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See detailhigh frequency oscillatory ventilation in RDS
Battisti, Oreste ULg

in Pediatric Research (1998), 2

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See detailWorking memory deficits in Alzheimer's disease
Collette, Fabienne ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Bechet, Sophie ULg et al

in Brain and Cognition (1998), 37(1), 147-149

The phonological loop and central executive components of working memory were examined in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD patients) and elderly controls. Patients with Alzheimer's disease showed ... [more ▼]

The phonological loop and central executive components of working memory were examined in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD patients) and elderly controls. Patients with Alzheimer's disease showed reduced verbal spans, with smaller phonological similarity and word length effects. They also showed a decreased performance in tasks examining processing speed and articulation rate. However, phonological analysis was normal. With regard to the central executive, AD patients showed deficits in an alphabetical span task in which subjects were asked to recall a random series of words in their alphabetical order, while they performed normally on a dual task in which they had to perform simultaneously a digit repetition and a visuomotor task. These results suggests that Alzheimer's disease may affect several components of working memory but all aspects of the central executive mechanism are not necessarily affected. [less ▲]

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See detailReproducibility and diagnostic sensitivity of ultrasonometry of the phalanges to assess osteoporosis.
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Dethor, M; Pirenne, H et al

in International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics (1998), 63(1), 21-8

OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to assess the reproducibility and the diagnostic sensitivity of the amplitude-dependent speed of sound (SoS) at the distal metaphysis of the proximal phalanges ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to assess the reproducibility and the diagnostic sensitivity of the amplitude-dependent speed of sound (SoS) at the distal metaphysis of the proximal phalanges. METHOD: Fourteen presumably healthy volunteers were repeatedly measured every 6 weeks for approximately 6 months in order to assess the reproducibility of the SoS of the phalanges. We recruited 91 post-menopausal women, aged 55-75 years, who were divided in three groups according to their lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) and the existence of prevalent vertebral fractures. The objective was to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity of SoS measurements. We used DBM Sonic 1200 equipment, and assessed the velocity at which US cross the phalanx in a lateral-medial direction. In post-menopausal women, BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the level of the lumbar spine, the total zone of the non-dominant hip and the femoral neck zone of the non-dominant hip. RESULTS: The precision of the SoS measurements was 0.71+/-0.05% (mean+/-S.E.M) whereas the reproducibility was 0.95+/-0.06%. Subjects with low BMD or prevalent fractures had significantly lower values of SoS (P < 0.001) than the controls. ROC curve analysis applied to the study population confirmed that SoS was able to discriminate between the controls and osteoporotic subjects (area under the ROC curves were 0.82 (low bone mineral density) and 0.85 (prevalent fractures), respectively). Hip BMD was found to be the most significant variable when comparing the controls and the low density patients by stepwise discrimination and SoS significantly improved the discrimination between the groups when added to the hip BMD. The hip BMD was again the most discriminant variable when applying the same techniques to controls and patients with prevalent fractures, followed by SoS and lumbar BMD. A cut-off value of 1881 m/s is defined for SoS by logistic discrimination and likelihood ratio function. With this value, the sensitivity and the specificity for SoS used in the diagnosis of established osteoporosis were, 81.5% and 79.3%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity were significantly improved when combining ultrasonometry and densitometry. CONCLUSION: Measurement of ultrasound velocity at the phalanges appears to be a precise and reproducible technique. SoS discriminates between normal post-menopausal women and patients with either low lumbar BMD or prevalent fractures to the same extent as BMD measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailthe once-daily concept of aminoglycoside administration adapted in neonatalogy
Battisti, Oreste ULg

in Pediatric Research (1998), 2

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See detailClinical experience with antithrombin III concentrates in critically ill patients with sepsis and multiple organ failure.
Eisele, Bernd; Lamy, Maurice ULg

in Seminars in Thrombosis & Hemostasis (1998), 24(1), 71-80

Despite improvements in critical care medicine and the development and aggressive use of potent broad-spectrum anti-microbial agents, mortality due to severe sepsis has not changed during the recent years ... [more ▼]

Despite improvements in critical care medicine and the development and aggressive use of potent broad-spectrum anti-microbial agents, mortality due to severe sepsis has not changed during the recent years and still comes to 35% to 45%. For quite a long time our understanding of the pathophysiology of sepsis was mainly focused on endotoxin and proinflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor or interleukin-1. Now it is generally accepted that many signs and symptoms of sepsis are not directly mediated by cytokines but are transmitted through other mediator systems. The coagulation system comes into play especially when the septic process progresses to malperfusion and organ failure. Antithrombin III is an important inhibitor of the intrinsic, extrinsic and common pathway of coagulation. Recently, evidence has been accumulating that there is an additional anti-inflammatory potential of the drug. Currently there are several clinical trials ongoing to investigate whether this effect is of clinical relevance in the treatment of patients with severe sepsis. [less ▲]

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See detailIsolation Of Highly Performant Sulfate Reducers From Sulfate-Rich Environments
Hiligsmann, Serge ULg; Jacques, Philippe ULg; Thonart, Philippe ULg

in Biodegradation (1998), 9(3-4), 285-292

Eleven pure strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria have been isolated from lab-scale bioreactors or disposal sites, all featuring relatively high concentrations of sulfate, and from natural environments in ... [more ▼]

Eleven pure strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria have been isolated from lab-scale bioreactors or disposal sites, all featuring relatively high concentrations of sulfate, and from natural environments in order to produce sulfide from gypsum using hydrogen as energy source. The properties of the eleven strains have been investigated and compared to these of three collection strains i.e. Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and vulgaris and Desulfotomaculum orientis. Particular attention was paid to the absolute and relative sulfide production rate and to the hydrogen sulfide inhibition level. By comparison to the collection strains, a 75 % higher production rate and a hydrogen sulfide inhibition level about twice higher i.e. 25.1 mM have been achieved with strains isolated from sulfate-rich environments. The strain selection, particularly from sulfate-rich environments, should be considered as an optimization factor for the sulfate reduction processes. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of surgery procedures for tagging eel Anguilla anguilla (L.) with biotelemetry transmitters
Baras, Etienne; Jeandrain, Denys ULg

in Hydrobiologia (1998), 371/372

Externally attached telemetry transmitters are unsuitable to tag yellow eels Anguilla anguilla (L.), in streams where they exhibit cryptic life habits and hide in narrow cavities between rocks. We ... [more ▼]

Externally attached telemetry transmitters are unsuitable to tag yellow eels Anguilla anguilla (L.), in streams where they exhibit cryptic life habits and hide in narrow cavities between rocks. We evaluated the adequacy of surgical implantation and closing procedures for tagging eels with biotelemetry transmitters. Epoxy dummy transmitters (18_8 mm, 1.6–1.7 g) were implanted in eels anaesthetised with 2-phenoxy-ethanol (0.9 ml l−1), through a 20mm mid ventral incision made in the posterior quarter of their body cavity. The incision was either left open, or closed in different ways: stitches (absorbable or non absorbable suture material) or commercial-grade cyanoacrilate adhesive (LoctiteTM). Fish were stocked in a 4 m2 flow through tank (15–17 _C), controlled daily for mortality and weekly for evaluating the healing process. No transmitter was expelled over a 12-week period, even in eels with unclosed incisions, of which 50% healed within 28 days (t50). Regardless of the nature of the filament, suturing induced skin and muscle necrosis, caused significantly higher mortality rates (60% after 10 weeks) and paradoxically slowed down the healing rate (40 and 45 d, respectively). Cyanoacrilate suppressed the inflammatory response and granted higher survival rate (90%), but did not permit to speed up the closing process (t50 = 52 d), as eels actively bit and removed the adhesive within hours. This behaviour was suppressed when we applied a freshly cut fragment of the eel dorsal fin as a biological bandage over the drying cyanoacrilate. The adhesive remained in place for one to two days and permitted to substantially increase the healing rate (t50 = 15 d). These results substantiate the efficiency of surgery techniques for tagging eels with radio transmitters, at least for units of small weight and bulk. [less ▲]

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See detailHow robust are district health systems? Coping with crisis and disasters in Rutshuru, Democratic Republic of Congo.
Porignon, Denis ULg; Soron'Gane, E. M.; Lokombe, T. E. et al

in Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH (1998), 3(7), 559-65

BACKGROUND: Since the eighties, the North Kivu Province socio-economic environment has been deteriorating. This province also faced an influx of Rwandan refugees in July 1994. The objective of the paper ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Since the eighties, the North Kivu Province socio-economic environment has been deteriorating. This province also faced an influx of Rwandan refugees in July 1994. The objective of the paper is to show how a rural health district has been able to adjust and maintain its medical activities under unfavourable conditions. METHOD: Performances of the local health system were assessed through the analysis of routine medical data collected in the Rutshuru Health District (RHD) between 1985 and 1995. Specific data collected during the Rwandan refugee crisis measured the workload of RHD due to the refugees. RESULTS: For 11 years, health infrastructures have remained accessible and functional in RHD. The curative utilization and preventive coverage rates increased. Obstetrical activities were intensified from a quantitative as well as from a qualitative point of view. Between July and October 1994, the RHD treated 65000 cases of various pathological conditions in Rwandan refugees settled outside the camps. This corresponds to 9.3% of consultations for Rwandan refugees settled on RHD's territory and represents a 400% increase in the curative workload for the RHD health services. Human and financial resources remained at a very low level, especially when compared with those available in the camps through relief agencies. CONCLUSION: The RHD was severely affected by various stresses but its services managed to provide significant and efficient response to these crises. Health district systems may constitute an effective tool to provide health care under adverse conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailApproach to the use of immobilizer sulfatase for analytical purposes and for the pràoduction of desulfo-glucosinolates
Wathelet, Jean-Paul ULg

in Industrial Crops & Products (1998), 7

A commercial crude sulfatase from snail (Helix pomatia) was purified by ion exchange affinity, HPLC, gel-filtration chromatography. The enzyme isolated. which was ca. 37-folcl more active than the ... [more ▼]

A commercial crude sulfatase from snail (Helix pomatia) was purified by ion exchange affinity, HPLC, gel-filtration chromatography. The enzyme isolated. which was ca. 37-folcl more active than the commercial one was covalently immobilizcd on nyon 6.6 by the cross linking method. Immobilized sulfatase was usecl to produce some desulfo-glucosinolates (DSGLs) on the gram-scale. starting fiom glucotropaeolin. glucoraphenin ancl épiprogoitrin ancl for HPLC analyses of glucosinolates (GLs) containecl in cruciferous material and rapeseecl in particular. The immobilized enzyme as well as allowing the standarclization of the HPLC methocl for GLs analysis seems to be an efflcient system for producing DSGLs which are interesting starting materials to prepare bio-active structures through further chemical modilications. [less ▲]

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See detailContrôle de la qualité des pommes par vision artificielle.
Leemans, Vincent ULg; Magein, Hugo ULg; Destain, Marie-France ULg

in Fruit Belge (1998), 66(471),

Article de vulgarisation à destination des profesionnels du secteur fruitier, présentant les possibilités de l'analyse d'images numériques pour le tri des fruits suivant leur qualité externe

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See detailRegulation of major histocompatibility complex class I expression by NF-kB-related proteins in breast cancer cells
Dejardin, Emmanuel ULg; Deregowski, Valérie; GREIMERS, Roland ULg et al

in Oncogene (1998)

Downregulation of MHC Class I antigens has been observed in many cancers and usually results from a decreased gene transcription. A reporter CAT gene dependent on the MHC Class I kB site or on a longer ... [more ▼]

Downregulation of MHC Class I antigens has been observed in many cancers and usually results from a decreased gene transcription. A reporter CAT gene dependent on the MHC Class I kB site or on a longer promoter is transactivated by NF-kB complexes contain- ing p65 or RelB. p100 as well as IkB-a are potent inhibitors of this transcription and p100 sequesters RelB and p65 complexes in the cytoplasm of breast cancer cells. However, although p100 is highly expressed in a number of breast cancer cell lines, MHC Class I antigen expression was observed on all the cell lines we analysed and could be further induced by stimulation with the cytokines IFN-g or TNF-a. Stable transfection of a unresponsive mutated IkB-a Ser 32-36 expression vector showed that TNF-a induced MHC Cl I expression in an NF-kB-dependent way while IFN-g did it independently of any NF-kB activation. [less ▲]

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See detailLesions of morbillivirus infection in a fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) stranded along the Belgian coast
Jauniaux, Thierry ULg; Charlier, G.; Desmecht, M. et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (1998), 143(15), 423-424

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See detailL'hyperventilation chronique existe-t-elle?
Delvaux, Muriel ULg; Fontaine, Philippe; Fontaine, Ovide ULg et al

in Revue Francophone de Clinique Comportementale et Cognitive (1998), 3(3), 1-9

Longtemps, on a considéré que les sujets atteints d’attaques de panique étaient des hyperventilants chroniques qui plongeaient soudainement en hypocapnie. En fait, l’examen des résultats au test de ... [more ▼]

Longtemps, on a considéré que les sujets atteints d’attaques de panique étaient des hyperventilants chroniques qui plongeaient soudainement en hypocapnie. En fait, l’examen des résultats au test de provocation d’hyperventilation, de la rééducation respiratoire et de la mesure ambulatoire de PCO2 montre qu’il n’y a pas de recouvrement parfait entre les deux phénomènes. Le syndrome d’hyperventilation est sans doute une entité à part entière. Les modèles biologiques se basent sur les expériences utilisant le lactate ou le dioxyde de carbone pour aboutir, avec Klein (1993), à l’hypothèse d’une hypersensibilité au CO2. Les modèles psychologiques envisagent diverses options. Lum (1994) y voit la conséquence d’une mauvaise habitude respiratoire. Pour Clark (1986), l’hyperventilation joue un rôle dans les attaques de panique seulement si elle est interprétée de manière catastrophique. Ley (1993) considère la dyspnée comme l’élément initiateur d’un réflexe de peur innée. Enfin, Van den Bergh (1995) a réalisé des études prometteuses sur le conditionnement respiratoire. Si tous les sujets souffrant d’attaques de panique ne sont pas des hyperventilants chroniques, il faut admettre que les deux phénomènes coexistent souvent. Une approche intégrative des modèles biologiques et psychologiques pourrait éclaircir la nature de leur relation. [less ▲]

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See detailLe cas clinique du mois. Association d'une maladie de Hodgkin et d'un syndrome nephrotique.
Baron, Frédéric ULg; Hermanne, J. P.; Fassotte, Marie-France ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(11), 651-3

The nephrotic syndrome is a rare complication of Hodgkin's disease. The majority of the cases do not respond to corticosteroids but are cured by the treatment of the lymphoma. We describe a patient with a ... [more ▼]

The nephrotic syndrome is a rare complication of Hodgkin's disease. The majority of the cases do not respond to corticosteroids but are cured by the treatment of the lymphoma. We describe a patient with a nephrotic syndrome at the time of diagnosis of mixed cellularity Hodgkin's disease and the resolution of this nephrotic syndrome by MOPP-ABV chemotherapy. [less ▲]

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See detailHow the *H-particle* unravels the quark dynamics
Stancu, Floarea ULg; Pepin, S.; Glozman, L Ya

in Physical Review. D : Particles and Fields (1998), D57

It is shown that the short-range part of the Goldstone boson exchange interaction between the constituent quarks, which explains baryon spectroscopy and the short-range repulsion in the NN system, induces ... [more ▼]

It is shown that the short-range part of the Goldstone boson exchange interaction between the constituent quarks, which explains baryon spectroscopy and the short-range repulsion in the NN system, induces a strong short-range repulsion in the flavour-singlet state of the $S=-2$ system with $J^P=0^+$. This suggests that a deeply bound H-particle should not exist. We compare our approach with other models employing different hyperfine interactions between quarks in the nonperturbative regime of QCD. [less ▲]

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See detailGrandir en l'an 2000 : les enfants et l'école maternelle
Crahay, Marcel ULg; Hindryckx, Geneviève ULg; Lafontaine, Annette ULg et al

in Point sur la Recherche en Education (Le) (1998), 6

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See detailProjet Solidarité : Accompagnement d'équipes éducatives dans la réalisation de leur projet d'établissement
Lenoir, A.; Mouvet, Bernadette ULg; Munten, J. et al

in Point sur la Recherche en Education (Le) (1998), 8

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See detailThe prediction of preeclampsia: Reassessment of clinical value of increased plasma levels of fibronectin
Dreyfus, M.; Baldauf, J. J.; Ritter, J. et al

in European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology & Reproductive Biology (1998), 78

Objective: To determine whether assessment of plasma fibronectin in primigravidae could predict the pregnant women expected to become preeclamptic. Methods: We performed a prospective blinded analysis of ... [more ▼]

Objective: To determine whether assessment of plasma fibronectin in primigravidae could predict the pregnant women expected to become preeclamptic. Methods: We performed a prospective blinded analysis of 156 apparently normotensive primigravidae in an outpatient clinic. Blood samples were taken at 6 week intervals from the 18th week and immediately after delivery or at the onset of preeclampsia. Plasma fibronectin was evaluated by ELISA. Evolution with gestational age was studied using regression curves. Results: We had 148 normal primigravidae (592 determinations). In three women, increased fibronectin anticipated preeclampsia by 3–4 weeks. Five women showed high levels only at the onset of preeclampsia. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of increased fibronectin levels were 37.5% (95% CI53.3–71.7), 96.6% (95% CI593.7–99.6), 37.5% (95% CI53.3–71.7) and 96.6% (95% CI593.7–99.6), respectively. Conclusions: This study shows that plasma fibronectin levels could represent a specific marker for preeclampsia. Its sensitivity has to be improved but its high negative predictive value strongly argues against the development of preeclampsia within the next 4 weeks after the blood sampling. [less ▲]

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See detailCas d'un ulcère à Exophiala dermatitidis
Gérard, C.; Duchesne, Bernard ULg; Hayette, Marie-Pierre ULg et al

in Bulletin de la Société Belge d'Ophtalmologie (1998), 268

Les auteurs présentent un cas d'ulcère cornéen à Exophiala dermatitidis. Ce cas permet d'envisager la classification des mycoses cornéennes ainsi que leur fréquences. L'histoire clinique et l'aspect ... [more ▼]

Les auteurs présentent un cas d'ulcère cornéen à Exophiala dermatitidis. Ce cas permet d'envisager la classification des mycoses cornéennes ainsi que leur fréquences. L'histoire clinique et l'aspect biomicroscopique permettent de mettre en évidence les critères diagnostiques des infections mycotiques. L'intérêt et la techique des prélèvements seront discutés. l'analyse anatomopathologique après greffe de cornée confirme le diagnostic et nous rappelle la place essentielle de cet examen trop souvent négligé. L'attitude thérapeutique tant médicale que chirurgicale sera discutée. [less ▲]

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See detailAtlas du recensement : une lecture plurielle de la Wallonie
Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULg

in Revue du Conseil Economique et Social de la Région wallonne (1998), (52), 31-35

Présentation de la Wallonie à la lumière du recensement de 1991. Cinq traits majeurs sont mis en évidence : - une dualité Flandre)-Wallonie réelle mais non dominante, - un processus majeur : l ... [more ▼]

Présentation de la Wallonie à la lumière du recensement de 1991. Cinq traits majeurs sont mis en évidence : - une dualité Flandre)-Wallonie réelle mais non dominante, - un processus majeur : l'urbanisation, - le poids du passé industriel, - la dualisation de la société, - des modèle culturels nouveaux [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of ambient water temperature on sex determinism in the blue tilapia Oreochromis aureus
Desprez, Damien; Mélard, Charles ULg

in Aquaculture (1998), 162

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See detailTumeur de la granulosa chez la jument. Description d'un cas clinique et revue bibliographique.
De Behr, Vanessa; Saunders, Jimmy; Cassart, Dominique ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1998), 142

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See detailStudy of exo-beta-1,3-glucanase activity production by the yeast Pichia anomala in relation to its antagonistic properties against Botrytis cinerea on postharvest apples.
Grevesse, C.; Jijakli, Mohamed ULg; Lepoivre, Philippe ULg

in Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent) (1998), 63(4b), 1685-1682

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See detailCase Management voor geriatrische patienten en hun families : Het klinisch model van belgische projecten
Borgermans, L.; Abraham, I.; Milisen, K. et al

in Tijdschrift voor de Geschiedenis der Geneeskunde, Natuurwetenschappen, Wiskunde en Techniek (1998), 54(6), 427-435

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See detailStudy of siliceous karst genesis in eastern Niger : microscopy and X ray microanalysis of speleothems
Willems, Luc; Compère, Philippe ULg; Sponholz, Barbara

in Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie (1998), 42

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See detailA collapsed intermediate with nonnative packing of hydrophobic residues in the folding of TEM-1 beta-lactamase
Vanhove, M.; Lejeune, Annabelle ULg; GUILLAUME, G. et al

in Biochemistry (1998), 37(7), 1941-1950

The kinetics of refolding of TEM-1 beta-lactamase from solution in guanidine hydrochloride have been investigated on the manual and stopped-flow mixing time scales. The kinetics of change of far-UV ... [more ▼]

The kinetics of refolding of TEM-1 beta-lactamase from solution in guanidine hydrochloride have been investigated on the manual and stopped-flow mixing time scales. The kinetics of change of far-UV circular dichroism and of intrinsic and ANS fluorescence have been compared with changes in the quenching of fluorescence by acrylamide as a probe of the accessibility of solvent to tryptophan. The binding of ANS points to hydrophobic collapse in the very early stages of folding which take place in the burst phase. This is accompanied by regain of 60-65% of-native ellipticity, indicating formation of a significant proportion of secondary structure, Also in the burst phase, the tryptophan residues, which are largely exposed to solvent in the native protein, become less accessible to acrylamide, and the intrinsic fluorescence increases markedly. An early intermediate is thus formed in which tryptophan is more buried than in the native protein. Further intermediates are formed over the next 20 s. Quenching by acrylamide increases during this period, as the transient nonnative state is disrupted and the tryptophan residue(s) become(s) reexposed to solvent, The two slowest phases are determined by the isomerization of incorrect prolyl isomers, but double jump tryptophan fluorescence and acrylamide quenching experiments show little, if any, effect of proline isomerization on the earlier phases, Hydrophobic collapse thus occurs to a folding intermediate in which there is a nonnative element of structure which has to rearrange in the later steps of folding, resulting in a nonhierarchical folding pathway. The C-terminal W290 is suggested as being involved in the nonnative intermediate. beta-Lactamase provides further evidence for the occurrence of nonnative intermediates in protein folding. [less ▲]

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See detailLa notion de texte chez Hjelmslev
Badir, Sémir ULg

in Texto! (1998)

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See detailL'image du mois. Quelle chute!
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(12), 725-6

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See detailRésistance aux antibiotiques de souches d'Escherichia coli bovines et aviaires isolées en Algérie
Mellata, M.; Jacquemin, E.; Bakour, R. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1998), 142

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See detailLe prologue du livre de Ben Sirach le Sage et la traduction des textes sacrés
Rochette, Bruno ULg

in Babel : Revue Internationale de la Traduction = International Journal of Translation (1998), 44(2), 139-149

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See detailObjets géographiques à limites indéterminées. Modélisation et intégration dans un modèle conceptuel de données
Pantazis, Dimos; Donnay, Jean-Paul ULg

in Revue Internationale de Géomatique (1998), 7(2), 159-186

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See detailApplications de la stimulation magnetique corticale.
MAERTENS DE NOORDHOUT, Alain ULg

in Neurophysiologie Clinique = Clinical Neurophysiology (1998), 28(1), 9-30

In the last decade, a new electrophysiological tool has become available since the development of painless magnetic stimulators able to activate the primary motor cortex and the motor roots in conscious ... [more ▼]

In the last decade, a new electrophysiological tool has become available since the development of painless magnetic stimulators able to activate the primary motor cortex and the motor roots in conscious man. Therefore, it became possible to measure the conduction time within fast-conducting central motor pathways by substracting from the total latency of muscle responses elicited by cortical stimuli the conduction time in peripheral nerves. This technique proved sensitive enough to illustrate early abnormalities of central motor conduction in various neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cervical spondylotic myelopathy, degenerative ataxias or hereditary spastic paraplegias. When recorded early after stroke, motor evoked potentials are also a valuable tool to predict functional outcome. They can also illustrate subtle pathophysiological disturbances in diseases where there is no direct involvement of central motor pathways such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia or epilepsy. Magnetic cortical stimulation also offers unique opportunities to explore intracerebral inhibitory and excitatory circuits and mechanisms of brain plasticity. The recent development of rapid rate stimulators also enables functional studies of non-motor cerebral regions such as visual or frontal cortices. Moreover, rapid rate stimulation seems useful in the treatment of drug-resistant depression but the safety of this procedure, particularly with regard to the production of seizures or kindling, remains to be fully documented. [less ▲]

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See detailNeurophysiological approach to primary headache pathophysiology.
Lozza, A.; Proietti Cecchini, A.; Afra, J. et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (1998), 18 Suppl 21

Electroencephalography (EEG), evoked potentials (EP), and electromyography (EMG) techniques are useful tools in the clinical assessment of headache and in understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms ... [more ▼]

Electroencephalography (EEG), evoked potentials (EP), and electromyography (EMG) techniques are useful tools in the clinical assessment of headache and in understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms of these pathologies. EEG and EP studies in migraine revealed functional abnormalities in cortical electrical activity and in sensory processing. EMG studies resulted in pain syndromes involving nerves or myofascial structures such as tension-type headache and cluster headache. Moreover, it was possible to test the effect of old and new drugs with the help of these neurophysiological techniques. An updated review is reported of the literature. [less ▲]

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See detailCumulation and injury determination of the European Community in antidumping cases
Tharakan, P. K. M.; Greenaway, David; Tharakan, Joseph ULg

in Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv (1998)

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See detailStudy of vaccinia virus binding and entry using confocal microscopy, an original approach
Vanderplasschen, Alain ULg; Smith, G. L.

in Biology of the Cell (1998), 90

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See detailAlcoholic liver disease: how to detect alcoholism?
Delwaide, Jean ULg

in Problem solving in hepatobiliary diseases (1998)

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See detailL'hépatite E
Delwaide, Jean ULg; Gerard, Christiane ULg

in Les Hépatites virales, Roche (1998)

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See detailAlternative oxidase in the branched mitochondrial respiratory network: an overview on structure, function, regulation, and role.
Sluse, Francis ULg; Jarmuszkiewicz, W.

in Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research = Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Medicas e Biologicas (1998), 31

Plants and some other organisms including protists possess a complex branched respiratory network in their mitochondria. Some pathways of this network are not energy-conserving and allow sites of energy ... [more ▼]

Plants and some other organisms including protists possess a complex branched respiratory network in their mitochondria. Some pathways of this network are not energy-conserving and allow sites of energy conservation to be bypassed, leading to a decrease of the energy yield in the cells. It is a challenge to understand the regulation of the partitioning of electrons between the various energy-dissipating and -conserving pathways. This review is focused on the oxidase side of the respiratory chain that presents a cyanide-resistant energy-dissipating alternative oxidase (AOX) besides the cytochrome pathway. The known structural properties of AOX are described including transmembrane topology, dimerization, and active sites. Regulation of the alternative oxidase activity is presented in detail because of its complexity. The alternative oxidase activity is dependent on substrate availability: total ubiquinone concentration and its redox state in the membrane and O2 concentration in the cell. The alternative oxidase activity can be long-term regulated (gene expression) or short-term (post-translational modification, allosteric activation) regulated. Electron distribution (partitioning) between the alternative and cytochrome pathways during steady-state respiration is a crucial measurement to quantitatively analyze the effects of the various levels of regulation of the alternative oxidase. Three approaches are described with their specific domain of application and limitations: kinetic approach, oxygen isotope differential discrimination, and ADP/O method (thermokinetic approach). Lastly, the role of the alternative oxidase in non-thermogenic tissues is discussed in relation to the energy metabolism balance of the cell (supply in reducing equivalents/demand in energy and carbon) and with harmful reactive oxygen species formation. [less ▲]

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See detailRadiative transition probabilities for forbidden lines in singly ionized cobalt (Co II)
Quinet, Pascal ULg

in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Supplement Series (1998), 129

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See detailLa place du diagnostic dans l'approche familiale
Garcet, Serge ULg

in Revue des Psychologues et Psychiatres de l'AIGS (1998), 1

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See detailAssociation of fibroblastoid features with the invasive phenotype in human bronchial cancer cell lines
Polette, M.; Gilles, Christine ULg; de Bentzmann, S. et al

in Clinical & Experimental Metastasis (1998), 16(2), 105-12

The acquisition of a metastatic phenotype by epithelial cells implicates a series of changes altering their differentiation, their overall behavior and morphology. In the present study, we have examined ... [more ▼]

The acquisition of a metastatic phenotype by epithelial cells implicates a series of changes altering their differentiation, their overall behavior and morphology. In the present study, we have examined the relationships between the cellular morphology, E-cadherin expression, matrix metalloproteinases expression and in vitro invasive properties in two human bronchial immortalized cell lines. The (16HBE14o-) cell line which did not show any invasive abilities in the Boyden chamber assay displayed a typical epithelial morphology in monolayer, expressed high levels of E-cadherin and synthesized neither MMP-2 and MT1-MMP nor vimentin. In contrast, the BZR cell line which was highly invasive displayed a more elongated phenotype in monolayer, did not produce E-cadherin but expressed vimentin, MMP-2 and MT1-MMP. Our data therefore suggest that the metastatic progression of broncho-pulmonary cancer cells results in a cellular dedifferentiation and the gain of some mesenchymal attributes (loss of E-cadherin and expression of vimentin) associated with enhanced degradative properties (expression of metalloproteinases) [less ▲]

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See detailComment j'explore ... un sujet avec une concentration basse de cholesterol HDL.
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(11), 711-4

A decrease in plasma HDL cholesterol concentration is considered as a major cardiovascular risk factor and is a prevalent lipid abnormality among patients with coronary heart disease. This condition is ... [more ▼]

A decrease in plasma HDL cholesterol concentration is considered as a major cardiovascular risk factor and is a prevalent lipid abnormality among patients with coronary heart disease. This condition is most often observed in the presence of hypertriglyceridaemia, generally linked to the insulin resistance syndrome, but may also be associated to elevated LDL cholesterol level or even be present alone (hypoalphalipoproteinaemia). The decision to treat a patient with low HDL level depends on the individual overall cardiovascular risk which should be evaluated as carefully as possible. The investigation should look for causes which may favour this metabolic condition, such as bad life habits or possible pharmacological interferences. [less ▲]

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See detailFacial reactions to emotional facial expressions: affect or cognition?
Hess, U; Philippot, P; Blairy, Sylvie ULg

in Cognition & Emotion (1998), 12(4), 509-531

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See detailSeasonal variations in time and space utilization by radio-tagged yellow eels Anguilla anguilla (L.) in a small stream
Baras, Etienne; Jeandrain, Denys ULg; Serouge, Benoît et al

in Hydrobiologia (1998), 371/372

Seven yellow eels (572–643 mm, 318–592 g) Anguilla anguilla (L.) were tagged with surgically implanted radio transmitters (activity circuit, 1.6–1.7 g) and tracked in the Awirs stream, a small (width <5 m ... [more ▼]

Seven yellow eels (572–643 mm, 318–592 g) Anguilla anguilla (L.) were tagged with surgically implanted radio transmitters (activity circuit, 1.6–1.7 g) and tracked in the Awirs stream, a small (width <5 m, depth from 0.1 to 1.2 m), densely populated (ca. 250 kg of eel ha−1) tributary of the Belgian River Meuse. The eels were positioned daily from late April to mid-August, and their diel activity was studied during twenty four 24-h cycles. During day-time, the eels were resting in rootwads or in crevices inside stone walls or in crevices in between rocks. They became more active in the late afternoon but generally did not leave their residence before sunset, except under overcast weather. Activity peaked during the first part of the night then progressively vanished, and always ended before sunrise. The area exploited during night-time never extended over more than 40 m2, except when the eel changed its residence. The intensity and timing of nocturnal activity and the extent of the daily activity area were dependent on water temperature (respectively P<0.0001, P<0.05 and P<0.0005), with eels showing little or no activity when the diurnal temperature did not exceed 13 _C. Eels showed higher agitation under full moon and maintained their activity later in the night (P<0.05). The eels showed restricted mobility, and occupied small stream areas (from 0.01 to 0.10 ha) in a non sequential mode, except for two fish which were displaced to the River Meuse by a spate in early June and were never recovered. The length and frequency of net daily journeys were higher (P = 0.005) at water temperatures above 16 _C in late May and June, which also corresponded to the period of immigration of eels from the River Meuse. This study thus shows that large yellow eels may adopt a highly sedentary lifestyle in a continental, fast flowing and densely populated environment, even at periods of the year when these stages usually show upstream migrations. [less ▲]

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See detailEquine neutrophil myeloperoxidase in plasma: design of a radio-immunoassay and first results in septic pathologies.
Deby, Ginette ULg; Grulke, Sigrid ULg; Caudron, I. et al

in Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology (1998), 66(3-4), 257-71

The strangulated intestinal pathologies of horses are accompanied by a local activation of the neutrophils, that can be revealed by measuring the tissular enzymatic activity of the granulocytic enzyme ... [more ▼]

The strangulated intestinal pathologies of horses are accompanied by a local activation of the neutrophils, that can be revealed by measuring the tissular enzymatic activity of the granulocytic enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO). To estimate the possible spreading of this neutrophil activation to the systemic circulation, we designed a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for equine neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO) (EC 1.11.1.7) using a specific rabbit antiserum. MPO was labeled with 1 mCi 125I by a technique of self-labeling in the presence of 10(-4) M hydrogen peroxide. The RIA was performed by incubation of 100 microl diluted antiserum, 100 microl labeled MPO (+/-30,000 cpm) and 100 microl of the reference molecule (unlabeled MPO) solution or the unknown sample, at room temperature for 18 h. The antibody-antigen complexes were isolated by double antibody precipitation. The sensitivity of the RIA was 2 ng/ml. The RIA showed good precision and accuracy with intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation 6% and 8%, respectively, for MPO concentrations ranging from 2 ng/ml to 60 ng/ml. The best sampling technique for MPO measurement in plasma was to collect blood into EDTA, which allowed us to get a plasmatic value stable with time. The mean MPO value in normal horses was 69.5 +/- 19.4 ng/ml in EDTA anticoagulated plasma (n = 48). The stress of transport and anaesthesia did not modify the mean plasmatic value of MPO. No significant increase of plasma MPO was observed in 17 horses submitted to surgery for pathologies without systemic impact. But, in 25 horses with obstructive intestinal pathologies, persistent abnormal MPO concentrations were measured (until 740 ng/ml). [less ▲]

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See detailRadial tree-growth modelling with fuzzy regression.
Boreux, Jean-Jacques ULg; Gadbin-Henry, C.; Guiot, Joël et al

in Canadian Journal of Forest Research = Journal Canadien de la Recherche Forestière (1998), 28(8), 1249-1260

A so-called fuzzy linear regression is used in dendroecology to model empirically tree growth as a function of a bioclimatic index representing the water stress, i.e., the ratio of actual ... [more ▼]

A so-called fuzzy linear regression is used in dendroecology to model empirically tree growth as a function of a bioclimatic index representing the water stress, i.e., the ratio of actual evapotranspiration to potential evapotranspiration. The response function predicts tree growth as (fuzzy) intervals, narrow in the domain where the bioclimatic index is most limiting and becoming progressively larger elsewhere. The method is tested with a population of Pinus pineaL. from the Provence region in France. It is shown that fuzzy linear regression gives results comparable with those obtained using a linear response function. The interval of credibility given by the fuzzy regression suggests that more precise expected growth is obtained for high water stress, which is typical of Mediterranean climate. Fuzzy linear regression can be also a method to test different hypotheses on several potential predictors when any further experimental approach is quite impossible as it is for trees in their natural environment. To sum up, fuzzy regression could be a first step before the construction of a kind of growth simulator adapted to different environments of a given species. In environmental sciences, the fuzzy response function thus appears to be an approach between the mechanistic and the statistical descriptive approaches. [less ▲]

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See detailPharma-clinics. Le medicament du mois. Premelle (oestrogenes conjugues + medroxyprogesterone).
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(10), 638-40

Premelle, commercialised by Wyeth-Lederle, is a combination of conjugated estrogens 0.625 mg and medroxyprogesterone acetate 5 mg which is indicated in the treatment of menopause-associated problems ... [more ▼]

Premelle, commercialised by Wyeth-Lederle, is a combination of conjugated estrogens 0.625 mg and medroxyprogesterone acetate 5 mg which is indicated in the treatment of menopause-associated problems, among which vasomotor symptoms, atrophic vaginitis and/or urethritis, and in the prevention and treatment of post-menopausal osteoporosis. It is presented in two formulations, Premelle cyclic 5 and Premelle 5. The former, in which the progestagen is only given during the last 14 out of 28 days of the treatment cycle, is accompanied by regular bleeding and thus preferably indicated during perimenopause whereas the latter, in which the progestagen is given continuously and results in amenorrhea, is mostly indicated after menopause in order to improve long-term compliance. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Dobutamine on Isovolumic and Ejection Phase Indices of Cardiac Contractility in Conscious Healthy Dogs
Mc Entee, Kathleen ULg; Amory, Hélène ULg; Pypendop, B. et al

in Research in Veterinary Science (1998), 64(1, Jan-Feb), 45-50

The aim of this study was to determine cardiac contractility using indices derived from cardiac catheterisation in conscious healthy dogs during dobutamine infusion. Eight dogs were studied. An ECG was ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to determine cardiac contractility using indices derived from cardiac catheterisation in conscious healthy dogs during dobutamine infusion. Eight dogs were studied. An ECG was recorded together with left ventricular pressure and volume which were measured using a conductance catheter with an integrated microtip pressure sensor. Eight indices of left ventricular systolic performance were derived from these records. Measurements were realised under basal conditions and during an incremental dobutamine challenge. The maximal rate of rise in ventricular pressure (max dP/dt), max dP/dt divided by the developed pressure and the mean systolic ejection rate were the most sensitive indices to detect dobutamine induced changes in contractility with maximal percentage changes of 122+/-11 per cent, 130+/-7 per cent and 102+/-24 per cent respectively. Ejection fraction increased significantly during dobutamine infusion (maximal percentage change of 43+/-9 per cent) whereas the pre-ejection period (PEP) and the left ventricular ejection time (LVET) decreased significantly (maximal percentage change of -41+/-2 per cent and -28+/-3 per cent respectively). All these six indices were significantly correlated with each other. Conversely, the ratio PEP/LVET and the LVET corrected for heart rate dependency showed a maximal percentage change of only -10+/-1 per cent and -16+/-7 per cent, respectively, during the dobutamine infusion and were not significantly correlated with the other contractility indices. This study demonstrated the feasibility of the conductance method to determine cardiac contractility in conscious healthy dogs submitted to a pharmacological stress testing and provides control values for eight indices of left ventricular contractility during dobutamine infusion at increasing dosages. [less ▲]

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See detailPopular Modernism and The American Prose Poem : From Sherwood Anderson to Kenneth Patchen
Delville, Michel ULg

in The Prose Poem : an International Journal (1998), 7

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See detailBiobehavioral correlates in migraine: the role of hypersensitivity and information-processing dysfunction.
Gerber, W. D.; Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (1998), 18 Suppl 21

In this paper we address the role of specific abnormal behavioral patterns (such as perfectionism or hypersensitivity) which have been described as psychological characteristics in migraine patients. We ... [more ▼]

In this paper we address the role of specific abnormal behavioral patterns (such as perfectionism or hypersensitivity) which have been described as psychological characteristics in migraine patients. We propose that behavioral abnormalities may be the result of a determined cortical hypersensitivity and an associated social learning process. New neuro(psycho)physiological data support the concept that migraine is a brainstem-related information-processing dysfunction that is characterized by cortical hypersensitivity and reduced habituation to stimuli. The cortical activity reflects a (time) periodicity and may be due to endogenous or exogenous factors. Based on the current understanding of behavioral and neurophysiological aspects of migraine, we postulate a two-process model of migraine aetiology: (i) a genetically determined hyperactivity of the central monoaminergic (catecholaminergic) system, which could be possibly modulated by learning processes and (ii) a homeostatic (counter) regulation and mobilization of reduced (mitochondrial) energy reserve. [less ▲]

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See detailFurther observations on the lichen genus Strigula in New Zealand
Sérusiaux, Emmanuël ULg

in Bryologist (1998), 101

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See detailEffect of ice-nucleating bacteria (Pseudomonas syringae Van Hall) on insect susceptibility to sub-zero temperatures
Mignon, Jacques ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg; Gaspar, Charles ULg

in Journal of Stored Products Research (1998), 34(1), 81-86

Many stored product insect pests are termed "freeze-intolerant" because they cannot survive ice formation in their extracellular body fluid. In grain silos, the progressive decrease in temperature permits ... [more ▼]

Many stored product insect pests are termed "freeze-intolerant" because they cannot survive ice formation in their extracellular body fluid. In grain silos, the progressive decrease in temperature permits the acclimation of insects and enhances their cold tolerance. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of the concentration of the ice-nucleating-active bacterium Pseudomonas syringae (10, 100 and 1000 ppm), temperature and duration of sub-zero exposure on the cold tolerance of the granary weevil Sitophilus granarius (L.) and the saw-toothed grain beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.). After an application of 1000 ppm of powdered P. syringae to grain, the mortality of S. granarius and O. surinamensis was increased after 24-h exposure to -4 degrees C. Higher mortality was observed after exposure to colder temperatures and a dose-response relationship was evident. At near-zero (-4 to 0 degrees C) negative temperatures, no dose response was observed, and the mortality in treated grain was the same as that in untreated grain. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude radiologique de l’os naviculaire normal. Partie 1: que penser des canaux sésamoïdiens du bord distal
Gabriel, Annick ULg; Jolly, S.; Detilleux, Johann ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1998), 142

The scoring system based on the different types of navicular distal border canals is a good method to quantify and relativise the anomalies in number, shape and localisation of the canals. The distal ... [more ▼]

The scoring system based on the different types of navicular distal border canals is a good method to quantify and relativise the anomalies in number, shape and localisation of the canals. The distal border score varies significantly with the limb (fore or rear), the morphological type, the gender and the age of the horse. These anatomical variations are of importance and must be taken into account when examining a suspect bone. The score is larger for the fore navicular bone than for the rear. It could be interesting to compare both scores: rear navicular bone score is generally equal to half (or slight less) that of the fore. The score is larger for heavy types of horses and ponies (drafthorse, heavy halfbreds and Fjords). This phenomenon could be related to a larger pressure within the distal interphalangeal joint. The score is lower for the athletic half bred than for other halfbreds. This could be the result of the changes in bone architecture induced by exercise and particularly bone densification. The score is lower for the female than for the male. We think that navicular bone quality is better for the female and this idea corroborates that of other authors that consider that the risk to develop navicular disease is smaller for the female than for the male. The score increases with age. it is particularly small in young horses less than two years old and then increases strongly. This phenomenon is to be related to the progressive development, in the first year of life, of the groove between articular cartilage and distal impar ligament, canals developping only later one. In athletic horses, the score is higher between 7 and 12 years of age. During this time, we also observe more degenerative changes within the navicular bone, which could mean that bone is of lesser quality. [less ▲]

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See detailRecommendations for the health economic analysis to be performed with a drug to be registered in prevention or treatment of osteoporosis
Dere, W; Avouac, B; Boers, M et al

in Calcified Tissue International (1998), 63

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See detailCarbonic Anhydrase Ix, Mn/Ca Ix: Structure, Function And Involvement In Carcinogenesis
Pastorekova, S.; Kaluz, S.; Gibadulinova, A. et al

in Chemical Papers-Chemicke Zvesti (1998), 52

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See detailLes principales plantes toxiques chez le cheval
Delaunois, A.; Demoulin, V.; Gustin, Pascal ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1998), 142

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See detailnote sous C. Arbitrage, 11 décembre 1996
Moreau, Pierre ULg

in Journal des Juges de Paix = Tijdschrift van de Vrederechters (1998)

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See detailL'enseignement des sciences. UN défi pour notre système éducatif
Monseur, Christian ULg; Demeuse, Marc

in Athena (1998)

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See detailcompte-rendu
Gavray, Claire ULg

in Recherches sociologiques (1998), 24

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See detailDynamical atomic charges: The case of ABO(3) compounds
Ghosez, Philippe ULg; Michenaud, J. P.; Gonze, X.

in Physical Review. B : Condensed Matter (1998), 58(10), 6224-6240

Based on recent first-principles computations in perovskite compounds, especially BaTiO3, we examine the significance of the Born effective charge concept and contrast it with other atomic charge ... [more ▼]

Based on recent first-principles computations in perovskite compounds, especially BaTiO3, we examine the significance of the Born effective charge concept and contrast it with other atomic charge definitions, either static (Mulliken, Bader, etc.) or dynamical (Callen, Szigeti, etc.). It is shown that static and dynamical charges are not driven by the same underlying parameters. A unified treatment of dynamical charges in periodic solids and large clusters is proposed. The origin of the difference between static and dynamical charges is discussed in terms of local polarizability and delocalized transfers of charge: local models succeed in reproducing anomalous effective charges thanks to large atomic polarizabilities but, in ABO(3) compounds, ab initio calculations favor the physical picture based upon transfer of charges. Various results concerning barium and strontium titanates are presented. The origin of anomalous Born effective charges is discussed thanks to a band-by-band decomposition which allows us to identify the displacement of the Wannier center of separated bands induced by an atomic displacement. The sensitivity of the Born effective charges to microscopic and macroscopic strains is examined. Finally, we estimate the spontaneous polarization in the four phases of barium titanate. [less ▲]

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See detailArbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation for element-free Galerkin method
Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg; Belytschko, Ted

in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics & Engineering (1998), 152

Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation of the Element Free Galerkin (EFG) method is presented. EFG is a meshless method for solving partial differential equations in which the trial and test ... [more ▼]

Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation of the Element Free Galerkin (EFG) method is presented. EFG is a meshless method for solving partial differential equations in which the trial and test functions employed in the discretization process result from moving least square interpolants. The most significant advantage of the method is that it requires only nodes and a description of internal and external boundaries and interfaces, such as cracks, of the model: no element connectivity is needed. However, as for any discretization method, acceptable solutions can only be obtained for a sufficiently refined discretization. In dynamic fracture problems, where the crack path can be arbitrary, and is thus a priori unknown, this necessitates a refined discretization in large parts of the computational domain which can lead to prohibitive computation costs. ALE formulation allows to continuously relocate nodes on the computational domain. By combining EFG with ALE, it is thus possible, in a crack propagation problem, to refine locally the spatial discretization in the neighborhood of a propagating crack-tip. Results are presented for a wave propagation problem as well as for 2-D dynamic crack propagation problems. [less ▲]

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See detailDemonstration of the expression of CD95 ligand transcript and protein in human placenta
Zorzi, Willy ULg; Thellin, Olivier ULg; Coumans, Bernard ULg et al

in Placenta (1998), 19(4), 269-277

Tolerance of the fetal allograft enables the human conceptus to implant itself into the maternal uterus and survive and grow there. This tolerance phenomenon remains largely obscure, notably because it ... [more ▼]

Tolerance of the fetal allograft enables the human conceptus to implant itself into the maternal uterus and survive and grow there. This tolerance phenomenon remains largely obscure, notably because it appears to be controlled by multiple mechanisms. CD95 ligand (CD95-L), which can trigger death of CD95-positive cells by apoptosis, may participate in inducing anti-fetus-sensitized CD95-positive T lymphocytes to enter apoptosis. Using immunohistochemistry (first trimester and term placentae), FAGS assays (term placenta) and RT-PCR assays (term placenta), the presence of CD95-L protein and mRNA has been shown in crude placental tissue preparations and isolated placental cells. Among the latter, CD95-L expression was detected in trophoblastic cells, fetal blood cells (mRNA only) and also the Hofbauer macrophages. No CD95-L was detected in fibroblasts or fetal endothelial cells. Thus trophoblastic cells, Hofbauer macrophages, and perhaps also fetal blood cells could form a sequential barrier blocking maternal activated defence cells bearing CD95 molecules. (C) 1998 W. B. Saunders Company Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailCalretinin expression as a critical component in the control of dentate gyrus long-term potentiation in mice
Gurden, H.; Schiffmann, S. N.; Lemaire, M. et al

in European Journal of Neuroscience (1998), 10

We have recently reported that mice homozygous (Cr–/–) for a null mutation in the calretinin gene have impaired long‐term potentiation (LTP) induction in the dentate gyrus (S. Schurmans et al. (1997) Proc ... [more ▼]

We have recently reported that mice homozygous (Cr–/–) for a null mutation in the calretinin gene have impaired long‐term potentiation (LTP) induction in the dentate gyrus (S. Schurmans et al. (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 94, 10415 ). Here, we investigated dentate LTP induction in mice heterozygous (Cr+/–) for the same mutation. Despite the presence of calretinin in neurons of these mice, although at reduced levels as compared with normal mice, LTP induction in dentate gyrus was totally impaired. Spatial memory and learning were found unaffected in Cr+/– mice, such as in Cr–/– mice. Altogether, our results suggest that calretinin is a critical component in the control of dentate synaptic plasticity in mice, and that levels of calretinin higher than those observed in Cr+/– mice are required to induce LTP in this area. The possible mechanisms leading to the absence of correlation between gene dosage and biological effects are discussed [less ▲]

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See detailRecherches en Pédagogie des Activités physiques et sportives centrées sur l'enseignement primaire et secondaire. Thèmes, principes méthodologiques et implications didactiques
Piéron, Maurice ULg; Cloes, Marc ULg

in Revue de l'Education Physique (1998), 38(3), 109-125

Tout service universitaire compte parmi ses missions celle de développer la connaissance du domaine au moyen d'une recherche structurée. On sait qu'enseignement et recherche se nourrissent mutuellement ... [more ▼]

Tout service universitaire compte parmi ses missions celle de développer la connaissance du domaine au moyen d'une recherche structurée. On sait qu'enseignement et recherche se nourrissent mutuellement. La pédagogie des activités physiques et sportives ne fait évidemment pas exception, même si elle ne possède aucun caractère prioritaire dans les organismes qui financent la recherche. ... [less ▲]

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See detailExtended Irreversible Thermodynamics Revisited ( 1988-1998)
Jou, David; Casas-Vazquez, Jose; Lebon, Georgy ULg

in Report in progress in physics (1998), 62

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See detailAdverse effect of hyperinsulinemia on cardiovascular risk profile in middle-aged belgian population
Saint-Remy, Annie ULg; Scheen, André ULg; Jeanjean, Michel et al

in Acta Cardiologica (1998), 53(5), 299

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See detailCytokinins and ethylene stimulate indole alkaloid accumulation in cell suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus by two distinct mechanisms
Yahia, Abdelouahab; Kevers, Claire ULg; Gaspar, Thomas ULg et al

in Plant Science (1998), 133(1), 9-15

The interactions between cytokinins and ethylene on alkaloid accumulation in a periwinkle cell line have been examined. It was found that (a) either exogenously-applied cytokinins or ethylene (the latter ... [more ▼]

The interactions between cytokinins and ethylene on alkaloid accumulation in a periwinkle cell line have been examined. It was found that (a) either exogenously-applied cytokinins or ethylene (the latter through ethephon degradation) greatly enhanced ajmalicine accumulation in cells subcultured in a 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-free medium; (b) the enhancing effect of cytokinin was not mediated by enhancement of endogenous ethylene production contrary to what is found in some plant models, (c) the responses to exogenous cytokinin and ethylene were additive and showed a different pattern of expression. It may be concluded that cytokinin and ethylene can up-regulate the alkaloid production in a periwinkle cells through independent pathways when added exogenously to the cultures. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailDestabilization Of A Model Membrane By A Predicted Fusion Peptide Of Fertilin Alpha
Schanck, A.; Brasseur, Robert ULg; Peuvot, J.

in Journal de Chimie Physique et de Physico-Chimie Biologique (1998), 95(2), 467-73

The subunit a of the guinea pig fertilin (previously known as PH-30, an integral membrane protein involved in sperm-egg binding and fusion) is predicted to be a potential fusion protein.The structure of ... [more ▼]

The subunit a of the guinea pig fertilin (previously known as PH-30, an integral membrane protein involved in sperm-egg binding and fusion) is predicted to be a potential fusion protein.The structure of this putative fusion protein was analysed by molecular modeling and we have found a peptidic sequence of 17 residues (D83-P99) organized in helix that inserts obliquely in lipid phases. The effect of ths synthesized peptide was studied on a model membrane by 3lP NMR and light scattering. It appears to increase the size of lipid vesicles and induces structural odifications. We interpret these observations as a destabilization of the lipid organization by this peptide because of its tilted insertion in phospholipid layers. This destabilization could favor membrane fusion. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of two 1-year calcium and vitamin D3 treatments on bone remodeling markers and femoral bone density in elderly women
DEROISY, Rita ULg; Collette, Julien ULg; Chevalier, T et al

in Current Therapeutic Research (1998), 59(12), 850-862

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See detailPharma-clinics. Comment je traite ... un sujet avec une concentration basse de cholesterol HDL.
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(12), 727-31

The decision to treat an individual with low HDL cholesterol level depends on his overall cardiovascular risk profile and the therapeutic strategy is based upon the characteristics of the lipid profile ... [more ▼]

The decision to treat an individual with low HDL cholesterol level depends on his overall cardiovascular risk profile and the therapeutic strategy is based upon the characteristics of the lipid profile (isolated abnormality, associated hypertriglyceridaemia or combined elevation of LDL cholesterol). The treatment must favour diet and exercise, before considering a possible pharmacological approach. Results are usually acceptable with better life habits and appropriate diet when low HDL cholesterol level is associated to hypertriglyceridaemia. From a pharmacological point of view, the best results are obtained with fibrates or nicotinic acid. However, results are often disappointing when low HDL cholesterol level is isolated. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the appropriateness of marginal models for repeated measurements in clinical trials
Lindsey, James ULg; Lambert, Philippe ULg

in Statistics in Medicine (1998), 17

Although models developed directly to describe marginal distributions have become widespread in the analysis of repeated measurements, some of their disadvantages are not well enough known. These include ... [more ▼]

Although models developed directly to describe marginal distributions have become widespread in the analysis of repeated measurements, some of their disadvantages are not well enough known. These include producing profile curves that correspond to no possible individual, possibly showing that a treatment is superior on average when it is poorer for each individual subject, implicitly generating complex and implausible physiological explanations, including underdispersion in subgroups, and sometimes corresponding to no possible probabilistic data generating mechanism. We conclude that such marginal models may sometimes be appropriate for descriptive observational studies, such as sample surveys in epidemiology, but should only be used with great care in causal experimental settings, such as clinical trials. [less ▲]

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See detailPharma clinics. Comment je traite.... Certaines maladies metaboliques grace a une intervention pharmacologique ciblee sur l'intestin.
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(11), 646-50

Besides the classical dietary regimen, it is possible to use specific pharmacological approaches, targeted at the intestine, in order to treat some metabolic disorders. Three approaches will be described ... [more ▼]

Besides the classical dietary regimen, it is possible to use specific pharmacological approaches, targeted at the intestine, in order to treat some metabolic disorders. Three approaches will be described: anionic resins for treating hypercholesterolaemia, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors for treating diabetes mellitus and reactive hypoglycaemia, and intestinal lipase inhibitors for treating obesity. All these drugs are based on original concepts, but their clinical use is often limited by the occurrence of digestive side-effects. The latter may generally be reduced by progressive and individual titration of the dosage of each drug and/or by following an appropriate diet. [less ▲]

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See detailMissions et structure d'un système d'informations sur la nature
Dufrêne, Marc ULg

in Studiedocumenten van het KBIN/Document de travail de l'IRScNB (1998), 79

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See detailComment j'explore... une hypertriglyceridemie.
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(2), 103-5

The strategy for the diagnosis of hypertriglyceridaemia comprises three successive steps. First, the physician should confirm the biological abnormality by at least one additional blood sample taken after ... [more ▼]

The strategy for the diagnosis of hypertriglyceridaemia comprises three successive steps. First, the physician should confirm the biological abnormality by at least one additional blood sample taken after an overnight fast; recent data, however, suggest that postprandial hypertriglyceridaemia may also represent a cardiovascular risk factor. Second, the phenotype of hypertriglyceridaemia should be considered as either isolated high triglyceride levels or hypertriglyceridaemia combined with hypercholesterolemia may be present; the combination of hypertriglyceridaemia with a low HDL cholesterol concentration or its association with the metabolic or insulin resistance syndrome should also be investigated. Third, all should be done in order to find the etiology of the hypertriglyceridaemia (by determining its genetic or nutritional origin, by excluding possible underlying pathologies, by looking for drugs able to increase serum triglyceride levels). These various steps should help the physician to take the final decision of treating one particular patient as well as to chose the most appropriate, nutritional or pharmacological, treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailDépression et suicide : Aspects biologiques
ANSSEAU, Marc ULg; PITCHOT, William ULg

in Neuro-psy (1998)

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See detailComment j'explore ... la nephropathie diabetique. Premiere partie: micro- et macro-albuminurie.
Weekers, Laurent ULg; Scheen, André ULg; Lefebvre, Pierre ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(8), 494-8

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) appears in about 30% of patients with type 1 diabetes (D1) and 15 to 60% of patients with type 2 diabetes (D2). It is preceded by microalbuminuria. Microalbuminuria is defined as ... [more ▼]

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) appears in about 30% of patients with type 1 diabetes (D1) and 15 to 60% of patients with type 2 diabetes (D2). It is preceded by microalbuminuria. Microalbuminuria is defined as an albumin excretion rate between 30 and 300 mg/24 h (on a 24-hour urine collection) or between 20 and 200 micrograms/min (on an overnight collection) in at least two out of three consecutive collections made within a 6-month period. Alternative screening techniques use either dipstick (Micral-Test II) or the albumin to creatinine ratio on an early morning urine sample (30-300 mg/g creatinine). Once persistent microalbuminuria is confirmed, 80% of type 1 diabetic patients and 20 to 50% of type 2 diabetic patients will progress to DN. In D2, microalbuminuria also represents a powerful predictor of early mortality from cardiovascular disease. Macroalbuminuria (AER > 300 mg/24 h, corresponding to a total protein excretion > 500 mg/24 h) will eventually lead to a end-stage renal insufficiency within 10 to 20 years. In D2, numerous patients will die from cardiovascular disease before reaching end-stage renal failure. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors can slow down the evolution toward DN when prescribed when microalbuminuria appears. Screening for microalbuminuria should therefore be a part of the annual clinical assessment in every diabetic patient. [less ▲]

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See detailGrandir en l'an 2000 : les parents et l'école maternelle
Crahay, Marcel ULg; Hindryckx, Geneviève ULg; Lafontaine, Annette ULg et al

in Point sur la Recherche en Education (Le) (1998), 6

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See detailLe syndrome X, a la croisee des maladies metaboliques et cardio-vasculaires.
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(1), 29-32

The relationships between metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases are very strong. Hypercholesterolaemia and diabetes mellitus, for instance, are well-known risk factors. The multifaceted ... [more ▼]

The relationships between metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases are very strong. Hypercholesterolaemia and diabetes mellitus, for instance, are well-known risk factors. The multifaceted metabolic syndrome or syndrome X, originally described by Reaven in 1988, comprises several abnormalities which are associated to insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinaemia. Syndrome X results in an increased vascular risk by at least two mechanisms. On the one hand, it favours atherosclerosis and is associated to angiographic lesions, especially in the coronary arteries. On the other hand, it is associated to endothelial dysfunction which may contribute to myocardial ischaemia even in presence of angiographically normal arteries, a phenomenon named also syndrome X by the cardiologists. Thus, metabolic syndrome X and cardiological syndrome X are very close and syndrome X may be considered as a crossing between metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailA pore mutation in a novel KQT-like potassium channel gene in an idiopathic epilepsy family.
Charlier, Carole ULg; Singh, N. A.; Ryan, S. G. et al

in Nature Genetics (1998), 18(1), 53-5

Epileptic disorders affect about 20-40 million people worldwide, and 40% of these are idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGEs; ref. 1). Most of the IGEs that are inherited are complex, multigenic diseases ... [more ▼]

Epileptic disorders affect about 20-40 million people worldwide, and 40% of these are idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGEs; ref. 1). Most of the IGEs that are inherited are complex, multigenic diseases. To address basic mechanisms for epilepsies, we have focused on one well-defined class of IGEs with an autosomal-dominant mode of inheritance: the benign familial neonatal convulsions (BFNC; refs 2,3). Genetic heterogeneity of BFNC has been observed. Two loci, EBN1 and EBN2, have been mapped by linkage analysis to chromosome 20q13 (refs 5,6) and chromosome 8q24 (refs 7,8), respectively. By positional cloning, we recently identified the gene for EBN1 as KCNQ2 (ref. 9). This gene, a voltage-gated potassium channel, based on homology, is a member of the KQT-like family. Here we describe an additional member, KCNQ3. We mapped this new gene to chromosome 8, between markers D8S256 and D8S284 on a radiation hybrid map. We screened KCNQ3 for mutations in the large BFNC family previously linked to chromosome 8q24 in the same marker interval. We found a missense mutation in the critical pore region in perfect co-segregation with the BFNC phenotype. The same conserved amino acid is also mutated in KVLQT1 (KCNQ1) in an LQT patient. KCNQ2, KCNQ3 and undiscovered genes of the same family of K+ channels are strong candidates for other IGEs. [less ▲]

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See detailEstimation de la population de buffles de forêt, Syncerus caffer nanus, dans le Parc National d’Odzala, République du Congo
Chamberlan, Christelle; Marechal, Corinne ULg; MAUROIS, Céline ULg

in Cahiers d'Ethologie (1998), 18(2), 295-298

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See detailThe in vitro and in vivo production of a 31.5-kD keratinolytic subtilase from Microsporum canis and the clinical status in naturally infected cats.
Mignon, Bernard ULg; Nikkels, Arjen ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg et al

in Dermatology : International Journal for Clinical & Investigative Dermatology (1998), 196(4), 438-441

BACKGROUND: Microsporum-canis-infected cats, especially the asymptomatic infected ones, are mainly responsible for the zoonotic disease. The important variability of the clinical signs in cats is poorly ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Microsporum-canis-infected cats, especially the asymptomatic infected ones, are mainly responsible for the zoonotic disease. The important variability of the clinical signs in cats is poorly understood. Recently, a 31.5-kD keratinolytic subtilase was found to be a putative virulence factor. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible relationship between the clinical status of dermatophytic cats and the production of the keratinase. METHODS: Seven M. canis strains isolated either from clinically affected, asymptomatic infected or mechanical carrier cats were tested for the in vitro production of the enzyme. The immunohistochemical detection of the enzyme was also assessed in skin biopsies of 4 symptomatic and 7 asymptomatic naturally infected cats. RESULTS: All the strains produced in vitro a 31.5-kD keratinolytic subtilase. The enzyme was present in all but 1 of the infected cats. CONCLUSION: The production of the keratinase is not a factor directly responsible for the clinical picture seen in M.-canis-infected cats. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effects of age and location on the biomechanical and biochemical properties of canine tracheal ring cartilage.
Hamaide, Annick ULg; Arnoczky, Steven; Ciarelli, Mike et al

in American Journal of Veterinary Research (1998), 59

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See detailGrowth hormone binding protein (GHBP) during lactation in cows
Renaville, Robert ULg; Prandi, Alberto; Massart, Serge et al

in Archivio Veterinario Italiano (1998), 48

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See detailA Descriptive Analysis Of Populations Of Three-Dimensional Structures Calculated From Primary Sequences Of Proteins By Osiris
Benhabiles, N.; Gallet, X.; Thomas, Annick ULg et al

in Journal of Computational Biology (1998), 5(2), 351-66

Among different ab initio approaches to calculate 3D-structures of proteins out of primary sequences, a few are using restricted dihedral spaces and empirical equations of energy as is OSIRIS. All those ... [more ▼]

Among different ab initio approaches to calculate 3D-structures of proteins out of primary sequences, a few are using restricted dihedral spaces and empirical equations of energy as is OSIRIS. All those approaches were calibrated on a few proteins or fragments of proteins. To optimize the calculation over a larger diversity of structures, we need first to define for each sequence what are good conditions of calculations in order to choose a consensus procedure fitting most 3D-structures best. This requires objective classification of calculated 3D-structures. In this work, populations of avian and bovine pancreatic polypeptides (APP, BPP) and of calcium-binding protein (CaBP) are obtained by varying the rate of the angular dynamics of the second step of OSIRIS. Then, 3D-structures are clustered using a nonhierarchical method, SICLA, using rmsd as a distance parameter. A good clustering was obtained for four subpopulations of APP, BPP and CaBP. Each subpopulation was characterized by its barycenter, relative frequency and dispersion. For the three alpha-helix proteins, after the step 1 of OSIRIS, most secondary structures were correct but molecules have a few atomic contacts. Step 2, i.e., the angular dynamics, resolves those atomic contacts and clustering demonstrates that it generates subpopulations of topological conformers as the barycenter topologies show. [less ▲]

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See detailA Qtl Affecting Milk Yield and Composition Maps to Bovine Chromosome 20: A Confirmation
Arranz, J. J.; Coppieters, Wouter ULg; Berzi, P. et al

in Animal Genetics (1998), 29(2), 107-15

As part of a whole genome scan undertaken to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting milk yield and composition, we have genotyped a granddaughter design comprising 1152 sons for six microsatellite ... [more ▼]

As part of a whole genome scan undertaken to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting milk yield and composition, we have genotyped a granddaughter design comprising 1152 sons for six microsatellite markers spanning bovine chromosome 20. An analysis performed across families provided strong evidence (experiment-wise P-values < 0.01) for the presence of a QTL affecting primarily protein percentage towards the telomeric end of the chromosome. A founder sire, shown in a previous study to segregate for a similar QTL in the corresponding chromosome region, was characterized by 29 and 57 sons and maternal grandsons, respectively, in the present design. Sorting corresponding sons and grandsons by paternal or grandpaternal allele provided significant evidence for the segregation of a QTL on chromosome 20. Altogether these results confirm the location of a QTL affecting milk production on bovine chromosome 20. [less ▲]

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See detailVisual evoked potentials during long periods of pattern-reversal stimulation in migraine.
Afra, J; Cecchini, A P; DE PASQUA, Victor ULg et al

in Brain : A Journal of Neurology (1998), 121(2), 233-41

We have previously shown that during repetitive pattern-reversal stimulation, lasting 2 min, the amplitude of the visual evoked potential (PR-VEP) increases in migraineurs when tested interictally whereas ... [more ▼]

We have previously shown that during repetitive pattern-reversal stimulation, lasting 2 min, the amplitude of the visual evoked potential (PR-VEP) increases in migraineurs when tested interictally whereas it decreases in healthy control subjects. According to Sappey-Marinier et al. (J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1992; 12: 584-92) habituation of the PR-VEP in normal subjects is maxima after 12 min, at a time when there is a decrease of stimulation-enhanced lactate levels in the occipital cortex. We have therefore compared PR-VEP during long periods of repetitive stimulation in healthy control subjects (n = 25) and in patients suffering from migraine without (n = 25) and with aura (n = 15) between attacks. During uninterrupted stimulation at 3.1 Hz VEPs were sequentially averaged in blocks of 100 responses for a total duration of 15 min and analysed in terms of latencies and peak-to-peak amplitudes of N1-P1 and P1-N2 peaks. Amplitude changes from the baseline were calculated for each block, by comparison with the first block, and analysed statistically using Zerbe's method. The N1-P1 and P1-N2 amplitudes in the first block tended to be lower in migraineurs than in healthy control subjects. During the 15 min of stimulation, amplitudes of both components progressively decreased in control subjects, but remained stable in both groups of patients. The difference between patients and control subjects proved to be significant (P < 0.05). The neurophysiological data were not correlated with clinical features such as attack frequency or duration of illness. These results are yet another demonstration in migraine of an interictal habituation deficit in cortical information processing, which might favour lactate accumulation in sensory cortices during sustained activation. [less ▲]

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See detailUtilisation répétée des gonadotropines exogènes dans le contrôle de la reproduction: justifications et effets secondaires potentiels
Drion, Pierre ULg; Houtain, Jean-Yves; MC Namara, M. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1998), 142(2), 373-396

Gonadotropins of pituitary origin (follitropin -FSH-, lutropin -LH-, human menopausal gonadotropin -hMG) or trophoblastic origin (human chorionic gonadotropin - hCG- also called pregnant urine ... [more ▼]

Gonadotropins of pituitary origin (follitropin -FSH-, lutropin -LH-, human menopausal gonadotropin -hMG) or trophoblastic origin (human chorionic gonadotropin - hCG- also called pregnant urine gonadotropin -pU-, equine chorionic gonadotropin -eCG- also called pregnant mare serum gonadotropin -PMSG-) are largely used to treat infertility or to better control sexuality in various species of mammals: bovine, canine, caprine, equine, feline, human,ovine, porcine, rabbit, ... This manuscript reports the discovery of these molecules, describes their biochemical characteristics and gives the main indications (e.g. oestrus induction and synchronization, ovulation, superovulation, fertility improvement, anoestrus treatment, receptivity induction) in animals and human. Litterature data reporting on effects and possible side effects of their repeated use are presented. Due to slight differences in amino acids sequences, carbohydrates contents and tridimentionnal structures, repeated use of exogeneous gonadotropins may induce immunological reactions leading to non specific reactions and lower biological response. A reflection concludes this revue, pointing out the positive influence of the philogenetic distance existing between the species origin of the gonadotropin (human or equine) and the treated one, on the intensity of the immune reaction. [less ▲]

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See detailDe paardenstalfetisjist
Meesters, Gert ULg

in Over Taal (1998), 37(1), 16-18

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See detailPersonnalité et contenus implicites
Garcet, Serge ULg

in Revue des Psychologues et Psychiatres de l'AIGS (1998), 1

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