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See detailAutonomie corporelle de la personne et responsabilité médicale. Note sous Cass., 14 décembre 2001
Leleu, Yves-Henri ULg; Genicot, Gilles ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2002)

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See detailSynthesis of 2-amino-1,4-dihydro-4-quinolinones and diaminomethylene Meldrum’s acids derivatives as potential potassium channel openers
Erb, B.; Rigo, B.; Pirotte, Bernard ULg et al

in Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry (2002), 39

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See detailValeurs de références de l’analyse en mode multi-MUP du multifidus dorso-lombaire
TOMASELLA, Marco ULg; CRIELAARD, Jean-Michel ULg; WANG, François-Charles ULg

in Neurophysiologie Clinique = Clinical Neurophysiology (2002)

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See detailInteraction of odorous lactones with phospholipids: Implications in toxicity towards producing yeast cells
Aguedo, Mario ULg; Beney, L.; Waché, Y. et al

in Biotechnology Letters (2002), 24(23), 1975-1979

Some lactonic aroma compounds, that can be produced industrially by microorganisms, become toxic towards the producing cells as these compounds reach high concentrations in the culture medium. To ... [more ▼]

Some lactonic aroma compounds, that can be produced industrially by microorganisms, become toxic towards the producing cells as these compounds reach high concentrations in the culture medium. To determine the manner by which these metabolites may influence yeast physiology, the effects of four lactones (concentration range of 100 to 300 mg l-1) on the growth of Yarrowia lipolytica and on the phase behaviour of deuterated dimyristoylphos-phatidylcholine (DMPC-d27) were studied. The results showed that the hydrophobic lactones decrease the phase transition temperature (Tm) of DMPC-d27 bilayers and that Tm decrease (ΔTm) was related to the inhibitory action of the lactones on yeast growth (evaluated by the lag time). These results suggest that whatever the lactone, a ΔTm of at least 2.5°C resulted in a total growth inhibition: this implicates the lactone-phospholipids interaction in the mechanism of yeast growth inhibition. The test used in the present study may be a predicting method to assess the in vivo action of potential membrane active compounds. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of RAP-PCR and cDNA-AFLP to isolate genes of Candida oleophila (strain O) induced by the presence of galacturonic acid.
Massart, Sébastien ULg; Sens-Espel, Roser; Lepoivre, Philippe ULg et al

in Bulletin OILB/SROP = IOBC/WPRS Bulletin (2002), 25(10), 399-402

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See detailMurine 5T multiple myeloma cells induce angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo
Van Valckenborgh, E.; De Raeve, H.; Devy, L. et al

in British Journal of Cancer (2002), 86(5), 796-802

Multiple myeloma is a B cell malignancy. Recently, it has been demonstrated that bone marrow samples of patients with multiple myeloma display an enhanced angiogenesis. The mechanisms involved seem to be ... [more ▼]

Multiple myeloma is a B cell malignancy. Recently, it has been demonstrated that bone marrow samples of patients with multiple myeloma display an enhanced angiogenesis. The mechanisms involved seem to be multiple and complex. We here demonstrate that the murine 5T multiple myeloma models are able to induce angiogenesis in vitro by using a rat aortic ring assay and in vivo by determining the microvessel density. The rat aortic rings cultured in 5T multiple myeloma conditioned medium exhibit a higher number of longer and more branched microvessels than the rings cultured in control medium. In bone marrow samples from 5T multiple myeloma diseased mice, a statistically significant increase of the microvessel density was observed when compared to bone marrow samples from age-matched controls. The angiogenic phenotype of both 5T multiple myeloma cells could be related, at least in part, to their capacity to produce vascular endothelial growth factor. These data clearly demonstrate that the 5T multiple myeloma models are good models to study angiogenesis in multiple myeloma and will allow to unravel the mechanisms of neovascularisation, as well as to test new putative inhibitors of angiogenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication de Pichia anomala souche K, Beta 1,3-glucanes et chlorure de Calcium pour le contrôle des maladies de conservation des pommes en conditions proches de la pratique
Jijakli, Haissam ULg; Dickburt, C.; De Clerck, D. et al

in Colloque transnational sur les luttes biologiques, intégrée et raisonnée (2002)

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See detailPeritoneal Tuberculosis in an African Immigrant
Milicevic, Mladen ULg; Boverie, J. H.; Dondelinger, R. F.

in JBR-BTR : Journal Belge de Radiologie - Belgisch Tijdschrift voor Radiologie (2002), 85(3, Jun-Jul), 140-1

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See detailComment j'explore ... Le risque d'un patient d'evoluer vers un diabete de type 2.
Scheen, André ULg; Paquot, Nicolas ULg; Jandrain, Bernard ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(2), 113-5

Both the prevalence and the incidence of type 2 diabetes are increasing rapidly. Effective prevention measures, including lifestyle or drug prescription, have been recently reported. It is thus important ... [more ▼]

Both the prevalence and the incidence of type 2 diabetes are increasing rapidly. Effective prevention measures, including lifestyle or drug prescription, have been recently reported. It is thus important to detect at risk individuals in order to provide appropriate diet and exercise recommendations or even pharmacological treatment. We summarize the most useful indices based on anamnesis, clinical examination and biological assays that can help to detect subjects at high risk of progression towards type 2 diabetes. [less ▲]

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See detailQualité et action publique
Mormont, Marc ULg

in Pyramides (2002), 5

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See detailL'implication dans la recherche clinique : un chemin vers la psychanalyse
Naziri, Despina ULg

in Revue Belge de Psychanalyse (2002), 40

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See detailOxygen consumption and electron spin resonance studies of free radical production by alveolar cells exposed to anoxia: inhibiting effects of the antibiotic ceftazidime.
Mouithys-mickalad, A.; Mathy-hartert, M.; Du, G. et al

in Redox Report : Communications in Free Radical Research (2002), 7(2), 85-94

By EPR spectroscopy, we investigated free radical production by cultured human alveolar cells subjected to anoxia/re-oxygenation (A/R), and tested the effects of ceftazidime, an antibiotic previously ... [more ▼]

By EPR spectroscopy, we investigated free radical production by cultured human alveolar cells subjected to anoxia/re-oxygenation (A/R), and tested the effects of ceftazidime, an antibiotic previously demonstrated to possess antioxidant properties. Two A/R models were performed on type II pneumocytes (A549 cell line), either on cells attached to culture dishes (monolayer A/R model; 3.5 h of anoxia, 30 min of re-oxygenation) or after cell detachment (suspension A/R model; 1 h of anoxia, 10 min of re-oxygenation). Ceftazidime and selective inhibitors (SOD, Tiron, L-NMMA) were added before anoxia. Free radical production was assessed by the EPR spin trapping technique. Oxygen consumption was monitored, in parallel with EPR studies, in the suspension A/R model. The production of free radical species was demonstrated by the generation of PBN-radical adducts: (a(N) = 15.2 G) in the monolayer A/R model and a six-line EPR spectrum (a(N) = 15.7 G and a(H) = 2.7 G) in the suspension A/R model. A kinetic study performed by oximetry, in parallel with EPR spectroscopy, demonstrated marked alterations of the cell respiratory function and that the free radical production started during anoxia and increased during re-oxygenation. In the suspension A/R model, the amplitude of EPR spectra were decreased upon the addition of 200 U/ml SOD (37% inhibition), 0.1 mM Tiron (67% inhibition) and 1 mM L-NMMA (43% inhibition). Addition of 1 mM ceftazidime decreased the amplitude of EPR spectra (37% inhibition) in both A/R models. Complementary in vitro EPR studies demonstrated that CAZ scavenged the hydroxyl radical (produced by the Fenton reaction). The protective effect of ceftazidime in the cell model could thus be linked to its ability to scavenge superoxide anions, nitrogen-derived species and hydroxyl radicals. [less ▲]

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See detailProposal for a new standard of faecal contamination indicator: Bifidobacterium
Delcenserie, Véronique ULg; China, Bernard; Gavini, Françoise et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2002), 146(5, OCT-NOV), 279-293

Micro-organisms of the genus Bifidobacterium are some of the most common micro-organisms in the human and animal intestinal tract. Bifidobacterium species are well known for their beneficial effects on ... [more ▼]

Micro-organisms of the genus Bifidobacterium are some of the most common micro-organisms in the human and animal intestinal tract. Bifidobacterium species are well known for their beneficial effects on the microflora. In this article, the interest for this microorganism is other. If this microorganism is found at different stages of the processing line, it indicates often a contamination of this processing line. An other characteristic is that Bifidobacterium species are different according to the host. It could be possible to determine the contamination origin (human or animal). That is an advantage over other bacteria such as the actual faecal contamination indicator, Escherichia coli. The aim of this project is to develop a test, using molecular genetic tools, to rapidly detect the most important Bifidobacterium species in food. If we know the contamination sources, the critical points will be pointed out and the control measures will be better. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of milk yield losses and subclinical mastitis risk factors using bulk milk somatic cell counts in dairy herds
Mtaallah, Brahim; Oubey, Zied; Hammami, Hedi ULg

in Revue de Médecine Vétérinaire (2002), 153(4), 251-260

A prospective study, involving 21 selected dairy farms in north of Tunisia, was conducted to asses the loss of milk production due to high levels bulk tank somatic cell count and to find some relationship ... [more ▼]

A prospective study, involving 21 selected dairy farms in north of Tunisia, was conducted to asses the loss of milk production due to high levels bulk tank somatic cell count and to find some relationship between risk factors and subclinical mastitis. We found that the mean of bulk milk somatic cell count was 626 103 cell/ml. Using a simple statistical model, the average loss of milk due to levels bulk tank somatic cell count was 524 kg per cow per year. Using method of mean comparisons, risk factors associated to high levels bulk tank somatic cell count was: Livestock farming risk factors : inadequacy bedding area; inadequacy cleaning bedding and scrapping area. Milking risk factors : washing teat with a shower no adjustable flow and without wipe with individuel towel milk shift work above five per cow-herd; no stripping squirts of milk before milking; milking healthy and mastitis cows at the same time; no teat dipping. [less ▲]

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See detailA performance study of RSVP with proposed extensions
Mathy, Laurent ULg; Hutchison, D.; Schmid, S. et al

in Computer Communications (2002), 25(18), 1782--1798

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See detailUncoupling protein and alternative oxidase of Dictyostelium discoideum: occurrence, properties and protein expression during vegetative life and starvation-induced early development.
Jarmusszkiewicz, W.; Behrendt, M.; Navet, R. et al

in FEBS Letters (2002), 532

In this study we show that mitochondria of Dictyostelium discoideum contain both alternative oxidase (AOX) and uncoupling protein (UCP). AOX was stimulated by purine mononucleoside and was monomeric. UCP ... [more ▼]

In this study we show that mitochondria of Dictyostelium discoideum contain both alternative oxidase (AOX) and uncoupling protein (UCP). AOX was stimulated by purine mononucleoside and was monomeric. UCP was stimulated by free fatty acids and was poorly sensitive to GTP. Both proteins collaborated in energy dissipation when activated together. AOX expression in free-living ameboid cells decreased strongly from exponential to stationary phase of growth but much less during starvation-induced aggregation. In contrast, UCP expression was constant in all conditions indicating permanent need. Our results suggest that AOX could play a role in cell differentiation, mainly by protecting prespore cells from programmed cell death. [less ▲]

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See detailAdvantages and drawbacks of nanospray for studying noncovalent protein-DNA complexes by mass spectrometry
Gabelica, Valérie ULg; Vreuls, Christelle ULg; Filée, Patrice ULg et al

in Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry : RCM (2002), 16(18), 1723-1728

The noncovalent complexes between the BlaI protein dimer (wild-type and GM2 mutant) and its double-stranded DNA operator were studied by nanospray mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS ... [more ▼]

The noncovalent complexes between the BlaI protein dimer (wild-type and GM2 mutant) and its double-stranded DNA operator were studied by nanospray mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Reproducibility problems in the nanospray single-stage mass spectra are emphasized. The relative intensities depend greatly on the shape of the capillary tip and on the capillary-cone distance. This results in difficulties in assessing the relative stabilities of the complexes simply from MS' spectra of protein-DNA mixtures. Competition experiments using MS/MS are a better approach to determine relative binding affinities. A competition between histidine-tagged BlaIWT (BlaIWTHis) and the GM2 mutant revealed that the two proteins have similar affinities for the DNA operator, and that they co-dimerize to form heterocomplexes. The low sample consumption of nanospray allows MS/MS spectra to be recorded at different collision energies for different charge states with 1 muL of sample. The MS/MS experiments on the dimers reveal that the GM2 dimer is more kinetically stable in the gas phase than the wild-type dimer. The MS/MS experiments on the complexes shows that the two proteins require the same collision energy to dissociate from the complex. This indicates that the rate-limiting step in the monomer loss from the protein-DNA complex arises from the breaking of the protein-DNA interface rather than the protein-protein interface. The dissociation of the protein-DNA complex proceeds by the loss of a highly charged monomer (carrying about two-thirds of the total charge and one-third of the total mass). MS/MS experiments on a heterocomplex also show that the two proteins BlaIWTHis and BlaIGM2 have slightly different charge distributions in the fragments. This emphasizes the need for better understanding the dissociation mechanisms of biomolecular complexes. [less ▲]

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See detailDesign of structural joints in building frames
Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Progress in Structural Engineering and Materials (2002), 4(1), 18-34

A single and unified concept for the design of structural joints in building frames made of any material has been developed in recent years, and is now widely implemented in European design codes. In the ... [more ▼]

A single and unified concept for the design of structural joints in building frames made of any material has been developed in recent years, and is now widely implemented in European design codes. In the present paper, this concept is presented, its merits as far as the economy of a project are demonstrated, and practical design tools for its application in daily practice are briefly described. The paper also contains references to user's manuals and design handbooks. [less ▲]

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See detailL’entomophagie : une question de culture ?
Mignon, Jacques ULg

in Tropicultura (2002), 20(3), 151-155

Entomophagy: How to Overcome our European Aversion? Entomophagy, the eating of insects, is not a curiosity but is practiced throughout the world, except in Europe and in North-America. For many Europeans ... [more ▼]

Entomophagy: How to Overcome our European Aversion? Entomophagy, the eating of insects, is not a curiosity but is practiced throughout the world, except in Europe and in North-America. For many Europeans, the consumption of insects is considered as a primitive and a repugnant comportment. An experiment, conducted in Belgium (Gembloux) has shown that, informed about the cultural, the nutritional and the ecological aspects of entomophagy, Westerners are able to surmount their aversion. Could insects become common dish in European and American restaurants? [less ▲]

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See detailDéveloppement d'une ligne de transport fluvial sur le Rio Napo
Marchal, Jean ULg; Ndiaye, Alassane-Ballé ULg; JAYA, Salomon

in Bulletin des Séances de l’Académie Royale des Sciences d’Outre-Mer = Mededelingen der Zittingen van de Koninklijke Academie voor Overzeese Wetenschappen (2002), 48

Un défi principal de la région amazonnienne de l'Equateur, qui constitue aussi un objectif politique, est de s'inscrire dans la dynamique d'un développement durable lui permettant d'éléver la qualité de ... [more ▼]

Un défi principal de la région amazonnienne de l'Equateur, qui constitue aussi un objectif politique, est de s'inscrire dans la dynamique d'un développement durable lui permettant d'éléver la qualité de vie de ses habitants et d'accéder à l'éducation, à la santé, aux emplois, de développer l'écotourisme, etc., tout en préservant la qualité de l'environnement. Cependant, cette région souffre d'un manque de transport organisé qui constitue pourtant un pré-requis indispensable à un développement durable. En effet, les seules routes existantes ne couvrent qu'une infime partie du territoire et relient uniquement les grandes villes entre elles, laissant à l'écart une grande partie de la population. Mais, la richesse de l'écosystème et la nécessité de le préserver limitent les possibilités d'extension ou de construction d'axes routiers. D'autre part, des axes tout à fait navigables existent (par exemple le rio Napo) mais leur utilisation pour le transport de personnes et de marchandises n'est ni structurée ni organisée, ce qui ne permet pas d'exploiter pleinement les opportunités offertes par le transport fluvial dans une perspective de développement durable. Le projet TransAmazone, développé par le Service ANAST (Analyse des Systèmes de Transport) de l'Université de Liège en collaboration avec le CETIF (Centre d'Excellence en Transport Intermodal et Fluvial) de l'Université Centrale d'Equateur, a pour but d'étudier la faisabilité d'un transport organisé et bien structuré utilisant les voies navigables de la région du haut Napo afin de lui permettre de relever le défi de développement durable et d'amélioration de la qualité de vie de ses habitants. [less ▲]

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See detailNew record of Encheliophis dubius (Carapidae) off Madagascar ?
Parmentier, Eric ULg; Bailly, Nicolas

in Cybium (2002), 26

When checking the identification of the Carapidae in the MNHN collection (Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris) a specimen of Eurypleuron owasianum (Matsubara, 1953) (MNHN 1992-0914) caught off ... [more ▼]

When checking the identification of the Carapidae in the MNHN collection (Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris) a specimen of Eurypleuron owasianum (Matsubara, 1953) (MNHN 1992-0914) caught off Madagascar (20°S, 42°30’E) was found to be incorrectly identified. The specimen is vey close to Carapus dubius (Putnam, 1874), which is known from the Eastern Pacific (Markle and Olney, 1990). [less ▲]

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See detailNew 3-deoxyanthocyanidins from leaves of Arrabidaea chica
Devia, B.; Llabres, Gabriel ULg; Wouters, J. et al

in Phytochemical Analysis (2002), 13(2, Mar-Apr), 114-120

Two new 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, 6,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-5-methoxyflavylium and 6,7,4'-trihydroxy-5-methoxyflavylium, and the pigment carajurin, which has been previously identified, were isolated from dried ... [more ▼]

Two new 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, 6,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-5-methoxyflavylium and 6,7,4'-trihydroxy-5-methoxyflavylium, and the pigment carajurin, which has been previously identified, were isolated from dried leaves of Arrabidaea chica, a creeper native to the American tropics. The structures of the components were elucidated by H-1- and C-13-NMR spectroscopy and HPLC-MS, including X-ray crystallographic analysis for carajurin. Copyright (C) 2002 John Wiley Sons, Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailSensitive and high throughput metabolite assays for inorganic pyrophosphate, ADPGlc, nucleotide phosphates, and glycolytic intermediates based on a novel enzymic cycling system.
Gibon, Yves; Vigeolas, Hélène ULg; Tiessen, Axel et al

in Plant Journal (The) (2002), 30(2), 221-35

Metabolite assays are required to characterise how metabolism changes between genotypes during development and in response to environmental perturbations. They provide a springboard to identify important ... [more ▼]

Metabolite assays are required to characterise how metabolism changes between genotypes during development and in response to environmental perturbations. They provide a springboard to identify important regulatory sites and investigate the underlying mechanisms. Due to their small size, Arabidopsis seeds pose a technical challenge for such measurements. A set of assays based on a novel enzymic cycling system between glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase have been developed and optimised for use with growing Arabidopsis seeds. In combination with existing assays they provide a suite of high throughput, sensitive assays for the immediate precursors for starch (adenine diphosphate glucose) and lipid (acetyl coenzyme A, glycerol-3-phosphate) synthesis, as well as pyrophosphate, ATP, ADP and most of the glycolytic intermediates. A method is also presented to rapidly quench intact siliques, lyophilise them and then manually separate seeds for metabolite analysis. These techniques are used to investigate changes in overall seed metabolite levels during development and maturation, and in response to a stepwise decrease of the external oxygen concentration. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluer des compétences en classe d’histoire : "élaborer une problématique" et "communiquer"
Jadoulle, Jean-Louis ULg; Dambroise, Catherine; Bouhon, Mathieu

in Point sur la Recherche en Education (Le) (2002), n°23

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See detailL'image du mois. Malacoplasie pulmonaire a Rhodococcus equi chez un patient atteint du SIDA.
Delbecque, Katty ULg; Radermecker, Maurice ULg; Leonard, Philippe ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(11), 685-7

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See detailSynthetic, structural, magnetic, and Mossbauer spectral study of {Fe[HC(3,5-Me(2)pz)(3)](2)}I-2 and its spin-state crossover behavior
Reger, D. L.; Little, C. A.; Smith, M. D. et al

in European Journal Of Inorganic Chemistry (2002), (5), 1190-1197

The complex {Fe[HC(3,5-Me(2)pz)(3)](2)}I-2 (1) has been prepared from the reaction of FeI2 and HC(3,5-Me(2)pz)(3) (pz = pyrazolyl ring) in a 1:2 ratio. The complex is high-spin in both the solid state and ... [more ▼]

The complex {Fe[HC(3,5-Me(2)pz)(3)](2)}I-2 (1) has been prepared from the reaction of FeI2 and HC(3,5-Me(2)pz)(3) (pz = pyrazolyl ring) in a 1:2 ratio. The complex is high-spin in both the solid state and in solution at ambient temperature, In the solid state, magnetic susceptibility and Mossbauer spectral studies indicate that samples of the complex that have been crystallized and dried change completely from high-spin to low-spin upon cooling below 195 K, with a substantial two-step thermal hysteresis in the transition, The spin-crossover properties of I are sample dependent: powder samples do not change to low-spin at low temperatures. Two crystalline forms of I have been identified by X-ray crystallography, one form containing no solvent of crystallization and the other containing solvent, In both, there is only one iron site, with average Fe-N bond lengths of 2.18 and 2.17 Angstrom, values that confirm that the complex is high-spin. Single crystals of the nonsolvated form shatter at low temperatures whereas single crystals of the solvated form can be cooled to 110 K with no loss of crystallinity and remain fully high spin at this temperature, Crystallographic information: nonsolvated form is triclinic, P (1) over bar, a = 8,8062(2) Angstrom, b = 10.3549(2) Angstrom, c = 11.3549(2) Angstrom, a = 104.0768(10), beta = 110.2473(10)degrees, gamma = 92.6385(11)degrees, Z = 1; solvated form is monoclinic P2(1)/c, a 10.3214(5) Angstrom, b = 12.7753(7) Angstrom, c = 20.1995(11) Angstrom, alpha = 90degrees, beta = 97.5380(10)degrees, gamma = 90degrees, Z = 2. [less ▲]

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See detailOrigine du Solutréen: le rôle de l'Espagne
Otte, Marcel ULg; Noiret, Pierre ULg

in Zephyrus (2002), LV

The Solutrean "culture" of France should be separated in two clearly distinct elements. (1) The "Proto-Solutrean" and the "early" Solutrean are linked to the late phases of the Gravettian of the northern ... [more ▼]

The Solutrean "culture" of France should be separated in two clearly distinct elements. (1) The "Proto-Solutrean" and the "early" Solutrean are linked to the late phases of the Gravettian of the northern plains. (2) The "middle and late" Solutrean seem to have originated in Spain. A movement from North Africa, in the most arid phase, constitutes the most likely hypothesis to explain this expansion. [less ▲]

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See detaille nouvel article 65, alinéa 2 du code pénal et son application dans le temps
Monville, Pierre ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2002)

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See detailAssesment of the situation, three years later, on 'the Belgian Dioxin Crisis'. Probable impact on the health of the Belgian population
Focant, Jean-François ULg; Pirard, Catherine ULg; Douny, Caroline ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2002), 146(6, DEC-JAN), 321-327

In January 1999, Belgium encounters an accidental contamination of the food chain, which was named "the Belgian Dioxin Crisis". The aim of the present review is to estimate the impact of this crisis on ... [more ▼]

In January 1999, Belgium encounters an accidental contamination of the food chain, which was named "the Belgian Dioxin Crisis". The aim of the present review is to estimate the impact of this crisis on public health. Currently, it does not really exist any exhaustive epidemiological study. Various scientific studies actually report somewhat conflicting results. As an example, concerning the population living in Wallonia, recorded dioxin levels are not higher than background levels reported for other industrialized countries, despite the 1999 "dioxin crisis". Conversely, based on levels measured in foodstuffs collected by the end of the crisis period, the dioxin body burden of potential consumers would have increased in the range of 40 to 75 %. The real impact of this crisis on consumers' health could thus only be estimated through well structured epidemiological campaigns. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of omp10 or omp19 deletion on Brucella abortus outer membrane properties and virulence in mice.
Tibor, Anne; Wansard, Valerie; Bielartz, Valery et al

in Infection and Immunity (2002), 70(10), 5540-6

The distinctive properties of Brucella outer membrane have been considered to be critical for Brucella sp. virulence. Among the outer membrane molecules possibly related to these properties, Omp10 and ... [more ▼]

The distinctive properties of Brucella outer membrane have been considered to be critical for Brucella sp. virulence. Among the outer membrane molecules possibly related to these properties, Omp10 and Omp19 are immunoreactive outer membrane lipoproteins. Moreover, these proteins of Brucella could constitute a new family of outer membrane proteins specifically encountered in the family RHIZOBIACEAE: We evaluated the impact of omp10 or omp19 deletion on Brucella abortus outer membrane properties and virulence in mice. The omp10 mutant was dramatically attenuated for survival in mice and was defective for growth in minimal medium but was not impaired in intracellular growth in vitro, nor does it display clear modification of the outer membrane properties. Significantly fewer brucellae were recovered from the spleens of mice infected with the omp19 mutant than from those of mice infected with the parent strain at 4 and 8 weeks postinfection. The omp19 mutant exhibited an increase in sensitivity to the polycation polymyxin B and to sodium deoxycholate. These results indicate that inactivation of the omp19 gene alters the outer membrane properties of B. abortus. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociation of a new c-Cbl related protein with the very first stages of apoptosis induction
Corsois, L.; Quatannens, B.; Dumont, P. et al

in Cancer Detection and Prevention (2002), 26(2), 93-104

This study investigates the involvement of the c-cbl proto-oncogene during the first stages of the apoptotic process. We have already shown that a c-Cbl aptotosis-related protein of 90 kDa (CARP 90) is ... [more ▼]

This study investigates the involvement of the c-cbl proto-oncogene during the first stages of the apoptotic process. We have already shown that a c-Cbl aptotosis-related protein of 90 kDa (CARP 90) is detected very rapidly in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus of murine thymocytes after hydrocortisone (HC) treatment. We report here that this protein appeared as well after in vivo treatment of mice by gamma-irradiation or injection of anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody, two potent thymic apoptosis inductors, providing a close relationship between the occurrence of apoptosis and the appearance of CARP 90. We showed that CARP 90 and p120(cbl) share numerous epitopes strikingly suggesting that CARP 90 is coded by c-cbl. In addition, KO mice do not sustain CARP 90 appearance. We finally showed that CARP 90 contains N- and C-terminal end epitopes of p120(cbl) which suggests that CARP 90 is an alternative spliced form of c-cbl. This protein was also observed under gamma-irradiation in tissues of different origin, which enlarges the physiological significance of this phenomenon. The very rapid CARP 90 appearance under apoptotic conditions in the nucleus of cells originating in different tissues makes this protein if not a possible new actor of the apoptotic process, at least an interesting marker of this process. (C) 2002 International Society for Preventive Oncology. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailTriplex and quadruplex DNA structures studied by electrospray mass spectrometry
Rosu, Frédéric ULg; Gabelica, Valérie ULg; Houssier, Claude ULg et al

in Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry : RCM (2002), 16(18), 1729-1736

DNA triplex and quadruplex structures have been successfully detected by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Circular dichroism and UV-melting experiments show that these structures are ... [more ▼]

DNA triplex and quadruplex structures have been successfully detected by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Circular dichroism and UV-melting experiments show that these structures are stable in 150 mM ammonium acetate at pH 7 for the quadruplexes and pH 5.5 for the triplexes. The studied quadruplexes were the tetramer [d(TGGGGT)](4), the dimer [d(GGGGTTTTGGGG)](2), and the intramolecular folded strand dGGG(TTAGGG)(3), which is an analog of the human telomeric sequence. The absence of sodium contamination allowed demonstration of the specific inclusion of n-1 ammonium cations in the quadruplex structures, where n is the number of consecutive G-tetrads. We also detected the complexes between the quadruplexes and the quadruplex-specific drug mesoporphyrin IX. MS/MS spectra of [d(TGGGGT)](4) and the complex with the drug are also reported. As the drug does not displace the ammonium cations, one can conclude that the drug binds at the exterior of the tetrads, and not between them. For the triplex structure the ESI-MS spectra show the detection of the specific triplex, at m/z values typically higher than those typically observed for duplex species. Upon MS/MS the antigene strand, which is bound into the major groove of the duplex, separates from the triplex. This is the same dissociation pathway as in solution. To our knowledge this is the first report of a triplex DNA structure by electrospray mass spectrometry. [less ▲]

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See detailEconomic evaluation of chronic hepatitis C treatment by interferon-ribavirin combination therapy in Belgium
Delwaide, Jean ULg

in Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica (2002), 65(4), 233-236

With present treatments for chronic hepatitis C by the combination of interferon alpha and ribavirin, it is possible to obtain a sustained viral response in a large number of patients. This viral response ... [more ▼]

With present treatments for chronic hepatitis C by the combination of interferon alpha and ribavirin, it is possible to obtain a sustained viral response in a large number of patients. This viral response is associated with long-term disappearance of the C virus, improvement of histology, improvement in quality of life and, most than likely, a reduction in the risk of premature death or infection-linked complications. This therapy is, however, expensive and the number of potentially treatable patients is high in view of the relatively high prevalence of the disease in the population. An economic evaluation is thus indispensable in order, on the one hand, to assess the cost-effectiveness ratio of the treatment (i.e. the extra cost to be paid for obtaining the greater effectiveness provided by the therapeutic combination in comparison with absence of treatment or treatment by interferon alone), and, on the other hand, to estimate practically the global cost of treatment for Belgium (i.e. the annual expense for society according to the number of patients treated per year). [less ▲]

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See detailShort- and long-term advantages of an alternative ontogenetic pathway
Denoël, Mathieu ULg; Hervant, F.; Schabetsberger, R. et al

in Biological Journal of the Linnean Society (2002), 77(1), 105-112

We documented hypotheses on the evolution of developmental heterochronies by estimating short- and long-term advantages of alternative morphs. In this respect, we compared food energy intakes and body ... [more ▼]

We documented hypotheses on the evolution of developmental heterochronies by estimating short- and long-term advantages of alternative morphs. In this respect, we compared food energy intakes and body condition between paedomorphic and metamorphic Alpine newts (Triturus alpestris, Caudata, Amphibia) in four populations. Because we found a strong correlation between fat reserves and body condition, we used this last parameter as an indicator of long-term gains. In all studied sites, paedomorphic females showed higher body condition than metamorphic ones. Paedomorphic males were also at advantage in two populations. Paedomorphs exhibited higher energy intakes than metamorphs in two populations and similar gains in two others. Our results support unifying theories that predict the occurrence of facultative paedomorphosis in varied habitats as paedomorphs exhibited better energy balance than metamorphs. This work shows the need for considering integrative parameters such as body condition in the comparative study of performances when studying developmental heterochronies. (C) 2002 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2002, 77, 105-112. [less ▲]

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See detailMedical imaging and MRI in nail disorders: report of 119 cases and review of the literature
Richert, Bertrand ULg; Baghaie, Mahmoud

in Dermatologic Therapy (2002), 15

Radiographs remain the golden standard for exploration of the bony structures located beneath the nail plate, but they provide no information on the perionychium. Until a few years ago the nail apparatus ... [more ▼]

Radiographs remain the golden standard for exploration of the bony structures located beneath the nail plate, but they provide no information on the perionychium. Until a few years ago the nail apparatus was deprived of investigative medical imaging. Glomus tumor was the only condition that was explored using invasive techniques such as angiography or scintigraphy. High-frequency ultrasound rapidly came up against technical limits. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a superior alternative in detection of distal lesions as well as their relationship with the adjacent structures. MRI provides an accurate analysis of the nail apparatus with detection of lesions as small as 1 mm. This noninvasive technique will allow us to better understand, diagnose, and treat pathologies of the distal phalanx. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst report on the presence in France of a B-chromosome polymorphism in Apodemus flavicollis
Ramalhinho, M. G.; Libois, Roland ULg

in Mammalia (2002), 66(2), 300-303

Observation of B chromosomes in Apodemus flavicollis in France (Massif central)

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See detailUn diabete peut en cacher un autre.
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(5), 267-9

The abrupt interruption of insulin therapy in a severely obese diabetic woman submitted to a protein-sparing modified fast in a metabolic ward led to a severe ketoacidosis. This complication occurred ... [more ▼]

The abrupt interruption of insulin therapy in a severely obese diabetic woman submitted to a protein-sparing modified fast in a metabolic ward led to a severe ketoacidosis. This complication occurred because the patient had type 1 rather than type 2 diabetes, and the diagnosis of ketoacidosis was delayed because of confusion between ketonuria resulting from insulin deprivation and ketonuria associated with carbohydrate and energy restriction. This case report illustrates the danger of accepting an apparently obvious diagnosis which might be in fact erroneous. More particularly, it points out the importance of a correct differential diagnosis between C-peptide positive insulin-requiring type 2 diabetes and C-peptide negative (insulin-dependent) type 1 diabetes. [less ▲]

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See detailCompte-rendu de l'ouvrage de D. Cardon : La Draperie au Moyen Age. Essor d'une grande industrie européenne
Xhayet, Geneviève ULg

in Revue d'Histoire des Sciences (2002), 55(4), 560-561

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See detailCyclin-dependent kinase-2 controls oligodendrocyte progenitor cell cycle progression and is downregulated in adult oligodendrocyte progenitors.
Belachew, Shibeshih ULg; Aguirre, Adan A.; Wang, Hang et al

in Journal of Neuroscience (2002), 22(19), 8553-62

Proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor (OP) cells is a crucial process controlling myelination in the CNS. Previous studies demonstrated a correlation between OP proliferation rate and cyclin E ... [more ▼]

Proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor (OP) cells is a crucial process controlling myelination in the CNS. Previous studies demonstrated a correlation between OP proliferation rate and cyclin E/cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (cdk2) activity. To establish a causal link between cyclin E/cdk2 activity and OP proliferation, we selectively modulated cdk2 activity in vitro by transfection of cultured OP cells. Dominant-negative (Dn)-cdk2 overexpression inhibited mitogen-induced OP cell proliferation, whereas wild-type (wt)-cdk2 prevented cell cycle arrest caused by anti-mitotic signals. Dn-cdk2- or wt-cdk2-mediated regulation of G(1)/S transition, per se, did not influence initiation of OP differentiation. To study the function of cyclin E/cdk2 in OP cells during development in vivo, we analyzed cdk2 and cyclin E expression in cells acutely isolated from transgenic mice expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the 2'-3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase gene promoter. Both cyclin E/cdk2 protein levels and activity were decreased in GFP(+) oligodendrocyte lineage cells between postnatal days 4 and 30. Immunostaining of NG2(+)/GFP(+) OP cells in brain tissue sections showed a 90% decrease in overall cell proliferation and cdk2 expression between perinatal and adult cells. However, cdk2 expression within the proliferating (i.e., expressing the proliferating cell nuclear antigen) OP cell population was maintained throughout development. Our data indicate that: (1) cyclin E/cdk2 activity plays a pivotal function in OP cell cycle decisions occurring at G(1)/S checkpoint; (2) initiation of OP differentiation is independent of cyclinE/cdk2 checkpoint, and (3) intrinsic differences in cyclin E/cdk2 expression and activity may underlie the slowly proliferative state that characterizes so-called "quiescent" adult OP cells in vivo. [less ▲]

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See detailSingle motor axon conduction velocities of human upper and lower limb motor units. A study with transcranial electrical stimulation
Dalpozzo, Francesca; GERARD, Pascale ULg; De Pasqua, Victor ULg et al

in Clinical Neurophysiology (2002), 113(2), 284-291

OBJECTIVES: To calculate conduction velocities (CV) of single motor axons innervating hand, forearm and leg muscles, weak anodal electrical transcranial stimuli were used and single motor unit potentials ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: To calculate conduction velocities (CV) of single motor axons innervating hand, forearm and leg muscles, weak anodal electrical transcranial stimuli were used and single motor unit potentials were recorded in 17 normal subjects. METHODS: The central motor conduction time and neuromuscular transmission delay were subtracted from the latency of unit response to cortical stimulation and single motor axon CV were calculated. RESULTS: In extensor indicis proprius (EIP) units, CV ranged from 30.3 to 76.1m/s (mean: 51.3 +/- 7.1m/s, 139 units). In first dorsal interosseous (FDI), they ranged from 45.1 to 66.2m/s (mean: 54.6 +/- 2.6m/s, 88 units). In tibialis anterior (TA), velocities ranged from 27.8 to 55.9m/s (mean: 41.3 +/- 7.5m/s, 123 units). In FDI units, velocities were compared with those obtained with the F-wave method (range: 50.3-64.5m/s, mean: 58.1 +/- 2.0m/s). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with previously published values, the present method gives better access to slow-conducting units, first recruited by transcranial stimulation and voluntary effort. The spectrum of individual CV was much broader for EIP and TA than for FDI. A linear decline of maximal CV with age was observed, while minimal CV were not affected, suggesting that aging causes a selective loss of the fastest-conducting units. [less ▲]

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See detailMultidisciplinary study of the Wealden deposits in the Mons Basin (Belgium): a progress report.
Yans, J; Spagna, P; Foucher, JC et al

in Aardkungigen Mededelingen (2002), 12

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See detailLa mémoire des morts à Stavelot-Malmedy. Des origines au XIIe siècle
George, Philippe ULg

in Malmedy Folklore (2002)

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See detailHuman recombinant erythropoietin and quality of life: a wonder drug or something to wonder about?
Bottomley, A.; Thomas, R.; Van Steen, Kristel ULg et al

in Lancet Oncology (2002), 3(3), 145-53

Over the past decade an increasing number of studies have supported the use of recombinant human erythropoietin (epoetin) in cancer patients, suggesting that it improves haemoglobin concentrations for ... [more ▼]

Over the past decade an increasing number of studies have supported the use of recombinant human erythropoietin (epoetin) in cancer patients, suggesting that it improves haemoglobin concentrations for some. There is also evidence that this treatment may lead to improvement in quality of life for cancer patients. This systematic review examines the issue. We identified and critically reviewed 13 trials. Although some of the results indicate that epoetin has positive effects on quality of life, methodological limitations inherent in most of the studies hamper interpretation of data. Evidence from this review suggests that more robust designs are required to show any significant quality-of-life benefits for cancer patients undergoing epoetin treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailClonal diversity and metallo-beta-lactamase production in clinical isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia
Mercuri, Paola ULg; Ishii, Y.; Ma, L. et al

in Microbial Drug Resistance : Mechanism, Epidemiology, & Disease (2002), 8(3), 193-200

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a nosocomial pathogen with an intrinsic broad-spectrum resistance to beta-lactam compounds and other antibacterial agents. It produces two chromosomal beta-lactamases: a ... [more ▼]

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a nosocomial pathogen with an intrinsic broad-spectrum resistance to beta-lactam compounds and other antibacterial agents. It produces two chromosomal beta-lactamases: a clavulanic acid-sensitive class A (L2) and a tetrameric carbapenemase (L1 or BlaS). We screened 40 S. maltophilia multidrug-resistant clinical isolates recovered between 1995 and 1998 in the Varese Hospital (Italy) for the presence of the metallo-beta-lactamase. The isolates were investigated by phenotypic profiling (enzymatic activity and antibiotic resistance pattern) and molecular methods such as PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to reveal intraspecies diversity. For the tested S. maltophilia strains, we showed that the beta-lactamase production could be induced by the presence of imipenem (50 mug/ml) in the culture media. Addition of 1 mM dipicolinic acid completely inhibited the hydrolysis of imipenem but decreased that nitrocefin in a strain-dependent manner. Full activity of crude extract towards imipenem could be restored by addition of 1 mM ZnCl2. Finally, the gene encoding the carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase from S. maltophilia ULA-511 and 39/95, a clinical strain, were isolated and sequenced. These two strains have a different profile of multidrug resistance. The two metallo-beta-lactamases were found to be isologous. The difference of sensitivity of these two strains was associated to the level of production of the metallo-beta-lactamase. [less ▲]

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See detailPollution chimique de l'environnement et risque toxique pour l'homme. Le rôle particulier des dérivés pesticides organochlorés
Charlier, Corinne ULg; Plomteux, Guy ULg

in Annales de Biologie Clinique (2002), 60(1, Jan-Feb), 37-46

There is an increasing concern about environmental exposure to multiple chemicals and adverse changes in reproductive development, function, or behaviour in wildlife. The major group of environmental ... [more ▼]

There is an increasing concern about environmental exposure to multiple chemicals and adverse changes in reproductive development, function, or behaviour in wildlife. The major group of environmental chemicals, such as organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other xenoestrogens are currently known to have estrogenic effects in vertebrates or fishes. Recent studies suggest that past exposure to such estrogenic compounds may affects the risk of developing breast cancer, precocious puberty, or impaired fertility in man. [less ▲]

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See detailApproches pharmacologiques de prévention du diabète de type 2.
SCHEEN, André ULg; PAQUOT, Nicolas ULg; LETIEXHE, Michel ULg et al

in Médecine et Hygiène (2002), 60

L’augmentation rapide de la prévalence du diabète de type 2 impose la mise en place de stratégies de prévention. Outre les mesures hygiéno-diététiques, essentielles, diverses approches pharmacologiques ... [more ▼]

L’augmentation rapide de la prévalence du diabète de type 2 impose la mise en place de stratégies de prévention. Outre les mesures hygiéno-diététiques, essentielles, diverses approches pharmacologiques ont apporté récemment la preuve d’une certaine efficacité chez les sujets à risque de par la présence d’un excès pondéral et/ou d’une diminution de la tolérance au glucose. C’est le cas de plusieurs antidiabétiques oraux comme la metformine, l’acarbose ou encore la troglitazone. C’est également le cas de médicaments anti-obésité comme l’orlistat et, peut-être aussi, la sibutramine. L’inhibition du système rénine-angiotensine par un inhibiteur de l’enzyme de conversion ou par un antagoniste sélectif des récepteurs AT1 peut aussi, outre protéger contre les complications cardiovasculaires, prévenir l’apparition d’un diabète de type 2. Enfin, le rôle des médicaments hypolipidémiants reste controversé. De nouvelles études prospectives sont en cours pour confirmer ces résultats. [less ▲]

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See detailObesity and liver disease.
Scheen, André ULg; Luyckx, Françoise ULg

in Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism (2002), 16(4), 703-16

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a disease of emerging identity and importance. It is frequently associated with obesity, especially visceral fat, and is intimately related to fatty liver and ... [more ▼]

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a disease of emerging identity and importance. It is frequently associated with obesity, especially visceral fat, and is intimately related to fatty liver and markers of the insulin resistance syndrome. Both the prevalence and the severity of liver steatosis are related to body mass index, waist circumference, hyperinsulinaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia and impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes. The identification of obese patients who may progress from steatosis to NASH and from NASH to fibrosis/cirrhosis is an important clinical challenge. Substantial weight loss is accompanied by a marked attenuation of insulin resistance and related metabolic syndrome and, concomitantly, by a remarkable regression of liver steatosis in most patients, although increased inflammation may be detected in some subjects. Thus, NASH may be considered as another disease of affluence, as is the insulin resistance syndrome, and perhaps being part of it, especially in obese patients. [less ▲]

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See detailBright Spots and the Question of Hafting
Rots, Veerle ULg

in Anthropologica et Praehistorica : Bulletin de la Société Royale Belge d'Anthropologie et de Préhistoire (2002), 113

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See detailSteroid receptor coactivator SRC-1 exhibits high expression in steroid-sensitive brain areas regulating reproductive behaviors in the quail brain.
Charlier, Thierry ULg; Lakaye, Bernard ULg; Ball, Gregory F et al

in Neuroendocrinology (2002), 76(5), 297-315

The steroid receptor coactivator SRC-1 modulates ligand-dependent transactivation of several nuclear receptors, including the receptors for sex steroid hormones. Reducing the expression of SRC-1 by ... [more ▼]

The steroid receptor coactivator SRC-1 modulates ligand-dependent transactivation of several nuclear receptors, including the receptors for sex steroid hormones. Reducing the expression of SRC-1 by injection of specific antisense oligonucleotides markedly inhibits the effects of estrogens of the sexual differentiation of brain and behavior in rats and inhibits the activation of female sexual behavior in adult female rats. SRC-1 thus appears to be involved in both the development and activation of sexual behavior. In the Japanese quail brain, we amplified by RT-PCR a 3,411-bp fragment extending from the HLH domain to the activating domain-2 of the protein. The quail SRC-1 is closely related to the mammalian (m) SRC-1 and contains a high proportion of GC nucleotides (62.5%). Its amino acid sequence presents 70% identity with mammalian SRC-1 and contains the three conserved LXXLL boxes involved in the interaction with nuclear receptors. In both males and females, RT-PCR demonstrates a similarly high level of expression in the telencephalon, diencephalon, optic lobes, brain stem, spinal cord, pituitary, liver, kidney, adrenal gland, heart, lung, gonads and gonoducts. Males express significantly higher levels of SRC-1 in the preoptic area-hypothalamus than females. In both sexes, lower levels of expression are observed in the cerebellum and muscles. In situ hybridization utilizing a mixture of four digoxigenin-labeled oligonucleotides confirms at the cellular level the widespread distribution of SRC-1 mRNA in the brain and a particularly dense expression in steroid-sensitive areas that play a key role in the control of male sexual behavior. These data confirm the presence and describe for the first time the SRC-1 distribution in the brain of an avian species. They confirm its broad, nearly ubiquitous, distribution in the entire body including the brain as could be expected for a coactivator that regulates to the action of many nuclear receptors. However this distribution is heterogeneous in the brain and sexually differentiated in at least some areas. The very dense expression of SRC-1 in limbic and mesencephalic nuclei that are associated with the control of male sexual behavior is consistent with the notion that this coactivator plays a significant role in the activation of this behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential heat shock gene hsp70-1 response to toxicants revealed by in vivo study of lungs in transgenic mice
Wirth, Delphine; Christians, Elisabeth; Munaut, Carine ULg et al

in Cell Stress & Chaperones (2002), 7(4), 387-395

Members of heat shock proteins (Hsp70) family have been considered to respond to a large variety of stressful conditions. But it was suggested that, in pulmonary cells, Hsp response depends more closely ... [more ▼]

Members of heat shock proteins (Hsp70) family have been considered to respond to a large variety of stressful conditions. But it was suggested that, in pulmonary cells, Hsp response depends more closely on the type of stimulus. The lungs are critical organs potentially subjected to air pollution affecting respiratory function and, therefore, these organs are of particular interest with regard to the stress response. To investigate the stress dependence of Hsp70 response in lungs, we created transgenic mice where the firefly luciferase reporter gene is under the control of the murine hsp70-1 promoter and exposed them to different sublethal toxic conditions. For each condition, the level of transgene induction and pulmonary toxicity were assessed. We found that hsp70-1 promoter was stimulated by heat shock and Cadmium but not by ozone, paraquat, and parathion, even if these chemicals induced respiratory distress and lung inflammation. Similar observations were made when expression of the endogenous hsp70-1 gene was analyzed, indicating that our transgenic model was accurately detecting hsp70-1 induction. Thereby, it appeared that hsp70-1 response is selective and depends on signaling pathways triggered by the toxicants rather than by their pathologic toxicity per se. Furthermore, because all the chemicals used in our study have been previously described to increase the level of oxidative stress, it indicates that there is no direct and simple correlation between hsp70-1 response and the level of oxidative stress, but more specific oxidative patterns should be involved in Hsp regulation. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of multisite quantitative ultrasonography for noninvasive assessment of bone in horses
Carstanjen, B.; Lepage, O. M.; Detilleux, Johann ULg et al

in American Journal of Veterinary Research (2002), 63(10), 1464-1469

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of multisite quantitative ultrasonography for noninvasive assessment of bone in horses. SAMPLE POPULATION: 12 healthy horses and both forelimbs from 8 clinically ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of multisite quantitative ultrasonography for noninvasive assessment of bone in horses. SAMPLE POPULATION: 12 healthy horses and both forelimbs from 8 clinically normal horses. PROCEDURE: For in vivo measurements, various regions of interest (ROI) were examined on the third metacarpal bone, radius, and tibia. Precision error for speed of sound (SOS) measurements was obtained by measuring each ROI of 4 horses 10 times with probe repositioning. Additionally, 3 operators measured each aspect of the third metacarpal bone of 6 horses 5 times each. For ex vivo measurements, third metacarpal bones were examined at 9 ROI, and SOS measurements were performed before and after soft tissue removal. One ROI of a single forelimb was subjected to 96 ex vivo measurements with 3 different contact media. RESULTS: The lateral aspect of the third metacarpal bone had significantly higher SOS values than the dorsal and medial aspect of the third metacarpal bone. No difference was obtained between SOS values of the lateral and medial aspect of the radius. The tibia had significantly higher SOS values than the lateral aspect of the radius and the dorsal and medial aspect of the third metacarpal bone. Intraoperator coefficients of variation ranged from 0.62 to 3.15%, and interoperator coefficients of variation ranged from 0.78 to 2.70%. Values of SOS were highest when silicone oil was used as the contact medium. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Speed of sound measurements obtained by quantitative ultrasonography in axial transmission mode can be used to precisely measure superficial cortical bone properties of third metacarpal bone, radius, and tibia in horses. [less ▲]

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See detailLandscape ecology – A top-down approach (J. Sanderson, L.D. Harris)
Bogaert, Jan ULg

in Acta Biotheoretica (2002), 50(2), 129-131

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See detailThe potential of the beta-Microprobe, an intracerebral radiosensitive probe, to monitor the [(18)F]MPPF binding in the rat dorsal raphe nucleus.
Zimmer, L.; Pain, F.; Mauger, G. et al

in European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (2002), 29(9), 1237-47

The aim of this study was to demonstrate the ability of a recently developed beta(+)-range sensitive intracerebral probe (beta-Microprobe) to measure the binding kinetics of [(18)F]MPPF, a well-documented ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to demonstrate the ability of a recently developed beta(+)-range sensitive intracerebral probe (beta-Microprobe) to measure the binding kinetics of [(18)F]MPPF, a well-documented 5-HT(1A) serotoninergic receptor ligand, in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) of the anaesthetised rat. This midbrain nucleus presents a high concentration of 5-HT(1A) receptors known to be implicated in the effects of antidepressants. The difficulty confronting this study lay in the fact that the dimensions of the DRN are smaller than the detection volume of the beta-Microprobe. In the first part of the study, we studied the feasibility of this measurement from a theoretical point of view by autoradiography and a Monte Carlo simulation. We determined the optimal beta-Microprobe location close to the DRN and verified that this configuration allowed accurate determination of [(18)F]MPPF specific binding in the nucleus. In the second part of our study, we measured the in vivo time-concentration curves of [(18)F]MPPF binding in the DRN in comparison with the cerebellum. The specificity of [(18)F]MPPF binding in the DRN was confirmed by its displacement after non-labelled 5-HT(1A)antagonist injection (MPPF or WAY-100635). Moreover, we verified the feasibility of using beta-Microprobe monitoring and simultaneous validation by microdialysis to study the effect of an increase in extracellular serotonin, induced by fenfluramine injection, on [(18)F]MPPF binding in the DRN. Our theoretical simulations, confirmed by our experimental results, demonstrate the ability of this new device to monitor in vivo the binding of [(18)F]MPPF in the DRN of anaesthetised rodents. [less ▲]

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See detailDistribution and air-water exchange of carbon dioxide in the Scheldt plume off the Belgian coast
Borges, Alberto ULg; Frankignoulle, Michel

in Biogeochemistry (2002), 59((1-2)), 41-67

In the present paper we report partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) data obtained off the Belgian coast during 24 cruises. The temporal and spatial resolution of this data set allows us to discuss ... [more ▼]

In the present paper we report partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) data obtained off the Belgian coast during 24 cruises. The temporal and spatial resolution of this data set allows us to discuss satisfactorily seasonal and inter-annual variability of pCO2 in the study area. The dynamics of pCO2 are described using two approaches: fixed reference stations and area survey cruises. The air-water fluxes of CO2 in the Scheldt estuarine plume and in the outerplume region are estimated quantitatively, showing that these areas correspond respectively to a net annual source and sink of atmospheric CO2. The annually integrated air-water fluxes for the Scheldt estuarine plume range between +1.1 and +1.9 mol m−2 year−1 as a function of the formulation of the exchange coefficient of CO2. The annual net emission of CO2 from the estuarine plume to the atmosphere is estimated to be between +2.3 to +4.0 Gmol year−1 which represents 17 to 29% of the estimate reported in the literature for the Scheldt inner estuary. [less ▲]

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See detailHeat shock proteins. I : Classification and roles in pathological processes
Wirth, Delphine; Gustin, Pascal ULg; Drion, Pierre ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2002), 146(4), 201-216

All living systems have evolved mechanisms to maintain homeostasis in the face of rapid environmental changes. When exposed to elevated temperatures, most of the cells activate the synthesis of a specific ... [more ▼]

All living systems have evolved mechanisms to maintain homeostasis in the face of rapid environmental changes. When exposed to elevated temperatures, most of the cells activate the synthesis of a specific group of proteins called Heat Shock Proteins (Hsps). This heat shock response, under control of specific transcription factors, the Heat Shock factors (HSF), is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism, from bacteria to humans. Heat Shock Proteins are classified into families according to their molecular weight (Hsp 25, 40, 70, 90, 105). They play the role of molecular chaperones by binding and protecting other molecules (proteins, RNAs). The function of Hsp is to prevent accumulation of non-native proteins either by assisting proper folding of polypeptides or by driving them to proteosome pathway for degradation. Hsps are involved in various pathological processes that are accompanied by protein alterations such as chronic or degenerative diseases. This review describes structural and functional characteristics of the six main Hsps classes. It also focuses on their respective role in highly studied pathologies. The diversity of Hsps implications in these diseases explains that they became recently a strategic target in development of new therapeutic strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailInfo-congres. Prevention du diabete de type 2 chez le sujet obese: premiers resultats avec l'orlistat dans l'etude XENDOS.
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(9), 617-21

The results of the XENDOS study were presented by Professor Lars Sjostrom (Gothenburg, Sweden), on August 26, 2002, at the 9th International Congress on Obesity in Sao Paulo, Brazil. XENDOS (XENical in ... [more ▼]

The results of the XENDOS study were presented by Professor Lars Sjostrom (Gothenburg, Sweden), on August 26, 2002, at the 9th International Congress on Obesity in Sao Paulo, Brazil. XENDOS (XENical in the prevention of Diabetes in Obese Subjects) is a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group prospective study performed in Sweden over a period of 4 years. The aim of XENDOS was to investigate the use of a weight loss agent (orlistat, Xenical) compared with lifestyle changes for the prevention of type 2 diabetes in obese patients (body mass index > or = 30 kg/m2). Weight loss was greater in the orlistat group (-6.9 kg; n = 1.640) than in the placebo group (-4.1 kg; n = 1.637; p < 0.001). Such a difference in weight reduction was sufficient to significantly reduce the cumulative incidence of type 2 diabetes (6.2% versus 9.0%; p = 0.0032; relative risk reduction of 37.3%). The difference was especially remarkable in obese patients with impaired glucose tolerance (21% of the cohort), with a reduction of conversion to diabetes from 28.8% in the placebo group to 18.8% in the orlistat group (p < 0.005) and a number needed to treat to avoid one event of 11 only. Significant and sustained reductions in cardiovascular risk factors such as arterial blood pressure and lipid levels were also observed in the orlistat group as compared to the placebo group. XENDOS is the first study demonstrating that an antiobesity agent, like orlistat, is able to reduce the progression to diabetes in obese subjects as compared with lifestyle changes alone. [less ▲]

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See detailReplicon typing of the F18 fimbriae encoding plasmids of enterotoxigenic and verotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains from porcine postweaning diarrhoea and oedema disease
Fekete, PZs; Gérardin, J.; Jacquemin, E. et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (2002), 85

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See detailDetermination Of The Methionine Requirement Of Finishing Double-Muscled Belgian Blue Bulls With A Three-Step Method
Froidmont, Eric; Beckers, Yves ULg; Thewis, André ULg

in Canadian Journal of Animal Science (2002), 82(1), 95-102

A three-step technique was used to determine total amino acids (AA) and the first limiting AA requirements in finishing double-muscled Belgian Blue (dmBB) bulls. In a first experiment, three dmBB bulls ... [more ▼]

A three-step technique was used to determine total amino acids (AA) and the first limiting AA requirements in finishing double-muscled Belgian Blue (dmBB) bulls. In a first experiment, three dmBB bulls (505 ± 21 kg) received a low metabolizable protein diet containing 25% meadow hay and 75% concentrate. Net energy supply was adequate for maximizing daily gains because of continuous infusion of dextrose into the duodenum. The intestinal apparent disappearance of essential AA (EAA) averaged 70.8% and was the lowest for histidine (61.3%) and the highest for arginine (79.9%). In a second experiment, four dmBB bulls (517 ± 16 kg) received the same diet supplemented with duodenal infusion of dextrose and four doses of Na-caseinate (17, 33, 50 and 66% of metabolizable dietary AA) in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Nitrogen retention for the basal diet alone and the four increasing supplements of Na-caseinate averaged 61, 64, 74, 75 and 78 g d–1, respectively. A supply of 720 g d–1 of metabolizable AA was defined as optimising the N utilization for animal growth. Based on patterns of plasma concentrations, methionine and phenylalanine were probably the limiting AA. In a third experiment, five dmBB bulls (513 ± 60 kg) fed the basal diet received duodenal infusion of dextrose and AA, equivalent to the second dose in exp. 2 except for the supply of metabolizable methionine (12.8, 15.1, 17.6, 20.1, 22.6 and 25.1 g d–1) that varied in a 6 × 6 Latin square design with one missing animal. On the basis of N retention, the metabolizable methionine requirement was estimated to 22.8 g d–1 and corresponded to 360 mg of metabolizable methionine per gram of N retained. [less ▲]

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See detailAbsolute and relative contraindications to liver transplantation. A perpetually moving frontier.
Detry, Olivier ULg; De Roover, Arnaud ULg; Delwaide, Jean ULg et al

in Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica (2002), 65(2), 133-4

In this paper the authors discussed the absolute and relative contraindications to liver transplantation. These contraindications are not fixed, and may change with medical progress and experience ... [more ▼]

In this paper the authors discussed the absolute and relative contraindications to liver transplantation. These contraindications are not fixed, and may change with medical progress and experience. Certainly, the recent advent of adult-to-adult living related liver transplantation may somehow change the management of patients with relative contra-indications to cadaveric liver transplantation, as they may be potential candidates for living related liver transplantation. [less ▲]

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See detailLes débuts du paléolithique supérieur dans le nord-ouest de l’Europe : le Lincombien-Ranisien-Jerzmanowicien (état de la question)
Flas, Damien ULg

in Anthropologica et Praehistorica : Bulletin de la Société Royale Belge d'Anthropologie et de Préhistoire (2002), 113

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See detailLes-Bons-Villers, l'église Saint-Martin à Mellet
Hoffsummer, Patrick ULg

in Bulletin de la Fondation Vanhove-Vonneche (2002), 4

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See detailRelationship between markers of blood oxidant status and physiological variables in healthy and heaves-affected horses after exercise
Kirschvink, Nathalie; Art, Tatiana ULg; de Moffarts, Brieuc et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal. Supplement (2002), 34

Exercise-induced oxidative stress is investigated as a potential performance-limiting factor in human sports medicine. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess whether physiological variables that ... [more ▼]

Exercise-induced oxidative stress is investigated as a potential performance-limiting factor in human sports medicine. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess whether physiological variables that change with exercise intensity were correlated with blood oxidant markers in healthy and heaves-affected horses. Seven healthy horses, 8 heaves-affected in remission and 7 heaves-affected in crisis performed a standardised exercise test (SET) of stepwise increasing intensity. Variables monitored during exercise were heart rate (HR), venous plasma lactate (LA), packed cell volume (PCV) and arterial oxygen tension (PaO2). Oxidant markers (uric acid [UA], 8-iso-PGF2alpha and reduced [GSH] and oxidised glutathione [GSSG]) were analysed in venous peripheral blood sampled at rest (R), at peak-exercise intensity (Emax), 15 (E15) and 60 (E60) min after SET. There was a significant effect of heaves on oxidant markers and, therefore, correlation analyses between physiological variables and oxidant markers were performed separately per horse group. In healthy horses, UA analysed at Emax was positively correlated with LA. Furthermore, GSH analysed at Emax and E15 was positively correlated with PaO2. In healthy and heaves-affected horses in remission, GSH and GSSG determined at Emax were negatively correlated with HR. There was no significant correlation between 8-iso-PGF2alpha and physiological variables. In conclusion, a correlation between the physiological response to exercise and some oxidant markers exists in healthy horses. However, in heaves-affected horses the blood oxidant status is probably more dependant on airway disease than on exercise. Future studies should be undertaken to assess whether antioxidant supplementation might positively influence the oxidant-antiodidant balance in exercising horses. [less ▲]

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See detailErrorless learning: A method to help amnesic patients learn new information
Bier, Nathalie; Vanier, Marie; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

in Journal of Cognitive Rehabilitation (2002), 20

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See detailShunt cardiaque droite-gauche : étiologie possible de migraine avec aura ?
Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Migraine Contact (2002), 2

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See detailL'etude clinique du mois. L'etude PROSPER (PROspective study of pravastatin in the elderly at risk).
Kulbertus, Henri ULg; Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(12), 809-13

Statins reduce coronary and cerebrovascular mortality and morbidity in middle-aged individuals. Until recently, their efficacy and safety in elderly people had not yet been firmly established. PROSPER was ... [more ▼]

Statins reduce coronary and cerebrovascular mortality and morbidity in middle-aged individuals. Until recently, their efficacy and safety in elderly people had not yet been firmly established. PROSPER was a controlled, randomised study involving 2,804 men and 3,000 women aged 70-82, with a history of, or risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Their baseline cholesterol level was 135-350 mg/dl; they were randomised to either 40 mg pravastatin per day, or matching placebo. Average follow-up was 3.2 years. The primary endpoint was a composite of coronary death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and fatal or non-fatal stroke. Pravastatin lowered LDL-cholesterol (-34%), and reduced the incidence of the primary endpoint (-15%; CI 95%: 3-26%; p = 0.014). Coronary death and non-fatal myocardial infarction risk was also reduced (-19%; p = 0.006), and mortality from coronary disease fell by 24% (p = 0.043). The risk for stroke, however, was unaffected (p = 0.8), whereas the incidence of transient ischemic attacks was reduced by 25%, which was (marginally) insignificant (p = 0.051). Pravastatin had no effect on cognitive functions or incapacity. New cancers were more frequent amongst pravastatin-treated individuals (+25%; p = 0.020). However incorporation of this new data in a meta-analysis of all pravastatin and all statin trials revealed no overall increase of cancer risk. [less ▲]

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See detailLa preuve du contrat conclu par voie électronique – clap 2ème
Lecocq, Pascale ULg; Vanbrabant, Bernard ULg

in Actualités du Droit (2002), 3

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See detailGamma-probe-directed lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymphadenectomy in primary cutaneous melanoma.
Belhocine, T.; Pierard, Gérald ULg; Gielen, Jean-Louis ULg et al

in Dermatology : International Journal for Clinical & Investigative Dermatology (2002), 204(4), 355-61

BACKGROUND: Radiotracer and blue-dye lymphatic mapping is a recommended combined method to guide sentinel lymphadenectomy and full regional lymph node dissection in selected patients with cutaneous ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Radiotracer and blue-dye lymphatic mapping is a recommended combined method to guide sentinel lymphadenectomy and full regional lymph node dissection in selected patients with cutaneous melanoma. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and the prognostic value of gamma-probe-directed lymphatic mapping in cutaneous melanomas. METHODS: Sixty-five stage I and II melanoma patients underwent gamma-probe-directed lymphatic mapping. Sentinel lymph nodes were studied by both conventional and immunohistochemical stainings. The median follow-up was 11 months. RESULTS: Sensitivities of preoperative and intraoperative sentinel lymph node detection were 100 and 98%, respectively. Only 1 failure of detection and 1 missed same-basin metastasis were experienced in the axillary and cervical areas, respectively. Eleven patients (16.9%) had sentinel node metastases leading to adjuvant therapy. CONCLUSION: Gamma-probe-directed lymphatic mapping is useful for staging melanoma. However, in the expectation of a more specific identification of the sentinel lymph node, the standard protocol remains recommended for exploring the axillary and cervical areas. The histological examination supported in some cases by immunohistochemistry remains mandatory in all cases. [less ▲]

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See detailCrystallization, X-ray characterization and selenomethionine phasing of Mlc1p bound to IQ motifs from myosin V
Terrak, Mohammed ULg; Otterbein, L. R.; Wu, G. et al

in Acta Crystallographica Section D-Biological Crystallography (2002), 58(Pt 10 Pt 2), 1882-5

Mlc1p is a calmodulin-like protein from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where it has been identified as a subunit of a class V myosin, Myo2p, and a binding partner of an IQGAP-like protein ... [more ▼]

Mlc1p is a calmodulin-like protein from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where it has been identified as a subunit of a class V myosin, Myo2p, and a binding partner of an IQGAP-like protein, Iqg1p. Through its interactions with these two proteins, Mlc1p plays a role in polarized growth and cytokinesis. Mlc1p has been crystallized in complexes with four different IQ target motifs from the neck region of Myo2p: IQ2, IQ3, IQ4 and IQ2-IQ3 (referred to as IQ2,3). Electron-density maps for two of the complexes (Mlc1p-IQ4 and Mlc1p-IQ2,3) were obtained from multiple anomalous dispersion (MAD) experiments based on selenomethionine derivatives. The other two structures (Mlc1p-IQ2 and Mlc1p-IQ3) were determined by molecular replacement using the partially refined structure of Mlc1p-IQ2,3 as a search model. [less ▲]

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See detailTexture characterization of ultramacroporous materials using non-destructive methods
Blacher, Silvia ULg; Maquet, Véronique; Léonard, Angélique ULg et al

in Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis (2002), 158

Image analysis, impedance spectroscopy and X-ray microtomography have been used as non-destructive methods in order to characterize ultramacroporous materials (pore width > 1 mum). These methods are used ... [more ▼]

Image analysis, impedance spectroscopy and X-ray microtomography have been used as non-destructive methods in order to characterize ultramacroporous materials (pore width > 1 mum). These methods are used to investigate the texture of different kinds of materials, i.e., highly oriented polylactide (PLA) foams prepared by freeze-drying, isotropic polyolefin foams prepared by thermal degradation of a chemical foaming agent and convective heat dried wastewater sludges. The image analysis of SEM micrographs recorded at different magnifications gave information on the pore size distribution and pore morphology. Impedance spectroscopy was used to investigate the transport properties of the three-dimensional porous matrices by measurement of the water ionic conduction. Finally, 3D image reconstruction from 2D cross-sections obtained by X-ray microtomography allowed visualizing the pore structure. [less ▲]

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See detailMyopathies atypiques chez les chevaux au pré: une série de cas en Belgique
Delguste, Catherine ULg; Cassart, Dominique ULg; Baise, Etienne ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2002), 146(4, AUG-SEP), 235-247

Atypical myoglobinuria in grazing horses was described in United Kingdom and Germany between 1984 and 1996. Fourteen horses were presented at the University of Liege between November 2000 and April 2001 ... [more ▼]

Atypical myoglobinuria in grazing horses was described in United Kingdom and Germany between 1984 and 1996. Fourteen horses were presented at the University of Liege between November 2000 and April 2001, with a clinical history suggesting atypical myoglobinuria. Lesions were similar to those previously described. All horses were at rest and grazing when they developed clinical signs. Three times, the syndrome killed several horses grazing together. Horses were generally found recumbent, nearly or totally unable to stand up. They were presenting tachycardia, polypnoea, myoglobinuria and died rapidly. When performed, blood analysis revealed severe muscular enzymatic activity rises. Histopathology revealed pulmonary congestion and oedema, and squeletal muscular fibers degeneration, mostly in respiratory and postural muscles. These observations are in accordance with cases of atypical myoglobinuria previously described in UK and Germany. The aetiology of this pathology is still unknown, despite of research attempts. [less ▲]

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See detailPre-emptive immunotherapy with CD8-depleted donor lymphocytes after CD34-selected allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.
Baron, Frédéric ULg; Siquet, Jean; Schaaf-Lafontaine, Nicole ULg et al

in Haematologica (2002), 87(1), 78-88

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To maximize graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effects while minimizing the risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), we undertook a study of allogeneic CD34-selected peripheral blood ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To maximize graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effects while minimizing the risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), we undertook a study of allogeneic CD34-selected peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation followed by CD8-depleted donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI). DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty-four patients with advanced hematologic malignancies were included. PBSC were collected in matched (N=16) or one-mismatch (N=8) related donors and CD34-selected. On day 60, donors donated lymphocytes that were CD8-depleted and separated into 3 aliquots containing 2 x 10(6), 1 x 10(7) and 5 x 10(7) CD3+ cells/kg (patients 1-13) or into 2 aliquots containing 1 x 10(7) and 5 x 10(7) CD3+ cells/kg (patients 14-24). The 1st aliquot was infused on day 60 and the other 1 (2) cryopreserved and infused on days 100 (and 140). RESULTS: An average of 100%, 100% and 84% of the scheduled dose could be administered in DLI 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Although the study group was at very high risk of GVHD, the actuarial incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD was 28% (13% for HLA-identical siblings) with only 1 patient developing grade III-IV GVHD (after DLI). The actuarial 2-year probability of extensive chronic GVHD was similarly low (13% for all patients and 0% for HLA-identical siblings). Individual cases as well as a 30% relapse rate (0% for standard-risk patients versus 55% for high-risk patients) indicated preservation of the GVL effect. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that allogeneic transplantation of CD34-selected PBSC followed by pre-emptive CD8-depleted DLI is feasible with rapid engraftment and minimizes the risk of severe GVHD. Large prospective trials are required to prove that it preserves the GVL effect fully. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of nutritional antioxidant supplementation on systemic and pulmonary antioxidant status, airway inflammation and lung function in heaves-affected horses
Kirschvink, Nathalie; Fievez, Laurence ULg; Bougnet, V. et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal (2002), 34

An oxidant/antioxidant imbalance in favour of oxidants has been identified as playing a decisive role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Nutritional antioxidant supplementation ... [more ▼]

An oxidant/antioxidant imbalance in favour of oxidants has been identified as playing a decisive role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Nutritional antioxidant supplementation might reduce oxidative damage by enhancement of the antioxidant defence, thereby modulating inflammatory processes. In a placebo-controlled, blind study, it was tested whether a dietary antioxidant supplement administered for 4 weeks would improve lung function and reduce airway inflammation in heaves-affected horses. Eight horses in clinical remission of heaves were investigated at rest and after a standardised exercise test before and after treatment with an antioxidant supplement (consisting of a mixture of natural antioxidants including vitamins E and C and selenium from a variety of sources) or placebo (oatfeed pellets without additive). Pulmonary function and exercise tolerance were monitored; systemic and pulmonary lining fluid uric acid, glutathione and 8-epi-PGF(2alpha) were analysed, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytology and inflammatory scoring of the airways were performed. The antioxidant treatment significantly improved exercise tolerance and significantly reduced endoscopic inflammatory score. Plasma uric acid concentrations were significantly reduced, suggesting downregulation of the xanthine-dehydrogenase and xanthine-oxydase pathway. Haemolysate glutathione showed a nonsignificant trend to increase, while plasma 8-epi-PGF(2alpha) remained unchanged. Pulmonary markers and BAL cytology were not significantly affected by antioxidant supplementation. The present study suggests that the antioxidant supplement tested modulated oxidant/antioxidant balance and airway inflammation of heaves-affected horses [less ▲]

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See detailElevated atmospheric CO2 in open top chambers increases net nitrification and potential denitrification
Carnol, Monique ULg; Hogenboom, L.; Jach, M. E. et al

in Global Change Biology (2002), 8

The control of soil nitrogen (N) availability under elevated atmospheric CO2 is central to predicting changes in ecosystem carbon (C) storage and primary productivity. The effects of elevated CO2 on ... [more ▼]

The control of soil nitrogen (N) availability under elevated atmospheric CO2 is central to predicting changes in ecosystem carbon (C) storage and primary productivity. The effects of elevated CO2 on belowground processes have so far attracted limited research and they are assumed to be controlled by indirect effects through changes in plant physiology and chemistry. In this study, we investigated the effects of a 4-year exposure to elevated CO2 (ambient + 400 mumol mol(-1) ) in open top chambers under Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L) seedlings on soil microbial processes of nitrification and denitrification. Potential denitrification (DP) and potential N-2 O emissions were significantly higher in soils from the elevated CO2 treatment, probably regulated indirectly by the changes in soil conditions (increased pH, C availability and NO3 (-) production). Net N mineralization was mainly accounted for by nitrate production. Nitrate production was significantly larger for soil from the elevated CO2 treatment in the field when incubated in the laboratory under elevated CO2 (increase of 100%), but there was no effect when incubated under ambient CO2 . Net nitrate production of the soil originating from the ambient CO2 treatment in the field was not influenced by laboratory incubation conditions. These results indicate that a direct effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 on soil microbial processes might take place. We hypothesize that physiological adaptation or selection of nitrifiers could occur under elevated CO2 through higher soil CO2 concentrations. Alternatively, lower microbial NH4 assimilation under elevated CO2 might explain the higher net nitrification. We conclude that elevated atmospheric CO2 has a major direct effect on the soil microbial processes of nitrification and denitrification despite generally higher soil CO2 concentrations compared to atmospheric concentrations. [less ▲]

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See detailAtteintes neuromusculaires aiguës de réanimation (ANMAR) : étude électrophysiologique prospective de 56 cas
BARTSCH, Valérie ULg; TOMASELLA, Marco ULg; Zeevaert, Bernard et al

in Neurophysiologie Clinique = Clinical Neurophysiology (2002)

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See detailThe use of placebo-controlled and non-inferiority trials for the evaluation of new drugs in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis
Delmas, P. D.; Calvo, Gisèle ULg; Boers, M. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2002), 13(1), 1-5

Registration of new agents for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis has been based over the past few years on placebo-controlled phase III trials with the incidence of patients with new vertebral ... [more ▼]

Registration of new agents for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis has been based over the past few years on placebo-controlled phase III trials with the incidence of patients with new vertebral/nonvertebral fractures as the most usual primary endpoint. The use of a placebo in diseases where an active treatment is available has been a matter of debate following the update of the Declaration of Helsinki by the World Medical Association which questioned this trial design. Current regulatory recommendations within the European Union suggest that placebo-controlled trials are still the best option when assessing the efficacy and safety of new drugs intended for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. This suggestion seems to be in apparent contradiction with the current content of the Declaration of Helsinki. This paper addresses the ethics and feasibility of placebo-controlled trials in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, in the light of available therapeutic options, and discusses possible alternative approaches in those patients where placebo treatment could be deemed to be unethical. It is concluded that placebo-controlled trials remain the most efficient design to establish the efficacy and safety of a new agent for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Such trials are feasible and ethically acceptable in patients with osteoporosis but without prevalent vertebral fractures. Conversely, in patients with prevalent vertebral fractures, placebo-controlled trials are ethically questionable and non-inferiority trials are more appropriate. A relative margin of non inferiority of 20-30% is suggested, to be discussed on a case by case basis. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic factors affecting susceptibility to udder pathogens
Detilleux, Johann ULg

in Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology (2002), 88(3-4), 103-110

Bovine mastitis remains the most costly disease in dairy cattle. Breeding for resistance to udder pathogens has been proposed as a complementary tool to therapeutic and prophylactic measures not totally ... [more ▼]

Bovine mastitis remains the most costly disease in dairy cattle. Breeding for resistance to udder pathogens has been proposed as a complementary tool to therapeutic and prophylactic measures not totally effective against the disease. This paper reviews factors affecting cows’ susceptibility to pathogens at the animal, cellular/hormonal and DNA levels. Such factors will be useful in achieving genetic improvement for resistance only if they have desirable properties at the genetic and immunological levels. Because such properties are not always of significant magnitude, further research is necessary to identify characteristics of resistance in cows, considering the constant and complex interactions that occur between hosts and pathogens. [less ▲]

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See detailContinuity preserving modified maximum cross-correlation technique
Zavialov, Peter O.; Grigorieva, Julia V.; Moller, Osmar O. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Oceans (2002), 107(C10, SEP-OCT),

The maximum cross-correlation (MCC) method reconstructs the surface advective velocity fields from the displacements of spatial patterns in pairs of sequential satellite (normally infrared) images ... [more ▼]

The maximum cross-correlation (MCC) method reconstructs the surface advective velocity fields from the displacements of spatial patterns in pairs of sequential satellite (normally infrared) images. However, the performance of the conventional MCC method is not always satisfactory. One of the main reasons for this is the fact that the method can correctly estimate only the velocity component parallel to the gradient of the property depicted in the images, while any small displacement perpendicular to the gradient (i.e., directed along the isolines) essentially maps the spatial pattern onto itself and therefore can not be detected using the conventional MCC technique. In the present work we propose a modification of the MCC method that allows circumventing this basic deficiency and improving the performance of the MCC technique. In this approach, the "cross-isoline'' components of the velocity field are obtained as in the conventional MCC scheme; however, the "along-isoline'' components derived from the MCC are disregarded as unreliable. Instead, the "true'' along-isoline components are then reconstructed from the given cross-isoline velocity field based on the continuity requirement and on the condition of no normal flow at solid boundaries. This inverse problem is solved by constructing the two-dimensional stream function in the curvilinear coordinate frame associated with the image isolines. The method is illustrated using AVHRR images from the southwestern Atlantic Ocean and the Black Sea. The results are compared with some direct drifter and current meter measurements and geostrophic estimates. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a quantification of ecological theory: the importance of multivariate analysis and of an accurate diversity measurement
Bogaert, Jan ULg; Ceulemans, R; Impens, I et al

in Acta Biotheoretica (2002), 50(1), 57-61

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See detailPreemptive cellular immunotherapy after T-cell-depleted allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Baron, Frédéric ULg; Beguin, Yves ULg

in Biology of Blood & Marrow Transplantation (2002), 8(7), 351-9

GVHD is a life-threatening complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). GVHD is due to donor lymphocytes that are cotransplanted with donor stem cells. These donor ... [more ▼]

GVHD is a life-threatening complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). GVHD is due to donor lymphocytes that are cotransplanted with donor stem cells. These donor lymphocytes are primed by histocompatibility differences between donors and recipients and activated by a cytokine storm caused by the conditioning regimen. The most efficient method for prevention of GVHD consists of T-cell depletion (TCD) of the graft. However, TCD usually leads to an increased risk of leukemia relapse because of the loss of the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect. Several groups have studied the feasibility of preemptive donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) to lessen the impact of TCD on leukemia relapse. Preemptive DLI is given several weeks to months after the transplantation, ie, after the cytokine storm and after the patient has recovered from conditioning-regimen-related toxicities. After briefly discussing various techniques of TCD of the graft and the efficacy of DLI, this article reviews the first clinical studies evaluating a strategy of TCD of the graft followed by preemptive DLI. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanisms of cell death in the injured auditory system: Otoprotective strategies
Lefèbvre, Philippe ULg; Malgrange, Brigitte ULg; Lallemend, François et al

in Audiology & Neuro-otology (2002), 7(3, May-Jun), 165-170

Oxidative stress insults such as neurotrophin withdrawal, sound trauma, hypoxia/ischemia, ototoxic antibiotics, and chemotherapeutic agents have been shown to induce apoptosis of both auditory hair cells ... [more ▼]

Oxidative stress insults such as neurotrophin withdrawal, sound trauma, hypoxia/ischemia, ototoxic antibiotics, and chemotherapeutic agents have been shown to induce apoptosis of both auditory hair cells and neurons. In this paper, we review some components of the apoptotic pathways leading to the death of hair cells and auditory induced by growth factor withdrawal or cisplatin intoxication: (1) reactive oxygen species and free radicals are formed as by-products of several metabolic pathways and these molecules can themselves cause cell damage by reacting with cellular proteins; (2) activation of caspases, and (3) activation of calpain. These mechanisms have several different points at which inhibitors could be targeted to protect cells from programmed cell death, including the prevention of oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and the activation of caspases and calpains. Copyright (C) 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel. [less ▲]

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See detailSaussure entre deux épistémologies
Badir, Sémir ULg

in Le français moderne (2002), 70(2), 231-238

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See detailDynamic T cell receptor clonotype changes in synovial tissue of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis: effects of treatment with cyclosporin A (Neoral)
VanderBorght, Ann; De Keyser, Filip; Geusens, Piet et al

in Journal of Rheumatology (2002), 29(3), 416-426

OBJECTIVE: To study T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire changes in synovial membrane over a 16 week period in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA); and to study the influence of cyclosporin A (CSA ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To study T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire changes in synovial membrane over a 16 week period in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA); and to study the influence of cyclosporin A (CSA) on TCR repertoire in a subgroup of these patients. METHODS: Synovial tissue biopsies and paired blood samples were obtained from 12 patients with early RA at 2 time points. Seven patients were treated with CSA (Neoral-Sandimmun, 3 mg/kg/day) and 5 patients with placebo for 16 weeks. TCR V gene repertoires were analyzed by semiquantitative PCR-ELISA. CDR3 spectratyping and sequence analysis was used to compare TCR clonotype distributions. RESULTS: TCR-specific mRNA was detected in all synovial tissue biopsies at the first sampling, but in only 8/12 biopsies 16 weeks later (4/7 CSA group, 4/5 placebo group). Overrepresented TCR BV genes were found in biopsies of 10/12 patients at the first time point, and in 7/12 patients after 16 weeks (3/7 CSA, 4/5 placebo). CDR3 sequence analysis revealed dynamic repertoire changes with only a few persisting clonotypes in the synovial tissue of placebo controls. Persisting T cell clonotypes were more frequently found in the synovial tissue of CSA treated patients compared to the placebo group. CONCLUSION: These data suggest a dynamic process of T cell recruitment in the joints of RA patients. This process, possibly due to activation and subsequent infiltration of new T cell clones, apparently is influenced by CSA treatment. Synovial tissue T cells were no longer detected after 16 weeks' CSA treatment in 3 patients. In the other CSA treated patients, new T cell clones infiltrated, while other clones were persistently represented in the joints. These data may have important consequences for the design of T cell targeted therapies for RA. [less ▲]

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See detailModels for assessing the cost-effectiveness of the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis
Zethraeus, N.; Ben Sedrine, Wafa ULg; Caulin, F. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2002), 13(11), 841-857

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See detailPolyamines as essential substances in metabolism
Dandrifosse, Anne-catherine; Deloyer, Patricia; Loret, Suzanne et al

in Trends in Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology (2002), 9

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See detailThe complementary strand of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 RNA genome encodes a bZIP transcription factor that down-regulates viral transcription.
Gaudray, Gilles ULg; Gachon, Frederic; Basbous, Jihane et al

in Journal of virology (2002), 76(24), 12813-22

The RNA genome of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) codes for proteins involved in infectivity, replication, and transformation. We report in this study the characterization of a novel viral ... [more ▼]

The RNA genome of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) codes for proteins involved in infectivity, replication, and transformation. We report in this study the characterization of a novel viral protein encoded by the complementary strand of the HTLV-1 RNA genome. This protein, designated HBZ (for HTLV-1 bZIP factor), contains a N-terminal transcriptional activation domain and a leucine zipper motif in its C terminus. We show here that HBZ is able to interact with the bZIP transcription factor CREB-2 (also called ATF-4), known to activate the HTLV-1 transcription by recruiting the viral trans-activator Tax on the Tax-responsive elements (TxREs). However, we demonstrate that the HBZ/CREB-2 heterodimers are no more able to bind to the TxRE and cyclic AMP response element sites. Taking these findings together, the functional inactivation of CREB-2 by HBZ is suggested to contribute to regulation of the HTLV-1 transcription. Moreover, the characterization of a minus-strand gene protein encoded by HTLV-1 has never been reported until now. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Offense of Hooliganism and the Moral Dimension of China's Pursuit of Modenrity
Florence, Eric ULg

in Revue Bibliographique de Sinologie = Review of Bibliography in Sinology (2002), Vol. XVIII

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See detailMorphology, displacement and slip rates along the North Antolian Fault (Turkey)
Hubert, Aurelia ULg; Armijo, R.; Meyer, B. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research (2002), 107(10.1029/2001JB000393),

Geological and geomorphological offsets at different scales are used to constrain the localization of deformation, total displacement, and slip rates over various timescales along the central and eastern ... [more ▼]

Geological and geomorphological offsets at different scales are used to constrain the localization of deformation, total displacement, and slip rates over various timescales along the central and eastern North Anatolian Fault (NAF) in Turkey. The NAF total displacement is reevaluated using large rivers valleys (80 ± 15 km) and structural markers (Pontide Suture, 85 ± 25 km; Tosya-Vezirko ̈pru ̈ basins, 80 ± 10 km). These suggest a Neogene slip rate of 6.5 mm/yr over 13 Myr. The river network morphology shows offsets at a range of scales (20 m to 14 km) across the main fault trace and is also used to estimate the degree to which deformation is localized. At a smaller scale the morphology associated with small rivers is offset by 200 m along the NAF. The age of these features can be correlated with the Holocene deglaciation and a slip rate of 18 ± 3.5 mm/yr is determined. This is consistent with a rate of 18 ± 5 mm/yr deduced independently from the 14C dating of stream terrace offsets. Over the short term, GPS data gives a similar rate of 22 ± 3 mm/yr. All our results tend to show that most of the deformation between the Anatolian and Eurasian lithospheric plates has been accommodated along, or very close to, the active trace of the NAF. The difference between the Neogene and the Holocene slip rate may be due to the recent establishment of the current plate geometry after the creation of the NAF. INDEX TERMS: 8107 Tectonophysics: Continental neotectonics; 8158 Tectonophysics: Plate motions—present and recent (3040); 7230 Seismology: Seismicity and seismotectonics; KEYWORDS: North Anatolian Fault, slip rate, total offset, strain localization [less ▲]

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See detail'Pretty Happy!'
Delville, Michel ULg

in Literary Review (2002), 46(1), 196-199

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See detailTight binding of the antitumor drug ditercalinium to quadruplex DNA
Carrasco, Carolina; Rosu, Frédéric ULg; Gabelica, Valérie ULg et al

in Chembiochem : A European Journal of Chemical Biology (2002), 3(12), 1235-1241

The structural selectivity of the DNA-binding antitumor drug ditercalinium was investigated by competition dialysis with a series of nineteen different DNA substrates. The 7H-pyridocarbazole dimer was ... [more ▼]

The structural selectivity of the DNA-binding antitumor drug ditercalinium was investigated by competition dialysis with a series of nineteen different DNA substrates. The 7H-pyridocarbazole dimer was found to bind to double stranded DNA with a preference for GC rich species but can in addition form stable complex with triplex and quadruplex structures. The preferential interaction of the drug with four-stranded DNA structures was independantly confirmed by electrospray mass spectrometry and a detailed analysis of the binding reaction was performed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectrospray. The BIAcore SPR study showed that the kinetic parameters for the interaction of ditercalinium with the human telomeric quadruplex sequence are comparable to those measured with a duplex sequence. Slow association and dissociation were observed with both the quadruplex and duplex structures. The newly discovered preferential binding of ditercalinium to the antiparallel quadruplex sequence d(AG(3)[T(2)AG(3)](3)) provides new perspective for the design of drugs that can bind to human telomeres. [less ▲]

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See detailApproche diagnostique de la dissection carotidienne. A propos de deux cas.
Deflandre, E.; Tshibanda, L.; NCHIMI LONGANG, Alain ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(2), 85-90

Two cases of acute internal carotid dissection are presented. Typical symptoms, pathogeny and imaging features are reviewed. Magnetic Resonance is actually the best technique for the diagnosis of internal ... [more ▼]

Two cases of acute internal carotid dissection are presented. Typical symptoms, pathogeny and imaging features are reviewed. Magnetic Resonance is actually the best technique for the diagnosis of internal carotid artery dissection, which should be searched in young patients presenting neurologic and cervico-facial symptoms. [less ▲]

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See detailHarmonic-Balance Finite-Element Modelling of Electromagnetic Devices: A Novel Approach
Gyselinck, J.; Dular, Patrick ULg; Geuzaine, Christophe ULg et al

in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics (2002), 38(2), 521--524

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See detailLittérature dialectale à Farciennes et Atlas linguistique de la Wallonie. De la géographie à la généricité
Droixhe, Daniel ULg; Vanwelkenhuyzen, Nadine ULg

in Revue Belge de Philologie et d'Histoire (2002), 80(3), 875-904

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