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See detailnote sous arrêt du 18 septembre 2003, Volkswagen AG c/ Commission
Petit, Nicolas ULiege

in Revue du Droit de l'Union Européenne (2003)

résumé et analyse de l'affaire Volkswagen AG contre Commission, affaire C-338/00

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See detailCrystal structure of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase Toho-1: Insights into the molecular mechanism for catalytic reaction and substrate specificity expansion
Ibuka, A. S.; Ishii, Y.; Galleni, Moreno ULiege et al

in Biochemistry (2003), 42(36), 10634-10643

The crystallographic structure of the class A beta-lactamase Toho-1, an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase with potent activity against expanded-spectrum cephems, has been determined at 1.65 Angstrom ... [more ▼]

The crystallographic structure of the class A beta-lactamase Toho-1, an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase with potent activity against expanded-spectrum cephems, has been determined at 1.65 Angstrom resolution. The result reveals that the Lys73 side chain can adopt two alternative conformations. The predominant conformation of Lys73 is different from that observed in the E166A mutant, indicating that removal of the Glu166 side chain changes the conformation of the Lys73 side chain and thus the interaction between Lys73 and Glu166. The Lys73 side chain would play an important role in proton relay, switching its conformation from one to the other depending on the circumstances. The electron density map also implies possible rotation of Ser237. Comparison of the Toho-1 structure with the structure of other class A beta-lactamases shows that the hydroxyl group of Ser237 is likely to rotate through interaction with the carboxyl group of the substrate. Another peculiarity is the existence of three sulfate ions positioned in or near the substrate-binding cavity. One of these sulfate ions is tightly bound to the active center, while the other two are held by a region of positive charge formed by two arginine residues, Arg274 and Arg276. This positively charged region is speculated to represent a pseudo-binding site of the beta-lactam antibiotics, presumably catching the methoxyimino group of the third-generation cephems prior to proper binding in the substrate-binding cleft for hydrolysis. This high-resolution structure, together with detailed kinetic analysis of Toho-1, provides a new hypothesis for the catalytic mechanism and substrate specificity of Toho-1. [less ▲]

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See detailSystematic characterization of oil-in-water emulsions for formulation design
Roland, Isabelle ULiege; Piel, Géraldine ULiege; Delattre, Luc ULiege et al

in International Journal of Pharmaceutics (2003), 263(1-2), 85-94

Oil-in-water emulsions varying in surfactant concentration and manufacturing process were prepared. About 10 experiments were performed to characterize them. The goal of this research was to find Out ... [more ▼]

Oil-in-water emulsions varying in surfactant concentration and manufacturing process were prepared. About 10 experiments were performed to characterize them. The goal of this research was to find Out which tests should systematically be carried Out to assess efficiently the stability and the properties of ail emulsified preparation. Thus, formulation design requires at least the measurement of the droplet size, the determination of the zeta potential, a TurbiScan(R) analysis, the investigation of the stability under centrifugation and freeze/thaw cycles. If the emulsion contains an active substance, stability under storage at 4 degreesC and microscopic analysis are relevant. Quality Control Should be improved by measurements of viscosity and pH. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailThe structures of bovine herpesvirus 1 virion and concatemeric DNA: implications for cleavage and packaging of herpesvirus genomes
Schynts, F.; McVoy, M. A.; Meurens, F. et al

in Virology (2003), 314(1), 326-335

Herpesvirus genomes are often characterized by the presence of direct and inverted repeats that delineate their grouping into six structural classes. Class D genomes consist of a long (L) segment and a ... [more ▼]

Herpesvirus genomes are often characterized by the presence of direct and inverted repeats that delineate their grouping into six structural classes. Class D genomes consist of a long (L) segment and a short (S) segment. The latter is flanked by large inverted repeats. DNA replication produces concatemers of head-to-tail linked genomes that are cleaved into unit genomes during the process of packaging DNA into capsids. Packaged class D genomes are an equimolar mixture of two isomers in which S is in either of two orientations, presumably a consequence of homologous recombination between the inverted repeats. The L segment remains predominantly fixed in a prototype (P) orientation; however, low levels of genomes having inverted L (I-L) segments have been reported for some class D herpesviruses. Inefficient formation of class D I-L genomes has been attributed to infrequent L segment inversion, but recent detection of frequent inverted L segments in equine herpesvirus 1 concatemers [Virology 229 (1997) 415-420] suggests that the defect may be at the level of cleavage and packaging rather than inversion. In this study, the structures of virion and concatemeric DNA of another class D herpesvirus, bovine herpesvirus 1, were determined. Virion DNA contained low levels of I-L genomes, whereas concatemeric DNA contained significant amounts of L segments in both P and I-L orientations. However, concatemeric termini exhibited a preponderance of L termini derived from P isomers which was comparable to the preponderance of P genomes found in virion DNA. Thus, the defect in formation of I-L genomes appears to lie at the level of concatemer cleavage. These results have important implications for the mechanisms by which herpesvirus DNA cleavage and packaging occur. (C) 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailRole of the adaptor protein CIKS in the activation of the IKK complex
Mauro, Claudio; Vito, Pasquale; Mellone, Stefano et al

in Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (2003), 309(1), 84-90

Nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) plays a pivotal role in numerous cellular processes, including stress response, inflammation, and protection from apoptosis. Therefore, the activity of NF-kappaB needs to ... [more ▼]

Nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) plays a pivotal role in numerous cellular processes, including stress response, inflammation, and protection from apoptosis. Therefore, the activity of NF-kappaB needs to be tightly regulated. We have previously identified a novel gene, named CIKS (connection to IkappaB-kinase and SAPK), able to bind the regulatory sub-unit NEMO/IKKgamma and to activate NF-kappaB. Here, we demonstrate that CIKS forms homo-oligomers, interacts with NEMO/IKKgamma, and is recruited to the IKK-complex upon cell stimulation. In addition, we identified the regions of CIKS responsible for these functions. We found that the ability of CIKS to oligomerize, and to be recruited to the IKK-complex is not sufficient to activate the NF-kappaB In fact, a deletion mutant of CIKS able to oligomerize, to interact with NEMO/IKKgamma, and to be recruited to the IKK-complex does not activate NF-kappaB, suggesting that CIKS needs a second level of regulation to efficiently activate NF-kappaB. (C) 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailLubrication by charged polymers
Raviv, Uri; Giasson, Suzanne; Kampf, Nir et al

in Nature (2003), 425(6954), 163-165

Long-ranged forces between surfaces in a liquid control effects from colloid stability [1] to biolubrication [2], and can be modified either by steric factors due to flexible polymers [3], or by surface ... [more ▼]

Long-ranged forces between surfaces in a liquid control effects from colloid stability [1] to biolubrication [2], and can be modified either by steric factors due to flexible polymers [3], or by surface charge effects [4]. In particular, neutral polymer 'brushes' may lead to a massive reduction in sliding friction between the surfaces to which they are attached [5-7], whereas hydrated ions can act as extremely efficient lubricants between sliding charged surfaces [8]. Here we show that brushes of charged polymers (polyelectrolytes) attached to surfaces rubbing across an aqueous medium result in superior lubrication compared to other polymeric surfactants. Effective friction coefficients with polyelectrolyte brushes in water are lower than about 0.0006-0.001 even at low sliding velocities and at pressures of up to several atmospheres (typical of those in living systems). We attribute this to the exceptional resistance to mutual interpenetration displayed by the compressed, counterion-swollen brushes, together with the fluidity of the hydration layers surrounding the charged, rubbing polymer segments. Our findings may have implications for biolubrication effects, which are important in the design of lubricated surfaces in artificial implants, and in understanding frictional processes in biological systems. [less ▲]

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See detailBulletin agrométéorologique - Août 2003
Tychon, Bernard ULiege; De Longueville, Florence ULiege; Ozer, Pierre ULiege et al

in Bulletin Agrométéorologique (2003)

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See detailCerebrospinal fluid pterins and folates in Aicardi-Goutières syndrome: A new phenotype
Blau, N.; Bonafé, L.; Krägeloh-Mann, I. et al

in Neurology (2003), 61(5), 642-647

Objective: To describe three unrelated children with a distinctive variant of Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) characterized by microcephaly, severe mental and motor retardation, dyskinesia or spasticity ... [more ▼]

Objective: To describe three unrelated children with a distinctive variant of Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) characterized by microcephaly, severe mental and motor retardation, dyskinesia or spasticity, and occasional seizures. Results: Neuroimaging showed bilateral calcification of basal ganglia and white matter. CSF glucose, protein, cell count, and interferon alpha were normal. Abnormal CSF findings included extremely high neopterin (293 to 814 nmol/L; normal 12 to 30 nmol/L) and biopterin (226 to 416 nmol/L; normal 15 to 40 nmol/L) combined with lowered 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (23 to 48 nmol/L; normal 64 to 182 nmol/L) concentrations in two patients. The absence of pleocytosis and normal CSF interferon alpha was a characteristic finding compared to the classic AGS syndrome. Genetic and enzymatic tests excluded disorders of tetrahydrobiopterin metabolism, including mutation analysis of GTP cyclohydrolase feed-back regulatory protein. CSF investigations in three patients with classic AGS also showed increased pterins and partially lowered folate levels. Conclusions: Intrathecal overproduction of pterins is the first biochemical abnormality identified in patients with AGS variants. Long-term substitution with folinic acid (2-4 mg/kg/day) resulted in substantial clinical recovery with normalization of CSF folates and pterins in one patient and clinical improvement in another. The underlying defect remains unknown. [less ▲]

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See detailSelective interaction of ethidium derivatives with quadruplexes: An equilibrium dialysis and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis
Rosu, Frédéric ULiege; De Pauw, Edwin ULiege; Guittat, Lionel et al

in Biochemistry (2003), 42(35), 10361-10371

The telomeric G-rich single-stranded DNA can adopt in vitro an intramolecular quadruplex structure, which has been shown to directly inhibit telomerase activity. The reactivation of this enzyme in ... [more ▼]

The telomeric G-rich single-stranded DNA can adopt in vitro an intramolecular quadruplex structure, which has been shown to directly inhibit telomerase activity. The reactivation of this enzyme in immortalized and most cancer cells suggests that telomerase is a relevant target in oncology, and telomerase inhibitors have been proposed as new potential anticancer agents. In this paper, we have analyzed the selectivity of four ethidium derivatives and ethidium itself toward different G-quadruplex species, with electrospray mass spectrometry and competitive equilibrium dialysis and evaluated their inhibitory properties against telomerase. A selectivity profile may be obtained through electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), which is in fair agreement with competitive equilibrium dialysis data. It also provides unambiguous data on the number of binding sites per nucleic acid (maximal number of two ethidium derivatives per quadruplex, in agreement with external stacking). Our experiments also demonstrate that one compound (4) is the most active and selective G-quadruplex ligand within this series and the most selective telomerase inhibitor in a modified TRAP-G4 assay. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential involvement of the hMRE11/hRAD50/NBS1 complex, BRCA1 and MLH1 in NF-kappa B activation by camptothecin and X-ray
Habraken, Yvette ULiege; Jolois, Olivier ULiege; Piette, Jacques ULiege

in Oncogene (2003), 22(38), 6090-6099

Camptothecin (CPT) and X-ray (XR) generate double-strand breaks (DSB) that can be processed by homologous or nonhomologous recombination. We studied the participation of proteins involved in recombination ... [more ▼]

Camptothecin (CPT) and X-ray (XR) generate double-strand breaks (DSB) that can be processed by homologous or nonhomologous recombination. We studied the participation of proteins involved in recombination pathways and cell cycle control in the signal transduction between DNA damage and NF-kappaB. Cells harbouring mutated NBS, hMRE11, BRCA1 or MLH1 were analysed. NBS- and hMRE11-deficient cells present a classical kinetic of NF-kappaB induction after camptothecin treatment. When DSB are generated by XR, NBS-deficient cells exhibit a delayed and strongly reduced level of NF-kappaB induction, whereas the hMRE11 mutated cells do not induce NF-kappaB at all. This indicates an important role of the hMRE11/hRAD50/NBS complex in the signal transduction initiated by XR. In HCC1937 cells that express a truncated version of BRCA1, XR induces a very rapid and transient NF-kappaB activation, whereas CPT leads to a delayed activation suggesting that BRCA1 modulates the transduction pathways in different manners after these two stresses. Finally, we found that a proficient MMR pathway is essential to the NF-kappaB activation after both CPT and XR. These results indicate that DSB originating from XR or CPT do not induce NF-kappaB in a unique way. MMR participates in both cascades, whereas the hMRE11/hRAD50/NBS trimer is specifically involved in the response elicited by XR. [less ▲]

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See detailAnomalous Nitrogen Isotope Ratio in Comets
Arpigny, Claude ULiege; Jehin, Emmanuel ULiege; Manfroid, Jean ULiege et al

in Science (2003), 301

High-resolution spectra of the CN B[SUP]2[/SUP] Sigma[SUP]+[/SUP]-X[SUP]2[/SUP] Sigma[SUP]+[/SUP] (0,0) band at 390 nanometers yield isotopic ratios for comets C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) and C/2000 WM1 (LINEAR ... [more ▼]

High-resolution spectra of the CN B[SUP]2[/SUP] Sigma[SUP]+[/SUP]-X[SUP]2[/SUP] Sigma[SUP]+[/SUP] (0,0) band at 390 nanometers yield isotopic ratios for comets C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) and C/2000 WM1 (LINEAR) as follows: 165 +/- 40 and 115 +/- 20 for [SUP]12[/SUP]C/[SUP]13[/SUP]C, 140 +/- 35 and 140 +/- 30 for [SUP]14[/SUP]N/[SUP]15[/SUP]N. Our N isotopic measurements are lower than the terrestrial [SUP]14[/SUP]N/[SUP]15[/SUP]N = 272 and the ratio for Hale-Bopp from measurements of HCN, the presumed parent species of CN. This isotopic anomaly suggests the existence of other parent(s) of CN, with an even lower N isotopic ratio. Organic compounds like those found in interplanetary dust particles are good candidates. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferent mechanisms are implicated in ERBB2 gene overexpression in breast and in other cancers
Vernimmen, D.; Guéders, Maud ULiege; Pisvin, Sonia ULiege et al

in British Journal of Cancer (2003), 89(5), 899-906

The ERBB2 gene is overexpressed in 30% of breast cancers and this has been correlated with poor prognosis. ERBB2 is upregulated in other cancers such as prostate, pancreas, colon and ovary. In breast ... [more ▼]

The ERBB2 gene is overexpressed in 30% of breast cancers and this has been correlated with poor prognosis. ERBB2 is upregulated in other cancers such as prostate, pancreas, colon and ovary. In breast cancer cells, the mechanisms leading to ERBB2 gene overexpression are increased transcription and gene amplification. In these cancers, AP-2 transcription factors are involved in ERBB2 overexpression, and AP-2 levels are correlated with p185(c-erbB-2) levels. In this work, we wanted to know if the same molecular mechanisms are responsible for the ERBB2 upregulation in non-breast cancers. We compared ERBB2 gene copy number, p185(c-erbB-2) and mRNA levels with AP-2 levels in several ovary, prostate, colon and pancreas cancer cells. A moderate expression of erbB-2 mRNA and protein were observed in some cells without gene amplification. In contrast to breast cancer cells, AP-2 factors were absent or low in some non-breast cells which did express ERBB2. It is thus likely that AP-2 is not a major player in the increased levels of erbB-2 transcripts in non-breast cancer cells. The transcriptional activity of the ERBB2 promoter in colon and ovary cancer cells was estimated using reporter vectors. The results showed that the promoter regions involved in ERBB2 gene overexpression in breast cancer cells are different from those that lead to the gene upregulation in colon and ovary cancers. In conclusion, our results indicate that different transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms are responsible for the increased levels of erbB-2 transcript and protein in breast and non-breast cancer cells. [less ▲]

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See detailA complete fuzzy decision tree technique
Olaru, C.; Wehenkel, Louis ULiege

in Fuzzy Sets and Systems (2003), 138(2), 221-254

In this paper, a new method of fuzzy decision trees called soft decision trees (SDT) is presented. This method combines tree growing and pruning, to determine the structure of the soft decision tree, with ... [more ▼]

In this paper, a new method of fuzzy decision trees called soft decision trees (SDT) is presented. This method combines tree growing and pruning, to determine the structure of the soft decision tree, with refitting and backfitting, to improve its generalization capabilities. The method is explained and motivated and its behavior is first analyzed empirically on 3 large databases in terms of classification error rate, model complexity and CPU time. A comparative study on 11 standard UCI Repository databases then shows that the soft decision trees produced by this method are significantly more accurate than standard decision trees. Moreover, a global model variance study shows a much lower variance for soft decision trees than for standard trees as a direct cause of the improved accuracy. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailBirds return every spring like clockwork, but where is the clock?
Ball, G. F.; Balthazart, Jacques ULiege

in Endocrinology (2003), 144(9), 3739-3741

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See detailThe use of simulators as training tools
Nyssen, Anne-Sophie ULiege

in Current Medical Anesthesiology (2003)

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See detailWR bubbles and HeII emission
Nazé, Yaël ULiege; Rauw, Grégor ULiege; Manfroid, Jean ULiege et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2003), 408(1), 171-186

We present the very first high quality images of the He II lambda4686 emission in three high excitation nebulae of the Magellanic Clouds. A fourth high excitation nebula, situated around the WR star BAT99 ... [more ▼]

We present the very first high quality images of the He II lambda4686 emission in three high excitation nebulae of the Magellanic Clouds. A fourth high excitation nebula, situated around the WR star BAT99-2, was analysed in a previous letter. Using VLT FORS data, we investigate the morphology of the ring nebulae around the early-type WN stars BAT99-49 [less ▲]

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See detailNaturocetic (glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate) compounds as structure-modifying drugs in the treatment of osteoarthritis
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULiege; Bruyère, Olivier ULiege; Lecart, Marie-Paule ULiege et al

in Current Opinion in Rheumatology (2003), 15

Purpose of review Several entities have been investigated carefully for the symptomatic and structural management of osteoarthritis. This review reports recent findings suggesting that such compounds may ... [more ▼]

Purpose of review Several entities have been investigated carefully for the symptomatic and structural management of osteoarthritis. This review reports recent findings suggesting that such compounds may delay the structural progression of osteoarthritis. Recent findings The most compelling evidence of a potential for inhibiting the structural progression of osteoarthritis has been obtained with glucosamine sulfate, whereas preliminary results obtained in patients with osteoarthritis of the hands also suggest that chondroitin sulfate could be used in the same indication. At any rate, these two compounds have clearly demonstrated a symptomatic action, mainly in osteoarthritis of the lower limbs. Patients with the less severe radiographic osteoarthritis will experience, in the long run, the most dramatic disease progression in terms of joint space narrowing. Such patients may be particularly responsive to structure-modifying drugs. Summary Glucosamine sulfate has demonstrated its ability to reduce the progression of osteoarthritis in the lower limbs. The preliminary results obtained in the hands suggest that chondroitin sulfate could also be of interest in this indication. An important issue is that all the conclusive studies with such chemical entities resulted from the use of prescription medicines, not over-the-counter pills or food supplements. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of a simple clinical risk index and quantitative bone ultrasound for identifying women at increased risk of osteoporosis
Kung, A. W. C.; Ho, A. Y. Y.; Ben Sedrine, W. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2003), 14(9), 716-721

Osteoporosis is a growing problem in Asia, and early identification of at risk subjects for preventive measures is likely the most cost-effective method for managing this disease in developing countries ... [more ▼]

Osteoporosis is a growing problem in Asia, and early identification of at risk subjects for preventive measures is likely the most cost-effective method for managing this disease in developing countries. Patients with low bone mineral density (BMD) have a high risk of future fracture. However, access to BMD measurements is limited in many areas of Asia, and inexpensive methods of targeting high-risk patients for BMD measurements would be valuable. We compared two methods, a simple clinical risk assessment tool, the Osteoporosis Self-assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA), and quantitative bone ultrasound (QUS) in identifying subjects with low BMD by DXA in 722 southern Chinese postmenopausal women recruited from the community in Hong Kong. Using the published cutoff value of -1 (versus 0 or higher) for OSTA to identify subjects with femoral neck BMD T-score less than or equal to-2.5, basing on our local population peak young mean value, the sensitivity and specificity was 88% and 54% respectively. The optimal cutoff T-score of -2.35 for QUS yielded sensitivity and specificity values of 81% and 65%, respectively. The AUC for QUS was 0.78, which was not significantly different from that of 0.80 for OSTA. Both OSTA and QUS correlated significantly with BMD at the femoral neck (0.62 and 0.36, respectively, P both <0.001). When these cut-off values were used to identify subjects with either lumbar spine or femoral neck BMD T-score less than or equal to-2.5, the sensitivity and specificity was 79% and 60%, respectively, for OSTA, and 69% and 70%, respectively, for QUS. Combining QUS with OSTA improved the sensitivity to 91%, but the specificity was reduced to 44%. We conclude that the simple clinical risk assessment tool OSTA is a free and effective method for identifying subjects at increased risk of osteoporosis, and its use could facilitate the appropriate and more cost-effective use of bone densitometry in developing countries. [less ▲]

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See detailLack of habituation causes high intensity dependence of auditory evoked cortical potentials in migraine
Ambrosini, A.; Rossi, P.; De Pasqua, Victor ULiege et al

in Brain (2003), 126(Part 9), 2009-2015

Migraineurs are characterized interictally by lack of habituation, or even potentiation, of cortical evoked potentials during repetitive stimulation and by a strong intensity dependence of auditory evoked ... [more ▼]

Migraineurs are characterized interictally by lack of habituation, or even potentiation, of cortical evoked potentials during repetitive stimulation and by a strong intensity dependence of auditory evoked potentials (IDAP). To determine whether these two features of sensory processing are interrelated, we have studied them simultaneously on the same recordings of auditory evoked potentials (AEPs). AEPs were obtained at four different stimulation intensities in 14 patients suffering from migraine without aura (MO) and 14 healthy volunteers (HV). For each intensity, 120 trials were averaged off-line globally and over four sequential blocks of 30 trials. IDAP was expressed by the amplitude/stimulus intensity function (ASF slope) for global and block averages. Habituation was calculated as the percentage amplitude variation between the first and fourth blocks for each stimulus intensity. The IDAP slope for global averages was higher in MO (1.05 +/- 0.27 muV/10 dB) than in HV (0.64 +/- 0.45 muV/10 dB) (P = 0.008), but IDAP slopes for block averages were greater in MO only at the fourth block (P = 0.048). First block amplitudes tended to be lower in MO, except at 80 dB. There was a potentiation of AEP amplitudes at every stimulus intensity in MO, contrasting with habituation in HV. IDAP slopes were negatively correlated with mean habituation percentages in pooled data from patients and controls (r = -0.610; P = 0.0006). This study confirms that IDAP is higher in migraineurs than in healthy controls. It also shows that the AEP habituation is replaced by potentiation at all stimulus intensities. The negative correlation found between IDAP and habituation suggests that the latter is able to have a strong influence on the former and perhaps even lead to it. In migraine, the habituation deficit amplifies the IDAP and may thus be the causal functional abnormality. We propose that it is due to a decreased pre-activation level of sensory cortices, a hypothesis also supported in this study by the lower amplitude of first AEP blocks in patients. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of raloxifene combined with monofluorophosphate as compared with monofluorophosphate alone in postmenopausal women with low bone mass: a randomized, controlled trial
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULiege; Felsenberg, D.; Pavo, I. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2003), 14(9), 741-749

Raloxifene effectively reduces the incidence of vertebral fractures in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Recent data suggest that low-dose monofluorophosphate (MFP) plus calcium reduces the ... [more ▼]

Raloxifene effectively reduces the incidence of vertebral fractures in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Recent data suggest that low-dose monofluorophosphate (MFP) plus calcium reduces the vertebral fracture rate in postmenopausal women with moderate osteoporosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the combination of raloxifene and MFP in the treatment of postmenopausal women with osteopenia, osteoporosis and severe osteoporosis. A total of 596 postmenopausal women with osteopenia, osteoporosis and severe osteoporosis (mean femoral neck T-score of -2.87 SD) were randomized to treatment with 60 mg/day raloxifene HCl and 20 mg/day fluoride ions (as MFP) or 20 mg/day fluoride and placebo for 18 months. All patients received calcium (1000 mg/day) and vitamin D (500 IU/day) supplements. Changes in bone mineral density (BMD), as primary endpoint, and the rate of osteoporotic fractures and biochemical markers, as secondary endpoints, were assessed. As compared with MFP, raloxifene plus MFP was associated with significantly greater mean increases in the BMD of the femoral neck (1.37% versus 0.33%; P=0.004), total hip (0.89% versus -0.42%; P<0.001) and lumbar spine (8.80% versus 5.47% P<0.001). In the raloxifene plus MFP group, 16 patients sustained 17 osteoporotic fractures, as compared with 22 patients sustaining 34 incident osteoporotic fractures in the MFP group (P=0.313). One patient in the raloxifene plus MFP group sustained multiple osteoporotic fractures, as compared with eight patients in the MFP group (P=0.020). MFP alone significantly increased the serum bone alkaline phosphatase (bone ALP) and the urinary C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide of type I collagene (U-CTX). The addition of raloxifene in the combination arm blunted the rise in bone ALP, which remained nevertheless significant, and abolished the increase in U-CTX. The combination of raloxifene with MFP was generally well tolerated. This study demonstrates that, in postmenopausal women with osteopenia, osteoporosis and severe osteoporosis, the combination therapy of raloxifene plus MFP favorably influences the BMD and the bone formation and resorption balance, and may reduce the risk of multiple osteoporotic fractures compared to MFP alone. [less ▲]

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See detailThe in situ Glyptostroboxylon forest of Hoegaarden (Belgium) at the Initial Eocene Thermal Maximum (55 Ma)
Fairon-Demaret, Muriel ULiege; Steurbaut, Etienne; Damblon, Freddy ULiege et al

in Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology (2003), 126(1-2), 103-129

Hundreds of silicified standing stumps have been discovered within a lignitic horizon in the middle of the Tienen Formation near Hoegaarden in northeast Belgium. The anatomical features of the fossil ... [more ▼]

Hundreds of silicified standing stumps have been discovered within a lignitic horizon in the middle of the Tienen Formation near Hoegaarden in northeast Belgium. The anatomical features of the fossil stumps, as those of the numerous silicified secondary xylem remains collected since the last century from this area, demonstrate that they all belong to a single taxodiaceous taxon. The stumps bear characteristics shared by Taxodioxylon gypsaceum and Glyptostroboxylon tenerum, but affinities with the latter appear closer. They are attributed to Glyptostroboxylon sp. Calibration of the sedimentological, stratigraphical and organic carbon isotope data reveals that these taxodiaceous fossil trees developed in a swampy lowland environment most probably during the Initial Eocene Thermal Maximum at ca. 55 Ma. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailStrategies for the prevention of hip fracture
Gourlay, M.; Richy, F.; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULiege

in American Journal of Medicine (2003), 115(4), 309-317

Hip fractures are associated with 10% to 20% excess mortality in the first year and cause functional disability in most survivors. An estimated 17% of white women in the United States will sustain a hip ... [more ▼]

Hip fractures are associated with 10% to 20% excess mortality in the first year and cause functional disability in most survivors. An estimated 17% of white women in the United States will sustain a hip fracture after the age of 50 years. Despite the availability of evidence-based guidelines for hip fracture prevention, routine screening and preventive measures have not been incorporated into standard primary care practice. Many physicians lack adequate knowledge to initiate bone mineral density testing and treatment with preventive medications to decrease the incidence of osteoporosis and fractures. Furthermore, patients are less likely to request information about bone health than about diseases for which systematic screening and prevention protocols have been established. This review describes preventive measures to decrease hip fracture in postmenopausal women, including screening by bone mineral density testing, risk factor assessment, and chemoprevention. Existing guidelines are summarized, and dilemmas regarding their implementation are discussed. (C) 2003 by Excerpta Medica Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailGranular spirals on erodible sand bed submitted to a circular fluid motion
Caps, Hervé ULiege; Vandewalle, Nicolas ULiege

in Physical Review E (2003), 68(3, Pt 1), 31303

An experimental study of a granular surface submitted to a circular fluid motion is presented. The appearance of an instability along the sand-water interface is observed beyond a critical radius r(c ... [more ▼]

An experimental study of a granular surface submitted to a circular fluid motion is presented. The appearance of an instability along the sand-water interface is observed beyond a critical radius r(c). This creates ripples with a spiral shape on the granular surface. A phase diagram of such patterns is constructed and discussed as a function of the rotation speed omega of the flow and as a function of the height of water h above the surface. The study of r(c) as a function of h, omega, and r parameters is reported. Thereafter, r(c) is shown to depend on the rotation speed according to a power law. The ripple wavelength is found to decrease when the rotation speed increases and is proportional to the radial distance r. The azimuthal angle epsilon of the spiral arms is studied. It is found that epsilon scales with homegar. This lead to the conclusion that epsilon depends on the fluid momentum. Comparison with experiments performed with fluids allows us to state that the spiral patterns are not the signature of an instability of the boundary layer. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation of singlet oxygen reactivity towards propofol
Heyne, Belinda; Kohnen, Stephan ULiege; Brault, Daniel et al

in Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences (2003), 2(9), 939-945

The reaction between the anaesthetic agent 2,6-diisopropylphenol (propofol, PPF) and singlet oxygen (1O2) has been investigated in aqueous solution by means of HPLC, GC, absorption spectroscopy and laser ... [more ▼]

The reaction between the anaesthetic agent 2,6-diisopropylphenol (propofol, PPF) and singlet oxygen (1O2) has been investigated in aqueous solution by means of HPLC, GC, absorption spectroscopy and laser flash photolysis with infrared luminescence detection. The rate constants for the physical and chemical quenching of 1O2 by PPF (kPPF) are found to be 2.66 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) and approximately 3.2 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1) in CD3OD and D2O-CD3OD (75:25 v/v), respectively. The reaction of propofol with singlet oxygen produced by light irradiation of Rose Bengal leads essentially to two reaction products, 2,6-diisopropyl-p-benzoquinone and 3,5,3',5'-tetraisopropyl-(4,4')-diphenoquinone that are unambiguously identified from comparison with authentic samples. [less ▲]

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See detailLiver transplantation for metastatic colon adenocarcinoma: report of a case with 10 years of follow-up without recurrence
Honore, Charles ULiege; Detry, Olivier ULiege; De Roover, Arnaud ULiege et al

in Transplant International (2003), 16(9), 692-693

Because of dismal mid-term and long-term results, secondary liver cancer is considered an absolute contra-indication to cadaveric liver transplantation, with the relative exception of metastases of ... [more ▼]

Because of dismal mid-term and long-term results, secondary liver cancer is considered an absolute contra-indication to cadaveric liver transplantation, with the relative exception of metastases of symptomatic neuro-endocrine cancers. The authors present in this report the case of a patient who has been enjoying 10 years of cancer-free survival after liver transplantation as rescue therapy for acute liver failure after liver resection for isolated hepatic metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma. This case shows that in some highly selected cases, liver transplantation may be curative in patients with liver metastases of colon carcinoma. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreased Mrna Expression of Decorin in the Prolapsing Posterior Leaflet of the Mitral Valve
Radermecker, M. A.; Limet, Raymond ULiege; Lapiere, C. M. et al

in Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery (2003), 2(3), 389-94

To improve our understanding of myxomatous degeneration of the valvar tissue as seen in mitral valve prolapse, we have compared the biosynthetic phenotype of the connective tissue cells in myxomatous ... [more ▼]

To improve our understanding of myxomatous degeneration of the valvar tissue as seen in mitral valve prolapse, we have compared the biosynthetic phenotype of the connective tissue cells in myxomatous segments (n=4) resected during surgery with that of homologous segments of normal valves (n=4) harvested in age-matched organ donors. The steady-state level of mRNA for selected extracellular matrix macromolecules and metalloproteinases was assessed by quantitative (internal standard controlled) reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Among the investigated gene products, the decorin mRNA expression was significantly increased in degenerative valve compared with normal tissue (211+/-48 vs. 100+/-70, p<0.02). The level of fibrillin 2 also tended to be increased (194+/-88 vs. 100+/-81, p=0.08). These results suggest that myxomatous valvar tissue is characterized by an overexpression of mRNA for decorin. Owing to the role of this small leucine-rich proteoglycan in the regulation of fibril assembly and stability, this alteration may account for or is a result of a defective organization of the collagen and elastic fibers in this disease and contribute to the intrinsic distensibility and fragility of the myxomatous tissue. [less ▲]

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See detailDe LAT-relatie tussen strip en literatuur. Over de 'verstripping' van literaire werken
Meesters, Gert ULiege

in Ons Erfdeel (2003), 46(4), 523-530

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See detailPotentiation of tumor necrosis factor-induced NF-kappa B activation by deacetylase inhibitors is associated with a delayed cytoplasmic reappearance of I kappa B alpha
Adam, Emmanuelle; Quivy, Vincent; Bex, Françoise et al

in Molecular and Cellular Biology (2003), 23(17), 6200-6209

Previous studies have implicated acetylases and deacetylases in regulating the transcriptional activity of NF-kappaB. Here, we show that inhibitors of deacetylases such as trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium ... [more ▼]

Previous studies have implicated acetylases and deacetylases in regulating the transcriptional activity of NF-kappaB. Here, we show that inhibitors of deacetylases such as trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium butyrate (NaBut) potentiated TNF-induced expression of several natural NF-kappaB-driven promoters. This transcriptional synergism observed between TNF and TSA (or NaBut) required intact kappaB sites in all promoters tested and was biologically relevant as demonstrated by RNase protection on two instances of endogenous NF-kappaB-regulated gene transcription. Importantly, TSA prolonged both TNF-induced DNA-binding activity and the presence of NF-kappaKB in the nucleus. We showed that the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB was acetylated in vivo. However, this acetylation was weak, suggesting that other mechanisms could be implicated in the potentiated binding and transactivation activities of NF-kappaB after TNF plus TSA versus TNF treatment. Western blot and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy experiments revealed a delay in the cytoplasmic reappearance of the IkappaBalpha inhibitor that correlated temporally with the prolonged intranuclear binding and presence of NF-kappaB. This delay was due neither to a defect in IkappaBalpha mRNA production nor to a nuclear retention of IkappaBalpha but was rather due to a persistent proteasome-mediated degradation of IkappaBalpha. A prolongation of IkappaB kinase activity could explain, at least partially, the delayed IkappaBalpha cytoplasmic reappearance observed in presence of TNF plus TSA. [less ▲]

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See detailPlace du traitement substitutif de la menopause 1 an apres la publication des resultats de l'etude WHI (Women's Health Initiative)
Pintiaux, Axelle ULiege; Van den Brule, F.; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULiege et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(9), 572-5

The currently reported data concerning the large WHI randomized controlled trial compare the impact of continuous combined conjugated estrogens + medroxyprogesterone acetate vs placebo in postmenopausal ... [more ▼]

The currently reported data concerning the large WHI randomized controlled trial compare the impact of continuous combined conjugated estrogens + medroxyprogesterone acetate vs placebo in postmenopausal women. These results appear largely pessimistic. After 5.2 years of hormone replacement, an excess of coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, venous thromboembolism, breast cancer incidence and extension, mild cognitive impairment and dementia is recorded. By contrast, osteoporotic fracture risk and colorectal cancer are decreased during hormone replacement. Accordingly, this hormonal treatment can no longer be recommended on a long term basis, except after extensive risk-benefit balance evaluation. It should no longer be prescribed for prevention of chronic diseases. It remains indicated during 4-5 years for relief of vasomotor symptoms, genital atrophy and, potentially, for some aspects of quality of life. HRT should probably be prescribed in minimal-effective dosages; new regimens, routes of administration, new compounds and associations should be envisaged in order to avoid cardiovascular or breast problems. However these new approaches ask for thorough validation studies. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence de l'effort physique sur le systeme immunitaire muqueux
Close, Patricia ULiege; Thielen, V.; Bury, Thierry ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(9), 548-53

It is now generally accepted that strenuous exhausting exercise can increase susceptibility to viral infection during the following days or weeks. This review addresses the role of mucosal immunity in ... [more ▼]

It is now generally accepted that strenuous exhausting exercise can increase susceptibility to viral infection during the following days or weeks. This review addresses the role of mucosal immunity in respiratory illness and associations with the intensity, volume and duration of exercise. Indeed habitual exercise at an intense level can cause suppression of mucosal immune parameters. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiplex PCRs for Identification of Necrotoxigenic Escherichia coli
Van Bost, S.; Jacquemin, E.; Oswald, E. et al

in Journal of Clinical Microbiology (2003), 41(9), 4480-4482

Two multiplex PCRs were developed for the detection of necrotoxigenic Escherichia coli virulence genes. M1 contained the primers for the toxins and the aerobactin, and M2 contained the primers for the ... [more ▼]

Two multiplex PCRs were developed for the detection of necrotoxigenic Escherichia coli virulence genes. M1 contained the primers for the toxins and the aerobactin, and M2 contained the primers for the adhesins. They were validated by single PCRs performed with reference E. coli strains and by multiplex PCRs with necrotoxigenic E. coli strains isolated from different animal species. [less ▲]

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See detailExpression pattern of metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of matrix-metalloproteinases in cycling human endometrium
Goffin, Frédéric ULiege; Munaut, Carine ULiege; Frankenne, Francis et al

in Biology of Reproduction (2003), 69(3), 976-984

The cyclic growth, differentiation, and cell death of endometrium represents the most dynamic example of steroid-driven tissue turnover in human adults. Key effectors in these processes-matrix ... [more ▼]

The cyclic growth, differentiation, and cell death of endometrium represents the most dynamic example of steroid-driven tissue turnover in human adults. Key effectors in these processes-matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their specific inhibitors (TIMPs)-are regulated by ovarian steroids and, locally, by cytokines. We used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to evaluate the expression of both transcriptionally regulated molecules such as estrogen receptor-alpha, progesterone receptor, and prolactin and a large array of MMPs and TIMPs (MMP-1, -2, -3, -7, -8, -9, -11, -12, -19, -26, MT1-MMP, MT2-MMP, MT3-MMP, TIMP-1, -2, -3). Altogether, three distinct patterns of MMP and two patterns of TIMP expression were detected in cycling endometrium: 1). MMPs restricted to the menstrual period (MMPs-1, -3, -8, -9, -12); 2). MMPs and TIMPs expressed throughout the cycle (MMP-2, MT1-MMP, MT2-MMP, MMP-19, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2); 3). MMPs predominantly expressed during the proliferative phase (MMP-7, MMP-11, MMP-26, and MT3-MMP); and 4). TIMP-3, which, contrary to the other TIMPs, shows significant modulations, with maximum expression during the late secretory and menstrual phases. These specific patterns of MMP expression associated with each phase of the cycle may point to specific roles in the processes of menstruation, housekeeping activities, angiogenesis, tissue growth, and extracellular matrix remodeling. [less ▲]

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See detailStructure of liquid semiconductors
Gaspard, Jean-Pierre ULiege; Raty, Jean-Yves ULiege

in Journal de Physique IV (2003), 111

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See detailPathogenic role of matrix metalloproteases and their inhibitors in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and therapeutic relevance of matrix metalloproteases inhibitors
Cataldo, Didier ULiege; Guéders, Maud ULiege; Rocks, Natacha ULiege et al

in Cellular and Molecular Biology (2003), 49(6), 875-884

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are an at least 23 member family of calcium and zinc dependent enzymes implicated in many physiological and pathological processes. Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary ... [more ▼]

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are an at least 23 member family of calcium and zinc dependent enzymes implicated in many physiological and pathological processes. Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema are diseases associated with an inflammation of the airways and lung parenchyma. In this review, we focus on the role played by MMPs in the pathogenesis of inflammation, airway remodelling and alveolar destruction, depicting the observational studies in humans and the experimental studies in animal models. During the course of asthma, MM P-2,-8,-9 and TIMP-1 are expressed at baseline and the allergen exposure or exacerbations of the disease lead to an increase of MMP-9 secretion being at this time much higher than that of TIMP-1, allowing temporarily a matrix damage, possibly followed by abnormal repair. Animal models suggest a predominant role for MMP-9 and MMP-12 in the pathogenesis of pulmonary inflammation and link an absence of MMP-2 to an increased parenchymal inflammation. In COPD and emphysema, human studies indicate an over-secretion of MMP-2,-8,-9 and animal models point out MMP-1 and MMP-12 as being key players in the pathogenesis of emphysema. Taken together, these data identify specific MW inhibition as appropriate target for therapeutic intervention in asthma or COPD/emphysema. They also strongly argue against the widespread use of large spectrum non specific inhibitors that could be detrimental. [less ▲]

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See detailMoritella cold-active dihydrofolate reductase: Are there natural limits to optimization of catalytic efficiency at low temperature?
Xu, Y.; Feller, Georges ULiege; Gerday, Charles ULiege et al

in Journal of Bacteriology (2003), 185(18), 5519-5526

Adapting metabolic enzymes of microorganisms to low temperature environments may require a difficult compromise between velocity and affinity. We have investigated catalytic efficiency in a key metabolic ... [more ▼]

Adapting metabolic enzymes of microorganisms to low temperature environments may require a difficult compromise between velocity and affinity. We have investigated catalytic efficiency in a key metabolic enzyme (dihydrofolate reductase) of Moritella profunda sp. nov., a strictly psychrophilic bacterium with a maximal growth rate at 2degreesC or less. The enzyme is monomeric (M-r = 18,291), 55% identical to its Escherichia coli counterpart, and displays T-m and denaturation enthalpy changes much lower than E. coli and Thermotoga maritima homologues. Its stability curve indicates a maximum stability above the temperature range of the organism, and predicts cold denaturation below 0degreesC. At mesophilic temperatures the apparent K-m value for dihydrofolate is 50- to 80-fold higher than for E. coli, Lactobacillus casei, and T. maritima dihydrofolate reductases, whereas the apparent K-m value for NADPH, though higher, remains in the same order of magnitude. At 5degreesC these values are not significantly modified. The enzyme is also much less sensitive than its E. coli counterpart to the inhibitors methotrexate and trimethoprim. The catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K-m) with respect to dihydrofolate is thus much lower than in the other three bacteria. The higher affinity for NADPH could have been maintained by selection since NADPH assists the release of the product tetrahydrofolate. Dihydrofolate reductase adaptation to low temperature thus appears to have entailed a pronounced trade-off between affinity and catalytic velocity. The kinetic features of this psychrophilic protein suggest that enzyme adaptation to low temperature may be constrained by natural limits to optimization of catalytic efficiency. [less ▲]

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See detailPredominant ventromedial frontopolar metabolic impairment in frontotemporal dementia
Salmon, Eric ULiege; Garraux, Gaëtan ULiege; Delbeuck, Xavier et al

in NeuroImage (2003), 20(1), 435-440

In a multicenter study, FDG-PET images in a population of 29 patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) were compared to controls with similar age from each center. A conjunction analysis led to ... [more ▼]

In a multicenter study, FDG-PET images in a population of 29 patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) were compared to controls with similar age from each center. A conjunction analysis led to identification of the ventromedial frontopolar cortex as the single region affected in each and every FTD patients. This precise regional metabolic impairment should be integrated with recent neuropsychological researches, such as those showing that the ventromedial frontal cortex is critically involved in decision-making processes based on personal experience, feelings of rightness or social knowledge, processes that are characteristically impaired in FTD. (C) 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailThe use of degrees of certainty to evaluate knowledge
Brutomesso, Daniela; Gagnayre, Remi; Leclercq, Dieudonné ULiege et al

in Patient Education & Counseling (2003), 51(1), 29-37

In patients with chronic diseases education should improve knowledge about the disease and increase certainty in knowledge. We present here a technique to measure changes in certainty after an educational ... [more ▼]

In patients with chronic diseases education should improve knowledge about the disease and increase certainty in knowledge. We present here a technique to measure changes in certainty after an educational intervention. For this purpose, before and after a course, patients answer a questionnaire in which answers are accompanied by an estimate of the degree of certainty. Answers are then assigned to areas of knowledge defined a priori: mastered (certainty greater than or equal to90%, correctness greater than or equal to90%), hazardous (certainty greater than or equal to90%, correctness less than or equal to50%), uncertain (certainty less than or equal to50%, correctness greater than or equal to90%) and residual. Finally differences in the distribution of answers among different areas are analysed statistically. Using this technique in a group of patients with type I diabetes who followed a course on insulin use, we found significant changes in the distribution of answers among different areas of knowledge. Thus changes in certainty can be analysed quantitatively and used to evaluate better the effect of therapeutic education. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailImaging of large vessel vasculitis with (18)FDG PET: illusion or reality? A critical review of the literature data
Belhocine, Tarik; Blockmans, Daniel; Hustinx, Roland ULiege et al

in European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (2003), 30(9), 1305-1313

Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)FDG PET) plays a major role in the management of oncology patients. Owing to the singular properties of the glucose tracer, many patients ... [more ▼]

Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)FDG PET) plays a major role in the management of oncology patients. Owing to the singular properties of the glucose tracer, many patients suffering from non-malignant diseases such as inflammatory or infectious diseases may also derive clinical benefit from the appropriate use of metabolic imaging. Large vessel vasculitides such as giant cell arteritis and Takayasu arteritis are other examples that may potentially extend the field of (18)FDG PET indications. The purpose of the present article is to assess the feasibility of metabolic imaging in vasculitis on the basis of the current literature data. In particular, the clinical context and the (18)FDG imaging patterns seen in patients with large vessel vasculitis are analysed in order to identify potential indications for metabolic imaging. [less ▲]

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See detailt(5;14)/HOX11L2-positive T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A collaborative study of the Groupe Francais de Cytogenetique Hematologique (GFCH)
Berger, R.; Dastugue, N.; Busson, M. et al

in Leukemia (2003), 17(9), 1851-1857

To accurately estimate the incidence of HOX11L2 expression, and determine the associated cytogenetic features, in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), the Groupe Francais de Cytogenetique ... [more ▼]

To accurately estimate the incidence of HOX11L2 expression, and determine the associated cytogenetic features, in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), the Groupe Francais de Cytogenetique Hematologique (GFCH) carried out a retrospective study of both childhood and adult patients. In total, 364 patients were included ( 211 children less than or equal to15 years and 153 adults), and 67 ( 18.5%) [ 47 children ( 22.4%) and 20 adults (13.1%)] were shown to either harbor the t(5; 14) q35; q32) translocation or express the HOX11L2 gene or both. Most of the common hematological parameters did not show significant differences within positive and negative populations, whereas the incidence of CD1a+/CD10+ and cytoplasmic CD3+ patients was significantly higher in positive than in negative children. Out of the 63 positive patients investigated by conventional cytogenetics, 32 exhibited normal karyotype, whereas the others 31 showed clonal chromosome abnormalities, which did not include classical T-ALL specific translocations. Involvement of the RANBP17/HOX11L2 locus was ascertained by fluorescence in situ hybridization in six variant or alternative (three-way translocation or cytogenetic partner other than 14q32) translocations out of the 223 patients. Our results also show that HOX11L2 expression essentially occurs as a result of a 5q35 rearrangement, but is not associated with another identified T-ALL specific recurrent genetic abnormality, such as SIL-TAL fusion or HOX11 expression. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociation of acute leukemia and autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome in two kindreds.
Willems, Evelyne ULiege; Valdes Socin, Hernan Gonzalo ULiege; Betea, Daniela ULiege et al

in Leukemia : Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K (2003), 17(9), 1912-1914

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See detailCognitive topography imbalance in alcoholism
Papart, Patrick ULiege; Liota, F.; Bartholomé, F. et al

in Journal of Psychophysiology (2003), 17(Suppl 1), 7-8

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See detailA reduced extracellular serotonin level increases the 5-HT1A PET ligand F-18-MPPF binding in the rat hippocampus
Zimmer, L.; Rbah, L.; Giacomelli, Fabrice ULiege et al

in Journal of Nuclear Medicine (2003), 44(9), 1495-1501

4,2'-(Methoxyphenyl)-1-[2'-(N-2"-pyridinyl)-p-fluorobenzamido]ethylpiperazine (F-18-MPPF) is a radiotracer used in clinical PET studies for the visualization of serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) receptors. In a ... [more ▼]

4,2'-(Methoxyphenyl)-1-[2'-(N-2"-pyridinyl)-p-fluorobenzamido]ethylpiperazine (F-18-MPPF) is a radiotracer used in clinical PET studies for the visualization of serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) receptors. In a previous study, we demonstrated that a rapid enhancement of extracellular serotonin concentrations influences F-18-MPPF-specific binding. Because endogenous serotonin is significantly decreased in some pathologies, the aim of this study was to determine whether F-18-MPPF is sensitive to depletion of this neurotransmitter. Methods: Using the beta-microprobe, an original beta(+)-sensitive intracerebral probe, and micro-dialysis, the effect of decreased serotonin on the specific binding of F-18-MPPF to 5-HT1A receptors was investigated in the hippocampus of the anesthetized rat. Extracellular serotonin was pharmacologically decreased in the hippocampus after a single injection of p-ethynylphenylalanine ([p-EPA] 5 mg/kg), a new tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor. Results: Our results showed that the F-18-MPPF-specific binding was significantly enhanced after the decrease of extracellular serotonin. These results were confirmed by the F-18-MPPF distribution in cerebral tissues (hippocampus-to-cerebellum ratio) and by the decrease of the extracellular F-18-MPPF collected in hippocampal dialysates. Conclusion: This study further supports the view that 18F-MPPF binding potential is increased in the hippocampus if the endogenous serotonin is pharmacologically decreased after a p-EPA injection. This phenomenon will be an additional factor in the interpretation of the results from F-18-MPPF clinical PET studies. [less ▲]

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See detailThe antiangiogenic factor 16K human prolactin induces caspase-dependent apoptosis by a mechanism that requires activation of nuclear factor-kappa B
Tabruyn, Sébastien ULiege; Sorlet, C. M.; Rentier-Delrue, Françoise ULiege et al

in Molecular Endocrinology (2003), 17(9), 1815-1823

We have previously shown that the 16-kDa N-terminal fragment of human prolactin (16K hPRL) has antiangiogenic properties, including the ability to induce apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells. Here, we ... [more ▼]

We have previously shown that the 16-kDa N-terminal fragment of human prolactin (16K hPRL) has antiangiogenic properties, including the ability to induce apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells. Here, we examined whether the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) signaling pathway was involved in mediating the apoptotic action of 16K hPRL in bovine adrenal cortex capillary endothelial cells. In a dose-dependent manner, treatment with 16K hPRL induced inhibitor kappaB-alpha degradation permitting translocation of NF-kappaB to the nucleus and reporter gene activation. Inhibition of NF-kappaB activation by overexpression of a nondegradable inhibitor kappaB-alpha mutant or treatment with NF-kappaB inhibitors blocked 16K hPRL-induced apoptosis. Treatment with 16K hPRL activated the initiator caspases-8 and -9 and the effector caspase-3, all of which were essential for stimulation of DNA fragmentation. This activation of the caspase cascade by 16K hPRL was also NF-kappaB dependent. These findings support the conclusion that NF-kappaB signaling plays a central role in 16K hPRL-induced apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells. [less ▲]

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See detailLearned material content and acquisition level modulate cerebral reactivation during posttraining rapid-eye-movements sleep
Peigneux, Philippe ULiege; Laureys, Steven ULiege; Fuchs, Sonia et al

in NeuroImage (2003), 20(1), 125-134

We have previously shown that several brain areas are activated both during sequence learning at wake and during subsequent rapid-eye-movements (REM) sleep (Nat. Neurosci. 3 (2000) 831-836), suggesting ... [more ▼]

We have previously shown that several brain areas are activated both during sequence learning at wake and during subsequent rapid-eye-movements (REM) sleep (Nat. Neurosci. 3 (2000) 831-836), suggesting that REM sleep participates in the reprocessing of recent memory traces in humans. However, the nature of the reprocessed information remains open. Here, we show that regional cerebral reactivation during posttraining REM sleep is not merely related to the acquisition of basic visuomotor skills during prior practice of the serial reaction time task, but rather to the implicit acquisition of the probabilistic rules that defined stimulus sequences. Moreover, functional connections between the reactivated cuneus and the striatum-the latter being critical for implicit sequence learning-are reinforced during REM sleep after practice on a probabilistic rather than on a random sequence of stimuli. Our results therefore support the hypothesis that REM sleep is deeply involved in the reprocessing and optimization of the high-order information contained in the material to be learned. In addition, we show that the level of acquisition of probabilistic rules attained prior to sleep is correlated to the increase in regional cerebral blood flow during subsequent REM sleep. This suggests that posttraining cerebral reactivation is modulated by the strength of the memory traces developed during the learning episode. Our data provide the first experimental evidence for a link between behavioral performance and cerebral reactivation during REM sleep. (C) 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailA tool to design steel elements submitted to compartment fires - OZone V2. Part 1: pre- and post-flashover compartment fire model
Cadorin, Jean-François; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULiege

in Fire Safety Journal (2003), 38(5), 395-427

The computer code OZone V2 has been developed to help engineers in designing structural elements submitted to compartment fires. The code is based on several recent developments, in compartment fire ... [more ▼]

The computer code OZone V2 has been developed to help engineers in designing structural elements submitted to compartment fires. The code is based on several recent developments, in compartment fire modelling on one hand and on the effect of localised fires on structures on the other hand. It includes a single compartment fire model that combines a two-zone model and a one-zone model. In this paper, the description of this compartment fire model is given. The main model is first presented. It consists of the usual zone model equations fully coupled with the partition model equations. The partitions are modelled by the finite element method. The switch from the two-zone to the one-zone model is then explained. The vertical, horizontal and forced vent sub-models are presented, followed by the fire source and the combustion models. A comparison between this code and another compartment fire model NAT is made. The OZone calculations are then compared to full scale fire tests. Considerations as to how this model is used for the design of steel elements will be presented in a companion paper (Fire Saf. J., this issue). (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailDurability of mortars modified with metakaolin
Courard, Luc ULiege; Darimont, Anne ULiege; Schouterden, M. et al

in Cement & Concrete Research (2003), 33(9), 1473-1479

Results of an investigation to determine the effects of metakaolin additions on transport properties of mortars are reported. Comparisons are made to ordinary Portland cement (OPC) to determine the ... [more ▼]

Results of an investigation to determine the effects of metakaolin additions on transport properties of mortars are reported. Comparisons are made to ordinary Portland cement (OPC) to determine the influence of addition and replacement percentage. Cement is replaced on a mass basis of 5-20% for metakaolin. A mixture with natural kaolin is also studied. The transport properties and chemical behaviors are analyzed by means of chloride diffusion tests and sulfate immersion. Obserdvations after more than 100 days are used to prescribe mixtures that reduce the rate of chloride diffusion and sulfate degradation. For metakaolin, the optimum seems to be between 10% and 15% with regard to inhibition effect on chloride diffusion and sulfate attack. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailAn XMM-Newton observation of the very young open cluster NGC 6383
Rauw, Grégor ULiege; De Becker, Michaël ULiege; Gosset, Eric ULiege et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2003), 407(3), 925-15

We report the detection of a number of X-ray sources associated with the very young open cluster NGC6383. About two thirds of these objects are correlated with a rather faint optical source and all but ... [more ▼]

We report the detection of a number of X-ray sources associated with the very young open cluster NGC6383. About two thirds of these objects are correlated with a rather faint optical source and all but one have at least one infrared counterpart within a correlation radius of 8 arcsec. Although NGC6383 is not associated with a prominent star forming region, the overall properties of many of the X-ray sources suggest that they may be candidates for low-mass pre-main sequence stars. The number of X-ray sources increases towards the cluster center suggesting that there exists a close relation between the massive O-star binary system HD159176 in the cluster core and the population of X-ray bright low-mass objects in NGC 6383. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentity and expression memory for happy and angry faces in social anxiety
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULiege; Van der Linden, Martial ULiege; Etienne, Anne-Marie ULiege et al

in Acta Psychologica (2003), 114(1), 1-15

We examined the influence of social anxiety on memory for both identity and emotional expressions of unfamiliar faces. Participants high and low in social anxiety were presented with happy and angry faces ... [more ▼]

We examined the influence of social anxiety on memory for both identity and emotional expressions of unfamiliar faces. Participants high and low in social anxiety were presented with happy and angry faces and were later asked to recognise the same faces displaying a neutral expression. They also had to remember what the initial expressions of the faces had been. Remember/know/guess judgements were asked both for identity and expression memory. For participants low in social anxiety, both identity and expression memory were more often associated with "remember" responses when the faces were previously seen with a happy rather than an angry expression. In contrast, the initial expression of the faces did not affect either identity or expression memory for participants high in social anxiety. We interpreted these findings by arguing that most people tend to preferentially elaborate positive rather than negative social stimuli that are important to the self and that this tendency may be reduced in high socially anxious individuals because of the negative meaning they tend to ascribe to positive social information. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailBody contour 180 degrees pinhole SPET with or without tilted detector: a phantom study
Seret, Alain ULiege; Flérès, David; Firket, Olivier et al

in European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (2003), 30(9), 1205-1210

This study investigated the feasibility of ordered subsets expectation maximisation (OS-EM) reconstruction of 180 degrees pinhole single-photon emission tomography (SPET) acquired in body contour mode ... [more ▼]

This study investigated the feasibility of ordered subsets expectation maximisation (OS-EM) reconstruction of 180 degrees pinhole single-photon emission tomography (SPET) acquired in body contour mode (variable distance between the detector and the axis of rotation for each projection) with or without a tilted detector head. Four non-circular orbits were designed bearing in mind the rotation radius and tilt angle values of previous pinhole SPET acquisitions in patients with circular orbits. The reconstructions were performed using a dedicated OS-EM algorithm. Reconstructed images of line and uniformity phantoms showed that the spatial and uniformity characteristics of the radioactive objects were preserved. In comparison with the circular orbits, the non-circular orbits allowed only a moderate gain (maximum 10%) in resolution. However, body contour pinhole SPET would significantly facilitate the camera set-up and in this way should decrease the camera set-up time, which is an important parameter in patient studies. [less ▲]

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See detailCyanobacterial diversity in natural and artificial microbial mats of Lake Fryxell (McMurdo dry valleys, Antarctica): A morphological and molecular approach
Taton, A.; Grubisic, Stana ULiege; Brambilla, E. et al

in Applied and Environmental Microbiology (2003), 69(9), 5157-5169

Currently, there is no consensus concerning the geographic distribution and extent of endemism in Antarctic cyanobacteria. In this paper we describe the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of cyanobacteria ... [more ▼]

Currently, there is no consensus concerning the geographic distribution and extent of endemism in Antarctic cyanobacteria. In this paper we describe the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of cyanobacteria in a field microbial mat sample from Lake Fryxell and in an artificial cold-adapted sample cultured in a benthic gradient chamber (BGC) by using an inoculum from the same mat. Light microscopy and molecular tools, including 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and sequencing, were used. For the first time in the study of cyanobacterial diversity of environmental samples, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences were retrieved and analyzed to complement the information obtained from the 16S rRNA gene. Microscopy allowed eight morphotypes to be identified, only one of which is likely to be an Antarctic endemic morphotype. Molecular analysis, however, revealed an entirely different pattern. A much higher number of phylotypes (15 phylotypes) was found, but no sequences from Nodularia and Hydrocoryne, as observed by microscopy, were retrieved. The 16S rRNA gene sequences determined in this study were distributed in 11 phylogenetic lineages, 3 of which were exclusively Antarctic and 2 of which were novel. Collectively, these Antarctic sequences together with all the other polar sequences were distributed in 22 lineages, 9 of which were exclusively Antarctic, including the 2 novel lineages observed in this study. The cultured BGC mat had lower diversity than the field mat. However, the two samples shared three morphotypes and three phylotypes. Moreover, the BGC mat allowed enrichment of one additional phylotype. ITS sequence analysis revealed a complex signal that was difficult to interpret. Finally, this study provided evidence of molecular diversity of cyanobacteria in Antarctica that is much greater than the diversity currently known based on traditional microscopic analysis. Furthermore, Antarctic endemic species were more abundant than was estimated on the basis of morphological features. Decisive arguments concerning the global geographic distribution of cyanobacteria should therefore incorporate data obtained with the molecular tools described here. [less ▲]

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See detailA tool to design steel elements submitted to compartment fires - OZone V2. Part 2: Methodology and application
Cadorin, Jean-François; Pintea, Dan; Dotreppe, Jean-Claude ULiege et al

in Fire Safety Journal (2003), 38(5), 429-451

The methodology implemented in the tool OZone V2 to design steel elements submitted to compartment fires is presented. Input needed to define a fire compartment are first quoted. The procedure to define ... [more ▼]

The methodology implemented in the tool OZone V2 to design steel elements submitted to compartment fires is presented. Input needed to define a fire compartment are first quoted. The procedure to define the design fire is then explained. This procedure enables to take into account the benefits of active measures on the fire safety. The combined use of a two- and a one-zone model is then presented. A particular attention is given to the criteria of choice of the model and to the different scenarios that can occur. The calculation of steel element temperature is then explained. The proposed procedure takes into account the localised effect of a fire with the help of Hasemi's model. The fire resistance is then calculated with the EUROCODE 3 methods. An application is finally presented. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailNouvelles directives americaines et europeennes en 2003 pour la prise en charge de l'hypertension arterielle
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(9), 563-571

New American and European guidelines have been released in 2003, the purpose of which is to improve the management of arterial hypertension. The decision to treat high blood pressure now mainly relies on ... [more ▼]

New American and European guidelines have been released in 2003, the purpose of which is to improve the management of arterial hypertension. The decision to treat high blood pressure now mainly relies on the individual cardiovascular risk rather than on the sole blood pressure level. Thus, antihypertensive drugs could be proposed even to normotensive individuals, provided they have a high cardiovascular risk (> 20% at 10 years). On the other hand, grade 1 or 2 hypertensive patients, if their baseline cardiovascular risk is low, will be prescribed antihypertensive drugs only after 3 to 6 months of follow-up. In all cases, individualized non pharmacological means must always be proposed and their use stimulated. The target blood pressure under treatment will be < 140/90 mmHg when the cardiovascular risk is low or moderate, but < 130/80 mmHg when high risk exists. To reach this target, a drug combination is very often necessary, and it frequently includes a low dose of diuretic. To-day, the option of using a low dose biotherapy as an alternative to monotherapy is even proposed as first step antihypertensive treatment. After initiation of treatment, the patient must be regularly followed up and stimulated to decrease his cardiovascular risk to the lowest possible level, following an inclusive approach. [less ▲]

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See detailA detailed kinetic study of Mox-1, a plasmid-encoded class C beta-lactamase
Alba, J.; Bauvois, C.; Ishii, Y. et al

in FEMS Microbiology Letters (2003), 225(2), 183-188

Surveys of beta-lactamases in different parts of the world show an important increase in class C beta-lactamases, thus the study of these enzymes is becoming an important issue. We created an ... [more ▼]

Surveys of beta-lactamases in different parts of the world show an important increase in class C beta-lactamases, thus the study of these enzymes is becoming an important issue. We created an overproduction system for Mox-1, a plasmid class C beta-lactamase, by cloning the gene encoding this enzyme, and placing it under the control of a T7 promoter, using vector pET 28a. The enzyme, purified by ion exchange chromatography, was used to obtain the molecular mass (38 246), the N-terminal sequence (GEASPVDPLRPVV), and p/ (8.9), and to perform a detailed kinetic study. Cephalotin was used as reporter substrate in the case of poor substrates. The kinetic study showed that benzylpenicillin, cephalotin, cefcapene and moxalactam were good substrates for Mox-1 (k(cat)/K-m values > 2.5 x 10(6) M-1 s(-1)). On the other hand, ceftazidime and cefepime were poor substrates for this enzyme (K-m values > 200 muM). Clavulanic acid had no inhibitory effect on Mox-1 (K-m = 30.2 mM), however aztreonam behaved as an inhibitor of Mox-1 (K-i = 2.85 muM). (C) 2003 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanisms of Actions of Inhaled Anesthetics
Seutin, Vincent ULiege

in New England Journal of Medicine [=NEJM] (2003), 349(9), 909-910

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See detailY a-t-il une place d'emblée pour une bithérapie faiblement dosée dans le traitement de l'hypertension artérielle essentielle?
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULiege; Rorive, Marcelle ULiege

in Médecine et Hygiène (2003), 61

If the treatment of hypertension is very useful to decrease the cardiovascular risk, the way to get the normalisation of high blood pressure is difficult in spite of many families of antihypertensive ... [more ▼]

If the treatment of hypertension is very useful to decrease the cardiovascular risk, the way to get the normalisation of high blood pressure is difficult in spite of many families of antihypertensive agents with different mechanisms of action. To reach such objective, association of different drugs are most often required. But, the european guidelines for the management of hypertension have just been released and proposed the possibility to begin very-low-dose combination therapy first-line. These associations offer immediate higher efficacy, excellent tolerance and low cost. [less ▲]

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See detailReduced folate transport to the CNS in female Rett patients
RAMAEKERS, Vincent ULiege; Hansen, Sylvain ULiege; Holm, J. et al

in Neurology (2003), 61(4), 506-515

Background: Previous CSF studies in Rett syndrome suggest reduced turnover of the biogenic monoamines serotonin and dopamine. Because diminished turnover may result from CNS folate depletion, the authors ... [more ▼]

Background: Previous CSF studies in Rett syndrome suggest reduced turnover of the biogenic monoamines serotonin and dopamine. Because diminished turnover may result from CNS folate depletion, the authors studied transport of folate across the blood-brain barrier. Methods: In four patients with Rett syndrome, the authors measured CSF values of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5MTHF), biogenic monoamine end-metabolites, and pterins together with serum and red blood cell folate. In CSF, the overall folate binding capacity by the two soluble folate-binding proteins FBP1 and FBP2 (sFBP) was measured using a radioligand binding method for H3-labeled folate. A specific immunoreactive test (ELISA) detected sFBP1, which normally contributes to 30 to 35% of the total folate binding capacity. Genetic analysis included DNA sequencing of the MECP2, FBP1, and FBP2 genes. Empirical treatment with oral folinic acid was evaluated. Results: Two patients without and two with mutations of the MECP2 gene had normal values for red blood cell folate, serum folate, homocysteine, and methionine. In CSF, all patients had low values for 5MTHF, neopterin, and the serotonin end-metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). Genetic analysis of FBP1 and FBP2 genes had normal results. Compared to controls, patients with Rett syndrome had normal immunoreactive sFBP1 in CSF, whereas the total folate binding capacity was disproportionately lowered. Empirical treatment with oral folinic acid normalized 5-MHTF and 5-HIAA levels in CSF, and led to partial clinical improvement. Conclusion: Irrespective of the MECP2 genotype, 5MTHF transfer to the CNS is reduced in Rett syndrome. Folinic acid supplementation restores 5MTHF levels and serotoninergic turnover. The lowered folate binding capacity of FBP is not explained by a defect of the FBP1 or FBP2 gene, but most likely occurs as a secondary phenomenon in Rett syndrome. [less ▲]

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See detailA coupled thermo-viscoplastic formulation at finite strains for the numerical simulation of superplastic forming
Adam, Laurent; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULiege

in Journal of Materials Processing Technology (2003), 139

This paper deals with a thermo-elasto-viscoplastic formulation for the simulation of metal forming involving large deformations. The authors present the governing equations of the model and some ... [more ▼]

This paper deals with a thermo-elasto-viscoplastic formulation for the simulation of metal forming involving large deformations. The authors present the governing equations of the model and some applications to superplastic forming. The numerical examples illustrate the potentiality of the finite-element code METAFOR based on this formulation. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailParameter identification and shape/process optimization in metal forming simulation
Kleinermann, Jean-Pascal; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULiege

in Journal of Materials Processing Technology (2003), 139(1-3), 521-526

Nowadays, computer simulations of metal forming processes using the finite element method (FEM) have reached some level of maturity. The purpose of inverse problems is to determine the simulation input ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, computer simulations of metal forming processes using the finite element method (FEM) have reached some level of maturity. The purpose of inverse problems is to determine the simulation input data for one or more of these forming processes, leading to a desired result. The first example is called parameter identification. This consists in evaluating the material parameters for material behavior laws that would lead to the most accurate model, minimizing the difference between experimental results and the corresponding FEM simulation. The second example is initial geometry and tool shape design, consisting in determining the initial shape of the specimen and/or the shape of the forming tools, in order to provide the desired final geometry after the forming process. Both inverse problem examples can be formulated as optimization problems. In this paper, the authors propose to solve these optimization problems with different non-linear optimization methods and to compare their efficiency. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailRecombinant expression and antigenic properties of a 31.5-kDa keratinolytic subtilisin-like serine protease from Microsporum canis
Descamps, Frédéric; Brouta, Frédéric; Vermout, Sandy et al

in FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology (2003), 38(1), 29-34

A secreted 31.5-kDa keratinolytic subtilase (SUB3; AJ431180) is thought to be a Microsporum canis virulence factor and represents a candidate for vaccination trials. In this study, the recombinant ... [more ▼]

A secreted 31.5-kDa keratinolytic subtilase (SUB3; AJ431180) is thought to be a Microsporum canis virulence factor and represents a candidate for vaccination trials. In this study, the recombinant keratinase (r-SUB3) was produced by the Pichia pastoris expression system and purified to homogeneity. Recombinant SUB3 displayed identical biochemical properties with the native protease. Experimentally cutaneously infected guinea pigs showed specific lymphoproliferative response towards r-SUB3, while no specific humoral immune response was induced except for one animal. The heterologous expression of SUB3 provides a valuable tool for addressing further investigations on the role of this keratinase in the specific cellular immune response and on its use in vaccination trials in the cat. (C) 2003 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailIsolation of a glycoprotein E-deleted bovine herpesvirus type 1 strain in the field
Dispas, M.; Schynts, F.; Lemaire, Mylène et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2003), 153(7), 209-212

During a field trial to evaluate the efficacy of repeated vaccinations with bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) marker vaccines, a glycoprotein E (gE)-negative BHV-1 strain was isolated from the nasal ... [more ▼]

During a field trial to evaluate the efficacy of repeated vaccinations with bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) marker vaccines, a glycoprotein E (gE)-negative BHV-1 strain was isolated from the nasal secretions of two cows, eight months after vaccination with a gE-negative live-attenuated vaccine, initially given intranasally, then intramuscularly. The strain isolated was characterised using immunofluorescence, restriction analysis and PCR. All the techniques used identified the isolated virus as a gE-negative BHV-1 phenotypically and genotypically identical to the Za strain used as a control. [less ▲]

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See detailHow to optimize physicians' communication skills in cancer care: Results of a randomized study assessing the usefulness of posttraining consolidation workshops
Razavi, D.; Merckaert, I.; Marchal, Sylvie et al

in Journal of Clinical Oncology (2003), 21(16), 3141-3149

Purpose: Although there is wide recognition of the usefulness of improving physicians' communication skills, no studies have yet assessed the efficacy of post-training consolidation workshops. This study ... [more ▼]

Purpose: Although there is wide recognition of the usefulness of improving physicians' communication skills, no studies have yet assessed the efficacy of post-training consolidation workshops. This study aims to assess the efficacy of six 3-hour consolidation workshops conducted after a 2.5-day basic training program. Methods: Physicians, after attending the basic training program, were randomly assigned to consolidation workshops or to a waiting list. Training efficacy was assessed through simulated and actual patient interviews that were audiotaped at baseline and after consolidation workshops for the consolidation-workshop group, and approximately 5 months after the end of basic training for the waiting-list group. Communication skills were assessed according to the Cancer Research Campaign Workshop Evaluation Manual. Patients' perceptions of communication skills improvement were assessed using a 14-item questionnaire. Results : Sixty-three physicians completed the training program. Communication skills improved significantly more in the consolidation-workshop group compared with the waiting-list group. In simulated interviews, group-by-time repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant increase in open and open directive questions (P =.014) and utterances alerting patients to reality (P =.049), as well as a significant decrease in premature reassurance (P =.042). In actual patient interviews, results revealed a significant increase in acknowledgments (P =.022) and empathic statements (P =.009), in educated guesses (P =.041), and in negotiations (P =.008). Patients interacting with physicians who benefited from consolidation workshops reported higher scores concerning their physicians' understanding of their disease (P =.004). Conclusion: Consolidation workshops further improve a communication skills training program's efficacy and facilitate the transfer of acquired skills to clinical practice. [less ▲]

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See detailCharge transfer complex inimer: A facile route to dendritic materials
Wang, Wenxin; Yan, Deyue; Bratton, Daniel et al

in Advanced Materials (2003), 15(16), 1348-1352

A versatile approach to the preparation of hyperbranched polymers, in which an inimer is used to assemble a charge transfer complex (CTC) with conventional vinyl monomers, is reported. A novel ... [more ▼]

A versatile approach to the preparation of hyperbranched polymers, in which an inimer is used to assemble a charge transfer complex (CTC) with conventional vinyl monomers, is reported. A novel hyperbranched fluoro-polymer (see Figure) has been successfully synthesized through the copolymerization of chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE) and p-(chloromethyl)styrene (CMS) by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). [less ▲]

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See detailLong lasting instabilities in granular mixtures
Caps, Hervé ULiege; Michel, Renaud; Lecocq, N. et al

in Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications (2003), 326(3-4), 313-321

We have performed experiments of axial segregation in the Oyama's drum. We have tested binary granular mixtures during very long times. The segregation patterns have been captured by a CCD camera and ... [more ▼]

We have performed experiments of axial segregation in the Oyama's drum. We have tested binary granular mixtures during very long times. The segregation patterns have been captured by a CCD camera and spatio-temporal graphs are created. We report the occurrence of instabilities which can last several hours! We stress that those instabilities originate from the competition between axial and radial segregations. We put into evidence the occurrence of giant fluctuations in the fraction of grain species along the surface during the unstable periods. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailMagnetically controlled ballistic deposition. A model of polydisperse granular packing
Trojan, K.; Ausloos, Marcel ULiege

in Physica A-Statistical Mechanics and its Applications (2003), 326(3-4), 492-510

The flow and deposition of polydisperse granular materials is simulated through the magnetic diffusion limited aggregation (MDLA) model. The random walk undergone by an entity in the MDLA model is ... [more ▼]

The flow and deposition of polydisperse granular materials is simulated through the magnetic diffusion limited aggregation (MDLA) model. The random walk undergone by an entity in the MDLA model is modified such that the trajectories are ballistic in nature, leading to a magnetically controlled ballistic deposition (MBD) model. This allows to obtain important ingredients about a difficult problem that of the nonequilibrium segregation of polydisperse sandpiles and heterogeneous adsorption of a binary distribution of particles which can interact with each other and with an external field. Our detailed results from many simulations of MBD clusters on a two-dimensional triangular lattice above a flat surface in a vertical finite size box for binary systems indicates intriguing variations of the density, "magnetization", types of clusters and fractal dimensions. We derive the field and grain interaction-dependent susceptibility and compressibility. We deduce a completely new phase diagram for binary granular piles and discuss its complexity inherent to different grain competition and cluster growth probabilities. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailA camelid antibody fragment inhibits the formation of amyloid fibrils by human lysozyme
Dumoulin, Mireille ULiege; Last, A. M.; Desmyter, A. et al

in Nature (2003), 424(6950), 783-788

Amyloid diseases are characterized by an aberrant assembly of a specific protein or protein fragment into fibrils and plaques that are deposited in various organs and tissues(1-3), often with serious ... [more ▼]

Amyloid diseases are characterized by an aberrant assembly of a specific protein or protein fragment into fibrils and plaques that are deposited in various organs and tissues(1-3), often with serious pathological consequences. Non-neuropathic systemic amyloidosis (4-6) is associated with single point mutations in the gene coding for human lysozyme. Here we report that a single-domain fragment of a camelid antibody(7-9) raised against wild-type human lysozyme inhibits the in vitro aggregation of its amyloidogenic variant, D67H. Our structural studies reveal that the epitope includes neither the site of mutation nor most residues in the region of the protein structure that is destabilized by the mutation. Instead, the binding of the antibody fragment achieves its effect by restoring the structural cooperativity characteristic of the wild-type protein. This appears to occur at least in part through the transmission of long-range conformational effects to the interface between the two structural domains of the protein. Thus, reducing the ability of an amyloidogenic protein to form partly unfolded species can be an effective method of preventing its aggregation, suggesting approaches to the rational design of therapeutic agents directed against protein deposition diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailBulletin agrométéorologique - Juillet 2003
Tychon, Bernard ULiege; Ozer, Pierre ULiege; Eerens, H. et al

in Bulletin Agrométéorologique (2003)

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See detailIn situ formation of yttrium alkoxides: A versatile and efficient catalyst for the ROP of epsilon-caprolactone
Martin, Eric; Dubois, Philippe ULiege; Jérôme, Robert ULiege

in Macromolecules (2003), 38(16), 5934-5941

[Tris(hexamethyldisilyl)amide] yttrium is a catalyst for the controlled ring-opening polymerization of epsilon-caprolactone when reacted with an excess of alcohol. Up to an alcohol-to-yttrium molar ratio ... [more ▼]

[Tris(hexamethyldisilyl)amide] yttrium is a catalyst for the controlled ring-opening polymerization of epsilon-caprolactone when reacted with an excess of alcohol. Up to an alcohol-to-yttrium molar ratio of 50, the chain transfer to the alcohol is quantitative, and the molecular weight of the chains can be predicted from the monomer-to-alcohol molar ratio. At alcohol-to-yttrium ratios higher than 100, the alcohol is quantitatively consumed provided that 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexamethyldisilazane, which is formed as a byproduct, is removed from the reation medium. Depending on the structure of the alcohol, end-functional polyesters can be prepared (e.g., with N-pyrrolyl and 3-thienyl end groups). Well-defined block and random copolymers of epsilon-CL with lactides and gamma-bromo-epsilon-caprolactone, respectively, have also been synthesized. Compared to aluminum alkoxides, the in situ formed yttrium alkoxides have the advantage of a much faster polymerization kinetics while preserving control. [less ▲]

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See detailPolymer coating of steel by a combination of electrografting and atom-transfer radical polymerization
Claes, Michaël; Voccia, Samuel; Detrembleur, Christophe ULiege et al

in Macromolecules (2003), 36(16), 5926-5933

Cathodic electrografting of poly(2-chloropropionate ethyl acrylate) (poly[cPEA]) onto steel followed by the styrene grafting-from by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) is an efficient strategy to ... [more ▼]

Cathodic electrografting of poly(2-chloropropionate ethyl acrylate) (poly[cPEA]) onto steel followed by the styrene grafting-from by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) is an efficient strategy to impart strong adhesion to polystyrene films onto the electrically conductive substrate. Electrografting of poly(cPEA) chains at an appropriate potential and persistence of the activated chloride in the grafted chains were confirmed by XPS. Polystyrene deposition by ATRP with a ruthenium-based catalyst was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Adhesion of the polystyrene layer to the substrate is so strong that it cannot be detached by standard Scotch brand tapes. Moreover, local thermal analysis showed a loss of mobility for the PS chains tethered at the surface. [less ▲]

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See detailAn analysis of the SFSTP guide on validation of chromatographic bioanalytical methods: progresses and limitations
Boulanger, Bruno ULiege; Chiap, Patrice ULiege; Dewé, Walthère ULiege et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2003), 32(4-5), 753-765

The Societe Francaise des Sciences et Techniques Pharmaceutiques (SFSTP) published in 1997 a guide on the validation of chromatographic bio-analytical methods, which introduces new concepts in three ... [more ▼]

The Societe Francaise des Sciences et Techniques Pharmaceutiques (SFSTP) published in 1997 a guide on the validation of chromatographic bio-analytical methods, which introduces new concepts in three different areas: stages of the validation, test of acceptability of a method and design of experiments to perform. In 'stages of validation', the SFSTP guide requires two phases to validate a method. The first phase, called 'prevalidation', is intended to (1) identify the model to use for the calibration curve; (2) evaluate the limits of quantitation; and (3) provide good estimates of the precision and bias of the method before designing the 'validation' phase per se. In the 'test of acceptability', the use of the interval hypotheses is envisaged by the SFSTP guide, not on the parameters of bias and precision, but on individual results by mixing mean bias and intermediate precision in a single test. The SFSTP guide also avoids the use of Satterthwaite's df for testing the acceptability. The reasons for those choices are discussed extensively. In 'design of experiments', much effort has been devoted to improving the quality of results by optimally designing and sizing the experiments to perform in validation. The rationale for using near D-optimal designs for the calibration curve is demonstrated and sample sizes are proposed to correctly size the validation experiments. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailFully automated LC method for the determination of sotalol in human plasma using restricted access material with cation exchange properties for sample clean-up
Rbeida, O.; Christiaens, B.; Chiap, Patrice ULiege et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2003), 32(4-5), 829-838

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See detailSensitive determination of buprenorphine and its N-dealkylated metabolite norbuprenorphine in human plasma by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry
Ceccato, Attilio ULiege; Klinkenberg, R.; Hubert, Philippe ULiege et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2003), 32(4-5), 619-631

A highly sensitive method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed for the quantitative determination of buprenorphine and its active metabolite ... [more ▼]

A highly sensitive method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed for the quantitative determination of buprenorphine and its active metabolite norbuprenorphine in human plasma. Automated solid. phase extraction (SPE) on disposable extraction cartridges (DEC) is used to isolate the compounds from the biological matrix and to prepare a cleaner sample before injection and analysis in the LC-MS/MS system. After conditioning, the plasma sample (1.0 ml) is loaded on the DEC filled with octyl silica (C8) and washed with water. The analytes are, therefore, eluted by dispensing methanol containing 0.1% of acetic acid. The eluate is collected and evaporated to dryness. The residue is dissolved in mobile phase and an aliquot is injected in the LC-MS/ MS system. On-line LC-MS/MS system using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) has been developed for the determination of buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine. The separation is obtained on a RP-18 stationary phase using a mobile phase consisting in a mixture of methanol and 50 mM ammonium acetate solution (50:50, v/v). Clonazepam is used as internal standard (IS). The MS/MS ion transitions monitored are m/z 468-->468, 414-->414 and 316-->270 for buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine and clonazepam, respectively. The method was validated regarding recovery, linearity, precision and accuracy. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were around 10 pg/ml for buprenorphine and 50 pg/ml for norbuprenorphine. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSpectral observations of transient features in the FUV Jovian polar aurora
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULiege; Gustin, Jacques ULiege; Grodent, Denis ULiege et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics (2003), 108

Images of the Jovian FUV aurora show several morphologically and dynamically different regions. The main oval is usually fairly steady while the high-latitude emission inside the oval can vary over ... [more ▼]

Images of the Jovian FUV aurora show several morphologically and dynamically different regions. The main oval is usually fairly steady while the high-latitude emission inside the oval can vary over timescales of <1 min. We describe time and spatially resolved spectral observations of the Jovian aurora made with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope. Time-tagged spectra have been used to determine variations of the amount of hydrocarbon absorption above the auroral source layer. Rapid brightenings are observed in the high-latitude emission with typical lengths of 50-100 s. They generally are not correlated with enhancements of the main oval in the same longitude sector, indicating decoupled source regions in the magnetosphere. The location of the high-latitude spots and their variability suggest that, unlike the main auroral oval, the polar cap brightenings are connected to short-term variations of the solar wind parameters. Results from a two-stream electron transport model are used to convert observed spectral color ratios into mean electron energies <E>. Electron energies during these brightenings typically range from 40 to 120 keV, close to the values found in the main oval. The time evolution of <E> generally shows little correlation or anticorrelation with the energy flux precipitated during these transient events. This feature suggests that the mechanism responsible for rapid transient brightenings does not increase the energy of the precipitated electrons, but it enhances their number flux. Pitch angle scattering into the loss cone by magnetic pumping of energy perpendicular to the field lines following magnetic field compression is a possible process. [less ▲]

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See detailPost-Mount Pinatubo eruption ground-based infrared stratospheric column measurements of HNO3, NO, and NO2 and their comparison with model calculations
Rinsland, Curtis P.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Ko, Malcolm K. W. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres (2003), 108(D15),

[1] Infrared solar spectra recorded between July 1991 to March 1992 and November 2002 with the Fourier transform spectrometer on Kitt Peak (31.9 degrees N latitude, 111.6 degrees W longitude, 2.09 km ... [more ▼]

[1] Infrared solar spectra recorded between July 1991 to March 1992 and November 2002 with the Fourier transform spectrometer on Kitt Peak (31.9 degrees N latitude, 111.6 degrees W longitude, 2.09 km altitude) have been analyzed to retrieve stratospheric columns of HNO3, NO, and NO2. The measurements cover a decade time span following the June 1991 Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption and were recorded typically at 0.01 cm(-1) spectral resolution. The measured HNO3 stratospheric column shows a 20% decline from 9.16 x 10(15) molecules cm(-2) from the first observation in March 1992 to 7.40 x 10(15) molecules cm(-2) at the start of 1996 reaching a broad minimum of 6.95 x 10(15) molecules cm(-2) thereafter. Normalized daytime NO and NO2 stratospheric column trends for the full post-Pinatubo eruption time period equal (+ 1.56 +/- 0.45)% yr(-1), 1 sigma, and (+ 0.52 +/- 0.32)% yr(-1), 1 sigma, respectively. The long-term trends are superimposed on seasonal cycles with ~10% relative amplitudes with respect to mean values, winter maxima for HNO3 and summer maxima for NO and NO2. The measurements have been compared with two-dimensional model calculations utilizing version 6.1 Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment ( SAGE) II sulfate aerosol surface area density measurements through 1999 and extended to the end of the time series by repeating the 1999 values. The model-calculated HNO3, NO, and NO2 stratospheric column time series agree with the measurements to within ~8% after taking into account the vertical sensitivity of the ground-based measurements. The consistency between the measured and model-calculated stratospheric time series confirms the decreased impact on stratospheric reactive nitrogen chemistry of the key heterogeneous reaction that converts reactive nitrogen to its less active reservoir form as the lower-stratospheric aerosol surface area density declined by a factor of ~20 after the eruption maximum. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Role of the Inclination in the Captures in External Resonances in the Three Body Problem
Jancart, Sylvie ULiege; Lemaitre, Anne; Letocart, Vincent

in Celestial mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy (2003), 86

Interested in the role of the inclination in our results (Jancart and Lemaitre, 2001), we analyze the process of resonance trapping due to general dissipation forces in the frame of the spatial restricted ... [more ▼]

Interested in the role of the inclination in our results (Jancart and Lemaitre, 2001), we analyze the process of resonance trapping due to general dissipation forces in the frame of the spatial restricted three body problem and in the case of external mean motion resonances. We compute our simulations by using the three-dimensional Extended Schubart Averaging integrator developed by Moons (1994) for all mean motion resonances. We complete it by adding the averaged contributions of general dissipative forces like Murray has proposed in the article (1994). The behavior of the inclination is especially pointed out. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the substrate specificity of bacterial DD-peptidases: evidence from two series of peptidoglycan-mimetic peptides
Anderson, J. W.; Adediran, S. A.; Charlier, Paulette ULiege et al

in Biochemical Journal (2003), 373(Part 3), 949-955

The reactions between bacterial DD-peptidases and beta-lactam antibiotics have been studied for many years. Less well understood are the interactions between these enzymes and their natural substrates ... [more ▼]

The reactions between bacterial DD-peptidases and beta-lactam antibiotics have been studied for many years. Less well understood are the interactions between these enzymes and their natural substrates, presumably the peptide moieties of peptidoglycan. In general, remarkably little activity has previously been demonstrated in vitro against potential peptide substrates, although in many cases the peptides employed were non-specific and not homologous with the relevant peptidoglycan. In this paper, the specificity of a panel of DD-peptidases against elements of species-specific D-alanyl-D-alanine peptides has been assessed. In two cases, those of soluble, low-molecular-mass DD-peptidases, high activity against the relevant peptides has been demonstrated. In these cases, the high specificity is towards the free N-terminus of the peptidoglycan fragment. With a number of other enzymes, particularly high-molecular-mass DD-peptidases, little or no activity against these peptides was observed. In separate experiments, the reactivity of the enzymes against the central, largely invariant, peptide stem was examined. None of the enzymes surveyed showed high activity against this structural element although weak specificity in the expected direction towards the one structural variable (D-gammaGln versus D-gammaGlu) was observed. The current state of understanding of the activity of these enzymes in vitro is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailVLT+UVES Spectroscopy of the Ca II Low-Ionization Broad Absorption Line Quasar SDSS J030000.56+004828.0
Hall, Patrick B; Hutsemekers, Damien ULiege; Anderson, Scott F et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2003), 593

We study high-resolution spectra of the ``overlapping-trough'' low-ionization broad absorption line (LoBAL) quasar SDSS J030000.56+004828.0. The Ca II, Mg II, and Mg I column densities in this object are ... [more ▼]

We study high-resolution spectra of the ``overlapping-trough'' low-ionization broad absorption line (LoBAL) quasar SDSS J030000.56+004828.0. The Ca II, Mg II, and Mg I column densities in this object are the largest reported to date for any BAL outflow. The broad Ca II absorption is mildly blended, but the blending can be disentangled to measure the Ca II column density, which is large enough that the outflow must include a strong hydrogen ionization front. The outflow begins at a blueshift of ~1650 km s[SUP]-1[/SUP] from the systemic redshift. The lowest velocity BAL region produces strong Ca II absorption but does not produce significant excited Fe II absorption, while the higher velocity excited Fe II absorption region produces very little Ca II absorption. We have found that only a disk wind outflow can explain this segregation. Whether the outflow is smooth or clumpy, we conclude that the Ca II BAL region has a density high enough to populate excited levels of Fe II but a temperature low enough to prevent them from being significantly populated. This requirement means the Ca II BAL region has T<~1100 K, and perhaps even T<~550 K. This quasar also has an associated absorption line system (AAL) that exhibits partial covering and therefore is likely located near the central engine. Its association with the BAL outflow is unclear. Blending of the AAL with the BAL trough shows that the spatial region covered by the BAL outflow can vary over velocity differences of ~1700 km s[SUP]-1[/SUP]. Based on observations from ESO Director's Discretionary Time program 267.A-5698. [less ▲]

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See detailPreparation of macroporous biodegradable poly(L-lactide-co-epsilon-caprolactone) foams and characterization by mercury intrusion porosimetry, image analysis, and impedancy spectroscopy
Maquet, Véronique; Blacher, Silvia ULiege; Pirard, René ULiege et al

in Journal of Biomedical Materials Research (2003), 66A(2), 199-213

Two poly(L-lactide-co-epsilon-caprolactone) random copolymers containing 5 and 40 mol% of epsilon-CL, namely P(LA-co-CL5) and P(LA-co-CL40), respectively, have been made macroporous by freeze-drying ... [more ▼]

Two poly(L-lactide-co-epsilon-caprolactone) random copolymers containing 5 and 40 mol% of epsilon-CL, namely P(LA-co-CL5) and P(LA-co-CL40), respectively, have been made macroporous by freeze-drying solutions in dimethylcarbonate. Most of the freeze-dried foams, prepared by varying polymer concentration and cooling rate, exhibited two main pore populations: (1) longitudinally oriented tube-like macropores with diameters greater than or equal to100 mum, and (2) interconnected micropores (10-100 mum). Pore characteristics, including macropore density, mean diameter, and interdistance, as well as micropore density, area, and shape, were determined by image analysis of scanning electron micrographs in order to study the influence of processing and formulation parameters on foam structure and properties. The pore orientation and the 3-D texture also were studied by image analysis and impedance spectroscopy. In the case of the P(LA-co-CL5), the macropore diameter increased with the cooling rate while the micropore diameter decreased. The micropores also became more circular when the cooling rate was increased. The pore size and morphology of the P(LA-co-CL40) were quite unchanged by varying the cooling rate. All the other conditions being the same, the P(LA-co-CL5) foams were better organized than the P(LA-co-CL40) foams, and pore orientation was improved at the higher cooling rate. Pore size and morphology also can be controlled by changing the polymer concentration (Cp), as we showed by studying P(LA-co-CL5) foams prepared by freeze-drying solutions in the 1-10 w/v% Cp range. Macropore density, average diameter, and interdistance of P(LA-co-CL5) foams increased with Cp, but the micropore characteristics remained almost unchanged no matter the Cp. The reliability of the characterization methods has been discussed, with special attention to mercury intrusion porosimetry, which is used primarily for measurement of pore volume and pore size distribution. However, this technique is reported here as a destructive and unreliable method for the characterization of fragile P(LA-co-CL40) foams. This study shows that image analysis and impedance spectroscopy can give reliable information relative to the pore morphology and anisotropy of freeze-dried foams. [less ▲]

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See detailLa ceinture de Kuiper fête ses 10 ans
Jancart, Sylvie ULiege

in Ciel et Terre (2003), 119

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See detailPreparation, characterization, and in vitro degradation of bioresorbable and bioactive composites based on Bioglass (R)-filled polylactide foams
Maquet, Véronique; Boccaccini, Aldo R.; Pravata, Laurent et al

in Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, Part A (2003), 66A(2), 335-346

Highly porous poly(D,L-lactide)/Bioglass composites scaffolds were prepared by thermally induced phase separation process of polymer solutions and subsequent solvent sublimation. A series of composite ... [more ▼]

Highly porous poly(D,L-lactide)/Bioglass composites scaffolds were prepared by thermally induced phase separation process of polymer solutions and subsequent solvent sublimation. A series of composite foams with different polymer/Bioglass weight ratios was prepared to study the influence of Bioglass content on the foam characteristics such as porous structure, density, and pore volume. The pore volume was decreased from 9.5 to 5.7 cm(3)/g when the Bioglass content was increased up to 40 wt %, but the overall pore morphology was not affected very much by changing the polymer/glass composition ratio. The composites foams were then incubated in phosphate-buffered saline at 37 degrees C to study the in vitro degradation of the polymer and to detect hydroxyapatite (HA) formation as an indication of their bioactivity. The addition of Bioglass to polymer foams increased the water absorption and weight loss as compared with pure polymer foams. However, the polymer molecular weight, determined by size exclusion chromatography, was found to decrease more rapidly and to a larger extent in absence of Bioglass. This delayed degradation rate in the composite foams was probably caused by the dissolution of alkaline ions from the Bioglass, resulting in a buffering effect of the incubation medium. After incubation for 7 days, HA was detected by X-ray diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy and confirmed by environmental scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The porous composites developed here are promising materials for bone regeneration applications because the formation of HA on the surface of the pore walls should provide good environment for the adhesion and proliferation of osteoblasts and osteoprogenitor cells. [less ▲]

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See detailPeculiar Variable in Crux
Della Valle, M.; Hutsemekers, Damien ULiege; Saviane, I. et al

in International Astronomical Union Circulars [=IAUCs] (2003), 8185

IAUC 8185 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams.

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See detailEffects of endotoxic shock on right ventricular systolic function and mechanical efficiency
Lambermont, Bernard ULiege; Ghuysen, Alexandre ULiege; Kolh, Philippe ULiege et al

in Cardiovascular Research (2003), 59(2), 412-418

Objective: To investigate the effects of endotoxin infusion on right ventricular (RV) systolic function and mechanical efficiency. Methods: Six anesthetized pigs (Endo group) received a 0.5 mg/kg ... [more ▼]

Objective: To investigate the effects of endotoxin infusion on right ventricular (RV) systolic function and mechanical efficiency. Methods: Six anesthetized pigs (Endo group) received a 0.5 mg/kg endotoxin infusion over 30 min and were compared with six other anesthetized pigs (Control group) receiving placebo for 5 h. RV pressure-volume (PV) loops were obtained by the conductance catheter technique and pulmonary artery flow and pressure were measured with high-fidelity transducers. Results: RV adaptation to increased afterload during the early phase of endotoxin-induced pulmonary hypertension (T30) was obtained by both homeometric and hetereometric regulations: the slope of the end-systolic PV relationship of the right ventricle increased from 1.4+/-0.2 mmHg/ml to 2.9+/-0.4 mmHg/ml (P<0.05) and RV end-diastolic volume increased from 56+/-6 ml to 64+/-11 ml (P<0.05). Consequently, right ventricular-vascular coupling was maintained at a maximum efficiency. Ninety minutes later (T120), facing the same increased afterload, the right ventricle failed to maintain its contractility to such an elevated level and, as a consequence, right ventricular-vascular uncoupling occurred. PV loop area, which is known to be highly correlated with oxygen myocardial consumption, increased from 1154+/-127 mmHg/ml (T0) to 1798+/-122 mmHg/ml (T180) (P<0.05) while RV mechanical efficiency decreased from 63+/-2% (T0) to 45+/-5% (T270) (P<0.05). Conclusions: In the very early phase of endotoxinic shock, right ventricular-vascular coupling is preserved by an increase in RV contractility. Later, myocardial oxygen consumption and energetic cost of RV contractility are increased, as evidenced by the decrease in RV efficiency, and right ventricular-vascular uncoupling occurs. Therefore, therapies aiming at restoring right ventricular-vascular coupling in endotoxic shock should attempt to increase RV contractility and to decrease RV afterload but also to preserve RV mechanical efficiency. (C) 2003 European Society of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailNatura 2000, quelles conséquences pour la forêt privée ?
Rondeux, Jacques ULiege

in Bulletin du Groupement de Gestion S.C. (2003)

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See detailE-cadherin mediates MMP down-regulation in highly invasive bronchial tumor cells
Nawrocki-Raby, B.; Gilles, Christine ULiege; Polette, M. et al

in American Journal of Pathology (2003), 163(2), 653-661

The disorganization of E-cadherin/catenin complexes and the overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are frequently involved in the capacity of epithelial cells to acquire an invasive phenotype ... [more ▼]

The disorganization of E-cadherin/catenin complexes and the overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are frequently involved in the capacity of epithelial cells to acquire an invasive phenotype. The functional link between F-cadherin and MMPs was studied by transfecting invasive bronchial BZR tumor cells with human E-cadherin cDNA. Using different in vitro (cell dispersion, modified Boyden chamber) and in vivo assays (human airway epithelial xenograft), we showed that E-cadherin-positive clones displayed a decrease of invasive abilities. As shown by immunoprecipitation, the re-expressed E-cadherin was able to sequestrate one part of free cytoplasmic beta-catenin in BZR cells. The decrease of beta-catenin transcriptional activity in E-cadherin-transfected clones was demonstrated using the TOP-FLASH reporter construct. Finally, we observed a decrease of MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-9, and MT1-MMP, both at the mRNA and at the protein levels, in E-cadherin-positive clones whereas no changes in MMP-2, TIMP-1, or TIMP-2 were observed when compared with control clones. Moreover, zymography analysis revealed a loss of MMP-2 activation ability in E-cadherin-positive clones treated with the concanavalin A lectin. These data demonstrate a direct role of E-cadherin/catenin complex organization in the regulation of MMPs and suggest an implication of this regulation in the expression of an invasive phenotype by bronchial tumor cells. [less ▲]

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See detailAvocado/soybean unsaponifiables increase aggrecan synthesis and reduce catabolic and proinflammatory mediator production by human osteoarthritic chondrocytes
Henrotin, Yves ULiege; Sanchez, Christelle ULiege; Deberg, Michelle ULiege et al

in Journal of Rheumatology (2003), 30(8), 1825-1834

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of avocado (A)/soybean (S) unsaponifiables on the metabolism of human osteoarthritic (OA) chondrocytes cultured in alginate beads over 12 days. METHODS: Enzymatically ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of avocado (A)/soybean (S) unsaponifiables on the metabolism of human osteoarthritic (OA) chondrocytes cultured in alginate beads over 12 days. METHODS: Enzymatically isolated OA chondrocytes were cultured in alginate beads in a well defined culture medium for 12 days, in the presence or not of 10-10 M interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta). DNA content was measured using a fluorometric method. Production of aggrecan (AGG), stromelysin-1 (MMP-3), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta (MIP-1beta), IL-6, and IL-8 were assayed by specific enzyme amplified sensitivity immunoassays. Prostaglandin (PG) E2 was measured by a specific radioimmunoassay and nitrite by a spectrophotometric method based on the Griess reaction. A commercial avocado and soybean mixture of unsaponifiables (A1S2) and each component separately were tested in a range of 0.625 to 40.0 micro g/ml. RESULTS: After 12 days' incubation, A1S2 increased AGG synthesis and accumulation in alginate beads in a dose and time dependent manner. A1S2 promoted the recovery of aggrecan synthesis after 3 days of IL-1beta treatment. A1S2 was a potent inhibitor of basal and IL-1beta stimulated MMP-3 production. The procedure also weakly reversed the inhibitory effect of IL-1beta on TIMP-1 production. A1S2 inhibited basal production of MIP-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, NO*, and PGE2 by OA chondrocytes and partially counteracted the stimulating effect of IL-1 on PGE2. Compared to avocado or soybean added separately, the mixture had a superior effect on NO* and IL-8 production. CONCLUSION: A1S2 stimulated aggrecan production and restored aggrecan production after IL-1beta treatment. In parallel, A1S2 decreased MMP-3 production and stimulated TIMP-1 production. These results suggest A1S2 could have structure-modifying effects in OA by inhibiting cartilage degradation and promoting cartilage repair. [less ▲]

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See detailBronchoalveolar lavage fluids of ventilated patients with acute lung injury activate NF-kappa B in alveolar epithelial cell line: role of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species and cytokines
Nys, Monique ULiege; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Habraken, Yvette ULiege et al

in Nitric Oxide (2003), 9(1), 33-43

In human alveolar epithelial cell line, we investigated the binding activity of NF-kappaB induced by the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALs) from ventilated patients with acute lung injury (ALI), in ... [more ▼]

In human alveolar epithelial cell line, we investigated the binding activity of NF-kappaB induced by the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALs) from ventilated patients with acute lung injury (ALI), in correlation with the concentrations of inflammatory cytokines, RNOS, and the severity of the ALI. In BALs obtained in 67 patients (16 bronchopneumonia, 14 infected ARDS, 20 ARDS, and 17 ALI patients without bronchopneumonia and no ARDS), we measured endotoxin, IL-1beta, IL-8, and nitrated proteins (NTP), the activity of mycloperoxidase, and the capacity to activate the NF-kappaB in alveolar A549 cells by electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays. The neutrophil counts and mean IL-1beta, IL-8, myeloperoxidase, and NTP values were increased in bronchopneumonia and infected ARDS groups compared to ARDS and ALI without bronchopneumonia and no ARDS groups (P < 0.001). The number of neutrophils was correlated to those of IL-1beta, IL-8, myeloperoxidase, NTP, and endotoxin in all groups (P < 0.0001). NF-kappaB activity was induced in alveolar like cells by BALs in all groups, was higher in bronchopneumonia and infected ARDS groups (P < 0.02), and was correlated to IL-1beta (P = 0.0002), IL-8 (P = 0.02), NTP (P = 0.014), myeloperoxidase (P = 0.016), and neutrophil counts (P = 0.003). BALs of bronchopneumonia and infected ARDS patients had increased inflammatory mediators (compared to ARDS and ALI without bronchopneumonia and no ARDS patients) that correlated to neutrophil counts and to the NF-kappaB-binding activity. These mediators and NF-kappaB activation may induce an amplification of inflammatory phenomena. By in vitro studies, we confirmed that NO-derived species (10(-6) to 10(-5) M peroxynitrite and 10(-5) M nitrites) and myeloperoxidase (at concentration equivalent to that found in BALs) can participate in the NF-kappaB activation. (C) 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailFavourable outcome of a brain trauma patient despite bilateral loss of cortical somatosensory evoked potential during thiopental sedation
Robe, Pierre; Dubuisson, Annie ULiege; Bartsch, Sébastien et al

in Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry (2003), 74(8), 1157-1158

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See detailNew perspectives in the management of osteoarthritis. Structure modification: Facts or fantasy?
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULiege; Bruyère, Olivier ULiege; Henrotin, Yves ULiege

in Journal of Rheumatology. Supplement (2003), 67(Suppl. 67), 14-20

Several entities have been carefully investigated for the symptomatic and structural management of osteoarthritis (OA). The most compelling evidence of a potential for inhibiting the structural ... [more ▼]

Several entities have been carefully investigated for the symptomatic and structural management of osteoarthritis (OA). The most compelling evidence of a potential for inhibiting the structural progression of OA has been obtained with glucosamine sulfate, while some preliminary results also suggest that other compounds could be used in the same indication. At any rate, several medications have clearly demonstrated a symptomatic action, mainly in OA of the lower limbs, including pain relief and improvement of functional disability. An important issue is that all conclusive studies with such chemical entities resulted from the use of prescription medicines and not over-the-counter or nutriceutical supplements. [less ▲]

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See detailSurface analysis of mineral substrates for repair works: roughness evaluation by profilometry and surfometry analysis
Courard, Luc ULiege; Nélis, Marc

in Magazine of Concrete Research (2003), 55(4), 355-366

Existing concrete surfaces need to be roughened to a profile necessary to achieve mechanical interlock with repair material. Surface mechanical morphometry is based on the measurement of surface profile ... [more ▼]

Existing concrete surfaces need to be roughened to a profile necessary to achieve mechanical interlock with repair material. Surface mechanical morphometry is based on the measurement of surface profile - profilometry - which can be extended to 3D representation with surfometry by means of a stylus registering the profile. Profilometry and surfometry analysis enables the quantification of the profile by means of statistical and amplitude parameters lcalculated from the total profile of the surface (the waviness (lower frequencies) and roughness (higher frequencies) profiles). These parameters have been used to compare sandblasted and polished concrete surfaces. Arithmetic mean of the pro le and flatness coefficient are particularly discriminant. Bearing ratio and Abbott curve observations are also useful for clear and simple characterisation of surface profiles. Moreover, this investigation led to the calculation of the specific length of the profile and the Wenzel's coefficient. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effect of treadmill training on motor recovery after a partial spinal cord compression-injury in the adult rat
Multon, Sylvie ULiege; Franzen, Rachelle ULiege; Poirrier, Anne-Lise ULiege et al

in Journal of Neurotrauma (2003), 20(8), 699-706

Locomotor training on a treadmill is a therapeutic strategy used for several years in human paraplegics in whom it was shown to improve functional recovery mainly after incomplete spinal cord lesions. The ... [more ▼]

Locomotor training on a treadmill is a therapeutic strategy used for several years in human paraplegics in whom it was shown to improve functional recovery mainly after incomplete spinal cord lesions. The precise mechanisms underlying its effects are not known. Experimental studies in adult animals were chiefly performed after complete spinal transections. The objective of this experiment was to assess the effects of early treadmill training on recovery of spontaneous walking capacity after a partial spinal cord lesion in adult rats. Following a compression-injury by a subdurally inflated microballoon, seven rats were trained daily on a treadmill with a body weight support system, whereas six other animals were used as controls and only handled. Spontaneous walking ability in an open field was compared weekly between both groups by two blinded observers, using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale. Mean BBB score during 12 weeks was globally significantly greater in the treadmill-trained animals than in the control group, the benefit of training appearing as early as the 2nd week. At week 7, locomotor recovery reached a plateau in both animal groups, but remained superior in trained rats. Daily treadmill training started early after a partial spinal cord lesion in adult rats, which accelerates recovery of locomotion and produces a long-term benefit. These findings in an animal model mimicking the closed spinal cord injury occurring in most human paraplegics are useful for future studies of optimal locomotor training programs, their neurobiologic mechanisms, and their combination with other treatment strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailCrystal structure of Enterobacter cloacae 908R class C beta-lactamase bound to iodo-acetamido-phenyl boronic acid, a transition-state analogue
Wouters, J.; Fonze, E.; Vermeire, M. et al

in Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences (2003), 60(8), 1764-1773

The structures of the, class C beta-lactamase from Enterobacter cloacae 908R alone and in complex with a baronic acid transition-state analogue were determined by X-ray crystallography at 2.1 and 2.3 ... [more ▼]

The structures of the, class C beta-lactamase from Enterobacter cloacae 908R alone and in complex with a baronic acid transition-state analogue were determined by X-ray crystallography at 2.1 and 2.3 Angstrom, respectively. The structure of the enzyme resembles those of other class C beta-lactamases. The structure of the. complex with the transition-state analogue, iodo-acetamido-phenyl boronic acid, shows that the inhibitor is covalently, bound to the active-site serine (Ser64). Binding of the inhibitor within the active site is compared with previously determined structures of complexes with other class C enzymes. The structure of the boronic acid adduct indicates ways to improve the affinity of this class of inhibitors. This structure of 908R class C beta-lactamase in complex with a transitionstate analogue provides further insights into the mechanism of action of these hydrolases. [less ▲]

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See detailGuidelines for percutaneous coronary intervention by the Belgian Working Group on Invasive Cardiology
Legrand, Victor ULiege; Wijns, W.; Vandenbranden, F. et al

in Acta Cardiologica (2003), 58(4), 341-348

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See detailThe identity politics of multicultural nationalism: A comparison between the regular public addresses of the Belgian and the Spanish monarchs (1990-2000)
Vanden Berghe, Kristine ULiege; Maddens, Bart

in European Journal of Political Research (2003), 42(5), 601-627

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See detailComparative degradation rates of chitinous exoskeletons from deep-sea environments
Ravaux, J.; Zbinden, M.; Voss-Foucart, M. F. et al

in Marine Biology (2003), 143(2), 405-412

Hydrothermal vent environments, particularly those associated with the vestimentiferan Riftia pachyptila, are believed to be among the highest chitin-producing systems. In order to elucidate the chitin ... [more ▼]

Hydrothermal vent environments, particularly those associated with the vestimentiferan Riftia pachyptila, are believed to be among the highest chitin-producing systems. In order to elucidate the chitin cycle in these environments, we estimate the in situ chitin degradation rates of tube-worm exoskeletons. Our in situ experiments show that the tubes of Riftia are highly stable structures. Comparative measurements of the degradation rates of Riftia tubes and crab shells immersed at deep-sea vents show that the tubes would be degraded within 2.5 years, whereas the time for the total degradation of the vent crab (Bythograea thermydron) carapaces would not exceed 36 days. The importance of the microbial participation in this degradation was estimated for Riftia tubes. Based on previous work, we calculated chitin production by a population of Riftia tubes of about 750 g m(-2) year(-1) (763). From our in situ experiments, we estimated a microbial chitinolysis rate of about 500 g m(-2) year(-1) (496) (65% of the chitin produced). Exoskeletons containing beta-chitin appear more stable in natural environments than those containing alpha-chitin and would thus be less available as carbon and nitrogen sources. In contrast, isolated beta-chitin was hydrolysed faster than alpha-chitin during in vitro degradation experiments; for instance, Riftia beta-chitin was degraded about 3- to 4-fold faster than Bythograea alpha-chitin. A stabilization process by disulfide bonds of the proteins-chitin link, rather than the crystalline form of the chitin (alpha/beta), accounts for the resistance of Riftia tubes to enzymatic attacks. [less ▲]

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See detailPredictors of early and late outcome of percutaneous coronary intervention in octogenarians
Gach, Olivier ULiege; Louis, Olivier ULiege; Martinez, Christophe ULiege et al

in Acta Cardiologica (2003), 58(4), 289-294

Objective To evaluate the short and long-term results of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) in patients aged 80 years or older and to identify predictors of event-free survival. Methods and results ... [more ▼]

Objective To evaluate the short and long-term results of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) in patients aged 80 years or older and to identify predictors of event-free survival. Methods and results - Clinical and angiographic data from all patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention in our institution are prospectively collected and stored in a computerized database. The clinical and angiographic characteristics of all patients aged 80 years or older undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention between January 1994 and December 1999 were analysed retrospectively. Follow-up was obtained by interview or through the referring physician. One hundred and fifty-eight patients aged 80 years or older (median: 83.4; range: 80.2-92.2) underwent percutaneous coronary intervention in our institution during the study period. The initial angiographic success rate was 92%. In-hospital mortality was 8.2% and procedural success 84.8%. One-year and two-year survival were 81% and 72.2% respectively, while event free survival at 1 year and 2 years was 65.8% and 57%. Using the Cox proportional hazards method, we identified incomplete revascularization and low left ventricular ejection fraction (WEF) as predictors of death at 2 years. Complete revascularization and stenting were independent predictors of 2-year event-free survival. Conclusion - Percutaneous coronary intervention can be performed safely in octogenarians. Complete revascularization, stenting and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction were independent predictors of better outcome in this population. [less ▲]

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See detailTwin pregnancy obtained with frozen-thawed embryos after in vitro maturation in a patient with polycystic ovarian syndrome
Godin, P. A.; Gaspard, Olivier ULiege; Thonon, Fabienne ULiege et al

in Journal of Assisted Reproduction & Genetics (2003), 20(8), 347-350

Purpose: A twin pregnancy was obtained in a patient with polycystic ovary syndrome after the transfer of three in vitro maturation-derived day 3 embryos that has been frozen and thawed. Methods: The ... [more ▼]

Purpose: A twin pregnancy was obtained in a patient with polycystic ovary syndrome after the transfer of three in vitro maturation-derived day 3 embryos that has been frozen and thawed. Methods: The patient had received mild hMG stimulation followed by hCG injection. After culture for 24 - 48 h, mature oocytes were fertilized by ICSI. Embryos were cultured until day 3; supernumerary embryos were cryopreserved using a slow protocol. Results: Among 15 nonatretic oocytes, 9 matured, 8 were fertilized. Four embryos were transferred but they did not implant. The subsequent transfer of three frozen - thawed embryos resulted in the delivery of two healthy girls. Conclusions: These results indicate that a pregnancy could be obtained with in vitro maturation-derived day-3 frozen - thawed embryos. [less ▲]

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See detailReconstructing neutrino properties from collider experiments in a Higgs triplet neutrino mass model
Aristizabal Sierra, Diego ULiege; Hirsch, M.; Valle, J. W. F. et al

in Physical Review. D : Particles and Fields (2003), 68

We extend the minimal supersymmetric standard model with bilinear R-parity violation to include a pair of Higgs triplet superfields. The neutral components of the Higgs triplets develop small vacuum ... [more ▼]

We extend the minimal supersymmetric standard model with bilinear R-parity violation to include a pair of Higgs triplet superfields. The neutral components of the Higgs triplets develop small vacuum expectation values (VEVs) quadratic in the bilinear R-parity breaking parameters. In this scheme the atmospheric neutrino mass scale arises from bilinear R-parity breaking while for reasonable values of parameters the solar neutrino mass scale is generated from the small Higgs triplet VEVs. We calculate neutrino masses and mixing angles in this model and show how the model can be tested at future colliders. The branching ratios of the doubly charged triplet decays are related to the solar neutrino angle via a simple formula. [less ▲]

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See detailReactively and physically compatibilized immiscible polymer blends: Stability of the copolymer at the interface
Harrats, Charef; Dedecker, Kristof; Groeninckx, Gabriel et al

in Macromolecular Symposia (2003), 198

This paper reports on the interfacial behaviour' of block and graft copolymers used as compatibilizers in immiscible polymer blends. A limited residence time of the copolymer at the interface has been ... [more ▼]

This paper reports on the interfacial behaviour' of block and graft copolymers used as compatibilizers in immiscible polymer blends. A limited residence time of the copolymer at the interface has been shown in both reactive blending and blend compatibilization by preformed copolymers. Polystyrene (PS)/polyamide6 (PA6), polyphenylene oxide (PPO)/ PA6 and polymethylmethaciylate (PMMA)/PA6 blends have . been reactively compatibilized by a styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer SMA. The extent of miscibility of SMA with PS, PPO and PMMA is a key criterion for the stability of the graft copolymer' at the interface. For the first 10 to 15 minutes of mixing, the in situ formed copolymer is able to decrease the particle size of the dispersed phase and to prevent it from coalescencing. However, upon increasing mixing time, the copolymer leaves the interface which results in phase coalescence. In PS/LDPE blends compatibilized by preformed PS / hydrogenated polybutadiene (hPB) block copolymers, a tapered diblock stabilizes efficiently a co-continuous two-phase morphology, in contrast to a triblock copolymer that was unable to prevent phase coarsening during annealing at 180°C for 150 minutes. [less ▲]

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See detailFaunal/floral and isotopic responses to Milankovitch precession cycles and environmental changes in the upper Gulpen Formation (Upper Maastrichtian) at the CBR-Lixhe and ENCI-Maastricht bv quarries
Felder, P. J.; Keppens, E.; De Clercq, Bernadette ULiege et al

in Netherlands Journal of Geosciences-Geologie en Mijnbouw (2003), 82(3), 275-281

Two sections, just below the Nivelle Horizon in the upper Gulpen Formation (Upper Maastrichtian), and seven kilometres apart (CBR-Lixhe and ENCI-Maastricht bv quarries) have been analysed (samples every 5 ... [more ▼]

Two sections, just below the Nivelle Horizon in the upper Gulpen Formation (Upper Maastrichtian), and seven kilometres apart (CBR-Lixhe and ENCI-Maastricht bv quarries) have been analysed (samples every 5 cm) for dinocyst, pollen grains and bioclast contents as well as for carbon and oxygen isotopic composition, to obtain better insight into the influence of weathering on these sediments. The CBR section lies above groundwater level, while that at the ENCI quarry is some metres below. At the former quarry we recognised the influences of weathering (karst) nearby. At ENCI, palynological, bioclast and stable isotope results of the carbonate phase (mainly consisting of coccoliths) co-vary remarkably, displaying two cycles which may be interpreted tentatively as climatic fluctuations. The partial derivative(18)O curve varies roughly between -1.6parts per thousand and -1.1parts per thousand (on PDB scale), corresponding to a temperature change of about 2degreesC. Less negative values (i.e. cooler seawater) coincide with larger amounts of pollen of Normapolles and Triporates type assumed to represent temperate forest elements of a vegetation also containing tropical elements such as palms. Assuming the 5 cm sample intervals at ENCI to correspond to 1 ka, climatic maxima (and minima) may be 20-25 ka apart, obviously recalling Milankovitch precession cycles. These are independent of a sharp sedimentological change noted in the upper part of the lowest cycle (samples 42 to 24). Upwards of sample 42, bioclast contents increase and dinocysts, Spiniferites in particular, decrease significantly, corresponding to a marked shallowing. This turning point is also recorded in the partial derivative(13)C curve at ENCI. Bioclast percentages appear to follow composite trends that are influenced by both climatic and sedimentological conditions. [less ▲]

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