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See detailAssessment of milk yield losses and subclinical mastitis risk factors using bulk milk somatic cell counts in dairy herds
Mtaallah, Brahim; Oubey, Zied; Hammami, Hedi ULg

in Revue de Médecine Vétérinaire (2002), 153(4), 251-260

A prospective study, involving 21 selected dairy farms in north of Tunisia, was conducted to asses the loss of milk production due to high levels bulk tank somatic cell count and to find some relationship ... [more ▼]

A prospective study, involving 21 selected dairy farms in north of Tunisia, was conducted to asses the loss of milk production due to high levels bulk tank somatic cell count and to find some relationship between risk factors and subclinical mastitis. We found that the mean of bulk milk somatic cell count was 626 103 cell/ml. Using a simple statistical model, the average loss of milk due to levels bulk tank somatic cell count was 524 kg per cow per year. Using method of mean comparisons, risk factors associated to high levels bulk tank somatic cell count was: Livestock farming risk factors : inadequacy bedding area; inadequacy cleaning bedding and scrapping area. Milking risk factors : washing teat with a shower no adjustable flow and without wipe with individuel towel milk shift work above five per cow-herd; no stripping squirts of milk before milking; milking healthy and mastitis cows at the same time; no teat dipping. [less ▲]

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See detailRéplication, clivage-encapsidation et recombinaison de l'ADN des herpèsvirus
Schynts, Frédéric; Meurens, François; Muylkens, Benoît ULg et al

in Virologie (2002), 6

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See detailAg/SiO2 and Cu/SiO2 cogelled xerogel catalysts for benzene combustion and 2-butanol dehydrogenation
Lambert, Stéphanie ULg; Tcherkassova, Natalia; Cellier, Caroline et al

in Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis (2002), 143

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See detailUn nouveau portrait social de la Wallonie
Delhausse, Bernard; Perelman, Sergio ULg; Pestieau, Pierre ULg et al

in Reflets et Perspectives de la Vie Economique (2002), XLI(3), 7-22

Au cours de l’année 1998, la pauvreté monétaire relative touche plutôt des jeunes, <br />hommes et femmes, et des femmes dans la cinquantaine. Elle atteint particulièrement <br />les individus en ... [more ▼]

Au cours de l’année 1998, la pauvreté monétaire relative touche plutôt des jeunes, <br />hommes et femmes, et des femmes dans la cinquantaine. Elle atteint particulièrement <br />les individus en difficulté sur le marché du travail et ceux qui vivent dans des <br />familles nombreuses ou monoparentales. Les étrangers, les locataires, les individus <br />qui ont fait peu d’études et les petits indépendants connaissent généralement <br />un niveau de pauvreté plus élevé que les citoyens belges, ceux qui possèdent leur <br />logement, les diplômés du secondaire ou du supérieur et les actifs salariés. Le <br />seuil de pauvreté défini pour cette étude est voisin de 5000 € de 1998 par an et <br />par personne. Selon cette définition de la pauvreté, 4,4 % de la population est <br />pauvre. [less ▲]

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See detailDesign of structural joints in building frames
Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Progress in Structural Engineering and Materials (2002), 4(1), 18-34

A single and unified concept for the design of structural joints in building frames made of any material has been developed in recent years, and is now widely implemented in European design codes. In the ... [more ▼]

A single and unified concept for the design of structural joints in building frames made of any material has been developed in recent years, and is now widely implemented in European design codes. In the present paper, this concept is presented, its merits as far as the economy of a project are demonstrated, and practical design tools for its application in daily practice are briefly described. The paper also contains references to user's manuals and design handbooks. [less ▲]

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See detailL'exploitation du clearing à des fins de blanchiment - Pistes de réflexion
Dantinne, Michaël ULg

in Agon (2002), (36), 20-26

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See detailAphid prey suitability as environmental effect on Adalia bipunctata reproduction.
Vanhaelen, Nicolas; Gaspar, Charles ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg

in Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent) (2002), 67(3), 563-8

Secondary plant metabolites (allelochemicals) play a major role in plant-insect interactions. Glucosinolates (GLS) and their degradation products from Brassica species are attractants and feeding ... [more ▼]

Secondary plant metabolites (allelochemicals) play a major role in plant-insect interactions. Glucosinolates (GLS) and their degradation products from Brassica species are attractants and feeding stimulants for Brassicaceae specialist insects but are generally repellent and toxic for generalist herbivores. The impact of these compounds on crucifer specialist insects are well known but their effect on generalist predators is still not well documented. Prey host plant influence on reproduction of an aphidophagous beneficial, the two spot ladybird, was determined using the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae reared on a crucifer plant, namely Brassica napus containing low GLS levels. As ladybird developmental and reproductive parameters were already shown to be strongly affected by the allelochemical presence in its preys, the unsuitable aphid and host plant combination was only momentary used to feed the A. bipunctata adults. A strong impact of the diet was observed on the beetle fecundity and the emerging offspring. Changing B. brassicae aphid to a suitable prey slowly improved the temporary negative effect of the former diet. These results enhance the food environmental effect and the importance of tritrophic relations in pest management strategies by predators. Indeed, more than the choice of the beneficial species, the prey host plant has a major influence on the potential efficacy of biological agent to control herbivore species such as aphids. [less ▲]

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See detailNudging acne by topical beta-lipohydroxy acid (LHA), a new comedolytic agent.
Pierard, Gérald ULg; Rougier, A.

in European Journal of Dermatology (2002), 12(4), -

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See detailGénération d'un maillage pour éléments finis à partir de fichiers stéréolithographie (STL) : une interface indépendante des formats de CAO
Béchet, Eric ULg; Cuillière, Jean-Christophe; Trochu, François

in Revue internationale de CFAO et d'informatique graphique (2002), 17/1-2

The aim of the method proposed here is to show the possibility of generating adaptive surface meshes suitable for the finite element method, directly from an approximated boundary representation of an ... [more ▼]

The aim of the method proposed here is to show the possibility of generating adaptive surface meshes suitable for the finite element method, directly from an approximated boundary representation of an object created with CAD software. First, we describe the boundary representation, then we will show how to obtain a conforming sizeadapted mesh. The size adaptation is made considering geometrical approximation and with respect to an isotropic size map provided by an error estimator. The principle used to generate the mesh is based on the Delaunay method. Finally, we will show that not using the parametric representation of the geometrical model allows us to override some of the limitations of conventional meshing software that is based on an exact representation of the geometry. [less ▲]

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See detailUne allergie conjugale exacerbée: les dermatoses par procuration.
Martalo, O.; Fraiture, A. L.; Pierard, Claudine ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(5), 320-3

A young woman presented two distinct vesiculobullous dermatoses sharing in common her husband's imputability. She suffered from contact dermatitis due to colophony used by her husband who was violinist ... [more ▼]

A young woman presented two distinct vesiculobullous dermatoses sharing in common her husband's imputability. She suffered from contact dermatitis due to colophony used by her husband who was violinist. During her second pregnancy, pemphigoid gestationis was diagnosed. This autoimmune disease is directed to the father's HLA class II present on the placenta. The same antibodies also interact with the dermo-epidermal junction in the mother where they induce blisters. [less ▲]

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See detailPre-emptive immunotherapy with CD8-depleted donor lymphocytes after CD34-selected allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.
Baron, Frédéric ULg; Siquet, Jean; Schaaf-Lafontaine, Nicole ULg et al

in Haematologica (2002), 87(1), 78-88

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To maximize graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effects while minimizing the risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), we undertook a study of allogeneic CD34-selected peripheral blood ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To maximize graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effects while minimizing the risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), we undertook a study of allogeneic CD34-selected peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation followed by CD8-depleted donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI). DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty-four patients with advanced hematologic malignancies were included. PBSC were collected in matched (N=16) or one-mismatch (N=8) related donors and CD34-selected. On day 60, donors donated lymphocytes that were CD8-depleted and separated into 3 aliquots containing 2 x 10(6), 1 x 10(7) and 5 x 10(7) CD3+ cells/kg (patients 1-13) or into 2 aliquots containing 1 x 10(7) and 5 x 10(7) CD3+ cells/kg (patients 14-24). The 1st aliquot was infused on day 60 and the other 1 (2) cryopreserved and infused on days 100 (and 140). RESULTS: An average of 100%, 100% and 84% of the scheduled dose could be administered in DLI 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Although the study group was at very high risk of GVHD, the actuarial incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD was 28% (13% for HLA-identical siblings) with only 1 patient developing grade III-IV GVHD (after DLI). The actuarial 2-year probability of extensive chronic GVHD was similarly low (13% for all patients and 0% for HLA-identical siblings). Individual cases as well as a 30% relapse rate (0% for standard-risk patients versus 55% for high-risk patients) indicated preservation of the GVL effect. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that allogeneic transplantation of CD34-selected PBSC followed by pre-emptive CD8-depleted DLI is feasible with rapid engraftment and minimizes the risk of severe GVHD. Large prospective trials are required to prove that it preserves the GVL effect fully. [less ▲]

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See detailLa libre circulation des personnes dans l'Union européenne (1er janvier - 31 décembre 2001)
Carlier, Jean-Yves ULg

in Journal de Droit Européen [=JDE] (2002), 10(3), 65

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See detailTight binding of the antitumor drug ditercalinium to quadruplex DNA
Carrasco, Carolina; Rosu, Frédéric ULg; Gabelica, Valérie ULg et al

in Chembiochem : A European Journal of Chemical Biology (2002), 3(12), 1235-1241

The structural selectivity of the DNA-binding antitumor drug ditercalinium was investigated by competition dialysis with a series of nineteen different DNA substrates. The 7H-pyridocarbazole dimer was ... [more ▼]

The structural selectivity of the DNA-binding antitumor drug ditercalinium was investigated by competition dialysis with a series of nineteen different DNA substrates. The 7H-pyridocarbazole dimer was found to bind to double stranded DNA with a preference for GC rich species but can in addition form stable complex with triplex and quadruplex structures. The preferential interaction of the drug with four-stranded DNA structures was independantly confirmed by electrospray mass spectrometry and a detailed analysis of the binding reaction was performed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectrospray. The BIAcore SPR study showed that the kinetic parameters for the interaction of ditercalinium with the human telomeric quadruplex sequence are comparable to those measured with a duplex sequence. Slow association and dissociation were observed with both the quadruplex and duplex structures. The newly discovered preferential binding of ditercalinium to the antiparallel quadruplex sequence d(AG(3)[T(2)AG(3)](3)) provides new perspective for the design of drugs that can bind to human telomeres. [less ▲]

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See detailUpdate on the histological presentation of facial wrinkles.
Pierard, Gérald ULg; Uhoda, Isabelle; Pierard, Claudine ULg

in European Journal of Dermatology (2002), 12(6), -

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See detailTransient behaviour of water ages in the World Ocean
Deleersnijder, Eric; Mouchet, Anne ULg; Delhez, Eric ULg et al

in Mathematical & Computer Modelling (2002), 36(1-2), 121-127

The transient behaviour of the age of the water and that of the surface water is studied in the World Ocean. At any time and position, the age of the water, the age and the concentration of the surface ... [more ▼]

The transient behaviour of the age of the water and that of the surface water is studied in the World Ocean. At any time and position, the age of the water, the age and the concentration of the surface water are seen to obey a simple algebraic relation. The latter is illustrated by means of results of a three-dimensional World Ocean model and the analytical solution of an idealised, purely-diffusive, one-dimensional problem. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailMigraines et vertiges, une relation à vous faire tourner la tête
FUMAL, Arnaud ULg; Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Migraine Contact (2002), 2

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See detailLe vers semi-libre d'Yves Bonnefoy dans 'Ce qui fut sans lumiere'
Purnelle, Gérald ULg

in Français Moderne (Le) (2002), 70(2), 145-168

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See detailOrigine du Solutréen: le rôle de l'Espagne
Otte, Marcel ULg; Noiret, Pierre ULg

in Zephyrus (2002), LV

The Solutrean "culture" of France should be separated in two clearly distinct elements. (1) The "Proto-Solutrean" and the "early" Solutrean are linked to the late phases of the Gravettian of the northern ... [more ▼]

The Solutrean "culture" of France should be separated in two clearly distinct elements. (1) The "Proto-Solutrean" and the "early" Solutrean are linked to the late phases of the Gravettian of the northern plains. (2) The "middle and late" Solutrean seem to have originated in Spain. A movement from North Africa, in the most arid phase, constitutes the most likely hypothesis to explain this expansion. [less ▲]

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See detailMetapopulation dynamics of the bog fritillary butterfly: Modelling the effect of habitat fragmentation
Sawchik, J.; Dufrêne, Marc ULg; Lebrun, Philippe et al

in Acta Oecologica (2002), 23(5), 287-296

Population viability analysis (PVA) and metapopulation theory are valuable tools to model the dynamics of spatially structured populations. In this article we used a spatially realistic population dynamic ... [more ▼]

Population viability analysis (PVA) and metapopulation theory are valuable tools to model the dynamics of spatially structured populations. In this article we used a spatially realistic population dynamic model to simulate the trajectory of a Proclossiana eunomia metapopulation in a network of habitat patches located in the Belgian Ardenne. Sensitivity analysis was used to evaluate the relative influence of the different parameters on the model output. We simulated habitat loss by removing a percentage of the original habitat, proportionally in each habitat patch. Additionally, we evaluated isolation and fragmentation effects by removing and dividing habitat parches from the network, respectively. The model predicted a slow decline of the metapopulation size and occupancy. Extinction risks predicted by the model were highly sensitive to environmental stochasticity and carrying capacity. For a determined level of habitat destruction, the expected lifetime of the metapopulation was highly dependent on the spatial configuration of the landscape. Moreover, when the proportion of removed habitat is above 40% of the original habitat, the loss of whole patches invariably leads to the strongest reduction in metapopulation viability. © 2002 Éditions scientifiques et médicales Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailMise au point d'un modèle cartographique pour la description des stations forestières en Ardenne belge.
Claessens, Hugues ULg; Lejeune, Philippe ULg; Cuvelier, M. et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2002), 6(4), 209-220

The paper presents an original method dealing with the forest site types delineation. The suggested method consists in integrating a typological key in a GIS aiming at producing a thematic map that ... [more ▼]

The paper presents an original method dealing with the forest site types delineation. The suggested method consists in integrating a typological key in a GIS aiming at producing a thematic map that describes forest site types. Data used are the soil map of Belgium (digitized at the scale 1:20,000) and a digital elevation model built from a topographic map (scale 1:10,000). The typological key is mainly based on the methodology used by Thill et al. (1988) in the site types system for central Ardenne, the potential vegetation map of Sougnez and Dethioux (1975) and the ecoregion map of Delvaux and Galoux (1962). In that respect, site types are closely linked to the soil map and the phytosociological classification. So, they can be connected to the afforestation guide and different phytosociological and autecological studies concerning forest species. It is then possible to map the potential habitats or the site potentialities related to tree species. The key is valid for the Ardenne ecoregion located in Southern Belgium (elevation higher than 300 m). It has to be validated through an intensive use in the field, taking into account its imprecision linked to the types of collected data, chieffly those being digitized. The integration of such a tool in a SIG can be considered as an original way in terms of integrated forest management or forest sites description in the context of the project “Natura 2000” launched by the European Union. The study has been carried out within the framework of an experimental integrated management project concerning the Saint-Hubert forest (17,000 ha). [less ▲]

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See detailRegelgeving inzake het zelfbeschikkingsrecht, Redactie Privaat
Leleu, Yves-Henri ULg

in Tijdschrift voor Privaatrecht (2002)

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See detailRole Of The Somatotropic Axis In The Mammalian Metabolism
Renaville, Robert ULg; Hammadi, M.; Portetelle, Daniel ULg

in Domestic Animal Endocrinology (2002), 23(1-2),

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See detailAutoimmunity and pregnancy: Theory and practice
Geenen, Vincent ULg; PERRIER d'HAUTERIVE, Sophie ULg; Puit, M. et al

in Acta Clinica Belgica (2002), 57(6), 317-324

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See detailInsecticide activity of surfactins and iturins from a biopesticide Bacillus subtilis Cohn (S499 strain)
Assié, Lazar; Deleu, Magali ULg; Arnaud, Ludovic et al

in Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent) (2002), 67(3), 647-655

Surfactin C14, surfactin C15, and iturin C15 are lipopeptides purified from Bacillus subtilis (S499 strain). They were incorporated into the artificial diet of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to ... [more ▼]

Surfactin C14, surfactin C15, and iturin C15 are lipopeptides purified from Bacillus subtilis (S499 strain). They were incorporated into the artificial diet of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to assess their potential insecticidal activities. Surfactins with long fatty acid chains (C14 and C15) had an insecticidal effect on the fruit fly, D. melanogaster. On the contrary, iturin was not toxic to D. melanogaster. At 100 ppm, surfactin C14 and C15 caused 85.4 and 92.6% adult mortality, respectively, after a one-day exposure. F1 progeny fly emergence inhibition by C14 and C15 were 79.8 and 91.3%, respectively. To check whether the biocide activity of lipopeptides was due to their surface-active properties, detergent Triton X100, SDS, CTAB, and Tween 80 were tested. No adult mortality was recorded with the detergents but Triton X100 and SDS showed F1 progeny emergence inhibition similar to that of surfactins. We showed that there was a dose-response activity with surfactin C15 [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence of an equilibrium between selenides and osmium(VIII) reagents and selenoxides and osmium(VI) reagents
Krief, A.; Destree, A.; Durisotti, V. et al

in Chemical Communications (2002), (6), 558-559

Driving the equilibrium between selenides and osmium( VIII) reagents with selenoxides and osmium( VI) by a subsequent reaction (rearrangement of allyl selenoxides to allyl alcohols or addition of osmium ... [more ▼]

Driving the equilibrium between selenides and osmium( VIII) reagents with selenoxides and osmium( VI) by a subsequent reaction (rearrangement of allyl selenoxides to allyl alcohols or addition of osmium( VIII) species on C C double bonds) to one side, allows the transformation of methyl geranyl selenides to linalool and of methyl citronellyl selenoxide to 6,7-dihydroxy citronellyl selenide. [less ▲]

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See detailStimulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in human fibrosarcoma cells by synthetic matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors.
Maquoi, Erik ULg; Munaut, Carine ULg; Colige, Alain ULg et al

in Experimental Cell Research (2002), 275(1), 110-21

Enhanced expression and activation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 have been associated with tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis. The use of synthetic MMP inhibitors to block the ... [more ▼]

Enhanced expression and activation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 have been associated with tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis. The use of synthetic MMP inhibitors to block the proteolytic activity of these enzymes recently emerged as a potential therapeutic tool to treat cancer. In this study, we report that GI129471, a synthetic broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor, efficiently reduced the in vitro invasiveness of HT1080 cells through type IV collagen, a major component of basement membranes. This reduced invasion was paralleled by a complete inhibition of pro-MMP-2 activation; however, GI129471 strongly increased the amount of secreted pro-MMP-9, which could be subsequently activated through a plasminogen-dependent mechanism. Quantitative RT-PCR and northern blot analysis revealed that GI129471 specifically increased the MMP-9 mRNA steady-state level. Moreover, transient transfection of HT1080 cells with beta-galactosidase reporter vectors containing different lengths of the 5'-flanking region of the MMP-9 gene revealed an upregulation of the transcriptional activity of the corresponding promoter. Well-known modulators of MMP-9 expression such as Il-1beta and TNF-alpha were not involved in this upregulation. These findings emphasize the complexity of the regulation of MMP expression and the requirement for a detailed characterization of the potential adverse side effects associated with the use of broad-spectrum MMPIs. [less ▲]

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See detailDust variability and land degradation in the Sahel
Ozer, Pierre ULg

in Belgeo (2002), 2002(2), 195-209

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See detailConditions d'application et transformations de variables en régression linéaire
Palm, Rodolphe ULg; Iemma, A. F.

in Notes de Statistique et d'Informatique (2002), (1), 1-34

This note first reviews methods used for checking the assumptions in linear regression (lack of fit, normality, homoscedasticity and independance of the residuals) and then describes variables ... [more ▼]

This note first reviews methods used for checking the assumptions in linear regression (lack of fit, normality, homoscedasticity and independance of the residuals) and then describes variables transformations as remedial action when the assumptions are not fulfilled. [less ▲]

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See detailImage analysis characterization of highly oriented freeze-drying porous materials
Blacher, Silvia ULg; Maquet, Véronique; Jérôme, Robert ULg et al

in Image Analysis and Stereology (2002), 21

Image analysis has been used as a potential tool for the characterization of the texture of ultramacroporous foams prepared by freeze-drying. It has been shown that this technique actually provides ... [more ▼]

Image analysis has been used as a potential tool for the characterization of the texture of ultramacroporous foams prepared by freeze-drying. It has been shown that this technique actually provides valuable information on the structure of this kind of material. Image analysis of SEM micrographs of transverse sections at two different magnifications gave information on both the macroporosity (10 μm < width < 100 μm) and ultramacroporosity (width > 100 μm). Moreover, the foam anisotropy has been determined by image analysis of longitudinal sections. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of a new efflux pump, MexGHI-OpmD, from Pseudomonas aeruginosa that confers resistance to vanadium.
Aendekerk, Severine; Ghysels, Bart ULg; Cornelis, Pierre et al

in Microbiology (Reading, England) (2002), 148(Pt 8), 2371-81

Vanadium has an antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, especially under conditions of iron limitation. Some degree of resistance to V is inducible by prior exposure to the metal. One ... [more ▼]

Vanadium has an antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, especially under conditions of iron limitation. Some degree of resistance to V is inducible by prior exposure to the metal. One mutant (VS1) with a higher sensitivity to V was obtained by transposon mutagenesis of P. aeruginosa PA 59.20, a clinical isolate. This mutant had an insertion in a non-coding region, upstream of a cluster of four genes. Three of them show similarities to genes corresponding to known P. aeruginosa antibiotic efflux systems, including an efflux protein, a membrane fusion protein and an outer-membrane porin. This cluster was named mexGHI-opmD. By allelic exchange, three mutants, ncr (for non-coding region), mexI and opmD were constructed in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Next to V sensitivity, the ncr, mexI and opmD mutants also showed reduced production of elastase, rhamnolipids, pyocyanine, pyoverdine and had reduced swarming motility, phenotypes that are known to be regulated by quorum sensing. All wild-type phenotypes, including growth in the presence of V, were restored by complementation with the complete cluster. The production of N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) was detected using the Chromobacter violaceum bioassay. Total extracts from the three mutants failed to induce the production of violacein by C. violaceum, although AHLs were detected by TLC and C. violaceum overlay. Violacein production was restored by complementation with mexGHI-opmD. The opmD mutant grew very slowly in LB or CAA medium, indicating that OpmD has an important physiological function for the cell. In conclusion, it is believed that the MexGHI-OpmD pump is probably involved in AHL homeostasis in P. aeruginosa. [less ▲]

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See detailLes adhésifs de cinquième génération
Gueders, Audrey ULg

in Actualités Dentaires de l'Université de Liège (2002), 30

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See detailLes herpèsviroses des petits ruminants
Thiry, Etienne ULg; Keuser, Véronique; Tempesta, Maria

in Point Vétérinaire (2002), 33(74-76),

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See detailBody size increase in insular rodent populations: a role for predators?
Michaux, Johan ULg; De Bellocq, J. G.; Sara, M. et al

in Global Ecology & Biogeography Letters (2002), 11(5), 427-436

Insular mammalian populations living in areas of small size are often characterized by a drastic change in body mass compared to related continental populations or species. Generally, small mammals (less ... [more ▼]

Insular mammalian populations living in areas of small size are often characterized by a drastic change in body mass compared to related continental populations or species. Generally, small mammals (less than 100 g) evolve into giant forms while large mammals (up to 100 g) evolve into dwarf forms. These changes, coupled with changes in other life, behavioural, physiological or demographic traits are referred to generally as the insular syndrome. We tested in this study the relative contribution of three factors - area of island, numbers of competitor species and number of predator species - to changes in body size of the woodmouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) in the Western Mediterranean Sea. Our results, based on a comparative analysis using the phylogenetic independent contrasts method, indicate that the increase in body size is related both to the decrease of island size and to the lower number of predator species. A decrease of competitor species does not seem to have an important effect. [less ▲]

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See detailCompte-rendu de l'ouvrage de D. Cardon : La Draperie au Moyen Age. Essor d'une grande industrie européenne
Xhayet, Geneviève ULg

in Revue d'Histoire des Sciences (2002), 55(4), 560-561

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See detailTraite des êtres humains : un coup de frein à l'application de l'article 77bis de la loi du 15 décembre 1980 ?
Monville, Pierre ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2002)

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See detailConjuguer les spécificités de la démarche géographique avec un enseignement centré sur les compétences. L’expérience de la FEGEPRO
Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULg

in Puzzle (2002), (11), 27-30

Presentation of the experience made by the Federation of Professors of Geography of the French Community of Belgium (FEGEPRO) to assist in the establishment of a teaching competency

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See detailLésions dentaires cervicales non carieuses - Première partie
Gueders, Audrey ULg

in Actualités Dentaires de l'Université de Liège (2002), 31

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See detailInfluence of Sieve Trays on the Mass Transfer of Single Drops
Henschke, Martin; Pfennig, Andreas ULg

in AIChE Journal (2002), 48(2), 227-234

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See detailControlled radical polymerisation catalysed by ruthenium complexes: Variations on Ru-Cp#
Delfosse, Sébastien; Guillaume, Bernard; Richel, Aurore ULg et al

in Polymer Preprints (2002)

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See detailA pulsating auroral X-ray hot spot on Jupiter
Gladstone, G. R.; Waite, J. H.; Grodent, Denis ULg et al

in Nature (2002), 415(6875), 1000-1003

Jupiter's X-ray aurora has been thought to be excited by energetic sulphur and oxygen ions precipitating from the inner magnetosphere into the planet's polar regions(1-3). Here we report high-spatial ... [more ▼]

Jupiter's X-ray aurora has been thought to be excited by energetic sulphur and oxygen ions precipitating from the inner magnetosphere into the planet's polar regions(1-3). Here we report high-spatial-resolution observations that demonstrate that most of Jupiter's northern auroral X-rays come from a 'hot spot' located significantly poleward of the latitudes connected to the inner magnetosphere. The hot spot seems to be fixed in magnetic latitude and longitude and occurs in a region where anomalous infrared(4-7) and ultraviolet(8) emissions have also been observed. We infer from the data that the particles that excite the aurora originate in the outer magnetosphere. The hot spot X-rays pulsate with an approximately 45-min period, a period similar to that reported for high-latitude radio and energetic electron bursts observed by near-Jupiter spacecraft(9,10). These results invalidate the idea that jovian auroral X-ray emissions are mainly excited by steady precipitation of energetic heavy ions from the inner magnetosphere. Instead, the X-rays seem to result from currently unexplained processes in the outer magnetosphere that produce highly localized and highly variable emissions over an extremely wide range of wavelengths. [less ▲]

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See detailElectron localization: Band-by-band decomposition and application to oxides
Veithen, M.; Gonze, X.; Ghosez, Philippe ULg

in Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter and Materials Physics (2002), 66

Using a plane-wave pseudopotential approach to density functional theory we investigate the electron localization length in various oxides. For this purpose, we first set up a theory of the band-by-band ... [more ▼]

Using a plane-wave pseudopotential approach to density functional theory we investigate the electron localization length in various oxides. For this purpose, we first set up a theory of the band-by-band decomposition of this quantity, more complex than the decomposition of the spontaneous polarization (a related concept), because of the interband coupling. We show its interpretation in terms of Wannier functions and clarify the effect of the pseudopotential approximation. We treat the case of different oxides: BaO, alpha-PbO, BaTiO3, and PbTiO3. We also investigate the variation of the localization tensor during the ferroelectric phase transitions of BaTiO3 as well as its relationship with the Born effective charges. [less ▲]

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See detailFrontal hypometabolism does not explain inhibitory dysfunction in Alzheimer disease
Collette, Fabienne ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Delrue, Gaël ULg et al

in Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders (2002), 16(4, Oct-Dec), 228-238

A series of tasks assessing inhibitory processes was administered to patients with Alzheimer disease and control subjects. Two groups of patients with Alzheimer disease were examined: patients with ... [more ▼]

A series of tasks assessing inhibitory processes was administered to patients with Alzheimer disease and control subjects. Two groups of patients with Alzheimer disease were examined: patients with hypometabolism restricted to the posterior (temporal and parietal) cerebral areas and patients with hypometabolism in both posterior and anterior (frontal) cerebral areas. The performances of the patients with Alzheimer disease were inferior to those of control subjects on all inhibitory tasks, but the two groups of patients obtained similar scores. These data indicate that frontal lobe hypometabolism is not necessary to produce inhibitory impairment in Alzheimer disease. Consequently, inhibitory dysfunction could be the consequence of a (partial) disconnection process between posterior and anterior cerebral areas. [less ▲]

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See detailComment je traite ... le pied du sportif et sa pathologie cutanée non mycosique
Goffin, Véronique ULg; Bourguignon, R.; Fraiture, A. L. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(10), 630-6

Skin and nails of the foot of sport practitioners of various disciplines are subjected to the effects of benign but invalidating pathologies. Microtraumatisms are frequently involved. Beside ... [more ▼]

Skin and nails of the foot of sport practitioners of various disciplines are subjected to the effects of benign but invalidating pathologies. Microtraumatisms are frequently involved. Beside dermatomycoses and onychomycoses, a dozen of typical disorders are identified. [less ▲]

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See detailRumen Escape Of Methionine And Lysine Administered Intraruminally To Growing Double-Muscled Belgian Blue Bulls
Froidmont, Eric; Rondia, Pierre; Thewis, André ULg et al

in Reproduction Nutrition Development (2002), 42(6), 537-544

In many dietary conditions, methionine (Met) and lysine (Lys) are the most limiting amino acids (AA) for ruminants. The AA protected from ruminal fermentation are not commercially available, with the ... [more ▼]

In many dietary conditions, methionine (Met) and lysine (Lys) are the most limiting amino acids (AA) for ruminants. The AA protected from ruminal fermentation are not commercially available, with the exception of Met which is not always economical, especially for meat production. This study measured ruminal escape of free Met and Lys supplemented intraruminally to fast growing bulls. Six double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls, fed a high concentrate diet and fitted with a rumen cannula, received free Met (40 g.d–1) and free Lys (60 g.d–1), individually or simultaneously, in a duplicated Latin square design. The mean ruminal escape of Met and Lys reached 37 and 45% respectively, and did not differ if administered separately or together. Plasma Lys and Met concentrations were increased by 504 and 126%, respectively. Substantial proportions of free AA escaped ruminal fermentation and were available for absorption from the small intestine when they were administered at physiologically high levels. [less ▲]

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See detailEEMCO guidance for the measurement of skin microcirculation.
Berardesca, E.; Lévêque, Jean Luc; Masson, P. et al

in Skin Pharmacology & Applied Skin Physiology (2002), 15

The blood supply to the skin is provided by a network of arterioles, capillaries and venules organized into a superficial and a deep plexus. The assessment of skin microcirculation is of valuable interest ... [more ▼]

The blood supply to the skin is provided by a network of arterioles, capillaries and venules organized into a superficial and a deep plexus. The assessment of skin microcirculation is of valuable interest in cosmetology in the quantification of the sun protection factor, skin irritation and efficacy of antiredness treatments. Skin microcirculation can be measured by means of different techniques, based mainly on the quantification of optical and thermal properties of the skin which are modified by the amount of blood perfusion. Relevant and reproducible data can be obtained only through the understanding of the biophysical background of the technique(s) utilized. Standardization of measuring conditions and procedures is particularly required for blood flow assessment. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of the main techniques in use are discussed, and optimization of measurements for laser Doppler techniques is described. [less ▲]

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See detailUn diabete peut en cacher un autre.
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(5), 267-9

The abrupt interruption of insulin therapy in a severely obese diabetic woman submitted to a protein-sparing modified fast in a metabolic ward led to a severe ketoacidosis. This complication occurred ... [more ▼]

The abrupt interruption of insulin therapy in a severely obese diabetic woman submitted to a protein-sparing modified fast in a metabolic ward led to a severe ketoacidosis. This complication occurred because the patient had type 1 rather than type 2 diabetes, and the diagnosis of ketoacidosis was delayed because of confusion between ketonuria resulting from insulin deprivation and ketonuria associated with carbohydrate and energy restriction. This case report illustrates the danger of accepting an apparently obvious diagnosis which might be in fact erroneous. More particularly, it points out the importance of a correct differential diagnosis between C-peptide positive insulin-requiring type 2 diabetes and C-peptide negative (insulin-dependent) type 1 diabetes. [less ▲]

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See detailStreamlining cosmetology by standardized testing?
Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology (2002), 1(2), 97-898

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See detailResults of obesity treatment.
Scheen, André ULg

in Annales d'Endocrinologie (2002), 63(2 Pt 1), 163-70

Obesity is a chronic disease so that results of obesity treatment should only be evaluated on a long-term basis. The present paper aims at analyzing the long-term (1 year or more) results of three anti ... [more ▼]

Obesity is a chronic disease so that results of obesity treatment should only be evaluated on a long-term basis. The present paper aims at analyzing the long-term (1 year or more) results of three anti-obesity approaches, i.e. lifestyle modifications, pharmacological treatments and surgical procedures. Dietary interventions include diets with moderate calorie restriction and very-low energy diets (VLED). Even if an initial greater weight loss is observed with VLED, no study has conclusively shown that the long-term approaches including VLED are better than non-VLED programmes. Physical activity is not the most efficient method of initial weight loss, but it appears to be more crucial for maintaining weight loss once it has occurred. In general, long-term results of lifestyle modifications are disappointing because of poor compliance. Several 1-2 year large-scale randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials with orlistat, an intestinal lipase inhibitor, and sibutramine, a central appetite regulator, have demonstrated that both drugs significantly, although modestly on average, increase weight reduction, almost double the number of responders (weight loss >=5 or 10% of initial body weight) and improve weight maintenance up to 2 years. Surgical procedures provide a much greater weight reduction than medical interventions in patients with morbid obesity, particularly after a follow-up of several years. Weight loss is greater with gastric bypass, inducing some malbsorption, than with gastroplasty, a pure gastric restriction technique. Associated risk factors such as markers of insulin resistance syndrome and type 2 diabetes are remarkably reduced, but no prospective study of morbidity or mortality is available yet. In all cases, the management of obesity requires a multidisciplinary approach to improve the success rate. [less ▲]

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See detailAspartic proteinase members secreted by the ruminant placenta: Specificity of three radioimmunoassay systems for the measurement of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins
Perenyi, Z. S.; Szenci, O.; Drion, Pierre ULg et al

in Reproduction in Domestic Animals (2002), 37(6), 324-329

Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) isolated from the placenta of various ruminant species are enzymatically inactive members of the aspartic proteinase family. The measurement of these proteins in ... [more ▼]

Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) isolated from the placenta of various ruminant species are enzymatically inactive members of the aspartic proteinase family. The measurement of these proteins in the maternal blood can be a good indicator of the presence of a live embryo. As certain aspartic proteinases are present in biological fluids in physiological and pathological conditions at various concentrations, it was necessary to determine the specificity of three radioimmunoassay (RIA) systems currently used for the detection of PAG molecules. Commercially available members of the aspartic proteinase family like pepsinogen, pepsin, chymosin, rennet, cathepsin D and renin were tested in a wide concentration range (10 ng/ml - 1 mg/ml). Pepsinogen cross-reacted in RIA 1, RIA 2 and RIA 3 over 1 mg/ml, 50 microg/ml and 500 microg/ml concentrations, respectively. In the presence of pepsin, cross-reaction was observed in RIA 1, RIA 2 and RIA 3 over 1 mg/ml, 500 microg/ml and 1 mg/ml concentrations, respectively. Chymosin and rennet could cross-react in RIA 2 and RIA 3, while renin and cathepsin D did not decrease the binding of the tracer to antisera more, than that of the minimal detection limit. As the plasma/serum concentrations of the examined aspartic proteinases reported in the literature were outside the concentration range where cross-reaction was observed, it can be concluded that these RIA systems were specific for the detection of PAGs in biological fluids. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociation of a new c-Cbl related protein with the very first stages of apoptosis induction
Corsois, L.; Quatannens, B.; Dumont, P. et al

in Cancer Detection and Prevention (2002), 26(2), 93-104

This study investigates the involvement of the c-cbl proto-oncogene during the first stages of the apoptotic process. We have already shown that a c-Cbl aptotosis-related protein of 90 kDa (CARP 90) is ... [more ▼]

This study investigates the involvement of the c-cbl proto-oncogene during the first stages of the apoptotic process. We have already shown that a c-Cbl aptotosis-related protein of 90 kDa (CARP 90) is detected very rapidly in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus of murine thymocytes after hydrocortisone (HC) treatment. We report here that this protein appeared as well after in vivo treatment of mice by gamma-irradiation or injection of anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody, two potent thymic apoptosis inductors, providing a close relationship between the occurrence of apoptosis and the appearance of CARP 90. We showed that CARP 90 and p120(cbl) share numerous epitopes strikingly suggesting that CARP 90 is coded by c-cbl. In addition, KO mice do not sustain CARP 90 appearance. We finally showed that CARP 90 contains N- and C-terminal end epitopes of p120(cbl) which suggests that CARP 90 is an alternative spliced form of c-cbl. This protein was also observed under gamma-irradiation in tissues of different origin, which enlarges the physiological significance of this phenomenon. The very rapid CARP 90 appearance under apoptotic conditions in the nucleus of cells originating in different tissues makes this protein if not a possible new actor of the apoptotic process, at least an interesting marker of this process. (C) 2002 International Society for Preventive Oncology. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailInstrumental non-invasive assessments of cosmetic efficacy.
Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology (2002), 1(2), 57-8

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See detailLes-Bons-Villers, l'église Saint-Martin à Mellet
Hoffsummer, Patrick ULg

in Bulletin de la Fondation Vanhove-Vonneche (2002), 4

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See detailIntramolecular vibrational relaxation seen as expansion in phase space. 4. Generic relaxation laws for a spectroscopic clump profile
Pavlov-Verevkin, V. B.; Lorquet, Jean-Claude ULg

in Journal of Physical Chemistry A (2002), 106(29), 6694-6701

We examine the volume of phase space sampled by a nonstationary wave packet when the spectral function consists of a single clump or of a series of them. The relaxation laws are expressed in terms of ... [more ▼]

We examine the volume of phase space sampled by a nonstationary wave packet when the spectral function consists of a single clump or of a series of them. The relaxation laws are expressed in terms of reduced time variables tau, whose definition involves either the average density of states (for a single clump) or appropriately weighted average densities of states (when the spectrum consists of many clumps). Introducing reasonable approximations, very simple generic relaxation laws are derived for the ratio N(tau)/N-infinity which measures the fraction of available phase space that has been sampled by time tau. Under certain assumptions, these laws are found to depend neither on the number nor on the individual features (shapes and widths) of the clumps. However, they strongly depend on the nature (regular or chaotic) of the underlying dynamics. When the dynamics is regular, the relaxation law is expressed in terms of tau(-1), whereas the corresponding equation in the chaotic limit is slightly more complicated and involves terms in tau(-2) and tau(-2) ln tau. Phase space is thus explored according to essentially different relaxation laws in the regular and chaotic limits, the difference being appreciable during the entire relaxation. These laws reflect in the time domain the difference in the distribution of nearest-neighbor level spacings observed in the energy domain (Poisson or Wigner statistics). [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of RAP-PCR and cDNA-AFLP to isolate genes of Candida oleophila (strain O) induced by the presence of galacturonic acid.
Massart, Sébastien ULg; Sens-Espel, Roser; Lepoivre, Philippe ULg et al

in Bulletin OILB/SROP = IOBC/WPRS Bulletin (2002), 25(10), 399-402

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See detailLes troubles morpho-syntaxiques développementaux en langage oral : quel cadre théorique adopter?
Maillart, Christelle ULg; Schelstraete, Marie-Anne; Hupet, Michel

in Langage et l'Homme (Le) : Recherches Pluridisciplinaires sur le Langage (2002), 37(2), 85-102

This article contrasts two theoretical frames actually used to account for morphosyntactic disorders in children with specific language impairment. The first one stems from a traditional formal linguistic ... [more ▼]

This article contrasts two theoretical frames actually used to account for morphosyntactic disorders in children with specific language impairment. The first one stems from a traditional formal linguistic account developped in the context of Chomsky’s works while the second approach, the emergent account, is more functional. Following the linguistic account, it has been assumed that children are born with an innate set of representational constraints, the Universal Grammar, on which grammars are possible for a given language. In contrast, for the emergentist view, it is not necessary to postulate an autonomous device that evolved for grammar rather language in general, and grammar in particular, would emerge from cognitive and communicative abilities and linguistic environment. Both theoretical frames are briefly presented and discussed as well as their implications for the pathology study in children. [less ▲]

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See detailRestorative Justice: Activities and expectations at European LEvel
Lauwaert, Katrien ULg; Aertsen, Ivo

in Era Forum : Scripta Iuris Europaei (2002)

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See detailCombining problem structure and basis reduction to solve a class of hard integer programs
Louveaux, Quentin ULg; Wolsey, Laurence A.

in Mathematics of Operations Research (2002), 27(3), 470-484

We consider a hard integer programming problem that is difficult for the standard branch-and-bound approach even for small instances. A reformulation based on lattice basis reduction is known to be more ... [more ▼]

We consider a hard integer programming problem that is difficult for the standard branch-and-bound approach even for small instances. A reformulation based on lattice basis reduction is known to be more effective. However the step to compute the reduced basis, even if it is found in polynomial time, becomes a bottleneck for small to medium instances. By using the structure of the problem, we show that we can decompose the problem and obtain the basis by taking the kronecker product of two smaller bases easier to compute. Furthermore, if the two small bases are reduced, the kronecker product is also reduced up to a reordering of the vectors. Computational results show the gain from such an approach. [less ▲]

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See detailTexture characterization of ultramacroporous materials using non-destructive methods
Blacher, Silvia ULg; Maquet, Véronique; Léonard, Angélique ULg et al

in Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis (2002), 158

Image analysis, impedance spectroscopy and X-ray microtomography have been used as non-destructive methods in order to characterize ultramacroporous materials (pore width > 1 mum). These methods are used ... [more ▼]

Image analysis, impedance spectroscopy and X-ray microtomography have been used as non-destructive methods in order to characterize ultramacroporous materials (pore width > 1 mum). These methods are used to investigate the texture of different kinds of materials, i.e., highly oriented polylactide (PLA) foams prepared by freeze-drying, isotropic polyolefin foams prepared by thermal degradation of a chemical foaming agent and convective heat dried wastewater sludges. The image analysis of SEM micrographs recorded at different magnifications gave information on the pore size distribution and pore morphology. Impedance spectroscopy was used to investigate the transport properties of the three-dimensional porous matrices by measurement of the water ionic conduction. Finally, 3D image reconstruction from 2D cross-sections obtained by X-ray microtomography allowed visualizing the pore structure. [less ▲]

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See detailDHEA et intracrinologie de jouvence pour la peau? Entre raison et magie.
Bourguignon, Raphael; Uhoda, I.; Henry, Frédérique ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(7), 438-42

Slowing down ageing is a goal for a large part of the population. Some mercantile claims hold out bright prospects to DHEA. The effects of this hormone manifest themselves after intracrine conversion. In ... [more ▼]

Slowing down ageing is a goal for a large part of the population. Some mercantile claims hold out bright prospects to DHEA. The effects of this hormone manifest themselves after intracrine conversion. In the skin, sebaceous glands enlarge and seborrhoea increases in post-menopausal women. No other effect is clinically discernable on the skin. At this level, DHEA does not show efficacy comparable to that of other anti-ageing compounds. [less ▲]

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See detailBelgian-style Human Resource Management: A Case of Mistaken Identity
Claus, Lisbeth; Vloeberghs, Daniel; Pichault, François ULg

in European Management Journal (2002), 20(4), 438-446

Discusses various forces that affect the future of human resource management (HRM) in Belgium. Development of HRM in the country; Specific forces that have shaped the development and character of HRM ... [more ▼]

Discusses various forces that affect the future of human resource management (HRM) in Belgium. Development of HRM in the country; Specific forces that have shaped the development and character of HRM; Details of the condition of HRM in the country. [less ▲]

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See detailLe complexe de l'intrus, ou l'effet de l'écart d'âge sur les membres d'une fratrie
Haxhe, Stéphanie ULg

in Dialogue : Recherches Cliniques et Sociologiques sur le Couple et la Famille (2002), 157(3), 107-116

This article deals with a study realized amongst siblings whose gaps in age were different. It attempts to bring out the whole importance of this variable to the development of the siblings, considered in ... [more ▼]

This article deals with a study realized amongst siblings whose gaps in age were different. It attempts to bring out the whole importance of this variable to the development of the siblings, considered in its « normality ». It notably points out how the intensity of the differences between full siblings of the same sex and with a small gap in age can be understood (indeed, sisters and brothers who are close in age and of the same sex, particularly amongst siblings of two, often appear to be very different and complementary). But this article also shows how the mark of the intrusion is different according to the age of the elder during this intrusion and how the impact of this variable (which is yet so little studied) seems to be significant in the individuals’development, on the narcissistic level as much as in the affects management. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanical behaviour of Lixhe chalk partly saturated by oil and water: experiment and modelling
Collin, Frédéric ULg; Cui, Yu Jun; Schroeder, Christian ULg et al

in International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics (2002), 26(9), 897-924

Two or more different fluids generally saturate chalk in oil reservoir, and therefore its behaviour can be very complicated. In this paper, a constitutive law is proposed for modelling the mechanical ... [more ▼]

Two or more different fluids generally saturate chalk in oil reservoir, and therefore its behaviour can be very complicated. In this paper, a constitutive law is proposed for modelling the mechanical behaviour of a chalk saturated by two non-miscible fluids, water and oil. The effects of the capillary pressure or suction are taken into account. They are considered as an independent variable, as in the Barcelona's basic model developed for unsaturated soils. On the other hand, internal friction and pore collapse are modelled as independent mechanisms. The determination of the parameters is based on triaxial and oedometer tests. Finally, in order to validate the model, predictions are compared with experimental results of water-flooding test. Copyright (C) 2002 John Wiley Sons, Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailSplit face study on the cutaneous tensile effect of 2-dimethylaminoethanol (deanol) gel.
Uhoda, Isabelle; Faska, Najat; Robert, Caroline et al

in Skin Research & Technology (2002), 8(3), 164-7

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Beyond subjective assessments, the effect of skin tensors is difficult to assess. The present 2-phase randomized double-blind split face study was designed to compare the effect of a gel ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Beyond subjective assessments, the effect of skin tensors is difficult to assess. The present 2-phase randomized double-blind split face study was designed to compare the effect of a gel containing 3% 2-dimethylaminoethanol (deanol, DMAE) with the same formulation without DMAE. METHODS: In a first pilot study, sensorial assessments and measures of the skin distension under suction were performed in eight volunteers. In a second study conducted in 30 volunteers, shear wave propagation was measured. RESULTS: Large interindividual variations precluded any significant finding in the first study. The DMAE formulation showed, however, a significant effect characterized by increased shear wave velocity in the direction where the mechanical anisotropy of skin showed looseness. CONCLUSION: The DMAE formulation under investigation increased skin firmness. [less ▲]

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See detailThe complementary strand of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 RNA genome encodes a bZIP transcription factor that down-regulates viral transcription.
Gaudray, Gilles ULg; Gachon, Frederic; Basbous, Jihane et al

in Journal of virology (2002), 76(24), 12813-22

The RNA genome of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) codes for proteins involved in infectivity, replication, and transformation. We report in this study the characterization of a novel viral ... [more ▼]

The RNA genome of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) codes for proteins involved in infectivity, replication, and transformation. We report in this study the characterization of a novel viral protein encoded by the complementary strand of the HTLV-1 RNA genome. This protein, designated HBZ (for HTLV-1 bZIP factor), contains a N-terminal transcriptional activation domain and a leucine zipper motif in its C terminus. We show here that HBZ is able to interact with the bZIP transcription factor CREB-2 (also called ATF-4), known to activate the HTLV-1 transcription by recruiting the viral trans-activator Tax on the Tax-responsive elements (TxREs). However, we demonstrate that the HBZ/CREB-2 heterodimers are no more able to bind to the TxRE and cyclic AMP response element sites. Taking these findings together, the functional inactivation of CREB-2 by HBZ is suggested to contribute to regulation of the HTLV-1 transcription. Moreover, the characterization of a minus-strand gene protein encoded by HTLV-1 has never been reported until now. [less ▲]

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See detailLa vaccination contre la fièvre aphteuse : perspectives
Thiry, Etienne ULg; De Clercq, K.; Saegerman, Claude ULg et al

in Bulletin des Groupements Techniques Vétérinaires (2002), 14

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See detailIdentification d'une loi thermo-élasto-viscoplastique en vue de la modélisation du laminage à chaud du cuivre
Moureaux, P.; Moto Mpong, S.; Remy, M. et al

in Journal de Physique IV (2002), 102

la mise au point d'un modèle de simulation de la dernière passe du laminage à chaud du cuivre ne présente à priori pas de problème du point de vue numérique pour un code d'éléments finis non linéaire. La ... [more ▼]

la mise au point d'un modèle de simulation de la dernière passe du laminage à chaud du cuivre ne présente à priori pas de problème du point de vue numérique pour un code d'éléments finis non linéaire. La collecte d'informations précises tant sur le procédé industriel que sur le comportement du matériau est par contre une opération non triviale. Cet article présente les diverses méthodes expérimentales mises en œuvre pour caractériser le matériau: essais de compression à chaud, mesures d'analyse thermique différentielle, essais de dilatométrie et de diffusivité. Les méthodes permettant d'identifier les paramètres de la loi élasto-visco-plastique de type Norton-Hoff à partir des essais sont présentées et une analyse bibliographique investigue le problème de la détermination du module de Young à haute température. Tant les hypothèses supplémentaires relatives au procédé et nécessaires au modèle que les résultats finaux sont résumés. [less ▲]

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See detailHeat shock transcription factor 2 is not essential for embryonic development, fertility, or adult cognitive and psychomotor function in mice.
McMillan, D Randy; Christians, Elisabeth; Forster, Michael et al

in Molecular & Cellular Biology (2002), 22(22), 8005-14

Members of the heat shock factor (HSF) family are evolutionarily conserved regulators that share a highly homologous DNA-binding domain. In mammals, HSF1 is the main factor controlling the stress ... [more ▼]

Members of the heat shock factor (HSF) family are evolutionarily conserved regulators that share a highly homologous DNA-binding domain. In mammals, HSF1 is the main factor controlling the stress-inducible expression of Hsp genes while the functions of HSF2 and HSF4 are less clear. Based on its developmental profile of expression, it was hypothesized that HSF2 may play an essential role in brain and heart development, spermatogenesis, and erythroid differentiation. To directly assess this hypothesis and better understand the underlying mechanisms that require HSF2, we generated Hsf2 knockout mice. Here, we report that Hsf2(-/-) mice are viable and fertile and exhibit normal life span and behavioral functions. We conclude that HSF2, most probably because its physiological roles are integrated into a redundant network of gene regulation and function, is dispensable for normal development, fertility, and postnatal psychomotor function. [less ▲]

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See detailRezension zu Barbara Beßlich: Wege in den ‘Kulturkrieg’
Pontzen, Alexandra ULg

in Zeitschrift für Deutsche Philologie (2002), (3), 303307

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See detailLes souches pathogènes d'Escherichia coli chez les chiens et les chats : IV) Discussion générale
Mainil, Jacques ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2002), 146(4, AUG-SEP), 219

This manuscript reviews the current knowledge on the main classes of pathogenic Escherichia coli in dogs and cats: type 1 necrotoxigenic strains (NTEC1), adhesin-positive strains (AdEC), enteropathogenic ... [more ▼]

This manuscript reviews the current knowledge on the main classes of pathogenic Escherichia coli in dogs and cats: type 1 necrotoxigenic strains (NTEC1), adhesin-positive strains (AdEC), enteropathogenic strains (EPEC) and enterotoxigenic strains (ETEC). They represent primary or secondary (to other bacterial, parasitic and/or viral infections) infectious agents. NTEC1 and AdEC are the most frequent and are responsible for intestinal, urinary tract and invasive infections, while EPEC and ETEC limit their infections to the intestinal tract. ETEC are the less frequent but EPEC are more and more often observed. The specific virulence factors and other properties of these pathogenic E. coli strains are similar to those of their bovine, human and porcine counterparts, for their identity and their genetic determinism. This similarity allows the use of an identical approach in their diagnosis and typing. But for some NTEC1, AdEC and EPEC strains the similarity is so close that it also raises the question of their zoonotic potential, though there is up to now no epidemiological evidence of such cross contamination of man by canine or feline pathogenic E. coli (or vice versa). [less ▲]

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See detailExiste-t-il des limites juridiques à la privatisation des entreprises publiques?
Thirion, Nicolas ULg

in Revue Internationale de Droit Economique (2002)

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See detailEnquête sur les "contes" de Voltaire
Tilkin, Françoise ULg

in Cahiers Voltaire : Revue Annuelle de la Société Voltaire (2002), 1

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See detailSclérodermie monomélique et alcipotriol topique.
Paquet, Philippe ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Dermatologie Actualité (2002), 70

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See detailLa colibacillose aviaire
Stordeur, Philippe; Mainil, Jacques ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2002), 146(1, FEB-MAR), 11-18

The avian pathogenic E. coli strains, although considered by almost like opportunist pathogen, represent actually one of the most important cause of economic losses in the poultry sector and is one of the ... [more ▼]

The avian pathogenic E. coli strains, although considered by almost like opportunist pathogen, represent actually one of the most important cause of economic losses in the poultry sector and is one of the most frequent cause of carcase rejection in the slaughter house. Colibacillosis, which the major way of penetration is the respiratory tract, affect essentially broilers and give variable lesions and manifestations in function of the age of the animals. Actually, some virulence factors have been studied and associated with avian pathogenic E. coli strains : P and F1 fimbriae, hemagglutination, serum resistance, aerobactin system. Recent studies have also showed that other virulence factors (F17 and Afa adhesins) were also present in the avian pathogenic E. coli, but their rule in the pathogenicity must to be established. Because of the diversity of virulence factors and the little of knowledge about us, no vaccine is actually available to protect efficacely poultries against colibacillosis. Thus, the antibiotherapy based on a good diagnostic and a good prevention remained the only things to do in order to overcome the disease, despite the augmentation of antibiotics resistance and the risk of transferring to humans. [less ▲]

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See detailEstimating effects of permanent environment, lactation stage, age, and pregnancy on test-day yield.
Bormann, J.; Wiggans, G. R.; Philpot, J. C. et al

in Journal of Dairy Science (2002), 85(1), 2631-26321

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See detailDevelopment of GEQUAC as a new group contribution method for strongly non-ideal mixtures
Ehlker, Gerhard H; Pfennig, Andreas ULg

in Fluid Phase Equilibria (2002), 203((1-2)), 53-69

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See detailImplications pour la communauté d'un meilleur contrôle de la pression artérielle
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

in Journal de Cardiologie [= JDC] = Tijdschrift voor Cardiologie [= TVC] (2002), 14(5), 186-190

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See detailCoalescence of secondary dispersions in fiber beds
Speth, Hauke; Pfennig, Andreas ULg; Chatterjee, Michael et al

in Separation and Purification Technology (2002), 29(2), 113-119

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See detailPrediction of selectivity for enantiomeric separations of uncharged compounds by capillary electrophoresis involving dual cyclodextrin systems
Abushoffa, Adel M.; Fillet, Marianne ULg; Hubert, Philippe ULg et al

in Journal of Chromatography. A (2002), 948(1-2), 321-9

The single-isomer polyanionic cyclodextrin (CD) derivative heptakis-6-sulfato-beta-cyclodextrin (HSbetaCD) has been tested as chiral additive for the enantioseparation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory ... [more ▼]

The single-isomer polyanionic cyclodextrin (CD) derivative heptakis-6-sulfato-beta-cyclodextrin (HSbetaCD) has been tested as chiral additive for the enantioseparation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as fenoprofen, flurbiprofen, ibuprofen and ketoprofen, in capillary electrophoresis, using a pH 2.5 phosphoric acid-triethanolamine buffer in the reversed polarity mode. In most cases, the enantiomers of these acidic compounds, present in uncharged form at that pH, were only poorly resolved with HSbetaCD alone. However, the use of HSbetaCD in combination with the neutral CD derivative, heptakis-(2,3,6-tri-O-methyl)-beta-cyclodextrin (TMbetaCD), which has a particularly high enantioselectivity towards these compounds, has led to complete enantioresolution in reasonably low migration times in most cases. Affinity constants for the enantiomers with the two cyclodextrins were determined, using linear regression in a two-step approach. Affinity constants with the charged HSbetaCD were first calculated in single systems while those with the neutral TMbetaCD were determined in dual systems. Selectivity for the enantiomeric separation of these compounds in dual CD systems could be predicted using recently developed mathematical models. [less ▲]

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See detailA case of hepatic alveolar echinococcosis contracted in Belgium
Delbecque, Katty ULg; Detry, Olivier ULg; Hayette, Marie-Pierre ULg et al

in Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica (2002), 65(1, Jan-Mar), 55-60

We report herein the case of a Belgian 76-year-oId woman who developed a hepatic tumour suspected to be a breast cancer metastasis. Radiological imaging and guided biopsies were not contributive. The ... [more ▼]

We report herein the case of a Belgian 76-year-oId woman who developed a hepatic tumour suspected to be a breast cancer metastasis. Radiological imaging and guided biopsies were not contributive. The patient underwent an explorative laparoscopy with frozen sections that did not provide further diagnosis, and an open left bisegmentectomy was performed during the same anaesthesia. Histopathological examination of the hepatic mass showed Echinococcus multilocularis metacestodes, demonstrating alveolar echinococcosis. As our patient denied any travel in foreign countries and has undergone regular abdominal ultrasonographies since her mastectomy, it is highly likely that this alveolar echinococcosis had been contracted in Belgium. If some imported cases may be seldom managed in Belgium, to our knowledge, this case is the first occurrence of alveolar echinococcosis contracted in Belgium. This report, added to the demonstration of E. multilocaris infection of 50% of red foxes in Southern Belgium, and the potential infection of domestic cats and dogs, should attract attention of the medical community on the possible outbreak of endemic alveolar echinococcosis in Belgium, and on the related public health concerns. [less ▲]

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See detailExpression of TGF-betas and their receptors is differentially modulated by reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in human articular chondrocytes.
Ayache, N.; Boumediene, K.; Mathy, Marianne ULg et al

in Osteoarthritis and Cartilage (2002), 10(5), 344-52

OBJECTIVES: To study the effects exerted by two antioxidants, N-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), as an inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a reactive oxygen species (ROS ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: To study the effects exerted by two antioxidants, N-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), as an inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, on the expression of the major growth factor involved in cartilage repair, TGF-beta, under the three isoforms beta1, beta2 and beta3, and the receptors I and II of this factor, using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated human chondrocytes in culture. METHODS: Suspension cultures of human chondrocytes derived from the knee of osteoarthritic patients were treated for 48 h with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (10 microg/ml), L-NMMA (0.5 mM) or NAC (1 mM). Nitrite levels were assayed on the culture media using the Griess spectrophotometric method. After total RNA extraction, the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3, TGF-beta receptors I and II, was determined by semi-quantitative polymerase chain-reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: LPS induced a dramatic increase of both NO production and iNOS mRNA level. The addition of L-NMMA (0.5 mM) abolished NO production without affecting iNOS mRNA levels. In contrast NAC (1 mM) strongly synergized with LPS to stimulate NO synthesis. LPS treatment did not significantly alter TGF-beta1 expression whereas L-NMMA inhibited its production. TGF-beta2 mRNA level was decreased by LPS and was not changed in the presence of L-NMMA. On the other hand, NAC was capable of counteracting the LPS-induced inhibition of TGF-beta2 expression. TGFbeta3 mRNA level was markedly reduced by LPS alone, or with both L-NMMA and NAC. Finally, the expression of TGF-betaRI was slightly increased in the presence of combined LPS and L-NMMA or NAC whereas that of TGFbeta-RII was reduced in the same conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The modulation of TGF-beta system was found to be differentially controlled by NO and ROS productions. Indeed, the control exerted on TGF-beta expression varied according to the isoform: TGF-beta1 mRNA level depends on NO whereas that of TGF-beta2 is regulated by ROS and TGF-beta3 seems to be unaffected by both of them. The expression of TGF-beta receptors appeared to be modulated by NO and ROS levels. The relevance of the present findings to osteoarthritis (OA) physiopathology and the potential use of antioxidant therapy to treat this disease are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanism of action of a lipophilic salicylic acid derivative on normal skin.
Leveque, J.-L.; Corcuff, P.; Rougier, A. et al

in European Journal of Dermatology (2002), 12(4), -

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See detailCompte rendu de R. GODDING, Prêtres en Gaule mérovingienne, Bruxelles, 2001
George, Philippe ULg

in Moyen Age (Le) (2002)

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See detailLe GPS et la Physique
Garnir, Henri-Pierre ULg; Strivay, David ULg; Bastin, Thierry ULg

in Science and Culture (2002), 380

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See detailEvolution des donnees maternelles et perinatales recueillies en routine entre 1980 et 1998 a la maternite de reference de Rutshuru en Republique democratique du Congo. II. Deces du nouveau-ne et naissances de faible poids.
Mugisho, Etienne; Dramaix, Michele; Porignon, Denis ULg et al

in Sante (Montrouge, France) (2002), 12(2), 252-5

This second paper aims at deriving useful information allowing to improve the strategy applied for maternal health care. MATERIAL AND METHODOLOGY: Between 1980 and 1998, data on 13,042 deliveries were ... [more ▼]

This second paper aims at deriving useful information allowing to improve the strategy applied for maternal health care. MATERIAL AND METHODOLOGY: Between 1980 and 1998, data on 13,042 deliveries were collected. Characteristics, mortality, morbidity of mothers and new-born and obstetrical interventions were recorded. The present work describes the evolution of low birth weight (LBW), new-born deaths, and associated risk factors. The statistical analyses applied included khi2, t-test, and multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: Eighteen percent of new-born weights below 2.5 kg and 7.9% died. The proportion of low birth weights remains globally constant. Low proportions of new-born deaths were observed in 1981, 1982, 1988 and 1998. At admission, 35% of the women presented at least one of the four risks defined by the factors used for reference; this proportion went up from 26.1 to 39.2%. The four reference factors were associated with low birth weight. Baudelocque diameter and age were not associated with new-born death. Education and BMI were associated with an increased risk of new-born death. Marital status was not associated with any of the two outcomes. CONCLUSION: This analysis shows small variation of LBWs and perinatal deaths. It confirms the association between these two outcomes and most of the risk factors studied. The efficacy of the strategies implemented for improving perinatal health is questioned. The authors recommend that they be reassessed. [less ▲]

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See detailQu'est-ce que l'expérience corporelle des patientes souffrant d'anorexie mentale ? Une étude empirique
Mayers, I.; Bragard, Isabelle ULg; Demoulin, Catherine et al

in Revue Francophone de Clinique Comportementale et Cognitive (2002), 7(3), 5-13

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See detailClassical and Bayesian inference in neuroimaging: Applications
Friston, Karl J; Glaser, Daniel E; Henson, Richard NA et al

in Neuroimage (2002), 16(2), 484-512

In Friston et al. ((2002) Neuroimage 16: 465-483) we introduced empirical Bayes as a potentially useful way to estimate and make inferences about effects in hierarchical models. In this paper we present a ... [more ▼]

In Friston et al. ((2002) Neuroimage 16: 465-483) we introduced empirical Bayes as a potentially useful way to estimate and make inferences about effects in hierarchical models. In this paper we present a series of models that exemplify the diversity of problems that can be addressed within this framework. In hierarchical linear observation models, both classical and empirical Bayesian approaches can be framed in terms of covariance component estimation (e.g., variance partitioning). To illustrate the use of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm in covariance component estimation we focus first on two important problems in fMRI: nonsphericity induced by (i) serial or temporal correlations among errors and (ii) variance components caused by the hierarchical nature of multisubject studies. In hierarchical observation models, variance components at higher levels can be used as constraints on the parameter estimates of lower levels. This enables the use of parametric empirical Bayesian (PEB) estimators, as distinct from classical maximum likelihood (ML) estimates. We develop this distinction to address: (i) The difference between response estimates based on ML and the conditional means from a Bayesian approach and the implications for estimates of intersubject variability. (ii) The relationship between fixed- and random-effect analyses. (iii) The specificity and sensitivity of Bayesian inference and, finally, (iv) the relative importance of the number of scans and subjects. The forgoing is concerned with within- and between-subject variability in multisubject hierarchical fMRI studies. In the second half of this paper we turn to Bayesian inference at the first (within-voxel) level, using PET data to show how priors can be derived from the (between-voxel) distribution of activations over the brain. This application uses exactly the same ideas and formalism but, in this instance, the second level is provided by observations over voxels as opposed to subjects. The ensuing posterior probability maps (PPMs) have enhanced anatomical precision and greater face validity, in relation to underlying anatomy. Furthermore, in comparison to conventional SPMs they are not confounded by the multiple comparison problem that, in a classical context, dictates high thresholds and low sensitivity. We conclude with some general comments on Bayesian approaches to image analysis and on some unresolved issues. [less ▲]

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See detailInfo-congres. Essai de prevention du diabete de type 1 par le nicotinamide: les lecons positives d'un essai clinique negatif (ENDIT).
Philips, Jean-Christophe ULg; Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(10), 672-5

ENDIT ("European Nicotinamide Diabetes Intervention Trial") is a large placebo-controlled randomised clinical trial that aimed at studying the efficacy of nicotinamide in the prevention of type 1 diabetes ... [more ▼]

ENDIT ("European Nicotinamide Diabetes Intervention Trial") is a large placebo-controlled randomised clinical trial that aimed at studying the efficacy of nicotinamide in the prevention of type 1 diabetes mellitus among first-degree relatives of type 1 diabetic patients with positive islet cell antibodies (ICA). The results presented at the last congress of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) in Budapest do not evidence any significant difference in the risk of developing overt diabetes mellitus in the patients treated with nicotinamide (n = 274) as compared to those receiving placebo (n = 275) after 5 years of follow-up. Despite these negative results, positive lessons could be drawn from ENDIT: 1) the feasibility of a large long-standing multicentre European trial in a difficult research area; 2) the importance of large randomised controlled clinical trials to bring the evidence requested by "Evidence-Based Medicine"; 3) the predictive value of various risk markers to progress toward type 1 diabetes in first-degree relatives, especially the number of positive auto-antibodies; and 4) the urgent need to continue intensive research in this important field of preventive medicine. [less ▲]

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See detailExpression of the zinc finger Egr1 gene during zebrafish embryonic development
Close, Renaud; Toro, Sabrina; Martial, Joseph ULg et al

in Mechanisms of Development (2002), 118(1-2), 269-72

Egr1 is a highly conserved zinc finger protein which plays important roles in many aspects of vertebrate development and in the adult. The cDNA coding for zebrafish Egr1 was obtained and its expression ... [more ▼]

Egr1 is a highly conserved zinc finger protein which plays important roles in many aspects of vertebrate development and in the adult. The cDNA coding for zebrafish Egr1 was obtained and its expression pattern was examined during zebrafish embryogenesis using whole-mount in situ hybridization. Egr1 mRNA is first detected in adaxial cells in the presomitic mesoderm between 11 and 20 h post-fertilization (hpf), spanning the 4-24 somite stages. Later, Egr1 expression is observed only in specific brain areas, starting at 21 hpf and subsequently increasing in distinct domains of the central nervous system, e.g. in the telencephalon, diencephalon and hypothalamus. Between 24 and 48 hpf, Egr1 is expressed in specific domains of the hypothalamus, mesencephalon, tegmentum, pharynx, retina, otic vesicle and heart. [less ▲]

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See detailCréation d'un site Internet d'Evidence-Based Medicine.
Delvenne, Catherine ULg; Pasleau, Françoise ULg

in Médi-Sphère (2002), (67), 41-43

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See detailSwaged bolts: modelling of the installation process and numerical analysis of the mechanical behaviour
Drean, M.; Habraken, Anne ULg; Bouchaïr, A. et al

in Computers & Structures (2002), 80

Swaged bolts are an alternative to high strength bolts in steel structures. To clarify the steps of the installation process, numerical modelling has been carried out. The relevant phenomena are described ... [more ▼]

Swaged bolts are an alternative to high strength bolts in steel structures. To clarify the steps of the installation process, numerical modelling has been carried out. The relevant phenomena are described and evaluated. This numerical calculation accounts for large displacements, large strains, mechanical plasticity and friction contact between the components of swaged bolts. The non-linear finite element code ‘‘Lagamine’’ designed for the simulation of metal forming processes has been used to provide the stress distributions in the components. [less ▲]

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See detailPhylogéographie mitochondriale du mulot sylvestre (Apodemus sylvaticus) dans la région paléarctique occidentale
Michaux, Johan ULg; Magnanou, Elodie; Nieberding, Caroline et al

in Biosystema, Systématique et biogéographie (2002), 20

We have sequenced 965 base pairs of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b from 102 woodmice (Apodemus sylvaticus) samples collected from 40 European localities. The aims of the study were to answer the ... [more ▼]

We have sequenced 965 base pairs of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b from 102 woodmice (Apodemus sylvaticus) samples collected from 40 European localities. The aims of the study were to answer the following questions: i) Did the Mediterranean peninsulas play a role as a refuge for small mammals? ii) Is the genetic variability of a small mammal like A. sylvaticus higher in the Mediterranean regions as compared with northern Europe? iii)Is it possible to find patterns of postglacial colonisation of Europe other than those presently recognised ? Sequence data were analysed using Distance and Maximum Parsimony phylogenetic reconstruction methods. A minimum spanning network was also calculated. Population genetic structure was determined by analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). A "mismatch distribution" analysis was also performed to estimate the patterns of expansion. The results provide a clear picture of the impact of Quaternary glaciations on the genetic and geographic structure of the woodmouse. Analyses indicate a higher genetic variability for the woodmouse in the Mediterranean peninsulas as compared to northern Europe and the role of these peninsulas as refuge regions for small mammals. A new pattern of postglacial colonisation is also proposed where the Iberian and southern France refuge populations colonised almost all the European regions. The Sicilian population appears to be highly differentiated and highly variable. This result emphasises the importance of this island as a "hot spot" for the intraspecific genetic diversity of the woodmouse. Finally, populations of this species in North Africa originated from south-western Europe and are probably the result of a recent anthropogenic introduction. [less ▲]

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