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See detailChronique de la 56ème Session de la Société Internationale Fernand de Visscher à Cagliari (17-21 Septembre 2002)
Gerkens, Jean-François ULg

in Revue Internationale des Droits de l'Antiquité (2003), L

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See detailTIMP-2 and PAI-1 mRNA levels are lower in aneurysmal as compared to athero-occlusive abdominal aortas.
Defawe, Olivier D; Colige, Alain ULg; Lambert, Charles ULg et al

in Cardiovascular Research (2003), 60(1), 205-13

OBJECTIVE: Significant alterations of the vascular wall occurs in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and atherosclerotic occlusive disease (AOD) that ultimately may lead to either vascular rupture or ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: Significant alterations of the vascular wall occurs in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and atherosclerotic occlusive disease (AOD) that ultimately may lead to either vascular rupture or obstruction. These modifications have been ascribed to one or a group of proteases, their inhibitors or to the matrix macromolecules involved in the repair process without considering the extent of the observed variations. METHODS: The mRNA steady-state level of a large spectrum of proteolytic enzymes (matrix metalloproteinases: MMP-1, -2, -3, -8, -9, -11, -12, -13, -14; urokinase plasminogen activator: u-PA), their physiological inhibitors (tissue inhibitors of MMPs: TIMP-1, -2, -3; plasminogen activator inhibitor: PAI-1) and that of structural matrix proteins (collagens type I and III, decorin, elastin, fibrillins 1 and 2) was determined by RT-PCR made quantitative by using a synthetic RNA as internal standard in each reaction mixture. The profile of expression was evaluated in AAA (n=7) and AOD (n=5) and compared to non-diseased abdominal (CAA, n=7) and thoracic aorta (CTA, n=5). RESULTS: The MMPs -8, -9, -12 and -13 mostly associated with inflammatory cells were not or barely detected in CAA and CTA while they were largely and similarly expressed in AAA and AOD. Expression of protease inhibitors or structural proteins were only slightly increased in both pathological conditions with the exception of elastin which was reduced. The main significant difference between AAA and AOD was a lower expression of TIMP-2 and PAI-1 in the aneurysmal lesions. CONCLUSIONS: The remodeling of the aortic wall in AAA and AOD involves gene activation of a large and similar spectrum of proteolytic enzymes while the expression of two physiological inhibitors, TIMP-2 and PAI-1, is significantly lower in AAA compared to AOD. The repair process in the aneurysmal disease seems similar to that of the occlusive disease. [less ▲]

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See detailEmile Adan en de introductie van reisinstructies voor de Belgische wetenschappelijke exploratie in Midden-Afrika.
Vandersmissen, Jan ULg

in Archives et Bibliothèques de Belgique = Archief en Bibliotheekwezen in Belgie (2003), 74(1-4), 205-217

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See detailTranscription-coupled TA and GC strand asymmetries in the human genome
Touchon, M.; Nicolay, Samuel ULg; Arneodo, Alain et al

in FEBS Letters (2003), 555

Abstract Analysis of the whole set of human genes reveals that most of them present TA and GC skews, that these biases are correlated to each other and are speci¢c to gene sequences, exhibiting sharp ... [more ▼]

Abstract Analysis of the whole set of human genes reveals that most of them present TA and GC skews, that these biases are correlated to each other and are speci¢c to gene sequences, exhibiting sharp transitions between transcribed and non-tran- scribed regions. The GC asymmetries cannot be explained solely by a model previously proposed for (G+T) skew based on tran- sitions measured in a small set of human genes. We propose that the GC skew results from additional transcription-coupled mu- tation process that would include transversions. During evolu- tion, both processes acting on a large majority of genes in germ- line cells would have produced these transcription-coupled strand asymmetries. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyse de la cessation d'activité en Belgique
Jousten, Alain ULg; Dellis, A.; Desmet, R. et al

in Revue Française d'Economie (2003), XVIII

L’objectif de cette étude est de montrer l’influence du système de retraite sur la cessation d’activité. La première étape consiste à estimer les incitations financières implicites à ce système et ensuite ... [more ▼]

L’objectif de cette étude est de montrer l’influence du système de retraite sur la cessation d’activité. La première étape consiste à estimer les incitations financières implicites à ce système et ensuite à les introduire comme variables explicatives du départ à la retraite dans une régression de type probit. Le résultat majeur de cette contribution est d’indiquer le rôle significatif de ces incitations sur les décisions individuelles. La seconde étape consiste à utiliser les résultats de cette modélisation pour analyser l’effet de réformes sur la prolongation de l’activité. Il apparaît que l’aménagement de certaines règles d’octroi et de calcul des pensions pourrait inciter les travailleurs âgés à différer l’âge de leur retraite. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis of a simplified bryostatin C-ring analogue that binds to the CRD2 of human PKC-alpha and construction of a novel BC-analogue by an unusual Julia olefination process
Hale, K. J.; Frigerio, M.; Manaviazar, S. et al

in Organic Letters (2003), 5(4), 499-502

[GRAPHICS] The synthesis of two truncated bryostatin analogues 2 and 3 is described. High-field NMR measurements on the C-ring analogue 3 in (CH3CN)-H-2 containing 25% (H2O)-H-2 have shown that it binds ... [more ▼]

[GRAPHICS] The synthesis of two truncated bryostatin analogues 2 and 3 is described. High-field NMR measurements on the C-ring analogue 3 in (CH3CN)-H-2 containing 25% (H2O)-H-2 have shown that it binds to the CRD2 of human PKC-alpha at virtually the same position as phorbol-13-acetate (PA) and bryostatin 1 (1). NMR titration studies have also revealed that 3 binds to the CRD2 with a potency similar in magnitude to PA but much less potently than 1. [less ▲]

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See detailEnfin "Tubambe" devoile son identite! Hadraphe ethiopica (Bethune-Baker) (Limacodidae), une chenille comestible des forets claires zambeziennes.
Malaisse, François ULg; Demesmaecker, Anne; Matera, Joseph et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2003), 7(2), 67-77

La consommation humaine de chenilles de Limacodidae avait été signalée en Afrique centro-australe. L’une de ces espèces, Hadraphe ethiopica, a été déterminée. Des données relatives à sa biologie ont été ... [more ▼]

La consommation humaine de chenilles de Limacodidae avait été signalée en Afrique centro-australe. L’une de ces espèces, Hadraphe ethiopica, a été déterminée. Des données relatives à sa biologie ont été rassemblées. Des analyses d’échantillons séchés ont permis de préciser leur composition chimique et leur valeur nutritionnelle, notamment sur le plan des acides aminés et des acides gras. [less ▲]

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See detailMagnetic fabrics in the Holum granite (Vest-Agder, southernmost Norway): implications for the late evolution of the Sveconorwegian (Grenvillian) orogen of SW Scandinavia
Bolle, Olivier ULg; Diot, Hervé; Trindade, Ricardo I.F.

in Precambrian Research (2003), 121(3-4), 221-249

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See detailWhat are the realistic hopes for stem cells in neurological diseases ?
Rogister, Bernard ULg

in Bulletin de l'Académie Nationale de Médecine (2003), 158

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See detailEcoFerme: un logiciel d'évaluation environnementale de l'exploitation agricole
Debouche, Charles ULg

in Les Nouvelles de l'été (2003), (3e trimetre), 14-15

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See detailLes lignes de force de l'accord interprofessionnel pour 2003-2004
Michiels, Olivier ULg

in Journal du Juriste (2003), 23

Plan: Les dispositions relatives aux groupes à risque et aux jeunes auxquels s'applique un parcours d'insertion; La convention de premier emploi; La prépension; Les cotisations et retenues sur les ... [more ▼]

Plan: Les dispositions relatives aux groupes à risque et aux jeunes auxquels s'applique un parcours d'insertion; La convention de premier emploi; La prépension; Les cotisations et retenues sur les avantages complémentaires. [less ▲]

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See detailCatecholamine and HPA axis dysfunction in depression : relationship with suicidal behavior
Pitchot, William ULg; Reggers, Jean ULg; Pinto, Emmanuel ULg et al

in Neuropsychobiology (2003), 47(3), 152-157

A large body of evidence suggests a potential role for catecholaminergic function as a possible biological factor in the control of suicidal behavior. Recently, we have used a neuroendocrine strategy to ... [more ▼]

A large body of evidence suggests a potential role for catecholaminergic function as a possible biological factor in the control of suicidal behavior. Recently, we have used a neuroendocrine strategy to study dopaminergic and noradrenergic activities in depressed suicide attempters. However, some problems are associated with the use of growth hormone (GH) response to catecholaminergic challenge, because GH release could be decreased by a direct effect of corticosteroids at the pituitary level. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to assess GH response to both apornorphine, a dopaminergic agonist, and clonidine, an alpha2-adrenergic agonist, according to the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) status in a sample of 20 major depressed inpatients with a history of suicide attempt compared with nonattempters. Our results tended to show that hypercortisolemia as assessed by post-DST cortisol values did not inhibit GH response to apornorphine or clonidine, suggesting that hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis overactivity does not explain the impaired GH response to apornorphine in major depressed patients with a history of suicide attempt. [less ▲]

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See detailPour améliorer l'apprentissage d'une langue moderne à l'école primaire
Blondin, Christiane ULg; Straeten, M.

in Point sur la Recherche en Education (Le) (2003), 27

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See detailLe Droit des sociétés
Caprasse, Olivier ULg

in Chronique de Droit à l'Usage du Notariat (2003)

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See detailProbing the stereoselectivity of the ruthenium-catalyzed ring-opening metathesis polymerization of norbornene and norbornadiene diesters
Delaude, Lionel ULg; Demonceau, Albert ULg; Noels, Alfred ULg

in Macromolecules (2003), 36(5), 1446-1456

The ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of two optically active 2,3-dicarboalkoxynorbornadienes derived from (S)-(-)-2-methyl-1-butanol and (R)-(-)-2-butanol were carried out in the presence of ... [more ▼]

The ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of two optically active 2,3-dicarboalkoxynorbornadienes derived from (S)-(-)-2-methyl-1-butanol and (R)-(-)-2-butanol were carried out in the presence of the [RuCl2(P-cymene)](2) catalyst precursor activated by trimethylsilyldiazomethane (TMSD). H-1 and C-13 NMR analyses showed that a high degree of stereoregularity was achieved, and homonuclear proton-proton COSY spectroscopy indicated that the major trans fractions of the polymers were most likely isotactic, while the minor cis fractions were syndiotactic. Ring-opened metathesis polymers were also made from 2,3-dicarbomethoxynorbornadiene and exo,exo-2,3-dicarbomethoxy-5-norbornene. They were hydrogenated into the corresponding polynorbornanes using diimide. The NMR spectra of the reduced materials confirmed that the unsaturated parent polymers had an all-trans highly isotactic microstructure. A tentative mechanism involving arene loss, carbene formation, and monomer chelation is proposed to account for the observed stereoselectivities. [less ▲]

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See detailReal sex in bacteria !
Gratia, Jean-Pierre; Thiry, Marc ULg

in Microbiology Today (2003), 30

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See detailLe japonisme en Belgique. L’affiche Art nouveau et l’estampe ukiyo-e
Bawin, Julie ULg

in Bulletin de la Classe des Beaux-Arts (2003), XIV

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See detailEphrinA1 inactivates integrin-mediated vascular smooth muscle cell spreading via the Rac/PAK pathway.
Deroanne, Christophe ULg; Vouret-Craviari, Valerie; Wang, Bingcheng et al

in Journal of Cell Science (2003), 116(Pt 7), 1367-76

Interactions between the Eph receptor tyrosine kinase and ephrin ligands transduce short-range signals regulating axon pathfinding, development of the cardiovascular system, as well as migration and ... [more ▼]

Interactions between the Eph receptor tyrosine kinase and ephrin ligands transduce short-range signals regulating axon pathfinding, development of the cardiovascular system, as well as migration and spreading of neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Some of these effects are believed to be mediated by alterations in actin dynamics. The members of the small Rho GTPase family elicit various effects on actin structures and are probably involved in Eph receptor-induced actin modulation. EphrinA1 is proposed to contribute to angiogenesis as it is strongly expressed at sites of neovascularization. Moreover, angiogenic factors induce the expression of ephrinA1 in endothelial cells. In this study, using rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), we investigated the contribution of the small Rho GTPases in ephrinA1-induced integrin inactivation. EphrinA1 did not significantly affect early adhesion of VSMCs on purified laminin or fibronectin, but strongly impaired cell spreading. The Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 partly reversed the ephrinA1 effect, suggesting involvement of Rho in this model. However, inhibition of RhoA synthesis with short interfering (si)RNA had a modest effect, suggesting that RhoA plays a limited role in ephrinA1-mediated inhibition of spreading in VSMCs. The ephrinA1-mediated morphological alterations correlated with inhibition of Rac1 and p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) activity, and were antagonized by the expression of a constitutively active Rac mutant. Moreover, repression of Rac1 synthesis with siRNA amplifies the ephrinA1-induced inhibition of spreading. Finally, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a lipid mediator known to inhibit Rac activation in VSMCs amplifies the ephrinA1 effect. In conclusion, our results emphasize the role of the Rac/PAK pathway in ephrinA1-mediated inhibition of spreading. In this way, ephrinA1, alone or in synergy with S1P, can participate in blood vessel destabilization, a prerequisite for angiogenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailDaily induction combination treatment with alpha 2b interferon and ribavirin or standard combination treatment in naive chronic hepatitis C patients. A multicentre randomized controlled trial
Van Vlierberghe, H.; Leroux-Roels, G.; Adler, M. et al

in Journal of Viral Hepatitis (2003), 10(6), 460-466

The standard treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis C is a 6-12-month combination therapy with interferon alpha and ribavirin. Induction treatment could result in a faster early decline of the ... [more ▼]

The standard treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis C is a 6-12-month combination therapy with interferon alpha and ribavirin. Induction treatment could result in a faster early decline of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) load and a better response rate. Naive chronically infected HCV patients (n = 454) were randomized into two arms to receive either induction treatment with interferon alpha 2b 5 million units (MU) subcutaneously (s.c.) daily during a period of 8 weeks (arm A); or treatment with interferon alpha 2b 5 MU s.c. three times a week (TIW) for a period of 8 weeks (arm B). After week 8, interferon treatment in both arms was 3 MU s.c. TIW for a total period of 12 months. In both arms, ribavirin (1000-1200 mg orally per day) was added at week 4. Induction treatment resulted in a higher virological response at week 8 of treatment (66%vs 47%; P < 0.01). However, response at the end of treatment and at 6 months follow-up was not different (53%vs 50%, 41%vs 33%). The occurrence of adverse events and the drop-out rate were similar in both arms. Although an early virological response is observed more frequently in the induction treatment, end of treatment response and sustained responses did not differ. [less ▲]

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See detailGuidelines for clinical studies assessing the efficacy of drugs for the management of acute low back pain
Devogelaer, J. P.; Dreiser, R. L.; Abadie, Eric ULg et al

in Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology (2003), 21(6, NOV-DEC), 691-694

In this paper we propose guidelines for clinical trials aimed at assessing the efficacy of drugs for acute non-specific low back pain (LBP) with or without radicular pain, preliminary to their approval ... [more ▼]

In this paper we propose guidelines for clinical trials aimed at assessing the efficacy of drugs for acute non-specific low back pain (LBP) with or without radicular pain, preliminary to their approval and registration. To this end, consensus statements were obtained from a group of experts in the fields of rheumatology, clinical medicine, public health and epidemiology. EBM resources were systematically used as references. [less ▲]

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See detailPrediction of organoleptic and technological characteristics of pork meat by near infrared spectroscopy
Meulemans, A.; Dotreppe, Olivier ULg; Leroy, Bernadette ULg et al

in Sciences des Aliments (2003), 23(1), 159-162

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See detailL'immersion linguistique dans l'enseignement fondamental en Communauté française de Belgique
Blondin, Christiane ULg

in Journal de l'Immersion (2003), 25(2), 19-31

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See detailLipid storage metabolism is limited by the prevailing low oxygen concentrations within developing seeds of oilseed rape.
Vigeolas, Hélène ULg; van Dongen, Joost T; Waldeck, Peter et al

in Plant Physiology (2003), 133(4), 2048-60

The aim of this study was to investigate whether endogenous restrictions in oxygen supply are limiting for storage metabolism in developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus) seeds. Siliques were studied 30 d ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to investigate whether endogenous restrictions in oxygen supply are limiting for storage metabolism in developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus) seeds. Siliques were studied 30 d after flowering, when rapid lipid accumulation is occurring in the seeds. (a). By using microsensors, oxygen concentrations were measured within seeds and in the silique space between seeds. At ambient external oxygen (21% [v/v]) in the light, oxygen fell to 17% (v/v) between and 0.8% (v/v) within seeds. A step-wise reduction of the external oxygen concentration led within 2 h to a further decrease of internal oxygen concentrations, and a step-wise increase of the external oxygen concentration up to 60% (v/v) resulted in an increase in internal oxygen that rose to 30% (v/v) between and 8% (v/v) within seeds. (b). The increase in oxygen levels in the seeds was accompanied by a progressive increase in the levels of ATP, UTP, and the ATP to ADP and UTP to UDP ratios over the entire range from 0% to 60% (v/v) external oxygen. (c). To investigate metabolic fluxes in planta, 14C-sucrose was injected into seeds, which remained otherwise intact within their siliques. The increase in oxygen in the seeds was accompanied by a progressive increase in the rate of lipid (including triacylglycerol), protein and cell wall synthesis, and an increase in glycolytic flux over a range from sub- to superambient oxygen concentrations. In contrast to lipid synthesis, starch synthesis was not significantly increased at superambient oxygen levels. The levels of fermentation products such as lactate and glycerol-3P increased only at very low (0%-4% [v/v]) external oxygen concentrations. (d). When 14C-acetate or 14C-acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) was injected into seeds, label incorporation into triacylglycerol progressively increased over the whole range of external oxygen concentrations from 0% to 60% (v/v). (e). Stimulation of lipid synthesis was accompanied by an increase in sugar levels and a decrease in the levels of hexose-phosphates and acetyl-CoA, indicating sucrose unloading and the use of acetyl-CoA as possible regulatory sites. (f). Increased lipid synthesis was also accompanied by an increase in the maximal activities of invertase and diacylglycerol acyltransferase. (g). The developmental shift from starch to lipid storage between 15 and 45 d after flowering was accompanied by an increase in the seed energy state. (h). The results show that at ambient oxygen levels, the oxygen supply is strongly limiting for energy metabolism and biosynthetic fluxes in growing rape seeds, affecting lipid synthesis more strongly than starch synthesis. The underlying mechanisms and implications for strategies to increase yield and storage product composition in oilseed crops are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailLa maladie du hêtre en Région wallonne : état des lieux chiffré de 2001 à 2003
Rondeux, Jacques ULg; Huart, O.; Lecomte, H. et al

in Silva Belgica (2003), 110(3), 18-28

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See detailHigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography Analyses Of Pyoverdin Siderophores Differentiate Among Phytopathogenic Fluorescent Pseudomonas Species
Bultreys, Alain; Gheysen, Isabelle; Wathelet, Bernard ULg et al

in Applied and Environmental Microbiology (2003), 69(2),

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See detailRuthenium alkylidenes: a new class of catalysts for Kharasch addition and controlled radical polymerisation of vinyl monomers
Delfosse, Sébastien; Richel, Aurore ULg; Demonceau, Albert ULg et al

in e-polymers (2003)

Air-stable and readily available ruthenium benzylidene complexes of the general type (RuCl2 (=CHPh)(L)(L')) (L, L' = P(cC5H9)3, PCy3 and/or a N-heterocyclic carbene) constitute a new class of catalyst ... [more ▼]

Air-stable and readily available ruthenium benzylidene complexes of the general type (RuCl2 (=CHPh)(L)(L')) (L, L' = P(cC5H9)3, PCy3 and/or a N-heterocyclic carbene) constitute a new class of catalyst precursors for atom transfer radical addition (ATRA, also called Kharasch addition) and atom transfer radical polymerisation (ATRP) of methyl methacrylate and styrene, and provide an unprecedented example for the involvement of ruthenium alkylidenes in radical reactions. They promote the addition of carbon tetrachloride to methyl methacrylate and styrene in moderate to high yield (Table 1). They also promote the polymerisation of methyl methacrylate and styrene in a controlled way with good to excellent yields (Table 2). The ligands L (P(cC5H9)3, PCy3 and/or a N-heterocyclic carbene) play a particularly important role in determining the rate of the polymerisation. A similarly pronounced influence is exerted by the substituents on the N-heterocyclic carbene. Our results indicate that: 􀀀 The catalysts decompose quickly under ATRA and ATRP conditions; 􀀀 Polymerisations are mediated by both (RuCl2(=CHPh)(L)(L')) complexes and ruthenium species bereft of the benzylidene moiety. [less ▲]

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See detailAromatic Side-Chain Interactions In Proteins. Near- And Far-Sequence His-X Pairs
Meurisse, R.; Brasseur, Robert ULg; Thomas, Annick ULg

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-Proteins and Proteomics (2003), 1649(1), 85-96

Several studies have analysed aromatic interactions, involving mostly phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan. Only a few studies have considered histidine as an interacting aromatic residue. An extensive ... [more ▼]

Several studies have analysed aromatic interactions, involving mostly phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan. Only a few studies have considered histidine as an interacting aromatic residue. An extensive analysis of aromatic His-X interactions is performed here on a data set of 593 PDB structures: 68% of the histidine are involved in aromatic pairs and 1271 non-redundant His-X pairs were analysed. Thirty percent of these pairs involve an aromatic partner less than 6 apart in the sequence. These near-sequence pairs correspond to conformations which stabilise secondary structures, mainly alpha-helices when the residues are 4 apart and beta-strands when they are 2 apart in the sequence. The partners of the other His-X pairs (887, 70%) are more than 5 apart in the sequence. Of these far-sequence pairs, 35% bridge beta strands and only 9% helices. The near-sequence pairs are sterically constrained as supported by conformer distribution. The X partners of far-sequence His-X pairs are mainly "above" the histidine ring with tilted and normal rings, corresponding to a "T shape; face to edge" orientation. Phenylalanine, the only aromatic residue with no heteroatom, is a disfavoured partner, whereas histidine is the preferred one. Heteroatom-heteroatom interactions are favoured in near-sequence as well as in far-sequence His-His, His-Trp and His-Tyr pairs. [less ▲]

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See detailHaplotype diversity of the myostatin gene among beef cattle breeds
Dunner, S.; Miranda, M. E.; Amigues, Y. et al

in Genetics, Selection, Evolution (2003), 35(1, JAN-FEB), 103-118

A total of 678 individuals from 28 European bovine breeds were both phenotyped and analysed at the myostatin locus by the Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) method. Seven new mutations were ... [more ▼]

A total of 678 individuals from 28 European bovine breeds were both phenotyped and analysed at the myostatin locus by the Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) method. Seven new mutations were identified which contribute to the high polymorphism (1 SNP every 100 bp) present in this small gene; twenty haplotypes were described and a genotyping method was set up using the Oligonucleotide Ligation Assay (OLA) method. Some haplotypes appeared to be exclusive to a particular breed; this was the case for 5 in the Charolaise (involving mutation Q204X) and 7 in the Maine-Anjou (involving mutation E226X). The relationships between the different haplotypes were studied, thus allowing to test the earlier hypothesis on the origin of muscular hypertrophy in Europe: muscular hypertrophy (namely m821 (del11)) was mainly spread in different waves from northern Europe milk purpose populations in most breeds; however, other mutations (mostly disruptive) arose in a single breed, were highly selected and have since scarcely evolved to other populations. [less ▲]

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See detailLe passé récent, la réforme de l'impôt des personnes physiques, le cas des villes
Jurion, Bernard ULg

in Bulletin de Documentation du Ministère des Finances (2003)

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See detailProvider continuity in family medicine: does it make a difference for total health care costs?
De Maeseneer, Jan M; De Prins, Lutgarde; Gosset, Christiane ULg et al

in Annals of Family Medicine (2003), 1(3), 144-8

BACKGROUND: International comparisons of health care systems have shown a relationship at the macro level between a well-structured primary health care plan and lower total health care costs. The ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: International comparisons of health care systems have shown a relationship at the macro level between a well-structured primary health care plan and lower total health care costs. The objective of this study was to assess whether provider continuity with a family physician is related to lower health care costs using the individual patient as the unit of analysis. METHODS: We undertook a study of a stratified sample of patients (age, sex, region, insurance company) for which 2 cohorts were constructed based on the patients' utilization pattern of family medicine (provider continuity or not). Patient utilization patterns were observed for 2 years. The setting was the Belgian health care system. The participants were 4,134 members of the 2 largest health insurance companies in 2 regions (Aalst and Liege). The main outcome measures were the total health care costs of patients with and without provider continuity with a family physician, controlling for variables known to influence health care utilization (need factors, predisposing factors, enabling factors). RESULTS: Bivariate analyses showed that patients who were visiting the same family physician had a lower total cost for medical care. A multivariate linear regression showed that provider continuity with a family physician was one of the most important explanatory variables related to the total health care cost. CONCLUSIONS: Provider continuity with a family physician is related to lower total health care costs. This finding brings evidence to the debate on the importance of structured primary health care (with high continuity for family practice) for a cost-effective health policy. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Zápara Indians : the Consecration of an Endangered People
Bilhaut, Anne-Gaël ULg

in Museum International (2003), 55(2), 25-30

Focuses on the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization's (UNESCO) declaration of the oral heritage and cultural manifestations of the Zápara people of Amazonia as a 'Masterpiece ... [more ▼]

Focuses on the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization's (UNESCO) declaration of the oral heritage and cultural manifestations of the Zápara people of Amazonia as a 'Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.' Impact that the UNESCO recognition has had on the Zápara; Details of how the Zápara were able to secure sacred status from the UNESCO. [less ▲]

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See detailCalculation of the scattering coefficient of a sine-shaped surface by solving the Helmholtz integral
Embrechts, Jean-Jacques ULg; De Geetere, L.; Vermeir, G.

in Proceedings of the Institute of Acoustics (2003), 25(5), 67-74

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See detailLes effets de la formation professionnelle continue : une enquête auprès des bénéficiaires des actions du Fonds social européen en Wallonie et à Bruxelles
Conter, Bernard; Maroy, Christian; Orianne, Jean-François ULg

in Politiques d'Education et de Formation : Analyses et Comparaisons Internationales (2003), 7

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See detailEffect of induction of late embryonic mortality on plasma profiles of pregnancy associated glycoprotein 1 in heifers
Szenci, Otto; Beckers, Jean-François ULg; Sulon, Joseph ULg et al

in Veterinary Journal (2003), 165(3), 307-313

Inoculation with Actinomyces pyogenes and administration of prostaglandin (PG) F-2alpha were used to induce late embryonic mortality (LEM) in heifers (n = 8) on Days 30-38 of pregnancy in order to compare ... [more ▼]

Inoculation with Actinomyces pyogenes and administration of prostaglandin (PG) F-2alpha were used to induce late embryonic mortality (LEM) in heifers (n = 8) on Days 30-38 of pregnancy in order to compare the profile for bovine pregnancy associated glycoprotein 1 (PAG1), progesterone and 15-keto-13,14-dihydro-PGF(2alpha) (PGFM). Two pregnant heifers were used as controls. Inoculation into the uterine body caused LEM, as established by ultrasonography in each heifer within 24 h of treatment. When the inoculum was injected into the first part of the cervix, LEM occurred in one of two heifers (Heifer A) between 48 and 72 h after treatment. Similarly, PGF(2alpha) treatment caused LEM in three of four heifers. In six of eight heifers, PAG1 started to decrease steadily when it was accompanied by the subsequent death of the embryo. Inoculation through the cervix caused luteolysis in three of four heifers within 6-10 days after induction. After induction of LEM, PGFM concentrations showed a two to 3.8 fold increase in three of four heifers during the following six days, and from that time changed within normal ranges. The results of this study indicate that a PAG1 assay may provide an alternative method to ultrasonography for determining LEM in the cow. [less ▲]

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See detailShellfish, a dangerous food?
China, Bernard; de Schaetzen, Marie-Athénaïs ULg; Daube, Georges ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2003), 147(6, DEC-JAN), 413-422

Sea products are consumed worldwide. Seafood, especially shellfish, is consumed crude or not well cooked therefore they are risky for the development of foodborne diseases. Moreover, these animals filter ... [more ▼]

Sea products are consumed worldwide. Seafood, especially shellfish, is consumed crude or not well cooked therefore they are risky for the development of foodborne diseases. Moreover, these animals filter water and concentrate the microorganisms and the toxins. Risks are multiple : bacteria (Clostridium, Vibrio), viruses (norovirus, hepatitis A) and the biotoxins (paralytic, neurotoxic, diarrhoeic and amnesic) produced by phytoplankton. The European regulation 91/492/EC indicates the microbiological and toxicological criteria for the sale of the shellfish. Nevertheless, in the absence of good diagnosis methods, the viruses were omitted in this regulation. But it is a major cause of toxi-infection due to shellfish consumption. The large number of outbreaks worldwide due to the ingestion of seafood indicates that these ones must be carefully controlled. Therefore, we need powerful diagnosis tools. The aim of this review is to describe the major biological risks (bacteria, viruses, biotoxins) for the human health linked to the consumption of sea food. [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnostic différentiel des troubles à expression nerveuse dans l’espèce bovine en Europe occidentale
Saegerman, Claude ULg; Claes, L.; Dewaele, A. et al

in Revue Scientifique et Technique (International Office of Epizootics) (2003), 22(1), 61-82

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See detail3D h-phi finite element formulation for the computation of a linear transverse flux actuator
Deliège, Geoffrey ULg; Henrotte, François; Vande Sande, Hans et al

in COMPEL (2003), 22(4), 1077-1088

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See detailDevelopment of a Mesoscopic Cell Modeling the Damage Process in Steel at Elevated Temperature
Castagne, Sylvie; Remy, M.; Habraken, Anne ULg

in Key Engineering Materials [=KEM] (2003), 233-236

An on going project whose goal is the development and identification of a mathematical model of steel at elevated temperature using a mesoscopic approach is presented. The research aims to study the ... [more ▼]

An on going project whose goal is the development and identification of a mathematical model of steel at elevated temperature using a mesoscopic approach is presented. The research aims to study the damage process at elevated temperature using information from the macroscopic and mesoscopic scales. As a final application our results will be used to study the industrial process of continuous casting of low carbon steel. [less ▲]

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See detailNew ruthenium catalysts bearing N-heterocyclic carbene ligands for ATRP
Tudose, Adriana; Delfosse, Sébastien; Richel, Aurore ULg et al

in e-polymers (2003)

New ruthenium catalysts bearing N-heterocyclic carbene ligands in Kharasch chemistry

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See detailRole of Cys221 and Asn116 in the zinc-binding sites of the Aeromonas hydrophila metallo-beta-lactamase.
Vanhove, Marc; Zakhem, M.; Devreese, B. et al

in Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS (2003), 60(11), 2501-9

The CphA metallo-beta-lactamase produced by Aeromonas hydrophila exhibits two zinc-binding sites. Maximum activity is obtained upon binding of one zinc ion, whereas binding of the second zinc ion results ... [more ▼]

The CphA metallo-beta-lactamase produced by Aeromonas hydrophila exhibits two zinc-binding sites. Maximum activity is obtained upon binding of one zinc ion, whereas binding of the second zinc ion results in a drastic decrease in the hydrolytic activity. In this study, we analyzed the role of Asn116 and Cys221, two residues of the active site. These residues were replaced by site-directed mutagenesis and the different mutants were characterized. The C221S and C221A mutants were seriously impaired in their ability to bind the first, catalytic zinc ion and were nearly completely inactive, indicating a major role for Cys221 in the binding of the catalytic metal ion. By contrast, the binding of the second zinc ion was only slightly affected, at least for the C221S mutant. Mutation of Asn116 did not lead to a drastic decrease in the hydrolytic activity, indicating that this residue does not play a key role in the catalytic mechanism. However, the substitution of Asn116 by a Cys or His residue resulted in an approximately fivefold increase in the affinity for the second, inhibitory zinc ion. Together, these data suggested that the first zinc ion is located in the binding site involving the Cys221 and that the second zinc ion binds in the binding site involving Asn116 and, presumably, His118 and His196. [less ▲]

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See detailOrigin and evolution of Precambrian Anorogenic Magmatism
Vander Auwera, Jacqueline ULg; Martin, Hervé; Rämö, Tapani

in Precambrian Research (2003), 124(2-4), 105-344

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See detailEffets fonctionnels respiratoires induits par l'inhalation de glycopyrrolate chez le cheval poussif en crise
Art, Tatiana ULg; De Moffarts, Brieuc; Van Erck, Emmanuelle et al

in Pratique Vétérinaire Equine (2003), 35(139), 23-29

An acute respiratory attack with bronchospasm is associated with excessive stimulation of the parasympathic nervous system. It may be reduced by administration of anticholinergic agents. Atropine and ... [more ▼]

An acute respiratory attack with bronchospasm is associated with excessive stimulation of the parasympathic nervous system. It may be reduced by administration of anticholinergic agents. Atropine and ipratropium bromide have been tested. This study is to evaluate the efficacy of the synthetic antimuscarinic compound glycopyrrolate as a bronchodilator in horses. Respiratory crisis was induced in seven allergic horses by exposure to natural allergens. Prior to the study, it was established that the attack could be stopped using intravenous atropine sulphate. Pulmonary function tests (ventilation and arterial blood gas analysis) were performed on the horses before and then after aerosol administration of 1500 µg of glycopyrrolate (Robinul®). The attack was characterised by an increase in total pulmonary resis¬tance and maximum pleural pressure variation and by decreased compliance. This study demonstrates that glycopyrrolate exhibits affects that are just as rapid and effective as intravenous atropine or aerosol administration of 1200 µg dry powder Ipratropium. In addi¬tion the treatment was well tolerated and no side-effects were observed in contrast to those seen with intravenous administration of atro¬pine. Therefore this drug has an important role to play among the therapeutics available to practitioners for acute respiratory attacks in horses [less ▲]

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See detailThe activation of birdsong by testosterone - Multiple sites of action and role of ascending catecholamine projections
Ball, G. F.; Castelino, C. B.; Maney, D. L. et al

in Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (2003), 1007

Birdsong is a species-typical stereotypic vocalization produced in the context of reproduction and aggression. Among temperate-zone songbirds, it is produced primarily by males, and its frequency and ... [more ▼]

Birdsong is a species-typical stereotypic vocalization produced in the context of reproduction and aggression. Among temperate-zone songbirds, it is produced primarily by males, and its frequency and quality are enhanced by the presence of the gonadal steroid hormone testosterone in the plasma. In the brain, the effects of testosterone on song behavior involve both estrogenic and androgenic metabolites of testosterone that are locally produced and act via their cognate receptors. Androgen, and in some cases estrogen, receptors are present in many specialized forebrain song control nuclei. Testosterone can regulate catecholamine steady-state levels and turnover in these song control regions. Tracing studies combined with immunocytochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase (a marker of catecholamine synthesis) reveal several catecholamine cell groups that project to forebrain song control nuclei. These brain areas also express the mRNA for either androgen receptors or estrogen receptor alpha, and androgens enhance the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase. Dopaminergic cell groups that project to song nuclei express the protein product of the immediate early gene fos in association with the production of territorial song. Thus, testosterone may be acting on song behavior via these ascending catecholamine cell groups. Chemical lesioning studies suggest that noradrenergic projections to the song system are involved in the latency to produce song and the ability to discriminate conspecific from heterospecific song. The song control circuit may thus be modulated in significant ways via the androgen regulation of forebrain catecholamine systems. [less ▲]

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See detailEffets fonctionnels respiratoires induits par l'inhalation de glycopyrrolate chez le cheval poussif en crise
Art, Tatiana ULg; de Moffarts, Brieuc; Van Erck, Emmanuelle et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2003), 147

Bronchoconstriction is one of the most constant clinical sign observed in heaves-affected horses in crisis. Cholinergic pathways are involved in the occurrence of this obstruction. Consequently ... [more ▼]

Bronchoconstriction is one of the most constant clinical sign observed in heaves-affected horses in crisis. Cholinergic pathways are involved in the occurrence of this obstruction. Consequently anticholinergic drugs are potentially able to improve the pulmonary function of horses in acute crisis. Among these, atropine and ipratropium bromide have been previously experimented and their beneficial effects reported. In the present work, glycopyrrolate, another synthetic anticholinergic molecule has been tested for bronchodilator efficiency in heaves-affected horses. An acute exacerbation of the illness was obtained by a natural challenge with hay and straw in 7 heaves-affected horses. The first day, the reversibility of the bronchospasm of these horses was controlled by intravenous administration of atropine. Then, pulmonary function tests including mechanics of breathing, ie measurement of pleural pressure changes and respiratory airflows, and arterial blond gases analysis, were performed before as well as 15 and 60 minutes alter inhalation of 1500 µg of glycopyrrolate (Robinul®). The crisis induced a dramatic increase of total pulmonary resistance and maximal pleural pressure changes as well as a decrease in dynamic lung compliance. These changes were significantly reversed 15 and 60 minutes after inhalation of glycopyrrolate. We did not observe any adverse effects similar to those classically observed with atropine. These results showed that glycopyrrolate is a very efficient bronchodilator that may be used by the practitioner to treat a heaves-affected horses in crisis [less ▲]

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See detailFluorescent Pseudomonas mainly produce the dihydro form of pyoverdine at low specific growth rate.
Jacques, Philippe ULg; Ongena, MARC ULg; Bernard, F. et al

in Letters in Applied Microbiology (2003), 36(5), 259-62

AIMS: To analyse the influence of cell growth rate and iron concentration on the production of pyoverdines (PVDs) and of their reduced dihydro forms by three fluorescent Pseudomonas strains (P. putida ... [more ▼]

AIMS: To analyse the influence of cell growth rate and iron concentration on the production of pyoverdines (PVDs) and of their reduced dihydro forms by three fluorescent Pseudomonas strains (P. putida BTP16, P. fluorescens BTP7 and P. aeruginosa 7NSK2). METHODS: PVD and dihydropyoverdine (DHPVD) productions were determined by LC ESI-MS and spectrophotometry during batch and chemostat culture at different dilution rates. SIGNIFICANCE: The relatively high PVD-to-DHPVD ratio (0.57) observed in pH-controlled batch cultures suggested that a base-catalysed chemical oxidation of the dihydroform is not the prime mechanism involved in generating PVDs. Interestingly, in chemostat cultures the PVD-to-DHPVD ratio was significantly reduced at low specific growth rate. Our results suggest that the oxidation of DHPVD to PVD is catalysed by an iron-dependent enzymatic reaction rather than a chemical oxidation. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst order elastic modeling of the Aden ridge propagation and the Anatolian extrusion process
Hubert, Aurelia ULg; King, G. C. P.; Manighetti, I. et al

in Geophysical Journal International (2003), 153

The evolution of the Gulf of Aden and the Anatolian Fault systems are modelled using the principles of elastic fracture mechanics usually applied to smaller scale cracks or faults. The lithosphere is ... [more ▼]

The evolution of the Gulf of Aden and the Anatolian Fault systems are modelled using the principles of elastic fracture mechanics usually applied to smaller scale cracks or faults. The lithosphere is treated as a plate, and simple boundary conditions are applied that correspond to the known plate boundary geometry and slip vectors. The models provide a simple explanation for many observed geological features. For the Gulf of Aden the model predicts why the ridge propagated from east to west from the Owen Fracture Zone towards the Afar and the overall form of its path. The smaller en echelon offsets can be explained by upward propagation from the initially created mantle dyke while the larger ones may be attributed to the propagating rupture interacting with pre-existing structures. For Anatolia the modelling suggests that the East Anatolian Fault was created before the North Anatolian Fault could form. Once both faults were formed however, activity could switch between them. The time scales over which this should take place are not known, but evidence for switching can be found in the historical seismicity. For Aden and Anatolia pre-existing structures or inhomogeneous stress fields left from earlier orogenic events have modified the processes of propagation and without an understanding of the existence of such features the propagation processes cannot be fully understood. Furthermore a propagating fault can extend into an active region where it would not have initiated. The North Anatolian Fault encountered slow but active extension when it entered the Aegean about 5 Ma and the stress field associated with the extending fault has progressively modified Aegean extension. In the central Aegean activity has been reduced while to the north-west on features such as the Gulfs of Evvia and Corinth activity has been increased. The field observation that major structures propagate and the success of simple elastic mod- els suggest that the continental crust behaves in an elastic-brittle or elastic-plastic fashion even though laboratory tests may be interpreted to suggest viscous behaviour. There are major prob- lems in scaling from the behaviour of small homogeneous samples to the large heterogeneous mantle and large-scale observations should be treated more seriously than extrapolations of the behaviour of laboratory experiments over many orders of magnitude in space and time. The retention of long-term elasticity and localised failure suggests a similar gross rheology for the oceanic and continental lithospheres. Even though it is incorrect to attribute differences in behaviour to the former being rigid (i.e. elastic) and the latter viscous, oceanic and continental lithosphere behave in different ways. Unlike oceanic crust, continental crust is buoyant and cannot be simply created or destroyed. The process of thickening or thinning works against gravity preventing large displacements on extensional or contractional features in the upper mantle. The equivalents of ridge or subduction systems are suppressed before they can accom- modate large displacements and activity must shift elsewhere. On the other hand, strike-slip boundaries and extrusion processes are favoured. [less ▲]

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See detailUne méthode générique pour la classification automatique d'images à partir des pixels
Marée, Raphaël ULg; Geurts, Pierre ULg; Wehenkel, Louis ULg

in Revue des Nouvelles Technologies de l'Information (2003), 1

Dans cet article, nous évaluons une approche générique de classification automatique d'images. Elle repose sur une méthode d'apprentissage récente qui construit des ensembles d'arbres de décision par ... [more ▼]

Dans cet article, nous évaluons une approche générique de classification automatique d'images. Elle repose sur une méthode d'apprentissage récente qui construit des ensembles d'arbres de décision par sélection aléatoire des tests directement sur les valeurs basiques des pixels. Nous proposons une variante, également générique, qui réalise une augmentation fictive de la taille des échantillons par extraction et classification de sous-fenêtres des images. Ces deux approches sont évaluées et comparées sur quatre bases de données publiques de problèmes courants: la reconnaissance de chiffres manuscrits, de visages, d'objets 3D et de textures. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterisation of different inulin samples by DSC - Influence of polymerisation degree on melting temperature
Blecker, Christophe ULg; Chevalier, J. P.; Fougnies, C. et al

in Journal of Thermal Analysis & Calorimetry (2003), 71(1), 215-224

Melting behaviour of powder inulin has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry. DSC curves show two endothermic peaks, relative to water elimination and to inulin melting, respectively. The ... [more ▼]

Melting behaviour of powder inulin has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry. DSC curves show two endothermic peaks, relative to water elimination and to inulin melting, respectively. The second peak is dependent on inulin type and a shift to a higher temperature is observed with increasing average polymerisation degree (DP) of the sample. For similar crystallinity index, linear relations have been underlined and so predicting inulin mean DP can be done by DSC analysis. The study shows that a relatively high heating rate (25degreesC min(-1)) can be used and brings a supplementary interest by an important reduction of analysis time. [less ▲]

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See detailEvent-related potentials to emotional and neutral stimuli in alcoholism.
Hansenne, Michel ULg; Olin, Cecile; Pinto, Emmanuel ULg et al

in Neuropsychobiology (2003), 48(2), 77-81

Several studies have demonstrated that the emotional value of stimuli affects P300 amplitude. In the present study, the influence of alcohol-related stimuli in alcoholic patients was investigated ... [more ▼]

Several studies have demonstrated that the emotional value of stimuli affects P300 amplitude. In the present study, the influence of alcohol-related stimuli in alcoholic patients was investigated. Subjects were 10 alcoholic inpatients (3 female) and 10 age- and sex-matched controls. Eight alcohol-related and 8 neutral words served as stimuli in a visual oddball paradigm. Acohol-related words were targets (48 stimuli, 33%) and neutral words were standard stimuli (96 stimuli, 66%). Results showed that P300 amplitude for targets did not differ significantly between the two groups. However, P300 latency for targets as well as reaction time were significantly shorter in male alcoholic patients. In contrast, P300 latency was increased in female alcoholic patients but reaction time did not differ. These results suggest that male alcoholics process information linked to alcohol cues more rapidly than neutral cues, probably because a specific semantic network is activated in these patients. The decreased reaction time confirms the impulsive behavior frequently found in male alcoholism, as it has been described in type II alcoholism. Besides, the results imply that information processing was delayed in female alcoholic patients. Therefore this study demonstrates a gender-dependent impact of alcohol-related stimuli on information processing. [less ▲]

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See detailBiomarquers d’exposition en milieu terrestre : impact d’hydrocarbures halogénés sur l’activité de trois systèmes enzymatiques chez Drosophila pseudoobscura
Dannau, Marie; Amichot, Marcel; Leenaers, Lionel et al

in Environnement Risques & Santé (2003), 2

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See detailAlcool, sensibilite a l'insuline et diabete sucre.
Magis, Delphine ULg; Jandrain, Bernard ULg; Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(7-8), 501-7

The relationship between alcohol consumption and insulin resistance shows a U-shaped curve: insulin resistance is minimal in individuals with regular mild to moderate alcohol consumption and increases in ... [more ▼]

The relationship between alcohol consumption and insulin resistance shows a U-shaped curve: insulin resistance is minimal in individuals with regular mild to moderate alcohol consumption and increases in both heavy drinkers and subjects without any alcohol consumption. These favourable metabolic effects on insulin sensitivity of moderate alcohol consumption may explain the significant reduction in the development of type 2 diabetes and the risk of cardiovascular complications reported in numerous epidemiological studies. This latter effect has also reported in patients with diabetes mellitus, although this observation remains controversial. However, alcohol consumption could increase the global risk of hypoglycaemia, both in the fasting state and after a meal (reactive hypoglycaemia) in both diabetic and nondiabetic subjects. These latter effects may result from a direct inhibition of gluconeogenesis, from a reduced secretion of counterregulatory hormones and/or from an alcohol-induced inappropriate behaviour. [less ▲]

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See detailA New Wor(l)d Order: Language in the Fiction of the New Caribbean Diaspora
Ledent, Bénédicte ULg

in Revista Alicantina de Estudios Ingleses (2003), 16

Language has always been a major issue for post-colonial writers, being at once an instrument used by the colonial power and one of the prime avenues of resistance to this oppression. For displaced West ... [more ▼]

Language has always been a major issue for post-colonial writers, being at once an instrument used by the colonial power and one of the prime avenues of resistance to this oppression. For displaced West Indian writers in particular, English has been a significant tool for self-assertion, all the more ambiguous because it is their "mother tongue" while being the tongue of their ancestors' masters as well. This paper analyses how the younger novelists of the Caribbean diaspora use and transform the English language in their search for a new diasporic, cross-cultural identity. Robert Antoni, Michelle Cliff, Fred D'Aguiar, David Dabydeen, M. Nourbese Philip and Caryl Phillips will be among the writers mentioned in this paper. While some of them resort to non-standard linguistic forms and thereby deal head on with the tension between local languages and the need for international communication, others have had a more oblique approach to linguistic change, one that involves not so much lexis as tone and rhythm and often operates by rehabilitating silenced voices from the past. I will attempt to demonstrate how these writers have turned speech into a site of creolization expressive of what Caryl Phillips has called" A New World Order". [less ▲]

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See detailProstatic androgen repressed message-1 (PARM-1) may play a role in prostatic cell immortalisation.
Cornet, Anne ULg; Hanon, Emmanuel; Reiter, Eric R et al

in Prostate (The) (2003), 56(3), 220-30

BACKGROUND: Prostatic androgen-repressed message-1 (PARM-1) has been cloned from the prostate. The transcript of the PARM-1 gene is overexpressed during regression of the prostate after androgen ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Prostatic androgen-repressed message-1 (PARM-1) has been cloned from the prostate. The transcript of the PARM-1 gene is overexpressed during regression of the prostate after androgen withdrawal. The regulation of PARM-1 by androgens is limited to this organ. We have studied the effects of PARM-1 overexpression in malignant prostate cells. METHODS: The PARM-1 cDNA was introduced into the rat cancer cell line MAT LyLu along with a doxycycline-dependent regulator. RESULTS: Maximal expression of PARM-1 (fivefold induction) was achieved by incubating the cells with 2 microM doxycycline for 48 hr. A study investigating the effect of PARM-1 overexpression on the transcription of 588 genes has shown that the TLP1 gene (encoding rat telomerase protein component 1) was the most up-regulated (fourfold). In addition, a dose-dependent increase in telomerase activity was observed in cells overexpressing PARM-1. In vivo, the androgen-deprived prostate showed an increased TLP1 level and increased telomerase activity. CONCLUSIONS: Increased telomerase activity is often associated with the immortalisation of cancer cell lines, particularly prostatic ones. This could mean that PARM-1 is involved, via increased telomerase activity, in a survival program enabling certain prostatic cells to resist apoptosis, thus conferring a selective advantage to pre-cancerous or cancerous cells. [less ▲]

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See detailSoluble transferrin receptor for the evaluation of erythropoiesis and iron status.
Beguin, Yves ULg

in Clinica Chimica Acta (2003), 329(1-2), 9-22

Iron transport in the plasma is carried out by transferrin, which donates iron to cells through its interaction with a specific membrane receptor, the transferrin receptor (TfR). A soluble form of the TfR ... [more ▼]

Iron transport in the plasma is carried out by transferrin, which donates iron to cells through its interaction with a specific membrane receptor, the transferrin receptor (TfR). A soluble form of the TfR (sTfR) has been identified in animal and human serum. Soluble TfR is a truncated monomer of tissue receptor, lacking its first 100 amino acids, which circulates in the form of a complex of transferrin and its receptor. The erythroblasts rather than reticulocytes are the main source of serum sTfR. Serum sTfR levels average 5.0+/-1.0 mg/l in normal subjects but the various commercial assays give disparate values because of the lack of an international standard. The most important determinant of sTfR levels appears to be marrow erythropoietic activity which can cause variations up to 8 times below and up to 20 times above average normal values. Soluble TfR levels are decreased in situations characterized by diminished erythropoietic activity, and are increased when erythropoiesis is stimulated by hemolysis or ineffective erythropoiesis. Measurements of sTfR are very helpful to investigate the pathophysiology of anemia, quantitatively evaluating the absolute rate of erythropoiesis and the adequacy of marrow proliferative capacity for any given degree of anemia, and to monitor the erythropoietic response to various forms of therapy, in particular allowing to predict response early when changes in hemoglobin are not yet apparent. Iron status also influences sTfR levels, which are considerably elevated in iron deficiency anemia but remain normal in the anemia of inflammation, and thus may be of considerable help in the differential diagnosis of microcytic anemia. This is particularly useful to identify concomitant iron deficiency in a patient with inflammation because ferritin values are then generally normal. Elevated sTfR levels are also the characteristic feature of functional iron deficiency, a situation defined by tissue iron deficiency despite adequate iron stores. The sTfR/ferritin ratio can thus describe iron availability over a wide range of iron stores. With the exception of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and possibly hepatocellular carcinoma, sTfR levels are not increased in patients with malignancies. We conclude that soluble TfR represents a valuable quantitative assay of marrow erythropoietic activity as well as a marker of tissue iron deficiency. [less ▲]

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See detailPopulation Genetic Structure Of Wild Phaseolus Lunatus (Fabaceae), With Special Reference To Population Sizes
Zoro Bi, I.; Maquet, A.; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre ULg

in American Journal of Botany (2003), 90(6), 897-904

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See detailCarbohydrates and resistance to Phytophthora infestans in potato plants
Evers, Danièle; Dommes, Jacques ULg; Hausman, Jean-François

in Acta Physiologiae Plantarum (2003), 25(2), 171-178

Plants generally deal with biotic or abiotic stresses by altering components as for example cell wall constituents and metabolites. Infection by Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight ... [more ▼]

Plants generally deal with biotic or abiotic stresses by altering components as for example cell wall constituents and metabolites. Infection by Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight, constitutes a stress condition for the plants and they react to it with changes arising in their metabolism depending on the resistance level of the plants. The present work compares two potato hybrids differing in their level of horizontal resistance to late blight. Carbohydrate content in stems and leaves of infected and uninfected plants was determined by HPLC. Some carbohydrates accumulated in the stems of the resistant hybrid infected by P. infestans, whereas they remained unchanged in the susceptible hybrid. On the other hand, in the leaves, these carbohydrates accumulated only in the infected susceptible hybrid. [less ▲]

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See detailStructural integral monitoring by vibration measurements
Yan, Ai-Min; De Boe, Pascal; Golinval, Jean-Claude ULg

in FM2003 - Structural Integrity and Materials Aging (2003)

This paper presents a comparative study on several approaches of structural damage diagnosis based on vibration measurements. Stochastic subspace identification method is used to identify modal parameters ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a comparative study on several approaches of structural damage diagnosis based on vibration measurements. Stochastic subspace identification method is used to identify modal parameters and to generate a Kalman prediction model, which are taken as damage-sensitive features for structural damage detection. A statistical process control technique based on principal component analysis (PCA) is also presented. An improvement and enhancement of PCA are proposed. It is assumed that without damage, structural responses should remain approximately in a hyperplane defined by the principal directions of data. Damage localization is explored with these methods. As only the measured output signals are needed, the methods are convenient for an on-line monitoring. The efficiency and limitation of the proposed methods are illustrated by a practical application. [less ▲]

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See detailSH2 domain containing inositol 5-phosphatases 1 and 2 in blood platelets: interaction and respective role in the control of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate levels
Giuriato, S.; Pesesse, X.; Bodin, S. et al

in Biochemical Journal (2003), 376

Src homology domain 2-containing inositol 5-phosphatases 1 and 2 (SHIP1 and SHIP2) are capable of dephosphorylating the second messenger PtdIns(3,4,5) P3 (phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate) and ... [more ▼]

Src homology domain 2-containing inositol 5-phosphatases 1 and 2 (SHIP1 and SHIP2) are capable of dephosphorylating the second messenger PtdIns(3,4,5) P3 (phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate) and interacting with several signalling proteins. SHIP1 is essentially expressed in haematopoietic cells, whereas SHIP2, a closely related enzyme, is ubiquitous. In the present study, we show that SHIP1 and SHIP2 are expressed as functional PtdIns(3,4,5) P3 5-phosphatases in human blood platelets and are capable of interacting when these two lipid phosphatases are co-expressed, either naturally (platelets and A20 B lymphoma cells) or artificially (COS-7 cells). Using COS-7 cells transfected with deletion mutants of SHIP2, we demonstrate that the Src homology domain 2 of SHIP2 is the minimal and sufficient protein motif responsible for the interaction between the two phosphatases. These results prompted us to investigate the relative importance of SHIP1 and SHIP2 in the control of PtdIns(3,4,5) P3 levels in platelets using homozygous or heterozygous SHIP1- or SHIP2-deficient mice. Our results strongly suggest that SHIP1, rather than SHIP2, plays a major role in controlling PtdIns(3,4,5) P3 levels in response to thrombin or collagen activation of mouse blood platelets [less ▲]

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See detailComment j'explore ... une tache noire au cours de la grossesse. Une tache parfois difficile pour le clinicien.
Uhoda, I.; Pierard, Claudine ULg; Arrese Estrada, Jorge ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(12), 766-9

Cancers rarely coexist with pregnancy. Cutaneous melanoma, however, is one of the most frequently encountered neoplasms during pregnancy. Gestation may also be a period during which the aspect of some ... [more ▼]

Cancers rarely coexist with pregnancy. Cutaneous melanoma, however, is one of the most frequently encountered neoplasms during pregnancy. Gestation may also be a period during which the aspect of some melanocytic naevi can change eventhough the tumor remains benign. Distinction between a benign and a malignant lesion may then be a dilemma. Clinical morphometry, dermoscopy, skin surface biopsy, conventional histology and immunohistochemistry are valuable means that can be used to secure maximum diagnostic confidence. [less ▲]

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See detailSpasmogenic action of endothelin-1 on isolated equine pulmonary artery and bronchus
Benamou, A. E. M.; Marlin, D. J.; Callingham, B. C. et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal (2003), 35(2), 190-6

Reasons for performing study: There is currently little published information about the effects of endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent endogenous spasmogen of vascular and airway smooth muscle, on pulmonary ... [more ▼]

Reasons for performing study: There is currently little published information about the effects of endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent endogenous spasmogen of vascular and airway smooth muscle, on pulmonary vasculature and airways or which ET receptor subtypes mediate ET-1 induced vasoconstrictive and bronchoconstrictive action in the horse. Objectives: To investigate the effect of endothelin-1 (ET-1) on smooth muscle from isolated equine pulmonary artery and bronchus. In addition, the roles of ETA and ETB receptors in ET-1 mediated contraction in these tissues were assessed. Methods: The force generation of ring segments from pulmonary arteries or third-generation airways (obtained from horses subjected to euthanasia for orthopaedic reasons) were studied in an organ bath at 37°C in response to exogenous endothelin and selective endothelin A (BQ123) or B receptor (BQ788) antagonists. Results: ET-1 produced concentration-dependent contractions of the equine pulmonary artery and bronchus. The threshold for contraction was 10-10 and 10-9 mol/l ET-1 for pulmonary artery and bronchus, respectively. The maximal contraction induced by the highest ET-1 concentration (10-7 mol/l) was 173 and 194% of the contraction obtained with 100 mmol/l KCl in pulmonary artery and bronchus, respectively. ET-1 potency was 25 times greater in equine pulmonary artery than in equine bronchus (concentration of ET-1 producing 50% of maximal contraction [EC50] = 5.6 10-9 mol/l and 2.2 10-8 mol/l, respectively). In pulmonary artery, ET-1 induced contractions were significantly inhibited by the ETA receptor antagonist BQ123 (1 μmol/l; dose-response curve to ET-1 was shifted to the right by 5.4-fold), but not by the ETB antagonist BQ788. In bronchus, dose-responses curves to ET-1 were shifted to the right by BQ123 (1 μmol/l; 2.5-fold), but not by BQ788 (1 μmol/l). In the presence of both antagonists, the dose-response curve to ET-1 was shifted to the right by 4.5-fold. Conclusions: These functional studies demonstrate that ET-1 is a potent spasmogen of equine third generation pulmonary artery and bronchus, and that contractions are mediated via ETA receptors in the former and both ETA and ETB receptors in the latter. Potential clinical relevance: Endothelin receptor antagonists may have potential for treating equine pulmonary hypertension or bronchoconstriction. [less ▲]

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See detailTreatment of type 2 diabetes.
Scheen, André ULg

in Acta Clinica Belgica (2003), 58(5), 318-24

Type 2 diabetes is a heterogeneous disease resulting from a dynamic interaction between defects in insulin secretion and insulin action. As most subjects are overweighted or obese, the initial treatment ... [more ▼]

Type 2 diabetes is a heterogeneous disease resulting from a dynamic interaction between defects in insulin secretion and insulin action. As most subjects are overweighted or obese, the initial treatment is optimization of the meal plan and enhancement of physical activity in order to obtain sustained weight reduction. In case of failure of life-style changes, various oral antihyperglycaemic agents may be used. Some are targeting defective insulin secretion (sulphonylureas, glinides) while others are targeting insulin resistance (metformin, thiazolidinediones). Criteria of drug selection should include both patient's characteristics (body weight, age, degree of hyperglycaemia, comorbidities) and pharmacological properties of the compound (mode of action, safety profile, cost). Monotherapy is usually recommended first, but combined therapy using drugs with additive or synergistic effects may be required to obtain appropriate blood glucose control. As the natural history of the disease is characterized by a progressive exhaustion of beta cells, exogenous insulin may be required in the long term, usually in combination with oral agents. Finally, as patients with type 2 diabetes are insulin-resistant and often have a metabolic syndrome, a multifactorial intervention including aggressive treatment of arterial hypertension and dyslipidaemia is recommended in order to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular complications. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of mechanobiological models for the numerical simulation of tissue differentiation around immediately loaded implants.
Geris, Liesbet ULg; Van Oosterwyck, H.; Vander Sloten, J. et al

in Computer Methods in Biomechanics & Biomedical Engineering (2003), 6(5-6), 277-88

Nowadays, there is a growing consensus on the impact of mechanical loading on bone biology. A bone chamber provides a mechanically isolated in vivo environment in which the influence of different ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, there is a growing consensus on the impact of mechanical loading on bone biology. A bone chamber provides a mechanically isolated in vivo environment in which the influence of different parameters on the tissue response around loaded implants can be investigated. This also provides data to assess the feasibility of different mechanobiological models that mathematically describe the mechanoregulation of tissue differentiation. Before comparing numerical results to animal experimental results, it is necessary to investigate the influence of the different model parameters on the outcome of the simulations. A 2D finite element model of the tissue inside the bone chamber was created. The differentiation models developed by Prendergast, et al. ["Biophysical stimuli on cells during tissue differentiation at implant interfaces", Journal of Biomechanics, 30(6), (1997), 539-548], Huiskes et al. ["A biomechanical regulatory model for periprosthetic fibrous-tissue differentiation", Journal of Material Science: Materials in Medicine, 8 (1997) 785-788] and by Claes and Heigele ["Magnitudes of local stress and strain along bony surfaces predict the course and type of fracture healing", Journal of Biomechanics, 32(3), (1999) 255-266] were implemented and integrated in the finite element code. The fluid component in the first model has an important effect on the predicted differentiation patterns. It has a direct effect on the predicted degree of maturation of bone and a substantial indirect effect on the simulated deformations and hence the predicted phenotypes of the tissue in the chamber. Finally, the presence of fluid also causes time-dependent behavior. Both models lead to qualitative and quantitative differences in predicted differentiation patterns. Because of the different nature of the tissue phenotypes used to describe the differentiation processes, it is however hard to compare both models in terms of their validity. [less ▲]

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See detailPreventing, delaying, or masking type 2 diabetes with metformin in the diabetes prevention program?
Scheen, André ULg

in Diabetes Care (2003), 26(9), 27012701-3

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See detailThe Sahelian drought may have ended during the 1990s
Ozer, Pierre ULg; Erpicum, Michel ULg; Demarée, Gaston et al

in Hydrological Sciences Journal = Journal des Sciences Hydrologiques (2003), 48(3), 489-492

The severe drought that affects the Sahel since the late 1960s has been very closely studied and monitored during the last three decades. Recently, after several wet years, it was questioned from a ... [more ▼]

The severe drought that affects the Sahel since the late 1960s has been very closely studied and monitored during the last three decades. Recently, after several wet years, it was questioned from a statistical point of view whether the drought was over. The conclusions of a recent study were that the rainfall deficit was not over at the end of 2000 and that the drought continues. The analysis of the change points in the station rainfall time series suggests differentiating these findings. There is now growing evidence that there is a potential shift towards a more humid state. However, the present analysis shows that the assumption that a significant increase in rainfall may have occurred around the early 1990s could only be verified at the customary confidence level in about 10 years from now. [less ▲]

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See detailHanging in there by a fall – The Oncocyclus of Lebanon
Saad, Layla ULg; Khuri, Sawsan

in British Iris Society Yearbook (2003)

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See detailSynthesis and characterization of new inorganic polymeric composites based on kaolin or white clay and on ground-granulated blast furnace slag
Lecomte, I.; Liégeois, Monique ULg; Rulmont, André ULg et al

in Journal of Materials Research (2003), 18(11), 2571-2579

Alkali activation of dehydroxylated kaolin or clay yielded high-strength polymeric materials, so-called geopolymers. They were synthesized by mixing the aluminosilicate with solutions of sodium ... [more ▼]

Alkali activation of dehydroxylated kaolin or clay yielded high-strength polymeric materials, so-called geopolymers. They were synthesized by mixing the aluminosilicate with solutions of sodium metasilicate and KOH followed by adding 45 wt.% of ground-granulated blast furnace slag. The influence of the aluminosilicate source, its activation temperature, and the order of mixing raw materials were studied on the workability of the blending paste, the microstructure, and the Vickers hardness of the geopolymer samples. The polymeric material is completely amorphous according to x-ray diffraction. Solid-state 27Al and 29Si magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance showed that the geopolymer consists of AlO 4 and SiO 4 tetrahedra linked together through a polymeric network constituted by branched entities SiQ 4(4Al) and SiQ 4(3Al), but also by less-polymerized silicates SiQ 1 and SiQ 2. Scanning electron microscopy showed a homogeneous polymeric gel matrix containing unreacted slag (and quartz) grains; thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry exhibited a high content of water and an elevated melting point (1260 °C). Vickers hardness values are in the range of 200 MPa. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of soil and crop properties for precision agriculture for winter wheat
Vrindts, Els; Reyniers, Marieke; Darius, Paul et al

in Biosystems Engineering (2003), 85(2), 141-152

In a precision farming research project financed by the Belgian Ministry of Small Trade and Agriculture, the methods of precision agriculture are tested on grain fields with a view of implementation of ... [more ▼]

In a precision farming research project financed by the Belgian Ministry of Small Trade and Agriculture, the methods of precision agriculture are tested on grain fields with a view of implementation of precision agriculture methods in Belgian field agriculture. The project encompasses methods for automatic information gathering on soil and crop and analysis of this data for management of within-field variability. Automatic information capturing is combined with traditional data sources of soil sample analysis and crop observations. The measurements and part of the results on one particular field in Sauvenière are presented here. Five nitrogen management strategies were compared, but the resulting differences in nitrogen dose were small and did not lead to significantly different yield results. The yield results were correlated to topography-related variations in soil texture and chemical components and to crop reflectance measurements in May. [less ▲]

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See detailEpidural hematoma after cervical spine surgery.
Hans, Pol ULg; Delleuze, Pierre Philippe; Born, Jacques Daniel et al

in Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology (2003), 15(3), 282-5

The authors report an acute epidural hematoma after the surgical removal of a cervical C6-C7 disc herniation through an anterolateral approach of the cervical spine. Clinical history consisted of ... [more ▼]

The authors report an acute epidural hematoma after the surgical removal of a cervical C6-C7 disc herniation through an anterolateral approach of the cervical spine. Clinical history consisted of respiratory distress and flaccid tetraplegia that appeared 2.5 hours after surgery. Without any complementary radiologic investigation, the patient was immediately transferred to the operating room for a second look, which was unsuccessful. Magnetic resonance imaging performed after this second surgical procedure showed an anterior cervical hematoma extending from C3 to T3 without significant spinal cord compression. A cervical laminectomy was performed to evacuate the hematoma. The patient was extubated the next morning and discharged from the hospital after 5 days with no residual neurologic deficit. An extensive postoperative investigation revealed no coagulation disorder. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman platelet glycoprotein VI function is antagonized by monoclonal antibody-derived Fab fragments.
Lecut, Christelle ULg; Feeney, L. A.; Kingsbury, G. et al

in Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis [=JTH] (2003), 1(12), 2653-62

Platelet interactions with adhesive ligands exposed at sites of vascular injury initiate the normal hemostatic response but may also lead to arterial thrombosis. Platelet membrane glycoprotein (GP)VI is a ... [more ▼]

Platelet interactions with adhesive ligands exposed at sites of vascular injury initiate the normal hemostatic response but may also lead to arterial thrombosis. Platelet membrane glycoprotein (GP)VI is a key receptor for collagen. Impairment of GPVI function in mice results in a long-term antithrombotic protection and prevents neointimal hyperplasia following arterial injury. On the other hand, GPVI deficiency in humans or mice does not result in serious bleeding tendencies. Blocking GPVI function may thus represent a new and safe antithrombotic approach, but no specific, potent anti-GPVI directed at the human receptor is yet available. Our aim was to produce accessible antagonists of human GPVI to evaluate the consequences of GPVI blockade. Amongst several monoclonal antibodies to the extracellular domain of human GPVI, one, 9O12.2, was selected for its capacity to disrupt the interaction of GPVI with collagen in a purified system and to prevent the adhesion of cells expressing recombinant GPVI to collagen and collagen-related peptides (CRP). While 9O12.2 IgGs induced platelet activation by a mechanism involving GPVI and Fc gamma RIIA, 9O12.2 Fab fragments completely blocked collagen-induced platelet aggregation and secretion from 5 microg mL-1 and fully prevented CRP-induced activation from 1.5 microg mL-1. 9O12.2 Fabs also inhibited the procoagulant activity of collagen-stimulated platelets and platelet adhesion to collagen in static conditions. Furthermore, 9O12.2 Fabs impaired platelet adhesion, and prevented thrombi formation under arterial flow conditions. We thus describe here for the first time a functional monoclonal antibody to human GPVI and demonstrate its effect on collagen-induced platelet aggregation and procoagulant activity, and on thrombus growth. [less ▲]

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See detailLes protéines de choc thermique (heat shock proteins). II Les protéines de choc thermique (heat shock proteins). II. Hsp70, biomarqueur, bioprotecteur.
Wirth, Delphine; Gustin, Pascal ULg; Drion, Pierre ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2003), 147(2), 127-144

The exposure of any organism to high temperature induces rapid and transient cellular overexpression of specific proteins, the heat shock proteins (Hsps). This response, called heat shock response, was ... [more ▼]

The exposure of any organism to high temperature induces rapid and transient cellular overexpression of specific proteins, the heat shock proteins (Hsps). This response, called heat shock response, was initially discovered in Drosophila. The genes hsps were among the first eukaryotic genes to be cloned and whose regulation, which involves activation of heat shock factor (HSF), was elucidated. More recently, study of Hsp functions, particularly Hsp70, started. Their protective role, related to their molecular chaperon function, was inferred from experiments showing that Hsp70 expression, induced by a first stress, results in a cellular tolerance to second stress. Better understanding of the heat shock response had led to the development of two search fields on Hsp70 expression : (1) its use as biomarker of cellular stress and (2) the exploitation of its cytoprotective functions against various insults. This review includes historic of the research on the heat shock response, description of regulation mechanism of Hsp70 expression, and the interesting perspectives allocated to Hsp70 as biomarker and therapeutic tool. ----------- L’exposition de tout organisme à des températures élevées induit l'expression cellulaire rapide et transitoire de protéines spécifiques, les protéines de choc thermique (Hsps pour " heat shock proteins "). Cette réponse des cellules au choc thermique ou " heat shock response " a été initialement découverte chez la drosophile. Les gènes hsps furent parmi les premiers gènes eucaryotes à être clonés et utilisés comme paradigme dans l'étude des mécanismes de régulation transcriptionnelle faisant intervenir l'activation d'un ou plusieurs " heat shock factors" (HSFs). C'est plus récemment que l'étude des fonctions des Hsps, particulièrement Hsp70, a débuté. Le rôle protecteur de celle-ci, lié à sa fonction de " chaperon " protéique, a été déduit d'expériences montrant que l'induction de l'expression de Hsp70 lors d'un stress était associée au développement d'une tolérance cellulaire vis-à-vis d'un stress ultérieur. En plus d'un intérêt fondamental pour la compréhension de la "réponse au choc thermique", deux axes de recherche appliquée se sont développés visant à investiguer la possibilité d'utiliser l'expression de Hsp70 comme biomarqueur de souffrance cellulaire d'une part et, d'autre part, d'exploiter ses fonctions comme moyen de protection des cellules contre divers types d'agressions. Cette revue décrit l'historique des découvertes sur la " réponse au choc thermique ", le mécanisme régulant l'expression de Hsp70 ainsi que les perspectives intéressantes s'ouvrant à l'utilisation de l'expression de Hsp70 en tant que biomarqueur et outil thérapeutique. [less ▲]

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See detailOverexpression of the platelet P2X1 ion channel in transgenic mice generates a novel prothrombotic phenotype.
Oury, Cécile ULg; Kuijpers, Marijke; Toth-Zsamboki, Emese et al

in Blood (2003)

This study describes transgenic mice overexpressing the human P2X(1) ion channel in the megakaryocytic cell lineage. Platelets from these mice display increased secretion and aggregation evoked by low ... [more ▼]

This study describes transgenic mice overexpressing the human P2X(1) ion channel in the megakaryocytic cell lineage. Platelets from these mice display increased secretion and aggregation evoked by low doses of collagen, convulxin, or the thromboxane A(2) mimetic U46619. Perfusing whole blood from transgenic mice over collagen fibers at a shear rate of 1000 seconds(-1) resulted in increased P2X(1)-dependent aggregate formation and phosphatidylserine exposure. Platelet hyperreactivity to collagen was correlated with up-regulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) phosphorylation. In a viscometer, shear stress caused potent aggregation of transgenic platelets under conditions in which wild-type platelets did not aggregate. In an in vivo model of thromboembolism consisting of intravenous injection of a low dose of collagen plus epinephrine, transgenic mice died more readily than wild-type mice. Preinjection of U0126 not only fully protected transgenic mice against thrombosis, it also enhanced the survival of wild-type mice injected with a higher collagen dose. Hence, the platelet P2X(1) ion channel plays a role in hemostasis and thrombosis through its participation in collagen-, thromboxane A(2)-, and shear stress-triggered platelet responses. Activation of the ERK2 pathway is instrumental in these processes. [less ▲]

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See detailPostnatal NG2 proteoglycan-expressing progenitor cells are intrinsically multipotent and generate functional neurons.
Belachew, Shibeshih ULg; Chittajallu, Ramesh; Aguirre, Adan A. et al

in Journal of Cell Biology (2003), 161(1), 169-86

Neurogenesis is known to persist in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS). The identity of the cells that generate new neurons in the postnatal CNS has become a crucial but elusive issue. Using ... [more ▼]

Neurogenesis is known to persist in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS). The identity of the cells that generate new neurons in the postnatal CNS has become a crucial but elusive issue. Using a transgenic mouse, we show that NG2 proteoglycan-positive progenitor cells that express the 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase gene display a multipotent phenotype in vitro and generate electrically excitable neurons, as well as astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. The fast kinetics and the high rate of multipotent fate of these NG2+ progenitors in vitro reflect an intrinsic property, rather than reprogramming. We demonstrate in the hippocampus in vivo that a sizeable fraction of postnatal NG2+ progenitor cells are proliferative precursors whose progeny appears to differentiate into GABAergic neurons capable of propagating action potentials and displaying functional synaptic inputs. These data show that at least a subpopulation of postnatal NG2-expressing cells are CNS multipotent precursors that may underlie adult hippocampal neurogenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailPrevention cardio-vasculaire par les statines: faut-il encore doser le cholesterol?
Scheen, André ULg; Kulbertus, Henri ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(4), 191-7

Statins, the most popular lipid-lowering agents, have proven their efficacy in preventing cardiovascular events in subjects with lower and lower initial plasma cholesterol levels. Besides, the protective ... [more ▼]

Statins, the most popular lipid-lowering agents, have proven their efficacy in preventing cardiovascular events in subjects with lower and lower initial plasma cholesterol levels. Besides, the protective effect does not seem to be directly related neither to the degree of the cholesterol reduction nor to the final level of plasma cholesterol level reached under treatment. Such observations suggest that statins may exert vascular protective effects, at least in part, independently of their specific cholesterol-lowering effect (so-called pleiotropic effects). The present paper will discuss the arguments pro and contra the dosage of cholesterolaemia before initiating a therapy with statin and during treatment follow up, both in subjects with previous cardiovascular events (secondary prevention) and in subjects with a high cardiovascular absolute risk but without previous clinical expression of atherosclerosis (primary prevention). [less ▲]

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See detailModulating skeletal muscle mass by postnatal, muscle-specific inactivation of the myostatin gene.
Grobet, Luc ULg; Pirottin, Dimitri ULg; Farnir, Frédéric ULg et al

in Genesis (2003), 35(4), 227-38

By using a conditional gene targeting approach exploiting the cre-lox system, we show that postnatal inactivation of the myostatin gene in striated muscle is sufficient to cause a generalized muscular ... [more ▼]

By using a conditional gene targeting approach exploiting the cre-lox system, we show that postnatal inactivation of the myostatin gene in striated muscle is sufficient to cause a generalized muscular hypertrophy of the same magnitude as that observed for constitutive myostatin knockout mice. This formally demonstrates that striated muscle is the production site of functional myostatin and that this member of the TGFbeta family of growth and differentiation factors regulates muscle mass not only during early embryogenesis but throughout development. It indicates that myostatin antagonist could be used to treat muscle wasting and to promote muscle growth in man and animals. [less ▲]

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See detailTierce décision obligatoire et motivation
Caprasse, Olivier ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2003)

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See detailA taxonomic reassessment of the Vittiaceae (Hypnales, Bryopsida):evidence from phylogenetic analyses of combined chloroplast and nuclear sequence data
Vanderpoorten, Alain ULg; Goffinet, B.; Hedenäs, L. et al

in Plant Systematics & Evolution (2003), 241

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See detailQu'est-ce qu'un éditeur ? Naissance de la fonction éditoriale
Durand, Pascal ULg

in Texte : Revue de Critique et de Théorie Littéraire (2003), (31-32), 13-55

Cet article, après avoir mis en évidence les transformations du système de production du livre au XVIIIe siècle, envisage les facteurs divers ayant déterminé, en France, l'émergence commune, sous la ... [more ▼]

Cet article, après avoir mis en évidence les transformations du système de production du livre au XVIIIe siècle, envisage les facteurs divers ayant déterminé, en France, l'émergence commune, sous la Monarchie de Juillet, des deux figures à la fois sociales et symboliques de l'Auteur et de l'Editeur : facteurs politico-juridiques, socio-économiques, mais aussi culturels et esthétiques. Il décrit ensuite la morphologie du champ éditorial du XIXe siècle et met en lumière les articulations étroites que celui-ci entretient avec les structures du champ littéraire. [less ▲]

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See detailCarbon dioxide daily variations and atmospheric fluxes over the Great Bahama Bank using a novel autonomous measuring system
Frankignoulle, Michel; Biondo, Renzo ULg; Théate, Jean-Marie et al

in Caribbean Journal of Sience (2003), 39(3), 257-264

A novel autonomous measuring device that acquires the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) by equilibration and several other parameters is described. This device, the Floating Equilibrator System (FES) was ... [more ▼]

A novel autonomous measuring device that acquires the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) by equilibration and several other parameters is described. This device, the Floating Equilibrator System (FES) was tested in field conditions for the first time in the Great Bahama Bank, in December 2000. We successfully carried out two 24 h cycles in Norman’s Pond, one in front of the Caribbean Marine Research Centre (CMRC) and another one near Bock Cay. Over-saturation of CO2 with respect to atmospheric equilibrium was observed systematically at the three sites, although significantly more marked at Norman’s Pond. The higher values of pCO2 and atmospheric CO2 fluxes obtained at Norman’s Pond, than in the adjacent open waters of the Great Bahama Bank, suggest a comparatively stronger heterotrophy at Norman’s Pond. This is most likely related to the organic carbon inputs to the water column and sediments from the dense mangrove forest surrounding Norman’s Pond. The larger amplitude of pCO2 daily variations observed, during the Norman’s Pond 24 h cycles, is probably due to higher biological activity than in the adjacent open waters of the Great Bahama Bank. This is corroborated by a tentative estimation of Gross Primary Production based on simple computations. We speculate that calcification could also contribute to some extent to different amplitude of the pCO2 daily variations between the mangrove pond and the open waters of the Great Bahama Bank. [less ▲]

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See detailThéorie économique et marchandisation des services non marchands
Mertens de Wilmars, Sybille ULg; Lefebvre, Mathieu ULg

in Non Marchand : Management, Droit et Finance (2003), (11), 11-27

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See detailFinite element modeling of an electrostatic painting device
Deliège, Geoffrey ULg; Henrotte, François; Hameyer, Kay

in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics (2003), 39(3), 1432-1435

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See detailLa responsabilité extra-contractuelle des dirigeants de sociétés
Caprasse, Olivier ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2003)

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See detailXMM-Newton high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of the Wolf-Rayet object WR25 (WN6ha+O4f)
Raassen, A. J. J.; van der Hucht, K. A.; Mewe, R. et al

in Advances in Space Research (2003), 32(6), 1161-1165

We report the analysis of the X-ray spectrum of the Wolf-Rayet star WR 25, observed by RGS and EPIC-MOS on board XMM-Newton. Temperatures up to 40 MK have been determined. Strong absorption, exceeding the ... [more ▼]

We report the analysis of the X-ray spectrum of the Wolf-Rayet star WR 25, observed by RGS and EPIC-MOS on board XMM-Newton. Temperatures up to 40 MK have been determined. Strong absorption, exceeding the value due to the Inter Stellar Medium (ISM) has been detected and assigned to the dense stellar wind. (C) 2003 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization, continuation and lack of the one-step diphosphorylation reaction. Assay of modification of the tetraethyl(pyrrolidine-2,2-diyl)bisphosphonate
Olive, Gilles ULg; Jacques, Alain

in Phosphorus, Sulfur & Silicon & the Related Elements (2003), 178(1), 33-46

The optimization of the one-step diphosphorylation reaction is reported. The synthesis of new ®-aminobisphosphonates with four- and sixmembered rings and acyclic species with several substituents on the ... [more ▼]

The optimization of the one-step diphosphorylation reaction is reported. The synthesis of new ®-aminobisphosphonates with four- and sixmembered rings and acyclic species with several substituents on the nitrogen atom and on the carbon atom bearing the two phosphorus atoms is described. [less ▲]

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See detailPrincipal component analysis of Piezo-Sensor Array for damage localization
De Boe, Pascal; Golinval, Jean-Claude ULg

in Structural Health Monitoring (2003), 2(2), 137-144

This paper focuses on applying statistical process control techniques, based on principal component analysis, to vibration-based damage diagnosis. It is well known that localized structural damages with ... [more ▼]

This paper focuses on applying statistical process control techniques, based on principal component analysis, to vibration-based damage diagnosis. It is well known that localized structural damages with relative small amplitude do not affect much the global modal response of the structure, at least at low frequencies. Nevertheless, it can be expected that the local dynamic behavior of a damaged structural subcomponent is significantly affected. Assuming that each structural subcomponent is monitored, local structural damage, with relative small amplitude, will only affect a particular sensor without affecting significantly the response of the others. By applying a principal component analysis on the sensor time responses, it is possible to see that any change of one particular sensor will affect the subspace spanned by the complete sensor response set. The subspace corresponding to the damaged structure can then be compared with the subspace of an initial state in order to diagnose possible damage. The principal component analysis may also be performed for every potential subset of damaged sensors in order to identify the involved sensor, and, therefore, the damaged structural component. The spatial information given by the distributed sensors (e.g. piezoelectric laminates) can be used to forecast structural damages on a critical area but damage localization is also possible with classical sensors (e.g. accelerometers). The damage may be located as the errors attain the maximum at the sensors instrumented in the damaged substructures. [less ▲]

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See detailVirus infections in pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes
Brilot, Fabienne; Geenen, Vincent ULg

in International Diabetes Monitor (2003), 14

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See detailDroits de l'homme et nationalité
Carlier, Jean-Yves ULg

in Annales de Droit de Louvain (2003), 63(3), 243-257

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See detailCellular Uptake Of Antennapedia Penetratin Peptides Is A Two-Step Process In Which Phase Transfer Precedes A Tryptophan-Dependent Translocation
Dom, G.; Shaw-Jackson, C.; Matis, C. et al

in Nucleic Acids Research (2003), 31(2), 556-61

Several homeodomains and homeodomain-containing proteins enter live cells through a receptor- and energy-independent mechanism. Translocation through biological membranes is conferred by the third alpha ... [more ▼]

Several homeodomains and homeodomain-containing proteins enter live cells through a receptor- and energy-independent mechanism. Translocation through biological membranes is conferred by the third alpha-helix of the homeodomain, also known as Penetratin. Biophysical studies demonstrate that entry of Penetratin into cells requires its binding to surface lipids but that binding and translocation are differentially affected by modifications of some physico-chemical properties of the peptide, like helical amphipathicity or net charge. This suggests that the plasma membrane lipid composition affects the internalization of Penetratin and that internalization requires both lipid binding and other specific properties. Using a phase transfer assay, it is shown that negatively charged lipids promote the transfer of Penetratin from a hydrophilic into a hydrophobic environment, probably through charge neutralization. Accordingly, transfer into a hydrophobic milieu can also be obtained in the absence of negatively charged lipids, by the addition of DNA oligonucleotides. Strikingly, phase transfer by charge neutralization was also observed with a variant peptide of same charge and hydrophobicity in which the tryptophan at position 6 was replaced by a phenylalanine. However, Penetratin, but not its mutant version, is internalized by live cells. This underscores that charge neutralization and phase transfer represent only a first step in the internalization process and that further crossing of a biological membrane necessitates the critical tryptophan residue at position 6. [less ▲]

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See detailLe mandat d'arrêt européen : remise en cause du mécanisme de simple remise.
Monville, Pierre ULg

in Journal des Tribunaux Droit Européen (2003)

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See detailIdentification of heterologous multicopy suppressors of the yeast msb3msb4 double mutation.
Delroisse, Jean-Marc; Breban, Martine; Burny, Arsène et al

in Archives Internationales de Physiologie et de Biochimie (2003), 184

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See detailRosuvastatin decreases caveolin-1 and improves nitric oxide-dependent heart rate and blood pressure variability in apolipoprotein E-/- mice in vivo.
Pelat, Michel; Dessy, Chantal; MASSION, Paul ULg et al

in Circulation (2003), 107(19), 2480-6

BACKGROUND: Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) and increased blood pressure variability (BPV), determined in part by nitric oxide (NO)-dependent endothelial dysfunction, are correlated with adverse ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) and increased blood pressure variability (BPV), determined in part by nitric oxide (NO)-dependent endothelial dysfunction, are correlated with adverse prognosis in cardiovascular diseases. We examined potential alterations in BPV and HRV in genetically dyslipidemic, apolipoprotein (apo) E-/-, and control mice and the effect of chronic statin treatment on these parameters in relation to their NO synthase (NOS)-modifying properties. METHODS AND RESULTS: BP and HR were recorded in unrestrained, nonanesthetized mice with implanted telemetry devices with or without rosuvastatin. Cardiac and aortic expression of endothelial NOS and caveolin-1 were measured by immunoblotting. Both systolic BP and HR were elevated in apoE-/- mice, with abolition of their circadian cycles. Spectral analysis showed an increase in their systolic BPV in the very-low-frequency (+17%) band and a decrease in HRV in the high-frequency (-57%) band, reflecting neurohumoral and autonomic dysfunction. Decreased sensitivity to acute injection of atropine or an NOS inhibitor indicated basal alterations in both parasympathetic and NOS regulatory systems in apoE-/- mice. Aortic caveolin-1 protein, an inhibitor of endothelial NOS, was also increased in these mice by 2.0-fold and correlated positively with systolic BPV in the very-low-frequency band. Rosuvastatin treatment corrected the hemodynamic and caveolin-1 expression changes despite persisting elevated plasma cholesterol levels. CONCLUSIONS: Rosuvastatin decreases caveolin-1 expression and promotes NOS function in apoE-/-, dyslipidemic mice in vivo, with concurrent improvements in BPV and HRV. This highlights the beneficial effects of rosuvastatin on cardiovascular function beyond those attributed to lipid lowering. [less ▲]

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See detailLa cartographie et la géomatique
Donnay, Jean-Paul ULg

in Bulletin de la Société Géographique de Liège (2003), 43

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See detailLe medicament du mois. Le vardenafil (Levitra).
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(9), 576-9

Vardenafil (Levitra), recently launched in Belgium by Bayer and Glaxo-SmithKline, is a new drug that potently and selectively inhibits phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) in the cavernosum tissue of the penis ... [more ▼]

Vardenafil (Levitra), recently launched in Belgium by Bayer and Glaxo-SmithKline, is a new drug that potently and selectively inhibits phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) in the cavernosum tissue of the penis. Inhibition of PDE5 blocks the hydrolysis of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (GMPc) and results in increased arterial blood flow leading to enlargement of the corpus cavernosum and resulting in erection. In controlled clinical trials, vardenafil at least doubled the rate of successful erections as compared to placebo, whatever the evaluation parameter considered and the subgroup of patients studied. Vardenafil is thus indicated in the treatment of patients with erectile dysfunction. It is presented as 5, 10 and 20 mg tablets and the usual dose is 10 mg to be ingested 25 to 60 minutes before sexual activity. Vardenafil has a more potent inhibitory activity of PDE5 in vitro than sildenafil or tadalafil while its pharmacokinetics in vivo is somewhat more rapid than that of the two other compounds. The dosage of vardenafil may be reduced to 5 mg (especially in older individuals) to improve tolerance or be increased up to 20 mg (especially in the presence of organic diseases aggravating erectile dysfunction) to improve efficacy. Contra-indications (co-administration with drugs increasing nitric oxide) and side-effects (headache and flushing due to vasodilatation) of vardenafil are similar to those of other PDE5 inhibitors. [less ▲]

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See detailProlactin Suppresses Glucocorticoid-Induced Thymocyte Apoptosis in Vivo
Krishnan, Nithya; Thellin, Olivier ULg; Buckley, Donna J. et al

in Endocrinology (2003), 144(5), 2102-2110

The hypothesis that prolactin (PRL) functions as an immunomodulator was based on studies showing lymphocyte PRL receptors, and its effects on growth, differentiation, and apoptosis in lymphoid cells ... [more ▼]

The hypothesis that prolactin (PRL) functions as an immunomodulator was based on studies showing lymphocyte PRL receptors, and its effects on growth, differentiation, and apoptosis in lymphoid cells. However, studies of PRL (PRL-/-) and PRL receptor knockout mice indicated that PRL was not required for immune system development or function under basal conditions. Because PRL maintains survival in glucocorticoid (GC)-treated Nb2-T lymphocytes in vitro, and PRL and GCs are elevated during stress, we investigated whether PRL protected T cells in vivo from GC-induced apoptosis. Adrenalectomized mice [PRL -/-, undetectable PRL; pituitary grafted PRL-/- (PRL-/-Graft), elevated PRL; and PRL+/-, normal PRL] were treated with dexamethasone (DEX) or PBS. Thymocytes and splenocytes were isolated and annexin V labeling of phosphatidylserine, DNA fragmentation, and caspase-3 activation were assessed as indices of apoptosis. Total thymocytes and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells obtained from DEX-treated PRL-/- mice exhibited significantly increased annexin V binding. In contrast, binding was not altered by DEX in PRL-/-Graft thymocytes. In addition, DEX induced classic DNA fragmentation in PRL-/- thymocytes. Elevated serum PRL reduced this effect. Thymocytes from DEX-treated PRL-/- mice exhibited increased caspase-3 activation, which was inhibited in cells from PRL-/-Graft mice. Finally, elevated expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis, XIAP, was observed in thymi from DEX-treated PRL -/-Graft mice. This is the first demonstration that elevated PRL antagonizes apoptosis in thymocytes exposed to GCs in vivo. These observations suggest that, under conditions of increased GCs, such as during stress, elevated PRL functions physiologically to maintain survival and function of T-lymphocytes. [less ▲]

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