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See detailOccupation et utilisation du sol récentes en Région wallonne : analyses et synthèses
Schmitz, Serge ULg; Christians, Charles ULg

in Bulletin de la Société Belge d'Etudes Géographiques = Tijdschrift van de Belgische Vereniging voor Aardrijkskundige Studies (1998), 1

The first part is an analytical study based on an analysis of cadastral information. It presents facts and recent evolutionary processes of land use in Wallonia, especially agriculture, forest, waste land ... [more ▼]

The first part is an analytical study based on an analysis of cadastral information. It presents facts and recent evolutionary processes of land use in Wallonia, especially agriculture, forest, waste land and urbanized areas. The information is based on the municipality scale. The paper draws a compartmentalization of Wallonia: in 1992, urbanized areas represented over 20% and 40% in the urban-industrial trench and in Walloon Brabant, spilling area for Brussels population. In Ardennes, Loraine and Fagne Famenne, Forest prevailed occupying over 40% of the land. Agriculture was the main land used over 70% on low loess plateaux and with over 55% especially in Condroz and Central Ardennes. There was a slow decrease of agriculture between 1982 and 1992, usually with less than 10% for a third of the region. Forest erratically fluctuated between -5% and +5%. On the contrary urbanized areas grew everywhere with peaks around Liege, in Walloon Brabant and along motorways. It was the result of both residential urbanization and the standard increase of land use per inhabitant. The analysis shows that, during the seventies, peaks of urbanization coincide quite well with demographic evolution typology. The second part is a continuation of the preceding analytical study. It presents typology and evolution synthesis in order to divide Wallonia into districts and analyses some mechanics especially urbanization and land policy. The analytical maps lead to the building up of two types of municipalities: urban and country land use municipalities. Within the country type, five subtypes have been characterized upon the agriculture and forest combinations. Urbanization mechanics are responsible for the schematic division into two parts by a line, the south border of Condroz and Herve plateau. Urbanization concerns first the urban-industrial trench and Walloon Brabant. Hainaut is an forests also divide Wallonia between the north and the south. The agricultural areas are first victims of the urbanization progress. [less ▲]

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See detailLe cas clinique du mois Un homme a caryotype 46,XX.
Marquet, F.; Verloes, Alain ULg; Beckers, Albert ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(9), 515-517

The XX males represent a rare expression of the Klinefelter syndrome associated with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Generally the patients are of small stature with normal secondary sexual male features ... [more ▼]

The XX males represent a rare expression of the Klinefelter syndrome associated with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Generally the patients are of small stature with normal secondary sexual male features but with small testes and constant sterility. The plasma concentrations of FSH and LH are very high in accordance with the decrease of the testicular function. From the genetic point of view, the XX males may be divided in 3 groups: 1) in 80% of cases, the XX males bear the SRY gene and exhibit a XY translation during the paternal meiosis with the presence of the SRY gene on one of the X chromosomes as a marker of the male differentiation; 2) in 10% of cases, the males are (SRY-)XX; the abnormal development is then due to other genes than the TDF, which, when mutated, can induce sexual male differentiation. The remaining 10% of cases are due to chromosomal mosaicism with more XX than XY. [less ▲]

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See detailComment j'explore ... les pathologies thyroidiennes par cytoponction echoguidee.
Meunier, Paul ULg; Lebrun, Yves ULg; Quatresooz, Pascale ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(12), 784-787

From a retrospective study of 259 files, the authors stress the value of US-guided thyroid cytoponction and its essential role in case of thyroid cancer suspicion. This very specific and inexpensive ... [more ▼]

From a retrospective study of 259 files, the authors stress the value of US-guided thyroid cytoponction and its essential role in case of thyroid cancer suspicion. This very specific and inexpensive method fits perfectly into the other exploration techniques. It is the deciding factor in the thyroid nodule differential diagnostic and therapeutic planning. [less ▲]

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See detailAspects genetiques du male 46, XX.
Marquet, F.; Beckers, Albert ULg; Verloes, Alain ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(12), 738-740

The XX males represent a proportion of 1/25 of all patients suffering of the Klinefelter syndrome. From a clinical and endocrinological point of view, they exhibit a hypogonadotropic hypogonadism ... [more ▼]

The XX males represent a proportion of 1/25 of all patients suffering of the Klinefelter syndrome. From a clinical and endocrinological point of view, they exhibit a hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Isolated cases are rare and familial forms are exceptional. The XX males may be divided in 3 subgroups: 46, XX males with the SRY gene; 46, XX males without the SRY gene and XX/XY mosaics. [less ▲]

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See detailActualites therapeutiques 1997-1998 (1). Seconde partie.
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(9), 518-23

The most important drugs registered and/or launched in Belgium during the last year in the various disciplines of internal medicine will be briefly described. The originality of each molecule as well as ... [more ▼]

The most important drugs registered and/or launched in Belgium during the last year in the various disciplines of internal medicine will be briefly described. The originality of each molecule as well as its modalities of appropriate use in clinical practice will be stressed. This second part is devoted to drugs acting on infectious, rheumatoid, immunologic, oncologic and urogenital diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailRésistance bactérienne aux beta-lactamines
Charlier, Paulette ULg; Coyette, Jacques ULg; Dehareng, Dominique ULg et al

in Medecine Sciences : M/S (1998), 14(5), 544-555

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See detailMutation analysis of the MEN1 gene in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, familial acromegaly and familial isolated hyperparathyroidism.
Teh, B. T.; Kytola, S.; Farnebo, F. et al

in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (1998), 83(8), 2621-2626

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by neoplasia of the parathyroid glands, the endocrine pancreas, and the anterior pituitary gland. In addition ... [more ▼]

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by neoplasia of the parathyroid glands, the endocrine pancreas, and the anterior pituitary gland. In addition, families with isolated endocrine neoplasia, notably familial isolated hyperparathyroidism (FIHP) and familial acromegaly, have also been reported. However, whether these families constitute MEN 1 variants or separate entities remains speculative as the genetic bases for these diseases are unclear. The gene for MEN 1 has recently been cloned and characterized. Using single strand conformation analysis (SSCA) and sequencing, we performed mutation analysis in: a) a total of 55 MEN 1 families from 7 countries, b) 13 isolated MEN 1 cases without family history of the disease, c) 8 acromegaly families, and d) 4 FIHP families. Mutations were identified in 27 MEN 1 families and 9 isolated cases. The 22 different mutations spread across most of the 9 translated exons and included frameshift (11), nonsense (6), splice (2), missense mutations (2), and in-frame deletions (1). Among the 19 Finnish MEN 1 probands, a 1466del12 mutation was identified in 6 families with identical 11q13 haplotypes and in 2 isolated cases indicating a common founder. One frameshift mutation caused by 359del4 (GTCT) was found in 1 isolated case and 4 kindreds of different origin and haplotypes; this mutation therefore represents a common "warm" spot in the MEN1 gene. By analyzing the DNA of the parents of an isolated case one mutation was confirmed to be de novo. No mutation was found in any of the acromegaly and small FIHP families, suggesting that genetic defects other than the MEN1 gene might be involved and that additional such families need to be analyzed. [less ▲]

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See detailCommentaires sur les travaux du bureau ABC
Fecher-Bourgeois, Fabienne ULg

in Bulletin de Documentation du Ministère des Finances (1998), LVIIIè année, n°5(Septembre - octobre 1998),

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See detailPremière mise en évidence en Belgique de particules ressemblant à des circovirus.
Duchatel, Jean-Pierre ULg; Jauniaux, Thierry ULg; Vandersanden F et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1998), 142

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See detailRelevant radiological anatomy of the pig as a training model in interventional radiology
Dondelinger, R. F.; Ghysels, M. P.; Brisbois, D. et al

in European Journal of Radiology (1998), 8

The use of swine for teaching purposes in medicine and surgery has largely increased in recent years. Detailed knowledge of the porcine anatomy and physiology is a prerequisite for proper use of pigs as a ... [more ▼]

The use of swine for teaching purposes in medicine and surgery has largely increased in recent years. Detailed knowledge of the porcine anatomy and physiology is a prerequisite for proper use of pigs as a teaching or an experimental model in interventional radiology. A systematic study of the radiological anatomy was undertaken in more than 100 female pigs aged 6-8 weeks. All studies were performed under general anesthesia in a single session. Animals were sacrificed at the end of the study. Selective angiographies were systematically obtained in all anatomical territories. In other animals CT and MRI examinations were performed and were correlated to anatomical sections and acrylic casts of the vascular structures. Endoscopical examinations of the upper gastrointestinal tract, including retrograde opacification of the biliary and pancreatic ducts, were added in selected animals. The main angiographic aspects of the brain, head and neck, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis were recorded. Similarities and differences in comparison with human anatomy are stressed. Potential applications in interventional radiology are indicated. [less ▲]

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See detailLe cartilage articulaire peut-il se régénérer ? (1ère partie)
Henrotin, Yves ULg; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in Le Généraliste (1998), 414

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See detailQuantitative palynology in late and latest Famennian swamp environments, an accurate tool for marine / non-marine correlation.
Streel, Maurice ULg

in Newsletter. Subcommission on Devonian Stratigraphy (1998), 15

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See detailUltrastructure and cytochemistry of the early calcification site and of its mineralizing organic matrix in Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea)
Amaye, Laurent; Compère, Philippe ULg; Dubois, Philippe

in Histochemistry & Cell Biology (1998), 110

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See detailThe Current N-15-Leucine Infusion Technique Is Not Suitable For Quantitative Measurements Of Ileal Endogenous Amino Acid Flows In Pigs
Leterme, Pascal; Seve, Bernard; Thewis, André ULg

in Journal of Nutrition (1998), 128(11), 1961-1968

The current 15N-leucine infusion technique may overestimate the ileal endogenous nitrogen losses in pigs. To determine the reason, we infused four cannulated pigs intravenously, fed them a pea-based diet ... [more ▼]

The current 15N-leucine infusion technique may overestimate the ileal endogenous nitrogen losses in pigs. To determine the reason, we infused four cannulated pigs intravenously, fed them a pea-based diet with 15N-leucine, and examined some methodological variables. Neither the blood sampling time nor the choice of precursor pool (total N or amino acid N of deproteinized plasma) or the method of estimation of the isotopic equilibrium level significantly affected the results. On the other hand, the 15N-enrichment of purified mucin, isolated from ileal digesta, was higher than that of the plasma amino acid pool (0.114 vs. 0.077 atom % excess). The endogenous proportion of the labeled amino acids (Ala, Gly, Ile, Leu and Val) in the ileal digesta ranged from 23 (Leu) to 74% (Ala), compared with 70% for total N. The low value of leucine was ascribed to the constant marker infusion condition. In pigs infused with 13C-leucine, a similar endogenous proportion was obtained for lumenal leucine with 13C-leucine and 15N-leucine infusion. However, the 13C-enrichment of the leucine bound to mucin was markedly lower than that of plasma leucine (38%). The endogenous amino acid flows were also estimated by combining the ileal N flow measured with 15N and the endogenous amino acid profile obtained by means of an N-free diet. They were different from those obtained with the 15N-amino acid dilution technique. We conclude that the precursor pool currently used (plasma total N or total a-amino acid N pools) is a poor indicator of the enrichment of the secretions and that the infusion of one labeled amino acid is not sufficient to extend the method at the amino acid level. [less ▲]

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See detailBelgium : a planning environment both rigid and flexible
Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULg

in European Retail Digest (1998), (20), 29-30

Short notice on commercial planning in Belgium in a comparative perspective with other European countries analyzed in the same publication

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See detailQuantifying habitat edge for nature reserve design.
Bogaert, Jan ULg; Van Hecke, P; Salvador-Van Eysenrode, D et al

in Coenoses (1998), 13(3), 131-136

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See detailToxiques et analyses biologiques en toxicologie hospitalière
Capolaghi, B.; Charlier, Corinne ULg; Feuillu, A. et al

in Toxicorama (1998), X

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See detailFeeding in darkness alleviates density-dependent growth of juvenile vundu catfish Heterobranchus longifilis (Clariidae)
Baras, E.; Tissier, F.; Westerloppe, L. et al

in Aquatic Living Resources (1998), 11

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See detailVersatile and controlled synthesis of star and branched macromolecules by dentritic initiation
Trollsas, Michaël; Hedrick, James L.; Mecerreyes, David et al

in Macromolecules (1997), 30(26), 8508-8511

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See detailAngiogenesis by Fibroblast Growth Factor 4 Is Mediated through an Autocrine Up-regulation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression
Deroanne, Christophe ULg; Hajitou, Amin; Calberg-Bacq, Claire-M. et al

in Cancer Research (1997), 57

The infection of normal mouse mammary EF43 cells by a retroviral vector carrying either Fgf-3 (EF43.Fgf-3) or Fgf-4 (EF43.Fgf-4) cDNA resulted in the transformation of cells displaying different ... [more ▼]

The infection of normal mouse mammary EF43 cells by a retroviral vector carrying either Fgf-3 (EF43.Fgf-3) or Fgf-4 (EF43.Fgf-4) cDNA resulted in the transformation of cells displaying different tumorigenic potentials in nude mice (A. Hajitou and C-M. Calberg-Bacq, Int. J. Cancer, 63: 702-709, 1995). EF43.Fgf-4 produced rapidly developing tumors at all sites of inoculation, whereas EF43.Fgf-3 produced slowly growing tumors only in the mammary fat pad. Cells infected with the vector carrying the selection gene alone (EF43.C) were not tumorigenic. The angiogenic properties of these cells were tested in an in vitro angiogenesis model using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) cultured at the surface of a type I collagen gel and their capacity to form tube-like structures on invasion of the gel. Only the conditioned medium (CM) of EF43.Fgf-4 induced an angiogenic morphotype in HUVECs. In parallel, the mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinase 1 and c-ETS-1 was increased in the HUVECs displaying a differentiated phenotype, whereas the tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 mRNA level was decreased. Recombinant human fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF-4) did not induce an angiogenic phenotype in HUVECs by itself. By Western blot analysis, a high expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was detected in the EF43.Fgf-4 CM. This result was confirmed by Northern blot analysis of total RNA extracted from the three cell types; the steady-state level of VEGF mRNA was low and equivalent in EF43.C and EF43.Fgf-3, whereas it was strongly increased in EF43.Fgf-4. Culturing EF43 cells carrying only the selection gene with increasing concentrations of recombinant human FGF-4 resulted in a dose-dependent stimulation of VEGF. The induction of the angiogenic morphotype and the parallel modulations of the biosynthetic phenotype in HUVECs were completely suppressed by adding a neutralizing antibody directed against VEGF to EF43.Fgf-4 CM. Furthermore, inhibition of protein kinase C by bisindoylmaleimide suppressed the angiogenic phenotype induced by the CM of EF43.Fgf-4. Our results point to an indirect angiogenic activity of FGF-4 through the autocrine induction of VEGF secretion by EF43.Fgf-4 cells, an original signaling pathway that might be significant in tumor progression and metastasis. [less ▲]

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See detailAlteration of Interendothelial Adherens Junctions Following Tumor Cell-Endothelial Cell Interaction in Vitro
Lewalle, J. M.; Bajou, Khalid ULg; Desreux, Joëlle ULg et al

in Experimental Cell Research (1997), 237(2), 347-56

The integrity of the vascular endothelium is mainly dependent upon the organization of interendothelial adherens junctions (AJ). These junctions are formed by the homotypic interaction of a transmembrane ... [more ▼]

The integrity of the vascular endothelium is mainly dependent upon the organization of interendothelial adherens junctions (AJ). These junctions are formed by the homotypic interaction of a transmembrane protein, vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin), which is complexed to an intracellular protein network including alpha-, beta-, and gamma-catenin. Additional proteins such as vinculin and alpha-actinin have been suggested to link the VE-cadherin/catenin complex to the actin-based cytoskeleton. During the process of hematogenous metastasis, circulating tumor cells must disrupt these intercellular junctions in order to extravasate. In the present study, we have investigated the influence of tumor cell-endothelial cell interaction upon interendothelial AJ. We show that human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF-7), but not normal human mammary epithelial cells, induce a rapid endothelial cell (EC) dissociation which correlates with the loss of VE-cadherin expression at the site of tumor cell-EC contact and with profound changes in vinculin distribution and organization. This process could not be inhibited by metalloproteinase nor serine protease inhibitors. Immunoprecipitations and Western blot analysis demonstrate that the overall expression of VE-cadherin and vinculin as well as the composition of the VE-cadherin/catenins complex are not affected by tumor cells while the tyrosine phosphorylation status of proteins within the complex is significantly altered. Our data suggest that tumor cells modulate AJ protein distribution and phosphorylation in EC and may, thereby, facilitate EC dissociation. [less ▲]

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See detailSynergism for the improvement of tensile strength in block copolymers of polystyrene and poly(n-butyl methacrylate)
Weidisch, R.; Michler, G. H.; Arnold, M. et al

in Macromolecules (1997), 30(25), 8078-8080

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See detailPrivate Multiple Congenital Anomaly Syndromes May Result from Unbalanced Subtle Translocations: T(2q;4p) Explains the Lambotte Syndrome
Herens, Christian ULg; Jamar, Mauricette ULg; Alvarez Gonzalez, Maria-Luz ULg et al

in American Journal of Medical Genetics (1997), 73(2), 127-31

In 1990, Lambotte syndrome was reported as an apparently autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly/mental retardation (MCA/MR) syndrome observed in 4 of 12 sibs from a probably consanguineous mating ... [more ▼]

In 1990, Lambotte syndrome was reported as an apparently autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly/mental retardation (MCA/MR) syndrome observed in 4 of 12 sibs from a probably consanguineous mating [Verloes et al., Am J Med Genet 1990; 37:119-123]. Major manifestations included intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), microcephaly, large soft pinnae, hypertelorism, beaked nose, and extremely severe neurologic impairment, with holoprosencephaly in one instance. After the observation of a further affected child born of one unaffected sister, in situ hybridization analysis and chromosome painting techniques demonstrated a subtle t(2;4)(q37.1; p16.2) translocation in the mother, suggesting a combination of 2q/4p trisomy/monosomy in all of the affected children of the family. Many private sporadic or recurrent MCA/MR syndromes maybe due to similar symmetric translocations, undetectable by conventional banding techniques. [less ▲]

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See detailLes constellations (V).
Renson, Pierre ULg

in Ciel et Terre (1997), 113

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See detailSpectroscopic analysis of the Alpha Centauri system
Neuforge-Verheecke, C.; Magain, Pierre ULg

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (1997), 328

A detailed spectroscopic analysis of the two components of the binary system alpha Centauri has been carried out on the basis of extensive high resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra. The ... [more ▼]

A detailed spectroscopic analysis of the two components of the binary system alpha Centauri has been carried out on the basis of extensive high resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra. The temperatures of the stars have been determined from the Fei excitation equilibrium and checked from the H_alpha line wings. The abundances of 17 elements have been obtained and indicate a general overabundance of 0.24 dex relative to the Sun, with no significant difference between the two stars. All elements analysed, from CNO to the iron peak, show basically the same overabundance. Only nickel seems to be significantly more overabundant, while the neutron capture elements appear less enhanced. Based on observations carried out at the European Southern Observatory (La Silla, Chile) [less ▲]

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See detailCoherent and random sequences in financial fluctuations
Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Ausloos, Marcel ULg

in Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications (1997), 246(3-4), 454-459

The detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is used to sort out temporal correlations in financial data. Its usefulness for the investigations of long-range power-law correlations in economic sequences is ... [more ▼]

The detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is used to sort out temporal correlations in financial data. Its usefulness for the investigations of long-range power-law correlations in economic sequences is shown. Our findings of persistent and antipersistent sequences are surprisingly similar to those for DNA sequences which appeared as a mosaic of coding and non-coding patches. [less ▲]

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See detailESO & NOT photometric monitoring of the Cloverleaf quasar
Ostensen, R.; Remy, M.; Lindblad, P. O. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Supplement Series (1997), 126

The Cloverleaf quasar, H1413+117, has been photometrically monitored at ESO (La Silla, Chile) and with the NOT (La Palma, Spain) during the period 1987--1994. All good quality CCD frames have been ... [more ▼]

The Cloverleaf quasar, H1413+117, has been photometrically monitored at ESO (La Silla, Chile) and with the NOT (La Palma, Spain) during the period 1987--1994. All good quality CCD frames have been successfully analysed using two independent methods (i.e. an automatic image decomposition technique and an interactive CLEAN algorithm). The photometric results from the two methods are found to be very similar, and they show that the four lensed QSO images vary significantly in brightness (by up to 0.45 mag), nearly in parallel. The lightcurve of the $D$ component presents some slight departures from the general trend which are very likely caused by micro-lensing effects. Upper limits, at the 99% confidence level, of 150 days on the absolute value for the time delays between the photometric lightcurves of this quadruply imaged variable QSO, are derived. This is unfortunately too large to constrain the lens model but there is little doubt that a better sampling of the lightcurves should allow to accurately derive these time delays. Pending a direct detection of the lensing galaxy (position and redshift), this system thus constitutes another good candidate for a direct and independent determination of the Hubble parameter. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory (La Silla, Chile) and with the Nordic Optical Telescope (La Palma, Spain). Table 1. Logbook for the ESO and NOT observations together with photometric results for the Cloverleaf quasar. This long table can be accessed on the WWW at the URL address: http://vela.astro.ulg.ac.be/grav_lens/glp_homepage.html} [less ▲]

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See detailDistinct Signal Transduction Pathways Mediate Nuclear Factor-Kappab Induction by Il-1beta in Epithelial and Lymphoid Cells
Bonizzi, Giuseppina; Piette, Jacques ULg; Merville, Marie-Paule ULg et al

in Journal of Immunology (1997), 159(11), 5264-72

We previously demonstrated that IL-1beta-mediated induction of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) transcription factor proceeds through the production of reactive oxygen intermediates in lymphoid cells ... [more ▼]

We previously demonstrated that IL-1beta-mediated induction of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) transcription factor proceeds through the production of reactive oxygen intermediates in lymphoid cells, while it occurs independently of any oxidative stress in epithelial transformed cells. Indeed, inhibition of receptor internalization as well as NH4Cl and chloroquine blocked IL-1beta-mediated induction of NF-kappaB in OVCAR-3 and in other epithelial cell lines but not in lymphoid cells, indicating that distinct pathways are involved. Conversely, while we observed phospholipase A2 activity in both cell types following IL-1beta stimulation, specific inhibitors of this enzyme inhibited NF-kappaB induction only in lymphoid cells. Moreover, expression of the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) enzyme was not detected in epithelial cells, and inhibition of this enzyme blocked NF-kappaB induction by IL-1beta only in lymphoid cells. This study thus indicates that the activation of NF-kappaB following IL-1beta treatment involves the activation of phospholipase A2 and 5-LOX and the production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) in lymphoid cells, while in epithelial cells, another pathway predominates and could involve the acid sphingomyelinase. Moreover, arachidonic acid could induce NF-kappaB in epithelial and lymphoid cells, but this activation involved the 5-LOX enzyme and the production of ROIs only in lymphoid cells. The inefficiency of the ROI pathway in epithelial cells is probably the consequence of both low ROI production due to undetectable expression of 5-LOX and rapid degradation of hydrogen peroxide due to high catalase activity. [less ▲]

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See detailDifunctional anionic initiator based on 1.3-diisopropenylbenzene. 5. Effect of polar additives and initiator seeding on the synthesis of poly(styrene-b-butadiene-b-styrene) copolymer
Yu, Y. S.; Dubois, Philippe ULg; Teyssié, Philippe et al

in Macromolecules (1997), 30(24), 7356-7362

The initiation of butadiene and styrene polymerization by a pure hydrocarbon soluble difunctional organolithium, 1,3-bis(1-lithio-1,3,3‘-trimethylbutyl)benzene, has been studied in a hydrocarbon solvent ... [more ▼]

The initiation of butadiene and styrene polymerization by a pure hydrocarbon soluble difunctional organolithium, 1,3-bis(1-lithio-1,3,3‘-trimethylbutyl)benzene, has been studied in a hydrocarbon solvent. The initiation occurs in such a way that part of the diadduct remains unreacted. When a second monomer feed along with tetrahydrofuran (THF) is added to the living chains, the residual diadduct is activated to the point where novel chains are formed. Weakly polar additives such as lithium alkoxides and aromatic ether can prevent part of the initiator from being inactive, although these additives are not effective enough to initiate the controlled synthesis of poly(styrene-b-butadiene-b-styrene) (SBS) triblock copolymers. The seeding of the initiator which consists of butadiene oligomerization in the presence of anisole and tBuOLi in cyclohexane, has proved to be very efficient in providing SBS containing 85% 1,4-microstructure polybutadiene (PBD) and with high mechanical properties, e.g., ultimate tensile strength higher than 30 MPa and elongation at a break of 1000%. [less ▲]

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See detailSmall-angle neutron scattering studies of low polarity telechelic ionomer solutions. 2. Single chain scattering
Karayianni, Eleni; Jérôme, Robert ULg; Cooper, Stuart L

in Macromolecules (1997), 30(24), 7444-7455

A direct probe of the single chain conformation in associating low polarity model telechelic ionomer solutions has been obtained using small-angle neutron scattering. A contrast matching technique was ... [more ▼]

A direct probe of the single chain conformation in associating low polarity model telechelic ionomer solutions has been obtained using small-angle neutron scattering. A contrast matching technique was employed utilizing a solution of hydrogenated and deuterated ionomer chains in a mixture of labeled and unlabeled solvent molecules. The scattering data at all concentrations and ionic levels examined show an excellent fit to the wormlike chain model. Single chain scattering patterns were obtained for two sodium-neutralized carboxy−telechelic polystyrene ionomers that differ by a factor of 2 in their molecular weight, in a concentration range from the dilute to the concentrated solution regime. The single chain dimensions were found to be influenced by both the ionic interactions and the extent of association. Both ionomer systems showed a contraction of the chain dimensions in the dilute solution regime which is more pronounced for the lower molecular weight telechelic ionomer. As concentration increases, the single chain dimensions increase until they reach a plateau value in the concentrated solution regime. This plateau value is very close to the chain dimensions of the ionomer in the bulk, as was found from a previous SANS study on similar ionomer systems. This plateau value chain dimension is also the same as the unperturbed dimension of the nonionic parent polymer in the bulk. The effect of concentration on the ionomer chain dimensions is attributed to the influence of ionic interactions as the nonionic form of the material shows larger chain dimensions in the concentration regime studied. These results indicate that intramolecular interactions with the formation of self loops prevail in the dilute solution regime. Intermolecular interactions with ionic groups connecting to different chains prevail in the concentrated solution regime, as evidenced by an extension of the chain dimensions. [less ▲]

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See detailLa motivation en contexte scolaire : Points de vue de parents et d'élèves
Beckers, Jacqueline ULg; Stegen, Pierre

in Puzzle (1997), 3

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See detailSmall-angle X-ray scattering and small-angle neutron scattering studies of liquid-crystalline halato(semi)telechelic polymers
Sobry, Roger ULg; Van den Bossche, Guy ULg; Fontaine, Frédéric et al

in Journal of Applied Crystallography (1997), 30(6), 1075-1083

Model liquid-crystalline ionomers have been synthesized, which consist of low molecular weight (700-49000) linear ω- and α,ω-sodium sulfonate- and carboxylato-poly(styrenes or isoprenes) selectively end ... [more ▼]

Model liquid-crystalline ionomers have been synthesized, which consist of low molecular weight (700-49000) linear ω- and α,ω-sodium sulfonate- and carboxylato-poly(styrenes or isoprenes) selectively end-capped at one or both end(s) with an ionic mesogenic group. These compounds are referred to as liquid-crystalline halato(semi)telechelic polymers [LC H(S)TPs] A combination of small-angle X-ray scattering and small-angle neutron scattering studies on these LC H(S)TPs clearly shows the usual ionic peak related to interparticle interference between the ionic aggregates and a peak which can be related to the organization of a smectic mesophase. This mesogenic peak is generally masked by the foot of the broad ionic peak. The ionic peak Bragg spacing is much larger in the LC H(S)TP than in the H(S)TP precursor; This increased interaggregate distance results from the hindrance due to the mesogenic organization and from the restricted mobility experienced by the chains closely attached to the mesogen layers. As a rule, the lower the glass transition temperature of the polymeric matrix, the better the definition of the ionic peak, The ionic peak is well defined as long as the temperature is lower than the temperature of transition from solid to smectic phase (32.3 K). At higher temperatures, the ionic peak intensity decreases with increasing temperature. [less ▲]

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See detailEditorial: Pour une anthropologie du regard
Strivay, Lucienne ULg; Gossiaux, Pol-Pierre ULg

in Voir (1997), 15

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See detailMAVIS STAPLES
Sacré, Robert ULg

in Soul Bag (1997), (145), 75

hoto : Mavis STAPLES , Peer , juillet 1992

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See detailAnionic polymerization of methacrylate monomers initiated by lithium dialkylamides
Antoun, Sayed; Teyssié, Philippe; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry (1997), 35(17), 3637-3544

The anionic polymerization of methacrylate monomers has been investigated with lithium dialkylamides as initiators in THF and toluene, respectively. Theoretical arguments and previous studies of mixed ... [more ▼]

The anionic polymerization of methacrylate monomers has been investigated with lithium dialkylamides as initiators in THF and toluene, respectively. Theoretical arguments and previous studies of mixed aggregates of lithiated organic compounds support the complexity of these systems. Lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) shows the highest initiation efficiency (e.g., f = 75% in THF at -78°C). Interestingly enough, lithium chloride has a remarkable beneficial effect on the methacrylates polymerization in THF at -78°C, due to the formation of 1 : 1 mixed dimer with LDA, which promotes a well-controlled anionic polymerization (Mw/Mn = 1.05) with a high initiation efficiency (94%). The less bulky lithium-diethylamide (LDEA) is much less efficient (f = 26%), essentially as a result of some associated dormant species and side reactions on the carbonyl group of MMA. Although various types of ligands have been screened, no remarkable improvement of LDEA efficiency has been observed. Lithium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide (LTMSA) has also been used to increase the steric hindrance of the initiator. This compound is, however, unable to initiate the methacrylates polymerization, more likely because of a too low basicity and a too strong Li - N bond. © 1997 John Wiley [less ▲]

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See detailMorphometric Study of the Equine Navicular Bone: Comparisons between Fore and Rear Limbs
Gabriel, Annick ULg; Yousfi, S.; Detilleux, Johann ULg et al

in Zentralblatt für Veterinarmedizin. Reihe A (1997), 44(9-10), 579-94

Navicular bones collected from the four limbs of 95 sound horses were studied. The anatomic bases have been laid down about morphometry of the navicular bones and their variations according to limbs ... [more ▼]

Navicular bones collected from the four limbs of 95 sound horses were studied. The anatomic bases have been laid down about morphometry of the navicular bones and their variations according to limbs, after corrections have been made for morphologic type, gender, weight, size and age. All the dimensions of the navicular bone (except for the thickness) were larger in the fore limb. This phenomenon probably reflects an attempt to compensate for the greater forces exerted upon the fore limbs during exercise and at rest. Navicular bones collected from the four limbs of 61 sound horses were studied and the anatomic bases were described for histomorphometry of the fore and rear navicular bones. Fore navicular bones possess less cortical bone at the level of the articular surface, as well as at the level of the flexor surface and proximal border, but larger amounts of cancellous bone. Articular and flexor surface cortical bone show a larger porosity in the fore navicular bones and a larger amount of mineralized cartilage. The mineralized portion for distal impar- and collateral sesamoidean ligaments are also larger for the fore navicular bones. Two distinct zones are observed for the flexor surface cortex that have never been reported in the literature before: an external zone, which is mainly composed of poorly remodelled lamellar bone, arranged in a disto-proximal oblique direction, and an internal zone, which is mainly composed of secondary bone, with a latero-medial direction of Haversian canals. Bone architecture is discussed with regard to the mechanic load, encountered by the bone during locomotion. [less ▲]

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See detailResilience, desistance and delinquent career of adolescent offenders
Born, Michel ULg; Chevalier, V.; Humblet, I.

in Journal of Adolescence (1997), 20(6), 679-694

This study examines resilience and desistance from delinquent behaviours and attempts to identify factors which predict persistent or increased or decreased delinquency between adolescence and early ... [more ▼]

This study examines resilience and desistance from delinquent behaviours and attempts to identify factors which predict persistent or increased or decreased delinquency between adolescence and early childhood. A sample of 363 young people was obtained from the population of five public institutions in 1987 and 1992. Their delinquent trajectories were described on the basis of legal records. These suggested that resilience is a rare phenomenon and is associated with stable relationships, absence of diagnostic label and good adaptation to the institution. Two axes were identified which can be used to describe the population, the family background and the psychological characteristics of the individual. Information which predicted desistance from a delinquent career was identified by means of a stepwise multiple regression. Analyses were conducted separately for each age group to take account of differences in time after the placement. The results indicated that there are important age-related differences in the characteristics which influence desistance or risk. They also show length of stay in an institution to be a predictor. Desistance from further delinquency seems to depend on the time spent in the residential environment associated with an increase of guilt, an improvement of self-image and of attachment to one or more other people. [less ▲]

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See detailValidation of a fast voltage stability analysis method on the Hydro-Québec system
Van Cutsem, Thierry ULg; Mailhot, Richard

in IEEE Transactions on Power Systems (1997), 12

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See detailDirectional solidification by appropriate chemically active single crystal seed: An alternative way of generating large superconducting 123 single domain
Cloots, Rudi ULg; Auguste, F. X.; Rulmont, André ULg et al

in Journal of Materials Research (1997), 12(12), 3199-3202

A Dy2O3 single crystal has been used as a seed for the growth of isothermally melt-textured DY-123 material. The nucleation-controlled step has been observed to be related to the heterogeneous nucleation ... [more ▼]

A Dy2O3 single crystal has been used as a seed for the growth of isothermally melt-textured DY-123 material. The nucleation-controlled step has been observed to be related to the heterogeneous nucleation of 211 particles at the surface of the dysprosium oxide single crystal. The subsequent growth mode seems to be controlled by a high concentration gradient of dysprosium in the liquid phase. This leads to a directional solidification process of the 123 phase. The size of the 211 particles seems to decrease as the distance from the dysprosium oxide single crystal increases. [less ▲]

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See detailLe prix d'une profession de foi
Duchesne, Jean-Patrick ULg

in Les amis de Ianchelevici (1997), 15

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See detailIntensity Dependence of the Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials as a Surrogate Marker of Central Nervous System Serotonin Transmission in Man: Demonstration of a Central Effect for the 5ht1b/1d Agonist Zolmitriptan (311c90, Zomig)
Proietti-Cecchini, A.; Afra, J.; Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (1997), 17(8), 849-54799

As shown in animal studies, 5HT1B/D agonists can inhibit activity in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis, which may be advantageous for their antimigraine effect. To demonstrate a possible central nervous ... [more ▼]

As shown in animal studies, 5HT1B/D agonists can inhibit activity in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis, which may be advantageous for their antimigraine effect. To demonstrate a possible central nervous system (CNS) action of these compounds in man we studied their effect on the intensity dependence of the cortical auditory evoked potentials (IDAPs), thought to be inversely related to central serotonergic transmission. An amplitude/stimulus intensity function (ASF) slope was computed in healthy volunteers and migraine patients between attacks before and 2 h after oral 311C90 (zolmitriptan "Zomig") 10 mg (n=14), 311C90 5 mg (n=7), sumatriptan 100 mg (n=14), dexfenfluramine 15 mg (n=4), lorazepam 1.25 mg (n=4) and placebo (n=14). 311C90 10 mg and, to a lesser degree, 5 mg significantly increased the mean ASF slope (p=0.007 and 0.05 vs placebo). There was a significant positive correlation between plasma levels of 311C90 and ASF slope changes. Sumatriptan and lorazepam had little effect, but dexfenfluramine produced a significant ASF slope decrease. 311C90 is able to modify a CNS activity that is modulated by serotonin, i.e. the IDAP. This effect is probably the consequence of its superior lipophilicity compared to sumatriptan and of activation of prejunctional 5HT1B/D autoreceptors, which lowers central serotonin release and thus the preactivation level of sensory cortices. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychological Approaches During Conscious Sedation. Hypnosis Versus Stress Reducing Strategies: A Prospective Randomized Study
Faymonville, Marie-Elisabeth ULg; Mambourg, P. H.; Joris, Jean ULg et al

in Pain (1997), 73(3), 361-7

Stress reducing strategies are useful in patients undergoing surgery. Hypnosis is also known to alleviate acute and chronic pain. We therefore compared the effectiveness of these two psychological ... [more ▼]

Stress reducing strategies are useful in patients undergoing surgery. Hypnosis is also known to alleviate acute and chronic pain. We therefore compared the effectiveness of these two psychological approaches for reducing perioperative discomfort during conscious sedation for plastic surgery. Sixty patients scheduled for elective plastic surgery under local anesthesia and intravenous sedation (midazolam and alfentanil upon request) were included in the study after providing informed consent. They were randomly allocated to either stress reducing strategies (control: CONT) or hypnosis (HYP) during the entire surgical procedure. Both techniques were performed by the same anesthesiologist (MEF). Patient behavior was noted during surgery by a psychologist, the patient noted anxiety, pain, perceived control before, during and after surgery, and postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). Patient satisfaction and surgical conditions were also recorded. Peri- and postoperative anxiety and pain were significantly lower in the HYP group. This reduction in anxiety and pain were achieved despite a significant reduction in intraoperative requirements for midazolam and alfentanil in the HYP group (alfentanil: 8.7 +/- 0.9 microg kg(-1)/h(-1) vs. 19.4 +/- 2 microg kg(-1)/h(-1), P < 0.001; midazolam: 0.04 +/- 0.003 mg kg(-1)/h(-1) vs. 0.09 +/- 0.01 mg kg(-1)/h(-1), P < 0.001). Patients in the HYP group reported an impression of more intraoperative control than those in the CONT group (P < 0.01). PONV were significantly reduced in the HYP group (6.5% vs. 30.8%, P < 0.001). Surgical conditions were better in the HYP group. Less signs of patient discomfort and pain were observed by the psychologist in the HYP group (P < 0.001). Vital signs were significantly more stable in the HYP group. Patient satisfaction score was significantly higher in the HYP group (P < 0.004). This study suggests that hypnosis provides better perioperative pain and anxiety relief, allows for significant reductions in alfentanil and midazolam requirements, and improves patient satisfaction and surgical conditions as compared with conventional stress reducing strategies support in patients receiving conscious sedation for plastic surgery. [less ▲]

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See detailPharma-clinics. Comment je traite ... Une infection par le VIH. II. Inhibiteurs nucléosidiques de la transcriptase reverse
Moutschen, Michel ULg; Nkoghe, D.; Leonard, Philippe ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1997), 52(12), 750-2

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See detailMethodology of high speed railway network planning
Marchal, Jean ULg; Han, Baoming

in Proceedings of the Second Conference of Hongkong Society for Transportation Studies HKSTS (1997)

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See detailComparison between Three- and Four-Element Windkessel Models to Characterize Vascular Properties of Pulmonary Circulation
Lambermont, Bernard ULg; Gérard, Paul ULg; Detry, Olivier ULg et al

in Archives of Physiology & Biochemistry (1997), 105(7), 625-32

In 11 anaesthetised pigs the accuracy of the three-element (WK3) and the four-element (WK4) Windkessel models to describe hemodynamic properties of the pulmonary circulation was compared during six ... [more ▼]

In 11 anaesthetised pigs the accuracy of the three-element (WK3) and the four-element (WK4) Windkessel models to describe hemodynamic properties of the pulmonary circulation was compared during six different experimental conditions increasing pulmonary arterial pressure: increase in left atrial pressure, increase in alveolar pressure, increase in pulmonary blood flow, endotoxin shock, mechanical obstruction of left pulmonary artery or histamine infusion. Our results showed that WK4 fitted better the data than did WK3 because values of 1-R2 decreased from 6 percent (WK3) to 1.4 percent (WK4) when WK4 was used (P < 0.0005). 1-R2 was an adequate marker of the accuracy of the linear regression used to solve equations of both models. Compliance values estimated by WK4 were decreased by 5% comparatively to WK3 (P = 0.008). However, this difference can be considered as not physiologically relevant. Values of characteristic resistance corresponding to R1 + (L/R2C) in WK4 and to R1 in WK3 were not different (P = 0.22). The relative changes in R1, R2, and C observed due to the different experimental conditions were comparable regardless of the model. In conclusion, the conversion of WK3 in WK4 by adding an inductance, whose physiological meaning is not clear, resulted in an increased statistical accuracy of the model, but did not seem to have relevant influence on parameters or their evolution during experimental conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailPoly [glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) / methylmethacrylate (MMA)-b-butadiene (B)-b-GMA/MMA] reactive thermoplastic elastomers: synthesis and characterization
Yu, Jian Ming; Dubois, Philippe ULg; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry (1997), 35(16), 3507-3515

New block copolymers of the ABA type, where B stands for polybutadiene (PBD) and A for polyglycidylmethacrylate(PGMA), poly(methylmethacrylate(MMA)-co-GMA) and PMMA-b-PGMA, respectively, have been ... [more ▼]

New block copolymers of the ABA type, where B stands for polybutadiene (PBD) and A for polyglycidylmethacrylate(PGMA), poly(methylmethacrylate(MMA)-co-GMA) and PMMA-b-PGMA, respectively, have been successfully synthesized by using the diadduct of tert-butyllithium (tert-BuLi) to meta-diisopropenylbenzene (m-DIB) as a difunctional initiator. The PBD midblock has been synthesized in a cyclohexane/diethylether (100/6, v/v) mixture at room temperature, whereas the methacrylate outer blocks have been synthesized in a cyclohexane/diethylether/THF (100/6/150, v/v/v) mixture at -78°C. Block copolymers of a very narrow molecular weight distribution (1.10) have been analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and tensile testing. These materials are phase separated and can exhibit tensile strength up to 22 MPa together with very high elongation at break (1500%). [less ▲]

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See detailLes renseignements erronés comme motif d'acquittement
Delnoy, Michel ULg

in Immobilier (1997), 22

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See detailCharacterization of polyacrylonitrile films grafted onto nickel by ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy and X-ray reflectivity
Calberg, Cédric ULg; Mertens, Marc; Jérôme, Robert ULg et al

in Thin Solid Films (1997), 310(1-2), 148-155

The thickness and roughness of polyacrylonitrile films electrografted on a nickel surface have been measured by ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy and X-ray reflectivity. From combined ellipsometry and ... [more ▼]

The thickness and roughness of polyacrylonitrile films electrografted on a nickel surface have been measured by ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy and X-ray reflectivity. From combined ellipsometry and X-ray reflectivity measurements, accurate values for the refractive indices of polyacrylonitrile and nickel have been derived at a 6328-Åwavelength. Dependence of the film thickness on the monomer concentration has been quantified for the first time. Furthermore, the thickness of the polyacrylonitrile (PAN) film is related to the nature of the solvent, depending on whether it is a good solvent for PAN (dimethylformamide; DMF) or not (acetonitrile; ACN). [less ▲]

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See detailObserved Periods of Ap and Bp stars (Catalano+ 1998)
Catalano, F. A.; Renson, Pierre ULg

in VizieR Online Data Catalog (1997), 3199

A catalogue of all the periods published up to 31 October 1996 on 364 CP stars is presented; it supersedes the previous version (catalog <III/152>). The paper version (catalog.tex) is arranged in three ... [more ▼]

A catalogue of all the periods published up to 31 October 1996 on 364 CP stars is presented; it supersedes the previous version (catalog <III/152>). The paper version (catalog.tex) is arranged in three tables: the bulk of the data, i.e. those referring to CP2, CP3, and CP4 stars, are given in Table 1, while the data concerning He-strong stars are given in Table 2 and those for eclipsing or ellipsoidal variables are collected in Table 3. Notes are also provided at the end of each table, mainly about duplicities. The machine-readable version was arranged in two main parts: the main parameters of the 364 stars (identifiers and names, positions, spectral types, magnitudes and peculiarities) are tabulated in the file 'stars'; periods and the of the observed variations (light, spectrum, magnetic field, etc.) are listed in the 'periods' file. Two other files contains the notes and the references. (3 data files). [less ▲]

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See detailOptical Spectroscopy of EZ Canis Majoris: Indication for Large-Scale Structures in a Wolf-Rayet Wind
Morel, Thierry ULg; St-Louis, Nicole; Marchenko, Sergey V

in Astrophysical Journal (1997), 489

In the paper "Optical Spectroscopy of EZ Canis Majoris: Indication for Large-Scale Structures in a Wolf-Rayet Wind" by Thierry Morel, Nicole St-Louis, and Sergey V. Marchenko (ApJ, 482, 470 [1997]), there ... [more ▼]

In the paper "Optical Spectroscopy of EZ Canis Majoris: Indication for Large-Scale Structures in a Wolf-Rayet Wind" by Thierry Morel, Nicole St-Louis, and Sergey V. Marchenko (ApJ, 482, 470 [1997]), there are several errors that should be corrected. In the legends to Figures 3 and 6 and on page 483, 55% should read 99%. The revised version of Figure 12 given here replaces Figure 12 in the paper. [less ▲]

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See detailThe boundary of "life" for a self-organized critical evolution: the role of the interaction range
Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Ausloos, Marcel ULg

in Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications (1997), 245(3-4), 494-502

The dynamics of a tree-like evolution is investigated as a function of the range ii of the interactions between competing entities which are located at the extremities of the branches. Speciation ... [more ▼]

The dynamics of a tree-like evolution is investigated as a function of the range ii of the interactions between competing entities which are located at the extremities of the branches. Speciation (branching) events are supposed to be driven by extremal dynamics. Extinction events are allowed and controlled by a parameter r. a transition between self-organized critical and frozen evolution occurs at some well-defined critical value r(c)(k). Surprisingly, the critical r(c) value behaves as a power of the range k(r(c) similar to k(-delta)) with an exponent S = -0.46+/-0.03. Moreover, the asymptotic case k = +infinity is herein exactly solved. The dynamics for k = +infinity is not critical and does not present any transition in contrast with finite k cases. [less ▲]

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See detailTriblock copolymer based thermoplastic elastomeric gels of a large service temperature range :preparation and characterization
Yu, Jian Ming; Jérôme, Robert ULg; Overbergh, Noël et al

in Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics (1997), 198(11), 3719-3735

Poly(methyl methacrylate)-block-polybutadiene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (MBM) triblock copolymers and their hydrogenated counterparts with poly(ethylene-co-1,2-butylene) midblock (MEBM) were swollen ... [more ▼]

Poly(methyl methacrylate)-block-polybutadiene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (MBM) triblock copolymers and their hydrogenated counterparts with poly(ethylene-co-1,2-butylene) midblock (MEBM) were swollen by an aliphatic oil of high boiling point which is a selective solvent for the central block. Thermoreversible gels are accordingly formed by both MBM and MEBM copolymers above a critical polymer content (Cr), which depends on the nature of the midblock and not on the copolymer molecular weight, at least in the investigated range. Cr has been found to be 5 wt.-% for an MBM block copolymer and 2 wt.-% for MEBM copolymers of various molecular weights. Gels of MEBM triblock copolymers exhibit interesting mechanical properties, such as high elon-gation at break (up to 870%) and high tensile strength (32 kPa). The most interesting fea-ture of the MEBM gels is an upper service temperature as high as 170°C, thus more than 100°C higher than the value (47°C) reported for gels of an SEBS copolymer (S = polystyrene) of comparable molecular weight (100000) and composition (ca. 30 wt.-% hard block). The morphology of MEBM gels was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and found to be cocontinuous in case of a gel containing 20 wt.-% copolymer. [less ▲]

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See detailSciatic Nerve Regeneration through Venous or Nervous Grafts in the Rat
Foidart-Dessalle, Marguerite ULg; Dubuisson, Annie ULg; Lejeune, André ULg et al

in Experimental Neurology (1997), 148(1), 236-46

This study analyses the interest of isologous venous grafts filled with saline or with Schwann cells versus nerve grafts as guides for regeneration of the sciatic nerve in 35 Wistar rats ... [more ▼]

This study analyses the interest of isologous venous grafts filled with saline or with Schwann cells versus nerve grafts as guides for regeneration of the sciatic nerve in 35 Wistar rats. Electrophysiological parameters (conduction velocities and distal latencies of motor responses) and the functional index of De Medinacelli were measured several times from 1 month to 1 year after surgery. An histological analysis was performed on 2 control rats and on 3 rats killed 6 or 12 months after surgery: the total number of fibers was counted on a montage photoprint of the whole nerve, and the diameters of axons and the thickness of the myelin sheath were measured on digitized images. With a portion of nerve as guide, the regeneration is faster than with a vein. However, regeneration after 6 months is at least as good with a venous graft filled with Schwann cells, as assessed by electrophysiological, functional, and histological analysis. The addition of Schwann cells in grafted veins allows the nerve to regenerate through longer gaps than previously described (25 vs 15 mm). In order to assess the quality of nerve regeneration, functional, electrophysiological, and histological analysis are complementary. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Perfluorocarbon Emulsions on Cultured Human Endothelial Cells
Mathy-Hartert, M.; Krafft, M. P.; Deby, Christiane ULg et al

in Artificial Cells, Blood Substitutes, & Immobilization Biotechnology (1997), 25(6), 563-75

Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and their emulsions (PFCEs) were used in organ preservation before transplantation, but not in organ perfusion. Our purpose was to achieve organ perfusion with a PFCE at room ... [more ▼]

Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and their emulsions (PFCEs) were used in organ preservation before transplantation, but not in organ perfusion. Our purpose was to achieve organ perfusion with a PFCE at room temperature or at 37 degrees C, i. e. with oxygenation, to prevent damages related to reoxygenation after hypoxia. Therefore, we first investigated the effect of such emulsions on endothelial cells, the first cells to be in contact with the emulsion. A stem emulsion was prepared from perfluorooctyl bromide (90% w/v), emulsified with egg yolk phospholipids (2% w/v) and stabilized with a mixed fluorocarbon-hydrocarbon "molecular dowel" (1.4% w/v) (droplets of ca 0.2 micron in diameter). This emulsion was found to be stable when diluted with cell culture media or organ preservation fluids. Endothelial cells from human umbilical vein (HUVECs) were cultured in multiwell plates in M199 medium (with growth factors, 10% foetal calf serum and 5% human serum). Confluent cells were incubated overnight with 51Cr, washed and overlayed with M199 (control) or the above PFCE diluted 2x or 4x with M199 (test). After incubation, the cytotoxicity of the PFCEs was estimated by measuring 51Cr release and observing cell morphology by electron and light microscopy. The percentages of released 51Cr were identical to those of the control cells for the 2x, 3x or 4x diluted PFCEs at 4, 25 or 37 degrees C. After return to the M199 medium, the cells grew and multiplied normally. We conclude that the diluted PFCEs were devoid of cytotoxicity. The 2x diluted PFCE was however partially taken up by the cells: by microscopy, we observed intracellular PFC droplets and by density gradient analysis we found a slight increase in cellular density. The diluted PFCEs were compared to classical organ preservation solutions : HUVECs were incubated with UW (University of Wisconsin) or EC (EuroCollins) solutions at +4 and 37 degrees C (3, 17 or 24 h of incubation). The solutions were observed to be toxic to the cells under these conditions, with cell mortality after return to the M199 medium. This cytotoxicity may be attributed to the high K+ concentration of UW and EC, since similar assays performed on HUVECs with Hank's solution adjusted to 100 mM K+ showed a similar % of 51Cr release. UW and EC are therefore not acceptable as dilution media for PFCEs. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiple Redox Regulation in Nf-Kappab Transcription Factor Activation
Piette, Jacques ULg; Piret, Bernard; Bonizzi, Giuseppina et al

in Biological Chemistry (1997), 378(11), 1237-45

The well-known Rel/NF-kappaB family of vertebrate transcription factors comprises a number of structurally related, interacting proteins that bind DNA as dimers and whose activity is regulated by ... [more ▼]

The well-known Rel/NF-kappaB family of vertebrate transcription factors comprises a number of structurally related, interacting proteins that bind DNA as dimers and whose activity is regulated by subcellular location. This family includes many members (p50, p52, RelA, RelB, c-Rel, ...), most of which can form DNA-binding homo- or hetero-dimers. All Rel proteins contain a highly conserved domain of approximately 300 amino-acids, called the Rel homology domain (RH), which contains sequences necessary for the formation of dimers, nuclear localization, DNA binding and IkappaB binding. Nuclear expression and consequent biological action of the eukaryotic NF-kappaB transcription factor complex are tightly regulated through its cytoplasmic retention by ankyrin-rich inhibitory proteins known as IkappaB. The IkappaB proteins include a group of related proteins that interact with Rel dimers and regulate their activities. The interaction of a given IkappaB protein with a Rel complex can affect the Rel complex in distinct ways. In the best characterized example, IkappaB-alpha interacts with a p50/RelA (NF-kappaB) heterodimer to retain the complex in the cytoplasm and inhibit its DNA-binding activity. The NF-kappaB/IkappaB-alpha complex is located in the cytoplasm of most resting cells, but can be rapidly induced to enter the cell nucleus. Upon receiving a variety of signals, many of which are probably mediated by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), IkappaB-alpha undergoes phosphorylation at serine residues by a ubiquitin-dependent protein kinase, is then ubiquitinated at nearby lysine residues and finally degraded by the proteasome, probably while still complexed with NF-kappaB. Removal of IkappaB-alpha uncovers the nuclear localization signals on subunits of NF-kappaB, allowing the complex to enter the nucleus, bind to DNA and affect gene expression. Like proinflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-1, TNF), various ROS (peroxides, singlet oxygen, ...) as well as UV (C to A) light are capable of mediating NF-kappaB nuclear translocation, while the sensor molecules which are sensitive to these agents and trigger IkappaB-alpha proteolysis are still unidentified. We also show that a ROS-independent mechanism is activated by IL-1beta in epithelial cells and seems to involve the acidic sphingomyelinase/ceramide transduction pathway. [less ▲]

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See detailEssais variétés : la chasse aux effets de competition !
Claustriaux, Jean-Jacques ULg; David, O.; Monod, H. et al

in Perspectives Agricoles (1997), 229

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See detailPredegenerated Nerve Allografts Versus Fresh Nerve Allografts in Nerve Repair
Dubuisson, A. S.; Foidart-Dessalle, Marguerite ULg; Reznik, Michel ULg et al

in Experimental Neurology (1997), 148(1), 378-87

This study reevaluated the possibility of using predegenerated nerves as donor nerve allografts for nerve repair and compared the results of functional recovery to those obtained after standard, fresh ... [more ▼]

This study reevaluated the possibility of using predegenerated nerves as donor nerve allografts for nerve repair and compared the results of functional recovery to those obtained after standard, fresh nerve allograft repair. Twenty donor rats underwent a ligature/ section of the left sciatic nerve 4 weeks before nerve graft harvesting. Forty recipient rats underwent severing of the left sciatic nerve leaving a 15-mm gap between the nerve stumps. Graft repair was undertaken using either the predegenerated left sciatic nerve of the 20 donor rats (predegenerated group, 20 recipient rats) or the normal right sciatic nerve of the 20 donor rats (fresh group, 20 recipient rats). Recovery of function was assessed by gait analysis, electrophysiologic testing and histologic studies. Walking tracks measurements at 2 and 3 months, electromyography parameters at 2 and 3 months, peroperative nerve conduction velocity and nerve action potential amplitude measurements at 3 months, as well as assessments of myelinated nerve fiber density and surface of myelination showed that fresh and predegenerated nerve grafts induced a comparable return of function although there was some trend in higher electrophysiologic values in the predegenerated group. The only slight but significant difference was a larger mean nerve fiber diameter in the nerve segment distal to a predegenerated nerve graft compared to a fresh nerve graft. Although our study does not show a dramatic long-term advantage for predegenerated nerve grafts compared to fresh nerve grafts, their use as prosthetic material is encouraging. [less ▲]

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See detailBoth Pituitary and Placental Growth Hormone Transcripts Are Expressed in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (Pbmc)
Melen-Lamalle, Laurence ULg; Hennen, Georges ULg; Dullaart, R. P. et al

in Clinical & Experimental Immunology (1997), 110(2), 336-40

The hGH-V gene codes for a variant of human pituitary growth hormone (hGH-N) named placental growth hormone (hPGH). hPGH shares 93% amino acid identity with hGH-N. Until now the hGH-V gene was considered ... [more ▼]

The hGH-V gene codes for a variant of human pituitary growth hormone (hGH-N) named placental growth hormone (hPGH). hPGH shares 93% amino acid identity with hGH-N. Until now the hGH-V gene was considered to be exclusively expressed in human placenta, where it replaces maternal circulating hGH-N at the end of pregnancy. In this study we investigated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis hGH-N, and hGH-V, gene expression in PBMC in men, women and pregnant women. We have demonstrated that hGH-N and hGH-V transcripts are simultaneously produced by PBMC in both men and women as well as pregnant women. The PBMC of a PIT-1-negative woman expressed only the hGH-V transcript, but not the hGH-N one as expected. In conclusion, hGH-V mRNA is expressed by cells other than the syncytiotrophoblast, is not regulated by PIT-1, and may be involved in immune regulation, as is pituitary GH. [less ▲]

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See detailIPM in Asia - A review of existing projects in the Philippines and Indonesia
Wynn, Nigel R.; Schiffers, Bruno ULg; Seghers, N. et al

in Agro-Chemicals News in Brief (1997), XX(2), 1-18

Integrated Pest Management means a pest management system that, in the context of the associated environment and the population dynamics of the pest species, utilizes ail suitable techniques and methods ... [more ▼]

Integrated Pest Management means a pest management system that, in the context of the associated environment and the population dynamics of the pest species, utilizes ail suitable techniques and methods in as compatible a manner as possible and maintains the pest populations at levels below those causing economically unacceptable damage or 1055. FAO-Code- of Conduct 1984. [less ▲]

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See detailClear Cell Sarcoma: An Extremely Rare Cause of Pleural Disease
BURY, Thierry ULg; HERMANS, Gilberte ULg; Alexis-Agnant, R. et al

in European Respiratory Journal (1997), 10(11), 2653-6

We present the case of a 36 yr old woman with a persisting complaints of left chest pain. A chest radiograph revealed multiple left pleural thickenings. Classical exploration was negative. Thoracic ... [more ▼]

We present the case of a 36 yr old woman with a persisting complaints of left chest pain. A chest radiograph revealed multiple left pleural thickenings. Classical exploration was negative. Thoracic surgery allowed the subtotal removal of a huge pleural tumour. The histological examination revealed a clear cell sarcoma. The literature on this extremely rare tumour is reviewed. [less ▲]

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See detailThéories du texte et apprentissage des langues : les grands axes d'une approche interdisciplinaire
Defays, Jean-Marc ULg

in Travaux de linguistique : revue internationale de linguistique Française (1997), 34

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See detailAnalysis of the Mutations Induced in the E. Coli Lac Z Gene by a Psoralen Analog
Matroule, J. Y.; Collet, M.; Boiteux, S. et al

in Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B : Biology (1997), 41(1-2), 36-44

A psoralen in which intracyclic oxygen atoms were replaced by sulfur (7H-thieno [3,2-g]-[1]-[benzothiopyran-7-one) [PSO(S-S)]) was recently synthesized and its photobiological properties were investigated ... [more ▼]

A psoralen in which intracyclic oxygen atoms were replaced by sulfur (7H-thieno [3,2-g]-[1]-[benzothiopyran-7-one) [PSO(S-S)]) was recently synthesized and its photobiological properties were investigated. M13mp19 DNA photosensitization mediated by PSO (S-S) followed by transfection into competent E. coli gave rise to a very low phage progeny showing the high aptitude of this compound to modify DNA. In order to characterize the role of oxidative damages in the photosensitized reaction mediated by PSO(S-S), plasmid bearing the gene encoding the formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg) under the control of the inducible lac Z promoter was transfected in E. coli. Overexpression of Fpg was induced by addition of isopropyl-beta-D-thio-galactopyranoside (IPTG) to the cells and monitored by western blot analysis. Fpg overexpression did not influence the rate of M13mp19 DNA photoinactivation by PSO(S-S) neither the mutation frequency measured by the expression of beta-galactosidase encoded by the lac Z gene beared by M13mp19. Analysis of the mutation patterns recorded with or without Fpg overexpression showed that several G to T transversions due to oxidative damages were repaired by Fpg. These data show that oxidative DNA damages generated during PSO(S-S) photosensitization have only limited biological implications measured in terms of DNA photoinactivation. [less ▲]

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See detailL'hyperaldostéronisme primaire. Mise au point et traitement raisonnés.
Baudoin, Béatrice ULg; Hamoir, Etienne ULg; Defechereux, Thierry et al

in Revue Française d'Endocrinologie Clinique, Nutrition, et Métabolisme (La) (1997), 38(6), 555-568

Depuis la découverte par Jérôme Conn, en 1954, de l'adénome sécréteur d'aldostérone (ou aldostéronome), neuf variétés ou associations particulières d'hyperaldostéronisme primaire ont été décrites. La ... [more ▼]

Depuis la découverte par Jérôme Conn, en 1954, de l'adénome sécréteur d'aldostérone (ou aldostéronome), neuf variétés ou associations particulières d'hyperaldostéronisme primaire ont été décrites. La manifestation principale de ce désordre endocrinien est l'hypertension artérielle, réfractaire aux thérapeutiques habituelles. Cependant, certains types d'hyperaldostéronisme sont sensibles à la chirurgie qui éradique cette hypertension et ses conséquences. Il importe donc de distinguer ces différentes variétés grâce aux moyens d'investigations actuellement à notre disposition afin d'appliquer le traitement le plus judicieux dans chaque cas. [less ▲]

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See detailHsv-1 Thymidine Kinase Gene Therapy for Colorectal Adenocarcinoma-Derived Peritoneal Carcinomatosis
Lechanteur, Chantal ULg; Princen, Frédéric; Lo Bue, S. et al

in Gene Therapy (1997), 4(11), 1189-94

Peritoneal carcinomatosis is a common clinical situation which, in most cases, cannot be eradicated by surgery or chemotherapy. The feasibility of an HSV-TK-based suicide gene therapy for peritoneal ... [more ▼]

Peritoneal carcinomatosis is a common clinical situation which, in most cases, cannot be eradicated by surgery or chemotherapy. The feasibility of an HSV-TK-based suicide gene therapy for peritoneal carcinomatosis induced by DHD/K12 colon carcinoma cells was investigated. DHD/K12 cells stably expressing the tk gene were killed in vitro in the presence of low concentrations of ganciclovir, they exhibited a 'bystander effect' when mixed with TK-negative cells. BD-IX rats injected intraperitoneally, either directly or after surgical peritoneal irritations, with DHD/K12 cells developed peritoneal carcinomatosis within 2 weeks. Ganciclovir treatment of animals injected with DHD/K12-TK cells allowed a significant reduction of the tumor volume as well as a prolonged survival. Of these animals 35-40% showed a long-term disease-free survival after ganciclovir therapy. Residual or relapsing tumors could be explained by a low expression of the transgene as demonstrated by RT-PCR. [less ▲]

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See detailHST confirmation of the lensed quasar J03.13.
Surdej, Jean ULg; Claeskens, Jean-François ULg; Remy, M. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (1997), 327

In order to definitely prove the claim by Claeskens et al. (1996A&A...305L...9C) that J03.13 is a doubly imaged quasar, WFPC2 direct imaging and FOS spectroscopy of this compact system have been obtained ... [more ▼]

In order to definitely prove the claim by Claeskens et al. (1996A&A...305L...9C) that J03.13 is a doubly imaged quasar, WFPC2 direct imaging and FOS spectroscopy of this compact system have been obtained with HST. These textbook case observations clearly show that J03.13 consists of two point-like images separated by 0.849"+/-0.001" with a magnitude difference of 2.14+/-0.03 in V and I. We see no trace of a lensing galaxy. From the FOS observations, we find that J03.13 A and B have identical spectra within the measurement uncertainties. The data also show that spectroscopic contamination of B by A is negligible. We do confirm the redshift z=2.545 for J03.13 A and B (emission-lines due to Ly-beta lambda1025 and O VI lambdalambda1031, 1037 are also detected), first derived from an unresolved ground-based spectrum of the two components by Claeskens et al. We also find that the absorption line system at z=2.344 (CIV and Ly-alpha) is present in the spectra of A and B. On the contrary, the absorption line system at z=1.085 (MgII) is only present in the spectrum of J03.13 A. If this latter system is associated with the lens, we may expect that image A consists of two radially merging images with a very small angular separation. From the WFPC2 imagery, we can rule out the presence of a third component fainter than A by up to 5.2mag. with an angular separation >=0.13". [less ▲]

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See detailWhole-body 18FDG positron emission tomography in the staging of non-small cell lung cancer.
Bury, Thierry ULg; Dowlati, A.; Paulus, Patrick et al

in European Respiratory Journal (1997), 10(11), 2529-34

Despite advances in morphological imaging, some patients with lung cancer are found to have nonresectable disease at surgery or die of recurrence within yr of surgery. We performed a prospective study in ... [more ▼]

Despite advances in morphological imaging, some patients with lung cancer are found to have nonresectable disease at surgery or die of recurrence within yr of surgery. We performed a prospective study in 109 patients to compare the accuracy of whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) using fluorine-18 deoxyglucose (18FDG) and conventional imaging (CI) methods for the staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). When CI or PET study suggested metastatic disease, confirmation was obtained by biopsy or follow-up information. As compared to CI, 18FDG-PET correctly changed the N stage in 22 patients (33%) and the M stage in 15 patients (14%). For the detection of distant metastases, PET study showed five false-positive sites and no false-negative cases. Currently, the accuracy of PET in the detection of M stage is 96%. Our study shows that visual interpretation of whole-body fluorine-18 deoxyglucose-positron emission tomography images can improve the diagnostic accuracy in the staging of non-small cell lung cancer. Further experience is needed to establish if metabolic imaging would be a cost-effective tool in the future management of lung cancer. [less ▲]

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See detailL'aorte thoracique, source sous-estimée d'accidents ischémiques cérébraux
Hoffer, E.; Appeltants, H.; Pierard, Luc ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1997), 52(11), 736-7

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See detailMolecular weight effects on polystyrene fingerprint time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) spectra
Vanden Eynde, X.; Bertrand, P.; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Macromolecules (1997), 30(21), 6407-6416

Monodisperse polystyrenes (PS) of different molecular weights (Mn) synthesized by living anionic polymerization with three types of butyllithium initiator (linear, n; secondary, sec; and tertiary, tert ... [more ▼]

Monodisperse polystyrenes (PS) of different molecular weights (Mn) synthesized by living anionic polymerization with three types of butyllithium initiator (linear, n; secondary, sec; and tertiary, tert) were analyzed by ToF-SIMS (time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry). The influence of the molecular weight on the secondary ion intensities was studied in detail for the fingerprint part of the mass spectra (with m/z < 200). A drastic effect was observed for Mn values below 104, related to the presence of the saturated butyl end group. An extra hydrogen transfer originating from this end group during the secondary ion formation must be invoked to explain the data. Only the first neighbor monomer repeat units seem to be affected. This H exchange increases the intensity of ions containing more hydrogen or needing H transfer for their formation as the tropylium ion (C7H7+ at m/z = 91). The molecular structure of the butyl end group is found to influence greatly not only the intensity of their parent ion but also the PS characteristic ion intensities. Indeed, the tert-butyl end group is seen unable to produce the H transfer observed for the n- and sec-butyl ones. A model is proposed to take the influence of the end group on the PS SIMS fragmentation pattern into account. The parameters of this model allow the quantification of the end group interaction. [less ▲]

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See detailPoly[poly(isobornyl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate) (poly(IBMA-co-MMA))-b-polybutadiene-b-poly(IBMA-co-MMA)] Copolymers: synthesis, morphology, and properties
Yu, J. M.; Dubois, Philippe ULg; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Macromolecules (1997), 30(21), 6536-6543

Anionic random and block copolymerization of isobornyl methacrylate (IBMA) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) has been studied in THF at −78 °C by using (1,1-diphenyl-3,3-dimethylbutyl)lithium (DDBLi) as ... [more ▼]

Anionic random and block copolymerization of isobornyl methacrylate (IBMA) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) has been studied in THF at −78 °C by using (1,1-diphenyl-3,3-dimethylbutyl)lithium (DDBLi) as initiator in the presence of LiCl. The random copolymerization of MMA and IBMA has also been carried out at 0 °C, all the other conditions being kept unchanged. Poly[poly(IBMA)-b-poly(BD)-b-poly(IBMA)] (IBI), poly[poly(IBMA-co-MMA)-b-poly(BD)-b-poly(MMA-co-IBMA)] (I/MBM/I), and poly[poly(IBMA)-b-poly(MMA)-b-poly(BD)-b-poly(MMA)-b-poly(IBMA)] (IMBMI) block copolymers have been synthesized by sequential anionic polymerization of butadiene, MMA, and IBMA initiated by the m-diisopropenylbenzene (m-DIB)/tert-butyllithium (t-BuLi) diadduct. These block copolymers of a monomodal and narrow molecular weight distribution (M̄w/M̄n = 1.1) have been analyzed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), NMR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Stereocomplexation of IMBMA and I/MBM/I with iPMMA has also been studied by DSC. Although IBI triblock copolymers show a lamellar morphology even for relatively low hard block content (33 wt %), cylindrical and lamellar morphologies have been observed for the other block copolymers under consideration. These new block copolymers exhibit high ultimate tensile strength (30 MPa), elongation at break (1000%), and upper service temperature (140−200 °C). [less ▲]

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See detailLa loi du 4 mars 1997 instituant le collège des procureurs généraux et créant la fonction de magistrat national : que reste-t-il de l’indépendance du Ministère public?
Masset, Adrien ULg

in Journal des Tribunaux (1997), 5856(32), 649-651

La loi du 4 mars 1997 instituant le collège des procureurs généraux et créant la fonction de magistrat national est présentée, par le législateur lui-même, comme la traduction de la volonté d’entériner ... [more ▼]

La loi du 4 mars 1997 instituant le collège des procureurs généraux et créant la fonction de magistrat national est présentée, par le législateur lui-même, comme la traduction de la volonté d’entériner une situation de fait existante. Le propos n'est pas de détailler la teneur de cette loi, mais plutôt de mettre en exergue l’expropriation croissante, au bénéfice du ministre de la Justice, de l’indépendance du ministère public par rapport à ce même ministre de la Justice, dans le domaine de la politique criminelle [less ▲]

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See detailPsychrophilic Enzymes: A Thermodynamic Challenge
Gerday, Charles ULg; Aittaleb, Mohamed; Arpigny, Jean Louis et al

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (1997), 1342(2), 119-31

Psychrophilic microorganisms, hosts of permanently cold habitats, produce enzymes which are adapted to work at low temperatures. When compared to their mesophilic counterparts, these enzymes display a ... [more ▼]

Psychrophilic microorganisms, hosts of permanently cold habitats, produce enzymes which are adapted to work at low temperatures. When compared to their mesophilic counterparts, these enzymes display a higher catalytic efficiency over a temperature range of roughly 0-30 degrees C and a high thermosensitivity. The molecular characteristics of cold enzymes originating from Antarctic bacteria have been approached through protein modelling and X-ray crystallography. The deduced three-dimensional structures of cold alpha-amylase, beta-lactamase, lipase and subtilisin have been compared to their mesophilic homologs. It appears that the molecular adaptation resides in a weakening of the intramolecular interactions, and in some cases in an increase of the interaction with the solvent, leading to more flexible molecular edifices capable of performing catalysis at a lower energy cost. [less ▲]

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See detailSite-Directed Mutagenesis of the Actinomadura R39 DD-Peptidase
Zhao, GuoHua; Duez, Colette ULg; Forceille, Christine et al

in Biochemical Journal (1997), 327(2), 377-381

The role of various residues in the conserved structural elements of the Actinomadura R39 penicillin-sensitive dd-peptidase has been studied by site-directed mutagenesis. Replacement of Ser-298 of the ... [more ▼]

The role of various residues in the conserved structural elements of the Actinomadura R39 penicillin-sensitive dd-peptidase has been studied by site-directed mutagenesis. Replacement of Ser-298 of the 'SDN loop' by Ala or Gly significantly decreased the kcat/Km value for the peptide substrate, but only by a factor of 15 and had little effect on the other catalytic properties. Mutations of Asn-300 of the same loop and of Lys-410 of the KTG triad yielded very unstable proteins. However, the N300S mutant could be purified as a fusion protein with thioredoxin that exhibited decreased rates of acylation by the peptide substrate and various cephalosporins. Similar fusion proteins obtained with the N300A, K410H and K410N mutants were unstable and their catalytic and penicillin-binding properties were very strongly affected. In transpeptidation reactions, the presence of the acceptor influenced the kcat/Km values, which suggested a catalytic pathway more complex than a simple partition of the acyl-enzyme between hydrolysis and aminolysis. These results are compared with those obtained with two other penicillin-sensitive enzymes, the Streptomyces R61 dd-peptidase and Escherichia coli penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 5. [less ▲]

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See detailThe basic pattern of activation in motor and sensory temporal tasks: positron emission tomography data
Lejeune, Helga ULg; Maquet, Pierre ULg; Bonnet, Michel et al

in Neuroscience Letters (1997), 235(1-2), 21-24

Positron emission tomography (PET) data were obtained from subjects performing a synchronization task (target duration 2700 ms). A conjunction analysis was run to identify areas prominently activated both ... [more ▼]

Positron emission tomography (PET) data were obtained from subjects performing a synchronization task (target duration 2700 ms). A conjunction analysis was run to identify areas prominently activated both in this task and in a temporal generalization task (target duration 700 ms) used previously. The common pattern of activation included the right prefrontal, inferior parietal and anterior cingulate cortex, the left putamen and the left cerebellar hemisphere. These areas are assumed to play a major role in time processing, in relation to attention and memory mechanisms. [less ▲]

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See detailStereotactic radiation therapy for brain metastases: the Lausanne experience
Zouhair, Abderrahim; Tercier, Nicolas; Fankhauser, Heinz et al

in Bulletin du Cancer. Radiothérapie : Journal de la Société Française du Cancer : Organe de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique (1997)

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See detailEIT and LASCO Observations of the Initiation of a Coronal Mass Ejection
Dere, K. P.; Brueckner, G. E.; Howard, R. A. et al

in Solar Physics (1997), 175

We present the first observations of the initiation of a coronal mass ejection (CME) seen on the disk of the Sun. Observations with the EIT experiment on SOHO show that the CME began in a small volume and ... [more ▼]

We present the first observations of the initiation of a coronal mass ejection (CME) seen on the disk of the Sun. Observations with the EIT experiment on SOHO show that the CME began in a small volume and was initially associated with slow motions of prominence material and a small brightening at one end of the prominence. Shortly afterward, the prominence was accelerated to about 100 km s[SUP]-1[/SUP] and was preceded by a bright loop-like structure, which surrounded an emission void, that traveled out into the corona at a velocity of 200 400 km s[SUP]-1[/SUP]. These three components, the prominence, the dark void, and the bright loops are typical of CMEs when seen at distance in the corona and here are shown to be present at the earliest stages of the CME. The event was later observed to traverse the LASCO coronagraphs fields of view from 1.1 to 30 Ro. Of particular interest is the fact that this large-scale event, spanning as much as 70 deg in latitude, originated in a volume with dimensions of roughly 35" (2.5 x 10[SUP]4[/SUP] km). Further, a disturbance that propagated across the disk and a chain of activity near the limb may also be associated with this event as well as a considerable degree of activity near the west limb. [less ▲]

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See detailEIT Observations of the Extreme Ultraviolet Sun
Moses, D.; Clette, Frédéric; Delaboudinière, J.-P. et al

in Solar Physics (1997), 175

The Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) on board the SOHO spacecraft has been operational since 2 January 1996. EIT observes the Sun over a 45 x 45 arc min field of view in four emission line ... [more ▼]

The Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) on board the SOHO spacecraft has been operational since 2 January 1996. EIT observes the Sun over a 45 x 45 arc min field of view in four emission line groups: Feix, x, Fexii, Fexv, and Heii. A post-launch determination of the instrument flatfield, the instrument scattering function, and the instrument aging were necessary for the reduction and analysis of the data. The observed structures and their evolution in each of the four EUV bandpasses are characteristic of the peak emission temperature of the line(s) chosen for that bandpass. Reports on the initial results of a variety of analysis projects demonstrate the range of investigations now underway: EIT provides new observations of the corona in the temperature range of 1 to 2 MK. Temperature studies of the large-scale coronal features extend previous coronagraph work with low-noise temperature maps. Temperatures of radial, extended, plume-like structures in both the polar coronal hole and in a low latitude decaying active region were found to be cooler than the surrounding material. Active region loops were investigated in detail and found to be isothermal for the low loops but hottest at the loop tops for the large loops. [less ▲]

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See detailEnhancement of MSH2-MSH3-mediated mismatch repair recognition by the yeast MLH1-PMS1 complex
Habraken, Yvette ULg; Sung, Patrick; Prakash, Louise et al

in Current Biology (1997), 7(10), 790-3

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See detailThe LMC transition star R 84 and the core of the LH 39 OB association.
Heydari-Malayeri, M.; Courbin, F.; Rauw, Grégor ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (1997), 326

On the basis of sub-arcsecond imaging obtained at the ESO NTT with SUSI and the ESO ADONIS adaptive optics system at the 3.6m telescope, we resolve and study the core components of the LMC OB association ... [more ▼]

On the basis of sub-arcsecond imaging obtained at the ESO NTT with SUSI and the ESO ADONIS adaptive optics system at the 3.6m telescope, we resolve and study the core components of the LMC OB association LH 39. The central star of the association, the rare transition object R 84, is also investigated using CASPEC echelle spectroscopy at the ESO 3.6m telescope. A new, powerful image restoration code that conserves the fluxes allows us to obtain the magnitudes and colors of the components. We bring out some 30 stars in a ~16"x16" area centered on R 84. At a resolution of 0.19"(FWHM), the closest components to R 84 are shown to be stars #21 and #7 lying at 1.1"NW and 1.7"NW respectively of the transition star. The former is possibly a blue star of V=16.7mag and the latter with its V=17.5mag is the reddest star of the field, after R 84. Star #7 turns out to be too faint to correspond to the red M2 supergiant previously reported to contaminate the spectrum of R 84. If the late-type spectrum is due to a line-of-sight supergiant with a luminosity comparable to R 84, it should lie closer than 0.12" to R 84. The transition star shows spectral variability between 1982 and 1991. We also note some slight radial velocity variations of the Of emission lines over timescales of several years. Furthermore, we derive the spectral types of two of the brightest stars of the cluster, using long slit spectra obtained at the NTT telescope equipped with EMMI, and discuss the apparent absence of O type stars in this association. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychrophilic Enzymes: Molecular Basis of Cold Adaptation
Feller, Georges ULg; Gerday, Charles ULg

in Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS (1997), 53(10), 830-41

Psychrophilic organisms have successfully colonized polar and alpine regions and are able to grow efficiently at sub-zero temperatures. At the enzymatic level, such organisms have to cope with the ... [more ▼]

Psychrophilic organisms have successfully colonized polar and alpine regions and are able to grow efficiently at sub-zero temperatures. At the enzymatic level, such organisms have to cope with the reduction of chemical reaction rates induced by low temperatures in order to maintain adequate metabolic fluxes. Thermal compensation in cold-adapted enzymes is reached through improved turnover number and catalytic efficiency. This optimization of the catalytic parameters can originate from a highly flexible structure which provides enhanced abilities to undergo conformational changes during catalysis. Thermal instability of cold-adapted enzymes is therefore regarded as a consequence of their conformational flexibility. A survey of the psychrophilic enzymes studied so far reveals only minor alterations of the primary structure when compared to mesophilic or thermophilic homologues. However, all known structural factors and weak interactions involved in protein stability are either reduced in number or modified in order to increase their flexibility. [less ▲]

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See detailLes états précancéreux de l'endomètre: aspects hormonaux
Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg; Gilliquet, A.; Nondonfaz, N. et al

in Bulletin de l'Académie Nationale de Médecine (1997), 181(7), 1395-4041404-5

The two types of endometrial carcinomas are preceded by precancerous lesions. Type I endometrial carcinomas are most commonly encountered in perimenopausal women with the classical risk factors associated ... [more ▼]

The two types of endometrial carcinomas are preceded by precancerous lesions. Type I endometrial carcinomas are most commonly encountered in perimenopausal women with the classical risk factors associated with estrogen exposure: obesity, multiparity, diabetes, estrogen treatment, ... Hyperplasia (simple, followed by complex forms without cellular atypias and subsequently by complex hyperplasias with cellular transformation) precede such cancers. Estrogens exert a promoting effect on these lesions but do not initiate them. Progesterone and progestins exert a preventive and protective effect. However, the progressive loss of steroidal receptors is correlated to the progression of tissular anomalies and to the onset of cytogenetic anomalies and to mutations of p53 anti-oncogene. The preventive role of progestin is well established, but their curative beneficial effect on atypical precursors forms of endometrial cancers and on endometrial carcinomas remains controversial. The second type of endometrial cancer appears during the postmenopause and is characterized by an increased invasiveness and a poor prognosis, devoid of identifiable risks factors, these aggressive cancers are not preceded by hormone-sensitive precancerous lesions, but by an intra-epithelial endometrial carcinoma. This lesion appears most often in an atrophic endometrium. Finally, the two types of precancerous states are characterized by distinct gene anomalies suggesting two different pathogenic mechanisms of cancerisation. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Bimodular G57-V577 Polypeptide Chain of the Class B Penicillin-Binding Protein 3 of Escherichia Coli Catalyzes Peptide Bond Formation from Thiolesters and Does Not Catalyze Glycan Chain Polymerization from the Lipid II Intermediate
Adam, Maggy; Fraipont, Claudine ULg; Rhazi, Noureddine ULg et al

in Journal of Bacteriology (1997), 179(19), 6005-6009

Because the specificity profile of the membrane anchor-free G57-V577 penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3) of Escherichia coli for a large series of beta-lactam antibiotics is similar to that of the full ... [more ▼]

Because the specificity profile of the membrane anchor-free G57-V577 penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3) of Escherichia coli for a large series of beta-lactam antibiotics is similar to that of the full-size membrane-bound PBP, the truncated PBP is expected to adopt the native folded conformation. The truncated PBP3 functions as a thiolesterase. In aqueous media and in the presence of millimolar concentrations of a properly structured amino compound, it catalyzes the aminolysis of the thiolester until completion, suggesting that the penicillin-binding module of PBP3 is designed to catalyze transpeptidation reactions. In contrast, the truncated PBP3 is devoid of glycan polymerization activity on the E. coli lipid II intermediate, suggesting that the non-penicillin-binding module of PBP3 is not a transglycosylase. [less ▲]

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See detailThrombangiitis Obliterans (Buerger's Disease): Still a Limb Threatening Disease
VAN DAMME, Hendrik ULg; de Leval, Laurence ULg; CREEMERS, Etienne ULg et al

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (1997), 97(5), 229-36

A series of 29 well-documented and properly analysed patients with thrombangiitis obliterans (Buerger's disease) is presented. The diagnosis of Buerger's disease was based on following criteria: smoking ... [more ▼]

A series of 29 well-documented and properly analysed patients with thrombangiitis obliterans (Buerger's disease) is presented. The diagnosis of Buerger's disease was based on following criteria: smoking history, onset before the age of 50 years, infrapopliteal arterial occlusive disease, either upper limb involvement or phlebitis migrans, absence of atherosclerotic risk factors other than smoking. In the last 10 years (1986-1996), we identified 29 patients who met these rigid criteria. There were 24 men and 5 women, aged 32.4 years at the moment of the disease first clinical symptom. The cumulative tobacco use averaged 16 pack-years for each patient. The initial symptom was limited gangrene of a toe (n = 9) or a finger (n = 2), foot claudication (n = 6), calf claudication (n = 3), rest pain (n = 3), migratory superficial phlebitis (n = 4), and Raynaud phenomenon (n = 2). Angiography and/or Doppler ultrasound revealed digital, pedal and calf artery involvement in all patients, with proximal extension in ten patients (femoropopliteal in ten, including three cases with external iliac artery involvement). Seven patients had also evidence of upper limb involvement. Histologic proof was available in only seven patients. Only nine patients completely stopped smoking. Treatment was exclusively medical in five cases. Twenty-four underwent sympathectomy (20 at lumbar, and four at thoracic level), with good immediate result in 16. In 11 patients a vascular reconstruction was done (eight femorocrural and three iliofemoral bypasses), with a patency rate of only 36% at two years. Amputation was required in 16 patients (a mean of 2.7 amputations per patient) at one or more levels: toe (n = 19), forefoot (n = 5), below knee (n = 8), above knee (n = 2), finger (n = 3). Two patients ended up with bilateral leg amputation. Overall, 23% (7/30) of the patients required major leg amputation during the course of the disease. Disease progression was moderately related to continued tobacco use. Buerger's disease still entails considerable risk of major amputation. Complete abstinence from tobacco use is crucial to expect stabilization of the process. However, in advanced stages of the disease and despite cessation of smoking recurrent episodes of ischaemia or tissue loss are not excluded. [less ▲]

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See detailComment je traite ... une infection par le VIH. I. Bases pathogéniques des choix thérapeutiques
Moutschen, Michel ULg; Nkoghe, D.; Leonard, Philippe ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1997), 52(10), 622-4

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See detailGenetic disorders and cerebellar structural abnormalities in childhood
RAMAEKERS, Vincent ULg; Heimann, G.; Reul, J. et al

in Brain : a journal of neurology (1997), 120 ( Pt 10)

Amongst 78 patients with either unilateral or bilateral (ponto-) cerebellar hypoplasia, atrophy or lesions on neuro-imaging (CT and/or MRI), 16 showed unilateral hypoplasia or lesions, 15 vermis defects ... [more ▼]

Amongst 78 patients with either unilateral or bilateral (ponto-) cerebellar hypoplasia, atrophy or lesions on neuro-imaging (CT and/or MRI), 16 showed unilateral hypoplasia or lesions, 15 vermis defects, nine pontocerebellar hypoplasia, 10 non-progressive conditions with bilateral cerebellar hemisphere hypoplasia or lesions and 28 progressive cerebellar atrophy. Known genetic conditions did not occur with unilateral cerebellar involvement, whereas a high incidence of mostly autosomal recessively inherited diseases could be diagnosed in more than half of the patients with either pontocerebellar hypoplasia or progressive bilateral cerebellar atrophy. A minority of patients with vermis defects or non-progressive cerebellar hypoplasia suffered from genetic conditions. An overview of the literature is presented describing genetic and non-genetic syndromes, or metabolic disorders associated with cerebellar structural abnormalities. From these data, new proposals for improved diagnostic investigations will be presented. [less ▲]

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See detailFormation of nick instabilities due to particle clustering along crystal interfaces
Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Ausloos, Marcel ULg; Cloots, Rudi ULg

in Physical Review. E : Statistical Physics, Plasmas, Fluids, and Related Interdisciplinary Topics (1997), 56(4), 4042-4047

The kinetic growth of crystal grains is simulated on a square lattice in the presence of mobile particles. The model is based on the Eden and the dynamic epidemic models. Trapping of the particles by the ... [more ▼]

The kinetic growth of crystal grains is simulated on a square lattice in the presence of mobile particles. The model is based on the Eden and the dynamic epidemic models. Trapping of the particles by the advancing front and a short-range repulsion of the particles by the front are both allowed. The grain boundary morphology is studied through the kink density concept and the spatial distribution of particles is discussed. Indeed, the clustering of particles along the crystal edges is found to induce the formation of so-called nick instabilities at the liquid-solid interface. The particles, when trapped near such instabilities, occur as oblique filamentary structures in the crystal matrix, just like river networks. These findings agree with recent experimental observations. The numerical laws are also explained by theoretical arguments based on different characteristic lengths. [less ▲]

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See detailCoil on the loop and selectively enhanced stiffness for improved control: feasibility study in the neonatal ovine model of the large patent ductus arteriosus.
Grabitz, R. G.; Freudenthal, F.; Sigler, M. et al

in Investigative Radiology (1997), 32(10), 636-43

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Several devices have been suggested and tested for interventional closure of the persistent ductus arteriosus. Coils were found effective only in small ducts due to their lack of ... [more ▼]

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Several devices have been suggested and tested for interventional closure of the persistent ductus arteriosus. Coils were found effective only in small ducts due to their lack of maneuverability and physical limitation of grip forces leading to risk of embolization. The authors evaluated the feasibility to place single coils with selectively enhanced stiffness into high shunting ductus arteriosus, the coils being deployed and controlled through a veno-arterial loop in a bovine model. METHODS: "Double-cone" shaped, stainless steel coils with enhanced stiffness of the outer rings were mounted on either end on a nitinol core wire. A snap-in mechanism attaches the coil to this delivery wire and is freed by a pusher system of coiled steel wire that is advanced over the core wire. Forming a veno-arterial loop across the patent ductus allows for repositioning into the pulmonary artery or aortic catheter. A chronic lamb model of large patent ductus arteriosus (PDAs) (> or = 9 mm) was used in which ductus patency was secured by a protocol of repetitive angioplasties. Different systems (n = 10) were placed having retrieved the previous coil by a snare after definitive release. RESULTS: Placement of coils was possible in all 10 attempts. The coils were pulled back into the catheters between five and eight times before definitive release. CONCLUSIONS: The device allows controlled placement of single coils in our model of large PDAs and may lead the way to overcome previous limitations of coils. Clinical trials are warranted. [less ▲]

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See detailTwo years of replacement therapy in adults with growth hormone deficiency.
Verhelst, J.; Abs, R.; Vandeweghe, M. et al

in Clinical Endocrinology (1997), 47(4), 485-494

OBJECTIVES: Although several studies have shown beneficial short-term effects of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy in adult GH deficient (GHD) patients, few data are available on large ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: Although several studies have shown beneficial short-term effects of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy in adult GH deficient (GHD) patients, few data are available on large groups of patients treated for more than one year. In addition, the optimal dose of rhGH for each patient and the baseline parameters that predict which patients will benefit most from therapy or will have adverse events are not entirely elucidated. DESIGN: 148 adult GHD patients were enrolled in a multicentre 2-year rhGH replacement study which was placebo controlled for the first six months. rhGH (Genotropin/Genotonorm Pharmacia & Upjohn) was given in a dose of 0.25 IU/kg/week sc (1.5 IU/m2/day). MEASUREMENTS: Every 3-6 months body composition was measured using body impedance analysis and general well being was assessed using the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) and social self-reporting questionnaire. At the same time patients had a full clinical examination and blood was sampled for glucose, HbA1c, IGF-1, creatinine, full blood count, thyroid hormones and liver function tests. RESULTS: With rhGH therapy IGF-1 levels increased from -2.00 +/- 2.60 SDS to 1.47 +/- 2.6 SDS after six months (P < 0.001), continued to rise despite no change in dose to 1.84 +/- 2.8 SDS after one year and remained constant thereafter (1.98 +/- 2.4 after 2 years). 56% of patients ultimately attained supranormal IGF-1 levels (+2 SD), 22% had levels below the mean, of which 9% were below -2 SD. Within 3 months lean body mass (LBM) increased by +5.09% (P < 0.001), total body water (TBW) by +5.40% (P < 0.001), while body fat (BF) dropped by -10.89% (P < 0.001) and waist circumference by -1.42% (P < 0.004). These effects were maintained during the first year of therapy, but the effect was attenuated after 24 months: LBM, +3.91% (P < 0.001); TBW, +3.28%, P < 0.001, BF, -6.42% (P < 0.001) and waist -2.22% (P < 0.009). Individual differences in response were large and could not be predicted by any of the baseline parameters, except for a better response in males. Treatment resulted in a large and progressive improvement on the NHP scale, especially energy, emotions and sleep, but a similar change was also found in patients during placebo treatment. With rhGH the number of full days of sick leave/6 months decreased from 12.17 +/- 3.90 days (SEM) to 7.15 +/- 3.50 days after six months (P = 0.009), 2.93 +/- 1.55 days after 12 months (P = 0.01), 0.39 +/- 0.17 days after 18 months (P < 0.001) and 3.3 +/- 2.51 days after 24 months (P = 0.026). Similarly, the hospitalization rate went down from 14.9 to 7% after 6 months and remained at this level thereafter (P = 0.12). About one third of patients on rhGH experienced fluid-related adverse events, most often within the first 3 months. They usually disappeared spontaneously or responded well to dose reduction. Cumulative dropout rates were 29% after 1 year and 38% after two years. Two thirds of these patients stopped treatment because of insufficient subjective improvement. Neither drop-outs nor fluid retention could not be predicted by any of the baseline parameters. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed in a large group of patients the beneficial effects of rhGH therapy on body composition, metabolic parameters and general well-being and found a consistent drop in number of sick days and hospitalization rate. These effects were maintained during two years of therapy, except for an attenuation in body composition changes after 24 months. The high incidence of fluid-related adverse events suggests that it may be better to start with lower doses of rhGH and to increase the dose more slowly over a number of weeks. The finding of suboptimal high or low IGF-1 levels in many patients reinforces guidelines not to give rhGH in a weight-dependent dose but to titrate it individually for each patient. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Dopamine Agonists on Appetitive and Consummatory Male Sexual Behavior in Japanese Quail
Castagna, C.; Ball, G. F.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg

in Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior (1997), 58(2), 403-14

The effects of pharmacological manipulations of dopaminergic transmission on appetitive and consummatory aspects of male sexual behavior were investigated in castrated male Japanese quail treated with ... [more ▼]

The effects of pharmacological manipulations of dopaminergic transmission on appetitive and consummatory aspects of male sexual behavior were investigated in castrated male Japanese quail treated with exogenous testosterone. Appetitive male sexual behavior was assessed by measuring a learned social proximity response and consummatory behavior was assessed by measuring copulatory behavior per se. The nonselective dopamine receptor agonist, apomorphine, inhibited in a dose-dependent manner both components of male sexual behavior. Two indirect dopamine agonists were also tested. Nomifensine, a dopamine re-uptake inhibitor, decreased appetitive sexual behavior but increased the frequency of mount attempts, a measure of consummatory sexual behavior. Amfonelic acid, a compound that enhances dopaminergic tone by a complex mechanism, increased aspects of both appetitive and consummatory behaviors. These data suggest that, in quail, as in rodents, increases in dopaminergic tone facilitate both appetitive and consummatory aspects of male sexual behavior. Apomorphine may be inhibitory in quail because it acts primarily on D2-like receptors, unlike in rats, where it stimulates sexual behavior and acts primarily on D1-like receptors at low doses but interacts with D2-like receptors at higher doses. This is supported by the observation that stereotyped pecking, a behavior stimulated selectively in quail by D2 agonists, was increased by apomorphine but not by the two indirect agonists. The observed partial dissociation between the effects of these dopaminergic agonists on appetitive and consummatory sexual behaviors suggests that these two components of male sexual behavior may be controlled by the action of dopamine through different neuronal systems. [less ▲]

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See detailLe cas clinique du mois. A propos d'un cas d'hypothermie accidentelle
Fraipont, V.; Finianos, Lucien ULg; Albert, Franz ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1997), 52(10), 625-30

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See detailZolmitriptan (Zomig, 311c90), a Novel Dual Central and Peripheral 5ht1b/1d Agonist: An Overview of Efficacy
Schoenen, Jean ULg; Sawyer, J.

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (1997), 17(Suppl 18), 28-40

The efficacy of zolmitriptan (Zomig, 311C90), a 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT)1B/1D receptor agonist, in the acute oral treatment of migraine was evaluated in an extensive clinical trial program. Four ... [more ▼]

The efficacy of zolmitriptan (Zomig, 311C90), a 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT)1B/1D receptor agonist, in the acute oral treatment of migraine was evaluated in an extensive clinical trial program. Four randomized, placebo-controlled studies (total 2480 patients) were performed; data from two of these trials established that a 2.5 mg dose was on the shoulder of the dose-response curve (2-h headache response rate 64%), showing similar efficacy to the 5 mg dose (67%). In this program, the efficacy of zolmitriptan was not influenced by the pretreatment headache duration; the presence of aura preceding the headache, migraine associated with menses or migraine upon awakening; or by concomitant use of oral contraceptives or antidepressants. In addition, zolmitriptan 5 mg proved consistently effective in the treatment of multiple migraine attacks for up to 1 year. Zolmitriptan reduced the incidence of nausea, photophobia and phonophobia, reduced impairment of normal activity and demonstrated positive effects on patients' quality of life. Thus, zolmitriptan is a highly effective acute oral antimigraine therapy, with 2.5 mg providing the optimal balance between efficacy and tolerability. [less ▲]

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See detailA High Serum Concentration of Interleukin-6 Is Predictive of Relapse in Quiescent Crohn's Disease
Louis, Edouard ULg; Belaiche, Jacques ULg; Van Kemseke, Catherine ULg et al

in European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology (1997), 9(10), 939-44

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Relapses of Crohn's disease are difficult to predict. We assessed the value of serum level of interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and soluble TNF receptors as ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Relapses of Crohn's disease are difficult to predict. We assessed the value of serum level of interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and soluble TNF receptors as predictors of relapse in quiescent Crohn's disease. PATIENTS/METHODS: Thirty-six patients with inactive Crohn's disease, treated or not, were included. Various clinical and biological parameters, including interleukin-6, TNF-alpha and soluble TNF receptors serum levels were measured at inclusion in the study and the patients were followed clinically for 1 year. The relapse was defined as a Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) greater than 150 with an increase greater than 100 compared to the inclusion value. We analysed the ability of these parameters to predict relapse in parallel to clinical characteristics and other laboratory parameters. RESULTS: Among the 32 variables tested, interleukin-6 serum level had the greatest ability to predict the time-to-relapse, with 17-fold chance of relapse over a 1-year period for patients with an interleukin-6 serum level greater than 20 pg/ml than for patients with a lower level (P < 0.001). A high serum level of the soluble TNF receptors p55 and p75 also had significant predictive value, in contrast to TNF-alpha serum levels. An interleukin-6 serum level greater than 20 pg/ml and either an acid alpha-1-glycoprotein level greater than 1.1 g/l or a soluble interleukin-2 receptor serum level greater than 95 pM/l were risk factors selected by a stepwise multivariate analysis. In both models a good prognosis group was defined by the absence of the two risk factors, a bad prognostic group by the presence of the two risk factors and an intermediate in between. With both models, the good prognosis group included 17 patients who experienced no relapse over the 1-year follow-up, whereas all patients (seven with the first model and six with the second) in the bad prognosis group had a relapse during the follow-up. Looking specifically at two homogeneous subgroups including either naturally/5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) quiescent or corticoid quiescent patients, a very good predictive value for interleukin-6 serum concentration was also found. CONCLUSION: Interleukin-6 serum level alone or in association with other biological parameters such as acid alpha-1-glycoprotein or the soluble interleukin-2 receptor serum level may be useful for predicting the course of the disease in patients with quiescent Crohn's disease. [less ▲]

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See detailCardiological and general health status in preschool- and school-age children after neonatal arterial switch operation
Hovels-Gurich, H. H.; SEGHAYE, Marie-Christine ULg; Dabritz, S. et al

in European Journal of Cardio - Thoracic Surgery (1997), 12(4), 593-601

OBJECTIVE: Cardiological and general health status 3-9 years after neonatal arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries should be evaluated by non-invasive methods. METHODS: A total ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: Cardiological and general health status 3-9 years after neonatal arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries should be evaluated by non-invasive methods. METHODS: A total of 77 unselected children with intact ventricular septum (75.3%) or ventricular septal defect (24.7%) without or with aortic isthmic stenosis (5.2%) were prospectively examined 3.2-9.4 years (5.4 +/- 1.6) after neonatal switch. Clinical pediatric and cardiological examination, standard and 24 h Holter electrocardiogram, M-mode, 2D-, Doppler and colour Doppler echocardiography were performed. Outcome data were compared to published normals. RESULTS: Reoperation rate was 2.6%, 96.1% were without limitation of physical activity and 98.7% without medication. Compared to normals, growth was adequate, weight and head circumference were slightly reduced. After median sternotomy, 23.4% had abnormal thoracic configuration (16.9% asymmetry, 6.5% funnel chest). ECG and Holter: 93.5% were in sinus, 6.5% in ectopic atrial or junctional rhythm. Incidence of complete right bundle branch block was 15.8% in patients with ventricular septal defect and 5.2% in those without. Ischemic ST-T changes during exercise due to coronary artery occlusion and evidence of old myocardial infarction were found in 1 patient (1.3%) each. Occasional atrial ectopy was found in 27.4%, ventricular ectopy in 15.3%: occasional in 12.5% and frequent (> 30/h) in 2.8% presenting bigemini, couplets and short runs of ventricular tachycardia at rest and during exercise. Echocardiography: Left ventricular function was normal in all. Endsystolic diameter of neoaortic valve annulus was beyond 90% confidence interval for controls in 79.2%, neoaortic root diameter in 100%. Mild aortic insufficiency was seen in 10.4%. No correlation was found between aortic insufficiency and aortic dilatation. Neoaortic stenosis was not seen, mild residual coarctation after end-to-end-anastomosis was found in 2.6%, native coarctation corrected later on in 1.3%. Supravalvular pulmonary stenosis was seen in 29.9% (19.5% trivial, 7.8% mild, 2.6% moderate), mild subvalvular pulmonary stenosis in 1.3%, pulmonary insufficiency in 2.6%. CONCLUSION: The study confirms good midterm results after neonatal arterial switch operation for transposition with or without ventricular septal defect. Long-term observation is necessary to assess rhythm, coronary artery and myocardial function as well as development of neo-aorta and pulmonary artery system. [less ▲]

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See detailCarotid Chemodectomas. Experience with Nine Cases with Reference to Preoperative Embolization and Malignancy
Defraigne, Jean-Olivier ULg; Sakalihasan, Natzi ULg; Antoine, Paul ULg et al

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (1997), 97(5), 220-8

The medical records of nine patients (five female and four male, mean age 58 +/- 5 years) presenting with a carotid chemodectoma between 1983 and 1995 were reviewed. In two cases (22%) the diagnostic was ... [more ▼]

The medical records of nine patients (five female and four male, mean age 58 +/- 5 years) presenting with a carotid chemodectoma between 1983 and 1995 were reviewed. In two cases (22%) the diagnostic was not suspected at the time of initial presentation. The most common complaint was a swelling in the anterolateral region of the neck. One patient (11%) presented with a preoperative peripheral nerves deficits (vagus and hypoglossal palsies and Horner's syndrome). Two tumours were embolized preoperatively with polyvinyl alcohol particles. Complete surgical excision was possible in each patient and the plane of resection was adventitial. In three cases, early ligation of the external carotid artery facilitated the resection. In two patients, the vagus nerve was sacrificed because of tumour involvement. No operative mortality was observed and no vascular complication occurred. In addition to the patient with preoperative neurologic symptoms, three patients developed peripheral nerve deficits (vagus and hypoglossal nerves) postoperatively. Two of these deficits were transient. These peripheral neurologic complications were observed with the largest tumour sizes. Two cases were malignant (lymph nodes and bony metastases). These two patients received postoperative radiotherapy. The mean follow-up period 63 +/- 19 months. No patient developed local recurrence during the follow-up. Two patients died during the follow-up, one for condition unrelated to their disease and the second from metastatic dissemination. In conclusion, carotid chemodectomas may be safely resected. The best way to minimize the rate of complications is to operate them at an early stage of evolution. [less ▲]

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See detailCognitive and motor development in preschool and school-aged children after neonatal arterial switch operation
Hovels-Gurich, H. H.; SEGHAYE, Marie-Christine ULg; Dabritz, S. et al

in Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (The) (1997), 114(4), 578-85

OBJECTIVE: The developmental status of children beyond 3 years of age after the neonatal arterial switch operation has not yet been systematically evaluated and is the topic of the present work. METHODS ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: The developmental status of children beyond 3 years of age after the neonatal arterial switch operation has not yet been systematically evaluated and is the topic of the present work. METHODS: Seventy-seven unselected children operated on as neonates with combined deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and low-flow cardiopulmonary bypass were examined at an age of 3.2 to 9.4 years (5.4 +/- 1.6 years, mean +/- standard deviation). Clinical neurologic status, standard scores of intelligence, acquired abilities and vocabulary, and standardized tests on gross motor and fine motor functions were carried out, and the results were related to preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative status and management. RESULTS: Neurologic impairment was more frequent (9.1%) than in the normal population. Intelligence was not different in these patients compared with normal children (p = 0.11), but motor function, vocabulary, and acquired abilities were poorer. Reduced intelligence was found in 9.1%, fine motor dysfunction in 22.1%, and gross motor dysfunction in 23.4% of the children. Intelligence was weakly but significantly inversely related to the duration of bypass (Spearman correlation coefficient -0.25, p = 0.03) and tended to be inversely related to the duration of circulatory arrest (-0.21, p = 0.07), but not to core cooling time on bypass or degree of hypothermia. Gross motor function, vocabulary, and acquired abilities were not significantly related to any of the perioperative parameters considered. No correlation was found between the test results and the variables perinatal asphyxia, perioperative and postoperative cardiocirculatory insufficiency, resuscitation events, and plexal or intraventricular cerebral hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS: The neonatal arterial switch operation with combined circulatory arrest and low-flow bypass in our experience is associated with neurologic as well as fine and gross motor impairment but appears to be well tolerated concerning cognitive functions as based on formal intelligence testing. [less ▲]

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