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See detailLes mécanismes du déclenchement pubertaire : signaux périphériques, hypothalamiques et environnementaux
LEBRETHON, Marie-Christine ULg; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Actualités Médicales Internationales. Métabolismes-Hormones-Nutrition (2001), V(3), 101-106

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See detailLe recours de l'assureur-loi : son objet et son assiette.
Michiels, Olivier ULg

in Lexius Actua (2001), 5

L’article 47 de la loi sur les accidents du travail permet à l’assureur loi et au Fonds des accidents du travail d’exercer une action subrogatoire contre le responsable du sinistre à concurrence des ... [more ▼]

L’article 47 de la loi sur les accidents du travail permet à l’assureur loi et au Fonds des accidents du travail d’exercer une action subrogatoire contre le responsable du sinistre à concurrence des sommes versées à la victime ou à ses ayants droit. Cette action ne peut toutefois excéder les montants que la victime ou ses ayants droit auraient pu réclamer du chef du même dommage en vertu du droit commun. Le recours de l’assurance loi ou du Fonds des accidents du travail est limité au montant de la plus faible de ces deux sommes. Aux fins de pouvoir apprécier l’étendue du recours de l’assureur, l'article propose de différencier son objet et son assiette. [less ▲]

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See detailTranslocation (16;17)(Q22;P13) Is a Recurrent Anomaly of Aneurysmal Bone Cysts
Herens, Christian ULg; Thiry, Anne-Marie ULg; Dresse, M. F. et al

in Cancer Genetics & Cytogenetics (2001), 127(1), 83-4

Recently, Panoutsakopoulos et al. (1999) reported 2 cases of aneurysmal bone cysts with a recurrent (16;17)(q22;p13) translocation. We present here two additional cases harboring the same translocation as ... [more ▼]

Recently, Panoutsakopoulos et al. (1999) reported 2 cases of aneurysmal bone cysts with a recurrent (16;17)(q22;p13) translocation. We present here two additional cases harboring the same translocation as well as additional chromosomal changes. [less ▲]

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See detailSport et hypertension artérielle
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg; Ancion, G.

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(5), 306-312

Regular physical exercise belongs to the non pharmacological tools for the control of high blood pressure. When practising it almost daily at low intensity during 30 minutes, and mainly on a dynamic mode ... [more ▼]

Regular physical exercise belongs to the non pharmacological tools for the control of high blood pressure. When practising it almost daily at low intensity during 30 minutes, and mainly on a dynamic mode, blood pressure can decrease almost of the same order of magnitude as with an antihypertensive drug. In severe hypertension, blood pressure must be first controlled by drugs before starting the physical exercise training. An exercise test is preferable before exercise suggestion in sedentary people older than 40 years. In hypertensive people who enter sportive competition, diuretics and betablockers are forbidden. These agents can also reduce performance. [less ▲]

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See detailAspects echographiques du coeur du sportif
Pierard, Luc ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(5), 313-7

Sporting activities and athletic training induce not only physiologic, but also morphologic changes. Dynamic training is associated with an enlarged left ventricle and a small increase in wall thickness ... [more ▼]

Sporting activities and athletic training induce not only physiologic, but also morphologic changes. Dynamic training is associated with an enlarged left ventricle and a small increase in wall thickness. Athletes who perform predominantly static or isometric exercise have increased wall thickness with normal left ventricular internal diameter. Systolic and diastolic function are normal. Echocardiography is the method of choice to identify and follow the athlete's heart and to distinguish between physiologic and pathologic hypertrophy. [less ▲]

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See detailSexual Precocity after Immigration from Developing Countries to Belgium: Evidence of Previous Exposure to Organochlorine Pesticides
Krstevska-Konstantinova, M.; Charlier, Corinne ULg; Craen, M. et al

in Human Reproduction (2001), 16(5), 1020-6

In a retrospective auxological study of 145 patients seen in Belgium during a 9-year period for treatment of precocious puberty, 28% appeared to be foreign children (39 girls, one boy) who immigrated 4 to ... [more ▼]

In a retrospective auxological study of 145 patients seen in Belgium during a 9-year period for treatment of precocious puberty, 28% appeared to be foreign children (39 girls, one boy) who immigrated 4 to 5 years earlier from 22 developing countries, without any link to a particular ethnic or country background. The patients were either adopted (n = 28) or non-adopted (n = 12), the latter having normal weight and height at immigration and starting early puberty without evidence of earlier deprivation. This led to the hypothesis that the mechanism of precocious puberty might involve previous exposure to oestrogenic endocrine disrupters. A toxicological plasma screening for eight pesticides detected p,p'-DDE, which is derived from the organochlorine pesticide DDT. Median p,p'-DDE concentrations were respectively 1.20 and 1.04 ng/ml in foreign adopted (n = 15) and non-adopted (n = 11) girls with precocious puberty, while 13 out of 15 Belgian native girls with idiopathic or organic precocious puberty showed undetectable concentrations (<0.1 ng/ml). A possible relationship between transient exposure to endocrine disrupters and sexual precocity is suggested, and deserves further studies in immigrant children with non-advanced puberty. [less ▲]

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See detailSurentrainement et efforts d'endurance
Jidovtseff, Boris ULg; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(5), 343-52

Optimal training results in exercise-recovery harmonious balance. High frequency and volumic training, associated with insufficient recovery may induce overtraining. It depends on the kind of exercise but ... [more ▼]

Optimal training results in exercise-recovery harmonious balance. High frequency and volumic training, associated with insufficient recovery may induce overtraining. It depends on the kind of exercise but occurs mainly in endurance sports. The high frequency of upper respiratory track infection in endurance sportsmen results from a temporary immunosuppression state, possibly associated with overtraining. Many immune and haematological parameters have been associated with overtraining, but none seemed really efficient for diagnosis. Hormonal parameters, despite contradictions in studies, appear to give a good insight of athlete's staleness and are more predictive of overtraining. Actually, overtraining detection needs a combination of different parameters, and cannot sustain on isolated factors. [less ▲]

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See detailPathologie tendineuse du sujet sportif veteran
Bartsch, Valérie ULg; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(5), 375-81

Tendonitis and tendons ruptures are mainly seen above 40 years of age, especially in sport practice. We discuss the physiopathology, diagnosis and treatment.

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See detailDutch Studies Abroad
Steyaert, Kris ULg

in ALCS Newsletter (2001), 5(1), 4-6

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See detailNon-synoptic versus pseudo-synoptic data sets: an assimilation experiment
Rixen, Michel; Allen, J. T.; Beckers, Jean-Marie ULg

in Journal of Marine Systems (2001), 29(1-4), 313-333

Several first-order correction methods are implemented to compute pseudo-synoptic data sets from non-synoptic raw data sets. These include a geostrophic relocation method, a linear and a quadratic ... [more ▼]

Several first-order correction methods are implemented to compute pseudo-synoptic data sets from non-synoptic raw data sets. These include a geostrophic relocation method, a linear and a quadratic interpolation method, and a method using spatio-temporal correlation functions. The relocation method involves analyses and geostrophic velocity computations to allow the relocation of stations in time and space to a particular analysis time. Interpolation methods involve several almost identical and consecutive surveys interpolated in time. Temporal weighting methods are based upon a spatio-temporal function modifying the weight on data with respect to the time at which they have been sampled. These techniques are tested on the OMEGA data set and are validated by simple nudging assimilation into a 3D primitive equation model (PE). It is shown that, under certain hypothesis, these methods are able to correct the lack of synopticity in hydrographic data sets, and improve the diagnosis of vertical velocities computed from the Omega equation. These methods are of particular interest for the scientific community. They might be used together with diagnostic models. They might provide suitable pseudo-synoptic fields required by 3D PE models as initial conditions, boundary conditions or assimilation data sets. They may also be useful in the design of mesoscale samplings. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailInfections cutanees contractees a l'occasion d'activites sportives ou de loisirs recreatifs
Ledoux, Didier ULg; Goffin, Véronique ULg; Fumal, I. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(5), 339-42

Going in for sports is at increased risk for cutaneous infections that can be viral, bacterial, mycotic and parasitic in nature. The specific conditions of sports practice have a major influence on their ... [more ▼]

Going in for sports is at increased risk for cutaneous infections that can be viral, bacterial, mycotic and parasitic in nature. The specific conditions of sports practice have a major influence on their occurrence. Other factors such as age, gender and genetic predisposition can also play a role. The cutaneous infections should be the target of preventive measures. To assume the worse, they should be recognized and treated without delay in order to avoid the more or less prolonged arrest of the sports activity and the disease transmission to partners. [less ▲]

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See detailGiant electrical fluctuations in metallic disordered packings
Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Dorbolo, Stéphane ULg

in European Physical Journal E -- Soft Matter (2001), 5(2), 129-131

We have experimentally studied granular arches through electrical measurements. The packing is composed of 2d metallic pentagons and is submitted to small taps. Large electrical fluctuations are observed ... [more ▼]

We have experimentally studied granular arches through electrical measurements. The packing is composed of 2d metallic pentagons and is submitted to small taps. Large electrical fluctuations are observed and they are distributed along power laws. The indicates the presence of long-time memory effects event the packing density remains constant around a value rho = 0.72 +/- 0.02. Large electrical fluctuations should be associated with the breaking/creation of granular arches. [less ▲]

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See detailElectromyostimulation en medecine du sport
Vanderthommen, Marc ULg; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(5), 391-5

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is frequently used to strengthen the normal muscle. In medicine, several investigators have highlighted the value of NMES when treating amyotrophy related to ... [more ▼]

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is frequently used to strengthen the normal muscle. In medicine, several investigators have highlighted the value of NMES when treating amyotrophy related to immobilization. The efficacy of NMES of the quadriceps during rehabilitation following anterior cruciate ligament surgery has been well documented. These electrical stimulation programs are composed of stimulation--rest cycles and are performed with the aid of percutaneous electrodes situated in regard to muscle motor points. The stimulation frequency is chosen to induce tetanic contractions and is generally situated between 50 and 100 Hz. During NMES, the trainer or the physiotherapist can accurately modulate a large number of parameters but the sensory discomfort linked to the current intensity remains the major limitation for strength improvement. In the context of rehabilitation, the association of NMES with voluntary exercises is superior to the isolated utilization of the classic program composed of isometric voluntary contractions. To explain this advantage of associating NMES with voluntary contractions, it has been hypothesized that the electrically induced contractions impose specific patterns of muscle recruitment and a particular metabolic solicitation. [less ▲]

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See detailFull-electrochemical preparation of conducting/insulating binary polymer films
Jérôme, Christine ULg; Geskin, V.; Lazzaroni, Roberto et al

in Chemistry of Materials (2001), 13(5), 1656-1664

Binary polymer films consisting of an insulating polymer and a conducting polymer have been successfully prepared by sequential electropolymerization of the parent monomers. The insulating polymer ... [more ▼]

Binary polymer films consisting of an insulating polymer and a conducting polymer have been successfully prepared by sequential electropolymerization of the parent monomers. The insulating polymer (polyacrylonitrile or polyethylacrylate) is formed under cathodic polarization in a potential range where the growing chains are chemically grafted onto the nickel or carbon electrode. The conducting polymer (polybithiophene or polypyrrole) is formed by electrooxidation of the parent monomer. The electrochemical reactions and the electrochemical properties of the films have been analyzed by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The influence of the main experimental parameters on the composition and morphology of the films has been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. This approach strongly improves the adhesion of the conducting polymer as a result of its combination with the grafted polyacrylonitrile. This combination of insulating and conducting polymers is a way to tune the electroactivity of the conjugated chains. [less ▲]

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See detailPoly(D,L-lactide) foams modified by poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(D,L-lactide) copolymers and a-FGF: in vitro and in vivo evaluation for spinal cord regeneration
Maquet, Véronique; Martin, Didier ULg; Scholtes, Félix ULg et al

in Biomaterials (2001), 22(10), 1137-1146

The first goal of this study was to examine the influence that poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(D,L-lactide) (PELA) copolymer can have on the wettability, the in vitro controlled delivery capability, and ... [more ▼]

The first goal of this study was to examine the influence that poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(D,L-lactide) (PELA) copolymer can have on the wettability, the in vitro controlled delivery capability, and the degradation of poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA) foams. These foams were prepared by freeze-drying and contain micropores (10 μm) in addition of macropores (100 μm) organized longitudinally. Weight loss, water absorption, changes in molecular weight, polymolecularity (Mw/Mn) and glass transition temperature ( Tg) of PDLLA foams mixed with various amounts of PELA were followed with time. It was found that 10 wt% of PELA increased the wettability and the degradation rate of the polymer foams. The release of sulforhodamine (SR) was compared for PDLLA and PDLLA-PELA foams in relation with the foam porosity. An initial burst release was observed only in the case of the 90:10 PDLLA/PELA foam. The ability of the foam of this composition to be integrated and to promote tissue repair and axonal regeneration in the transected rat spinal cord was investigated. After implantation of ca. 20 polymer rods assembled with fibrin-glue, the polymer construct was able to bridge the cord stumps by forming a permissive support for cellular migration, angiogenesis and axonal regrowth. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic Imbalances in Preleukemic Thymuses
Verlaet, Myriam ULg; Deregowski, Valérie; Denis, Ghislaine et al

in Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (2001), 283(1), 12-8

To understand the molecular mechanisms involved in preleukemia, the suppression subtractive hybridization method was used in a murine radiation-induced thymic lymphoma model. Seventeen mRNAs overexpressed ... [more ▼]

To understand the molecular mechanisms involved in preleukemia, the suppression subtractive hybridization method was used in a murine radiation-induced thymic lymphoma model. Seventeen mRNAs overexpressed in preleukemic thymuses were identified: mouse laminin binding protein (p40/37LBP), E25 protein, Rattus norvegicus clone BB.1.4.1, profilin, poly(A) binding protein (PABP), mouse high mobility group protein 1, topoisomerase I, clusterin, proteasome RC1 subunit, rat prostatein C3 and C1 subunits; two ESTs and four unknown genes. The overexpression of PABP, clusterin, profilin, and the p40/37LBP mRNAs was confirmed in preleukemic thymuses and can be related to some cellular events observed during the preleukemic period, i.e., alterations of cell cycle and apoptosis properties. The p40/37LBP and 67-kDa laminin receptor proteins were upregulated during the preleukemic period. The data suggest that additional studies on p40/37LBP and 67-kDa laminin receptor regulation are required to evaluate their potential role in the lymphoma prevention by TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. [less ▲]

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See detailDown-Regulation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor by Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2: Effect on in Vivo Mammary Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis
Hajitou, Amin; Sounni, Nor Eddine ULg; Devy, Laetitia et al

in Cancer Research (2001), 61(8), 3450-7

The tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) has at least two independent functions, i.e., regulation of matrix metalloproteinases and growth promoting activity. We investigated the effects of ... [more ▼]

The tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) has at least two independent functions, i.e., regulation of matrix metalloproteinases and growth promoting activity. We investigated the effects of TIMP-2 overexpression, induced by retroviral mediated gene transfer, on the in vivo development of mammary tumors in syngeneic mice inoculated with EF43.fgf-4 cells. The EF43.fgf-4 cells established by stably infecting the normal mouse mammary EF43 cells with a retroviral expression vector for the fgf-4 oncogene, are highly tumorigenic and overproduce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Despite a promotion of the in vitro growth rate of EF43.fgf-4 cells overexpressing timp-2, the in vivo tumor growth was delayed. At day 17 post-cell injection, the volume of tumor derived from TIMP-2-overexpressing cells was reduced by 80% as compared with that obtained with control cells. Overexpression of TIMP-2 was associated with a down-regulation of VEGF expression in vitro and in vivo, a reduction of vessel size, density, and blood supply in the induced tumors. In addition, TIMP-2 completely inhibited the angiogenic activity of EF43.fgf-4 cell-conditioned medium in vitro using a rat aortic ring model. Our findings suggest that overexpression of TIMP-2 delays growth and angiogenesis of mammary carcinoma in vivo and that down-regulation of VEGF expression may play an important role in this TIMP-2-mediated antitumoral and antiangiogenic effects. Finally the in vivo delivery of TIMP-2, as assessed by i.v. injection of recombinant adenoviruses vectors, significantly reduced the growth of the EF43.fgf-4-induced tumors. This effect of TIMP-2 was shown to be equally comparable with that of angiostatin, a known potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailRadiothérapie vasculaire : un nouveau standard
Coucke, Philippe ULg; Hu Phuoc, Do; Urban, Ph. et al

in Médecine et Hygiène (2001), (3000),

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See detailHD 152248: Evidence for a colliding wind interaction
Sana, H.; Rauw, Grégor ULg; Gosset, Eric ULg

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2001), 370

We present the results of a four year spectroscopic campaign on the early-type binary system HD 152248. Our analysis yields a new classification as O7.5III(f) + O7III(f), in contradiction with previous ... [more ▼]

We present the results of a four year spectroscopic campaign on the early-type binary system HD 152248. Our analysis yields a new classification as O7.5III(f) + O7III(f), in contradiction with previous classifications of the components as supergiants. We derive improved orbital elements and the corresponding masses (M_1=29.6 M[SUB]sun[/SUB] and M_2=29.9 M[SUB]sun[/SUB]) are somewhat larger than previously reported in the literature, although they are still significantly lower than the ones expected from evolutionary tracks. Both components of the system are close to filling their Roche lobe at periastron passage. We also investigate the equivalent width variations of the lines of the two components and we discuss their relation to the Struve-Sahade effect. Finally, we show that the line profile variability of the He Iil4686 and Halpha lines is consistent with a strong wind interaction between the two stars, quite as predicted by current colliding wind models. Based on data collected at the European Southern Observatory (La Silla, Chile) and at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (Cerro Tololo, Chile). [less ▲]

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See detailThe European Large Area ISO Survey - IV. The preliminary 90-microns luminosity function
Serjeant, S.; Efstathiou, A.; Oliver, S. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2001), 322

We present the luminosity function of 90-μm-selected galaxies from the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS), extending to z=0.3. Their luminosities are in the range 10[SUP]9[/SUP]< h 65 -2L/L[SUB]solar ... [more ▼]

We present the luminosity function of 90-μm-selected galaxies from the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS), extending to z=0.3. Their luminosities are in the range 10[SUP]9[/SUP]< h 65 -2L/L[SUB]solar[/SUB]<10[SUP]12[/SUP], i.e. non-ultraluminous. From our sample of 37 reliably detected galaxies in the ELAIS S1 region from the Efstathiou et al. S[SUB]90[/SUB]>=100mJy data base, we have found optical, 15-μm or 1.4-GHz identifications for 24 (65 per cent). We have obtained 2dF and UK Schmidt FLAIR spectroscopy of 89 per cent of identifications to rigid multivariate flux limits. We construct a luminosity function assuming that (i) our spectroscopic subset is an unbiased sparse sample, and (ii) there are no galaxies that would not be represented in our spectroscopic sample at any redshift. We argue that we can be confident of both assumptions. We find that the luminosity function is well described by the local 100-μm luminosity function of Rowan-Robinson, Helou & Walker. Assuming this local normalization, we derive luminosity evolution of (1+z)[SUP]2.45+/-0.85[/SUP] (95 per cent confidence). We argue that star formation dominates the bolometric luminosities of these galaxies, and we derive comoving star formation rates in broad agreement with the Flores et al. and Rowan-Robinson et al. mid-infrared-based estimates. [less ▲]

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See detailCombination of Electrografting and Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization: An Efficient Way to Prepare Polynorbornene Brushes on Conducting Substrates
Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Jérôme, Christine ULg; Claes, Michaël et al

in Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English) (2001), 40(7), 1268-1271

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See detailLa peau, le froid et les sports d'hiver
Claes, G.; Henry, Frédérique ULg; Letawe, C. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(4), 257-60

Winter sports are responsible for various dermatoses which could be often avoided by simple preventive procedures. Both the severity and duration of cold exposure combined with wind speed, altitude and ... [more ▼]

Winter sports are responsible for various dermatoses which could be often avoided by simple preventive procedures. Both the severity and duration of cold exposure combined with wind speed, altitude and environmental hygrometric value govern the potential types of cold injuries. [less ▲]

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See detailSport et grossesse
Emonts, Patrick ULg; Thoumsin, H.; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(4), 216-8

Pregnant women consult often their obstetricians for counselling about their way of living. Particularly answering questions concerning physical activity and sports during pregnancy require a profound ... [more ▼]

Pregnant women consult often their obstetricians for counselling about their way of living. Particularly answering questions concerning physical activity and sports during pregnancy require a profound knowledge on the physiological adaptations of pregnancy and, on the other hand, on performance and sports physiology. On the basis of the current state of research, physical exercise and sport are to be recommended during pregnancy so long as women are aware of potential dangers and contraindications. Maternal benefits and fetal benefits have today been demonstrated. [less ▲]

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See detailOn Comparison Meaningfulness of Aggregation Functions
Marichal, Jean-Luc; Mathonet, Pierre ULg

in Journal of Mathematical Psychology (2001), 45(2), 213-223

This paper will give a description of all continuous functions which are comparison meaningful in the sense of measurement theory.

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See detailIncrease of the Photosensitizing Efficiency of the Bacteriochlorin a by Liposome-Incorporation
Damoiseau, X.; Schuitmaker, H. J.; Lagerberg, J. W. et al

in Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B : Biology (2001), 60(1), 50-60

To describe the action mechanisms of Bacteriochlorin a (BCA), a second generation photosensitizer, in phosphate buffer (PB) and in dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) liposomes we carried out oxygen ... [more ▼]

To describe the action mechanisms of Bacteriochlorin a (BCA), a second generation photosensitizer, in phosphate buffer (PB) and in dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) liposomes we carried out oxygen consumption and ESR measurements. In PB, where BCA was in a monomer-dimer equilibrium, our results suggested that the oxygen consumption was related to the BCA monomers concentration in solution. Incorporation of BCA in DMPC liposomes, by promoting the monomerization of BCA, increased 9-fold the oxygen consumption in comparison to the value in PB. The use of specific singlet oxygen quenchers (Azide and 9,10-Anthracenedipropionic acid) in ESR and oxygen consumption experiments allowed us to assert that BCA was mainly a type II sensitizer when it was incorporated in DMPC. Finally, the cell survival of WiDr cells after a PDT treatment was measured for cells incubated with BCA in cell culture medium and cells incubated with BCA in DMPC. Irrespective of the dye concentration, the cell survival was lower when liposomes were used. This effect could be the result of a better BCA monomerization and/or a different BCA uptake in cells. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation physiologique de la force explosive du sportif
Lange, B.; Bury, Thierry ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(4), 233-8

Although we all possess the capability for anaerobic and aerobic energy metabolism, the capacity for each form of energy transfer varies considerably among individuals. Sports such as football or ... [more ▼]

Although we all possess the capability for anaerobic and aerobic energy metabolism, the capacity for each form of energy transfer varies considerably among individuals. Sports such as football or weightlifting, rely almost exclusively on energy derived from the muscles's pool of high-energy phosphates. Researchers have proposed different tests to estimate the power-generating capacity of high energy phosphates: stair-sprinting power tests, jumping-power tests or sprint cycling. In reality, however, it is difficult to obtain precise physiological or biochemical data during all-out exercise of brief duration. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 on Choroidal Neovascularization
Lambert, Vincent ULg; Munaut, Carine ULg; Frankenne, F. et al

in FASEB Journal (2001), 15(6), 1021-7

High levels of the plasminogen activators, but also their inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), have been documented in neovascularization of severe ocular pathologies such as diabetic ... [more ▼]

High levels of the plasminogen activators, but also their inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), have been documented in neovascularization of severe ocular pathologies such as diabetic retinopathy or age-related macular degeneration (AMD). AMD is the primary cause of irreversible photoreceptors loss, and current therapies are limited. PAI-1 has recently been shown to be essential for tumoral angiogenesis. We report here that deficient PAI-1 expression in mice prevented the development of subretinal choroidal angiogenesis induced by laser photocoagulation. When systemic and local PAI-1 expression was achieved by intravenous injection of a replication-defective adenoviral vector expressing human PAI-1 cDNA, the wild-type pattern of choroidal angiogenesis was restored. These observations demonstrate the proangiogenic activity of PAI-1 not only in tumoral models, but also in choroidal experimental neovascularization sharing similarities with human AMD. They identify therefore PAI-1 as a potential target for therapeutic ocular anti-angiogenic strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailMating Induces Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neuronal Activation in Anosmic Female Ferrets
Bakker, Julie ULg; Kelliher, K. R.; Baum, M. J.

in Biology of Reproduction (2001), 64(4), 1100-5

In females of both spontaneously and induced ovulating species, pheromones from male conspecifics can directly stimulate GnRH neuronal activity, thereby inducing pituitary LH secretion and stimulating the ... [more ▼]

In females of both spontaneously and induced ovulating species, pheromones from male conspecifics can directly stimulate GnRH neuronal activity, thereby inducing pituitary LH secretion and stimulating the onset of estrus. However, whether pheromones contribute to the steroid- or mating-induced preovulatory activation of GnRH neurons is less clear. Previous studies in the ferret, an induced ovulator, raised the possibility that olfactory cues contribute to the ability of genital-somatosensory stimulation to activate GnRH neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH). In the present study the percentage of GnRH neurons colabeled with Fos-immunoreactivity (IR), used as a marker for neuronal activation, was investigated in the MBH of mated gonadectomized, estradiol-treated female ferrets in which both nares were occluded. In addition, the percentage of GnRH neurons colabeled with Fos-IR was examined in the MBH of gonadectomized, estradiol-treated female ferrets exposed to male bedding. Bilateral nares occlusion successfully blocked mating or odor-induced increments in Fos-IR in central olfactory regions, including the cortical and medial amygdala. By contrast, the percentage of GnRH neurons expressing Fos-IR did not differ between mated nares- and sham-occluded females. Exposure to male bedding alone failed to induce Fos-IR in MBH GnRH neurons. Thus, the mating-induced preovulatory activation of GnRH neurons in the female ferret's MBH appears to rely solely on genital-somatosensory as opposed to olfactory inputs. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of Cytokines in Human Sural Nerve Biopsies: An Immunohistochemical and Molecular Study
Deprez, Manuel ULg; Lübke, U.; Verlaet, Myriam ULg et al

in Acta Neuropathologica (2001), 101(4), 393-404

In vitro and in vivo models have implicated numerous cytokines as major modulators of inflammation, destruction and repair in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The in situ production of cytokines in ... [more ▼]

In vitro and in vivo models have implicated numerous cytokines as major modulators of inflammation, destruction and repair in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The in situ production of cytokines in human peripheral nerve disorders is still poorly documented. We studied the expression of interleukin (IL)-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, IL-6, IL-10, IL-4, IL-3 and nerve growth factor (NGF) in 35 human sural nerve biopsies using immunohistochemistry; additional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and mRNA in situ hybridization were performed for IL-4 and NGF. Expression of IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha was shown in both morphologically normal nerves and various neuropathies, and macrophages appeared as their predominant source. Levels of IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha expression were significantly correlated (P < 0.01) with each other and with expression of NGF. Multiple endoneurial sources were suggested for IL-6 and IL-10 with low immunoreactivity in the vast majority of cases. Conversely, IL-4 and IL-3 expression were found in neuropathies of various etiologies and Schwann cells appeared to be a predominant source of IL-4 in double-labeling immunofluorescence studies. IL-3 immunoreactivity correlated with IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha and IL-6. In this retrospective study, no specific cytokine profile of expression could be assigned to a precise subgroup of neuropathies. This is the first report of IL-4 and IL-3 expression in human neuropathies, and it may be important given the potential role of these cytokines in modulating macrophage activity in the PNS. [less ▲]

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See detailBiochemical Characterization of the Fez-1 Metallo-Beta-Lactamase of Legionella Gormanii Atcc 33297t Produced in Escherichia Coli
Mercuri, P. S.; Bouillenne, Fabrice ULg; Boschi, L. et al

in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (2001), 45(4), 1254-62

The bla(FEZ-1) gene coding for the metallo-beta-lactamase of Legionella (Fluoribacter) gormanii ATCC 33297T was overexpressed via a T7 expression system in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)(pLysS). The product ... [more ▼]

The bla(FEZ-1) gene coding for the metallo-beta-lactamase of Legionella (Fluoribacter) gormanii ATCC 33297T was overexpressed via a T7 expression system in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)(pLysS). The product was purified to homogeneity in two steps with a yield of 53%. The FEZ-1 metallo-beta-lactamase exhibited a broad-spectrum activity profile, with a preference for cephalosporins such as cephalothin, cefuroxime, and cefotaxime. Monobactams were not hydrolyzed. The beta-lactamase was inhibited by metal chelators. FEZ-1 is a monomeric enzyme with a molecular mass of 29,440 Da which possesses two zinc-binding sites. Its zinc content did not vary in the pH range of 5 to 9, but the presence of zinc ions modified the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme. A model of the FEZ-1 three-dimensional structure was built. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychological Evolution and Assessment in Patients Undergoing Orthotopic Heart Transplantation
Triffaux, Jean-Marc ULg; Wauthy, Jacques ULg; Bertrand, Jean-Marie ULg et al

in European Psychiatry (2001), 16(3), 180-5

BACKGROUND: Orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) is a major surgical intervention inducing distress and anxiety. Psychiatric evaluation of organ transplant candidates is now routinely proposed. This ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) is a major surgical intervention inducing distress and anxiety. Psychiatric evaluation of organ transplant candidates is now routinely proposed. This study purposed to assess the psychological evolution in patients having received psychological and/or psychiatric assistance before and during 1-6 postoperative months. METHODS: Twenty-two consecutive transplant candidates were psychically evaluated as part of the preoperative protocol. In the waiting period, 1 and 6 months after OHT, they were asked to fill out the following questionnaires: the General Health Questionnaire, the Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Perceived Social Support Scale, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale and the Personal Reaction Inventory. RESULTS: A DSM-IV Axis I diagnosis was found in nine patients (41%); four patients (18%) presented with an Axis II diagnosis. One month after OHT, scores of depression, anxiety and general health significantly improved, while scores of social support, alexithymia and social desirability did not differ. In the sixth postoperative month, all psychological scores remained stable. CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of preoperative psychopathology was reported in 22 candidates who received OHT. Surgical intervention obviously improved the quality of life after cardiac transplantation. If the impact of psychological and/or psychiatric aid remains difficult to appraise, these results emphasize the positive impact of surgery on psychological status and the appropriateness of the psychosomatician's social support intervention on patients facing the transplant process. [less ▲]

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See detailReduced dopaminergic activity in depressed suicides
PITCHOT, William ULg; Reggers, Jean ULg; Pinto, Emmanuel ULg et al

in Psychoneuroendocrinology (2001), 26(3), 331-335

Several data are available about the implication of the dopaminergic system in the control of inward-directed aggression. Previously, we suggested an involvement of D2-dopaminergic function in the ... [more ▼]

Several data are available about the implication of the dopaminergic system in the control of inward-directed aggression. Previously, we suggested an involvement of D2-dopaminergic function in the expression of suicidal behavior by demonstrating a smaller growth hormone (GH) response to apomorphine, a dopaminergic agonist, in depressed patients with a history of suicide attempts in comparison to nonattempters. In the present study, the purpose was to analyze GH responses to apomorphine in depressive patients who later died by suicide. Our sample comprised eight male depressive inpatients who died by suicide within one year after hospitalisation. These patients were compared to 18 male major depressed inpatients who never attempted suicide. Mean GH peak responses to apomorphine differed significantly between suicide completers and controls (mean +/- SD): for GH peak, 7.6 +/- 4.1 ng/ml vs 18.9 +/- 14.2 ng/ml, U = 30, Z = -2.33, P = 0.02. Our results tend to confirm the role of dopamine in the biology of suicide in depression. [less ▲]

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See detailAu-dela de la performance athletique, la trahison de la peau
Martalo, O.; Claessens, N.; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(4), 261-4

Several compounds listed as illicit doping agents can express some effects on the skin. The cutaneous signs are diverse. The clue of the intake of such compounds can be supported by objective non-invasive ... [more ▼]

Several compounds listed as illicit doping agents can express some effects on the skin. The cutaneous signs are diverse. The clue of the intake of such compounds can be supported by objective non-invasive biometrological assessments. However, such evaluations do not bring the irrefutable proof. The skin can also present unwanted reactions indicating intolerance to the doping agent. Such physiopathological manifestations are not limited to the sport competition, but can also affect some groups of the population searching for a look reminiscent of the ideal young and performing athlete. [less ▲]

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See detailErgospirométrie en pratique médicale
Lange, B.; Close, Patricia ULg; Bury, Thierry ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(4), 228-32

Cardiopulmonary exercise testing is a unique tool to assess the limits and mechanisms of exercise tolerance. It is also useful for establishing the profiles and adequacy of the responses of the systems at ... [more ▼]

Cardiopulmonary exercise testing is a unique tool to assess the limits and mechanisms of exercise tolerance. It is also useful for establishing the profiles and adequacy of the responses of the systems at submaximal and maximal exercises. The measure of VO2 max (maximal oxygen uptake) has become the "benchmark" to quantify cardiovascular functional capacity and aerobic fitness. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphology and mechanical properties of poly(methylmethacrylate)-b-poly(alkylacrylate)-b-poly(methylmethacrylate)
Tong, J. D.; Leclère, Philippe; Doneux, C. et al

in Polymer (2001), 42(8), 3503-3514

A series of well-defined poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA)-b-poly(alkylacrylate)-b-PMMA triblock copolymers (MAM) has been synthesized by transalcoholysis of PMMA-b-poly(tert-butylacrylate)-b-PMMA ... [more ▼]

A series of well-defined poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA)-b-poly(alkylacrylate)-b-PMMA triblock copolymers (MAM) has been synthesized by transalcoholysis of PMMA-b-poly(tert-butylacrylate)-b-PMMA precursors by alkyl alcohols. The molecular weight (MW) of the outer PMMA blocks is in the 10,000-50,000 range, compared to 50,000-200,000 for the inner poly(alkylacrylate) block. Phase separation, as studied in direct space by atomic force microscopy, is observed for all the investigated triblock copolymers, except for the PMMA-b-poly(ethylacrylate)-b-PMMA and the PMMA-b-poly(n-propylacrylate)-b-PMMA triblocks of 10,000-50,000-10,000 MW. The ultimate tensile strength measured for the MAM triblocks is strongly dependent on the MW between chain entanglements for the central block. The tensile behavior is however affected by the partial miscibility of the outer and inner blocks when the PMMA MW is low. When this situation prevails, it makes the melt processing possible at temperatures lower than 200°C. [less ▲]

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See detailCold-Adapted Beta-Galactosidase from the Antarctic Psychrophile Pseudoalteromonas Haloplanktis
Hoyoux, A.; Jennes, I.; Dubois, P. et al

in Applied and Environmental Microbiology (2001), 67(4), 1529-35

The beta-galactosidase from the Antarctic gram-negative bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAE 79 was purified to homogeneity. The nucleotide sequence and the NH(2)-terminal amino acid sequence of ... [more ▼]

The beta-galactosidase from the Antarctic gram-negative bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAE 79 was purified to homogeneity. The nucleotide sequence and the NH(2)-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified enzyme indicate that the beta-galactosidase subunit is composed of 1,038 amino acids with a calculated M(r) of 118,068. This beta-galactosidase shares structural properties with Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase (comparable subunit mass, 51% amino sequence identity, conservation of amino acid residues involved in catalysis, similar optimal pH value, and requirement for divalent metal ions) but is characterized by a higher catalytic efficiency on synthetic and natural substrates and by a shift of apparent optimum activity toward low temperatures and lower thermal stability. The enzyme also differs by a higher pI (7.8) and by specific thermodynamic activation parameters. P. haloplanktis beta-galactosidase was expressed in E. coli, and the recombinant enzyme displays properties identical to those of the wild-type enzyme. Heat-induced unfolding monitored by intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy showed lower melting point values for both P. haloplanktis wild-type and recombinant beta-galactosidase compared to the mesophilic enzyme. Assays of lactose hydrolysis in milk demonstrate that P. haloplanktis beta-galactosidase can outperform the current commercial beta-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces marxianus var. lactis, suggesting that the cold-adapted beta-galactosidase could be used to hydrolyze lactose in dairy products processed in refrigerated plants. [less ▲]

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See detailRobust global state feedback stabilization of cement mills
Grognard, F.; Jadot, F.; Magni, L. et al

in IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control (2001), 46(4), 618-623

Plugging is well known to be a major cause of instability in industrial cement mills. A simple nonlinear model able to simulate the plugging phenomenon is presented. It is shown how a nonlinear robust ... [more ▼]

Plugging is well known to be a major cause of instability in industrial cement mills. A simple nonlinear model able to simulate the plugging phenomenon is presented. It is shown how a nonlinear robust controller can be designed in order to fully prevent the mill from plugging [less ▲]

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See detailL'alimentation du sportif
Paquot, Nicolas ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(4), 200-3

All nutrition recommendations for athletes must be based on current scientific data and the needs of athletes as individuals. Exercise performance may be improved by adequate food intake. Adequate energy ... [more ▼]

All nutrition recommendations for athletes must be based on current scientific data and the needs of athletes as individuals. Exercise performance may be improved by adequate food intake. Adequate energy intake needs to be consumed during times of high-intensity training to maintain body weight and maximize the training effect. Carbohydrates are important to maintain blood-glucose and replace muscle glycogen. During exercise, carbohydrates must be provided at the rate of 30 to 60 g per h. Fat intake should not be restricted. No vitamin and mineral supplements should be required if an athlete is consuming adequate energy from a variety of foods. Deshydratation decreases exercise performance. Two hours before exercise 400 to 600 ml of fluid should be consumed and during exercise 150 to 350 ml of fluid every 15 to 20 min. After exercise, the dietary goal is to provide adequate energy and carbohydrate to replace muscle glycogen and ensure rapid recovery. [less ▲]

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See detailOn-Line Coupling of Partial Filling-Capillary Zone Electrophoresis with Mass Spectrometry for the Separation of Clenbuterol Enantiomers
Toussaint, B.; Palmer, M.; Chiap, Patrice ULg et al

in Electrophoresis (2001), 22(7), 1363-72

The on-line coupling of capillary zone electrophoresis with mass spectrometry (CZE-MS) for the separation of enantiomers is hampered by the presence of nonvolatile chiral selectors such as cyclodextrins ... [more ▼]

The on-line coupling of capillary zone electrophoresis with mass spectrometry (CZE-MS) for the separation of enantiomers is hampered by the presence of nonvolatile chiral selectors such as cyclodextrins in the separation buffer. This problem can be overcome by use of the partial filling technique where only a part of the capillary is filled with the separation buffer containing chiral selectors. Since the electroosmotic flow is almost completely suppressed at acidic pH, that dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin is neutral, no free cyclodextrin would reach the MS detector when using a partially filled capillary. By this method, clenbuterol enantiomers were successfully resolved and separated from salbutamol (internal standard) in aqueous solution and in plasma samples. A solid-phase extraction (SPE) was used for the preparation of plasma samples before analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of two genes encoding the mitochondrial alternative oxidase in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
Dinant, Monique; Baurain, Denis ULg; Coosemans, Nadine ULg et al

in Current Genetics (2001), 39(2), 101-108

Two cDNA clones (AOX1 and AOX2) and the corresponding genes encoding the alternative oxidases (AOXs) from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were isolated and sequenced. The cDNAs, AOX1 and AOX2, contained open ... [more ▼]

Two cDNA clones (AOX1 and AOX2) and the corresponding genes encoding the alternative oxidases (AOXs) from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were isolated and sequenced. The cDNAs, AOX1 and AOX2, contained open reading frames (ORFs) encoding putative proteins of 360 amino acids and 347 amino acids, respectively. For each of the ORFs, a potential mitochondrial-targeting sequence was found in the 5'-end regions. In comparison to AOX enzymes from plants and fungi, the predicted amino acid sequences of the ORFs showed their highest degree of identity with proteins from Aspergillus niger (38.1% and 37.2%) and Ajellomyces capsulatus (37% and 34.9%). Several residues supposed either to be Fe ligands or to be involved in the ubiquinol-binding site were fully conserved in both C. reinhardtii putative AOX proteins. In contrast, a cysteine residue conserved in the sequences of all higher plants and probably involved in the regulation of the enzyme activity was missing both from the AOX1 and AOX2 amino acid sequences and from protein sequences from various other microorganisms. The transcriptional expression of the AOX1 and AOX2 genes in wild-type cells and in mutant cells deficient in mitochondrial complex III activity was also investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailMicellization of quaternized poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) copolymers in water
Antoun, Sayed; Gohy, Jean-François; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Polymer (2001), 42(8), 3641-3648

Micellization of a series of amphiphilic quaternized poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PQDMAEMA-b-PMMA) copolymers has been studied in water. The alkyl halide used ... [more ▼]

Micellization of a series of amphiphilic quaternized poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PQDMAEMA-b-PMMA) copolymers has been studied in water. The alkyl halide used for the quaternization of the aminated block has an effect on the solution properties of the diblocks, that have been investigated by dynamic light scattering and surface tension measurements. When a short length alkyl halide is used, the diblock copolymers behave like traditional amphiphiles, whereas their behavior is similar to polysoaps in case of long alkyl halides. The size of the micelles increases when 1-bromopropan-3-ol is substituted for 1-bromopropane in the quaternization reaction. It is, however, independent of the structure of butyl bromide, i.e. n-butyl vs tert-butyl bromide. The solution properties of a star-shaped PQDMAEMA-b-PMMA copolymer have also been studied and compared to the linear counterpart. The star-shaped architecture actually prevents the block copolymer to be properly oriented at the air/water interface in agreement with the formation of unimer micelles. [less ▲]

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See detailNew Functions of Stromal Proteases and Their Inhibitors in Tumor Progression
Noël, Agnès ULg; Albert, V.; Bajou, Khalid ULg et al

in Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America (2001), 10(2), 417-32

Acquisition of invasive metastatic potential through protease expression is a key event in tumor progression. In carcinomas, the production of metalloproteinases and serine proteinases is regulated by a ... [more ▼]

Acquisition of invasive metastatic potential through protease expression is a key event in tumor progression. In carcinomas, the production of metalloproteinases and serine proteinases is regulated by a cross talk between stromal cells and cancer cells. Paradoxically, high rather than low levels of their inhibitors predict poor survival of patients suffering from a variety of cancers. Recent observations suggest a much more complex role of these inhibitors in tumor progression than expected initially. [less ▲]

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See detailLe dépôt et la délivrance du brevet
Bougrine, Hassan ULg

in Cahiers de la Documentation = Bladen voor Documentatie (2001), (N/r1), 5-10

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See detailObservations
Lecocq, Pascale ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2001), (15), 652-654

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See detailDiblock polyampholytes at the silicon-water interface: adsorption as a function of block ratio and molecular weight
Mahltig, Boris; Gohy, Jean-François; Jérôme, Robert ULg et al

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part B, Polymer Physics (2001), 39(6), 709-718

Polyampholytes are highly charged macromolecules carrying oppositely charged functional groups. This article reports on the adsorption of a weak diblock polyampholyte, poly(methacrylic acid)-block-poly ... [more ▼]

Polyampholytes are highly charged macromolecules carrying oppositely charged functional groups. This article reports on the adsorption of a weak diblock polyampholyte, poly(methacrylic acid)-block-poly[(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate], as a function of the copolymer composition and molecular weight. The adsorption experiments were performed on silicon substrates from aqueous polymer solutions at different pHs. The amount of adsorbed polyampholyte chains to the surface was determined by ellipsometry, whereas lateral structures were investigated by scanning force microscopy. A strong influence of pH on the adsorbed amount and the lateral structure formation at the surface was observed. Especially at the isoelectric point, drastic changes in adsorption behavior were detected. At low molecular weights, an increased adsorbed amount was detected, a behavior in contrast to common theoretical predictions. This phenomenon is explained by the high stability of absorbed micelles, which cover the silicon surface as a dense layer. We conclude that micelle formation is an important process for polyampholyte adsorption, which needs to be taken into account more explicitly. [less ▲]

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See detailL'avenir du nucléaire militaire
Dumoulin, André ULg

in Problèmes politiques et sociaux (2001), (854),

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See detailPolylactide implants and bacterial contamination: an animal study
Mainil-Varlet, Pierre; Hauke, Christian; Maquet, Véronique et al

in Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, Part A (2001), 54(3), 335-343

Although bioresorbable aliphatic polyesters derived from lactic acid are now used clinically as sutures, bone-fracture fixation devices and sustained-release drug-delivery systems, very little is known ... [more ▼]

Although bioresorbable aliphatic polyesters derived from lactic acid are now used clinically as sutures, bone-fracture fixation devices and sustained-release drug-delivery systems, very little is known about their behavior in the infected environment. The aim of the present study was to compare the resistance to infection of two polylactide implants with different degradation characteristics, and to evaluate the influence of a bacterial challenge on their mechanical and physicochemical properties. Various quantities of a beta-haemolyzing strain of Staphylococus aureus (V 8189-94) were inoculated into the medullary cavity of rabbit tibiae, and an extruded polylactide rod composed of either P(L)LA (Poly(L-Lactide)) or P(L/DL)LA (Poly(L/DL-Lactide)) was then inserted. Animals were sacrificed four weeks after surgery. The tibiae and implants were removed under sterile conditions and evaluated microbiologically by culturing. The severity of infection was graded according to positive colony-forming units in the bone. The mechanical properties of the retrieved implants were assessed by 4-point bending and shear tests, performed in compliance with the ASTM D790 standard and their physicochemical characteristics also were characterized. P(L)LA and P(L/DL)LA implants were equally resistant to local infection, their mechanical and physicochemical properties being unaffected by bacterial challenge. Hence, once an infection has become established, the release of bactericidal/bacteriostatic by-products during implant degradation does not appear to affect its natural course. The release of bactericidal/bacteriostatic degradation products at the implantation site is unlikely to affect the natural course of an established infection. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrooxidation Potential as a Tool in the Early Screening for New Safer Clozapine-Like Analogues
Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange ULg; Kauffmann, J. M.; Petit, C. et al

in Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2001), 44(5), 769-76

The chemical modification of clozapine (1) has permitted the finding of new analogues, e.g., olanzapine (2), quetiapine (3), 5-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-8-chloropyrido[2,3-b][1,5]benzoxazepine fumarate (9 ... [more ▼]

The chemical modification of clozapine (1) has permitted the finding of new analogues, e.g., olanzapine (2), quetiapine (3), 5-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-8-chloropyrido[2,3-b][1,5]benzoxazepine fumarate (9), with a clinical or psychopharmacological profile similar to that of clozapine. However, when developing new derivatives, the designers are discouraged by the development of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis. Different researchers have raised the role played by the oxidizability of the molecule in such a deleterious effect. In the present paper, we examined the oxidation profile (direct scavenging abilities, efficacy in inhibiting lipid peroxidation, and electrooxidation potential) of newly developed methoxy and trifluoromethylsulfonyloxy analogues related to clozapine, some of them being described as putative antipsychotic. The oxazepine derivative 7, unlike the other diazepine derivatives (6, 10--12), was not readily oxidized. Using a statistical predictive model for hematotoxicity previously described, 7 was found in the cluster of potentially nontoxic compounds while diazepine derivatives 6 and 10-12 were classified as potentially toxic compounds. Among these original compounds, 7, which presents a preclinical clozapine-like profile and a low sensitivity to oxidation, could be a promising antipsychotic candidate with low side effects. Considering the tricyclic derivatives examined so far, some elements of structure-oxidation relationship (SOR) might be pointed out. Regarding the nature of the tricyclic ring substituent, from the most to the least sensitive to oxidation, the sequence was as follows: HO > Cl > CH(3)O > CF(3)SO(2)O. The nature of the tricyclic ring influenced also the sensitivity to oxidation; the diazepine moiety appeared to be the most reactive ring compared to oxa- and thiazepine congeners. These parameters could be advantageously integrated in the early design of new safer clozapine-like analogues. [less ▲]

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See detailA fluorescence model of the C[SUB]3[/SUB] radical in comets
Rousselot, P.; Arpigny, Claude ULg; Rauer, H. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2001), 368

Theoretical resonance fluorescence calculations are presented of the triatomic C[SUB]3[/SUB] radical and are compared with observations of the C[SUB]3[/SUB] emission in comets Hale-Bopp and de Vico. A ... [more ▼]

Theoretical resonance fluorescence calculations are presented of the triatomic C[SUB]3[/SUB] radical and are compared with observations of the C[SUB]3[/SUB] emission in comets Hale-Bopp and de Vico. A theoretical model of the C[SUB]3[/SUB] vibration-rotational structure in the A[SUP]1[/SUP]Pi[SUB]u[/SUB] - X[SUP]1[/SUP]Sigma[SUB]g[/SUB] [SUP]+[/SUP] electronic system is introduced. The model takes into account the detailed structure of the bending mode nu[SUB]2[/SUB] which is responsible for the emission of the 4050 à group. A total of 1959 levels are considered, with 515 levels in the ground state. The main effort is to model high-resolution spectra of the 4050 à emission in comets C/1995 O1 Hale-Bopp and 122P/1995 S1 de Vico. The agreement between observed and theoretical spectra is good for a value of the dipole moment derivative of dmu/dr ~ 2.5 Debye à [SUP]-1[/SUP]. The modeled C[SUB]3[/SUB] emission exhibits a pronounced Swings effect. Based on observations made with William Herschel Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, and on observations made at the McDonald Observatory, which is operated by the University of Texas at Austin, USA. [less ▲]

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See detailThe strange case of the massive binary HD 149404
Rauw, Grégor ULg; Nazé, Yaël ULg; Carrier, F. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2001), 368

We report the analysis of an extensive set of high-resolution spectroscopic observations of the massive binary system HD 149404. We compare different techniques to measure the radial velocities of the ... [more ▼]

We report the analysis of an extensive set of high-resolution spectroscopic observations of the massive binary system HD 149404. We compare different techniques to measure the radial velocities of the heavily blended absorption lines and we derive a new orbital solution. The absorption lines display strong variability that slightly affects the orbital solution and the determination of the spectral types of the components of the binary. We find that the primary is probably of spectral type O7.5 I(f), while the secondary is most likely an ON9.7 I supergiant. The secondary seems to be the most evolved component of the system and its current evolutionary status could best be explained if the system has undergone a Roche lobe overflow episode during the past. The secondary could actually still be rather close to filling its critical volume and this could lead to an enhanced mass loss of the secondary. The spectrum of HD 149404 displays many emission lines some of which show phase-locked line profile variations. In particular, the Halpha line displays a double-peaked morphology at orbital phases near conjunction. We investigate the radial velocity behaviour of the emission lines and we find that some of them must be formed in an interaction region. We propose a simple model where some of the optical emission lines arise in a heavily bended shock region. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory (La Silla, Chile) and at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). [less ▲]

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See detailIon outflow observed by IMAGE: Implications for source regions and heating mechanisms
Fuselier, S. A.; Ghielmetti, A. G.; Moore, T. E. et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2001), 28

Images of the Earth's proton aurora from the IMAGE spacecraft on 8 June 2000 indicate a temporally and spatially isolated ionospheric response to a shock that impinged on the Earth's magnetopause ... [more ▼]

Images of the Earth's proton aurora from the IMAGE spacecraft on 8 June 2000 indicate a temporally and spatially isolated ionospheric response to a shock that impinged on the Earth's magnetopause. Sometime after this ionospheric response, the Low Energy Neutral Atom imager on IMAGE detected enhanced ionospheric outflow. The time delay between the ionospheric response and the enhanced outflow is consistent with the travel time of ~30 eV neutral Oxygen (created by charge exchange of outflowing O[SUP]+[/SUP] with the exosphere) from the low altitude ionosphere to the spacecraft. The prompt ionospheric outflow implies that the shock deposited sufficient energy in the topside ionosphere near or above the O[SUP]+[/SUP] exobase to initiate the outflow. [less ▲]

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See detailGlobal observations of proton and electron auroras in a substorm
Mende, S. B.; Frey, H. U.; Lampton, M. et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2001), 28

This is the first report of a substorm observed by the IMAGE FUV instruments permitting global observations of electron and proton produced auroras. On the 28th of June 2000 at 1956 UT in the pre-substorm ... [more ▼]

This is the first report of a substorm observed by the IMAGE FUV instruments permitting global observations of electron and proton produced auroras. On the 28th of June 2000 at 1956 UT in the pre-substorm phase at early evening local time the proton aurora was equatorward of the electron precipitation and near midnight they were collocated. There was bright electron and proton aurora in the post midday afternoon side. The sudden brightening of the aurora at substorm onset near midnight is seen in the electrons only although there are protons present at this location. During the expansive phase both the electrons and protons expand poleward. The electron aurora forms a bright surge at the poleward boundary while the protons just show diffuse spreading. The peak intensity of the protons did not change substantially during the entire event. The proton aurora is brighter on the dusk while the electron aurora on the dawn side. As the electron surge expands poleward it leaves the protons behind. The electrons form a discrete auroral feature near the aurora-polar cap boundary, which is devoid of substantial energetic (>1 keV) proton precipitation. The presence of precipitating protons at the point where the initial brightening is seen shows that substorms are initiated on closed field lines. [less ▲]

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See detailThe electron and proton aurora as seen by IMAGE-FUV and FAST
Frey, H. U.; Mende, S. B.; Carlson, C. W. et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2001), 28

The Far Ultraviolet Instrument (FUV) on the IMAGE spacecraft observes the aurora in three different channels. One of them (SI12) is sensitive to the signal from precipitating protons, while the other two ... [more ▼]

The Far Ultraviolet Instrument (FUV) on the IMAGE spacecraft observes the aurora in three different channels. One of them (SI12) is sensitive to the signal from precipitating protons, while the other two (WIC and SI13) observe auroral emissions which are not only excited by precipitating electrons, but also by protons. We examine a period when in-situ particle measurements by the FAST spacecraft were available simultaneously with global imaging with FUV. The measured electron and proton energy spectra are used to calculate the auroral brightness along the FAST orbit. The comparison with the FUV/IMAGE observations shows good quantitative agreement and demonstrates that under certain circumstances high proton fluxes may produce significant amounts of auroral FUV emission. [less ▲]

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See detailControlled exchange of metallic cations by polypyrrole-based resins
Jérôme, Christine ULg; Martinot, Lucien; Strivay, David ULg et al

in Synthetic Metals (2001), 118(1-3), 45-55

Binding and release of various cations by polarization of polypyrrole based exchange-resins has been studied. The reversibility of the process has been investigated by electrochemical and nuclear ... [more ▼]

Binding and release of various cations by polarization of polypyrrole based exchange-resins has been studied. The reversibility of the process has been investigated by electrochemical and nuclear techniques. It clearly depends on both the exchanged-cation and the sulfonated doping-ion. The selectivity of the process has also been analyzed by binding experiments from a mixture of two cations. [less ▲]

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See detailNew generation antiepileptics for facial pain and headache
DELVAUX, Valérie ULg; Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2001), 101(1), 42-46

The prophylactic management of recurrent head and facial pains may be challenging because of lack of efficacy and/or bothersome adverse effects of available drug therapies. New generation antiepileptic ... [more ▼]

The prophylactic management of recurrent head and facial pains may be challenging because of lack of efficacy and/or bothersome adverse effects of available drug therapies. New generation antiepileptic drugs offer new perspectives in difficult cases. We will review the available published data and present our experience with lamotrigine in various head and facial pains such as migraine, cluster headache, neuropathic trigeminal pain, atypical facial pain, and chronic tension-type headache. Twenty-five patients were enrolled and followed for 18 months. The dose was gradually increased in steps of 25 mg up to the effective dose (mean 250 mg/d). Lamotrigine was most effective in trigeminal neuralgia and dysesthesia, but was of little utility in the other head or facial pains. [less ▲]

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See detailDiversity among Bovine Pestiviruses
Hamers, C.; Dehan, Pierre ULg; Couvreur, B. et al

in Veterinary Journal (2001), 161(2), 112-22

Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) isolates are characterized by an important genetic, antigenic and pathogenic diversity. The emergence of new hypervirulent BVDV strains in North America has provided ... [more ▼]

Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) isolates are characterized by an important genetic, antigenic and pathogenic diversity. The emergence of new hypervirulent BVDV strains in North America has provided clear evidence of pathogenic differences between BVDV strains. The origin of BVDV diversity is related to high mutation rate occurring in RNA viruses but the consequences of mutations obviously depend on the genes which are involved. Mutations in genes encoding for structural proteins of immunological importance may have practical implications.Knowledge of BVDV diversity is important for understanding the wide variety of pathogenesis of diseases caused by the virus, for monitoring the epidemiology of the different types and for the design of optimum laboratory tests and vaccines.This review focuses on the origin and consequences of BVDV diversity with regard to pathogenesis, biotypes, and antigenic and genetic variations. [less ▲]

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See detailPremade versus in situ formed compatibilizer at the PS/PMMA interface: contribution of the Raman confocal microscopy to the fracture analysis
Koulic, Christian; Yin, Zhihui; Pagnoulle, Christophe et al

in Polymer (2001), 42(7), 2947-2957

The interface of a two-layer assembly of polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was modified by an intermediate layer of either a premade poly(styrene-g-methyl methacrylate) copolymer (P(S ... [more ▼]

The interface of a two-layer assembly of polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was modified by an intermediate layer of either a premade poly(styrene-g-methyl methacrylate) copolymer (P(S-g-MMA)) or a preblend of mutually reactive PS and PMMA synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). No significant difference was found in the interfacial fracture toughness measured by the double cantilever beam test, although the morphology of the interfacial region was not the same when observed by transmission electron microscopy. The premade copolymer formed a distinct interphase, in contrast to the sharp interface that was observed in the case of the reactive system. The analysis of the fracture surfaces by Raman confocal microscopy showed that the fracture occurred alternatively in the PS phase and either at the PS/copolymer interface for the non reactive system or at the PS/PMMA interface for the reactive one. [less ▲]

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See detailDermal Dendritic Cells in Anogenital Warty Lesions Unresponsive to an Immune-Response Modifier
Arrese, J.; Paquet, Philippe ULg; Claessens, N. et al

in Journal of Cutaneous Pathology (2001), 28(3), 131-4

BACKGROUND: Human papilloma viruses (HPV) are responsible for a variety of proliferative epithelial lesions including anogenital condylomas. These lesions may regress during treatment with an immune ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Human papilloma viruses (HPV) are responsible for a variety of proliferative epithelial lesions including anogenital condylomas. These lesions may regress during treatment with an immune-response modifier such as imiquimod. The release of specific cytokines from the monocyte-macrophage lineage induces a cascade of events abating the HPV replication. METHOD: A total of 14 persistent warty anogenital lesions were excised 4 to 7 weeks after completing a 4-month imiquimod treatment. Another series of 25 untreated condylomas and 8 bowenoid papulosis served as controls. All examined lesions had been excised in otherwise healthy individuals with a normal immune status. Lesions were examined for the presence of Langerhans cells and subpopulations of the monocyte/macrophage/dendrocyte lineage using immunohistochemical detection of L1-protein, CD68, lysozyme and Factor-XIIIa. CD45R0-positive T lymphocytes were also identified. HPV capsid antigens and genotypes were searched for using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, respectively. RESULTS: The persistent although treated anogenital lesions were identified as 10 viral condylomas, 3 bowenoid papulosis and 1 basal cell carcinoma. The inflammatory cell densities and distributions were similar in the untreated and imiquimod-resistant condylomas with the exception of Factor XIIIa-positive dendrocytes. These dermal dendritic cells were slim and rare in all imiquimod-resistant lesions. In contrast, about two-thirds of the untreated condylomas were enriched in these cells. CONCLUSION: As dermal dendritic cells play a role in the immune surveillance, their low densities in some lesions might be a key feature responsible for low cytokine local production and failure of imiquimod treatment. The combined apparent lack of Langerhans cell activation might suggest that both intraepidermal and intradermal compartments of antigen-presenting cells are affected in imiquimod-resistant lesions. [less ▲]

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See detailRight Hepatic Lobectomy as a Liver Graft-Saving Procedure
Honore, Pierre ULg; Detry, Olivier ULg; Hamoir, Etienne ULg et al

in Liver Transplantation (2001), 7(3), 269-73

Retransplantation is common after liver transplantation (LT). However, in the present era of organ shortages, every attempt to save the liver graft should be performed before considering retransplantation ... [more ▼]

Retransplantation is common after liver transplantation (LT). However, in the present era of organ shortages, every attempt to save the liver graft should be performed before considering retransplantation. We report our experience with right hepatic lobectomy (RHL) for liver graft salvage. In a retrospective series of 180 adult LTs, 4 patients underwent RHL (Couinaud's segments V, VI, VII, VIII) in the post-LT period. In all cases, the procedure was performed without Pringle's maneuver or mobilization of the left liver lobe to preserve its vascularization. Three liver graft recipients developed intrahepatic biliary strictures, mainly localized to the right lobe of the graft, and RHL was performed 14, 75, and 78 months after LT. These patients were alive at last follow-up without further episodes of cholangitis or retransplantation (mean follow-up, 38 months). The fourth patient developed early post-LT right liver necrosis with a functioning hepatic artery and underwent right lobectomy 48 hours after LT. He later developed cholangitis secondary to late hepatic artery thrombosis, requiring retransplantation after 18 months. We conclude that RHL can be considered a graft-saving option in selected liver transplant recipients with localized biliary strictures, with excellent patient and graft survival. [less ▲]

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See detailQualitative Comparison between the Quantum Calculations and Electrospray Mass Spectra of Complexes of Polyammonium Macrotricyclic Ligands with Dicarboxylic Acids
Collette, Caroline ULg; Dehareng, Dominique ULg; De Pauw, Edwin ULg et al

in Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry (2001), 12(3), 304-16

The host-guest interactions play a very important role in chemical and biological processes. It is therefore important to be able to characterize these complexes. Electrospray mass spectrometry can be ... [more ▼]

The host-guest interactions play a very important role in chemical and biological processes. It is therefore important to be able to characterize these complexes. Electrospray mass spectrometry can be used to characterize the complex formation. It provides information on the mass and the charge of these ionic complexes. In this article, we show that the use of ab initio and semiempirical calculations, in addition to the results obtained by electrospray mass spectrometry, reveal to be a promising tool for the study of these noncovalent complexes. In this article, host-guest complexes formed by macropolycyclic polyammonium host molecules and dicarboxylic acids are studied. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential diagnosis of facial pain
Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2001), 101(1), 6-9

We will describe the differential diagnosis of primary and secondary facial pains and present illustrative case studies. The diagnosis of facial pain needs a multidisciplinary approach if the clinical ... [more ▼]

We will describe the differential diagnosis of primary and secondary facial pains and present illustrative case studies. The diagnosis of facial pain needs a multidisciplinary approach if the clinical presentation is not pathognomic. While patients with acute facial pain urgently need treatment, those with chronic facial pain need at priority a correct diagnosis. [less ▲]

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See detailStandard Numbering Scheme for Class B Beta-Lactamases
Galleni, Moreno ULg; Lamotte-Brasseur, J.; Rossolini, G. M. et al

in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (2001), 45(3), 660-3

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See detailRat Gap Junction Connexin-30 Inhibits Proliferation of Glioma Cell Lines
Princen, Frederic; Robe, Pierre ULg; Gros, D. et al

in Carcinogenesis (2001), 22(3), 507-13

Connexins, the structural components of gap junctions, control cell growth and differentiation and are believed to belong to a family of tumour suppressor genes. Studies on connexin localization in brain ... [more ▼]

Connexins, the structural components of gap junctions, control cell growth and differentiation and are believed to belong to a family of tumour suppressor genes. Studies on connexin localization in brain showed that several of these proteins were expressed in distinct compartments of the brain in a cell-type specific manner, indicating that different gap junctions play specific roles in the physiology of the mammalian brain. In this report, we first cloned rat connexin-30 cDNA from brain and showed that it was expressed in long-term primary culture of rat astrocytes. In order to examine the potential role of connexin-30 in tumour cell proliferation, we transfected the connexin-30 cDNA into two rat glioma cell lines (9L and C6) which have lost its expression. Transfected clones adequately expressed membrane-bound connexin-30 protein. Connexin-30-expressing clones showed slower growth, lower DNA synthesis and reduced proliferation in soft agar as compared with the parental and control cells. We concluded that connexin-30 may also probably be considered as a tumour suppressor in rat gliomas. [less ▲]

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See detailPratique d'urgence: particularites dans la prise en charge des polytraumatises complexes
Lambert, J. L.; Hartstein, Gary ULg; Ghuysen, Alexandre ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(3), 149-54

Almost twenty years ago, Trunkey showed that deaths due to trauma followed a trimodal distribution over time. Half of these deaths were delayed by at least one to two hours after the initiating insult ... [more ▼]

Almost twenty years ago, Trunkey showed that deaths due to trauma followed a trimodal distribution over time. Half of these deaths were delayed by at least one to two hours after the initiating insult. This interval (the "golden hour") can be exploited, especially in specialized trauma centers (where the most severely injured patients are cared for), to aggressively treat these patients, thereby reducing morbidity and mortality. In Belgium, this hierarchy of trauma care centers is non-existent; patients are distributed within the healthcare system randomly, depending on the localisation of the accident and the directives of the unified "100" call centre. Because this limits the number of cases any one centre treats, this type of arrangement acts to inhibit the acquisition of competency in the handling of these complex patients. The relative lack of experience of individual emergency departments leads to difficulties in establishing diagnostic and treatment priorities for the most severely injured trauma victims. The approach to these patients must follow very precise guidelines, established scientifically in order to minimize the impact of the injury on life and maximize chances of satisfactory functional recovery. In this paper, we describe the general principles of the initial approach to victims of complex multiple trauma. [less ▲]

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See detailLa portée spatiale du permis de lotir et sa compatibilité avec les plans d'aménagement
Delnoy, Michel ULg

in Cahiers de l'Urbanisme (Les) (2001), n° spécial

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See detailTime course of cranial ultrasound abnormalities after arterial switch operation in neonates.
Sigler, M.; Vazquez-Jimenez, J. F.; Grabitz, R. G. et al

in Annals of Thoracic Surgery (2001), 71(3), 877-80

BACKGROUND: The object of this study was to investigate the time course and fate of abnormal findings in cranial ultrasound after performing an arterial switch operation in neonates with transposition of ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The object of this study was to investigate the time course and fate of abnormal findings in cranial ultrasound after performing an arterial switch operation in neonates with transposition of the great arteries, and to analyze the relationship to cerebral cell damage. METHODS: Cranial ultrasound was performed prospectively in 35 neonates with transposition of the great arteries before the operation as well as 4 hours, 1, 2, and 3 days, and 1 and 2 weeks postoperatively. Blood levels of neuron-specific enolase, a marker of cerebral cell damage, were determined before, during, and 4 and 24 hours postoperatively. RESULTS: In 17 of 35 neonates (49%), early postoperative cranial ultrasound revealed abnormalities indistinguishable from intraventricular hemorrhage. In 11 neonates findings were transient and were normalized 2 weeks postoperatively, whereas in the remaining 6 neonates there was evidence of resolving hemorrhage. In all neonates there was a rise in neuron-specific enolase blood concentrations during and 4 hours after extracorporal circulation without correlation to sonographic findings. CONCLUSIONS: Enhanced echogenicity of the choroid plexus or dilatation of the cerebral ventricular system is a frequent early postoperative finding that may be caused by transient plexus edema rather than intraventricular hemorrhage and is not related to cerebral cell damage. [less ▲]

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See detailLe traitement des micro-adénomes à prolactine par cabergoline
Beckers, Albert ULg

in Références en Gynécologie Obstétrique (2001), 8(1), 28-31

La bromocriptine, un agoniste dopaminergique dérivé de l'ergot, a été mise au point peu de temps après la découverte de la prolactine et des prolactinomes vers 1970. Ce traitement s'est avéré capable de ... [more ▼]

La bromocriptine, un agoniste dopaminergique dérivé de l'ergot, a été mise au point peu de temps après la découverte de la prolactine et des prolactinomes vers 1970. Ce traitement s'est avéré capable de normaliser le taux de prolactine, de restaurer la fertilité et de réduire le volume tumoral. Il entraînait cependant des effets secondaires. Vers la fin des années 80, de nouvelles molécules se sont ajoutées à l'arsenal thérapeutique ; en particulier la cabergoline (Sostilar® ou Dostinex®) s'avère extrêmement intéressante dans cette indication. Nous avons traité par cabergoline 455 patients jusqu'au début de l'année 1998. L'efficacité de la cabergoline s'est avérée excellente, tant sur le plan clinique que biologique ou radiologique. Les effets secondaires sont négligeables. Le traitement permet de normaliser le taux de prolactine dans 70% des cas qui résistaient à la bromocriptine. [less ▲]

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See detailLa légitimation de l'Union européenne par l'exportation de son modèle d'intégration régionale. Le cas du Mercosur
Santander, Sébastian ULg

in Études internationles (2001), XXXII/1

La structure internationale de l'après-guerre froide est confrontée à l'accélération de plusieurs dynamiques: celle de la globalisation et des intégrations régionales. En outre, la seule superpuissance à ... [more ▼]

La structure internationale de l'après-guerre froide est confrontée à l'accélération de plusieurs dynamiques: celle de la globalisation et des intégrations régionales. En outre, la seule superpuissance à avoir survécu à la période du monde bipolaire sont les États-Unis. En ce qui concerne l'Union européenne, les années quatre-vingt-dix constituent un approfondissement de son architecture et un certain renforcement de son poids sur la scène internationale. Cette décennie va d'ailleurs voir l'engagement actif de l'UE dans l'appui au développement de nouvelles et anciennes intégrations régionales en pleine effervescence. Ce type de stratégie ne vise pas uniquement la conquête de nouveaux marchés, elle sert aussi à l'UE pour se représenter davantage comme union politique vis-à-vis de ses partenaires extérieurs et renforcer sa légitimité dans un monde confronté à l'unipolarité et l'unilatéralisme américain. [less ▲]

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See detailUsefulness of Dobutamine Stress Tests for Detection of Cardiac Abnormalities in Dogs with Experimentally Induced Early Left Ventricular Dysfunction
Mc Entee, Kathleen ULg; Clercx, Cécile ULg; Soyeur, Daniel ULg et al

in American Journal of Veterinary Research (2001), 62(3), 448-55

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether dobutamine stress tests (DST) can be used to detect cardiac dysfunction in dogs with early left ventricular dysfunction (ELVD) induced by rapid right ventricular pacing ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether dobutamine stress tests (DST) can be used to detect cardiac dysfunction in dogs with early left ventricular dysfunction (ELVD) induced by rapid right ventricular pacing (RRVP). ANIMALS: 7 adult male Beagles. PROCEDURE: A pacemaker was surgically implanted in each dog at the level of the right ventricular apex. Electrocardiography, Doppler sphygmomanometry, and Doppler echocardiography were performed before and during a DST prior to activation of the pacemaker and every 3 to 4 days during the period of RRVP. Dobutamine stress tests were performed by infusing dobutamine at incremental dosages ranging from 12.5 to 42.5 microg/kg of body weight/min. RESULTS: Clinical signs of congestive heart failure were not observed during the pacing period. However, all dogs developed ELVD associated with significant changes in values for most Doppler echocardiographic variables obtained prior to DST Adverse cardiac effects were not detected during DST. Most Doppler echocardiographic indices of cardiac function were significantly altered in response to dobutamine infusion during the pacing period, compared with prepacing values. However, a dobutamine-induced 2-fold increase in cardiac output was maintained. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Dobutamine stress tests can be safely performed in dogs with experimentally induced ELVD. Dobutamine stress tests may be a sensitive, noninvasive diagnostic method, complementary to standard clinical examinations, for detection of early cardiac dysfunction in dogs asymptomatic for dilated cardiomyopathy. [less ▲]

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See detailEstudios de traducción: una nueva antología
Willson, Patricia ULg

in Lenguas Vivas (2001), (1), 118-119

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See detailDevelopment and Validation of an Automated Method for the Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Sotalol in Plasma Using Dialysis and Trace Enrichment on a Cation-Exchange Pre-Column as on-Line Sample Preparation
Chiap, Patrice ULg; Ceccato, Attilio ULg; Miralles Buraglia, B. et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2001), 24(5-6), 801-14

A fully automated method for the determination of sotalol in human plasma was developed, involving dialysis through a cellulose acetate membrane, clean-up and enrichment of the dialysate on a strong ... [more ▼]

A fully automated method for the determination of sotalol in human plasma was developed, involving dialysis through a cellulose acetate membrane, clean-up and enrichment of the dialysate on a strong cation-exchange pre-column and subsequent liquid chromatographic (LC) analysis with UV detection. All sample handling operations were carried out by means of an ASTED system. Before starting dialysis, the trace enrichment column (TEC) was conditioned. The plasma sample, to which the internal standard (atenolol) was automatically added, was then loaded in the donor channel and was kept static while the dialysis liquid, consisting of 0.017 M acetic acid, was passed through the acceptor channel in successive pulses. After each pulse, the dialysate was dispensed onto the TEC. When dialysis was discontinued, the analytes were eluted from the TEC by the LC mobile phase by rotation of a switching valve and transferred to the analytical column packed with octyl silica. The LC mobile phase was a mixture of methanol and pH 7.0 phosphate buffer containing 1-octanesulfonate at a concentration of 7.5 x 10(-4) M (19:81; v/v). The UV detection was performed at 230 nm. The influence of several parameters of the dialysis and trace enrichment processes on analyte recovery and method selectivity was investigated. The method was then validated. The mean absolute recovery for sotalol was about 60%. The limit of quantitation was 25 ng/ml and R.S.D. for repeatability and intermediate precision obtained at a concentration level of 50 ng/ml were 4.3 and 5.8%, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailReverse atom-transfer radical polymerization at room temperature
Wang, Wenxin; Yan, Deyue; Jiang, Xuling et al

in Macromolecular Rapid Communications (2001), 22(6), 439-443

This paper aims at reporting on the living/controlled radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate initiated with the benzoyl peroxide (BPO)/CuIX (X=Br,Cl)/2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) redox system at room ... [more ▼]

This paper aims at reporting on the living/controlled radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate initiated with the benzoyl peroxide (BPO)/CuIX (X=Br,Cl)/2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) redox system at room temperature. No control is observed for the polymerization conducted in bulk and in toluene, whereas a polymer with predetermined molecular weight and rather narrow molecular weight distribution is formed in butanone. The solvent has thus a decisive effect on the reverse atom-transfer radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate initiated with the BPO/CuIX (X = Br,Cl)/bpy ternary system at 25°C. [less ▲]

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See detailPharma clinics. Comment je traite.... L'arthrose. 2eme partie: Nouvelles perspectives therapeutiques
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Henrotin, Yves ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(3), 135-9

Besides the management of symptoms of osteoarthritis, a lot of interest was raised for molecules aiming at slowing down the structural progression of the disease. This paper summarizes the currently ... [more ▼]

Besides the management of symptoms of osteoarthritis, a lot of interest was raised for molecules aiming at slowing down the structural progression of the disease. This paper summarizes the currently available data allowing to discuss the efficacy and tolerance of these chemical entities. [less ▲]

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See detailL'allergie au latex--quand l'incertitude reste la seule certitude
Goffin, Véronique ULg; Kharfi, M.; Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(3), 165-9

Latex devices release allergenic proteins which are responsible for immune IgE mediated reactions. Casual surgical gloves are most often responsible for contact urticaria. Other allergic manifestations ... [more ▼]

Latex devices release allergenic proteins which are responsible for immune IgE mediated reactions. Casual surgical gloves are most often responsible for contact urticaria. Other allergic manifestations include conjunctivitis, rhinitis, asthmatiform dyspnoea and diverse gastro-intestinal troubles. Cardiovascular collapse and anaphylactic shock are possible. Physicians and the paramedical staff are particularly affected by the allergy to latex proteins. Multi-operated patients and those under prolonged health care using latex-made medical probes also present a high-risk group for this type of allergy. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of Ct Time-Density Curves of Lower-Limb Veins
Szapiro, D.; Ghaye, Benoît ULg; Willems, V. et al

in Investigative Radiology (2001), 36(3), 164-9

Szapiro D, Ghaye B, Willems V, et al. Evaluation of CT time-density curves of lower-limb veins. Invest Radiol 2001;36:164-169.RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate time-density curves of the lower-limb ... [more ▼]

Szapiro D, Ghaye B, Willems V, et al. Evaluation of CT time-density curves of lower-limb veins. Invest Radiol 2001;36:164-169.RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate time-density curves of the lower-limb veins for optimization of CT venography. METHODS: Fifty patients referred for chest CT were randomized into five equal groups. Five anatomic levels (abdomen, pelvis, proximal thigh, knee, and midcalf) were evaluated by a dynamic acquisition during 7 minutes. Computed tomography attenuation values of the veins, arteries, and adjacent muscles were measured for each level and plotted into curves versus time. Venous enhancement was also assessed qualitatively. RESULTS: Mean peak enhancement values of the inferior vena cava and the iliac, femoral, popliteal, anterior tibial, posterior tibial, and peroneal veins were, respectively, 112 +/- 16, 103 +/- 17, 93 +/- 23, 98 +/- 30, 112 +/- 28, 137 +/- 28, and 124 +/- 29 Hounsfield units. These were reached at 93 +/- 9.5, 129 +/- 15, 135 +/- 20, 147 +/- 57, 124 +/- 32, 123 +/- 17, and 123 +/- 18 seconds. Homogeneous opacification was obtained after 210 seconds. An optimal time window for CT venography was obtained between 210 and 240 seconds for the calf level and between 180 and 300 seconds for above-knee veins. CONCLUSIONS: For sequential CT venography, a caudocranial acquisition of the lower-limb veins, starting at 210 seconds, should allow optimal clot detection. [less ▲]

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See detailTraducir lo nuevo
Willson, Patricia ULg

in Lenguas Vivas (2001), (1), 4-9

The present article analyzes the change in editorial strategies of literary importation that came about in Buenos Aires during the 1930s and 1940s. Unlike the decades before them, this period privileged ... [more ▼]

The present article analyzes the change in editorial strategies of literary importation that came about in Buenos Aires during the 1930s and 1940s. Unlike the decades before them, this period privileged the translation of strictly contemporary works. Thus, numerous texts that appear in the catalogs of publishers like Sur, Losada, Emecé, Sudamericana, or Santiago Rueda, among others, constitute a break with the nineteenth-century realist tradition. [less ▲]

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See detailProgres recents dans la pharmacologie des hypnotiques et anxiolytiques
Scuvée-Moreau, Jacqueline ULg; Seutin, Vincent ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(3), 159-64

Recent studies on the respective contribution of GABAA receptor subunits in the various pharmacological effects of benzodiazepines suggest that the sedative and amnesic properties of diazepam are mediated ... [more ▼]

Recent studies on the respective contribution of GABAA receptor subunits in the various pharmacological effects of benzodiazepines suggest that the sedative and amnesic properties of diazepam are mediated by enhancement of gabaergic transmission in neurons expressing the alpha 1 subunit while the anxiolytic effect is selectively mediated by alpha 2 subunit. These findings suggest that a separation of the pharmacological properties of benzodiazepines is possible and that drugs with increased clinical specificity could be developed. [less ▲]

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See detailPurification and Characterization of Pbp4a, a New Low-Molecular-Weight Penicillin-Binding Protein from Bacillus subtilis
Duez, Colette ULg; Vanhove, Marc; Gallet, Xavier et al

in Journal of Bacteriology (2001), 183(5), 1595-9

Penicillin-binding protein 4a (PBP4a) from Bacillus subtilis was overproduced and purified to homogeneity. It clearly exhibits DD-carboxypeptidase and thiolesterase activities in vitro. Although highly ... [more ▼]

Penicillin-binding protein 4a (PBP4a) from Bacillus subtilis was overproduced and purified to homogeneity. It clearly exhibits DD-carboxypeptidase and thiolesterase activities in vitro. Although highly isologous to the Actinomadura sp. strain R39 DD-peptidase (B. Granier, C. Duez, S. Lepage, S. Englebert, J. Dusart, O. Dideberg, J. van Beeumen, J. M. Frere, and J. M. Ghuysen, Biochem. J. 282:781-788, 1992), which is rapidly inactivated by many beta-lactams, PBP4a is only moderately sensitive to these compounds. The second-order rate constant (k(2)/K) for the acylation of the essential serine by benzylpenicillin is 300,000 M(-1) s(-1) for the Actinomadura sp. strain R39 peptidase, 1,400 M(-1) s(-1) for B. subtilis PBP4a, and 7,000 M(-1) s(-1) for Escherichia coli PBP4, the third member of this class of PBPs. Cephaloridine, however, efficiently inactivates PBP4a (k(2)/K = 46,000 M(-1) s(-1)). PBP4a is also much more thermostable than the R39 enzyme. [less ▲]

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See detailLe Shoshin beriberi: mythe ou realite?
Masset, C.; LANCELLOTTI, Patrizio ULg; Nkoghe, D.

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(3), 155-8

Shoshin is a fulminating form of cardiac beriberi developing in a few hours in a young alcoholic. Without specific treatment it evulers, toward death by cardiogenic shock and metabolic acidosis. Treatment ... [more ▼]

Shoshin is a fulminating form of cardiac beriberi developing in a few hours in a young alcoholic. Without specific treatment it evulers, toward death by cardiogenic shock and metabolic acidosis. Treatment by thiamine and alkalinisation permits a spectacular and fast recovery. [less ▲]

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See detailNeurodevelopmental outcome related to cerebral risk factors in children after neonatal arterial switch operation.
Hovels-Gurich, H. H.; SEGHAYE, Marie-Christine ULg; Sigler, M. D. et al

in Annals of Thoracic Surgery (2001), 71(3), 881-8

BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopmental outcome after neonatal arterial switch operation for complete transposition of the great arteries is an important topic needing prospective assessment. METHODS: A group of ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopmental outcome after neonatal arterial switch operation for complete transposition of the great arteries is an important topic needing prospective assessment. METHODS: A group of 33 unselected children (3.0 to 4.6 years) operated on as neonates with combined deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and low flow cardiopulmonary bypass and a control group of 32 age-matched healthy children (3.0 to 4.8 years) underwent evaluation of socioeconomic and clinical neurological status and a standardized test comprising all areas of child development. Results of patients were related to those of the control group, to population norms, and to preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative cerebral risk factors. RESULTS: Clinical neurological status was normal in 26 patients (78.8%) and reduced in 7 (21.2%). Complete developmental score and the subscores for motor function, visual perception, learning and memory, cognitive function, language, and socioemotional functions were not different compared to population norms. Compared to the patients, the children of the control group scored higher on tests of complete development, cognition, and language, but also on socioeconomic status. Complete developmental score and the scores for motor, cognitive, and language functions were weakly inversely related to the duration of circulatory arrest, but not to the duration of bypass. Cerebral risk factors such as serum levels of the neuron-specific enolase, perinatal acidosis, perinatal asphyxia, peri- and postoperative cardiocirculatory insufficiency, or clinical seizures were not correlated to the test results. CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal arterial switch operation with combined circulatory arrest and low flow bypass is associated with neurological impairment, but not with reduced development as assessed by formal testing of motor, cognitive, language, and behavioral functions. Perioperative serum level of the neuron-specific enolase is not a valid marker for later developmental impairment. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of PCR and Immunofluorescence to Detect Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Recombinants
Schynts, F.; Vanderplasschen, Alain ULg; Hanon, E. et al

in Journal of Virological Methods (2001), 92(1), 99-104

Homologous recombination occurs frequently between strains of the same alphaherpesvirus species. Studies of this phenomenon require techniques that can differentiate parental strains from putative ... [more ▼]

Homologous recombination occurs frequently between strains of the same alphaherpesvirus species. Studies of this phenomenon require techniques that can differentiate parental strains from putative recombinant progeny viruses. Usually, progeny viruses generated by co-infection of two distinguishable parental strains are first cloned by selection of a single plaque and then characterised by PCR. An assay designed to investigate recombination between two bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) strains lacking either the glycoprotein gC or gE ORF is described. A PCR assay was developed in which a single step co-amplifies both BHV-1 glycoprotein-encoding sequences. Because the usual procedure for virus isolation, viral plaque picking, can lead to polyclonal virus preparations, a PCR protocol alone does not differentiate between samples containing recombinant viruses (gC+/gE+) and those containing a mixture of both single deleted parental strains (gC-/gE+ and gC+/gE-), and false positives resulting from recombination could occur. To reduce this possibility, double-label immunofluorescence staining of isolated plaques was developed, which coupled with PCR, allows straightforward discrimination between parental strains and progeny recombinant viruses. This assay will be useful for further studies of recombination, especially those evaluating the potential emergence of recombinants between BHV-1 marker vaccine and wildtype strains. [less ▲]

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See detailPotamon: A Dynamic Model for Predicting Phytoplankton Composition and Biomass in Lowland Rivers
Everbecq, Etienne ULg; Gosselain, Véronique ULg; Viroux, Laurent et al

in Water Research (2001), 35(4), 901-12

POTAMON is a unidimensional, non-stationary model, designed for simulating potamoplankton from source to mouth. The forcing variables are discharge, river morphology, water temperature, available light ... [more ▼]

POTAMON is a unidimensional, non-stationary model, designed for simulating potamoplankton from source to mouth. The forcing variables are discharge, river morphology, water temperature, available light and nutrient inputs. Given the description of several algal categories, POTAMON allows to simulate algal "successions" at a particular site, as well as longitudinal changes of potamoplankton composition and biomass. The algal categories differ by their physiology, their loss rates, and their sensitivity to grazing by zooplankton. Two zooplankton categories were considered, Brachionus-like and Keratella-like, which differ by their clearance rate, their incipient limiting level, their selectivity towards phytoplankton, and their growth yield. The model simulates satisfactorily the onset and the magnitude of the phytoplankton spring bloom in the Belgian part of R. Meuse, the biomass decrease in early summer, and the autumn bloom. It also renders the major variations of algal assemblages along the river. The model allows to confirm that the main driving variables of potamoplankton dynamics in a eutrophic river are physical factors: discharge and related variables (e.g. retention time), light and temperature. In addition, the simulations confirm that the zooplankton-phytoplankton interaction may result in phytoplankton biomass fluctuations and compositional changes. POTAMON can be useful to explore plankton dynamics in a large river, and it may become a tool to test various management measures. [less ▲]

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See detailComment j'explore certains cas difficiles de meningite tuberculeuse
Lemaire, Roger ULg; al Azba, S.; Brumioul, Danielle ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(3), 181-185

To formally document the presence of the bacillus of Koch in meninges still remains difficult and depends on many variables. We report two cases where the diagnosis proved difficult. The presentation of ... [more ▼]

To formally document the presence of the bacillus of Koch in meninges still remains difficult and depends on many variables. We report two cases where the diagnosis proved difficult. The presentation of tuberculous meningitis can take several aspects. Mantoux reaction is frequently negative. The BK cultures, which demonstrate the diagnosis, depend on the volume of CSF and on the importance of BK dissemination. It, unfortunately, remains difficult to make the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis even though this pathology can have extremely deleterious consequences. [less ▲]

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See detailPhase-separated microstructures in "all-acrylic" thermoplastic elastomers
Leclère, Philippe; Rasmont, A.; Brédas, Jean-Luc et al

in Macromolecular Symposia (2001), 167

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is used to study the phase separation process occurring in block copolymers in the solid state. Measuring simultaneously the amplitude and the phase of the oscillating ... [more ▼]

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is used to study the phase separation process occurring in block copolymers in the solid state. Measuring simultaneously the amplitude and the phase of the oscillating cantilever in tapping-mode operation provides the surface topography along with the cartography of microdomains with different mechanical properties. This in turn allows to characterize the organization of the various components at the surface in terms of well-defined morphologies (e.g., spheres, cylinders, or lamellae). Here this approach is applied to a series of symmetric triblock copolymers made of a central elastomeric segment (polyalkylacrylate) surrounded by two thermoplastic sequences (polymethylmethacrylate). The occurrence of microphase separation in these materials and the resulting microscopic morphology are essential factors for determining their potential applications as a new class of thermoplastic elastomers. This paper describes how the surface morphology can be controlled by the molecular structure of the copolymers (volume ratio between the sequences, molecular weight, length of the alkyl side group) and by the experimental conditions used for the preparation of the films. The molecular structure of the chains is fully determined by the synthesis of the copolymers via living anionic polymerization while the parameters that can be modified when preparing the samples are the nature of the solvent and the thermal annealing of the films. Finally, we report on a systematic comparison between images and approach-retract curve data. We show that this experimental comparison allows the origin of the contrast that produces the image to be straightforwardly evaluated. The method provides an unambiguous quantitative measurement of the contribution of the local mechanical response to the image. We show that most of the contrast in the height and phase images is due to variations in local mechanical properties and not in topography. [less ▲]

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See detailParticle-in-particle morphology for the dispersed phase formed in reactive compatibilization of SAN/EPDM blends
Pagnoulle, Christophe; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Polymer (2001), 42(5), 1893-1906

Poly(ethylene-co-propylene-co-diene) (EPDM) containing 50 wt% of poly(ethylene-co-propylene) grafted with maleic anhydride (EP-g-MA) has been melt blended with poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) (SAN) added ... [more ▼]

Poly(ethylene-co-propylene-co-diene) (EPDM) containing 50 wt% of poly(ethylene-co-propylene) grafted with maleic anhydride (EP-g-MA) has been melt blended with poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) (SAN) added with various amounts of reactive SAN, i.e. SAN bearing either primary amine (SAN-NH2) or carbamate groups (SAN-carb). Carbamate groups are precursors of primary amines by thermal thermolysis during melt processing. These reactive systems are good models for studying the effect of the kinetics of the interfacial reaction on the phase morphology. Reaction of maleic anhydride with the primary amine is indeed very fast, at high temperature, in contrast to the reaction with carbamate, which is controlled by the carbamate thermolyis into primary amine. Special attention has been paid to the experimental conditions required for the development of the particle-in-particle morphology for the dispersed phase. Depending on the mixing sequence and the grafting kinetics (NH2/MA versus carb/MA), this particular phase morphology can be forced or occurs spontaneously. [less ▲]

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See detailReactive compatibilization of SAN/EPR blends. 2. Effect of type and content of reactive groups randomly attached to SAN
Pagnoulle, Christophe; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Macromolecules (2001), 34(4), 965-975

Kinetics of the poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly(ethylene-co-propylene) (SAN/EPR) interfacial reaction has been varied by changing both the average number of reactive groups per SAN chain and the ... [more ▼]

Kinetics of the poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly(ethylene-co-propylene) (SAN/EPR) interfacial reaction has been varied by changing both the average number of reactive groups per SAN chain and the content of reactive SAN in the SAN phase, while keeping constant the overall SAN/EPR composition, i.e., 75/25 w/w. For this purpose, reactive SAN chains containing 0.004, 0.028, 0.049, and 0.078 mol/wt % of either primary amine or carbamate (an amine precursor) have been synthesized, and the content of reactive SAN in the SAN phase has been changed from 2.5 to 73.33 wt %. It appears that the number and type of reactive groups attached onto SAN affect not only the extent of the compatibilization reaction but also the compatibilization capability of the in situ formed graft copolymer in a strong dependence on molecular weight and molecular architecture. [less ▲]

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See detailRing-opening polymerization of epsilon-caprolactone in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
Stassin, Fabrice; Halleux, Olivier; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Macromolecules (2001), 34(4), 775-781

The ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone (CL) initiated by dibutyltin dimethoxide was studied in supercritical carbon dioxide at 40 °C, under a pressure of 210−215 bar. The polymerization is ... [more ▼]

The ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone (CL) initiated by dibutyltin dimethoxide was studied in supercritical carbon dioxide at 40 °C, under a pressure of 210−215 bar. The polymerization is controlled as assessed by the linear dependence of Mn,SEC on conversion and of ln([CL]0/[CL]) on time. Moreover, there is a good agreement between Mn,SEC and Mn,calc, at least until 20 000 g/mol. The apparent rate constants of polymerization in different media increase as follows: sc CO2, CFC-113, toluene, bulk. The kinetic order in initiator for the polymerization in solution and in sc CO2 was extracted from the slope of ln kapp vs ln [Sn]0. It appears to depend on the initiator concentration in solution, which is not the case in sc CO2. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence for a Modulatory Role of Ih on the Firing of a Subgroup of Midbrain Dopamine Neurons
Seutin, Vincent ULg; Massotte, Laurent ULg; Renette, M. F. et al

in Neuroreport (2001), 12(2), 255-8

A previous investigation has suggested that the hyperpolarization-activated cation current Ih does not contribute to the spontaneous firing of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. This conclusion was reached ... [more ▼]

A previous investigation has suggested that the hyperpolarization-activated cation current Ih does not contribute to the spontaneous firing of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. This conclusion was reached using Cs(-1). We have re-examined this question with extracellular recordings in slices using the more specific blocker ZD7288. In two-thirds of the cells, low concentrations of ZD7288 induced a decrease of the spontaneous firing. The maximal inhibition was about 40% and the mean IC50 was 1.6 microM. This effect was probably direct because it persisted in the presence of antagonists of various receptors. These concentrations of ZD7288 had no effect in the remaining one third of the examined cells. However, the highest concentration of ZD7288 (300 microM) abolished the firing of all dopaminergic neurons, probably by a mechanism unrelated to the blockade of Ih. We conclude that Ih controls to a certain extent the firing of a majority of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. [less ▲]

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See detailEnzyme Activity Determination on Macromolecular Substrates by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry: Application to Mesophilic and Psychrophilic Chitinases
Lonhienne, T.; Baise, Etienne ULg; Feller, Georges ULg et al

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (2001), 1545(1-2), 349-56

Isothermal titration calorimetry has been applied to the determination of the kinetic parameters of chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14) by monitoring the heat released during the hydrolysis of chitin glycosidic ... [more ▼]

Isothermal titration calorimetry has been applied to the determination of the kinetic parameters of chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14) by monitoring the heat released during the hydrolysis of chitin glycosidic bonds. Experiments were carried out using two different macromolecular substrates: a soluble polymer of N-acetylglucosamine and the insoluble chitin from crab shells. Different experimental temperatures were used in order to compare the thermodependence of the activity of two chitinases from the psychrophile Arthrobacter sp. TAD20 and of chitinase A from the mesophile Serratia marcescens. The method allowed to determine unequivocally the catalytic rate constant k(cat), the activation energy (E(a)) and the thermodynamic activation parameters (DeltaG(#), DeltaH(#), DeltaS(#)) of the chitinolytic reaction on the soluble substrate. The catalytic activity has also been determined on insoluble chitin, which displays an effect of substrate saturation by chitinases. On both substrates, the thermodependence of the activity of the psychrophilic chitinases was lower than that observed with the mesophilic counterpart. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor PAI-1 Controls in Vivo Tumor Vascularization by Interaction with Proteases, Not Vitronectin. Implications for Antiangiogenic Strategies
Bajou, Khalid ULg; Masson, Véronique ULg; Gerard, R. D. et al

in Journal of Cell Biology (2001), 152(4), 777-84

The plasminogen (Plg)/plasminogen activator (PA) system plays a key role in cancer progression, presumably via mediating extracellular matrix degradation and tumor cell migration. Consequently, urokinase ... [more ▼]

The plasminogen (Plg)/plasminogen activator (PA) system plays a key role in cancer progression, presumably via mediating extracellular matrix degradation and tumor cell migration. Consequently, urokinase-type PA (uPA)/plasmin antagonists are currently being developed for suppression of tumor growth and angiogenesis. Paradoxically, however, high levels of PA inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) are predictive of a poor prognosis for survival of patients with cancer. We demonstrated previously that PAI-1 promoted tumor angiogenesis, but by an unresolved mechanism. We anticipated that PAI-1 facilitated endothelial cell migration via its known interaction with vitronectin (VN) and integrins. However, using adenoviral gene transfer of PAI-1 mutants, we observed that PAI-1 promoted tumor angiogenesis, not by interacting with VN, but rather by inhibiting proteolytic activity, suggesting that excessive plasmin proteolysis prevents assembly of tumor vessels. Single deficiency of uPA, tissue-type PA (tPA), uPA receptor, or VN, as well as combined deficiencies of uPA and tPA did not impair tumor angiogenesis, whereas lack of Plg reduced it. Overall, these data indicate that plasmin proteolysis, even though essential, must be tightly controlled during tumor angiogenesis, probably to allow vessel stabilization and maturation. These data provide insights into the clinical paradox whereby PAI-1 promotes tumor progression and warrant against the uncontrolled use of uPA/plasmin antagonists as tumor angiogenesis inhibitors. [less ▲]

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See detailLa mobilité, un problème très complexe, transversal et multidisciplinaire – paramètres et moyens pour mesurer la mobilité
Marchal, Jean ULg

in Bulletin de l’URPIC (Union Royale Professionnelle des Ingénieurs Civils belges des Chemins de Fer) (2001), (Focus 40), 4-8

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See detailDetermination of the stability constants of uranyl/polymer complexes by differential pulse polarography
Leroy, D.; Martinot, Lucien; Jérôme, Christine ULg et al

in Polymer (2001), 42(10), 4589-4596

Differential pulse polarography (DPP) allows for the determination of the stability constants (K) and the stoichiometry (n) for the complexation of the UO22+ ion by various monomers and the parent ... [more ▼]

Differential pulse polarography (DPP) allows for the determination of the stability constants (K) and the stoichiometry (n) for the complexation of the UO22+ ion by various monomers and the parent polymers. The experimental observation is the shift of the totally reversible reduction wave UO22++e- UO2+ toward more cathodic potentials when the complexing monomer or polymer is added to an uranyl nitrate aqueous solution. This shift is, however, much greater when the polymer is used rather than the monomer, in line with a higher stability of the complexes (Kpolymer>>Kmonomer). A theoretical stability scale of the polymers/UO22+ complexes was compared to an experimental one based on dynamic leaching tests. [less ▲]

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See detailThe spectral variability of HD 192639 and its implications for the star's wind structure
Rauw, Grégor ULg; Morrison, N. D.; Vreux, Jean-Marie ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2001), 366

We report the analysis of an extensive set of spectroscopic data of the O(f) supergiant HD 192639. A Fourier analysis of our time-series reveals a recurrent variability with a ``period'' of roughly 4.8 ... [more ▼]

We report the analysis of an extensive set of spectroscopic data of the O(f) supergiant HD 192639. A Fourier analysis of our time-series reveals a recurrent variability with a ``period'' of roughly 4.8 days which is most prominent in the absorption components of the He {ii}\ lambda 4686 and Halpha P-Cygni profiles. The same periodicity is also detected in the blue wing of several absorption lines (e.g. Hbeta ). The variations of the absorption components correspond most probably to a cyclical modulation of the amount of stellar wind material along the line of sight towards the star. The 4.8-day period affects also the morphology of the double-peaked He {ii}\ lambda 4686 and Halpha emission components, although these emission components display also variations on other (mainly longer) time scales. The most likely explanation for the 4.8-day modulation is that this cycle reflects the stellar rotational period (or half this period). We find that the most important observational properties can be explained - at least qualitatively - by a corotating interaction region or a tilted confined corotating wind. Based on observations collected at the Observatoire de Haute Provence, France and the Ritter Observatory, Toledo, USA. [less ▲]

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See detailThe WR content of IC10 - first detection of WC9 stars in a low metallicity environment?
Royer, P.; Smartt, S. J.; Manfroid, Jean ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2001), 366

We present deep, narrow-band photometry of the Local Group starburst galaxy IC 10. Our dedicated photometric system provides detection of 13 new Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars and allows spectral subtypes to be ... [more ▼]

We present deep, narrow-band photometry of the Local Group starburst galaxy IC 10. Our dedicated photometric system provides detection of 13 new Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars and allows spectral subtypes to be assigned. Three of these new stars appear to be WC9 subtypes. If confirmed, these would be the very first WC9 stars ever detected in a low metallicity environment, hence putting strong new constraints on the formation and evolution models of massive stars. Eight of the new WR stars are of the WC subtype, which does not significantly modify the anomalously high WC/WN ratio in IC 10. However it is likely that a number of Wolf-Rayet stars of the WNE and WC spectral subtypes are still to be discovered in the heart of the galaxy. Based on observations at the William Herschel Telescope on La Palma and at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence. [less ▲]

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See detailAccretion of gas by globular cluster stars
Thoul, Anne ULg; Jorissen, Alain; Goriely, Stéphane et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2001), 383

Some recent observations of the abundances of s-process, r-process, and alpha elements in metal-poor stars have led to a new scenario for their formation. According to this scenario, these stars were born ... [more ▼]

Some recent observations of the abundances of s-process, r-process, and alpha elements in metal-poor stars have led to a new scenario for their formation. According to this scenario, these stars were born in a globular cluster and accreted the s-process enriched gas expelled by cluster stars of higher-mass, thereby modifying their surface abundances. Later on, these polluted stars evaporated from the globular cluster to constitute an important fraction of the current halo population. In addition, there are now many direct observations of abundance anomalies not only in globular cluster giant stars but also in subgiant and main-sequence stars. Accretion again provides a plausible explanation for (at least some of) these peculiarities. Here we investigate further the efficiency of the accretion scenario. We find that in concentrated clusters with large escape velocities, accretion is very efficient and can indeed lead to major modifications of the stellar surface abundances. [less ▲]

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See detailConfirmation of the existence of coherent orientations of quasar polarization vectors on cosmological scales
Hutsemekers, Damien ULg; Lamy, H.

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2001), 367

In order to verify the existence of coherent orientations of quasars polarization vectors on very large scales, we have obtained new polarization measurements for a sample of quasars located in a given ... [more ▼]

In order to verify the existence of coherent orientations of quasars polarization vectors on very large scales, we have obtained new polarization measurements for a sample of quasars located in a given region of the three-dimensional Universe where the range of polarization position angles was predicted in advance. For this new sample, the hypothesis of uniform distribution of polarization position angles may be rejected at the 1.8% significance level on the basis of a simple binomial test. This result provides an independent confirmation of the existence of alignments of quasar polarization vectors on very large scales. In total, out of 29 polarized quasars located in this region of the sky, 25 have their polarization vectors coherently oriented. This alignment occurs at redshifts z =~ 1-2 suggesting the presence of correlations in objects or fields on Gpc scales. More global statistical tests applied to the whole sample of polarized quasars distributed all over the sky confirm that polarization vectors are coherently oriented in a few groups of 20-30 quasars. Some constraints on the phenomenon are also derived. Considering more particularly the quasars in the selected region of the sky, we found that their polarization vectors are roughly parallel to the plane of the Local Supercluster. But the polarization vectors of objects along the same line of sight at lower redshifts are not accordingly aligned. We also found that the known correlations between quasar intrinsic properties and polarization are not destroyed by the alignment effect. Several possible mechanisms are discussed, but the interpretation of this orientation effect remains puzzling. Based in part on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory (ESO, La Silla). [less ▲]

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See detailMethadone Maintenance Treatment: Is It Possible to Adapt the Daily Doses to the Metabolic Activity of the Patient?
Charlier, Corinne ULg; Dessalles, M. C.; Plomteux, Guy ULg

in Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (2001), 23(1), 1-3

Controversy still exists concerning the proper daily dose of methadone to be used in opiate dependency treatment. Because it is admitted that serum methadone concentration may be significantly correlated ... [more ▼]

Controversy still exists concerning the proper daily dose of methadone to be used in opiate dependency treatment. Because it is admitted that serum methadone concentration may be significantly correlated with the amount of drug available at the receptor level, it could be interesting to predict the methadone daily doses necessary to reach such a serum concentration. The authors have attempted to correlate the serum methadone level with the daily intake, considering the metabolic activity of the patients. A poor correlation was found between methadone doses and methadone serum concentrations (r2 = 0.0409, p = 0.048). The test used to determine the metabolic activity of patients is the 6-OH cortisol/17-OH corticosteroids ratio in urine. This urinary 6-OH cortisol/17-OH corticosteroids ratio was tested because cortisol is metabolized through the same P450 cytochromes as methadone, namely cytochrome P450 3A4. This determination could be of interest because it could be tested before methadone administration to predict optimal doses. But when the authors tried to correlate the methadone serum concentration with the steroid ratio, they failed to find a significant correlation (r2 = 0.0046, N.S.), even when they took into account the daily doses (r2 = 0.0015, N.S.), most probably because of some limitations of the cortisol ratio. [less ▲]

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