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See detailPurification and Characterization of the Heat-Labile Alpha-Amylase Secreted by the Psychrophilic Bacterium Tac 240b
Chessa, Jean-Pierre; Feller, Georges ULg; Gerday, Charles ULg

in Canadian Journal of Microbiology (1999), 45(6), 452-7

A total of 59 bacteria samples from Antarctic sea water were collected and screened for their ability to produce alpha-amylase. The highest activity was recorded from an isolate identified as an ... [more ▼]

A total of 59 bacteria samples from Antarctic sea water were collected and screened for their ability to produce alpha-amylase. The highest activity was recorded from an isolate identified as an Alteromonas species. The purified alpha-amylase shows a molecular mass of about 50,000 Da and a pI of 5.2. The enzyme is stable from pH 7.5 to 9 and has a maximal activity at pH 7.5. Compared with other alpha-amylases from mesophiles and thermophiles, the "cold enzyme" displays a higher activity at low temperature and a lower stability at high temperature. The psychrophilic alpha-amylase requires both Cl- and Ca2+ for its amylolytic activity. Br- is also quite efficient as an allosteric effector. The comparison of the amino acid composition with those of other alpha-amylases from various organisms shows that the cold alpha-amylase has the lowest content in Arg and Pro residues. This could be involved in the principle used by the psychrophilic enzyme to adapt its molecular structure to the low temperature of the environment. [less ▲]

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See detailExploration of implicit artificial grammar learning in Parkinson's disease
Peigneux, Philippe ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (1999), 99(2), 107-117

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See detailLes besoins de santé du personnel du CHU de Liège
Müller, Michel; Vandoorne, Chantal ULg; Mairiaux, Philippe ULg

in Education santé (1999), (139), 41-43

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See detailComplexation of uranyl ion by three polyacrylamide type polymers: electrochemical preparation and leaching tests investigations
Leroy, D.; Martinot, Lucien; Jérôme, Christine ULg et al

in Journal of Radioanalytical & Nuclear Chemistry (1999), 240(3), 867-875

describe an original process for the treatment of low level activity radioactive liquid wastes. It deals with the electrochemical preparation of three polyacrylate polymers: polyacrylamide (PAam ... [more ▼]

describe an original process for the treatment of low level activity radioactive liquid wastes. It deals with the electrochemical preparation of three polyacrylate polymers: polyacrylamide (PAam), polyacrylamidoglycolic acid (PAAG), polyacrylamidomethylpropanesulfonic acid (PAMPS) which are capable of complexing uranyl ions. We have demonstrated the complexation of uranyl by FT-IR and UV-Visible spectroscopy. All these complexes are soluble in water and we insolubilize in turn the complexes by crosslinking or by neutralization of positively charged complexes by the addition of polyanions to the medium. We have then done dynamic and static leaching tests on these insoluble complexes. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrochemical study of uranium exchange on a polypyrrole resin
Jérôme, Christine ULg; Martinot, Lucien; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Journal of Radioanalytical & Nuclear Chemistry (1999), 240(3), 969-972

The ability to electrochemically control the binding of uranium ions by redox active polypyrrole resins has been studied. The optimization of the conditions for the fixation of uranium has been defined ... [more ▼]

The ability to electrochemically control the binding of uranium ions by redox active polypyrrole resins has been studied. The optimization of the conditions for the fixation of uranium has been defined while taking in account the nature of the fixed species, the nature of the resin and the nature of the solutions. [less ▲]

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See detailLe caractère paroxysmal
Stassart, Martine ULg

in Information Psychiatrique (L') (1999), 75(6), 603-610

Since the introduction of electroencephalography in 1930, epilepsy and his "equivalents" have migrated from the field of psychiatry to that of neurology. A great number of psychiatric clinical pictures ... [more ▼]

Since the introduction of electroencephalography in 1930, epilepsy and his "equivalents" have migrated from the field of psychiatry to that of neurology. A great number of psychiatric clinical pictures remain nevertheless marked by the scal of comitiality and dominated by what Szondi called "paroxysmality". By integrating epilepsy in his pulsional pattern, Szondi has contributed to its being maintened in the psychiatric field. His own work, based on his test and that of Françoise Minkowska, based on the Rorschach test, help in early recognition of the signs of this common, paroxysmal illness, of which little is known ans which is therefore badly treated. [less ▲]

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See detailPrévention de la fibrillation auriculaire récidivante et resynchronisation bi-atriale
Evrard, P.; Sakalihasan, Natzi ULg; Garcia, R. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(6), 522-6

After conversion of atrial fibrillation, it is important to maintain sinus rhythm. In addition antiarrhythmic drugs, biatrial resynchronization seems to prevent recurrences of atrial fibrillation in ... [more ▼]

After conversion of atrial fibrillation, it is important to maintain sinus rhythm. In addition antiarrhythmic drugs, biatrial resynchronization seems to prevent recurrences of atrial fibrillation in patients with interatrial conduction block: local experience. [less ▲]

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See detailHeterogeneity of the eae Genes in Attaching/Effacing Escherichia Coli from Cattle: Comparison with Human Strains
China, B.; Jacquemin, E.; Devrin, A. C. et al

in Research in Microbiology (1999), 150(5), 323-332

Enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) Escherichia coli isolated from cattle were studied by DNA colony hybridization to subtype their intimin-encoding (eae) gene with probes derived from ... [more ▼]

Enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) Escherichia coli isolated from cattle were studied by DNA colony hybridization to subtype their intimin-encoding (eae) gene with probes derived from the variable parts of the eae alpha gene of the human EPEC strain E2348/69, the eae gamma gene of the human O157:H7 EHEC strain ATCC43888, and the eae beta gene of the bovine O26:H- EHEC strain 193, whose eae gene was first cloned and sequenced during this work. The EPEC and EHEC had been isolated from diarrhoeic calves (143 EPEC and 48 EHEC) and from healthy animals at the slaughterhouse (10 EPEC and 34 EHEC). The 191 bovine EPEC and EHEC isolated from diseased calves were positive with the Eae beta probe (55 and 27% respectively) and with the Eae gamma probe (9 and 73% respectively), whereas 52 EPEC (36%) were negative with the Eae alpha, Eae beta, and Eae gamma probes. The results were different for the 44 bovine EPEC and EHEC isolated from healthy cattle at slaughterhouses: most tested positive with the Eae gamma probe (80 and 82% respectively) and the remaining (20 and 18% respectively) with the Eae beta probe. Nine O26 human EHEC tested positive with the Eae beta probe and seven O111 with the Eae gamma probe. The bovine and human EPEC and EHEC belonging to these two serogroups gave identical results: the 18 bovine and human O26 isolates tested positive with the Eae beta probe, whereas the 13 O111 isolates were positive with the Eae gamma probe. In contrast, the isolates belonging to other serogroups (O5, O15, O18, O20, and O118) gave more variable results. The eae beta and eae gamma, but not the eae alpha, variants were thus distributed amongst bovine EPEC and EHEC. The eae beta variant seemed to be more frequently associated with the presence of clinical signs in calves, but one third of EPEC from diarrhoeic calves carried an eae gene variant other than the alpha, beta, or gamma variants. In addition, the use of these gene probes did not enable differentiation between bovine and human EHEC belonging to the same O serogroup. [less ▲]

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See detailQuelle promotion de la santé en milieu de travail ?
Mairiaux, Philippe ULg

in Education Santé (1999), (139), 12-14

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See detailCompatibilization of immiscible polymer blends (PV/PVDF) by the addition of a third polymer (PMMA): analysis of phase morphology and mechanical properties
Moussaif, Noureddin; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Polymer (1999), 40(14), 3919-3932

Compatibilization of the immiscible polycarbonate (PC)/polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) pair by a third homopolymer, i.e. polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), was studied in relation to phase morphology and ... [more ▼]

Compatibilization of the immiscible polycarbonate (PC)/polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) pair by a third homopolymer, i.e. polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), was studied in relation to phase morphology and mechanical properties of the polyblends. Scanning electron microscopy showed a more regular and finer phase dispersion when the original PMMA content in PVDF exceeded 20 wt.%. The premixing of PVDF with ca. 40 wt.% PMMA also had a beneficial effect on mechanical properties, such as ultimate tensile strength, elongation at break, and notched impact strength. All these experimental results are consistent with the interfacial activity of PMMA in the PC/PVDF blends. [less ▲]

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See detailCo-construire la qualité: dispositif et démarche
Pirard, Florence ULg

in Génération ONE (1999), 6

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See detailDirect observation of microdomain morphology in "all-acrylic" thermoplastic elastomers synthesized via living radical polymerization
Leclère, Philippe; Moineau, Georges; Minet, Michaël et al

in Langmuir (1999), 15(11), 3915-3919

We investigate the microscopic morphology of thin films of symmetric triblock copolymers synthesized via a two-step “living” radical polymerization of n-butylacrylate and methyl methacrylate. These ... [more ▼]

We investigate the microscopic morphology of thin films of symmetric triblock copolymers synthesized via a two-step “living” radical polymerization of n-butylacrylate and methyl methacrylate. These copolymers with low poly(methyl methacrylate) contents constitute a new class of potential thermoplastic elastomers with higher service temperature and oxidation resistance compared to conventional polydiene−polystyrene-based thermoplastic elastomers. The straightforward synthetic pathway allows for strict control of molecular weight, molecular-weight distribution, and composition. The presence in the copolymer of immiscible segments covalently bound to each other leads to phase separation on the nanometer scale. Regular organization of the phase-separated nanodomains is observed in real space by scanning force microscopy. The data point to a strong contrast in the local mechanical properties, corresponding to the microphase morphology. Cylinders of the minority phase are found to orient perpendicular to the surface, because of the surface energy difference between the constituents. Lamellae are also arranged perpendicular to the surface, in contrast to what is usually observed in block copolymers. This particular orientation is thought to result from the symmetric character of these triblock systems, with the outer blocks more polar than the central sequence. [less ▲]

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See detailNouvel outil d'aménagement du territoire en Wallonie - le SDER
Delnoy, Michel ULg

in Immobilier (1999), 9

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See detailGrafts of Meningeal Fibroblasts in Adult Rat Spinal Cord Lesion Promote Axonal Regrowth
Franzen, Rachelle ULg; Martin, Didier ULg; Daloze, A. et al

in Neuroreport (1999), 10(7), 1551-6

We have studied the morphological consequences of implantation into the injured adult rat spinal cord of fibroblasts derived from the meninges overlying the cerebral cortex. Our initial objective was to ... [more ▼]

We have studied the morphological consequences of implantation into the injured adult rat spinal cord of fibroblasts derived from the meninges overlying the cerebral cortex. Our initial objective was to reproduce the well known post-traumatic fibroadhesive scar observed in the clinical situation. One month after implantation, instead of having formed a fibroadhesive scar, fibroblasts had promoted the regeneration of peptidergic axons originating from dorsal root afferents and, to a lesser extent, of supraspinal serotonergic fibers at the periphery of the grafts. Using RT-PCR we were able to identify in cultures of meningeal-derived fibroblasts mRNAs for beta-NGF, NT3, aFGF and bFGF, which suggests that the promoting effect on axonal regeneration of these cells is at least in part due to their capacity to synthesize neurotrophic factors. [less ▲]

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See detailKronig-Penney-Ising picture of colossal magnetoresistance
Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Ausloos, Marcel ULg; Cloots, Rudi ULg

in Physical Review. B : Condensed Matter (1999), 59(18), 11909-11913

From general arguments, it is shown that a magnetic Kronig-Penney model based on the thermodynamics of an Ising model can be used for describing the colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) phenomenon. The model ... [more ▼]

From general arguments, it is shown that a magnetic Kronig-Penney model based on the thermodynamics of an Ising model can be used for describing the colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) phenomenon. The model considers a tunneling like transmission process of hopping electrons through a dynamic lattice characterized by evolving magnetic clusters. In this model, correlations between the magnetic states are considered to be more relevant than the lattice strain effects for obtaining the CMR features. Physical arguments lead to the theoretical description of the intrinsic temperature and field dependences of the CMR observed in typical manganite materials. [less ▲]

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See detailA second-order theory for resonance capture in corotation centers
Beauge, C.; Lemaitre, Anne; Jancart, Sylvie ULg

in Planetary and Space Science (1999), 47

In this paper we revisit the analytical determination of the corotation solutions of the restricted planar three-body problem under the effects of a Stokes drag. Previous calculations by different authors ... [more ▼]

In this paper we revisit the analytical determination of the corotation solutions of the restricted planar three-body problem under the effects of a Stokes drag. Previous calculations by different authors, and using different external dissipative forces, have always shown significant quantitative errors of the models with respect to the numerical values. Up to date no concrete explanation has been obtained for this discrepancy. We show that the origin of these errors lies not only in the modelization of the gravitational forces (i.e. disturbing function) but in the averaging process of the variational equations. A second-order averaging is developed based on a Lie transform method ([Kamel, 1969]). With it we can calculate new equilibrium solutions with a greatly improved accuracy. In a second part, this same perturbation method is applied to study the periodic orbits (i.e. limit cycles) which describe the motion of the particles around the averaged corotational solutions. We show how analytical approximations of these cycles can be obtained through the inverse transformation of the averaging process itself. In all cases, we present comparisons with numerical simulations of the exact equations. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Interacting Early-Type Binary BD +40°4220 (V729 Cyg): Modeling the Colliding Winds Region
Rauw, Grégor ULg; Vreux, Jean-Marie ULg; Bohannan, B.

in Astrophysical Journal (1999), 517

We present an analysis of an extensive set of spectroscopic observations of the mysterious early-type binary BD +40 deg4220. A new orbital solution is derived from the radial velocities of the absorption ... [more ▼]

We present an analysis of an extensive set of spectroscopic observations of the mysterious early-type binary BD +40 deg4220. A new orbital solution is derived from the radial velocities of the absorption lines. We confirm that the secondary star is highly overluminous for its mass. The absorption lines of both components display phase-locked profile variations, with some of the secondary's lines going into emission between phi=0.20 and phi=0.55. A detailed investigation of the profile variability of the He II lambda4686 emission line reveals that the pattern of variability of this line is very stable. We show that part of the He II lambda4686 emission is produced in the wind interaction region between the stars. Most of the emission lines in the visual spectrum of BD +40 deg4220 display variations that are reminiscent of those observed on the He II lambda4686 line, pointing toward a similar origin. We present numerical simulations of emission-line profiles in a colliding winds binary, showing that an important part of the variability observed in BD +40 deg4220 can be explained by a colliding winds phenomenon. The properties of the wind interaction region can be accounted for if we assume that the secondary star is an evolved object, most probably some kind of Ofpe/WN9 transition star, with a mass loss rate of ~5.5x10^-6 M_solar yr^-1. We finally discuss the fundamental parameters of the binary, concluding that mass transfer must have played a crucial role in the evolution of this system. [less ▲]

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See detailBronchial Eosinophilic Infiltration in Crohn's Disease in the Absence of Pulmonary Disease
Louis, Edouard ULg; Louis, Renaud ULg; Shute, J. et al

in Clinical & Experimental Allergy : Journal of the British Society for Allergy & Clinical Immunology (1999), 29(5), 660-6

BACKGROUND: Immunological and functional bronchopulmonary abnormalities may be present in up to two-thirds of patients with Crohn's disease. Having recently described a mild increase in methacholine ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Immunological and functional bronchopulmonary abnormalities may be present in up to two-thirds of patients with Crohn's disease. Having recently described a mild increase in methacholine airways responsiveness in these patients, we investigated whether this physiological abnormality is associated with bronchial inflammation since it has previously been described in asthma. METHODS: Eighteen patients with Crohn's disease and 15 healthy controls matched for age, atopy and smoking habit, were studied. All the subjects underwent a bronchial methacholine challenge (1, 4 and 16 mg/mL) and a sputum induction by inhalation of hypertonic saline (NaCl 4.5%). The sputum samples were analysed for their cellular composition as well as for the levels of several mediators and proteins in the fluid phase, including eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), myeloperoxydase, albumin, alpha2-macroglobulin, interleukin-8 (IL-8), IgA and IL-8/immunoglobulin A complexes. RESULTS: When compared to control subjects, patients with Crohn's disease had significantly higher sputum eosinophil counts (14.5% [0-79.9%] vs 0.2% [0-2.3%]; P < 0. 001) and ECP levels (26.2 microg/L [4-124.2 microg/L] vs 9.8 microg/L [0-94.2 microg/L]; P < 0.05). However, patients with Crohn's disease had no sign of increased plasma exudation as reflected by sputum levels of albumin and alpha2-macroglobulin similar to those seen in control subjects. Furthermore the sputum levels of IL-8, IgA and IL-8/IgA complexes were not significantly different between the two groups. The magnitude of the fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s after methacholine inhalation was significantly increased in Crohn's disease patients although it did not correlate with the extent of sputum eosinophilia or with the sputum ECP levels. CONCLUSIONS: Crohn's disease patients without any clinical respiratory involvement have airway eosinophilia without local increased plasma exudation. However, bronchial eosinophilia in Crohn's disease per se is not sufficient to induce clinically significant airway hyperresponsiveness, suggesting that other factors than bronchial eosinophilic infiltration are required for the clinical expression of an airway instability. [less ▲]

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See detailFamilial Acromegaly: Case Report and Review of the Literature
Verloes, Alain ULg; Stevenaert, Achille ULg; Teh, B. T. et al

in Pituitary (1999), 1(3-4), 273-277

Familial acromegaly is an exceptional clinical entity when not associated with features of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). We report here 3 pedigrees in each of which 2 patients have been ... [more ▼]

Familial acromegaly is an exceptional clinical entity when not associated with features of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). We report here 3 pedigrees in each of which 2 patients have been shown to develop acromegaly. In 4 patients, clinical follow-up, and biological screening allowed to confidently exclude MEN1. Absence of mutation in the MEN1 gene after direct DNA analysis in 2 pedigrees reinforces the conviction that the families do not have MEN1. In families 1 and 2, diagnosis was made at a very early age and voluminous adenomas with suprasellar expansion were already present at the time of diagnosis. We review the 20 previous reports of familial acromegaly, some of them questionable. Our 3 families, combined with some other published pedigrees, allow the delineation of a familial form of acromegaly, distinct from MEN1. Dominant inheritance with reduced, age-dependant penetrance is the most parsimonious model to explain the recurrences. Gs protein pathway could be the site of action of the gene responsible of familial acromegaly, but no data have been published to sustain or reject this hypothesis. [less ▲]

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See detailLes faces cachées du cancer du sein: modalites du suivi des hyperplasies et des cancers in situ
Lifrange, Eric ULg; Colin, Claude ULg

in Contraception, Fertilite, Sexualité (1992) (1999), 27(5), 364-7

After the diagnosis of breast epithelial hyperplasia or carcinoma in situ, the clinical follow-up must take into account several parameters. First, the adequacy of the diagnostic and the therapeutic ... [more ▼]

After the diagnosis of breast epithelial hyperplasia or carcinoma in situ, the clinical follow-up must take into account several parameters. First, the adequacy of the diagnostic and the therapeutic approach is to be evaluated. Second, the patient must be informed of her risk of subsequent breast cancer. In such a protocol, one can recommend a program of close follow-up in an attempt at early detection. An annual clinical examination combined with a mammographic and a sonographic exam is considered as the method of choice. In between annual check-ups, clinical exam is encouraged. The potential benefits of magnetic-resonance imaging in these circumstances is currently evaluated. In rare instances, the absolute risk of breast cancer is so high that a prophylactic mastectomy can be considered. [less ▲]

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See detailVisualizing the log-periodic pattern before crashes
Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Ausloos, Marcel ULg; Boveroux, P. et al

in European Physical Journal B -- Condensed Matter (1999), 9(2), 355-359

We present a method for visualizing the pattern which we believe to be a precursor signature of financial crashes (or ruptures). The log-periodicity of the pattern is investigated through the envelope ... [more ▼]

We present a method for visualizing the pattern which we believe to be a precursor signature of financial crashes (or ruptures). The log-periodicity of the pattern is investigated through the envelope function technique. Three periods of the Down Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) are investigated: 1982-1987, 1992-1997 and 1993-1998. The presence of a rupture in the end of 1998 is outlined from data taken before the end of August 1998. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of pregnancy-associated glycoprotein concentrations in goats (Capra hircus) with unsuccessful pregnancies: a retrospective study
Zarrouk, A.; Engeland, I.; Sulon, Joseph ULg et al

in Theriogenology (1999), 51(7), 1321-31

Presented here are the profiles of pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentrations in blood collected weekly from goats experiencing maintained and unsuccessful pregnancies. The analysis of these ... [more ▼]

Presented here are the profiles of pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentrations in blood collected weekly from goats experiencing maintained and unsuccessful pregnancies. The analysis of these profiles clearly indicated 4 different situations: the pseudopregnancy syndrome, abortion between Days 89 and 137, parturition of 1 dead and 1 live fetus, and expulsion of macerated or mummified fetuses after full term. A marked reduction in PAG concentration at any time during pregnancy was followed by an event such as abortion or the expulsion of a dead fetus at term or later. [less ▲]

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See detailFranciel : un didacticiel pour l'auto-évaluation et l'auto-remédiation en français dans l'enseignement secondaire, I
Defays, Jean-Marc ULg; Saenen, Frédéric ULg; Renard, Denis

in Point sur la Recherche en Education (Le) (1999), 11

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See detailAnabolic Events in Osteoarthritis
Henrotin, Yves ULg; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in Osteoarthritis and Cartilage (1999), 7(3), 310-2

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See detailAnesthesie, analgesie et femme enceinte: une association a haut risque!
Brichant, Jean-François ULg; Incagnoli, P.

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(5), 448-59

The authors review the changes in obstetric anesthesia and analgesia that have contributed to a decreased maternal mortality as well as those accounting for the clinically significant improvements of ... [more ▼]

The authors review the changes in obstetric anesthesia and analgesia that have contributed to a decreased maternal mortality as well as those accounting for the clinically significant improvements of maternal and neonatal morbidity. [less ▲]

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See detailApproche algorithmique de la puberte precoce et tardive chez la fille
Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre ULg; LEBRETHON, Marie-Christine ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(5), 362-6

An algorithmic approach is proposed for the initial management of disorders of female puberty: premature pubarche and precocious or delayed breast development.

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See detailIn-Vitro Differences among Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs in Their Activities Related to Osteoarthritis Pathophysiology
Henroitin, Y.; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in Osteoarthritis and Cartilage (1999), 7(3), 355-7

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See detailUse of the Enteroscope for Colo-Ileoscopy: Low Yield in Unexplained Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding
Belaiche, Jacques ULg; Van Kemseke, Catherine ULg; Louis, Edouard ULg

in Endoscopy (1999), 31(4), 298-301

BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: The small intestine is a potential origin of bleeding in patients with unexplained gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage or iron-deficiency anemia. Most reports on the investigation ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: The small intestine is a potential origin of bleeding in patients with unexplained gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage or iron-deficiency anemia. Most reports on the investigation of these patients describe the use of upper tract enteroscopy. The diagnostic yield of combined upper and lower enteroscopy has not been widely assessed and remains to be clarified. The aim of this study was to assess the benefit of lower gastrointestinal tract enteroscopy in occult digestive bleeding. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1 December 1995 and 15 January 1998, 54 patients with gastrointestinal bleeding of unknown origin were prospectively studied using upper and lower video push enteroscopy (44 for chronic iron-deficiency anemia and 10 for unexplained gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage with no potential site having been identified by other investigations). Examinations were done using a Olympus video enteroscope (SIF-100) under general anesthesia in a one-day clinic. An upper tract examination was done first, directly followed by the lower tract investigation. RESULTS: The upper tract enteroscopy was successful in 53 patients (98%) and retrograde ileoscopy in 21 patients (39%). In 18 (38%) cases the technical failure resulted from the impossibility of intubating the ileocecal valve. A potential source of upper gastrointestinal bleeding was detected in 35% of patients with chronic iron-deficiency anemia and in 20% of those with unexplained gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage. The most common lesion in the small bowel was angiodysplasia (25%). The lower tract video push enteroscopy disclosed 11 lesions in patients with chronic anemia. However the lesions, including two ileocecal valve cancers, were mainly located in the colon and had been missed by previous colonoscopy. No case of ileal lesion was detected in this group of patients. In patients with unexplained gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage, three lesions were detected but only one of these was in the ileum. Associated colonic and jejunal lesions were observed in three patients (5.5%). Overall, the diagnostic yield of lower video push enteroscopy was less than 2%. CONCLUSION: This prospective study has shown that using an enteroscope as a colonoscope in the management of patients with gastrointestinal bleeding of unknown origin is of little help. It might actually be more appropriate to perform a second colonoscopy. This however remains controversial and a prospective study is needed to answer that question. [less ▲]

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See detailEpidemiological Typing of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Klebsiella Pneumoniae Isolates by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns
Chetoui, H.; Delhalle, E.; Melin, Pierrette ULg et al

in Research in Microbiology (1999), 150(4), 265-72

Over a 16-month period, Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from 102 patients admitted to a university hospital in Liege (Belgium) produced extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis ... [more ▼]

Over a 16-month period, Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from 102 patients admitted to a university hospital in Liege (Belgium) produced extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of genome macrorestriction patterns with XbaI and antibiotic susceptibility patterns subdivided 39 isolates into eight clonally related groups. Two of them were implicated in the course of this outbreak. They were responsible for successive waves of infection or colonization in different wards of the hospital while the others were encountered sporadically. A beta-lactamase with an isoelectric point of 7.6 and consistent with type SHV-2 characterized all nine isolates chosen among both major groups. [less ▲]

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See detailComposition effect on the core-shell morphology and mechanical properties of ternary polystyrene/styrene-butadiene rubber/polyethylene blends
Luzinov, Igor; Xi, K.; Pagnoulle, Christophe et al

in Polymer (1999), 40(10), 2511-2520

The morphology of ternary polystyrene/styrene-butadiene rubber/polyethylene (PS/SBR/PE) blends has been investigated in the limits of a constant content of the major component (PS; 75 wt%) while changing ... [more ▼]

The morphology of ternary polystyrene/styrene-butadiene rubber/polyethylene (PS/SBR/PE) blends has been investigated in the limits of a constant content of the major component (PS; 75 wt%) while changing the weight ratio of the two minor constitutive polymers. A core-shell structure for the dispersed phase has been predicted from the spreading coefficients and observed by transmission electron microscopy. Actually, upon increasing the relative content of PE with respect to SBR, the structure of the dispersed phase changes from a multicore structure to a PE/SBR core-shell morphology. The size of the PE subphase in the mixed dispersed phase increases sharply at a PE content that corresponds to phase inversion in the parent SBR/PE binary blends. The ultimate mechanical properties of these blends are sensitive to the strength of the SBR interphase between PS and PE. Some synergism has been observed in the PE/SBR composition dependence of the tensile strengths at yield and break. [less ▲]

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See detailHELLP syndrome
Emonts, Patrick ULg; Thoumsin, H.; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(5), 444-7

The HELLP syndrome (Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, Low Platelet count) is a clinical expression of a multilayered disease whose central pathophysiology is abnormal placentation. Clinical research aims ... [more ▼]

The HELLP syndrome (Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, Low Platelet count) is a clinical expression of a multilayered disease whose central pathophysiology is abnormal placentation. Clinical research aims logically to search for new predictive and specific markers for the early identification of pregnant women at risk of developing a HELLP syndrome, the most common cause of feto-maternal mortality and morbidity. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrosynthesis of polyacrylic/polypyrrole composites : formation of polypyrrole wires
Jérôme, Christine ULg; Labaye, David; Bodart, Isabelle et al

in Synthetic Metals (1999), 101(1-3), 3-4

A new preparation method is reported for the synthesis of conducting polypyrrole nanowires. This two-step all-electrochemical method consists in the cathodic grafting of a thin polyacrylate film on a ... [more ▼]

A new preparation method is reported for the synthesis of conducting polypyrrole nanowires. This two-step all-electrochemical method consists in the cathodic grafting of a thin polyacrylate film on a carbon electrode, which is then used as an anode for the electropolymerization of pyrrole. Scanning electron microscopy shows the formation of polypyrrole wires (diameter ~600 nm lenght ~300 µm) growing through holes in the polyacrylate precoating. The effect of the experimental conditions, such as nature of the grafted polymer, solvent, and electrode, on the wire formation is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailLe streptocoque du groupe B, premiere cause d'infections neonatales graves. Epidemiologie et strategies de prevention
Melin, Pierrette ULg; Schmitz, M.; De Mol, Patrick ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(5), 460-7

As soon as the early 70's, group B streptococci (GBS) became clearly predominant in neonatal infections. There was a dramatic increase in the incidence of GBS neonatal sepsis and meningitis throughout ... [more ▼]

As soon as the early 70's, group B streptococci (GBS) became clearly predominant in neonatal infections. There was a dramatic increase in the incidence of GBS neonatal sepsis and meningitis throughout developed countries and GBS emerged as the leading cause of severe neonatal infections. Most of these infections, associated with high mortality and morbidity, could be prevented by intrapartum chemoprophylaxis given to risk mothers. AAP, ACOG and the CDC issued guidelines for their prevention. Today, in Belgium, there are still no recommendations for the prevention of GBS early-onset infections. [less ▲]

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See detailLa prevention de la prematurite en Communaute francaise a l'approche de l'an 2000
Nondonfaz, N.; Thoumsin, H.; Van Cauwenberge, Jean-Rémy ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(5), 440-3

The actual results confirm the dominating influence of psychosocial factors on prematurity and low birth weight. The study performed in Liege indicates that these factors must be taken into account for ... [more ▼]

The actual results confirm the dominating influence of psychosocial factors on prematurity and low birth weight. The study performed in Liege indicates that these factors must be taken into account for better care of the future mother. The systematic use of a prenatal questionnaire on psychosocial factors draws attention towards the personal situation of the future mother. Detection of some organic or psychosocial risk factors must prompt prophylactic measures even in the absence of any sign of pathologies. Prevention of prematurity has, over the last 30 years, been the primary objective of prenatal follow-up. Its importance must be further emphasized. [less ▲]

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See detailLa PMA qui reussit Bilan d'activite du Centre de Procreation Medicalement assistee de l'ULg, 1985-1997
Dubois, Michel ULg; Jouan, Caroline ULg; Thonon, Fabienne ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(5), 387-92

Assisted reproductive treatments (ART) hold an increasing place in the field of female infertility but also of male infertility with the development of new micromanipulative technologies. From January ... [more ▼]

Assisted reproductive treatments (ART) hold an increasing place in the field of female infertility but also of male infertility with the development of new micromanipulative technologies. From January 1985 to December 1997, more than 3,000 ovarian punctures were achieved at the CPMA of the University of Liege and more than 40,000 oocytes were recovered. Global results show a take home baby rate of 23% per ovum pick-up and 27% per embryo transfer. Embryo cryopreservation offers an efficient solution to the problem of supernumerary embryos and opens the way for IVF-derived procedures such as oocyte or embryo donation, surrogate mother. The transfer of frozen-thawed embryos increases the total ongoing pregnancy rate per cycle of 31%. One of the aims of our Centre in the near future is the development of new technologies such as control of chromosomal abnormalities or genetic defect in preimplantation embryos and clinical applications of oocyte or ovarian tissue freezing. [less ▲]

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See detailHypertension et grossesse
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(5), 415-423

High blood pressure during pregnancy (BP > or = 140/90 mmHg) is sometimes already noted before conception, with usually a good prognosis (although it could predispose to preeclampsia). alpha-methyldopa is ... [more ▼]

High blood pressure during pregnancy (BP > or = 140/90 mmHg) is sometimes already noted before conception, with usually a good prognosis (although it could predispose to preeclampsia). alpha-methyldopa is the best treatment when needed (agents blocking the renin angiotensin system are not recommended). Preeclampsia, a form of hypertension noted after 20 weeks of gestation with proteinuria is a more serious condition (BP > or = 140/90 mmHg or increase in BP from the 1st trimester > or = 25/15 mmHg). It is generated by placental ischemia and creates maternal endothelial lesions which in turn decrease the blood flow to placenta leading to maternal and fetal syndromes. Hospitalisation is mandatory. No measure other than delivery is known to attenuate or reverse its progression. Treating hypertension during pregnancy (when blood pressure > or = 170/110 mmHg) aims at preventing maternal risk (stroke or eclampsia) but has few effect on foetal lesions. Prevention of this syndrome, which represents the first secondary cause of hypertension, is until now disappointing. [less ▲]

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See detailMise en oeuvre des anciennes ZEH : résistances administratives
Delnoy, Michel ULg

in Immobilier (1999), 8

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See detailChannel catfish virus gene 50 encodes a secreted, mucin-like glycoprotein
Vanderheijden, Nathalie; Hanson, Larry A.; Thiry, Etienne ULg et al

in Virology (1999), 257(1), 220-7

Cells infected with the wild-type (WT) strain of channel catfish virus (CCV) secreted a glycoprotein with an apparent molecular mass (MM) superior to 200 kDa into the culture medium. This protein ... [more ▼]

Cells infected with the wild-type (WT) strain of channel catfish virus (CCV) secreted a glycoprotein with an apparent molecular mass (MM) superior to 200 kDa into the culture medium. This protein, designated gp250, was the sole viral glycoprotein detected in the culture medium after [3H]mannose labeling of the infected cells. When cells were infected with the attenuated V60 strain, a glycoprotein of 135 kDa (designated gp135) was detected instead of gp250. Because WT gene 50 is predicted to encode a secreted, mucin-type glycoprotein, we expressed this gene transiently and detected a glycoprotein of the same apparent MM as gp250 in the culture medium of transfected catfish cells. The increased mobility in SDS-PAGE of the secreted V60 glycoprotein correlated with the presence of a major deletion in V60 gene 50. Therefore, we concluded that gp250 in the WT and gp135 in the V60 strains are both likely encoded by gene 50. An important shift in the relative mobility of gp250 in SDS-PAGE was observed after tunicamycin treatment of infected cells labeled with [3H]glucosamine, confirming the presence of N-linked sugars on gp250. We observed variations in the size of PCR products derived from gene 50 amplification in three different field isolates. Such genetic variations are a characteristic feature of mucin genes and are linked to crossing-over events between internal repeated sequences, such as those present in gene 50. [less ▲]

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See detailModulatory Effect of Imetit, a Histamine H3 Receptor Agonist, on C-Fibers, Cholinergic Fibers and Mast Cells in Rabbit Lungs in Vitro
Nemmar, A.; Delaunois, Annie ULg; Beckers, Jean-François ULg et al

in European Journal of Pharmacology (1999), 371(1), 23-30

The pharmacological mechanisms involved in the interactions between C-fibers, cholinergic fibers and mast cells were investigated in tracheally perfused rabbit lungs by measuring the simultaneous release ... [more ▼]

The pharmacological mechanisms involved in the interactions between C-fibers, cholinergic fibers and mast cells were investigated in tracheally perfused rabbit lungs by measuring the simultaneous release of substance P and histamine in lung effluents. The amounts of substance P and histamine released in lung superfusates were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) after administration of capsaicin and carbachol. Capsaicin (10(-4) M) induced a simultaneous increase in substance P (273 +/- 56% of baseline) and histamine (460 +/- 138%) release. Similarly, carbachol (10(-4) M) caused an increase in the release of both substance P (367 +/- 111%) and histamine (1379 +/- 351%). The effect of capsaicin was prevented by pretreating the lungs with the tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist SR 140333 (10(-7) M), and atropine (10(-6) M). SR 140333 prevented the carbachol-induced release of substance P but not of histamine. Exogenous substance P induced an increase in histamine release (136 +/- 7%) which was significantly greater in lungs perfused with the neutral endopeptidase inhibitor, thiorphan (10(-5) M) (272 +/- 35%). This effect was prevented by atropine (10(-6) M). Pretreatment of lungs with imetit (5 x 10(-8) M), a selective H3 receptor agonist, prevented the capsaicin-induced release of both mediators. Imetit also blocked the carbachol-induced release of substance P but not of histamine. Exogenous substance P-evoked histamine release was inhibited by imetit. Therefore, it can be concluded that substance P released through the action of capsaicin can activate cholinergic fibers, leading to cholinoceptor stimulation with subsequent activation of C-fibers and mast cells. While the presence of presynaptic H3 receptors modulating substance P-induced acetylcholine release was only surmised, the existence of modulating histamine H3 receptors on C-fibers was confirmed. [less ▲]

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See detailRegulation of Nf-Kappab Activity by I Kappab-Related Proteins in Adenocarcinoma Cells
Dejardin, Emmanuel ULg; Deregowski, Valérie; Chapelier, Muriel et al

in Oncogene (1999), 18(16), 2567-77

Constitutive NF-kappaB activity varies widely among cancer cell lines. In this report, we studied the expression and the role of different I kappaB inhibitors in adenocarcinoma cell lines. High ... [more ▼]

Constitutive NF-kappaB activity varies widely among cancer cell lines. In this report, we studied the expression and the role of different I kappaB inhibitors in adenocarcinoma cell lines. High constitutive NF-kappaB activity and low I kappaB-alpha expression was found in a number of these cell lines. Moreover, some of these cells showed a high p100 expression, responsible for the cytoplasmic sequestration of most of p65 complexes. Treatment of these cells with TNF-alpha or other NF-kappaB activating agents induced only weakly nuclear NF-kappaB activity without significant p100 processing and led to a very weak transcription of NF-kappaB-dependent reporter gene. Induction of NF-kappaB activity can be restored by expression of the Tax protein or by treatment with antisense p100 oligonucleotides. In MCF7 A/Z cells stably transfected with a p100 expression vector, p65 complexes were sequestered in the cytoplasm by p100. These cells showed a reduced nuclear NF-kappaB induction and NF-kappaB-dependent gene transcription following TNF-alpha stimulation. As a consequence of a competition between I kappaB-alpha and p100, cells expressing high levels of p100 respond poorly to NF-kappaB activating stimuli as TNF-alpha. [less ▲]

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See detailHoxc5 and Hoxc8 Expression Are Selectively Turned on in Human Cervical Cancer Cells Compared to Normal Keratinocytes
Alami, Y.; Castronovo, Vincenzo ULg; Belotti, D. et al

in Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (1999), 257(3), 738-45

A growing number of data have sustained the involvement of homeobox genes expression deregulation in cancer. In this study, we have performed an exhaustive survey of the expression of the 39 class I HOX ... [more ▼]

A growing number of data have sustained the involvement of homeobox genes expression deregulation in cancer. In this study, we have performed an exhaustive survey of the expression of the 39 class I HOX genes expressed in normal and malignant human cervix keratinocytes. Using RT-PCR, we observed that the vast majority (34/39) of HOX genes are expressed in normal keratinocytes. Only HOXA2, HOXA7, HOXC5, HOXC8 and HOXD12 were found to be silent. Interestingly, this pattern is conserved in the transformed keratinocytes (SiHa cells) except for the appearance of HOXC5 and HOXC8 mRNA. The HOXC5 and HOXC8 expression was also observed in two other transformed keratinocytes cell lines of independent origins, Eil-8 and 18-11S3, and confirmed by in situ hybridization. Our data add weight to the body of evidence attributing to a specific adult tissue a particular combination of expressed HOX genes and suggest that HOXC5 and/or HOXC8 could be involved in the process leading to the transformation of cervical keratinocytes. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamics in miscible blends of polystyrene and poly(vinyl methyl ether)
Pathak, J. A.; Colby, R. H.; Floudas, G. et al

in Macromolecules (1999), 32(8), 2553-2561

We report results on the linear viscoelasticity (oscillatory shear in the temperature range Tg (glass-transition temperature) ≤ T ≤ Tg + 90 K) of miscible blends of polystyrene (PS) and poly(vinyl methyl ... [more ▼]

We report results on the linear viscoelasticity (oscillatory shear in the temperature range Tg (glass-transition temperature) ≤ T ≤ Tg + 90 K) of miscible blends of polystyrene (PS) and poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME) and segmental relaxations, measured by dielectric spectroscopy. The Flory−Huggins interaction parameter of this blend is weakly negative, and the glass transitions of the pure components are quite disparate (ΔTg = 125 K). PS/PVME blends have been found to be consistently thermorheologically complex at both the segmental and terminal levels: the empirical time−temperature superposition (tTS) principle applies to neither their oscillatory shear response nor their dielectric response. Using the tube model, we quantitatively compare dielectric and mechanical results. At low temperatures, the effective time scale for motion of a Kuhn segment (the shortest Rouse mode) is near the long-time end of the distribution of segmental relaxation times of PVME, in both the pure and blended states. The slowest relaxing segments thus control the longer-time relaxation processes of the chains. Miscible blends with weak interactions and large ΔTg have concentration fluctuations that broaden the distribution of segmental relaxation times. This distribution narrows as the temperature is raised in the blend, leading to the failure of tTS for terminal dynamics. [less ▲]

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See detailA Specific Pcr to Differentiate between Ge Negative Vaccine and Wildtype Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1 Strains
Schynts, F.; Baranowski, E.; Lemaire, Mylène et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (1999), 66(3), 187-95

In the context of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) control programmes using glycoprotein E (gE) deleted marker vaccines, a PCR assay was developed to allow the genotypic differentiation between ... [more ▼]

In the context of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) control programmes using glycoprotein E (gE) deleted marker vaccines, a PCR assay was developed to allow the genotypic differentiation between wildtype bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) and gE negative strains. This assay is based on the PCR amplification of a 281 bp DNA fragment within the gE gene. The specificity of the amplification was confirmed by restriction endonuclease analysis and nucleotide sequencing of the PCR product. Its ability to determine the gE genotype of BoHV-1 strains was demonstrated on isolates coming from 20 experimental calves infected with four different BoHV-1 strains. This PCR assay may be a useful tool for monitoring the spread of live marker vaccine and the gE genotype of viral field isolates. [less ▲]

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See detailThermodynamic Stability of a Cold-Active Alpha-Amylase from the Antarctic Bacterium Alteromonas Haloplanctis
Feller, Georges ULg; d'Amico, D.; Gerday, Charles ULg

in Biochemistry (1999), 38(14), 4613-9

The thermal stability of the cold-active alpha-amylase (AHA) secreted by the Antarctic bacterium Alteromonas haloplanctis has been investigated by intrinsic fluorescence, circular dichroism, and ... [more ▼]

The thermal stability of the cold-active alpha-amylase (AHA) secreted by the Antarctic bacterium Alteromonas haloplanctis has been investigated by intrinsic fluorescence, circular dichroism, and differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that this heat-labile enzyme is the largest known multidomain protein exhibiting a reversible two-state unfolding, as demonstrated by the recovery of DeltaHcal values after consecutive calorimetric transitions, a DeltaHcal/DeltaHeff ratio close to unity, and the independence of unfolding thermodynamic parameters of scan rates. By contrast, the mesophilic alpha-amylases investigated here (from porcine pancreas, human salivary glands, yellow meal beetle, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, and Bacillus licheniformis) unfold irreversibly according to a non-two-state mechanism. Unlike mesophilic alpha-amylases, the melting point of AHA is independent of calcium and chloride binding while the allosteric and structural functions of these ions are conserved. The thermostability of AHA at optimal conditions is characterized by a Tm of 43.7 degrees C, a DeltaHcal of 238 kcal mol-1, and a DeltaCp of 8.47 kcal mol-1 K-1. These values were used to calculate the Gibbs free energy of unfolding over a wide range of temperatures. This stability curve shows that (a) the specific DeltaGmax of AHA [22 cal (mol of residue)-1] is 4 times lower than that of mesophilic alpha-amylases, (b) group hydration plays a crucial role in the enzyme flexibility at low temperatures, (c) the temperature of cold unfolding closely corresponds to the lower limit of bacterial growth, and (d) the recombinant heat-labile enzyme can be expressed in mesophilic hosts at moderate temperatures. It is also argued that the cold-active alpha-amylase has evolved toward the lowest possible conformational stability of its native state. [less ▲]

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See detailMating-Induced Fos and Aromatase Are Not Co-Localized in the Preoptic Area
Foidart, Agnès ULg; Meddle, S. L.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg

in Neuroreport (1999), 10(5), 907-12

Male sexual behavior is determined by the interaction of endocrine and environmental stimuli originating from the female, yet it is unknown how and where these stimuli are integrated within the brain ... [more ▼]

Male sexual behavior is determined by the interaction of endocrine and environmental stimuli originating from the female, yet it is unknown how and where these stimuli are integrated within the brain. Activation of copulatory behavior by testosterone is limited by its central aromatization into an estrogen in the preoptic area. We investigated whether mating-induced neuronal activation as identified by the expression of the immediate early gene Fos occurs in aromatase-immunoreactive (ARO-ir) cells of the male quail preoptic area. Fos-immunoreactive (ir) cells were observed within and lateral to these ARO-ir cells groups but few ARO-ir cells contained Fos-ir indicating that mating-related stimuli do not directly affect estrogen-synthesizing cells. [less ▲]

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See detailThe orientation within the Galaxy and the Large Magellanic Cloud of nebulae ejected by massive stars
Hutsemekers, Damien ULg

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (1999), 344

The orientation of nebulae ejected by massive stars (Luminous Blue Variables, WR stars, SN1987A) is investigated with respect to the structure of the galaxy to which they belong. In the Galaxy, we find ... [more ▼]

The orientation of nebulae ejected by massive stars (Luminous Blue Variables, WR stars, SN1987A) is investigated with respect to the structure of the galaxy to which they belong. In the Galaxy, we find that the projected long axes of the nebulae most often align with the galactic plane, and then also with the galactic magnetic field. This alignment is statistically significant. In addition, a few nebulae are apparently oriented perpendicular to the galactic plane. In the Large Magellanic Cloud, the nebular axes are found to closely follow the spiral magnetic field. With different inclinations, the Galaxy and the Large Magellanic Cloud probably offer complementary views of the same phenomenon. Although the sample studied thus far is small and the statistics limited, these results suggest that the orientation of massive star ejecta depends on galactic magnetic fields. Since the nebular axes are apparently correlated to the symmetry axes of the stars themselves, and since, in the early evolutionary stages, alignments of accretion disk axes with the interstellar magnetic field have been reported, it is argued that the observed alignment effect results from the star formation process. Based in part on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory (ESO, La Silla) [less ▲]

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See detailAnticipatory responding, exclusive drug-context pairing and conditioned effects in sensitization to apomorphine-induced climbing in mice
Tirelli, Ezio ULg; Heidbreder, C.

in Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry (1999), 23(3), 505-518

1. The conditioning aspects of contextual sensitization were examined in the case of apomorphine-induced wall-climbing in mice, measuring onset latencies of the pharmacological response and controlling ... [more ▼]

1. The conditioning aspects of contextual sensitization were examined in the case of apomorphine-induced wall-climbing in mice, measuring onset latencies of the pharmacological response and controlling differential habituation to the test context during drug treatment. 2. Sensitization was generated in male out-bred mice which received intermittent i.p. injections of 0.4 mg/kg apomorphine over 9 daily sessions. On day 10, they were tested for contextual sensitization (all mice under apomorphine). On day 14, after 3 sessions of reinstatement, mice were tested for conditioned climbing (all mice under saline). 3. It was found that simultaneous exposure to both apomorphine and the test context facilitated the expression of a full-blown contextual sensitization (some non-contextual sensitization emerging too); importantly, sensitization was accompanied by a progressive shortening of the latencies to climb (before injections); conditioned climbing appeared only in mice pairing the drug with the test context, that response being absent in mice treated outside the context or never exposed to the context. 4. It is likely that contextual sensitization to apomorphine-induced climbing relies on Pavlovian conditioning processes rather than on habituation-related processes. [less ▲]

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See detailLeast Cost Optimum Design of Stiffened Hydraulic and Floating Structures
Rigo, Philippe ULg

in Bulletin de l’Association Internationale Permanente des Congrès de Navigation [Bulletin de l'AIPCN] (1999)

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See detailLa classe de langue comme observatoire et laboratoire d'un apprentissage expérientiel des langues étrangères à travers la pédagogie par projet
Simons, Germain ULg

in Etudes & Travaux (1999), (3), 67-84

G. Simons begins by pointing out the difficulties encountered by many language teachers in trying to provide students with real communication situations. According to the author, the methodological ... [more ▼]

G. Simons begins by pointing out the difficulties encountered by many language teachers in trying to provide students with real communication situations. According to the author, the methodological approach which consists in asking students to "imagine they are Mr Smith" hardly conceals its formal interest. Furthemore, it should be completed with an experiential approach aiming at an articulation of the active experimentation of the foreign language in the here and now as well as the analysis of the functioning of the language as a system. The preparation and exploitation of a pedagogical project for a linguistic stay provides the foreign language course with a concrete aim and a real linguistic material, which it often lacks. In analysing and comparing the linguistic data from students and native speakers in real and identical communication situations, the language teacher can test the interlanguage of his students. Moreover, this process of comparison enables the language teacher to make students "notice the gap" between their language production and that of native speakers. This "notice the gap" technique transforms the traditional language class into an observatory and laboratory of the foreign language and of the interlanguage. [less ▲]

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See detailLe condylome
Kridelka, Frédéric ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(4), 283-8

HPV related pathologies are the commonest reasons for consulting a gynaecologist. Genital warts are associated with infection by HPV type 6 or 11. Etiopathogenetic factors and treatment modalities are ... [more ▼]

HPV related pathologies are the commonest reasons for consulting a gynaecologist. Genital warts are associated with infection by HPV type 6 or 11. Etiopathogenetic factors and treatment modalities are reviewed. [less ▲]

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See detailConditioning of and contextual sensitization to apomorphine-induced climbing in mice : evidence against the habitation hypothesis
Tirelli, Ezio ULg; Heidbreder, C.

in Behavioral Neuroscience (1999), 113(2), 368-376

Several predictions of the habituation hypothesis of conditioned drug effects were tested by looking at contextual sensitization to apomorphine-induced climbing in mice (Mus musculus). Mice were first ... [more ▼]

Several predictions of the habituation hypothesis of conditioned drug effects were tested by looking at contextual sensitization to apomorphine-induced climbing in mice (Mus musculus). Mice were first sensitized to that effect after 9 daily injections of 0.4 mg/kg apomorphine in the test context. Other mice received the same treatment outside the test context. On Day 10, all mice were challenged with either saline (conditioned drug effects test) or apomorphine (contextual sensitization test). On both tests, the levels of climbing of mice that received apomorphine paired with the test context during the intermittent treatment were significantly higher than those of mice that were experiencing the test context for the first time (unexposed mice). Also, the rate of extinction in conditioned mice did not parallel the rate of habituation in the unexposed mice. Results contradict the habituation hypothesis of conditioned drug effects and contextual sensitization. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved)(journal abstract) [less ▲]

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See detailLa Gestion quotidienne des périodiques électroniques
Bawin, Marc-Henri ULg; Mottet, Philippe ULg

in Cahiers de la Documentation = Bladen voor Documentatie (1999), 53(1), 26-39

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See detailLa femme et les maladies cardio-vasculaires, en particulier, les coronaropathies
Kulbertus, Henri ULg; Legrand, Victor ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(4), 244-50

Cardiovascular diseases represent the major cause of death in women. If women are early in life relatively protected by their hormones, after the menopause heart disease and stroke become their greatest ... [more ▼]

Cardiovascular diseases represent the major cause of death in women. If women are early in life relatively protected by their hormones, after the menopause heart disease and stroke become their greatest health threat. Altogether one in three women will die of cardiovascular disease whereas only one in twenty-two will die of breast cancer. The risk factors for cardiovascular diseases are similar in both sexes. It should be noted however that the impact of diabetes on the development of coronary artery disease is markedly higher in woman than in man. In woman the first presenting symptom of coronary artery disease frequently is angina pectoris. In man it is more often an acute myocardial infarction whether it be symptomatic or silent. The various non invasive techniques used for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease may yield results that pose very difficult problems of differential diagnosis in women. Several studies indicate that in the past, probably because of the ignorance by the public and, perhaps, the medical profession of the high prevalence of cardiovascular and coronary artery diseases in women, the latter have not always received an optimal treatment when they suffered an acute ischemic attack. But, in this decade, they have been dramatic changes in the patents of clinical practice related to coronary heart disease in women. Statistical investigations however indicate that thrombolytic therapy appears less efficacious in women than in men whereas beta-blockers administered early in acute MI are of remarkable efficacy in women. It seems generally agreed that the results of revascularization by coronary artery bypass surgery are poorer in women than in men both in terms of operative mortality and morbidity. Initially, the same pessimism was reported for PTCA. However, recent results allow a much more optimistic view. [less ▲]

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See detailFaut-il instaurer un traitement en prévention primaire chez la femme hypercholestérolémique?
Paquot, Nicolas ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(4), 240-3

Limited data are available in women from randomized trials of lipid-lowering therapy for primary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD). In women with isolate hypercholesterolemia but no clinical ... [more ▼]

Limited data are available in women from randomized trials of lipid-lowering therapy for primary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD). In women with isolate hypercholesterolemia but no clinical symptoms of CHD and no other risk factors, there is no evidence that lipid-lowering therapy is of benefit. In postmenopausal women with hypercholesterolemia and other risk factors (particularly diabetes and family history of CHD), lipid-lowering therapy may be of benefit. In those women, hormone replacement therapy may be proposed in the treatment of postmenopausal hypercholesterolemia. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Two Calculated Plasma Sufentanil Concentrations on the Hemodynamic and Bispectral Index Responses to Mayfield Head Holder Application
Hans, Pol ULg; Brichant, Jean-François ULg; Dewandre, Pierre-Yves et al

in Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology (1999), 11(2), 81-5

The effects of two calculated plasma sufentanil (SUF) concentrations on the hemodynamic and bispectral index (BIS) responses to Mayfield head holder (MH) application were studied in 20 patients scheduled ... [more ▼]

The effects of two calculated plasma sufentanil (SUF) concentrations on the hemodynamic and bispectral index (BIS) responses to Mayfield head holder (MH) application were studied in 20 patients scheduled for intracranial surgery. Premedication consisted of hydroxyzine, alprazolam, and atropine given orally 1 hour before surgery. Anesthesia was provided with propofol (PPF) and SUF using a target-controlled infusion device. Patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups according to calculated plasma concentrations: 3 microg/mL(-1) of PPF and 0.5 ng/mL(-1) of SUF in group I (GI) and 3 microg/mL(-1) of PPF and 1 ng/mL(-1) of SUF in group II (GII). The MH was fixed 33.0+/-6.6 minutes (mean +/- SD) after induction. Systolic (SAP), diastolic (DAP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) as well as heart rate (HR) and BIS were recorded 1 minute before pinning (baseline) as well as 1 minute (P1), 2 minutes (P2), and 3 minutes (P3) after pinning. Multivariate repeat-measured analyses of variance were applied to the baseline-subtracted measurements of hemodynamic and BIS values. Groups were compared using the Student's t test, and P < .05 was considered to be statistically significant. Patients' characteristics, baseline hemodynamic values, and BIS values were similar in both groups. A significant overall time effect was observed for all variables, but no significant overall SUF effect was detected. Increases in SAP, MAP, DAP, and HR did not differ significantly between groups. The increase in hemodynamic variables did not exceed 20% of baseline value in either group. In contrast, at P1, the increase in BIS over the baseline value was significantly higher in GI (15.0+/-7.9) than in GII (6.7+/-6.5). In conclusion, MH application was associated with a significant, although not clinically relevant, increase in hemodynamic variables whatever the calculated plasma SUF concentration (0.5 or 1.0 ng/mL(-1)). In contrast, the increase in BIS observed at pinning was significantly higher in patients with the lowest calculated plasma SUF concentrations. This suggests that the BIS response to noxious stimulation is modulated by the analgesic regimen. [less ▲]

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See detailL'ostéoporose d'involution chez la femme
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Devogelaer, J. P.; Kaufman, J. M. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(4), 335-40

Postmenopausal osteoporosis is now considered a major public health problem in aging women, due to the burden related to the consequent fractures. Over recent years, several pharmacological approaches ... [more ▼]

Postmenopausal osteoporosis is now considered a major public health problem in aging women, due to the burden related to the consequent fractures. Over recent years, several pharmacological approaches were developed for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Besides regular physical exercise and calcium rich diet, calcium supplementation can be suggested to both genders, after seventy years as well as systematic vitamin D supplementation in order to cope with the frequent lack observed in our country. Hormone replacement therapy is the first choice in prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Based on a careful evaluation of the needs of a postmenopausal woman as well as on the risk/benefit ratio derived from her individual risk factors, selective estrogen receptor modulators (raloxifene) or second generation bisphosphonates (alendronate) can be considered as alternative to estrogens. Due to its prohibitive cost, nasal calcitonin should be only considered for very specific cases. In osteoporosis confirmed by bone densitometry or by occurrence of fractures, bisphosphonate (alendronate) reduces subsequent fracture rate. Fluoride salts can, in some cases, improve spinal symptomatic osteoporosis. The use of etidronate, a molecule from the past, should be avoided as much as possible and, at any rate, strictly restricted to its legal indication including women with several vertebral crush fractures and severely decreased bone mineral density. [less ▲]

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See detailLe syndrome de tension prémenstruelle ou dysphorie prémenstruelle
Legros, S.; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg; Gaspard, Ulysse ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(4), 268-73

Premenstrual Tension Syndrome (PMS) has always existed: it has been first described by an endocrinologist from New York in 1931. It is responsible for significant and psychological disorders which justify ... [more ▼]

Premenstrual Tension Syndrome (PMS) has always existed: it has been first described by an endocrinologist from New York in 1931. It is responsible for significant and psychological disorders which justify the study of its pathogenesis. Hormonal dysfunction has been demonstrated among women who are at risk for PMS; nevertheless, it has been shown that neurological transducers are also affected, such as GABAergic, serotoninergic and endorphinic systems. Interactions between the two systems allow to raise the hypothesis of an inbalance between GABAergic and progesterone derived neurosteroids in a psychoneuroendocrinological model. Based on this hypothesis, psychological symptoms can be efficiently treated by anxiolytic or antidepressant treatment. On the other hand, progesterone derivatives and, sometimes, diuretics, are useful on physical symptoms. As far as we know there is so far no single treatment of demonstrated efficacy in the PMS. [less ▲]

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See detailTransmission line torsional stiffness. Confrontation of field-tests line and finite element simulations.
keutgen, Renaud; Lilien, Jean-Louis ULg; Yukino, Teruhiro

in IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery (1999), 14(N°2), 567-578

Bundle torsional stiffness, Full scale field tests on a quad bundle compared to a finite element stiffness and simplified model.

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See detailPlasma Myeloperoxidase Level and Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Activation in Horses Suffering from Large Intestinal Obstruction Requiring Surgery: Preliminary Results
Grulke, Sigrid ULg; Benbarek, Hama; Caudron, I. et al

in Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research = Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire (1999), 63(2), 142-7

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a specific enzyme of neutrophil azurophilic granules with a strong oxidative activity. Thanks to a radioimmunoassay of equine myeloperoxidase, the authors have observed a ... [more ▼]

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a specific enzyme of neutrophil azurophilic granules with a strong oxidative activity. Thanks to a radioimmunoassay of equine myeloperoxidase, the authors have observed a significantly higher plasma level of MPO in horses operated for strangulation obstruction of the large intestine (n = 6) than in horses suffering from a non-strangulating displacement of the large intestine (n = 9). For the 2 groups, 3 phases were distinguished: reception (P1), intensive care (P2) and terminal phase (P3). The mean peak values of MPO for these phases were 121.6 ng/mL (P1), 168.6 ng/mL (P2), and 107.0 ng/mL (P3) for the non-strangulating group, and 242.6 ng/mL (P1); 426.0 ng/mL (P2), and 379.5 ng/mL (P3) for the strangulation group. The variations of the mean peak values of plasma MPO were significantly different between the 2 groups and between the different phases. A significant increase of the least square means of MPO was observed between P1 and P2. A significant decrease of the least square means of the number of circulating leukocytes was observed between P1 and P3. Polymorphonuclear neutrophil activation could play a major role in the pathogenesis of acute abdominal disease and endotoxic shock. [less ▲]

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See detailComment évaluer la sévérité d'un RGO et quels sont les objectifs thérapeutiques?
Louis, Edouard ULg; Marquis, P.; Nalet, B.

in Revue Médicale de Bruxelles (1999), 20(2), 114-5

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See detailFemoral Anastomotic Aneurysms: Pathogenic Factors, Clinical Presentations and Treatment. A Study of 142 Cases
Demarche, Martine; Waltregny, David ULg; Van Damme, Hendrik ULg et al

in Cardiovascular Surgery (1999), 7(3), 315-22

In this study, the files of 112 patients with a total of 142 femoral anastomotic aneurysms were reviewed. Eighty-five patients (76%) were initially operated upon for obstructive aorto-iliac disease, while ... [more ▼]

In this study, the files of 112 patients with a total of 142 femoral anastomotic aneurysms were reviewed. Eighty-five patients (76%) were initially operated upon for obstructive aorto-iliac disease, while the remaining 27 (24%) had abdominal aortic aneurysms repaired. The majority of the patients (104/112) were male and their mean age was 64.5 years (range 45-88). Ninety-three per cent of the subjects were smokers prior to the first operation and 43% continued to smoke at the time of their femoral anastomotic aneurysms operation. The mean delay between the initial surgery and the repair of the femoral anastomotic aneurysms was 74.5 months (range 1-228). The diagnosis was made because of a painless pulsatile mass (91/142), acute leg ischaemia (27/142), a painful pulsatile mass (12/142), haemorrhage (10/142), pseudo-post-phlebitic oedema (1/142) and microemboli of the toes (1/142). The operative mortality was 2.7% (3/112) of which two-thirds were patients with infected grafts. Two subgroups were distinguished: 10 patients with an infected femoral anastomotic aneurysm and 12 patients with recurrent femoral anastomotic aneurysms, 11 with a single recurrence and one with a double recurrence. In the infected group, the time to development of anastomotic aneurysm was shorter than for the group with non-infected femoral anastomotic aneurysms (41 versus 74.5 months) and the operative mortality was 20% (2/10). One patient developed a recurrent femoral anastomotic aneurysm and another was lost to follow-up. Two subsequent deaths occurred, which were unrelated to the femoral anastomotic aneurysms. In the group of recurrent femoral anastomotic aneurysms one patient was lost to follow-up and two patients died, but not as a result of recurrent femoral anastomotic aneurysms. A total of 122 cases underwent interposition of a new prosthetic segment between the proximal prosthesis and the distal artery (89 at the common femoral, 21 at the femoral profundis, eight at the superficial femoral and four at an existing femoro-popliteal graft). [less ▲]

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See detailHyperandrogénie: sémiologie, exploration et traitement
Beckers, Albert ULg; Parotte, M. C.; Gaspard, Ulysse ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(4), 274-282

Androgen excess (AE) is one of the most common endocrine disorders, affecting 10% of adult women before the menopause. The clinical picture varies widely depending on the etiology of AE. Most of these ... [more ▼]

Androgen excess (AE) is one of the most common endocrine disorders, affecting 10% of adult women before the menopause. The clinical picture varies widely depending on the etiology of AE. Most of these women are suffering from hirsutism, acne, menstrual disturbances, anovulation and obesity. Virilization is unusual, except in patients with ovary or adrenal cancer. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and idiopathic hirsutism (IH) are the most frequent causes of androgen excess, accounting for more than 90% of the cases. The pathogenesis of PCOS is still an unresolved problem. A hereditary predisposition has been suggested. Enzymatic deficiency is a less frequent cause of AE, the most common deficiency being the non classic 21-OH deficiency (NCAH). AE has been implicated as a side effect of many drugs. Ovary and adrenal tumours are unusual, however, they must be considered especially in case of severe hirsutism or virilization. Complementary investigations are selected based on the result of clinical examination. Pharmacologic therapy, usually with anti-androgens, is the most widely used treatment for PCOS, IH and NCAH. Surgical therapy should be considered only when there is a particular indication such as Cushing's syndrome, ovary or adrenal tumours. [less ▲]

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See detailImpaired effective cortical connectivity in vegetative state : Preliminary investigation using PET
Laureys, Steven ULg; Goldman, Serge; Phillips, Christophe ULg et al

in Neuroimage (1999), 9(4), 377-382

Vegetative state (VS) is a condition of abolished awareness with persistence of arousal. Awareness is part of consciousness, which itself is thought to represent an emergent property of cerebral neural ... [more ▼]

Vegetative state (VS) is a condition of abolished awareness with persistence of arousal. Awareness is part of consciousness, which itself is thought to represent an emergent property of cerebral neural networks. Our hypothesis was that part of the neural correlate underlying VS is an altered connectivity, especially between the associative cortices. We assessed regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRGlu) and effective cortical connectivity in four patients in VS by means of statistical parametric mapping and [F-18]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography. Our data showed a common pattern of impaired rCMRGlu in the prefrontal, premotor, and parietotemporal association areas and posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus in VS. In a next step, we demonstrated that in VS patients various prefrontal and premotor areas have in common that they are less tightly connected with the posterior cingulate cortex than in normal controls. These results provide a strong argument for an alteration of cortical connectivity in VS patients. (C) 1999 Academic Press. [less ▲]

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See detailHommage en liberté et contraintes multiples
Durand, Pascal ULg

in Formules. Revue des littératures à contraintes (1999), 3

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See detailModification of the polycarbonate/poly(vinylidene Fluoride) interface by poly(methyl methacrylate). Effect on the interfacial adhesion and interfacial tension
Moussaif, Noureddin; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Macromolecular Symposia (1999), 139

Polycarbonate (PC) and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) are two immiscible polymers which form two-phase blends with weak interfacial adhesion and high interfacial tension This situation may be changed by ... [more ▼]

Polycarbonate (PC) and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) are two immiscible polymers which form two-phase blends with weak interfacial adhesion and high interfacial tension This situation may be changed by the addition of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), which concentrates preferably in the PVDF-rich phase, but also at the PVDF/PC interface. The interfacial activity of PMMA was estimated by the measurement of the interfacial adhesion and interfacial tension in relation to the PMMA content in the PVDF/PC blends. The interfacial adhesion between PC and homogeneous PVDF/PMMA blends of various compositions was measured by the dual cantilever beam technique The imbedded fiber retraction method was used for the measurement of the interfacial tension. A very beneficial effect was observed when PVDF was premixed with PMMA amounts increasing up to ca 35 wt-%., Beyond that content, the improvement tends to level off. [less ▲]

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See detailA Tall Man in a Low Land
Steyaert, Kris ULg

in ALCS Newsletter (1999), 3(1), 3-4

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See detail10'-Hydroxyusambarensine, a New Antimalarial Bisindole Alkaloid from the Roots of Strychnos Usambarensis
Frederich, Michel ULg; Tits, Monique ULg; Hayette, Marie-Pierre ULg et al

in Journal of Natural Products (1999), 62(4), 619-21

Reinvestigation of Strychnos usambarensis Gilg resulted in the isolation of a tertiary phenolic bisindole alkaloid, 10'-hydroxyusambarensine (1), which was identified by detailed spectroscopic methods ... [more ▼]

Reinvestigation of Strychnos usambarensis Gilg resulted in the isolation of a tertiary phenolic bisindole alkaloid, 10'-hydroxyusambarensine (1), which was identified by detailed spectroscopic methods. Compound 1 was moderately active against two strains of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of the Iv Pharmacokinetics in Sheep of Miconazole-Cyclodextrin Solutions and a Micellar Solution
Piel, Géraldine ULg; Evrard, Brigitte ULg; Van Hees, Thierry ULg et al

in International Journal of Pharmaceutics (1999), 180(1), 41-5

The pharmacokinetics of miconazole were studied after intravenous administration to six sheep (4 mg/kg) of three aqueous solutions: a marketed micellar solution containing polyoxyl-35 castor oil (Daktarin ... [more ▼]

The pharmacokinetics of miconazole were studied after intravenous administration to six sheep (4 mg/kg) of three aqueous solutions: a marketed micellar solution containing polyoxyl-35 castor oil (Daktarin IV(R)) was compared with two solutions both containing 50 mM lactic acid and a cyclodextrin derivative (100 mM HP-betaCD or 50 mM SBE7-betaCD). The aim of this work was to demonstrate that these cyclodextrin derivatives (CDs) have no effect on the pharmacokinetics of miconazole by comparison with the micellar solution. The plasma concentration time curves have shown that there is no significant difference between the three solutions. [less ▲]

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See detailStability of multiquark systems
Stancu, Floarea ULg

in AIP Conference Proceedings (1999), 508

We give a brief review of developments in the field of exotic hadrons formed of more than three quarks and/or antiquarks. In particular we discuss the stability of multiquark systems containing heavy ... [more ▼]

We give a brief review of developments in the field of exotic hadrons formed of more than three quarks and/or antiquarks. In particular we discuss the stability of multiquark systems containing heavy flavours. We show that the gluon exchange model and the chiral constituent quark model based Goldstone boson (pseudoscalar meson) exchange give entirely different results. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-Gaussian behavior and anticorrelations in ultrathin gate oxides after soft breakdown
Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Ausloos, Marcel ULg; Houssa, M. et al

in Applied Physics Letters (1999), 74(11), 1579-1581

The time dependence of the gate voltage V-G(t) after soft breakdown of metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with a 2.4 nm SiO2 layer has been measured. It is found that the V-G(t) fluctuation ... [more ▼]

The time dependence of the gate voltage V-G(t) after soft breakdown of metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with a 2.4 nm SiO2 layer has been measured. It is found that the V-G(t) fluctuation distributions are non-Gaussian, but can be described by a Levy stable distribution. The long-range correlations in V-G(t) are investigated within the detrended fluctuations analysis. The Hurst exponent is found to be H = 0.25 +/- 0.04 independent of the value of the stress current density J. It is argued that these are universal features of soft breakdown and are due to trapping-detrapping of electrons in and away from the primary percolation path. [less ▲]

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See detailRole of the Protein Kinase C Lambda/Iota Isoform in Nuclear Factor-Kappab Activation by Interleukin-1beta or Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha: Cell Type Specificities
Bonizzi, G.; Piette, Jacques ULg; Haterte, Stéphanie ULg et al

in Biochemical Pharmacology (1999), 57(6), 713-20

It has previously been reported that distinct signaling pathways can lead to nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation following stimulation of different cell types with inflammatory cytokines. As the role of ... [more ▼]

It has previously been reported that distinct signaling pathways can lead to nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation following stimulation of different cell types with inflammatory cytokines. As the role of atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms in NF-kappaB activation remains a matter of controversy, we investigated whether this role might be cell type-dependent. Immunoblots detected atypical PKC expression in all the analyzed cell lines. The PKC inhibitor calphostin C inhibited NF-kappaB activation by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha or interleukin (IL)-1beta in Jurkat or NIH3T3 cells but not in MCF7 A/Z cells. Cell transfections with a PKC lambda/iota dominant negative mutant abolished TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB-dependent transcription in NIH3T3 and Jurkat cells but not in MCF7 A/Z cells. Similarly, the same mutant blocked NF-kappaB-dependent transactivation after IL-1beta stimulation of NIH3T3 cells, but was ineffective after IL-1beta treatment of MCF7 A/Z cells. In MCF7 A/Z cells, however, the PKC lambda/iota dominant negative mutant could abolish transactivation of an AP-1-dependent reporter plasmid after stimulation with TNF-alpha but not with IL-1beta. These data thus confirm that transduction pathways for NF-kappaB activation after cell stimulation with TNF-alpha or IL-1beta are cell-type specific and that atypical PKC isoforms participate in this pathway in NIH3T3 and Jurkat cells. [less ▲]

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See detailArthrospira ('Spirulina') strains from four continents are resolved into only two clusters, based on amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis of the internally transcribed spacer
Scheldeman, Patsy; Baurain, Denis ULg; Bouhy, Rachel et al

in FEMS Microbiology Letters (1999), 172(2), 213-22

We present the results of a phylogenetic study, based on amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis of the rDNA operon, of 37 Arthrospira ('Spirulina') cultivated clonal strains from four continents. In ... [more ▼]

We present the results of a phylogenetic study, based on amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis of the rDNA operon, of 37 Arthrospira ('Spirulina') cultivated clonal strains from four continents. In addition, duplicates from different culture collections or markedly different morphotypes of particular strains established as clonal cultures were treated as separate entries, resulting in a total of 51 tested cultures. The strain Spirulina laxissima SAG 256.80 was included as outgroup. The 16S rRNA genes appeared too conserved for discrimination of the strains by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis, and thus the internally transcribed spacer was selected as molecular taxonomic marker. The internally transcribed spacer sequences situated between the 16S and the 23S rRNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and yielded amplicons of about 540 bp. Direct use of cells for polymerase chain reaction seemed to inhibit the amplification reaction. This was overcome by the design of a crude lysis protocol and addition of bovine serum albumin in the polymerase chain reaction mix. The amplicons were digested with four restriction enzymes (EcoRV, Hhal, Hinfl, Msel) and the banding patterns obtained were analyzed. Cluster analysis showed the separation of all the strains into two main clusters. No clear relationships could be observed between this division into two clusters and the geographic origin of the strains, or their designation in the culture collections, or their morphology. [less ▲]

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See detailThermalization of <formula alphabet="latin">O([SUP]1[/SUP]D) atoms in the thermosphere
Shematovich, Valery; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Bisikalo, Dimitry V et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research (1999), 104

Measurements of the Doppler width of the 6300 Å airglow emission line have been extensively used to determine the thermospheric temperature. This technique is based on the assumption that the bulk of the ... [more ▼]

Measurements of the Doppler width of the 6300 Å airglow emission line have been extensively used to determine the thermospheric temperature. This technique is based on the assumption that the bulk of the emitting O([SUP]1[/SUP]D) atoms are thermalized in the region of the airglow source (200-300 km). A Monte Carlo stochastic model is used to calculate the energy distribution function of O([SUP]1[/SUP]D) atoms in the daytime and nighttime thermosphere. Hot O([SUP]1[/SUP]D) atoms are produced by exothermic processes and their thermalization is controlled by the competition between radiation, collisional quenching, and relaxation. It is found that the O([SUP]1[/SUP]D) temperature departs from the background gas temperature not only in the upper thermosphere but also in the region of the bulk 6300 Å emission. At 300 km for low solar activity conditions, the model predicts an excess O([SUP]1[/SUP]D) temperature of ~180 K during daytime and ~950 K at night. The temperature departure persists at lower altitudes as a result of the major contribution of the O[SUB]2[/SUB][SUP]+[/SUP] dissociative recombination source of hot [SUP]1[/SUP]D atoms. Experimental evidence based on the Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements on board the Dynamics Explorer satellite confirms the existence of an O([SUP]1[/SUP]D) temperature excess over the mass spectrometer/incoherent scatter (MSIS) value. It is concluded that temperatures deduced from the 6300 Å airglow line width may significantly exceed the ambient gas temperature in a way depending on solar activity, local time, and observation geometry. [less ▲]

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See detailInteret clinique de la tomographie a emission de positons dans la detection et le bilan d'extension des recidives des cancers colorectaux
Hustinx, Roland ULg; Paulus, P.; Daenen, Frédéric ULg et al

in Gastroentérologie Clinique et Biologique (1999), 23(3), 323-9

BACKGROUND: Positron emission tomography (PET) has been shown useful for the staging of patients with various carcinomas. METHODS: We have applied this technique to 54 cases of colorectal carcinoma and ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Positron emission tomography (PET) has been shown useful for the staging of patients with various carcinomas. METHODS: We have applied this technique to 54 cases of colorectal carcinoma and compared it to conventional imaging techniques. RESULTS: PET had moderately higher sensitivity and specificity than conventional techniques to detect individual lesion sites (75% vs 70.8% and 63% vs 21% respectively). It detected the same number of patients with recurrences (35/39) but overestimated disease less frequently (5 cases vs 12). PET favorably influenced therapeutic management in 17 patients, indicating different or additional surgery in 9 while avoiding surgery with curative intent or unnecessary surgery in 8. In 5 cases, erroneous information provided by PET could be corrected by conventional imaging techniques. CONCLUSION: We conclude that PET appears to provide complementary information useful for staging patients with colorectal carcinomas. It can significantly modify patients management. These data should be confirmed by a prospective study. [less ▲]

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See detailA propos d'un cas de rhabdomyolyse aigue
Rorive, Andrée ULg; Fraipont, V.; Quatresooz, Pascale ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(3), 143-8

A 83 years old patient was admitted with a complex clinical picture including cutaneous rash, muscular pain, rhabdomyolysis and renal failure. The clinical picture suggests a dermatopolymyositis. Despite ... [more ▼]

A 83 years old patient was admitted with a complex clinical picture including cutaneous rash, muscular pain, rhabdomyolysis and renal failure. The clinical picture suggests a dermatopolymyositis. Despite of high dose corticotherapy, the patient died on day 22. The anatomical examination shows a cholangiocarcinoma disseminated locally as well as in the lungs and bones. [less ▲]

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See detailModel-based verification of a security protocol for conditional access to services
Leduc, Guy ULg; Bonaventure, Olivier; Koerner, Eckhart et al

in Formal Methods In System Design (1999), 14(2), 171-191

We use the formal language LOTOS to specify and verify the robustness of the Equicrypt protocol under design in the European OKAPI project for conditional access to multimedia services. We state some ... [more ▼]

We use the formal language LOTOS to specify and verify the robustness of the Equicrypt protocol under design in the European OKAPI project for conditional access to multimedia services. We state some desired security properties and formalize them. We describe a generic intruder process and its modelling, and show that some properties are falsified in the presence of this intruder. The diagnostic sequences can be used almost directly to exhibit the scenarios of possible attacks on the protocol. Finally, we propose an improvement of the protocol which satisfies our properties. [less ▲]

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See detailUrticaires
Dezfoulian, Bita ULg

in Medi-Sphere (1999), 94

Les urticaires sont des affections cutanées papuleuses et prurigineises, dont le diagnostic positif est généralement facile. Par contre, elles posent de nombreux problèmes étiologiquesn ... [more ▼]

Les urticaires sont des affections cutanées papuleuses et prurigineises, dont le diagnostic positif est généralement facile. Par contre, elles posent de nombreux problèmes étiologiquesn physiopathologiques et thérapeutiques. Classiquement, on distingue les urticaires aiguës, spontanément résolutives, et les urticaires chroniques, qui évoluent sur une période beaucoup plus longue (entre 6 semaines et 6 mois). Quoiqu'il en soit, leur physiopathologie est identique. L'urticaire est une pathologie fréquente car elle fait partie des 20 dermatoses les plus courantes et qu'environ un individu sur quatre a présenté dans sa vie une poussée d'urticaire. En dehors de l'inconfort qu'elle procure au patient, elle risque d'engager ke pronostic vital en raison de la survenue potentielle d'un oedème de Quincke, voire d'un choc anaphylactique ou anaphylactoïde. [less ▲]

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See detailNeurotransmitter-Mediated Regulation of Cns Myelination: A Review
Belachew, Shibeshih ULg; Rogister, Bernard ULg; Rigo, Jean-Michel et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (1999), 99(1), 21-31

In addition to treatments aimed at preventing or limiting damage to myelin and oligodendrocytes, there is a crucial need for repair strategies in human demyelinating disorders. There is increasing ... [more ▼]

In addition to treatments aimed at preventing or limiting damage to myelin and oligodendrocytes, there is a crucial need for repair strategies in human demyelinating disorders. There is increasing evidence that besides growth factors, neurotransmitters can regulate different steps of the oligodendrogliogenesis. The present review on neurotransmitter receptor expression and function in the oligodendrocyte lineage emphasizes the concept that in this lineage cell proliferation and differentiation can be controlled through the modulation of the functional state of channel proteins and receptors, such as the delayed K+ rectifier, the AMPA/kainate, dopamine or muscarinic receptors, and, most likely, others yet to be found. We anticipate that a better understanding of the neurotransmitter-mediated neuronal oligodendroglial communication network opens prospects in the field of central nervous system (CNS) myelin repair, allowing the recruitment of the myelinating machinery that is known to remain present but quiescent in the CNS of multiple sclerosis patients. [less ▲]

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See detailComment j'explore ... l'ostéoporose: mesure de la masse osseuse et analyses biologiques
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Devogelaer, J. P.; Kaufman, J. M. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(3), 184-8

The use of bone densitometry, by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, allows the identification, at an early stage, of subjects who will, 15-20 years later, present a fracture event. Furthermore, this ... [more ▼]

The use of bone densitometry, by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, allows the identification, at an early stage, of subjects who will, 15-20 years later, present a fracture event. Furthermore, this technique is the most appropriate to confirm the efficacy of preventive or curative therapeutic approaches of osteoporosis. A balanced utilisation of biochemical tests is mandatory to exclude a secondary cause of osteoporosis, to help in the choice of the most appropriate therapeutic strategy and to evaluate the early response of patients to the administered drugs. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamics of the photo-induced orientation and relaxation of new polymethacrylates containing carbazolyl and azobenzene pendant groups
Maertens, Christophe; Dubois, Philippe ULg; Jérôme, Robert ULg et al

in Polymer International (1999), 48(3), 205-211

Polarized-light-induced birefringence has been investigated in copolymers of [-(N-carbazolyl)alkyl methacrylate] and [2,5-dimethylphenyl-[(4-nitrophenyl)azo]phenoxyalkyl methacrylate]. Optical properties ... [more ▼]

Polarized-light-induced birefringence has been investigated in copolymers of [-(N-carbazolyl)alkyl methacrylate] and [2,5-dimethylphenyl-[(4-nitrophenyl)azo]phenoxyalkyl methacrylate]. Optical properties of the side-chain copolymers have been compared with materials in which the azo-dye was merely dispersed in a poly[-(N-carbazolyl)alkyl methacrylate] matrix. Increasing the temperature of the film has a dramatic depressive effect on the maximum of photo-induced orientation near and above the glass transition temperature (Tg) region, while its effect was restricted under this temperature. Kinetics of the photo-orientation and the thermal relaxation as a function of temperature have been analysed by a biexponential model based on two rate constants. The universal Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) theory has been used to correlate the writing process and relaxation relative time constants with the relative temperature, i.e. T-Tg . The validity of this model for the studied materials leads to the assumption that photo-orientation and relaxation processes are mainly dependent on the free volume in the polymer matrix. This hypothesis has been assessed in the case of [11-(N-carbazolyl)undecyl methacrylate]-based materials. [less ▲]

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See detailTemperature variation of the photoinduced birefringence of an azo dye doped polymer
Blanche, Pierre-Alexandre ULg; Lemaire, Philippe ULg; Maertens, Christophe et al

in Polymer Engineering & Science (1999), 39(3), 406-412

The influence of the temperature on the photoinduced birefringence on an azo dye doped polymer film has been studied. Sample is composed of a polymer matrix PVK (Poly(N-vinylcarbazole)), doped with 10 ... [more ▼]

The influence of the temperature on the photoinduced birefringence on an azo dye doped polymer film has been studied. Sample is composed of a polymer matrix PVK (Poly(N-vinylcarbazole)), doped with 10 weight percent (wt%) of the birefringent molecule DMNPAA (2,5-dimethyl-4-(p-nitrophenylazo)anisole) and 30 wt% of ECZ (N-ethylcarbazole) which acts as a plasticizer. Theoretical results can explain the behavior of the amplitude of the photoinduced birefringence versus temperature. Experimental and theoretical results are compared. Holographic recording experiments based on photoinduced birefringence have been carried out. Based on the effect of temperature, we have been able to significantly increase the diffraction efficiency of our sample. [less ▲]

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See detailL’Aluminium dans les Ouvrages Hydrauliques et le Transport
Rigo, Philippe ULg

in Chaire Aluminium (Univ of Liege. and Poly Tech) at Mons and Liège, Edt. Belgian Aluminium Association, Brussels, March 1999, pp39-47. (1999)

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See detailSt-Segment Elevation During Dobutamine Stress Testing Predicts Functional Recovery after Acute Myocardial Infarction
Pierard, Luc ULg; Lancellotti, Patrizio ULg; Kulbertus, Henri ULg

in American Heart Journal (1999), 137(3), 500-11

OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were (1) to assess the relation between ST-segment elevation and wall motion response occurring during dobutamine testing and (2) to evaluate the usefulness of stress ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were (1) to assess the relation between ST-segment elevation and wall motion response occurring during dobutamine testing and (2) to evaluate the usefulness of stress-induced ST-segment elevation for predicting functional recovery after acute myocardial infarction. BACKGROUND: Clinical significance of stress-induced ST-segment elevation after acute myocardial infarction remains controversial. According to previous studies, it may reflect a larger infarcted area, depressed left ventricular function, left ventricular aneurysm, stress-induced dyskinesia, residual myocardial ischemia, or viability in the affected region. Whether transient ST-segment elevation occurring during dobutamine testing may predict functional recovery is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 38 patients who underwent dobutamine stress testing early (5 +/- 2 days) after a first acute myocardial infarction. Dobutamine was infused at increasing doses from 5 to a maximum of 40 microg/kg per minute, with the addition of up to 1 mg of atropine if the target rate could not be reached by dobutamine alone. Twelve-lead electrocardiography and cross-sectional echocardiography were continuously monitored throughout the test. Dobutamine-induced ST-segment elevation was defined as a new or worsening >/=1 mm elevation, 80 ms after J point, in >/=2 infarct-related leads. Quantitative angiography was available in all patients before hospital discharge. Follow-up resting echocardiography was recorded in all patients 12 to 18 months after the acute event. ST-segment elevation was observed in 20 of the 38 patients. There were no significant differences between patients with and those without dobutamine-induced ST-segment elevation in age, site of infarction, peak level of total creatine kinase enzyme, and use of thrombolytic therapy, angioplasty, or both. Persistent akinesis without change during dobutamine stress testing was more frequently observed in patients without ST elevation (P <. 05). A biphasic response during dobutamine testing was more frequently observed in patients with ST-segment elevation (P =.01). Multivariate analysis selected 2 independent variables associated with ST-segment elevation: a biphasic response during dobutamine stress (chi-square = 7.3; P =.007) and the minimal lumen diameter of the infarct-related vessel at quantitative angiography (chi-square = 5.5; P <.02). Functional recovery was demonstrated in 26 patients. Sensitivity of ST-segment elevation for the prediction of functional recovery was 69%, specificity 83%, positive predictive value 90%, and accuracy 74%. Two independent variables predicting functional recovery were selected: dobutamine-induced ST-segment elevation (chi-square = 9.1; P =.003) and a biphasic response during stress (chi-square = 6.15; P =.013). CONCLUSIONS: Dobutamine-induced ST-segment elevation in the infarct-related leads is an ancillary sign of viable myocardium in jeopardy. It has a high specificity and an acceptable sensitivity for the prediction of functional recovery after acute myocardial infarction. [less ▲]

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See detailPromising New Agents in Osteoporosis
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Henrotin, Yves ULg; Gosset, Christiane ULg

in Drugs in R&D (1999), 1(3), 195-201

Currently marketed inhibitors of bone resorption or stimulators of bone formation have significantly contributed to a better preventive and therapeutic approach to postmenopausal and senile osteoporosis ... [more ▼]

Currently marketed inhibitors of bone resorption or stimulators of bone formation have significantly contributed to a better preventive and therapeutic approach to postmenopausal and senile osteoporosis. However, none of the available compounds has unequivocally demonstrated an ability to fully prevent the occurrence of new vertebral or peripheral osteoporotic fractures once the disease is established. Therefore, several new medications are being developed, with the aim of providing a better risk-benefit profile and/or a more favourable cost-utility assessment than available drugs. Potential inhibitors of bone resorption include specific inhibitors of the osteoclast's proton pump, inhibitors of prostaglandins or nitric oxide donors. Stimulators of osteoblastic activity and subsequent bone formation might be obtained by strontium salts, peptides of the parathyroid hormone family, growth hormone and insulin-like growth factors or bone morphogenetic proteins. Most of these compounds are now undergoing phase II/III development programmes, and results evaluating their potential benefit should be available within 1 to 5 years. [less ▲]

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See detailL'image du mois. Aspect echographique de la myocardiopathie hypertrophique apicale
Appeltants, H.; Hoffer, E.; Pierard, Luc ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(3), 137

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See detailAnalysis of living tert-butyl methacrylate oligoanions in tetrahydrofuran by NMR spectroscopy, viscosity and light scattering
Zune, Catherine; Dubois, Philippe; Grandjean, Jean ULg et al

in Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics (1999), 200(3), 562-573

Previous kinetic studies concluded on the aggregation of the anionic chain ends of living tert-butyl methacrylate oligomers [PtBMA-, Li+] in THF at low temperature. This aggregation has been confirmed by ... [more ▼]

Previous kinetic studies concluded on the aggregation of the anionic chain ends of living tert-butyl methacrylate oligomers [PtBMA-, Li+] in THF at low temperature. This aggregation has been confirmed by viscosimetry, light scattering and gradient field NMR techniques in a range of temperature from 253 K to 298 K. These techniques have been systematically used for the analysis of both the living oligomers and the same chains recovered after hydrolysis of the anionic end groups. The structure of the growing anionic species was analyzed by means of 13C and 7Li NMR spectroscopy. 13C NMR required the selective labeling of the last monomer units by 13C atoms. [less ▲]

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See detailBilateral neck exploration under hypnosedation. A new standard of care in primary hyperparathyroidism?
Meurisse, Michel ULg; Hamoir, Etienne ULg; Defechereux, Thierry ULg et al

in Annals of Surgery (1999), 229

OBJECTIVE: The authors review their experience with initial bilateral neck exploration under local anesthesia and hypnosedation for primary hyperparathyroidism. Efficacy, safety, and cost effectiveness of ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: The authors review their experience with initial bilateral neck exploration under local anesthesia and hypnosedation for primary hyperparathyroidism. Efficacy, safety, and cost effectiveness of this new approach are examined. BACKGROUND: Standard bilateral parathyroid exploration under general anesthesia is associated with significant risk, especially in an elderly population. Image-guided unilateral approaches, although theoretically less invasive, expose patients to the potential risk of missing multiple adenomas or asymmetric hyperplasia. Initial bilateral neck exploration under hypnosedation may maximize the strengths of both approaches while minimizing their weaknesses. METHODS: In a consecutive series of 121 initial cervicotomies for primary hyperparathyroidism performed between 1995 and 1997, 31 patients were selected on the basis of their own request to undergo a conventional bilateral neck exploration under local anesthesia and hypnosedation. Neither preoperative testing of hypnotic susceptibility nor expensive localization studies were done. A hypnotic state (immobility, subjective well-being, and increased pain thresholds) was induced within 10 minutes; restoration of a fully conscious state was obtained within several seconds. Patient comfort and quiet surgical conditions were ensured by local anesthesia of the collar incision and minimal intravenous sedation titrated throughout surgery. Both peri- and postoperative records were examined to assess the safety and efficacy of this new approach. RESULTS: No conversion to general anesthesia was needed. No complications were observed. All the patients were cured with a mean follow-up of 18 +/- 12 months. Mean operating time was <1 hour. Four glands were identified in 84% of cases, three glands in 9.7%. Adenomas were found in 26 cases; among these, 6 were ectopic. Hyperplasia, requiring subtotal parathyroidectomy and transcervical thymectomy, was found in five cases (16.1%), all of which had gone undetected by localization studies when requested by the referring physicians. Concomitant thyroid lobectomy was performed in four cases. Patient comfort and recovery and surgical conditions were evaluated on visual analog scales as excellent. Postoperative analgesic consumption was minimal. Mean length of hospital stay was 1.5 +/- 0.5 days. CONCLUSIONS: Initial bilateral neck exploration for primary hyperparathyroidism can be performed safely, efficiently, and cost-effectively under hypnosedation, which may therefore be proposed as a new standard of care. [less ▲]

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See detailReactive Oxygen Intermediate-Dependent Nf-Kappab Activation by Interleukin-1beta Requires 5-Lipoxygenase or Nadph Oxidase Activity
Bonizzi, Giuseppina; Piette, Jacques ULg; Haterte, Stéphanie ULg et al

in Molecular & Cellular Biology (1999), 19(3), 1950-60

We previously reported that the role of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) in NF-kappaB activation by proinflammatory cytokines was cell specific. However, the sources for ROIs in various cell types are ... [more ▼]

We previously reported that the role of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) in NF-kappaB activation by proinflammatory cytokines was cell specific. However, the sources for ROIs in various cell types are yet to be determined and might include 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and NADPH oxidase. 5-LOX and 5-LOX activating protein (FLAP) are coexpressed in lymphoid cells but not in monocytic or epithelial cells. Stimulation of lymphoid cells with interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) led to ROI production and NF-kappaB activation, which could both be blocked by antioxidants or FLAP inhibitors, confirming that 5-LOX was the source of ROIs and was required for NF-kappaB activation in these cells. IL-1beta stimulation of epithelial cells did not generate any ROIs and NF-kappaB induction was not influenced by 5-LOX inhibitors. However, reintroduction of a functional 5-LOX system in these cells allowed ROI production and 5-LOX-dependent NF-kappaB activation. In monocytic cells, IL-1beta treatment led to a production of ROIs which is independent of the 5-LOX enzyme but requires the NADPH oxidase activity. This pathway involves the Rac1 and Cdc42 GTPases, two enzymes which are not required for NF-kappaB activation by IL-1beta in epithelial cells. In conclusion, three different cell-specific pathways lead to NF-kappaB activation by IL-1beta: a pathway dependent on ROI production by 5-LOX in lymphoid cells, an ROI- and 5-LOX-independent pathway in epithelial cells, and a pathway requiring ROI production by NADPH oxidase in monocytic cells. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Inflammatory Reaction Induced by Formalin in the Rat Paw
Damas, Jacques ULg; Liégeois, Jean-François ULg

in Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology (1999), 359(3), 220-7

The involvement of bradykinin and some other inflammatory mediators in formalin-induced oedema and plasma extravasation was examined. Formalin was injected in rat paws at two doses, 1.75% or 5%. The lower ... [more ▼]

The involvement of bradykinin and some other inflammatory mediators in formalin-induced oedema and plasma extravasation was examined. Formalin was injected in rat paws at two doses, 1.75% or 5%. The lower dose induced the development of an immediate oedema associated with a progressive accumulation of 125I-labelled albumin in the paws. These changes were suppressed by pretreatment with capsaicin or xylocaine. They were abolished by RP67580, a NK1 receptor antagonist, and increased by phosphoramidon or diprotin A. They were not affected by HOE140, a bradykinin B2 antagonist, captopril, methysergide, mepyramine, indomethacin, ketoprofen or L-N(G)-nitroarginine. The higher dose of formalin induced a swelling of the paws which took place in two phases associated with two periods of increase in vascular permeability. This oedema was reduced by pretreatment with capsaicin but not with xylocaine. It was reduced by RP67580 injected before or 30 min after formalin. It was inhibited by mepyramine, methysergide, indomethacin and NS-398, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor. It was not modified by HOE140. Its development was similar in normal and kininogen-deficient rats. We concluded that formalin administered at a low dose induces an oedema which mainly results from a neurogenic inflammation mediated by neuropeptides such as substance P. At higher doses, formalin induces an oedema which mainly depends on the release of substance P, prostanoids, 5-hydroxytryptamine and histamine. Bradykinin plays no significant role in the vascular changes whereas this peptide has been reported to participate in the stimulation of nociceptive afferent neurons. This discrepancy could be explained by a difference in the threshold of stimulation of the nociceptive neurons and that of the cells of the vascular walls, or by a formation of kinins in close contact of the neurons. [less ▲]

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See detailLe lymphome malin primitif du rachis: aspects cliniques et progrès thérapeutiques
Vanderick, JEAN ULg; Toussaint; Massager et al

in Acta Orthopaedica Belgica (1999), 65(1), 23-32

Malignant lymphomas are occasionally encountered in the spine, where they are usually secondary deposits. The authors report the case of a primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the L1 vertebra in whom surgical ... [more ▼]

Malignant lymphomas are occasionally encountered in the spine, where they are usually secondary deposits. The authors report the case of a primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the L1 vertebra in whom surgical treatment (two operations and double approach) was followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The diagnosis is often made at a late stage, when neurological deficits produced by epidural compression become evident. The surgical treatment is only palliative but has several goals: obtaining a biopsy, improving the neurological symptoms through decompression, stabilizing and "rebuilding" the spinal column; it is performed using posterior, anterior or combined approaches which are discussed. The combined surgical, radiotherapeutic and polychemotherapeutic treatment is associated with a 5-year survival rate of 60-80%. Such a prognosis justifies the risk of surgery which will lead to a stable and lasting reconstruction. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of Induction of Anaesthesia on Intubating Conditions One Minute after Rocuronium Administration: Comparison of Ketamine and Thiopentone
Hans, Pol ULg; Brichant, Jean-François ULg; Hubert, B. et al

in Anaesthesia (1999), 54(3), 276-9

We compared the effect of thiopentone and ketamine on intubating conditions after rocuronium 0.6 mg.kg-1 in two groups of patients (n = 16 each), aged 21-44 years, undergoing elective surgery ... [more ▼]

We compared the effect of thiopentone and ketamine on intubating conditions after rocuronium 0.6 mg.kg-1 in two groups of patients (n = 16 each), aged 21-44 years, undergoing elective surgery. Premedication consisted of alprazolam 1 mg by mouth 1 h before surgery. All patients received midazolam 2 mg intravenously 2 min before intravenous administration of thiopentone 5 mg.kg-1 or ketamine 2.5 mg.kg-1. Muscle relaxation was provided by rocuronium 0.6 mg.kg-1. One minute after rocuronium administration, tracheal intubation was performed within 15 s by a skilled anaesthetist blinded to the treatment group assignment. Intubating conditions were graded as excellent, good, fair or poor on the basis of jaw relaxation, position of vocal cords and diaphragmatic response. Neuromuscular transmission was assessed at the adductor pollicis muscle using a TOF-GUARD monitor. Excellent and good intubating conditions were obtained in 100% of patients in the ketamine group and in 50% of patients in the thiopentone group (p = 0.002). Jaw relaxation was similar in both groups but vocal cord conditions were better and the diaphragmatic response less marked in the ketamine group compared with the thiopentone group (p = 0.002). The degree of neuromuscular block [% decrease of T1, mean (SD)] at the time of intubation was similar: 51.8 (25)% (ketamine group) and 54.3 (23.1)% (thiopentone group). We conclude that ketamine 2.5 mg.kg-1 provides better intubating conditions than thiopentone 5 mg.kg-1 1 min after administration of rocuronium 0.6 mg.kg-1. [less ▲]

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See detailOligodendrocytes: From Development to Demyelinated Lesion Repair
Rogister, Bernard ULg; Belachew, Shibeshih ULg; Moonen, Gustave ULg

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (1999), 99(1), 32-9

Spontaneous but incomplete remyelination is observed after a demyelinating lesion. We know since ten years now that oligodendrocyte progenitors, (OP) and totipotent neural stem cells remain present in the ... [more ▼]

Spontaneous but incomplete remyelination is observed after a demyelinating lesion. We know since ten years now that oligodendrocyte progenitors, (OP) and totipotent neural stem cells remain present in the central nervous system of adult mammals. [less ▲]

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See detailBenefices multiples de la corticotherapie antenatale. Etat de la question en communaute Francaise de Belgique
Franckart, G.; Kurz, X.; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(3), 157-65

The benefit of antenatal administration of corticosteroids (betamethasone or dexamethasone) in the newborn prematured babies before the 34 week of gestation has been well demonstrated: reduction of ... [more ▼]

The benefit of antenatal administration of corticosteroids (betamethasone or dexamethasone) in the newborn prematured babies before the 34 week of gestation has been well demonstrated: reduction of respiratory distress syndrome but also a decrease in the incidence of severe intraventricular hemorrhages, episodes of necrotising enterocolitis and neonatal mortality. In this article, we report the impact of this treatment in the Belgian French Community in the population of infants with a birth weight below 1,500 g, born between 1990 and 1994 in the seven neonatal intensive care units. Based on this epidemiological study (compared with international publications) we propose the routine use of corticosteroids during the antenatal period, with the aim of seeing an increase in the use of this treatment, which, although costing little, produces clinical benefit. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication de la loi e protection du malade mental du 26 juin 1990 a parquet de Liège durant l'année 1994
Boxho, Philippe ULg

in Journal des Juges de Paix et de Police (1999), 3

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See detailEffects of Polychlorinated Biphenyls on Liver Ultrastructure, Hepatic Monooxygenases, and Reproductive Success in the Barbel
Hugla, J. L.; Thomé, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety (1999), 42(3), 265-73

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are organochlorinated micropollutants ubiquitously distributed in the environment. They are known to be strong inducers of hepatic monooxygenases in fish. This can ... [more ▼]

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are organochlorinated micropollutants ubiquitously distributed in the environment. They are known to be strong inducers of hepatic monooxygenases in fish. This can adversely affect reproduction by increasing steroid metabolism. In this work, adult barbels were contaminated with food containing Aroclor 1260, a commercial PCB mixture from Monsanto, at environmentally relevant concentrations. A significant increase in cytochrome P450 was observed, and two particularly sensitive enzymes, ethoxyresorufin o-deethylase (EROD) and ethoxycoumarin o-deethylase (ECOD), were strongly induced. Electron microscopy revealed alterations in liver ultrastructure in contaminated fish, principally an increase in the number of cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, drastic glycogen depletion, dissolution of mitochondrial contents, and appearance of myelin figures. Contamination was also studied in relation to reproductive success in a hatchery. Contaminated males displayed no alteration in milt quality, but PCBs did alter female reproductive parameters. Total mortality of eggs and larvae increased significantly with the level of PCBs in the eggs. The most highly contaminated fish did not even spawn. All the adverse effects recorded here tended to be reversible when the intoxication ended, sometimes after only a 1-year detoxication period. [less ▲]

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