References of "Scientific journals"      in Complete repository Arts & humanities   Archaeology   Art & art history   Classical & oriental studies   History   Languages & linguistics   Literature   Performing arts   Philosophy & ethics   Religion & theology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Business & economic sciences   Accounting & auditing   Production, distribution & supply chain management   Finance   General management & organizational theory   Human resources management   Management information systems   Marketing   Strategy & innovation   Quantitative methods in economics & management   General economics & history of economic thought   International economics   Macroeconomics & monetary economics   Microeconomics   Economic systems & public economics   Social economics   Special economic topics (health, labor, transportation…)   Multidisciplinary, general & others Engineering, computing & technology   Aerospace & aeronautics engineering   Architecture   Chemical engineering   Civil engineering   Computer science   Electrical & electronics engineering   Energy   Geological, petroleum & mining engineering   Materials science & engineering   Mechanical engineering   Multidisciplinary, general & others Human health sciences   Alternative medicine   Anesthesia & intensive care   Cardiovascular & respiratory systems   Dentistry & oral medicine   Dermatology   Endocrinology, metabolism & nutrition   Forensic medicine   Gastroenterology & hepatology   General & internal medicine   Geriatrics   Hematology   Immunology & infectious disease   Laboratory medicine & medical technology   Neurology   Oncology   Ophthalmology   Orthopedics, rehabilitation & sports medicine   Otolaryngology   Pediatrics   Pharmacy, pharmacology & toxicology   Psychiatry   Public health, health care sciences & services   Radiology, nuclear medicine & imaging   Reproductive medicine (gynecology, andrology, obstetrics)   Rheumatology   Surgery   Urology & nephrology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Law, criminology & political science   Civil law   Criminal law & procedure   Criminology   Economic & commercial law   European & international law   Judicial law   Metalaw, Roman law, history of law & comparative law   Political science, public administration & international relations   Public law   Social law   Tax law   Multidisciplinary, general & others Life sciences   Agriculture & agronomy   Anatomy (cytology, histology, embryology...) & physiology   Animal production & animal husbandry   Aquatic sciences & oceanology   Biochemistry, biophysics & molecular biology   Biotechnology   Entomology & pest control   Environmental sciences & ecology   Food science   Genetics & genetic processes   Microbiology   Phytobiology (plant sciences, forestry, mycology...)   Veterinary medicine & animal health   Zoology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Physical, chemical, mathematical & earth Sciences   Chemistry   Earth sciences & physical geography   Mathematics   Physics   Space science, astronomy & astrophysics   Multidisciplinary, general & others Social & behavioral sciences, psychology   Animal psychology, ethology & psychobiology   Anthropology   Communication & mass media   Education & instruction   Human geography & demography   Library & information sciences   Neurosciences & behavior   Regional & inter-regional studies   Social work & social policy   Sociology & social sciences   Social, industrial & organizational psychology   Theoretical & cognitive psychology   Treatment & clinical psychology   Multidisciplinary, general & others     Showing results 35301 to 35400 of 58207     349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359     Crural artery bypass with the autogenous greater saphenous veinVan Damme, Hendrik ; Zhang, Lihong ; Baguet, E. et alin European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery : The Official Journal of the European Society for Vascular Surgery (2003), 26(6), 635-642Objective. To evaluate the long-term outcome of greater saphenous vein (GSV) infrapopliteal revascularisation in a single centre over a 10 year period. Material and methods. Fourty-one variables relating ... [more ▼]Objective. To evaluate the long-term outcome of greater saphenous vein (GSV) infrapopliteal revascularisation in a single centre over a 10 year period. Material and methods. Fourty-one variables relating to a consecutive series of 90 crural artery GSV(76% in situ) bypasses in 81 patients (1990-2000) were analysed. The mean age of the 47 men and 34 women was 70 years. Limb-threatening ischaemia was present in 96% of cases, claudication in four patients. In 18 patients, surgery was 'redo'. Results. The perioperative mortality was 3% (n = 3). Patient survival was 54% at 4 years. Independent risk factors affecting survival were chronic renal insufficiency (p = 0.04), hypertension (p = 0.02), and ischaemic heart disease (p = 0.01). Four bypasses thrombosed within 30 days. Three of them could be successfully reopened. Mean follow-up was 39 months. The primary patency rate at 4 years was 80%. Chronic renal insufficiency revealed to be the single independent risk factor for graft thrombosis (p = 0.03, RR = 12.4). The 4-year limb salvage rate was 88%. No independent risk factor affecting the limb salvage could be identified. Conclusion. Crural artery revascularisation is a valuable option for the management of limb threatening infrapopliteal arterial occlusive disease. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 27 (1 ULg) High intraepithelial expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in the transformation zone of the uterine cervixRemoue, Franck; Jacobs, Nathalie ; Miot, Valérie et alin American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (2003), 189(6), 1660-1665OBJECTIVE: Because sex hormones may be involved in tumor initiation and progression, we analyzed the presence of hormone receptors in the transformation zone of the uterine cervix where the majority of ... [more ▼]OBJECTIVE: Because sex hormones may be involved in tumor initiation and progression, we analyzed the presence of hormone receptors in the transformation zone of the uterine cervix where the majority of human papillomavirus infections and associated (pre)neoplastic lesions develop. STUDY DESIGN: By using 23 total hysterectomy samples from young women who underwent surgery for noncervical benign uterine disease, we analyzed, by immunohistologic techniques, the in situ expression of estrogen (E-2-R) and progesterone (P-4-R) receptors in the transformation zone and ectocervix of the same women. RESULTS: The expression of estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors is significantly higher in the transformation zone compared with the ectocervix. Immunohistochemical localization indicated that hormone receptor-positive cells are mainly observed in (para)basal and intermediate cell layers in both the transformation zone and ectocervical epithelium. When transformation zone samples were segregated into epithelial tissues with a predominantly mature (7/23 samples) or immature (16/23 samples) squamous metaplasia, only biopsy specimens with immature squamous metaplasia showed a significantly higher density of hormone receptor-positive cells compared with ectocervical epithelium (P < .01). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the cervical transformation zone may be at increased risk of the development of cancer because of a high sensitivity to sex hormone regulation. (Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003; 189:1660-5.) [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 61 (5 ULg) Effects of increased afterload on left ventricular performance and mechanical efficiency are not baroreflex-mediatedKolh, Philippe ; Ghuysen, Alexandre ; Tchana-Sato, Vincent et alin European Journal of Cardio - Thoracic Surgery (2003), 24(6), 912-919Objective: To assess baroreflex intervention during increase in left ventricular afterload, we compared the effects of aortic banding on the intact cardiovascular system and under hexamethonium infusion ... [more ▼]Objective: To assess baroreflex intervention during increase in left ventricular afterload, we compared the effects of aortic banding on the intact cardiovascular system and under hexamethonium infusion. Methods: Six open-chest pigs, instrumented for measurement of aortic pressure and flow, left ventricular pressure and volume, were studied under pentobarbital-sufentanil anesthesia. Vascular arterial properties were estimated with a four-element windkessel model. Left ventricular contractility was assessed by the slope of end-systolic pressure-volume relationship. Results: The effects of aortic banding on mechanical aortic properties were unaffected by autonomic nervous system inhibition. However, increase in peripheral arterial vascular resistance and in heart rate were prevented by hexamethonium. Aortic banding increased left ventricular contractility and stroke work. Left ventricular-arterial coupling remained unchanged, but mechanical efficiency was impaired. These ventricular changes were independent of baroreflex integrity. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that an augmentation in afterload has a composite effect on left ventricular function. Left ventricular performance is increased, as demonstrated by increase in contractility and stroke work, but mechanical efficiency is decreased. These changes are observed independently of baroreflex integrity. Such mechanisms of autoregulation, independent of the autonomic nervous system, are of paramount importance in heart transplant patients. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All fights reserved. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 39 (1 ULg) Clinical outcome following combination of cutting balloon angioplasty and coronary β-radiation for in-stent restenosis: A report from the RENO registryCoucke, Philippe ; Roguelov; Eeckhoutin Journal of Invasive Cardiology (The) (2003), 15(12), 706-709At present, vascular brachytherapy is the only efficient therapy for in-stent restenosis. Nevertheless, edge restenosis often related to geographical miss has been identified as a major limitation of the ... [more ▼]At present, vascular brachytherapy is the only efficient therapy for in-stent restenosis. Nevertheless, edge restenosis often related to geographical miss has been identified as a major limitation of the technique. The non-slippery cutting balloon has the potential to limit vascular barotraumas, which, together with low-dose irradiation at both ends of the radioactive source, are the prerequisite for geographical miss. This prospective study aimed to examine the efficacy of combining cutting balloon angioplasty and brachytherapy for in-stent restenosis. The Radiation in Europe NOvoste (RENO) registry prospectively tracked all patients who had been treated by coronary β-radiation with the Beta-Cath System (Novoste Corporation, Brussels, Belgium) but were not included in a randomized radiation trial. A subgroup of patients with in-stent restenosis treated by cutting balloon angioplasty and coronary β-radiation (group 1, n = 166) was prospectively defined, and clinical outcomes of patients at 6 months were compared with those of patients treated by conventional angioplasty and coronary β-radiation (group 2, n = 712). At 6-month follow-up, there was a significant difference between groups 1 and 2 in target vessel revascularization (10.2% versus 16.6% respectively; p = 0.04) and in the incidence of major adverse clinical events (MACE) including death, myocardial infarction, and revascularization (10.8% versus 19.2%; p = 0.01). This observation was confirmed by a multivariate analysis indicating a lower risk for MACE at 6 months (odds ratio: 0.49; confidence intervals: 0.27-0.88; p = 0.02). Compared to conventional angioplasty, cutting balloon angioplasty prior to coronary beta-radiation with the Beta-Cath System seems to improve the 6-month clinical outcome in patients with in-stent restenosis. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 78 (1 ULg) The aromatase knockout (ArKO) mouse provides new evidence that estrogens are required for the development of the female brainBakker, Julie ; Honda, S.; Harada, N. et alin Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (2003), 1007The classic view of sexual differentiation is that the male brain develops under the influence of testicular secretions, whereas the female brain develops in the absence of any hormonal stimulation ... [more ▼]The classic view of sexual differentiation is that the male brain develops under the influence of testicular secretions, whereas the female brain develops in the absence of any hormonal stimulation. However, several studies have suggested a possible role of estradiol in female neural development, although they did not provide unequivocal evidence that estradiol is indispensable for the development of the female brain and behavior. As a result, the hypothesis subsequently languished because of the lack of a suitable animal model to test estrogen's possible contribution to female differentiation. The recent introduction of the aromatase knockout (ArKO) mouse, which is deficient in aromatase activity because of a targeted mutation in the CYP19 gene and therefore cannot aromatize androgen to estrogen, has provided a new opportunity to reopen the debate of whether estradiol contributes to the development of the female brain. Female ArKO mice showed reduced levels of lordosis behavior after adult treatment with estradiol and progesterone, suggesting that estradiol is required for the development of the neural mechanisms controlling this behavior in female mice. The neural systems affected may include the olfactory systems in that ArKO females also showed impairments in olfactory investigation of odors from conspecifics. Thus, the classic view of sexual differentiation, that is, the female brain develops in the absence of any hormonal secretion, needs to be re-examined. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 46 (1 ULg) La violence d'un choc sans destinataireServais, Christine in Communication et Langages (2003), 138Detailed reference viewed: 41 (13 ULg) Photosynthesis and state transitions in mitochondrial mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii affected in respirationCardol, Pierre ; Gloire, Geoffrey ; Havaux, M. et alin Plant Physiology (2003), 133(4), 2010-2020Photosynthetic activities were analyzed in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mitochondrial mutants affected in different complexes (I, III, IV, I + III, and I + IV) of the respiratory chain. Oxygen evolution ... [more ▼]Photosynthetic activities were analyzed in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mitochondrial mutants affected in different complexes (I, III, IV, I + III, and I + IV) of the respiratory chain. Oxygen evolution curves showed a positive relationship between the apparent yield of photosynthetic linear electron transport and the number of active proton-pumping sites in mitochondria. Although no significant alterations of the quantitative relationships between major photosynthetic complexes were found in the mutants, 77 K fluorescence spectra showed a preferential excitation of photosystem I (PSI) compared with wild type, which was indicative of a shift toward state 2. This effect was correlated with high levels of phosphorylation of light-harvesting complex II polypeptides, indicating the preferential association of light-harvesting complex II with PSI. The transition to state 1 occurred in untreated wild-type cells exposed to PSI light or in 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea-treated cells exposed to white light. In mutants of the cytochrome pathway and in double mutants, this transition was only observed in white light in the presence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea. This suggests higher rates of non-photochemical plastoquinone reduction through the chlororespiratory pathway, which was confirmed by measurements of the complementary area above the fluorescence induction curve in dark-adapted cells. Photo-acoustic measurements of energy storage by PSI showed a stimulation of PSI-driven cyclic electron flow in the most affected mutants. The present results demonstrate that in C. reinhardtii mutants, permanent defects in the mitochondrial electron transport chain stabilize state 2, which favors cyclic over linear electron transport in the chloroplast. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 52 (12 ULg) Right lobe living-related liver transplantation in a Jehovah's WitnessDetry, Olivier ; De Roover, Arnaud ; Kaba, Abdourahmane et alin Transplant International (2003), 16(12), 895-896Detailed reference viewed: 33 (15 ULg) ac magnetic behavior of large-grain magnetoresistive La0.78Ca0.22Mn0.90Ox materialsVanderbemden, Philippe ; Vertruyen, Bénédicte ; Rulmont, André et alin Physical Review. B (2003), 68(22), 224418We report a detailed set of ac magnetic measurements carried out on bulk large grain La-Ca-Mn-O samples extracted from a floating zone method-grown rod. Three samples with La0.78Ca0.22Mn0.90Ox ... [more ▼]We report a detailed set of ac magnetic measurements carried out on bulk large grain La-Ca-Mn-O samples extracted from a floating zone method-grown rod. Three samples with La0.78Ca0.22Mn0.90Ox stoichiometry but differing in their microstructure were investigated by electrical resistivity and ac susceptibility measurements: (i) a single grain sample, (ii) a sample containing two grains, and (iii) a polycrystalline sample. We show that the superimposition of dc magnetic fields during ac magnetic susceptibility measurements is an efficient way for characterizing the magnetic transition of samples with different microstructures. Whereas both single grain and polycrystalline samples display a single susceptibility peak, an additional kink structure is observed in the case of the double grain sample. The temperature dependence of the ac susceptibility measured with superimposed dc magnetic fields is analyzed in the framework of second-order phase transition ideas. The relations between the critical exponents (beta+gamma ~ 1.5, delta ~ 2.5) are found to be close to those of the mean-field model for all samples. This is attributed to the disordering caused by unoccupied Mn sites. ©2003 The American Physical Society. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 58 (25 ULg) EOF calculations and data filling from incomplete oceanographic datasetsBeckers, Jean-Marie ; Rixen, M.in Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology (2003), 20(12), 1839-1856The paper presents a new self-consistent method to infer missing data from oceanographic data series and to extract the relevant empirical orthogonal functions. As a by-product, the new method allows for ... [more ▼]The paper presents a new self-consistent method to infer missing data from oceanographic data series and to extract the relevant empirical orthogonal functions. As a by-product, the new method allows for the detection of the number of statistically significant EOFs by a cross-validation procedure for a complete or incomplete dataset, as well as the noise level and interpolation error. Since the proposed filling and analysis method does not need a priori information about the error covariance structure, the method is self-consistent and parameter free. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 186 (19 ULg) Does sustained ERP activity in posterior lexico-semantic processing areas during short-term memory tasks only reflect activated long-term memory?Majerus, Steve ; Van der Linden, Martial ; Collette, Fabienne et alin Behavioral and Brain Sciences (2003), 26(6), 746-747We challenge Ruchkin et al.'s claim in reducing short-term memory (STM) to the active part of long-term memory (LTM), by showing that their data cannot rule out the possibility that activation of ... [more ▼]We challenge Ruchkin et al.'s claim in reducing short-term memory (STM) to the active part of long-term memory (LTM), by showing that their data cannot rule out the possibility that activation of posterior brain regions could also reflect the contribution of a verbal STM buffer. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 43 (3 ULg) Systemic and pulmonary hemodynamics assessed with a lumped-parameter heart-arterial interaction modelSegers, P.; Stergiopulos, N.; Westerhof, N. et alin Journal of Engineering Mathematics (2003), 47(3-4), 185-199Arterial pressure and flow result from the interaction between the ( actively) ejecting ventricle and the ( passive) arterial circulation. The main objective was to construct a model, accounting for this ... [more ▼]Arterial pressure and flow result from the interaction between the ( actively) ejecting ventricle and the ( passive) arterial circulation. The main objective was to construct a model, accounting for this interaction, that is simple enough so that (i) model parameters can be derived from data measured in experimental and/or clinical conditions, and (ii) the model can be applied to support the analysis and interpretation of these data. It is demonstrated how an established conceptual model of ventricular function ( the time-varying elastance) can be coupled to a four-element windkessel model of the arterial system to yield an elegant model of heart-arterial interaction. The coupling leads to a set of three ordinary differential equations. The model allows the study of the effect of changes in cardiac and/or arterial properties on arterial pressure and flow. As an illustration, cardiac and arterial model parameters are derived from measured experimental data in the systemic circulation of a pig and in the pulmonary circulation of a dog. It is evaluated how well measured cardiac and arterial function actually adhere to their assumed theoretical models (time-varying elastance and four-element windkessel model). It is further assessed how well the simple model of heart-arterial interaction describes systemic and pulmonary hemodynamics by comparing simulated and measured experimental data. The limitations and pitfalls of the model, as well as possible applications in the clinical field, are discussed. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 66 (1 ULg) Enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli deliver a novel effector called Cif, which blocks cell cycle G(2)/M transitionMarches, O.; Ledger, T. N.; Boury, M. et alin Molecular Microbiology (2003), 50(5), 1553-1567Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are closely related pathogens. Both use a type III secretion system (TTSS) encoded by the 'locus of enterocyte effacement ... [more ▼]Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are closely related pathogens. Both use a type III secretion system (TTSS) encoded by the 'locus of enterocyte effacement' (LEE) to subvert and attach to epithelial cells through the injection of a repertoire of effector molecules. Here, we report the identification of a new TTSS translocated effector molecule called Cif, which blocks cell cycle G(2)/M transition and induces the formation of stress fibres through the recruitment of focal adhesions. Cif is not encoded by the LEE but by a lambdoid prophage present in EPEC and EHEC. A cif mutant causes localized effacement of microvilli and intimately attaches to the host cell surface, but is defective in the ability to block mitosis. When expressed in TTSS competent LEE-positive pathogens, Cif is injected into the infected epithelial cells. These cells arrested at the G(2)/M phase displayed accumulation of inactive phosphorylated Cdk1. In conclusion, Cif is a new member of a growing family of bacterial cyclomodulins that subvert the host eukaryotic cell cycle. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (3 ULg) Quantitative analysis of strychnine and brucine in Strychnos nux-vomica using H-1-NMRFrederich, Michel ; Choi, Y. H.; Verpoorte, R.in Planta Medica (2003), 69(12), 1169-1171A quantitative analysis using H-1-NMR (Q-NMR) has been developed for the determination of strychnine and brucine in Strychnos nux-vomica seeds and stems. The advantages of the method are that no reference ... [more ▼]A quantitative analysis using H-1-NMR (Q-NMR) has been developed for the determination of strychnine and brucine in Strychnos nux-vomica seeds and stems. The advantages of the method are that no reference alkaloids are needed for calibration curves, the quantification could be directly realized on a crude extract, strychnine and brucine could easily be distinguished, an overall profile of the preparation (including non alkaloid compounds) could be directly obtained, and a very significant time-gain could be achieved, in comparison to conventional HPLC methods, for instance. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 119 (12 ULg) Polymorphisms in the CYP 2D6 gene: Association with plasma concentrations of fluoxetine and paroxetineCharlier, Corinne ; Broly, Franck; Pinto, Emmanuel et alin Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (2003), 25(6), 738-742Most antidepressants are metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6, and it is well known that there may be significant interindividual variation in the capacity to metabolize xenobiotics. About 7 to 10% of ... [more ▼]Most antidepressants are metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6, and it is well known that there may be significant interindividual variation in the capacity to metabolize xenobiotics. About 7 to 10% of whites are poor metabolisers (PM), and, on the contrary, about 5% are ultrarapid metabolizers (UM), inducing very different rates in the transformation of antidepressants extensively metabolized by CYP 2D6. CYP 2D6 polymorphism can be a potential risk factor for the development of side effects or a reason for the poor efficacy of the treatment. Various probe drugs may be used for phenotyping CYP 2D6, but genotyping is now available using leukocyte DNA and is independent of concomitant drug use. in this study, we used PCR-based methods for the identification of CYP 2D6 genotypes in 49 patients receiving standard doses of fluoxetine or paroxetine and found that plasma concentration of the antidepressant drugs was significantly correlated with genetic status. In one patient who displayed CYP 2D6 gene duplication (UM), paroxetine plasma concentration was extremely low. in PM fluoxetine-treated patients, drug plasma concentration was significantly higher than that seen in extensive metabolizers. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 76 (7 ULg) L'image du mois. Myxome de l'oreillette gaucheTombeux, Christophe ; Davin, Laurent ; PIERARD, Luc et alin Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(12), 723Detailed reference viewed: 31 (4 ULg) New disruption cassettes for rapid gene disruption and marker rescue in the yeast Yarrowia lipolyticaFickers, Patrick ; Le Dall, M. T.; Gaillardin, C. et alin Journal of Microbiological Methods (2003), 55(3), 727-737Yarrowia lipolytica is one of the most extensively studied nonconventional yeasts. Unfortunately, few methods for gene disruption have been reported for this yeast, and all of them are time-consuming and ... [more ▼]Yarrowia lipolytica is one of the most extensively studied nonconventional yeasts. Unfortunately, few methods for gene disruption have been reported for this yeast, and all of them are time-consuming and laborious. The functional analysis of unknown genes requires powerful disruption methods. Here, we describe such a new method for rapid gene disruption in Y lipolytica. This knockout system combines SEP method and the Cre-lox recombination system, facilitating efficient marker rescue. Versatility was increased by using both auxotrophic markers like ylURA3 and ylLEU2, as well as the antibiotic resistance marker hph. The hph marker, which confers resistance to hygromycin-B, allows gene disruption in a strain lacking any conventional auxothrophic marker. The disruption cassette was shown to integrate at the correct locus at an average frequency of 45%. Upon expression of Cre recombinase, the marker was excised at a frequency of 98%, by recombination between the two lox sites. This new method for gene disruption is an ideal tool for the functional analysis of gene families, or for creating large-scale mutant collections in general. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 69 (5 ULg) Towards a consistant safety format of steel beam-columns: application of the new interaction formulae for ambient temperature to elevated temperaturesVila Real, Paulo; Lopes, Nuno; da Silva, Luis et alin Steel & Composite Structures (2003), 3(6), 383-401Two new formulae for the design of beam-columns at room temperature have been proposed into Eurocode 3, prEN 1993-1-1 (2002), and are the result of great efforts made by two working groups that followed ... [more ▼]Two new formulae for the design of beam-columns at room temperature have been proposed into Eurocode 3, prEN 1993-1-1 (2002), and are the result of great efforts made by two working groups that followed different approaches, a French-Belgian team and an Austrian-German one. Under fire conditions the prEN 1993-1-2 (structural fire design) presents formulae, for the design of beam-columns based on the prENV 1993-1-1 (1992). In order to study the possibility of having, in part 1-1 and part 1-2 of the Eurocode 3, the same approach, a numerical research was made using the finite element program SAFIR, developed at the University of Liege for the study 4 structures subjected to fire. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 106 (5 ULg) Intrahepatic synthesis of tumor necrosis factor-alpha related to cardiac surgery is inhibited by interleukin-10 via the Janus kinase (Jak)/signal transducers and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway.Qing, Ma; Nimmesgern, Ariane; Heinrich, Peter C et alin Critical Care Medicine (2003), 31(12), 2769-75SUMMARY: OBJECTIVES To identify the signaling pathways involved in the anti-inflammatory shift of the cytokine balance due to hypothermia during cardiopulmonary bypass. DESIGN Experimental animal study ... [more ▼]SUMMARY: OBJECTIVES To identify the signaling pathways involved in the anti-inflammatory shift of the cytokine balance due to hypothermia during cardiopulmonary bypass. DESIGN Experimental animal study. SETTING Department of experimental surgery of a university hospital. SUBJECTS Young pigs. INTERVENTIONS Animals underwent normothermic (37 degrees C) or hypothermic (28 degrees C) cardiopulmonary bypass (n = 6 each). Samples of liver tissue were taken before and 6 hrs after cardiopulmonary bypass. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Intrahepatic expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-10, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 was detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and/or Western blotting. Concentrations of the inhibitory protein of nuclear factor-kappaB, IkappaB, and of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 were measured by Western blotting. The DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-kappaB and STAT-3 was assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays. Liver cell necrosis and apoptosis were assessed by histology and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay, respectively. Pigs operated on in hypothermia showed significantly higher intrahepatic concentrations of interleukin-10 and lower concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha than the others. They also showed a lower percentage of hepatic cell necrosis but not of apoptosis. This anti-inflammatory reaction observed in the hypothermic group was associated with a higher expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 and with increased activation of STAT-3. Activation of nuclear factor-kappaB and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, however, were not significantly different between both groups. CONCLUSION Our results show that hypothermia during cardiopulmonary bypass up-regulates interleukin-10 via STAT-3 activation, which in turn leads to the attenuation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression and to hepatic protection. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 9 (1 ULg) Endometriose stade I et II: implications physiopathologiques, cliniques et therapeutiquesNisolle, Michelle ; Nervo, Patricia in Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction (2003), 32(8, Pt 2), 11-4Stage I and II endometriosis is defined by a r-AFS score respectively ranging from 1 to 5 and from 6 to 15. This mild, superficial endometriosis is a very common pathology occurring in infertile women ... [more ▼]Stage I and II endometriosis is defined by a r-AFS score respectively ranging from 1 to 5 and from 6 to 15. This mild, superficial endometriosis is a very common pathology occurring in infertile women. Nevertheless, these women with stage I/II endometriosis have usually few pelvic pain. This review summarizes the recent literature concerning new data on the pathogenesis of peritoneal endometriosis and its clinical management. Retrograde menstruation, peritoneal adhesion of shed endometrial tissue, and outgrowth of endometrial cells, glands and stroma, are essential elements in the pathogenesis of endometriosis according to Sampson's classic implantation theory. Nevertheless, exact pathophysiology of endometriosis remains unknown. Superficial endometriotic lesions observed by laparoscopy have to be treated. Surgical procedure is not difficult for stage I and II of endometriosis. Surgical procedure remains controversial. Carbon dioxide (CO2) Laser can be used for laparoscopic destruction of endometriosis. Newer procedures, such as SurgiTouch (Lumenis), are more effective in vaporization and decrease the risk thermal damage of contiguous structures. The monopolar scissors can also be used in order to excise the peritoneal endometriotic lesions. Medical treatment may be usefull if surgical treatment is not complete or if the pelvic cavity is hypervascularized. In these cases, Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone agonists (Gn-RHa) are the most common and effective treatment. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 140 (15 ULg) Effect of hemodiafiltration on pulmonary hemodynamics in endotoxic shockLambermont, Bernard ; Kolh, Philippe ; Ghuysen, Alexandre et alin Artificial Organs (2003), 27(12), 1128-1133Hemofiltration can improve pulmonary hemodynamics during septic shock. The main objective of the study was to determine whether hemodiafiltration (HDF) would also have beneficial effects on pulmonary ... [more ▼]Hemofiltration can improve pulmonary hemodynamics during septic shock. The main objective of the study was to determine whether hemodiafiltration (HDF) would also have beneficial effects on pulmonary hemodynamics during septic shock. In the Endo group, six anesthetized pigs received a 0.5 mg/kg endotoxin infusion over 30 min. In the HDF group (n = 6), HDF was started 30 min after the end of the endotoxin infusion, while in the Control group (n = 4) they received HDF but no endotoxin infusion. Pulmonary hemodynamics were analyzed in detail with a four-element windkessel model. Although in the Control group, HDF did not alter pulmonary hemodynamic parameters, in the HDF group, it was responsible for an amplification of the deleterious pulmonary vascular response to endotoxin insult. Our results show that HDF must be used cautiously in septic shock since it can precipitate right heart failure by increasing pulmonary vascular resistance. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (0 ULg) A capillary action test for the investigation of adhesion in repair technologyCourard, Luc ; Degeimbre, Robert in Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering (2003), 30(6), 1101-1110When repair material is laid down on a concrete substrate, the porosity of concrete allows it to penetrate the substrate, increasing the probability of physical interactions, and subsequently increasing ... [more ▼]When repair material is laid down on a concrete substrate, the porosity of concrete allows it to penetrate the substrate, increasing the probability of physical interactions, and subsequently increasing adhesion. Water absorption by immersion or usual capillary action tests do not provide enough information to understand what happens when contact occurs between the concrete substrate and the cement slurries used as a bonding layer. An adaptation of the capillary action test is presented; this is based on a continuous measurement of mass change of the sample. Major differences according to the type of surface preparation are pointed out: absorption rates as well as mass changes are greater for polished concrete substrates than for sandblasted ones. Centrifuged solutions of cement slurries modified with plasticizers and superplasticizers are used for water replacement in the adapted capillary action test. Results clearly show the influence of these admixtures: the greater the adhesion tension, the greater the wetting of the concrete substrate. Determination of these thermodynamic characteristics and performance of an adapted capillary action test provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of interface creation and promotion of adhesion. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 123 (3 ULg) Tribology of SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites in Liquid Oxygen in Relation to the Design of Hydrostatic BearingsBozet, Jean-Luc ; NELIS, M.; LEUCHS, Martin et alin Tribotest Journal (2003), 10(2), 105-115This paper aims with the characterization of ceramic matrix composites for bearing applications in LOX. First, compatibility tests have been performed to assume the safety and feasibility of further ... [more ▼]This paper aims with the characterization of ceramic matrix composites for bearing applications in LOX. First, compatibility tests have been performed to assume the safety and feasibility of further research operations. Then tribology tests were made on a pin-on-disc apparatus using LOX as working environment. The measurement of friction and wear allowed a comparison between different kinds of CMC and steel 440C materials. As a logical approach, a real geometry test rig is now being built up. The design of a hybrid journal bearing has been finished and the manufacturing of the rig components started. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 108 (9 ULg) Psychrophilic enzymes: Hot topics in cold adaptationFeller, Georges ; Gerday, Charles in Nature Reviews Microbiology (2003), 1(3), 200-208More than three-quarters of the Earth's surface is occupied by cold ecosystems, including the ocean depths, and polar and alpine regions. These permanently cold environments have been successfully ... [more ▼]More than three-quarters of the Earth's surface is occupied by cold ecosystems, including the ocean depths, and polar and alpine regions. These permanently cold environments have been successfully colonized by a class of extremophilic microorganisms that are known as psychrophiles (which literally means cold-loving). The ability to thrive at temperatures that are close to, or below, the freezing point of water requires a vast array of adaptations to maintain the metabolic rates and sustained growth compatible with life in these severe environmental conditions. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 33 (2 ULg) Overproduction of lipase by Yarrowia lipolytica mutantsFickers, Patrick ; Nicaud, J. M.; Destain, Jacqueline et alin Applied Microbiology & Biotechnology (2003), 63(2), 136-142Non-genetically modified mutants with increased capacities of extracellular lipase production were obtained from Yarrowia lipolytica strain CBS6303 by chemical mutagenesis. Of the 400 mutants isolated ... [more ▼]Non-genetically modified mutants with increased capacities of extracellular lipase production were obtained from Yarrowia lipolytica strain CBS6303 by chemical mutagenesis. Of the 400 mutants isolated, LgX64.81 had the highest potential for the development of an industrial lipase production process. This mutant exhibits lipase production uncoupled from catabolite repression by glucose, and a 10-fold increased productivity upon addition of oleic acid. Using a LIP2-LacZ reporter gene, we demonstrate that the mutant phenotype originates from a trans-acting mutation. The glucose uptake capacity of LgX64.81 is reduced 2.5-fold compared to the wild-type-strain, and it exhibits high lipase production on glucose medium. A trans-acting mutation in a gene involved in glucose transport could thus explain this mutant phenotype. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 76 (3 ULg) Rise and survival of bovine herpesvirus 1 recombinants after primary infection and reactivation from latencySchynts, F.; Meurens, F.; Detry, Bruno et alin Journal of Virology (2003), 77(23), 12535-12542Recombination is thought to be an important source of genetic variation in herpesviruses. Several studies, performed in vitro or in vivo, detected recombinant viruses after the coinoculation of two ... [more ▼]Recombination is thought to be an important source of genetic variation in herpesviruses. Several studies, performed in vitro or in vivo, detected recombinant viruses after the coinoculation of two distinguishable strains of the same herpesvirus species. However, none of these studies investigated the evolution of the relative proportions of parental versus recombinant progeny populations after coinoculation of the natural host, both during the excretion and the reexcretion period. In the present study, we address this by studying the infection of cattle with bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1). The recombination of two BoHV-1 mutants lacking either glycoprotein C (gC(-)/gE(+)) or E (gC(+)/gE(-)) was investigated after inoculation of cattle by the natural route of infection. The results demonstrated that (i) recombination is a frequent event in vivo since recombinants (gC(+)/gE(+) and gC(-)/gE(-)) were detected in all coinoculated calves, (ii) relative proportions of progeny populations evolved during the excretion period toward a situation where two populations (gC(+)/gE(+) and gC(-)/gE(+)) predominated without fully outcompeting the presence of the two other detected populations (gC(+)/gE(-) and gC(-)/gE(-)), and (iii) after reactivation from latency, no gC(+)/gE(-) and gC(-)/gE(-) progeny viruses were detected, although gC(+)/gE(-) mutants, when inoculated alone, were detected after reactivation treatment. In view of these data, the importance of gE in the biology of BoHV-1 infection and the role of recombination in herpesvirus evolution are discussed. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (1 ULg) Aromatase (estrogen synthase) activity in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord: Functional implicationsEvrard, H. C.; Balthazart, Jacques in Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (2003), 1007The presence of aromatase (estrogen synthase) in neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in Japanese quail suggests that estrogens produced locally from androgens could control spinal sensory ... [more ▼]The presence of aromatase (estrogen synthase) in neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in Japanese quail suggests that estrogens produced locally from androgens could control spinal sensory processes including nociception. We used the hot water nociceptive test (54 degreesC) to appraise the longterm effect of an inhibition of aromatization on the foot withdrawal latency in male quail. Four weeks after the ablation of their main source of testosterone (testes), castrated males displayed a significantly higher foot withdrawal latency than gonadally intact males. A prolonged treatment with subcutaneous capsules filled with testosterone or 17 beta-estradiol restored the baseline latency within 2 weeks. The effect of testosterone in castrated quail was almost completely blocked by systemic injections of Vorozole((TM)), a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor or tamoxifen, an estrogen receptor antagonist (one injection per day for 10 days). Taken together, these data demonstrate for the first time to our knowledge an effect of estrogens formed by aromatization of androgens on nociception. Because aromatase-immunoreactive neurons and aromatase activity are present in the dorsal horns of the spinal cord, this control of pain thresholds is presumably mediated, at least in part, by estrogens produced at the spinal level that act locally via slow, presumably genomic, mechanisms mediated by the activation of spinal nuclear estrogen receptors. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 23 (0 ULg) Treatment of urological complications related to aorto-iliac pathology and surgeryBonnet, Pierre ; Vandeberg, Colette ; Limet, Raymond in European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (2003), 26(6), 657-664Objectives. Proximity of ureters with iliac arteries makes them prone to damage by aorto-iliac pathology or surgery. The aim of this retrospective study is to analyse the incidence, the predisposing ... [more ▼]Objectives. Proximity of ureters with iliac arteries makes them prone to damage by aorto-iliac pathology or surgery. The aim of this retrospective study is to analyse the incidence, the predisposing factors, and the optimal treatment Of ureteral stenosis (US) or leakages (UL). Design. Retrospective study. Material. Fiftyone ureteral lesions in 41 patients referred to the urologist in a fourteen years period in the same institution. Methods. Lesions are classified in three groups: A, preoperative; B, less than 3 months postoperatively; and C, more than 3 months postoperatively. Group A comprises 10 abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients; eight of the AAA are of the inflammatory type. Group B comprises 16 patients, 11 US and 9 UL. Group C comprises 15 patients and 15 US. Results. Endoureteral treatment was successful in most of the group B patients. Some of them, however, had to be submitted to secondary open surgery, so that the global success rate is 70% in group B. In group C, the response is poor following endourological treatment alone (12.5% success) and open surgery is more often needed (3 ureterolyses and 1 nephrectomy). Global success rate is 40%. Conclusion. Early diagnosis is associated to better results with less invasive procedure, late diagnosis is accompanied by a lower success rate of endourological treatment and requires more often primary open surgery. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 43 (11 ULg) Site-directed mutagenesis of conserved inverted repeat sequences in the xylanase C promoter region from Streptomyces sp EC3Giannotta, F.; Georis, J.; Rigali, Sébastien et alin Molecular Genetics & Genomics (2003), 270(4), 337-346Streptomyces sp. EC3, a strain which was originally isolated from cattle manure compost, was shown to possess a strong xylanolytic activity. One of the genes responsible for this activity, xlnC, encodes a ... [more ▼]Streptomyces sp. EC3, a strain which was originally isolated from cattle manure compost, was shown to possess a strong xylanolytic activity. One of the genes responsible for this activity, xlnC, encodes a secreted xylanase. In the native strain, as in the heterologous host S. lividans, expression of xlnC was detectable in the presence of xylan but not in the presence of glucose. Induction by xylan was shown to take place at the transcriptional level. The transcriptional start site of xlnC was mapped and likely -35 (5'-TTGACA-3') and -10 (5'-GAGAAC-3') motifs were identified. In order to localise putative conserved regulatory sequences, the promoter regions of xylanase-encoding genes from various Streptomyces species were aligned. This alignment revealed the existence of three sets of quite well conserved palindromic AT rich sequences called boxes 1, 2 and 3. Box 3 (5'-CGAAA N TTTCG-3') is the farthest away from the promoter region (150-200 bp). A shorter version of this palindrome (5'-GAAA NN TTTC-3') or (5'-CGAAA-3') constitutes box 1, which is located just upstream of the putative -35 promoter sequence. Box 2, located 5-7 bp upstream of box 1, comprises a shorter palindrome than box 3, with inverted polarity [5'-(G/C)TTTC (N) GAAA(G/C)-3']. The putative regulatory role of the conserved inverted repeats in boxes 2 and 3 in the promoter region of the xlnC gene from Streptomyces sp. EC3, was assessed. These boxes were modified by site-directed mutagenesis, and the mutant promoter regions, as well as the wild-type promoter region, were separately fused to a beta-lactamase reporter gene. Analysis of the expression patterns of these fusions in cultures grown in the presence of glucose, xylan or both carbon sources demonstrated that these motifs were cis -acting negative regulatory elements, each playing a specific role in the regulation of xlnC expression. Box 3 was shown to be critical for the establishment of repression of xlnC expression by glucose, whereas box 2 was shown to play an important role in the induction of xlnC expression by xylan. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 33 (2 ULg) In vivo dynamic ME-MRI reveals differential functional responses of RA- and area X-projecting neurons in the HVC of canaries exposed to conspecific songTindemans, I.; Verhoye, M.; Balthazart, Jacques et alin European Journal of Neuroscience (2003), 18(12), 3352-3360HVC (nidopallial area, formerly known as hyperstriatum ventrale pars caudalis), a key centre for song control in oscines, responds in a selective manner to conspecific songs as indicated by ... [more ▼]HVC (nidopallial area, formerly known as hyperstriatum ventrale pars caudalis), a key centre for song control in oscines, responds in a selective manner to conspecific songs as indicated by electrophysiology. However, immediate-early gene induction cannot be detected in this nucleus following song stimulation. HVC contains neurons projecting either towards the nucleus robustus archistriatalis (RA; motor pathway) or area X (anterior forebrain pathway). Both RA- and area X-projecting cells show auditory responses. The present study analysed these responses separately in the two types of HVC projection neurons of canaries by a new in vivo approach using manganese as a calcium analogue which can be transported anterogradely and used as a paramagnetic contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Manganese was stereotaxically injected into HVC and taken up by HVC neurons. The anterograde axonal transport of manganese from HVC to RA and area X was then followed by MRI during approximate to 8 h and changes in signal intensity in these targets were fitted to sigmoid functions. Data comparing birds exposed or not to conspecific songs revealed that song stimulation specifically affected the activity of the two types of HVC projection neurons (increase in the sigmoid slope in RA and in its maximum signal intensity in area X). Dynamic manganese-enhanced MRI thus allows assessment of the functional state of specific neuronal populations in the song system of living canaries in a manner reminiscent of functional MRI (but with higher resolution) or of 2-deoxyglucose autoradiography (but in living subjects). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (0 ULg) La médecine dans l'Empire romain au premier siècle de notre èreMarganne, Marie-Hélène in Biblia (2003), 24Detailed reference viewed: 36 (4 ULg) Quadro legal da mediaçao vitima-agressor na Europa continentalLauwaert, Katrien in Newsletter DGAE (2003), (2), 12-18Detailed reference viewed: 13 (0 ULg) Biosafety of Herpesvirus VectorsGogev, S.; Schynts, F.; Meurens, F. et alin Current Gene Therapy (2003), 3(6), 597-611Herpesviruses are large DNA viruses, which possess a number of advantages as gene delivery vectors. These relate to an ability to package large DNA insertions and establish lifelong latent infections in ... [more ▼]Herpesviruses are large DNA viruses, which possess a number of advantages as gene delivery vectors. These relate to an ability to package large DNA insertions and establish lifelong latent infections in which the viral genome exists as a stable episome in the nucleus. For gene therapy to become a potential future treatment option, biosafe therapeutically efficient gene transfer is a central, but more and more stringent requirement. This review highlights the progress in development of herpesvirus based vectors, describes their properties as wall as discusses the biosafety concerns that are associated with their use in gene therapy. Thought was also given to biosafety issues pertaining to design and production of herpesvirus vector systems in therapeutic gene delivery. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (1 ULg) 8-Methyl-6-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-11H-pyrido[2,3-b][1,4]benzodiazepineSpirlet, Marie-Rose ; Graulich, Amaury ; Liégeois, Jean-François in Acta Crystallographica Section E-Structure Reports Online (2003), 59(Part 12), 1990-1991The conformation of the title compound, C18H21N5, is very similar to that observed in other diaryldiazepine structures such as clozapine and clozapine dihydrobromide. N-H...H hydrogen-bond interactions ... [more ▼]The conformation of the title compound, C18H21N5, is very similar to that observed in other diaryldiazepine structures such as clozapine and clozapine dihydrobromide. N-H...H hydrogen-bond interactions result in the formation of a dimer. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 48 (8 ULg) The influence of an acid-base-equilibrium on the adsorption behaviour of a weak polyampholyteMahltig, Boris; Jérôme, Robert ; Stamm, Manfredin Journal of Polymer Research (2003), 10(4), 219-223A weak diblock polyampholyte PMAA-b-PDMAEMA, poly(methacrylic acid)-block-poly((dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate), was investigated as a model system for the influence of an acid-base-equilibrium of a ... [more ▼]A weak diblock polyampholyte PMAA-b-PDMAEMA, poly(methacrylic acid)-block-poly((dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate), was investigated as a model system for the influence of an acid-base-equilibrium of a phthalic acid buffer system on the polyelectrolyte adsorption behaviour. The adsorption of polyampholyte from aqueous solution onto silicon surfaces is known to be strongly influenced by the parameters of the polymer solution and the properties of the polyampholyte itself like block ratio or molecular weight. In the case of the investigated polyampholytes, the main parameter with the most significant influence on the adsorption is the pH. The big influence of pH on adsorption results from the charges of the polymer chains and the substrate, which are determined by the pH. Therefore, it should be useful to investigate the influence of a buffer system on the polyampholyte adsorption. On the one hand the buffer system enables to determine the pH of the aqueous polyampholyte solution more precisely. On the other hand the concentrations of different phthalic species like the phthalic acid, the hydrogen phthalate and the phthalate are strongly influenced by pH. These different species were observed to have a strong influence on the adsorption behaviour of the polyampholyte, so the adsorption as function of pH was observed to be also determined by the acid-base-equilibrium of the buffer system. The adsorbed amount of polyampholyte dried after the adsorption process was determined using ellipsometry, while the surface topography of these adsorbed layers were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 24 (2 ULg) Humoral and cellular immune response to a Microsporum canis recombinant keratinolytic metalloprotease (r-MEP3) in experimentally infected guinea pigsBrouta, Frédéric; Descamps, Frédéric; Vermout, Sandy et alin Medical Mycology (2003), 41(6), 495-501In order to better understand the host-fungus relationship in Microsporum canis dermatophytosis and to identify major fungal antigens, the immune response to a crude exoantigen preparation and to a ... [more ▼]In order to better understand the host-fungus relationship in Microsporum canis dermatophytosis and to identify major fungal antigens, the immune response to a crude exoantigen preparation and to a purified recombinant keratinolytic metalloprotease (r-MEP3) was evaluated in guinea pigs experimentally infected with M. canis. Humoral and cellular immune responses were assessed from day 0 to day 57 post-infection (PI), the former by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the latter via a lymphocyte proliferation assay. Infected guinea pigs developed humoral and cellular responses to both M. canis exoantigen and r-MEP3, while no specific immune response to these antigens was observed in control animals. This is the first report on the development of both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to a purified keratinase in M. canis dermatophytosis. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 64 (5 ULg) Performance of the VERSANT (R) HIV-1 Resistance Assays (LiPA) for detecting drug resistance in therapy-naive patients infected with different HIV-1 subtypesDerdelinckx, Inge; Van Laethem, Kristel; Maes, Baert et alin FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology (2003), 39(2), 119-124In this study we evaluated the performance of the VERSANT((R)) HIV-1 Resistance Assays (LiPA) in detecting drug resistance in therapy-naive HIV-infected patients diagnosed in Belgium in 2000. We compared ... [more ▼]In this study we evaluated the performance of the VERSANT((R)) HIV-1 Resistance Assays (LiPA) in detecting drug resistance in therapy-naive HIV-infected patients diagnosed in Belgium in 2000. We compared the results with population sequencing and found concordance to be in line with previous studies in treatment-experienced patients (86.87% for reverse transcriptase (RT); 92.77% for protease (PRO)). Discordance was mainly due to indeterminate reactions on LiPA (8.45% for RT; 6.85% for PRO) and minor discordances (4.13% for RT; 0.25% for PRO). Major discordances were rare (0.46% for RT; 0.12% for PRO). Indeterminate reactions were significantly associated with strains belonging to non-B subtypes. (C) 2003 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V.. All rights reserved. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (2 ULg) Stable uudd \bar s pentaquarks in the constituent quark modelStancu, Floarea ; Riska, D. O.in Physics Letters B (2003), 575(3-4), 242-248The stability of strange pentaquarks uudd (s) over bar is studied in a constituent quark model based on a flavor-spin hyperfine interaction between quarks. With this interaction model, which schematically ... [more ▼]The stability of strange pentaquarks uudd (s) over bar is studied in a constituent quark model based on a flavor-spin hyperfine interaction between quarks. With this interaction model, which schematically represents the Goldstone boson exchange interaction between constituent quarks, the lowest lying strange pentaquark is a p-shell state with positive parity. The flavor-spin interaction lowers the energy of the lowest p-shell state below that of the lowest s-shell state, which has negative parity because of the negative parity of the strange antiquark. It is found that the strange pentaquark can be stable against strong decay provided that the strange antiquark interacts by a fairly strong spin-spin interaction with u and d quarks. This interaction has a form that corresponds to, eta meson exchange. Its strength may be inferred from the pi(0) decay width of D*(s) mesons. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 16 (2 ULg) La parésie spastique du quadriceps fémoral : Une nouvelle entité clinique chez le veau de race Blanc Bleu Belge.Touati, Kamal ; Müller, Philippe ; Gangl M. et alin Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2003), 147Detailed reference viewed: 47 (7 ULg) Cytoplasmic I kappa B alpha increases NF-kappa B-independent transcription through binding to histone deacetylase (HDAC) 1 and HDAC3Viatour, Patrick ; Legrand-Poels, Sylvie; van Lint, Carine et alin Journal of Biological Chemistry (2003), 278(47), 46541-46548IkappaBalpha is an inhibitory molecule that sequesters NF-kappaB dimers in the cytoplasm of unstimulated cells. Upon stimulation, NF-kappaB moves to the nucleus and induces the expression of a variety of ... [more ▼]IkappaBalpha is an inhibitory molecule that sequesters NF-kappaB dimers in the cytoplasm of unstimulated cells. Upon stimulation, NF-kappaB moves to the nucleus and induces the expression of a variety of genes including IkappaBalpha. This newly synthesized IkappaBalpha also translocates to the nucleus, removes activated NF-kappaB from its target genes, and brings it back to the cytoplasm to terminate the phase of NF-kappaB activation. We show here that IkappaBalpha enhances the transactivation potential of several homeodomain-containing proteins such as HOXB7 and Pit-1 through a NF-kappaB-independent association with histone deacetylase (HDAC) 1 and HDAC3 but not with HDAC2, -4, -5, and -6. IkappaBalpha bound both HDAC proteins through its ankyrin repeats, and this interaction was disrupted by p65. Immunofluorescence experiments demonstrated further that IkappaBalpha acts by partially redirecting HDAC3 to the cytoplasm. At the same time, an IkappaBalpha mutant, which lacked a functional nuclear localization sequence, interacted very efficiently with HDAC1 and -3 and intensively enhanced the transactivation potential of Pit-1. Our results support the hypothesis that the NF-kappaB inhibitor IkappaBalpha regulates the transcriptional activity of homeodomain-containing proteins positively through cytoplasmic sequestration of HDAC1 and HDAC3, a mechanism that would assign a new and unexpected role to IkappaBalpha. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 46 (6 ULg) CWATUP : le certificat de conformitéDelnoy, Michel in Immobilier (2003), 21Detailed reference viewed: 26 (1 ULg) Palladium-silver sol-gel catalysts for selective hydrodechlorination of 1,2-dichloroethane into ethylene - IV. Deactivation mechanism and regenerationHeinrichs, Benoît ; Noville, Francis ; Schoebrechts, Jean-Paul et alin Journal of Catalysis (2003), 220(1), 215-225The activity and selectivity of a 1.9% Pd-3.7% Ag/SiO2 catalyst during selective hydrodechlorination of 1,2-dichloroethane into ethylene have been followed in the course of time. The deactivation curves ... [more ▼]The activity and selectivity of a 1.9% Pd-3.7% Ag/SiO2 catalyst during selective hydrodechlorination of 1,2-dichloroethane into ethylene have been followed in the course of time. The deactivation curves show two distinct periods: an initial period at the very beginning of catalyst operation, that is, during the first 20 operating hours, characterized by a sharp decrease of the rates of both reactions involved in the process (1,2-dichloroethane hydrodechlorination and undesired ethylene hydrogenation) and a second period, after the first 20 operating hours and investigated for more than 600 h, characterized by a clearly slower deactivation. During the initial period, the hydrodechlorination rate decreases less quickly than the hydrogenation rate and this results in a fast increase of ethylene selectivity which reaches a maximum at the end of this period. After the initial period, the hydrodechlorination rate decreases faster than the hydrogenation rate and this results in a slow decrease of ethylene selectivity. A comparison between the physico-chemical properties of the fresh catalyst and of the deactivated one suggests a deactivation mechanism by poisoning or coking of silver sites at the surface of the active Pd-Ag alloy particles whereas palladium sites would remain intact. The selectivity evolution during the second period, that is, after the very first operating hours, is in agreement with such a mechanism. However, the sharp ethylene selectivity increase during the initial operating hours suggests, in addition to the deactivation by silver sites disappearance, the presence of a further nonidentified phenomenon. The characterization of the catalyst after a regeneration treatment including an oxidation step followed by a reduction step shows that this treatment allows restoration near to the physico-chemical properties of the fresh catalyst. (C) 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 78 (5 ULg) Vagus nerve stimulation attenuates heat- and formalin-induced pain in ratsBohotin, C.; Scholsem, M.; Bohotin, V. et alin Neuroscience Letters (2003), 351(2), 79-82The analgesic effect of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has not yet been demonstrated in animals with the devices used in the clinic. We studied in awake rats the effects of two VNS protocols on the hind ... [more ▼]The analgesic effect of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has not yet been demonstrated in animals with the devices used in the clinic. We studied in awake rats the effects of two VNS protocols on the hind paw hot water test and compared the results with those previously obtained in the oro-facial formalin test. A stringent duty cycle (20 s on/18 s off) increased heat pain tolerance in both hind paws (average 188%) after 2 h of stimulation. VNS with parameters used in epilepsy (30 s on/5 min off) decreased heat tolerance after 2 h, but produced a significant antinociceptive effect after days of stimulation. VNS may thus be useful in pain disorders, even with the less stringent protocol. (C) 2003 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 26 (0 ULg) Crystal structure of the sensor domain of the BlaR penicillin receptor from Bacillus licheniformisKerff, Frédéric ; Charlier, Paulette ; Colombo, Maria Louisa et alin Biochemistry (2003), 42(44), 12835-12843As in several staphylococci, the synthesis of the Bacillus licheniformis 749/I beta-lactamase is an inducible phenomenon regulated by a signal-transducing membrane protein BlaR. The C-terminal domain of ... [more ▼]As in several staphylococci, the synthesis of the Bacillus licheniformis 749/I beta-lactamase is an inducible phenomenon regulated by a signal-transducing membrane protein BlaR. The C-terminal domain of this multimodular protein is an extracellular domain which specifically recognizes beta-lactam antibiotics. When it binds a beta-lactam, a signal is transmitted by the transmembrane region to the intracellular loops. In response, the hydrolytic activity of the BlaR large cytoplasmic L3 loop is induced, and a cascade of reactions is generated, leading to the transcription of the beta-lactamase gene. Here, we describe the crystal structure of the extracellular penicillin-receptor domain of BlaR (residues 346-601) at 2.5 Angstrom resolution in order to understand why this domain, whose folding is very similar to that of class D beta-lactamases, behaves as a highly sensitive penicillin-binding protein rather than a beta-lactamase. Two residues of the BlaR C-terminal domain, Thr452 and Thr542, modify the hydrophobic characteristic of the class D beta-lactamase active site. Both residues seem to be in part responsible for the lack of beta-lactamase activity of the BlaR protein due to the stability of the acyl-enzyme. Although further experimental data are needed to fully understand the transmembrane induction process, the comparison of the BlaR sensor domain structure with those of class D beta-lactamase complexes and penicillin-binding proteins provides interesting elements to hypothesize on possible signal transmission mechanisms. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 43 (5 ULg) Size heterogeneity, cannibalism and competition in cultured predatory fish larvae: biotic and abiotic influencesKestemont, P.; Jourdan, S.; Houbart, M. et alin Aquaculture (2003), 227(1-4), 333-356Growth heterogeneity is a central problem in larviculture and especially in predatory species. It can be influenced by a wide range of intrinsic and environmental factors, of which the respective ... [more ▼]Growth heterogeneity is a central problem in larviculture and especially in predatory species. It can be influenced by a wide range of intrinsic and environmental factors, of which the respective influences are largely unknown. The role of non-interactive (temperature, day length, light intensity, food availability and composition) and interactive factors (stocking density, initial size heterogeneity, hatching time) on growth, survival and size heterogeneity was measured in larvae and post-larvae of the European seabass Dicentrarchus labrax and Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis. Embryos hatching later than others were found less competitive than those hatching earlier in both species, but to a greater extent in perch. By contrast, the final size heterogeneity in both species was independent from the initial size heterogeneity or recurrent size sorting. High stocking density had a positive effect on perch larvae, no effect on seabass larvae and a negative impact on the post-larvae of both species, owing principally to density-dependent access to food. Day length and light intensity produced contrasting results in larvae and post-larvae. Larvae of both species performed better under bright light and continuous day length. Post-larvae of seabass performed equally well at different light levels but did better under short day lengths, whereas post-larvae of perch were unaffected by day length but performed better under reduced light levels. Increasing food availability resulted in increasing performance of perch larvae, although cannibalism was higher for submaximal than for maintenance rations. The similarity between the two species at the larval stage, and differences at the post-larval stage can be accounted for by the increasing specialisation towards specific environments and niches. Regarding the impact of rearing factors on growth, survival and size heterogeneity, interactive variables impacted essentially on growth and survival, whereas size heterogeneity was chiefly influenced by non-interactive variables, either directly or indirectly via interactive mechanisms such as cannibalism and size-dependent mortality. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 89 (5 ULg) Characterization of the primary sonic muscles in Carapus acus (Carapidae): a multidisciplinary approachParmentier, Eric ; Gennotte, Vincent ; Focant, Bruno et alin Proceedings of the Royal Society B : Biological Sciences (2003), 270(1530), 2301-2308Sound production in carapid fishes results from the action of extrinsic muscles that insert into the swim bladder. Biochemical, histochemical and morphological techniques were used to examine the sonic ... [more ▼]Sound production in carapid fishes results from the action of extrinsic muscles that insert into the swim bladder. Biochemical, histochemical and morphological techniques were used to examine the sonic muscles and compare them with epaxial muscles in Carapus acus. Sonic fibres are thicker than red and thinner than white epaxial fibres, and sonic fibres and myofibrils exhibit an unusual helicoidal organization: the myofibrils of the centre are in a straight line whereas they are more and more twisted towards the periphery. Sonic muscles have both features of red (numerous mitochondria, high glycogen content) and white (alkali-stable ATPase) fibres. They differ also in the isoforms of the light chain (LC3) and heavy chain (HC), in having T tubules at both the Z-line and the A–I junction and in a unique parvalbumin isoform (PAI) that may aid relaxation. All these features lead to the expression of two assumptions about sound generation: the sonic muscle should be able to perform fast and powerful contractions that provoke the forward movement of the forepart of the swim bladder and the stretching and ‘flapping’ of the swim bladder fenestra; the helicoidal organization allows progressive drawing of the swim bladder fenestra which emits a sound when rapidly released in a spring-like manner. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 53 (10 ULg) Prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in southern BelgiumLosson, Bertrand ; Kervyn, Thierry; Detry, Jacques et alin Veterinary Parasitology (2003), 117(1-2), 23-28Between June 1998 and February 2002,709 red foxes killed in Wallonia (south of Belgium) were available for parasitological examination of the gut. The identification of Echinococcus multilocularis was ... [more ▼]Between June 1998 and February 2002,709 red foxes killed in Wallonia (south of Belgium) were available for parasitological examination of the gut. The identification of Echinococcus multilocularis was based on morphological data. E. multilocularis adults were observed in 20.2% of the animals. The analysis of data revealed marked differences between the geological areas of Wallonia; the highest prevalence (33%) was found in the Ardenne and the lowest (0%) on the Plateau de Herve. Host gender and the collection season had no effect on the prevalence. However, the latter was significantly higher in juveniles (<8 months of age). The geographical distribution of E. multilocularis in Belgium is much wider than originally thought. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 68 (2 ULg) Jupiter's main auroral oval observed with HST-STISGrodent, Denis ; Clarke, J. T.; Kim, J. et alin Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics (2003), 108(A11), An extended series of FUV images obtained on 7 days during winter 2000-2001, with fixed pointing, yielded highly accurate tracking of emisson features as Jupiter rotated. They provided newly detailed ... [more ▼]An extended series of FUV images obtained on 7 days during winter 2000-2001, with fixed pointing, yielded highly accurate tracking of emisson features as Jupiter rotated. They provided newly detailed measurements of the degree of corotation of auroral emissions and their variations with changing central meridian longitude. This 2-month data set provides a statistical average location of the auroral emission and leads to the definition of new "reference ovals.'' The overall auroral morphology pattern is shown to be fixed in System-III longitude and unchanged over a 5-year period. When arranged in central meridian longitude ranges, the images show a significant contraction of the northern main oval as the central meridian longitude increases from 115 to 255degrees. The main auroral oval brightness is globally very stable in comparison with its terrestrial counterpart. It is shown to vary with magnetic local time, increasing from noon to dusk and then decreasing again in the magnetic evening. Hectometric emissions observed simultaneously with Galileo and Cassini reveal interplanetary shocks propagating outward from the Sun which may be related to the contraction of the main auroral oval observed in the HST images taken on 14 December 2000. In addition, we find that a brightening and a significant contraction of the main oval observed on 13 January 2001 corresponded to a time of increased solar wind dynamic pressure. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 23 (6 ULg) Simulated annealing for complex portfolio selection problemsCrama, Yves ; Schyns, Michael in European Journal of Operational Research (2003), 150(3), 546-571This paper describes the application of a simulated annealing approach to the solution of a complex portfolio selection model. The model is a mixed integer quadratic programming problem which arises when ... [more ▼]This paper describes the application of a simulated annealing approach to the solution of a complex portfolio selection model. The model is a mixed integer quadratic programming problem which arises when Markowitz' classical mean-variance model is enriched with additional realistic constraints. Exact optimization algorithms run into difficulties in this framework and this motivates the investigation of heuristic techniques. Computational experiments indicate that the approach is promising for this class of problems. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 230 (48 ULg) Pharmacodynamics of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in postmenopausal women during pulsed estrogen therapy: Evidence that FSH release and synthesis are controlled by distinct pathwaysChristin-Maitre, S.; Laveille, C.; Collette, Julien et alin Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (2003), 88(11), 5405-541317beta-Estradiol (E2) exerts negative feedback effects at the hypothalamo-pituitary level on serum FSH. This study investigated the effects of repeated daily administration of intranasal E2 (S21400) on ... [more ▼]17beta-Estradiol (E2) exerts negative feedback effects at the hypothalamo-pituitary level on serum FSH. This study investigated the effects of repeated daily administration of intranasal E2 (S21400) on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of E2 and estrone (E1) and the pharmacodynamics (PD) of FSH and assessed the PK/PD relationship between E2 and FSH using population model-dependent analysis. Postmenopausal volunteers (n = 24) received according to a balanced cross-over design, two 28-d treatments separated by a 2-month wash-out period: 300 mug E2, either alone or combined with oral dydrogesterone (20 mg/d) during the last 14 d of one of the treatments. Absorption of E2 was rapid, with maximal plasma concentrations at 10-30 min, returning to postmenopausal levels within 12 h. Over the 24-h period, FSH levels showed a U curve, with a minimum around 8 h after E2 administration. Moreover, over the treatment period, FSH basal values decreased by 17% between d 1 and 14 and an additional 5% between d 14 and 28. A PK/PD model described these short- and mid-term effects, possibly reflecting separate regulation mechanisms by E2 on FSH release and biosynthesis, respectively. The administration of progestin had no influence on E1, E2, and FSH model parameters. This study suggests that daily transient tissue exposure to E2 after pulsed estrogen therapy elicits short- and mid-term effects on the gonadotropin axis. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 13 (2 ULg) Overexpression of the soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor in preeclamptic patients: Pathophysiological consequencesTsatsaris, V.; Goffin, Frédéric ; Munaut, Carine et alin Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (2003), 88(11), 5555-5563Several growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and placental growth factor (PlGF) are involved in the placental vascular development. We investigated whether dysregulation in ... [more ▼]Several growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and placental growth factor (PlGF) are involved in the placental vascular development. We investigated whether dysregulation in the VEGF family may explain the defective uteroplacental vascularization characterizing preeclampsia. We compared pregnancies complicated by early onset severe preeclampsia or intrauterine growth retardation to normal pregnancies. Maternal plasma, placentas, and placental bed biopsies were collected. The mRNA levels of VEGF-A, PlGF, and their receptors were quantified in placentas and placental beds. Levels of VEGF-A, PlGF, and soluble VEGF receptor (VEGFR) were assessed in maternal plasma. In compromised pregnancies, elevated levels of VEGF-A and VEGFR-1 mRNAs may reflect the hypoxic status of the placenta. On contrast, the membrane-bound VEGFR-1 was decreased in the placental bed of preeclamptic patients. Preeclampsia was associated with low levels of circulating PlGF and increased levels of total VEGF-A and soluble VEGFR-1. Free VEGF-A was undetectable in maternal blood. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that VEGF-A and PlGF were localized in trophoblastic cells. Altogether, our results suggest two different pathophysiological mechanisms associated with preeclampsia. The first one is related to an overproduction of competitive soluble VEGFR-1 that may lead to suppression of VEGF-A and PlGF effects. The second one is the down-regulation of its membrane bound form (VEGFR-1) in the placental bed, which may result in the defective uteroplacental development. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 43 (6 ULg) Evolution of the polarization of the optical afterglow of the γ-ray burst GRB030329Greiner, Jochen; Klose, Sylvio; Reinsch, Klaus et alin Nature (2003), 426The association of a supernova with GRB030329 strongly supports the collapsar' model of γ-ray bursts, where a relativistic jet forms after the progenitor star collapses. Such jets cannot be spatially ... [more ▼]The association of a supernova with GRB030329 strongly supports the collapsar' model of γ-ray bursts, where a relativistic jet forms after the progenitor star collapses. Such jets cannot be spatially resolved because γ-ray bursts lie at cosmological distances; their existence is instead inferred from `breaks' in the light curves of the afterglows, and from the theoretical desire to reduce the estimated total energy of the burst by proposing that most of it comes out in narrow beams. Temporal evolution of the polarization of the afterglows may provide independent evidence for the jet structure of the relativistic outflow. Small-level polarization (~1-3 per cent) has been reported for a few bursts, but its temporal evolution has yet to be established. Here we report polarimetric observations of the afterglow of GRB030329. We establish the polarization light curve, detect sustained polarization at the per cent level, and find significant variability. The data imply that the afterglow magnetic field has a small coherence length and is mostly random, probably generated by turbulence, in contrast with the picture arising from the high polarization detected in the prompt γ-rays from GRB021206 (ref. 18). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 16 (0 ULg) Remote sensing of the proton aurora characteristics from IMAGE-FUVBisikalo, D. V.; Shematovich, V. I.; Gérard, Jean-Claude et alin Annales Geophysicae (2003), 21The combination of simultaneous global images of the north polar region obtained with the IMAGE-FUV imaging system makes it possible to globally map the properties of the electron and proton auroral ... [more ▼]The combination of simultaneous global images of the north polar region obtained with the IMAGE-FUV imaging system makes it possible to globally map the properties of the electron and proton auroral precipitation. The SI12 imager, which observes the Doppler-shifted Lyman-a [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 40 (2 ULg) Geneva photometry of HD 129929 (Aerts+, 2004)Aerts, C.; Waelkens, C.; Daszynska-Daszkiewicz, J. et alin SIMBAD (2003), 341We have gathered and analysed a timeseries of 1493 high-quality multicolour Geneva photometric data of the B3V {beta} Cep star Hd 129929. The dataset has a time base of 21.2 years. The occurrence of a ... [more ▼]We have gathered and analysed a timeseries of 1493 high-quality multicolour Geneva photometric data of the B3V {beta} Cep star Hd 129929. The dataset has a time base of 21.2 years. The occurrence of a beating phenomenon is evident from the data. We find evidence for the presence of at least six frequencies, among which we see components of two frequency multiplets with an average spacing of ~0.0121c/d which points towards very slow rotation. This result is in agreement with new spectroscopic data of the star and also with previously taken UV spectra. We provide the amplitudes of the six frequencies in all seven photometric filters. The metal content of the star is Z=0.018+/-0.004. All these observational results will be used to perform detailed seismic modelling of this massive star in a subsequent paper. (1 data file). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (4 ULg) Is parenteral nutrition guilty?Varga, P.; Griffiths, R.; Chiolero, R. et alin Intensive Care Medicine (2003), 29(11), 1861-1864Detailed reference viewed: 17 (0 ULg) Acquired aqueductal stenosis in preterm infants: an indication for neuroendoscopic third ventriculostomyScavarda, D; Bednarek, N; Litré, Claude Fabien et alin Child's Nervous System (2003), 19(10-11), 756-9Abstract Object: The object of this study is to demonstrate the delayed occurrence of aqueductal stenosis in preterm infants who have suffered from intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and to try to explain ... [more ▼]Abstract Object: The object of this study is to demonstrate the delayed occurrence of aqueductal stenosis in preterm infants who have suffered from intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and to try to explain the mechanisms of this stenosis. Method: From January 1996 to June 2002, 1,046 premature infants were admitted to our institution. Thirty-six neonates suffered from grade 3 or 4 intraventricular hemorrhage (Papile grading), of whom 16 died. Twenty patients survived and a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was inserted in 7 infants. Four patients underwent a neuroendoscopic third ventriculostomy. Follow-up was carried out, twice a month during the first 2 months and subsequently twice a year. Conclusion: In 2 children NTV was an effective treatment for hydrocephalus with an average follow-up of 29 months. The specific pattern concerning these patients is the long delay before obstructive hydrocephalus and the visualization of de novo obstruction with MRI. The biological explanation must be investigated. Keywords Premature newborn · Intraventricular hemorrhage · Hydrocephalus · Neuroendoscopy · Aqueductal stenosis · Acquired obstructive hydrocephalus · Transforming growth factor b1 [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 3 (0 ULg) Un bilan du programme quinquennal 1998-2002Lonfils, R.; Lebailly, D.; De Bock, C. et alin Education Santé (2003), (184), 10-16Detailed reference viewed: 13 (0 ULg) Egr family members regulate nonlymphoid expression of Fas ligand, TRAIL, and tumor necrosis factor during immune responses.Droin, Nathalie; Pinkoski, Mike; Dejardin, Emmanuel et alin Molecular & Cellular Biology (2003), 23(21), 7638-7647The Fas ligand (FasL)/Fas pathway is crucial for homeostasis of the immune system and peripheral tolerance. Peripheral lymphocyte deletion involves FasL/Fas in at least two ways: coexpression of both Fas ... [more ▼]The Fas ligand (FasL)/Fas pathway is crucial for homeostasis of the immune system and peripheral tolerance. Peripheral lymphocyte deletion involves FasL/Fas in at least two ways: coexpression of both Fas and its ligand on T cells, leading to activation-induced cell death, and expression of FasL by nonlymphoid cells, such as intestinal epithelial cells (IEC), that kill Fas-positive T cells. We demonstrate here that superantigen Staphylococcus enterotoxin B (SEB) induced a dramatic upregulation of FasL, TRAIL, and TNF mRNA expression and function in IEC from BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Using adoptive transfer in which CD4(+) T cells from OT-2 T-cell receptor transgenic mice were transferred into recipients, we observed an induction in IEC of FasL, TRAIL, and TNF mRNA after administration of antigen. Specific Egr-binding sites have been identified in the 5' promoter region of the FasL gene, and Egr-1, Egr-2, and Egr-3 mRNA in IEC from mice treated with SEB and from transgenic OT-2 mice after administration of antigen was upregulated. Overexpression of Egr-2 and Egr-3 induced endogenous ligand upregulation that was inhibited by overexpression of Egr-specific inhibitor Nab1. These results support a role for Egr family members in nonlymphoid expression of FasL, TRAIL, and TNF. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 6 (0 ULg) The use of mycophenolate mofetil in liver transplant recipientsDetry, Olivier ; De Roover, Arnaud ; Delwaide, Jean et alin Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy (2003), 4(11), 1949-1957Mycophenolate mofetil is an important drug in the modern immunosuppressive arsenal. Mycophenolate mofetil is the semisynthetic morpholinoethyl ester of mycophenolate acid. Mycophenolate acid prevents T ... [more ▼]Mycophenolate mofetil is an important drug in the modern immunosuppressive arsenal. Mycophenolate mofetil is the semisynthetic morpholinoethyl ester of mycophenolate acid. Mycophenolate acid prevents T and B cell proliferation by specifically inhibiting a purine pathway required for lymphocyte division. This paper extensively reviews the experience of mycophenolate mofetil use in liver transplant recipients. In randomised trials, mycophenolate mofetil decreased the rate of acute rejection after liver transplantation, without a significant increase of septic complications. However, so far, there are no data indicating that mycophenolate mofetil increases liver transplant patient or graft survivals. Mycophenolate mofetil is interesting because of its particular side effects profile, which is very different from the other immunosuppressants. The absence of mycophenolate mofetil nephrotoxicity is of specific interest in liver recipients with impairment of renal function. The monitoring of mycophenolate acid area under the concentration time curve might be interesting to limit side effects and provide better clinical efficacy but the exact role of mycophenolate acid monitoring in liver recipients has yet to be further evaluated in large series. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 47 (8 ULg) Do utility values and willingness to pay suitably reflect health outcome in hip and knee osteoarthritis? A comparative analysis with the WOMAC indexEthgen, Olivier ; Tancredi, Annalisa ; Lejeune, Emmanuelle et alin Journal of Rheumatology (2003), 30(11), 2452-2459Objective. To establish whether health utility (time trade-off, TTO) and willingness to pay (WTP) values reflect clinical health outcome as evaluated by the Western Ontario McMaster Universities ... [more ▼]Objective. To establish whether health utility (time trade-off, TTO) and willingness to pay (WTP) values reflect clinical health outcome as evaluated by the Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) in hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods. One hundred twenty-eight patients with OA attending a specialized arthritis clinic were interviewed about their socioeconomic characteristics and administered the TTO technique and the WOMAC. Their WTP for 2 hypothetical anti-osteoarthritic drugs was also investigated: the first drug was said to provide a significant improvement in WOMAC dimensions and the second a complete cure of the disease. WTP was elicited by both discrete-choice and bidding game methods. Results. Answer rates were 89.1% for TTO, 98.4% for discrete-choice WTP for both scenarios, and 89.8% and 85.2% for bidding game WTP in the relief and the cure scenario, respectively. The mean TTO utility value was 0.84 (standard deviation 0.20). In discrete-choice, those accepting the bid had higher monthly income (euro 1536.5 vs euro 1060. 1, p < 0.001, for the relief scenario and euro 1449.3 vs euro 1071.6, p < 0.001, for the cure scenario). With the bidding game format, WTP was positively correlated with income in both scenarios (r = 0.56, r = 0.55, p < 0.001). WTP measures differed equally between education and socioeconomic groups with those in favored groups consistently reporting higher WTP (Kruskal-Wallis tests statistics ranging from p < 0.01 to p < 0.001). Except for stiffness, WOMAC dimensions were correlated in the expected direction with TTO values (r = -0.27, p < 0.01 for pain and r = -0.36, r = -0.34, p < 0.001 for physical function and total score, respectively). Conclusion. Whereas they showed good feasibility, WTP measures poorly reflected clinical condition and were mainly related to economic status and ability to pay. TTO was correlated with the WOMAC dimensions and may be considered closer to clinical situations than WTP. However, concern arises regarding the homogeneity of the study sample in terms of clinical severity, which may have precluded the identification of a relationship between WTP and clinical status. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 57 (9 ULg) Quantification of tagitinin C in Tithonia diversifolia by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.Goffin, Eric ; da Cunha, Antonio Proenca; Ziemons, Eric et alin Phytochemical Analysis (2003), 14(6), 378-80A simple, rapid and reliable reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of tagitinin C, an anti-plasmodial sesquiterpene lactone isolated from the aerial parts of ... [more ▼]A simple, rapid and reliable reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of tagitinin C, an anti-plasmodial sesquiterpene lactone isolated from the aerial parts of Tithonia diversifolia, has been developed. The assay has been used to quantify tagitinin C in various extracts of the aerial parts of T. diversifolia. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 93 (12 ULg) Radiative lifetime measurements and oscillator strength determination for transitions in singly ionized praseodymium (Pr II)Biémont, Emile ; Lefèbvre, P.-H.; Quinet, Pascal et alin European Physical Journal D -- Atoms, Molecules, Clusters & Optical Physics (2003), 27(1), 33-41New radiative lifetimes for 20 levels of Pr II have been measured using the time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technique. The combination of these experimental values with theoretical ... [more ▼]New radiative lifetimes for 20 levels of Pr II have been measured using the time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technique. The combination of these experimental values with theoretical branching fractions (BF) obtained with the pseudo-relativistic Hartree-Fock (HFR) approach has allowed us to determine oscillator strengths and transition probabilities for about 150 lines appearing in the spectral region between 369.9 and 741.2 nm. A detailed discussion of our new results and comparisons with previous data are also given in the present paper. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 50 (2 ULg) L'image du mois. Une varice duodenale compliquant une hypertension portaleDetry, Olivier ; Delwaide, Jean ; De Roover, Arnaud et alin Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(11), 657-8Detailed reference viewed: 142 (3 ULg) Ethnologischer Zettelkasten versus soziologische Theorie Hans Peter Duerr kämpft mit "Tatsachen des Lebens" gegen Norbert Elias' "Prozeß der Zivilisation"Pontzen, Alexandra in Literaturkritik.de (2003)Detailed reference viewed: 67 (0 ULg) PCB residues in a breast cancer patient populationCharlier, Corinne ; Pitance, François ; Plomteux, Guy in Bulletin of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology (2003), 71(5), 887-891Detailed reference viewed: 9 (2 ULg) Dioxin/polychlorinated biphenyl body burden, diabetes and endometriosis: findings in a population-based study in BelgiumFierens, S.; Mairesse, H.; Heilier, J. F. et alin Biomarkers : Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, & Susceptibility to Chemicals (2003), 8(6), 529-534Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants widely distributed in the food chain, which is the main source of human exposure. Their effects on human health at background ... [more ▼]Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants widely distributed in the food chain, which is the main source of human exposure. Their effects on human health at background exposure levels are still poorly understood. Recent epidemiological evidence suggests a possible association between these pollutants and diabetes. We report here the results of a population-based study in Belgium on 257 (142 women and 115 men) environmentally exposed subjects, including 10 cases of endometriosis and nine cases of diabetes. Seventeen 2,3,7,8-polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs or dioxins), four coplanar PCBs (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry [IUPAC] nos 77, 81, 126 and 169) and 12 PCB markers ( IUPAC nos 3, 8, 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180, 194, 206 and 209) were quantified in serum fat from fasting blood samples in order to estimate the body burden of these pollutants. Whilst no difference was found between women with endometriosis and their controls, diabetic patients had significantly increased serum levels of dioxins, coplanar PCBs and the 12 PCB markers. After adjustment for age and other covariates, serum total toxic equivalent activity (sum of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs) and 12 PCB marker concentrations in diabetics were 62% (p=0.0005) and 39% (p=0.0067) higher, respectively, than in controls. The risk of diabetes was significantly increased in subjects in the top decile for adjusted concentrations of dioxins (odds ratio 5.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-21.7), coplanar PCBs (odds ratio 13.3, 95% CI 3.31-53.2) or 12 PCB markers (odds ratio 7.6, 95% CI 1.58-36.3). These findings warrant further studies to assess the significance of the associations between diabetes and environmental exposure to polychlorinated pollutants. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 52 (1 ULg) Putative roles of the CNF2 and CDTIII toxins in experimental infections with necrotoxigenic Escherichia coli type 2 (NTEC2) strains in calvesVan Bost, S.; Roels, S.; Oswald, E. et alin Microbes & Infection (2003), 5(13), 1189-1193Newborn colostrum-restricted calves were orally inoculated with an Escherichia coli strain, identified originally as non-pathogenic, and into which the plasmid pVir was conjugally transferred. This ... [more ▼]Newborn colostrum-restricted calves were orally inoculated with an Escherichia coli strain, identified originally as non-pathogenic, and into which the plasmid pVir was conjugally transferred. This resulted in diarrhea, intestinal lesions and extra-intestinal invasion, suggesting that factors affecting these pathogenic properties are located on pVir. In order to analyze the respective roles of the toxins CNF2 and CDTIII in the pathogenesis, colostrum-restricted calves were inoculated with isogenic mutants in the cnf2 and the cdt-III genes. The loss of cnf2 is associated with a reduction in the pathogenicity, since diarrhea does not occur in calves challenged, in spite of successful colonization of the intestine. Nevertheless, the mutant strain remains able to invade the bloodstream and to localize in the internal organs. Conversely, the calves inoculated with mutant in the cdt-III gene evolved in the same way as wild-type strain-inoculated calves with regard to clinical signs and macroscopic or microscopic lesions. (C) 2003 Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (1 ULg) OMC: An Optical Monitoring Camera for INTEGRAL - Instrument description and performanceMas-Hesse, J. M.; Gimenez, A.; Culhane, J. L. et alin Astronomy and Astrophysics (2003), 411(1), 261-268The Optical Monitoring Camera (OMC) will observe the optical emission from the prime targets of the gammaray instruments onboard the ESA mission INTEGRAL, with the support of the JEM-X monitor in the X ... [more ▼]The Optical Monitoring Camera (OMC) will observe the optical emission from the prime targets of the gammaray instruments onboard the ESA mission INTEGRAL, with the support of the JEM-X monitor in the X-ray domain. This capability will provide invaluable diagnostic information on the nature and the physics of the sources over a broad wavelength range. Its main scientific objectives are: ( 1) to monitor the optical emission from the sources observed by the gamma- and X-ray instruments, measuring the time and intensity structure of the optical emission for comparison with variability at high energies, and ( 2) to provide the brightness and position of the optical counterpart of any gamma- or X-ray transient taking place within its field of view. The OMC is based on a refractive optics with an aperture of 50 mm focused onto a large format CCD (1024 x 2048 pixels) working in frame transfer mode (1024 x 1024 pixels imaging area). With a field of view of 5degrees x 5degrees it will be able to monitor sources down to magnitude V = 18. Typical observations will perform a sequence of different integration times, allowing for photometric uncertainties below 0.1 mag for objects with V less than or equal to 16. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 86 (8 ULg) Image analysis of X-ray microtomograms of soft materials during convective dryingLéonard, Angélique ; Blacher, Silvia ; Marchot, Pierre et alin Journal of Microscopy (2003), 212(Pt 2), 197-204X-ray microtomography is used to explore the textural evolution that soft materials undergo during a drying treatment. An original image processing algorithm is applied to vertical projections and ... [more ▼]X-ray microtomography is used to explore the textural evolution that soft materials undergo during a drying treatment. An original image processing algorithm is applied to vertical projections and reconstructed cross-section images in order to quantify the texture at different stages of drying. Measurements are performed both on grey-level and on binary images. It is shown that X-ray microtomography is a very promising tool in the field of drying investigations. It can be used to determine internal moisture profiles, and to follow crack development and shrinkage in an accurate and non-destructive way. This information is crucial to validate drying models. Waste-water sludges are used as test materials to assess the validity of the proposed methodology. The management of these sludges, often including a drying stage, will become a challenge in the forthcoming years in accordance with environmental regulations. Samples collected in two waste-water treatment plants are investigated. Their analysis by X-ray microtomography brings to the fore two different drying behaviours, illustrating that sludge drying is a complex unit operation very sensitive to the way the material is produced. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 35 (8 ULg) The Inhibition of Cyclin-Dependent Kinases Induces Differentiation of Supernumerary Hair Cells and Deiters' Cells in the Developing Organ of CortiMalgrange, Brigitte ; Knockaert, Marie; Belachew, Shibeshih et alin FASEB Journal (2003), 17(14), 2136-8In the embryonic day 19 organs of Corti, we showed that roscovitine, a chemical inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), significantly increased the number of hair cells (HCs) and corresponding ... [more ▼]In the embryonic day 19 organs of Corti, we showed that roscovitine, a chemical inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), significantly increased the number of hair cells (HCs) and corresponding supporting cells (SCs) by triggering differentiation of precursor cells without interacting with cell proliferation. The effect of roscovitine was mimicked by other CDK1, 2, 5, and 7 inhibitors but not by CDK4/6 and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway antagonists. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that roscovitine-specific intracellular targets, CDK1, 2, 5, and 7, were expressed in the organ of Corti and especially in Hensen's cells. Affinity chromatography studies showed a tight correlation between the protein levels of CDK1/2 and 5 and the rate of roscovitine-induced supernumerary cells in the organ of Corti. In addition, we demonstrated that basal CDK activity was higher and more roscovitine-sensitive at developmental stages that are selectively permissive for the emergence of supernumerary cells. These results suggest that CDKs are involved in the normal development of the organ of Corti and that, at least in E19 embryos, inhibition of CDKs is sufficient to trigger the differentiation of HCs and corresponding SCs, presumably from the Hensen's cell progenitors and/or from progenitors located in the greater epithelial ridge area. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (1 ULg) Identification et tautologie: L'identité chez Husserl et WittgensteinSeron, Denis in Revue Philosophique de Louvain (2003), 101(4), 593-609A question common to the sixth Logical Research of Husserl and to Wittgenstein's Tractatus is the question of the status of mathematical equations, and more broadly of judgements of identity. It is that ... [more ▼]A question common to the sixth Logical Research of Husserl and to Wittgenstein's Tractatus is the question of the status of mathematical equations, and more broadly of judgements of identity. It is that of whether the mathematician expresses propositions, which as such bear a character of possible truth, or, on the contrary, simple rules of substitution useful for calculations. As formulated by Frege, this question can be summarized as follows: does mathematical knowledge exist? In reply to this question Husserl's position may be interpreted as being midway between Kant and Wittgenstein. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 71 (3 ULg) Implementing the Bianco and Yohai estimator for logistic regressionCroux, C.; Haesbroeck, Gentiane in Computational Statistics & Data Analysis (2003), 44(1-2), 273-295A fast and stable algorithm to compute a highly robust estimator for the logistic regression model is proposed. A criterium. for the existence of this estimator at finite samples is derived and the ... [more ▼]A fast and stable algorithm to compute a highly robust estimator for the logistic regression model is proposed. A criterium. for the existence of this estimator at finite samples is derived and the problem of the selection of an appropriate loss function is discussed. It is shown that the loss function can be chosen such that the robust estimator exists if and only if the maximum likelihood estimator exists. The advantages of using a weighted version of this estimator are also considered. Simulations and an example give further support for the good performance of the implemented estimators. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 66 (5 ULg) A regulatory mutation in IGF2 causes a major QTL effect on muscle growth in the pigVan Laere, Anne-Sophie ; Nguyen, Minh Ngoc ; Braunschweig, M. et alin Nature (2003), 425(6960), 832-836Most traits and disorders have a multifactorial background indicating that they are controlled by environmental factors as well as an unknown number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs)(1,2). The ... [more ▼]Most traits and disorders have a multifactorial background indicating that they are controlled by environmental factors as well as an unknown number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs)(1,2). The identification of mutations underlying QTLs is a challenge because each locus explains only a fraction of the phenotypic variation(3,4). A paternally expressed QTL affecting muscle growth, fat deposition and size of the heart in pigs maps to the IGF2 (insulin-like growth factor 2) region(5,6). Here we show that this QTL is caused by a nucleotide substitution in intron 3 of IGF2. The mutation occurs in an evolutionarily conserved CpG island that is hypomethylated in skeletal muscle. The mutation abrogates in vitro interaction with a nuclear factor, probably a repressor, and pigs inheriting the mutation from their sire have a threefold increase in IGF2 messenger RNA expression in postnatal muscle. Our study establishes a causal relationship between a single-base-pair substitution in a non-coding region and a QTL effect. The result supports the long-held view that regulatory mutations are important for controlling phenotypic variation(7). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 23 (4 ULg) CWATUP : les arrêtés d'exécution du 17 juillet 2003Delnoy, Michel in Immobilier (2003), 19Detailed reference viewed: 28 (4 ULg) Three-body confinement force in a realistic constituent quark modelPapp, Z.; Stancu, Floarea in Nuclear Physics A (2003), 726(3-4), 327-338We show that in realistic constituent quark models based on a two-body confinement interaction color states appear in the middle of the experimentally known spectrum. To avoid this situation we implement ... [more ▼]We show that in realistic constituent quark models based on a two-body confinement interaction color states appear in the middle of the experimentally known spectrum. To avoid this situation we implement a three-body confinement interaction, introduced on an algebraic basis, into a semi relativistic version of the Goldstone boson exchange constituent quark model and by solving the Faddeev equations we show that this interaction can increase the gap between singlet and color states, such as the latter can be ignored and the known baryons can be described as simple q(3) systems. We analyze the effect of a Delta- and a Y-shape three-body interaction. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 16 (1 ULg) Jupiter's polar auroral emissionsGrodent, Denis ; Clarke, J. T.; Waite, J. H. et alin Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics (2003), 108(A10), [1] This paper reports a study of Jupiter's polar auroral emissions observed in an extended series of FUV images. They were obtained on seven days, during winter 2000-2001, with the STIS camera on board ... [more ▼][1] This paper reports a study of Jupiter's polar auroral emissions observed in an extended series of FUV images. They were obtained on seven days, during winter 2000-2001, with the STIS camera on board the Hubble Space Telescope. The fixed pointing yielded highly accurate and consistent tracking of emisson features as Jupiter rotated, allowing the analysis of the auroral morphology and brightness on timescales ranging from seconds to days. In the Northern Hemisphere, the polar emissions, located poleward of the main oval, usually represent about 30% of the total auroral FUV emitted power. They show emission bursts lasting similar to100 s, while the main oval remains stable. The polar region may be divided into three regions apparently fixed in magnetic local time: the dawnside dark region, the poleward swirl region, and the duskside active region in which flares and arc-like features are observed. Each of these UV emission regions can be identified with its infrared counterpart and probably relates to a different sector of the Dungey cycle or Vasyliunas cycle plasma flows. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 23 (6 ULg) Dynamics of global scale electron and proton precipitation induced by a solar wind pressure pulseMeurant, M.; Gérard, Jean-Claude ; Hubert, Benoît et alin Geophysical Research Letters (2003), 30(20), [1] On April 28 2001, simultaneous global images of electron and proton aurora were obtained by IMAGE- FUV following a sudden increase of solar wind dynamic pressure. The local time and intensity ... [more ▼][1] On April 28 2001, simultaneous global images of electron and proton aurora were obtained by IMAGE- FUV following a sudden increase of solar wind dynamic pressure. The local time and intensity distribution of both types of precipitation are examined and compared. It is found that the electron and the proton precipitation both start in the post noon sector and expand concurrently, but the expansion into the nightside starts sooner for the protons than for the electrons. The characteristic rise time in the onset sector is on the order of 6 minutes. A distinct dynamics and morphology of electron and proton precipitation is observed in the nightside sector. DMSP electron measurements in the afternoon sector indicate that the shock has a significant effect on the electron spectral characteristics. It is suggested that the various Alfven frequencies generated by the shock account for the two different speeds of propagation of the disturbance. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 28 (0 ULg) The magnitude and the extinction duration of the cocaine-induced conditioned locomotion-activated response are related to the number of cocaine injections paired with the testing context in C57BL/6J miceMichel, Anne; Tambour, Sophie ; Tirelli, Ezio in Behavioural Brain Research (2003), 145(1-2), 113-123Behavioural activation repeatedly induced by a stimulant in rodents can persist in the absence of the drug if the animals are tested in the context where the drug was previously given, a phenomenon often ... [more ▼]Behavioural activation repeatedly induced by a stimulant in rodents can persist in the absence of the drug if the animals are tested in the context where the drug was previously given, a phenomenon often explained in terms of Pavlovian conditioning. The aim of this study was to verify whether the amplitude of the putative CR (the drug-like activity) increases with the number of the US-CS associations (the number of drug-context pairings), one of the most representative rules of Pavlovian conditioning. The effect of the number of trials on the speed of extinction was also considered. C57BL/6J mice received 3, 6 or 12 once-daily injections of either saline or 12 mg/kg (-)-cocaine hydrochloride (s.c.) in the same test context, a photocell activity-box in which they were tested for 60 min after every injection. Other groups received the same treatments outside of the test context (being placed in a novel cage tub after each injection). Twenty-four hours after the last treatment session, all mice were challenged with saline in the test context (test for conditioned activity), extinction sessions taking place on the three subsequent days. Sensitisation to the locomotor-activating effect of cocaine developed only amongst the animals injected 6 or 12 times, the magnitude of the last sensitised response being comparable for these two injections regimen. On saline challenge, only the animals that had received 6 or 12 cocaine injections showed significant conditioned activity (CR), with the greatest response occurring following 12 injections. The 6-trial group reached the level of non-significance after fewer extinction sessions than the 12-trial group; however, the rates of extinction did not differ (comparable regression coefficients and quasi-parallel curves). These results suggest that the amplitude of the CR (cocaine-like stimulation after saline), and perhaps less convincingly the duration of extinction, are functions of the number of the US-CS (cocaine-context) pairings, supporting the Pavlovian nature of post-sensitisation placebo drug-like effects. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (2 ULg) Cell death and growth arrest in response to photodynamic therapy with membrane-bound photosensitizersPiette, Jacques ; Volanti, Cédric ; Vantieghem, Annelies et alin Biochemical Pharmacology (2003), 66(8), 1651-1659Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment for cancer and for certain benign conditions that is based on the use of a photosensitizer and light to produce reactive oxygen species in cells. Many of the ... [more ▼]Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment for cancer and for certain benign conditions that is based on the use of a photosensitizer and light to produce reactive oxygen species in cells. Many of the photosensitizers currently used in PDT localize in different cell compartments such as mitochondria, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum and generate cell death by triggering necrosis and/or apoptosis. Efficient cell death is observed when light, oxygen and the photosensitizer are not limiting ("high dose PDT"). When one of these components is limiting ("low dose PDT"), most of the cells do not immediately undergo apoptosis or necrosis but are growth arrested with several transduction pathways activated. This commentary will review the mechanism of apoptosis and growth arrest mediated by two important PDT agents. i.e. pyropheophorbide and hypericin. (C) 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 50 (1 ULg) Tomographie a emission de positons: une revolution en cancerologie?Jerusalem, Guy ; Hustinx, Roland in Revue du Praticien (La) (2003), 53(15), 1629-30Detailed reference viewed: 10 (2 ULg) Levels and enantiomeric signatures of methyl sulfonyl PCB and DDE metabolites in livers of harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) from the southern North SeaChu, Shaogang; Covaci, Adrian; Haraguchi, Koichi et alin Environmental Science & Technology (2003), 37(20), 4573-4578The concentration of 26 methyl sulfonyl metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (MeSO2-PCBs) and of p,p'-DDE (MeSO2-DDE) were determined in 19 liver samples from harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena ... [more ▼]The concentration of 26 methyl sulfonyl metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (MeSO2-PCBs) and of p,p'-DDE (MeSO2-DDE) were determined in 19 liver samples from harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) stranded between 1997 and 2000 on the Belgian and French North Sea Coasts. The total concentration of MeSO2-PCBs ranged from 39 to 4221 ng/g lipid weight (lw) and were generally higher in adults (age >2 yr, range 969-4221 ng/g lw) than in juveniles (age <2 yr, range 39-1815 ng/g lw). The concentrations of MeSO2-DDE were generally also higher in adults (2196 ng/g lw) than in juveniles (0.5-60 ng/g lw). Congeners 3- and 4-MeSO2-CB101 were the dominating metabolites in all samples. Due to their preferential retention in the liver, the MeSO2-PCB congeners could be divided into two groups. The first group was dominated by the 3-MeSO2-PCB congeners and consisted of MeSO2-CB31, -CB49, -CB52, -CB87, and -CB101, which all have a 2,5-chlorine substitution in the phenyl ring containing the methyl sulfonyl group. The second group was dominated by the 4-MeSO2-PCB congeners and consisted of MeSO2-CB64, -CB91, -CB110, and -CB132, which all have a 2,3,6-chlorine substitution. The ratios of sum of PCBs/sum of MeSO2-PCBs and p,p-DDE/MeSO2-DDE differed greatly between individual subjects and ranged from 15 to 419 and from 17 to 1088, respectively. The ratio between the precursor PCB congeners and their corresponding metabolites ranged from 0.6 (CB49) to 175 (CB174). Enantiomeric fractions (EFs) for MeSO2-PCB atropisomers, which include 3-MeSO2-CB132, 3-MeSO2-CB149, 4-MeSO2-CB149, 3-MeSO2-CB174, and 4-MeSO2-CB174, were also measured in 8 out of the 19 subjects. High enantiomeric excess (EF > 0.73 or EF < 0.23) for the measured chiral MeSO2-PCB congeners was found in all samples. This result may suggest that one atropisomer may be preferentially formed in harbor porpoises or that the atropisomers are retained in a highly selective manner. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 71 (17 ULg) Microarray analysis of E2Fa-DPa-overexpressing plants uncovers a cross-talking genetic network between DNA replication and nitrogen assimilationVlieghe, Kobe; Vuylsteke, Marnik; Florquin, Kobe et alin Journal of Cell Science (2003), 116(20), 4249-4259dPreviously we have shown that overexpression of the heterodimeric E2Fa-DPa transcription factor in Arabidopsis thaliana results in ectopic cell division, increased endoreduplication, and an early arrest ... [more ▼]dPreviously we have shown that overexpression of the heterodimeric E2Fa-DPa transcription factor in Arabidopsis thaliana results in ectopic cell division, increased endoreduplication, and an early arrest in development. To gain a better insight into the phenotypic behavior of E2Fa-DPa transgenic plants and to identify E2Fa-DPa target genes, a transcriptomic microarray analysis was performed. Out of 4,390 unique genes, a total of 188 had a twofold or more up- (84) or down-regulated (104) expression level in E2Fa-DPa transgenic plants compared to wild-type lines. Detailed promoter analysis allowed the identification of novel E2Fa-DPa target genes, mainly involved in DNA replication. Secondarily induced genes encoded proteins involved in cell wall biosynthesis, transcription and signal transduction or had an unknown function. A large number of metabolic genes were modified as well, among which, surprisingly, many genes were involved in nitrate assimilation. Our data suggest that the growth arrest observed upon E2Fa-DPa overexpression results at least partly from a nitrogen drain to the nucleotide synthesis pathway, causing decreased synthesis of other nitrogen compounds, such as amino acids and storage proteins. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 31 (6 ULg) Immobilization of silver in polypyrrole/polyanion composite coatings: Preparation, characterization, and antibacterial activityIgnatova, Milena; Labaye, David; Lenoir, Sandrine et alin Langmuir (2003), 19(21), 8971-8979Thin films of polypyrrole doped by polyanions have been deposited onto stainless steel and carbon fibers by anodic electropolymerization of pyrrole in the presence of an anionic polyelectrolyte in water ... [more ▼]Thin films of polypyrrole doped by polyanions have been deposited onto stainless steel and carbon fibers by anodic electropolymerization of pyrrole in the presence of an anionic polyelectrolyte in water. Films with a thickness smaller than 600 nm have been formed, which strongly adhere to the solid supports. The polymeric dopant has been selected for its ability to complex silver ions. Scanning electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering analyses, and IR spectroscopy have confirmed that silver is actually immobilized in the films and provides them with an antibacterial activity against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 60 (3 ULg) Bulletin agrométéorologique - Septembre 2003Tychon, Bernard ; Ozer, Pierre ; Eerens, H. et alin Bulletin Agrométéorologique (2003)Le mois de septembre a été caractérisé par des précipitations et des vitesses moyennes du vent faibles. Par contre, les températures et le rayonnement furent relativement élevés sur l’ensemble du pays ... [more ▼]Le mois de septembre a été caractérisé par des précipitations et des vitesses moyennes du vent faibles. Par contre, les températures et le rayonnement furent relativement élevés sur l’ensemble du pays. Cette année, les rendements prévus pour les cultures de maï s fourrager et de betterave sucrière, sont respectivement équivalents et inférieurs à ceux observés en 2002. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 7 (0 ULg) Specific innervation of aromatase neurons by substance P fibers in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in quailEvrard, H. C.; Willems, Evelyne ; Harada, N. et alin Journal of Comparative Neurology (2003), 465(2), 309-318The enzyme aromatase catalyzes the production of estrogens in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord where most of the nociceptive primary afferent fibers terminate. Numerous estrogen receptors are present in ... [more ▼]The enzyme aromatase catalyzes the production of estrogens in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord where most of the nociceptive primary afferent fibers terminate. Numerous estrogen receptors are present in this area and the control of spinal aromatase activity is thought to play an important role in the estrogenic control of nociception. The coexistence of aromatase and nociceptive terminals suggests a role for aromatase cells in pain-related processes, but whether terminals releasing nociceptive neuropeptides (e.g., substance P) actually contact aromatase neurons is unknown and the factors that control spinal aromatase activity have not yet been identified. In the present study we analyzed by double-label immunocytochemistry the distribution in the Japanese quail spinal cord, of aromatase and of substance P or its receptor (neurokinin 1 receptor). All antigens were mainly localized in laminae I and II as observed in mammals. Most aromatase neurons were colocalized with neurokinin 1 receptors and were in close apposition with substance P-immunoreactive fibers. These results suggest that aromatase neurons are responsive to noxious stimulation and may participate in the control of nociception. Furthermore, spinal aromatase activity could be controlled by substance P through a regulation of the aromatase gene transcription as reported for the mouse diencephalon and/or through neurokinin 1 receptor-dependent phosphorylation of the aromatase protein. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 24 (0 ULg) Gut Mucosal and Plasma Concentrations of Glutamine: A Comparison between Two Enriched Enteral Feeding Solutions in Critically Ill PatientsPreiser, Jean-Charles ; Peres-Bota, D.; Eisendrath, P. et alin Nutrition Journal (2003), 2BACKGROUND: Addition of glutamine to enteral nutrition formulas is consistently associated with a significant decrease in septic morbidity in critically ill patients, possibly related to the attenuation ... [more ▼]BACKGROUND: Addition of glutamine to enteral nutrition formulas is consistently associated with a significant decrease in septic morbidity in critically ill patients, possibly related to the attenuation of gut dysfunction. This pilot study was undertaken to compare the effects of enteral administration of two glutamine-enriched formulas containing either additional free glutamine or glutamine-rich proteins, with a standard solution on plasma and mucosal concentrations of glutamine in patients admitted in the Department of Intensive Care. METHODS: Following randomization, glutamine concentration was determined in endoscopically sampled duodenal biopsies and plasma, before and after a 7-day period of continuous administration of the designated solution. RESULTS: The mucosal concentration of glutamine increased in the duodenal biopsies sampled from patients randomized to the solution containing the glutamine-rich proteins (from 3.6 +/- 2.2 to 6.7 +/- 5.2 micro-mol/g protein), but not from the others. There were no differences between the 3 groups in the plasma concentrations of glutamine, which remained stable over time. CONCLUSION: The source of supplemental glutamine can influence gut mucosal glutamine concentrations, suggesting differences in its availability or utilization. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (1 ULg) The electronic states of 2-furanmethanol (furfuryl alcohol) studied by photon absorption and electron impact spectroscopiesGiuliani, A.; Walker, I. C.; Delwiche, Jacques et alin Journal of Chemical Physics (2003), 119(14), 7282-7288The photoelectron spectrum of 2-furanmethanol (furfuryl alcohol) has been measured for ionization energies between 8 and 11.2 eV and the first three ionization bands assigned to pi(3), pi(2), and n(o ... [more ▼]The photoelectron spectrum of 2-furanmethanol (furfuryl alcohol) has been measured for ionization energies between 8 and 11.2 eV and the first three ionization bands assigned to pi(3), pi(2), and n(o) ionizations in order of increasing binding energy. The photoabsorption spectrum has been recorded in the gas phase using both a synchrotron radiation source (5-9.91 eV, 248-125 nm) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy under electric-dipole conditions (5-10.9 eV, 248-90 nm). The (UV) absorption spectrum has also been recorded in solution (4.2-6.36 eV, 292-195 nm). The electronic excitation spectrum appears to be dominated by transitions between pi and pi* orbitals in the aromatic ring, leading to the conclusion that the frontier molecular orbitals of furan are affected only slightly on replacement of a H atom by the -CH2OH group. Additional experiments investigating electron impact at near-threshold energies have revealed two low-lying triplet states and at least one electron/molecule shape resonance. Dissociative electron attachment also shows to be widespread in furfuryl alcohol. (C) 2003 American Institute of Physics. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 38 (0 ULg) Prognostic importance of exercise-induced changes in mitral regurgitation in patients with chronic ischemic left ventricular dysfunctionLancellotti, Patrizio ; Troisfontaines, P.; Toussaint, A. C. et alin Circulation (2003), 108(14), 1713-1717Background-In the post-myocardial infarction phase, mortality risk is related to the severity of mitral regurgitation (MR). Ischemic MR is a dynamic condition that can be studied during exercise. Whether ... [more ▼]Background-In the post-myocardial infarction phase, mortality risk is related to the severity of mitral regurgitation (MR). Ischemic MR is a dynamic condition that can be studied during exercise. Whether the assessment of exercise-induced changes in the degree of MR provides prognostic information is unknown. Methods and Results-Ninety-eight consecutive patients with chronic ischemic left ventricular dysfunction and at least mild MR who prospectively underwent quantitative measurement of the regurgitant volume and the effective regurgitant orifice (ERO) of MR at rest and during semisupine exercise test were followed up for 19+/-8 months. The 16 patients who underwent surgery were censored at the time of operation. Of the 82 patients who were medically treated, 9 (11%) died. No clinical data demonstrated a distinction between survivors and nonsurvivors. By multivariate Cox regression analysis, independent predictors of cardiac death were an increase in ERO by greater than or equal to13 mm(2) (P=0.0045) during exercise, an ERO >20 mm(2) at rest (P=0.01), and a shorter mitral deceleration time (P=0.044). Half of the patients with exercise-induced significant increases in MR who died had moderate MR at rest. In contrast, none of the 14 patients with a decrease in MR at exercise displayed cardiac death. Conclusions-In patients with ischemic MR and left ventricular dysfunction, quantitative assessment of exercise-induced changes in the degree of MR provides independent prognostic information. Significant exercise-induced increases in MR unmask patients at high risk of poor outcome. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 5 (1 ULg) Preparation of reactive surfaces by electrograftingJérôme, Christine ; Gabriel, Sabine ; Voccia, Samuel et alin Chemical Communications (2003), (19), 2500-2501The electrografting process has been applied to a new monomer in order to induce reactivity to the surface of various conducting substrates which are then appropriate for the anchoring of a large variety ... [more ▼]The electrografting process has been applied to a new monomer in order to induce reactivity to the surface of various conducting substrates which are then appropriate for the anchoring of a large variety of molecules (catalysts, proteins, amino-polymers etc.). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 24 (5 ULg) Antibiotic susceptibilities of recent isolates of Mycoplasma bovis in BelgiumThomas, Anne; Nicolas, C.; Dizier, Isabelle et alin Veterinary Record (2003), 153(14), 428-431The susceptibilities of 40 recent Belgian field isolates of Mycoplasma bovis to 10 antimicrobial agents were assessed. Tiamulin was the most active antimicrobial agent against M bovis, with an initial ... [more ▼]The susceptibilities of 40 recent Belgian field isolates of Mycoplasma bovis to 10 antimicrobial agents were assessed. Tiamulin was the most active antimicrobial agent against M bovis, with an initial inhibitory concentration (IIC50) of 0.06 microg/ml, but it is not licensed for the treatment of cattle. All three fluoroquinolones tested (danofloxacin, enrofloxacin and marbofloxacin) were effective against strains of M bovis, and had a minimum mycoplasmacidal concentration (MMC50) less than or equal to 1 microg/ml. Gentamicin was poorly effective, having an IIC50 of 8 microg/ml. Many strains of M bovis were resistant to tylosin, spectinomycin, lincomycin, tetracycline and oxytetracycline. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 41 (4 ULg) Temperature adaptation of proteins: Engineering mesophilic-like activity and stability in a cold-adapted alpha-amylaseD'Amico, Salvino ; Gerday, Charles ; Feller, Georges in Journal of Molecular Biology (2003), 332(5), 981-988Two multiple mutants of a psychrophilic alpha-amylase were produced, bearing five mutations (each introducing additional weak interactions found in pig pancreatic (alpha-amylase) with or without an extra ... [more ▼]Two multiple mutants of a psychrophilic alpha-amylase were produced, bearing five mutations (each introducing additional weak interactions found in pig pancreatic (alpha-amylase) with or without an extra disulfide bond specific to warm-blooded animals. Both multiple mutants display large modifications of stability and activity arising from synergic effects in comparison with single mutations. Newly introduced weak interactions and the disulfide bond confer mesophilic-like stability parameters, as shown by increases in the melting point t(m), in the calorimetric enthalpy DeltaH(cal) and in protection against heat inactivation, as well as by decreases in cooperativity and reversibility of unfolding. In addition, both kinetic and thermodynamic activation parameters of the catalyzed reaction are shifted close to the values of the porcine enzyme. This study confirms the central role of weak interactions in regulating the balance between stability and activity of an enzyme in order to adapt to the environmental temperature. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 13 (2 ULg) Deletion (6)(p22p25) is a recurrent anomaly of thymoma: report of a second case and review of the literatureHerens, Christian ; Radermecker, Maurice ; Servais, Anne-Marie et alin Cancer Genetics & Cytogenetics (2003), 146(1), 66-69A patient with type AB thymoma and del(6)(p22p25) as the sole cytogenetic anomaly is described. This is the second report of a del(6)(p22p25) in a thymoma. The same deletion was previously found in ... [more ▼]A patient with type AB thymoma and del(6)(p22p25) as the sole cytogenetic anomaly is described. This is the second report of a del(6)(p22p25) in a thymoma. The same deletion was previously found in association with a type A thymoma. Both patients presented with benign tumors. These data suggest that partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 6 is a nonrandom change associated with benign thymomas. (C) 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 17 (3 ULg) Global Imaging of Proton and Electron Aurorae in the far UltravioletMende, S. B.; Frey, H. U.; Immel, T. J. et alin Space Science Reviews (2003), 109The IMAGE spacecraft carries three FUV photon imagers, the Wideband Imaging Camera (WIC) and two channels, SI-12 and SI-13, of the Spectrographic Imager. These provide simultaneous global images, which ... [more ▼]The IMAGE spacecraft carries three FUV photon imagers, the Wideband Imaging Camera (WIC) and two channels, SI-12 and SI-13, of the Spectrographic Imager. These provide simultaneous global images, which can be interpreted in terms of the precipitating particle types (protons and electrons) and their energies. IMAGE FUV is the first space-borne global imager that can provide instantaneous global images of the proton precipitation. At times a bright auroral spot, rich in proton precipitation, is observed on the dayside, several degrees poleward of the auroral zone. The spot was identified as the footprint of the merging region of the cusp that is located on lobe field lines when IMF B[SUB]z[/SUB] was northward. This identification was based on compelling statistical evidence showing that the appearance and location of the spot is consistent with the IMF B[SUB]z[/SUB] and B[SUB]y[/SUB] directions. The intensity of the spot is well correlated with the solar wind dynamic pressure and it was found that the direct entry of solar wind particles could account for the intensity of the observed spot without the need for any additional acceleration. Another discovery was the observation of dayside sub-auroral proton arcs. These arcs were observed in the midday to afternoon MLT sector. Conjugate satellite observations showed that these arcs were generated by pure proton precipitation. Nightside auroras and their relationship to substorm phases were studied through single case studies and in a superimposed epoch analysis. It was found that generally there is substantial proton precipitation prior to substorms and the proton intensity only doubles at substorm onset while the electron auroral brightness increases on average by a factor of 5 and sometimes by as much as a factor of 10. Substorm onset occurs in the central region of the pre-existing proton precipitation. Assuming that nightside protons are precipitating from a quasi-stable ring current at its outer regions where the field lines are distorted by neutral sheet currents we can associate the onset location with this region of closed but distorted field lines relatively close to the earth. Our results also show that protons are present in the initial poleward substorm expansion however later they are over taken by the electrons. We also find that the intensity of the substorms as quantified by the intensity of the post onset electron precipitation is correlated with the intensity of the proton precipitation prior to the substorms, highlighting the role of the pre-existing near earth plasma in the production of the next substorm. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 6 (0 ULg) Subtle trisomy 12q24.3 and subtle monosomy 22q13.3: Three new cases and reviewRodriguez, L.; Guardia, N. M.; Herens, Christian et alin American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A (2003), 122A(2), 119-124The high resolution G-bands (850 bands) karyotype have made it possible to identify small chromosome anomalies (5 megabases) which are now microscopically visible. New techniques have been improved, such ... [more ▼]The high resolution G-bands (850 bands) karyotype have made it possible to identify small chromosome anomalies (5 megabases) which are now microscopically visible. New techniques have been improved, such as the Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with subtelomeric probes, which can be employed to detect cryptic chromosome alterations not visible microscopically. We present three cases which had been remitted for a high resolution karyotype. The high resolution G-band karyotype and the FISH techniques led us to conclude that the three cases were carriers of a similar subtle chromosomal alteration. Case I is a new born female with developmental and psychomotor delay, hypotonia, and long limbs with arachnodactily. A high resolution G-band karyotype showed an abnormal chromosome 22. FISH techniques confirmed a der(22)t(12;22)(q24.31;q13.3). Case II is a 12-year-old girl, with growth retardation, long shaped face with thick eyebrows, smooth philtrum, and thin upper lip with severe mental retardation (still no language), with a phenotype very similar to that of his sister: long shaped face, thick eyebrows, smooth philtrum, and thin upper lip. A high resolution G-band karyotype also showed in Case II and III an abnormal chromosome 22, studied by FISH techniques which confirmed a der(22)t(12;-22)(q24.3; q13.3) in both cases. (C) 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (0 ULg) Summary of quantitative interpretation of IMAGE far ultraviolet auroral dataFrey, H. U.; Mende, S. B.; Immel, T. J. et alin Space Science Reviews (2003), 109Direct imaging of the magnetosphere by instruments on the IMAGE spacecraft is supplemented by simultaneous observations of the global aurora in three far ultraviolet (FUV) wavelength bands. The purpose of ... [more ▼]Direct imaging of the magnetosphere by instruments on the IMAGE spacecraft is supplemented by simultaneous observations of the global aurora in three far ultraviolet (FUV) wavelength bands. The purpose of the multi-wavelength imaging is to study the global auroral particle and energy input from the magnetosphere into the atmosphere. This paper describes the method for quantitative interpretation of FUV measurements. The Wide-Band Imaging Camera (WIC) provides broad band ultraviolet images of the aurora with maximum spatial resolution by imaging the nitrogen lines and bands between 140 and 180 nm wavelength. The Spectrographic Imager (SI), a dual wavelength monochromatic instrument, images both Doppler-shifted Lyman-alpha emissions produced by precipitating protons, in the SI-12 channel and OI 135.6 nm emissions in the SI-13 channel. From the SI-12 Doppler shifted Lyman-alpha images it is possible to obtain the precipitating proton flux provided assumptions are made regarding the mean energy of the protons. Knowledge of the proton (flux and energy) component allows the calculation of the contribution produced by protons in the WIC and SI-13 instruments. Comparison of the corrected WIC and SI-13 signals provides a measure of the electron mean energy, which can then be used to determine the electron energy flux. To accomplish this, reliable emission modeling and instrument calibrations are required. In-flight calibration using early-type stars was used to validate the pre-flight laboratory calibrations and determine long-term trends in sensitivity. In general, very reasonable agreement is found between in-situ measurements and remote quantitative determinations. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 33 (1 ULg) Relief in mild-to-moderate pain is not a confounder in joint space narrowing assessment of full extension knee radiographs in recent osteoarthritis structure-modifying drug trialsPavelka, K.; Bruyère, Olivier ; Rovati, Lucio C et alin Osteoarthritis and Cartilage (2003), 11(10), 730-737Objective: To assess whether improvement in knee pain biased the determination of the structure-modifying effect reported for glucosamine sulfate in two recent 3-year, randomised, placebo-controlled ... [more ▼]Objective: To assess whether improvement in knee pain biased the determination of the structure-modifying effect reported for glucosamine sulfate in two recent 3-year, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trials, in which conventional standing antero-posterior full extension knee radiographs were used for the measurement of joint space narrowing, and in which pain relief might have improved knee full extension. Design: Patients completing the 3-year treatment course were selected based on a WOMAC pain decrease at least equal to the mean improvement in the glucosamine sulfate arms in either of the original studies, irrespective of treatment with glucosamine sulfate or placebo (drug responders or placebo responders). In a second approach, 3-year completers were selected if their baseline standing knee pain (item #5 of the WOMAC pain scale) was 'severe' or 'extreme' and improved by any degree at the end of the trials. In both cases, changes in minimum joint space width were compared between treatment groups. Results: Global knee pain was rnild-to-moderate in the two study populations and in all patient subsets identified. There were obviously more pain improvers in the glucosamine sulfate subsets (N=76 in the two studies combined) than in the placebo subsets (N=57), but WOMAC pain scores improved to the same extent, which was as large as over 50% relative to baseline. Nevertheless, the placebo subsets in both studies underwent an evident mean (SD) joint space narrowing, which in the pooled analysis of both studies was -0.22 (0.80) mm, and was not observed with glucosamine sulfate: +0.15 (0.60) mm (P=0.003 vs placebo). Similar results were found in the smaller subsets with greater than or equal to severe baseline standing knee pain that improved after 3 years, with a joint space narrowing nevertheless of -0.28 (0.76) mm with placebo (N=26), not observed with glucosamine sulfate: +0.21 (0.68) mm (N=31; P=0.014 vs placebo). Conclusions: Knee pain relief did not bias the report of a structure-modifying effect of glucosamine sulfate in two recent long-term trials using conventional standing antero-posterior radiographs, possibly due to the mild-to-moderate patient characteristics. (C) 2003 OsteoArthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 43 (2 ULg) Le dosage rapide des peptides natriuretiques cardiaques. Une nouvelle contribution au diagnostic, au suivi therapeutique et au pronostic des affections cardio-vasculairesBorgoens, Philippe ; Pierard, Luc in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(10), 615-20Only about half of the diagnoses of heart failure are correct. The limitations of clinical judgment and complementary investigations are described in this article. Recently, BNP was found to be a good ... [more ▼]Only about half of the diagnoses of heart failure are correct. The limitations of clinical judgment and complementary investigations are described in this article. Recently, BNP was found to be a good biological marker of ventricular dysfunction. Rapid and reliable BNP measurement is now available and the clinical value of this peptide was examined in many studies. The role of BNP in the diagnosis and management of heart failure will be increasing. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (0 ULg) Untangling the functional potential of PSA-NCAM-expressing cells in CNS development and brain repair strategiesNguyen, Laurent ; Rigo, Jean-Michel; Malgrange, Brigitte et alin Current Medicinal Chemistry (2003), 10(20), 2185-2196Central nervous system (CNS) neural stem cells (NSCs), which are mostly defined by their ability to self-renew and to generate the three main cell lineages of the CNS, were isolated from discrete regions ... [more ▼]Central nervous system (CNS) neural stem cells (NSCs), which are mostly defined by their ability to self-renew and to generate the three main cell lineages of the CNS, were isolated from discrete regions of the adult mammalian CNS including the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle and the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. At early stages of CNS cell fate determination, NSCs give rise to progenitors that express the polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM). PSA-NCAM(+) cells persist in adult brain regions where neuronal plasticity and sustained formation of new neurons occur. PSA-NCAM, has been shown to be involved in the regulation of CNS myelination as well as in changes of cell morphology that are necessary for motility, axonal guidance, synapse formation, and functional plasticity in the CNS. Although being preferentially committed to a restricted either glial or neuronal fate, cultured PSA-NCAM(+) progenitors do preserve a relative degree of multipotentiality. Considering that PSA-NCAM(+) cells can be neatly used for brain repair purposes, there is much interest for studying signaling factors regulating their development. With this regard, it is noteworthy that neurotransmitters, which belong to the micro-environment of neural cells in vivo, regulate morphogenetic events preceding synaptogenesis such as cell proliferation, migration, differentiation and death. Consistently, several ionotropic but also G-protein-coupled neurotransmitter receptors were found to be expressed in CNS embryonic and postnatal progenitors. In the present review, we outlined the ins and outs of PSA-NCAM(+) cells addressing to what extent our understanding of extrinsic and in particular neurotransmitter-mediated signaling in these CNS precursor cells might represent a new leading track to develop alternative strategies to stimulate brain repair. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 36 (6 ULg) The timing of normal puberty and the age limits of sexual precocity: Variations around the world, secular trends, and changes after migrationParent, Anne-Simone ; Teilmann, G.; Juul, A. et alin Endocrine Reviews (2003), 24(5), 668-693During the past decade, possible advancement in timing of puberty has been reported in the United States. In addition, early pubertal development and an increased incidence of sexual precocity have been ... [more ▼]During the past decade, possible advancement in timing of puberty has been reported in the United States. In addition, early pubertal development and an increased incidence of sexual precocity have been noticed in children, primarily girls, migrating for foreign adoption in several Western European countries. These observations are raising the issues of current differences and secular trends in timing of puberty in relation to ethnic, geographical, and socioeconomic background. None of these factors provide an unequivocal explanation for the earlier onset of puberty seen in the United States. In the formerly deprived migrating children, refeeding and catch-up growth may prime maturation. However, precocious puberty is seen also in some nondeprived migrating children. Attention has been paid to the changing milieu after migration, and recently, the possible role of endocrine-disrupting chemicals from the environment has been considered. These observations urge further study of the onset of puberty as a possible sensitive and early marker of the interactions between environmental conditions and genetic susceptibility that can influence physiological and pathological processes. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 50 (1 ULg) Belgium's Immigration Policy Brings Renewal and ChallengesMartiniello, Marco ; Rea, Andreain Migration Information Source (2003)Detailed reference viewed: 135 (5 ULg)