References of "Scientific journals"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailReactive compatibilization of SAN/EPR blends. 2. Effect of type and content of reactive groups randomly attached to SAN
Pagnoulle, Christophe; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Macromolecules (2001), 34(4), 965-975

Kinetics of the poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly(ethylene-co-propylene) (SAN/EPR) interfacial reaction has been varied by changing both the average number of reactive groups per SAN chain and the ... [more ▼]

Kinetics of the poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly(ethylene-co-propylene) (SAN/EPR) interfacial reaction has been varied by changing both the average number of reactive groups per SAN chain and the content of reactive SAN in the SAN phase, while keeping constant the overall SAN/EPR composition, i.e., 75/25 w/w. For this purpose, reactive SAN chains containing 0.004, 0.028, 0.049, and 0.078 mol/wt % of either primary amine or carbamate (an amine precursor) have been synthesized, and the content of reactive SAN in the SAN phase has been changed from 2.5 to 73.33 wt %. It appears that the number and type of reactive groups attached onto SAN affect not only the extent of the compatibilization reaction but also the compatibilization capability of the in situ formed graft copolymer in a strong dependence on molecular weight and molecular architecture. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailRing-opening polymerization of epsilon-caprolactone in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
Stassin, Fabrice; Halleux, Olivier; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Macromolecules (2001), 34(4), 775-781

The ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone (CL) initiated by dibutyltin dimethoxide was studied in supercritical carbon dioxide at 40 °C, under a pressure of 210−215 bar. The polymerization is ... [more ▼]

The ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone (CL) initiated by dibutyltin dimethoxide was studied in supercritical carbon dioxide at 40 °C, under a pressure of 210−215 bar. The polymerization is controlled as assessed by the linear dependence of Mn,SEC on conversion and of ln([CL]0/[CL]) on time. Moreover, there is a good agreement between Mn,SEC and Mn,calc, at least until 20 000 g/mol. The apparent rate constants of polymerization in different media increase as follows: sc CO2, CFC-113, toluene, bulk. The kinetic order in initiator for the polymerization in solution and in sc CO2 was extracted from the slope of ln kapp vs ln [Sn]0. It appears to depend on the initiator concentration in solution, which is not the case in sc CO2. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 39 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEvidence for a Modulatory Role of Ih on the Firing of a Subgroup of Midbrain Dopamine Neurons
Seutin, Vincent ULg; Massotte, Laurent ULg; Renette, M. F. et al

in Neuroreport (2001), 12(2), 255-8

A previous investigation has suggested that the hyperpolarization-activated cation current Ih does not contribute to the spontaneous firing of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. This conclusion was reached ... [more ▼]

A previous investigation has suggested that the hyperpolarization-activated cation current Ih does not contribute to the spontaneous firing of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. This conclusion was reached using Cs(-1). We have re-examined this question with extracellular recordings in slices using the more specific blocker ZD7288. In two-thirds of the cells, low concentrations of ZD7288 induced a decrease of the spontaneous firing. The maximal inhibition was about 40% and the mean IC50 was 1.6 microM. This effect was probably direct because it persisted in the presence of antagonists of various receptors. These concentrations of ZD7288 had no effect in the remaining one third of the examined cells. However, the highest concentration of ZD7288 (300 microM) abolished the firing of all dopaminergic neurons, probably by a mechanism unrelated to the blockade of Ih. We conclude that Ih controls to a certain extent the firing of a majority of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEnzyme Activity Determination on Macromolecular Substrates by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry: Application to Mesophilic and Psychrophilic Chitinases
Lonhienne, T.; Baise, Etienne ULg; Feller, Georges ULg et al

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (2001), 1545(1-2), 349-56

Isothermal titration calorimetry has been applied to the determination of the kinetic parameters of chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14) by monitoring the heat released during the hydrolysis of chitin glycosidic ... [more ▼]

Isothermal titration calorimetry has been applied to the determination of the kinetic parameters of chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14) by monitoring the heat released during the hydrolysis of chitin glycosidic bonds. Experiments were carried out using two different macromolecular substrates: a soluble polymer of N-acetylglucosamine and the insoluble chitin from crab shells. Different experimental temperatures were used in order to compare the thermodependence of the activity of two chitinases from the psychrophile Arthrobacter sp. TAD20 and of chitinase A from the mesophile Serratia marcescens. The method allowed to determine unequivocally the catalytic rate constant k(cat), the activation energy (E(a)) and the thermodynamic activation parameters (DeltaG(#), DeltaH(#), DeltaS(#)) of the chitinolytic reaction on the soluble substrate. The catalytic activity has also been determined on insoluble chitin, which displays an effect of substrate saturation by chitinases. On both substrates, the thermodependence of the activity of the psychrophilic chitinases was lower than that observed with the mesophilic counterpart. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor PAI-1 Controls in Vivo Tumor Vascularization by Interaction with Proteases, Not Vitronectin. Implications for Antiangiogenic Strategies
Bajou, Khalid ULg; Masson, Véronique ULg; Gerard, R. D. et al

in Journal of Cell Biology (2001), 152(4), 777-84

The plasminogen (Plg)/plasminogen activator (PA) system plays a key role in cancer progression, presumably via mediating extracellular matrix degradation and tumor cell migration. Consequently, urokinase ... [more ▼]

The plasminogen (Plg)/plasminogen activator (PA) system plays a key role in cancer progression, presumably via mediating extracellular matrix degradation and tumor cell migration. Consequently, urokinase-type PA (uPA)/plasmin antagonists are currently being developed for suppression of tumor growth and angiogenesis. Paradoxically, however, high levels of PA inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) are predictive of a poor prognosis for survival of patients with cancer. We demonstrated previously that PAI-1 promoted tumor angiogenesis, but by an unresolved mechanism. We anticipated that PAI-1 facilitated endothelial cell migration via its known interaction with vitronectin (VN) and integrins. However, using adenoviral gene transfer of PAI-1 mutants, we observed that PAI-1 promoted tumor angiogenesis, not by interacting with VN, but rather by inhibiting proteolytic activity, suggesting that excessive plasmin proteolysis prevents assembly of tumor vessels. Single deficiency of uPA, tissue-type PA (tPA), uPA receptor, or VN, as well as combined deficiencies of uPA and tPA did not impair tumor angiogenesis, whereas lack of Plg reduced it. Overall, these data indicate that plasmin proteolysis, even though essential, must be tightly controlled during tumor angiogenesis, probably to allow vessel stabilization and maturation. These data provide insights into the clinical paradox whereby PAI-1 promotes tumor progression and warrant against the uncontrolled use of uPA/plasmin antagonists as tumor angiogenesis inhibitors. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 45 (9 ULg)
See detailLa mobilité, un problème très complexe, transversal et multidisciplinaire – paramètres et moyens pour mesurer la mobilité
Marchal, Jean ULg

in Bulletin de l’URPIC (Union Royale Professionnelle des Ingénieurs Civils belges des Chemins de Fer) (2001), (Focus 40), 4-8

Detailed reference viewed: 75 (14 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDetermination of the stability constants of uranyl/polymer complexes by differential pulse polarography
Leroy, D.; Martinot, Lucien; Jérôme, Christine ULg et al

in Polymer (2001), 42(10), 4589-4596

Differential pulse polarography (DPP) allows for the determination of the stability constants (K) and the stoichiometry (n) for the complexation of the UO22+ ion by various monomers and the parent ... [more ▼]

Differential pulse polarography (DPP) allows for the determination of the stability constants (K) and the stoichiometry (n) for the complexation of the UO22+ ion by various monomers and the parent polymers. The experimental observation is the shift of the totally reversible reduction wave UO22++e- UO2+ toward more cathodic potentials when the complexing monomer or polymer is added to an uranyl nitrate aqueous solution. This shift is, however, much greater when the polymer is used rather than the monomer, in line with a higher stability of the complexes (Kpolymer>>Kmonomer). A theoretical stability scale of the polymers/UO22+ complexes was compared to an experimental one based on dynamic leaching tests. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 35 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe spectral variability of HD 192639 and its implications for the star's wind structure
Rauw, Grégor ULg; Morrison, N. D.; Vreux, Jean-Marie ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2001), 366

We report the analysis of an extensive set of spectroscopic data of the O(f) supergiant HD 192639. A Fourier analysis of our time-series reveals a recurrent variability with a ``period'' of roughly 4.8 ... [more ▼]

We report the analysis of an extensive set of spectroscopic data of the O(f) supergiant HD 192639. A Fourier analysis of our time-series reveals a recurrent variability with a ``period'' of roughly 4.8 days which is most prominent in the absorption components of the He {ii}\ lambda 4686 and Halpha P-Cygni profiles. The same periodicity is also detected in the blue wing of several absorption lines (e.g. Hbeta ). The variations of the absorption components correspond most probably to a cyclical modulation of the amount of stellar wind material along the line of sight towards the star. The 4.8-day period affects also the morphology of the double-peaked He {ii}\ lambda 4686 and Halpha emission components, although these emission components display also variations on other (mainly longer) time scales. The most likely explanation for the 4.8-day modulation is that this cycle reflects the stellar rotational period (or half this period). We find that the most important observational properties can be explained - at least qualitatively - by a corotating interaction region or a tilted confined corotating wind. Based on observations collected at the Observatoire de Haute Provence, France and the Ritter Observatory, Toledo, USA. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe WR content of IC10 - first detection of WC9 stars in a low metallicity environment?
Royer, P.; Smartt, S. J.; Manfroid, Jean ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2001), 366

We present deep, narrow-band photometry of the Local Group starburst galaxy IC 10. Our dedicated photometric system provides detection of 13 new Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars and allows spectral subtypes to be ... [more ▼]

We present deep, narrow-band photometry of the Local Group starburst galaxy IC 10. Our dedicated photometric system provides detection of 13 new Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars and allows spectral subtypes to be assigned. Three of these new stars appear to be WC9 subtypes. If confirmed, these would be the very first WC9 stars ever detected in a low metallicity environment, hence putting strong new constraints on the formation and evolution models of massive stars. Eight of the new WR stars are of the WC subtype, which does not significantly modify the anomalously high WC/WN ratio in IC 10. However it is likely that a number of Wolf-Rayet stars of the WNE and WC spectral subtypes are still to be discovered in the heart of the galaxy. Based on observations at the William Herschel Telescope on La Palma and at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 4 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAccretion of gas by globular cluster stars
Thoul, Anne ULg; Jorissen, Alain; Goriely, Stéphane et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2001), 383

Some recent observations of the abundances of s-process, r-process, and alpha elements in metal-poor stars have led to a new scenario for their formation. According to this scenario, these stars were born ... [more ▼]

Some recent observations of the abundances of s-process, r-process, and alpha elements in metal-poor stars have led to a new scenario for their formation. According to this scenario, these stars were born in a globular cluster and accreted the s-process enriched gas expelled by cluster stars of higher-mass, thereby modifying their surface abundances. Later on, these polluted stars evaporated from the globular cluster to constitute an important fraction of the current halo population. In addition, there are now many direct observations of abundance anomalies not only in globular cluster giant stars but also in subgiant and main-sequence stars. Accretion again provides a plausible explanation for (at least some of) these peculiarities. Here we investigate further the efficiency of the accretion scenario. We find that in concentrated clusters with large escape velocities, accretion is very efficient and can indeed lead to major modifications of the stellar surface abundances. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailConfirmation of the existence of coherent orientations of quasar polarization vectors on cosmological scales
Hutsemekers, Damien ULg; Lamy, H.

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2001), 367

In order to verify the existence of coherent orientations of quasars polarization vectors on very large scales, we have obtained new polarization measurements for a sample of quasars located in a given ... [more ▼]

In order to verify the existence of coherent orientations of quasars polarization vectors on very large scales, we have obtained new polarization measurements for a sample of quasars located in a given region of the three-dimensional Universe where the range of polarization position angles was predicted in advance. For this new sample, the hypothesis of uniform distribution of polarization position angles may be rejected at the 1.8% significance level on the basis of a simple binomial test. This result provides an independent confirmation of the existence of alignments of quasar polarization vectors on very large scales. In total, out of 29 polarized quasars located in this region of the sky, 25 have their polarization vectors coherently oriented. This alignment occurs at redshifts z =~ 1-2 suggesting the presence of correlations in objects or fields on Gpc scales. More global statistical tests applied to the whole sample of polarized quasars distributed all over the sky confirm that polarization vectors are coherently oriented in a few groups of 20-30 quasars. Some constraints on the phenomenon are also derived. Considering more particularly the quasars in the selected region of the sky, we found that their polarization vectors are roughly parallel to the plane of the Local Supercluster. But the polarization vectors of objects along the same line of sight at lower redshifts are not accordingly aligned. We also found that the known correlations between quasar intrinsic properties and polarization are not destroyed by the alignment effect. Several possible mechanisms are discussed, but the interpretation of this orientation effect remains puzzling. Based in part on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory (ESO, La Silla). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 4 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMethadone Maintenance Treatment: Is It Possible to Adapt the Daily Doses to the Metabolic Activity of the Patient?
Charlier, Corinne ULg; Dessalles, M. C.; Plomteux, Guy ULg

in Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (2001), 23(1), 1-3

Controversy still exists concerning the proper daily dose of methadone to be used in opiate dependency treatment. Because it is admitted that serum methadone concentration may be significantly correlated ... [more ▼]

Controversy still exists concerning the proper daily dose of methadone to be used in opiate dependency treatment. Because it is admitted that serum methadone concentration may be significantly correlated with the amount of drug available at the receptor level, it could be interesting to predict the methadone daily doses necessary to reach such a serum concentration. The authors have attempted to correlate the serum methadone level with the daily intake, considering the metabolic activity of the patients. A poor correlation was found between methadone doses and methadone serum concentrations (r2 = 0.0409, p = 0.048). The test used to determine the metabolic activity of patients is the 6-OH cortisol/17-OH corticosteroids ratio in urine. This urinary 6-OH cortisol/17-OH corticosteroids ratio was tested because cortisol is metabolized through the same P450 cytochromes as methadone, namely cytochrome P450 3A4. This determination could be of interest because it could be tested before methadone administration to predict optimal doses. But when the authors tried to correlate the methadone serum concentration with the steroid ratio, they failed to find a significant correlation (r2 = 0.0046, N.S.), even when they took into account the daily doses (r2 = 0.0015, N.S.), most probably because of some limitations of the cortisol ratio. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (6 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailQuand solaire rime avec scolaire. Une enquete sur les risques de melanome aupres de 3.695 eleves d'ecoles primaires liegeoises
Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(2), 88-92

An epidemiological survey was performed in pupils from primary schools of Liege in order to better identify risk factors for photobiological alterations prone to induce cutaneous melanoma in adult life ... [more ▼]

An epidemiological survey was performed in pupils from primary schools of Liege in order to better identify risk factors for photobiological alterations prone to induce cutaneous melanoma in adult life. Phenotypic and behavioral factors facing up to sun exposure were considered. In a 4-level risk scale, about half of the Liege children showed a high to severe risk at photobiological alterations. Thus melanoma prevention requires a sustained effort in the Mosan region, particularly by health education programs at school. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailIncreased Response of Blood Eosinophils to Various Chemotactic Agents in Quiescent Crohn Disease
Denis, M. A.; Louis, Renaud ULg; Malaise, Michel ULg et al

in Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology (2001), 36(2), 190-5

BACKGROUND: The number of eosinophils is increased in the mucosae of the digestive and the respiratory tracts in Crohn disease, even clinically quiescent. The mechanisms underlying this panmucosal ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The number of eosinophils is increased in the mucosae of the digestive and the respiratory tracts in Crohn disease, even clinically quiescent. The mechanisms underlying this panmucosal eosinophilia are unknown. METHODS: The response of blood eosinophils to various chemotactic agents was assessed in 15 patients with clinically quiescent Crohn disease. The results were compared with 15 healthy controls. After purification, eosinophils were placed in Boyden microchambers and the chemotactic effect of PAF (10(-7) M), RANTES (50 ng/ml), IL-5 (0-20 ng/ml), IL-8 (0-50 ng/ml), Eotaxin (0-50 ng/ml) was evaluated. The number of eosinophils in induced sputum of these Crohn disease patients and controls was also assessed and the correlation between chemotaxis and eosinophil count in induced sputum was studied. RESULTS: PAF and RANTES induced a chemotactic effect both in Crohn disease patients and controls. The chemotactic index was significantly higher in Crohn than controls for PAF (2.09+/-0.24 versus 1.37+/-0.14; P < 0.05) but not RANTES. With IL-5, IL-8 and Eotaxin, there was no detectable chemotactic effect in controls while in Crohn, we observed a significant dose-dependent chemotactic effect. Furthermore, with Eotaxin 50 ng/ml, the chemotactic index was significantly higher in Crohn disease patients than controls (2.42+/-0.18 versus 1.56+/-0.28; P < 0.05). A significant increase in sputum eosinophil count and a significant decrease in sputum macrophage count in Crohn disease were observed. However, there was no correlation between eosinophil chemotaxis and sputum eosinophil count in individual patients. CONCLUSION: There is an increased response of blood eosinophils to various chemotactic agents, mainly PAF and Eotaxin, in clinically quiescent Crohn disease. This may participate in the mucosal infiltration by eosinophils in this disease. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 36 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCentral and peripheral isosexual precocious puberty
LEBRETHON, Marie-Christine ULg; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Current Opinion in Endocrinology & Diabetes (2001), 8(1), 17-22

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailPratique d'urgence: principes generaux gouvernant la prise en charge hospitaliere du polytraumatise
Lambert, Jean-Luc; Hartstein, Gary ULg; Ghuysen, Alexandre ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(2), 79-87

The management of the trauma victim admitted to the emergency department must be rapid and efficient. Within the first hour, vital functions must be stabilised while a systematic survey of all injuries is ... [more ▼]

The management of the trauma victim admitted to the emergency department must be rapid and efficient. Within the first hour, vital functions must be stabilised while a systematic survey of all injuries is carried out. This survey must be as complete as possible, and depends on the patient's status and response to initial resuscitative measures. The need for urgent surgical intervention, therapeutic radiology, or other treatment modalities must be quickly established. This systematic approach, which follows a seven step sequence, can only be carried out by a well-trained team. Because at this time emergency and SMUR are often staffed with general practitioners, and because the trauma centers do not yet exist in Belgium, the application of the treatment protocol presented in this paper is a pre-requisite to quality of care for these patients. It is the only means to end, once and for all, the improvised or intuitive, and often erroneous, approach to these patients. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 76 (6 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailSynthesis of nucleotide-activated oligosaccharides by beta-galactosidase from Bacillus circulans.
Zervosen, Astrid ULg; Nieder, Veronika; Gallego, Ricardo Gutiérrez et al

in Biological Chemistry (2001), 382(2), 299-311

The enzymatic access to nucleotide-activated oligosaccharides by a glycosidase-catalyzed transglycosylation reaction was explored. The nucleotide sugars UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-Glc were tested as acceptor ... [more ▼]

The enzymatic access to nucleotide-activated oligosaccharides by a glycosidase-catalyzed transglycosylation reaction was explored. The nucleotide sugars UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-Glc were tested as acceptor substrates for beta-galactosidase from Bacillus circulans using lactose as donor substrate. The UDP-disaccharides Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(alpha1-UDP) (UDP-LacNAc) and Gal(beta1-4)Glc(alpha1-UDP) (UDP-Lac) and the UDP-trisaccharides Gal(beta1-4)Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(alpha1-UDP and Gal(beta1-4)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(alpha1-UDP) were formed stereo- and regioselectively. Their chemical structures were characterized by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. The synthesis in frozen solution at -5 degrees C instead of 30 degrees C gave significantly higher product yields with respect to the acceptor substrates. This was due to a remarkably higher product stability in the small liquid phase of the frozen reaction mixture. Under optimized conditions, at -5 degrees C and pH 4.5 with 500 mM lactose and 100 mM UDP-GlcNAc, an overall yield of 8.2% (81.8 micromol, 62.8 mg with 100% purity) for Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(alpha1-UDP) and 3.6% (36.1 micromol, 35 mg with 96% purity) for Gal(beta1-4)Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(alpha1-UDP) was obtained. UDP-Glc as acceptor gave an overall yield of 5.0% (41.3 micromol, 32.3 mg with 93% purity) for Gal(beta1-4)Glc(alpha1-UDP) and 1.6% (13.0 micromol, 12.2 mg with 95% purity) for Gal(beta1-4)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(alpha1-UDP). The analysis of other nucleotide sugars revealed UDP-Gal, UDP-GalNAc, UDP-Xyl and dTDP-, CDP-, ADP- and GDP-Glc as further acceptor substrates for beta-galactosidase from Bacillus circulans. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 47 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPolymerization-filling technique: an efficient way to improve the mechanical properties of polyethylene composites
Alexandre, Michaël ULg; Martin, Eric; Dubois, Philippe ULg et al

in Chemistry of Materials (2001), 13(2), 236-237

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLes hypernatremies en pathologie neurochirurgicale
Hans, Pol ULg; BONHOMME, Vincent ULg; Damas, François ULg

in Annales Françaises d'Anesthésie et de Réanimation (2001), 20(2), 213-8

Hypernatraemia is defined as an increase in extracellular sodium concentration, associated with plasma hyperosmolality and cellular dehydration. It can result from excessive water loss, from an increase ... [more ▼]

Hypernatraemia is defined as an increase in extracellular sodium concentration, associated with plasma hyperosmolality and cellular dehydration. It can result from excessive water loss, from an increase in the total sodium content or from both mechanisms. As far as neurosurgical pathology is concerned, hypernatraemia due to excessive water loss may be observed in patients who do not sense thirst or are unable to ingest water. Urinary water loss is seen in diabetes insipidus and osmotic diuresis. Extrarenal water losses from pulmonary origin may be observed in intubated or tracheotomized patients. Hypernatraemia with sodium and water retention may be encountered in patients suffering from Cushing diseases or syndromes, or more frequently in those who are given excessive amounts of sodium (hypertonic saline, sodium salts). Clinical manifestations of hypernatraemia consist of neurologic symptoms related to cellular dehydration; their severity is correlated with the rapidity of the onset of the electrolytic disorder. Depending on the pathophysiological mechanism, treatment of hypernatraemia involves stopping sodium intake, restoring normovolaemia and administering hypotonic fluids. Treatment of diabetes insipidus relies on the administration of the antidiuretic hormone and of drugs that increase its secretion rate or its responsiveness in the kidneys. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMatrix Metalloproteinases and TIMP-1 production by peripheral blood granulocytes from COPD patients and asthmatics
Cataldo, Didier ULg; Munaut, Carine ULg; Noël, Agnès ULg et al

in Allergy (2001), 56(2), 145-51

Both asthmatic and COPD patients were found to have increased amounts of granulocytes and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in their sputum. The present study was conducted to investigate whether the ... [more ▼]

Both asthmatic and COPD patients were found to have increased amounts of granulocytes and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in their sputum. The present study was conducted to investigate whether the elevated amounts of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 found in such patients' airways may be linked to an enhanced secretion by granulocytes. Blood granulocytes from asthmatics (n = 10), COPD patients (n = 11), and healthy controls (n = 11) were isolated and cultured under basal conditions or after stimulation by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) or N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (fMLP). MMP-9 activity was detected by zymography while MMP-8 and TIMP-1 levels were measured by ELISA. In zymography, pro- and activated forms of MMP-9 were present in each group (healthy subjects, asthmatics, and COPD patients). Spontaneous release was not different between the three groups. Stimulation by fMLP and PMA increased to a similar extent the release of MMP-9 by granulocytes in all the three groups. TIMP-1 levels were also increased after stimulation by PMA and fMLP only in healthy subjects and COPD patients. MMP-8 levels were barely detectable. We conclude that circulating granulocytes from COPD patients and asthmatics do not display an abnormal secretion of MMP-9, and that granulocytes from asthmatics have an impaired ability to release TIMP-1 upon stimulation. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAcute encephalopathy despite early therapy in a patient with homozygosity for E365K in the glutaryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase gene
Kölker, S.; Ramaekers, Vincent ULg; Zschocke, J. et al

in Journal of Pediatrics (2001), 138(2), 277-279

A patient with glutaric aciduria type I had an acute encephalopathic crisis despite early treatment. This report indicates that current therapeutic strategies may be insufficient for some high-risk ... [more ▼]

A patient with glutaric aciduria type I had an acute encephalopathic crisis despite early treatment. This report indicates that current therapeutic strategies may be insufficient for some high-risk patients and stresses the demand for new approaches in glutaric aciduria type I. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAge- and Body Mass Index-Related Changes in Cutaneous Shear Wave Velocity
Hermanns-Le, Trinh ULg; Jonlet, F.; Scheen, André ULg et al

in Experimental Gerontology (2001), 36(2), 363-72

BACKGROUND: The in vivo visco-elastic characteristics of skin depend on a series of physiopathological parameters. Among them, the age-related intrinsic tensile properties and the preconditioning of the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The in vivo visco-elastic characteristics of skin depend on a series of physiopathological parameters. Among them, the age-related intrinsic tensile properties and the preconditioning of the tissues set under tension by the hypodermal volume might be of importance. AIMS: To revisit the influence of age and body mass on the firmness and mechanical anisotropy of the skin as determined by the velocity of the shear wave propagation. METHOD: Resonance running time measurements (RRTM) were performed on the mid volar forearm in 110 adults of both sexes. In each subject 16 RRTM were collected at four different precise angles with regard to the limb axis. We recorded the lowest, the highest and the mean multidirectional RRTM as well as the coefficient of variation (CV) of the latter value. In addition, the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. RESULTS: Age and BMI did not influence the minimum RRTM. In contrast, the maximum RRTM as well as the mean and CV of the multidirectional RRTM, significantly rose in a progressively increasing proportion of the subjects older than 60 years. These changes were only encountered in subjects with a normal BMI ranging from 18 to 25. Sex-related differences were not disclosed. CONCLUSIONS: The intrinsic skin tension lines identified by the minimum RRTM are not significantly altered with age and BMI variations. In contrast, skin laxity identified by larger maximum and mean multidirectional RRTM may increase after 60 years of age in subjects with a normal BMI. This is accompanied by increased skin mechanical anisotropy identified by CV values of the multidirectional RRTM over 40%. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 73 (2 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailEffect of the 585 Nm Flashlamp-Pumped Pulsed Dye Laser for the Treatment of Keloids
Paquet, Philippe ULg; Hermanns, Jean-François ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Dermatologic Surgery (2001), 27(2), 171-4

BACKGROUND: Due to its potential effects on skin microcirculation and collagen metabolism, the 585 nm flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser has been proposed for treating abnormal scars. Indeed, one of the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Due to its potential effects on skin microcirculation and collagen metabolism, the 585 nm flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser has been proposed for treating abnormal scars. Indeed, one of the main problems with keloidal scars is their disfiguring erythematous color. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of the 585 nm pulsed dye laser on the appearance of keloids. METHODS: Eleven patients with skin phototypes II-IV and keloids were treated with the 585 nm pulsed dye laser. After one to three treatment sessions, clinical assessments of the scars were performed in combination with remittance spectroscopy measurements of the redness and melanin pigmentation. A group of nine keloids covered by silicone gel sheeting served as controls. Data were compared statistically. RESULTS: During laser treatments, a discrete decrease in redness of the scars was clinically reported. However, this improvement was not confirmed by the objective spectrophotometric data. No side effects, especially hyperpigmentation, were disclosed. The keloids redness was not improved in the control group. CONCLUSION: The 585 nm pulsed dye laser yields only minimal effects, if any, on the erythema of keloids. Similarly silicone gel sheeting does not modify the keloids redness. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMaximal subalgebras of vector fields for equivariant quantizations
Boniver, Fabien; Mathonet, Pierre ULg

in Journal of Mathematical Physics (2001), 42(2), 582-589

The elaboration of new quantization methods has recently developed the interest in the study of subalgebras of the Lie algebra of polynomial vector fields over a Euclidean space. In this framework, these ... [more ▼]

The elaboration of new quantization methods has recently developed the interest in the study of subalgebras of the Lie algebra of polynomial vector fields over a Euclidean space. In this framework, these subalgebras define maximal equivariance conditions that one can impose on a linear bijection between observables that are polynomial in the momenta and differential operators. Here, we determine which finite dimensional graded Lie subalgebras are maximal. In order to characterize these, we make use of results of Guillemin, Singer, and Sternberg and Kobayashi and Nagano. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 6 (1 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailComment j'explore ... le risque metastatique du melanome
Pierard, Gérald ULg; Arrese, J. E.; Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(2), 120-3

The development of new therapeutic protocols for malignant melanoma calls for an upgraded assessment of the individual risk to develop metastases. The predictive sentinel lymph node method is best ... [more ▼]

The development of new therapeutic protocols for malignant melanoma calls for an upgraded assessment of the individual risk to develop metastases. The predictive sentinel lymph node method is best practiced in a multidisciplinary approach. The selective lymphadenectomy of the first draining lymph node is followed by minutely detailed histologic examination combined with immunohistochemistry. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 36 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe Analytic Pricing of Asymmetric Defaultable Swaps
Hübner, Georges ULg

in Journal of Banking and Finance (2001), 25(2), 295-316

Swaps where both parties are exposed to credit risk still lack convincing pricing mechanisms. This article presents a reduced-form model where the event of default is related to structural characteristics ... [more ▼]

Swaps where both parties are exposed to credit risk still lack convincing pricing mechanisms. This article presents a reduced-form model where the event of default is related to structural characteristics of each party. The cash flows submitted to credit risk are identified before the swap is priced. Analytical pricing formulas for interest rate and currency swaps are computed using a Gaussian model for risky bonds. Currency swaps exhibit additional correlation risk. The benefits from netting depend on the balance between exposures and market conditions in valuation. We show that sources of credit risk asymmetries are also likely to impact on credit spreads. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (5 ULg)
See detailLes université francophones et la coopération au développement
Marchal, Jean ULg

in Bulletin des Séances de l’Académie Royale des Sciences d’Outre-Mer = Mededelingen der Zittingen van de Koninklijke Academie voor Overzeese Wetenschappen (2001), (47), 333-342

Detailed reference viewed: 6 (0 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailSeuil liminaire de la perception d'un etirement cutane
Martalo, O.; Henry, Frédérique ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie (2001), 128(2), 119-22

BACKGROUND: Cutaneous sensorial perception is complex and proves to be difficult to quantify. Skin sensitivity to mechanical distension is largely unexplored. We have developed an original method aimed at ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Cutaneous sensorial perception is complex and proves to be difficult to quantify. Skin sensitivity to mechanical distension is largely unexplored. We have developed an original method aimed at quantifiying these physiological parameters.VOLUNTEERS AND METHODS: The study was performed on 24 adult volunteers aged 20 to 50 years. A Cutometer SEM 474 equipped with 2 and 4 mm diameter probes was used to exert a progressive or a steep suction on the cheeks. The intensities of both the suction and the skin deformation observed at the earliest moment the traction was perceived by the volunteers were recorded.RESULTS: The liminar sensorial detection under progressive suction force was 1.5 times lower when using the 4 mm probe than the 2 mm probe. Suction necessary for liminar sensation was 7 times lower under steep suction than in response to the progressive mode. The skin deformation corresponding to the liminar sensorial perception was almost constant (C=0.5 p. 100) for each subject. By contrast, a large inter individual heterogeneity unrelated to age was present.COMMENTS: Sensitivity of facial skin to stretching can be explored using a precise suction method. Perception is more related to the rate of traction than to the surface area submitted to suction. Cutaneous deformation, nearly constant for each individual, appears to be the main parameter. Steep and progressive suctions appear to stimulate distinct types of mechanoreceptors. The presently described method can be applied in cosmetology and in functional investigation of various diseases such as diabetes, acromegaly and atopic dermatitis among others. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailInfluence of Daily Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation on Parathyroid Hormone Secretion
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Zegels, Brigitte ULg; Lejeune, Emmanuelle ULg et al

in Gynecological Endocrinology : The Official Journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology (2001), 15(1), 56-62

Calcium and vitamin D supplementation have been shown to reduce secondary hyperparathyroidism and play a role in age-related osteoporosis. In order to define the optimal regimen of calcium and vitamin D ... [more ▼]

Calcium and vitamin D supplementation have been shown to reduce secondary hyperparathyroidism and play a role in age-related osteoporosis. In order to define the optimal regimen of calcium and vitamin D supplementation to produce the maximal inhibition of parathyroid hormone secretion, we compared the administration of a calcium-vitamin D supplement as a single morning dose with the administration of two divided doses at 6-hour intervals. Twelve healthy male volunteers were assigned to three investigational procedures, which were alternated at weekly intervals. After a 'blank' control procedure, when they were not exposed to any supplements, they received one of two calcium-vitamin D supplement regimens: either two doses of Orocal D3 (500 mg calcium and 400 IU vitamin D3) with a 6-hour interval between doses, or one water-soluble effervescent powder pack of Cacit vitamin D3, taken in the morning (1000 mg calcium and 880 IU vitamin D3). During the three procedures (control and the two calcium-vitamin D supplementation protocols), veinous blood was drawn every 60 minutes for up to 9 hours, for serum calcium and parathyroid hormone measurements. The order of administration of the two calcium and vitamin D supplementation regimens was allocated by randomization. No significant changes in serum calcium were observed during the study. During the first 6 hours following calcium-vitamin D supplementation, a statistically significant decrease in serum parathyroid hormone was observed with both regimens, compared with baseline and the control procedure. During this first period, no differences were observed between the two treatment regimens. However, between the 6th and the 9th hour, serum parathyroid hormone levels remained significantly decreased compared to baseline with the twice-daily Orocal D3 administration, while they returned to baseline values with the once-daily Cacit D3 preparation. During this period, the percentage decrease in serum parathyroid hormone relative to baseline was significantly greater with Orocal D3 than Cacit D3 (p = 0.0021). We therefore conclude that the twice-daily administration of 500 mg calcium and 400 IU vitamin D3 at 6-hour intervals provides a more prolonged decrease in serum parathyroid hormone levels than the administration of the same total amount of calcium and vitamin D, as a single morning dose in young healthy. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailBiochemical Study of Collagen in Adult Groin Hernias
Pans, Alain ULg; Albert, Adelin ULg; Lapiere, C. M. et al

in Journal of Surgical Research (2001), 95(2), 107-13

BACKGROUND: Previous works have suggested that a defect in collagen fiber structure may play a role in inguinal hernia formation. These studies focused mainly on the rectus sheath or the skin, while only ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Previous works have suggested that a defect in collagen fiber structure may play a role in inguinal hernia formation. These studies focused mainly on the rectus sheath or the skin, while only few reports dealt with the transversalis fascia. According to these findings and to our previous biomechanical and histological studies suggesting that a connective tissue pathology could play a role in the genesis of groin hernias, we performed a biochemical investigation of the collagen in the transversalis fascia and rectus sheath. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The samples were collected from 40 adult patients with uni- or bilateral hernias and from 20 control subjects without hernia (autopsies and organ donors). A constant area of tissue was taken by using a calibrator. The wet and dry weights per 100 mm(2) were determined and the total collagen concentration as well as its sequential extractibility in NaCl, acetic acid, and pepsin was measured. The ratios of alpha(1)/alpha(2) chains (I) and of type I/III collagen were assessed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. RESULTS: Samples collected in the control and patient sheaths showed an increased wet weight per 100 mm(2) in the patients. The wet and dry weights per unit area were increased in the patient fascias. The collagen concentration was increased in the indirect hernias. The fascias from the direct hernias (DH) presented a significantly increased collagen extractibility after pepsin digestion (5.6%), when compared to the control fascias (2.6%). The extractibility was 3.4% in the nonherniated (NH) sides. The qualitative study (ratios alpha(1)/alpha(2) (I) and I/III collagen) showed no difference between the fascia groups. CONCLUSIONS: The significant increase of collagen extractibility with pepsin in the DH fascias and at a lesser degree in the NH fascias suggests that molecular alterations of collagen could be involved in the genesis of groin hernias. This connective tissue pathology would express preferentially its effects in the inguinal region, since we have observed no major difference between the rectus sheaths of controls and those of patients. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 32 (0 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailLe syndrome du defile cervico-thoracique
Dubuisson, Annie ULg; Foidart-Dessalle, Marguerite ULg; Cohnen, Anne ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(2), 97-105

Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is due to compression/irritation of brachial plexus elements ("neurogenic TOS") and/or subclavian vessels ("vascular TOS") in their passage from the cervical area toward the ... [more ▼]

Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is due to compression/irritation of brachial plexus elements ("neurogenic TOS") and/or subclavian vessels ("vascular TOS") in their passage from the cervical area toward the axilla. The usual site of entrapment is the interscalenic triangle. TOS is a highly controversial subject in regard to its incidence, diagnostic criteria and optimal treatment. Constitutional factors--osseous or more often fibromuscular--and external factors such as trauma predispose to the development of TOS. Various clinical pictures include pain in the cervical region and arm, paresthesias, aggravated by overhead positions of the arms, hand intrinsic muscle deficit/atrophy, easy fatiguability, paleness, coldness of hand. The clinical examination may be entirely normal or show cervical and scapular muscle spasm, tenderness of supraclavicular area, radial pulse attenuation upon positional maneuvers, sensory and/or motor deficit, usually of C8/T1 distribution. The diagnosis is based on clinical evaluation and absence of other relevant pathology. Sometimes TOS can enhance symptoms consecutive to cervical or supraclavicular lesions. Cervical spine and distal peripheral nerves are investigated by radiological and electrophysiological studies. Unless there is significant motor deficit or subclavian artery compression, the treatment should be kept conservative as long as possible, by adapted physical therapy. In case of neurological deficit or symptoms unresponsive to medical treatment, the patients will--like in other nerve entrapment syndromes--be helped by decompressive surgery, nowadays preferably performed via an anterior supraclavicular approach. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 242 (11 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPharma clinics. Comment je traite.... L'arthrose. 1ère partie: Rappel physiopathologique et traitement symptomatique
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Henrotin, Yves ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(2), 63-7

Osteoarthritis is now considered in all developed countries as a major burden for public health. During several years, the pharmacological management of osteoarthritis mainly focused on symptoms relief ... [more ▼]

Osteoarthritis is now considered in all developed countries as a major burden for public health. During several years, the pharmacological management of osteoarthritis mainly focused on symptoms relief without interaction with the long-term structural progression of this disease. Based on recently published consensus, the present article summarizes the currently available options in the symptom-modifying management of osteoarthritis. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (2 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailL'image du mois. Une thrombose veineuse cerebrale
Garraux, Gaëtan ULg; Sadzot, Bernard ULg; Flandroy, Pierre et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(2), 61-2

Detailed reference viewed: 67 (7 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDisruption of CIC-3, a chloride channel expressed on synaptic vesicles, leads to a loss of the hippocampus
Stobrawa, SM; Breiderhoff, T; Takamori, S et al

in Neuron (2001), 29(1), 185-96

Detailed reference viewed: 3 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailInstallations fixes soumises à permis d'urbanisme en Région wallonne
Delnoy, Michel ULg

in Immobilier (2001), 1

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCross-Sectional Study of the Association between Pathological Conditions and Myxoma-Virus Seroprevalence in Intensive Rabbit Farms in Europe
Marlier, Didier ULg; Herbots, J.; Detilleux, Johann ULg et al

in Preventive Veterinary Medicine (2001), 48(1), 55-64

Myxomatosis is a major viral disease of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Two forms of the disease (nodular and amyxomatous) exist. The clinical diagnosis of the nodular form is easily ... [more ▼]

Myxomatosis is a major viral disease of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Two forms of the disease (nodular and amyxomatous) exist. The clinical diagnosis of the nodular form is easily performed on the basis of typical skin lesions whereas that of amyxomatous forms must be based on virus isolation or detection of specific antibodies to myxoma virus (MV). The seroprevalence of MV was studied between March 1998 and February 1999 in 16 farms from three European countries considered free of myxomatosis on the basis of the absence of typical clinical signs. MV antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (sensitivity 100%, specificity 90%) in all 16 farms; the seroprevalences corrected for test inaccuracy (95% confidence interval) were 55+/-7.7% and 37+/-6.1% for does and broilers, respectively. The association between herd sizes, types of rabbitries, and presence of recurrent respiratory or digestive troubles and seroprevalence of MV antibodies was tested in logistic multiple regressions. In all models, the seroprevalence of MV antibodies was significantly higher in herds (does and broilers) with recurrent respiratory or digestive troubles than in herds without these problems. The seroprevalence was also higher in herds (does and broilers) where animals were housed totally or partially in outdoors rabbitries than in totally enclosed rabbitries. The effect of herd sizes on the presence of MV antibodies was the same in does and broilers; intermediate sizes were at lower risk than the smaller and larger ones. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPoly (ε-caprolactone-b-glycolide) and Poly(D,L-lactide-b-glycolide) diblock copolyesters: controlled synthesis, characterization, and colloidal dispersions
Barakat, Ibrahim; Dubois, Philippe ULg; Grandfils, Christian ULg et al

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry (2001), 39(2), 294-306

Living -aluminum alkoxide poly--caprolactone and poly-D,L-lactide chains were synthesized by the ring-opening polymerization of -caprolactone (-CL) and D,L-lactide (D,L-LA), respectively, and were used as ... [more ▼]

Living -aluminum alkoxide poly--caprolactone and poly-D,L-lactide chains were synthesized by the ring-opening polymerization of -caprolactone (-CL) and D,L-lactide (D,L-LA), respectively, and were used as macroinitiators for glycolide (GA) polymerization in tetrahydrofuran at 40 °C. The P(CL-b-GA) and P(LA-b-GA) diblock copolymers that formed were fractionated by the use of a selective solvent for each block and were characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry analysis. The livingness of the operative coordination-insertion mechanism is responsible for the control of the copolyester composition, the length of the blocks, and, ultimately, the thermal behavior. Because of the inherent insolubility of the polyglycolide blocks, microphase separation occurs during the course of the sequential polymerization, resulting in a stable, colloidal, nonaqueous copolymer dispersion, as confirmed by photon correlation spectroscopy. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 70 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailNonradial nonadiabatic stellar pulsations: A numerical method and its application to a beta Cephei model
Dupret, Marc-Antoine ULg

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2001), 366

A new general method for the computation of nonradial nonadiabatic oscillations of a given stellar model is presented for a linear approximation. A simple and useful modelling of the atmosphere is ... [more ▼]

A new general method for the computation of nonradial nonadiabatic oscillations of a given stellar model is presented for a linear approximation. A simple and useful modelling of the atmosphere is included, allowing to obtain credible values for the eigenfunctions in the atmosphere. Some of the results obtained for a 10 M[SUB]sun[/SUB] model are shown as an illustration. Our study opens the way to different applications. Better theoretical line-profile variations could be obtained from our method, allowing a more detailed comparison with observations. More generally, our study is relevant for asteroseismology, giving a way for a better knowledge of stellar interiors. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailHigh resolution X-ray spectroscopy of zeta Puppis with the XMM-Newton reflection grating spectrometer
Kahn, S. M.; Leutenegger, M. A.; Cottam, J. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2001), 365

We present the first high resolution X-ray spectrum of the bright O4Ief supergiant star zeta Puppis, obtained with the Reflection Grating Spectrometer on-board XMM-Newton. The spectrum exhibits bright ... [more ▼]

We present the first high resolution X-ray spectrum of the bright O4Ief supergiant star zeta Puppis, obtained with the Reflection Grating Spectrometer on-board XMM-Newton. The spectrum exhibits bright emission lines of hydrogen-like and helium-like ions of nitrogen, oxygen, neon, magnesium, and silicon, as well as neon-like ions of iron. The lines are all significantly resolved, with characteristic velocity widths of order 1000-1500 km s[SUP]-1[/SUP]. The nitrogen lines are especially strong, and indicate that the shocked gas in the wind is mixed with CNO-burned material, as has been previously inferred for the atmosphere of this star from ultraviolet spectra. We find that the forbidden to intercombination line ratios within the helium-like triplets are anomalously low for N VI, O VII, and Ne IX. While this is sometimes indicative of high electron density, we show that in this case, it is instead caused by the intense ultraviolet radiation field of the star. We use this interpretation to derive constraints on the location of the X-ray emitting shocks within the wind that are consistent with current theoretical models for this system. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 32 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailOptical variability of the B-type star HD 105382: Pulsation or rotation?
Briquet, Maryline ULg; Aerts, C.; De Cat, P.

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2001)

We present ground-based multi-colour Geneva photometry and high-resolution high S/N spectra of the variable B-type star HD 105382. We provide evidence that this star is not a Be star, as indicated in the ... [more ▼]

We present ground-based multi-colour Geneva photometry and high-resolution high S/N spectra of the variable B-type star HD 105382. We provide evidence that this star is not a Be star, as indicated in the literature. The monoperiodic variability found in the Hipparcos data is confirmed in our ground-based follow-up observations. All existing data give rise to the detection of the period of 1.295 days. We try to interpret the variability of the star in terms of a non-radial g-mode pulsation model and of a rotational modulation model. None of these two is able to explain the observed line-profile variations in full detail. Based on observations obtained with the Swiss photometric telescope and ESO's CAT/CES telescope, both situated at La Silla, Chile. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 9 (0 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailAvalanches of Popping Bubbles in Collapsing Foams
Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Lentz, J. F.; Dorbolo, Stéphane ULg et al

in Physical Review Letters (2001), 86(1), 179-82

We report acoustic measurements of popping bubbles during the collapsing of aqueous foams. The sound pattern is analyzed using classical methods of statistical physics. It is found that membrane rupture ... [more ▼]

We report acoustic measurements of popping bubbles during the collapsing of aqueous foams. The sound pattern is analyzed using classical methods of statistical physics. It is found that membrane rupture concerns a wide variety of situations: small and large membranes at the air/foam interface. Avalanches of popping bubbles are put into evidence. Time durations in between successive pops seem to be distributed on a universal power law. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (9 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailUn Centre de Jour pour une prise en charge de patients Alzheimer à un stade débutant
Lekeu, Françoise ULg; Salmon, Eric ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(1), 31-37

Alzheimer's disease represents an important problem for our societies, both in social and economical dimensions. Built in July 1997, the day care center of Liege aims at practicing strategic cognitive ... [more ▼]

Alzheimer's disease represents an important problem for our societies, both in social and economical dimensions. Built in July 1997, the day care center of Liege aims at practicing strategic cognitive interventions in early Alzheimer patients or when pathological memory impairments occur. By means of an interdisciplinary work (by neuropsychologists and occupational therapists), the ultimate goal of the interventions is to facilitate the patient's autonomy in activities of daily living. Because of the variability of clinical symptoms of the disease, the goal of these cognitive interventions is to optimize the performance of each patient by making the most of its preserved abilities. Moreover, another goal of the day care center is also to support the caregivers, by giving them advices in order to adequately face with difficulties presented by the patient. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 41 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailStrychnogucines a and B, Two New Antiplasmodial Bisindole Alkaloids from Strychnos Icaja
Frederich, Michel ULg; De Pauw-Gillet, Marie-Claire ULg; Prosperi, Christelle ULg et al

in Journal of Natural Products (2001), 64(1), 12-16

A reinvestigation of Strychnos icaja roots has resulted in the isolation of two tertiary quasi-symmetric bisindole alkaloids named strychnogucines A (1) and B (2). Their structures were identified by ... [more ▼]

A reinvestigation of Strychnos icaja roots has resulted in the isolation of two tertiary quasi-symmetric bisindole alkaloids named strychnogucines A (1) and B (2). Their structures were identified by means of spectroscopic data interpretation. Compound 2 was highly active in vitro and compound 1 moderately active against four strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Strychnogucine B (2) was more active against a chloroquine-resistant strain than against a chloroquine-sensitive one (best CI(50), 80 nM against the W2 strain). In addition, this compound showed a selective antiplasmodial activity with 25-180 times greater toxicity toward P. falciparum, relative to cultured human cancer cells (KB) or human fibroblasts (WI38). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 59 (12 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailNon-Gaussian electrical fluctuations in a quasi-2d packing of metallic beads
Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Lenaerts, Cedric ULg; Dorbolo, Stéphane ULg

in Europhysics Letters [=EPL] (2001), 53(2), 197-201

The electrical properties of a two-dimensional packing of metallic beads are studied. Small mechanical perturbations of the packing lead to giant voltage fluctuations. Fluctuations are found to be non ... [more ▼]

The electrical properties of a two-dimensional packing of metallic beads are studied. Small mechanical perturbations of the packing lead to giant voltage fluctuations. Fluctuations are found to be non-Gaussian and seem to belong to Levy stable distributions. Anticorrelations have been also found for the sign of these fluctuations. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (4 ULg)
See detailLe système du juge unique pour le règlement d’un problème multiple : l’encombrement de la Cour de Justice des Communautés européennes et du Tribunal de Première Instance
Munoz, Rodolphe ULg

in Revue du Marché Commun et de l'Union Européenne (2001), 444

La première partie de l’article examine la décision du Conseil du 26 avril 1999 donnant au Tribunal de Première Instance (TPI) la possibilité de siéger avec un juge unique: cette décision précise les ... [more ▼]

La première partie de l’article examine la décision du Conseil du 26 avril 1999 donnant au Tribunal de Première Instance (TPI) la possibilité de siéger avec un juge unique: cette décision précise les conditions de nomination et les pouvoirs de ce juge unique, les conditions d’application du système, et les cas où l’établissement d’un juge unique serait interdit. La seconde partie de l’analyse montre que l’effet concret du système sera limité en raison des limitations inscrites dans le texte même, et que le pouvoir procédural des Etats membres se trouve une nouvelle fois renforcé. Par ailleurs, l’analyse met en évidence les problèmes de fond soulevés par la fin du principe de collégialité et par la définition d’affaire ʺd’importance limitéeı Une dernière partie présente des propositions alternatives et cumulatives pour réformer le règlement de la procédure du TPI et de la Cour de Justice sans réformer l’ensemble du système juridictionnel. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 139 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLe cas clinique du mois. Intoxication aigue au methanol
Brasseur, Edmond ULg; Lemineur, T.; Leonard, Philippe ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(1), 7-10

We report a fatal methanol intoxication and discuss its physiopathology, diagnosis and treatment.

Detailed reference viewed: 113 (10 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailMajor Decrease in the Incidence of Trisomy 21 at Birth in South Belgium: Mass Impact of Triple Test?
Verloes, Alain ULg; Gillerot, Y.; Van Maldergem, Lionel ULg et al

in European Journal of Human Genetics (2001), 9(1), 1-4

In South Belgium (Wallonia), the 'triple test' was introduced in 1990-1991, and is nowadays a widely accepted screening method for assessment of trisomy 21 risk in pregnancy. The 'triple test' is not ... [more ▼]

In South Belgium (Wallonia), the 'triple test' was introduced in 1990-1991, and is nowadays a widely accepted screening method for assessment of trisomy 21 risk in pregnancy. The 'triple test' is not regulated and can be freely performed by any biomedical lab, making epidemiological data unavailable. By contrast, cytogenetic investigations are limited to a few genetic centres, and accurate statistics can be easily built from their files. During the period 1984-1989, a total of 244 trisomy 21 (1/876 pregnancies) were diagnosed in the Genetic Centres of Liege and Loverval, 42 (17%) of them prenatally. During the period 1993-1998, 294 trisomy 21 (1/704 pregnancies) were observed, 165 (56%) of which prenatally, and more than 90% of affected pregnancies were terminated. Even after correction for late foetal loss of trisomic foetuses, the difference is highly significant, and corresponds to a theoretical shift in the incidence of trisomy 21 at birth from 1/794 to 1/1606. As no remarkable progress occurred in other non-invasive prenatal screening procedures or general health care policies in Belgium, the most reasonable explanation is the use on a large scale of triple test by pregnant women, and the election of termination for most affected pregnancies. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (3 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailManagement of Difficult Intubation
Janssens, Marc ULg; Hartstein, Gary ULg

in European Journal of Anaesthesiology (2001), 18(1), 3-12

Appropriate airway management is an essential part of the anaesthetist's role. Difficult intubation, which can now be quantified using the 'Intubation Difficulty Scale', should be anticipated whenever ... [more ▼]

Appropriate airway management is an essential part of the anaesthetist's role. Difficult intubation, which can now be quantified using the 'Intubation Difficulty Scale', should be anticipated whenever possible. A strategy needs to be developed in order to anticipate problems. The first part of this paper reviews the different factors that contribute to make intubation and/or ventilation difficult. Problems with intubation (or ventilation of the lungs) can be caused by abnormal laryngeal structures (e.g. tumour, stenosis), or by difficulty in seeing the glottis. The clinical history will usually help identify the former problem, while physical examination of the airway is required to reveal either disproportion between the various structures of the airway (e.g. tongue, larynx), and/or difficulties in aligning the oral, pharyngeal, and laryngeal axes. The different techniques used to diagnose these problems are described. The second part of this paper summarizes the algorithms used by the anaesthetist when management of the airway is found difficult. Three situations are considered: (a) anticipated difficult intubation, for which awake fibreoptic intubation would appear to be the technique of choice in the majority of cases, (b) unforeseen difficult intubation in a patient whose lungs can be ventilated; here, various techniques for control of the airway will be briefly described, and (c) both tracheal intubation and lung ventilation are impossible; this is a life-threatening emergency, for which three solutions are proposed. These include use of the laryngeal mask airway, the Combitube, or transtracheal ventilation. These situations will be analysed with the aim of proposing management strategies that always guarantee the safety of the patient. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailTherapeutic Drug Monitoring of Azathioprine and 6-Mercaptopurine Metabolites in Crohn Disease
Belaiche, Jacques ULg; Desager, J. P.; Horsmans, Y. et al

in Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology (2001), 36(1), 71-6

BACKGROUND: 6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP) and its prodrug azathioprine (AZA) have proven efficacy in the treatment of Crohn disease (CD). The immunosuppressive properties of AZA/6-MP are mediated by the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: 6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP) and its prodrug azathioprine (AZA) have proven efficacy in the treatment of Crohn disease (CD). The immunosuppressive properties of AZA/6-MP are mediated by the intracellular metabolism of 6-MP into its active metabolites, 6-thioguanine nucleotides (6TGN) and 6methylmercaptopurine (6-MMP). Preliminary studies have suggested that the red blood cell concentration of 6TGN (RBC 6TGN) is a potential guide to therapy. The aims of the study were to evaluate the RBC 6TGN concentrations in adult patients with CD under long-term AZA/6-MP therapy and to correlate it with response to treatment and haematological parameters. METHODS: Twenty-eight CD patients treated for at least 3 months with AZA/6-MP were prospectively studied. Patients were separated into three main groups: group 1 (n = 19), corresponding to quiescent CD receiving AZA (dose: 2.05 +/- 0.4 mg/kg/day for a mean of 28.6 +/- 25 months) or 6-MP (dose: 1.4 +/- 01 mg/kg/day for a mean of 7.5 +/- 3.5 months) alone; group 2 (n = 6), corresponding to quiescent CD treated by AZA (dose: 2.14 +/- 0.5 mg/kg/day for a mean of 29.5 +/- 22 months) with oral steroids; and group 3 (n = 3), corresponding to active CD on AZA (dose: 1.94 +/- 0.6 mg/kg/day for a mean of 31.3 +/- 35 months) as the only treatment. An assessment was also made by merging groups 1 and 2 forming a larger group of patients (n = 25) defined by clinical remission and groups 2 and 3 forming a larger group of patients (n = 9), non-complete responders with AZA/6-MP alone. Crohn disease index activity (CDAI), blood samples for full blood count and differential white cell count and measurement of RBC 6TGN and 6-MMP concentrations were evaluated at inclusion and at 6 months (n = 17). RBC 6TGN were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on heparinized blood. RESULTS: The baseline characteristics of the three groups of patients were similar. There was no significant difference among the three groups of patients regarding the dose and the duration of immunosuppressive treatment. There was no significant difference between groups according to various parameters tested. Particularly, the median RBC 6TGN concentration at inclusion was similar in the three groups of patients (166 (105-688), 183 (90-261) and 160 (52-194) pmol/8 x 10(8) RBC, respectively). The majority of patients had no detectable level of 6-MMP metabolite, except for 3 patients. There was also no difference between merging groups. Furthermore, there was no significant correlation between RBC 6TGN concentrations and the various biological parameters tested except for the mean erythrocyte volume. At 6 months, all patients of group 1 remained in remission and median RBC 6TGN concentration remained stable. No side effects were observed. CONCLUSIONS: There is, contrary to preliminary studies, a broad overlap in RBC 6TGN levels as well as for haematological parameters in patients in remission or not and responders or not to AZA/6-MP therapy. This suggests, beside a variability in the metabolism of these drugs, the existence of complex mechanisms of action. Nevertheless, beside the use of RBC 6TGN determination to confirm compliance to therapy, this dosage could be useful in non-responding patients, allowing, in absence of leukopenia, to increase the dose of AZA/6-MP safely. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 47 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLa contribution des pouvoirs locaux à la réalisation des objectifs du Traité de Maastricht
Husson, Jean-François ULg

in Bulletin de Documentation du Ministère des Finances (2001), (1), 15-54

Due to is public finance position in the early 1990's, matching the deficit and debt criteria set by the Maastricht Treaty was not an easy task for Belgium. Efforts from all components of the public ... [more ▼]

Due to is public finance position in the early 1990's, matching the deficit and debt criteria set by the Maastricht Treaty was not an easy task for Belgium. Efforts from all components of the public sector were required and local government delivered important efforts on both deficit and debt, despite the fact that local government supervision is not a federal but well a regional task. This article explains how local government is articulated with other components of general government, details its achievments and provide some light on the political process. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 38 (4 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailBonnes nouvelles des étoiles
Dejasse, Erwin ULg

in 9e Art : Les Cahiers du Musée de la Bande Dessinée (2001), 6

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLong-term effects of glucosamine sulphate on osteoarthritis progression: a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Deroisy, Rita ULg; Rovati, Lucio C et al

in Lancet (2001), 357

BACKGROUND: Treatment of osteoarthritis is usually limited to short-term symptom control. We assessed the effects of the specific drug glucosamine sulphate on the long-term progression of osteoarthritis ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Treatment of osteoarthritis is usually limited to short-term symptom control. We assessed the effects of the specific drug glucosamine sulphate on the long-term progression of osteoarthritis joint structure changes and symptoms. METHODS: We did a randomised, double-blind placebo controlled trial, in which 212 patients with knee osteoarthritis were randomly assigned 1500 mg sulphate oral glucosamine or placebo once daily for 3 years. Weightbearing, anteroposterior radiographs of each knee in full extension were taken at enrolment and after 1 and 3 years. Mean joint-space width of the medial compartment of the tibiofemoral joint was assessed by digital image analysis, whereas minimum joint-space width--ie, at the narrowest point--was measured by visual inspection with a magnifying lens. Symptoms were scored by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) osteoarthritis index. FINDINGS: The 106 patients on placebo had a progressive joint-space narrowing, with a mean joint-space loss after 3 years of -0.31 mm (95% CI -0.48 to -0.13). There was no significant joint-space loss in the 106 patients on glucosamine sulphate: -0.06 mm (-0.22 to 0.09). Similar results were reported with minimum joint-space narrowing. As assessed by WOMAC scores, symptoms worsened slightly in patients on placebo compared with the improvement observed after treatment with glucosamine sulphate. There were no differences in safety or reasons for early withdrawal between the treatment and placebo groups. INTERPRETATION: The long-term combined structure-modifying and symptom-modifying effects of gluosamine sulphate suggest that it could be a disease modifying agent in osteoarthritis. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 43 (11 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailFractionated irradiation combined with carbogen breathing and nicotinamide of two human glioblastomas grafted in nude mice
SUN, Lin-Quan; BUCHEGGER, Franz; COUCKE, Philippe ULg et al

in Radiation Research (2001), 155(1),

This study addressed the potential radiosensitizing effect of nicotinamide and/or carbogen on human glioblastoma xenografts in nude mice. U-87MG and LN-Z308 tumors were irradiated with either 20 fractions ... [more ▼]

This study addressed the potential radiosensitizing effect of nicotinamide and/or carbogen on human glioblastoma xenografts in nude mice. U-87MG and LN-Z308 tumors were irradiated with either 20 fractions over 12 days or 5 fractions over 5 days in air-breathing mice, mice injected with nicotinamide, mice breathing carbogen, or mice receiving nicotinamide plus carbogen. The responses to treatment were assessed using local control and moist desquamation. In U-87MG tumors, the enhancement ratios (ERs) at the radiation dose required to produce local tumor control in 50% of the treated mice (TCD50) with nicotinamide and/or carbogen ranged from 1.13 to 1.24 for irradiation in 20 fractions over 12 days. In LN-Z308 tumors, the ERs at the TCD50 with nicotinamide and/or carbogen ranged from 1.22 to 1.40 for irradiation in 5 fractions over 5 days and from 1.11 to 1.30 in 20 fractions over 12 days, respectively. Skin injury was slightly enhanced, with ERs ranged from 1.06 to 1.15 when radiation was combined with carbogen and/or nicotinamide. Thus carbogen and nicotinamide can slightly improve the radiation response of human glioblastoma xenografts. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEffect of High Doses of Oral Risedronate (20 Mg/Day) on Serum Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Urinary Collagen Cross-Link Excretion in Postmenopausal Women with Spinal Osteoporosis
Zegels, Brigitte ULg; Eastell, R.; Russell, R. G. et al

in BONE (2001), 28(1), 108-12

The present study describes the biological effects of risedronate, a pyridinyl bisphosphonate, on bone and assesses the safety and tolerability of risedronate when given at high doses, with or without ... [more ▼]

The present study describes the biological effects of risedronate, a pyridinyl bisphosphonate, on bone and assesses the safety and tolerability of risedronate when given at high doses, with or without calcium, to postmenopausal women with spinal osteoporosis. This single-center descriptive, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel group study included 32 postmenopausal white women with at least one radiographically confirmed vertebral compression fracture. Patients were randomized to one of four different dose regimen groups: (i) R-P, risedronate 20 mg/day for 14 days, followed by placebo for 42 days; (ii) R-CP-P, risedronate 20 mg/day for 14 days, followed by elemental calcium 1000 mg/day and placebo for 14 days, then by placebo for 28 days; (iii) R-CP-R-CP, risedronate 20 mg/day for 7 days, followed by elemental calcium 1000 mg/day and placebo for 21 days, then risedronate 20 mg/day for 7 days, and finally elemental calcium 1000 mg/day and placebo for 21 days; and (iv) P, placebo for 56 days. The biological response was investigated by measuring serum calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and 2 h urinary pyridinoline/creatinine (Pyr/Cr) and deoxypyridinoline/creatinine (DPyr/Cr) ratios at baseline and at days 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, and 84. Overall, there were no consistent trends observed between the active group and placebo for serum calcium. In groups R-P, R-CP-P, and R-CP-R-CP, mean serum PTH levels were elevated above baseline values for the entire 56 day treatment period and remained elevated, although to a lesser extent, at the day 84 follow-up visit. The effect of calcium supplementation on PTH was variable. Urinary Pyr/Cr and DPyr/Cr ratios were decreased from baseline over the entire study period in all groups receiving risedronate. The maximum observed percent decreases from baseline for Pyr/Cr and DPyr/Cr were -46.9% and -58.8%, respectively, at day 49 in the R-CP-R-CP group. In conclusion, risedronate given orally at a dose of 20 mg/day, continuously for 7 or 14 days, resulted in the expected biological response in osteoporotic women. The time course of changes in PTH levels following cessation of dosing was unaffected by calcium supplementation. There was no evidence of a PTH-mediated rebound in bone resorption following cessation of therapy. Furthermore, based on collagen cross-link data, patients did not show an excessive reduction in bone turnover. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailRapid and Reversible Inhibition of Brain Aromatase Activity
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Baillien, M.; Ball, G. F.

in Journal of Neuroendocrinology (2001), 13(1), 63-73

Many actions of androgens require their conversion via the enzyme aromatase into oestrogens. Changes in brain aromatase activity are thought to take place via changes in enzyme concentration mediated by ... [more ▼]

Many actions of androgens require their conversion via the enzyme aromatase into oestrogens. Changes in brain aromatase activity are thought to take place via changes in enzyme concentration mediated by effects of sex steroids on aromatase transcription. These changes are relatively slow which fits in well with the fact that oestrogens are generally viewed as slow-acting messengers that act via changes in gene transcription. More recently, fast actions of oestrogens, presumably at the level of the cell membrane, have been described both in the female brain and in the male brain after the conversion of testosterone to oestradiol. It is difficult to reconcile the slow regulation of oestrogen synthesis (that occurs via changes in aromatase concentration) with a rapid action at the membrane level. Even if fast transduction mechanisms are available, this will not result in rapid changes in brain function if the availability of the ligand does not also change rapidly. Here, we report that aromatase activity in neural tissue of male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) is rapidly downregulated in the presence of Mg(2+), Ca(2+) and ATP in hypothalamic homogenates and in brain explants exposed to high Ca(2+) levels following a K(+)-induced depolarization or the stimulation of glutamate receptors. The K(+)-induced inhibition of aromatase activity is observed within minutes and reversible. Given that aromatase is present in presynaptic boutons, it is possible that rapidly changing levels of locally produced oestrogen are available for nongenomic regulation of neuronal physiology in a manner more akin to the action of a neuropeptide than previously hypothesized. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg)
Full Text
See detailOngles sales et mycotoxines
Arrese, J. E.; Goffin, Véronique ULg; Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(1), 38-40

Some mycotoxins are among the most toxic natural products. They are metabolites produced by food-borne and feed-borne moulds. Dirty and soiled nails, and contaminated or infected onyxis by these specific ... [more ▼]

Some mycotoxins are among the most toxic natural products. They are metabolites produced by food-borne and feed-borne moulds. Dirty and soiled nails, and contaminated or infected onyxis by these specific moulds can be the origin of oral contamination and mycotoxicosis. Hence, nail cleaning, correct hygiene and treatment of mould onychomycosis have a potentially great impact on health. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailDermatite actinique chronique severe traitee par ciclosporine: 2 cas
Paquet, Philippe ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie (2001), 128(1), 42-5

INTRODUCTION: The treatment of the severe forms of photodermatoses often requires potent systemic immunosuppressive drugs. We report two patients suffering from severe photodermatitis successfully treated ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: The treatment of the severe forms of photodermatoses often requires potent systemic immunosuppressive drugs. We report two patients suffering from severe photodermatitis successfully treated with oral cyclosporine. CASES REPORT: A 58-year-old man developed severe pruritic eczematous reactions for several years on light-exposed and light-protected skin following each sun exposure. A 66-year-old man showed similar lesions restricted to the head and neck. The clinical presentation and evolution as well as histologic, immunohistologic, allergologic and photobiologic assessments suggested the diagnosis of actinic reticuloid and persistent light reactivity, respectively. The lesions of both patients did not respond to a high dose regimen of systemic corticosteroids (methylprednisolone 1 mg/kg/day) for several weeks. The severity of cutaneous lesions and pruritus required another potent immunosuppressive treatment. Oral cyclosporine at the maximum daily dose of 4 mg/kg was given for three months. A rapid improvement of the pruritus and skin lesions occurred in the two patients, without significant side-effect. The first patient experienced recurrent lesions after termination of cyclosporine treatment during summer time. The other patient did not develop new skin eruption for 3 years after stopping the initial treatment with cyclosporine. DISCUSSION: Low-dose oral cyclosporine is a quick-acting and well tolerated symptomatic treatment of severe photodermatoses resistant to other systemic immunosuppressive drugs. However, therapeutic results do not consistently exhibit long-standing remanent effect. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailImaging in Vivo Herpes Simplex Virus Thymidine Kinase Gene Transfer to Tumour-Bearing Rodents Using Positron Emission Tomography And
Hustinx, Roland ULg; Shiue, C. Y.; Alavi, A. et al

in European Journal of Nuclear Medicine (2001), 28(1), 5-12

Radiolabelled ganciclovir analogues have shown promise as imaging agents to detect herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) expression. This study evaluated the use of positron emission tomography ... [more ▼]

Radiolabelled ganciclovir analogues have shown promise as imaging agents to detect herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) expression. This study evaluated the use of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with 9-[(3-[18F]fluoro-1-hydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]guanine ([18F]FHPG) to assess gene transfer into tumours. HSVtk-positive and HSVtk-negative cell lines were first treated in vitro with [18F]FHPG. To assess the efficacy of PET in detecting HSVtk expression following in vivo gene transfer, mice were injected intravenously with an adenovirus encoding HSVtk (Ad.HSVtk), a control vector (Ad.Bgl2) or saline. Subcutaneous human glioma xenografts were grown in mice and treated by direct injection of Ad.HSVtk or Ad.Bgl2. Imaging was performed 48 h after transduction. Similar experiments were performed using Fischer rats implanted with syngeneic tumours. The presence of the HSVtk protein was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Biodistribution studies were also obtained in 14 naive mice. In vitro studies showed high and specific uptake of [18F]FHPG in HSVtk-positive cell lines, with an uptake ratio of up to 27:1. PET imaging and direct counting of major organs demonstrated HSVtk-specific tracer retention. In mice, HSVtk-positive tumours retained 3.4% dose/gram as compared to 0.6% for control tumours (P=0.03). They were clearly seen on the PET images as early as 100 min post injection. Similar results were obtained with syngeneic rat tumours. Biodistribution studies demonstrated the rapid distribution and clearance of the tracer in all major organs. Our results demonstrate that PET imaging of HSVtk gene transfer to tumours is feasible and is highly specific for HSVtk expression. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (1 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailIncreased Expression of Galectin-1 in Carcinoma-Associated Stroma Predicts Poor Outcome in Prostate Carcinoma Patients
van den Brule, Frederic; Waltregny, David ULg; Castronovo, Vincenzo ULg

in Journal of Pathology (The) (2001), 193(1), 80-7

Galectin-1, a member of the beta-galactoside-binding galectin family, is a pleiotropic dimeric protein participating in a variety of normal and pathological processes, including cancer progression ... [more ▼]

Galectin-1, a member of the beta-galactoside-binding galectin family, is a pleiotropic dimeric protein participating in a variety of normal and pathological processes, including cancer progression. Modulation of the interactions with the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin and induction of apoptosis in activated T lymphocytes are well-known functions of this galectin. In this study, the expression of galectin-1 was examined in 148 human primary prostate carcinoma samples. Immunohistochemical staining of paraffin sections of prostate tissues revealed that galectin-1 was not detected in normal, PIN (prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia) or carcinoma cells, but accumulated in the stroma and associated fibroblasts. Galectin-1 expression was significantly increased in the tumour-associated stroma compared with the non-neoplastic gland-associated stroma in 21.3% of the cases (Mantel-Haenszel test, p=0.001; Wilcoxon signed rank test, p<0.0001). Increased galectin-1 expression in the cancer-associated stroma compared to the normal gland-associated stroma (p=0.03) was identified by multivariate analysis as a strong independent predictor of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence, just after the pathological stage (p<0.0001). The association between accumulation of galectin-1 in the stroma of the malignant tissue and aggressiveness of the tumour adds weight to the body of evidence that identifies a role for galectin-1 in the acquisition of the invasive phenotype. In addition to modulating cancer cell interactions with laminin, galectin-1 accumulated around the cancer cells may act as an immunological shield by inducing activated T-cell apoptosis. This exciting hypothesis warrants further investigation. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (4 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailMulticriteria and Multiple Actors Tool Aiding to Optimise Building Envelope at the Architectural Sketch Design
Hauglustaine, Jean-Marie ULg; Azar, Sleiman

in Informatica (2001), 12(1), 3-24

The PC software AMCE is proposing building actors (owner, project authors… ) a Multiple Criteria Decision Aid procedure (MCDA) to optimise the building envelope about cost and energy performances, during ... [more ▼]

The PC software AMCE is proposing building actors (owner, project authors… ) a Multiple Criteria Decision Aid procedure (MCDA) to optimise the building envelope about cost and energy performances, during the sketch design. Two main modules are linked, where the user interactively goes: - the first one managers parameters describing the project requirements; - the graphic pen-based module allows to draw the sketch; it calculates geometric parameter values and put them back in the first module. Permanently informed on foreseeable performances, the user can any time search for optimal scenario giving best satisfaction (manoactor optimisation) or most preferred compromise (multiactors optimisation). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 38 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA Fictional and Cultural Labyrinth: Caryl Phillips's The Nature of Blood
Ledent, Bénédicte ULg

in Ariel : A Review of International English Literature (2001), 32(1), 185-195

Detailed reference viewed: 318 (13 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDe Bergson à Merleau-Ponty : pour une anthropologie de la mémoire
Frère, Bruno ULg

in Réseaux : Revue Interdisciplinaire de Philosophie Morale et Politique (2001), 18

On l'a dit et redit, la description de la mémoire par H. Bergson renvoie essentiellement, sinon à la mise en scène d'un mécanisme individuel clos et hermétique, en tout cas à l'aperçu d'une élaboration ... [more ▼]

On l'a dit et redit, la description de la mémoire par H. Bergson renvoie essentiellement, sinon à la mise en scène d'un mécanisme individuel clos et hermétique, en tout cas à l'aperçu d'une élaboration strictement "psychologique" de souvenirs que tout au plus "des mots permettent d'exprimer". Il n'est dès lors pas étonnant qu'à cet égard, Bergson n'ait pas vu "que notre mémoire se ressaisit, au fur et à mesure que nous avançons, (...) sous une forme nouvelle" au sein de cadres sociaux dont l'évolution n'a de cesse de restructurer les souvenirs qui la composent. Selon Halbwachs, "il n'est pas de souvenir qui puisse être dit purement intérieur, c'est-à-dire qui ne puisse se conserver que dans la mémoire individuelle". Ce que le sociologue reproche ainsi au philosophe c'est de ne pas tenir compte du fait qu'un "souvenir reproduit avant tout une perception collective". De ce fait, sa pensée ne permettrait nullement de composer avec la dimension sociale des souvenirs puisqu'ils appartiendraient en propre à divers psychismes hétérogènes qui, du point de vue de ceux qui les observent, se trouvent séparés et isolés "comme par une multitude de cloisons étanches". Ce que nous souhaitons suggérer ici n'est pas, à proprement parler, une nouvelle lecture "exhaustive" de Matière et mémoire qui prétendrait sauver Bergson de la critique sociologique dorénavant consacrée d'Halbwachs. L'ambition de ces lignes sera plutôt d'envisager la manière dont le dernier Merleau-Ponty, s'interrogeant sur l'importance décisive de ce qu'il nomme "le monde culturel", nous autorise à envisager une conception de la mémoire qui réserverait une place réelle à l'altérité tout en se réclamant d'une forme de bergsonisme sensiblement renouvelée et tout en inscrivant ses thèses sur un même terrain philosophique. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 292 (6 ULg)
Full Text
See detailMatériaux manganates CMR… la voie vers une nouvelle génération de capteurs inductifs ?
Vanderbemden, Philippe ULg; Vertruyen, Bénédicte ULg

in Bulletin Scientifique de l'Association des Ingénieurs Electriciens sortis de l'Institut Electrotechnique Montefiore (2001), 4

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (9 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailL'élevage du "mouton de case" : aspects techniques, socio-économiques et perspectives d'amélioration au Yatenga (Burkina Faso)
Hamidou, B.; Ilboudo, J.-B.; Ouedraogo, M. et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2001), 5(4), 201-208

Detailed reference viewed: 122 (11 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailInfo-congres. La cochrane collaboration, porte-parole de la medecine factuelle.
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(11), 796-8

During the 9th International Cochrane Colloquium (Lyon October 9-13, 2001), around 700 participants discussed about how to make the evidence dissemination process more efficient in order to promote the ... [more ▼]

During the 9th International Cochrane Colloquium (Lyon October 9-13, 2001), around 700 participants discussed about how to make the evidence dissemination process more efficient in order to promote the Evidence-Based Medicine. The best evidence is summarized in systematic reviews of randomised and/or controlled clinical trials within the Cochrane Library which are prepared with a high methodological quality. However, these reviews should be completed to cover all medical domains, be actualized regularly, and, most importantly, be better known and more largely used by physicians in routine practice. All these objectives could not be attained without an official recognition and a financial support by the public health authorities. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (2 ULg)
See detailLes volets peints de la prédelle du retable de Saint-Denis à Liège premiers résultats d'un examen technologique
Allart, Dominique ULg; Oger, Cécile

in Bulletin de la Société Royale du Vieux Liège (2001), 295, XIV(8), 225-237

Detailed reference viewed: 135 (27 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPex, Analytical Tools For Pdb Files. I. Gf-Pex: Basic File To Describe A Protein
Thomas, Annick ULg; Bouffioux, O.; Geeurickx, D. et al

in Proteins-Structure Function and Genetics (2001), 43(1), 28-36

Pex are created to extract numeric and string descriptions of protein structures from PDB files. This concerns covalent bond lengths and angles, secondary structures, residues in interaction, H-bond ... [more ▼]

Pex are created to extract numeric and string descriptions of protein structures from PDB files. This concerns covalent bond lengths and angles, secondary structures, residues in interaction, H-bond lengths and geometry, etc. Several kinds of Pex are generated: (1) general feature (GF-Pex); (2) H-bond (H-Pex); and (3) accessible surface (AS-Pex) and force potential (FP-Pex). We describe the general principles of Pex and detail the GF-Pex files. Using the GF-Pex of 131 proteins, we analyze the mean residue frequencies, the straight phi/psi distribution and the major kinds of secondary structures in proteins. Thomas et al. (this issue) analyzes the main chain H-bonds in those proteins. The GF-Pex and H-Pex files of the 131 proteins can be downloaded from the CBMN site (http://www.fsagx.ac.be/bp/). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe emerging role of class II histone deacetylases.
Fischle, Wolfgang; Kiermer, Véronique; Dequiedt, Franck ULg et al

in Biochemistry & Cell Biology (2001), 79(3), 337-48

Histone acetylation and deacetylation play essential roles in modifying chromatin structure and regulating gene expression in all eukaryotes. Several histone acetyltransferases have been identified that ... [more ▼]

Histone acetylation and deacetylation play essential roles in modifying chromatin structure and regulating gene expression in all eukaryotes. Several histone acetyltransferases have been identified that act as transcriptional coactivators. In contrast, histone deacetylases (HDACs) are part of transcriptional corepressor complexes. Based on their similarity to known yeast factors, the human HDACs are grouped into three classes. Class I HDACs are similar to the yeast transcriptional repressor yRPD3, while class II HDACs are related to yHDA1 and class III HDACs to ySIR2. In this review, we focus on the biology of class II HDACs. These newly discovered enzymes have been implicated in cell differentiation and development, and many molecular details are emerging that shed light on class II HDAC function and regulation. We discuss the biological role of these factors in the context of physiological processes. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 175 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailInfluence of temperature during cardiopulmonary bypass on leukocyte activation, cytokine balance, and post-operative organ damage
Qing, M.; Vazquez-Jimenez, J. F.; Klosterhalfen, B. et al

in Shock (Augusta, Ga.) (2001), 15(5), 372-7

This study examined the hypothesis that core temperature (T(o)) during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) influences the perioperative systemic inflammatory response and post-operative organ damage. Twenty-four ... [more ▼]

This study examined the hypothesis that core temperature (T(o)) during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) influences the perioperative systemic inflammatory response and post-operative organ damage. Twenty-four pigs were assigned to a T(o) regimen during CPB: normothermia (T(o) 37 degrees C; n = 8), moderate hypothermia (T(o) 28 degrees C; n = 8), or deep hypothermia (T(o) 20 degrees C; n = 8). Perioperative leukocyte activation, endotoxin release, and production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and interleukin-10 (IL10) were examined with regard to post-operative organ damage, which was scored at histological examination of tissue probes of heart, lungs, liver, kidney, and ileum, taken 6 h after CPB. Total blood leukocyte count and TNFalpha plasma levels during CPB were significantly lower and IL10 levels were significantly higher in the moderate hypothermic group than in both other groups. Elastase activity, leukotriene B4-, and endotoxin levels were not affected by T(o) regimen. Moderate hypothermia was associated with the lowest histological organ damage score and normothermia with the highest. In all animals organ damage score for heart, lungs, and kidneys correlated significantly with TNFalpha levels at the end of CPB. Our data demonstrate a clear relationship between TNFalpha production during cardiac operations and post-operative multiple-organ damage. Moderate hypothermia, by stimulating IL10 synthesis and suppressing TNFalpha production during CPB, might provide organ protection. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEffects of lesions of the medial preoptic nucleus on the testosterone-induced metabolic changes in specific brain areas in male quail
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Stamatakis, A.; Bacola, S. et al

in Neuroscience (2001), 108(3), 447-466

The effects of bilateral lesions of the medial preoptic nucleus in association with testosterone on the metabolic activity in discrete brain regions was studied quantitatively by the in vivo ... [more ▼]

The effects of bilateral lesions of the medial preoptic nucleus in association with testosterone on the metabolic activity in discrete brain regions was studied quantitatively by the in vivo autoradiographic 2-deoxyglucose method. Adult male quail were castrated and then left without hormone replacement therapy or treated with testosterone or treated with testosterone and submitted to a bilateral lesion of the medial preoptic nucleus, a brain region that plays a key role in the activation of male copulatory behavior by testosterone. Treatment for about 10 days with testosterone activated the expression of the full range of male sexual behaviors and these behaviors were completely suppressed by the medial preoptic nucleus lesions. Mapping of 2-deoxyglucose uptake revealed both increases and decreases of metabolic activity in discrete brain regions associated with the systemic treatment with testosterone as well as with the lesion of the medial preoptic nucleus. Testosterone affected the oxidative metabolism in brain areas that are known to contain sex steroid receptors (such as the nucleus taeniae and the paraventricular and ventromedial nuclei of the hypothalamus) but also in nuclei that are believed to be devoid of such receptors. Effects of testosterone in these nuclei may be indirect or reflect changes in terminals of axons originating in steroid-sensitive areas. Bilateral medial preoptic nucleus lesions affected 2-deoxyglucose uptake in a variety of brain regions. Some of these regions are known to be mono-synaptically connected to the medial preoptic nucleus. Metabolic depression in these areas may reflect retrograde changes in the neurons projecting to the damaged field. The metabolic changes identified in the present study confirm the prominent role of the preoptic area in the control of sexual behavior, show that changes in the physiology of the visual system represent one of the ways through which testosterone influences the occurrence of this behavior and demonstrate that the medial preoptic nucleus has marked effects on the metabolic activity in a variety of limbic and telencephalic structures. This study also indicates that the medial preoptic nucleus affects the activity of the area ventralis of Tsai, a dopaminergic area known to send projections to a variety of hypothalamic, thalamic and mesencephalic nuclei that are implicated in the control of male sexual behavior. These data therefore support the notion that the control of the dopaminergic activity in the area ventralis of Tsai by the medial preoptic nucleus represents one of the ways through which the medial preoptic area regulates male reproductive behavior. (C) 2001 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 56 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDiagnostic et suivi d'une large fistule porto-cave intrahepatique chez un nouveau-ne.
NCHIMI LONGANG, Alain ULg; Khamis, J.; Langhendries, J. P. et al

in Journal de Radiologie (2001), 82(11), 1642-4

Portocaval fistulas are rare and only exceptionally discovered in newborns. We report the case of a large portocaval fistula associated with portal hypoperfusion detected at Doppler US imaging in an ... [more ▼]

Portocaval fistulas are rare and only exceptionally discovered in newborns. We report the case of a large portocaval fistula associated with portal hypoperfusion detected at Doppler US imaging in an otherwise asymptomatic 5 week old infant. The patient remained asymptomatic over the following two years. At that time, preoperative angiogram showed a normal portal venous system and the fistula was surgically closed. Postoperative US showed a normal and patent portal system, without evidence of portal hypertension. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (2 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailInfo-congres. Prevention pharmacologique de la progression de la diminution de la tolerance au glucose vers le diabete de type 2: effets favorables de la metformine et de l'acarbose.
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(10), 727-30

We report the positive results of two large prospective studies of pharmacological prevention of type 2 diabetes presented at the EASD Congress in Glasgow, September 12, 2001. In the "Diabetes Prevention ... [more ▼]

We report the positive results of two large prospective studies of pharmacological prevention of type 2 diabetes presented at the EASD Congress in Glasgow, September 12, 2001. In the "Diabetes Prevention Program", metformin (2 x 850 mg/day), a biguanide compound, reduces the progression from impaired glucose tolerance towards type 2 diabetes by 31% (p < 0.001) while in the "STOP-NIDDM trial", acarbose (3 x 100 mg/day), an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, diminished it by 24% (p < 0.002). These results are, however, less marked than those obtained with lifestyle modifications including better dietary habits and increased physical exercise (-58% versus control group, p < 0.001). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA simple clinical tool to identify Asian women with osteoporosis
Lou, SQ; Koh, L; Yang, BY et al

in Journal of Rheumatology (2001), 28(S63), 26

Detailed reference viewed: 6 (1 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailLe cas clinique du mois. L'histoire naturelle d'une obesite morbide: aller vers le diabete de type 2 insulinorequerant et retour apres chirurgie bariatrique.
De Flines, Jenny ULg; Letiexhe, Michel ULg; Desaive, Claude ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(12), 816-22

Morbid obesity is a crucial risk factor in the development of type 2 diabetes and is often associated with a metabolic syndrome closely linked to insulin resistance. This case report illustrates the ... [more ▼]

Morbid obesity is a crucial risk factor in the development of type 2 diabetes and is often associated with a metabolic syndrome closely linked to insulin resistance. This case report illustrates the natural history of morbid obesity, starting during the adolescence and ending with an extremely severe type 2 diabetes at the age of 40. Numerous attempts of weight loss with various medical approaches failed and diabetes mellitus rapidly became insulin-requiring in a context of extreme insulin resistance. Finally, the patient was submitted to a gastric bypass which resulted in a drastic weight loss over 50 kg during the year following surgery without any significant side-effects or complications. Type 2 diabetes almost disappeared and the classical markers of insulin resistance were markedly improved. This clinical case clearly demonstrates that successful management of obesity with bariatric surgery can reverse severe type 2 diabetes. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 151 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailFactors affecting hematopoietic recovery after autologous peripheral blood progenitof-cell transplantation in aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma : a prospective study of 123 patients
Langouet, Anne-Marie; Brice, Pauline; Simon, Danielle et al

in Hematology Journal : The Official Journal of the European Haematology Association (2001), 2

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLa recherche de l'environnement pertinent, contribution à une géographie du sensible
Schmitz, Serge ULg

in Espace Géographique (L') (2001), 30(4), 321-332

Which factors heighten sensitivity to environmental changes? The answer to this question is of interest to everyone who acts on the environment. However, methods and concepts still need to be explored ... [more ▼]

Which factors heighten sensitivity to environmental changes? The answer to this question is of interest to everyone who acts on the environment. However, methods and concepts still need to be explored before a geography of sensibility could respond to this deman. This paper presens the methodological contributions and results of an exploratory study of the sensibilities of 65 residents of a Belgian rural municipality. Factors related to the environmental change, to the individual and to the relantionship between the individual and place are analysed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 83 (26 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDietary habits during adolescence - results of the Belgian Adolux Study
Paulus, Dominique; Saint-Remy, Annie ULg; JeanJean, Michel

in European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2001), 55

STUDY: To analyse the usual dietary habits of Belgian adolescents from a high cardiovascular risk population. METHODS: A food frequency questionnaire (57 items) was administered to the whole sample ... [more ▼]

STUDY: To analyse the usual dietary habits of Belgian adolescents from a high cardiovascular risk population. METHODS: A food frequency questionnaire (57 items) was administered to the whole sample. Complementary questions specified some types of food (eg fat content). A subgroup of 234 adolescents gave detailed information on portion size (picture book and food samples). SETTING: Twenty-four secondary schools in the Belgian province of Luxembourg. SUBJECTS: A total of 1,526 adolescents (12-17y) selected by a multiclustered stage sampling (participation: 83.6%). RESULTS: Respectively 46% and 60% of the adolescents did not eat fruit and vegetables daily. Most of the adolescents (72%) consumed at least one dairy product daily. The frequent consumption of chocolate and French fries indicated the strong cultural influence on dietary habits while imported foods (like hamburgers) had little success. One-third of the adolescents (33%, n = 509) drank alcohol at least once a week and this proportion rose to 57% in the oldest age group. Boys and girls differed significantly in their diet, with girls choosing healthier foods. Dietary habits, in particular drinking habits, differed also significantly between education levels, assessed by the learning option of the participants. The semi-quantitative questionnaire showed that two-thirds of the adolescents had a lipid intake (mainly saturated fatty acids) which exceeded 35% of the total caloric intake. Complex carbohydrates represented less than half of the total carbohydrates intake. CONCLUSION: The study of the diet of Belgian adolescents confirmed the strong influence of tradition, in particular on the consumption of high fat content foods. The promotion of healthy diet in adolescents should consider the cultural influence, even for this young age group [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 126 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailContinued benefit of coronary stenting versus balloon angioplasty: five-year clinical follow-up of Benestent-I trial.
Kiemeneij, F.; Serruys, P. W.; Macaya, C. et al

in Journal of the American College of Cardiology (2001), 37(6), 1598-603

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to establish whether the early favorable results in the Benestent-I randomized trial comparing elective Palmaz-Schatz stent implantation with balloon angioplasty in 516 ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to establish whether the early favorable results in the Benestent-I randomized trial comparing elective Palmaz-Schatz stent implantation with balloon angioplasty in 516 patients with stable angina pectoris are maintained at 5 years. BACKGROUND: The size of the required sample was based on a 40% reduction in clinical events in the stent group. Seven months and one-year follow-up in this trial showed a decreased incidence of restenosis and clinical events in patients randomized to stent implantation. METHODS: Data at five years were collected by outpatient visit, via telephone and via the referring cardiologist. Three patients in the stent group and one in the percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) group were lost to follow-up at five years. Major clinical events, anginal status and use of cardiac medication were recorded according to the intention to treat principle. RESULTS: No significant differences were found in anginal status and use of cardiac medication between the two groups. In the PTCA group, 27.3% of patients underwent target lesion revascularization (TLR) versus 17.2% of patients in the stent group (p = 0.008). No significant differences in mortality (5.9% vs. 3.1%), cerebrovascular accident (0.8% vs. 1.2%), myocardial infarction (9.4% vs. 6.3%) or coronary bypass surgery (11.7% vs. 9.8%) were found between the stent and PTCA groups, respectively. At five years, the event-free survival rate (59.8% vs. 65.6%; p = 0.20) between the stent and PTCA groups no longer achieved statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: The original 10% absolute difference in TLR in favor of the stent group has remained unchanged at five years, emphasizing the long-term stability of the stented target site. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 5 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLe Bestiaire des philosophes indiens
Verpoorten, Jean-Marie ULg

in Acta Orientalia Belgica (2001)

Compilation de textes (avec leurs traductions) relatifs aux animaux dans les œuvres de deux grammairiens (Patañjali I et Bhartṛhari II) et de cinq courants philosophiques (MīmāṃsāIII, NyāyaIV, VaiśeṣikaV ... [more ▼]

Compilation de textes (avec leurs traductions) relatifs aux animaux dans les œuvres de deux grammairiens (Patañjali I et Bhartṛhari II) et de cinq courants philosophiques (MīmāṃsāIII, NyāyaIV, VaiśeṣikaV, Sāṃkhya VI et YogaVII). L’animal le plus souvent mentionné est le « bovin » dont le nom (go) pose le problème de sa dénotation : est-ce l’animal individuel ou la classe « bovin » ? Il faut qu’il dénote l’individu, car, dans la phrase « il donne la vache au médecin », go ne peut pas s’appliquer à l’espèce «vache » Un second problème (I et II) est celui de la « comparaison » (upamāna) : qu’est-ce qui permet de reconnaître un bovin sauvage à partir de la connaissance d’un bovin domestique ? Quel nom donner à tel animal à partir de similitudes partielles avec tel autre ? Où est le détail caractéristique qui distingue le bovin du gayal (I, III) ? Une trop grande différence entre deux entités (par ex.un bovin et un cheval) rend impossible l’upamāna (IV). Le serpent et ses anneaux sont analogues à un substrat permanent et à ses formes changeantes (IV) Quand on regarde soit un cerf courir, soit un merle ou un cygne voler, c’est l’animal qu’on voit et non l’acte de courir ou voler (II) . En effet un acte comme tel n’est pas comparable à un autre car tous deux sont inachevés. En épistémologie, l’erreur est souvent illustrée par la confusion dans la pénombre entre une corde et un serpent (II) Des problèmes sont soulevés à propos des injonctions et interdictions rituelles. Tel animal à immoler, dont le nom est au singulier, vaut pour un groupe entier ou une espèce ; telle interdiction ne mentionne explicitement que le chien et le chat comme à écarter du gâteau sacrificiel, alors que le corbeau devrait l’être aussi (III). D’autre part, s’il faut immoler un lion ou un bœuf , on se gardera d’immoler soit un homme sous prétexte qu’il est courageux comme un lion ou balourd comme un boeuf. Le problème est parfois d’ordre grammatical. L’adjectif kāpota « de pigeon » qualifie ce qui appartient à l’oiseau vivant ; peut-on dès lors l’employer pour une «soupe de pigeon » où manifestement l’oiseau est mort (I) ? D’autre part, comment le mot go peut-il s’appliquer à des vaches de terre cuite, puisqu’elles ne sont pas vivantes (IV). Et si des gâteaux de farine en forme de lions c’est par ressemblance aux lions vivants. Le métaphorique est fondé sur ce qui ne l’est pas(III) Au plan ontologique, le bouddhiste soutient que les qualités existent sans le support d’une substance L’illustre le fait qu’une cigogne dans la pénombre se limite à une tache de couleur (IV) La logique est abordée en V via la confrontation entre deux raisonnements, le bon : « puisque c’est cornu, c’est un bovin » et le mauvais : « puisque c’est cornu, c’est un cheval » Notons enfin que VI classe animaux et insectes en qualité de résidences pour les humains réincarnés et que VII énumère des postures yogiques qui portent des noms d’animaux. Une liste de ceux-ci clôt cette étude. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAllergic reactions to decorative skin paintings.
Nikkels, Arjen ULg; Henry, Frédérique ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology & Venereology (2001), 15(2), 140-2

BACKGROUND: Dye mixtures containing henna, P-phenylenediamine (PPD), and indigo are applied to the skin in various parts of the world for religious purposes, social recognition or fun. AIM: To identify ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Dye mixtures containing henna, P-phenylenediamine (PPD), and indigo are applied to the skin in various parts of the world for religious purposes, social recognition or fun. AIM: To identify eventual allergens responsible for contact sensitization to skin decoration in three young children. Lesions remained strictly limited to the site painted during the summer holiday. None of the children had a previous history of contact dermatitis, but two of them suffered from severe seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. FINDINGS: Patch testing revealed severe contact hypersensitivity to PPD in all three patients, and one child presented a positive prick test to 1% henna in water. The eruptions resolved following spontaneous elimination of the dyes and topical applications of corticosteroids, but left residual depigmentation. CONCLUSION: PPD is the main allergen identified in allergic reactions to decorative skin paintings. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLucien Lambotte, esquisse biographique
Pirenne, Christophe ULg

in Revue de la Société liégeoise de Musicologie (2001), 18

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (10 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailIron microbial communities in Belgian Frasnian carbonate mounds
Boulvain, Frédéric ULg; De Ridder, C.; Mamet, B. et al

in Facies (2001), 44

The Belgian Frasnian carbonate mounds occur in three stratigraphic levels in an overall backstepping succession. Petit-Mont and Arche Members form the famous red and grey “marble” exploited for ornamental ... [more ▼]

The Belgian Frasnian carbonate mounds occur in three stratigraphic levels in an overall backstepping succession. Petit-Mont and Arche Members form the famous red and grey “marble” exploited for ornamental stone since Roman times. The evolution and distribution of the facies in the mounds is thought to be associated with ecologic evolution and relative sea-level fluctuations. Iron oxides exist in five forms in the Frasnian mounds; four are undoubtedly endobiotic organized structures: (1) microstromatolites and associated forms (blisters, veils...), possibly organized in “endostromatolites”; (2) hematitic coccoids and (3) non dichotomic filaments. The filaments resemble iron bacteria of the Sphaerotilus- Leptothrix "group"; (4) networks of dichotomic filaments ascribable to fungi; (5) a red ferruginous pigment dispersed in the calcareous matrix whose distribution is related to the mound facies type. The endobiotic forms developed during the edification of the mounds, before cementation by fibrous calcite. The microbial precipitation of iron took place as long as the developing mounds were bathed by water impoverished in oxygen. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA Plea to Bridge the Gap between Antifungals and the Management of Onychomycosis
ARRESE ESTRADA, Jorge ULg; Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in American Journal of Clinical Dermatology (2001), 2(5), 281-4

Onychomycosis represents a stubborn problem for the clinician facing up to the realities of antifungal treatments. There are obvious discrepancies between data given by in vitro antifungal testings ... [more ▼]

Onychomycosis represents a stubborn problem for the clinician facing up to the realities of antifungal treatments. There are obvious discrepancies between data given by in vitro antifungal testings, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics, and those gathered from clinical experience. This critical review is an attempt at bridging the gap between in vitro and in vivo information about oral antifungals that aim to treat onychomycoses. Common sense shows that the in vitro concept of fungicidy cannot be simply extrapolated into clinical practice. Indeed, chlamidoconidia and arthroconidia present in vivo are much more resistant to antifungals than hyphae. Corneofungimetry may be a realistic bioassay in predicting antifungal activity in human infections. Boosting hyphae growth from conidia while taking antifungals is a new and appealing treatment modality that deserves controlled study. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (0 ULg)
Full Text
See detailUne action intégrée en vue d'améliorer l'efficacité des systèmes d'enseignement : Le pilotage des systèmes d'enseignement
Demeuse, Marc ULg; Baye, Ariane ULg

in Cahiers du Service de Pédagogie Expérimentale (SPE) (2001), (5-6), 23-50

Cet article s'inspire largement d'un chapitre du rapport non publié déposé en 1998 auprès de la Communauté européenne dans le cadre d'un projet entrepris grâce aux moyens accordés par l'action III.3.1 du ... [more ▼]

Cet article s'inspire largement d'un chapitre du rapport non publié déposé en 1998 auprès de la Communauté européenne dans le cadre d'un projet entrepris grâce aux moyens accordés par l'action III.3.1 du programme Socrates (Marc Demeuse) [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 455 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAdministration of erythopoietin and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in donor/recipient pairs to collect peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) and red blood cell units for use in the recipient after allogeneic PBPC transplantation.
Sautois, Brieuc ULg; Baudoux, Etienne ULg; Salmon, Jean ULg et al

in Haematologica (2001), 86(11), 1209-18

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It may be useful to reduce the exposure of transplant recipients to homologous blood. This may be achieved by procuring donor-derived red blood cell (RBC) units, collecting more ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It may be useful to reduce the exposure of transplant recipients to homologous blood. This may be achieved by procuring donor-derived red blood cell (RBC) units, collecting more peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) with a combination of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) + recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) and by administering rHuEpo post-transplantation. DESIGN AND METHODS: Eight ABO-compatible donors were treated with rHuEpo and intravenous iron to collect 12 RBC units for use in their recipients. PBPC were collected after mobilization with rHuEpo and G-CSF in the same donors. The recipients received G-CSF and rHuEpo post-transplantation. A control group of 10 donor/recipient pairs received G-CSF alone for PBPC mobilization and after the transplantation. RESULTS: Eighty-six out of 91 planned RBC units were collected in the donors without significant decrease in hematocrit because of a 4-fold increase in RBC production despite functional iron deficiency. After 2 leukaphereses, the cumulative yields of NC and CFU-GM were lower in the study group while those of BFU-E, CFU-Mix and CD34+ cells were similar. However, erythroid recovery was significantly accelerated in the study group. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: Collection of 12 RBC units within 6 weeks is feasible with rHuEpo and intravenous iron; this strategy allows a dramatic reduction in recipient exposure to homologous blood; rHuEpo has no synergistic effect with G-CSF for mobilization of PBPC in normal donors and may even be deleterious; and rHuEpo in the recipient may enhance erythroid engraftment. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 63 (4 ULg)
Full Text
See detailLe projet préscolaire de l'IEA : Améliorer la connaissance pour accroître la qualité des expériences vécues par les enfants d'âge préscolaire
Hindryckx, Geneviève ULg

in Cahiers du Service de Pédagogie Expérimentale (SPE) (2001), (7-8), 65-69

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (10 ULg)
Full Text
See detailConstruire des indicateurs internationaux d'équité des systèmes éducatifs
Demeuse, Marc ULg; Baye, Ariane ULg; Straeten, Marie-Hélène et al

in Cahiers du Service de Pédagogie Expérimentale (SPE) (2001), (7-8), 97-100

Les membres du SPE se préoccupent de longue date des problèmes d'équité éducative (Crahay, 2000). Ils contribuent soit à l'évaluation de celle-ci dans le système belge francophone ou au sein d'autres ... [more ▼]

Les membres du SPE se préoccupent de longue date des problèmes d'équité éducative (Crahay, 2000). Ils contribuent soit à l'évaluation de celle-ci dans le système belge francophone ou au sein d'autres systèmes à travers des recherches internationales, telles celles de l'IEA ou de l'OCDE (Demeuse, Crahay [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 56 (6 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailArchéométrie et orfèvrerie mosane : émaux du Musée Curtius sous l’œil du cyclotron
George, Philippe ULg; Weber, Georges ULg; Martinot Lucien et al

in Bulletin de l'Institut Historique Liégeois (2001)

Detailed reference viewed: 35 (7 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailActualites therapeutiques 2001.
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(9), 612-24

The most important drugs registered and/or launched in Belgium during the last year in the various disciplines of internal medicine will be briefly described. The main characteristics of each molecule as ... [more ▼]

The most important drugs registered and/or launched in Belgium during the last year in the various disciplines of internal medicine will be briefly described. The main characteristics of each molecule as well as its modalities of appropriate use in clinical practice will be pointed out. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 6 (0 ULg)
Full Text
See detailGenèse, évolution et multiples facettes d'une maladie inhabituelle affectant le hêtre en région wallonne
Huart, Olivier; Rondeux, Jacques ULg

in Forêt Wallonne (2001), 52

Les hêtraies wallonnes, principalement situées en Ardenne et en Gaume, sont victimes depuis près de 2 ans d'un problème sanitaire dont l'incidence au plan sylvicole et économique apparaît réellement ... [more ▼]

Les hêtraies wallonnes, principalement situées en Ardenne et en Gaume, sont victimes depuis près de 2 ans d'un problème sanitaire dont l'incidence au plan sylvicole et économique apparaît réellement catastrophique depuis le début de l'année 2001. Une recherche entamée mi-2000 a permis d'effectuer de très nombreuses observations et d'émettre diverses hypothèses quant à l'origine et au processus de développement d'une maladie mettant en jeu des champignons lignivores et des insectes ravageurs du bois. Cette recherche entre aujourd'hui dans sa seconde phase destinée non seulement à assurer le suivi méthodique de la maladie mais aussi à vérifier le bien-fondé des principales hypothèses émises concernant son origine et à cerner les mécanismes de propagation d'insectes dont les attaques n'ont cessé de croître depuis mars 2001. Ces attaques massives ont justifié la mise en place d'actions de recherche complémentaires et plus ciblées destinées à mieux comprendre la biologie des insectes incriminés et de proposer des moyens de lutte appropriés. Dans les lignes qui suivent nous présentons, sur la base d'observations menées depuis 10 mois, une analyse relativement fouillée de la situation en abordant successivement : l'historique de cette maladie, sa distribution, les symptômes les plus fréquemment observés ainsi que les agents causals, les axes prioritaires des recherches en cours, les conséquences tant économiques que sylvicoles et écologiques, et enfin les principaux moyens de lutte envisageable, compte tenu de l'état actuel des connaissances. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 91 (8 ULg)
Full Text
See detailDe l'utilité de la modélisation numérique en hydrodynamique de surface
Archambeau, Pierre ULg; Dewals, Benjamin ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg et al

in Ingenieurbiologie / Génie Biologique (2001), (4), 9-20

Detailed reference viewed: 52 (7 ULg)
Full Text
See detailCommentaire
Richelle, Marc ULg

in Intellectica (2001), 32

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCaractéristiques de la reproduction dans l’espèce caprine
Zarrouk, A.; Souilem, O.; Drion, Pierre ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2001), 145

This review pointed out the physiological basis of goat reproduction. So far assimilated to ewes, goats presented their own characteristics concerning the sexual activity and the endocrinology of ... [more ▼]

This review pointed out the physiological basis of goat reproduction. So far assimilated to ewes, goats presented their own characteristics concerning the sexual activity and the endocrinology of pregnancy. The well understanding of goat particularities is essential to control cyclic activities and reproduction applicationCe travail passe en revue les bases physiologiques de la reproduction dans l’espèce caprine. Longtemps assimilée à la brebis, la chèvre présente des spécificités propres, tant sur le plan du déroulement des cycles sexuels que sur le plan de l’endocrinologie de la gestation. Une bonne connaissance des particularités de la reproduction dans cette espèce permet une meilleure maîtrise du contrôle du cycle sexuel et des techniques de la reproduction [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 354 (7 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailL'Ecole du dos
Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg; Henrotin, Yves ULg; DEFAWEUX, Michel ULg et al

in Bulletin d'Education du Patient à sa Maladie (2001), 20

Detailed reference viewed: 66 (18 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDirect and indirect pCO2 measurements in a wide range of pCO2 and salinity values
Frankignoulle, Michel; Borges, Alberto ULg

in Aquatic Geochemistry (2001), 7

Recent improvements in both Infra-red spectroscopy and equilibrator techniques have allowed to determine, for the first time, pCO2 using simultaneously and continuously both the direct and indirect ... [more ▼]

Recent improvements in both Infra-red spectroscopy and equilibrator techniques have allowed to determine, for the first time, pCO2 using simultaneously and continuously both the direct and indirect methods in an estuary where pCO2 values range from 500 to 8500 µatm and salinity from 0 to 30. Our results show that both methods are in excellent agreement in the whole estuary (r2 = 0.999, n = 1075, p < 0.0001). Thus, the NBS (US National Bureau of Standards) scale, although inadequate for seawater samples, is appropriate for estuarine waters and can be applied with confidence to calculate pCO2. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 46 (1 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailObesite: aspects therapeutiques.
Scheen, André ULg

in Bulletin et Mémoires de l'Académie Royale de Médecine de Belgique (2001), 156(10-12), 471-9480-2

Obesity is now recognized as a chronic disease. Its treatment implies a prolonged negative energy balance, by reducing caloric intake and/or increasing energy expenditure. In practice, three therapeutic ... [more ▼]

Obesity is now recognized as a chronic disease. Its treatment implies a prolonged negative energy balance, by reducing caloric intake and/or increasing energy expenditure. In practice, three therapeutic approaches can be considered: 1) life-style modifications, combining well-balanced hypocaloric diet and regular physical exercise, the key-issue in obesity management; 2) in case of failure and as adjunct treatment, anti-obesity drugs, especially orlistat, an intestinal lipase inhibitor, and sibutramine, a central appetite regulator; and 3) in patients with extreme refractory obesity, surgical procedures consisting of gastric restriction (gastroplasty) or intestinal bypass. Anti-obesity treatments must be evaluated in the long run, in terms of efficacy/safety ratio, upon criteria of weight loss, reduction in associated risk factors, improvement of quality of life and, if possible, reduction of morbidity and mortality. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 43 (3 ULg)