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See detailRelationship between Clinical Effects, Serum Drug Concentration, and Concurrent Drug Interactions in Depressed Patients Treated with Citalopram, Fluoxetine, Clomipramine, Paroxetine or Venlafaxine
Charlier, Corinne ULg; Pinto, Emmanuel ULg; Ansseau, Marc ULg et al

in Human Psychopharmacology (2000), 15(6), 453-459

The relationship between clinical effects and plasma concentrations of citalopram, fluoxetine, clomipramine, paroxetine and venlafaxine was studied in 119 cases of major depression. Clinical effects were ... [more ▼]

The relationship between clinical effects and plasma concentrations of citalopram, fluoxetine, clomipramine, paroxetine and venlafaxine was studied in 119 cases of major depression. Clinical effects were evaluated using the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) improvement scale. Antidepressants were quantified by a separative chromatographic methodology. Plasma concentrations in responder patients were compared with the plasma concentrations proposed in literature as effective values. We found that the usual therapeutic window is convenient for citalopram and clomipramine, but could be reduced for fluoxetine and increased for venlafaxine and paroxetine. Concurrent drug interactions were also evaluated and clomipramine or citalopram plasma levels were found to be influenced by the presence of associated drugs. A larger study is needed, taking into account not only plasma concentrations and clinical effects, but also some pharmacokinetic data, especially the metabolic activity characterising the patient, and the presence or not of associated drugs. Copyright 2000 John Wiley [less ▲]

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See detailExperience-dependent changes in cerebral activation during human REM sleep
Maquet, Pierre ULg; Laureys, Steven ULg; Peigneux, Philippe ULg et al

in Nature Neuroscience (2000), 3(8), 831-836

The function of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep is stiil unknown. One prevailing hypothesis suggests that REM sleep is important in processing memory traces. Here, using positron emission tomography (PET ... [more ▼]

The function of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep is stiil unknown. One prevailing hypothesis suggests that REM sleep is important in processing memory traces. Here, using positron emission tomography (PET) and regional cerebral blood flow measurements, we show that waking experience influences regional brain activity during subsequent sleep. Several brain areas activated during the execution of a serial reaction time task during wakefulness were significantly more active during REM sleep in subjects previously trained on the task than in non-trained subjects. These results support the hypothesis that memory traces are processed during REM sleep in humans. [less ▲]

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See detailStriatum forever, despite sequence learning variability : A random effect analysis of PET data
Peigneux, Philippe ULg; Maquet, Pierre ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg et al

in Human Brain Mapping (2000), 10(4), 179-194

This PET study is concerned with the what, where, and how of implicit sequence learning. In contrast with previous studies imaging the serial reaction time (SRT) task, the sequence of successive locations ... [more ▼]

This PET study is concerned with the what, where, and how of implicit sequence learning. In contrast with previous studies imaging the serial reaction time (SRT) task, the sequence of successive locations was determined by a probabilistic finite-state grammar. The implicit acquisition of statistical relationships between serially ordered elements (i.e., what) was studied scan by scan, aiming to evidence the brain areas (i.e., where) specifically involved in the implicit processing of this core component of sequential higher-order knowledge. As behavioural results demonstrate between- and within-subjects variability in the implicit acquisition of sequential knowledge through practice, functional PET data were modelled using a random-effect model analysis (i.e., how) to account for both sources of behavioural variability. First, two mean condition images were created per subject depending on the presence or not of implicit sequential knowledge at the time of each of the 12 scans. Next, direct comparison of these mean condition images provided the brain areas involved in sequential knowledge processing. Using this approach, we have shown that the striatum is involved in more than simple pairwise associations and that it has the capacity to process higher-order knowledge. We suggest that the striatum is not only involved in the implicit automatization of serial information through prefrontal cortex-caudate nucleus networks, but also that it plays a significant role for the selection of the most appropriate responses in the context created by both the current and previous stimuli, thus contributing to better efficiency and faster response preparation in the SRT task. Hum. Brain Mapping 10:179-194, 2000. © 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailDeformation behavior of weakly segregated block copolymers. 2. Correlation between phase behavior and deformation mechanisms of diblock copolymers
Weidisch, R.; Schreyeck, G.; Ensslen, M. et al

in Macromolecules (2000), 33(15), 5495-5504

The deformation behavior of poly(styrene-b-butyl methacrylate) diblock copolymers, PS-b-PBMA, is studied by high-voltage electron microscopy (HVEM) with an in-situ tensile device. While in the first part ... [more ▼]

The deformation behavior of poly(styrene-b-butyl methacrylate) diblock copolymers, PS-b-PBMA, is studied by high-voltage electron microscopy (HVEM) with an in-situ tensile device. While in the first part the phase behavior of PS-b-PBMA diblock copolymers is investigated via small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), in the second part the deformation behavior depending on composition and molecular weight is discussed. Disordered block copolymers have the same deformation mechanism as the corresponding homopolymers, while microphase-separated block copolymers undergo a cavitation mechanism. At the order−disorder transition, ODT, a transition from crazing to cavitation mechanism is found via HVEM. Moreover, a sharp increase of the diameter of craze fibrils occurs at the ODT, demonstrating that the craze microstructure is strongly influenced by phase behavior. As the incompatibility increases with increasing molecular weight, deformation mechanisms such as diversion and termination of crazes are observed for intermediately segregated block copolymers. The discussed correlation between phase behavior and deformation mechanisms indicates the existence of a unified scheme for deformation behavior of diblock copolymers depending on the strength of segregation, χN. [less ▲]

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See detailStructural Similarities and Evolutionary Relationships in Chloride-Dependent Alpha-Amylases
D'Amico, Salvino ULg; Gerday, Charles ULg; Feller, Georges ULg

in Gene (2000), 253(1), 95-105

The alpha-amylase sequences contained in databanks were screened for the presence of amino acid residues Arg195, Asn298 and Arg/Lys337 forming the chloride-binding site of several specialized alpha ... [more ▼]

The alpha-amylase sequences contained in databanks were screened for the presence of amino acid residues Arg195, Asn298 and Arg/Lys337 forming the chloride-binding site of several specialized alpha-amylases allosterically activated by this anion. This search provides 38 alpha-amylases potentially binding a chloride ion. All belong to animals, including mammals, birds, insects, acari, nematodes, molluscs, crustaceans and are also found in three extremophilic Gram-negative bacteria. An evolutionary distance tree based on complete amino acid sequences was constructed, revealing four distinct clusters of species. On the basis of multiple sequence alignment and homology modeling, invariable structural elements were defined, corresponding to the active site, the substrate binding site, the accessory binding sites, the Ca(2+) and Cl(-) binding sites, a protease-like catalytic triad and disulfide bonds. The sequence variations within functional elements allowed engineering strategies to be proposed, aimed at identifying and modifying the specificity, activity and stability of chloride-dependent alpha-amylases. [less ▲]

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See detail1D Ising model for ripple formation
Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Galam, S.

in Journal of Physics : A Mathematical & General (2000), 33(28), 4955-4962

A 1D Ising model is shown to reproduce qualitatively the dynamics of ripple formation. The saltation effect is imposed using a Kawasaki dynamics and a pair interaction over some distance E. Within this ... [more ▼]

A 1D Ising model is shown to reproduce qualitatively the dynamics of ripple formation. The saltation effect is imposed using a Kawasaki dynamics and a pair interaction over some distance E. Within this model, the ripple state turns out to be metastable, in agreement with cellular automata simulations as well as recent underwater experiments. A dynamical phase diagram is obtained. A mean-field solution of the problem is given in terms of the ripple size. A mapping is then performed onto a 2D E x infinity static problem. [less ▲]

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See detailAlteration of the Cytoplasmic/Nuclear Expression Pattern of Galectin-3 Correlates with Prostate Carcinoma Progression
van den Brule, Frédéric; Waltregny, David ULg; Liu, Fu Tong et al

in International Journal of Cancer = Journal International du Cancer (2000), 89(4), 361-7

Galectin-3, a member of the beta-galactoside-binding lectin family, is involved in a variety of biological events including interactions with galactose-containing glycoconjugates, cell proliferation ... [more ▼]

Galectin-3, a member of the beta-galactoside-binding lectin family, is involved in a variety of biological events including interactions with galactose-containing glycoconjugates, cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Galectin-3 appears to intervene during tumor progression and altered expression patterns have been reported in a variety of malignancies. In our study, we have examined the expression of galectin-3 in a population of 145 prostate carcinoma samples using immunohistochemistry. We found that most of the non-tumoral prostatic glands exhibited moderate immunostaining for galectin-3 localized in both nucleus and cytoplasm. In prostatic cancer cells, galectin-3 was usually not expressed or decreased compared with the normal glands. Interestingly, when galectin-3 was detected in the cancer cells, it was consistently excluded from the nucleus and only present in the cytoplasmic compartment. The latter observation was also made for prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) cells. Furthermore, we found that the levels of galectin-3 expression in the cancer cells were significantly associated with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse in univariate analysis (p = 0.044). Cytoplasmic expression of galectin-3 in the carcinoma cells was an independent predictor of disease progression in multivariate analysis, after the pathological stage and the Gleason score. Our data demonstrate that galectin-3 is generally down-regulated in human prostate carcinoma cells, and consistently excluded from the nucleus. Interestingly, specific cytoplasmic expression of galectin-3 in a subset of lesions is associated with disease progression. These results suggest that galectin-3 might play anti-tumor activities when present in the nucleus, whereas it could favor tumor progression when expressed in the cytoplasm. Further studies should determine the exact role and mechanisms by which galectin-3 differentially affects cell behavior in the different locations where it is expressed. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst example of an unsymmetrical difunctional monomer polymerizable by two living/controlled methods
Mecerreyes, David; Humes, J.; Miller, R. D. et al

in Macromolecular Rapid Communications (2000), 21(11), 779-784

In this paper the synthesis and (co)polymerizations of 4-(acryloyloxy)-epsilon-caprolactone are reported. This new monomer can be polymerized in a living/controlled way by two different polymerization ... [more ▼]

In this paper the synthesis and (co)polymerizations of 4-(acryloyloxy)-epsilon-caprolactone are reported. This new monomer can be polymerized in a living/controlled way by two different polymerization mechanisms: atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and ring-opening polymerization (ROP). ATRP, which was carried out at 90 degrees C using NiBr2(PPh3)(2), leads to new polyacrylates containing pendant caprolactone functionalities with controlled molecular weights and narrow polydispersities (M-w/M(p)similar to 1.1). Alternatively, ROP of this functional epsilon-caprolactone bearing a pendant acrylate functionality leads to new poly(4-(acryloyloxy) caprolactone) as well as random copolymers when epsilon-caprolactone and L,L-lactide are added as comonomers. The (co)polymerizations were carried out using either (Al((OPr)-Pr-i)(3) in toluene at 25 degrees C or Sn(Oct)(2) as a catalyst at 110 degrees C producing (co)polymers with controlled molecular weights and narrow polydispersities (M-w/M(n)similar to 1.2). As a potential application, the introduction of acrylate pendant groups into the polyesters facilitated the preparation of cross-linked biodegradable materials either thermally or by irradiation with ultraviolet light radical curing. [less ▲]

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See detailPharmacological Modulation of the Bystander Effect in the Herpes Simplex Virus Thymidine Kinase/Ganciclovir Gene Therapy System: Effects of Dibutyryl Adenosine 3',5'-Cyclic Monophosphate, Alpha-Glycyrrhetinic Acid, and Cytosine Arabinoside
Robe, Pierre ULg; Princen, Frédéric; Martin, Didier ULg et al

in Biochemical Pharmacology (2000), 60(2), 241-9

The herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) suicide gene/ganciclovir system was first applied to the treatment of glioblastoma tumors, but was hampered by the low gene transfection yield ... [more ▼]

The herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) suicide gene/ganciclovir system was first applied to the treatment of glioblastoma tumors, but was hampered by the low gene transfection yield. Fortunately, the gap junction-dependent diffusion of phosphorylated ganciclovir metabolites from transfected cells to their neighbors proved to enhance the overall benefit of this strategy. However, as tumor cells are often gap junction-deficient, we sought to restore this property pharmacologically and hence to improve the efficacy of the treatment. We demonstrated that this approach was feasible in glioblastoma cells using dibutyryl adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) (100 microM) as a pharmacological inducer of gap junctions. alpha-Glycyrrhetinic acid (25 microM), on the other hand, strongly inhibited both gap junction-mediated intercellular communication and the bystander effect, thus confirming the role of gap junctions in HSV-tk-mediated bystander killing. Using cytosine arabinoside as a growth inhibitor, we underlined the role of tumor cell proliferation in the sensitivity of HSV-tk-transfected cells to ganciclovir and demonstrated its correlation with the importance of the bystander effect. [less ▲]

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See detailFos Induction in the Japanese Quail Brain after Expression of Appetitive and Consummatory Aspects of Male Sexual Behavior
Tlemcani, O.; Ball, G. F.; D'Hondt, E. et al

in Brain Research Bulletin (2000), 52(4), 249-62

We investigated the expression of Fos, the protein product of the immediate early gene c-fos in the brain of male Japanese quail after they engaged in either appetitive or consummatory sexual behavior (i ... [more ▼]

We investigated the expression of Fos, the protein product of the immediate early gene c-fos in the brain of male Japanese quail after they engaged in either appetitive or consummatory sexual behavior (i. e., copulation). For 1 h, castrated males treated with testosterone were either allowed to copulate with a female or to exhibit a learned social proximity response indicative of appetitive sexual behavior. Control birds were either left in their home cage or placed in the experimental chamber but did not exhibit the appetitive sexual behavior because they had never learned it. Fos expression was studied with an immunocytochemical procedure in two sets of adjacent sections through the entire forebrain. These sections were immunolabelled with 2 different antibodies raised against a synthetic fragment corresponding to the 21 carboxy-terminal residues of the chicken Fos sequence. Contrary to the results of a previous study in which gonadally intact birds were used, Fos induction was observed neither in the medial preoptic nucleus nor in the nucleus intercollicularis in birds that had interacted for 1 h with a female. This may be related to a lower frequency of copulation in the testosterone-implanted birds than in intact birds, or to differences in the time the brains were collected after the birds engaged in sexual behavior between the two studies (60 min in this study, 120 min in the previous study). The performance of copulation and/or appetitive sexual behavior increased the number of Fos-immunoreactive cells in the ventral hyperstriatum, medial archistriatum, and nucleus striae terminalis. These increases were observed using both antibodies, although each antibody produced minor differences in the number of Fos-immunoreactive cells observed. Using one of the antibodies, but not the other, increases in Fos immunoreactivity were also observed in the nucleus accumbens and hyperstriatum after either copulation or appetitive sexual behavior. These differences illustrate how minor technical variations in the Fos immunocytochemical procedure influence the results obtained. These differences also show that Fos induction in a number of brain regions is observed after performance of consummatory (copulation) as well as appetitive (looking at the female) sexual behavior. This induction is, therefore, not related solely to the control of copulatory acts but, presumably, also to the processing in a variety of telencephalic association areas of stimuli originating from the female. The observation that increased Fos immunoreactivity is present in birds that had learned the response indicative of appetitive sexual behavior, and not in those that had not learned the behavior, further indicates that it is not simply the sight of the female that results in this Fos induction, but the analysis of the relevant stimuli in a sexually explicit context. Conditioned neural activity resulting from a learned association between the stimulus female and the performance of copulatory behavior may also explain some aspects of the brain activation observed in birds viewing, but not allowed to interact with, the female. [less ▲]

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See detailASCA spectroscopy of the hard X-ray emission from the colliding wind interaction in gamma[SUP]2[/SUP] Velorum
Rauw, Grégor ULg; Stevens, I. R.; Pittard, J. M. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2000), 316

We discuss an ASCA observation of the eccentric WC8+O7.5III binary gamma[SUP]2[/SUP]Velorum near apastron. The X-ray spectrum is compared with two previous observations obtained when the system was near ... [more ▼]

We discuss an ASCA observation of the eccentric WC8+O7.5III binary gamma[SUP]2[/SUP]Velorum near apastron. The X-ray spectrum is compared with two previous observations obtained when the system was near periastron. All three spectra display a hard-emission component that undergoes strong variability over the orbital cycle. The properties of the hard X-ray emission of gamma[SUP]2[/SUP]Vel are constrained by taking into account the contribution from contaminating soft X-ray sources in the vicinity of gamma[SUP]2[/SUP]Vel. We find that the observed variations are in qualitative agreement with the predictions of colliding wind models. We investigate for the first time the effect of uncertainties in the chemical composition of the X-ray emitting plasma on our understanding of the high-energy properties of the wind interaction region. Our results indicate that these uncertainties significantly affect the derived shock temperature and absorption column, but play a smaller role in determining the intrinsic X-ray luminosity of the colliding wind zone. We further find that the intrinsic luminosity from the hard X-ray component in gamma[SUP]2[/SUP]Vel does not follow the 1/D distance relation expected from simple models of adiabatic shocks. [less ▲]

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See detailResolved stellar populations of super-metal-rich star clusters in the bulge of M 31
Jablonka, P.; Courbin, F.; Meylan, G. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2000), 359

We have applied the MCS image deconvolution algorithm (Magain et al. 1998) to HST/WFPC2 V, I data of three M 31 bulge globular clusters (G170, G177, and G198) and control fields near each cluster. All ... [more ▼]

We have applied the MCS image deconvolution algorithm (Magain et al. 1998) to HST/WFPC2 V, I data of three M 31 bulge globular clusters (G170, G177, and G198) and control fields near each cluster. All three clusters are clearly detected, with an increase in stellar density with decreasing radius from the cluster centers; this is the first time that stars have been resolved in bulge clusters in the inner regions of another galaxy. From the RGB slopes of the clusters and the difference in I magnitude between the HB and the top of the RGB, we conclude that these three clusters all have roughly solar metallicity, in agreement with earlier integrated-light spectroscopic measurements. Our data support a picture whereby the M 31 bulge clusters and field stars were born from the same metal-rich gas, early in the galaxy formation. [less ▲]

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See detailA model of the Lyman-alpha line profile in the proton aurora
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Hubert, Benoît ULg; Bisikalo, Dimitry V et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research (2000), 105

The Lyman-alpha auroral emission is characterized by a broad line profile whose shape depends on the energy and pitch angle distributions of the initial proton beam, whereas its total brightness reflects ... [more ▼]

The Lyman-alpha auroral emission is characterized by a broad line profile whose shape depends on the energy and pitch angle distributions of the initial proton beam, whereas its total brightness reflects the proton energy flux precipitated into the auroral upper atmosphere. Global remote sensing of the proton aurora through its ultraviolet signature makes it is increasingly important to relate the characteristics of the Lyman-alpha emission to the physical properties of the precipitated proton flux. We present a numerical model of proton and hydrogen flux transport and kinetics based on the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. In this approach, all elastic and inelastic processes are stochastically simulated as well as is the production of Lyman-alpha photons with the associated Doppler velocity component. The model also includes collisional, geomagnetic, and geometric spreading of the proton-hydrogen beam. We show that consideration of the stochastic character of the H atom velocity redistribution after collisions produces line profiles different from those obtained in the strictly forward or mean scattering angle approximations previously used in proton transport codes. In particular, the predicted fraction of photons due to backscattered particles is considerably larger when stochastic collision scattering is considered than in the strictly forward or mean scattering angle approximations. In contrast to the median wavelength, the position of the peak in the line profile shows a weak inverse dependence on the proton energy. The efficiency of the Lyman-alpha photon production per unit incident energy flux significantly drops as the mean proton energy increases. The line profile and the amount of blue-shifted (for downward viewing) emission depends in a complex way on the initial energy and pitch angle distribution of the protons. The line profiles expected for the noon cusp and midnight proton aurora are shown to be significantly different. [less ▲]

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See detailWere the Old Halo globular clusters able to sustain a self-enrichment phase?
Parmentier, Geneviève ULg; Jehin, Emmanuel ULg; Magain, Pierre ULg et al

in New Astronomy Reviews (2000), 44

It has been argued for a long time that the self-enrichment process could not occur within proto-globular clouds because of the supernova energetics. We revisit this argument and demonstrate that it may ... [more ▼]

It has been argued for a long time that the self-enrichment process could not occur within proto-globular clouds because of the supernova energetics. We revisit this argument and demonstrate that it may not be true. Since not all the kinetic energy of Type II Supernovae is deposited as kinetic energy of the ISM, we suggest comparing the binding energy of the progenitor cloud to the kinetic energy of the ISM instead of the kinetic energy of the Type II Supernova ejecta. This criterion is used to study the disruptive ability of Type II Supernovae onto proto-globular clouds. It is found that the early chemical history of globular clusters is greatly influenced by the pressure exerted by the external medium on their progenitor clouds. [less ▲]

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See detailDual Complete Procedures to Take Stranded Inductors into Account in Magnetic Vector Potential Formulations
Dular, Patrick ULg; Sadowski, Nelson; Bastos, João Pedro Assumpção Bastos

in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics (2000), 36(4), 1600-1605

Two complete procedures, in duality, to take stranded inductors into account in magnetic vector potential 3D finite element formulations, in magnetostatics and in magnetodynamics, are developed. They are ... [more ▼]

Two complete procedures, in duality, to take stranded inductors into account in magnetic vector potential 3D finite element formulations, in magnetostatics and in magnetodynamics, are developed. They are discussed and compared to other methods already developed. It is shown that the accuracy of determination of circuit relations associated with inductors depends on the consistency between considered weak and strong forms during the whole process. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison between Radioactive Aerosol, Technegas and Krypton for Ventilation Imaging in Healthy Calves
Coghe, Joost; Votion, Dominique ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Veterinary Journal (2000), 160(1), 25-32

The use of lung scintigraphy in calves necessitates the validation of a ventilation (V) imaging agent compatible with clinical applications. This study aimed at defining the value of an inhaled ... [more ▼]

The use of lung scintigraphy in calves necessitates the validation of a ventilation (V) imaging agent compatible with clinical applications. This study aimed at defining the value of an inhaled radioactive aerosol (99mTc-DTPA) and a 'pseudogas' (Technegas) in the assessment of regional V in healthy conscious calves by comparing 99mTc-DTPA and Technegas deposition (D) images to V(V) images obtained from the steady-state inhalation of the short half-life krypton 81 (81mKr) gas. Images were compared by analysis of radioactivity distribution in computer-generated regions of interest within the right lung and D to V ratio images were generated in order to highlight areas of mismatching between 99mTc-DTPA or Technegas and 81mKr distributions. Results of this analysis showed that the 99mTc-DTPA aerosol droplets were unable to reach the lung parenchyma because of significant particle impaction in the major conducting airways. Better definition of the ventilated lung was obtained when using Technegas because of minimal deposition in conducting airways. Furthermore, the Technegas and 81mKr distribution patterns were highly equivalent. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis of fully acrylic thermoplastic elastomers by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), 2a effect of the catalyst on the molecular control and the rheological properties of the triblock copolymers
Moineau, Georges; Minet, Michaël; Teyssié, Philippe et al

in Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics (2000), 201(11), 1108-1114

The ATRP of MMA was initiated by α,ω-dibromo poly(n-butyl acrylate) in the presence of NiBr2(PPh3)2 leading to poly(MMA)-b-poly(nBuA)-b-poly(MMA) triblock copolymers (MnBM). The initiation of the MMA ... [more ▼]

The ATRP of MMA was initiated by α,ω-dibromo poly(n-butyl acrylate) in the presence of NiBr2(PPh3)2 leading to poly(MMA)-b-poly(nBuA)-b-poly(MMA) triblock copolymers (MnBM). The initiation of the MMA polymerization is slow compared to the chain propagation, which results in PMMA blocks of broad molecular weight distribution (MWD). In order to improve this situation, several experimental parameters were varied. CuBr/dNBipy was first substituted for NiBr2(PPh3)2, the results being, however, even worse. Then, the halide exchange was considered by substituting CuCl for CuBr. The CuCl/dNBipy catalyst proved superiority over the originally used NiBr2(PPh3)2 system. Finally, the addition of an excess of CuCl2 (deactivator) to the CuCl/dNBipy catalyst was very beneficial in decreasing the MWD of the PMMA blocks. Indeed, the SEC chromatograms are monomodal and narrow from the very beginning of the polymerization. The rheological analysis of the MnBM triblocks synthesized in the presence of each of the aforementioned catalytic systems confirmed differences in the molecular control of the copolymeriza-tion reaction. [less ▲]

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See detailMCDA applied to the architectural sketch design: an aid to conception of the building envelope
Colson, Gérard ULg; Hauglustaine, Jean-Marie ULg

in Papiers de recherche / Working papers - Faculté d'Economie, de Gestion et de Sciences sociales (2000), (G.E.M.M.E n°0008), 13

In the conception of the building envelope, the sketch design is a crucial moment of the architectural design. The first drawing gives a concrete expression to the project author's first choices regarding ... [more ▼]

In the conception of the building envelope, the sketch design is a crucial moment of the architectural design. The first drawing gives a concrete expression to the project author's first choices regarding a set of requirements and preferences, as expressed by the multiple stakholders of the project, namely: the building owner, users, public authorities and the design team surrounding the architect. The present study explores a Multiple Criteria Decision Aid procedure (MCDA), an aid to help stakeholders improve this stage of the sketch design. The methodology is built close to the usual design process. This paper presents design and decision aid intertwined procedures and briefly describes the softwares involed: AMCE and EsQUIsE. The decision aid process is a first attempt to address the architectural sketch design challenge. The reader is expected to react to the suggested presentation of this still open MCDA problem. [less ▲]

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See detailGezelle als beest
Spinoy, Erik ULg

in Nieuw wereldtijdschrift (2000), 17(17), 62-70

This article is a bold rereading of the work of the 19th-century Flemish poet Guido Gezelle.

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See detailHydroxyuree et infection par le VIH
Nkoghe, D.; Kola, L.; Leonard, Philippe ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(7), 721-4

Hydroxyurea is an anticancerous product, used recently in the treatment of HIV-1 infection thanks to its inhibitory action in viral replication, potentialization of the nucleosides activity (particularly ... [more ▼]

Hydroxyurea is an anticancerous product, used recently in the treatment of HIV-1 infection thanks to its inhibitory action in viral replication, potentialization of the nucleosides activity (particularly ddI or didanosine) and its cytostatic properties on CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes. Many studies showed its efficiency, as further drug, in initial regimen of a tritherapy (containing ddI) and salvage therapy. The dosage of 500 mg bid seems tolerated well by adults, and 20 mg/kg by children. Long-term tolerance remains unknown. With ddI, it could be proposed in developing countries. [less ▲]

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See detailPoëzie als lege betekenaar. Bij de canon-enquête van Poëziekrant
Spinoy, Erik ULg

in Poëziekrant (2000), 24

This article is a reflection on the 'emptiness' of the concept of poetry.

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See detailIl y a 250 ans paraissait "l'Homme machine". La Mettrie (1709-1753). Les origines du materialisme medical
Limet, Raymond ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(7), 740-4

Some 250 years ago, the publication of "L'Homme machine" established the fact that human body and brain functioning was to be approached by human study just as like as physics or chemistry.

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See detailOrgan donors with primary central nervous system tumor
Detry, Olivier ULg; Honore, Pierre ULg; Hans, Marie-France ULg et al

in Transplantation (2000), 70(1), 244-8251-2

Patients with primary central nervous system (CNS) tumor have been accepted for organ donation because these tumors very rarely spread outside the CNS. However several case reports of CNS tumor ... [more ▼]

Patients with primary central nervous system (CNS) tumor have been accepted for organ donation because these tumors very rarely spread outside the CNS. However several case reports of CNS tumor transferral with organ transplantation recently challenged this attitude. Some risk factors for extraneural spread of CNS tumors have been determined, but the absence of risk factors does not exclude the possibility of metastases. To our knowledge, 13 cases of CNS tumor transferral with organ transplantation (one heart, three livers, eight kidneys, one kidney/pancreas) have been reported in the literature. Even if no prospective evaluation of the CNS tumor transmission risk with transplantation has been undergone, this risk may be estimated between a little more than 0% and 3% from retrospective series. The authors consider that patients with CNS tumor should be accepted as donors as long as the risk of dying on the waiting lists is significantly higher than the tumor transferral risk. Therefore the authors would have no restriction for transplanting organs from donors with benign or low-grade CNS tumor. For high-grade tumors, the authors would consider these donors as "marginal donors," and balance the risk of tumor transmission with the medical condition of the recipient. [less ▲]

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See detailVerification of security protocols using LOTOS-method and application
Leduc, Guy ULg; Germeau, François

in Computer Communications (2000), 23(12), 1089-1103

We explain how the formal language LOTOS can be used to specify security protocols and cryptographic operations. We describe how security properties can be modelled as safety properties and how a model ... [more ▼]

We explain how the formal language LOTOS can be used to specify security protocols and cryptographic operations. We describe how security properties can be modelled as safety properties and how a model-based verification method can be used to verify the robustness of a protocol against attacks of an intruder. We illustrate our technique on a concrete registration protocol. We find an attack, correct the protocol, propose a simpler yet secure protocol, and finally a more sophisticated protocol that allows a better discrimination between intruder's attacks and classical protocol errors. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailLe systeme IGF: synthese et donnees recentes
Winkler, Rose ULg; Pasleau, Françoise ULg; Boussif, N. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(7), 725-39

We are entitled to state that our knowledge about the IGF system has literally exploded in the last years. Having been considered for some time merely as trophic and mitogenic factors, the IGFs now appear ... [more ▼]

We are entitled to state that our knowledge about the IGF system has literally exploded in the last years. Having been considered for some time merely as trophic and mitogenic factors, the IGFs now appear as molecules essential for the differentiation of many cell types, and even more so, as powerful protective agents for the nervous and the cardiovascular systems. However, these properties so beneficial in normal physiological conditions, are subverted by the cancerous cells who use them to extend their life span and resist therapy. The IGFs did not live up to expectations in the treatment of diabetes; however, today their capacity to improve the condition of patients suffering from severe neurological, renal or muscle diseases is tested. The IGF system might also be targetted by the anticancer treatments. In the following paper we have briefly summarized our knowledge on the IGF system, and presented in more detail the recent data. [less ▲]

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See detailAcute effects of gamma-vinyl-GABA on low-magnesium evoked epileptiform activity in vitro.
Engel, Dominique ULg; Endermann, U; Frahm, C et al

in Epilepsy Research (2000), 40(2-3), 99-107

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See detailCytotoxicity of Stimulated Equine Neutrophils on Equine Endothelial Cells in Culture
Benbarek, H.; Grulke, Sigrid ULg; Deby-Dupont, G. et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal (2000), 32(4), 327-33

We studied the interactions of isolated equine neutrophils with endothelial cells in culture, mimicking a situation of acute inflammation. Our main purpose was to demonstrate that the supernatant of ... [more ▼]

We studied the interactions of isolated equine neutrophils with endothelial cells in culture, mimicking a situation of acute inflammation. Our main purpose was to demonstrate that the supernatant of activated neutrophils was sufficient to damage endothelial cells. Equine endothelial cells (from carotid arteries) were covered either with increased numbers of equine neutrophils stimulated by phorbol myristate acetate, or with the supernatant collected after an in vitro stimulation of the neutrophils. Cytotoxicity was estimated by the release of preincorporated 51Cr, and by light microscopy observations. To assert the specific role of reactive oxygen species, endothelial cells were treated by the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XOx) system (production of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide), and by hypochlorite (product of the activity of myeloperoxidase). A strong cytotoxicity was found with stimulated neutrophils; microscopic observations indicated a loss of 50% of the endothelial cells and morphological alterations in the remaining cells. The supernatant of stimulated neutrophils was cytotoxic, in correlation with the number of neutrophils used to obtain the supernatant, and with the supernatant concentration of myeloperoxidase. The cytotoxicity of the X/XOx system was weak, but was increased by myeloperoxidase. Hypochlorite was highly toxic. We concluded that the supernatant of stimulated neutrophils was sufficient to obtain cytotoxic effects on the endothelium, in the absence of a direct contact between endothelium and neutrophils, and that this cytotoxicity was mainly linked to the activity of myeloperoxidase. From these in vitro results, it can be extrapolated that in pathologies characterised by an important activation of neutrophils, damage can spread to cells and tissues away from the inflammation focus. [less ▲]

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See detailLes modifications morphologiques bronchiques dans l'asthme
Cataldo, Didier ULg; Louis, Renaud ULg; Godon, A. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(7), 715-20

Asthma is an inflammatory disease of the airways clinically characterised by recurrent bronchial obstructions at least partially reversible. Recent epidemiologic data suggest that asthmatics have an ... [more ▼]

Asthma is an inflammatory disease of the airways clinically characterised by recurrent bronchial obstructions at least partially reversible. Recent epidemiologic data suggest that asthmatics have an increased rate of decrease of their expiratory volumes during life. This irreversible lung function impairment is associated with fundamental structural changes of the bronchial wall in terms of conjunctive tissue and smooth muscle composition. We describe these changes and explore the different mechanisms proposed to explain these structural modifications. We also review their consequences in terms of bronchial physiology and their potential influence on bronchial hyperresponsiveness. [less ▲]

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See detail[(18)F]p-MPPF: A radiolabeled antagonist for the study of 5-HT(1A) receptors with PET
Plenevaux, Alain ULg; Lemaire, Christian ULg; Aerts, Joël ULg et al

in Nuclear Medicine & Biology (2000), 27(5), 467-71

This paper summarizes the present status of the researches conducted with [(18)F]4-(2'-methoxyphenyl)-1-[2'-[N-(2"-pyridinyl)-p-fluorobenzamido ]ethyl]-piperazine known as [(18)F]p-MPPF, a new 5-HT(1A ... [more ▼]

This paper summarizes the present status of the researches conducted with [(18)F]4-(2'-methoxyphenyl)-1-[2'-[N-(2"-pyridinyl)-p-fluorobenzamido ]ethyl]-piperazine known as [(18)F]p-MPPF, a new 5-HT(1A) antagonist for the study of the serotonergic neurotransmission with positron emission tomography (PET). This includes chemistry, radiochemistry, animal data (rats, cats, and monkeys) with autoradiography and PET, human data with PET, toxicity, and metabolism. [less ▲]

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See detailReactive compatibilization of PC/PVDF polymer blends by zinc carboxylate containing poly(methylmethacrylate)ionomers
Moussaif, Noureddine; Pagnoulle, Christophe; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Polymer (2000), 41(15), 5551-5562

Polycarbonate (PC) has been reacted with a random copolymer of methylmethacrylate and 6 mol% of acrylic acid (poly(MMA-co-AA)) and with this copolymer neutralized (totally or not) by Zn cations. When ... [more ▼]

Polycarbonate (PC) has been reacted with a random copolymer of methylmethacrylate and 6 mol% of acrylic acid (poly(MMA-co-AA)) and with this copolymer neutralized (totally or not) by Zn cations. When conducted in solution at 240°C, the reaction leads to the grafting of PC onto the copolymer neutralized or not. In the melt at 235°C, the grafting reaction occurs only when the copolymer is at least partly neutralized. Whatever the experimental conditions (solution or bulk), PMMA does not react with PC, which confirms that the acidolysis of PC is at the origin of the grafting reaction. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and PC have been melt blended at 235°C in the presence of the poly(MMA-co-AA) copolymer totally neutralized or not by Zn cations, the purpose being the reactive formation of PMMA-g-PC copolymer that would act as compatibilizer for the PC/PVDF blend. The phase morphology and the mechanical properties of the compatibilized PC/PVDF blends have been compared with the parent non-reactive polyblends. Compared to the modification of PVDF by 20 wt% of PMMA, the use of 20 wt% of the partly neutralized poly(MMA-co-AA) copolymer decreases further the average size of the dispersed phase, enhances its adhesion to the matrix, and results in a considerable increase of the elongation at break. The beneficial effect of zinc carboxylate in the PMMA copolymer is explained by the grafting of PC onto PMMA at the interface. [less ▲]

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See detailCorrelation relationships of stratospheric molecular constituents from high spectral resolution, ground-based infrared solar absorption spectra
Rinsland, C. P.; Goldman, A.; Connor, B. J. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres (2000), 105(D11), 14637-14652

Comparisons of chemically active species with chemically inert tracers are useful to quantify transport and mixing and assess the accuracy of model predictions. We report measurements of chemically active ... [more ▼]

Comparisons of chemically active species with chemically inert tracers are useful to quantify transport and mixing and assess the accuracy of model predictions. We report measurements of chemically active species and chemically inert tracers in the stratosphere derived from the analysis of infrared solar absorption spectra recorded with a ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer operated typically at 0.005- to 0.01-cm(-1) spectral resolution. The measurements were recorded from Kitt Peak in southern Arizona (latitude 31.9 degrees N, 111.6 degrees W, 2.09 km altitude). Time series of N2O, CH4, O3, and HNO3 vertical profiles have been retrieved from measurements in microwindows. From these results, correlations between N2O and CH4 stratospheric mixing ratios and between O3 and HNO3 lower stratospheric mixing ratios have been derived. The measured correlations between N2O versus CH4 mixing ratios are compact and show little variability with respect to season in quantitative agreement with Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy Experiment (ATMOS) spring and autumn measurements recorded near the same latitude. Lower stratospheric O3 versus HNO3 mixing ratios measured during low to moderate aerosol loading time periods also show a compact relations though the HNO3/O3 slope is a factor of 2 lower than obtained from November 1994 ATMOS measurements near the Same latitude. We also compare Kitt Peak and ATMOS N2O versus CH4 and O3 versus HNO3 relations obtained by averaging the measurements over two broad stratospheric layers. This comparison avoids bias from the a priori profiles and the limited vertical resolution of the ground-based observations. [less ▲]

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See detailThe optical polarization of radio-loud and radio-intermediate broad absorption line quasi-stellar objects
Hutsemekers, Damien ULg; Lamy, H.

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2000), 358

On the basis of a sample of approximately 50 broad absorption line quasi-stellar objects (BAL QSOs), we investigate possible correlations between BAL QSO radio properties and other spectral ... [more ▼]

On the basis of a sample of approximately 50 broad absorption line quasi-stellar objects (BAL QSOs), we investigate possible correlations between BAL QSO radio properties and other spectral characteristics, including polarization. For this purpose new polarization data have been obtained. The main result of our statistical study is the absence of significant correlations between the radio-to-optical flux ratio R[SUP]star [/SUP] and all other quantities: the polarization p_0 of the continuum, the slope of the continuum, the balnicity and detachment indices which characterize the BAL profiles, and the terminal velocity of the flow v_max. The claimed anticorrelation between R[SUP]star [/SUP] and v_max is therefore not confirmed, as well as the correlation between R[SUP]star [/SUP] and p_0 predicted by some models. Although marginally significant, the only possible correlations occur for the BAL QSOs with low-ionization troughs. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory (ESO, La Silla) [less ▲]

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See detailAging of porous media following fluid invasion, freezing, and thawing
Salmon, E.; Ausloos, Marcel ULg; Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg

in Physical Review. E : Statistical Physics, Plasmas, Fluids, and Related Interdisciplinary Topics (2000), 61(6), 7259-7259

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See detailCitoyens mais encore : les ambiguïtés du blanc
Jacquemain, Marc ULg

in Utinam : Revue de Sociologie et d'Anthropologie (2000), 3(juin), 131-160

In 1996, there was a strong turmoil in Belgium when Marc Dutroux was arrested and all his crimes appear at light. A spontaneous movement of citizens against the failure of police investigation gathered ... [more ▼]

In 1996, there was a strong turmoil in Belgium when Marc Dutroux was arrested and all his crimes appear at light. A spontaneous movement of citizens against the failure of police investigation gathered three hundred thousand people in a demonstration in Brussel under the sign of "white colour". After this, during two or three years, "white comitees" spontaneously emerged and fuctioned during two or three years. Bur careful anysis of the objectives, methods and practices of those comitees show that this "new democracy" was very ambiguous, a mix of anger, enthusiasm and political naiveness. [less ▲]

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See detailAnionic synthesis of cyclic anhydride end-capped poly(methyl methacrylate)
Fallais, Isabelle; Pantoustier, Nadège; Devaux, Jacques et al

in Polymer (2000), 41(14), 5535-5539

This paper reports on the anionic synthesis of poly(methyl methacrylate) chains end-capped by cyclic anhydride. The method is based on the chemical derivatization of a precursor tert-butyl diester end ... [more ▼]

This paper reports on the anionic synthesis of poly(methyl methacrylate) chains end-capped by cyclic anhydride. The method is based on the chemical derivatization of a precursor tert-butyl diester end-group. Compared to the thermal modification, which was previously used, this method allows intermolecular coupling and polymer degradation to be avoided. But up to now, the final anhydride content remains moderate and has still to be improved. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis and bulk properties of poly(methyl methacrylate)-b-poly(isooctyl acrylate(isooctyl acrylate)-b-poly(methyl methacrylate)
Tong, J. D.; Leclère, Philippe; Doneux, C. et al

in Polymer (2000), 41(12), 4617-4624

A series of well-defined poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA)-b-poly(isooctylacrylate) (PIOA)-b-PMMA triblock copolymers (MIM) has been synthesized by transalcoholysis of PMMA-b-poly(tert-butylacrylate) (PtBA ... [more ▼]

A series of well-defined poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA)-b-poly(isooctylacrylate) (PIOA)-b-PMMA triblock copolymers (MIM) has been synthesized by transalcoholysis of PMMA-b-poly(tert-butylacrylate) (PtBA)-b-PMMA precursors (MTM) by isooctyl alcohol. Phase separation is observed for all the investigated triblock copolymers, thus containing PMMA outer blocks in the 3500-50,000 molecular weight (MW) range and PIOA inner block with MW in the 100,000-300,000 range. The ultimate tensile properties of these MIM triblock copolymers are poor even when PMMA blocks of 50,000 MW are associated with an inner PIOA block of 300,000 MW. A reasonable explanation should be found in the molecular weight between chain entanglements (Me), which has been estimated at 60,000 for PIOA, much higher than Me for the traditional polydiene central blocks in the well-known thermoplastic elastomers of the triblock type. The tensile behavior of MIM copolymers has been successfully accounted for by a simple elastomer model free from chain entanglements, supporting the view that the lack of entanglements in the central block is very detrimental to the mechanical properties of the investigated fully (meth)acrylate triblock copolymers. [less ▲]

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See detailStratégies de prévention contre la malaria
Delanaye, Pierre ULg; Nkoghe, Dieudonné; Demonty, Jean ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(6), 505-9

In the absence of an efficacious vaccine, malaria prophylaxis remains important for the traveller in endemic areas. In addition to classical measures to protect against malaria vectors, chemoprophylaxis ... [more ▼]

In the absence of an efficacious vaccine, malaria prophylaxis remains important for the traveller in endemic areas. In addition to classical measures to protect against malaria vectors, chemoprophylaxis should be selected according to the geographic area. Besides a chemoprophylaxis scheme for the traveller, prevention modalities in pregnant women and in the general population living in an endemic area will also be briefly described. [less ▲]

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See detailAggregation behaviour of monosulfonated telechelic ionomers
Chassenieux, Christophe; Nicolai, Taco; Durand, Dominique et al

in Polymer International (2000), 49(6), 561-566

The behaviour of monosulfonated telechelic polystyrene with various molar masses and different counterions has been investigated using static and dynamic light scattering. For concentrations above the ... [more ▼]

The behaviour of monosulfonated telechelic polystyrene with various molar masses and different counterions has been investigated using static and dynamic light scattering. For concentrations above the critical micelle concentration, free unimers associate to form well-defined star-shaped micelles. The number of polystyrene chains per micelle (nag) is independent of the concentration and the type of counterion; nag decreases with decreasing molar mass of the polystyrene and increasing polarity of the solvent. The micelles behave like covalently bonded star polystyrene from a structural, dynamic and thermodynamic point of view. [less ▲]

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See detailGlycine Triggers an Intracellular Calcium Influx in Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells Which Is Mediated by the Activation of Both the Ionotropic Glycine Receptor and Na+-Dependent Transporters
Belachew, Shibeshih ULg; Malgrange, Brigitte ULg; Rigo, Jean-Michel et al

in European Journal of Neuroscience (2000), 12(6), 1924-30

Using fluo-3 calcium imaging, we demonstrate that glycine induces an increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in cortical oligodendrocyte progenitor (OP) cells. This effect results from a ... [more ▼]

Using fluo-3 calcium imaging, we demonstrate that glycine induces an increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in cortical oligodendrocyte progenitor (OP) cells. This effect results from a calcium entry through voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC), as it is observed only in OP cells expressing such channels, and it is abolished either by removal of calcium from the extracellular medium or by application of an L-type VGCC blocker. Glycine-triggered Ca2+ influx in OP cells actually results from an initial depolarization that is the consequence of the activation of both the ionotropic glycine receptor (GlyR) and Na+-dependent transporters, most probably the glycine transporters 1 (GLYT1) and/or 2 (GLYT2) which are colocalized in these cells. Through this GlyR- and transporter-mediated effect on OP intrcellular calcium concentration [Ca2+]i, glycine released by neurons may, as well as other neurotransmitters, serve as a signal between neurons and OP during development. [less ▲]

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See detailL'intégration des nouvelles technologies de l'information et de la communication dans les cours de langues
Yans, Baudoin ULg

in Education : tribune libre d'information et de discussion pédagogiques (2000)

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See detailLa malaria: du diagnostic au traitement curatif
Delanaye, Pierre ULg; Nkoghe, D.; Demonty, Jean ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(6), 510-5

Malaria is a parasitic disease, with variable severity, provoked by the Plasmodium. It is present in tropical zones. The diagnosis is evoked by a fever occurring in a subject coming from a zone at risk ... [more ▼]

Malaria is a parasitic disease, with variable severity, provoked by the Plasmodium. It is present in tropical zones. The diagnosis is evoked by a fever occurring in a subject coming from a zone at risk, and is confirmed by microbiology. Considering the high prevalence of resistance to chloroquine, the treatment rests on quinine (or its derivatives) associated (or not) with an antibiotic. The severe forms of malaria, due to Plasmodium falciparum, are responsible for a high mortality rate. It requires urgent hospital management is required. Criteria defining this form deserve to be perfectly known. [less ▲]

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See detailAn efficient automata approach to some problems on context-free grammars
Bouajjani, Ahmed; Esparza, Javier; Finkel, Alain et al

in Information Processing Letters (2000), 74(5-6), 221-227

Book and Otto (1993) solve a number of word problems for monadic string-rewriting systems using an elegant automata-based technique. In this note we observe that the technique is also very interesting ... [more ▼]

Book and Otto (1993) solve a number of word problems for monadic string-rewriting systems using an elegant automata-based technique. In this note we observe that the technique is also very interesting from a pedagogical point of view, since it provides a uniform solution to several elementary problems on context-free languages. [less ▲]

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See detailAdsorption of block polyampholyte micelles in monolayers at the silicon water interface
Mahltig, Boris; Gohy, Jean-François; Jérôme, Robert ULg et al

in Colloid and Polymer Science (2000), 278(6), 502-508

The adsorption of the diblock polyampholyte poly (methacrylic acid)-block-poly((di-methylamino)ethyl methacrylate) from aqueous solution on silicon substrates was investigated as a function of polymer ... [more ▼]

The adsorption of the diblock polyampholyte poly (methacrylic acid)-block-poly((di-methylamino)ethyl methacrylate) from aqueous solution on silicon substrates was investigated as a function of polymer concentration and pH. Dynamic light scattering and electrokinetic measurements were used to characterize the polyampholyte in solution. The amount of polymer adsorbed was determined by ellipsometry and lateral structures of the polymer layer were investigated by scanning force microscopy. The amount of polymer adsorbed was found to be strongly influenced by the pH of the polymer solution, while the size of the polyampholyte micelles adsorbed on the surface was hardly affected by pH during adsorption. From investigations by scanning force microscopy well-seperated micelles were seen in the dried monolayers adsorbed directly from solution. The structures at the surface are correlated to structures in solution, and the adsorbed amount depends on the relative charge of the micelles and the surface. [less ▲]

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See detailA Comparative Investigation of Contraceptive Reliability, Cycle Control and Tolerance of Two Monophasic Oral Contraceptives Containing Either Drospirenone or Desogestrel
Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg; Wuttke, W.; Bouw, G. M. et al

in European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care : The Official Journal of the European Society of Contraception (2000), 5(2), 124-34

OBJECTIVE: To assess the contraceptive reliability, cycle control and tolerance of a new monophasic oral contraceptive (Yasmin) containing 30 microg ethinylestradiol and 3 mg drospirenone and compare it ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To assess the contraceptive reliability, cycle control and tolerance of a new monophasic oral contraceptive (Yasmin) containing 30 microg ethinylestradiol and 3 mg drospirenone and compare it with a preparation containing an equal dose of ethinylestradiol combined with 150 microg desogestrel (Marvelon). METHODS: A multicenter, open-label, randomized study was carried out in 26 European centers. Contraceptive efficacy, cycle control and tolerance (including body weight, blood pressure and heart rate) were assessed over 26 cycles, plus a 3-month follow-up period. RESULTS: Of 900 women who were randomized, 887 started treatment and 627 completed the 26 cycles plus follow-up (310 in the ethinylestradiol/drospirenone group and 317 in the ethinylestradiol/desogestrel group). Both study preparations were found to be effective with regard to contraceptive reliability and cycle control was good. There were six pregnancies (three in each group), but none were considered to have been the result of method failures. The subjective and objective tolerances were good in both groups. A statistically significant difference was found in body weight changes between the two groups. While there was an increase in mean body weight in the ethinylestradiol/desogestrel group from cycle 5 onward, the mean body weight per cycle in the ethinylestradiol/drospirenone group was slightly below the baseline value throughout the study. The incidence ofpremenstrual symptoms was higher in the ethinylestradiol/drospirenone group than in the ethinylestradiol/desogestrel group during the 6 months prior to the study, but lower during treatment. The rates ofdysmenorrhea were identical under both treatments but the symptoms were more often mild and less often severe in the ethinylestradiol/drospirenone group. CONCLUSION: The combination of 30 microg ethinylestradiol combined with 3 mg drospirenone provides effective oral contraception and good cycle control, and is well tolerated. Ethinylestradiol/drospirenone had a more favorable effect on body weight than ethinylestradiol/desogestrel, with the mean body weight remaining lower than baseline for the majority of the women. [less ▲]

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See detailStenting of the Left Main Coronary Artery. Local Experience in Liege
Ghavami, A.; Boland, J.; Legrand, Victor ULg et al

in Acta Cardiologica (2000), 55(3), 169-73

We examined the immediate and long-term outcome after stenting of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) in 41 consecutive patients who had been considered unsuitable for coronary artery bypass graft ... [more ▼]

We examined the immediate and long-term outcome after stenting of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) in 41 consecutive patients who had been considered unsuitable for coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). The procedure was elective in thirty-two patients (78%) with a protected LMCA in 24 patients and non-protected LMCA in 8 patients; the procedure was acute in the setting of myocardial infarction or complication of a diagnostic angiography in 9 patients (22%). The mean follow-up duration was 19 +/- 13 months. There were 5 in-hospital and 3 late deaths; repeat angioplasty was performed in 5 cases, but only one for LMCA restenosis. Results varied considerably depending on the clinical presentation. For acute patients, technical success was achieved in 89%, survival at hospital discharge was 44% and there was no cardiac event at the late follow-up. For elective patients, technical success was achieved in 100%, survival at hospital discharge was 96% and 90% at follow-up. The results of our study suggest that when patients have surgical risks, elective LMCA stenting either protected or unprotected may be undertaken with a high procedural success rate and a favourable clinical late follow-up. [less ▲]

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See detailDomino effect for world market fluctuations
Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Boveroux, P.; Brisbois, F.

in European Physical Journal B -- Condensed Matter (2000), 15(3), 547-549

In order to emphasize cross-correlations for fluctuations in major market places, series of up and down spins are built from financial data. Patterns frequencies are measured, and statistical tests ... [more ▼]

In order to emphasize cross-correlations for fluctuations in major market places, series of up and down spins are built from financial data. Patterns frequencies are measured, and statistical tests performed. Strong cross-correlations are emhasized, proving that market moves are collective behaviors. [less ▲]

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See detailDNA intercalation, topoisomerase II inhibition and cytotoxic activity of the plant alkaloid cryptolepine
Bailly, Christian; Laine, W.; Baldeyrou, B. et al

in Anti-Cancer Drug Design (2000), 15(3), 191-201

Cryptolepine and neocryptolepine are two indoloquinoline alkaloids isolated from the roots of the African plant Cryptolepis sanguinolenta. Both drugs have revealed antibacterial and antiparasitic ... [more ▼]

Cryptolepine and neocryptolepine are two indoloquinoline alkaloids isolated from the roots of the African plant Cryptolepis sanguinolenta. Both drugs have revealed antibacterial and antiparasitic activities and are strongly cytotoxic to tumour cells. We have recently shown that cryptolepine can intercalate into DNA and stimulates DNA cleavage by human topoisomerase II. In this study, we have investigated the mechanism of action and cytotoxicity of neocryptolepine, which differs from the parent isomer only by the orientation of the indole unit with respect to the quinoline moiety. The biochemical and physicochemical results presented here indicate that neocryptolepine also intercalates into DNA, preferentially at GC-rich sequences, but exhibits a reduced affinity for DNA compared with cryptolepine. The two alkaloids interfere with the catalytic activity of human topoisomerase II but the poisoning activity is slightly more pronounced with cryptolepine than with its isomer. The data provide a molecular basis to account for the reduced cytotoxicity of neocryptolepine compared with the parent drug. [less ▲]

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See detailReactions indesirables au contact d'organismes marins
Letot, Bernard ULg; Kharfi, M.; Mandojana, R. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(6), 531-7

The contact of some marine organisms with the skin may prove to be traumatic and sometimes very dangerous. Some coelenterates, fishes, urchins, sea snakes, cephalopods, molluscs and other sea organisms ... [more ▼]

The contact of some marine organisms with the skin may prove to be traumatic and sometimes very dangerous. Some coelenterates, fishes, urchins, sea snakes, cephalopods, molluscs and other sea organisms are responsible for dermatological lesions, associated or not with toxic or allergic reactions exhibiting systemic effects. [less ▲]

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See detailOrientations diagnostiques chez le voyageur au retour d'un pays exotique
Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(6), 490-1

On a medical ground, a traveller returning from an exotic country may suffer from three main categories of diseases: fever, diarrhoea and unusual dermatosis. The present review is a synoptic aid at the ... [more ▼]

On a medical ground, a traveller returning from an exotic country may suffer from three main categories of diseases: fever, diarrhoea and unusual dermatosis. The present review is a synoptic aid at the diagnosis. [less ▲]

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See detailPolymer dynamics In an Interface-confined space: NMR study of poly(hexyl ethacrylate)-block-poly(acrylic acid) and poly(dodercyl methacrylate)-block-poly(acrylic acid) micelles in D2O
Kritz, J.; Brus, J.; Plestil, J. et al

in Macromolecules (2000), 33(11), 4108-4115

The mobility of distant methyl side groups in poly(hexyl methacrylate)-block-poly(sodium acrylate) (PHMA−PAANa) and poly(dodecyl methacrylate))-block-poly(sodium acrylate) (PLMA−PAANa) micelles, dispersed ... [more ▼]

The mobility of distant methyl side groups in poly(hexyl methacrylate)-block-poly(sodium acrylate) (PHMA−PAANa) and poly(dodecyl methacrylate))-block-poly(sodium acrylate) (PLMA−PAANa) micelles, dispersed in D2O and characterized by SANS, was studied using 1H single and double quantum high-resolution and MAS NMR. Transverse and rotating-frame relaxation was studied at temperatures 320−345 K in the original micellar solutions and in the systems with their viscosity gradually increased by additions of high-molecular-weight poly(ethylene oxide) and with the micellar cores gradually swollen by chlorobenzene. The relaxation data were quantitatively evaluated using a pragmatic model based on Cohen-Addad's theory. The results obtained strongly indicate that the side groups are relatively immobilized to an even higher degree than in poly(2-ethylhexyl acrylate)-block-poly(acrylic acid) micelles at the same conditions. The most immobilized groups are at or near the interface. Possible underlying effects, including penetration resistance of the surrounding water molecules, fixation of the polymer backbone at the interface, and motional correlation between the distant side group and the backbone are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailFranciel : un didacticiel pour l'auto-évaluation et l'auto-remédiation en français dans l'enseignement secondaire, II
Defays, Jean-Marc ULg; Saenen, Frédéric ULg; Renard, Denis

in Point sur la Recherche en Education (Le) (2000), 16

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See detailMixed micelles of anionic-nonionic and anionic-zwitterionic surfactants analyzed by pulsed field gradient NMR
Misselyn-Bauduin, Anne-Marie; Thibaut, Anne; Grandjean, Jean ULg et al

in Langmuir (2000), 16(10), 4430-4435

The micellar composition of two binary surfactant systems, that is, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)/pentaethylene glycol monodecyl ether (C10E5) and SDS/lauryl amido propyl betaine (LAPB), has been analyzed ... [more ▼]

The micellar composition of two binary surfactant systems, that is, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)/pentaethylene glycol monodecyl ether (C10E5) and SDS/lauryl amido propyl betaine (LAPB), has been analyzed by pulsed gradient spin−echo NMR (FT-PGSE NMR). The experimental data have been compared to theoretical predictions based on the regular solution theory that takes into account the nonideal mixing of the surfactant pairs. Although good agreement between experiment and theory is observed for the SDS/C10E5 pair, some discrepancy is noted for the LAPB/SDS system, particularly at a high molar fraction of SDS. [less ▲]

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See detailComments on "living polymerization : rationale for uniform terminology"
Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry (2000), 38(10), 1730-1731

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See detailA Multipotential Beta -1,6-N-Acetylglucosaminyl-Transferase Is Encoded by Bovine Herpesvirus Type 4
Vanderplasschen, Alain ULg; Markine-Goriaynoff, N.; Lomonte, P. et al

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2000), 97(11), 5756-5761

The beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (beta1,6GnT) gene family encodes enzymes playing crucial roles in glycan synthesis. Important changes in beta1,6GnT expression are observed during development ... [more ▼]

The beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (beta1,6GnT) gene family encodes enzymes playing crucial roles in glycan synthesis. Important changes in beta1,6GnT expression are observed during development, oncogenesis, and immunodeficiency. The most characterized beta1,6GnTs in this gene family are the human (h) C2GnT-L and h-IGnT, which have core 2 [Galbeta1-->3(GlcNAcbeta1-->6)GalNAc] and I branching [GlcNAcbeta1-->3(GlcNAcbeta1-->6)Gal] activities, respectively. Recently, h-C2GnT-M was shown to be unique in forming core 2, core 4 [GlcNAcbeta1-->3(GlcNAcbeta1-->6)GalNAc], and I structures. To date, the beta1,6GnT gene family has been characterized only in mammals. Here, we describe that bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BHV-4) encodes a beta1,6GnT expressed during viral replication and exhibiting all of the core 2, core 4, and I branching activities. Sequencing of the BHV-4 genome revealed an ORF, hereafter called BORFF3-4, encoding a protein (pBORFF3-4) exhibiting 81.1%, 50.7%, and 36.6% amino acid identity with h-C2GnT-M, h-C2GnT-L, and h-IGnT, respectively. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis revealed that BORFF3-4 is expressed during BHV-4 replication. Expression of BORFF3-4 in Chinese hamster ovary cells directed the expression of core 2 branched oligosaccharides and I antigenic structures on the cell surface. Moreover, a soluble form of pBORFF3-4 had core 4 branching activity in addition to core 2 and I branching activities. Finally, infection of a C2GnT-negative cell line with BHV-4 induced expression of core 2 branched oligosaccharides. This study extends the beta1,6GnT gene family to a viral gene and provides a model to study the biological functions of a beta1,6GnT in the context of viral infection. [less ▲]

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See detailDirect measurements of interactions between hydrophobically anchored strongly charged polyelectrolyte brushes
Abraham, T.; Giasson, S.; Gohy, Jean-François et al

in Langmuir (2000), 16(9), 4286-4292

We investigated the nature and the range of interactions between negatively charged polyelectrolyte-coated surfaces as a function of salt concentration using the surface forces apparatus. The measured ... [more ▼]

We investigated the nature and the range of interactions between negatively charged polyelectrolyte-coated surfaces as a function of salt concentration using the surface forces apparatus. The measured force profiles (interaction forces versus separation distance) are purely repulsive and show long-range electrostatic and short-range steric interactions. The measured range of interaction in salt-free as well as in low ionic strengths extends well beyond the contour length of the polyelectrolyte chain. It is shown that the interaction range between the ionic brush layers and the grafting density depend on the ionic strength of the solution. In salt-free solution, the counterions associated with polyelectrolyte cause the chains to stretch and give rise to long-range double-layer electrostatic repulsions between the opposing chains. When salt is added to the system, the electrostatic interactions are partially screened and the polymer chain regains its flexibility and therefore the range of interactions is reduced. The measured total range of interaction exhibits relatively weaker dependence on the salt concentration. We find that our force−distance profiles with added salt in a compressed regime can be very well described by the Pincus scaling model. [less ▲]

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See detailStratospheric CO at tropical and mid-latitudes: ATMOS measurements and photochemical steady-state model calculations
Rinsland, C. P.; Salawitch, R. J.; Osterman, G. B. et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2000), 27(9), 1395-1398

We characterize the spring and fall stratospheric distribution of CO at 49 degrees N-55 degrees S latitude from ATMOS profiles measured during 4 shuttle flights, Measured mixing ratios increase with ... [more ▼]

We characterize the spring and fall stratospheric distribution of CO at 49 degrees N-55 degrees S latitude from ATMOS profiles measured during 4 shuttle flights, Measured mixing ratios increase with potential temperature (theta) from 12 ppbv (10(-9) per unit volume) at 525 K, to 30-40 ppbv at 1750 K with only minor variations with latitude and season at a theta level. Evidence for some confinement near 1150 K in the developing November 1994 vortex is indicated from comparison of CO and N2O horizontal gradients. Measured CO mixing ratios at the tropical tropopause are a factor of 10 higher than values calculated with a steady-state model using standard photochemistry constrained by correlative temperatures and pressures, and ATMOS measurements including CH4 as inputs, Differences decrease with latitude at constant theta and are <20% at 800 K and all latitudes, where the CO photochemical lifetime is 40-50 days. [less ▲]

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See detailPhotoinduced birefringence and diffraction efficiency in azo dye doped or grafted polymers: theory versus experiment of the temperature influence
Blanche, Pierre-Alexandre ULg; Lemaire, P. C.; Maertens, Christophe et al

in Journal of the Optical Society of America. B, Optical Physics (2000), 17(5), 729-740

We have investigated the influence of the temperature on the photoinduced birefringence as well as on the diffraction efficiency of azo dye doped or grafted polymers. The samples are composed of three ... [more ▼]

We have investigated the influence of the temperature on the photoinduced birefringence as well as on the diffraction efficiency of azo dye doped or grafted polymers. The samples are composed of three polymer matrices containing 2, 5-dimethyl-4-(p-nitrophenylazo anisole). We propose two theoretical models to explain the experimental increase of both phenomena when the temperature is decreased. Models are based on the statistical angular distribution of the chromophores that depends on the intensity of the polarized laser beam in the media, counteracted by the thermal agitation. Parameters introduced in both models can be used to characterize the polymeric system properties. [less ▲]

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See detailEnd-capping of polystyrene by aliphatic primary amine by derivatization of precursor hydroxyl end group
Fallais, Isabelle; Devaux, Jacques; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry (2000), 38(9), 1618-1629

A new and very efficient route for the synthesis of aliphatic primary amine terminated polystyrene (PS) is reported. In contrast to most known methods, only traditional commercially available reagents are ... [more ▼]

A new and very efficient route for the synthesis of aliphatic primary amine terminated polystyrene (PS) is reported. In contrast to most known methods, only traditional commercially available reagents are used. PS is synthesized by anionic polymerization with a lithium counter ion and the living chains are end-capped by a hydroxyl group upon addition of ethylene oxide followed by protonation. The -hydroxyl end group is tosylated and the tosylate is then reacted with sodium azide. The azide terminal group is finally reduced into primary amine. The different steps of functionalization have been fully characterized by SEC, ToF-SIMS, FTIR, and 1H NMR. The amine content (= 98%) has been determined by acid-base titration with perchloric acid. It clearly shows the efficiency of the synthetic method reported in this article although it is a multistep method. [less ▲]

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See detailRecommandations dans la prise en charge de l'Helicobacter pylori: point de vue recent de la Societe nationale francaise de Gastroenterologie
Van Kemseke, Catherine ULg; Belaiche, Jacques ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(5), 345-9

Guidelines for management of Helicobacter pylori are in constant evolution since its discovery in 1982 by Marshall and Warren. This article presents and comments recent guidelines developed under the ... [more ▼]

Guidelines for management of Helicobacter pylori are in constant evolution since its discovery in 1982 by Marshall and Warren. This article presents and comments recent guidelines developed under the auspices of the "Societe Nationale Francaise de Gastroenterologie". [less ▲]

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See detailReflux gastro-oesophagien de l'adulte: diagnostic et traitement
Louis, Edouard ULg; Belaiche, Jacques ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(5), 341-4

Gastro-oesophageal reflux is a frequent problem affecting up to one third of the Belgian adult population. It is most often a benign non evolutive disease. It is however frequently chronic, with a ... [more ▼]

Gastro-oesophageal reflux is a frequent problem affecting up to one third of the Belgian adult population. It is most often a benign non evolutive disease. It is however frequently chronic, with a significant negative impact on quality of life. The diagnostic and therapeutic management must be adapted to each individual case. In the majority of cases, the purpose of therapy is the control of symptoms and, in a small number of cases with severe oesophagitis the aim is a complete and persistent healing of lesions. A Franco-Belgian consensus meeting on diagnostic and therapeutic management of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in adults was recently held. Guidelines have been proposed. The aim of the present paper is to highlight the main principles of these guidelines and to comment on their adjustment to current belgian medical practice. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of in vivo biocompatibility of different devices for interventional closure of the patent ductus arteriosus in an animal model
Sigler, M.; Handt, S.; SEGHAYE, Marie-Christine ULg et al

in Heart (2000), 83(5), 570-3

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the in vivo biocompatibility of three different devices following interventional closure of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in an animal model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A medical ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the in vivo biocompatibility of three different devices following interventional closure of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in an animal model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A medical grade stainless steel coil (n = 8), a nickel/titanium coil (n = 10), and a polyvinylalcohol foam plug knitted on a titanium wire frame (n = 11) were used for interventional closure of PDA in a neonatal lamb model. The PDA had been maintained by repetitive angioplasty. Between one and 278 days after implantation the animals were killed and the ductal block removed. In addition to standard histology and scanning electron microscopy, immunohistochemical staining for biocompatibility screening was also undertaken. RESULTS: Electron microscopy revealed the growth of a cellular layer in a cobblestone pattern on the implant surfaces with blood contact, which was completed as early as five weeks after implantation of all devices. Immunohistochemical staining of these superficial cells showed an endothelial cell phenotype. After initial thrombus formation causing occlusion of the PDA after implantation there was ingrowth of fibromuscular cells resembling smooth muscle cells. Transformation of thrombotic material was completed within six weeks in the polyvinylalcohol plug and around the nickel/titanium coil, and within six months after implantation of the stainless steel coil. An implant related foreign body reaction was seen in only one of the stainless steel coil specimens and in two of the nickel/titanium coil specimens. CONCLUSION: After implantation, organisation of thrombotic material with ingrowth of fibromuscular cells was demonstrated in a material dependent time pattern. The time it took for endothelium to cover the implants was independent of the type of implant. Little or no inflammatory reaction of the surrounding tissue was seen nine months after implantation. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigating the morphology/rheology interrelationships in immiscible polymer blends
Martin, P. P.; Carreau, P. J.; Favis, B. D. et al

in Journal of Rheology (2000), 44(3), 569-583

Morphological changes in immiscible polymer blends have been studied in shear flow using an original method based on quenching following deformation of molten samples Relaxation effects wete expected to ... [more ▼]

Morphological changes in immiscible polymer blends have been studied in shear flow using an original method based on quenching following deformation of molten samples Relaxation effects wete expected to be negligible during cooling and, hence, the real shear-induced blend microstructure could be analyzed The method has been successfully applied to follow morphological changes of immiscible blends composed of polystyrene and relatively high amounts of high-density polyethylene during creep experiments. The final steady-state morphology appeared to be intimately related to the applied shear stress and total deformation. Coalescence as well as large deformation and orientation of the dispersed phase panicles have been observed depending on the flow conditions The variations with time of the blend rheological properties and morphological observations are in qualitative agreement. [less ▲]

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See detailExploration neuropsychologique et par imagerie fonctionnelle cérébrale d'une apraxie visuo-imitative
Peigneux, Philippe ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Andres-Benito, P. et al

in Revue Neurologique (2000), 156(5), 459-472

We describe the case of a 58-years-old right-handed women suffering from an occipital-parietal lesion. The administration of a cognitively based assessment tool for limb praxis (Batterie d'Evaluation des ... [more ▼]

We describe the case of a 58-years-old right-handed women suffering from an occipital-parietal lesion. The administration of a cognitively based assessment tool for limb praxis (Batterie d'Evaluation des Praxies, B.E.P., Peigneux and Van der Linden, 1998) demonstrated bilateral visuo-imitative apraxia. Gesture production was mainly characterised by spatial, errors, and imitation of meaningful gestures was worse than their pantomime on verbal command. Moreover, the imitation of meaningless gestures and their reproduction on a manikin were worse than imitation of their matched meaningful gestures. In a cognitive perspective, adapted from the Rothi et al. (1997) and Goldenberg (1995) contributions to our understanding of limb praxis, this configuration of performance suggests deficits occurring at multiple levels. On one hand, it suggests either access difficulties or alteration of the output praxicon, i.e., the lexicon for visuo-kinesthetic engrams of meaningful gestures. On the other hand, the simultaneous deficit for meaningless gesture reproduction on the subject's own body and on a manikin favors an alteration of the structural descriptions of the human body (i.e., human body knowledge), underlying the mental transposition processes occurring between the visual analysis of a meaningless gestural configuration and its effective reproduction on oneself or on a manikin, thus contradicting the classic view of a direct pathway linking visual analysis and motor planning in meaningless gesture imitation. Finally, due to the output praxicon deficit, imitation of meaningful gestures is partly processed in the same way as meaningless gestures (also impaired in this case), leading to an interference effect between both degraded memory-based and visually-transposed traces, which account for imitation of meaningful gestures being worse than their pantomime on verbal command. We also assess regional cerebral metabolism using positron emission tomography (PET). Comparison with 41 healthy subjects (SPM96) demonstrated a statistically significant hypometabolism in the left intraparietal sulcus and superior parietal lobule, and in the right dorsal prestriate cortex. These results, together with a review of the other studies of visuo-imitative apraxia, suggest that the left intraparietal sulcus may be associated with access or integration of information from the output praxicon. The left superior parietal and the right dorsal prestriate deficits functionally impaired a bilateral dorsal network implied in the mental transformations of the body, thus suggesting that these mental transformations are underlined by knowledge of the human body, which may subsequently explain the deficit for the reproduction of meaningless and meaningful configurations. [less ▲]

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See detailTraitement adjuvant du cancer du sein: meta-analyse et recommandations therapeutiques
Jerusalem, Guy ULg; Bours, Vincent ULg; Fillet, Georges ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(5), 356-9

Adjuvant chemotherapy and hormonotherapy have a major impact on relapse-free and overall survival of patients with early-stage breast cancer. Providing effective medical care for these patients is an ... [more ▼]

Adjuvant chemotherapy and hormonotherapy have a major impact on relapse-free and overall survival of patients with early-stage breast cancer. Providing effective medical care for these patients is an important public health issue. We reviewed the results of the meta-analysis performed by the "Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Cooperative Group". We summarize the recommendations and guidelines proposed by the International Consensus Panel during the St Gallen Conference, 1998. We discussed also the methodology used by the "Federation National des Centres de Lutte Contre le Cancer" in France to establish guidelines for the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. Faster development and validation of effective treatments will only be possible if participation in clinical trials become more acceptable to the public as well as to the medical community. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential Expression of Cellular Prion Protein on Human Blood and Tonsil Lymphocytes
Antoine, Nadine ULg; Cesbron, J. Y.; Coumans, Bernard ULg et al

in Haematologica (2000), 85(5), 475-80

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The expression of cellular prion protein (PrPc) on the surface of peripheral lymphocytes has been previously reported, but little is known about its expression on lymphoid cells ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The expression of cellular prion protein (PrPc) on the surface of peripheral lymphocytes has been previously reported, but little is known about its expression on lymphoid cells from secondary lymph organs. In this report, we compare the surface expression of PrPc on human blood lymphocytes and tonsil lymphocytes. DESIGN AND METHODS: This analysis was performed by cytometry on live lymphocytes isolated from healthy donors or from the tonsils of adults or children. RESULTS: Human peripheral lymphocytes and tonsillar lymphoid cells, but not erythrocytes or granulocytes, express PrPc at their surfaces. Interestingly, we found significantly less PrPc on freshly isolated tonsil lymphocytes, both B and T, than on blood cells. Although tonsil cells bear less PrPc than circulating blood lymphocytes, they are able to express high quantities of PrPc on their surface when placed in culture. However, contrary to previous results, mitogen stimulation does not affect this expression on B- or T-cells. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that the PrPc expression by lymphocytes may be modified by interactions occurring during intratissular migration or during cell-to-cell contacts. Whether PrPc plays a role in intracellular communication at this location, as it does in the nervous system, remains an open question. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreased production of matrix metalloproteinase-3 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 by inflamed mucosa in inflammatory bowel disease
Louis, Edouard ULg; Ribbens, Clio ULg; Barreto Dos Santos, Amelia ULg et al

in Clinical & Experimental Immunology (2000), 120(2), 241-246

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are characterized by a sustained inflammatory cascade that gives rise to the release of mediators capable of degrading and modifying bowel wall structure. Our aims were ... [more ▼]

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are characterized by a sustained inflammatory cascade that gives rise to the release of mediators capable of degrading and modifying bowel wall structure. Our aims were (i) to measure the production of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), and its tissue inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), by inflamed and uninflamed colonic mucosa in IBD, and (ii) to correlate their production with that of proinflammatory cytokines and the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. Thirty-eight patients with IBD, including 25 with Crohn's disease and 13 with ulcerative colitis, were included. Ten controls were also studied. Biopsies were taken from inflamed and uninflamed regions and inflammation was graded both macroscopically and histologically. Organ cultures were performed for 18 h. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-6, IL-1beta, IL-10, MMP-3 and TIMP-1 concentrations were measured using specific immunoassays. The production of both MMP-3 and the TIMP-1 were either undetectable or below the sensitivity of our immunoassay in the vast majority of uninflamed samples either from controls or from those with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. In inflamed mucosa, the production of these mediators increased significantly both in Crohn's disease (P < 0.01 and 0.001, respectively) and ulcerative colitis (P < 0.001 and 0.001, respectively). Mediator production in both cases was significantly correlated with the production of proinflammatory cytokines and IL-10, as well as with the degree of macroscopic and microscopic inflammation. Inflamed mucosa of both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis show increased production of both MMP-3 and its tissue inhibitor, which correlates very well with production of IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha and IL-10. [less ▲]

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See detailConsensus clinique de l'approche raisonnee des troubles erectiles chez un patient cardio-vasculaire
Andrianne, Robert ULg; D'Orio, Vincenzo ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(5), 454-8

The most common physical risk factors for erectile dysfunction (ED) are atherosclerosis, heart disease, hypertension and diabetes. Since accessibility to easy and efficacy drug for ED therapy, GPs are ... [more ▼]

The most common physical risk factors for erectile dysfunction (ED) are atherosclerosis, heart disease, hypertension and diabetes. Since accessibility to easy and efficacy drug for ED therapy, GPs are increasingly at the front line in the management of ED and are often best-placed to discuss this problem with cardiovascular male patients. This consensus aims to provide practical advice on the management of ED in patients with diagnosed cardiovascular disease and also addresses the assessment of the cardiovascular risk in restoring sexual activity in these patients. A risk assessment algorithm has been drawn up to aid clinicians in deciding the level of cardiovascular risk that would be associated with a return of sexual activity as well as criteria for referral to specialists for further cardiac evaluation. Treatment options are briefly reviewed and follow-up process identified. [less ▲]

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See detailApproche factuelle du traitement de l'herpes genital
Nikkels, Arjen ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(5), 430-437

Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease. After the primary infection, the virus establishes a life-long latency in the sacral dorsal root ganglia. Recurrences may occur at an unpredictable rate ... [more ▼]

Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease. After the primary infection, the virus establishes a life-long latency in the sacral dorsal root ganglia. Recurrences may occur at an unpredictable rate. The clinical signs are not always easy to recognize and viral identification techniques may be helpful such as immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization on Tzanck smears and muco-cutaneous biopsies. The treatment of genital herpes can follow one of three strategies using antiviral drugs, non-specific immunomodulators, and vaccination. The new oral antiviral drugs decrease the severity of clinical manifestations without, however, providing a definitive cure. In this article recent knowledge about the clinical aspects, differential diagnosis, diagnostic methods, treatment options and management is reviewed. [less ▲]

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See detailRecommandations en matiere de traitement du cancer rectal
Gast, Pierrette ULg; Bours, Vincent ULg; Detroz, Bernard ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(5), 350-5

Curative resection of primary tumor and metastases is the only way to obtain a prolonged survival. Several additional treatments are under evaluation; some are already routinely proposed, in order to ... [more ▼]

Curative resection of primary tumor and metastases is the only way to obtain a prolonged survival. Several additional treatments are under evaluation; some are already routinely proposed, in order to reduce the tumor size and to allow surgery, to reduce the recurrence rate, and to give a better survival in case of unresectable metastases. Even in case of unresectable metastases, resection of the primary tumor should be envisaged, as quality of life with an evolving rectal tumor is very poor. [less ▲]

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See detailRILEM Recommendations: Part 4: Tensile strength for service and accident conditions
Schneider, Ulrich; Schwesinger, P.; Debicki, Gérard et al

in Materials and Structures (2000), 33

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See detailLa chirurgie mammaire supraconservatrice
Lifrange, Eric ULg; Colin, Claude ULg

in Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction (2000), 29(3), 285-7

Currently, 30% of the breast biopsies are performed for patients with nonpalpable lesions. The surgical management of these lesions had to evolve to a better three-dimensional targeting and a reduction of ... [more ▼]

Currently, 30% of the breast biopsies are performed for patients with nonpalpable lesions. The surgical management of these lesions had to evolve to a better three-dimensional targeting and a reduction of the tissue traumatism. The ABBI procedure allows the percutaneous one bloc excision of suspicious mammographically detected lesions with a diameter of less than 2cm. We prospectively evaluated this procedure as a therapeutic tool. Of the 10 malignant lesions with a pathologic size <10mm, 9 (90%) were completely resected with the ABBI device (no residual disease at re-excision of the biopsy site). The results of this preliminary study suggest a potential therapeutic role of the ABBI procedure in the therapeutic arsenal against mammary lesions. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1 Infection in Calves with Maternal Antibodies on Immune Response and Virus Latency
Lemaire, Mylène; Weynants, Vincent; Godfroid, Jacques et al

in Journal of Clinical Microbiology (2000), 38(5), 1885-94

The presence of maternally derived antibodies can interfere with the development of an active antibody response to antigen. Infection of seven passively immunized young calves with a virulent strain of ... [more ▼]

The presence of maternally derived antibodies can interfere with the development of an active antibody response to antigen. Infection of seven passively immunized young calves with a virulent strain of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) was performed to determine whether they could become seronegative after the disappearance of maternal antibodies while latently infected with BHV-1. Four uninfected calves were controls. All calves were monitored serologically for 13 to 18 months. In addition, the development of a cell-mediated immune response was assessed by an in vitro antigen-specific gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) production assay. All calves had positive IFN-gamma responses as early as 7 days until at least 10 weeks after infection. However, no antibody rise was observed after infection in the three calves with the highest titers of maternal antibodies. One of the three became seronegative by virus neutralization test at 7 months of age like the control animals. This calf presented negative IFN-gamma results at the same time and was classified seronegative by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at around 10 months of age. This calf was latently infected, as proven by virus reexcretion after dexamethasone treatment at the end of the experiment. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that BHV-1-seronegative latent carriers can be obtained experimentally. In addition, the IFN-gamma assay was able to discriminate calves possessing only passively acquired antibodies from those latently infected by BHV-1, but it could not detect seronegative latent carriers. The failure to easily detect such animals presents an epidemiological threat for the control of BHV-1 infection. [less ▲]

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See detailCocaine and Amphetamine-Regulated-Transcript Peptide Mediation of Leptin Stimulatory Effect on the Rat Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Pulse Generator in Vitro
LEBRETHON, Marie-Christine ULg; Vandersmissen, E.; Gerard, Arlette ULg et al

in Journal of Neuroendocrinology (2000), 12(5), 383-5

Pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion was studied in vitro using explants of the retrochiasmatic hypothalamus from prepubertal male and female rats. Leptin caused a dose-dependent ... [more ▼]

Pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion was studied in vitro using explants of the retrochiasmatic hypothalamus from prepubertal male and female rats. Leptin caused a dose-dependent reduction of the GnRH interpulse interval in both sexes. We studied the effects of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) since this peptide was shown recently to mediate the anorectic effects of leptin in the hypothalamus. CART caused a reduction of the GnRH interpulse interval. This effect was prevented using an anti-CART antiserum which could partially overcome leptin stimulatory effects as well. Using hypothalamic explants from Zucker rats homozygous for the leptin receptor mutation ( fa/fa), GnRH pulse frequency was not affected by leptin, while a significant acceleration was caused by the CART-peptide. In conclusion, leptin involves the hypothalamic CART-peptide to stimulate the prepubertal GnRH pulse generator in vitro. [less ▲]

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See detailNicasius van Voerden, dit de Voerda ou Vordanus (ca 1440-1492)
Vanhoorne, Frédérick ULg

in Voir : périodique du Centre de recherche sur les aspects culturels de la vision (2000), 20

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See detailLe primum movens du declenchement pubertaire : signaux hypothalamiques, peripheriques et environnementaux
Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre ULg; LEBRETHON, Marie-Christine ULg

in Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction (2000), 29(3), 295-7

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See detailPetrus de Ponte, dit Pontanus (ca 1475/79-1529)
Vanhoorne, Frédérick ULg

in Voir : périodique du Centre de recherche sur les aspects culturels de la vision (2000), 20

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See detailEuro 2000: un délicat équilibre entre prévention et sécurité
Comeron, Manuel ULg

in Manuel de la Police (2000), (56), 124

Gestion des risques dans les stades de football. Expérience des tournois internationaux. Supporters européens. Stratégie policière lors des grands événements sportifs. Droit pénal et procédure pénale lors ... [more ▼]

Gestion des risques dans les stades de football. Expérience des tournois internationaux. Supporters européens. Stratégie policière lors des grands événements sportifs. Droit pénal et procédure pénale lors de l'Euro 2000. Hooliganisme et internet. [less ▲]

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See detailAntitumoral Vaccination with Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor or Interleukin-12-Expressing Dhd/K12 Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells
Lechanteur, Chantal ULg; Moutschen, Michel ULg; Princen, Frederic et al

in Cancer Gene Therapy (2000), 7(5), 676-82

Immunomodulating gene therapy for the treatment of malignant diseases is under extensive investigation. In this study, we induced an antitumoral immune response with murine interleukin-12 (mIL-12) and ... [more ▼]

Immunomodulating gene therapy for the treatment of malignant diseases is under extensive investigation. In this study, we induced an antitumoral immune response with murine interleukin-12 (mIL-12) and murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-secreting tumor cells in a model of peritoneal carcinomatosis. Intraperitoneal injection of DHD/K12 tumoral cells engineered to produce IL-12 or GM-CSF did not generate any tumors, whereas untransduced DHD/K12 cells gave rise to peritoneal carcinomatosis. IL-12-expressing DHD/K12 cells also protected against tumors derived from coinjected parental cells. To test whether cytokine-producing cells could elicit a memory antitumoral immune response, animals received a challenge with parental DHD/K12 cells 35 days after the injection of proliferating or irradiated DHD/K12 engineered cells. Under our experimental conditions, irradiated tumor cells did not generate any antitumoral immunity. In contrast, tumor development was delayed and survival increased in the animals vaccinated with cytokine-secreting proliferating cells. A specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response against DHD/K12 parental cells was observed after vaccination with GM-CSF-expressing cells. Our results demonstrated that intraperitoneal vaccination with IL-12- or GM-CSF-expressing adenocarcinoma cells induced a systemic immune antitumoral response that may be useful as an adjuvant therapy after surgical resection of colorectal cancer. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreased Expression of Bone Sialoprotein in Bone Metastases Compared with Visceral Metastases in Human Breast and Prostate Cancers
Waltregny, David ULg; Bellahcene, Akeila ULg; de Leval, Xavier et al

in Journal of Bone and Mineral Research (2000), 15(5), 834-43

The recent demonstration that bone sialoprotein (BSP) is expressed in osteotropic cancers suggests that this bone matrix protein might be implicated in the preferential seed and growth of metastatic cells ... [more ▼]

The recent demonstration that bone sialoprotein (BSP) is expressed in osteotropic cancers suggests that this bone matrix protein might be implicated in the preferential seed and growth of metastatic cells in bone. High expression of BSP in breast and prostate primary carcinomas is associated with progression and bone metastases development. The exact mechanisms by which BSP may favor bone metastases formation are not clearly established yet. Although BSP expression has been detected in breast, prostate, lung, thyroid, and neuroblastoma primary tumors, no information regarding its expression in metastases is available to date. In this study, we have examined BSP expression in 15 bone and 39 visceral metastatic lesions harvested from 8 breast cancer patients and 7 prostate cancer patients who died of disseminated disease. We were able to retrieve the primary lesions from 5 of the 8 breast cancer patients as well as from all 7 prostate cancer patients. All the primary breast tumor patients and 5 of the 7 primary prostate cancer patients expressed a detectable level of BSP. Bone metastases from all 8 breast cancer patients and from 5 out of 7 prostate cancer patients exhibited detectable levels of the protein. Metastatic cells in close contact with bone trabeculae usually were highly positive for BSP. BSP also was detected in secondary lesions developed at visceral sites including liver, thyroid, lung, and adrenal glands. However, BSP expression was significantly lower in visceral metastases than in skeletal ones (Mann-Whitney test, p < 0.05). Our data represent the first demonstration of an increased expression of BSP in bone metastases compared with nonskeletal metastases in human breast and prostate cancers and add weight to the body of evidence attributing a significant role to this protein in the genesis of bone metastases. [less ▲]

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See detailZapatisten in de pen. De brieven van Ondercommandant Marcos en de kever Durito
Vanden Berghe, Kristine ULg

in Streven (2000), 67(5), 414-426

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See detailBone Sialoprotein Mediates Human Endothelial Cell Attachment and Migration and Promotes Angiogenesis
Bellahcene, Akeila ULg; Bonjean, K.; Fohr, B. et al

in Circulation Research (2000), 86(8), 885-91

Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a secreted glycoprotein primarily found in sites of biomineralization. Recently, we demonstrated that BSP is strongly upregulated in osteotropic cancers and particularly those ... [more ▼]

Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a secreted glycoprotein primarily found in sites of biomineralization. Recently, we demonstrated that BSP is strongly upregulated in osteotropic cancers and particularly those that exhibit microcalcifications. BSP contains an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif found in other adhesive molecules that interact with cellular integrins. In bone, BSP has been shown to mediate the attachment of osteoblasts and osteoclasts via alpha(v)beta(3) integrin receptors. Ligands for alpha(v)beta(3) integrin are considered to play a central role during angiogenesis. Therefore, we used human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to study the potential role of BSP in angiogenesis. We found that purified eukaryotic recombinant human BSP (rhBSP) is able to promote both adhesion and chemotactic migration of HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner. These interactions involve HUVEC alpha(v)beta(3) integrin receptors and the RGD domain of BSP. Indeed, HUVECs attach to a recombinant BSP fragment containing the RGD domain, whereas this response is not observed with the same fragment in which RGD has been mutated to Lys-Ala-Glu (KAE). A cyclic RGD BSP peptide inhibits both adhesion and migration of HUVECs to rhBSP. Moreover, anti-alpha(v)beta(3) but not anti-alpha(v)beta(5) monoclonal antibodies also prevent BSP-mediated adhesion and migration of HUVECs. We observed that both rhBSP and the RGD BSP recombinant fragment stimulated ongoing angiogenesis on the chorioallantoic chick membrane assay. BSP angiogenic activity was inhibited by anti-alpha(v)beta(3) antibody, and the KAE BSP fragment was inactive. Our findings represent the first report implicating BSP in angiogenesis. BSP could play a critical role in angiogenesis associated with bone formation and with tumor growth and metastatic dissemination. [less ▲]

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See detailMembrane Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase-Associated Degradation of Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase 2 in Human Tumor Cell Lines
Maquoi, Erik ULg; Frankenne, Francis ULg; Baramova, Eugénia et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2000), 275(15), 11368-78

Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2) is required for the membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP)-dependent activation of pro-MMP-2 on the cell surface. MT1-MMP-bound TIMP-2 has been ... [more ▼]

Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2) is required for the membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP)-dependent activation of pro-MMP-2 on the cell surface. MT1-MMP-bound TIMP-2 has been shown to function as a receptor for secreted pro-MMP-2, resulting in the formation of a trimolecular complex. In the presence of uncomplexed active MT1-MMP, the prodomain of cell surface-associated MMP-2 is cleaved, and activated MMP-2 is released. However, the behavior of MT1-MMP-bound TIMP-2 during MMP-2 activation is currently unknown. In this study, (125)I-labeled recombinant TIMP-2 ((125)I-rTIMP-2) was used to investigate the fate of TIMP-2 during pro-MMP-2 activation by HT1080 and transfected A2058 cells. HT1080 and A2058 cells transfected with MT1-MMP cDNA (but not vector-transfected A2058 cells) were able to bind (125)I-rTIMP-2, to activate pro-MMP-2, and to process MT1-MMP into an inactive 43-kDa form. Under these conditions, (125)I-rTIMP-2 bound to the cell surface was rapidly internalized and degraded in intracellular organelles through a bafilomycin A(1)-sensitive mechanism, and (125)I-bearing low molecular mass fragment(s) were released in the culture medium. These different processes were inhibited by hydroxamic acid-based synthetic MMP inhibitors and rTIMP-2, but not by rTIMP-1 or cysteine, serine, or aspartic proteinase inhibitors. These results support the concept that the MT1-MMP-dependent internalization and degradation of TIMP-2 by some tumor cells might be involved in the regulation of pericellular proteolysis. [less ▲]

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See detailStructural, Kinetic, and Calorimetric Characterization of the Cold-Active Phosphoglycerate Kinase from the Antarctic Pseudomonas Sp. Tacii18
Bentahir, Mostafa; Feller, Georges ULg; Aittaleb, Mohamed et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2000), 275(15), 11147-53

The gene encoding the phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) from the Antarctic Pseudomonas sp. TACII18 has been cloned and found to be inserted between the genes encoding for glyceraldhyde-3-phosphate ... [more ▼]

The gene encoding the phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) from the Antarctic Pseudomonas sp. TACII18 has been cloned and found to be inserted between the genes encoding for glyceraldhyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and fructose aldolase. The His-tagged and the native recombinant PGK from the psychrophilic Pseudomonas were expressed in Escherichia coli. The wild-type and the native recombinant enzymes displayed identical properties, such as a decreased thermostability and a 2-fold higher catalytic efficiency at 25 degrees C when compared with the mesophilic PGK from yeast. These properties, which reflect typical features of cold-adapted enzymes, were strongly altered in the His-tagged recombinant PGK. The structural model of the psychrophilic PGK indicated that a key determinant of its low stability is the reduced number of salt bridges, surface charges, and aromatic interactions when compared with mesophilic and thermophilic PGK. Differential scanning calorimetry of the psychrophilic PGK revealed unusual variations in its conformational stability for the free and substrate-bound forms. In the free form, a heat-labile and a thermostable domain unfold independently. It is proposed that the heat-labile domain acts as a destabilizing domain, providing the required flexibility around the active site for catalysis at low temperatures. [less ▲]

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See detailEnantiomeric Separations of Drugs Using Mixtures of Charged and Neutral Cyclodextrins
Fillet, Marianne ULg; Hubert, Philippe ULg; Crommen, Jacques ULg

in Journal of Chromatography. A (2000), 875(1-2), 123-34

An overview on the use of mixtures of neutral and charged cyclodextrins as chiral additives for the enantioseparation of drugs by capillary electrophoresis is presented. These so called dual cyclodextrin ... [more ▼]

An overview on the use of mixtures of neutral and charged cyclodextrins as chiral additives for the enantioseparation of drugs by capillary electrophoresis is presented. These so called dual cyclodextrin systems can often provide unique selectivities. A brief theoretical background illustrating the influence of the chiral discrimination ability and the effective mobility of the two cyclodextrins on the overall selectivity of the enantiomeric separation is given. Typical examples of applications in the pharmaceutical field, based on the simultaneous use of a charged (cationic or anionic) and neutral cyclodextrins, are described. [less ▲]

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See detailSpectropolarimetry of the iron low ionization broad absorption line quasar Q 0059-2735
Lamy, H.; Hutsemekers, Damien ULg

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2000), 356(Letters), 9-12

We present optical (ultraviolet rest-frame) spectropolarimetric observations of the rare iron low ionization broad absorption line (BAL) QSO Q 0059-2735. The continuum polarization increases to the blue ... [more ▼]

We present optical (ultraviolet rest-frame) spectropolarimetric observations of the rare iron low ionization broad absorption line (BAL) QSO Q 0059-2735. The continuum polarization increases to the blue with a regular rotation of the polarization position angle, suggesting that at least two mechanisms are at the origin of the polarization. There is also some evidence for dilution by a ion {Fe}{ii} pseudo-continuum in emission. In the broad absorption lines, the polarization strongly rises, with the largest values ever reported. On the contrary, the ion {Fe}{ii} blends in absorption are not more polarized than the continuum, while they are clearly visible in the polarized flux. These different polarization properties of ion {Fe}{ii} absorption lines suggest a different origin and/or geometry. The observed properties of Q 0059-2735 are consistent with a hybrid QSO / starburst model. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile [less ▲]

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See detailA new universality for random sequential deposition of needles
Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Galam, S.; Kramer, M.

in European Physical Journal B -- Condensed Matter (2000), 14(3), 407-410

Percolation and jamming phenomena are investigated for random sequential deposition of rectangular needles on d = 2 square lattices. Associated thresholds p(c)(perc) and p(c)(jam) are determined for ... [more ▼]

Percolation and jamming phenomena are investigated for random sequential deposition of rectangular needles on d = 2 square lattices. Associated thresholds p(c)(perc) and p(c)(jam) are determined for Various needle sizes. Their ratios p(c)(perc)/p(c)(jam) are found to be a constant 0.62 +/- 0.01 for all sizes. In addition the ratio of jamming thresholds for respectively square blocks and needles is also found to be a constant 0.79 +/- 0.01. These constants exhibit some universal connexion in the geometry of jamming and percolation for both anisotropic shapes (needles versus square lattices) and isotropic shapes (square blocks on square lattices). A universal empirical law is proposed for all three thresholds as a function of alpha. [less ▲]

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See detailSelection de ressources EBM sur l'Internet
Delvenne, Catherine ULg; Pasleau, Françoise ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(4), 220-5

To integrate Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) into practice, the physician has access to a number of resources on the Internet. They belong to two distinct groups: tools intended for EBM learning and EBM ... [more ▼]

To integrate Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) into practice, the physician has access to a number of resources on the Internet. They belong to two distinct groups: tools intended for EBM learning and EBM syntheses prepared by different international organizations. The present article presents the main EBM resources on the network and comments on them. These information are also available on the URL site: http:www.ebm.lib.ulg.ac.be/prostate/link_ebm .htm. [less ▲]

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See detailCalculation of spacer compression for bundle lines under short-circuit.
Lilien, Jean-Louis ULg; papailiou, Konstantin

in IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery (2000), 15(N°2), 839-845

Short-circuit tests results and proposal of a new method to improve Manuzio formula on bundle conductors spacer compression.

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See detailPhoto : EDDIE KIRKLAND
Sacré, Robert ULg

in Soul Bag (2000), (158), 25

Eddie Krkland, Peer juillet 1988

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See detailSpatial Distribution of Blood Flow in Electrically Stimulated Human Muscle: A Positron Emission Tomography Study
Vanderthommen, Marc ULg; Depresseux, J. C.; Dauchat, L. et al

in Muscle & Nerve (2000), 23(4), 482-9

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) was studied with positron emission tomography (PET) and H(2)(15)O in the quadriceps muscle of 11 men. The subjects were submitted to simultaneous bilateral ... [more ▼]

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) was studied with positron emission tomography (PET) and H(2)(15)O in the quadriceps muscle of 11 men. The subjects were submitted to simultaneous bilateral isometric contraction (5 s)-rest (5 s) cycles for 12 min, with a workload corresponding to 5% of quadriceps maximal isometric voluntary torque (QMIVT) for one thigh (5%T) and 10% of QMIVT for the other (10%T). Scans were centered at the electrodes and tissue blood flow (TBF) was evaluated in square regions of interest (ROIs) (3.5 cm(2)) in the transverse section (TS) of both thighs. The mean TBF reached 8.9 mL min(-1) 100 g(-1) in the TS of the 5%T and 11.5 mL min(-1) 100 g(-1) in the TS of the 10%T (P > 0.05). A negative linear relationship was found for both thighs between the ROI-electrode distance and the TBF (P </= 0.009). The mean percentage of activated ROIs (TBF > 5 mL min(-1) 100 g(-1)) was lower in the 5%T than in the 10%T (50.6% vs. 62.2%; P = 0.017). With NMES, the pattern of spatial recruitment appears linked to electrode proximity and is spatially extended. These results confirm the utility of combining NMES with voluntary exercise in the treatment of atrophied muscle. [less ▲]

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See detailLa globalisation du savoir à travers le prisme du 51ème congrès de la société américaine de criminologie (Toronto, 1999)
Dantinne, Michaël ULg

in Revue de Droit Pénal et de Criminologie (2000), 38(4),

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See detailComparison of the performance of linear resistance and ultrasonic pneumotachometers at rest and during lobeline-induced hyperpnoea
Kästner, S. B. R.; Marlin, D. J.; Roberts, C. A. et al

in Research in Veterinary Science (2000), 68(2), 153-9

The performance of a Fleisch No. 5 pneumotachometer (F), and two commercial ultrasonic pneumotachometers, the BRDL (B) and the Spiroson (S) systems were compared in respect to their use for determination ... [more ▼]

The performance of a Fleisch No. 5 pneumotachometer (F), and two commercial ultrasonic pneumotachometers, the BRDL (B) and the Spiroson (S) systems were compared in respect to their use for determination of ventilatory parameters at rest and during lobeline-induced hyperpnoea. Five clinically healthy Thoroughbred horses were tested with the three pneumotachometers in random order. Respiratory airflow, respired gas concentrations, oesophageal pressures, pressures within the mask systems and arterial blood gases were determined before and during lobeline-induced hyperpnoea. Because measured peak expiratory airflow rates exceeded the stated linear range of the Fleisch pneumotachometer ( approximately +/- 25 l s(-1)) differential pressure-flow curves were determined in vitro over the range of flows recorded in vivo. Expired flows greater than the linear range were corrected according to the derived regression equation. No differences in any of the measured variables among the three systems were present at rest. At peak ventilation of lobeline-induced hyperpnoea mask pressures [Delta P(mask)(mean (SEM)): F: 9.6 (2.8) cm H(2)O, B: 0.8 (0.4) cm H(2)O, S: 1.4 (0.8) cm H(2)O] and end tidal carbon dioxide [ ET CO(2)(mean (SEM)): F: 2. 6 (0.1)%, B: 2.1 (0.2)%, S: 2.1 (0.1)%] were significantly higher in system F. Despite a tendency for respiratory frequency and peak inspired and expired flows, to be lower with system F, no significant differences in the measurements of ventilatory mechanics were detected. In conclusion, the ultrasonic flowmeters pose significantly lower resistive loads onto the respiratory system during ventilation above resting levels than Fleisch No 5 pneumotachometers. However, at the flowrates achieved during lobeline-induced hyperpnoea an in vitro calibration of the differential pressure-flow relationship allows correction for expiratory alinearity in system F. In addition, the performance of the Spiroson flowmeter is accurate in determining ventilatory mechanics at rest and during lobeline-induced hyperpnoea. [less ▲]

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See detailAcute Mesenteric Ischaemia: Minimal Invasive Management by Combined Laparoscopy and Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty
Leduc, Frédéric J; Pestieau, Sophie R; Detry, Olivier ULg et al

in European Journal of Surgery. Acta Chirurgica (2000), 166(4), 345-7

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See detailCyclosporine a Inhibits Partially Spermine-Induced Differentiation but Not Cell Loss of Suckling Rat Small Intestine
Peulen, Olivier ULg; Dandrifosse, Guy ULg

in Digestive Diseases & Sciences (2000), 45(4), 750-4

The polyamines are of great importance in several biological processes, such as cell proliferation, and differentiation. The ingestion of spermine by suckling rats induces the precocious maturation of ... [more ▼]

The polyamines are of great importance in several biological processes, such as cell proliferation, and differentiation. The ingestion of spermine by suckling rats induces the precocious maturation of their small intestine. This phenomenon is preceded by a cell elimination at the villus tip. We hypothesize that these two phenomena could be mediated by the immune system and thus inhibited by an immunosuppressive agent such as cyclosporine A. Cyclosporine A inhibits, at least partially, the spermine-induced increase of the maltase- and sucrase-specific activities in the small intestine but failed to inhibit lactase-specific activity decrease and cell loss. Spermine does not act by the same mechanism in differentiation and in cell loss. Moreover, spermine acts in a different way on lactase-specific activity compared to maltase- or sucrase-specific activity. We hypothesize that spermine acts on differentiation by a T-cell/IL-2-dependent mechanism. [less ▲]

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See detailQuaternary Indole Alkaloids from the Stem Bark of Strychnos Guianensis
Penelle, Jacques; Tits, Monique ULg; Christen, Philippe et al

in Phytochemistry (2000), 53(8), 1057-66

Two new quaternary alkaloids, 9-methoxy-Nb-methylgeissoschizol and guiachrysine together with the known compounds C-alkaloid O, fluorocurine, mavacurine, macusine B and C-profluorocurine, were isolated ... [more ▼]

Two new quaternary alkaloids, 9-methoxy-Nb-methylgeissoschizol and guiachrysine together with the known compounds C-alkaloid O, fluorocurine, mavacurine, macusine B and C-profluorocurine, were isolated from Strychnos guianensis stembark. The structures of the compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic studies. [less ▲]

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See detailRelativite de la prise en charge des cancers cutanes. Plaidoyer pour la synergie entre le medecin generaliste et le dermatologue-oncologue
Pierard, Gérald ULg; Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine ULg; Cornil, F. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(4), 247-252

The clinical diagnosis and treatment of cutaneous cancers represent a frequent situation in cancerology. About one third of all human cancers take their origin from the skin. The general practitioner and ... [more ▼]

The clinical diagnosis and treatment of cutaneous cancers represent a frequent situation in cancerology. About one third of all human cancers take their origin from the skin. The general practitioner and the dermatologist-oncologist play the key role in that field of health care. [less ▲]

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