induced C3 conversion by the activation of the alternate pathway. The in vitro experiments clearly demonstrate inhibition of complement hemolytic activity by sodium nitroprusside in the sera tested. The 50% inhibitory concentration of sodium nitroprusside on the available complement hemolytic activity was less through the alternate pathway than through the classic one (4.2 ± 0.8 mmol/L and 14.0 ± 2.88 mmol/L, respectively). The decrease of complement hemolytic activity measured was dose-dependent and was enhanced by the sodium nitroprusside preincubation of the sera tested. This effect was related to the duration of preincubation. Sodium nitroprusside photodegradation (enhancing nitric oxide release) increased the anticomplementary effect of the drug, reducing the 50% inhibitory concentration on complement hemolytic activity to 0.24 to 0.02 mmol/L for the alternate pathway and 2.74 o 0.3 mmol/L for the classic pathway. The zymosan-induced C3 conversion was inhibited by sodium nitroprusside. Nitroglycerin and isosorbide dinitrate (other nitric oxide donors) had in vitro effects on complement hemolytic activity similar to those of nonphotodegraded sodium nitroprusside at similar concentrations (1 mmol/L). Our results suggest that sodium nitroprusside, both in vitro and in vivo, has an inhibiting effect on complement activation initiated by both classic and alternate pathways and that this effect is mediated by nitric oxide release from sodium nitroprusside. This is the first report on the anticomplementary effect of sodium nitroprusside by nitric oxide release. [less ▲]

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See detailComment j'explore ... une suspicion de cancer broncho-pulmonaire par tomographie a émission de positrons
Bury, Thierry ULg; Paulus, Patrick; Weber, Thierry et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1996), 51(4), 317-9

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See detailInfluence of low-dose aprotinin on the inflammatory reaction due to cardiopulmonary bypass in children
Seghaye, Marie-Christine ULg; Duchateau, J.; Grabitz, R. G. et al

in Annals of Thoracic Surgery (1996), 61(4), 1205-1211

Background. The serine protease inhibitor aprotinin inhibits trypsin, kallikrein, and plasmin and enhances the complement hemolytic activity of the first complement component C1. We tested whether low ... [more ▼]

Background. The serine protease inhibitor aprotinin inhibits trypsin, kallikrein, and plasmin and enhances the complement hemolytic activity of the first complement component C1. We tested whether low-dose aprotinin influences the inflammatory reaction related to cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods. In an open, randomized study, 25 children undergoing cardiac operations were investigated prospectively. The treated group comprised 11 patients receiving low-dose aprotinin (20,000 kIU/kg [2.8 mg/kg]), and the control group included 14 patients. Complement activation, cytokine production, and leukocyte stimulation were analyzed before, during, and after cardiopulmonary bypass. Results. In all children, significant C3 conversion and C5a generation, interleukin-6 synthesis, and myeloperoxidase, eosinophil cationic protein, and histamine liberation occurred in relation to cardiopulmonary bypass. This was not influenced by aprotinin treatment. In contrast, neutrophil kinetic studies at the end of cardiopulmonary bypass showed a significantly lower increase in the aprotinin as compared with the control group. Conclusions. Our results suggest that low-dose aprotinin has little influence on the inflammatory reaction induced by cardiopulmonary bypass. Aprotinin affects neutrophil mobilization but not white blood cell degranulation related to cardiopulmonary bypass, and has no influence on complement activation and interleukin-6 synthesis. [less ▲]

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See detailIntraoperative Localisation of the Primary Motor Cortex Using Single Electrical Stimuli
Maertens De Noordhout, Alain ULg; Born, J. D.; Hans, Pol ULg et al

in Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry (1996), 60(4), 442-4

A new method of intraoperative localisation of the primary motor cortex is described, based on the application of single anodal electric pulses to the brain surface. Patients were anaesthetised with ... [more ▼]

A new method of intraoperative localisation of the primary motor cortex is described, based on the application of single anodal electric pulses to the brain surface. Patients were anaesthetised with propofol infusion, and neuromuscular blockade was temporarily alleviated to allow recording of surface EMG responses (CMAPs) to the stimuli. Primary motor areas could be localised in 18/19 patients studied. In the other patient, no responses were elicited, as the operative field was posterior to the motor cortex. When compared with MEPs elicited in awake patients by magnetic stimuli, responses to intraoperative anodal stimulation were of small amplitude (usually less than 10% of MEPs) and their latency was some 1 to 2 ms longer. One month after the operation, only 1/19 patients was left with a slight muscle weakness, although seven showed preoperative motor deficit. The procedure proved easy and fast, needing no preliminary surgery or time consuming preparation. It did not induce any detectable side effects. [less ▲]

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See detailLaparoscopic-Assisted Colectomy in Heart Transplant Recipients
Detry, Olivier ULg; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier ULg; Chiche, Jean-Daniel et al

in Clinical Transplantation (1996), 10(2), 191-4

Reports of laparoscopy in heart graft recipients are scarce and, to our knowledge, laparoscopic colectomy has not yet been reported in heart transplant patients. The magnitude and the tolerance of the ... [more ▼]

Reports of laparoscopy in heart graft recipients are scarce and, to our knowledge, laparoscopic colectomy has not yet been reported in heart transplant patients. The magnitude and the tolerance of the hemodynamic changes induced by pneumoperitoneum are unknown in heart graft recipients, who have a denervated heart and are "preload-dependent". The authors report the clinical courses of 2 heart graft recipients who developed acute diverticulitis without perforation or peritonitis and who underwent laparoscopic-assisted colectomy without complications. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of Propofol on in Vitro Lipid Peroxidation Induced by Different Free Radical Generating Systems: A Comparison with Vitamin E
Hans, Pol ULg; Deby, Christiane ULg; Deby-Dupont, G. et al

in Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology (1996), 8(2), 154-8

Propofol has been reported to have antioxidant properties and to inhibit lipid peroxidation. In this study, we examined the ability of propofol to inhibit lipid peroxidation induced by three free radical ... [more ▼]

Propofol has been reported to have antioxidant properties and to inhibit lipid peroxidation. In this study, we examined the ability of propofol to inhibit lipid peroxidation induced by three free radical systems (hydroxyl, ferryl, and oxo-ferryl radicals), and we compared the effect of propofol with that of vitamin E, an endogenous antioxidant. Lipid peroxidation was induced by exposing a linoleic acid emulsion to either water gamma radiation, a ferrous iron-ascorbate solution, or human hemoglobin, generating the hydroxyl, ferryl, and oxo-ferryl radicals, respectively. Each experiment was performed in triplicate with and without propofol or vitamin E at concentrations between 10(-5) and 10(-4) M. Lipid peroxidation was quantified by gas chromatography measurement of the pentane released (nmoles) from lipid decomposition. In each condition, a significant dose-response relationship was found between the release of pentane and the concentration of either propofol or vitamin E. The antioxidant activities of both agents were similar but significantly higher against the hydroxyl than the ferryl and oxo-ferryl radicals. The study suggests that propofol could be beneficial as an anesthetic or sedative drug in patients presenting pathologies associated with free radical reactions. [less ▲]

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See detailPolylactide Macroporous Biodegradable Implants for Cell Transplantation. Ii. Preparation of Polylactide Foams by Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation
Schugens, C.; Maquet, Véronique; Grandfils, Christian ULg et al

in Journal of Biomedical Materials Research (1996), 30(4), 449-61

Potential of thermally induced phase separation as a porogen technique has been studied in an effort to produce a surgical implant suitable for cell transplantation. Emphasis has been placed on the liquid ... [more ▼]

Potential of thermally induced phase separation as a porogen technique has been studied in an effort to produce a surgical implant suitable for cell transplantation. Emphasis has been placed on the liquid-liquid phase separation of solutions of amorphous poly DL-lactide and semicrystalline poly L-lactide in an 87/13 dioxane/water mixture. The related temperature/composition phase diagrams have been set up by turbidimetry, and the possible occurrence of a gel has been discussed. Freeze-drying of some phase-separated polylactide solutions can produce flexible and tough foams with an isotropic morphology. Interconnected pores of 1-10 microns in diameter are expected to result from the spinodal decomposition of the polylactide solutions with formation of co-continuous phases. Thermodynamics of the polymer/solvent pair has a decisive effect on the final macroporous foams, as shown by the dependence of their porosity, density, porous morphology, and mechanical behavior on molecular weight and crystallinity of polylactide and concentration of the original solutions. On the basis of the foam characteristics, potential of the liquid-liquid phase separation (spinodal decomposition) has been compared with the solid/liquid phase separation (solvent crystallization) as a porogen technique. [less ▲]

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See detailLes assistances circulatoires. Partie I. Indications et description des systèmes
Defraigne, Jean-Olivier ULg; Limet, Raymond ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1996), 51(4), 295-306

Dans l'optique d'une assistance circulatoire, les défaillances cardiaques sont classables en trois grandes catégories: 1) le choc cardiogénique inaugural consécutif à une myocardite ou à un infarctus du ... [more ▼]

Dans l'optique d'une assistance circulatoire, les défaillances cardiaques sont classables en trois grandes catégories: 1) le choc cardiogénique inaugural consécutif à une myocardite ou à un infarctus du myocarde; 2) la défaillance post-chirurgicale ou post-cardiotomie; 3) la détérioration hémodynamique rapide chez un patient préalablement inscrit dans un programme de transplantation. Dans ces circonstances, une assistance circulatoire s'impose lorsque les critères de Norman sont présents (index cardiaque inférieur à 1,8 l/min/m2; pression artérielle systolique < 90 mmHg; pressions d'oreillettes gauche et/ou droite > à 20 mmHg; débit urinaire inférieur à 20 ml/heure; résistances vasculaires systémiques > 250 dynes/cm2; acidose métabolique), et ce malgré un remplissage vasculaire correct, un support inotrope maximal et une contrepulsation infra-aortique. En assurant une perfusion tissulaire adéquate et la mise au repos du myocarde, l'assistance permet alors soit une récupération myocardique, soit d'attendre une transplantation dans de meilleures conditions (pont vers la transplantation ou bridge to transplant). Pour répondre aux objectifs d'une assistance circulatoire, plusieurs systèmes sont disponibles. Ils différent par leur mode d'insertion, le type d'assistance qu'ils fournissent (partielle ou totale, univentriculaire gauche ou droite, biventriculaire), le type de débit assuré (continu ou pulsatile), le degré d'anticoagulation requis, la durée théorique maximale d'assistance, leurs positions (interne, externe, hétérotopique ou orthotopique), leurs modes de connexion aux cavités cardiaques. Le choix est guidé par l'origine du choc, par les circonstances géographiques lors de sa survenue (salle de cathétérisme ou salle d'opération) et, bien évidemment, par la disponibilité locale des systèmes d'assistance, qui sont onéreux. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of two pregnancy-associated glycoprotein RIA's for pregnancy diagnosis in white-tailed deer
Osborn, D. A.; Beckers, Jean-François ULg; Sulon, Joseph ULg et al

in Journal of Wildlife Management (1996), 60(2), 388-393

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See detailSpeciations and extinctions in a self-organizing critical model of tree-like evolution
Kramer, M.; Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Ausloos, Marcel ULg

in Journal de Physique I (1996), 6(4), 599-606

We study analytically a simple model of a self-organized critical evolution. The model considers both extinction and speciation events leading to the growth of phylogenetic-like trees. Through a mean ... [more ▼]

We study analytically a simple model of a self-organized critical evolution. The model considers both extinction and speciation events leading to the growth of phylogenetic-like trees. Through a mean-field like theory, we study the evolution of the local configurations for the tree leaves. The fitness threshold, below which life activity takes place through avalanches of all sizes is calculated. The transition between speciating (evolving) and dead trees is obtained and is in agreement with numerical simulations. Moreover, this theoretical work suggests that the structure of the tree is strongly dependent on the extinction strength. [less ▲]

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See detailBrain activation induced by estimation of duration : A PET study
Maquet, Pierre ULg; Lejeune, Helga ULg; Pouthas, V. et al

in Neuroimage (1996), 3(2), 119-126

Duration information about a visual stimulus requires processing as do other visual features such as size or intensity. Using positron emission tomography, iterative (H2O)-O-15 infusions, and statistical ... [more ▼]

Duration information about a visual stimulus requires processing as do other visual features such as size or intensity. Using positron emission tomography, iterative (H2O)-O-15 infusions, and statistical parametric mapping, we investigated the neural correlates of time processing. Nine normal subjects underwent six serial rCBF. Three tasks were studied: (a) Atemporal generalization task (D task) in which the subjects had to judge (by pressing one of two keys) whether the duration of the illumination of a green LED was equal to or different from that of a previously presented standard; (b) An intensity generalization task. (I task) in which the judgment concerned the intensity of the LED; and (c) A control task (C task) in which the subjects had to press one of the two keys at random in response to LED illumination. A significant increase in rCBF during the D task, compared to that during the C task, was observed in right prefontal cortex, right inferior parietal lobule, anterior cingulate cortex, vermis, and a region corresponding to the left fusiform gyrus. A significant increase in rCBF during the I task, compared to that during the C task, was observed in right prefontal cortex, right inferior parietal lobule, right extrastriate cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, left inferior parietal lobule, vermis, and two symmetrical regions corresponding to the fusiform gyri. No significant activation was observed in the D task when compared to that in the I task. We propose that these cortical maps are best explained by the recruitment of visual attention and memory structures, which play a major role in prospective time judgements as indicated by behavioral studies. The data also suggest that the temporal dimension of a visual stimulus is processed in attributes. the same areas as other visual attributes. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of modeled and empirical approaches for retrieving columnar water vapor from solar transmittance measurements in the 0.94 micrometer region
Schmid, B; Thome, K.J.; Demoulin, Philippe ULg et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research (1996), 101

Four atmospheric transmittance models, LOWTRAN 7, MODTRAN 3, FASCOD3P, and the Thomason model, are investigated to quantify the relationship between water vapor transmittance as function of water vapor ... [more ▼]

Four atmospheric transmittance models, LOWTRAN 7, MODTRAN 3, FASCOD3P, and the Thomason model, are investigated to quantify the relationship between water vapor transmittance as function of water vapor amount, Tw (U), for an instrument specific band pass in the 0.94-um region. In a second step an empirical Tw (U) function is established using long term measurements with our high-precision Sun photometer (SPM) in Bern, Switzerland along with 1300 simultaneous and collocated water vapor retrievals performed with a dual-channel microwave radiometer (MWR). In order to avoid a possible bias in the empirical Tw(U) function, the MWR data set is prescreened by comparing retrievals coincident with radiosonde ascents. Over a 2 1/2-year period of common observations, radiosondes and PM agreed to within 0.19 cm (13%) of columnar water vapor (CWV) using the empirical Tw (U) relationship. Completely independent comparisons with an additional MWR and two Fourier transform spectrometers yielded agreement within 13% and 9%, respectively. Comparing empirical and modeled results, we found that with respect to the experimental data, LOWTRAN 7, MODTRAN 3, and FASCOD3P reported higher water vapor transmittances over almost the entire range of realistic absorber amounts. By relating these differences to differences in retrieved CWV for the case of two standard atmospheres, we found that using Tw (U) predicted by LOWTRAN 7, MODTRAN 3, and FASCOD3P leads to an overestimate of CWV by about 18-30%, 7-20%, and 2-18%, respectively. The Thomason model yields good agreement with respect to the experimental data up to medium absorber amounts, whereas at slant path amounts larger than 10 cm, errors up to 60% in retrieved CWV occurred. We also show in this work that a misinterpretation of the LOWTRAN 7 water vapor output counterbalances incorrectly predicted Tw, leading to results that agree well with experimental ones [less ▲]

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See detailOligomerization and copolymerization of γ-butyrolactone - a monomer known as unable to homopolymerize, 1. Copolymerization with epsilon-caprolactone
Duda, Andrzej; Penczek, Stanislaw; Dubois, Philippe ULg et al

in Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics (1996), 197(4), 1273-1283

Copolymerization of γ-butyrolactone (γBL) with ε-caprolactone (εCL) initiated with aluminium isopropoxide trimer ([Al(OiPr)3 ]3, (A3)) is described. Copolymers with molecular weights ( ) up to 3 ; 104 and ... [more ▼]

Copolymerization of γ-butyrolactone (γBL) with ε-caprolactone (εCL) initiated with aluminium isopropoxide trimer ([Al(OiPr)3 ]3, (A3)) is described. Copolymers with molecular weights ( ) up to 3 ; 104 and containing up to 43 mol-% repeating units derived from γBL are prepared. Their molecular weight is controlled by the concentrations of the consumed comonomers and the starting concentration of initiator { = (86.09 ; [γBL]c + 114.14 ; [εCL]0)/3[Al(OiPr)3] + 60.10}. 13C NMR and DSC data are indicative of a pseudoperiodic or random copolymer structure. [less ▲]

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See detailAutologous Blood Donation Plus Epoetin Alfa in Nonanemic Orthopedic Surgery Patients
Baudoux, Etienne ULg

in Seminars in Hematology (1996), 33(2 Suppl 2), 31-233

Intravenous (i.v.) administration of epoetin alfa facilitates the collection of autologous blood (AB) prior to elective orthopedic surgery. However, the optimum dose and dosage regimen remains to be ... [more ▼]

Intravenous (i.v.) administration of epoetin alfa facilitates the collection of autologous blood (AB) prior to elective orthopedic surgery. However, the optimum dose and dosage regimen remains to be defined. The aim of this multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled study was to determine the optimum i.v. dose of epoetin alfa (300 IU/kg or 600 IU/kg) that would allow nonanemic patients to donate > or = 4 units of AB within 14 to 21 days of elective orthopedic surgery. All patients (n = 103) received oral iron supplementation and were treated with epoetin alfa or placebo three times during 1 week, within 3 weeks of surgery. Eighty patients were evaluable in the efficacy analysis. Compared with placebo, significantly more evaluable patients treated with epoetin alfa were able to donate > or = 4 AB units. Furthermore, epoetin alfa dose-dependently increased the preoperative reticulocyte count and attenuated the decrease in hematocrit associated with AB predonation. There was no significant difference with respect to allogeneic blood exposure between the epoetin alfa and placebo treatment groups. In addition, the 600 IU/kg dose was not significantly more effective than the 300 IU/kg dose for most efficacy parameters assessed. Several patients became iron-deficient, suggesting that oral supplementation is not an adequate source of iron in these patients. Epoetin alfa 300 IU/kg therefore appears to be the optimum i.v. dose for facilitating the collection of > or = 4 units of AB within 14 to 21 days of elective orthopedic surgery. [less ▲]

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See detailMacromolecular engineering of polylactones and polylactides. 19. Kinetics of ring-opening polymerization of epsilon-caprolactone initiated with functional aluminum alkoxides
Dubois, Philippe ULg; Ropson, Nathalie; Jérôme, Robert ULg et al

in Macromolecules (1996), 29(6), 1965-1975

End-functional aliphatic polyesters have been synthesized by ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of epsilon-caprolactone (epsilon-CL) and lactides (LA). Polymerization initiated with any of the functional ... [more ▼]

End-functional aliphatic polyesters have been synthesized by ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of epsilon-caprolactone (epsilon-CL) and lactides (LA). Polymerization initiated with any of the functional aluminum alkoxides of the general structure Et(3-p)Al(OCH(2)X)(p), where p = 1 and 3, obeys a living ''coordination-insertion'' mechanism, under suitable conditions (temperature, concentration, and solvent), with the formation of alpha-functional chains of a predictable molecular weight. A kinetic study has emphasized the importance of the cyclic monomer (epsilon-CL or LA) and the key role of the initiator structure: the number of functional alkoxides per aluminum and the nature of the functional group (X = CH2Br, (CH2)(2)CH=CH2, (CH2)(2)NEt(2)). Activation enthalpy and entropy have been calculated for the epsilon-CL polymerization initiated by several aluminum alkoxides at various temperatures. The effects of solvent (toluene or tetrahydrofuran) and purification of the aluminum monoalkoxides by distillation under reduced pressure have also been considered. [less ▲]

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See detailTerritorial and non-territorial spawning behaviour in the bream
Poncin, Pascal ULg; Philippart, Jean-Claude ULg; Ruwet, J. C.

in Journal of Fish Biology (1996), 49(4), 622-626

The spawning behaviour of bream Abramis brama was studied in 1993, in a harbour on the River Meuse, Belgium. Fish spaced from 22 to 27 April and from 11 to 14 May, when the water temperature rose to 14.5 ... [more ▼]

The spawning behaviour of bream Abramis brama was studied in 1993, in a harbour on the River Meuse, Belgium. Fish spaced from 22 to 27 April and from 11 to 14 May, when the water temperature rose to 14.5 degrees C. The reproductive behaviour of the bream was studied within a 15 m long part of the harbour using a video camera. Territorial males with tubercles (33-43 cm total length; > 5 years old) defended bank areas of diameter 80-150 cm which included spawning substratum, i.e. roots of alder and willow trees and aquatic plants. Water depth ranged from 25 to 50 cm. Non-territorial males without tubercles (24-33 cm; 3-4 years old), remained 2-4 m away from the bank. Aggressive behaviour between males was frequent and, occasionally, males with tubercles were unable to defend a territory. Mature females (25-43 cm; > 3 years old), coming from the deeper water of the surrounding area, were followed by non-territorial males before spawning in territories near the bank. (C) 1996 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles [less ▲]

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See detailImproved Four-Color Flow Cytometry Method Using Fluo-3 and Triple Immunofluorescence for Analysis of Intracellular Calcium Ion ([Ca2+]I) Fluxes among Mouse Lymph Node B- and T-Lymphocyte Subsets
Greimers, Roland ULg; Trebak, M.; Moutschen, Michel ULg et al

in Cytometry (1996), 23(3), 205-17

A visible-light, dual-laser, flow cytometric method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of intracellular ionized calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and three cell-surface markers (CD4, CD8, and Thy-1 ... [more ▼]

A visible-light, dual-laser, flow cytometric method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of intracellular ionized calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and three cell-surface markers (CD4, CD8, and Thy-1.2 antigens) by using the calcium probe fluo-3 and using R-phycoerythrin (PE), peridinin chlorophyll-alpha protein (PerCP), and allophycocyanin (APC) conjugated monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs). This improved method was used in the analysis of [Ca2+]i mobilization upon in vitro stimulation with mitogenic lectins [phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) or concanavalin A (ConA)], anti-CD3 MoAbs, or A23187 calcium ionophore in the heterogeneous lymph node cell populations from healthy C57BL/Ka mice. The present results show that the calcium responses were heterogeneous and dependent on the cellular immunophenotype, not only on lectins or anti-CD3 MoAbs stimulation, but also on the receptor-independent A23187 ionophore stimulation. An in situ fluo-3 calibration method (using A23187 and metabolic poisons in Ca2+ /EGTA buffers with known free calcium concentrations) indicated a resting [Ca2+]i in lymphocytes of 103 +/- 23 nM (mean +/- S.D.) but with significant differences between the [Ca2+]i in B cells and in all of the T-cell subsets (CD4+Thy-1+, CD4+Thy-1-, and CD8+T cells). Both the B cells and the T-cell subsets showed an increase of fluo-3 fluorescence upon in vitro stimulation with ConA or PHA, but the calcium mobilization following lectin stimulation was time delayed in all T-cell subsets. Only the T cells, including the CD4+Thy-1- subset, responded to anti-CD3 MoAbs. The percentage of responding cells upon stimulation with ConA was higher in T cells than in B cells. By contrast, PHA gave a higher response in B cells. After stimulation with different mitogens, [Ca2+]i increased in both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets. However, the percentage of responding cells was far higher in the CD4+Thy-1+ subset than in the CD4+Thy-1- or the CD8+T-cell subsets. The stimulation with A23187 ionophore induced a higher calcium response in B cells than in T cells. Interestingly, it also induced greater Ca2+ mobilization in CD4+ than in CD8+T cells. These results demonstrate the potential use of fluo-3 simultaneously with three fluorescein (FITC)-compatible fluorochromes. This technique may be useful for investigating the role of the CD4+Thy-1-T cells, a rare subset that is abnormally expanded in a murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (murine AIDS). [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of the Solitary Pulmonary Nodule by Positron Emission Tomography Imaging
BURY, Thierry ULg; Dowlati, A.; Paulus, P. et al

in European Respiratory Journal (1996), 9(3), 410-4

Current noninvasive imaging methods are not sufficiently reliable for accurate detection of malignancy in most solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs). Positron emission tomography (PET) using 18 ... [more ▼]

Current noninvasive imaging methods are not sufficiently reliable for accurate detection of malignancy in most solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs). Positron emission tomography (PET) using 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), showing increased FDG uptake and retention in malignant cells, has proved useful to differentiate malignant from benign tissue and could, therefore, contribute to the evaluation of the SPN. We performed a prospective study of 50 patients referred to the Pneumology Department with unclear diagnoses of SPN after conventional radiological screening. PET study was performed on each subject before an invasive procedure was proposed. Thirty three patients had a malignant nodule and 17 had a benign nodule. The mean size of malignant nodule was 3 cm (range 1.5-4.5 cm). All showed a marked increase in 18-FDG uptake. The mean size of benign nodule was 1.8 cm (range 0.5-3.5 cm). PET imaging showed the absence of 18-FDG uptake and correctly identified 15 of 17 benign nodules. There was two false-positive cases with a moderate increase in 18-FDG uptake (1 postprimary tuberculosis; and 1 anthracosilicotic nodule with nonspecific inflammation). At present, the sensitivity and specificity of the method are 100 and 88%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values of PET imaging for SPNs are 94 and 100%, respectively. Our preliminary results demonstrate that PET-FDG imaging is a noninvasive technique, which appears highly accurate in differentiating malignant SPN from benign SPN. [less ▲]

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See detailLe cas clinique du mois. Syndrome de Moskowitz chez une patiente traitée par ticlopidine
Franchimont, D.; Frere, Pascale ULg; Lebrun, F. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1996), 51(3), 214-6

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See detailEffects of Ipriflavone and Its Metabolites on Human Articular Chondrocytes Cultivated in Clusters
Bassleer, C. T.; Franchimont, P. P.; Henrotin, Y. E. et al

in Osteoarthritis and Cartilage (1996), 4

Ipriflavone (IP) is an isoflavone derivative that was suggested to have bone-sparing effects in post-menopausal and senile osteoporosis. A moderate stimulatory effect of IP and its metabolites on ... [more ▼]

Ipriflavone (IP) is an isoflavone derivative that was suggested to have bone-sparing effects in post-menopausal and senile osteoporosis. A moderate stimulatory effect of IP and its metabolites on proliferation of osteoblastic cells was reported in rat osteoblastic osteosarcoma cell line. We investigated the effects of different concentrations (0, 1, 10 and 100 micrograms/ml) of IP and its metabolites (MET I, II, III and V) on the incorporation of [3H] thymidine and production of proteoglycans (PG) and type II collagen (COL II) by human articular chondrocytes during a 12-day period, in a three-dimensional chondrocyte culture model. [3H]thymidine uptake was measured in chondrocyte clusters, and specific PG and COL II radioimmunoassays were performed every 4 days on the culture medium and cell clusters. Incubation with IP or its metabolites did not affect [3H]thymidine uptake regardless of the dose. PG released into the culture medium and PG cluster content rose significantly (P < 0.025) in presence of IP (1, 10 and 100 micrograms/ml). MET I increased PG release in culture medium (10 and 100 micrograms/ml) and PG cluster content (100 micrograms/ml). MET II has no effect on PG production. MET III increased PG in culture medium (100 microgram/ml) but did not influence PG cluster content while MET V (100 micrograms/ml) increased both PG release in culture medium and PG cluster content. COL II release in culture medium and COL II cluster content were significantly (P < 0.025) increased in presence of IP (10 and 100 micrograms/ml), MET III (1, 10 and 100 micrograms/ml) or MET V (100 micrograms/ml). MET I and II did not significantly affect COL II production. [less ▲]

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See detailIn one step from KC1 to YBa2Cu3O7 crystal growth: Understanding of dendritic morphology in crystals
Ausloos, Marcel ULg; Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Cloots, Rudi ULg

in Philosophical Magazine Letters (1996), 73(3), 101-105

A dendritic morphology of crystals is often encountered in nature and seems to be a universal structure for systems grown from supersaturated solutions such as KC1 or NaC1. The observation of similar ... [more ▼]

A dendritic morphology of crystals is often encountered in nature and seems to be a universal structure for systems grown from supersaturated solutions such as KC1 or NaC1. The observation of similar dendrites in bulk superconducting YBa2Cu307 covalent material leads us to correlate the cases. From a simple new kinetics mechanism, the understanding of such a crystal-growth peculiarity is discussed. The kinetic mechanism condition for the occurrence of dendritic shapes of growing crystals from multiphase systems is given through a relationship between the velocity of the growth front and classical thermodynamical quantities. Some simulated systems illustrate the observed features. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification and overexpression in Escherichia coli of a Mycobacterium leprae gene, pon1, encoding a high-molecular-mass class A penicillin-binding protein, PBP1
Basu, Joyoti; Mahapatra, Sebabrata; Kundu, Manikuntala et al

in Journal of Bacteriology (1996), 178(6), 1707-1711

Cosmid B577, a member of the collection of ordered clones corresponding to the genome of Mycobacterium leprae, contains a gene, provisionally called pon1, that encodes an 821-amino-acid-residue high ... [more ▼]

Cosmid B577, a member of the collection of ordered clones corresponding to the genome of Mycobacterium leprae, contains a gene, provisionally called pon1, that encodes an 821-amino-acid-residue high-molecular-mass class A penicillin-binding protein, provisionally called PBP1. With similar amino acid sequences and modular designs, M. leprae PBP1 is related to Escherichia coli PBP1a and PBP1b, bienzymatic proteins with transglycosylase and transpeptidase activities. When produced in E. coli, His tag-labelled derivatives of M. leprae PBP1 adopt the correct membrane topology, with the bulk of the polypeptide chain on the surface of the plasma membrane. They defy attempts at solubilization with all the detergents tested except cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. The solubilized PBP1 derivatives can be purified by affinity chromatography on Ni2+-nitrilotriacetic acid agarose. They have low affinities for the usual penicillins and cephalosporins. [less ▲]

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See detailAnthropologie de l'adolescence
Stassart, Martine ULg

in Cahiers du CEP. Centre d'Etudes Pathoanalytiques (1996), 7(1), 13-37

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See detailL'interdisciplinarité en didactique des langues étrangères : une nouvelle donne pour le FLE ?
Defays, Jean-Marc ULg

in Enjeux : Revue de Formation Continuée et de Didactique du Français (1996), (37/38), 143-157

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See detailImportance of the E-46-D-160 Polypeptide Segment of the Non-Penicillin-Binding Module for the Folding of the Low-Affinity, Multimodular Class B Penicillin-Binding Protein 5 of Enterococcus Hirae
Mollerach, Marta E.; Partoune, Pierre; Coyette, Jacques ULg et al

in Journal of Bacteriology (1996), 178(6), 1774-1775

Compared with the other class B multimodular penicillin- binding proteins (PBPs), the low-affinity PBP5 responsible for penicillin resistance in Enterococcus hirae R40, has an extended non-penicillin ... [more ▼]

Compared with the other class B multimodular penicillin- binding proteins (PBPs), the low-affinity PBP5 responsible for penicillin resistance in Enterococcus hirae R40, has an extended non-penicillin-binding module because of the presence of an approximately 110-amino-acid E-46(-)D-160 insert downstream from the membrane anchor. Expression of pbp5 genes lacking various parts of the insert-encoding region gives rise to proteins that are inert in terms of penicillin binding, showing that during folding of the PBP, the insert plays a role in the acquisition of a correct penicillin-binding configuration by the G-364(-)Q-678 carboxy-terminal module. [less ▲]

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See detailLe Szondi des Tarahumaras
Stassart, Martine ULg

in Cahiers du CEP (Centre d'Etudes Pathoanalytiques) (1996), 7(1), 67-74

Tarahumaras live in Northmexican mountains. They maintain jealously their original culture. About 1980, 68 male native Tarahumaras of various ages ( from 5 to 80 years old) were examinated with the ... [more ▼]

Tarahumaras live in Northmexican mountains. They maintain jealously their original culture. About 1980, 68 male native Tarahumaras of various ages ( from 5 to 80 years old) were examinated with the Szonditest. The results do not show any difference between indivuals. Such results agree with the opinion of Szondi about the socalled "primitive" people. [less ▲]

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See detailDistribution of varicella-zoster virus and herpes simplex virus in disseminated fatal infections
Nikkels, Arjen ULg; Delvenne, Philippe ULg; Sadzot-Delvaux, Catherine ULg et al

in Journal of Clinical Pathology (1996), 49(3), 243-248

AIMS: To study the cutaneous and visceral distribution of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) in fatal infections. METHODS: Standard histology, immunohistochemistry (monoclonal ... [more ▼]

AIMS: To study the cutaneous and visceral distribution of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) in fatal infections. METHODS: Standard histology, immunohistochemistry (monoclonal antibodies VL8 and VL2 and polyclonal antibody IE63 directed against VZV; monoclonal antibodies IBD4 and HH2 and polyclonal antibodies directed against HSVI and HSVII) and in situ hybridisation (anti-HSV and anti-VZV probes) were applied to formalin fixed, paraffin wax sections. RESULTS: On histological examination, Herpesviridae infection was evident in various organs including the lungs, liver and skin. In addition, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation revealed the presence of HSV and VZV antigens and nucleic acids in several cell types and tissues showing no cytopathological alterations suggestive of Herpesviridae infection. The organs with histological evidence of infection also contained VZV or HSV antigens and their genes. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that organ failure in disseminated VZV and HSV infections is primarily caused by HSV or VZV induced cell damage and lysis. They also indicate that immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation can provide an accurate, type-specific diagnosis on formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded tissue even when classic histological and cytological characteristics are lacking. [less ▲]

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See detailL'apport du Szondi à l'Ethnopsychologie
Stassart, Martine ULg

in Cahiers du Cep (Centre d'Etudes Pathoanalytiques) (1996), 7(1), 75-86

The authors have studied with the help of Szonditest a lot of various people ( African, Amerindian, European). They give a summary of these statistical studies. Their interpretation of results agrees with ... [more ▼]

The authors have studied with the help of Szonditest a lot of various people ( African, Amerindian, European). They give a summary of these statistical studies. Their interpretation of results agrees with that of Léopold Szondi [less ▲]

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See detailUtilisation des microsphères biodégradables en thérapie anti-cancéreuse expérimentale. Application chronopharmacologique
Milis, G.; Grandfils, Christian ULg; Flandroy, P. et al

in Pathologie Biologie (1996), 44(3), 208-11

We describe the initial experimentations which show that is possible to chronomodulate the cisplatin liberation out of some microspheres. The goal is to generate, inside one tumeur embolished by those ... [more ▼]

We describe the initial experimentations which show that is possible to chronomodulate the cisplatin liberation out of some microspheres. The goal is to generate, inside one tumeur embolished by those cisplatin loaded microspheres, some concentration peaks at the best tolerance time. The cancer is than more hit, by the high local anticancer drug concentration, and doses chronomodulations preserve the patient by following his tolerance. The experimentation on cancerous mice show that this technique could lead to great survival increases. Such a protocol might usefuly improve the anticancer therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailCritères de l'IHMF pour le traitement des infections à VZV
Rentier, Bernard ULg

in Virologics (1996), (Mars), 4-5

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See detailRétinoïdes et leucémie aigue promyelocytaire. Une révolution thérapeutique
Hermanne, Jean-Philippe; Tassin, Françoise ULg; Bours, Vincent ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1996), 51(3), 217-23

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See detailLes convulsions fébriles: attitude actuelle
Misson, Jean-Paul ULg; Leroy, Patricia; Dubru, Jean-Marie ULg

in Tempo Médical (1996)

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