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See detailIsolation and pharmacological activity of phenylpropanoid esters from Marrubium vulgare
Sahpaz, S.; Garbacki, Nancy ULg; Tits, Monique ULg et al

in Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2002), 79(3), 389-392

The isolation and identification of major phenylpropanoid esters from Marrubium vulgare: (+) (E)-caffeoyl-L-malic acid 1, acteoside 2, forsythoside B 3, arenarioside 4, ballotetroside 5, as well as their ... [more ▼]

The isolation and identification of major phenylpropanoid esters from Marrubium vulgare: (+) (E)-caffeoyl-L-malic acid 1, acteoside 2, forsythoside B 3, arenarioside 4, ballotetroside 5, as well as their anti-inflammatory activity are reported for the first time, We evaluated the inhibitory effects of these five compounds on cyclooxygenase (Cox) catalysed prostaglandin biosynthesis activity. Only the glycosidic phenylpropanoid esters showed an inhibitory activity towards the Cox-2 enzyme and three of them: acteoside 2, forsythoside B 3, arenarioside 4, exhibited higher inhibitory potencies on Cox-2 than on Cox-1. These results are of interest, as Cox-2 is mainly associated with inflammation and the Cox-1 inhibition with adverse side effects often observed with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The occurence of these phenylpropanoid esters could also explain some other pharmacological properties of M. vulgare. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailProfessional Trajectory and Family Patrimony
Guillaume, Jean-François ULg

in Current Sociology (2002), 50(2), 203-211

Entering professional life and establishing a firm hold on a job position are often explained around notions such as integration, project and employability, which stress the role of the individual. Yet ... [more ▼]

Entering professional life and establishing a firm hold on a job position are often explained around notions such as integration, project and employability, which stress the role of the individual. Yet they actually also have a family dimension. When they try to find their way to the labour market, members of younger generation will use strategies developed in ordre to ensure the durability of a social position. They inherit professional know-how, a system of value and a network of personal relationships as well as property and financial assets. In order to consider this transmission process, the autor discusses a research that focuses on young Belgian people's trajectories of professional integration. About 30 French-speaking Belgian people were interviewed at some length, the information thus collected complementing the statistical analysis of various longitudinal data sets about the first 24 months after graduation. All had some experience of professional intergration, i.e. experience of work as salaried employees or as freelancers, but had not all secured a stable position. Researchers need to be aware of the theoretical and methodological implications arising from the juxtaposition between objective data collected in longitudinal surveys and subjective data written at the heart of biographical stories. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of bacterial determinants involved in the induction of systemic resistance in bean by Pseudomonas putida BTP1
Ongena, MARC ULg; Giger, A.; Jacques, Philippe ULg et al

in European Journal of Plant Pathology (2002), 108(3), 187-196

The ability of Pseudomonas putida BTP1 to induce resistance in bean to Botrytis cinerea was demonstrated in soil experiments on plants pre-inoculated at the root level with the bacteria before challenge ... [more ▼]

The ability of Pseudomonas putida BTP1 to induce resistance in bean to Botrytis cinerea was demonstrated in soil experiments on plants pre-inoculated at the root level with the bacteria before challenge with the leaf pathogen. As a first step to characterize the molecules from BTP1 responsible for induction of systemic resistance in bean, heat-killed cells and supernatant from culture in an iron-limited medium were tested for their protective effect. Most of the resistance-eliciting activity of the strain was retained in the crude cell-free culture fluid. In vivo assays with samples from successive fractionation steps of the BTP1 supernatant led, (i) to the conclusion that salicylic acid, pyochelin and pyoverdin, previously identified as Pseudomonas determinants for induced systemic resistance (ISR), were not involved in systemic resistance triggered by BTP1, and (ii) to the isolation of fractions containing one main metabolite that retained most of the resistance-inducing activity in bean. Although this molecule remains to be structurally characterized, its isolation is an addition to the range of determinants from plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) known to stimulate plant defences. [less ▲]

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See detailResistance testing in children changing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease inhibitor
Servais, Jean; Hainaut, M.; Schmitz, V. et al

in Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal (2002), 21(3), 214-220

Objective. To assess genotypic and phenotypic resistance testing in HIV-1-infected children failing a first protease inhibitor (PI) therapy. Methods. In a multicenter observational study 21 children, ages ... [more ▼]

Objective. To assess genotypic and phenotypic resistance testing in HIV-1-infected children failing a first protease inhibitor (PI) therapy. Methods. In a multicenter observational study 21 children, ages 3 to 16 years, were given two reverse transcriptase inhibitors and one PI (mainly ritonavir, n = 18). They were subsequently treated with single or dual PI-based therapy (predominantly nelfinavir, n = 10, or ritonavir-saquinavir, n = 7). Resistance testing was performed at the time of therapy switch via direct sequencing and a recombinant virus susceptibility assay. Results. A total of 21 genotypic and 15 phenotypic resistance profiles were obtained. Most viruses displayed several reverse transcriptase mutations; however, 7 isolates maintained a wild-type protease. Ritonavir targeted the well-known pathway containing 82, 54, 46 and other secondary (nonactive site) mutations including T74A. No in vitro cross-resistance, i.e. greater than or equal to8-fold resistance to saquinavir or amprenavir, was encountered. Secondary mutations enhanced the prediction of ritonavir resistance (i.e. L10I) and in vitro nelfinavir cross-resistance (i.e. K20R/I conferred by primary (active site) resistance mutations. Either the 82, 54, 46 mutational genotype or the phenotype showing greater than or equal to8-fold nelfinavir cross-resistance predicted a poorer virologic response to nelfinavir salvage therapy. Conclusion. In a small cohort of heavily pretreated pediatric patients, resistance testing appears to predict the response to nelfinavir as salvage for a ritonavir-based therapy. This is further supported by the correlation between ritonavir-selected mutations and in vitro nelfinavir cross-resistance. Prospective studies should assess clinical outcome in children undergoing regimen changes based on resistance testing. [less ▲]

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See detailAdditive effects of raloxifene and alendronate on bone density and biochemical markers of bone remodeling in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis
Johnell, O.; Scheele, W. H.; Lu, Y. L. et al

in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (2002), 87(3), 985-992

Both raloxifene (RLX) and alendronate (ALN) can treat and prevent new vertebral fractures, increase bone mineral density (BMD), and decrease biochemical markers of bone turnover in postmenopausal women ... [more ▼]

Both raloxifene (RLX) and alendronate (ALN) can treat and prevent new vertebral fractures, increase bone mineral density (BMD), and decrease biochemical markers of bone turnover in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. This phase 3, randomized, double-blind 1-yr study assessed the effects of combined RLX and ALN in 331 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (femoral neck BMD T-score, less than -2). Women (aged less than or equal to75 yr; greater than or equal to2 yr since their last menstrual period) received placebo, RLX 60 mg/d, ALN 10 mg/d, or RLX 60 mg/d and ALN 10 mg/d combined. At baseline, 6 and 12 months, BMD was measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry. The bone turnover markers serum osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and urinary N- and C-telopeptide corrected for creatinine were measured. The effects of RLX and ALN were considered to be independent and additive if the interaction effect was not statistically significant (P > 0.10) in a two-way ANOVA model. All changes in BMD and bone markers at 12 months were different between placebo and each of the active treatment groups, and between the RLX and RLX+ALN groups (P < 0.05). On average, lumbar spine BMD increased by 2.1,4.3, and 5.3% from baseline with RLX, ALN, and RLX+ALN, respectively. The increase in femoral neck BMD in the RLX+ALN group (3.7%) was greater than the 2.7 and 1.7% increases in the ALN (P = 0.02) and RLX (P < 0.001) groups, respectively. The changes from baseline to 12 months in bone markers ranged from 7.1 to -16.0% with placebo, -23.8 to -46.5% with RLX, -42.3 to -74.2% with ALN, and -54.1 to -81.0% in the RLX+ALN group. RLX and ALN increased lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD, and decreased osteocalcin and C-telopeptide corrected for creatinine in an additive and independent manner, because the interaction effects were not significant. Although the ALN group had changes in BMD and bone markers that were approximately twice the magnitude as in the RLX group, it is not known how well these changes correlate to the clinical outcome of fracture. RLX+ALN reduced bone turnover more than either drug alone, resulting in greater BMD increment, but whether this difference reflects better fracture risk reduction was not assessed in this study. [less ▲]

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See detailA specific role for spermidine in the initiation phase of somatic embryogenesis in Panax ginseng CA Meyer
Monteiro, Marta; Kevers, Claire ULg; Dommes, Jacques ULg et al

in Plant Cell, Tissue & Organ Culture (2002), 68(3), 225-232

Somatic embryogenesis of Panax ginseng CA Meyer was initiated from suspension aggregates of an embryogenic callus, in a liquid medium consisting of half strength Murashige and Skoog (1962) supplemented ... [more ▼]

Somatic embryogenesis of Panax ginseng CA Meyer was initiated from suspension aggregates of an embryogenic callus, in a liquid medium consisting of half strength Murashige and Skoog (1962) supplemented with the synthetic auxin benzoselenienyl-3 acetic acid. The addition of spermidine to this initiation medium significantly increased the production of somatic embryos. In this case, the total polyamine content of the embryogenic mass was higher than that of cultures without spermidine. At day 6 of the culture, a transient accumulation of free polyamines, mainly spermidine, was observed. After this peak, free and conjugated polyamines levels did not show significant variation nor did the polyamine oxidase activity. The results clearly demonstrated that spermidine supplied to the medium was oxidised by polyamine oxidase and partially metabolised into putrescine. The role of spermidine and its interaction with auxin in the initiation of the embryogenic process in Panax ginseng are discussed in relation to embryogenic potential. [less ▲]

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See detailModelling the Danube-influenced North-western continental shelf of the Black Sea. I: Hydrodynamical processes simulated by 3-D and box models
Beckers, Jean-Marie ULg; Grégoire, Marilaure ULg; Nihoul, Jacques ULg et al

in Estuarine Coastal & Shelf Science (2002), 54(3), 453-472

A hydrodynamical modelling of the Black Sea is presented using the GHER 3-D primitive equation model. Results of a very high resolution model with 5 km grid size are analysed and the dominant features of ... [more ▼]

A hydrodynamical modelling of the Black Sea is presented using the GHER 3-D primitive equation model. Results of a very high resolution model with 5 km grid size are analysed and the dominant features of general circulation in the Black Sea are highlighted. Compared with a coarse resolution model, forced with the same climatic monthly averaged atmospheric data, the high resolution model exhibits stronger variability, including frontal structures and coastal upwellings induced by baroclinic instabilities, in particular along the Turkish coast. A comparison of the shelf-open sea exchanges, with particular focus on the cold intermediate waters, shows that both models lead to a replenishment of the CIL in the basin interior by cold waters formed on the shelf. Due to the better representation of frontal structures, the high resolution model is an appropriate candidate for coupling with a biological model. Problems of calibration, interpretation and data availability typically arise from this kind of coupled 3-D model. In order to overcome such difficulties, the results of the 3-D hydrodynamical model are used to guide the development of an integrated 0-D box model capable of achieving the objectives of projects like EROS21, where the effect of changes in the Danube inflows on the shelf ecosystem is investigated. The 0-D model is thus designed to cover this region and is obtained through integration over an appropriate variable volume. The integration procedure shows where the weaknesses of an 0-D approach might lie. Diagnoses in the 3-D model of the integral quantities show the range of uncertainty one can expect in the exchange laws of the 0-D model. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailRadiative lifetime measurements and oscillator strengths of astrophysical interest in HoIII
Zhang, Z. G.; Somesfalean, G.; Svanberg, S. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2002), 384(1), 364-370

Radiative lifetimes of three long-lived levels belonging to the 4f(10)5d configuration of Ho III have been measured, for the first time, using the time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique. A ... [more ▼]

Radiative lifetimes of three long-lived levels belonging to the 4f(10)5d configuration of Ho III have been measured, for the first time, using the time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique. A good agreement between the experimental lifetimes and theoretical results obtained within a multiconfigurational pseudo-relativistic Hartree-Fock (HFR) approach including core-polarization (CP) effects is observed provided an adequate scaling factor is applied to the <4f|r|5d> transition matrix element. From the comparison theory-experiment, it has been possible to assess the reliability of the oscillator strengths of the 4f-5d transitions of astrophysical interest, particularly for the lines depopulating the levels considered in the present work. The present results fill in a gap concerning the f-values of doubly ionized holmium and are needed for a quantitative evaluation of the holmium abundance in some peculiar stars. [less ▲]

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See detailLa conduite de l'accompagnement de bouleau dans les jeunes plantations de hêtre (cahier technique n°19)
Kiss, S.; Fourbisseur, A.; Claessens, Hugues ULg

in Forêt Wallonne (2002), (57), 10-13

Voici la deuxième partie du cycle de deux cahiers techniques dédiés à la sylviculture en mélange du hêtre. Dans ce second volet, nous montrerons que l’envahissement est plus une aubaine qu’un fléau. Nous ... [more ▼]

Voici la deuxième partie du cycle de deux cahiers techniques dédiés à la sylviculture en mélange du hêtre. Dans ce second volet, nous montrerons que l’envahissement est plus une aubaine qu’un fléau. Nous proposerons un itinéraire sylvicole qui permet de tirer profit de l’accompagnement du bouleau pour augmenter la qualité des hêtres. Il se fonde sur une sylviculture moderne adaptée aux mélanges : la sylviculture d’arbre d’avenir. [less ▲]

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See detailVers une cartographie informatisée des stations forestières
Claessens, Hugues ULg; Lejeune, Philippe ULg; Cuvelier, M. et al

in Forêt Wallonne (2002), (57), 22-30

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See detailBrain imaging of the central executive component of working memory
Collette, Fabienne ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews (2002), 26(2), 105-125

This review presents neuroimaging studies which have explored the cerebral substrates of the central executive component of the working memory model proposed by Baddeley and Hitch [working memory (1986 ... [more ▼]

This review presents neuroimaging studies which have explored the cerebral substrates of the central executive component of the working memory model proposed by Baddeley and Hitch [working memory (1986); Recent advances in learning and motivation (1974)]. These studies have demonstrated that different executive functions (manipulating and updating of information, dual-task coordination, inhibition and shifting processes) not only recruit various frontal areas, but also depend upon posterior (mainly parietal) regions. Such results are in agreement with the hypothesis that executive functions rely on a distributed cerebral network not restricted to anterior cerebral areas. Moreover, the intervention of similar prefrontal regions in a large number of executive tasks suggests that the central executive functioning must be understood in terms of different interactions between a network of regions rather than in terms of a specific association between one region and one higher-level cognitive process [less ▲]

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See detailA Grassmann-Rayleigh quotient iteration for computing invariant subspaces
Absil, P.-A.; Mahony, R.; Sepulchre, Rodolphe ULg et al

in SIAM Review (2002), 44(1), 57-73

The classical Rayleigh quotient iteration (RQI) allows one to compute a one-dimensional invariant subspace of a symmetric matrix A. Here we propose a generalization of the RQl which computes a p ... [more ▼]

The classical Rayleigh quotient iteration (RQI) allows one to compute a one-dimensional invariant subspace of a symmetric matrix A. Here we propose a generalization of the RQl which computes a p-dimensional invariant subspace of A. Cubic convergence is preserved and the cost per iteration is low compared to other methods proposed in the literature. [less ▲]

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See detailCoastal-open ocean exchange in the Black Sea: Observations and modelling
Stanev, Emil; Beckers, Jean-Marie ULg; Lancelot, Christiane et al

in Estuarine Coastal & Shelf Science (2002), 54(3), 601-620

The interaction between physical and biological processes in the areas of continental margins governs the variability of ecosystems. The complexity of processes in these areas requires detailed studies ... [more ▼]

The interaction between physical and biological processes in the areas of continental margins governs the variability of ecosystems. The complexity of processes in these areas requires detailed studies combining modelling and surveying efforts. One promising step in this direction was undertaken in the framework of the EROS 21 project, focusing on the shelf part of the north-western Black Sea. In the present paper, we focus on the results of physical studies aiming to improve the understanding of the fundamental exchange processes in the ocean margins, as well as to quantify some of them in the Black Sea. We illustrate the capabilities of circulation models to reproduce physical processes with different time- and space-scales: coastal waves, internal waves, baroclinic Rossby and topographic waves. Another class of important phenomena in the coastal zone is associated with convection. Sources at the sea surface and in the outflow areas give rise to plume dynamics that play a crucial role in the vertical mixing and provide the mechanism for water-mass formation. Most of the results are illustrated for the shelf part of the Black Sea. The verification of simulations is performed by comparison with survey data, altimeter data from the Topex/Poseidon mission and radiotracer observations. The latter, in combination with simulations from circulation models, are used to trace the penetration of tracers into the intermediate and deep layers. We show that although most Sr-90 is introduced by river runoff, large amounts of this signal penetrate the halocline in the Bosphorus Straits area and along the southern coast. Another important fraction of the river water penetrates the intermediate layers at the shelf edge in the north-western Black Sea. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailHeartburn in Belgium: prevalence, impact on daily life, and utilization of medical resources
Louis, Edouard ULg; DeLooze, D.; Deprez, P. et al

in European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology (2002), 14(3), 279-284

Background Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is a frequently occurring disease that may be considered a public health issue, particularly in developed countries. The specificity of heartburn for ... [more ▼]

Background Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is a frequently occurring disease that may be considered a public health issue, particularly in developed countries. The specificity of heartburn for the diagnosis of GORD is good. Our aim was to define the prevalence of heartburn in Belgium, characterizing both its impact on everyday life and the ensuing use of medical resources. Methods Two thousand people living in Belgium, selected randomly after stratification, were interviewed face to face. The main question in the questionnaire used in this interview concerned the presence over the previous 12 months of a burning sensation in the epigastric and/or retrosternal region. This was followed by 21 secondary questions on the characteristics of the population studied, the impact of heartburn on everyday life, and the medical resources used. Results Twenty-eight per cent of the population interviewed reported heartburn. This symptom was present at least once a week in 42% of sufferers. Heartburn was more frequent in women than men (P < 0.05) and was not distributed uniformly throughout the various regions of the country (P < 0.05). Seventy-seven per cent of the people with heartburn found that it had a significantly negative impact on their daily lives (in 27%, this effect was strong). Heartburn associated with a substantial negative impact on daily life was characterized by a higher frequency of symptoms (P < 0.0001), a longer duration of the problem (P= 0.006), and the presence of pain (P < 0.0001) and anxiety (P < 0.0001). Fifty-six per cent of individuals with heartburn had already sought medical advice, 45% had undergone an upper-gastrointestinal tract endoscopy, and 59% were taking medications. Among patients complaining that heartburn had a substantial negative effect on their everyday lives, 21.6% had not sought medical advice and 22.2% did not take any medication. Conclusion Heartburn is very frequent in Belgium and is associated with a considerable negative impact on everyday life. It also generates a significant use of medical resources. However, among the patients complaining of a substantial negative effect on their daily lives, one-fifth (which would represent 1.5% of the Belgian population) seemed to lack appropriate care. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of tenuis of four French Polynesian Carapini (Carapidae : Teleostei)
Parmentier, Eric ULg; Lo-Yat, A.; Vandewalle, Pierre ULg

in Marine Biology (2002), 140(3), 633-638

Four species of adult Carapini (Carapidae) occur on Polynesian coral reefs: Encheliophis gracilis, Carapus boraborensis, C. homei and C. mourlani. Samples collected in Rangiroa and Moorea allowed us to ... [more ▼]

Four species of adult Carapini (Carapidae) occur on Polynesian coral reefs: Encheliophis gracilis, Carapus boraborensis, C. homei and C. mourlani. Samples collected in Rangiroa and Moorea allowed us to obtain different tenuis (larvae) during their settlement phases or directly inside their hosts. These were separated into four lots on the basis of a combination of pigmentation, meristic, morphological, dental and otolith (sagittae) features. Comparison of these characters with those of the adults allows, for the first time, taxonomic identification of these tenuis-stage larvae. [less ▲]

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See detailProliferative generation of mammalian auditory hair cells in culture
Malgrange, Brigitte ULg; Belachew, Shibeshih ULg; Thiry, Marc ULg et al

in Mechanisms of Development (2002), 112(1-2), 79-88

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See detailOn-line soil mechanical resistance mapping and correlation with soil physical properties for precision agriculture
Sirjacobs, Damien ULg; Hanquet, Bernard; Lebeau, Frédéric ULg et al

in Soil & Tillage Research (2002), 64

Measurement of local soil strength may be used for real time regulation of tillage parameters in precision agriculture. Cartography of soil physical properties will also facilitate the study of their ... [more ▼]

Measurement of local soil strength may be used for real time regulation of tillage parameters in precision agriculture. Cartography of soil physical properties will also facilitate the study of their influence on plant development and yields. The aim of this research was to develop and test in field conditions a sensor measuring on-line soil strength variations. The sensor was constituted of a thin blade pulled in the soil at constant depth and speed and a beam which transferred the soil–blade forces to a transducer fixed on the machine. This transducer measured the draft force (Fx), the vertical force (Fz) and the moment (My). A field experiment was performed in 2 ha field of silt soil (Hesbaye, Belgium). A soil strength map of the field was established by pulling the sensor at 5 m interline separation by a tractor equipped with a DGPS receiver. The relationship between the recorded forces and several soil physical parameters was studied by identifying 10 control plots on the sensor track. In each of them, cone index penetrometry profiles and soil water content were measured. Soil samples were taken in the centre of the plots to determine cohesion and internal friction angle, simple compression resistance, Atterberg limits, granulometry and pF curves. Triaxial tests identified over-consolidated soils in plots situated in the pounds of the field. Based on the parameters measured in the other plots, significant relationships were established between (1) a global penetrometry index and the Fx and My solicitations measured by the sensor; (2) gravimetric water content and the vertical force Fz. Interpolation by inverse distance with a range of 45 m gave the best result for the cartography of the three measured signals (Fx, Fz and My). The confrontation of those maps with pedological and topographic maps together with the statistical relationships and the farmer’s knowledge of the field showed high consistency. The results of this experiment in field conditions are encouraging and show the promising perspective of technological innovations allowing on-line characterisation of soil physical state for precision agriculture. [less ▲]

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See detailUltraviolet emissions from the magnetic footprints of Io, Ganymede and Europa on Jupiter
Clarke, J. T.; Ajello, Joseph M.; Ballester, G. et al

in Nature (2002), 415(6875), 997-1000

Io leaves a magnetic footprint on Jupiter's upper atmosphere that appears as a spot of ultraviolet emission that remains fixed underneath Io as Jupiter rotates(1-3). The specific physical mechanisms ... [more ▼]

Io leaves a magnetic footprint on Jupiter's upper atmosphere that appears as a spot of ultraviolet emission that remains fixed underneath Io as Jupiter rotates(1-3). The specific physical mechanisms responsible for generating those emissions are not well understood, but in general the spot seems to arise because of an electromagnetic interaction between Jupiter's magnetic field and the plasma surrounding Io, driving currents of around 1 million amperes down through Jupiter's ionosphere(4-6). The other galilean satellites may also leave footprints, and the presence or absence of such footprints should illuminate the underlying physical mechanism by revealing the strengths of the currents linking the satellites to Jupiter. Here we report persistent, faint, far-ultraviolet emission from the jovian footprints of Ganymede and Europa. We also show that Io's magnetic footprint extends well beyond the immediate vicinity of Io's flux-tube interaction with Jupiter, and much farther than predicted theoretically(4-6); the emission persists for several hours downstream. We infer from these data that Ganymede and Europa have persistent interactions with Jupiter's magnetic field despite their thin atmospheres. [less ▲]

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See detailPotential of using Daphnia magna (crustacea) developing in an aerated waste stabilisation pond as a commercial source of chitin
Cauchie, Henry-Michel ULg; Versali, Marie-France ULg; Hoffmann, L. et al

in Aquaculture (2002), 205(1-2), 103-117

The potential of using the planktonic crustacean Daphnia magna as a commercial source of chitin was studied on the basis of the estimation of the amount of chitin produced annually by this species and the ... [more ▼]

The potential of using the planktonic crustacean Daphnia magna as a commercial source of chitin was studied on the basis of the estimation of the amount of chitin produced annually by this species and the specifications of this kind of chitin. D. magna was found to have a significant chitin content, ranging from 3% to 7% of the body dry weight. During three consecutive years, chitin biomass (B) and daily somatic chitin production (daily P-SOM) were monitored in a 59,000-m(2) aerated waste stabilisation pond located in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (Western Europe). These variables were found to vary a lot seasonally. Maximum values were observed in summer (B > 40 kg chitin; daily P-SOM > 20 kg chitin day(-1)). Annual somatic chitin production reached on average 1200 kg chitin year(-1). The amount of chitin generated by the moulting of the daphnids (i.e. chitin contained in the exuviae) can also constitute a significant source of chitin, reaching about 1220 kg chitin year(-1). Chitin was isolated from D. magna, following three different processing routes. The specifications of the isolated and purified chitin were similar to those of commercial chitin extracted from crabs and shrimps. The average molecular weight varied from 600,000 to 2,600,000 depending on the processing route, The isolated chitin had a low N content indicating a high degree of acetylation. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailControl of the radical polymerization of tert-butyl methacrylate in water by a novel combination of sodium nitrite and iron(II) sulfate
Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Teyssié, Philippe; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Macromolecules (2002), 35(5), 1611-1621

Addition of iron(II) sulfate to sodium nitrite is a new way to control the radical polymerization of tert-butyl methacrylate (tBMA) in water at 80 degreesC. Nitric oxide is released in the reaction medium ... [more ▼]

Addition of iron(II) sulfate to sodium nitrite is a new way to control the radical polymerization of tert-butyl methacrylate (tBMA) in water at 80 degreesC. Nitric oxide is released in the reaction medium as result of the reduction of sodium nitrite by FeSO4. This reaction is of utmost importance because three repeated additions of an alkyl radical to nitric oxide leads to the formation of nitroxide radicals. The basic mechanism for the control of the radical polymerization is thus a nitroxide-mediated process. [less ▲]

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See detailNucleon nucleon interaction in a chiral constituent quark model
Bartz, Daniel ULg; Stancu, Floarea ULg

in Nuclear Physics A (2002), A699(1-2), 316-319

We study the nucleon-nucleon interaction within a chiral constituent quark model where the hyperfine interaction is due to pseudoscalar meson exchange. We calculate the S-3(1) and S-1(0) phase shifts by ... [more ▼]

We study the nucleon-nucleon interaction within a chiral constituent quark model where the hyperfine interaction is due to pseudoscalar meson exchange. We calculate the S-3(1) and S-1(0) phase shifts by using the resonating group method. Their behaviour clearly indicates the presence of a strong repulsive core at short distance. This is due to the spin-flavour symmetry of the interaction and to the quark interchange between the two interacting nucleons. We add a sigma-meson exchange quark-quark interaction which provides a medium range attraction necessary to describe the S-1(0) phase shift. We also explore the role of a tensor interaction at the quark level. [less ▲]

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See detailLithiation of toluene by organolithium compounds activated by lithium polyether alkoxides
Nugay, Nihan; Nugay, Turgut; Jérôme, Robert ULg et al

in Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical (2002), 179(1-2), 59-64

The catalytic effect of polyether alkoxides (PEAs) on the activity of organolithium. compounds as metallating agent has been investigated. Toluene has been lithiated by using different organolithiums ... [more ▼]

The catalytic effect of polyether alkoxides (PEAs) on the activity of organolithium. compounds as metallating agent has been investigated. Toluene has been lithiated by using different organolithiums activated by various PEAs. It has been found that n-BuLi, yields higher conversion with 100% benzylic position metallation, whereas sec-BuLi gives some metallation at ring positions with the most reactive ligand, lithium 2-methoxy ethoxide (LiOEM). Optimum PEA to organolithium molar ratio for both sec- and n-BuLi activated by LiOEM where the amount of toluene being kept constant, was found to be as 3:1 with highest yield and regioselectivity. Substantial increment in yield was observed when the amount of substrate increased whereas regioselectivity stayed almost constant. It was also found that, for a constant reactant molar ratio (3:1:15) for which the optimum results were achieved, reaction began early and then yield values increased with time whereas upon increase in reaction temperature from -78 to 20degreesC, the benzylic metallation yield increased drastically while keeping the same regioselectivity high. [less ▲]

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See detailSodium nitrite and ascorbic acid: a metal-free combination that controls the free-radical polymerization of tert-butyl methacrylate in water
Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange ULg; Teyssié, Philippe et al

in e-Polymers (2002), (4), 1-16

A mixture of sodium nitrite and ascorbic acid is able to control the radical polymerization of tert-butyl methacrylate (tBMA) in water at 80°C. Indeed, sodium nitrite is reduced by the ascorbic acid, and ... [more ▼]

A mixture of sodium nitrite and ascorbic acid is able to control the radical polymerization of tert-butyl methacrylate (tBMA) in water at 80°C. Indeed, sodium nitrite is reduced by the ascorbic acid, and the nitric oxide (NO) which is formed in situ is nothing but a promoter of nitroxyl radicals. The radical polymerization of tBMA is thus basically controlled by a nitroxide-mediated process. [less ▲]

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See detailATMOS version 3 water vapor measurements: Comparisons with observations from two ER-2 Lyman-alpha hygrometers, MkIV, HALOE, SAGE II, MAS, and MLS
Michelsen, Hope A.; Manney, Gloria L.; Irion, Fredrick W. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres (2002), 107(D3),

[1] We have compared a new version of Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy Experiment (ATMOS) retrievals (version 3) of stratospheric and mesospheric water vapor with observations from shuttleborne ... [more ▼]

[1] We have compared a new version of Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy Experiment (ATMOS) retrievals (version 3) of stratospheric and mesospheric water vapor with observations from shuttleborne, satelliteborne, balloonborne, and aircraftborne instruments. These retrievals show agreement to within 5% with the MkIV observations in the middle and lower stratosphere. ATMOS agrees with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Lyman-alpha hygrometer to within 5% except for features with spatial scales less than the vertical resolution of ATMOS (such as the lower stratospheric seasonal cycle). ATMOS observations are 10-16% lower than measurements from the Harvard Lyman-alpha hygrometer in the lower stratosphere and are 7-14% higher than those from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS; prototype version 0104) throughout most of the stratosphere. Agreement is within 7% with the Millimeter-Wave Atmospheric Sounder (MAS; version 20) in the middle and upper stratosphere, but differences are closer to 13% in the lower stratosphere. Throughout the stratosphere, agreement is within 8% with the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE; version 19). ATMOS data from 1994 show agreement with the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II; version 6) values to within 8% in the middle stratosphere, but ATMOS observations are systematically higher than those from SAGE II by as much as 41% in the lower stratosphere. In contrast, ATMOS 1985 values are systematically similar to50% lower than SAGE II values from sunset occultations in the lower stratosphere near 70 hPa but appear to be in better agreement with sunrise occultations. Version 3 retrievals in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere are typically 5-10% lower than version 2 values between 1 and 0.05 hPa. This reduction improves agreement with HALOE, MAS, and MLS upper atmospheric observations, but ATMOS values still tend to be higher than values from these instruments in the middle mesosphere. Agreement among the instruments compared here (except for SAGE II) is generally within 15% in the middle to lower stratosphere and mesosphere and within 10% in the middle to upper stratosphere. At altitudes near 30 km, all instruments (including SAGE II) agree to within 10%. [less ▲]

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See detailImportance of Tumor Regression Assessment in Predicting the Outcome in Patients with Locally Advanced Rectal Carcinoma Who Are Treated with Preoperative Radiotherapy
Bouzourene, Hanifa; Bosman, Fred; Seelentag, Walter et al

in Cancer (2002), 94(4), 1121-1130

BACKGROUND: Locally advanced rectal carcinoma has a poor prognosis. However, <br />since the introduction of preoperative radiotherapy, the outcome of patients with <br />rectal carcinoma has been ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Locally advanced rectal carcinoma has a poor prognosis. However, <br />since the introduction of preoperative radiotherapy, the outcome of patients with <br />rectal carcinoma has been reported to have improved. Nevertheless, to the authors’ <br />knowledge few data are available regarding the histopathologic response to <br />radiotherapy as assessed on surgical specimens as a potential predictive factor for <br />outcome. <br />METHODS: To estimate the effect of radiotherapy on rectal carcinoma, the authors <br />retrospectively reviewed the surgical specimens of 102 patients with T3-4, N0 or <br /> N1 rectal carcinoma and 1 patient with T2 but N1 rectal carcinoma. All patients <br />were treated preoperatively with a hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy <br />schedule in a prospective protocol (Trial 93-01). Using a standardized approach, <br />tumor regression was graded using a system that varies from Grade 1 (tumor <br />regression Grade [TRG] 1) when complete tumor regression is observed to Grade 5 <br />(TRG5) when no tumor regression is observed. <br />RESULTS: Radiotherapy resulted in tumor downstaging in 43% of the patients. <br />There were 2 pT1 tumors (2%), 21 pT2 tumors (20%), 66 pT3 tumors (64%), and 14 <br />pT4 tumors (14%) after treatment. Regional lymph nodes were involved in 55 <br />patients (53%). None of the patients demonstrated a complete tumor regression <br />after radiotherapy, but in 79% of the specimens a partial tumor regression was <br />observed (TRG1: 0%; TRG2: 20%; TRG3: 39%; TRG4: 20%; and TRG5: 21%). The <br />median actuarial overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were 52 <br />months. Actuarial local recurrence rates at 2 years and 5 years were 6.4% and 7.6%, <br />respectively. Univariate analysis showed the actuarial DFS to be significantly lower <br />in patients with lymph node metastases (P 0.0004) and advanced pT stages <br />(pT3-4) (P 0.03). A favorable outcome for OS, DFS, and local control was <br />observed in patients with TRG2-4 (i.e., responders) compared with patients with <br />TRG5 (i.e., nonresponders), but also in patients with low residual tumor cell <br />density (TRG2, 3, and 4). On multivariate analysis, TRG remained an independent <br />prognostic indicator for local tumor control. <br />CONCLUSIONS. Tumor regression as well as residual tumor cell density were found <br />to be predictive factors of survival in rectal carcinoma patients after preoperative <br />radiotherapy. Even after preoperative radiotherapy, the pathologic stage of the <br />surgical specimen remained a prognostic factor. The use of a standardized approach <br />for pathologic evaluation must be implemented to allow comparison between <br />the results of various treatment approaches. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalogy in adsorption behavior of homopolyelectrolyte mixtures as compared to analogous diblock polyampholytes
Mahltig, Boris; Gohy, Jean-François; Jérôme, Robert ULg et al

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part B, Polymer Physics (2002), 40(4), 338-345

The adsorption behavior of aqueous mixtures of the homopolyelectrolytes poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) and poly[(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] (PDMAEMA) was investigated in comparison with the ... [more ▼]

The adsorption behavior of aqueous mixtures of the homopolyelectrolytes poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) and poly[(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] (PDMAEMA) was investigated in comparison with the adsorption of the ampholytic diblock copolymer PMAA-b-PDMAEMA on silicon substrates. Ellipsometry was used to determine the amount of adsorbed homopolyelectrolyte and diblock polyampholyte. Furthermore, the topography of the adsorbed polymers was investigated with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and compared with the structures observed in aqueous solutions by dynamic light scattering (DLS). For all types of investigated polyelectrolytic mixtures or the single polyampholyte, the adsorption was strongly influenced by the pH of the polymer solution. Although single homopolyelectrolytes showed only one maximum in adsorption according to their charge, the mixtures made from these homopolyelectrolytes showed two or three maxima. The third maximum near the isoelectric point of the mixture was assigned to a new species formed by aggregation of the two homopolyelectrolytes. Altogether, the adsorption behavior of the polyelectrolytic mixtures was in between the behavior of the pure homopolyelectrolytes and the analogous polyampholytes and therefore understandable from both of these polymer species.(C) 2002 John Wiley Sons, Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailOn a three-body confinement force in hadron spectroscopy
Pepin, S.; Stancu, Floarea ULg

in Physical Review. D : Particles and Fields (2002), D65

Recently it has been argued that a three-body colour confinement interaction can affect the stability condition of a three-quark system and the spectrum of a tetraquark described by any constituent quark ... [more ▼]

Recently it has been argued that a three-body colour confinement interaction can affect the stability condition of a three-quark system and the spectrum of a tetraquark described by any constituent quark model. Here we discuss the role of a three-body colour confinement interaction in a simple quark model and present some of its implications for the spectra of baryons, tetraquarks and six-quark systems. [less ▲]

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See detailM1/E2 transition rates in Fe x through Fe XIII measured at a heavy-ion storage ring
Trabert, E.; Gwinner, G.; Wolf, A. et al

in Journal of Physics B-Atomic Molecular and Optical Physics (2002), 35(3), 671-689

The rates of several electric-dipole forbidden decays of 3p and 3d levels in Cl-, S-, P- and Si-like ions of Fe have been measured optically at a heavy-ion storage ring. In several cases, more than one ... [more ▼]

The rates of several electric-dipole forbidden decays of 3p and 3d levels in Cl-, S-, P- and Si-like ions of Fe have been measured optically at a heavy-ion storage ring. In several cases, more than one decay contributes to a given decay curve, which complicates the analysis. The lifetime results, with a precision range from 0.6 to 20%, compare well with some theoretical predictions, but are more precise. They are also more precise than some experimental data from an electrostatic ion trap. [less ▲]

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See detailLiving cationic polymerization of delta-valerolactone and synthesis of high molecular weight homopolymer and asymmetric telechelic and block copolymer
Lou, Xudong; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Macromolecules (2002), 35(4), 1190-1195

Poly(delta-valerolactone) [poly(deltaVL)] of high molecular weight (similar to40 000) and low polydispersity index (similar to1.05) was prepared by activated monomer cationic ring-opening polymerization ... [more ▼]

Poly(delta-valerolactone) [poly(deltaVL)] of high molecular weight (similar to40 000) and low polydispersity index (similar to1.05) was prepared by activated monomer cationic ring-opening polymerization of delta-VL initiated by the alcohol/HCl.Et2O system. A series of functional alcohols, e.g., 9-anthracenemethanol, 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate, 3-buten-1-ol, 2-bromoethanol, and 5-norbornene-2-metbanol, were successfully used to prepare asymmetric telechelic poly(deltaVL), i.e., chains end-capped by the functional group of the alcohol in a-position and by an w-hydroxyl group. Ring-opening polymerization of delta-VL in the presence of alpha-methoxy-w-hydroxylpoly(ethylene oxide) and poly(ethylene glycol) led to amphiphilic di- and triblock copolymers, respectively. The polydispersity index of all these (co)polymers was low (similar to1.10). [less ▲]

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See detailLa loi du 8 août 1997 relative au casier judiciaire central
Seron, Vincent ULg; Simon, Julie

in Journal des Tribunaux (2002)

La loi du 8 août 1997 consacre pour la première fois l'existence du casier judiciaire central et établit les règles d'accès aux informations enregistrées par celui-ci, en tenant compte du remplacement ... [more ▼]

La loi du 8 août 1997 consacre pour la première fois l'existence du casier judiciaire central et établit les règles d'accès aux informations enregistrées par celui-ci, en tenant compte du remplacement progressif du traitement manuel des données par un traitement informatisé. D'autre part, elle tente de résoudre les divers problèmes engendrés par les modifications apportées par la loi du 9 janvier 1991 à la loi du 7 avril 1964 relative à l'effacement et à la réhabilitation en matière pénale. Faute de disposer d'arrêtés d'exécution, il a fallu attendre plus de quatre années pour que cette loi soit enfin d'application. Publiée au Moniteur belge du 24 août 2001 — en même temps que ses arrêtés d'exécution, pris eux en 2001 — elle est entrée en vigueur le 3 septembre dernier. [less ▲]

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See detailEnucleation of a giant hepatic hemangioma in a Jehovah's Witness
Detry, Olivier ULg; Honore, Pierre ULg; Joris, Jean ULg et al

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (2002), 102(1), 54-56

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See detailNormal mere exposure effect with impaired recognition in Alzheimer's disease
Willems, Sylvie ULg; Adam, Stéphane ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in Cortex : A Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System & Behavior (2002), 38(1), 77-86

We investigated the mere exposure effect and the explicit memory in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and elderly control subjects, using unfamiliar faces. During the exposure phase, the subjects ... [more ▼]

We investigated the mere exposure effect and the explicit memory in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and elderly control subjects, using unfamiliar faces. During the exposure phase, the subjects estimated the age of briefly flashed faces. The mere exposure effect was examined by presenting pairs of faces (old and new) and asking participants to select the face they liked. The participants were then presented with a forced-choice explicit recognition task. Controls subjects exhibited above-chance preference and recognition scores for old faces. The AD patients also showed the mere exposure effect but no explicit recognition. These results suggest that the processes involved in the mere exposure effect are preserved in AD patients despite their impaired explicit recognition. The results are discussed in terms of Seamon et al.'s (1995) proposal that processes involved in the mere exposure effect are equivalent to those subserving perceptual priming. These processes would depend on extrastriate areas which are relatively preserved in AD patients. [less ▲]

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See detailCrystal structures of the Bacillus licheniformis BS3 class A beta-lactamase and of the acyl-enzyme adduct formed with cefoxitin
Fonzé, Evelyne; Vanhove, Mac; Dive, Georges ULg et al

in Biochemistry (2002), 41(6), 1877-1885

The Bacillus licheniformis BS3 beta-lactamase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the beta-lactam ring of penicillins, cephalosporins, and related compounds. The production of beta-lactamases is the most common ... [more ▼]

The Bacillus licheniformis BS3 beta-lactamase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the beta-lactam ring of penicillins, cephalosporins, and related compounds. The production of beta-lactamases is the most common and thoroughly studied cause of antibiotic resistance. Although they escape the hydrolytic activity of the prototypical Staphylococcus aureus beta-lactamase, many cephems are good substrates for a large number of beta-lactamases. However, the introduction of a 7alpha-methoxy substituent, as in cefoxitin, extends their antibacterial spectrum to many cephalosporin-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. The 7alphamethoxy group selectively reduces the hydrolytic action of many beta-lactamases without having a significant effect on the affinity for the target enzymes, the membrane penicillin-binding proteins. We report here the crystallographic structures of the BS3 enzyme and its acyl-enzyme adduct with cefoxitin at 1.7 Angstrom resolution. The comparison of the two structures reveals a covalent acyl-enzyme adduct with perturbed active site geometry, involving a different conformation of the Omega-loop that bears the essential catalytic Glu166 residue. This deformation is induced by the cefoxitin side chain whose position is constrained by the presence of the alpha-methoxy group. The hydrolytic water molecule is also removed from the active site by the 7beta-carbonyl of the acyl intermediate. In light of the interactions and steric hindrances in the active site of the structure of the BS3-cefoxitin acyl-enzyme adduct, the crucial role of the conserved Asn132 residue is confirmed and a better understanding of the kinetic results emerges. [less ▲]

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See detailPituitary disease in MEN type 1 (MEN1): Data from the France-Belgium MEN1 multicenter study
Vergès, B.; Boureille, F.; Goudet, P. et al

in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (2002), 87(2), 457-465

To date, data on pituitary adenomas in MEN type 1 (MEN1) still have to be evaluated. We analyzed the data of a large series of 324 MEN1 patients from a French and Belgian multicenter study. Data on ... [more ▼]

To date, data on pituitary adenomas in MEN type 1 (MEN1) still have to be evaluated. We analyzed the data of a large series of 324 MEN1 patients from a French and Belgian multicenter study. Data on pituitary disease were compared with those from 110 non-MEN1 patients with pituitary adenomas, matched for age, year of diagnosis, and follow-up period. Genetic analysis of the MEN1 gene was performed in 197 of the MEN1 patients. In our MEN1 series, pituitary disease occurred in 136 of 324 (42%), less frequently than hyperparathyroidism (95%, P < 0.001) and endocrine enteropancreatic tumors (54%, P < 0.01). Mean age of onset of pituitary tumors was 38.0 +/- 15.3 yr (range, 12-83 yr). Pituitary disease was associated with hyperparathyroidism in 90%. of cases, with enteropancreatic tumors in 47%, with adrenal tumors in 16%, and with thoracic neuroendocrine tumors in 4%. Pituitary disease was the initial lesion of MEN1 in 17% of all MEN1 patients. MEN1 pituitary adenomas were significantly more frequent in women than in men (50% vs. 31%,P < 0.001). Among the 136 pituitary adenomas, there were 85 prolactinomas and 12 GH-secreting, 6 ACTH-secreting, 13 cosecreting, and 20 nonsecreting tumors. Eighty-five percent of MEN1-related pituitary lesions were macroadenomas (vs. 42% in non-MEN1 patients, P < 0.001), including 32% of invasive cases. Among secreting adenomas, hormonal hypersecretion was normalized, after treatment, in only 42% (vs. 90% in non-MEN1 patients, P < 0.001), with a median follow-up of 11.4 yr. No correlation was found between the type of MEN1 germ-line mutation and the presence or absence of pituitary adenoma. Our study, based on a large group of MEN1 patients, shows that pituitary adenomas occur in 42% of the cases and are characterized by a larger size and a more aggressive presentation than without MEN1. [less ▲]

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See detailReactivación de las negociaciones Euro-Mercosur bajo el temor del ‘síndrome mejicano’?
Santander, Sébastian ULg

in Revista de Derecho Internacional y del Mercosur (2002), 1

L'UE agit semble avoir une stratégie réactive sur la scène internationale. La mise en place de l'ALENA a eu un effet de commerce important au détriment de l'UE mais au profit des Etats-Unis. Cette ... [more ▼]

L'UE agit semble avoir une stratégie réactive sur la scène internationale. La mise en place de l'ALENA a eu un effet de commerce important au détriment de l'UE mais au profit des Etats-Unis. Cette conséquence négative a poussé les instances européennes à négocier et conclure rapidement l'accord global avec le Mexique. La même situation semble se produire dans les relations avec le Mercosur. [less ▲]

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See detailActivation of the supplementary motor area and of attentional networks during temporal processing
Macar, F.; Lejeune, Helga ULg; Kirsch, Murielle ULg et al

in Experimental Brain Research (2002), 142(4), 475-485

This paper first provides a survey of the expanding brain imaging literature in the field of time processing. showing that particular task features (discrete vs rhythmic, perceptual vs motor) do not ... [more ▼]

This paper first provides a survey of the expanding brain imaging literature in the field of time processing. showing that particular task features (discrete vs rhythmic, perceptual vs motor) do not significantly affect the basic pattern of activation observed. Next, positron emission tomography (PET) data obtained in a timing task (temporal reproduction) with two distinct duration ranges (2.2-3.2 and 9-13 s) are reported. The stimuli consisted of vibrations applied to the subject's right middle finger. When the vibration ended, the subject estimated an interval identical to its length before pressing a response button. The control task used cued responses with comparable intervals and stimuli, The pattern of activation obtained in the timing task as compared to control mainly included areas having attentional functions (the right dorsolateral prefrontal, inferior parietal, and anterior cingulate cortices), and the supplementary motor area (SMA). No significant difference was seen as a function of the duration range. It is argued, firstly. that involvement of the attentional areas derives from specific relations between attention and the temporal accumulator, as described by dominant timing models. and, secondly, that the SMA, or more probably one of its subregions, subserves time processing [less ▲]

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See detailConditioned hyperkinesia induced by cocaine in mice is dose-dependent but not correlated with the unconditioned response or the contextually-sensitized response
Michel, Alexa ULg; Tirelli, Ezio ULg

in Behavioural Pharmacology (2002), 13(1), 59-71

The aims of the study were to test whether drug dose is positively related to the magnitude of the conditioned response following sensitization to the behavioural effects of cocaine and to investigate the ... [more ▼]

The aims of the study were to test whether drug dose is positively related to the magnitude of the conditioned response following sensitization to the behavioural effects of cocaine and to investigate the relationship between the conditioned response and cocaine-induced sensitization. Male mice (C57BL/6J) were first injected over seven successive days with either saline or cocaine at 2.5, 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg s.c., in the testing room. On the test day, 24 h after the last injection, mice from all conditions were challenged with saline in the testing room to test for conditioned cocaine effects. Mice were video-recorded and various behaviours were later scored using a time-sampling technique. Cocaine-elicited orofacial stereotypy was significantly sensitized at the two highest doses and dose-dependently conditioned at the three highest doses. Cocaine-increased locomotion was sensitized at the three highest doses and significantly conditioned at 10 and 20 mg/kg. Cocaine-increased sniffing did not change over pretreatment at any dose, and was conditioned only at 10 mg/kg. Cocaine-decreased immobility also did not change over pretreatment at any dose, but was conditioned at 10 and 20 mg/kg. Concomitantly, rearing was reduced by cocaine at 10 and 20 mg/kg, without sensitization being induced, and it was reduced under saline challenge after 5 mg/kg cocaine, while cocaine-decreased grooming was sensitized at the three highest doses and conditioned at 10 and 20 mg/kg cocaine. There was a positive relation between the size of the conditioned response for orofacial stereotypy and the magnitude of the unconditioned stimulus (the doses), a result conforming to the Pavlovian account of the placebo effect. This could also be concluded from considering the behaviour patterns as components of a unique placebo effect (hyperkinetic syndrome), since orofacial stereotypy, very apparent at 20 mg/kg cocaine, interfered at that dose with the full-blown expression of locomotion and sniffing, both yielding (approximately) inverted U-shaped dose-effect curves. However, no correlation was found between the magnitude of the conditioned response and the amplitude of sensitization (the difference between the initial unconditioned non-sensitized response and the last unconditioned sensitized response), a finding which indicates that conditioned responding does not participate in the generation of the sensitized effects, contrary to the 'excitatory conditioning model of contextual sensitization' [less ▲]

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See detailSeasonal variations of activity pattern of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a small stream, as determined by radio-telemetry
Ovidio, Michaël ULg; Baras, Etienne; Goffaux, D. et al

in Hydrobiologia (2002), 470(1-3), 195-202

Nine brown trout (27.9-42.8 cm FL, 234-995 g) from the Aisne stream (Belgian Ardenne) were tagged with surgically implanted radio transmitters, and their activity patterns were studied at 10-min intervals ... [more ▼]

Nine brown trout (27.9-42.8 cm FL, 234-995 g) from the Aisne stream (Belgian Ardenne) were tagged with surgically implanted radio transmitters, and their activity patterns were studied at 10-min intervals during twenty-six 24-h cycles from October 1995 to May 1997. The duration and intensity of activity were mainly proportional to water temperature and day length but some differences appeared between individuals. The daily home range in summer was also 3.2 times longer than in winter, and was exploited 2.5 times more intensively. At all seasons, trout were most active at dusk, and seasonal variations in diel patterns consisted mainly in a progressive shift from more crepuscular activity in autumn and winter to more homogenous and intensive activity during spring and summer, but still with a predominance of activity at dusk. This relative consistency of activity rhythm throughout the year was interpreted within the context of foraging risk and efficiency, in view of the scarcity of predators in the Aisne stream, and of drifting macroinvertebrates being consistently more abundant at dusk at all times of the year. However, activity patterns varied substantially between individuals living in different microhabitats, including when fish were investigated on the same day. This suggests that activity patterns are also subordinated to local factors such as habitat structure or abundance of drifting prey. [less ▲]

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See detailThe pro- or antiangiogenic effect of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 is dose dependent
Devy, L.; Blacher, Silvia ULg; Grignet-Debrus, Christine ULg et al

in FASEB Journal (2002), 16(2), 147-54

Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) is believed to control proteolytic activity and cell migration during angiogenesis. We previously demonstrated in vivo that this inhibitor is necessary for ... [more ▼]

Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) is believed to control proteolytic activity and cell migration during angiogenesis. We previously demonstrated in vivo that this inhibitor is necessary for optimal tumor invasion and vascularization. We also showed that PAI-1 angiogenic activity is associated with its control of plasminogen activation but not with the regulation of cell-matrix interaction. To dissect the role of the various components of the plasminogen activation system during angiogenesis, we have adapted the aortic ring assay to use vessels from gene-inactivated mice. The single deficiency of tPA, uPA, or uPAR, as well as combined deficiencies of uPA and tPA, did not dramatically affect microvessel formation. Deficiency of plasminogen delayed microvessel outgrowth. Lack of PAI-1 completely abolished angiogenesis, demonstrating its importance in the control of plasmin-mediated proteolysis. Microvessel outgrowth from PAI-1(-/-) aortic rings could be restored by adding exogenous PAI-1 (wild-type serum or purified recombinant PAI-1). Addition of recombinant PAI-1 led to a bell-shaped angiogenic response clearly showing that PAI-1 is proangiogenic at physiological concentrations and antiangiogenic at higher levels. Using specific PAI-1 mutants, we could demonstrate that PAI-1 promotes angiogenesis at physiological (nanomolar) concentrations through its antiproteolytic activity rather than by interacting with vitronectin. [less ▲]

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See detailApproche statistique de l'influence de l'age et du sexe sur l'excretion de 6-sulfatoxymelatonine urinaire (a-MT6s) chez l'individu normal
Hendrick, J. C.; Crasson, Marion ULg; Hagelstein, Marie-Thérèse ULg et al

in Annales d'Endocrinologie (2002), 63(1), 3-7

A radioimmunoassay of urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (a-MT6s) was performed in 90 normal subjects: 44 males and 46 females (17-67 years). Patients treated with betablokers or antidepressants were not ... [more ▼]

A radioimmunoassay of urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (a-MT6s) was performed in 90 normal subjects: 44 males and 46 females (17-67 years). Patients treated with betablokers or antidepressants were not included in this study. Urine samples were collected over three periods of time: 7 to 11 p.m., 11 p.m. to 7 a.m., and 7 to 11 a.m. Between 11 p.m. and 7 a.m., the subjects slept in their normal environment and had not ingested alcohol for 24 hours. We searched for a possible relation between urinary a-MT6s excretion (expressed in ng/l/h) and age. From 7 to 11 p.m. and from 7 to 11 a.m. no significant relation could be found. On the contrary, between 11 p.m. and 7 a.m. there was a significant relation indicating decrease of a-MT6s secretion with increasing age. Several linear or non-linear curve patters were tested: Boltzmann sigmoid (1(st), 2(nd), and 3(rd) degree), polynomial curves. The Boltzmann sigmoid showed the best fit judging by the r-squared value (0.152) and the runs test (p=0.64). On this curve the inflection point was located at 53 4 years (SDM, standard deviation of the mean). From 19 to 45 years, the upper sigmoid plateau was located at 1381 91 ng/l/h (SDM). The decrease was found between 45 and 60 years and the lower sigmoid plateau then stabilized at 467 370 ng/l/h (\SDM). In the study group, there was no significant difference between men and women according to the Mann-Withney test. Finally, use of oral contraceptives did not affect urinary a-MT6s (Mann-Withney). [less ▲]

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See detailMinimal effects of JL 13, a pyridobenzoxazepine derivative with an antipsychotic potential, on circulating prolactin levels in male rats
Liégeois, Jean-François ULg; Bruhwyler, J.; Hendrick, J. C. et al

in Neuroscience Letters (2002), 319(1), 49-52

Antipsychotic therapy is frequently associated with several side effects such as hyperprolactinemia. The influence of a putative antipsychotic JL 13 on prolactin release was assessed after intraperitoneal ... [more ▼]

Antipsychotic therapy is frequently associated with several side effects such as hyperprolactinemia. The influence of a putative antipsychotic JL 13 on prolactin release was assessed after intraperitoneal injection in gentled male rats in comparison with clozapine and haloperidol. A total of 30 or 150 min after administration, whole blood was collected for preparing serum samples. Prolactin was quantified by radioimmunoassay method. At 30 min, JL 13 like clozapine, increased prolactin concentration only at the higher dose (30 mg/kg) while haloperidol at both tested doses induced a dramatic increase of prolactin concentration. At 150 min after injection, only haloperidol (0.3 mg/kg) significantly increased serum prolactin level. This minimal effect on prolactinemia reinforces the similarity of clozapine and JL 13 regarding the atypical antipsychotic profile. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailPirlindole and dehydropirlindole protect rat cultured neuronal cells against oxidative stress-induced cell death through a mechanism unrelated to MAO-A inhibition
Boland, André ULg; Gerardy, J.; Breeur, Danielle ULg et al

in British Journal of Pharmacology (2002), 135(3), 713-720

1 It has been shown that the MAO (monoamine oxidase)-B inhibitor deprenyl (DPR, selegiline) protects some cell types against oxidative stress. By decreasing H2O2 production, MAO-A inhibitors could also ... [more ▼]

1 It has been shown that the MAO (monoamine oxidase)-B inhibitor deprenyl (DPR, selegiline) protects some cell types against oxidative stress. By decreasing H2O2 production, MAO-A inhibitors could also reduce oxidative stress. 2 This study reports the effect of the MAO-A inhibitors, pirlindole (PIR), dehydropirlindole (DHP), brofaromine (BRO) and moclobemide (MCL) on primary-cultured brain cells exposed to iron-mediated toxicity. A comparison with trolox (TRO), a hydrosoluble vitamin-E analogue that protects against such an induced stress, was performed. 3 Rat hippocampal or cortical cultured cells were exposed either to 2 mum FeSO4 alone or in the presence of PIR, DHP, BRO, DPR, MCL or TRO. Cell survival (lactate-dehydrogenase measurements, 16 h incubation), intracellular peroxide production (DCF-fluorescence. I h incubation), lipoperoxidation (TBARS-fluorescence, 6 h incubation) and mitochondrial function (MTT-test, 16 h incubation) were assessed. 4 PIR, DHP and TRO significantly protected cultures (P<0.05) against Fe2+-induced toxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. The EC50s of these compounds were 6, 12 and 19 muM, respectively, in hippocampal cells. For cortical cell cultures incubated in the presence of iron and PIR or DHP, EC50s were 5 and 6 muM respectively. All Hill coefficients were close to unity. BRO, MCL and DPR were not protective in any type of culture. The IC50s for the inhibition of MAO-A were 2, 2 and 0.2 muM for PIR, DHP and BRO, respectively. PIR, DHP and TRO, but not DPR, induced a significant decrease in both intracellular peroxide production and lipoperoxidation. They also improved mitochondrial function. 5 These experiments show that PIR and DHP can protect hippocampal and cortical neurons against oxidative stress at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. This protective effect seems unrelated to inhibition of MAO-A, but possibly involves free radical scavenging. [less ▲]

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See detailAn optical time-delay for the lensed BAL quasar HE 2149-2745
Burud, I.; Courbin, F.; Magain, Pierre ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2002), 383(1), 71-81

We present optical V and i-band light curves of the gravitationally lensed BAL quasar HE 2149-2745. The data, obtained with the 1.5 m Danish Telescope (ESO-La Silla) between October 1998 and December 2000 ... [more ▼]

We present optical V and i-band light curves of the gravitationally lensed BAL quasar HE 2149-2745. The data, obtained with the 1.5 m Danish Telescope (ESO-La Silla) between October 1998 and December 2000, are the first from a long-term project aimed at monitoring selected lensed quasars in the Southern Hemisphere. A time delay of 103+/-12 days is determined from the light curves. In addition, VLT/FORS1 spectra of HE 2149 2745 are deconvolved in order to obtain the spectrum of the faint lensing galaxy, free of any contamination by the bright nearby two quasar images. By cross-correlating the spectrum with galaxy-templates we obtain a tentative redshift estimate of z = 0.495+/-0:01. Adopting this redshift, a Omega = 0.3, Lambda = 0.7 cosmology, and a chosen analytical lens model, our time-delay measurement yields a Hubble constant of H-0 = 66+/-8 km s(-1) Mpc(-1) (1sigma error) with an estimated systematic error of +/-3 km s(-1) Mpc(-1). Using non-parametric models yields H-0 = 65+/-8 km s(-1) Mpc(-1) (1sigma error) and confirms that the lens exhibits a very dense/concentrated mass profile. Finally, we note, as in other cases, that the flux ratio between the two quasar components is wavelength dependent. While the flux ratio in the broad emission lines-equal to 3.7-remains constant with wavelength, the continuum of the brighter component is bluer. Although the data do not rule out extinction of one quasar image relative to the other as a possible explanation, the effect could also be produced by differential microlensing by stars in the lensing galaxy. [less ▲]

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See detailEpidemiology of inflammatory bowel diseases in the elderly in the province of Liege - A three-year prospective study
Piront, Patricia ULg; Louis, Edouard ULg; Latour, Pascale ULg et al

in Gastroentérologie Clinique et Biologique (2002), 26(2), 157-161

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See detailA Framework for Simulation Based Design of Ship Structures
Rigo, Philippe ULg; Karr; N a SS et al

in Journal of Ship Production (2002)

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See detailInfluence of daily regimen calcium and vitamin D supplementation on parathyroid hormone secretion
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Zegels, Brigitte ULg; Lejeune, Emmanuelle ULg et al

in Calcified Tissue International (2002), 70(2), 78-82

Calcium and vitamin D supplementation has been shown to reduce secondary hyperparathyroidism and play a role in the management of senile osteoporosis. In order to define the optimal regimen of calcium and ... [more ▼]

Calcium and vitamin D supplementation has been shown to reduce secondary hyperparathyroidism and play a role in the management of senile osteoporosis. In order to define the optimal regimen of calcium and vitamin D supplementation to produce the maximal inhibition of parathyroid hormone secretion, we have compared the administration of a similar amount of Ca and vitamin D, either as a single morning dose or split in two doses, taken 6 hours apart. Twelve healthy volunteers were assigned to three investigational procedures, at weekly intervals. After a blank control procedure, when they were not exposed to any drug intake, they received two calcium-vitamin D supplement regimens including either two doses of Orocal D3 (500 mg Ca and 400 IU vitamin D) 6 hours apart or one water-soluble effervescent powder pack of Cacit D3 in a single morning dose (1000 mg Ca and 880 IU vitamin D). During the three procedures (control and the two calcium-vitamin D supplementations), venous blood was drawn every 60 minutes for up to 9 hours, for serum Ca and serum PTH measurements. The order of administration of the two Ca and vitamin D supplementation sequences was allocated by randomization. No significant changes in serum Ca were observed during the study. During the 6 hours following Ca and vitamin D supplementation, a statistically significant decrease in serum PTH was observed with both regimens, compared with baseline and with the control procedure. Over this period of time, no differences were observed between the two treatment regimens. However, between the sixth and the ninth hour, serum PTH levels were still significantly decreased compared with baseline with split dose Orocal D3 administration, while they returned to baseline value with the Cacit D3 preparation. During this period, the percentage decrease in serum PTH compared with baseline was significantly more pronounced with Orocal D3 than with Cacit D3 (P = 0.0021). We therefore conclude that the administration of two doses of 500 mg of calcium and 400 IU of vitamin D3 6 hours apart provides a more prolonged decrease in serum PTH levels than the administration of the same total amount of Ca and vitamin D as a single morning dose in young healthy volunteers. This might have implications in terms of protection of the skeleton against secondary hyperparathyroidism and increased bone resorption and turnover in elderly subjects. [less ▲]

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See detailLe cathétérisme bilatérale des sinus pétreux avec dosages multihormonaux dans la maladie de Cushing
Valdes Socin, Hernan Gonzalo ULg; Bataille, Yoann ULg; Meurisse, Nicolas ULg et al

in Annales d'Endocrinologie (2002), 63(1), 23-30

Multihormonal bilateral petrosal sinus sampling (BPSS) has been proposed to improve corticotroph microadenomas prediction of lateralisation. Few series have simultaneously compared data of pituitary MRI ... [more ▼]

Multihormonal bilateral petrosal sinus sampling (BPSS) has been proposed to improve corticotroph microadenomas prediction of lateralisation. Few series have simultaneously compared data of pituitary MRI, surgical findings and multihormonal BPSS. Seven patients (6F/1M) with Cushing's disease, mean age at diagnosis of 35 years (range 24-55) were prospectively studied to compare radiological and multihormonal BPSS data with surgical and pathological findings. In untreated patients, simultaneous measures of ACTH, TSH and prolactine (PRL) were done at time 0, 7, 15, 22 minutes after CRH (500 mg) and TRH (200 mg) stimulation. An intersinus gradient of 1.4 was considered as a lateralisation. All microadenomas were identified during surgery, diameters ranged from 2 to 7 mm. All patients were in long-term surgical remission. Pathological studies confirmed a tumoral tissue with ACTH immunostaining in 6/7 cases and PRL in 3/7 cases. Pituitary MRI correctly identified tumors in 4 cases, the remaining tumors were not seen. Basal and stimulated intersinus gradients of ACTH, TSH and PRL were homolateral in 6/7 cases and were coincident with surgical findings in 4/7 cases. The other three cases were contralateral to MRI and surgical data. In conclusion, simultaneous gradient of ACTH, PRL and TSH did not improve lateralisation prediction in this series. Hormonal hypersecretion was homolateral in six cases whereas pathological studies demonstrated a mixed secretion in only three cases. A preferential pituitary draining could explain these discordances. Data from our series and from others (done with CRH stimulation and ACTH-PRL measures) strongly suggest a paracrine interaction between tumoral and normal pituitary tissue. [less ▲]

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See detailCytokine balance in infants undergoing cardiac operation.
Hovels-Gurich, Hedwig H; Schumacher, Kathrin; Vazquez-Jimenez, Jaime F et al

in Annals of Thoracic Surgery (2002), 73(2), 601-8608-9

BACKGROUND: The control of the systemic inflammatory response taking place during cardiac operations depends on adequate antiinflammatory reaction. In this prospective study we tested the hypothesis that ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The control of the systemic inflammatory response taking place during cardiac operations depends on adequate antiinflammatory reaction. In this prospective study we tested the hypothesis that cytokine balance during pediatric cardiac surgical procedures would be influenced by the patients' preoperative clinical condition, defined as hypoxemia or heart failure. METHODS: Twenty infants (median age, 8 months) with hypoxemia owing to intracardiac right-to-left shunt (group 1, n = 10) or with heart failure because of intracardiac left-to-right shunt (group 2, n = 10), scheduled for elective primary corrective operation, were enrolled. Plasma levels of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL) 6, the natural antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10, and the markers of the acute-phase response, C-reactive protein and procalcitonin, were sequentially measured before, during, and after cardiac operation up to the 10th postoperative day. The ratio of IL-10 to IL-6 levels served as a marker for the individual's antiinflammatory cytokine balance. RESULTS: Group 1 showed higher preoperative IL-6 (p < 0.001), lower IL-10 levels (p < 0.02), and lower ratio of IL-10 to IL-6 levels (p < 0.001) than group 2. Preoperative C-reactive protein and procalcitonin were not detectable. In group 1, preoperative IL-6 levels inversely correlated with preoperative oxygen saturation (Spearman correlation coefficient, -0.74, p < 0.02). During cardiopulmonary bypass, IL-6 levels were higher, whereas IL-10 and ratio of IL-10 to IL-6 levels were lower in group 1 than in group 2. In all patients, postoperative IL-6 levels were positively correlated with duration of inotropic support and serum creatinine value and inversely correlated with oxygenation index and diuresis. CONCLUSIONS: Infants with hypoxemia show a preoperative inflammatory state with low antiinflammatory cytokine balance in contrast to those with heart failure. This in turn is associated with lower perioperative antiinflammatory cytokine balance and might contribute to postoperative morbidity. [less ▲]

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See detailHypertension artérielle et artériopathie
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

in Medi-Sphere (2002)

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See detailA neural network model of sensitization of evoked cortical responses in migraine
Thomas, E.; Sandor, P. S.; Ambrosini, A. et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2002), 22(1), 48-53

Migraine patients show abnormalities of cerebral electrophysiology that manifest themselves mainly during the attack interval. Cortical-evoked potentials of migraineurs fail to habituate to repetitive ... [more ▼]

Migraine patients show abnormalities of cerebral electrophysiology that manifest themselves mainly during the attack interval. Cortical-evoked potentials of migraineurs fail to habituate to repetitive presentations of visual stimuli, and the amplitude of components of their auditory cortical-evoked potentials have a higher dependence on the stimulus intensities than in healthy subjects. A computer model of a neural hetwork has been developed that is able to reproduce both these neurophysiological dysfunctions. It predicts a positive correlation between the magnitudes of both these dysfunctions. The model also offers an explanation of why mutations in the same ion channel gene with opposite consequences on channel function, e.g. P/Q Ca2+ channels in migraine, may lead to similar electrophysiological abnormalities. [less ▲]

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See detailSpermine induces precocious development of the spleen in mice
Jolois, Olivier ULg; Peulen, Olivier ULg; Collin, Serge ULg et al

in Experimental Physiology (2002), 87(1), 69-75

Spermine is a low molecular weight polyamine involved in the postnatal maturation of the gut. When it is administered orally to suckling rats, it induces maturation of the intestinal tract (liver ... [more ▼]

Spermine is a low molecular weight polyamine involved in the postnatal maturation of the gut. When it is administered orally to suckling rats, it induces maturation of the intestinal tract (liver, pancreas and small intestine). Here we show that this polyamine is able to induce precocious intestinal and splenic development in suckling mice. In fact, in 15-day-old mice which had received spermine orally twice daily for 3 days we observed an increase in the ratio of white pulp surface to total spleen surface in comparison with untreated mice. The two macrophage subsets of the marginal zone and the B-cell population were more developed and reached the development level of 5- or 10-week-old mice. The proliferation rate of B-cells was increased by spermine administration to pups. These observations suggest that spermine might play a role in immune system development; further investigation of its effects are intended, namely the evaluation of its capacity to enhance defence during the neonatal period. [less ▲]

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See detailPrise en charge perioperatoire des pertes sanguines au cours du traitement chirurgical des craniostenoses
BONHOMME, Vincent ULg; Damas, François ULg; Born, J. D. et al

in Annales Françaises d'Anesthésie et de Réanimation (2002), 21(2), 119-25

Blood saving is the major challenge during the surgical repair of craniofacial deformities. Treated patients have a low reserve volume and the techniques available to lower homologous blood transfusions ... [more ▼]

Blood saving is the major challenge during the surgical repair of craniofacial deformities. Treated patients have a low reserve volume and the techniques available to lower homologous blood transfusions are limited or insufficiently evaluated in this particular case. The most important factor determining blood loss is the quality of the surgical haemostasis. Blood saving begins with early preoperative evaluation of the patient's bleeding risk, which is a function of the type of surgery, of the surgical technique, of the number of sutures involved, of the length of surgery, and of the patients age, weight and physical status. Elaborated blood saving techniques such as preoperative autologous blood donation, erythropoietin administration, normovolaemic haemodilution, and peroperative autologous blood saving and reinfusion have revealed disappointing where used alone. These techniques require a heavy setup and still need to be evaluated extensively. They should be used in selected cases such as in patients with a very high risk of bleeding or face to Jehovah Witnesses. Monitoring during surgery should include precise evaluation of blood losses and haematocrit measurements at regular intervals. The haematocrit threshold allowing homologous blood transfusion should be set at 21%, provided that any other source of autologous blood is exhausted. Postoperative monitoring should also include precise evaluation of blood losses and haematocrit measurements. The 21% threshold should remain the reference during that period. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of Rational-Based and Rule-Based Optimum Design of Ship Structures
Karr, Dale; Rigo, Philippe ULg; Na, SS et al

in SNAME Transactions (2002)

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See detailInfluence of the mucosal epithelium microenvironment on Langerhans cells: implications for the development of squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix
Giannini, Sandra ULg; Hubert, Pascale ULg; Doyen, Jean ULg et al

in International Journal of Cancer = Journal International du Cancer (2002), 97(5), 654-659

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See detailAdministration of a supplement containing both calcium and vitamin D is more effective than calcium alone to reduce secondary hyperparathyroidism in postmenopausal women with low 25(OH)vitamin D circulating levels
Deroisy, Rita ULg; Collette, Julien ULg; Albert, Adelin ULg et al

in Aging Clinical & Experimental Research (2002), 14(1), 13-17

Background and aims: Supplementation of postmenopausal women with calcium alone or calcium-vitamin D association was suggested to have positive effects on bone turnover and bone density, as well as to ... [more ▼]

Background and aims: Supplementation of postmenopausal women with calcium alone or calcium-vitamin D association was suggested to have positive effects on bone turnover and bone density, as well as to lower fracture incidence. The beneficial effect appears to be mediated by a reduction in parathyroid hormone secretion. Our aim was to compare the respective efficacy of calcium and calcium-vitamin D supplements in reducing serum parathyroid hormone levels in postmenopausal women with prevalent low 25(OH)vitamin D levels. Methods: One hundred consecutive ambulatory postmenopausal women with serum 25(OH)vitamin D levels below 18 ng/mL were included in a randomized, prospective, open label study. For a duration of 90 days, the women were randomly assigned to a daily supplementation of either one tablet of calcium gluconolactate and carbonate (500 mg calcium), or one powder-pack of an association of calcium carbonate (500 mg calcium), citric acid (2.175 gr) and cholecalciferol (200 IU). Changes observed during the 90 days of the study in circulating PTH levels were the primary endpoint, while changes in serum 25(OH)D levels were assessed as secondary endpoint. Results: A significant difference was observed between the calcium-vitamin D (CaD) and the calcium (Ca) only groups for changes occurring during the 90 days of the study in PTH (-14.5 +/- 40% and +2.5 +/- 46%) (p=0.009) and 25(OH)D (+67 +/- 77% and +18 +/- 55%) (p<0.001) circulating levels. PTH changes between baseline and day 90 were significant in the CaD group, but not in the Ca group. The odds ratio for a patient in group Ca to experience an absolute (<12 ng/mL) deficiency in circulating 25(OH)vitamin D levels, compared to a group CaD patient was statistically increased (OR: 3.22, 95% CI: 1.33-7.80). Conclusions: Our results support the recommendation of supplementing postmenopausal women with low circulating levels of 25(OH)vitamin D with a combination of calcium and vitamin D, rather than with calcium alone. [less ▲]

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See detailOverexpression of the homeobox gene HOXC8 in human prostate cancer correlates with loss of tumor differentiation
Waltregny, David ULg; Alami, Younes; Clausse, Nathalie et al

in Prostate (2002), 50(3), 162-169

BACKGROUND. Homeobox (HOX)-containing proteins have been identified as regulators controlling the coordinated expression of genes involved in development and differentiation. Recent data also suggest a ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND. Homeobox (HOX)-containing proteins have been identified as regulators controlling the coordinated expression of genes involved in development and differentiation. Recent data also suggest a possible involvement of HOX genes in malignant transformation and/or progression. We have previously shown that HOXC8 expression was selectively turned on in human cervix cancer cells compared with normal keratinocytes, suggesting that HOXC8 may be involved in the process leading to the transformation of cervix keratinocytes [Alami et al.: Biochem Biophys Res Commun 257:738-745,1999]. METHODS. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization experiments were performed to investigate the expression and cell type localization of HOXC8 transcripts in human prostate cancer cell lines and tissues. In situ hybridization was performed with the use of an HOXC8 anti-sense digoxigenin-labeled probe to investigate HOXC8 mRNA expression in 27 prostate cancer tissue specimens. RESULTS. Out of the three human prostate cancer cell lines tested, DU-145 and PC3 but not LNCaP cells expressed detectable amount of HOXC8 transcripts. Results from in situ hybridization experiments demonstrated that HOXC8 gene was expressed mainly in malignant epithelial cells. Furthermore, the staining intensity in epithelial cells was significantly increased in high Gleason score carcinomas (scores 7-9, n = 12; labeling intensity 2 + to 3 +) compared with the one observed in low and intermediate Gleason score tumors (scores 3-6, n = 15; labeling intensity 0 and 1 +) (ANOVA test, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS. Our data showing that HOXC8 overexpression is associated with the loss of tumor differentiation in human prostate cancer suggests that HOXC8 may play a role in the acquisition of the invasive and metastatic phenotype of this malignancy. (C) 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailSexually dimorphic activation of galanin neurones in the ferret's dorsomedial preoptic area/anterior hypothalamus after mating
Bakker, Julie ULg; Woodley, S. K.; Kelliher, K. R. et al

in Journal of Neuroendocrinology (2002), 14(2), 116-125

Male ferrets in breeding condition possess three times as many galanin-immunoreactive (IR) neurones as oestrous females in the sexually dimorphic dorsomedial preoptic area/anterior hypothalamus (dmPOA/AH ... [more ▼]

Male ferrets in breeding condition possess three times as many galanin-immunoreactive (IR) neurones as oestrous females in the sexually dimorphic dorsomedial preoptic area/anterior hypothalamus (dmPOA/AH). Using Fos-IR as a marker of activation, we investigated whether mating with intromission differentially activates this sexually dimorphic group of galanin-IR neurones in male and female ferrets. Male ferrets that intromitted had a significantly greater percentage of galanin-IR neurones in the dmPOA/AH that were colabelled with nuclear Fos-IR than oestrous females that received an intromission. Intromissive stimulation augmented Fos-IR in an equal percentage of galanin-IR neurones in both sexes in the medial amygdala (MA) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). Peripheral anosmia induced by bilateral occlusion of males' nares did not reduce the mating-induced activation of galanin-IR neurones in the dmPOA/AH, and there was a significant correlation among individual males between intromission duration and the percentage of dmPOA/AH galanin-IR neurones colabelled with Fos-IR. Exposure of castrated, testosterone propionate-treated male ferrets to either soiled bedding or to volatile odours from oestrous females failed to induce nuclear Fos-IR in galanin-IR neurones located in the dmPOA/AH, BNST or MA, suggesting that the mating-induced activation of galanin-IR forebrain neurones in male ferrets depends more on genital-somatosensory than on olfactory inputs. The observed sex dimorphism in the mating-induced activation of galanin-IR neurones in the dmPOA/AH raises the possibility that these neurones perform a mating-dependent function that occurs only in males. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of intermittent and continuous exposure to electromagnetic fields on cultured hippocampal cells
Boland, André ULg; Gabriel, Danielle ULg; Breeur, Danielle ULg et al

in Bioelectromagnetics (2002), 23(2), 97-105

This study was designed to assess the effect of 50 Hz electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on hippocampal cell cultures in the presence or absence of either sodium nitroprusside (SNP, a NO donor) or Fe2+ induced ... [more ▼]

This study was designed to assess the effect of 50 Hz electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on hippocampal cell cultures in the presence or absence of either sodium nitroprusside (SNP, a NO donor) or Fe2+ induced oxidative stress. One week old cultured rat hippocampal cells were exposed to either intermittent EMFs (IEMFs, 50 Hz, 0-5 mT, 1 min ON/OFF cycles, repeated 10 times every 2 h, 6 times/day during 48 h) or continuous EMFs (CEMFs, 50 Hz, 0-5 mT for 48 h). In a second set of experiments, the effect on such EMFs applied in combination with oxidative stress induced by 0.5 microM Fe2+ or SNP was estimated. At the end of both sets of experiments, cell mortality was assessed by lactate dehydrogenase measurements (LDH). Neither type of exposure to EMFs was observed to modify the basal rate of cell mortality. The exposure to CEMFs in presence of either NO or Fe2+ did not induce any significant increase in cell death. However, when cells were exposed to EMFs in the presence of NO, we observed a significant increase in cell death of 11 and 23% (P<0.001) at 2.5 and 5 mT, respectively. This effect had some specificity because IEMFs did not modify the effect of Fe2+ on cell mortality. Although the effects of IEMFs reported in this study were only observed at very high intensities, our model may prove valuable in trying to identify one cellular target of EMFs. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude clinique du mois. Radio-chimiotherapie et chimiotherapie adjuvante apres resection a visee curative du cancer du pancreas: resultats de l'etude randomisee ESPAC-1
Polus, Marc ULg; Jerusalem, Guy ULg; Sautois, Brieuc ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(2), 119-22

The prognosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma remains poor, with a 5-year survival rate lower than 5%. Resection, the gold standard treatment, can be performed in less than 15% of patients. Following surgery ... [more ▼]

The prognosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma remains poor, with a 5-year survival rate lower than 5%. Resection, the gold standard treatment, can be performed in less than 15% of patients. Following surgery, the median survival is 12 months for the most favourable cancer patients. Adjuvant treatment have attempted to improve results. However, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and multimodal treatments don't have demonstrated a clear advantage in controlled trials. We will discuss results of the current trials in this topic. The randomised trial of the European Study Group for Pancreatic Cancer (ESPAC) recently published in the Lancet revealed a potential benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy. A critical analysis of the publication showed, however, that definitive conclusions of this trial must be interpreted with caution. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of block copolymers of various molecular architecture on the phase morphology and tensile properties of LDPE rich (LDPE/PS) blends
Harrats, Charef; Fayt, R.; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Polymer (2002), 43(3), 863-873

The emulsification efficiency of three different block copolymers consisting of hydrogenated polybutadiene (HPB) and polystyrene (PS), i.e. a pure diblock , a tapered diblock and a triblock copolymer has ... [more ▼]

The emulsification efficiency of three different block copolymers consisting of hydrogenated polybutadiene (HPB) and polystyrene (PS), i.e. a pure diblock , a tapered diblock and a triblock copolymer has been compared in low density polyethylene/polystyrene (LDPE/PS) blends rich in polyethylene. The comparison relies upon the ability of these potential interfacial agents to stabilize fine phase dispersion and to promote good interfacial adhesion. Based on the phase morphology, the ultimate tensile properties and the dynamic viscosity of the modified blends, the tapered diblock copolymer is clearly the most efficient emulsifier. For instance a plateau is observed in the property-copolymer content dependence when 2 wt% tapered diblock are used compared to ca. 5 wt% in case of the pure diblock. In contrast, no plateau is observed when the triblock copolymer is used. This is assumed to result from a less quantitative localization of these two copolymers i.e. the pue diblock or the triblock at the LDPE/PS interface. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysical interpretation of the proper orthogonal modes using the singular value decomposition
Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg; Golinval, Jean-Claude ULg

in Journal of Sound & Vibration (2002), 249(5), 849-865

Proper orthogonal decomposition is a statistical pattern analysis technique for finding the dominant structures, called the proper orthogonal modes, in an ensemble of spatially distributed data. While the ... [more ▼]

Proper orthogonal decomposition is a statistical pattern analysis technique for finding the dominant structures, called the proper orthogonal modes, in an ensemble of spatially distributed data. While the proper orthogonal modes are obtained through a statistical formulation, they can be physically interpreted in the field of structural dynamics. The purpose of this paper is thus to provide some insights into the physical interpretation of the proper orthogonal modes using the singular value decomposition. (C) 2002 Academic Press. [less ▲]

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See detailTwo-step backbiting reaction in the ring-opening polymerization of gamma-acryloyloxy-epsilon-caprolactone initiated with aluminium isopropoxide
Lou, Xudong; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Lecomte, Philippe ULg et al

in Macromolecular Rapid Communications (2002), 23(2), 126-129

gamma-Acryloyloxyethyl-gamma-butyrolactone is formed as a byproduct when the polymerization of gamma-acryloyloxy-epsilon-caprolactone is initiated with aluminium isopropoxide in toluene. The extent of ... [more ▼]

gamma-Acryloyloxyethyl-gamma-butyrolactone is formed as a byproduct when the polymerization of gamma-acryloyloxy-epsilon-caprolactone is initiated with aluminium isopropoxide in toluene. The extent of this side reaction decreases with decreasing temperature and is dependent on whether the reaction is stopped as soon as monomer conversion is complete or not. A two-step backbiting mechanism is proposed for this intramolecular transesterification reaction. [less ▲]

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See detailInduction of protective immunity to bovine herpesvirus type 1 in cattle by intranasal administration of replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 expressing glycoprotein gC or gD
Gogev, S.; Vanderheijden, N.; Lemaire, Mylène et al

in Vaccine (2002), 20(9-10), 1451-1465

Replication-defective human adenoviruses type 5 (HAd5) expressing the bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) glycoprotein gC or gD under the control of the human cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter ... [more ▼]

Replication-defective human adenoviruses type 5 (HAd5) expressing the bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) glycoprotein gC or gD under the control of the human cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter/enhancer (AdCMVgC or AdCMVgD) or the 5' regulatory region of the human desmin gene (AdDESMgC or AdDESMgD) were generated. A preliminary experiment performed on rabbits showed that the intranasal administration of AdCMV elicited higher levels of BHV-1 neutralizing antibodies than the intramuscular administration of AdDESM. The obtained results allowed to select the replication-defective AdCMVgC and AdCMVgD for further assessment of their potential as a recombinant vaccine in cattle. Calves were injected intranasally twice 3 weeks apart with either AdCMVgC or AdCMVgD or a combination of these two recombinants or a commercially available live vaccine for comparison. The highest BHV-1 neutralizing antibody titres were obtained with AdCMVgD followed by the live vaccine and to a lower extent with the combination of the two recombinants (AdCMVgC+AdCMVgD). Calves were protected against intranasal BHV-1 challenge performed 3 weeks after the second immunization. In view of the obtained results, recombinant HAd5 may be developed as an intranasal vaccine vector in cattle administrated either alone or sequentially with non-human adenovirus-based vectors. [less ▲]

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See detailHistone deacetylases inhibitors as anti-angiogenic agents altering vascular endothelial growth factor signaling
Deroanne, Christophe ULg; Bonjean, Karine; Servotte, Sandrine et al

in Oncogene (2002), 21(3), 427-436

Angiogenesis is a complex biological process involving the coordinated modulation of many genes. Histone deacetylases (HDAC) are a growing family of enzymes that mediate the availability of chromatin to ... [more ▼]

Angiogenesis is a complex biological process involving the coordinated modulation of many genes. Histone deacetylases (HDAC) are a growing family of enzymes that mediate the availability of chromatin to the transcriptional machinery. Trichostatin-A (TSA) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), two HDAC inhibitors known to relieve gene silencing, were evaluated as potential antiangiogenic agents. TSA and SAHA were shown to prevent vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-stimulated human umbilical cord endothelial cells (HUVEC) from invading a type I collagen gel and forming capillary-like structures. SAHA and TSA inhibited the VEGF-induced formation of a CD31-positive capillary-like network in embryoid bodies and inhibited the VEGF-induced angiogenesis in the CAM assay. TSA also prevented, in a dose-response relationship, the sprouting of capillaries from rat aortic rings. TSA inhibited in a dose-dependent and reversible fashion the VEGF-induced expression of VEGF receptors, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, and neuropilin-1. TSA and SAHA upregulated the expression by HUVEC of semaphorin III, a recently described VEGF competitor, at both mRNA and protein levels. This effect was specific to endothelial cells and was not observed in human fibroblasts neither in vascular smooth muscle cells. These observations provide a conspicuous demonstration that HDAC inhibitors are potent anti-angiogenic factors altering VEGF signaling. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomated determination of pirlindole enantiomers in plasma by on-line coupling of a pre-column packed with restricted access material to a chiral liquid chromatographic column
Chiap, Patrice ULg; Ceccato, Attilio ULg; Gora, R. et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2002), 27(3-4), 447-455

A fully automated liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the determination of the enantiomers of pirlindole, an antidepressant drug, in human plasma. The method is based on the use of a pre ... [more ▼]

A fully automated liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the determination of the enantiomers of pirlindole, an antidepressant drug, in human plasma. The method is based on the use of a pre-column packed with restricted access material (RAM) (LiChrospher ADS RP-4) for sample clean-up coupled to a column containing a cellulose tris-(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) based chiral stationary phase (Chiralcel OD-R) for the separation and quantitative analysis of pirlindole enantiomers. A 50-microl plasma volume was injected directly onto the pre-column using a mixture of phosphate buffer (pH 5.0) and methanol (97:3; v/v) as washing liquid. By rotation of a switching valve, the analytes were then eluted in the back-flush mode with the LC mobile phase. A complete separation of pirlindole enantiomers was obtained in 22 min on the Chiralcel OD-R column, using a mobile phase made of a mixture of phosphate buffer (pH 5.0) containing 50 mM sodium perchlorate and acetonitrile (65:35; v/v). The flow-rate was 0.6 ml/min and the analytes were detected fluorometrically using 295 and 340 nm as excitation and emission wavelengths, respectively. The method was then validated and was found to be linear in the 2.5-200 ng/ml range. The limit of detection was lower than 1 ng/ml. Repeatability and intermediate precision at a concentration of 50 ng/ml were about 1.5 and 3.5%, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of enantioseparation techniques on the development and use of chiral drugs - Preface
Chankvetadze, B.; Crommen, Jacques ULg

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2002), 27(3-4), 355-355

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See detailMatrix and serine protease expression during leukemic cell differentiation induced by aclacinomycin and all-trans-retinoic acid
Devy, L.; Hollender, P.; Munaut, Carine ULg et al

in Biochemical Pharmacology (2002), 63(2), 179-189

In myeloid leukemia, immature leukemic cells are able to egress into peripheral blood to infiltrate extra-medullary organs. We therefore analyzed the migrating and invasive potential of human HL-60 and ... [more ▼]

In myeloid leukemia, immature leukemic cells are able to egress into peripheral blood to infiltrate extra-medullary organs. We therefore analyzed the migrating and invasive potential of human HL-60 and NB4 cell lines, representative of acute myelogenous leukemia, their ability to express matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMPs) and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) in response to differentiating agents. Granulocytic differentiation by all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) and aclacinomycin (ACLA) strongly increased HL-60 and NB4 cell migration and invasion. At mRNA and protein levels, these cell lines produced significant amounts of MMP-9 (HL-60 < NB4). Granulocytic differentiation by ACLA increased both pro and active forms of MMP-9 whereas ATRA decreased them and stimulated uPA mRNAs. TIMP-1, the physiological MMP inhibitor, increased during granulocytic differentiation whereas TIMP-2 did not significantly vary. Use of Batimastat and aprotinin suggests that ATRA was active by modulating the uPA system while ACLA interfered with MMP expression. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that HL-60 and NB4 cells express MMPs and uPA which are differentially regulated by the differentiating agents ATRA and ACLA and suggest the clinical usefulness of MMPs and serine protease inhibitors in the prophylaxis and treatment of the ATRA syndrome. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailNear-infrared [Fe II] emission from supernova remnants and the supernova rate of starburst galaxies
Morel, Thierry ULg; Doyon, R.; St-Louis, N.

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2002), 329

In an effort better to calibrate the supernova rate of starburst galaxies as determined from near-infrared [FeII] features, we report on a [FeII] λ1.644μm line-imaging survey of a sample of 42 optically ... [more ▼]

In an effort better to calibrate the supernova rate of starburst galaxies as determined from near-infrared [FeII] features, we report on a [FeII] λ1.644μm line-imaging survey of a sample of 42 optically selected supernova remnants (SNRs) in M33. A wide range of [FeII] luminosities are observed within our sample (from less than 6 to 695L[SUB]solar[/SUB]). Our data suggest that the bright [FeII] SNRs are entering the radiative phase and that the density of the local interstellar medium (ISM) largely controls the amount of [FeII] emission. We derive the following relation between the [FeII] λ1.644μm line luminosity of radiative SNRs and the electronic density of the post-shock gas, n[SUB]e[/SUB]: L[SUB][FeII][/SUB] (L[SUB]solar[/SUB])~1.1n[SUB]e[/SUB] (cm[SUP]-3[/SUP]). We also find a correlation in our data between L[SUB][FeII][/SUB] and the metallicity of the shock-heated gas, but the physical interpretation of this result remains inconclusive, as our data also show a correlation between the metallicity and n[SUB]e[/SUB]. The dramatically higher level of [FeII] emission from SNRs in the central regions of starburst galaxies is most likely due to their dense environments, although metallicity effects might also be important. The typical [FeII]-emitting lifetime of a SNR in the central regions of starburst galaxies is found to be of the order of 10[SUP]4[/SUP]yr. On the basis of these results, we provide a new empirical relation allowing the determination of the current supernova rate of starburst galaxies from their integrated near-infrared [FeII] luminosity. [less ▲]

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See detailContribution of unsymmetrical difunctional initiators/monomers to the macromolecular engineering
Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Macromolecular Symposia (2002), 177

The emerging technologies (e.g. in optics, microelectronics, medicine...) require the availability of synthetic polymers with continuously more sophisticated properties and performances. The best way for ... [more ▼]

The emerging technologies (e.g. in optics, microelectronics, medicine...) require the availability of synthetic polymers with continuously more sophisticated properties and performances. The best way for the polymer chemist to face this challenge is to tailor the molecular structure of the chains. Nowadays, the progress in the living/controlled polymerization mechanisms is such that the so-called macromolecular engineering is a vivid reality. [less ▲]

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See detailEstablishment of a geographic data dictionnary : a case study of UrbIS 2 ©, the Brussels regional government GIS
Pantazis, Dimos; Cornélis, Bernard; Billen, Roland ULg et al

in Computers, Environment & Urban Systems (2002), 26(1), 3-17

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See detailLà-bas si j'y suis
Dejasse, Erwin ULg

in 9e Art : Les Cahiers du Musée de la Bande Dessinée (2002), 7

The article deals with the idea of place into the comics of Belgian artist Jean-Philippe Stassen.

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See detailThe crystal chemistry of lithium in the alluaudite structure: A study of the (Na1-xLix)Cdln(2) (PO4)(3) the solid solution (x=0 to 1)
Hatert, Frédéric ULg; Antenucci, Diano ULg; Fransolet, André-Mathieu ULg et al

in Journal of Solid State Chemistry (2002), 163(1), 194-201

Several compounds of the (Na1-xLix)CdIn2(PO4)(3) solid solution were synthesized by a solid-state reaction in air, and pure alluaudite-like compounds were obtained for x = 0.00, 0.25, and 0.50. X-ray ... [more ▼]

Several compounds of the (Na1-xLix)CdIn2(PO4)(3) solid solution were synthesized by a solid-state reaction in air, and pure alluaudite-like compounds were obtained for x = 0.00, 0.25, and 0.50. X-ray Rietveld refinements indicate the occurrence of Cd2+ in the M(1) site, and of In3+ in the M(2) site of the alluaudite structure. This non-disordered cationic distribution is confirmed by the sharpness of the infrared absorption bands. The distribution of Na+ and Li+ on the A(1) and A(2)' crystallographic sites cannot be accurately assessed by the Rietvled method, probably because the electronic densities involved in the Na+ --> Li+ substitution are very small. A comparison with the synthetic alluaudite-like compounds, (Na1-xLix)MnFe2(PO4)(3), indicates the influence of the cations occupying the M(1) and M(2) sites on the coordination polyhedra morphologies of the A(1) and A(2)' crystallographic sites. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science. [less ▲]

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See detailAcute traumatic central cord syndrome: magnetic resonance imaging and clinical observations
Collignon, F. D.; Martin, Didier ULg; Lenelle, Jacques ULg et al

in Journal of Neurosurgery (2002), 96(1 Suppl), 29-33

Object. Acute traumatic central cord syndrome has been classically thought to be caused by a hemorrhage that primarily affects the central part of the spinal cord and that destroys the axons of the inner ... [more ▼]

Object. Acute traumatic central cord syndrome has been classically thought to be caused by a hemorrhage that primarily affects the central part of the spinal cord and that destroys the axons of the inner part of the corticospinal tract devoted to the motor control of the hands. Some authors, however, have proposed that its pathogenesis is based on the destruction of the motor neurons supplying the muscles of the hand. To test the validity of these two theories, the authors retrospectively studied the magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained in 18 cases of acute traumatic central cord syndrome (ATCCS) to assess the presence of intramedullary blood and to define the distribution of the abnormal signal intensities in the cervical spinal cord. Methods. The authors used the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) motor scale to assess upper- and lower-limb deficits and to evaluate its metameric distribution. The abnormal intramedullary signal was then compared with the distribution of the motor deficit. All MR imaging sessions performed in the acute stage revealed a hyperintense signal on T-2-weighted sequences without any signal change suggesting the presence of intramedullary blood. The localization of this signal was distributed predominantly from the C3-4 to the C5-6 disc levels. The mean ASIA motor score was 74.3 of 100, with an unequal representation between the upper and lower limbs (32 of 50 compared with 42.3 of 50, respectively). The metameric distribution of the deficit was also unequal, with a major deficit in hand function (C8-T1) compared with the more proximal cord segments (5.2 of 10 compared with 7.8 of 10, respectively). This demonstrates the absence of any correlation between the hyperintense signal and the motor deficit distribution. Conclusions. Acute traumatic central cord syndrome cannot be explained by the injury to the gray matter at the level of motor neurons supplying the hand muscles. In agreement with recently published data, the results of this series confirm the absence of intramedullary hemorrhage and corroborate the hypothesis that ATCCS may be explained by the impairment of the corticospinal tract, which can be affected globally. [less ▲]

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See detailLa restauration du maillage écologique: une nécessité pour assurer la conservation de l'herpétofaune en Wallonie
Graitson, Eric ULg; Jacob, Jean-Paul

in Natura Mosana (2002), 54(4), 21-36

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See detailA colorimetric method for the determination of lipase activity in soil
Margesin, R.; Feller, Georges ULg; Hammerle, M. et al

in Biotechnology Letters (2002), 24(1), 27-33

A colorimetric method for the determination of lipase activity in soil has been developed. Using p-nitrophenyl butyrate as substrate, soil samples are incubated at 30 degreesC and pH 7.25 for 10 min ... [more ▼]

A colorimetric method for the determination of lipase activity in soil has been developed. Using p-nitrophenyl butyrate as substrate, soil samples are incubated at 30 degreesC and pH 7.25 for 10 min. After cooling on ice and centrifugation, the released p-nitrophenol is determined at 400 nm. To allow for the adsorption of p-nitrophenol onto soil, a calibration curve is prepared in the presence of soil. [less ▲]

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See detailThe inhibition of metalloproteinases to treat osteoarthritis: reality and new perspectives
Henrotin, Yves ULg; Sanchez, Christelle ULg; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents (2002), 12(1), 29-43

The objective of this paper is to analyse the potential therapeutic action of MMP inhibitors in the management of osteoarthritis (OA), based on a critical review of the literature. The role played by ... [more ▼]

The objective of this paper is to analyse the potential therapeutic action of MMP inhibitors in the management of osteoarthritis (OA), based on a critical review of the literature. The role played by metalloproteinases (MPs) in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis is discussed, as well as their regulation by tissular inhibitors, activators and cytokines. The evidences that commonly used drugs for treating osteoarthritis are also active on MPs synthesis is also reported. Finally, this paper provides an analysis of the recent patents published with promising therapeutic potential and gives new perspectives for anti-MPs therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailPharma-clinics le medicament du mois. Le rabeprazole (Pariet)
Louis, Edouard ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(1), 53-6

Proton pomp inhibitors (PPI) have revolutionized the treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and gastro-duodenal ulcers. Rabeprazole (Pariet) is the last PPI arrived on the Belgian market ... [more ▼]

Proton pomp inhibitors (PPI) have revolutionized the treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and gastro-duodenal ulcers. Rabeprazole (Pariet) is the last PPI arrived on the Belgian market. Controlled studies have shown an efficacy similar to emeprazole in the treatment of oeso-gastro-duodenal acid diseases. Rabeprazole has a favourable profile with rapid action and good safety. [less ▲]

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See detailSport-études : Comparaison des caractéristiques motivationnelles et des relations sociales des élèves sportifs et de leurs condisciples
Cloes, Marc ULg; Schelings, Virginie; Ledent, Maryse ULg et al

in e Journal de la Recherche sur l'Intervention en Education Physique et Sport (2002), 1

Le sport-études a été créé afin de permettre aux jeunes ayant de bonnes dispositions sportives de les développer dans le cadre d’un programme intégré à leur formation scolaire. Si les modalités pratiques ... [more ▼]

Le sport-études a été créé afin de permettre aux jeunes ayant de bonnes dispositions sportives de les développer dans le cadre d’un programme intégré à leur formation scolaire. Si les modalités pratiques diffèrent largement d’une structure à l’autre selon la législation en vigueur, les sportifs sont inévitablement confrontés à des problèmes communs. Bizarrement, peu d’études semblent s’y être intéressées. Par ailleurs, les élèves qui partagent la formation scolaire des sportifs constituent un groupe auquel il n’est jamais fait référence. [less ▲]

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See detailLe gigantisme: un mystère élucidé
Beckers, Albert ULg

in Bulletin et Mémoires de l'Académie Royale de Médecine de Belgique (2002), 157(1-2), 111-7117-9

Acromegaly was first described by Pierre Marie in 1886. Some years later, it became clear that acromegaly and gigantism share the same etiology: GH hypersecretion due to a pituitary adenoma, induces ... [more ▼]

Acromegaly was first described by Pierre Marie in 1886. Some years later, it became clear that acromegaly and gigantism share the same etiology: GH hypersecretion due to a pituitary adenoma, induces gigantism if already present during puberty, or an acromegalic if it appears only during the adulthood. During the XXth century, the disease has been well described and is now well controlled with several treatments. Recently, genetic alterations responsible for the disease have been elucidated. [less ▲]

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See detailS-acetyl-glutathione selectively induces apoptosis in human lymphoma cells through a GSH-independent mechanism
Locigno, Roberto; Pincemail, Joël ULg; Henno, Audrey et al

in International Journal of Oncology (2002), 20(1), 69-75

Reduced apoptosis is associated to cancer development. Agents able to restore the programmed cell death responsiveness of cancer cells are foreseen as potential effective cancer therapies. In this study ... [more ▼]

Reduced apoptosis is associated to cancer development. Agents able to restore the programmed cell death responsiveness of cancer cells are foreseen as potential effective cancer therapies. In this study, we report that a glutathione-S-derivative, S-acetyl-glutathione (Sag), induces significant apoptosis in three human lymphoma cell lines, including Daudi, Raji and Jurkat cells while it had no or little effect on either Hut-78 lymphoma cells or the normal BT lymphocytes. We used Annexin-V FACS analysis and DNA laddering to demonstrate that Sag activated apoptosis in the three sensitive cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent-fashion. Using mercury orange staining and FACS analysis, we showed that Sag generated an intracellular GSH depletion in Daudi, Raji and Jurkat cells but not in Hut-78 or the normal BT cells. These data provide direct evidence that Sag specifically activates programmed cell death in lymphoma cells through, at least in part, a depletion of intracellular GSH rather than an increase, as previously suggested. Because of its selective effect on cancer cells, Sag appears as a promising new lymphoma cell apoptosis inducer with potential clinical value for lymphoma patients. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficacy of the new long-acting formulation of lanreotide (lanreotide Autogel) in the management of acromegaly.
Caron, Ph; Beckers, Albert ULg; Cullen, C. R. et al

in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (2002), 87(1), 99-104

Lanreotide Autogel is a new long-acting aqueous preparation of lanreotide for the treatment of acromegaly and is administered by deep sc injection from a small volume, prefilled syringe. The aim of this ... [more ▼]

Lanreotide Autogel is a new long-acting aqueous preparation of lanreotide for the treatment of acromegaly and is administered by deep sc injection from a small volume, prefilled syringe. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this new long-acting formulation in a large population of acromegalic patients previously responsive to lanreotide 30 mg, im (sustained release microparticle formulation). Lanreotide Autogel was administered by deep sc injection every 28 d to 107 patients (54 males and 53 females; mean age, 54 +/- 1.2 yr). All patients had been treated with lanreotide (30 mg) for at least 3 months before study entry and had a mean GH level less than 10 ng/ml after at least 4 subsequent im injections every 14 d (48%), 10 d (32%), or 7 d (20%). Treatment was switched from lanreotide 30 mg injected every 14, 10, or 7 d to 60, 90, or 120 mg lanreotide Autogel, respectively, every 28 d. After three fixed dose injections of lanreotide Autogel, mean lanreotide levels were similar to those obtained at steady state with lanreotide 30 mg. During lanreotide Autogel treatment, the control of acromegalic symptoms was comparable with that previously achieved during lanreotide 30 mg treatment. After 3 injections of lanreotide Autogel, mean GH (2.87 +/- 0.22 ng/ml) and IGF-I (317 +/- 15 ng/ml) values were comparable with those recorded at the end of lanreotide 30 mg treatment (GH, 2.82 +/- 0.19 ng/ml; IGF-I, 323 +/- 16 ng/ml). GH levels below 2.5 ng/ml and age-/sex-normalized IGF-I were achieved in 33% and 39% of patients during lanreotide 30 mg and lanreotide Autogel treatment, respectively. Diarrhea, abdominal pain, and nausea were reported by 38%, 22%, and 18% of patients during lanreotide 30 mg treatment and by 29%, 17%, and 9% of patients, respectively, during lanreotide Autogel treatment. In conclusion, this clinical study shows that lanreotide Autogel is at least as efficacious and well tolerated as lanreotide 30 mg. This new long-acting lanreotide formulation, lanreotide Autogel, which is administered from a small volume, prefilled syringe by deep sc injection, is therefore likely to improve the acceptability of medical treatment for patients requiring long-term somatostatin analog therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailDistribution of aromatase immunoreactivity in the forebrain of red-sided garter snakes at the beginning of the winter dormancy
Krohmer, R. W.; Bieganski, G. J.; Baleckaitis, D. D. et al

in Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy (2002), 23(1), 59-71

Until recently, it has been difficult to identify the exact location of aromatase containing cells in the brain. The development of new antibodies has provided a sensitive tool to analyze the distribution ... [more ▼]

Until recently, it has been difficult to identify the exact location of aromatase containing cells in the brain. The development of new antibodies has provided a sensitive tool to analyze the distribution of aromatase immunoreactive (ARO-ir) material at a cellular level of resolution. In the present study we examined, for the first time, the distribution of ARO-ir cells in the brain of a reptile, the red-sided garter snake, at the beginning of the winter dormancy. ARO-ir cells were found at all rostro-caudal levels in the red-sided garter snake brain. Although weakly stained cells were distributed throughout the brain, more intensely immunoreactive cells were primarily concentrated in the preoptic area, anterior hypothalamus, septum and nucleus sphericus. Although androgens are elevated upon emergence from hibernation in the male red-sided garter snake, initiation of courtship behavior appears to be independent of direct androgen control. To date, the only known stimulus found to initiate courtship is a period of low temperature dormancy followed by exposure to warm temperatures. Circumstantial data, however, suggest an indirect role in the activation of male copulatory behavior for estrogenic metabolites of testosterone produced in the brain by aromatization during the winter dormancy. This study provides the first documentation of the distribution of ARO-ir cells in a reptilian species and demonstrates that while the aromatase enzyme occurs in most regions of the brain, the ARO-ir cells that appear to contain the highest concentration of enzyme are clustered in brain areas classically associated with the control of courtship behavior and mating in vertebrates. These data are consistent with the idea that estrogens locally produced in the brain may participate in some way to the activation of sexual behavior in this species also. This notion should now be experimentally tested by analyzing annual changes in aromatase activity and immunoreactivity and assessing the effects of pharmacological blockade of the enzyme activity at different times of the year. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailEpidural administration of low-dose morphine combined with clonidine for postoperative analgesia after lumbar disc surgery
Bonhomme, Vincent ULg; Doll, Anne; Dewandre, Pierre-Yves et al

in Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology (2002), 14(1), 1-6

This study evaluates the efficacy and side effects of a low dose of epidural morphine combined with clonidine for postoperative pain relief after lumbar disc surgery. In 36 of 51 patients who accepted the ... [more ▼]

This study evaluates the efficacy and side effects of a low dose of epidural morphine combined with clonidine for postoperative pain relief after lumbar disc surgery. In 36 of 51 patients who accepted the procedure, an epidural catheter was inserted (L1-L2 level). General anesthesia was induced with propofol and sufentanil, and maintained with sevoflurane in O2/N2O. After emergence from anesthesia, epidural analgesia was initiated according to two randomly assigned protocols: 1 mg of morphine with 75 microg of clonidine (Group M) or 12.5 mg of bupivacaine with 75 microg of clonidine (Group B), in 10 mL saline. Piritramide was administered during the first postoperative 24 hours using a patient-controlled analgesia device (PCA). The following parameters were recorded: piritramide consumption during the first 24 hours; pain at rest during the first postoperative hours (D0), during the first night (D1), and during the first mobilization; [visual analogue scale (VAS)]; and the occurrence of drowsiness, motor blockade, respiratory depression, nausea, vomiting, itching, micturition problems, and bladder catheterization during D0 and D1. Epidural administration of morphine-clonidine significantly improved postoperative pain relief and reduced piritramide consumption as compared to epidural bupivacaine-clonidine. Side effects did not differ between groups except for a higher incidence of micturition problems in Group M during D1. The occurrence of bladder catheterization was not significantly higher in that group. We conclude that a low dose of epidural morphine combined with clonidine offers a better postoperative analgesia than does bupivacaine-clonidine. The excellent analgesic conditions were obtained at the expense of a higher incidence of difficulties in initiating micturition. [less ▲]

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See detailLe cas clinique du mois. Membrane sous-valvulaire aortique
Radermecker, M.A.; Dresse, Denise ULg; Grenade, T. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(1), 7-9

A case of fixed subvalvular aortic stenosis is reported. This clinical observation is the occasion to review the pathophysiology of this lesion and the last developments in the surgical treatment.

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See detailLes anomalies morphologiques et metaboliques liees aux traitements antiretroviraux
Debruyn, X.; Nkoghe, D.; Leonard, Philippe ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(1), 23-8

The long term use of antiretroviral therapy is associated with metabolic and morphological abnormalities named lipodystrophy. The understanding of its epidemiology is in progress. NRTIs and Pls are ... [more ▼]

The long term use of antiretroviral therapy is associated with metabolic and morphological abnormalities named lipodystrophy. The understanding of its epidemiology is in progress. NRTIs and Pls are involved in the origin of these abnormalities. So, NRTIs inhibit mitochondrial gamma polymerase and induce body fat distribution disorders. PIs interfere with lipid metabolism, leading to hyperlipidaemia and insulin resistance symptomatology. The diagnosis is made by clinical (far wasting or accumulation, or mixed syndrome) and biological signs (hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, hyperlactacidaemia). Radiological exams can quantify morphological abnormalities. The management consists in drug substitution, diet and exercise, and corrective drugs. Plastic surgery can be useful. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude clinique du mois. Effets du valsartan dans l'insuffisance cardiaque chronique: l'etude Val-HeFT
Pierard, Luc ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(1), 57-9

Current guidelines recommend drugs which reduce neurohormonal activation as standard therapy for heart failure: angiotensin converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-blockers and spironolactone. The ... [more ▼]

Current guidelines recommend drugs which reduce neurohormonal activation as standard therapy for heart failure: angiotensin converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-blockers and spironolactone. The Valsartan Heart Failure Trial (Val-HeFT) tested the efficacy of the angiotensin-receptor blocker valsartan in addition to prescribed therapy. A total of 5010 patients with heart failure of NYHA class II, III or IV were randomly assigned to receive 160 mg of valsartan or placebo twice daily. Further angiotensin antagonism by valsartan did not improve survival but was beneficial in terms of morbidity and mortality, because of reduced rate of hospitalization, significant improvements in NYHA class, ejection fraction, signs and symptoms of heart failure, and quality of life. Valsartan had highly favourable effects in patients not receiving ACE inhibitors but an adverse effect in patients receiving both ACE inhibitors and beta-blockers. The effects of adding valsartan are depending on the importance of previous neurohormonal inhibition. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative study on the enantioseparation of glutethimide using dual cyclodextrin systems and cyclodextrin modified MEKC in capillary electrophoresis
Abushoffa, Adel M.; Burjanadze, Naira; Blaschke, Gottfried et al

in Journal of Separation Science (2002), 25(1-2), 10-16

In order to critically evaluate the potential of dual cyclodextrin (CD) systems in CE, enantioseparation of the neutral chiral analyte glutethimide (GT) was performed using: a) charged CDs; b ... [more ▼]

In order to critically evaluate the potential of dual cyclodextrin (CD) systems in CE, enantioseparation of the neutral chiral analyte glutethimide (GT) was performed using: a) charged CDs; b) combinations of charged and neutral CDs (dual CD systems), and c) CD-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CD-MECK). The results of this comparative study indicate that properly designed dual CD systems may in certain cases represent a valuable alternative to CD-MEKC and electrokinetic chromatography involving charged CDs for enantioseparation of neutral analytes. [less ▲]

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See detail8-Chloro-6-(3-dimethylaminopropylamino)-11H-pyrido[2,3-b][1,4]benzodiazepine
Dupont, Léon ULg; Eyrolles, Laurence; Evrard, Guy et al

in Acta Crystallographica Section E-Structure Reports Online (2002), 58(Part 1), 69-71

The crystal structure determination of the title compound, C17H20ClN5, has been undertaken as part of studies on antipsychotic drugs. Its structure is compared with that of clozapine (C18H19ClN4), a well ... [more ▼]

The crystal structure determination of the title compound, C17H20ClN5, has been undertaken as part of studies on antipsychotic drugs. Its structure is compared with that of clozapine (C18H19ClN4), a well known atypical antipsychotic drug. The side chain is more flexible than in the N-methylpiperazine analogues, but its folding is influenced by an intramolecular N-H . . .N hydrogen bond. The distances between the N-distal atom, a possible pharmacophore, and the centres of the two aromatic rings are significantly shorter than in clozapine. The crystal packing involves one N-H . . .N intermolecular hydrogen bond. The title compound showed no affinity for the receptors tested. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of an Amplatzer ductal occluder to close a persistent left superior caval vein which reopened after a total cavopulmonary anastomosis.
SEGHAYE, Marie-Christine ULg; Wainwright, Uwe; von Bermuth, Gotz

in Cardiology in the Young (2002), 12(1), 81-3

A 7-year-old boy developed increasing cyanosis after a total cavopulmonary connection with a 3 mm fenestration in the baffle. Catheterisation performed 4 years and 7 months after the operation showed ... [more ▼]

A 7-year-old boy developed increasing cyanosis after a total cavopulmonary connection with a 3 mm fenestration in the baffle. Catheterisation performed 4 years and 7 months after the operation showed reopening of a left superior caval vein draining into the pulmonary venous atrium. Due to the large size of the left superior caval vein, and the absence of intrinsic stenosis, we chose to use an Amplatzer ductal device to occlude the reopened vein. The procedure was safe and successful. [less ▲]

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See detailAnti-CD3/anti-epidermal growth factor receptor-bispecific antibody retargeting of lymphocytes against human neoplastic keratinocytes in an autologous organotypic culture model
Renard, I.; Mezzanzanica, Delia; Canevari, Silvana et al

in American Journal of Pathology (2002), 160(1), 113-122

Local cellular immune defects have been described in several tumors including human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cervical cancer. This observation suggests the potential therapeutic benefit of immune ... [more ▼]

Local cellular immune defects have been described in several tumors including human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cervical cancer. This observation suggests the potential therapeutic benefit of immune manipulations that restore cellular immunity. Here, we evaluated the ability of bispecific monoclonal antibodies (bimAbs) to redirect T cells against keratinocytes transformed in vitro by HPV in an autologous three-dimensional culture model (organotypic cultures). The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was chosen as target for an anti-CD3/anti-EGFR bimAb because it is overexpressed in many malignant epithelial lesions and only weakly expressed in the basal layers of normal squamous epithelium. Interestingly, in organotypic cultures, the pattern of expression of EGFR was similar to that observed in vivo. The ability of T cells retargeted by CD3/EGFR bimAb to lyse HPV-transformed cell lines was confirmed in monolayer cultures. In autologous organotypic cultures, an increase in apoptotic HPV(+) keratinocytes and a significant decrease in the thickness of HPV(+) organotypic cultures were observed when activated lymphocytes and bimAbs were added to the cultures, whereas organotypic cultures of normal keratinocytes were not significantly affected. These data were similar to those obtained in the allogeneic model. These results suggest the potential usefulness of CD3-EGFR bimAb-retargeted lymphocytes in immunotherapeutic protocols for malignant epithelial lesions. [less ▲]

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See detailEstimation of rubber sliding friction from asperity interaction modeling
Bui, Q. V.; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg

in Wear (2002), 252(1-2), 150-160

Interaction between a soft rubber asperity and its hard counterpart is traced with the help of a finite element computation. The analysis is aimed to estimate the influence of adhesion between rubber and ... [more ▼]

Interaction between a soft rubber asperity and its hard counterpart is traced with the help of a finite element computation. The analysis is aimed to estimate the influence of adhesion between rubber and rigid surfaces and the energy losses arising from the deformation of rubber bulk to the sliding resistance. At the contact zone, interfacial bonds are formed due to adhesion and their resistance to sliding is represented by the shear strength of the contact interface. In the rubber bulk, the hysteresis loss is calculated using an appropriate model of the viscoelastic mechanical behavior of rubber for large strains. Dependence of friction on sliding speeds and temperature is hence detected. Influence of surface roughness and contact pressure on friction is also examined. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailLes kystes bronchogeniques: observation clinique et revue de la litterature
RADERMECKER, Marc ULg; Moscato, A.; Delbecque, Katty ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(1), 45-8

Pulmonary bronchogenic cysts are benign lesions that can be suspected from clinical background and imaging. We present the case of a huge subcarinal bronchogenic cyst and review the embryology ... [more ▼]

Pulmonary bronchogenic cysts are benign lesions that can be suspected from clinical background and imaging. We present the case of a huge subcarinal bronchogenic cyst and review the embryology, physiopathology, surgical indications and techniques of this congenital lesion. [less ▲]

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