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See detailL'accompagnement d'équipes éducatives dans la mise en place de la réforme du premier degré: parcours scolaires et pratiques de différenciation
Guillaume, Marie-Elisabeth; Hindryckx, Marie-Noëlle ULg

in Informations pédagogiques (1996), 29

Synthèse d'une année de recherche-action basée sur l'accompagnement d'équipes éducatives dans la mise en place de la réforme du premier degré du secondaire : chronique d'une collaboration. Le travail ... [more ▼]

Synthèse d'une année de recherche-action basée sur l'accompagnement d'équipes éducatives dans la mise en place de la réforme du premier degré du secondaire : chronique d'une collaboration. Le travail collaboratif s'est effectué avec des équipes de professeurs de français de l'Athénée de Visé. Les axes de travail choisis furent les suivants :définir les compétences minimales qui devront être maîtrisées par les élèves au terme du premier degré de l'enseignement secondaire - concevoir et mettre au point de nouvelles pratiques pédagogiques et de nouveaux outils visant la construction des compétences choisies pour la première année du cycle - Intégrer des démarches d'évaluation diagnostique (quels savoirs, quelles compétences sont acquises), d'évaluation formative (repérage et analyse des difficultés d'apprentissage rencontrées par les élèves) et de pratiques de différenciation - Expérimenter les actions éducatives conçues - Evaluer celles-ci, analyser les paramètres qui ont présider à leur élaboration. [less ▲]

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See detailStatic and dynamic epidemics on looped chains and looped trees
Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Ausloos, Marcel ULg

in Physical Review. E : Statistical Physics, Plasmas, Fluids, and Related Interdisciplinary Topics (1996), 54(4), 3499-3507

The dynamic epidemic model [N. Vandewalle and M. Ausloos, J. Phys. A 29, 309 (1996)] considers the growth of a cluster in a medium containing a fraction x of mobile "particles" that are pushed by a ... [more ▼]

The dynamic epidemic model [N. Vandewalle and M. Ausloos, J. Phys. A 29, 309 (1996)] considers the growth of a cluster in a medium containing a fraction x of mobile "particles" that are pushed by a propagation front. This model is exactly solved here on various chains and trees that contain loops following an "evolution matrix" method. The exact value for the percolation threshold x(c) and the critical exponents are calculated for static and mobile particles, respectively. Surprisingly, the mobile character of the particles affects the values of the critical exponents on chains but not on trees. Thus there is a nonuniversal behavior for dynamic epidemics even on d=1 lattices. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular Basis of Neuronal Biorhythms and Paroxysms
Grisar, Thierry ULg; Lakaye, Bernard ULg; Thomas, Elizabeth

in Archives of Physiology & Biochemistry (1996), 104(6), 770-4

The molecular basis of the biorhythms are evoked in relation to cerebral EEG rhythms and paroxysms. Basic oscillatory phenomena have been well shown and modeled in systems such as the glycolytic pathway ... [more ▼]

The molecular basis of the biorhythms are evoked in relation to cerebral EEG rhythms and paroxysms. Basic oscillatory phenomena have been well shown and modeled in systems such as the glycolytic pathway, the oscillations of cAMP in amoebas and rhythms of the intracellular cycline during mitosis. In excitable cells the intracellular calcium and cAMP oscillations exhibit a signalling system with many advantages. Thus the question arises: to what extent can the EEG paroxysms observed in epileptic syndrome be due to disturbances in such basic molecular pathways that underlie intracellular molecular oscillations? The usefulness of the absence-rat-model and the implication the T type Ca(2+)-channel of the thalamic nuclei in the pathophysiology of this epileptic syndrome are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailRegional brain activity during working memory tasks
Salmon, Eric ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg et al

in Brain (1996), 119(Pt 5), 1617-1625

The first aim of our PET study was to replicate previous findings concerning the brain areas activated by a verbal working memory task. The second aim was to specify the neural basis of the central ... [more ▼]

The first aim of our PET study was to replicate previous findings concerning the brain areas activated by a verbal working memory task. The second aim was to specify the neural basis of the central executive, using a task of working memory updating. Our data confirm that the lower left supramarginal gyms and premotor area are the key regions subserving short-term verbal memory processes. They also suggest that the updating memory task is related to mid-dorsolateral prefrontal activation most probably responsible for the updating function of the central executive. An unexpected, predominantly right activation occurred in the inferior parietal region during the verbal memory updating task, which we related to a visuospatial strategy used to maintain the information in short-term memory. A third purpose was to explore the brain regions activated by a nonverbal, visual memory task, and our results confirm the importance of the superior occipital gyrus in the visual short-term memory. [less ▲]

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See detailVimentin Expression in Cervical Carcinomas: Association with Invasive and Migratory Potential
Gilles, Christine ULg; Polette, M.; Piette, Jacques ULg et al

in Journal of Pathology (The) (1996), 180(2), 175-80

Vimentin is an intermediate filament protein normally expressed in mesenchymal cells, but evidence is accumulating in the literature which suggests that the aberrant expression of vimentin in epithelial ... [more ▼]

Vimentin is an intermediate filament protein normally expressed in mesenchymal cells, but evidence is accumulating in the literature which suggests that the aberrant expression of vimentin in epithelial cancer cells might be related to local invasiveness and metastatic potential. Vimentin expression has previously been associated with invasive properties in an in vitro model consisting of a set of HPV-33-transformed cervical keratinocyte cell lines. In the present study, in order to emphasize those in vitro findings, the expression of vimentin has been investigated in cervical neoplasms of different grades, using immunohistochemistry. A clear association is reported between vimentin expression and metastatic progression, since vimentin was detected in all invasive carcinomas and lymph node metastases, but not in CIN III lesions. These in vivo results are compared with present and previous data obtained in vitro on cervical keratinocyte cell lines, where vimentin expression also correlated with in vitro invasiveness. [less ▲]

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See detailDistribution of Aromatase-Immunoreactive Cells in the Forebrain of Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia Guttata): Implications for the Neural Action of Steroids and Nuclear Definition in the Avian Hypothalamus
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Absil, Philippe ULg; Foidart, Agnès ULg et al

in Journal of Neurobiology (1996), 31(2), 129-48

Cells immunoreactive for the enzyme aromatase were localized in the forebrain of male zebra finches with the use of an immunocytochemistry procedure. Two polyclonal antibodies, one directed against human ... [more ▼]

Cells immunoreactive for the enzyme aromatase were localized in the forebrain of male zebra finches with the use of an immunocytochemistry procedure. Two polyclonal antibodies, one directed against human placental aromatase and the other directed against quail recombinant aromatase, revealed a heterogeneous distribution of the enzyme in the telencephalon, diencephalon, and mesencephalon. Staining was enhanced in some birds by the administration of the nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor, R76713 racemic Vorozole) prior to the perfusion of the birds as previously described in Japanese quail. Large numbers of cells immunoreactive for aromatase were found in nuclei in the preoptic region and in the tuberal hypothalamus. A nucleus was identified in the preoptic region based on the high density of aromatase immunoreactive cells within its boundaries that appears to be homologous to the preoptic medial nucleus (POM) described previously in Japanese quail. In several birds alternate sections were stained for immunoreactive vasotocin, a marker of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). This information facilitated the clear separation of the POM in zebra finches from nuclei that are adjacent to the POM in the preoptic area-hypothalamus, such as the PVN and the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. Positively staining cells were also detected widely throughout the telencephalon. Cells were discerned in the medial parts of the ventral hyperstriatum and neostriatum near the lateral ventricle and in dorsal and medial parts of the hippocampus. They were most abundant in the caudal neostriatum where they clustered in the dorsomedial neostriatum, and as a band of cells coursing along the dorsal edge of the lamina archistriatalis dorsalis. They were also present in high numbers in the ventrolateral aspect of the neostriatum and in the nucleus taeniae. None of the telencephalic vocal control nuclei had appreciable numbers of cells immunoreactive for aromatase within their boundaries, with the possible exception of a group of cells that may correspond to the medial part of the magnocellular nucleus of the neostriatum. The distribution of immunoreactive aromatase cells in the zebra finch brain is in excellent agreement with the distribution of cells expressing the mRNA for aromatase recently described in the finch telencephalon. This widespread telencephalic distribution of cells immunoreactive for aromatase has not been described in non-songbird species such as the Japanese quail, the ring dove, and the domestic fowl. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of Post-Transplant Anti-Alpha 5 (Iv) Collagen Alloantibodies in X-Linked Alport Syndrome
Dehan, Pierre ULg; Van den Heuvel, L. P.; Smeets, H. J. et al

in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation (1996), 11(10), 1983-8

X-linked Alport syndrome (AS) is a heritable disorder which is associated with mutations in the type IV collagen alpha 5 (IV) chain gene (COL4A5) located on chromosome X. Following renal transplantation ... [more ▼]

X-linked Alport syndrome (AS) is a heritable disorder which is associated with mutations in the type IV collagen alpha 5 (IV) chain gene (COL4A5) located on chromosome X. Following renal transplantation, an average of 6% of male AS patients develop anti-GBM nephritis. We studied the specificity of the antibodies against type IV collagen in the serum of a patient with COL4A5 partial deletion. The specificity of these alloantibodies was determined against collagenase-digested GBM, as well as against recombinant non-collagenous (NC1) domains of the type IV collagen alpha 1(IV)-alpha 6(IV) chains expressed in escherichia coli. Immunoblotting and ELISA demonstrated that these antibodies bound specifically to the NC1 domain of alpha 5(IV) collagen. There was no binding to the NC1 domain of the other chains, including the Goodpasture antigen. Competitive ELISA confirmed the results obtained by ELISA and immunoblotting. This patient developed alloantibodies directed against antigens present in the grafted kidney, but absent from his Alport kidney. The pathogenesis of post-transplantation glomerulonephritis in the Alport patient studied is thus similar to that of Goodpasture syndrome, with the exception that the pathogenic antibodies are targeted to another alpha chain of type IV collagen. [less ▲]

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See detailThe numerical simulation and physical model test of pipeline under water action
Marchal, Jean ULg; Yucheng, Li; Guozhang, Lai et al

in Proceedings of the Fourth Pacific/Asia Offshore Mechanics Symposium, Pusan, Korea (1996)

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See detailL'écologie, la photoclimatologie et la géographie vont-elles influencer la dermatologie de demain?
Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1996), 51(10), 647-8

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See detailSAXS analysis of the morphology of biocompatible and biodegradable poly(ε-caprolactone-b-glycolide) copolymers1
Sobry, R.; Van den Bossche, Guy ULg; Fontaine, F. et al

in Journal of Molecular Structure (1996), 383(1-3), 63-68

Poly(epsilon-caprolacrone-b-glycolide) diblock copolyesters have been synthesized by the sequential polymerization of epsilon-caprolactone and glycolide as initiated by aluminium alkoxides ... [more ▼]

Poly(epsilon-caprolacrone-b-glycolide) diblock copolyesters have been synthesized by the sequential polymerization of epsilon-caprolactone and glycolide as initiated by aluminium alkoxides. Copolymerization is typically ''living'' and yields copolyesters of perfectly controlled molecular weight and composition. Diblock molecular weight (Mn-PGA+Mn-PCL) ranges from 5700 to 42000 and the rho = Mn-PCL/Mn-PGA ratio varies from 1.5 to 13.1. Due to the inherent insolubility of the polyglycolide (PGA) segment in common organic solvent, the diblock copolyesters form stable non-aqueous colloidal dispersions e.g. in toluene, the stability of which results from the soluble poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) block. Combining all the experimental observations (PCS, TEM, WAXS, SAXS, AFM), a micelle model has been proposed which consists of a polyglycolide core surrounded with a corona of polycaprolactone (PCL). Both constituents are semi crystalline. From SAXS observations, the PGA core is better described by two concentric spheres. The internal sphere of a 5-6.7 nn diameter would essentially contain crystalline PGA. The diameter of the external sphere, D-PGA, is in the range from 6.2 to 9.6 nm, at least for the investigated diblock copolymers. As a rule, this diameter increases as rho decreases at constant molecular weight and as the diblock molecular weight increases at constant rho. A scattering peak (weak) is observed in the range from 10.8 to 15.5 nm and the Bragg distance is close mu D-PGA, where mu is equal to (1+3 rho/2)(1/3). From steric considerations, mu is the ratio between the diameter of the micelle and the diameter of the PGA core, so that this peak has been assigned to the characteristic intermicellar distance. At very small angles, several additional peaks are the signature of a hyperstructure which is possibly lamellar. [less ▲]

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See detailStructural and Functional Aspects of Chloride Binding to Alteromonas Haloplanctis Alpha-Amylase
Feller, Georges ULg; le Bussy, O.; Houssier, C. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (1996), 271(39), 23836-41

Chloride is the allosteric effector of vertebrate pancreatic and salivary alpha-amylases and of the bacterial alpha-amylase from Alteromonas haloplanctis. Activation experiments of A. haloplanctis alpha ... [more ▼]

Chloride is the allosteric effector of vertebrate pancreatic and salivary alpha-amylases and of the bacterial alpha-amylase from Alteromonas haloplanctis. Activation experiments of A. haloplanctis alpha-amylase by several monovalent anions show that a negative charge, not restricted to that of Cl-, is essential for the amylolytic reaction. Engineering of the chloride binding site reveals that a basic residue is an essential component of the site. The mutation K337R alters the Cl--binding properties, whereas the mutation K337Q produces an active, chloride-independent enzyme. Comparison of the Kd values for Cl- in three homologous alpha-amylases also indicates that the binding affinity is dependent on the chloride coordination mode by this basic residue. Analysis of substrate and chloride binding according to the allosteric kinetic model shows that the chloride effector is not involved in substrate binding. By contrast, the pH dependence of activity and experiments of chemical modifications and Ca2+ inhibition show that the chloride ion is responsible for the pKa shift of catalytic groups and interacts with active site carboxyl groups. [less ▲]

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See detailObservations on the Helminths of Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena Phocoena) and Common Guillemots (Uria Aalge) from the Belgian and German Coasts
Brosens, L.; Jauniaux, Thierry ULg; Siebert, U. et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (1996), 139(11), 254-7

Between February 1990 and July 1991, 18 harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and 248 common guillemots (Uria aalge), found dead along the Belgian and German coasts, were examined for their burden of ... [more ▼]

Between February 1990 and July 1991, 18 harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and 248 common guillemots (Uria aalge), found dead along the Belgian and German coasts, were examined for their burden of helminths. A total of three species were found in the guillemots (one cestode, one nematode and one pentastomid), and six species in the porpoises (one trematode, one cestode and four nematodes). Among the guillemots the burden of helminths was not statistically different between juvenile and adult birds. The deaths of the birds were apparently not related to the parasite infections. In contrast, the adult porpoises were more heavily parasitised than the juveniles, except for one young porpoise stranded on the Belgian coast. In the porpoises, four species of parasites had a pathological effect and Torynurus convolutus was responsible for the death of one animal from the Belgian coast and three from the German coast. [less ▲]

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See detailSyndiotactic poly(methyl methacrylate) (sPMMA)-polybutadiene (PBD)-sPMMA triblock copolymers: synthesis, morphology, and mechanical properties
Yu, Jian Ming; Dubois, Philippe ULg; Jérôme, Robert ULg et al

in Macromolecules (1996), 29(19), 6090-6099

A series of syndiotactic poly(methyl methacrylate) (sPMMA)−polybutadiene (PBD)−sPMMA triblock copolymers, or MBM, have been successfully synthesized by using dilithium initiators (DLi's) based on the ... [more ▼]

A series of syndiotactic poly(methyl methacrylate) (sPMMA)−polybutadiene (PBD)−sPMMA triblock copolymers, or MBM, have been successfully synthesized by using dilithium initiators (DLi's) based on the diadduct of tert-butyllithium (t-BuLi) to either 1,3-bis(1-phenylethenyl)benzene (PEB) or m-diisopropenylbenzene (m-DIB). The efficiency of these DLi's in building up MBM triblock copolymers has been compared under the same experimental conditions, i.e., in a cyclohexane/diethyl ether mixture for the butadiene polymerization at room temperature and in a cyclohexane/THF mixture for the MMA polymerization at −78 °C. Although all the synthesized copolymers show a monomodal, symmetric, and very narrow molecular weight distribution, the MBM copolymers synthesized with the m-DIB/t-BuLi diadduct are pure triblocks and show a high tensile strength, in contrast to copolymers initiated by the PEB/t-BuLi diadducts that are of a lower tensile strength and contaminated by MB diblock copolymers. Solvent cast films of MBM prepared with the m-DIB/t-BuLi diadduct are two-phase materials as confirmed by DSC and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows a spherical morphology at a low sPMMA content, that changes into a cylindrical and finally lamellar morphology upon increasing the sPMMA content. Phase separation is observed for MBM with M̄n of the sPMMA blocks as low as 6000. Dependence of tensile strength on copolymer structure and sample preparation has been studied. The smaller sPMMA molecular weight, M̄n(PMMA), required for high tensile strength depends on the PBD molecular weight, M̄n(PBD), e.g. 12 000 for Mn(PBD) = 36 000 and 6000 for Mn(PBD) = 80 000. The upper M̄n(PMMA) is ca. 20−25 000, whatever the Mn(PBD). The optimum tensile strength is observed for M̄n(PMMA) = 15 000, independently of Mn(PBD) in the studied range. As a rule, the tensile strength tends to level off and the elongation at break starts to decrease when the sPMMA content is increased beyond 35 wt %. At a constant sPMMA content, Mn(PBD) (>ca. 36 000) does not affect the ultimate tensile properties. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrodomain morphology analysis of block copolymers by atomic force microscopy with phase detection imaging
Leclère, Philippe; Lazzaroni, Roberto; Brédas, Jean-Luc et al

in Langmuir (1996), 12(18), 4317-4320

We use atomic force microscopy (AFM) with phase detection imaging (PDI) in order to study the surface microdomain morphology of thick (i.e., ca. 2 mm) films of triblock copolymers. We present here the ... [more ▼]

We use atomic force microscopy (AFM) with phase detection imaging (PDI) in order to study the surface microdomain morphology of thick (i.e., ca. 2 mm) films of triblock copolymers. We present here the results obtained on a poly(methyl methacrylate)-block-polybutadiene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA-b-PBD-b-PMMA) copolymer prepared by using a 1,3-diisopropenylbenzene (DIB)-based difunctional anionic initiator. Our data illustrate the interest of PDI for the elucidation of surface phase separation in block copolymers. We show that the surface of thick films studied by this new technique exhibits a two-phase structure corresponding to the two types of components. [less ▲]

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See detailBinding of insertion/deletion DNA mismatches by the heterodimer of yeast mismatch repair protein MSH2 and MSH3
Habraken, Yvette ULg; Sung, Patrick; Prakash, Louise et al

in Current Biology (1996), 6(9), 1185-7

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See detailThe distribution of hot hydrogen atoms produced by electron and proton precipitation in the Jovian aurora
Bisikalo, D. V.; Shematovich, V. I.; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research (1996), 101

The energy distribution functions of nonthermal thermospheric hydrogen atoms are calculated for electron and proton precipitation in the Jovian aurora. A numerical model taking into account the production ... [more ▼]

The energy distribution functions of nonthermal thermospheric hydrogen atoms are calculated for electron and proton precipitation in the Jovian aurora. A numerical model taking into account the production, elastic and inelastic relaxation and transport processes for hot H atoms is developed. This model is based on a Monte Carlo solution of the nonlinear Boltzmann equation for hot H atoms produced by electron and proton impact on H and H[SUB]2[/SUB] and exothermic chemical reactions. The distribution functions show a much higher energy tail for proton than electron precipitation. It is shown that the steady state flux of hot atoms (E>=2 eV) is essentially isotropic. The peak and column hot H densities are about 3×10[SUP]5[/SUP] cm[SUP]-3[/SUP] and 1×10[SUP]14[/SUP] cm[SUP]-3[/SUP] for a 100 erg cm[SUP]-2[/SUP]s[SUP]-1[/SUP] precipitation combining hard (22 keV) and soft (0.2 keV) electrons mixed with a 10 erg cm[SUP]-2[/SUP]s[SUP]-1[/SUP] flux of soft (0.3 keV) protons. These column densities, coupled with the wide range of hot H atom energies, may play an important role in the formation of the Lyman alpha line profile. Multiple scattering in the wings of the Ly alpha line by the fast H atoms is shown to partly account for the broad Ly alpha profile observed in the Jovian aurora with the Hubble space telescope. [less ▲]

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See detailPKS 1610-771: a highly reddened quasar?
Courbin, F.; Hutsemekers, Damien ULg; Meylan, G. et al

in The Messenger (1996), 85

Not Available

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See detailEffects of Schwann Cell Transplantation in a Contusion Model of Rat Spinal Cord Injury
Martin, Didier ULg; Robe, Pierre ULg; Franzen, Rachelle ULg et al

in Journal of Neuroscience Research (1996), 45(5), 588-597

Cultured Schwann cells were transplanted at various delays into a spinal cord contusion injury performed at low thoracic level in adult female rats. The Schwann cells were purified from the dorsal root ... [more ▼]

Cultured Schwann cells were transplanted at various delays into a spinal cord contusion injury performed at low thoracic level in adult female rats. The Schwann cells were purified from the dorsal root ganglia of adult syngeneic animals. the transplants were well tolerated, and the transplanted Schwann cells invaded the injured spinal cord. As quantified using video image analysis, the survival and growth of the transplanted cells were poor when the grafting procedure was performed 3-4 days after injury and very good when performed immediately or 10 days after injury, in which cases post-traumatic micro- and macrocavitation were strongly reduced. In animals grafted immediately after injury but not in animals grafted after 10 days, post-traumatic astrogliosis was much reduced. The Schwann cells transplanted area was invaded by numerous regenerating axons, the vast majority of which were, based on the neurotransmitter (CGRP and SP) profile, originating from dorsal root ganglion. No regeneration of the corticospinal tract as assessed after anterograde tracing or of descending aminergic fibers could be demonstrated. [less ▲]

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See detailInflammatory reaction and capillary leak syndrome related to cardiopulmonary bypass in neonates undergoing cardiac operations
Seghaye, Marie-Christine ULg; Grabitz, R. G.; Duchateau, J. et al

in Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (1996), 112(3), 687-697

We studied the inflammatory reaction related to cardiopulmonary bypass in 24 neonates (median age 6 days) undergoing the arterial switch operation for simple transposition of the great arteries, with ... [more ▼]

We studied the inflammatory reaction related to cardiopulmonary bypass in 24 neonates (median age 6 days) undergoing the arterial switch operation for simple transposition of the great arteries, with respect to the development of postoperative capillary leak syndrome. Complement proteins, leukocyte count, tumor necrosis factor-α, and histamine levels were determined before, during, and after cardiopulmonary bypass. Additionally, protein movement from the intravascular into the extravascular space during cardiopulmonary bypass was assessed by the measurement of plasma concentrations of proteins with molecular weights ranging from 21,200 to 718,000. Capillary leak syndrome developed in 13 of the 24 neonates. Patients with capillary leak syndrome, as compared with those without, had preoperatively higher C5a levels (C5a, 3.0 ± 0.6 μg/L vs 0.9 ± 0.2 μg/L) (mean ± standard error of the mean) (p < 0.05) and higher leukocyte counts (leukocytes, 17.9 ± 2.1 x 10 3 cells/ml versus 11.7 ± 0.8 x 10 3 cells/ml) (p < 0.05), suggesting in these neonates a preoperative inflammatory state. Preoperative clinical and operative data were identical in both patient groups. Before cardiopulmonary bypass, serum protein concentrations were similar in all patients. Ten minutes after institution of cardiopulmonary bypass, protein concentrations fell to significantly lower values in patients with capillary leak syndrome than in those without: albumin (19% ± 1.5% vs 30% ± 6% of the prebypass value, p < 0.05), immunoglobulin G (17% ± 1.5% vs 29% ± 5.5%, p < 0.001), and α 2-macroglobulin (15% ± 1.2% vs 25% ± 4%, p < 0.02). During cardiopulmonary bypass, albumin concentrations remained significantly lower in patients with capillary leak syndrome than in those without, whereas hematocrit values were similar in both groups. During cardiopulmonary bypass, patients with capillary leak syndrome also had lower concentrations of complement proteins C3 and C4 but not C1 inhibitor. C3d/C3 ratio and C5a levels were similar in both patient groups. In contrast, histamine liberation during cardiopulmonary bypass was significantly more pronounced in patients with capillary leak syndrome than in those without (725.2 ± 396.7 pg/ml vs -54.1 ± 58.4 pg/ml, p < 0.05). Tumor necrosis factor-α levels after protamine administration were also significantly higher in patients with capillary leak syndrome (38.1 ± 10.0 pg/ml vs 15.3 ± 3.4 pg/ml, p < 0.05). Leukocyte count during and after cardiopulmonary bypass was similar in both patient groups. This study demonstrates increased protein leakage as early as 10 minutes after initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass in patients having clinical signs of postoperative capillary leak syndrome. Patients with capillary leak syndrome displayed more pronounced histamine liberation and tumor necrosis factor-α liberation than patients without capillary leak syndrome, suggesting a relationship between cardiopulmonary bypass-related inflammatory reaction and perioperative capillary damage. A preoperative inflammatory state in patients with capillary leak syndrome could have enhanced the inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass. [less ▲]

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See detailIn Vivo Expression of Interleukin-1 Beta (Il-1 Beta), Il-2, Il-4, Il-6, Tumour Necrosis Factor-Alpha and Interferon-Gamma in the Fetal Murine Thymus
Deman, J.; Van Meurs, M.; Claassen, E. et al

in Immunology (1996), 89(1), 152-7

Cytokines are known to play a role in T-cell lymphopoiesis as potent growth or differentiation factors, but many experiments focusing on their role in the thymus have been conducted only in vitro. We have ... [more ▼]

Cytokines are known to play a role in T-cell lymphopoiesis as potent growth or differentiation factors, but many experiments focusing on their role in the thymus have been conducted only in vitro. We have thus used frozen sections obtained from fetal thymuses of normal C57BL 6 mice to investigate by immunohistochemistry the presence of interleukin-1 beta (I4-1 beta), IL-2. IL-4. IL-6. interferon-7 (IFN-7) and tumour necrosis facor-alpha (TNF-alpha). The results reveal that apart from IL-2, which was not detected, all these cytokines display a time-dependent expression pattern in the normal fetal thymus. First, production of IL-4, IL-6 and TNF-alpha is detected around days 13 14; this is followed by a second wave on days 16 17, with a production of IL-1 beta, IL-4 and IL-6, and finally, just before birth (day 19), by a third wave of IL-1 beta, IL-4, IL-6, IFN-7 and TNF-alpha production. This supports the hypothesis that cytokines play a rote in T-cell lymphopoiesis. [less ▲]

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See detailAcute Diverticulitis in Heart Transplant Recipients
Detry, Olivier ULg; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier ULg; Meurisse, Michel ULg et al

in Transplant International (1996), 9(4), 376-9

Immunosuppressed patients are susceptible to complicated diverticulitis, but reports of this complication are scarce in heart graft recipients. To estimate the prevalence of acute diverticulitis in heart ... [more ▼]

Immunosuppressed patients are susceptible to complicated diverticulitis, but reports of this complication are scarce in heart graft recipients. To estimate the prevalence of acute diverticulitis in heart graft recipients, we retrospectively reviewed the cases of diverticulitis in a series of 143 patients who underwent orthotopic heart transplantation in a period of 10 years. Six (4%) of these developed acute diverticulitis and required colectomy. All of them were male patients and were older than 50 years. Four patients underwent urgent laparotomy and colon resection with end colostomy (Hartmann procedure). The two other patients suffered from diverticulitis without generalized peritonitis and underwent laparoscopic sigmoidectomy with direct transanal end-to-end anastomosis. The postoperative outcomes of these six patients were satisfactory. As are other immunosuppressed patients, heart graft recipients are susceptible to diverticulitis. Early surgical management may be safe in well-compensated patients. [less ▲]

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See detailAnterior cingulate dysfunction in presenile dementia due to progressive supranuclear palsy
Salmon, Eric ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (1996), 96(3), 247-253

We report neuropsychological and neuroimaging investigations performed in a patient suffering from presenile onset degenerative dementia and subsequent mild extrapyramidal and pyramidal signs. Early ... [more ▼]

We report neuropsychological and neuroimaging investigations performed in a patient suffering from presenile onset degenerative dementia and subsequent mild extrapyramidal and pyramidal signs. Early neuropsychological testing revealed frontal lobe dysfunction. Neuroanatomical pictures were not contributive. After four years of evolution, the clinical pattern was consistent with progressive supranuclear palsy. Statistical parametric mapping analysis of functional imaging revealed a highly significant metabolic impairment in the anterior cingulate gyrus, that might be a key feature of subcortico-frontal dementia in progressive supranuclear palsy. [less ▲]

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See detailTyping of Bovine Attaching and Effacing Escherichia Coli by Multiplex in Vitro Amplification of Virulence-Associated Genes
China, B.; Pirson, V.; Mainil, Jacques ULg

in Applied and Environmental Microbiology (1996), 62(9), 3462-3465

Attaching and effacing Escherichia coli is a new causal agent of diarrhea in calves. Its major virulence factors are the intimin protein, encoded by the eaeA gene, and the Shiga-like toxins, encoded by ... [more ▼]

Attaching and effacing Escherichia coli is a new causal agent of diarrhea in calves. Its major virulence factors are the intimin protein, encoded by the eaeA gene, and the Shiga-like toxins, encoded by slt genes. Because the sequences of these genes are available, we selected specific primers to amplify each virulence gene so as to develop a new identification test based on multiplex amplification of virulence-associated genes. Of 30 tested strains, 14 were eaeA+, 15 were eaeA+ slt-I+, 1 was eaeA+ slt-I+ slt-II+, and 1 was eaeA+ slt-II+. The method proved in our hands to be fast and specific and in perfect correlation with the hybridization method. [less ▲]

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See detailThrombolyse coronaire--actualisation
Legrand, Victor ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1996), 51(9), 571-5

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See detailLocalization of Testosterone-Sensitive and Sexually Dimorphic Aromatase-Immunoreactive Cells in the Quail Preoptic Area
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Tlemcani, O.; Harada, N.

in Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy (1996), 11(3), 147-71

The distribution of aromatase-immunoreactive cells was studied in the medial preoptic nucleus of male and female quail that were sexually mature and gonadally intact, or gonadectomized, or gonadectomized ... [more ▼]

The distribution of aromatase-immunoreactive cells was studied in the medial preoptic nucleus of male and female quail that were sexually mature and gonadally intact, or gonadectomized, or gonadectomized and treated with testosterone. The study first confirmed the existence of a significant difference in the number of aromatase-immunoreactive cells between males and females (males > females) and the marked effect of castration and testosterone treatment which, respectively, decrease and restore the number of these cells. An analysis of the distribution in space of this neurochemically defined cell population was also carried out. This study revealed that castration does not uniformly decrease the density of aromatase-immunoreactive cells, but local increases are observed in an area directly adjacent to the third ventricle. A number of new sex differences in the organization of the medial preoptic nucleus and its population of aromatase cells have, in addition, been identified. The density of aromatase-immunoreactive cells is not higher in males than in females throughout the nucleus, but a higher density of immunoreactive cells is present in the ventromedial part of the nucleus in females as compared to males. In addition, the cross-sectional area of the nucleus as defined by the population of aromatase-immunoreactive cells is larger in males than in females in its rostral part and its shape is more elongated in the dorso-ventral direction in females than in males. Some of these differences (e.g. higher density of ARC-ir cells in the ventromedial part of the female POM, shape of the nucleus) appear to be organizational in nature, because they are still present in birds exposed to the same endocrine conditions during adult life (e.g. gonadectomized and treated with a same dose of testosterone). This conclusion should now be tested by experiments manipulating the endocrine environment of quail embryos. The anatomical heterogeneity of the medial preoptic nucleus revealed by this study also suggests a functional heterogeneity and the specific roles of the medial and lateral parts of the nucleus should also be investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of Transdermal Oestradiol (Estraderm Tts) in Hypertensive Postmenopausal Women
Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg

in British Journal of Clinical Practice. Supplement (1996), 86

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See detailThe non-penicillin-binding module of the tripartite penicillin-binding protein 3 of Escherichia Coli is required for folding and/or stability of the penicillin-binding module and the membrane-anchoring module confers cell septation activity on the folded structure
Goffin, Colette ULg; Fraipont, Claudine ULg; Ayala, Juan et al

in Journal of Bacteriology (1996), 178(18), 5402-5409

The ftsI-encoded multimodular class B penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3) is a key element of the cell septation machinery of Escherichia coli. Altered ftsI genes were overexpressed, and the gene products ... [more ▼]

The ftsI-encoded multimodular class B penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3) is a key element of the cell septation machinery of Escherichia coli. Altered ftsI genes were overexpressed, and the gene products were analyzed with respect to the level of production, stability, penicillin affinity, and cell septation activity. In contrast to the serine beta-lactamases and low-molecular-mass PBPs which are autonomous folding entities, the S-259-to-V-577 penicillin-binding module of M-1-to-V-577 PBP3 lacks the amino acid sequence information for correct folding. The missing piece of information is provided by the associated G-57-to-E-258 non-penicillin-binding module which functions as a noncleaved, pseudointramolecular chaperone. Key elements of the folding information reside within the motif 1-containing R-60-to-W-110 polypeptide segment and within G-188-to-D-197 motif 3 of the n-PB module. The intermodule interaction is discussed in the light of the known three-dimensional structure (at 3.5-A [0.35-nm] resolution) of the analogous class B PBP2x of Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. Pares, N. Mouz, Y. Petillot, R. Hakenbeck, and O. Dideberg, Nature Struct. Biol. 3:284-289, 1996). Correct folding and adoption of a stable penicillin-binding conformation are necessary but not sufficient to confer cell septation activity to PBP3 in exponentially growing cells. The in vivo activity of PBP3 also depends on the M-1-to-E-56 amino-terminal module which encompasses the cytosol, the membrane, and the periplasm and which functions as a noncleaved pseudo-signal peptide. [less ▲]

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See detailNaevocyte Triggering by Recombinant Human Growth Hormone
Pierard, Gérald ULg; Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine ULg; Nikkels, Arjen ULg et al

in Journal of Pathology (The) (1996), 180(1), 74-79

The influence of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I on human melanocytes is being increasingly recognized. Clinical evidence has shown that when recombinant human growth hormone (hGH) is ... [more ▼]

The influence of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I on human melanocytes is being increasingly recognized. Clinical evidence has shown that when recombinant human growth hormone (hGH) is administered to children of short stature, the growth of melanocytic naevi is boosted. This study was conducted on 56 hGH-triggered naevi and nine similar lesions excised before or after hGH therapy for hypopituitarism and Turner's syndrome. A series of 40 naevi excised from age-matched healthy children served as controls. Atypicality of naevocytes was investigated using image analysis, AgNOR counts, immunohistochemistry (HMB-45, NKI-C3, Ki-67, anti-bcl-2-oncoprotein), and DNA flow cytometry. The data associate hGH treatment with anisokaryosis and increased AgNOR and Ki-67 counts in naevocytes. The same cells also show abnormal patterns of HMB-45 immunolabelling. These indications of naevocyte activation were not suggestive of malignant transformation. hGH-triggered melanocytomas should be added to the list of atypical melanocytic naevi. The long-term evolution of these lesions remains unknown and the potential risk of malignant transformation awaits careful evaluation. [less ▲]

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See detailCaractérisation métabolique cérébrale et neuropsychologique des syndromes parkinsoniens
Salmon, Eric ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Garraux, Gaëtan ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1996), 51(9), 566-70

S'il existe des signes neurologiques caractéristiques de la maladie de Parkinson, l'expérience clinique nous apprend que l'évolution individuelle des patients parkinsoniens est fort variable, et des ... [more ▼]

S'il existe des signes neurologiques caractéristiques de la maladie de Parkinson, l'expérience clinique nous apprend que l'évolution individuelle des patients parkinsoniens est fort variable, et des études anatomopathologioques révèlent que le diagnostic clinique d'un syndrome parkinsonien est parfois difficile à poser. Nous revoyons dans cet article les diagnostics différentiels des syndromes parkinsoniens, et nous discutons l'utilité de la neuroimagerie fonctionnelle et du bilan neuropsychologique pour essayer de mieux comprendre la présentation clinique. [less ▲]

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See detailTwo-component spreading phenomena: Why the geometry makes the criticality
Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Ausloos, Marcel ULg

in Physical Review. E : Statistical Physics, Plasmas, Fluids, and Related Interdisciplinary Topics (1996), 54(3), 3006-3008

We have numerically and theoretically investigated a simple model for two-component spreading phenomena in two different growth geometries (i.e., spreading confined in a half space and spreading in a free ... [more ▼]

We have numerically and theoretically investigated a simple model for two-component spreading phenomena in two different growth geometries (i.e., spreading confined in a half space and spreading in a free space). The criticality of the domain substructures unexpectedly depends on the considered geometry. This is understood by simple arguments of domain-wall particle diffusion and annihilation. We derive a relationship between the critical exponents chi and alpha for domain-wall spatial distributions in different geometries. The latter relationship is numerically verified in two, three and four dimensions. [less ▲]

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See detailFactor Xiiia-Positive Dendrocytes and Proliferative Activity of Cutaneous Cancers
Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine ULg; Arrese Estrada, Jorge ULg; Nikkels, Arjen ULg et al

in Virchows Archiv : An International Journal of Pathology (1996), 429(1), 43-48

Factor XIIIa-positive dendrocytes present at the periphery and inside epithelial neoplasms are an heterogeneous group of cells. They are subsets of mesenchymal cells, cancer-associated macrophages and ... [more ▼]

Factor XIIIa-positive dendrocytes present at the periphery and inside epithelial neoplasms are an heterogeneous group of cells. They are subsets of mesenchymal cells, cancer-associated macrophages and antigen-presenting cells. Factor XIIIa, other tissue transglutaminases, alpha 2-macroglobulin and tumour necrosis factor-alpha represent a complex network of mediators influencing tumour progression in the skin. In the present study we searched for the presence of dendrocytes and alpha 2-macroglobulin deposits inside and in the vicinity of cutaneous carcinomas (90 basal cell carcinomas and 46 squamous cell carcinomas) and malignant melanomas (69 primary and 28 metastatic tumours). We also studied the proliferation of the same neoplasms by Ki-67 immunohistochemistry. Dendrocytes were numerous, abutting on and infiltrating most basal cell carcinomas and thin malignant melanomas. In contrast, they were present in only low numbers or even absent in thick primary malignant melanomas and in their metastases. They appeared unmodified around squamous cell carcinomas compared with the surrounding skin. Extracellular deposits of alpha 2-macroglobulin were often found in locations where dermal dendrocytes were numerous. No correlation was found between the Ki-67 indices of carcinomas and the density of peritumoral dendrocytes. In contrast, negative relationships were found between the Ki-67 indices and the number of dendrocytes present inside basal cell carcinomas and thin malignant melanomas. This study has yielded circumstantial evidence to link the density of factor XIIIa-positive dendritic cells and a low proliferative rate of neoplastic cells in basal cell carcinomas and malignant melanomas. [less ▲]

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See detailLaboratory and in situ grazing rates of freshwater rotifers and their contribution to community grazing rates
Gosselain, V.; Joaquim-Justo, Célia ULg; Viroux, L. et al

in Archiv für Hydrobiologie. Supplementband, Large rivers (1996), 13(1-4), 353-361

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See detailNeurotrophic Factors: Past and Future
Moonen, Gustave ULg; Malgrange, Brigitte ULg; Rigo, Jean Michel et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (1996), 96(3), 203-18

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See detailSimulations of the kinetic growth of YBa2Cu307-delta grains
Cloots, Rudi ULg; Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Ausloos, Marcel ULg

in Journal of Crystal Growth (1996), 166(1-4), 816-819

Using simple kinetic and geometric arguments, we have developed a computer model which simulates the growth of melt-textured YBa2Cu307-delta grains along the a-b planes. A chemical bonding anisotropy ... [more ▼]

Using simple kinetic and geometric arguments, we have developed a computer model which simulates the growth of melt-textured YBa2Cu307-delta grains along the a-b planes. A chemical bonding anisotropy along the main lattice directions is taken into account by the model. We have also considered the presence of Y2BaCu05 particles becoming trapped or not in the solidifying YBa2Cu307-delta front. The model simulates the fomation of 211 segregation patterns in the 123 matrix. An interpretation of these is attempted in terms of trapping anisotropy due to intrinsic crystallographic anisotropy. [less ▲]

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See detailExpression of Bone Sialoprotein in Primary Human Breast Cancer Is Associated with Poor Survival
Bellahcene, Akeila ULg; Menard, S.; Bufalino, R. et al

in International Journal of Cancer = Journal International du Cancer (1996), 69(4), 350-3

We have recently demonstrated that bone sialoprotein (BSP), a bone-matrix protein involved in hydroxyapatite crystal formation, is ectopically expressed in human breast cancers. We explored a possible ... [more ▼]

We have recently demonstrated that bone sialoprotein (BSP), a bone-matrix protein involved in hydroxyapatite crystal formation, is ectopically expressed in human breast cancers. We explored a possible association between expression of BSP in primary breast cancer and patients' survival. We analyzed BSP expression in 454 breast-cancer patients by immunohistochemistry on archival paraffin-embedded material using an anti-BSP polyclonal antibody. BSP expression was correlated to survival, tumor size, axillary lymph-node status and first site of distant metastasis. Of the breast cancers analyzed, 89% expressed detectable amounts of BSP. We found a statistical association between expression of BSP and poor prognosis as indicated by survival curves analyzed using the log rank and the Gehan methods. BSP expression was significantly higher in breast-cancer patients with axillary lymph-node involvement. Interestingly, survival of patients with positive lymph nodes but BSP-negative tumors was significantly higher than that of patients with no lymph-node involvement but BSP-positive cancers. The frequency of bone metastases was higher in the group of patients with BSP-positive tumors (22%) than in the group with BSP-negative cancers (7%). There was a significant increase in the incidence of lung metastases in patients whose tumors were negative for BSP. Our data show that bone sialoprotein expression in breast cancer is associated with poor prognosis. BSP detection also appears to be a valuable marker with which to identify, among the lymph-node-negative patients, those who have high risk of disease progression. [less ▲]

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See detailA combined theoretical and experimental study of the electrochemically induced chemisorption of acrylonitrile on nickel, copper, and zinc
Fredriksson, C.; Lazzaroni, Roberto; Brédas, Jean-Luc et al

in Chemical Physics Letters (1996), 258(3-4), 356-362

We report a combined theoretical and experimental study of the interaction between a series of transition metals (Ni, Cu, Zn) and acrylonitrile. We demonstrate experimentally that the transition metal has ... [more ▼]

We report a combined theoretical and experimental study of the interaction between a series of transition metals (Ni, Cu, Zn) and acrylonitrile. We demonstrate experimentally that the transition metal has a selective role in the grafting of electropolymerized acrylonitrile. Nickel and copper substrates support the formation of a polyacrylonitrile film, while zinc does not. Quantum chemical calculations indicate that acrylonitrile molecules form π-d bonds with Ni and Cu atoms, but do not react chemically with a Zn atom, in qualitative agreement with the experiment. Computational results also show that the electron affinity is significantly increased upon chemisorption, promoting radical anion species at the metal surface as initiators for polymerization. [less ▲]

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See detailA Sequence-Specific DNA-Binding Protein Interacts with the Xlnc Upstream Region of Streptomyces Sp. Strain Ec3
Giannotta, F.; Georis, J.; Moreau, A. et al

in FEMS Microbiology Letters (1996), 142(1), 91-7

The alignment of the promoter region of several Streptomyces xylanases shows three conserved sequences which could be involved in gene regulation. By electromobility shift assays these specific sequences ... [more ▼]

The alignment of the promoter region of several Streptomyces xylanases shows three conserved sequences which could be involved in gene regulation. By electromobility shift assays these specific sequences, present only in Streptomyces xylanolytic strains, were identified as protein-binding sites. The sequence required for efficient recognition by the retarding protein appeared to be a 4-bp inverted repeat: 5'-CTTT-Nx-AAAG-3'. The DNA-protein affinity was influenced by the culture conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailIncrease of stratospheric carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) based on ATMOS observations from space
Zander, Rodolphe ULg; Solomon, S.; Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (1996), 23(17), 2353-2356

Stratospheric volume mixing ratio profiles of carbon tetrafluoride, CF4, obtained with the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) instrument during the ATLAS (Atmospheric Laboratory for ... [more ▼]

Stratospheric volume mixing ratio profiles of carbon tetrafluoride, CF4, obtained with the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) instrument during the ATLAS (Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science) -3 mission of 1994 are reported. Overall the profiles are nearly constant over the altitude range 20 to 50 km, indicative of the very long lifetime of CF4 in the atmosphere. In comparison to the stratospheric values of CF4 inferred from the ATMOS/Spacelab 3 mission of 1985, the 1994 concentrations are consistent with an exponential increase of (1.6 +/- 0.6)%/yr. This increase is discussed with regard to previous results and likely sources of CF4 at the ground. Further, it is shown that simultaneous measurements of N2O and CF4 provide a means of constraining the lower limit of the atmospheric lifetime of CF4 at least 2,300 years, two sigma. [less ▲]

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See detailExact solution of the dynamic epidemic model on the Bethe lattice
Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Ausloos, Marcel ULg

in Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications (1996), 230(1-2), 1-10

The dynamic epidemic model considers the spreading of a cluster in a medium containing a fraction x of mobile particles which are pushed by the propagation front. This model is analytically studied on the ... [more ▼]

The dynamic epidemic model considers the spreading of a cluster in a medium containing a fraction x of mobile particles which are pushed by the propagation front. This model is analytically studied on the Bethe lattice for any branching rate z. We give the exact solution x(c)= (z(2) - 1)/z(2) for the percolation threshold. This is in contrast with the x(c) = (z - 1)/z result for static particles. Moreover, we calculate the critical exponents y = 1 and v = 1 characterizing respectively the divergence of the cluster mass and the correlation length at x(c). These exponents are found to be the same as for the case of static particles, i.e. for random percolation on the Bethe lattice. [less ▲]

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See detailThe 1994 northern midlatitude budget of stratospheric chlorine derived from ATMOS/ATLAS-3 observations
Zander, Rodolphe ULg; Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg; Gunson, M. R. et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (1996), 23(17), 2357-2360

Volume mixing ratio (VMR) profiles of the chlorine-bearing gases HCl, ClONO2, CCl3F, CCl2F2, CHClF2, CCl4, and CH3Cl have been measured between 3 and 49 degrees northern- and 65 to 72 degrees southern ... [more ▼]

Volume mixing ratio (VMR) profiles of the chlorine-bearing gases HCl, ClONO2, CCl3F, CCl2F2, CHClF2, CCl4, and CH3Cl have been measured between 3 and 49 degrees northern- and 65 to 72 degrees southern latitudes with the Atmospheric Trace MOlecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) instrument during the ATmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS)-3 shuttle mission of 3 to 12 November 1994. A subset of these profiles obtained between 20 and 49 degrees N at sunset, combined with ClO profiles measured by the Millimeter-wave Atmospheric Sounder (MAS) also from aboard ATLAS-3, measurements by balloon for HOCl, CH3CCl3 and C2Cl3F3, and model calculations for COClF indicates that the mean burden of chlorine, Cl-TOT, was equal to (3.53 +/- 0.10) ppbv (parts per billion by volume), 1-sigma, throughout the stratosphere at the time of the ATLAS 3 mission. This is some 37% larger than the mean 2.58 ppbv value measured by ATMOS within the same latitude zone during the Spacelab 3 flight of 29 April to 6 May 1985, consitent with an exponential growth rate of the chlorine loading in the stratosphere equal to 3.3%/yr or a linear increase of 0.10 ppbv/yr over the Spring-1985 to Fall-1994 time period. These findings are in agreement with both the burden and increase of the main anthropogenic Cl-bearing source gases at the surface during the 1980s, confirming that the stratospheric chlorine loading is primarily of anthropogenic origin. [less ▲]

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See detailATMOS/ATLAS-3 measurements of stratospheric chlorine and reactive nitrogen partitioning inside and outside the November 1994 Antarctic vortex
Rinsland, Curtis P.; Gunson, Michael R.; Salawitch, R. J. et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (1996), 23(17), 2365-2368

Partitioning between HCl and ClONO2 and among the main components of the reactive nitrogen family (NO, NO2, HNO3, ClONO2, N2O5, and HO2NO2) has been studied inside and outside the Antarctic stratospheric ... [more ▼]

Partitioning between HCl and ClONO2 and among the main components of the reactive nitrogen family (NO, NO2, HNO3, ClONO2, N2O5, and HO2NO2) has been studied inside and outside the Antarctic stratospheric vortex based on ATMOS profiles measured at sunrise during the 3-12 November 1994 ATLAS-3 Shuttle mission. Elevated mixing ratios of HCl in the lower stratosphere with a peak of similar to 2.9 ppbv (10(-9) parts per volume) were measured inside the vortex near 500 K potential temperature (similar to 19 km). Maximum ClONO2 mixing ratios of similar to 1.2, similar to 1.4, and similar to 0.9 ppbv near 700 K (similar to 25 km) were measured inside, at the edge, and outside the vortex, respectively. Model calculations reproduce the higher levels of HCl and NOx (NO + NO2) inside the lower stratospheric vortex both driven by photochemical processes initiated by low O3. The high HCl at low O3 results from chemical production of HCl via the reaction of enhanced Cl with CH4, limited production of ClONO2, and the descent of inorganic chlorine from higher altitudes. [less ▲]

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See detailRAD26, the yeast homolog of human Cockayne 's syndrome group B, encodes a DNA dependent ATPase
Guzder, Sami; Habraken, Yvette ULg; Sung, Patrick et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (1996), 271(31), 18314-7

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See detailObserved Periods of Ap Stars (Catalano+ 1984)
Catalano, F. A.; Renson, Pierre ULg

in VizieR Online Data Catalog (1996), 3152

A table of all the periods proposed up to 1983 for Ap stars is given with references. The main identifiers (HD, HR, ... numbers), the variable-star name, and the spectral type are listed for each star in ... [more ▼]

A table of all the periods proposed up to 1983 for Ap stars is given with references. The main identifiers (HD, HR, ... numbers), the variable-star name, and the spectral type are listed for each star in the table. The nature of the periodic variability discovered (luminosity, equivalent widths of the lines, magnetic field, ...) is presented in a codified way. Notes are provided, mainly about duplicities. (2 data files). [less ▲]

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See detailOn CCD standard stars and flat-field calibration.
Manfroid, Jean ULg

in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Supplement Series (1996), 118

Numerical simulations of a CCD flat-fielding calibration procedure on stellar fields have been performed in the monochromatic case. The relations between the photometric conditions, the observational ... [more ▼]

Numerical simulations of a CCD flat-fielding calibration procedure on stellar fields have been performed in the monochromatic case. The relations between the photometric conditions, the observational procedure and the calibration accuracy are explored. This analysis shows how and why one must establish high-quality standard sequences in clusters or moderately crowded fields. The advantages of a long-term management of the reduction procedures is stressed. [less ▲]

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See detailIsolation from a multigene family of the active human gene of the metastasis-associated multifunctional protein 37LRP/p40 at chromosome 3p21.3.
Jackers, Pascale ULg; Minoletti, Fabiola; Belotti, Dorina et al

in Oncogene (1996), 13(3), 495-503

The 37 kD precursor of the 67 kD laminin receptor (37LRP) is a polypeptide whose expression is consistently upregulated in aggressive carcinoma. Interestingly, the 37LRP appears to be a multifunctional ... [more ▼]

The 37 kD precursor of the 67 kD laminin receptor (37LRP) is a polypeptide whose expression is consistently upregulated in aggressive carcinoma. Interestingly, the 37LRP appears to be a multifunctional protein involved in the translational machinery and has also been identified as p40 ribosome-associated protein. Although highly conserved cDNAs corresponding to this polypeptide have been isolated from several species including vertebrates, invertebrates, plants and prokaryotes, characterization of any of the corresponding active genes has never been reported. In this study, we have cloned an intron-containing fragment which permitted us to isolate the active 37LRP/p40 human gene. This gene contains seven exons and six introns. Ribonuclease protection experiments suggest multiple transcription start sites. The promoter area does not bear a TATA box but contains four Sp1 sites. The first intron is also GC rich containing five Sp1 sites. Intron 4 contains the full sequence of the small nuclear RNA E2 and two Alu sequences are found in intron 3. Fluorescent in situ hybridization localized the 37LRP/p40 active gene on chromosome 3 in the locus 3p21.3 which, interestingly, is a hot spot for genetic alterations in several cancers and particularly in small cell lung carcinoma. [less ▲]

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See detailDifunctional initiator based on 1,3-diisopropenylbenzene. 4. Synthesis and modification of poly(alkyl methacrylate-b-styrene-b-butadiene-b-styrene-b-alkyl methacrylate (MSBSM) thermoplastic elastomers
Yu, Y. S.; Dubois, Philippe ULg; Jérôme, Robert ULg et al

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry (1996), 34(11), 2221-2228

MSBSM five-block copolymers where B stands for butadiene, S for styrene, and M for either methyl methacrylate (MMA) or tert-butyl methacrylate (tBMA) have been synthesized by sequential anionic ... [more ▼]

MSBSM five-block copolymers where B stands for butadiene, S for styrene, and M for either methyl methacrylate (MMA) or tert-butyl methacrylate (tBMA) have been synthesized by sequential anionic polymerization in an apolar solvent by using a difunctional anionic initiator derived from 1,3-diisopropenylbenzene. These block copolymers show improved mechanical properties and an extended service temperature compared to traditional SBS thermoplastic elastomers. Upon hydrolysis and further neutralization of the PolytBMA end-blocks, the upper glass transition temperature (Tg) of the five-block copolymers has been raised up to about 150°C. A further increase in this service temperature (up to ca. 160°C) has resulted from the blending of sPMMA-SBS-sPMMA five-block copolymers with isotactic poly(methacrylate) (iPMMA), due to the formation of a stereocomplex. The tensile properties of these modified five-block copolymers have remained essentially unchanged. [less ▲]

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See detailPregnancies, calves and calf viability after transfer of in vitro produced bovine embryos
Schmidt, T.; Greve, T.; Avery, B. et al

in Theriogenology (1996), 46(3), 527-539

Pregnancy, parturition and calf survival following the transfer of embryos produced in vitro were monitored. A total of 44 blastocysts was transferred in pairs to 1 uterine horn ipsilateral to the corpus ... [more ▼]

Pregnancy, parturition and calf survival following the transfer of embryos produced in vitro were monitored. A total of 44 blastocysts was transferred in pairs to 1 uterine horn ipsilateral to the corpus luteum (CL) of 22 synchronized heifers. At Day 42 of development 14 recipients (64%) were pregnant; the calving rate was also 64%. The twinning rate was 9/14 at Day 42 and 7/14 at birth, for an overall fetal mortality rate of 9%. The average gestation length was 281 and 275 d for single and twin pregnancies, respectively. Blood samples from recipients were collected for determination of bovine pregnancy associated glycoprotein (bPAG) from 2 wk after transfer and throughout the pregnancy. During the first trimester of pregnancy, the bPAG concentration was significantly higher in twin than in single bearing heifers, and the perinatal increase in bPAG was correlated positively with the total weight of the fetus(es). The percentage of male calves was 43%. The birth weight of twin individuals was 25 ± 1 kg, which was 78% of the birthweight of the singletons (32 ± 2 kg). One singleton calf was oversized, weighing 58 kg (80% more than the median weight of the other singletons). Stillbirths occurred in 21% of the twins, butin none of the singletons. Calf mortality during the first 14 d was higher for twins (4/11) than for singletons (1/7) due to infections and cerebellar hypoplasia. Karyotyping the calves detected no cytogenetically recognizable abnormalities. All calves were negative for BVD virus and IBR antibodies. The results of this study showed that although the incidence of fetal loss was low, there was an unacceptable high perinatal mortality of the calves. Thus it is likely that the blood supply through the placenta of animals pregnant with twins was impaired or it is possible that these fetuses and calves had increased stress susceptibility caused by the in vitro conditions. Furthermore, the birth of 1 oversized calf, 2 calves with cerebellar hypoplasia and 5 calves succumbing to infections seems to indicate that a proportion of in vitro produced calves may suffer from factors inherent in the in vitro production system [less ▲]

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See detailHierarchical Cluster Analysis of Environmental Pollutants through P450 Induction in Cultured Hepatic Cells
Dubois, Marilyn; Plaisance, H.; Thomé, Jean-Pierre ULg et al

in Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety (1996), 34(3), 205-15

Environmental pollutants are classically associated with increased drug metabolism. Cultures of rat hepatocytes, quail hepatocytes, and human hepatoma (Hep G2) cells were used to study the effects of ... [more ▼]

Environmental pollutants are classically associated with increased drug metabolism. Cultures of rat hepatocytes, quail hepatocytes, and human hepatoma (Hep G2) cells were used to study the effects of pesticides on drug-metabolizing enzymes. Membrane integrity and mitochondrial activity were evaluated and induction of ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activities were measured. Induced P450s were identified by immunoblotting. Pentachlorophenol and lindane appeared as the strongest inducers. On the immunoblots, specific antibodies revealed induced CYP1A1 in fetal rat hepatocytes, CYP2B in quail hepatocytes, and CYP3A7 in Hep G2 cells. Pesticide effects on these different activities in each type of cultured cells were compared by cluster analysis. Results obtained under similar conditions with reference inducers phenobarbital (PB) and benzo[a]anthracene and other environmental pollutants (polychlorobiphenyls) were added to previous data prior to multivariate analysis. The tested products fell into four major groups: a first group with pentachlorophenol, identified as a CYP3A inducer; a second group containing the methylcholanthrene-type inducers that increase CYP1A-related activities; a third class represented by dieldrin, a PB-type inducer; a fourth group including inert compounds or weak inducers. Lindane shares the criteria of the second and third groups and seems to induce both CYP1A and CYP2B activities. The current study results highlight the advantage of using several types of cultured hepatocytes to evaluate the short-term toxicity of environmental pollutants in vitro and constitute a useful model for predicting the potential toxicity of pesticides in humans (Hep G2 cells) and wildlife (fetal quail hepatocytes). [less ▲]

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See detailEnhancement of Varicella-Zoster virus infection in cell lines expressing ORF4- or ORF62-encoded proteins
Schoonbroodt, Sonia; Piette, Jacques ULg; Baudoux, Laurence et al

in Journal of Medical Virology (1996), 49(4), 264-273

Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV) open reading frames 4 (ORF4) and 62 (ORF62) encode putative immediate-early proteins (ORF4p and ORF62p, respectively) which are strong transactivators of other VZV genes and ... [more ▼]

Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV) open reading frames 4 (ORF4) and 62 (ORF62) encode putative immediate-early proteins (ORF4p and ORF62p, respectively) which are strong transactivators of other VZV genes and are involved in the very early stages of viral infection. ORF4p and ORF62p transactivate immediate-early and early gene promoters but have little or no effect on late gene promoters. To investigate the effect of ORF4p or ORF62p overexpression on the viral replication cycle, we constructed Vero cell lines expressing those genes under the control of the human cytomegalovirus major immediate-early promoter. VZV OKA infection of these stably transformed cell lines was followed-up using VZV glycoprotein E (gE) antigen quantification and virus titration. Upon serial passaging of infection in these cell lines expressing functionally active ORF4p or ORF62p, a 5- to 10-fold increase in viral gE antigen production was observed. Viral titers also demonstrated a 2- to 5-fold increase in viral production in these transformed cell lines. These results emphasize the role that both ORF4p and ORF62p play in enhancing the VZV replicative cycle. (C) 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailA new poly (ε-caprolactone) containing hybrid ceramer prepared by the sol-gel process
Tian, Dong; Dubois, Philippe ULg; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Polymer (1996), 37(17), 3983-3987

A new inorganic-organic hybrid material, known as ceramer, has been prepared by the sol-gel process. α,ω-Hydroxyl poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) has been used as an organic reagent, as such or after ... [more ▼]

A new inorganic-organic hybrid material, known as ceramer, has been prepared by the sol-gel process. α,ω-Hydroxyl poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) has been used as an organic reagent, as such or after conversion of the hydroxyl end-groups into triethoxysilane end-groups. The novelty has to be found in the biocompatibility and biodegradability of the organic constitutive component. Since the hydroxyl end-groups of PCL are less reactive than the triethoxysilane counterparts, the preliminary reaction of the hydroxyl end-groups with 3-isocyanatopropyltriethoxysilane is recommended for decreasing the gelation time and the amount of PCL extractable from the final hybrid material. In this respect, it has been observed that the amount of PCL incorporated into the network is limited by the early vitrification of the reactive system. This drawback can be alleviated by curing the sample at a high enough temperature (100°C). TEM observations have shown that the organic and inorganic phases are intimately mixed when the weight composition in SiO2 and PCL is close to 50%. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiple-Breath Washout and Washin Experiments in Steers
Rollin, Frédéric ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg; Verbanck, S. et al

in Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) (1996), 81(2), 957-63

Multiple-breath N2 washouts (WO) and washins (WI) were performed during regular tidal breathing in 11 unsedated healthy steers approaching pulmonary functional maturity (mean body weight = 271 kg). They ... [more ▼]

Multiple-breath N2 washouts (WO) and washins (WI) were performed during regular tidal breathing in 11 unsedated healthy steers approaching pulmonary functional maturity (mean body weight = 271 kg). They inspired 20% O2 in 80% Ar during the WO and air during the WI. For each steer, we computed two indexes of ventilation inhomogeneity from the N2 WO curves: 1) the curvilinearity of the logarithm of end-tidal N2 concentrations as a function of cumulative expired volume reflected in the ratio of two slopes fitted between 100 and 50% and between 50 and 10%, respectively, of end-tidal N2 concentration of the first breath of the WO; and 2) the N2 phase III slope divided by the mean expired concentration (Sn) of each breath also plotted as a function of cumulative expired volume. Equivalent computation of both parameters was done on WI and WO curves, and similar results were obtained. The mean slope ratio was 0.812 +/- 0.119 (SD) for all the steers, which is consistent with topographic gravity-dependent specific ventilation distribution inhomogeneity. Sn was independent of the breath number both for WO and WI (mean Sn = 0.130 +/- 0.057 liters-1), suggesting that emptying between unequally ventilated units, is synchronous. This behavior resembles that observed in rats postmortem (S. Verbanck, E.R. Weibel, and M. Paiva. J. Appl Physiol. 71: 847-854, 1991) but contrasts with experiments in humans, in whom convection-dependent ventilation inhomogeneities generate a marked increase in Sn throughout the entire WO (A. B. H. Crawford, M. Makowska, M. Paiva, and L. A. Engel. J. Appl. Physiol. 59: 838-846, 1985). This is surprising because one would expect gravity-dependent sequential emptying in animals of this size. [less ▲]

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See detailViral Integration Sites in Human Papilloma Virus-33-Immortalized Cervical Keratinocyte Cell Lines
Gilles, Christine ULg; Piette, Jacques ULg; Ploton, D. et al

in Cancer Genetics & Cytogenetics (1996), 90(1), 63-9

The viral organization of HPV-33 was determined by Southern blotting in 2 HPV-33-immortalized cervical cell lines (CK11 and CK12) and compared to our previous results obtained on 10 other already ... [more ▼]

The viral organization of HPV-33 was determined by Southern blotting in 2 HPV-33-immortalized cervical cell lines (CK11 and CK12) and compared to our previous results obtained on 10 other already characterized HPV-33-immortalized cell lines (CK1 to CK10). As observed in CK1 to CK10, the viral DNA was found integrated in the cellular genome of CK11 and CK12. However, in CK11 and CK12, the integrated viral genome was deleted and mostly limited to the URR and the E6-E7 ORFs, stressing the importance of those sequences in the immortalization process. Furthermore, CK11 and CK12 showed a unique and identical integration site, as observed in CK1 to CK10, which also harbored HPV-33 integrated at a unique and identical site (which was however different from the one evidenced in CK11 and CK12). Indeed, in situ hybridizations on chromosomes allowed the precise localization of the viral DNA on chromosome 13q33-34 in CK1 to CK10 whereas it was mapped to chromosome 9p13 in CK11 and CK12. We discuss the possibility that integration of HPV-33 at those two particular sites has conferred some growth advantages to the cells and could have thus played a crucial role in the immortalization. [less ▲]

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See detailPresurgical Octreotide: Treatment in Acromegaly
Stevenaert, Achille ULg; Beckers, Albert ULg

in Metabolism : Clinical and Experimental (1996), 45(8 Suppl. 1), 72-4

One hundred seventy-two acromegalics who were operated on using the trans-sphenoidal approach underwent long-term follow-up evaluation. Sixty-four received 100 micrograms octreotide subcutaneously three ... [more ▼]

One hundred seventy-two acromegalics who were operated on using the trans-sphenoidal approach underwent long-term follow-up evaluation. Sixty-four received 100 micrograms octreotide subcutaneously three times daily: for 3 to 6 weeks before surgery in 14 patients (group 1); and for 3 to 9 months in 41 and for 13 to 39 months in nine (n = 50, group 2). In 18 group 2 patients, the dose was increased stepwise to 500 micrograms three times daily because of incomplete suppression of growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Tumor shrinkage was seen in 60% within 3 weeks, being nearly maximal by 3 to 4 months. More group 2 patients had greater than 25% tumor shrinkage (14 of 48 v 1 of 14 in group 1). Clinical response was excellent or good in 89%. Decrease in soft-tissue swelling and weight loss, and improved vitality, performance, carbohydrate metabolism, and cardiovascular function, facilitated anesthetic and surgical management; tumor removal was easy in virtually all cases. In all 64 patients, GH levels decreased by > or = 50%, and to < 2 micrograms/L in three of 14 patients initially and 25 of 50 patients after more prolonged treatment. IGF-1 levels decreased to normal in seven of 14 group 1 and 31 of 50 group 2 patients. Light and electron microscopy showed that adenomatous tissue exposed to octreotide had lysosomal accumulation, amyloid deposition, mild to moderate perivascular fibrosis, and moderate size reduction in both cytoplasmic and nuclear areas, with virtually no cellular complications. Remission with enclosed adenomas was greater (p < .05) than for the 108 patients not treated with octreotide; there was no difference for invasive adenomas. Octreotide use for 3 to 4 months before surgery can be recommended. [less ▲]

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See detailExpression of the 67 Kd Laminin Receptor in Human Ovarian Carcinomas as Defined by a Monoclonal Antibody, Mluc5
van den Brule, F. A.; Castronovo, Vincenzo ULg; Menard, S. et al

in European Journal of Cancer (1996), 32A(9), 1598-602

Previous immunohistochemical data from our laboratory have demonstrated that expression of the 67 kD laminin receptor (67LR), a cancer-associated, high-affinity laminin-binding protein, is upregulated in ... [more ▼]

Previous immunohistochemical data from our laboratory have demonstrated that expression of the 67 kD laminin receptor (67LR), a cancer-associated, high-affinity laminin-binding protein, is upregulated in ovarian carcinoma cells compared with normal serosal cells, and that this increased expression in cancer cells could be related to patient outcome. The aim of this study was to validate MLuC5, a monoclonal antibody that recognises the 67LR, as a tool to perform future immunohistochemical studies on larger populations of ovarian carcinoma patients. Expression of the 67LR was determined in 51 primary human ovarian carcinoma samples using immunohistochemistry and MLuC5. The 67LR was detected in ovarian carcinoma cell clusters of variable extent. Analysis of the data determined that 67LR expression was significantly increased in the samples from patients with disease progression, compared with those with no evidence of disease after completion of primary therapy, and in pooled grade 2 and 3 tumours compared to borderline and grade 1 tumours (P < 0.05, chi-squared test). No other significant correlation between 67LR expression and other clinicopathological parameters could be established. These data suggest that the 67LR is correlated to ovarian tumour progression. Detection of the 67LR using this monoclonal antibody could constitute an interesting parameter in prognosis determination of ovarian cancer. [less ▲]

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See detailPharma-Clinics. Comment je traite... un patient diabétique de Type 2 par régime
Paquot, Nicolas ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1996), 51(8), 497-9

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See detailLight scattering study of salt-free "polyelectrolyte behaviour" of monotelechelic ionomers in a polar solvent
Kupperblatt, Gary; Hara, Masanori; Vanhoorne, Pierre ULg et al

in Polymer (1996), 37(16), 3741-3744

Salt-free polyelectrolyte behaviour which is typically observed at low polymer concentrations for polyelectrolyte aqueous solutions and random ionomer non-aqueous solutions (in polar solvents) (i.e ... [more ▼]

Salt-free polyelectrolyte behaviour which is typically observed at low polymer concentrations for polyelectrolyte aqueous solutions and random ionomer non-aqueous solutions (in polar solvents) (i.e., negative angular dependence of the reciprocal scattering in static light scattering and an appearance of the fast mode in dynamic light scattering) has been observed for monotelechelic ionomer solutions in a polar solvent. This indicates that only single charge (per chain) is sufficient to produce intermolecular electrostatic interactions, which are responsible for such characteristic behaviour. However, the 'characteristic' behaviour, which is typically observed at higher concentrations for polyelectrolyte and random ionomer solutions (i.e., large positive apparent radius of gyration in static scattering and appearance of the slow mode in addition to the fast mode in dynamic scattering) has not been observed to date for monotelechelic ionomer solutions. The absence of high-concentration characteristics for the monotelechelic ionomer solutions gives additional insight as to the nature and structure of 'heterogeneities' in salt-free polyelectrolyte solutions, which is still controversial. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of Bone Sialoprotein in Human Breast Cancer Tissue and Cell Lines at Both Protein and Messenger Ribonucleic Acid Levels
Bellahcene, Akeila ULg; Antoine, Nadine ULg; Clausse, N. et al

in Laboratory Investigation : Journal of Technical Methods & Pathology (1996), 75(2), 203-10

The recent demonstration that bone sialoprotein (BSP) can be detected in human breast cancer tissue by immunoperoxidase suggests that this phosphoprotein is ectopically expressed by malignant mammary ... [more ▼]

The recent demonstration that bone sialoprotein (BSP) can be detected in human breast cancer tissue by immunoperoxidase suggests that this phosphoprotein is ectopically expressed by malignant mammary epithelial cells. Its detection in human breast cancer cells raises questions about its potential role(s) during breast cancer progression. Because BSP is secreted and is present in the serum, the positivity of breast cancer cells for BSP could have been the result of an uptake of the circulating phosphoprotein by the cells rather than of an intrinsic expression. We examined the expression of BSP at both the protein and mRNA levels in nine human breast cancer samples as well as in three human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47-D, and MDA-MB-231) using immunohistochemistry, flow cytometric analysis, immunoblot, and reverse-transcriptase PCR. BSP was detected at both protein and mRNA levels in human breast cancer tissue and in the three human breast cancer cell lines. Using a specific polyclonal anti-BSP antibody, we showed by both fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis and immunohistochemistry experiments that all of the human breast cancer cell lines studied express BSP. This was localized at the cell surface and in the cytosol of the estrogen receptor-positive MCF-7 and T47-D cell lines, whereas it was detected only in the cytosol of the estrogen receptor-negative MDA-MB-231 cells. Using the same polyclonal anti-BSP antibody, we were able to identify an approximately 97-kd band on total protein extracts from the three cell lines by immunoblotting. Reverse-transcriptase PCR reactions using specific oligonucleotides performed on total RNA of nine human breast cancer biopsy samples and the three cell lines demonstrated the presence of BSP mRNA in all of the samples examined. This study is the first demonstration that human malignant breast epithelial cell lines express BSP at the protein and mRNA levels. Our study identified MCF-7, T47-D, and MDA-MB-231 cells as useful models for the examination of the molecular mechanisms involved in the ectopic expression of BSP in breast malignant lesions. [less ▲]

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See detailHerpesviridae granulomas. Letter
Nikkels, Arjen ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in European Journal of Dermatology (1996), 6(5), 394

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See detailDy2BaCu05 pattern formation in isothermally non-seeded melt-textured DyBa2Cu307-delta with 15 wt% Dy203 addition
Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Ausloos, Marcel ULg; Mineur, N. et al

in Superconductor Science and Technology (1996), 9(8), 665-670

Optically polarized light micrographs of isothermally melt-textured DyBa2Cu307-delta compounds (with 15 wt% Dy203 addition) are presented to show evidence for pattern formation of DyBa2Cu305 particles in ... [more ▼]

Optically polarized light micrographs of isothermally melt-textured DyBa2Cu307-delta compounds (with 15 wt% Dy203 addition) are presented to show evidence for pattern formation of DyBa2Cu305 particles in DyBa2Cu307-delta grains. Different types of pattern were observed and were understood as arising from the crystal growth mechanism of 123 melt-textured materials. In an appendix, the case of patterns in magnetically textured samples is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailTelechelic ionomers studied by light scattering and dynamic mechanical measurements
Chassenieux, Christophe; Johannsson, Ragnar; Durand, Dominique et al

in Colloids and Surfaces A : Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects (1996), 112(2-3), 155-162

The formation of a transient network by sulfonato polyisoprene and sulfonato polystyrene in toluene is studied using static and dynamic light scattering and dynamic mechanical analysis. It is shown that ... [more ▼]

The formation of a transient network by sulfonato polyisoprene and sulfonato polystyrene in toluene is studied using static and dynamic light scattering and dynamic mechanical analysis. It is shown that at low concentrations aggregates are formed with increasing molar mass and polydispersity as the polymer concentration is increased. Above a certain concentration well below the overlap concentration of the polymer chains (C*), a transient network is formed. This is characterised by a plateau modulus at high frequencies and a relatively narrow viscoelastic relaxation time distribution. The intensity auto-correlation function of the transient network shows two relaxational modes: a relatively fast diffusional mode close to the co-operative diffusional mode of semidilute solutions of the unfunctionalised polymers, and a slow broader mode which becomes independent of the scattering angle at concentrations close to C*. The relation between this slow mode and the viscoelastic relaxation is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailTriblock copolymer based thermoreversible gels. 2. Analysis of the sol-gel transition
Yu, Jian Ming; Dubois, Philippe ULg; Teyssié, Philippe et al

in Macromolecules (1996), 29(16), 5384-5391

Syndiotactic poly(methyl methacrylate) (sPMMA)−polybutadiene (PBD)−sPMMA triblock copolymers of various chemical compositions and different molecular weights have been studied in the presence of o-xylene ... [more ▼]

Syndiotactic poly(methyl methacrylate) (sPMMA)−polybutadiene (PBD)−sPMMA triblock copolymers of various chemical compositions and different molecular weights have been studied in the presence of o-xylene, which is a selective solvent for the central PBD block. Thermoreversible gels can be formed in a suitable curing temperature range (<35 °C) and at a high enough concentration (>1 wt %). The time dependence of the storage (G‘) and the loss (G‘‘) moduli has been measured in a frequency range of 0.08−1 Hz. The static and dynamic properties of the gels have been discussed on the basis of the scaling theory. At the gel point, where the loss angle (tan δc = G‘‘/G‘) is independent of frequency, typical power laws G‘(ω) G‘‘(ω) ωΔ have been observed. The scaling exponent Δ has been found equal to 0.70 ± 0.02 independently of the PBD and PMMA molecular weight, i.e., 36 000 < Mn (PBD) < 100 000 and 20 000 < Mn (PMMA) < 51 000. This exponent is also independent of the copolymer concentration and temperature in the investigated range, i.e., 2−7 wt % and 8−24 °C, respectively. This value of Δ agrees with theoretical predictions as well as with experimental values reported for some chemical gels; it is however different from the experimental values published for most physical gels. A PBD−PMMA diblock copolymer also forms a gel in o-xylene, although at higher concentration and lower temperature compared to the parent triblock copolymer. The scaling exponent Δ is then somewhat smaller, i.e., 0.61. [less ▲]

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See detailDiblock Copolymers as Emulsifying Agents in Polymer Blends: Influence of Molecular Weight, Architecture, and Chemical Composition
Cigana, P.; Favis, B. D.; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part B, Polymer Physics (1996), 34(9), 1691-1700

Interfacial agents used in the compatibilization of immiscible polymer blends often consist of block copolymers containing at least one segment compatible with each of the two phases of the blend. This ... [more ▼]

Interfacial agents used in the compatibilization of immiscible polymer blends often consist of block copolymers containing at least one segment compatible with each of the two phases of the blend. This work examines the influence of the molecular weight, architecture, and chemical composition of the interfacial agent on its ability to emulsify a polymer blend. The system chosen is a blend containing 80% polystyrene and 20% ethylene-propylene rubber, compatibilized by diblock copolymers of poly(styrene-hydrogenated butadiene). The emulsification curve, which relates the dispersed phase particle size to the concentration of interfacial agent added to the system, was used as a tool to characterize the efficacy of the different interfacial agents. The observed behavior is similar to that of classical emulsions: a rapid drop in phase size at low concentrations of interfacial modifier, followed by a levelling off to an equilibrium diameter value once a critical concentration has been reached. For systems compatibilized by symmetrical diblocks (i.e., containing approximately 50% styrene by weight), the volume average particle diameter decreased from 2.7 m for the unmodified system to about 0.4 m once interfacial saturation is reached. The critical concentration for emulsification decreased with increasing interfacial agent molecular weight, due to the higher interfacial area occupied by longer molecules; however, this parameter did not affect the equilibrium particle diameter. The asymmetrical diblock copolymer (30% styrene) was found to be less effective than the symmetrical ones over the entire range of concentrations studied (5 to 35% modifier, based on the volume of the minor phase). Asymmetrical diblock copolymers would tend to form micelles, whereas symmetrical copolymers are less constrained at the interface. No significant difference was observed between the emulsifying capability of tapered and pure diblocks of similar composition and molecular weight. [less ▲]

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See detailInner patterns and front propagation of dynamic random impurity model
Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Ausloos, Marcel ULg

in Physical Review Letters (1996), 77(3), 510-513

We investigate a simple model, the so-called dynamic epidemic model, for the evolution of an advancing interface through a medium containing mobile impurities. A short range repulsion between the front ... [more ▼]

We investigate a simple model, the so-called dynamic epidemic model, for the evolution of an advancing interface through a medium containing mobile impurities. A short range repulsion between the front and the impurities leads to an aggregation process along the front, and to the trapping of aggregates. The amplitude of this self-organization for collective impurity trapping is analyzed in two dimensions. A relationship exists between individual motion and the aggregation of particles. The results indicate that self-organizing features are different behind and on the front. [less ▲]

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See detailThe electroreduction of acrylonitrile : a new insight into the mechanism
Mertens, Marc; Calberg, Cédric ULg; Martinot, Lucien et al

in Macromolecules (1996), 29(14), 4910-4918

Several complementary electrochemical techniques have been used in order to clear up the mechanism of the electrochemical reduction of acrylonitrile (AN) on nickel. According to Lecayon et al., the ... [more ▼]

Several complementary electrochemical techniques have been used in order to clear up the mechanism of the electrochemical reduction of acrylonitrile (AN) on nickel. According to Lecayon et al., the electropolymerization of AN occurs in acetonitrile in the presence of tetraethylammonium perchlorate in such a way that polyacrylonitrile (PAN) is “grafted” onto the cathode. This electrochemical reaction has been reinvestigated both in acetonitrile, a nonsolvent of PAN, and in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), a good solvent for the polymer. The key role of the reduction potential on the electrografting reaction has been emphasized. The two electrochemical phenomena previously reported by Lecayon et al. have indeed been confirmed, but now it is clear that the “electrografting” of PAN selectively occurs at the less cathodic potential. At this potential, a PAN film is formed by a radical process and firmly secured onto the electrode, even in DMF. If the cathodic potential is further increased, the PAN film is easily removed from the metal and dissolves quickly in DMF. The transfer of one electron from the metal to the monomer occurs when the reduction is carried out at the more cathodic potential. A nonadherent PAN film is then formed onto Ni in acetonitrile, although the AN polymerization occurs in solution when acetonitrile is replaced by DMF. The AN polymerization is then consistent with an anionic process. [less ▲]

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See detailA Strategy for Multiple Immunophenotyping by Image Cytometry: Model Studies Using Latex Microbeads Labeled with Seven Streptavidin-Bound Fluorochromes
Gothot, André ULg; Grosdent, J. C.; Paulus, Jean-Michel ULg

in Cytometry (1996), 24(3), 214-25

Multiple immunophenotyping is aimed at identifying several cell populations in a single labeling procedure by their ability to bind combinations of specific labeled antibodies. The present work ... [more ▼]

Multiple immunophenotyping is aimed at identifying several cell populations in a single labeling procedure by their ability to bind combinations of specific labeled antibodies. The present work demonstrates the simultaneous discrimination by using image cytometry of aminomethylcoumarin acetate (AMCA), Lucifer yellow (LY), fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), R-phycoerythrin (PE), PE-Texas red tandem (Red613), peridinin-chlorophyll protein (PerCP), and allophycocyanin (APC), which were all bound to latex beads as streptavidin-conjugated fluorochromes. This has been the result of a step-by-step optimization of the several factors affecting the sensitivity and specificity of multiple immunofluorescence analysis. First, 14 streptavidin-conjugated fluorochromes were evaluated by using spectrofluorometry. A primary selection was then made of ten spectrally separable dyes that could be evaluated by using image cytometry. These dyes were bound to latex particles, and specific filter combinations were assembled to minimize crosstalk between fluorophores while preserving sufficient fluorescence intensity and counting statistics. Potential probe associations were then assessed by measuring the emissions of all fluorochromes that were detected by each filter combination. The resulting crosstalk matrix served as the basic tool both for final selection of the optimal filter combination and for dye set (composed, in this case, of the seven fluorochromes described above) and for mathematical correction of residual spectral overlap. Next, an image cytometry system was adapted to collect seven images of matched brightness with the selected combination of excitation/emission filters and dichroic mirrors. Finally, seven-parameter synthetic images were generated by digital image processing. [less ▲]

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See detailFurther Characterization of Cytotoxic T Cells Generated by Short-Term Culture of Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes with Interleukin-2 and Anti-Cd3 Mab
Jacobs, Nathalie ULg; Greimers, Roland ULg; Mazzoni, Alexandra et al

in Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy (1996), 42(6), 369-75

In this study we have specifically investigated the participation of T cells in the cytotoxic activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) activated by interleukin-2 (IL-2, 50 U/ml) alone or in ... [more ▼]

In this study we have specifically investigated the participation of T cells in the cytotoxic activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) activated by interleukin-2 (IL-2, 50 U/ml) alone or in combination with an anti-CD3 mAb (BMA030, 10 ng/ml, IgG2a). Purified CD3+ T cells, incubated in the presence of the anti-CD3 mAb for 4 days, mediated a cytotoxic activity against HL60 and U937 tumor cell lines. Several findings suggested the involvement of a redirected-cytotoxicity phenomenon, since the lytic process was restricted to target cell lines bearing the high-affinity Fc gamma receptor (Fc gamma RI) and T lymphocytes stimulated by IL-2 alone did not lyse these cell lines. Furthermore, anti-CD3 mAb F(ab')2, anti-CD3 IgG1 (UCHT1), phytohemagglutinin or staphylococcal enterotoxin A did not induce a similar cytotoxic activity in T lymphocytes. The cytotoxic process occurred in the presence of a very low level of anti-CD3 antibodies (in the nanomolar range). The cytotoxic activity of T cells stimulated by IL-2 or by IL-2 + BMA030, against OVCAR-3 cells (MOv18+ ovarian tumor cell line), was also compared in the presence of a bispecific antibody OC/TR, anti-CD3 x MOv18). The stimulation by IL-2 + BMA030 induced approximately a twofold higher cytotoxic activity than IL-2-activated T cells. This could be related to the state of activation of effector cells stimulated by IL-2 + BMA030, since the phenotypic analysis showed an increased proportion of T cells expressing several activation/differentiation markers (CD25, HLA-DR, CD45R0, adhesion molecules). These findings could be applied to the design of therapeutic protocols using anti-CD3 x antitumoral bispecific antibodies. [less ▲]

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See detailIntracellular distribution of the ORF4 gene product of varicella-zoster virus is influenced by the IE62 protein
Defechereux, Patricia; Debrus, Serge; Baudoux, Laurence et al

in Journal of General Virology (1996), 77(Part 7), 1505-1513

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) open reading frame 4-encoded protein (IE4) possesses transactivating properties for VZV genes as well as for genes of heterologous viruses, The major regulatory immediate ... [more ▼]

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) open reading frame 4-encoded protein (IE4) possesses transactivating properties for VZV genes as well as for genes of heterologous viruses, The major regulatory immediate-early protein of VZV (IE62) is a transactivator of VZV gene expression, In transfection assays, IE4 has been shown to enhance activation induced by IE62, To investigate the functional interactions underlying this observation, indirect immunofluorescence studies were undertaken to determine whether IE62 could influence IE4 intracellular localization in transfected cells, In single transfections, IE4 was predominantly found in cytoplasm, In cotransfection with IE62, the IE4 localization pattern was altered, with nuclear staining predominating over cytoplasmic staining, This effect was specific to the IE62 protein since the gene products of ORF63 and ORF61, which are also regulatory proteins, did not influence IE4 distribution, The use of IE62 mutants indicated that IE62 influence is independent of its transactivation function and that the integrity of regions 3 and 4 is required, IE62 remained nuclear whether IE4 was present or not, These observations underline differences in the regulation of gene expression between VZV proteins and their herpes simplex virus type 1 homologues, In infected cells, IE4 was only sometimes found to colocalize with IE62 in nuclei, This observation suggests that when all VZV proteins are present, complex interactions probably occur which could diminish the influence of IE62. [less ▲]

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See detailInterfacial agents for polymer/liquid crystal dispersions
Gohy, Jean-François; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics (1996), 197(7), 2209-2217

Liquid crystals (LC) were covalently and ionically bonded to one (or both) end(s) of polystyrene chains. These compounds were tested as interfacial agents in polystyrene/ liquid crystal dispersions. In ... [more ▼]

Liquid crystals (LC) were covalently and ionically bonded to one (or both) end(s) of polystyrene chains. These compounds were tested as interfacial agents in polystyrene/ liquid crystal dispersions. In case of covalent bonding, the additive is too much "soluble" in polystyrene and no interfacial activity is observed. Ionic bonding of the LC to polystyrene chains deeply changes the situation, all the other conditions being the same, The dipolar interactions of the ion pairs are clearly favorable to the localization of the additive at the polymer/LC interface. The higher polarity of the ammonium sulfonate pairs com-pared to the parent ammonium carboxylate ion pairs accordingly accounts for a higher interfacial activity. [less ▲]

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See detailUltrastructural Modifications in Cultured Fetal Quail Hepatocytes Exposed to Pesticides and Pcbs
Hugla, J. L.; Goffinet, Gerhard ULg; Kremers, Pierre ULg et al

in Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety (1996), 34(2), 145-55

There is increasing interest in cultured hepatocytes as a tool for solving toxicological and pharmacological problems while reducing laboratory animal experimentation. In the present study, fetal ... [more ▼]

There is increasing interest in cultured hepatocytes as a tool for solving toxicological and pharmacological problems while reducing laboratory animal experimentation. In the present study, fetal hepatocytes from the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were used as an in vitro alternative model for evaluating the effects of PCBs and various pesticide-type chemicals on cell ultrastructure. Major alterations were demonstrated. The most striking effects of toxicants were an increase in the number of cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), various alterations of mitochondrial morphology, a decreased glycogen content, vacuolization of the cytoplasm, and the appearance of concentric membrane arrays (CMA's), also called myelin-like figures. Other changes were sometimes observed, such as altered cell junctions, an increased lipid content, deformations of the nuclei, or the appearance of crystalline structures. These ultrastructural modifications seem to be dose-dependent. The present in vitro findings are validated by similar observations previously made in vivo on Japanese quail. They confirm the effectiveness of this technique as a biomonitoring tool for the evaluation of environmental quality. Yet the multiplicity of possible toxic effects, even for xenobiotics of a same category, makes it necessary to screen additional indicators of toxicity, such as the detoxifying activity of monooxygenases. [less ▲]

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See detailUne cause rare de lésion cardiaque opérable: la cardiopathie carcinoïde
Defraigne, Jean-Olivier ULg; Jerusalem, O.; Limet, Raymond ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1996), 51(7), 468-78

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See detailEstablishment of a Rabbit Model for Bovine Herpesvirus Type 5 Neurological Acute Infection
Meyer, Gilles; Lemaire, Mylène; Lyaku, J. et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (1996), 51(1-2), 27-40

This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of the rabbit as a model for bovine, herpesvirus 5 (BHV-5) acute infection. In a preliminary experiment, a total of 24 one-month old New Zealand white ... [more ▼]

This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of the rabbit as a model for bovine, herpesvirus 5 (BHV-5) acute infection. In a preliminary experiment, a total of 24 one-month old New Zealand white rabbits were inoculated with BHV-5 or bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) by the intraconjunctival, intracerebral or intranasal routes. BHV-5 or BHV-1 inoculated in the conjunctiva induced virus proliferation in the eye mucosae and the nasal cavity of rabbits without meningo-encephalitis. On the other hand, only BHV-5 infection by intranasal or intracerebral routes produced a fatal meningo-encephalitis. The intranasal route was used in a further experiment for the establishment of a rabbit model for BHV-5 infection. A total of 45 rabbits were inoculated intranasally with BHV-5 or BHV-1. The results showed that intranasal inoculation of BHV-5 strain N569 in rabbits was followed by the development of a lethal meningo-encephalitis for 66% of rabbits while all BHV-1 infected rabbits remained healthy throughout this experiment (28 days). Analysis between the mortalities of rabbits infected with BHV-5 and BHV-1 were highly significant (p < 0.001). The presence of BHV-5 in the central nervous system (CNS) was confirmed by virus isolation (essentially the cerebrum, midbrain and pons) and by immunohistochemical staining of BHV-5 antigen (essentially in the neurons of the cerebrum) only in BHV-5 infected rabbits showing clinical signs of meningo-encephalitis. The findings obtained confirmed the suitability of a rabbit model for the establishment of BHV-5 neurological acute infection and also as a valuable tool for the comparative study of BHV-5 and BHV-1 neuropathogenicity. [less ▲]

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See detailOscillations of bride stay cables induced by periodic motions of deck and/or towers
Pinto da Costa, Antonio; Martins, Joao; Branco, F. et al

in Journal of Engineering Mechanics (1996), 122(7), 613-622

Cables in stayed bridges may oscillate due to periodic motions of the deck or tower induced by wind or traffic.

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See detailThe Thymic Repertoire of Neuroendocrine Self-Antigens: Physiological Implications in T-Cell Life and Death
Martens, Henri ULg; Goxe, B.; Geenen, Vincent ULg

in Immunology Today (1996), 17(7), 312-7

During phylogeny aud ontogeny, the thymus appears as a crucial meeting point between the neuroendocrine aud immune systems. Through cryptocrine intercellular communication, thymic neuroendocrine-related ... [more ▼]

During phylogeny aud ontogeny, the thymus appears as a crucial meeting point between the neuroendocrine aud immune systems. Through cryptocrine intercellular communication, thymic neuroendocrine-related precursors can influence the early steps of the immune response, while T-cell precursors are educated to recognize the principal neuroendocrine families. Here, we summarize the observations that support the dual role of the thymic repertoire of neuroendocrine-related polypeptidte precursors in T-cell differentiation. [less ▲]

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See detailUn syndrome de Cushing d'origine inexpliquée
Geenen, Vincent ULg; Foidart, Jacqueline ULg; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

in Actualité Médicale Belge (1996), 513

Un homme de 25 ans est hospitalisé en août 1994 au CHU de Liége en vue de l'exploration de lombolgies chroniques et de manifestations cliniques d'hypercorticisme. Il présente en effet un visage boursouflé ... [more ▼]

Un homme de 25 ans est hospitalisé en août 1994 au CHU de Liége en vue de l'exploration de lombolgies chroniques et de manifestations cliniques d'hypercorticisme. Il présente en effet un visage boursouflé avec une érythrase discrète et une augmentation de poids (prise de 10 kg en quelques mois) à localisation tronculaire prédominante. Ces symptômes s'accompagnent d'une asthénie importante et de crampes musculaires au niveau des extrémités. [less ▲]

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See detailPrevention of Murine Radiogenic Thymic Lymphomas by Tumor Necrosis Factor or by Marrow Grafting
Humblet, Chantal ULg; Greimers, Roland ULg; Delvenne, Philippe ULg et al

in Journal of the National Cancer Institute (1996), 88(12), 824-31

BACKGROUND: Split-dose irradiation (1.75 Gy given weekly for 4 weeks) of C57BL/Ka mice induces the emergence of preleukemic cells (PLCs). These cells develop into leukemic cells after a latency period of ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Split-dose irradiation (1.75 Gy given weekly for 4 weeks) of C57BL/Ka mice induces the emergence of preleukemic cells (PLCs). These cells develop into leukemic cells after a latency period of 3-6 months. The survival and transformation of PLCs are dependent on radiation-induced alterations of the thymic epithelium and of resident lymphocyte (i.e., thymocyte) subpopulations in the thymus. PLCs can be eliminated, concomitantly with the restoration of the thymus, by grafting bone marrow cells immediately after the last irradiation. Our hypothesis was that any agent able to restore the thymus after leukemogenic irradiation would exert the same effects as a bone marrow graft. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is one such possible agent, since it has been shown to modulate some functions of the thymic epithelium and thymocyte subpopulations. PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to assess the ability of repeated intraperitoneal injections of TNF-alpha to functionally replace bone marrow transplantation in the restoration of normal intrathymic lymphopoiesis and in the prevention of thymic lymphomas in split-dose-irradiated mice. METHODS: We replaced the bone marrow graft with repeated injections of TNF-alpha (25 000 U/injection) in the split-dose-irradiated (4 x 1.75 Gy) C57BL/Ka mouse model. We analyzed the expression of the cell differentiation markers CD4 and CD8 on thymocytes by flow cytometry. We also studied the thymic environment by isolating thymic nurse cells, the bone marrow prothymocyte activity by analyzing thymic repopulation, and the evolution of PLCs by an in vivo transplantation assay. Local production of TNF-alpha after bone marrow grafting was examined by in situ hybridization. Injections of anti-TNF-alpha antibodies were given to split-dose-irradiated mice to test the effect of neutralizing TNF-alpha in vivo. One-way analysis of variance and Newman-Keuls two-tailed tests were used to test statistical significance. RESULTS: Multiple injections of TNF-alpha into split-dose-irradiated mice did not influence bone marrow prothymocyte activity but restored thymocyte subpopulations and thymic epithelium, induced the disappearance of PLCs, and prevented the development of lymphomas. Moreover, a bone marrow graft significantly stimulated intrathymic production of TNF-alpha messenger RNA (P<.01), and anti-TNF-alpha antibodies partially inhibited the antilymphomatous effects of bone marrow graft in split-dose-irradiated mice (P<.05). CONCLUSION: These data strongly suggest that TNF-alpha is a mediator that is involved in the mechanisms by which bone marrow transplantation functions to prevent thymic lymphomas in split-dose-irradiated mice. IMPLICATIONS: Cytokines might be used in some biological systems, particularly in the hemopoietic system, as a therapeutic agent for the secondary prevention of cancer. [less ▲]

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See detailChain end effects and dewetting in thin polymer films
Henn, G.; Bucknall, D. G.; Stamm, Manfred et al

in Macromolecules (1996), 29(12), 4305-4313

The dewetting of thin films of end-functionalized polymers, ω- and α,ω-barium sulfonato polystyrenes, on a silicon substrate has been investigated as a function of initial film thickness, molecular weight ... [more ▼]

The dewetting of thin films of end-functionalized polymers, ω- and α,ω-barium sulfonato polystyrenes, on a silicon substrate has been investigated as a function of initial film thickness, molecular weight, and functionality of the chains. The lower molecular weight monofunctional chains are found to dewet the substrate analogously to normal polystyrene but display an anomalous flow behavior at the surface. Moreover, after dewetting, the entire silicon surface still remains covered by a monolayer of monofunctional chains. The monolayer consists of a polymer brush of densely packed tethered chains, adsorbed via their ionic end groups. The dense packing and special conformations of the chains in the brush prevent interpenetration with other polymer chains, and the unadsorbed macromolecules dewet the brush. When the molecular weight of the monofunctional chains is increased, entanglements between the adsorbed polymer brush and the unadsorbed chains can occur and the dewetting process is retarded. Thin films of the difunctional chains do not dewet regardless of the molecular weight of the chains. The difference between mono- and difunctional materials is attributed to ionic aggregation, which is responsible for thermoreversible cross-linking and stabilization of thicker films by interaction of aggregates with dangling ends. It is suggested to use high molecular weight end-functionalized chains as polymeric additives to retard thin polymer film dewetting. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the influence of transuranium dilution in well-known U heavy-fermion compounds
Wastin, Frank; Zwirner, Stefan; Seret, Alain ULg et al

in Physica B: Condensed Matter (1996), 223-224

Synthesis and preliminary studies on U1−xNpxPd2Al3 and U1−xNpxRu2Si2 are presented. In all Np compounds measured here, no superconducting transition was found down to 1.4 K. In U1−xNpxPd2Al3 a small ... [more ▼]

Synthesis and preliminary studies on U1−xNpxPd2Al3 and U1−xNpxRu2Si2 are presented. In all Np compounds measured here, no superconducting transition was found down to 1.4 K. In U1−xNpxPd2Al3 a small amount (0.01 less-than-or-equals, slant x less-than-or-equals, slant 0.05) of Np induces an anomaly in the lattice parameters and presents in resistivity measurements a sharp minimum at low temperature. [less ▲]

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See detailMagnetic anisotropy of U2Pd2In
Prokes, Karel; Nakotte, Heinz; Havela, Ladislav et al

in Physica B: Condensed Matter (1996), 223-224

Magnetic susceptibility studies of the U2Pd2In single crystal show that in the paramagnetic state larger χ-values are found for field along the basal plane than along the c-axis. However, below TN = 37 K ... [more ▼]

Magnetic susceptibility studies of the U2Pd2In single crystal show that in the paramagnetic state larger χ-values are found for field along the basal plane than along the c-axis. However, below TN = 37 K, where U-moments form a non-collinear magnetic structure within the basal plane, a cross-over of the two χ-branches occurs. The single crystal results may explain the origin of the exotic magnetization results obtained on powder samples. [less ▲]

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See detailThe break-up of periodic comet Schwassmann-Wachmann 3: image documents from La Silla telescopes.
Boehnhardt, H.; Kaeufl, H. U.; Goudfrooij, P. et al

in The Messenger (1996), 84

The splitting of SW3 in 1995 was an other example of how brittle cometary nuclei are. Unlike in most previous events, however, the break-up of SW3 is well documented by high-quality ground-based ... [more ▼]

The splitting of SW3 in 1995 was an other example of how brittle cometary nuclei are. Unlike in most previous events, however, the break-up of SW3 is well documented by high-quality ground-based observations. SW3 represents an excellent candidate for a comprehensive analysis of cometary fragmentation, which could lead to a better understanding of the the disintegration processes involved in the evolution of comets. [less ▲]

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See detailParasympathetic component of 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced pulmonary dysfunctions in health calves
Linden, Annick ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg; Amory, Hélène ULg et al

in American Journal of Veterinary Research (1996), 57(6), 896-901

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See detailLa dissection aortique. Des symptômes a l'indication opératoire
Defraigne, Jean-Olivier ULg; Limet, Raymond ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1996), 51(6), 411-25

La formation d'un hématome au sein de la média aortique à partir d'un orifice d'entrée définit la dissection aortique qui se caractérise par la présence de deux lumières aortiques: la vraie et la fausse ... [more ▼]

La formation d'un hématome au sein de la média aortique à partir d'un orifice d'entrée définit la dissection aortique qui se caractérise par la présence de deux lumières aortiques: la vraie et la fausse. Toute altération structurelle de la média (hypertension, médianécrose, maladie de Marfan, etc...) favorise la dissection. Le début de l'affection est brutal, avec un tableau polymorphe fait de douleurs intenses et migrantes, d'abolition du pouls dans certains territoires, voire d'une insuffisance aortique d'installation rapide. A partir des signes cliniques, le diagnostic est confirmé par des examens complémentaires (échographie, CT-scanner, résonance magnétique nucléaire, artériographie). L'échographie réalisée par voie transoesophagienne tend actuellement à constituer l'examen de premier choix. Dans les dissections qui concernent l'aorte ascendante (types 1, II et III rétrograde de DeBakey, ou type A de Stanford), une chirurgie rapide est impérative en raison de la fréquence des complications mortelles (rupture dans le péricarde avec tamponnade, ischémie myocardique par dissection des coronaires, insuffisance aortique massive avec défaillance ventriculaire gauche). L'intervention consiste à remplacer l'aorte ascendante en conservant ou non la valvule aortique; si l'on implante la prothèse artérielle sur l'annulus aortique, on doit procéder à la réimplantation des coronaires selon la technique de Bentall ou de Cabrol. En cas de dissection qui respecte l'aorte ascendante et ne concerne que l'aorte thoracique descendante (type III a ou b de DeBakey ou type B de Stanford), un traitement médical est d'abord instauré et la chirurgie, qui consiste à remplacer un segment plus ou moins long de l'aorte descendante, n'est appliquée qu'en cas de complications (rupture imminente avec formation d'un épanchement pleural, persistance des douleurs, ischémie viscérale, hypertension incontrôlable). Le traitement médical a pour but de diminuer les douleurs et repose sur l'induction d'une hypotension contrôlée et d'une dépression de la contractilité myocardique; ceci ralentit la vitesse d'établissement de l'onde de pression artérielle, qui constitue le moteur de la dissection. Ce traitement médical doit être instauré avant la chirurgie, après la chirurgie s'il y a lieu de la réaliser, et au long cours une fois le patient sorti de l'hôpital. [less ▲]

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See detailResolution Improvement by Use of Carboxymethyl-Beta-Cyclodextrin as Chiral Additive for the Enantiomeric Separation of Basic Drugs by Capillary Electrophoresis
Fillet, Marianne ULg; Bechet, I.; Hubert, Philippe ULg et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (1996), 14(8-10), 1107-14

Three beta-cyclodextrin derivatives--carboxymethyl-, dimethyl- and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin--were tested as chiral selectors for the enantioseparation of seven basic drugs in free solution ... [more ▼]

Three beta-cyclodextrin derivatives--carboxymethyl-, dimethyl- and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin--were tested as chiral selectors for the enantioseparation of seven basic drugs in free solution capillary electrophoresis, using buffers made of 100 mM phosphoric acid adjusted to pH 3.0 with triethanolamine in fused silica capillaries thermostatted at 15 degrees C. The best results with respect to chiral resolution were obtained with carboxymethyl-beta-cyclodextrin (CMCD): the enantiomers of all compounds examined were completely resolved with this beta-cyclodextrin derivative. The influence of the CMCD concentration on the migration times, the apparent electrophoretic mobility difference and the resolution of the drug enantiomers was investigated thoroughly. Particularly impressive resolution values, up to 23.7, were obtained for several compounds in these capillary electrophoretic systems, using CMCD in the 5-15 mM concentration range. [less ▲]

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See detailConstructive Lyapunov stabilization of nonlinear cascade systems
Jankovic, M.; Sepulchre, Rodolphe ULg; Kokotovic, Petar V.

in IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control (1996), 41(12), 1723-1735

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See detailContribution of polyalky(meth)acrylates to the design of PVC melt viscosity
Vankan, R.; Fayt, Roger; Jérôme, Robert ULg et al

in Polymer Engineering & Science (1996), 36(12), 1675-1684

The shear viscosity of poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) at 200°C can be decreased by at least one order of magnitude by the addition of as little as 5 wt% poly n-alkyl-(meth)acrylates (PMA) of a much lower ... [more ▼]

The shear viscosity of poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) at 200°C can be decreased by at least one order of magnitude by the addition of as little as 5 wt% poly n-alkyl-(meth)acrylates (PMA) of a much lower dynamic viscosity than PVC. For this effect to be observed, the polymeric additive must be immiscible with PVC at 200°C. The average size of the dispersed phases is observed in the range of 0.5 to 5 m; size fluctuation in this domain has no significant effect. When these conditions are met, there is a linear increase in the shear viscosity ratio blend/PVC from 0.2 to 1.0 with increasing logarithmic values of the dynamic viscosity ratio of the additive over PVC [(log(/)) from -4 to -1]. [less ▲]

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See detailInteractions between endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells after their activation by hypoxia. A possible etiology for venous disease.
Michiels, C.; Arnould, T.; Janssens, D. et al

in International Angiology : A Journal of the International Union of Angiology (1996), 15(5), 124-130

Because of their localization at the interface between blood and tissue, endothelial cells are responsible for the maintenance of vascular homeostasis. They fulfil a series of various functions and ... [more ▼]

Because of their localization at the interface between blood and tissue, endothelial cells are responsible for the maintenance of vascular homeostasis. They fulfil a series of various functions and constantly interact with circulating leukocytes and with the smooth muscle cells (SMC) present in the media. Any disturbance of their metabolism can thus lead to alterations of the blood vessel functions. We have shown that hypoxia, for example resulting from venous stasis, induces the activation of endothelial cells which then release inflammatory mediators able to activate neutrophils and to induce their infiltration as well as growth factors for SMC. We propose that these processes are the beginning of a cascade of events eventually leading to structural and functional modifications of the venous wall similar to the ones observed in varicose vein wall. The endothelium alterations resulting from venous stasis would thus be the origin of the development of the venous disease. Pharmacological and clinical evidence reinforce this hypothesis. [less ▲]

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See detailPercutaneous Balloon Pericardiotomy: A Case Report and Analysis of Mechanism of Action
Bertrand, O.; Legrand, Victor ULg; Kulbertus, Henri ULg

in Catheterization and Cardiovascular Diagnosis (1996), 38(2), 180-2

A 33-year-old man with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and cardiac tamponade underwent percutaneous balloon pericardiotomy. To elucidate the pathway of fluid elimination, at the end of the ... [more ▼]

A 33-year-old man with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and cardiac tamponade underwent percutaneous balloon pericardiotomy. To elucidate the pathway of fluid elimination, at the end of the procedure, we injected methylene blue into the pericardial space. Contrary to previous belief, we found no blue discoloration of the pleural fluids, and thus we postulate that most of the fluid was eliminated by peritoneal resorption. [less ▲]

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See detailSodium Valproate in Severe Migraine and Tension-Type Headache: An Open Study of Long-Term Efficacy and Correlation with Blood Levels
Lenaerts, M.; Bastings, E.; Sianard, J. et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (1996), 96(2), 126-9

We performed an open prospective study of the prophylactic efficacy of sodium valproate in 56 patients among which 35 migraineurs, 7 chronic tension-type headache patients and 14 patients with combined ... [more ▼]

We performed an open prospective study of the prophylactic efficacy of sodium valproate in 56 patients among which 35 migraineurs, 7 chronic tension-type headache patients and 14 patients with combined headaches. We compared the mean number of headache days per month during a one-month-baseline period without prophylactic treatment and during the last month of a 6-month-treatment course. Among secondary parameters, we assessed headache intensity, adverse experiences and we measured valproate blood levels after one and after six months of treatment. Sixty percent of migraineurs had a 75% or more improvement in the number of headache days under sodium valproate, most of the remaining attacks being less severe. There was no significant improvement in chronic tension-type headache patients and only a mild effect in patients with combined headaches, almost exclusively on the migraine component. Thirty percent of patients reported adverse effects of which none was serious: there were 3 drop-outs. We found a moderate, but statistically significant, correlation between efficacy and blood levels of sodium valproate. [less ▲]

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See detailSynchronization of estrus in goats: the relationship between PMSG binding in plasma, time of occurrence of estrus and fertility following artificial insemination
Baril, G.; Remy, Benoît ULg; Leboeuf, J. F. et al

in Theriogenology (1996), 45(8), 1553-1559

Radioimmunoassay (RIA) was used to measure plasma eCG binding in dairy goats (n = 524) at the beginning of a progestagen/eCG treatment and 25 d after eCG administration. The eCG binding was not dependent ... [more ▼]

Radioimmunoassay (RIA) was used to measure plasma eCG binding in dairy goats (n = 524) at the beginning of a progestagen/eCG treatment and 25 d after eCG administration. The eCG binding was not dependent on the age of the females but increased with the number of treatments they had previously received (3.4 % ± 4.8, N = 47 vs 9.6 % ± 13.2, N = 249; mean ± SD; P < 0.01 for goats treated 0 and 1 time vs those treated 2 to 5 times, respectively). The synchronization treatment led to an increase in the binding of eCG (7.1 % ± 10.9 before vs 28.3 ± 24.5 after treatment; P < 0.01). When eCG binding before treatment was higher than 5 % the onset of estrus was delayed: 37.9 % of goats came into estrus more than 30 h after sponge removal vs 7.4 % when eCG binding was lower than 5 % (P < 0.01). Fertility was significantly decreased when eCG binding was higher than 10 %. These results show that the repetition of treatment with eCG to induce estrus in goats increases eCG binding. This could explain the lowered efficiency of the hormonal treatment to synchronize estrus and the associated decrease in fertility when goats are inseminated at a predetermined time. [less ▲]

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See detailAn empirical formula to estimate the resistance of a convoy in a restricted waterway
Marchal, Jean ULg; Shen, Yide ULg

in Marine Technology and SNAME News (1996), volume 40(2), 107-112

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See detailHigh-temperature polyimide nanofoams for microelectronic applications
Hedrick, James L; Carter, K. R.; Cha, J. E. et al

in Reactive & Functional Polymers (1996), 30(1-3), 43-53

Foamed polyimides have been developed in order to obtain thin film dielectric layers with very low dielectric constants for use in microelectronic devices. In these systems the pore sizes are in the ... [more ▼]

Foamed polyimides have been developed in order to obtain thin film dielectric layers with very low dielectric constants for use in microelectronic devices. In these systems the pore sizes are in the nanometer range, thus, the term 'nanofoam'. The polyimide foams are prepared from block copolymers consisting of thermally stable and thermally labile blocks, the latter being the dispersed phase. Foam formation is effected by thermolysis of the thermally labile block, leaving pores of the size and shape corresponding to the initial copolymer morphology. Nanofoams prepared from a number of polyimides as matrix materials were investigated as well as from a number of thermally labile polymers. The foams were characterized by a variety of experiments including TEM, SAXS, WAXD, DMTA, density measurements. refractive index measurements and dielectric constant measurements. Thin film foams, with high thermal stability and low dielectric constants approaching 2.0, can be prepared using the copolymer/nanofoam approach. [less ▲]

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See detailFrontal lobe dementia presenting as personality disorder
Salmon, Eric ULg; Degueldre, Christian ULg; Franco, Gianni ULg et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (1996), 96(2), 130-134

The early differential diagnosis of frontal lobe dementia is particularly difficult because changes of personality or behaviour overwhelm intellectual and cognitive impairments. We report the case of a ... [more ▼]

The early differential diagnosis of frontal lobe dementia is particularly difficult because changes of personality or behaviour overwhelm intellectual and cognitive impairments. We report the case of a patient presenting with paranoid personality disorder who refused to collaborate in neuropsychological testing. Initial functional imaging showed frontal hypometabolism that served as an early marker of frontal lobe dysfunction. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of Hoxa1 Expression in Human Breast Cancer
Chariot, Alain ULg; Castronovo, Vincenzo ULg

in Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (1996), 222(2), 292-7

Homeodomain-containing proteins are transcription factors that regulate the coordinated expression of multiple genes involved in development, differentiation and malignant transformation. To better ... [more ▼]

Homeodomain-containing proteins are transcription factors that regulate the coordinated expression of multiple genes involved in development, differentiation and malignant transformation. To better understand the role played by these proteins in breast cancer cells, we demonstrate, using semi-quantitative RT-PCR experiments, that progestin induces HOXA1 mRNAs in MCF7 cells. This is the first evidence of regulation of a HOX gene by steroids. Moreover, we detected HOXA1 expression in a variety of human breast cancer lesions, suggesting that HOXA1 may be required for the establishment of breast cancer cells phenotype. We propose that HOXA1 gene could be one of the orchestrators that regulate breast epithelial cell differentiation and that alteration of HOXA1 expression could play a role in breast cancer progression. [less ▲]

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See detailPolyimide nanofoams from caprolactone-based copolymers
Hedrick, James L; Russell, T. P.; Sanchez, M. et al

in Macromolecules (1996), 29(10), 3642-3646

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See detailSynthesis and preliminary characterization of model liquid crystalline ionomers
Gohy, Jean-François; Vanhoorne, Pierre ULg; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Macromolecules (1996), 29(10), 3376-3383

Model liquid crystalline ionomers have been synthesized that consist of low molecular weight linear chains selectively end-capped at one or both end(s) with an ionic mesogenic group. ω- and α,ω ... [more ▼]

Model liquid crystalline ionomers have been synthesized that consist of low molecular weight linear chains selectively end-capped at one or both end(s) with an ionic mesogenic group. ω- and α,ω-carboxylato and sulfonato polystyrene chains have been prepared by living anionic polymerization and associated with mesogenic counterions, the structure of which is a rigid azobenzene moiety attached to a quaternary ammonium halide through a flexible spacer. The thermotropic behavior of the liquid crystalline halato(semi)telechelic polymers (LC H(S)TP's) has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry and optical microscopy. Some of them show smectic mesophases in a large temperature range. Actually, the liquid crystalline properties of the LC H(S)TP's depend on the molecular weight and the nature of the ionic end groups. A model, based on a crystal close packing approach, shows that the bulkiness of the sulfonato end groups can prevent the formation of smectic mesophases. The supramolecular organization of the LC H(S)TP's has also been studied by small angle neutron scattering, which agrees with a microphase separation between the polymer chains and the mesogenic counterions. [less ▲]

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See detailAp stars periodicity (Catalano+ 1997)
Catalano, F. A.; Renson, Pierre ULg

in VizieR Online Data Catalog (1996), 412

New data on the periods of Ap stars with references are presented (Table 1). 21 further stars are introduced for which a periodic variability has recently been discovered or for which it was known before ... [more ▼]

New data on the periods of Ap stars with references are presented (Table 1). 21 further stars are introduced for which a periodic variability has recently been discovered or for which it was known before but it was not reported in previous issues of this catalogue. For many stars also present in previous issues of the catalogue new determinations of the periods are given. Recently attributed variable star names are also quoted. Note: this catalog is included in <III/199> (2 data files). [less ▲]

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See detailField Efficacy of Moxidectin 0.5% Pour-on against Chorioptes Bovis, Damalinia Bovis, Linognathus Vituli and Psoroptes Ovis in Naturally Infected Cattle
Losson, Bertrand ULg; Lonneux, J. F.

in Veterinary Parasitology (1996), 63(1-2), 119-30

Field efficacy of a pour-on formulation of moxidectin, a macrocyclic lactone endectocide, was evaluated in cattle naturally infested with Chorioptes bovis, Damalinia bovis, Linognathus vituli and ... [more ▼]

Field efficacy of a pour-on formulation of moxidectin, a macrocyclic lactone endectocide, was evaluated in cattle naturally infested with Chorioptes bovis, Damalinia bovis, Linognathus vituli and Psoroptes ovis. In trial 1, two experimental groups of cattle naturally infested with P. ovis were formed. Group 1 animals remained as untreated controls whereas Group 2 animals were treated on day 0 with 0.5% moxidectin cattle pour-on at a dose of 0.5 mg kg-1 bw. Efficacy was assessed by (a) taking skin samples from each animal on days -4, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42 and 56 post treatment (PT) and observing the numbers of viable P. ovis mites and (b) clinical examination of animals on days 7, 14, 21, 28, 42 and 56 with the percentage of affected body surface calculated and live body weights recorded for each animal on days 4, 28 and 42. The pour-on formulation of moxidectin yielded excellent efficacy as no live mites were found in treated animals at 14, 21, 28, 42 and 56 days PT, except in one animal from which one adult mite was collected on day 42. Clinical indices showed a regular decrease in the affected body surface area. All untreated animals but one remained positive until day 28 and their clinical condition worsened rapidly. In trial 2, two experimental groups of cattle naturally infested with D. bovis and L. vituli were selected. Group 1 remained as untreated controls whereas Group 2 individuals were treated on day 0 with 0.5% moxidectin cattle pour-on at a dose of 0.5 mg kg-1 bw. Efficacy was assessed by identifying and counting lice on eight 15 cm hair partings at predefined anatomical sites on days 0, 14, 28 and 42. On the basis of animals cured and lice count reduction, efficacies were 100% on day 14 and from then onwards for both species. In trial 3, 24 animals naturally infested with C. bovis were divided into three experimental groups comprising eight (Group I), seven (Group 2) and nine animals (Group 3). Group 1 was the untreated control group whereas Groups 2 and 3 animals were treated on day 0 with 0.5% moxidectin cattle pour-on at a dose of 0.25 mg and 0.5 mg kg-1 bw, respectively. Efficacy was assessed as in trial 1. Skin scrapings were collected on days -3, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 56 PT. A clinical index was calculated for each animal on days 0, 28 and 56 whereas body weights were recorded on days 0 and 56. At 0.25 mg kg-1 bw, the efficacy of moxidectin cattle pour-on against C. bovis was incomplete. In contrast, at a dose of 0.5 mg kg-1 bw, moxidectin cattle pour-on was fully effective and by day 14 PT all animals were negative for C. bovis and remained so until the end of the trial. No side effects were observed during these three trials. These results indicate that at a dose of 0.5 mg kg-1 bw, the pour-on formulation of moxidectin is highly effective against C. bovis, D. bovis, L. vituli and P. ovis. [less ▲]

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