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See detailEvaluation of aphidophagous ladybird populations in a vegetable crop and implications as biological agents
Francis, Frédéric ULg; Colignon, Pierre; Haubruge, Eric ULg et al

in Med. Fac. Landbouw. Univ. Gent (2001), 66(2a), 333-340

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See detailImproved pulmonary adaptation in newborn calves with postnatal acidosis
Varga, J.; Mester, L.; Borzsonyi, L. et al

in Veterinary Journal (2001), 162

The adaptation of newborn calves to extra-uterine life was evaluated by measuring arterial blood gases, acidÐbase values, blood ions and lung mechanical function parameters in normal and acidotic calves ... [more ▼]

The adaptation of newborn calves to extra-uterine life was evaluated by measuring arterial blood gases, acidÐbase values, blood ions and lung mechanical function parameters in normal and acidotic calves during the first 24 h. Twenty-seven Holstein Friesian newborn calves were divided into two groups according to their immediate post partum arterial blood pH values (Group A blood pH ≥ 7.2: normal group; Group B blood pH between 7.2 and 7.0: acidotic group). Pulmonary function parameters were measured and arterial blood samples were analysed for blood gases, acidÐbase variables and ion content immediately post partum (within 2 min) and then 6 and 24 h after calving. Lung resistance and maximal difference between pressure maximum and pressure minimum (maxδPpl) decreased, while dynamic lung compliance increased significantly in both groups. Immediately post partum the lung resistance and maxδPpl were significantly higher in the acidotic group than in the normal group. The arterial blood pH progressively compensated with time in both groups during the first 24 h and there was no difference in arterial blood pH values between the two groups 6 h after birth. These results showed that the compensation of acidosis was associated with the improvement in lung mechanics and these changes occurred mainly during the first 6 h of life. Moderate to pronounced acidosis did not affect the pulmonary adaptation negatively, although some respiratory mechanics parameters (maxδPpl), blood pH and Ca2+ion concentrations remained significantly different between the normal and acidotic groups at 24 h. This might be the result of overcompensation of acidosis and the interdependence between blood pH and Ca2+concentrations. [less ▲]

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See detailIntraconzole versus amphotericin B plus nystatin in the prophylaxis of fungal infections in neutropenic cancer patients
Boogaerts, Marc; Maertens, Johan; van Hoof, Achiel et al

in Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (2001), 48

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See detailMonitoring of erythropoiesis by the serum transferrin receptor and erythropoietin.
Fillet, Georges ULg; Beguin, Yves ULg

in Acta Clinica Belgica (2001), 56(3), 146-54

Virtually all cells have transferrin receptors (a transmembrane glycoprotein) on their surface but in a normal adult, 80% of them are in the erythroid marrow. Some of them are lost into the circulation ... [more ▼]

Virtually all cells have transferrin receptors (a transmembrane glycoprotein) on their surface but in a normal adult, 80% of them are in the erythroid marrow. Some of them are lost into the circulation where they can be measured by immuno-assays. A direct and highly significant correlation exists between serum transferrin receptor level and erythron transferrin uptake in humans. The measurement of serum transferrin receptor has wide clinical applications for the quantitation of erythropoiesis. It can be used to study erythropoiesis in situations in which ferrokinetics is not acceptable such as pregnancy. It is particularly useful for serial studies, e.i., for monitoring the recovery of erythropoiesis after stem cell transplantation or after treatment with erythropoietin. Combined with the determination of serum erythropoietin, both evaluated in relation to the degree of anemia, they provide a physiological approach to the diagnosis of anemia. Thus, the simultaneous determination of hematocrit, reticulocytes, serum transferrin receptor and serum erythropoietin has high discriminatory value in distinguishing between a defect in erythroid proliferation, maturation or red cell survival. It is also particularly useful for detecting the presence of multiple mechanisms of anemia in the same patient. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of the human Fc gamma RIIB gene promoter: human zinc-finger proteins (ZNF140 and ZNF91) that bind to different regions function as transcription repressors
Nishimura, Tadahiro; Narita, Tadashi; Miyazaki, Emi et al

in International Immunology (2001), 13(8), 1075-84

Expression of the human low-affinity Fc receptors for IgG (human Fc gamma RII) is differentially regulated. We report here the characterization of the promoter structure of the human Fc gamma RIIB gene ... [more ▼]

Expression of the human low-affinity Fc receptors for IgG (human Fc gamma RII) is differentially regulated. We report here the characterization of the promoter structure of the human Fc gamma RIIB gene and the isolation of the promoter region-binding proteins by a yeast one-hybrid assay. The minimal 154-bp region upstream from the transcription start site of the human Fc gamma RIIB gene was shown to possess promoter activity in a variety of cells. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay indicated that multiple nuclear factors in cell extracts bind to the two regions [F2-3 (-110 to -93) and F4-3 (-47 to -31)] of the human Fc gamma RIIB gene promoter. Mutation analysis indicated that GGGAGGAGC (-105 to -97) and AATTTGTTTGCC (-47 to -36) sequences are responsible for binding to nuclear factors respectively. By using GGGAGGAGC and AATTTGTTTGCC as bait sequences, we cloned two zinc-finger proteins (ZNF140 and ZNF91) that bind to the F2-3 and F4-3 regions within the promoter of the human Fc gamma RIIB gene respectively. When the ZNF140 and ZNF91 were transfected with reporter plasmid, both showed repressor activity with additive effects. Thus, these results indicate that these cloned ZNF140 and ZNF91 proteins function as repressors for the human Fc gamma RIIB transcription. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman Fdc Express Prpc in Vivo and in Vitro
Thielen, Caroline ULg; Antoine, Nadine ULg; Mélot, France ULg et al

in Developmental Immunology (2001), 8(3-4), 259-66

Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders caused by accumulation of abnormal prion protein (protease-resistant prion, PrPres). PrPres accumulation is also detected in lymphoid organs after ... [more ▼]

Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders caused by accumulation of abnormal prion protein (protease-resistant prion, PrPres). PrPres accumulation is also detected in lymphoid organs after peripheral infection. Several studies suggest that follicular dendritic cells (FDC) could be the site of PrPres retention and amplification. Here we show that human follicular dendritic cells can express normal cellular prion protein (PrPc) both in situ and in vitro. When tonsillar cryosections were treated with anti-PrP antibody, the label was found on some very delicate cell extensions inside the lymphoid follicles, especially in the germinal centres. These extensions react with DRC1 antibody, used frequently to label FDC. Other structures labelled with anti-PrP antibody were the keratinocytes. To confirm the ability of FDC to synthesise PrPc, we isolated FDC by a non-enzymatic procedure and cultured them. By cytochemistry and flow cytometry it was clearly shown that FDC do produce PrPc. [less ▲]

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See detailLong Term Carbon Dioxide Exchange Above A Mixed Forest In The Belgian Ardennes
Aubinet, Marc ULg; Chermanne, B.; Vandenhaute, M. et al

in Agricultural and Forest Meteorology (2001), 108(4),

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See detailThe Syntrichia Ruralis Complex In Belgium
Vanderpoorten, Alain ULg

in Cryptogamie Bryologie (2001), 22(2),

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See detailCessation of intensive treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin is followed by secondary anemia.
Piron, Maude ULg; Loo, Martine; Gothot, André ULg et al

in Blood (2001), 97(2), 442-8

Little information is available on the evolution of erythropoiesis after interruption of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) therapy. Iron-overloaded rats received 20 daily injections of rHuEpo ... [more ▼]

Little information is available on the evolution of erythropoiesis after interruption of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) therapy. Iron-overloaded rats received 20 daily injections of rHuEpo. During treatment, reticulocytes, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and hematocrit increased progressively. This was accompanied by a substantial expansion of spleen erythropoiesis but a decrease in the bone marrow. Five weeks after treatment, rats developed a significant degree of a regenerative anemia. Erythropoietic activity, as assessed by reticulocytes, sTfR, erythroid cellularity, iron incorporation into heme, and the number of erythroid colonies, was severely depressed 3 weeks after cessation of rHuEpo. This was followed by regeneration of erythroblasts and reticulocytes at weeks 6 to 7 post-Epo, but erythroid progenitors recovered only partially by that time. The anemia was definitely corrected 2 months after cessation of rHuEpo treatment. Serum Epo levels remained elevated for several weeks, but the sensitivity of marrow erythroid precursors to Epo was preserved. No rat antibodies to rHuEpo were detected, and serum from post-Epo animals did not exert any inhibitory activity on erythropoiesis. In conclusion, after cessation of intensive rHuEpo therapy, there was a strong inhibition of erythropoietic activity with secondary anemia followed by late recovery. This was not due to antibodies or other soluble inhibitory factors, a defect in endogenous Epo production, or a loss of sensitivity to Epo. This may rather represent intrinsic erythroid marrow exhaustion, mostly at the level of erythroid progenitors but also at later stages of erythropoiesis. [less ▲]

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See detailDégradation de dalles de tablier de ponts en Belgique. Etude d'une pathologie complexe
Demars, Philippe; Gilles, Pierre; Darimont, Anne ULg

in Bulletin des Laboratoires des Ponts et Chaussées (2001), 232

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See detailUnimolecular reaction dynamics from kinetic energy release distributions. 8. Protonated fluorobenzene and structure of the phenyl ion
Lorquet, Jean-Claude ULg; Lorquet, Andrée

in Journal of Physical Chemistry A (2001), 105(15), 3719-3724

A previous interpretation of the kinetic energy release distribution (KERD) observed in the fragmentation of protonated fluorobenzene is confirmed by a maximum entropy analysis. The KERD is bimodal, with ... [more ▼]

A previous interpretation of the kinetic energy release distribution (KERD) observed in the fragmentation of protonated fluorobenzene is confirmed by a maximum entropy analysis. The KERD is bimodal, with an intense and broad component due to the production of the cyclic phenyl ion. Ab initio calculations indicate the existence of several open-chain isomers, with an energy about 1.0-1.2 eV higher than that of the phenyl ring. A weaker component of the KERD corresponds to the formation of one or several of these acyclic structures. Its abundance represents about 6% of the main component (but drops down to 3% for the perdeuterated isomer). More translational energy than the statistical estimate is released during the dissociation process because of the presence of a barrier along the reaction path leading to the generation of the cyclic phenyl ion. About one-half of the energy of the barrier is released as translation, thereby indicating the operation of strong exit-channel interactions between separating fragments. © 2001 American Chemical Society. [less ▲]

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See detailAnticyclonic eddies in the deep eastern Black Sea in summer-autumn 1999 (satellite and ship-borne observations
Ginzburg, Anna I.; Zatsepin, Andrey; Kostianoy, Andrey G. et al

in Earth Observation and Remote Sensing (2001), 5

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See detailAdaptations hormono-metaboliques a l'exercice musculaire.
Scheen, André ULg; Jandrain, Bernard ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(4), 195-9

Physical exercise induces numerous metabolic and hormonal changes that may be influenced by various factors, among which the intensity and the duration of the exertion seem to play a major role besides ... [more ▼]

Physical exercise induces numerous metabolic and hormonal changes that may be influenced by various factors, among which the intensity and the duration of the exertion seem to play a major role besides the possible influence of the intake of exogenous substrates. Such modifications are necessary to satisfy the marked increase in energy demand by exercising muscles, while maintaining plasma glucose concentrations within physiological range. The purpose of the present concise review is to analyse the most important fuel-hormonal adaptations observed during short heavy muscular exercise or during prolonged exercise of moderate intensity as well as those observed after physical training in normal subjects. [less ▲]

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See detailLivres de médecine illustrés dans l'Egypte gréco-romaine
Marganne, Marie-Hélène ULg; Istasse, Nathaël

in Medicina nei Secoli : Arte e Scienza (2001), 13(1), 1-23

The paper deals with the illustrated medical texts from Hellenism to Byzantine age. It refers particularly to the two herbaria of Tebnytis and Antinoopolis, reconstructing the history and production ... [more ▼]

The paper deals with the illustrated medical texts from Hellenism to Byzantine age. It refers particularly to the two herbaria of Tebnytis and Antinoopolis, reconstructing the history and production techniques of scientific illustrated books of antiquity. [less ▲]

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See detailPossibili correlazioni tra riscontri neurofisiologici e genetica molecolare nell'emicrania
Ambrosini, A.; Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Confinia Cephalalgica (2001), 10

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See detailLiquid chromatographic analysis of local anesthetics in human plasma after sample preparation by on-line dialysis. Optimization by use of experimental design
Chiap, Patrice ULg; Boulanger, Bruno ULg; Fotsing, Lucas ULg et al

in Chromatographia (2001), 53(11-12), 678-686

A fully automated method involving dialysis, clean-up and enrichment of the dialysate on a pre-column packed with a strong cation-exchange phase, and subsequent liquid chromatographic (LC) analysis with ... [more ▼]

A fully automated method involving dialysis, clean-up and enrichment of the dialysate on a pre-column packed with a strong cation-exchange phase, and subsequent liquid chromatographic (LC) analysis with UV detection at 220 nm has been developed for the determination of local anesthetics (prilocaine, mepivacaine, and bupivacaine) in human plasma. All sample-handling operations were executed automatically by means of an Asted XI system. To identify the most important conditions affecting analyte recovery from the dialysis and trace-enrichment processes, a seven-factor D-optimal design with 16 experimental points was elaborated as a screening test A four-factor D-optimal design with 24 experimental points was then used to predict and optimize analyte recovery. Derringer's desirability function was also used to deduce optimum conditions for analyte recovery and dialysis time within the experimental domain. Finally, the method developed was validated. Mean recoveries were approximately 72% for bupivacaine and approximately 67% for mepivacaine and prilocaine. The limits of quantification were 28 ng mL(-1) for bupivacaine and 25 ng mL(-1) for mepivacaine and prilocaine. [less ▲]

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See detailNeuromuscular transmission in migraine patients with prolonged aura
Ambrosini, Anna; MAERTENS DE NOORDHOUT, Alain ULg; SCHOENEN, Jean ULg

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2001), 101(3), 166-70

P/Q Ca2+ channels are genetically abnormal in most cases of familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) and may be involved in other types of migraine. They are also found at the neuromuscular junctions, where ... [more ▼]

P/Q Ca2+ channels are genetically abnormal in most cases of familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) and may be involved in other types of migraine. They are also found at the neuromuscular junctions, where they control stimulation-induced acetylcholine release. Prolonged aura is a very frequent clinical feature in FHM patients. The objective of this study was thus to explore neuromuscular transmission in migraine with typical and prolonged aura patients. We performed single fiber electromyography (SFEMG) in such patients and compared them to a group of healthy volunteers. Results were expressed as mean jitter (MCD) and percentage of single endplate abnormalities. Mean MCD was on average comparable in controls and migraineurs. By contrast, single endplate abnormalities were only found in patients (p < 0.01), especially in those with prolonged aura (p < 0.001). These results suggest subtle impairment of neuromuscular transmission in a subgroup of migraineurs characterized by prolonged aura, which might be due to dysfunctioning P/Q Ca(2+)-channels. [less ▲]

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See detailLe Finapres, une technique performante pour evaluer l'hypotension orthostatique, la neuropathie autonome et la syncope vaso-vagale.
Scheen, André ULg; Geronooz, I.; Marchand, Monique ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(8), 577-82

Finapres is a device able to continuously and non invasively measure arterial blood pressure by photoplethysmography in the finger. It can be used in various dynamic tests which involve cardiocirculatory ... [more ▼]

Finapres is a device able to continuously and non invasively measure arterial blood pressure by photoplethysmography in the finger. It can be used in various dynamic tests which involve cardiocirculatory adjustments, as a passive posture test ("tilt test") or an active orthostatic test (from squatting to standing position in the so-called squatting test). It represents a valuable help in the diagnosis of orthostatic hypotension (of endogenous or iatrogenic origin), of autonomic neuropathy (secondary to diabetes mellitus or to a neurological disease) or of vasovagal syncope. All these conditions are characterized by a defect of arterial and venous vasoconstriction and by an insufficient reflex tachycardia because of autonomic dysfunction. [less ▲]

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See detailPreparation of low-density xerogels by incorporation of additives during synthesis
Alié, Christelle ULg; Ferauche, Fabrice; Pirard, René ULg et al

in Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids (2001), 289(1-3), 88-96

Low-density xerogels were prepared by incorporation of an additive to alcogels prior to gelation. The additives studied are 3-(2-aminoethylamino)propyltrimethoxysilane (EDAS), 3 ... [more ▼]

Low-density xerogels were prepared by incorporation of an additive to alcogels prior to gelation. The additives studied are 3-(2-aminoethylamino)propyltrimethoxysilane (EDAS), 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (AMS), propyltrimethoxysilane (PMS), tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS) and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (AES) using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) as main silica precursor. Samples were also prepared with EDAS as additive and TMOS as main silica reagent. When the additive contains methoxy groups, it reacts first, forms nuclei on which the main reagent TEOS reacts to form the silica particles. The nucleation mechanism by the additive occurs only in case of a difference of reactivity between additive and main silica precursor. The other group of the additive (amine, alkyl group, ...) influences only the gelation time. In case of ethoxy groups (series AES/TEOS) or methoxy groups (series EDAS/TMOS) for both additive and main reagent, there is no nucleation by the additive. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailCurrent issues : varicella
Stouvenakers, Nadine ULg; Sadzot-Delvaux, Catherine ULg; Rentier, Bernard ULg

in Vaccines : Children and Practice (2001), 4

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See detailComparison of deposition images obtained by use of an ultrafine 99m-technetium-labeled carbon dry aerosol with ventilation images obtained by use of 81m-krypton gas for evaluation of pulmonary dysfunction in calves.
Votion, Dominique ULg; Coghe, J. D.; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in American Journal of Veterinary Research (2001), 62(12), 1881-6

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the accuracy of an ultrafine 99m-technetium-labeled carbon dry aerosol for use in assessment of regional ventilation in calves with pulmonary dysfunction. ANIMALS: 7 Belgian ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the accuracy of an ultrafine 99m-technetium-labeled carbon dry aerosol for use in assessment of regional ventilation in calves with pulmonary dysfunction. ANIMALS: 7 Belgian White and Blue calves. PROCEDURE: The ultrafine aerosol was assessed by comparing deposition (D) images with ventilation (V) images obtained by use of 81 m-krypton (81mKr) gas via D-to-V ratio (D:V) image analysis in calves during spontaneous breathing (SB) and during experimentally induced pulmonary dysfunction (ePD). RESULTS: Mismatching index (LrTot) calculated on the D:V images revealed a good match (LrTot, 0.96 +/- 0.01) between D and V distribution patterns in calves during SB. Calculation of the ultrafine aerosol penetration index relative to 81mKr (PIRel) revealed preferential distribution of the ultrafine aerosol in lung parenchyma (PIRel, 1.13 +/- 0.11). In ePD, heterogeneity in the D:V distribution was observed (LrTot, 0.78 +/- 0.10) as a result of ultrafine aerosol particles impaction in airways as indicated by PIRel (0.66 +/- 0.16) and a proportion of pixels more radioactive in D images, compared with V images, that was located in the central part of the lung (475 +/- 77% in ePD vs 32.8 +/- 5.7% in SB). However, this central deposition did not prevent visual examination of the entire ventilated lung. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The ultrafine aerosol appears suitable for use in examination of ventilated parts of lungs of cattle, even those with impaired pulmonary function. However, airway impaction of ultrafine aerosol particles impedes the quantification of regional ventilation in cattle with abnormal lung function. [less ▲]

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See detailDatabase "SIGMA Pro" information system and bibliographical management of active substances of plant protection products and biocides.
Rung, J.; Tricot, B.; Copin, A. et al

in Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen) (2001), 66(2b),

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See detailRépercussions systémiques des infections parodontales: définition d'un nouvel index parodontal
Geerts, Sabine ULg; Rompen, Eric ULg

in Actualités Dentaires de l'Université de Liège (2001), 207

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See detailEquine pulmonary and systemic haemodynamic responses to endothelin-1 and a selective ETA receptor antagonist
Benamou, A. E.; Marlin, D. J.; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Equine Veterinary Journal (2001), 33(4), 337-44

Based on previous in vitro studies, we hypothesised that endothelin (ET) would induce vasoconstriction in the pulmonary circululation of the horse and that this action would be mediated via ET(A ... [more ▼]

Based on previous in vitro studies, we hypothesised that endothelin (ET) would induce vasoconstriction in the pulmonary circululation of the horse and that this action would be mediated via ET(A) receptors. Pulmonary and systemic haemodynamic responses to endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoactive endogenous peptide, were investigated in 6 conscious, nonsedated horses at rest. Bolus i.v. injections of exogenous ET-1 (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 microg/kg bwt) caused significant increases in pulmonary (PAP) and carotid (CAP) artery pressures, with peak increases of 79% and 51% for mean PAP and CAP, respectively. The effect of ET-1 on PAP and CAP was rapid and transient for PAP (-10 min) but prolonged for CAP (up to 60 min). ET-1 significantly decreased cardiac output by up to 35% and significantly increased systemic vascular resistance (SVR) by up to 104%. Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) showed a trend (P>0.05) to increase with 0.2 and 0.4 microg/kg bwt ET-1. Infusion of a selective ET(A) receptor antagonist (TBC11251) completely inhibited the responses to a subsequent bolus of 0.2 microg/kg bwt ET-1. We conclude that exogenous ET-1 exerts a potent vasoconstrictive action on the pulmonary and systemic circulations of the horse. These effects appear to be mediated largely through ET(A) receptors in both circulations. Endothelin may play a role in hypertensive conditions in the horse. [less ▲]

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See detailDernier hoquet à Francorchamps
Abu Dalu, Firass ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2001)

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See detailMigraine - advances in genetic research and possible link to neurophysiological abnormalities
Sandor, Peter S.; Agosti, Reto; Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Schweizer Archiv für Neurologie, Neurochirurgie und Psychiatrie = Archives Suisses de Neurologie, Neurochirurgie et de Psychiatrie (2001), 152

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See detailThe concept of age in marine modelling I. Theory and preliminary model results
Deleersnijder, Eric; Campin, Jean-Michel; Delhez, Eric ULg

in Journal of Marine Systems (2001), 28(3-4), 229-267

The age of a particle of a seawater constituent is defined to be the time elapsed since the particle under consideration left the region, in which its age is prescribed to be zero. An Eulerian theory of ... [more ▼]

The age of a particle of a seawater constituent is defined to be the time elapsed since the particle under consideration left the region, in which its age is prescribed to be zero. An Eulerian theory of the age is presented, in which advection, diffusion, production and destruction phenomena are properly accounted for. The key hypothesis is that the mean age of a set of particles is to be evaluated as the mass-weighted average of the ages of the particles under study. The basic variable is the concentration distribution function, representing, at a given time and location, the distribution over the age of the concentration of the constituent being considered. This function satisfies a partial differential equation, which, upon appropriate integration over the age, yields the equations, in flux form, governing the evolution of the concentration and the age concentration. The ratio of the latter variable to the former is the mean age. Further theoretical developments are presented, including a thought experiment showing that mixing processes cause the ages of various constituents to be different from each other. The potential of the age as a tool for understanding complex marine flows is briefly demonstrated by analysing the results of two numerical models. The ages of a passive tracer, a radioactive tracer and the water are computed, along with a suitably defined radio-age. First, the fate of tracers released into the English Channel at La Hague is simulated. Then, ages are computed in the World Ocean as a measure of the time that has elapsed since leaving the surface layers. A theorem is demonstrated, which specifies that the age of the radioactive tracer must be smaller than the relevant radio-age, the latter being smaller than the age of the passive tracer, which, under appropriate hypotheses, can be seen to be equivalent to the age of the water. These inequalities seem to be remarkably robust, since they are found to hold valid in most of the numerical and analytical results examined in the present study. On the other hand, a dimensionless number is highlighted, which is believed to play an important role in the scaling of the differences between ages. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailLes notions d'indices et de charges en procédure pénale
Jacobs, Ann ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2001)

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See detailLa lecture littéraire : le pour et le contre
Dumortier, Jean-Louis ULg

in Education-Formation (2001), 262

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See detailExperimental And Conformational Analyses Of Interactions Between Butenafine And Lipids
Mingeot-Leclercq, Mp.; Gallet, X.; Flore, Christelle ULg et al

in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (2001), 45(12), 3347-54

Butenafine (N-4-tert-butylbenzyl-N-methyl-1-naphtalenemethylamine hydrochloride) is an antifungal agent of the benzylamine class that has excellent therapeutic efficacy and a remarkably long duration of ... [more ▼]

Butenafine (N-4-tert-butylbenzyl-N-methyl-1-naphtalenemethylamine hydrochloride) is an antifungal agent of the benzylamine class that has excellent therapeutic efficacy and a remarkably long duration of action when applied topically to treat various mycoses. Given the lipophilic nature of the molecule, efficacy may be related to an interaction with cell membrane phospholipids and permeabilization of the fungal cell wall. Similarly, high lipophilicity could account for the long duration of action, since fixation to lipids in cutaneous tissues might allow them to act as local depots for slow release of the drug. We have therefore used computer-assisted conformational analysis to investigate the interaction of butenafine with lipids and extended these observations with experimental studies in vitro using liposomes. Conformational analysis of mixed monolayers of phospholipids with the neutral and protonated forms of butenafine highlighted a possible interaction with both the hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains of membrane phospholipids. Studies using liposomes demonstrated that butenafine increases membrane fluidity [assessed by fluorescence polarization of 1-(4-trimethylammonium-phenyl)-6-phenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene and 1,6-diphenylhexatriene] and membrane permeability (studied by release of calcein from liposomes). The results show, therefore, that butenafine readily interacts with lipids and is incorporated into membrane phospholipids. These findings may help explain the excellent antifungal efficacy and long duration of action of this drug when it is used as a topical antifungal agent in humans. [less ▲]

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See detailRole of interface deformations in Benard-Marangoni instability
Lebon, Georgy ULg; Dauby, Pierre ULg; Regnier, Vincent

in Acta Astronautica (2001), 48(5-12), 617-627

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See detailGap Filling Strategies For Defensible Annual Sums Of Net Ecosystem Exchange
Falge, E.; Baldocchi, D.; Olson, R. et al

in Agricultural and Forest Meteorology (2001), 107(1),

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See detailLes flux d'azote mobilisés par les agricultures belges
Debouche, Charles ULg

in Bulletin d'Information (Association Royale des Ingénieurs Issus de la Fusagx - Aigx) (2001), 4

Les flux de matières azotées mobilisés par les exploitations agricoles sont identifiés et quantifiés par divers modèles mathématiques. Ceux-ci sont conçus de manière à pouvoir être appliqués tant au ... [more ▼]

Les flux de matières azotées mobilisés par les exploitations agricoles sont identifiés et quantifiés par divers modèles mathématiques. Ceux-ci sont conçus de manière à pouvoir être appliqués tant au niveau d'une exploitation agricole qu'au niveau d'un territoire déterminé. Après avoir décrit succinctement ces modèles, leurs caractéristiques et leurs limites, le résultat de leur application aux agricultures flamande et wallonne est présenté. Il met en évidence une différence importante entre ces deux agricultures, notamment quant à leurs responsabilités environnementales. Les flux d'azote mobilisés par des exploitations agricoles existantes sont également estimés. Ils illustrent la grande diversité de comportement d'exploitations agricoles apparemment semblables. [less ▲]

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See detailFour years of induction/synchronization of estrus in dairy goats: effect on the evolution of eCG binding rate in relation with the parameters of reproduction
Drion, Pierre ULg; Furtoss, V.; Baril, G. et al

in Reproduction Nutrition Development (2001), 41(5), 401-412

Ninety-eight Alpine goats of two herds were followed over 4 years in a program of annual artificial insemination after estrus induction/synchronization, including progestagen administration (vaginal ... [more ▼]

Ninety-eight Alpine goats of two herds were followed over 4 years in a program of annual artificial insemination after estrus induction/synchronization, including progestagen administration (vaginal sponge) followed by prostaglandin analog and equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) 48 h before sponge removal. Goats were sampled every 4 hours from the 16th to the 56th following sponge removal, for determination of LH surge and tested for estrus by the presence of a buck. Seven days after AI, endoscopic examination of the ovaries was performed to determine the number of corpus lutea. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed at day 21-22 post AI by determination of plasma progesterone and at day 40-45 by ultrasonography. Parturition, number and sex of kids were recorded. All the goats were sampled before and after each treatment, for anti-eCG antibodies screening. Statistical analysis of the results clearly established a significant effect of the treatments on anti-eCG antibodies. Time of estrus and LH surge were significantly different between herd. The antibodies significantly delayed the time of coming out of estrus as well as the time of LH surge. Two antagonistic effects were evidenced: first, the delayed of time of estrus and time of LH surge in relation with the immune reaction to eCG; secondly, the ahead of time of estrus and time of LH surge during the years of treatment, identical to both herd. The antibodies negatively influenced the percentage of ovulating females as well as kidding rate. Finally, no effect of antibodies on prolificacy was found. [less ▲]

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See detailElement removal in harvested tree biomass: scenarios for critical loads in Wallonia, south Belgium
Bosman, Bernard ULg; Remacle, Jean; Carnol, Monique ULg

in Water, Air & Soil Pollution : Focus (2001), 1

The critical load concept is now widely used as a tool for developing emission control policies in Europe. As a signatory country of the Convention of Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, critical ... [more ▼]

The critical load concept is now widely used as a tool for developing emission control policies in Europe. As a signatory country of the Convention of Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, critical loads for acidity, nutrient nitrogen, nitrogen and sulphur have been calculated for the Flemish and Walloon regions in Belgium. This paper describes the methodology used for estimating critical loads for forest soils in the Walloon region according to the Steady-State Mass Balance equations. As an example the methodology was applied to the catchment `Waroneu', situated in a sensitive area of the Haute Ardenne. Main input parameters to the equations were derived from precipitation and runoff data of the catchment study. Improved estimates of nitrogen uptake (Nu) and base cation uptake (BCu) were obtained by intensive sampling of Picea abies and Quercus robur trees. Nutrient contents (Ca, Mg, K, N) and nutrient to nitrogen ratios of Picea abies reflected the poor soil quality at a site with high N deposition. Quercus robur nutrient contents increased from stem to higher order branches with a high proportion of nutrients located in the bark. However the simulation of stem only harvesting had a minor effect on critical loads. Measured wood densities were lower than reported literature values with a main effect on Nu and BCu estimates. The use of recommended default values and/or data derived from the experimental site resulted in a wide range of critical loads, some of which were largely overestimated. Results demonstrated the importance of site specific data for critical load calculations. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Cloninger's biosocial model of personality
Hansenne, Michel ULg

in Année Psychologique (L') (2001), 101(1), 155-181

In this review, the author proposes a synthesis of the biosocial model of personality developed by Cloninger. This model is based on several neurobiological and clinical hypotheses. According to this ... [more ▼]

In this review, the author proposes a synthesis of the biosocial model of personality developed by Cloninger. This model is based on several neurobiological and clinical hypotheses. According to this model, the personality is described by 4 temperaments (novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, and persistence) which are independently heritable and related to specific central neurotransmitters, and 3 characters (self-directedness, cooperativeness, and self-transcendence) that mature in adulthood. TCI (Temperament and Character Inventory) is a 226-item self questionnaire developed by Cloninger to assess the 7 dimensions of personality. The relationships between temperaments and neurotransmitters is particularly relevant in research and in clinical practice. From a clinical point of view, the model provides a foundation for integrating diagnosis and treatment planning, including both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. This review discuss the advantages and the limitations of this model and proposes some future directions. [less ▲]

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See detailHpa Axis Dysfunction in Major Depression: Relationship to 5-Ht(1a) Receptor Activity
Pitchot, William ULg; Herrera, C.; Ansseau, Marc ULg

in Neuropsychobiology (2001), 44(2), 74-7

Major depression is associated with a dysfunction of the serotonergic activity and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Moreover, a reciprocal relationship between the serotonergic and HPA axis ... [more ▼]

Major depression is associated with a dysfunction of the serotonergic activity and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Moreover, a reciprocal relationship between the serotonergic and HPA axis systems has been hypothesized. The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship between sensitivity of 5-HT(1A) receptors as measured by hormonal (ACTH, cortisol and PRL) and temperature responses to flesinoxan and HPA axis activity as measured by the dexamethasone suppression test. The sample included 21 inpatients with major depression. Dexamethasone nonsuppressors exhibited lower ACTH responses to flesinoxan as compared with dexamethasone suppressors. The results showed that a dysfunction in 5-HT(1A) receptor activity could be due to a hypersecretion of cortisol. [less ▲]

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See detailDe PCB/dioxine vergiftiging in België (1999): analyse van de gezondheidsrisico’s
Bernard, A.; Broekaert, F.; De Poorter, G. et al

in Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift (2001), 70

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See detailIntegrated modelling of the Belgian Coastal Zone
Delhez, Eric ULg; Carabin, G.

in Estuarine Coastal & Shelf Science (2001), 53(4), 477-491

The management of the water resources in coastal or delta plains asks for an integrated modelling of the water system at a regional scale. In the SALMON project, detailed descriptions of the groundwater ... [more ▼]

The management of the water resources in coastal or delta plains asks for an integrated modelling of the water system at a regional scale. In the SALMON project, detailed descriptions of the groundwater, river and marine domains are provided by coupling appropriate numerical models of these different sub-systems. The application of this three-fold model to the Scheldt and Belgian Coastal Zone reveals a marked river plume extending along the Belgian Coast with strong offshore gradients. This plume cannot be explained by the Eulerian residual transport velocity field but requires Lagrangian aspects to be taken into account. The computation of the age of this water mass shows that the different parts of the coastal zone are influenced by a discharge in the Grote Schijn River after a delay that varies between a few days (for the marine part of the estuary) to about 100 days (for the centre of the residual gyre). The computation shows also that the groundwater around Antwerp can also be contaminated by a pollution in the river but the resulting mass loss from the river does not lead to a significant reduction of the flux to the coastal zone. (C) 2001 Academic Press. [less ▲]

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See detailWhole-body positron emission tomography using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose compared to standard procedures for staging patients with Hodgkin's disease.
Jerusalem, Guy ULg; Beguin, Yves ULg; Fassotte, Marie-France ULg et al

in Haematologica (2001), 86(3), 266-73

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Accurate staging is essential in order to determine appropriate treatment in Hodgkin's disease (HD). (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET) offers ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Accurate staging is essential in order to determine appropriate treatment in Hodgkin's disease (HD). (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET) offers the advantage of metabolic imaging that is largely independent of morphologic criteria. In the present study we evaluated the role of (18)F-FDG PET compared to routine procedures for the staging of patients with HD. DESIGN AND METHODS: Thirty-three patients with HD underwent standard staging procedures (clinical examination, laboratory screening, chest X-ray, computed tomography (CT) of the chest and abdomen and bilateral bone marrow biopsies) and a whole-body (18)F-FDG PET study. In clinical examination, an isolated lymph node > 1 cm or multiple lymph nodes > or = 1 cm in size were considered abnormal. Positive findings at both clinical examination or CT and (18)F-FDG PET were regarded as actual locations of disease. Negative findings with both methods were regarded as true negative (no involvement by HD). In cases of discrepancy, response to treatment and follow-up data were used to assess the overall accuracy of the patient's original evaluation. RESULTS: Completely concordant results in lymph node staging were observed in 20 patients. The two staging procedures indicated complementary information in 1 patient. Conventional staging indicated more pathologic lymph node areas in 6 patients (at least 1 false positive). (18)F-FDG PET showed more sites in 6 patients. The sensitivity of (18)F-FDG PET in detecting all known pathologic lymph nodes was 83% for peripheral lymph nodes, 91% for thoracic lymph nodes and 75% for abdominal and pelvic lymph nodes. Conventional staging procedures and (18)F-FDG PET indicated the same tumor stage in 26 patients. Based on (18)F-FDG PET, downstaging was suggested in 4 patients, including a biopsy-proven case. However in 1 of these cases this was incorrect. (18)F-FDG PET suggested upstaging in 3 patients. Based on conventional staging or (18)F-FDG PET the same treatment strategy was defined in 32 patients. In one patient (18)F-FDG PET downstaged disease extension (stage IIIA-->IIA) that would have suggested radiotherapy as a possible treatment option. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: (18)F-FDG PET provides an easy and efficient whole-body method for the evaluation of patients with HD. (18)F-FDG PET never missed tumor masses >1 cm. (18)F-FDG PET detected additional sites of disease not seen by conventional procedures and identified absence of disease in some sites suspected to be involved. However, in our patients this did not translate into changes in treatment strategy. [less ▲]

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See detailPharma clinics le medicament du mois. Le nebivolol (Nobiten).
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(11), 788-91

Nebivolol (Nobiten, Menarini) is a new beta-blocker recommended for the management of essential hypertension, at a dose of 5 mg once daily. It is administered as a racemic mixture of equal proportions of ... [more ▼]

Nebivolol (Nobiten, Menarini) is a new beta-blocker recommended for the management of essential hypertension, at a dose of 5 mg once daily. It is administered as a racemic mixture of equal proportions of d- and l-enantiomers. As a lipophilic agent, it is metabolised in the liver and transformed in several active metabolites, essentially via the CYP 2D6, an isoform of cytochrome P450 characterized by a genetic polymorphism. Nebivolol is highly specific for beta-1 adrenergic receptors; it is devoid of intrinsic sympathomimetic or membrane stabilising activity. Interestingly enough, it appears to have nitric oxide-mediated vasodilatory effects which might explain its favourable haemodynamic profile. Several comparative trials demonstrated an antihypertensive activity that was similar or slightly superior to that observed with various other reference antihypertensive agents. Nebivolol has an additive antihypertensive effect in combination with hydrochlorothiazide. All studies reported that the drug has a good clinical and biological tolerance profile. Therefore, nebivolol may be recommended as an alternative first-line treatment option for the management of patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension. [less ▲]

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See detailPrediction Of Membrane Protein Orientation In Lipid Bilayers: A Theoretical Approach
Basyn, F.; Charloteaux, Benoît ULg; Thomas, Annick ULg et al

in Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling (2001), 20(3), 235-44

Over the past few years, several three-dimensional (3-D) structures of membrane proteins have been described with increasing accuracy, but their relationship with membranes are still not well understood ... [more ▼]

Over the past few years, several three-dimensional (3-D) structures of membrane proteins have been described with increasing accuracy, but their relationship with membranes are still not well understood. Recently, we have developed an empirical method, Integral Membrane Protein and Lipid Association (IMPALA), to predict the insertion of molecules (lipids, drugs) into lipid bilayers (Proteins 30 (1998) 357). The IMPALA uses a Monte Carlo minimisation procedure to calculate the depth and the angle of insertion of membrane-interacting molecules taking into account the restraints dictated by a lipid bilayer. In this paper, we use IMPALA to test the insertion of 23 integral membranous proteins (IMPs) and 2 soluble proteins into membranes. Four IMP are studied in detail: OmpA, maltoporin, MsCl channel and bacteriorhodopsin. The 3-D structures of the proteins are kept constant and the insertion into membrane is monitored by minimising the value of the restraint representing the sum of two terms, one for lipid perturbation and the other for hydrophobicity. The two soluble proteins are rejected from the membrane whereas, under the same conditions, all the membrane proteins remain inside, if the solvent accessible surface of the amino acids located inside the pore of porins is ignored. The results give the tilt angle of the IMP helices or strands with respect to the membrane surface and the depth of the protein mass centre insertion. We conclude that the restraint terms of IMPALA could be used to study the insertion of model structures or complexes of proteins within membranes. [less ▲]

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See detailInteraction Between The N-Terminal Domain Of Gastric H,K-Atpase And The Spectrin Binding Domain Of Ankyrin Iii
Festy, F.; Robert, Jocelyne ULg; Brasseur, Robert ULg et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2001), 276(11), 7721-6

We screened a cDNA bank of rabbit gastric fundic mucosa by two-hybrid assays looking for binding partners of the N-terminal domain of the rabbit gastric H,K-ATPase. We extracted five clones sharing more ... [more ▼]

We screened a cDNA bank of rabbit gastric fundic mucosa by two-hybrid assays looking for binding partners of the N-terminal domain of the rabbit gastric H,K-ATPase. We extracted five clones sharing more than 90% sequence identity. The longest clone codes for a protein sharing a high identity (96 and 96.8%, respectively) with a fragment of the membrane domain, from Arg-835 to Ser-873, plus the major part of the "spectrin binding domain" going from Glu-874 to Leu-1455 of human and mouse ankyrin III. We conclude that the membrane and spectrin binding domains of the rabbit ankyrin III are candidates for the binding partner of the N-terminal domain of the rabbit gastric H,K-ATPase. To validate the ankyrin-ATPase interaction and to test its specificity, we produced both domains in yeast and bacteria, coimmunoprecipitated them with an anti-ATPase antibody, and copurified them by affinity chromatography. The sequence of rabbit ankyrin III was not known, and this is the first report demonstrating that the ankyrin III and the H,K-ATPase interact with no intermediate. The interaction involves the N-terminal domain of the ATPase on one hand and the spectrin binding domain of the ankyrin on the other. [less ▲]

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See detailBacterial Intestinal Flora Associated with Enterotoxaemia in Belgian Blue Calves
Manteca, Christophe; Daube, Georges ULg; Pirson, Vincianne et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (2001), 81(1), 1-12

The enterotoxaemia syndrome in Belgian Blue calves is characterised by a high case fatality rate, sudden death, lesions of haemorrhagic enteritis of the small intestine and, quite often an absence of ... [more ▼]

The enterotoxaemia syndrome in Belgian Blue calves is characterised by a high case fatality rate, sudden death, lesions of haemorrhagic enteritis of the small intestine and, quite often an absence of other clinical signs but its cause has not been yet identified. As a first step in this identification, the aerobic and anaerobic intestinal flora of a population of 78 calves, originating from farms located in southern Belgium and that died in circumstances defined as "calf enterotoxaemia" (study population) and of 64 calves that died in other circumstances (control population) were studied qualitatively and quantitatively. The colonies were identified after subcultures with appropriate API sugar sets. Anaerobically Clostridium perfringens was isolated in higher numbers (mean values of 10(7)-10(7.5) colony forming units (CFU) versus 10(4)-10(5) CFU per ml of intestinal content) and from more animals (79 versus 19%) in the study population than in the control population, although individual results from both populations could overlap. Other clostridial species, i.e. mainly urease-negative C. sordellii and C. bifermentans, were isolated in high numbers (>10(6) CFU per ml of intestinal content) from a few animals in the study population only. All but one of the 705 C. perfringens isolates from both populations belonged to the A toxin type and none of the urease-negative C. sordellii was toxigenic. Gram-negative anaerobes were not isolated in high numbers from any of the samples. Aerobically beta-haemolytic E. coli were significantly more frequent among the study population, but were isolated from only 25% of the animals. Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from only two animals in the study population. Less than 1% of the E. coli isolated were verotoxigenic and one-third were necrotoxigenic. At this stage only non-enterotoxigenic type A C. perfringens are thus statistically associated with the enterotoxaemia syndrome in Belgian Blue calves and fulfil the first of the Koch's postulates. [less ▲]

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See detailVingt ans après... Regards d'un didacticien sur l'enseignement de la littérature française de Belgique
Dumortier, Jean-Louis ULg

in Textyles : Revue des Lettres Belges de Langue Française (2001), 19

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See detailSocial cues and verbal framing in risky choice
Wang, X. T.; Simons, F.; Brédart, Serge ULg

in Journal of Behavioral Decision Making (2001), 14

We examined how people use social and verbal cues of differing priorities in making social decisions. In Experiment 1, formally identical life-death choice problems were presented in different ... [more ▼]

We examined how people use social and verbal cues of differing priorities in making social decisions. In Experiment 1, formally identical life-death choice problems were presented in different hypothetical group contexts and were phrased in either a positive or negative frame. The risk-seeking choice became more dominant as the number of kin in an endangered group increased. Framing effects occurred only in a heterogeneous group context where the lives at risk were a mixture of kin and strangers. No framing effect was found when the same problem was presented in the context of a homogeneous group consisting of either all kin or all strangers. We viewed the framing effects to be a sign of indecisive risk preference due to the differential effects of a kinship cue and a stranger cue on choice. In Experiment 2, we presented the life-death problem in two artificial group contexts involving either 6 billion human lives or 6 billion extraterrestrial lives. A framing effect was found only in the human context. Two pre-conditions of framing effects appear to be social unfamiliarity of a decision problem and aspiration level of a decision maker. In Experiment 3, we analyzed the direction of the framing effect by balancing the framing. The direction of the framing effect depended on the baseline level of risk preference determined by a specific decision conte [less ▲]

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See detailCompact holographic camera based on photorefractive crystals and application in interferometry
Georges, Marc ULg; Scauflaire, Véronique; Lemaire, Philippe

in Optical Materials (2001), 18

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See detailLes réserves d’interprétation dans la jurisprudence de la Cour d’arbitrage : une alternative à l’annulation
Rosoux, Géraldine ULg

in Revue Belge de Droit Constitutionnel (2001)

The article gives an overview upon constitutional decisions rejecting "under condition" actions for anulment.

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See detailProgramme international pour le suivi des acquis des élèves (PISA) de l'OCDE
Lafontaine, Dominique ULg; Baye, Ariane ULg; Matoul, Anne ULg

in Cahiers du Service de Pédagogie Expérimentale (SPE) (2001), 7-8(7-8), 53-57

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See detailDuck plague: a permanent threat for domestic and wild anatids
Marlier, Didier ULg; Jaumin, F.; Delleur, V. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2001), 145(5, NOV-DEC), 287-291

Duck plague: a permanent threat for domestic and wild anatids. Duck plague, also named duck virus enteritis is a disease of ducks, geese and swans of all ages. The authors present a review of the current ... [more ▼]

Duck plague: a permanent threat for domestic and wild anatids. Duck plague, also named duck virus enteritis is a disease of ducks, geese and swans of all ages. The authors present a review of the current knowledge about this viral infection. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of the effects of silicon and aluminium on the tensile behaviour of multiphase TRIP-assisted steels
Girault, Etienne; Mertens, Anne ULg; Jacques, Pascal J. et al

in Scripta Materialia (2001), 44

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See detailLa photographie aérienne en période de sècheresse comme source de renseignements géologiques en Wallonie
Quoilin, H.; Ozer, André ULg; Cornet, Yves ULg et al

in Bulletin de la Société Géographique de Liège (2001), 40(2001-1), 33-40

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See detailCentral self-tolerance by thymic presentation of self-antigens and autoimmunity
Geenen, Vincent ULg; Martens, Henri ULg; Hansenne, Isabelle et al

in Current Medicinal Chemistry - Immunology, Endocrine & Metabolic Agents (2001), 1

Before reacting against non-self infectious agents, the immune system is educated to tolerate the host molecular structure (self). The induction of self-tolerance is a multistep process that begins in the ... [more ▼]

Before reacting against non-self infectious agents, the immune system is educated to tolerate the host molecular structure (self). The induction of self-tolerance is a multistep process that begins in the thymus during fetal ontogeny (central tolerance) and also involves inactivating mechanisms outside the thymus (peripheral tolerance). The thymus is the primary lymphoid organ implicated in the development of competent and self-tolerant T cells. During ontogeny, T cell progenitors originating from hemopoietic tissues (yolk sac, fetal liver, and then bone marrow) enter the thymus and undergo a program of proliferation, T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement, maturation and selection. Close interactions between thymocytes (pre-T cells) and the thymic cellular environment are crucial both for T cell development and induction of central self-tolerance. Thymic epithelial and stromal cells synthesize polypeptides belonging to various neuroendocrine families. The thymic repertoire of neuroendocrine-related precursors transposes at the molecular level the dual role of the thymus in T cell negative and positive selection. Thymic precursors not only constitute a source of growth peptides for cryptocrine signaling between thymic stromal cells and pre-T cells, but are also processed in a way that leads to the presentation of self-antigens by thymic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins. Thymic neuroendocrine self-antigens often correspond to peptide sequences highly conserved during the evolution of their corresponding family. The thymic presentation of some neuroendocrine self-antigens is not restricted by MHC alleles. Following the presentation of neuroendocrine self-antigens by thymic MHC proteins, the T cell system might be educated to tolerate main hormone families. Recent experiments argue that a defect in the thymic essential tolerogenic function is implicated as an important factor in the pathophysiology of many autoimmune diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Pyoverdin Of Pseudomonas Fluorescens Btp2, A Novel Structural Type
Ongena, MARC ULg; Jacques, Philippe ULg; Thonart, Philippe ULg et al

in Tetrahedron Letters (2001), 42(34),

Abstract—From Pseudomonas fluorescens BTP2 a pyoverdin was isolated which contained the so far not encountered Val in its peptide chain. Its structure could be elucidated by chemical degradation and ... [more ▼]

Abstract—From Pseudomonas fluorescens BTP2 a pyoverdin was isolated which contained the so far not encountered Val in its peptide chain. Its structure could be elucidated by chemical degradation and spectroscopic data. [less ▲]

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See detailComment j'explore ... les differentes formes de diabete sucre: diagnostic differentiel clinique et biologique.
Scheen, André ULg; Philips, Jean-Christophe ULg; Luyckx, Françoise ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(9), 650-5

Owing to the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus and the various aspects of this disease, we present a practical approach which allows the clinician to more easily differentiate type 1 diabetes ... [more ▼]

Owing to the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus and the various aspects of this disease, we present a practical approach which allows the clinician to more easily differentiate type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and secondary diabetes of pancreatic origin, i.e. the most common forms of diabetes mellitus. Such an approach uses simple diagnostic criteria, based upon both clinical characteristics (family history, personal history, clinical presentation) and biological markers (C-peptide, autoantibodies,...). A right diagnosis should allow to optimize the management of the diabetic patient. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphological and ecological complexity in early eukaryotic ecosystems
Javaux, Emmanuelle ULg; Knoll, A. H.; Walter, M. R.

in Nature (2001), 412(6842), 66-69

Molecular phylogeny and biogeochemistry indicate that eukaryotes differentiated early in Earth history. Sequence comparisons of small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes suggest a deep evolutionary divergence of ... [more ▼]

Molecular phylogeny and biogeochemistry indicate that eukaryotes differentiated early in Earth history. Sequence comparisons of small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes suggest a deep evolutionary divergence of Eukarya and Archaea(1); C-27-C-29 steranes (derived from sterols synthesized by eukaryotes) and strong depletion of C-13 (a biogeochemical signature of methanogenic Archaea) in 2,700 Myr old kerogens independently place a minimum age on this split(2,3). Steranes, large spheroidal microfossils, and rare macrofossils of possible eukaryotic origin occur in Palaeoproterozoic rocks(4-6). Until now, however, evidence for morphological and taxonomic diversification within the domain has generally been restricted to very late Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic successions(7). Here we show that the cytoskeletal and ecological prerequisites for eukaryotic diversification were already established in eukaryotic microorganisms fossilized nearly 1,500 Myr ago in shales of the early Mesoproterozoic Roper Group in northern Australia. [less ▲]

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See detailDéveloppement agricole et protection du milieu
Debouche, Charles ULg

in Les nouvelles de l'Automne (2001), (4e trimestre), 14-16

La Filière porcine wallonne sous-tend ses activités de fédération et de promotion par une analyse du contexte règlementaire. L'expansion qu'elle encourage du secteur porcin doit trouver place dans celui ... [more ▼]

La Filière porcine wallonne sous-tend ses activités de fédération et de promotion par une analyse du contexte règlementaire. L'expansion qu'elle encourage du secteur porcin doit trouver place dans celui-ci. Si la situation est aujourd'hui délicate, une embellie est en vue. Les aides 2000 à l'investissement des agriculteurs favorisent la production porcine. Le permis d'environnement ira dans ce même sens. [less ▲]

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See detailTransplantation pulmonaire et fonction mitochondriale
Detry, Olivier ULg; Willet, K.; Meurisse, Michel ULg et al

in Bulletin et Mémoires de l'Académie Royale de Médecine de Belgique (2001), 156(6, Pt 2), 355-9

The mechanisms of cellular lesions induced by lung ischemia and reperfusion are not fully understood and, in particular, the consequences of pulmonary ischemia and reperfusion injury on mitochondrial ... [more ▼]

The mechanisms of cellular lesions induced by lung ischemia and reperfusion are not fully understood and, in particular, the consequences of pulmonary ischemia and reperfusion injury on mitochondrial function have not been previously investigated. Therefore, we studied the respiratory function of isolated pulmonary mitochondria in a swine model of lung ischemia and reperfusion. We demonstrated that prolonged hypothermic (4 degrees C) ischemia induces significant lesions of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, particularly if ischemia is followed by normothermic reperfusion. These results should be integrated in the cellular alterations induced by the ischemia-reperfusion injury. In another swine model mimicking controlled non-heart beating donors, we demonstrated that thirty minutes of cardiac arrest do not promote significant alteration of the mitochondrial respiratory function. In contrast, forty-five minutes of cardiac arrest, induced significant mitochondrial lesions. This pulmonary tolerance to normothermic cardiac arrest might be explained by the presence of air in the lung airways, allowing some aerobic metabolism after circulatory arrest. These results suggested that lung grafts might be harvested from non-heart beating donors after thirty minutes of cardiac arrest, significantly increasing the pulmonary graft pool. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude clinique du mois. Protection secondaire de l'accident vasculaire cerebral par le perindopril: l'etude PROGRESS.
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(11), 792-5

PROGRESS ("Perindopril pROtection aGainst REcurrent Stroke Study") demonstrated that blood-pressure lowering treatment with perindopril, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (combined with the ... [more ▼]

PROGRESS ("Perindopril pROtection aGainst REcurrent Stroke Study") demonstrated that blood-pressure lowering treatment with perindopril, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (combined with the diuretic agent indapamide when necessary), reduces the risk of stroke by 28% (95% CI: 17-38, p < 0.0001) among patients with a history of stroke or transient ischaemic attack. This protective effect was observed among both hypertensive and non-hypertensive individuals. It was more marked in the patients receiving combined perindopril + indapamide treatment (-43%; 95% CI 30-54) who were those who showed the greatest reduction in arterial blood pressure (-12/5 mm Hg). According to these observations, the authors concluded that treatment with these two agents should now be considered routinely for patients with a history of stroke or transient ischaemic attack, irrespective of their blood pressure. [less ▲]

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See detailSensitivity analysis of longitudinal binary quality of life data with drop-out: an example using the EORTC QLQ-C30
Van Steen, Kristel ULg; Curran, D.; Molenberghs, G.

in Statistics in Medicine (2001), 20(24), 3901-20

Analysing quality of life data (QOL) may be complicated for several reasons. Quality of life data not only involves repeated measures but is also usually collected on ordered categorical responses. In ... [more ▼]

Analysing quality of life data (QOL) may be complicated for several reasons. Quality of life data not only involves repeated measures but is also usually collected on ordered categorical responses. In addition, it is evident that not all patients provide the same number of assessments, due to attrition caused by death or other medical reasons. In the recent statistical literature, increasing attention is given to methods which can handle non-continuous outcomes in the presence of missing data. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect on statistical conclusions of applying different modelling techniques to QOL data generated from an EORTC phase III trial. Treatment effects and treatment differences are of major concern. First, a random-effects model is fitted, relating a binary longitudinal response (derived from the physical functioning scale of the QLQ-C30) to several covariates. In a second approach, marginal models are fitted, retaining the response variable and the mean structure used before. The fitted marginal models only differ with respect to the considered estimation procedure: generalized estimating equations (GEE); weighted generalized estimating equations (WGEE), and maximum likelihood (ML). [less ▲]

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See detailLa distribution des industries dans une région : des images multiples
Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULg; Devillet, Guénaël ULg

in Bulletin de la Société Géographique de Liège (2001), 40

How to apprehend the industrial distribution in a region ? How to analyse their pattern ? Such are the two main questions discussed in this paper which tries to give an answer by a progress in five steps ... [more ▼]

How to apprehend the industrial distribution in a region ? How to analyse their pattern ? Such are the two main questions discussed in this paper which tries to give an answer by a progress in five steps : thinking about the choice of indicators, thinking about the choice of the spatial scale, making or not a distinction between industrial hranchs or types, integreting or not the temporal changes, testing a typology. Through all the images that have been produced, the relativity of the points of view as well as their partial approach of the studying phenomenon are showed, which indicates that both « prudence » and « modesty » are necessary in all researchs trying to analyse the structures of the territories. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction of the multivariate Dale model in genetic association studies.
Van Steen, Kristel ULg; Tahri, N.; Molenberghs, G.

in American Journal of Human Genetics (2001), 69(4), 1289

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See detailLe syndrome de Shone: presentation de quatre cas et revue de la litterature
RADERMECKER, Marc ULg; Massin, M.; GRENADE, Thierry ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(7), 506-10

The observation of four clinical cases of Shone's complex, two of them presenting first with predominant coarctation of the aorta, prompted us to review the pertinent literature. Patients with ... [more ▼]

The observation of four clinical cases of Shone's complex, two of them presenting first with predominant coarctation of the aorta, prompted us to review the pertinent literature. Patients with multiobstructive lesions of the left heart, including Shone's complex, represent a surgical challenge where the adequate management of mitral valve anomalies, subaortic stenosis, and coarctation constitutes the key prognostic factor for satisfactory mid-term outcome. [less ▲]

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See detailGranulométrie et Morphométrie des matériaux granulaires en laboratoire
Pirard, Eric ULg

in Techniques de l'Industrie Minérale (2001), 12

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See detailThe Secret History of Belgian Surrealism
Delville, Michel ULg

in Samizdat (2001)

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See detailExpression and function of the collagen receptor GPVI during megakaryocyte maturation.
Lagrue-Lak-Hal, A. H.; Debili, N.; Kingbury, G. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2001), 276(18), 15316-25

In this report, the expression and function of the platelet collagen receptor glycoprotein VI (GPVI) were studied in human megakaryocytes during differentiation and maturation of mobilized blood and cord ... [more ▼]

In this report, the expression and function of the platelet collagen receptor glycoprotein VI (GPVI) were studied in human megakaryocytes during differentiation and maturation of mobilized blood and cord blood derived CD34(+) cells. By flow cytometry, using an anti-GPVI monoclonal antibody or convulxin, a GPVI-specific ligand, GPVI was detected only on CD41(+) cells including some CD41(+)/CD34(+) cells, suggesting expression at a stage of differentiation similar to CD41. These results were confirmed at the mRNA level using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. GPVI expression was low during megakaryocytic differentiation but increased in the more mature megakaryocytes (CD41(high)). As in platelets, megakaryocyte GPVI associates with the Fc receptor gamma chain (FcRgamma). The FcR gamma chain was detected at the RNA and protein level at all stages of megakaryocyte maturation preceding the expression of GPVI. The other collagen receptor, alpha(2)beta(1) integrin (CD49b/CD29), had a pattern of expression similar to GPVI. Megakaryocytic GPVI was recognized as a 55-kDa protein by immunoblotting and ligand blotting, and thus it presented a slightly lower apparent molecular mass than platelet GPVI (58 kDa). Megakaryocytes began to adhere to immobilized convulxin via GPVI after only 8-10 days of culture, at a time when megakaryocytes were maturing. At this stage of maturation, they also adhered to immobilized collagen by alpha(2)beta(1) integrin-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Convulxin induced a very similar pattern of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in megakaryocytes and platelets including Syk, FcRgamma, and PLC(gamma)2. Our results showed that GPVI is expressed early during megakaryocytic differentiation but functionally allows megakaryocyte adherence to collagen only at late stages of differentiation when its expression increases. [less ▲]

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See detailPratique de l'exercice musculaire chez le patient diabetique.
Jandrain, Bernard ULg; Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(5), 300-5

Muscular exercise is recommended in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus and is part of the overall management, in combination with diet, oral antidiabetic agents and/or insulin. From a ... [more ▼]

Muscular exercise is recommended in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus and is part of the overall management, in combination with diet, oral antidiabetic agents and/or insulin. From a pathophysiological point of view, regular physical activity enhances insulin sensitivity, thus contributing to improve blood glucose control and to reduce cardiovascular risk factors associated to diabetes mellitus. From a practical point of view, however, muscular exercise in a diabetic patient requires special caution, in particular careful selection of the type of exercise, respect of metabolic and/or cardiovascular contraindications, and appropriate adjustment of current pharmacological/dietary treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailHommage à M.D. Grmek
Marganne, Marie-Hélène ULg

in Histoire des Sciences Médicales (2001), 35(4), 345-346

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See detailDown-Regulation of MT1-MMP expression by the alpha3 chain of type IV collagen inhibits bronchial tumor cell line invasion
Martinella-Catusse, C.; Polette, M.; Noël, Agnès ULg et al

in Laboratory Investigation : Journal of Technical Methods & Pathology (2001), 81

The basement membrane (BM) is the first barrier encountered by tumor cells when they become invasive. Moreover, some invasive tumor clusters are surrounded by a remnant or neosynthetized BM material. We ... [more ▼]

The basement membrane (BM) is the first barrier encountered by tumor cells when they become invasive. Moreover, some invasive tumor clusters are surrounded by a remnant or neosynthetized BM material. We have previously reported the presence of a particular alpha chain of type IV collagen, the alpha3(IV) chain, in bronchopulmonary carcinomas. This chain was not detected in the normal bronchial epithelium, but was found around some invasive tumor cluster BM. In the present study, we examined the effects of the alpha3(IV) chain on the invasive properties of bronchial tumor cell lines, with special emphasis on their expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and its activator, membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), which is largely involved in tumor progression. Two epithelial bronchial cell lines (16HBE14o- and BZR), showing different invasive abilities, were evaluated. Using the Boyden chamber invasion assay, we demonstrated that the alpha3(IV) chain inhibits the invasive properties of BZR cells and modifies their morphology by inducing an epithelial cell shape. In the presence of the recombinant NC1 domain of the alpha3(IV) chain, the expression of MMP-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) was not modified in either cell line. The NC1 alpha3(IV) domain did not modulate the MT1-MMP expression of noninvasive 16HBE14o- cells, whereas a 50% decrease of MT1-MMP mRNA was observed in invasive BZR cells. Accordingly, Western blot analyses showed a disappearance of the 45-kd MT1-MMP form when BZR cells were treated with the recombinant NC1 alpha3(IV) domain. These findings suggest that the alpha3 chain of type IV collagen may play a role in tumor invasion, at least by decreasing the expression and synthesis of MT1-MMP. [less ▲]

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See detailLe cas clinique du mois. Syndrome d'hypertension porto-pulmonaire associe a une hypoxemie severe.
Kolan, C.; Ghuysen, Alexandre ULg; Lambermont, Bernard ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(8), 543-7

We report the case of a patient with liver cirrhosis who was admitted to the emergency room for rapid occurrence of dyspnea and severe hypoxemia at rest. Lung CT-scan and echocardiography did not disclose ... [more ▼]

We report the case of a patient with liver cirrhosis who was admitted to the emergency room for rapid occurrence of dyspnea and severe hypoxemia at rest. Lung CT-scan and echocardiography did not disclose any right-to-left shunt and right-sided heart catheterization evidenced major precapillary pulmonary hypertension. The present feature supports the hypothesis that the pulmonary complications of cirrhosis, the hepatopulmonary syndrome and the portopulmonary hypertension, which are usually considered as mutually exclusive, may coexist. In such circumstances, the right failing heart is the major determinant to the immediate prognosis. [less ▲]

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See detailBabel enfer
Durand, Pascal ULg

in Série Léon Bloy (2001)

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See detailQuasar pairs with arcminute angular separations
Zhdanov, V. I.; Surdej, Jean ULg

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2001), 372

We use the Véron-Cetty & Véron (\cite {veron}) catalog (VV) of 13 213 quasars to investigate their possible physical grouping over angular scales 10arcsec <=Delta theta <= 1000arcsec . We first estimate ... [more ▼]

We use the Véron-Cetty & Véron (\cite {veron}) catalog (VV) of 13 213 quasars to investigate their possible physical grouping over angular scales 10arcsec <=Delta theta <= 1000arcsec . We first estimate the number of quasar pairs that would be expected in VV assuming a random distribution for the quasar positions and taking into account observational selection effects affecting heterogeneous catalogs. We find in VV a statistically significant (>3sigma ) excess of pairs of quasars with similar redshifts (Delta z<= 0.01) and angular separations in the 50arcsec -100arcsec range, corresponding to projected linear separations (0.2-0.5) Mpc/h[SUB]75[/SUB] (Omega[SUB]M[/SUB] =1, Omega[SUB]Lambda[/SUB] =0) or (0.4-0.7) Mpc/h[SUB]75[/SUB] (Omega[SUB]M[/SUB] =0.3, Omega[SUB]Lambda[/SUB] = 0.7). There is also some excess in the 100arcsec -600arcsec range corresponding to (1-5) Mpc in projected linear separations. If most of these quasar pairs do indeed belong to large physical entities, these separations must represent the inner scales of huge mass concentrations (cf. galaxy clusters or superclusters) at high redshifts; but it is not excluded that some of the pairs may actually consist of multiple quasar images produced by gravitational lensing. Of course, a fraction of these pairs could also arise due to random projections of quasars on the sky. The list of 11 pairs of quasars with redshift differences Delta z<= 0.02 and angular separations 50arcsec <= Delta theta <= 100arcsec is presented in order to stimulate further observational studies and to better understand the astrophysical and cosmological significance of these interesting objects. [less ▲]

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See detailCompact and portable holographic camera using photorefractive crystals. Application in various metrological problems
Georges, Marc ULg; Scauflaire, Véronique; Lemaire, Philippe

in Applied Physics B : Lasers & Optics (2001), 72

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See detailCell turnover in BLV-infected sheep.
Debacq, C.; Peremans, T.; Kerkhofs, P. et al

in AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses (2001), 17(1), 13

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See detailDevelopment of a test battery for assessing cognitive functions of elderly patients with Down syndrome
Georges, Michel ULg; Thewis, B.; Van der Linden, Martial ULg et al

in Revue de Neuropsychologie (2001), 11(4), 549-579

Post-mortem studies of Down syndrome (DS) individuals older than 35 years show that almost 100% of them develop the neuropathological symptoms of Alzheimer disease (AD). A test battery designed to assess ... [more ▼]

Post-mortem studies of Down syndrome (DS) individuals older than 35 years show that almost 100% of them develop the neuropathological symptoms of Alzheimer disease (AD). A test battery designed to assess several domains of cognition was administered to a group of 12 DS individuals older than 35 years. It proved sensitive to individual differences and thus appears to be appropriate for the observation of cognitive change linked to age. Statistical analyses do not reveal cognitive changes in the DS subjects after one year time. However qualitative analyses of individual profiles suggest a cognitive decline in one subject. Additionally, in a PET-scan examination, three subjects present a mild decrease in cerebral glucose metabolism similar to that usually observed in AD. An AD diagnostic though remains uncertain at this stage. [less ▲]

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See detailContrebande de cigarettes: un exemple moderne de délinquance d'entreprise
Dantinne, Michaël ULg

in Revue Internationale de Criminologie et de Police Technique et Scientifique [= RICPTS] (2001), (1), 3-25

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See detailYoung Investigators Workshop participants (P.A Coucke) and N. Coleman : Radiation Research program, Radiation Oncology Sciences Program, National Cancer Institue, Nih, August 1-2, 2000
Coucke, Philippe ULg

in International Journal of Radiation, Oncology, Biology, Physics (2001), 49(5), 1505-1516

INTRODUCTION The one-and-a-half day Young Investigators Workshop was held in the Holiday Inn, Bethesda, August 1–2, 2000. Using the SCAROP mailing list and recommendations from department chiefs ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION The one-and-a-half day Young Investigators Workshop was held in the Holiday Inn, Bethesda, August 1–2, 2000. Using the SCAROP mailing list and recommendations from department chiefs, approximately 55 “early-career” physicianscientists were invited to attend the workshop. Table 1 includes the participants. The goals of the meeting were: c To bring together radiation oncology physician-scientists who were in the early part of their career to discuss research ideas and opportunities as well as potential barriers to progress for the field and for young-investigator careers. c To help develop camaraderie among and a critical-mass of a new generation of physician-scientists with interests ranging from technology development, to basic and translational research, to outcomes research and analysis. c To help the young investigators gain familiarity with the NIH grant programs. c To prepare a “white paper” with their vision and ideas for potential opportunities for the future. If possible, a shortand long-term agenda were to be proposed. The first morning included presentations from a variety of NCI programs. Three breakout sessions were held in the afternoon. Breakout Group Reports were discussed by the entire group the following morning. A fourth discussion topic on “Barriers To a Successful Research Career” was conducted by the entire group. Drafts of this entire Workshop Report were circulated to the participants. The final document represents the efforts of the entire Young Investigators Workshop and provides the perspective from the point of view of the investigators who have many years to invest in the future of radiation oncology. The Radiation Research Program (RRP) is grateful to all the participants for a lively workshop and to the session co-chairs for the timely preparation of this report. [less ▲]

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See detailDes escargots et des champignons à la rescousse du développement durable
Libois, Roland ULg; Codjia, J.T.C.

in Parcs & Réserves (2001), 56(4), 46-49

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See detailRadiative lifetime measurements in Tm III with time-resolved laser spectroscopy and comparisons with HFR calculations
Li, Z. S.; Zhang, Z. G.; Lokhnygin, V. et al

in Journal of Physics : B Atomic Molecular & Optical Physics (2001), 34

Natural radiative lifetimes of eight levels in Tm III were measured with the time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technique. Free doubly ionized thulium ions were obtained in a laser-produced ... [more ▼]

Natural radiative lifetimes of eight levels in Tm III were measured with the time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technique. Free doubly ionized thulium ions were obtained in a laser-produced plasma. Three even-parity levels were excited from the ground state with one-photon excitation, using a laser system generating pulses of 1 ns duration. Five odd-parity levels were excited from the ground state with two-photon excitation, where a picosecond laser system was employed. In both cases, the lifetimes were evaluated from transient LIF signals detected with a fast-detection system. The experimental lifetime results were compared with Hartree–Fock calculations including relativistic corrections. Good agreement was achieved for the 4f126p levels while larger discrepancies are noted for some 4f125d levels. [less ▲]

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See detailLa dopamine dans les troubles de l'humeur
PITCHOT, William ULg

in Neurone (2001), 6(8), 255-258

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See detailLes insectes aquatiques du ru de Targnon (Commune de Theux)
Dethier, Michel; Dopagne, Claude ULg

in Natura Mosana (2001), 54(4), 67-76

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See detailPrediction of protein digestibility in dog food by a multi-enzymatic method: a useful technique to develop.
Tonglet, Catherine; Jeusette, Isabelle; Istasse, Louis ULg et al

in Journal of Animal Physiology & Animal Nutrition (2001), 85(7-8), 189-94

The multi-enzymatic method with constant pH described by Dufour-Etienne et al. (Rec. Med. Vet. 168, 789-796, 1992) was tested using 17 industrial dry dog foods and two ingredients, sodium caseinate and ... [more ▼]

The multi-enzymatic method with constant pH described by Dufour-Etienne et al. (Rec. Med. Vet. 168, 789-796, 1992) was tested using 17 industrial dry dog foods and two ingredients, sodium caseinate and beef meat, which were used as references. The quantity of sodium hydroxide added to the enzymatic solution was measured after incubation times of 2, 5 and 10 min and the best prediction of the apparent protein digestibility was obtained with an incubation time fixed at 2 min. The volume of sodium hydroxide 0.1 N constantly added to maintain the pH of the solution at 8 was correlated to the value of in vivo digestibility of the protein measured in the dog. The correlation coefficient obtained was 0.90 with a standard error of the regression of 1.9 for all samples. The correlation coefficients calculated for incubation times of 5 and 10 min were lower than that at 2 min; thus an incubation period of 2 min provided the highest correlation coefficient for this multi-enzymatic method at constant pH. However, considering the lack of samples with an apparent protein digestibility ranging between 85 and 95%, the slope of the regression line and the correlation coefficient were strongly influenced by the ingredients, such that when the correlation coefficient was calculated for 17 dog foods without the reference ingredients, a coefficient of 0.71 (+/- 1.9) was obtained. These tests of in vitro digestibility are valuable to predict the apparent digestibility of the protein in the dog, but, it is essential to confirm the results by an in vivo test. [less ▲]

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See detailTheoretical and experimental identification of a non-linear beam
Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg; Golinval, Jean-Claude ULg; Worden, K.

in Journal of Sound & Vibration (2001), 244

The identi"cation of the dynamic characteristics of linear systems is now widely used and interest in non-linear systems has increased. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the performance of the ... [more ▼]

The identi"cation of the dynamic characteristics of linear systems is now widely used and interest in non-linear systems has increased. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the performance of the restoring force surface method as far as the identi"cation of non-linear systems is concerned. The vibrations of a clamped beam are investigated for two di!erent kinds of non-linearity. Firstly, the beam shows a non-linear behaviour characterized by a piecewise linear sti!ness and secondly, the non-linearity comes from a bilinear sti!ness. Both numerical and experimental results are presented. (C) 2001 Academic Press [less ▲]

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See detailTime-dependent wave-packet treatment of the Si4+ + He collision
Vaeck, Nathalie; Bacchus-Montabonel, Marie-Christine; Baloïtcha, Ezinvy et al

in Physical Review. A (2001), 63

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See detailRadiothérapie vasculaire : un nouveau standard
Coucke, Philippe ULg; HU PHUOC DO; URBAN, Ph. et al

in Médecine et Hygiène (2001), 59(2342), 853-858

Le traitement des maladies cardiovasculalres, et plus spécifiquement la prise en charge des patients avec des sténoses vasculalres, qu'elles soient cardiaques ou périphériques, est en train d'être modifié ... [more ▼]

Le traitement des maladies cardiovasculalres, et plus spécifiquement la prise en charge des patients avec des sténoses vasculalres, qu'elles soient cardiaques ou périphériques, est en train d'être modifié de façon radicale. Avec l'Introduction des techniques d'angioplastie par vole transcutanée (PTCA) et la mise en place de « stents », on a certainement amélioré le devenir de ces malades. Toutefois, l'incidence de resténose après ces interventions endovasculaires reste élevée. Ce phénomène d'oblitération vasculaire après angloplastie ou stent s'explique en partie par des mécanismes de prolifération néointimale. On s'est donc logiquement tourné vers les radiations ionisantes comme alternative thérapeutique possible vu leur efficacité sur les processus de prolifération cellulaire, Autant pour les lésions de novo que les resténoses in-stent, on observe l'efficacité des radiations ionisantes. Les résultats des premiers essais randomisés ont été rendus publics et ceci va certainement changer les standards de prise en charge en cardiologie interventionnelle. [less ▲]

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See detailShort-term variations of the partial pressure of CO2 in surface waters of the Galician upwelling system
Borges, Alberto ULg; Frankignoulle, Michel

in Progress in Oceanography (2001), 50(2-4), 283-302

The partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and dissolved oxygen saturation level (%O2) were monitored continuously during a cruise in August 1998, which sampled surface waters off the Galician coast. Data are ... [more ▼]

The partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and dissolved oxygen saturation level (%O2) were monitored continuously during a cruise in August 1998, which sampled surface waters off the Galician coast. Data are presented from two Lagrangian experiments carried out in an upwelling on the continental shelf and in the core of an offshore filament. The data show that daily variations in surface pCO2 and oxygen (%O2) were controlled by the diurnal cycle of primary production/respiration, temperature variations and air–sea exchange. Data obtained during various cross-shelf and cross-filament transects are also discussed and give an insight into the processes controlling large scale variations of pCO2 and %O2 in the Galician upwelling system. These data suggest that upwelling filaments are an important feature of the inorganic carbon cycle of upwelling systems. However more field data in the various eastern boundary current systems worldwide are needed. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction générale aux techniques d'imagerie
Pirard, Eric ULg

in Techniques de l'Industrie Minérale (2001), 12

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See detailImproving the bias/variance tradeoff of decision trees - towards soft tree induction
Geurts, Pierre ULg; Olaru, Cristina; Wehenkel, Louis ULg

in Engineering intelligent systems (2001), 9

One of the main difficulties with standard top down induction of decision trees comes from the high variance of these methods. High variance means that, for a given problem and sample size, the resulting ... [more ▼]

One of the main difficulties with standard top down induction of decision trees comes from the high variance of these methods. High variance means that, for a given problem and sample size, the resulting tree is strongly dependent on the random nature of the particular sample used for training. Consequently, these algorithms tend to be suboptimal in terms of accuracy and interpretability. This paper analyses this problem in depth and proposes a new method, relying on threshold softening, able to significantly improve the bias/variance tradeoff of decision trees. The algorithm is validated on a number of benchmark problems and its relationship with fuzzy decision tree induction is discussed. This sheds some light on the success of fuzzy decision tree induction and improves our understanding of machine learning, in general. [less ▲]

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See detailDissipative forces and external resonances
Jancart, Sylvie ULg; Lemaitre, Anne

in Celestial mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy (2001), 81

We analyze the process of resonance trapping due to Poynting-Robertson drag and Stokes drag in the frame of the restricted 3-body problem and in the case of external mean motion resonances. The numerical ... [more ▼]

We analyze the process of resonance trapping due to Poynting-Robertson drag and Stokes drag in the frame of the restricted 3-body problem and in the case of external mean motion resonances. The numerical simulations presented are computed by using the 3-dimensional extended Schubart averaging (ESA) integrator developed by Moons (1994) for all mean motion resonances. We complete it by adding the contributions of the dissipative forces. To follow the philosophy of the initial integrator, we average the drag terms, but we do not make any expansion in series of eccentricity or inclination. We show our results, especially capture around asymmetric equilibria, and compare them to those found by Beaué and Ferraz-Mello (1993, 1994) and Liou et al. (1979). [less ▲]

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