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See detailHyperandrogénie: sémiologie, exploration et traitement
Beckers, Albert ULg; Parotte, M. C.; Gaspard, Ulysse ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(4), 274-282

Androgen excess (AE) is one of the most common endocrine disorders, affecting 10% of adult women before the menopause. The clinical picture varies widely depending on the etiology of AE. Most of these ... [more ▼]

Androgen excess (AE) is one of the most common endocrine disorders, affecting 10% of adult women before the menopause. The clinical picture varies widely depending on the etiology of AE. Most of these women are suffering from hirsutism, acne, menstrual disturbances, anovulation and obesity. Virilization is unusual, except in patients with ovary or adrenal cancer. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and idiopathic hirsutism (IH) are the most frequent causes of androgen excess, accounting for more than 90% of the cases. The pathogenesis of PCOS is still an unresolved problem. A hereditary predisposition has been suggested. Enzymatic deficiency is a less frequent cause of AE, the most common deficiency being the non classic 21-OH deficiency (NCAH). AE has been implicated as a side effect of many drugs. Ovary and adrenal tumours are unusual, however, they must be considered especially in case of severe hirsutism or virilization. Complementary investigations are selected based on the result of clinical examination. Pharmacologic therapy, usually with anti-androgens, is the most widely used treatment for PCOS, IH and NCAH. Surgical therapy should be considered only when there is a particular indication such as Cushing's syndrome, ovary or adrenal tumours. [less ▲]

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See detailFaut-il instaurer un traitement en prévention primaire chez la femme hypercholestérolémique?
Paquot, Nicolas ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(4), 240-3

Limited data are available in women from randomized trials of lipid-lowering therapy for primary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD). In women with isolate hypercholesterolemia but no clinical ... [more ▼]

Limited data are available in women from randomized trials of lipid-lowering therapy for primary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD). In women with isolate hypercholesterolemia but no clinical symptoms of CHD and no other risk factors, there is no evidence that lipid-lowering therapy is of benefit. In postmenopausal women with hypercholesterolemia and other risk factors (particularly diabetes and family history of CHD), lipid-lowering therapy may be of benefit. In those women, hormone replacement therapy may be proposed in the treatment of postmenopausal hypercholesterolemia. [less ▲]

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See detailLe condylome
Kridelka, Frédéric ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(4), 283-8

HPV related pathologies are the commonest reasons for consulting a gynaecologist. Genital warts are associated with infection by HPV type 6 or 11. Etiopathogenetic factors and treatment modalities are ... [more ▼]

HPV related pathologies are the commonest reasons for consulting a gynaecologist. Genital warts are associated with infection by HPV type 6 or 11. Etiopathogenetic factors and treatment modalities are reviewed. [less ▲]

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See detailL'ostéoporose d'involution chez la femme
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Devogelaer, J. P.; Kaufman, J. M. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(4), 335-40

Postmenopausal osteoporosis is now considered a major public health problem in aging women, due to the burden related to the consequent fractures. Over recent years, several pharmacological approaches ... [more ▼]

Postmenopausal osteoporosis is now considered a major public health problem in aging women, due to the burden related to the consequent fractures. Over recent years, several pharmacological approaches were developed for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Besides regular physical exercise and calcium rich diet, calcium supplementation can be suggested to both genders, after seventy years as well as systematic vitamin D supplementation in order to cope with the frequent lack observed in our country. Hormone replacement therapy is the first choice in prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Based on a careful evaluation of the needs of a postmenopausal woman as well as on the risk/benefit ratio derived from her individual risk factors, selective estrogen receptor modulators (raloxifene) or second generation bisphosphonates (alendronate) can be considered as alternative to estrogens. Due to its prohibitive cost, nasal calcitonin should be only considered for very specific cases. In osteoporosis confirmed by bone densitometry or by occurrence of fractures, bisphosphonate (alendronate) reduces subsequent fracture rate. Fluoride salts can, in some cases, improve spinal symptomatic osteoporosis. The use of etidronate, a molecule from the past, should be avoided as much as possible and, at any rate, strictly restricted to its legal indication including women with several vertebral crush fractures and severely decreased bone mineral density. [less ▲]

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See detailLa classe de langue comme observatoire et laboratoire d'un apprentissage expérientiel des langues étrangères à travers la pédagogie par projet
Simons, Germain ULg

in Etudes & Travaux (1999), (3), 67-84

G. Simons begins by pointing out the difficulties encountered by many language teachers in trying to provide students with real communication situations. According to the author, the methodological ... [more ▼]

G. Simons begins by pointing out the difficulties encountered by many language teachers in trying to provide students with real communication situations. According to the author, the methodological approach which consists in asking students to "imagine they are Mr Smith" hardly conceals its formal interest. Furthemore, it should be completed with an experiential approach aiming at an articulation of the active experimentation of the foreign language in the here and now as well as the analysis of the functioning of the language as a system. The preparation and exploitation of a pedagogical project for a linguistic stay provides the foreign language course with a concrete aim and a real linguistic material, which it often lacks. In analysing and comparing the linguistic data from students and native speakers in real and identical communication situations, the language teacher can test the interlanguage of his students. Moreover, this process of comparison enables the language teacher to make students "notice the gap" between their language production and that of native speakers. This "notice the gap" technique transforms the traditional language class into an observatory and laboratory of the foreign language and of the interlanguage. [less ▲]

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See detailAnticipatory responding, exclusive drug-context pairing and conditioned effects in sensitization to apomorphine-induced climbing in mice
Tirelli, Ezio ULg; Heidbreder, C.

in Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry (1999), 23(3), 505-518

1. The conditioning aspects of contextual sensitization were examined in the case of apomorphine-induced wall-climbing in mice, measuring onset latencies of the pharmacological response and controlling ... [more ▼]

1. The conditioning aspects of contextual sensitization were examined in the case of apomorphine-induced wall-climbing in mice, measuring onset latencies of the pharmacological response and controlling differential habituation to the test context during drug treatment. 2. Sensitization was generated in male out-bred mice which received intermittent i.p. injections of 0.4 mg/kg apomorphine over 9 daily sessions. On day 10, they were tested for contextual sensitization (all mice under apomorphine). On day 14, after 3 sessions of reinstatement, mice were tested for conditioned climbing (all mice under saline). 3. It was found that simultaneous exposure to both apomorphine and the test context facilitated the expression of a full-blown contextual sensitization (some non-contextual sensitization emerging too); importantly, sensitization was accompanied by a progressive shortening of the latencies to climb (before injections); conditioned climbing appeared only in mice pairing the drug with the test context, that response being absent in mice treated outside the context or never exposed to the context. 4. It is likely that contextual sensitization to apomorphine-induced climbing relies on Pavlovian conditioning processes rather than on habituation-related processes. [less ▲]

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See detailLa femme et les maladies cardio-vasculaires, en particulier, les coronaropathies
Kulbertus, Henri ULg; Legrand, Victor ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(4), 244-50

Cardiovascular diseases represent the major cause of death in women. If women are early in life relatively protected by their hormones, after the menopause heart disease and stroke become their greatest ... [more ▼]

Cardiovascular diseases represent the major cause of death in women. If women are early in life relatively protected by their hormones, after the menopause heart disease and stroke become their greatest health threat. Altogether one in three women will die of cardiovascular disease whereas only one in twenty-two will die of breast cancer. The risk factors for cardiovascular diseases are similar in both sexes. It should be noted however that the impact of diabetes on the development of coronary artery disease is markedly higher in woman than in man. In woman the first presenting symptom of coronary artery disease frequently is angina pectoris. In man it is more often an acute myocardial infarction whether it be symptomatic or silent. The various non invasive techniques used for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease may yield results that pose very difficult problems of differential diagnosis in women. Several studies indicate that in the past, probably because of the ignorance by the public and, perhaps, the medical profession of the high prevalence of cardiovascular and coronary artery diseases in women, the latter have not always received an optimal treatment when they suffered an acute ischemic attack. But, in this decade, they have been dramatic changes in the patents of clinical practice related to coronary heart disease in women. Statistical investigations however indicate that thrombolytic therapy appears less efficacious in women than in men whereas beta-blockers administered early in acute MI are of remarkable efficacy in women. It seems generally agreed that the results of revascularization by coronary artery bypass surgery are poorer in women than in men both in terms of operative mortality and morbidity. Initially, the same pessimism was reported for PTCA. However, recent results allow a much more optimistic view. [less ▲]

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See detailConditioning of and contextual sensitization to apomorphine-induced climbing in mice : evidence against the habitation hypothesis
Tirelli, Ezio ULg; Heidbreder, C.

in Behavioral Neuroscience (1999), 113(2), 368-376

Several predictions of the habituation hypothesis of conditioned drug effects were tested by looking at contextual sensitization to apomorphine-induced climbing in mice (Mus musculus). Mice were first ... [more ▼]

Several predictions of the habituation hypothesis of conditioned drug effects were tested by looking at contextual sensitization to apomorphine-induced climbing in mice (Mus musculus). Mice were first sensitized to that effect after 9 daily injections of 0.4 mg/kg apomorphine in the test context. Other mice received the same treatment outside the test context. On Day 10, all mice were challenged with either saline (conditioned drug effects test) or apomorphine (contextual sensitization test). On both tests, the levels of climbing of mice that received apomorphine paired with the test context during the intermittent treatment were significantly higher than those of mice that were experiencing the test context for the first time (unexposed mice). Also, the rate of extinction in conditioned mice did not parallel the rate of habituation in the unexposed mice. Results contradict the habituation hypothesis of conditioned drug effects and contextual sensitization. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved)(journal abstract) [less ▲]

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See detailFemoral Anastomotic Aneurysms: Pathogenic Factors, Clinical Presentations and Treatment. A Study of 142 Cases
Demarche, Martine; Waltregny, David ULg; Van Damme, Hendrik ULg et al

in Cardiovascular Surgery (1999), 7(3), 315-22

In this study, the files of 112 patients with a total of 142 femoral anastomotic aneurysms were reviewed. Eighty-five patients (76%) were initially operated upon for obstructive aorto-iliac disease, while ... [more ▼]

In this study, the files of 112 patients with a total of 142 femoral anastomotic aneurysms were reviewed. Eighty-five patients (76%) were initially operated upon for obstructive aorto-iliac disease, while the remaining 27 (24%) had abdominal aortic aneurysms repaired. The majority of the patients (104/112) were male and their mean age was 64.5 years (range 45-88). Ninety-three per cent of the subjects were smokers prior to the first operation and 43% continued to smoke at the time of their femoral anastomotic aneurysms operation. The mean delay between the initial surgery and the repair of the femoral anastomotic aneurysms was 74.5 months (range 1-228). The diagnosis was made because of a painless pulsatile mass (91/142), acute leg ischaemia (27/142), a painful pulsatile mass (12/142), haemorrhage (10/142), pseudo-post-phlebitic oedema (1/142) and microemboli of the toes (1/142). The operative mortality was 2.7% (3/112) of which two-thirds were patients with infected grafts. Two subgroups were distinguished: 10 patients with an infected femoral anastomotic aneurysm and 12 patients with recurrent femoral anastomotic aneurysms, 11 with a single recurrence and one with a double recurrence. In the infected group, the time to development of anastomotic aneurysm was shorter than for the group with non-infected femoral anastomotic aneurysms (41 versus 74.5 months) and the operative mortality was 20% (2/10). One patient developed a recurrent femoral anastomotic aneurysm and another was lost to follow-up. Two subsequent deaths occurred, which were unrelated to the femoral anastomotic aneurysms. In the group of recurrent femoral anastomotic aneurysms one patient was lost to follow-up and two patients died, but not as a result of recurrent femoral anastomotic aneurysms. A total of 122 cases underwent interposition of a new prosthetic segment between the proximal prosthesis and the distal artery (89 at the common femoral, 21 at the femoral profundis, eight at the superficial femoral and four at an existing femoro-popliteal graft). [less ▲]

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See detailPlasma Myeloperoxidase Level and Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Activation in Horses Suffering from Large Intestinal Obstruction Requiring Surgery: Preliminary Results
Grulke, Sigrid ULg; Benbarek, Hama; Caudron, I. et al

in Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research = Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire (1999), 63(2), 142-7

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a specific enzyme of neutrophil azurophilic granules with a strong oxidative activity. Thanks to a radioimmunoassay of equine myeloperoxidase, the authors have observed a ... [more ▼]

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a specific enzyme of neutrophil azurophilic granules with a strong oxidative activity. Thanks to a radioimmunoassay of equine myeloperoxidase, the authors have observed a significantly higher plasma level of MPO in horses operated for strangulation obstruction of the large intestine (n = 6) than in horses suffering from a non-strangulating displacement of the large intestine (n = 9). For the 2 groups, 3 phases were distinguished: reception (P1), intensive care (P2) and terminal phase (P3). The mean peak values of MPO for these phases were 121.6 ng/mL (P1), 168.6 ng/mL (P2), and 107.0 ng/mL (P3) for the non-strangulating group, and 242.6 ng/mL (P1); 426.0 ng/mL (P2), and 379.5 ng/mL (P3) for the strangulation group. The variations of the mean peak values of plasma MPO were significantly different between the 2 groups and between the different phases. A significant increase of the least square means of MPO was observed between P1 and P2. A significant decrease of the least square means of the number of circulating leukocytes was observed between P1 and P3. Polymorphonuclear neutrophil activation could play a major role in the pathogenesis of acute abdominal disease and endotoxic shock. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Two Calculated Plasma Sufentanil Concentrations on the Hemodynamic and Bispectral Index Responses to Mayfield Head Holder Application
Hans, Pol ULg; Brichant, Jean-François ULg; Dewandre, Pierre-Yves et al

in Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology (1999), 11(2), 81-5

The effects of two calculated plasma sufentanil (SUF) concentrations on the hemodynamic and bispectral index (BIS) responses to Mayfield head holder (MH) application were studied in 20 patients scheduled ... [more ▼]

The effects of two calculated plasma sufentanil (SUF) concentrations on the hemodynamic and bispectral index (BIS) responses to Mayfield head holder (MH) application were studied in 20 patients scheduled for intracranial surgery. Premedication consisted of hydroxyzine, alprazolam, and atropine given orally 1 hour before surgery. Anesthesia was provided with propofol (PPF) and SUF using a target-controlled infusion device. Patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups according to calculated plasma concentrations: 3 microg/mL(-1) of PPF and 0.5 ng/mL(-1) of SUF in group I (GI) and 3 microg/mL(-1) of PPF and 1 ng/mL(-1) of SUF in group II (GII). The MH was fixed 33.0+/-6.6 minutes (mean +/- SD) after induction. Systolic (SAP), diastolic (DAP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) as well as heart rate (HR) and BIS were recorded 1 minute before pinning (baseline) as well as 1 minute (P1), 2 minutes (P2), and 3 minutes (P3) after pinning. Multivariate repeat-measured analyses of variance were applied to the baseline-subtracted measurements of hemodynamic and BIS values. Groups were compared using the Student's t test, and P < .05 was considered to be statistically significant. Patients' characteristics, baseline hemodynamic values, and BIS values were similar in both groups. A significant overall time effect was observed for all variables, but no significant overall SUF effect was detected. Increases in SAP, MAP, DAP, and HR did not differ significantly between groups. The increase in hemodynamic variables did not exceed 20% of baseline value in either group. In contrast, at P1, the increase in BIS over the baseline value was significantly higher in GI (15.0+/-7.9) than in GII (6.7+/-6.5). In conclusion, MH application was associated with a significant, although not clinically relevant, increase in hemodynamic variables whatever the calculated plasma SUF concentration (0.5 or 1.0 ng/mL(-1)). In contrast, the increase in BIS observed at pinning was significantly higher in patients with the lowest calculated plasma SUF concentrations. This suggests that the BIS response to noxious stimulation is modulated by the analgesic regimen. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of the Iv Pharmacokinetics in Sheep of Miconazole-Cyclodextrin Solutions and a Micellar Solution
Piel, Géraldine ULg; Evrard, Brigitte ULg; Van Hees, Thierry ULg et al

in International Journal of Pharmaceutics (1999), 180(1), 41-5

The pharmacokinetics of miconazole were studied after intravenous administration to six sheep (4 mg/kg) of three aqueous solutions: a marketed micellar solution containing polyoxyl-35 castor oil (Daktarin ... [more ▼]

The pharmacokinetics of miconazole were studied after intravenous administration to six sheep (4 mg/kg) of three aqueous solutions: a marketed micellar solution containing polyoxyl-35 castor oil (Daktarin IV(R)) was compared with two solutions both containing 50 mM lactic acid and a cyclodextrin derivative (100 mM HP-betaCD or 50 mM SBE7-betaCD). The aim of this work was to demonstrate that these cyclodextrin derivatives (CDs) have no effect on the pharmacokinetics of miconazole by comparison with the micellar solution. The plasma concentration time curves have shown that there is no significant difference between the three solutions. [less ▲]

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See detailStability of multiquark systems
Stancu, Floarea ULg

in AIP Conference Proceedings (1999), 508

We give a brief review of developments in the field of exotic hadrons formed of more than three quarks and/or antiquarks. In particular we discuss the stability of multiquark systems containing heavy ... [more ▼]

We give a brief review of developments in the field of exotic hadrons formed of more than three quarks and/or antiquarks. In particular we discuss the stability of multiquark systems containing heavy flavours. We show that the gluon exchange model and the chiral constituent quark model based Goldstone boson (pseudoscalar meson) exchange give entirely different results. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-Gaussian behavior and anticorrelations in ultrathin gate oxides after soft breakdown
Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Ausloos, Marcel ULg; Houssa, M. et al

in Applied Physics Letters (1999), 74(11), 1579-1581

The time dependence of the gate voltage V-G(t) after soft breakdown of metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with a 2.4 nm SiO2 layer has been measured. It is found that the V-G(t) fluctuation ... [more ▼]

The time dependence of the gate voltage V-G(t) after soft breakdown of metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with a 2.4 nm SiO2 layer has been measured. It is found that the V-G(t) fluctuation distributions are non-Gaussian, but can be described by a Levy stable distribution. The long-range correlations in V-G(t) are investigated within the detrended fluctuations analysis. The Hurst exponent is found to be H = 0.25 +/- 0.04 independent of the value of the stress current density J. It is argued that these are universal features of soft breakdown and are due to trapping-detrapping of electrons in and away from the primary percolation path. [less ▲]

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See detailArthrospira ('Spirulina') strains from four continents are resolved into only two clusters, based on amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis of the internally transcribed spacer
Scheldeman, Patsy; Baurain, Denis ULg; Bouhy, Rachel et al

in FEMS Microbiology Letters (1999), 172(2), 213-22

We present the results of a phylogenetic study, based on amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis of the rDNA operon, of 37 Arthrospira ('Spirulina') cultivated clonal strains from four continents. In ... [more ▼]

We present the results of a phylogenetic study, based on amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis of the rDNA operon, of 37 Arthrospira ('Spirulina') cultivated clonal strains from four continents. In addition, duplicates from different culture collections or markedly different morphotypes of particular strains established as clonal cultures were treated as separate entries, resulting in a total of 51 tested cultures. The strain Spirulina laxissima SAG 256.80 was included as outgroup. The 16S rRNA genes appeared too conserved for discrimination of the strains by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis, and thus the internally transcribed spacer was selected as molecular taxonomic marker. The internally transcribed spacer sequences situated between the 16S and the 23S rRNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and yielded amplicons of about 540 bp. Direct use of cells for polymerase chain reaction seemed to inhibit the amplification reaction. This was overcome by the design of a crude lysis protocol and addition of bovine serum albumin in the polymerase chain reaction mix. The amplicons were digested with four restriction enzymes (EcoRV, Hhal, Hinfl, Msel) and the banding patterns obtained were analyzed. Cluster analysis showed the separation of all the strains into two main clusters. No clear relationships could be observed between this division into two clusters and the geographic origin of the strains, or their designation in the culture collections, or their morphology. [less ▲]

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See detailRole of the Protein Kinase C Lambda/Iota Isoform in Nuclear Factor-Kappab Activation by Interleukin-1beta or Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha: Cell Type Specificities
Bonizzi, G.; Piette, Jacques ULg; Haterte, Stéphanie ULg et al

in Biochemical Pharmacology (1999), 57(6), 713-20

It has previously been reported that distinct signaling pathways can lead to nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation following stimulation of different cell types with inflammatory cytokines. As the role of ... [more ▼]

It has previously been reported that distinct signaling pathways can lead to nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation following stimulation of different cell types with inflammatory cytokines. As the role of atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms in NF-kappaB activation remains a matter of controversy, we investigated whether this role might be cell type-dependent. Immunoblots detected atypical PKC expression in all the analyzed cell lines. The PKC inhibitor calphostin C inhibited NF-kappaB activation by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha or interleukin (IL)-1beta in Jurkat or NIH3T3 cells but not in MCF7 A/Z cells. Cell transfections with a PKC lambda/iota dominant negative mutant abolished TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB-dependent transcription in NIH3T3 and Jurkat cells but not in MCF7 A/Z cells. Similarly, the same mutant blocked NF-kappaB-dependent transactivation after IL-1beta stimulation of NIH3T3 cells, but was ineffective after IL-1beta treatment of MCF7 A/Z cells. In MCF7 A/Z cells, however, the PKC lambda/iota dominant negative mutant could abolish transactivation of an AP-1-dependent reporter plasmid after stimulation with TNF-alpha but not with IL-1beta. These data thus confirm that transduction pathways for NF-kappaB activation after cell stimulation with TNF-alpha or IL-1beta are cell-type specific and that atypical PKC isoforms participate in this pathway in NIH3T3 and Jurkat cells. [less ▲]

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See detailThermalization of <formula alphabet="latin">O([SUP]1[/SUP]D) atoms in the thermosphere
Shematovich, Valery; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Bisikalo, Dimitry V et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research (1999), 104

Measurements of the Doppler width of the 6300 Å airglow emission line have been extensively used to determine the thermospheric temperature. This technique is based on the assumption that the bulk of the ... [more ▼]

Measurements of the Doppler width of the 6300 Å airglow emission line have been extensively used to determine the thermospheric temperature. This technique is based on the assumption that the bulk of the emitting O([SUP]1[/SUP]D) atoms are thermalized in the region of the airglow source (200-300 km). A Monte Carlo stochastic model is used to calculate the energy distribution function of O([SUP]1[/SUP]D) atoms in the daytime and nighttime thermosphere. Hot O([SUP]1[/SUP]D) atoms are produced by exothermic processes and their thermalization is controlled by the competition between radiation, collisional quenching, and relaxation. It is found that the O([SUP]1[/SUP]D) temperature departs from the background gas temperature not only in the upper thermosphere but also in the region of the bulk 6300 Å emission. At 300 km for low solar activity conditions, the model predicts an excess O([SUP]1[/SUP]D) temperature of ~180 K during daytime and ~950 K at night. The temperature departure persists at lower altitudes as a result of the major contribution of the O[SUB]2[/SUB][SUP]+[/SUP] dissociative recombination source of hot [SUP]1[/SUP]D atoms. Experimental evidence based on the Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements on board the Dynamics Explorer satellite confirms the existence of an O([SUP]1[/SUP]D) temperature excess over the mass spectrometer/incoherent scatter (MSIS) value. It is concluded that temperatures deduced from the 6300 Å airglow line width may significantly exceed the ambient gas temperature in a way depending on solar activity, local time, and observation geometry. [less ▲]

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See detailNeurotransmitter-Mediated Regulation of Cns Myelination: A Review
Belachew, Shibeshih ULg; Rogister, Bernard ULg; Rigo, Jean-Michel et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (1999), 99(1), 21-31

In addition to treatments aimed at preventing or limiting damage to myelin and oligodendrocytes, there is a crucial need for repair strategies in human demyelinating disorders. There is increasing ... [more ▼]

In addition to treatments aimed at preventing or limiting damage to myelin and oligodendrocytes, there is a crucial need for repair strategies in human demyelinating disorders. There is increasing evidence that besides growth factors, neurotransmitters can regulate different steps of the oligodendrogliogenesis. The present review on neurotransmitter receptor expression and function in the oligodendrocyte lineage emphasizes the concept that in this lineage cell proliferation and differentiation can be controlled through the modulation of the functional state of channel proteins and receptors, such as the delayed K+ rectifier, the AMPA/kainate, dopamine or muscarinic receptors, and, most likely, others yet to be found. We anticipate that a better understanding of the neurotransmitter-mediated neuronal oligodendroglial communication network opens prospects in the field of central nervous system (CNS) myelin repair, allowing the recruitment of the myelinating machinery that is known to remain present but quiescent in the CNS of multiple sclerosis patients. [less ▲]

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See detailUrticaires
Dezfoulian, Bita ULg

in Medi-Sphere (1999), 94

Les urticaires sont des affections cutanées papuleuses et prurigineises, dont le diagnostic positif est généralement facile. Par contre, elles posent de nombreux problèmes étiologiquesn ... [more ▼]

Les urticaires sont des affections cutanées papuleuses et prurigineises, dont le diagnostic positif est généralement facile. Par contre, elles posent de nombreux problèmes étiologiquesn physiopathologiques et thérapeutiques. Classiquement, on distingue les urticaires aiguës, spontanément résolutives, et les urticaires chroniques, qui évoluent sur une période beaucoup plus longue (entre 6 semaines et 6 mois). Quoiqu'il en soit, leur physiopathologie est identique. L'urticaire est une pathologie fréquente car elle fait partie des 20 dermatoses les plus courantes et qu'environ un individu sur quatre a présenté dans sa vie une poussée d'urticaire. En dehors de l'inconfort qu'elle procure au patient, elle risque d'engager ke pronostic vital en raison de la survenue potentielle d'un oedème de Quincke, voire d'un choc anaphylactique ou anaphylactoïde. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of living tert-butyl methacrylate oligoanions in tetrahydrofuran by NMR spectroscopy, viscosity and light scattering
Zune, Catherine; Dubois, Philippe; Grandjean, Jean ULg et al

in Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics (1999), 200(3), 562-573

Previous kinetic studies concluded on the aggregation of the anionic chain ends of living tert-butyl methacrylate oligomers [PtBMA-, Li+] in THF at low temperature. This aggregation has been confirmed by ... [more ▼]

Previous kinetic studies concluded on the aggregation of the anionic chain ends of living tert-butyl methacrylate oligomers [PtBMA-, Li+] in THF at low temperature. This aggregation has been confirmed by viscosimetry, light scattering and gradient field NMR techniques in a range of temperature from 253 K to 298 K. These techniques have been systematically used for the analysis of both the living oligomers and the same chains recovered after hydrolysis of the anionic end groups. The structure of the growing anionic species was analyzed by means of 13C and 7Li NMR spectroscopy. 13C NMR required the selective labeling of the last monomer units by 13C atoms. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamics of the photo-induced orientation and relaxation of new polymethacrylates containing carbazolyl and azobenzene pendant groups
Maertens, Christophe; Dubois, Philippe ULg; Jérôme, Robert ULg et al

in Polymer International (1999), 48(3), 205-211

Polarized-light-induced birefringence has been investigated in copolymers of [-(N-carbazolyl)alkyl methacrylate] and [2,5-dimethylphenyl-[(4-nitrophenyl)azo]phenoxyalkyl methacrylate]. Optical properties ... [more ▼]

Polarized-light-induced birefringence has been investigated in copolymers of [-(N-carbazolyl)alkyl methacrylate] and [2,5-dimethylphenyl-[(4-nitrophenyl)azo]phenoxyalkyl methacrylate]. Optical properties of the side-chain copolymers have been compared with materials in which the azo-dye was merely dispersed in a poly[-(N-carbazolyl)alkyl methacrylate] matrix. Increasing the temperature of the film has a dramatic depressive effect on the maximum of photo-induced orientation near and above the glass transition temperature (Tg) region, while its effect was restricted under this temperature. Kinetics of the photo-orientation and the thermal relaxation as a function of temperature have been analysed by a biexponential model based on two rate constants. The universal Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) theory has been used to correlate the writing process and relaxation relative time constants with the relative temperature, i.e. T-Tg . The validity of this model for the studied materials leads to the assumption that photo-orientation and relaxation processes are mainly dependent on the free volume in the polymer matrix. This hypothesis has been assessed in the case of [11-(N-carbazolyl)undecyl methacrylate]-based materials. [less ▲]

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See detailL’Aluminium dans les Ouvrages Hydrauliques et le Transport
Rigo, Philippe ULg

in Chaire Aluminium (Univ of Liege. and Poly Tech) at Mons and Liège, Edt. Belgian Aluminium Association, Brussels, March 1999, pp39-47. (1999)

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See detailTemperature variation of the photoinduced birefringence of an azo dye doped polymer
Blanche, Pierre-Alexandre ULg; Lemaire, Philippe ULg; Maertens, Christophe et al

in Polymer Engineering & Science (1999), 39(3), 406-412

The influence of the temperature on the photoinduced birefringence on an azo dye doped polymer film has been studied. Sample is composed of a polymer matrix PVK (Poly(N-vinylcarbazole)), doped with 10 ... [more ▼]

The influence of the temperature on the photoinduced birefringence on an azo dye doped polymer film has been studied. Sample is composed of a polymer matrix PVK (Poly(N-vinylcarbazole)), doped with 10 weight percent (wt%) of the birefringent molecule DMNPAA (2,5-dimethyl-4-(p-nitrophenylazo)anisole) and 30 wt% of ECZ (N-ethylcarbazole) which acts as a plasticizer. Theoretical results can explain the behavior of the amplitude of the photoinduced birefringence versus temperature. Experimental and theoretical results are compared. Holographic recording experiments based on photoinduced birefringence have been carried out. Based on the effect of temperature, we have been able to significantly increase the diffraction efficiency of our sample. [less ▲]

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See detailLe lymphome malin primitif du rachis: aspects cliniques et progrès thérapeutiques
Vanderick, JEAN ULg; Toussaint; Massager et al

in Acta Orthopaedica Belgica (1999), 65(1), 23-32

Malignant lymphomas are occasionally encountered in the spine, where they are usually secondary deposits. The authors report the case of a primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the L1 vertebra in whom surgical ... [more ▼]

Malignant lymphomas are occasionally encountered in the spine, where they are usually secondary deposits. The authors report the case of a primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the L1 vertebra in whom surgical treatment (two operations and double approach) was followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The diagnosis is often made at a late stage, when neurological deficits produced by epidural compression become evident. The surgical treatment is only palliative but has several goals: obtaining a biopsy, improving the neurological symptoms through decompression, stabilizing and "rebuilding" the spinal column; it is performed using posterior, anterior or combined approaches which are discussed. The combined surgical, radiotherapeutic and polychemotherapeutic treatment is associated with a 5-year survival rate of 60-80%. Such a prognosis justifies the risk of surgery which will lead to a stable and lasting reconstruction. [less ▲]

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See detailModel-based verification of a security protocol for conditional access to services
Leduc, Guy ULg; Bonaventure, Olivier; Koerner, Eckhart et al

in Formal Methods In System Design (1999), 14(2), 171-191

We use the formal language LOTOS to specify and verify the robustness of the Equicrypt protocol under design in the European OKAPI project for conditional access to multimedia services. We state some ... [more ▼]

We use the formal language LOTOS to specify and verify the robustness of the Equicrypt protocol under design in the European OKAPI project for conditional access to multimedia services. We state some desired security properties and formalize them. We describe a generic intruder process and its modelling, and show that some properties are falsified in the presence of this intruder. The diagnostic sequences can be used almost directly to exhibit the scenarios of possible attacks on the protocol. Finally, we propose an improvement of the protocol which satisfies our properties. [less ▲]

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See detailA propos d'un cas de rhabdomyolyse aigue
Rorive, Andrée ULg; Fraipont, V.; Quatresooz, Pascale ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(3), 143-8

A 83 years old patient was admitted with a complex clinical picture including cutaneous rash, muscular pain, rhabdomyolysis and renal failure. The clinical picture suggests a dermatopolymyositis. Despite ... [more ▼]

A 83 years old patient was admitted with a complex clinical picture including cutaneous rash, muscular pain, rhabdomyolysis and renal failure. The clinical picture suggests a dermatopolymyositis. Despite of high dose corticotherapy, the patient died on day 22. The anatomical examination shows a cholangiocarcinoma disseminated locally as well as in the lungs and bones. [less ▲]

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See detailComment j'explore ... l'ostéoporose: mesure de la masse osseuse et analyses biologiques
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Devogelaer, J. P.; Kaufman, J. M. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(3), 184-8

The use of bone densitometry, by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, allows the identification, at an early stage, of subjects who will, 15-20 years later, present a fracture event. Furthermore, this ... [more ▼]

The use of bone densitometry, by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, allows the identification, at an early stage, of subjects who will, 15-20 years later, present a fracture event. Furthermore, this technique is the most appropriate to confirm the efficacy of preventive or curative therapeutic approaches of osteoporosis. A balanced utilisation of biochemical tests is mandatory to exclude a secondary cause of osteoporosis, to help in the choice of the most appropriate therapeutic strategy and to evaluate the early response of patients to the administered drugs. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication de la loi e protection du malade mental du 26 juin 1990 a parquet de Liège durant l'année 1994
Boxho, Philippe ULg

in Journal des Juges de Paix et de Police (1999), 3

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See detailBenefices multiples de la corticotherapie antenatale. Etat de la question en communaute Francaise de Belgique
Franckart, G.; Kurz, X.; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(3), 157-65

The benefit of antenatal administration of corticosteroids (betamethasone or dexamethasone) in the newborn prematured babies before the 34 week of gestation has been well demonstrated: reduction of ... [more ▼]

The benefit of antenatal administration of corticosteroids (betamethasone or dexamethasone) in the newborn prematured babies before the 34 week of gestation has been well demonstrated: reduction of respiratory distress syndrome but also a decrease in the incidence of severe intraventricular hemorrhages, episodes of necrotising enterocolitis and neonatal mortality. In this article, we report the impact of this treatment in the Belgian French Community in the population of infants with a birth weight below 1,500 g, born between 1990 and 1994 in the seven neonatal intensive care units. Based on this epidemiological study (compared with international publications) we propose the routine use of corticosteroids during the antenatal period, with the aim of seeing an increase in the use of this treatment, which, although costing little, produces clinical benefit. [less ▲]

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See detailOligodendrocytes: From Development to Demyelinated Lesion Repair
Rogister, Bernard ULg; Belachew, Shibeshih ULg; Moonen, Gustave ULg

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (1999), 99(1), 32-9

Spontaneous but incomplete remyelination is observed after a demyelinating lesion. We know since ten years now that oligodendrocyte progenitors, (OP) and totipotent neural stem cells remain present in the ... [more ▼]

Spontaneous but incomplete remyelination is observed after a demyelinating lesion. We know since ten years now that oligodendrocyte progenitors, (OP) and totipotent neural stem cells remain present in the central nervous system of adult mammals. [less ▲]

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See detailBilateral neck exploration under hypnosedation. A new standard of care in primary hyperparathyroidism?
Meurisse, Michel ULg; Hamoir, Etienne ULg; Defechereux, Thierry ULg et al

in Annals of Surgery (1999), 229

OBJECTIVE: The authors review their experience with initial bilateral neck exploration under local anesthesia and hypnosedation for primary hyperparathyroidism. Efficacy, safety, and cost effectiveness of ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: The authors review their experience with initial bilateral neck exploration under local anesthesia and hypnosedation for primary hyperparathyroidism. Efficacy, safety, and cost effectiveness of this new approach are examined. BACKGROUND: Standard bilateral parathyroid exploration under general anesthesia is associated with significant risk, especially in an elderly population. Image-guided unilateral approaches, although theoretically less invasive, expose patients to the potential risk of missing multiple adenomas or asymmetric hyperplasia. Initial bilateral neck exploration under hypnosedation may maximize the strengths of both approaches while minimizing their weaknesses. METHODS: In a consecutive series of 121 initial cervicotomies for primary hyperparathyroidism performed between 1995 and 1997, 31 patients were selected on the basis of their own request to undergo a conventional bilateral neck exploration under local anesthesia and hypnosedation. Neither preoperative testing of hypnotic susceptibility nor expensive localization studies were done. A hypnotic state (immobility, subjective well-being, and increased pain thresholds) was induced within 10 minutes; restoration of a fully conscious state was obtained within several seconds. Patient comfort and quiet surgical conditions were ensured by local anesthesia of the collar incision and minimal intravenous sedation titrated throughout surgery. Both peri- and postoperative records were examined to assess the safety and efficacy of this new approach. RESULTS: No conversion to general anesthesia was needed. No complications were observed. All the patients were cured with a mean follow-up of 18 +/- 12 months. Mean operating time was <1 hour. Four glands were identified in 84% of cases, three glands in 9.7%. Adenomas were found in 26 cases; among these, 6 were ectopic. Hyperplasia, requiring subtotal parathyroidectomy and transcervical thymectomy, was found in five cases (16.1%), all of which had gone undetected by localization studies when requested by the referring physicians. Concomitant thyroid lobectomy was performed in four cases. Patient comfort and recovery and surgical conditions were evaluated on visual analog scales as excellent. Postoperative analgesic consumption was minimal. Mean length of hospital stay was 1.5 +/- 0.5 days. CONCLUSIONS: Initial bilateral neck exploration for primary hyperparathyroidism can be performed safely, efficiently, and cost-effectively under hypnosedation, which may therefore be proposed as a new standard of care. [less ▲]

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See detailLe point sur les polyamines
Dandrifosse, Guy ULg; Deloyer, P.; Grandfils, Christian ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(3), 175-83

Polyamines are ubiquitous substances. Their intracellular concentration is controlled quickly and rigorously by extremely sophisticated systems. It depends on metabolism and cellular permeability ... [more ▼]

Polyamines are ubiquitous substances. Their intracellular concentration is controlled quickly and rigorously by extremely sophisticated systems. It depends on metabolism and cellular permeability. Polyamines act as structural and functional elements in the cell (nucleic acid conformation, cytoskeleton, radioprotection, apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation of cells...). They also play a role in various diseases (origin of food allergy, cancers...). They present a great therapeutic interest (oncology, molecular transfer to cell nucleus, transfer across the blood-brain barrier, parasitosis, effects on NMDA and GABA receptors in the central nervous system...). [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of Induction of Anaesthesia on Intubating Conditions One Minute after Rocuronium Administration: Comparison of Ketamine and Thiopentone
Hans, Pol ULg; Brichant, Jean-François ULg; Hubert, B. et al

in Anaesthesia (1999), 54(3), 276-9

We compared the effect of thiopentone and ketamine on intubating conditions after rocuronium 0.6 mg.kg-1 in two groups of patients (n = 16 each), aged 21-44 years, undergoing elective surgery ... [more ▼]

We compared the effect of thiopentone and ketamine on intubating conditions after rocuronium 0.6 mg.kg-1 in two groups of patients (n = 16 each), aged 21-44 years, undergoing elective surgery. Premedication consisted of alprazolam 1 mg by mouth 1 h before surgery. All patients received midazolam 2 mg intravenously 2 min before intravenous administration of thiopentone 5 mg.kg-1 or ketamine 2.5 mg.kg-1. Muscle relaxation was provided by rocuronium 0.6 mg.kg-1. One minute after rocuronium administration, tracheal intubation was performed within 15 s by a skilled anaesthetist blinded to the treatment group assignment. Intubating conditions were graded as excellent, good, fair or poor on the basis of jaw relaxation, position of vocal cords and diaphragmatic response. Neuromuscular transmission was assessed at the adductor pollicis muscle using a TOF-GUARD monitor. Excellent and good intubating conditions were obtained in 100% of patients in the ketamine group and in 50% of patients in the thiopentone group (p = 0.002). Jaw relaxation was similar in both groups but vocal cord conditions were better and the diaphragmatic response less marked in the ketamine group compared with the thiopentone group (p = 0.002). The degree of neuromuscular block [% decrease of T1, mean (SD)] at the time of intubation was similar: 51.8 (25)% (ketamine group) and 54.3 (23.1)% (thiopentone group). We conclude that ketamine 2.5 mg.kg-1 provides better intubating conditions than thiopentone 5 mg.kg-1 1 min after administration of rocuronium 0.6 mg.kg-1. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Inflammatory Reaction Induced by Formalin in the Rat Paw
Damas, Jacques ULg; Liégeois, Jean-François ULg

in Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology (1999), 359(3), 220-7

The involvement of bradykinin and some other inflammatory mediators in formalin-induced oedema and plasma extravasation was examined. Formalin was injected in rat paws at two doses, 1.75% or 5%. The lower ... [more ▼]

The involvement of bradykinin and some other inflammatory mediators in formalin-induced oedema and plasma extravasation was examined. Formalin was injected in rat paws at two doses, 1.75% or 5%. The lower dose induced the development of an immediate oedema associated with a progressive accumulation of 125I-labelled albumin in the paws. These changes were suppressed by pretreatment with capsaicin or xylocaine. They were abolished by RP67580, a NK1 receptor antagonist, and increased by phosphoramidon or diprotin A. They were not affected by HOE140, a bradykinin B2 antagonist, captopril, methysergide, mepyramine, indomethacin, ketoprofen or L-N(G)-nitroarginine. The higher dose of formalin induced a swelling of the paws which took place in two phases associated with two periods of increase in vascular permeability. This oedema was reduced by pretreatment with capsaicin but not with xylocaine. It was reduced by RP67580 injected before or 30 min after formalin. It was inhibited by mepyramine, methysergide, indomethacin and NS-398, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor. It was not modified by HOE140. Its development was similar in normal and kininogen-deficient rats. We concluded that formalin administered at a low dose induces an oedema which mainly results from a neurogenic inflammation mediated by neuropeptides such as substance P. At higher doses, formalin induces an oedema which mainly depends on the release of substance P, prostanoids, 5-hydroxytryptamine and histamine. Bradykinin plays no significant role in the vascular changes whereas this peptide has been reported to participate in the stimulation of nociceptive afferent neurons. This discrepancy could be explained by a difference in the threshold of stimulation of the nociceptive neurons and that of the cells of the vascular walls, or by a formation of kinins in close contact of the neurons. [less ▲]

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See detailBreaking the Relentless Course of Hallopeau's Acrodermatitis by Dapsone
Nikkels, Arjen ULg; Tassoudji, Nazli ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in European Journal of Dermatology (1999), 9(2), 126-128

We report the case of a 74-year-old man who suffered for four years from recurrent generalized pustular eruptions associated with acrodermatitis continua of Hallopeau (ACH). Initial therapy using topical ... [more ▼]

We report the case of a 74-year-old man who suffered for four years from recurrent generalized pustular eruptions associated with acrodermatitis continua of Hallopeau (ACH). Initial therapy using topical corticosteroids, tars and PUVA failed to improve the acral lesions. The disease was also unresponsive to systemic therapy using corticosteroids, methotrexate, etretinate, acitretine and cyclosporin A. Serious side-effects were experienced with these drugs. A marked improvement of the generalized pustules was observed under treatment combining etretinate and methotrexate, without having any effect on the acropustulosis. During hospitalization, a topical tar therapy cleared the pustular rash. Again no effect was observed on the acral lesions. Disulone (DDS) therapy, initiated at a dose of 200 mg/day, completely cleared ACH after 4 weeks. The disease relapsed when the dose was reduced to 100 mg/day. Increasing the DDS to 150 mg/day was rapidly followed by a new clearance of the acral lesions. After a 3-month treatment, the patient has remained lesion free and no DDS-related side-effects have occurred. In conclusion, sulfones may be considered as an alternative therapeutic option in drug-resistant ACH. [less ▲]

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See detailInteret clinique de la tomographie a emission de positons dans la detection et le bilan d'extension des recidives des cancers colorectaux
Hustinx, Roland ULg; Paulus, P.; Daenen, Frédéric ULg et al

in Gastroentérologie Clinique et Biologique (1999), 23(3), 323-9

BACKGROUND: Positron emission tomography (PET) has been shown useful for the staging of patients with various carcinomas. METHODS: We have applied this technique to 54 cases of colorectal carcinoma and ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Positron emission tomography (PET) has been shown useful for the staging of patients with various carcinomas. METHODS: We have applied this technique to 54 cases of colorectal carcinoma and compared it to conventional imaging techniques. RESULTS: PET had moderately higher sensitivity and specificity than conventional techniques to detect individual lesion sites (75% vs 70.8% and 63% vs 21% respectively). It detected the same number of patients with recurrences (35/39) but overestimated disease less frequently (5 cases vs 12). PET favorably influenced therapeutic management in 17 patients, indicating different or additional surgery in 9 while avoiding surgery with curative intent or unnecessary surgery in 8. In 5 cases, erroneous information provided by PET could be corrected by conventional imaging techniques. CONCLUSION: We conclude that PET appears to provide complementary information useful for staging patients with colorectal carcinomas. It can significantly modify patients management. These data should be confirmed by a prospective study. [less ▲]

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See detailReactive Oxygen Intermediate-Dependent Nf-Kappab Activation by Interleukin-1beta Requires 5-Lipoxygenase or Nadph Oxidase Activity
Bonizzi, Giuseppina; Piette, Jacques ULg; Haterte, Stéphanie ULg et al

in Molecular & Cellular Biology (1999), 19(3), 1950-60

We previously reported that the role of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) in NF-kappaB activation by proinflammatory cytokines was cell specific. However, the sources for ROIs in various cell types are ... [more ▼]

We previously reported that the role of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) in NF-kappaB activation by proinflammatory cytokines was cell specific. However, the sources for ROIs in various cell types are yet to be determined and might include 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and NADPH oxidase. 5-LOX and 5-LOX activating protein (FLAP) are coexpressed in lymphoid cells but not in monocytic or epithelial cells. Stimulation of lymphoid cells with interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) led to ROI production and NF-kappaB activation, which could both be blocked by antioxidants or FLAP inhibitors, confirming that 5-LOX was the source of ROIs and was required for NF-kappaB activation in these cells. IL-1beta stimulation of epithelial cells did not generate any ROIs and NF-kappaB induction was not influenced by 5-LOX inhibitors. However, reintroduction of a functional 5-LOX system in these cells allowed ROI production and 5-LOX-dependent NF-kappaB activation. In monocytic cells, IL-1beta treatment led to a production of ROIs which is independent of the 5-LOX enzyme but requires the NADPH oxidase activity. This pathway involves the Rac1 and Cdc42 GTPases, two enzymes which are not required for NF-kappaB activation by IL-1beta in epithelial cells. In conclusion, three different cell-specific pathways lead to NF-kappaB activation by IL-1beta: a pathway dependent on ROI production by 5-LOX in lymphoid cells, an ROI- and 5-LOX-independent pathway in epithelial cells, and a pathway requiring ROI production by NADPH oxidase in monocytic cells. [less ▲]

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See detailSt-Segment Elevation During Dobutamine Stress Testing Predicts Functional Recovery after Acute Myocardial Infarction
Pierard, Luc ULg; Lancellotti, Patrizio ULg; Kulbertus, Henri ULg

in American Heart Journal (1999), 137(3), 500-11

OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were (1) to assess the relation between ST-segment elevation and wall motion response occurring during dobutamine testing and (2) to evaluate the usefulness of stress ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were (1) to assess the relation between ST-segment elevation and wall motion response occurring during dobutamine testing and (2) to evaluate the usefulness of stress-induced ST-segment elevation for predicting functional recovery after acute myocardial infarction. BACKGROUND: Clinical significance of stress-induced ST-segment elevation after acute myocardial infarction remains controversial. According to previous studies, it may reflect a larger infarcted area, depressed left ventricular function, left ventricular aneurysm, stress-induced dyskinesia, residual myocardial ischemia, or viability in the affected region. Whether transient ST-segment elevation occurring during dobutamine testing may predict functional recovery is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 38 patients who underwent dobutamine stress testing early (5 +/- 2 days) after a first acute myocardial infarction. Dobutamine was infused at increasing doses from 5 to a maximum of 40 microg/kg per minute, with the addition of up to 1 mg of atropine if the target rate could not be reached by dobutamine alone. Twelve-lead electrocardiography and cross-sectional echocardiography were continuously monitored throughout the test. Dobutamine-induced ST-segment elevation was defined as a new or worsening >/=1 mm elevation, 80 ms after J point, in >/=2 infarct-related leads. Quantitative angiography was available in all patients before hospital discharge. Follow-up resting echocardiography was recorded in all patients 12 to 18 months after the acute event. ST-segment elevation was observed in 20 of the 38 patients. There were no significant differences between patients with and those without dobutamine-induced ST-segment elevation in age, site of infarction, peak level of total creatine kinase enzyme, and use of thrombolytic therapy, angioplasty, or both. Persistent akinesis without change during dobutamine stress testing was more frequently observed in patients without ST elevation (P <. 05). A biphasic response during dobutamine testing was more frequently observed in patients with ST-segment elevation (P =.01). Multivariate analysis selected 2 independent variables associated with ST-segment elevation: a biphasic response during dobutamine stress (chi-square = 7.3; P =.007) and the minimal lumen diameter of the infarct-related vessel at quantitative angiography (chi-square = 5.5; P <.02). Functional recovery was demonstrated in 26 patients. Sensitivity of ST-segment elevation for the prediction of functional recovery was 69%, specificity 83%, positive predictive value 90%, and accuracy 74%. Two independent variables predicting functional recovery were selected: dobutamine-induced ST-segment elevation (chi-square = 9.1; P =.003) and a biphasic response during stress (chi-square = 6.15; P =.013). CONCLUSIONS: Dobutamine-induced ST-segment elevation in the infarct-related leads is an ancillary sign of viable myocardium in jeopardy. It has a high specificity and an acceptable sensitivity for the prediction of functional recovery after acute myocardial infarction. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Polychlorinated Biphenyls on Liver Ultrastructure, Hepatic Monooxygenases, and Reproductive Success in the Barbel
Hugla, J. L.; Thomé, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety (1999), 42(3), 265-73

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are organochlorinated micropollutants ubiquitously distributed in the environment. They are known to be strong inducers of hepatic monooxygenases in fish. This can ... [more ▼]

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are organochlorinated micropollutants ubiquitously distributed in the environment. They are known to be strong inducers of hepatic monooxygenases in fish. This can adversely affect reproduction by increasing steroid metabolism. In this work, adult barbels were contaminated with food containing Aroclor 1260, a commercial PCB mixture from Monsanto, at environmentally relevant concentrations. A significant increase in cytochrome P450 was observed, and two particularly sensitive enzymes, ethoxyresorufin o-deethylase (EROD) and ethoxycoumarin o-deethylase (ECOD), were strongly induced. Electron microscopy revealed alterations in liver ultrastructure in contaminated fish, principally an increase in the number of cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, drastic glycogen depletion, dissolution of mitochondrial contents, and appearance of myelin figures. Contamination was also studied in relation to reproductive success in a hatchery. Contaminated males displayed no alteration in milt quality, but PCBs did alter female reproductive parameters. Total mortality of eggs and larvae increased significantly with the level of PCBs in the eggs. The most highly contaminated fish did not even spawn. All the adverse effects recorded here tended to be reversible when the intoxication ended, sometimes after only a 1-year detoxication period. [less ▲]

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See detailL'image du mois. Aspect echographique de la myocardiopathie hypertrophique apicale
Appeltants, H.; Hoffer, E.; Pierard, Luc ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(3), 137

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See detailPromising New Agents in Osteoporosis
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Henrotin, Yves ULg; Gosset, Christiane ULg

in Drugs in R&D (1999), 1(3), 195-201

Currently marketed inhibitors of bone resorption or stimulators of bone formation have significantly contributed to a better preventive and therapeutic approach to postmenopausal and senile osteoporosis ... [more ▼]

Currently marketed inhibitors of bone resorption or stimulators of bone formation have significantly contributed to a better preventive and therapeutic approach to postmenopausal and senile osteoporosis. However, none of the available compounds has unequivocally demonstrated an ability to fully prevent the occurrence of new vertebral or peripheral osteoporotic fractures once the disease is established. Therefore, several new medications are being developed, with the aim of providing a better risk-benefit profile and/or a more favourable cost-utility assessment than available drugs. Potential inhibitors of bone resorption include specific inhibitors of the osteoclast's proton pump, inhibitors of prostaglandins or nitric oxide donors. Stimulators of osteoblastic activity and subsequent bone formation might be obtained by strontium salts, peptides of the parathyroid hormone family, growth hormone and insulin-like growth factors or bone morphogenetic proteins. Most of these compounds are now undergoing phase II/III development programmes, and results evaluating their potential benefit should be available within 1 to 5 years. [less ▲]

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See detailA Hand Immersion Test under Laboratory-Controlled Usage Conditions: The Need for Sensitive and Controlled Assessment Methods
Paye, Marc ULg; Gomes, G.; Zerweck, C. R. et al

in Contact Dermatitis (1999), 40(3), 133-8

Exaggerated test conditions were frequently used to investigate the cutaneous tolerance of detergent products in the past. As the sensitivity of newly designed biometric methods is steadily improving, the ... [more ▼]

Exaggerated test conditions were frequently used to investigate the cutaneous tolerance of detergent products in the past. As the sensitivity of newly designed biometric methods is steadily improving, the trend towards more realistic test conditions should be encouraged. A hand immersion test under laboratory-controlled usage conditions is presently described, fulfilling such principles. Panelists soaked their hands in 2 different hand dishwashing liquids, 2x daily for 10 min each (with successive in-solution/out-of-solution cycles) for 4 consecutive days. Products were at usual dilution for dishwashing liquids and were randomized between the dominant and non-dominant hands of panelists. Visual scoring of erythema and dryness developing on the whole hands (scoring scales including interdigital areas and joints) during the week did not allow discrimination between the 2 products. However the dominant hands were significantly more susceptible to alterations than the non-dominant hands, regardless of product attribution. In contrast, skin electrical measurements (Corneometer CM800 and Skicon 200) on the dorsum of the hands (muscle mass between thumb and index) and squamometry analysis of tape stripping (harvested from the same site) yielded significant differences between the 2 products. In conclusion, a hand immersion test under realistic conditions has been described, which discriminates between products when sensitive assessment methods are used to explore skin sites partially protected from daily-life skin aggressions. [less ▲]

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See detailAdsorption of ampholytic diblock copolymers from dilute aqueous solution at the solid/liquid interface
Walter, H.; Harrats, C.; Müller-Buschbaum, P. et al

in Langmuir (1999), 15(4), 1260-1267

The adsorption of the ampholytic diblock copolymer poly(methacrylic acid)-block-poly((dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PMAA-b-PDMAEMA) and the corresponding homopolyelectrolytes of the two blocks, PMAA ... [more ▼]

The adsorption of the ampholytic diblock copolymer poly(methacrylic acid)-block-poly((dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PMAA-b-PDMAEMA) and the corresponding homopolyelectrolytes of the two blocks, PMAA and PDMAEMA, was investigated from dilute aqueous solution on silicon substrates. The adsorbed amount of polymer as a function of pH, polyampholyte concentration, and salt concentration in solution has been determined by ellipsometry at room temperature. As a function of pH the adsorbed amount reaches its maximum at the isoelectric point of the polyampholyte. Some adsorption takes place even in pH ranges where the surface charge has the same sign as the net charge of the polyampholyte. By variation of the polyampholyte concentration, typical adsorption isotherms were determined at several pH values. With increasing salt concentration the adsorbed amount increases, and above a critical concentration it diverges to very large values. The measured dependencies can be explained by the adsorption of one or the other of the two blocks depending on acidity and ionic strength and are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. Adsorption kinetics has also been studied in detail, and the diffusion coefficient of the polyampholyte toward the surface has been obtained in the early state of adsorption as a function of pH, polyampholyte concentration, and salt concentration. [less ▲]

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See detailMurine Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Gene. 5'-Upstream Region Contains Cis-Acting Elements for Expression in Osteoclasts and Migrating Keratinocytes in Transgenic Mice
Munaut, Carine ULg; Salonurmi, T.; Kontusaari, S. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (1999), 274(9), 5588-96

Knowledge about the regulation of cell lineage-specific expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinases is limited. In the present work, the murine matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) gene was shown ... [more ▼]

Knowledge about the regulation of cell lineage-specific expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinases is limited. In the present work, the murine matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) gene was shown to contain 13 exons, and the 2.8-kilobase pair upstream region was found to contain several common promoter elements including a TATA box-like motif, three GC boxes, four AP-1-like binding sites, an AP-2 site, and three PEA3 consensus sequences that may be important for basic activity of the gene. In order to identify cell-specific regulatory elements, constructs containing varying lengths of the upstream region in front of a LacZ reporter gene were made and studied for expression in transgenic mice generated by microinjection into fertilized oocytes. Analyses of the mice revealed that the presence of sequences between -2722 and -7745 allowed for expression in osteoclasts and migrating keratinocytes, i. e. cells that have been shown to normally express the enzyme in vivo. The results represent the first in vivo demonstration of the location of cell-specific control elements in a matrix metalloproteinase gene and show that element(s) regulating most cell-specific activities of 92-kDa type collagenase are located in the -2722 to -7745 base pair region. [less ▲]

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See detailStable Inhibition of Nuclear Factor Kappab in Cancer Cells Does Not Increase Sensitivity to Cytotoxic Drugs
Bentires-Alj, M.; Hellin, A. C.; Ameyar, M. et al

in Cancer Research (1999), 59(4), 811-5

Several reports indicated that nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation by cytokines, cytotoxic drugs, or ionizing radiation protects cells against apoptosis. Therefore, we investigated the ... [more ▼]

Several reports indicated that nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation by cytokines, cytotoxic drugs, or ionizing radiation protects cells against apoptosis. Therefore, we investigated the consequence of NF-kappaB inhibition on the efficiency of antineoplastic agents. HPB, HCT116, MCF7, and OVCAR-3 cells stably expressing a dominant negative IkappaBalpha inhibitor showed a decreased NF-kappaB activation following treatment with tumor necrosis factor a and various chemotherapeutic agents. However, there was no difference in survival between parental cells and cells expressing mutated IkappaBalpha. These studies suggest that, at least in these cell lines, stable NF-kappaB inhibition did not modify the response to cytotoxic drugs. [less ▲]

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See detailOpposing Actions of Intact and N-Terminal Fragments of the Human Prolactin/Growth Hormone Family Members on Angiogenesis: An Efficient Mechanism for the Regulation of Angiogenesis
Struman, Ingrid ULg; Bentzien, F.; Lee, H. et al

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (1999), 96(4), 1246-51

Angiogenesis, the process of development of a new microvasculature, is regulated by a balance of positive and negative factors. We show both in vivo and in vitro that the members of the human prolactin ... [more ▼]

Angiogenesis, the process of development of a new microvasculature, is regulated by a balance of positive and negative factors. We show both in vivo and in vitro that the members of the human prolactin/growth hormone family, i.e., human prolactin, human growth hormone, human placental lactogen, and human growth hormone variant are angiogenic whereas their respective 16-kDa N-terminal fragments are antiangiogenic. The opposite actions are regulated in part via activation or inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. In addition, the N-terminal fragments stimulate expression of type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor whereas the intact molecules have no effect, an observation consistent with the fragments acting via separate receptors. The concept that a single molecule encodes both angiogenic and antiangiogenic peptides represents an efficient model for regulating the balance of positive and negative factors controlling angiogenesis. This hypothesis has potential physiological importance for the control of the vascular connection between the fetal and maternal circulations in the placenta, where human prolactin, human placental lactogen, and human growth hormone variant are expressed. [less ▲]

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See detailAntibody Response to Glycoprotein E after Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1 Infection in Passively Immunised, Glycoprotein E-Negative Calves
Lemaire, Mylène; Schynts, Frédérick; Meyer, Gilles et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (1999), 144(7), 172-6

This study was conducted to determine whether young calves with maternal antibodies against bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) but without antibodies against glycoprotein E (gE) can produce an active ... [more ▼]

This study was conducted to determine whether young calves with maternal antibodies against bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) but without antibodies against glycoprotein E (gE) can produce an active antibody response to gE after a BHV-1 infection. Five calves received at birth colostrum from gE-seronegative cows which had been vaccinated two or three times with an inactivated BHV-1, gE-deleted marker vaccine. After inoculation with a wild-type virulent strain of BHV-1, all the passively immunised gE-negative calves shed virus in large amounts in their nasal secretions. All the calves seroconverted to gE within two to four weeks after inoculation and then had high levels of gE antibodies for at least four months. The development of an active cell-mediated immune response was also detected by in vitro BHV-1-specific interferon-gamma assays. All the calves were latently infected, because one of them re-excreted the virus spontaneously and the other four did so after being treated with dexamethasone. The results showed that under the conditions of this work the gE-negative marker could also distinguish between passively immunised and latently infected calves. [less ▲]

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See detailExpression of Mrna Encoding Alpha1e and Alpha1g Subunit in the Brain of a Rat Model of Absence Epilepsy
de Borman, B.; Lakaye, Bernard ULg; Minet, Arlette ULg et al

in Neuroreport (1999), 10(3), 569-74

Low voltage-activated calcium channels are thought to play a key role in the generation of spike and waves discharges characteristic of absence epilepsy. Therefore, the expression level of mRNA encoding ... [more ▼]

Low voltage-activated calcium channels are thought to play a key role in the generation of spike and waves discharges characteristic of absence epilepsy. Therefore, the expression level of mRNA encoding calcium channel alpha1E and alpha1G subunits was measured in the brain of genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS). Using quantitative RT-PCR and in situ hybridization, no difference was found in alpha1G mRNA expression between GAERS and control animals, while a decreased expression of alpha1E was seen in the cerebellum and the brain stem of the GAERS. This phenomenon was not observed in young animals when the epileptic phenotype is not expressed. [less ▲]

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See detailIkappab-Alpha Enhances Transactivation by the Hoxb7 Homeodomain-Containing Protein
Chariot, Alain ULg; Princen, Frédéric; Gielen, Jacques et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (1999), 274(9), 5318-25

Combinatorial interactions between distinct transcription factors generate specificity in the controlled expression of target genes. In this report, we demonstrated that the HOXB7 homeodomain-containing ... [more ▼]

Combinatorial interactions between distinct transcription factors generate specificity in the controlled expression of target genes. In this report, we demonstrated that the HOXB7 homeodomain-containing protein, which plays a key role in development and differentiation, physically interacted in vitro with IkappaB-alpha, an inhibitor of NF-kappaB activity. This interaction was mediated by the IkappaB-alpha ankyrin repeats and C-terminal domain as well as by the HOXB7 N-terminal domain. In transient transfection experiments, IkappaB-alpha markedly increased HOXB7-dependent transcription from a reporter plasmid containing a homeodomain consensus-binding sequence. This report therefore showed a novel function for IkappaB-alpha, namely a positive regulation of transcriptional activation by homeodomain-containing proteins. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanical properties of weakly segregated block copolymers. 3. Influence of strain rate and temperature on tensile properties of poly(styrene-b-butyl methacrylate) diblock copolymers with different morphologies
Weidisch, Roland; Stamm, Manfred; Michler, G. H. et al

in Macromolecules (1999), 32(3), 742-750

Poly(styrene-b-butyl methacrylate) diblock copolymers, PS-b-PBMA, with different morphologies are investigated with respect to the influence of strain rate and temperature on tensile properties. In the ... [more ▼]

Poly(styrene-b-butyl methacrylate) diblock copolymers, PS-b-PBMA, with different morphologies are investigated with respect to the influence of strain rate and temperature on tensile properties. In the first part the mechanical properties of bicontinuous and perforated lamellar structure are compared with other morphologies. Diblock copolymers with bicontinuous structures (39% PS) show a much higher tensile strength as well as a higher strain at break than diblock copolymers with lamellar structures (50% PS). In the second part the dependence of tensile properties on strain rate and temperature are discussed for different morphologies. A diblock copolymer with a polystyrene content of 76% PS reveals hexagonally packed PBMA−cylinder, and the tensile strength, strain at break, and Young's modulus exceed the values of pure polystyrene at all measured strain rates. The interesting properties of PS-b-PBMA diblock copolymers are discussed with respect to the phase behavior, interface formation, and chain conformation. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional neuroanatomy of hypnotic state
Maquet, Pierre ULg; Faymonville, Marie-Elisabeth ULg; Degueldre, Christian ULg et al

in Biological Psychiatry (1999), 45(3), 327-333

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to describe the distribution of regional cerebral blood flow during the hypnotic state (HS) in humans, using positron-emission tomography (PET) and statistical ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to describe the distribution of regional cerebral blood flow during the hypnotic state (HS) in humans, using positron-emission tomography (PET) and statistical parametric mapping. METHODS: The hypnotic state relied on revivification of pleasant autobiographical memories and was compared to imaging autobiographical material in "normal alertness." A group of 9 subjects under polygraphic monitoring received six H215O infusions and was scanned in the following order: alert-HS-HS-HS with color hallucination-HS with color hallucination-alert. PET data were analyzed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM95). RESULTS: The group analysis showed that hypnotic state is related to the activation of a widespread, mainly left-sided, set of cortical areas involving occipital, parietal, precentral, premotor, and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices and a few right-sided regions: occipital and anterior cingulate cortices. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of activation during hypnotic state differs from those induced in normal subjects by the simple evocation of autobiographical memories. It shares many similarities with mental imagery, from which it differs by the relative deactivation of precuneus. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Beta-Lactamase Cycle: A Tale of Selective Pressure and Bacterial Ingenuity
Matagne, André ULg; Dubus, Alain; Galleni, Moreno ULg et al

in Natural Product Reports (1999), 16(1), 1-19

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See detailLoss of the Y Chromosome in Bone Marrow Cells: Results on 1907 Consecutive Cases of Leukaemia and Preleukaemia
Herens, Christian ULg; Brasseur, Edmond ULg; Jamar, Michelle ULg et al

in Clinical & Laboratory Haematology (1999), 21(1), 17-20

Loss of the Y chromosome with a resulting 45, X0 karyotype is observed in normal bone marrow cells of elderly males but also in haematological malignancies. Whether Y loss in neoplastic cells is related ... [more ▼]

Loss of the Y chromosome with a resulting 45, X0 karyotype is observed in normal bone marrow cells of elderly males but also in haematological malignancies. Whether Y loss in neoplastic cells is related to the process seen in normal ageing or is part of the carcinogenic process is unknown. The present study concerns the cytogenetic data from 1907 consecutive leukaemic or preleukaemic male patients with special regard to the presence or absence of the Y chromosome. Sixty-five patients (3.4%) had a 45, X-Y clone in their bone marrow (BM) cells. Loss of Y was rare below the age of 50 but increased in older patients, reaching 25% of the men over 80. Sixteen patients (0.08%) had more than 90% X0 cells in their BM. A correlation between Y loss and leukaemia could be established in seven cases, three of which were acute myeloid leukaemia M2 subtype where -Y is known to be a secondary event. In three other cases, -Y was part of a complex karyotype. Only one patient exhibited a 45, X0 karyotype, with no other rearrangement, that could be positively correlated with the neoplastic process. [less ▲]

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See detailCollective effects during crystal growth in the presence of mobile nonreactive impurities: experiments and simulations
Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Ausloos, Marcel ULg; Cloots, Rudi ULg

in Journal of Crystal Growth (1999), 197(1-2), 317-324

The growth of a solid phase in a liquid medium containing randomly dispersed mesoscopic impurities is discussed. Particles represent hindrances for the growth front. They can remain static or can be ... [more ▼]

The growth of a solid phase in a liquid medium containing randomly dispersed mesoscopic impurities is discussed. Particles represent hindrances for the growth front. They can remain static or can be pushed by the advancing interface. The physics of the collective particle motion is outlined. Experiments with A12O3-SiO2 impurities in KC1 crystal serve as illustrative examples. The collective effects due to the particle concentration are investigated through a kinetic growth model. [less ▲]

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See detailEeuwige vragen? Over Mooi, maar dat is het woord niet van Rutger Kopland
Spinoy, Erik ULg

in Neerlandica Extra Muros (1999), 37(1), 53-58

This article is a critical survey of the literary views held by the Dutch poet Rutger Kopland.

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See detailPharma-clinics. Comment je traite ... le zona
Nikkels, Arjen ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(2), 71-75

The treatment of herpes zoster relies on the intravenous or oral administration of antiviral drugs. Oral aciclovir for shingles is hindered by its low bioavailability. New antiviral drugs with improved ... [more ▼]

The treatment of herpes zoster relies on the intravenous or oral administration of antiviral drugs. Oral aciclovir for shingles is hindered by its low bioavailability. New antiviral drugs with improved oral bioavailability (famciclovir and valaciclovir) allow a better efficacy. The opportuneness of treating herpes zoster is different in the immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients, and during childhood and pregnancy. [less ▲]

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See detailPrognostic factors in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Groupe d'Etude des Neoplasies Endocriniennes Multiples (GENEM and groupe de Recherche et d'Etude du Syndrome de Zollinger-Ellison (GRESZE).
Cadiot, G.; Vuagnat, A.; Doukhan, I. et al

in Gastroenterology (1999), 116(2), 286-293

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Risk factors of metachronous liver metastases and death are not well known in patients with the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. These factors were ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Risk factors of metachronous liver metastases and death are not well known in patients with the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. These factors were retrospectively determined in 77 patients. METHODS: Data chart review was performed. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 102 months (range, 12-366). Surgery was performed on 48 patients, including 9 of the 10 patients with large pancreatic tumors (>/=3 cm). Liver metastases developed in 4 patients (40%) with large pancreatic tumors, in 3 (4.8%) without, and in 1 of the 4 patients with pancreatic tumors of unknown size; all had previously undergone surgery. The only independent factor associated with development of liver metastases identified by multivariate analysis was large pancreatic tumors (risk ratio, 29.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3. 2-260.7). Surgery was not selected. The probability of being free of liver metastases in the 63 patients without large pancreatic tumors was 96% (95% CI, 88-100) at 10 and 15 years. Thirteen (16.9%) patients died. The only independent factors of death selected by multivariate analysis were Zollinger-Ellison syndrome diagnosis before 1980 (risk ratio, 8.2; 95% CI, 1.7-40.6) and age at diagnosis (risk ratio/year, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.03-1.14). CONCLUSIONS: Large pancreatic tumors are predictive of the development of metachronous liver metastases, and surgery does not seem to prevent them. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Training on Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage and Interleukin 6 Production
Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Camus, G.; Venneman, Ingrid ULg et al

in Muscle & Nerve (1999), 22(2), 208-12

To address the question of whether the increased plasma concentration of interleukin 6 (IL-6) following strenuous muscular work could be related to exercise-induced muscle damage, 5 moderately active male ... [more ▼]

To address the question of whether the increased plasma concentration of interleukin 6 (IL-6) following strenuous muscular work could be related to exercise-induced muscle damage, 5 moderately active male volunteers underwent two isokinetic exercise sessions in the eccentric mode, separated by a period of 3 weeks during which the subjects underwent five training sessions. Before training, exercise was followed by severe muscle pain (delayed-onset muscle soreness; DOMS), and by significant increases in plasma IL-6 level and serum myoglobin concentration (SMb) (P < 0.001). After training, postexercise DOMS and SMb values were significantly lower than those measured before training. There was no significant difference between plasma IL-6 levels measured at the same time points before and after training. We conclude that the hypothetical relationship between exercise-induced muscle damage and increased postexercise levels of circulating IL-6 is not substantiated by the present results. [less ▲]

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See detailChronic Herpes Simplex Virus Type I Glossitis in an Immunocompromised Man
Nikkels, Arjen ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in British Journal of Dermatology (1999), 140(2), 343-346

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (HSV-1) infection of the tongue commonly accompanies acute primary herpetic gingivostomatitis. However, recurrent infection of the tongue is exceptional and is restricted ... [more ▼]

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (HSV-1) infection of the tongue commonly accompanies acute primary herpetic gingivostomatitis. However, recurrent infection of the tongue is exceptional and is restricted to immunocompromised individuals. A 57-year-old man with corticosteroid-dependent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and sciatica presented with a chronic median glossitis due to HSV-1. The main clinical and histological feature was massive necrosis of the entire mucosa. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated a considerable amount of HSV gB, gC and gD envelope glycoproteins dispersed in the chorion. In contrast, HSV-1 DNA was detected only in a limited number of epithelial cells using in situ hybridization. The extent of necrosis and the pattern of viral DNA and envelope protein distribution represent unique features of median herpetic glossitis, which are not found in more common types of HSV infection. [less ▲]

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See detailTypical Presentation of Intramural Aortic Haemorrhage (Iah) with Evidence of Intimal Tear at Mri and Angiography
RADERMECKER, Marc ULg; LAVIGNE, Jean-Paul ULg; Limet, Raymond ULg

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (1999), 99(1), 44-6

A typical appearance of IAH was evidenced by CT and TEE in a 56-year-old hypertensive female suspected of developping classical acute aortic dissection (AAD). Further examination with MRI and aortography ... [more ▼]

A typical appearance of IAH was evidenced by CT and TEE in a 56-year-old hypertensive female suspected of developping classical acute aortic dissection (AAD). Further examination with MRI and aortography showed unequivocally the presence of an intimal tear in the aortic arch. This coexistence of intimal tear has never been evidenced preoperatively in patients with IAH. This observation demonstrates at the outset that IAH is part of the spectrum of AAD. [less ▲]

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See detailControl of Dioscorea alata microtubers dormancy and germination by jasmonic acid
Bazabakana, R.; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULg; Jaziri, M. et al

in Plant Growth Regulation (1999), 27(2), 113-117

Effects of appling exogenous jasmonic acid (JA) on the germination of Dioscorea alata L. microtubers were examined on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. Microtuber germination was promoted by JA (0.1 and 1 ... [more ▼]

Effects of appling exogenous jasmonic acid (JA) on the germination of Dioscorea alata L. microtubers were examined on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. Microtuber germination was promoted by JA (0.1 and 1 µM) supplemented to the culture medium but higher concentrations (30 and 100 µM) completely inhibited germination. When these inhibited microtubers were transferred to hormone-free medium, germination resumed. After transfer to greenhouse conditions, almost all plants (95%) from tubers previously cultivated on MS medium with 100 µM JA survived and all acclimatized plants had produced tubers after 8 months. It is concluded that depending on JA concentration, both the germination and dormancy processes in D. alata microtubers were affected. The release from dormancy is easily obtained by transferring dormant microtubers to hormone-free medium. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanistic Diversity of Beta-Lactamases
Frère, Jean-Marie ULg; Dubus, Alain; Galleni, Moreno ULg et al

in Biochemical Society Transactions (1999), 27(2), 58-63

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See detailLe cas clinique du mois. Prolapsus sur dégénérescence fibro-élastique. Les "cheveux blancs" de la valvule mitrale
Radermecker, M. A.; Hoffer, E.; Pierard, Luc ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(2), 76-8

We report the case of a 73-year-old woman who presents an acute mitral regurgitation secondary to fibro-elastic degenerescence. A mitral valvuloplasty is rapidly performed with complete disappearance of ... [more ▼]

We report the case of a 73-year-old woman who presents an acute mitral regurgitation secondary to fibro-elastic degenerescence. A mitral valvuloplasty is rapidly performed with complete disappearance of valvular insufficiency and the patient leaves the hospital ten days later. Degenerative mitral regurgitation is commonly seen in elderly patients. This constitutes an excellent indication for mitral valvuloplasty, rather than valve replacement. In our experience, mitral valvuloplasty leads to a complete correction of valvular regurgitation without neither stenosis, nor subvalvular obstruction. Left ventricular function is preserved, as subvalvular apparatus is conserved. This approach allows, in the absence of specific indication, anticoagulation withdrawn two to three months later. [less ▲]

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See detailSubstituts des globules rouges: émulsions de fluorocarbures et solutions d'hémoglobine
Remy, Bernadette ULg; Deby, Ginette ULg; D'Ans, V. et al

in Annales Françaises d'Anesthésie et de Réanimation (1999), 18(2), 211-24

OBJECTIVE: To review the current data on perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsions and haemoglobin (Hb) solutions. DATA SOURCES: For this paper we analysed the literature using Medline search along with major ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To review the current data on perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsions and haemoglobin (Hb) solutions. DATA SOURCES: For this paper we analysed the literature using Medline search along with major review articles. DATA SELECTION AND EXTRACTION: The collected articles were reviewed and selected according to their quality and originality. DATA SYNTHESIS: PFCs are synthetic fluorinated hydrocarbons capable of dissolving, at increased FIO2, large amounts of oxygen. They deliver oxygen at tissular level, and are administered as emulsions containing particles of around 0.1 micron, reaching the smallest vessels. They are exhaled unchanged by the lungs within 7 days. The first clinically used PFC was Fluosol-DA 20%. Currently, Oxyfluor 40% and Oxygent 60% are under evaluation. PFCs are not true blood substitutes, but rather a means to support tissue oxygenation during extreme haemodilution. Solutions of free Hb do not require compatibility testing and are fully saturated with oxygen at ambient FIO2. Hb is either human, bovine or recombinant Hb. In order to maintain adequate intravascular half-life and affinity for oxygen, the Hb molecules are modified by internal cross-linking, polymerisation and encapsulation. After promising results using animal models, some of these modified Hb solutions are now undergoing phase III clinical trials. Among these, diaspirin cross-linked haemoglobin (DCLHb) has been tested in cardiac and orthopaedic surgery, as well as in trauma patients. The initial results of these multicentre trials are currently being analysed. [less ▲]

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See detailBiodegradable and biocompatible inorganic-organic hybrid materials: 4. Effect of acid content and water content on the incorporation of aliphatic polyesters into silica by the sol-gel process
Tian, Dong; Blacher, Silvia ULg; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Polymer (1999), 40(4), 951-957

The extent of poly -caprolactone (PCL) incorporation into silica networks prepared by the sol-gel process depends on the HCl:tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) molar ratio and the H2O:TEOS molar ratio, as well. The ... [more ▼]

The extent of poly -caprolactone (PCL) incorporation into silica networks prepared by the sol-gel process depends on the HCl:tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) molar ratio and the H2O:TEOS molar ratio, as well. The PCL incorporation increases with the concentration of the acid used as the catalyst. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) indicates that increasing the acid concentration or decreasing the water content results in a higher glass transition temperature for the organic component in the hybrid materials, whereas the modulus does not change significantly. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data agree with a nanoscopic phase separation of the two constitutive components: the organic polymer and the silica network. The characteristic length of this two-phase structure increases with acid content (except for the lower HCl:TEOS molar ratio of 0.05) and with water content (except for the higher H2O:TEOS molar ratio of 2.0). The structure of the PCL/SiO2 interface is mass fractal and the structure is more open when the acid content is lower or the water content higher. [less ▲]

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See detailWater invasion, freezing and thawing in cementitious materials
Ausloos, Marcel ULg; Salmon, E.; Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg

in Cement & Concrete Research (1999), 29(2), 209-213

A simple model of fluid invasion, freezing, and thawing in a porous medium was developed using an "invasion percolation-like" approach. The fluid freezing process is considered as destroying the internal ... [more ▼]

A simple model of fluid invasion, freezing, and thawing in a porous medium was developed using an "invasion percolation-like" approach. The fluid freezing process is considered as destroying the internal structure of the porous medium. The evolution of the pore size distribution after several invasionfrostthaw events is investigated numerically. Those results and qualitatively consistent with experimental measurements on fiberreinforced cements. [less ▲]

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See detailoncologie gastro-intestinale
Frei, A.; Coucke, Philippe ULg; Felley, C. et al

in Revue Médicale Suisse (1999), 760

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See detailInteraction between Class B Beta-Lactamases and Suicide Substrates of Active-Site Serine Beta-Lactamases
Prosperi-Meys, C.; Llabres, Gabriel ULg; De Seny, Dominique ULg et al

in FEBS Letters (1999), 443(2), 109-11

The most widely used inactivators of active-site serine beta-lactamases behave as substrates of four class B metallo-beta-lactamases, but the efficiency of the catalytic process can vary by several orders ... [more ▼]

The most widely used inactivators of active-site serine beta-lactamases behave as substrates of four class B metallo-beta-lactamases, but the efficiency of the catalytic process can vary by several orders of magnitude. A comparison of the kinetic parameters for the alpha and beta isomers of 6-iodopenicillanic acid shows that there is no general preference for the alpha isomer and that the efficient hydrolysis of imipenem by these enzymes must rest on other factors. [less ▲]

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See detailPolar stratospheric descent of NOy and CO and Arctic denitrification during winter 1992-1993
Rinsland, C. P.; Salawitch, R. J.; Gunson, M. R. et al

in Journal Of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres (1999), 104(D1), 1847-1861

Observations inside the November 1994 Antarctic stratospheric vortex and inside the April 1993 remnant Arctic stratospheric vortex by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) Fourier transform ... [more ▼]

Observations inside the November 1994 Antarctic stratospheric vortex and inside the April 1993 remnant Arctic stratospheric vortex by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) Fourier transform spectrometer are reported. In both instances, elevated volume mixing ratios (VMRs) of carbon monoxide (CO) were measured. A peak Antarctic CO VMR of 60 ppbv (where 1 ppbv = 10(-9) per unit volume) was measured at a potential temperature (Theta) of 710 K (similar to 27 km), about 1 km below the altitude of a pocket of elevated NOy (total reactive nitrogen) at a deep minimum in N2O (<5 ppbv). The Arctic observations also show a region of elevated vortex CO with a peak VMR of 90 ppbv at 630-670 K (similar to 25 km) but no corresponding enhancement in NOy, perhaps because of stronger dynamical activity in the northern hemisphere polar winter and/or interannual variability in the production of mesospheric NO. By comparing vortex and extravortex observations of NOy obtained at the same N2O VMR, Arctic vortex denitrification of 5 +/- 2 ppbv at 470 K (similar to 18 km) is inferred. We show that our conclusion of substantial Arctic winter 1992-1993 denitrification is robust by comparing our extravortex observations with previous polar measurements obtained over a wide range of winter conditions. Correlations of NOy with N2O measured at the same Theta by ATMOS in the Arctic vortex and at midlatitudes on board the ER-2 aircraft several weeks later lie along the same mixing line. The result demonstrates the consistency of the two data sets and confirms that the ER-2 sampled fragments of the denitrified Arctic vortex following its breakup, An analysis of the ATMOS Arctic measurements of total hydrogen shows no evidence for significant dehydration inside the vortex. [less ▲]

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See detailModifier l'utilisation/la destination d'un bâtiment, en Région wallonne
Delnoy, Michel ULg

in Immobilier (1999), 2

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See detailSynthesis and bulk characterization of new P(CB-b-S) diblock copolymers
Stone, V. W.; Jonas, Alain M; Legras, Roger et al

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry (1999), 37(2), 233-244

Strongly asymmetric chlorinated polybutadiene-b-polystyrene, [P((CB)x-b-(PS)y)] diblock copolymers with increasing x/(x + y) ratios (up to 5.2 mol %) have been synthesized by the selective chlorination of ... [more ▼]

Strongly asymmetric chlorinated polybutadiene-b-polystyrene, [P((CB)x-b-(PS)y)] diblock copolymers with increasing x/(x + y) ratios (up to 5.2 mol %) have been synthesized by the selective chlorination of the polybutadiene (PB) block in solution. Chlorination has been performed in anhydrous dichloromethane added with an antioxidant [2,2-methylenebis-(6-tert-butyl-4-methyl-phenol)], at -50°C, under a continuous Ar flow and in the dark. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the PB chlorination is not complete, but the PS block is left unmodified. Even in the presence of a large chlorine excess (Cl2/butene unit molar ratio of 2.5), the experimental degree of chlorination of homo PB does not exceed 85%. The chlorinated copolymers have been characterized by 1H-NMR, IR spectroscopy, size-exclusion chromatography, and elemental analysis. The chlorinated copolymers have also been studied by DSC and SAXS after annealing at 150°C. Although at this temperature the parent homopolymers are immiscible, no microphase separation has been observed for the block copolymers. [less ▲]

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See detailControlling the electrografting of polymers onto transition metal surfaces through solvent vs monomer adsorption
Crispin, Xavier; Lazzaroni, Roberto; Geskin, Victor et al

in Journal of the American Chemical Society (1999), 121(1), 167-187

Electropolymerization of methacrylic monomers opens the possibility of chemically grafting a wide range of polymers onto transition metal surfaces. In this work, the electropolymerization of ... [more ▼]

Electropolymerization of methacrylic monomers opens the possibility of chemically grafting a wide range of polymers onto transition metal surfaces. In this work, the electropolymerization of polyacrylonitrile and polyethyl acrylate is studied in different solvents; we experimentally confirm that the choice of solvent is a critical parameter for obtaining electrografted polymers. A density-functional theory−based study modeling the interaction of solvent (acetonitrile, dimethylformamide, and pyridine) or monomer (acrylonitrile and ethyl acrylate) molecules with the Ni(100) metal surface provides the means to classify the organic molecules with respect to their ability to interact with the surface. The surface binding-energy difference between monomer and solvent is introduced in a Frumkin-type isotherm. This allows us to rationalize the experimental observations in terms of a competitive adsorption at the metal surface between the monomer and the solvent. The first step in the electrografting mechanism thus appears to be the chemisorption of the monomer at the electrode surface before cathodic polarization is applied; the chemisorbed monomer is therefore the first species reduced, giving rise to an adsorbed reactive intermediate, which is thus able to start the polymerization of a grafted chain. [less ▲]

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See detailControlled radical polymerization of (meth)acrylates by ATRP with NiBr2(PPh3)2 as catalyst
Moineau, Georges; Minet, Michaël; Dubois, Philippe ULg et al

in Macromolecules (1999), 32(1), 27-35

NiBr2(PPh3)2 has been found to be an efficient catalyst for the ATRP of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and n-butyl acrylate (n-BuA) initiated by an alkyl halide in the absence of any activator (e.g., Lewis ... [more ▼]

NiBr2(PPh3)2 has been found to be an efficient catalyst for the ATRP of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and n-butyl acrylate (n-BuA) initiated by an alkyl halide in the absence of any activator (e.g., Lewis acid) at 85 °C. The molecular weight distribution of the poly(meth)acrylates is narrow (Mw/Mn = 1.1−1.4). However, some side reactions (more likely coupling reactions) are observed at high monomer conversions in the case of n-BuA. An excess of PPh3 has proved to increase the polymerization rate of MMA while preserving the control of the molecular parameters. When the catalyst/initiator molar ratio is too small (e.g., 0.05), the polymerization rate decreases, the polydispersity increases, and the initiation is less efficient. α-Acid and α-hydroxyl end groups have been successfully attached to the chains by using functional initiators, such as 2-bromo-2-methylpropionic acid and 2,2‘,2‘ ‘-tribromoethanol. Reactivity ratios for the MMA/n-BuA comonomer pair have been measured and found to be close to the values observed for a conventional free-radical polymerization. Diethyl meso-2,5-dibromoadipate has been used as a difunctional initiator for the n-BuA polymerization, leading to α,ω-bromo-poly(n-BuA) of narrow molecular weight distribution. Finally, the thermal stability of PMMA is consistent with the lack of termination reactions, while Tg is as high as 125 °C. [less ▲]

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See detailStructure-second-order polarizability relationship in chromophores incorporating a spacer: a joint experimental and theoretical study
Maertens, Christophe; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Dubois, Philippe ULg et al

in Chemistry : A European Journal (1999), 5(1), 369-380

A joint theoretical and experimental study is reported on the structure-polarizability relationship in a novel type of push-pull conjugated system which contains a spacer within the conjugated backbone ... [more ▼]

A joint theoretical and experimental study is reported on the structure-polarizability relationship in a novel type of push-pull conjugated system which contains a spacer within the conjugated backbone. The chromo-phores are based on a dithienyl conjugation pathway, spaced by a keto group, and selectively end-capped by a donor and an acceptor. Four chromophores were synthesized, in which the strength of the acceptor group and the length of the conjugated path were varied. The electronic properties of two model compounds were studied theoretically by means of correlated quantum-chemical calculations. The degree of ground-state polarization was varied in the calculations by the application of an external electric field and varied experimentally by the modification of the dielectric constant of a binary mixture of solvents. The linear and nonlinear optical properties of the compounds (measured in solution by hyper-Rayleigh scattering) are discussed in detail. [less ▲]

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See detailAbundance correlations in mildly metal-poor stars
Jehin, Emmanuel ULg; Magain, Pierre ULg; Neuforge, Corinne et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (1999), 341

Accurate relative abundances have been obtained for a sample of 21 mildly metal-poor stars from the analysis of high resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra. In order to reach the highest coherence ... [more ▼]

Accurate relative abundances have been obtained for a sample of 21 mildly metal-poor stars from the analysis of high resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra. In order to reach the highest coherence and internal precision, lines with similar dependency on the stellar atmospheric parameters were selected, and the analysis was carried out in a strictly differential way within the sample. With these accurate results, correlations between relative abundances have been searched for, with a special emphasis on the neutron capture elements. This analysis shows that the r elements are closely correlated to the alpha elements, which is in agreement with the generally accepted idea that the r-process takes place during the explosion of massive stars. The situation is more complex as far as the s elements are concerned. Their relation with the alpha elements is not linear. In a first group of stars, the relative abundance of the s elements increases only slightly with the alpha elements overabundance until the latter reaches a maximum value. For the second group, the s elements show a rather large range of enhancement and a constant (and maximum) value of the alpha elements overabundance. This peculiar behaviour leads us to distinguish between two sub-populations of metal-poor stars, namely Pop IIa (first group) and Pop IIb (second group). We suggest a scenario of formation of metal-poor stars based on two distinct phases of chemical enrichment, a first phase essentially consisting in supernova explosions of massive stars, and a second phase where the enrichment is provided by stellar winds from intermediate mass stars. More specifically, we assume that all thick disk and field halo stars were born in globular clusters, from which they escaped, either during an early disruption of the cluster (Pop IIa) or, later, through an evaporation process (Pop IIb). Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile. [less ▲]

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See detailRecent achievements in anionic polymerization of (meth)acrylates
Jérôme, Robert ULg; Teyssié, Philippe; Vuillemin, Bruno et al

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry (1999), 37(1), 1-10

The constant progress of the anionic polymerization of (meth)acrylates is discussed from both the fundamental and practical points of view. A special attention is paid to the improved macromolecular ... [more ▼]

The constant progress of the anionic polymerization of (meth)acrylates is discussed from both the fundamental and practical points of view. A special attention is paid to the improved macromolecular engineering of (meth)acrylate-based (co)polymers. The resulting most important materials and the scaling-up process needed for their production are also emphasized. The recent developments witness for the healthy state of the anionic polymerization of these polar monomers. [less ▲]

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See detailRegional Distribution and Control of Tyrosine Hydroxylase Activity in the Quail Brain
Baillien, M.; Foidart, Agnès ULg; Balthazart, Jacques ULg

in Brain Research Bulletin (1999), 48(1), 3-17

Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity, the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of catecholamines, was quantified in the preoptic area-hypothalamus of adult male Japanese quail by a new assay measuring the ... [more ▼]

Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity, the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of catecholamines, was quantified in the preoptic area-hypothalamus of adult male Japanese quail by a new assay measuring the tritiated water production from 3,5-[3H]-L-tyrosine. Maximal levels of activity were observed at a 20-25 microM concentration of substrate, with more than 50% inhibition of the activity being recorded at a 100 microM concentration. TH activity was linear as a function of the incubation time during the first 20 min and maximal at a pH of 6.0. TH was heterogeneously distributed in the quail brain with highest levels of activity being found (in decreasing order) in the mesencephalon, diencephalon, and telencephalon. Given the large size of the telencephalon, this is the brain area that contains, as a whole, the highest level of enzyme activity. TH inhibitors that have been well-characterized in mammals, such as 3-iodo-L-tyrosine and L-alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT) completely inhibited the enzyme activity at a 100 microM concentration. In mammals, the accumulation of catecholamines exerts a negative feedback control on TH activity. Similar controls were observed in the quail brain. Two inhibitors of the DOPA decarboxylase that should lead to accumulation of DOPA depressed TH activity by 60% or more, and the inhibitor of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase, fusaric acid that should cause an accumulation of dopamine, suppressed 90% of the TH activity. The addition of exogenous DOPA, dopamine, or norepinephrine to the brain homogenates also strongly inhibited TH activity, independently confirming the feedback effects of the enzyme products on the enzyme activity. These data demonstrate that TH activity in the quail brain is heterogeneously distributed and acutely regulated, as it is in mammals, by the accumulation of its products and of the derived catecholamines. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the Motion of Trapped Particles in the Vicinity of Corotation Centers
Beaugé, C.; Lemaitre, Anne; Jancart, Sylvie ULg

in Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy (1999), 73

In the present paper we analyse the motion of a massless particle during the capture process in an exterior mean-motion resonance under the effects of an external dissipative force. In particular, we ... [more ▼]

In the present paper we analyse the motion of a massless particle during the capture process in an exterior mean-motion resonance under the effects of an external dissipative force. In particular, we study the orbital evolution from its initial approach to the commensurability up to the final nesting place in the periodic orbit around the equilibrium solution. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis of well-defined poly(alkyl methacrylate)-graft-polylactone by sequential living polymerization
Mecerreyes, David; Dubois, Philippe ULg; Jérôme, Robert ULg et al

in Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics (1999), 200(1), 156-165

A novel combination of living polymerization reactions has been proposed for the controlled synthesis of poly(alkyl methacrylate)-graft-polylactones. This strategy relies upon the sequential living ... [more ▼]

A novel combination of living polymerization reactions has been proposed for the controlled synthesis of poly(alkyl methacrylate)-graft-polylactones. This strategy relies upon the sequential living polymerization of alkyl methacrylates and aliphatic lactones, with an intermediate chemical transformation for shifting from the first mechanism to the second one. In the first step, an alkyl methacrylate (methyl and butyl) is copolymerized with 2-trimethylsiloxyethyl methacrylate (TMSEMA). This living anionic polymerization is initiated with diphenylhexyllithium( DPHLi) in the presence of a μ-ligand, lithium chloride, in THF at - 78 °C. The trimethylsiloxy groups are then hydrolyzed with release of hydroxyl groups which are reacted with triethylaluminum in order to form a multifunctional macroinitiator of the Al alkoxide type. The second step consists of the ring opening polymerization (ROP) of aliphatic lactones (ε-caprolactone, J-valerolactone and 1,4,8-trioxaspiro[4.6]-9-undecanone (TOSUO)) with the formation of novel graft copolymers. As a result of the livingness of both the anionic and the ROP polymerization steps, the molecular weight of both the main backbone and the grafts is predictable, the apparent polydispersity is narrow ( from 1.05 to 1.30) and the grafting density can be controlled being dependent on the distribution of the hydroxyl groups within the precursor backbone. [less ▲]

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See detailPhase segregation in binary sandpiles on fractal bases
Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; D'hulst, R.; Ausloos, Marcel ULg

in Physical Review. E : Statistical Physics, Plasmas, Fluids, and Related Interdisciplinary Topics (1999), 59(1), 631-635

We have built experimentally and have numerically studied sandpiles on a base having a prefractal perimeter. This type of perimeter induces the formation of quite complex pile shapes characterized by both ... [more ▼]

We have built experimentally and have numerically studied sandpiles on a base having a prefractal perimeter. This type of perimeter induces the formation of quite complex pile shapes characterized by both ridges and valleys. The effects of a fractal base on the phase segregation of a binary granular system have been investigated. Both demixing and self-stratification phenomena have been investigated. It is found that the demixing of binary granular piles is enhanced by the prefractal perimeter character. The concentration profiles are given. This is briefly discussed in terms of length scale selection. [less ▲]

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See detailLe défi des générations, sous la direction de J. Grand’Maison, L. Baroni et J.-M. Gauthier (compte rendu)
Fournier, Bernard ULg

in Recherches Sociographiques : Revue Pluridisciplinaire d'Etudes sur le Québec et le Canada français. (1999), XL(1)

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See detailAtheroemboles et chirurgie cardiaque: importance de la mise au point préopératoire
Kolh, Philippe ULg; Torchiana, D.; Buckley, M.

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(1), 43-8

OBJECTIVE: Atheroembolization is a recognized complication of cardiac surgical procedures, and has been implicated in postoperative stroke, renal failure, multiorgan failure, and death. Preoperative ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: Atheroembolization is a recognized complication of cardiac surgical procedures, and has been implicated in postoperative stroke, renal failure, multiorgan failure, and death. Preoperative identification of patients at risk for developing atheroemboli is essential. The aim of this study was to determine preoperative risk factors for atheroemboli and to assess the postoperative course of the patients who developed atheroembolic syndrome. METHODS: A retrospective record review was conducted. From 1/1990 to 12/1994, 5.486 patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), valve operations, or other cardiac surgical procedures at the Massachusetts General Hospital. Among this population, 107 patients (1.9%) developed atheroembolic syndrome. There were compared to a concurrent population of 925 patients operated during the same period. RESULTS: Patients who developed atheroemboli were older, with an increased incidence (p < 0.01) of hypertension, cerebrovascular disease, and aortoiliac disease. Many had a complicated course after catheterization, with renal insufficiency (35%) and evidence of peripheral emboli (12%). Average Intensive Care Unit stay, hospital stay, and hospital cost of these patients were 16.8 days, 48.4 days and 88,000 respectively, compared to 1.5 days, 9.6 days and 23,000 for the concurrent population. Of these 107 patients only two were discharged home, the others either died (48 patients, or 25% of all cardiac surgical deaths during this period), or rehabilitation or chronic hospital facilities. Twenty-seven autopsies were performed and invariably showed a diffusely diseased aorta, with calcification, mural thrombus, and ulceration. CONCLUSIONS: Atheroembolization during cardiac surgical procedures has profound medical and economic consequences. Because of the diffuse nature of aortic disease, measures approaching the disease as a local process are likely to be unsuccessful. Appropriate evaluation would ideally identify patients with extensive aortic atheromatous disease, prior to rather than during surgery. [less ▲]

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See detailPregnancy-associated glycoprotein and decreased polymorphonuclear leukocyte function in early post-partum dairy cows
Dosogne, H.; Burvenich, Christian; Freeman, A. E. et al

in Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology (1999), 67(1), 47-54

Phagocytosis and oxidative burst activity of polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN) isolated from blood and pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (bPAG) concentrations in plasma were evaluated in two ... [more ▼]

Phagocytosis and oxidative burst activity of polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN) isolated from blood and pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (bPAG) concentrations in plasma were evaluated in two longitudinal studies in dairy cows from 3 weeks before until 5 weeks after calving, carried out in the United States and in Europe. Ingestion of Staphylococcus aureus by blood PMN increased during the first week after calving and normalised 3 weeks post-partum. Phagocytosis of Escherichia coli did not change in the early post-partum period. In both studies, a significant decrease in oxidative burst activity of PMN was observed between 1 and 3 weeks after calving. In all cows, a very significant increase in plasma bPAG concentration was found between 1 week before and 2 weeks after calving. The peak of bPAG concentration in plasma immediately preceded the alterations of blood PMN functions. These results suggest that bPAG may be associated with inhibition of PMN function of dairy cows during the early post-partum period. [less ▲]

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See detailStructural and functional organization of the fengycin synthetase multienzyme system from Bacillus subtilis b213 and A1/3
Steller, S.; Vollenbroich, D.; Leenders, F. et al

in Chemistry & Biology (1999), 6(31-41),

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See detailRegional brain activity during tasks devoted to the central executive of working memory
Collette, Fabienne ULg; Salmon, Eric ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg et al

in Cognitive Brain Research (1999), 7(3), 411-417

Most previous PET studies investigating the central executive (CE) component of working memory found activation in the prefrontal cortex. However, the tasks used did not always permit to distinguish ... [more ▼]

Most previous PET studies investigating the central executive (CE) component of working memory found activation in the prefrontal cortex. However, the tasks used did not always permit to distinguish precisely the functions of the CE from the storage function of the slave systems. The aim of the present study was to isolate brain areas that subserve manipulation of information by the CE when the influence of storage function was removed. A PET activation study was performed with four cognitive tasks, crossing conditions of temporary storage and manipulation of information. The manipulation of information induced an activation in the right (BA 10/46) and left (BA 9/6) middle frontal gyrus and in the left parietal area (BA7). The interaction between the storage and manipulation conditions did not reveal any significant changes in activation. These results are in agreement with the hypothesis that CE functions are distributed between anterior and posterior brain areas, but could also reflect a simultaneous involvement of controlled (frontal) and automatic (parietal) attentional systems. In the other hand, the absence of interaction between the storage and manipulation conditions demonstrates that the CE is not necessarily related to the presence of a memory load. [less ▲]

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See detailCalculation Method for Design of Reinforced Concrete Columns under Fire Conditions
Dotreppe, Jean-Claude ULg; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; Vanderzeipen, Yves

in ACI Structural Journal (1999), 96(1), 9-18

This paper presents a simple model for the calculation of the fire resistance of reinforced concrete columns. It has been developed on the base of extensive numerical simulations and has been calibrated ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a simple model for the calculation of the fire resistance of reinforced concrete columns. It has been developed on the base of extensive numerical simulations and has been calibrated on the base of a large data base of full scale experimental test results [less ▲]

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See detailL'Horreur adolescente
Dejasse, Erwin ULg

in 9e Art : Les Cahiers du Musée de la Bande Dessinée (1999), 4

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See detailMorphometrical study of the equine navicular bone: age-related changes and influence of exercise
Gabriel, Annick ULg; Detilleux, Johann ULg; Jolly, Sandra ULg et al

in Veterinary Research Communications (1999), 23(1), 15-40

Navicular bones from the four limbs of 95 horses, classified in 9 categories, were studied. The effects of age on navicular bone morphometry and histomorphometry were estimated, after adjustment of the ... [more ▼]

Navicular bones from the four limbs of 95 horses, classified in 9 categories, were studied. The effects of age on navicular bone morphometry and histomorphometry were estimated, after adjustment of the data to even out the effects of front and rear limbs, morphometrical type, sex, weight, and size. All the external measurements of the navicular bone decreased significantly with increasing age. From the histomorphometrical data, cortical bone volume decreased with age in most horses, whereas cancellous bone volume and, in particular, the marrow spaces increased. The increase in the cancellous bone volume could have resulted from tunnelling of the internal part of the cortex, which converted it progressively into a porous trabecular-like structure. Trabecular bone volume also decreased with age and the trabecular lattice changed dramatically to become disconnected in aged horses. These observations corresponded closely to those reported for ageing of the skeletal system in humans. However, in sporting horses, the navicular cortical bone volume increased with age and the cancellous bone volume decreased. Exercise appeared to have decreased bone resorption and increased bone formation at the endocortical junction. The cancellous bone architecture was also improved. in that the trabecular lattice and trabecular bone volume remained unchanged in aged sporting horses. Our findings confirmed that exercise may be good practice to prevent age-related bone loss. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of Endotoxin Effects on the Intact Pulmonary Circulation
Lambermont, Bernard ULg; Kolh, Philippe ULg; Detry, Olivier ULg et al

in Cardiovascular Research (1999), 41(1), 275-81

OBJECTIVE: The mechanism of sustained alterations in pulmonary hemodynamics during endotoxin shock remains unclear. To gain more detailed knowledge we used the four-element windkessel model as a ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: The mechanism of sustained alterations in pulmonary hemodynamics during endotoxin shock remains unclear. To gain more detailed knowledge we used the four-element windkessel model as a descriptor of the pulmonary circuit. METHODS: Consecutive changes in characteristic resistance (R1), vascular compliance (C), input resistance (R2) and inductance (L) were continuously assessed following injection of endotoxin in 6 anaesthetised pigs, and were compared with the corresponding values measured in a similar group of sham-operated animals. RESULTS: Endotoxin challenge resulted in a biphasic pulmonary artery pressure response. Blood flow decreased progressively from 2.8 +/- 0.2 l/min to 2 +/- 0.2 l/min. Ohmic pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) increased gradually from 0.2 +/- 0.04 to 0.76 +/- 0.1 mm Hg s ml-1. The early increase in PAP (from 14 +/- 2 to 27 +/- 4 mm Hg) was mediated by changes in both R1 (from 0.04 +/- 0.01 to 0.06 +/- 0.01 mm Hg s ml-1) and R2 (from 0.16 +/- 0.04 to 0.61 +/- 0.2 mm Hg s ml-1). These responses, in turn, altered the proximal vascular compliance. A subsequent increase in PAP (from 27 +/- 2 to 32 +/- 3 mm Hg) paralleled the specific decline in distal pulmonary vasculature compliance from 0.84 +/- 0.1 to 0.65 +/- 0.1 ml/mmHg. Analysis of the time course of PVR did not allow us to distinguish between vasoconstriction and stiffening of the vascular tree as mechanisms accounting for PAP changes. CONCLUSIONS: Endotoxemia leads to pulmonary hypertension, which is a result of constriction of proximal pulmonary arteries during the early phase, whereas the late phase is characterised by a decline in distal pulmonary vasculature compliance. [less ▲]

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See detailSuccessful Treatment of Pulmonary Lymphangioleiomyomatosis with Progestins: A Case Report
Denoo, Xavier ULg; Hermans, Gilberte ULg; Degives, R. et al

in CHEST (1999), 115(1), 276-9

The diagnostic approach, clinical evolution, and treatment of a patient with primary pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis are reported. This patient presented a restrictive respiratory syndrome resistant to ... [more ▼]

The diagnostic approach, clinical evolution, and treatment of a patient with primary pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis are reported. This patient presented a restrictive respiratory syndrome resistant to conventional glucocorticoid therapy. The diagnosis, based on clinical and histologic examinations, was confirmed by immunohistochemical localization of one of the desmins, the smooth muscle cell actin, and HMB45 antigen. The patient received treatment with an anti-estrogenic agent (tamoxifen citrate) and high doses of medroxyprogesterone acetate, an antigonadotropic progestin. Respiratory function improved rapidly with clinical relief. [less ▲]

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See detailComment j'explore ... une pneumopathie interstitielle diffuse
Bury, Thierry ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(1), 54-7

There are a large number of conditions of known or unknown causes that have a tendency to alveolar wall fibrosis. The patient usually presents with progressive dyspnoea and the chest radiograph shows ... [more ▼]

There are a large number of conditions of known or unknown causes that have a tendency to alveolar wall fibrosis. The patient usually presents with progressive dyspnoea and the chest radiograph shows bilateral shadows whereas physiological measurements show a restrictive defect. Because of implications with regard to treatment and prognosis, diagnosis and staging of the disease are important. Computed tomography ("high resolution") and bronchoalveolar lavage are very useful at all stages of management of interstitial lung disease. [less ▲]

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See detailJames W. Carey, McLuhan : généalogie et descendance d'un paradigme
Durand, Pascal ULg

in Quaderni : la Revue de la Communication (1999), 37

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See detailCardiovascular Response to Intravenous Administration of 5-Hydroxytryptamine after Type-2 Receptor Blockade, by Metrenperone, in Healthy Calves
Linden, Annick ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg; Amory, Hélène ULg et al

in Veterinary Journal (1999), 157(1), 31-37

The cardiovascular response to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) challenge has been previously described in cattle. Abrupt bradycardia, followed by tachycardia, triphasic systemic blood pressure response, and ... [more ▼]

The cardiovascular response to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) challenge has been previously described in cattle. Abrupt bradycardia, followed by tachycardia, triphasic systemic blood pressure response, and pulmonary hypertension were the major changes elicited by 5-HT. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the cardiovascular response to 5-HT in calves was attributable to 5-HT2 receptors. A specific 5-HT2 antagonist (metrenperone, 0.05 mg/kg) was administered intramuscular to six unsedated Friesian calves 30 min before the animals were given a 5-min intravenous 5-HT infusion. Mean systemic arterial (SAP), mean pulmonary arterial (PAP), pulmonary capillary wedge (PW) pressures were obtained by means of fluid-filled catheters, and cardiac output (CO) was measured by the thermodilution technique. Heart rate, stroke volume, systemic (SVR) and pulmonary (PVR) vascular resistances were calculated. Administration of 5-HT after metrenperone induced a short-lasting period of severe bradycardia followed by tachycardia and increased CO. The systemic blood pressure response was exclusively hypotensive and associated with a decrease in SVR. Conversely, PAP, PW, and PVR were not modified by 5-HT administration. The results establish that 5-HT induced systemic as well as pulmonary hypertension is mediated through the activation of type-2 serotonergic or alpha-adrenergic receptors, or both. In contrast, neither apnoea, bradycardia and hypotension, nor the positive chronotropic effect induced by 5-HT in cattle are mediated through such receptors. [less ▲]

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See detailPreliminary classification of the bovine respiratory complex into different levels of severity
Coghe, Joost; Uystepruyst, Christophe; Bureau, Fabrice ULg et al

in Bovine Practitioner (1999), 33(1), 85-87

Despite prophylactic measures, mainly including vaccination programs and management measures, respiratory disease remains the major cause of economic losses in the bovine species. Choice of treatment is ... [more ▼]

Despite prophylactic measures, mainly including vaccination programs and management measures, respiratory disease remains the major cause of economic losses in the bovine species. Choice of treatment is currently mainly based on the clinicians' personal experience. A theoretical method has been proposed earlier to classify this syndrome into four grades of severity : Grade 1, subclinical disease (no treatment); Grade 2, compensated clinical disease (antibiotics only); Grade 3, noncompensated clinical disease (antibiotics + anti inflammatory drugs); and Grade 4, irreversible clinical disease (no treatment). In order to realize this theoretical classification under field conditions, three techniques, each one evaluating the oxygen transport chain at a différent level, have been studied and validated, i.e. pulse oximetry, lactate dosage and the lobeline test. Afterwards, measurements were performed on calves suffering from acute respiratory disease and a preliminary classification was established. This novel approach could orientate and economize therapeutic strategies in bovine respiratory disease. [less ▲]

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See detailWhen Drug Inactivation Renders the Target Irrelevant to Antibiotic Resistance: A Case Story with Beta-Lactams
Lakaye, Bernard ULg; Dubus, Alice ULg; Lepage, Sylvie ULg et al

in Molecular Microbiology (1999), 31(1), 89-101

By challenging the efficiency of some of our most useful antimicrobial weapons, bacterial antibiotic resistance is becoming an increasingly worrying clinical problem. A good antibiotic is expected to ... [more ▼]

By challenging the efficiency of some of our most useful antimicrobial weapons, bacterial antibiotic resistance is becoming an increasingly worrying clinical problem. A good antibiotic is expected to exhibit a high affinity for its target and to reach it rapidly, while escaping chemical modification by inactivating enzymes and elimination by efflux mechanisms. A study of the behaviour of a beta-lactamase-overproducing mutant of Enterobacter cloacae in the presence of several penicillins and cephalosporins showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for several compounds were practically independent of the sensitivity of the target penicillin binding protein (PBP), even for poor beta-lactamase substrates. This apparent paradox was explained by analysing the equation that relates the antibiotic concentration in the periplasm to that in the external medium. Indeed, under conditions that are encountered frequently in clinical isolates, the factor characterizing the PBP sensitivity became negligible. The conclusions can be extended to all antibiotics that are sensitive to enzymatic inactivation and efflux mechanisms and must overcome permeability barriers. It would be a grave mistake to neglect these considerations in the design of future antibacterial chemotherapeutic agents. [less ▲]

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See detailJojo, Ludo, Toto et les autres
Dejasse, Erwin ULg

in 9e Art : Les Cahiers du Musée de la Bande Dessinée (1999), 4

A small overview of some comics for children published at the end of the nineties.

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See detailCardiac Troponin I and Troponin T: Recent Players in the Field of Myocardial Markers
Chapelle, Jean-Paul ULg

in Clinical Chemistry & Laboratory Medicine (1999), 37(1), 11-20

The troponin (Tn) complex consists of three subunits referred to as TnT, TnI and TnC. Myocardium contains TnT and TnI isoforms which are not present in skeletal muscles and which can be separated from the ... [more ▼]

The troponin (Tn) complex consists of three subunits referred to as TnT, TnI and TnC. Myocardium contains TnT and TnI isoforms which are not present in skeletal muscles and which can be separated from the muscular isoforms by immunological techniques. Using commercially available immunoassays, clinical laboratories are able to determine cardiac TnT and TnI (cTnT and cTnI) quickly and reliably as classical cardiac markers. After acute myocardial infarction, cTnT and cTnI concentrations start to increase in serum in a rather similar way than CK-MB, but return to normal after longer periods of time (approximately one week). Because of their excellent cardiac specificity, Tn subunits appear ideally suited for the differential diagnosis of myocardial and muscular damage, for example in noncardiac surgery patients, in patients with muscular trauma or with chronic muscular diseases, or after intense physical exercise. cTnT and cTnI may also be used for detecting evidence of minor myocardial damage: therefore they have found new clinical applications, in particular risk stratification in patients with unstable angina. In spite of the possible reexpression of cTnT in human skeletal muscles, and of the lack of standardization of cTnI assays, Tn subunits are not far to meet the criteria of ideal markers for acute myocardial injury. Only an insufficient sensitivity in the first hours following the acute coronary syndroms requiries to maintain an early myocardial marker in the cardiac panel for routine laboratory testing. [less ▲]

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See detailLes tumeurs malignes d'origine indéterminée
Rezaei Kalantari, Hassan ULg; Jerusalem, Guy ULg; Bours, Vincent ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(1), 39-42

Cancers of unknown origin form a specific clinical entity. The diagnostic procedure has to be guided by the therapeutical possibilities and requires a biopsy. Immunohistology, electron microscopy and ... [more ▼]

Cancers of unknown origin form a specific clinical entity. The diagnostic procedure has to be guided by the therapeutical possibilities and requires a biopsy. Immunohistology, electron microscopy and cytogenetics are informative for carcinomas and poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas. The clinical status and the histology allow the definition of groups of patients who can benefit from a specific therapy and have a better prognosis. For the other patients, the prognosis is severe and there is no efficient therapy available. Such tumors are usually characterized by a very aggressive behaviour. [less ▲]

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