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See detailUrethral sphincter mechanism incompetence in the bitch. Review of the literature
Hamaide, Annick ULiege; Balligand, Marc; Verstegen, John

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2005), 149(2), 75-92

Urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence is characterized by unvoluntary urine leakage, worsening when the animal is recumbent or asleep, or during excitement. It mainly affects large breed dogs, and ... [more ▼]

Urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence is characterized by unvoluntary urine leakage, worsening when the animal is recumbent or asleep, or during excitement. It mainly affects large breed dogs, and mostly middle-aged spayed bitches. The aetiology of this condition is multifactorial and predisposing factors include a decrease urethral tone, an intrapelvic bladder neck position, a short urethra, sterilisation, obesity, and age. Diagnostic workup should include a vaginourethrography to identify possible vaginal abnormalities and to visualize the urethra and the position of the bladder neck, and urethral profilometry to demonstrate a decrease in maximal urethral pressure and functional profile length. Medical treatment with oestriol is an option. This short-acting oestrogen does not exhibit oestrogenic side effects. Unfortunately, its success rate is only of 65 % of complete continence. The a- adrenergic agents ( phenylpropanolamine and ephedrine) are more efficacious, with a success rate reaching 75 to 90 %, with very few side effects. In absence of response to the treatment, or if the animal becomes refractory, a colposuspension can be recommended, with a fairly good prognosis. [less ▲]

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See detailRéponse à : Chirurgie de l'incontinence urinaire a l'effort feminine par voie transobturatrice: dehors dedans ou dedans dehors? etude anatomique comparative.
de Leval, Jean ULiege; Bonnet, Pierre ULiege; Waltregny, David ULiege et al

in Progrès en Urologie : Journal de l'Association Française d'Urologie et de la Société Française d'Urologie (2005), 15(6), 1161-2

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See detailThe Carbon budget of the North Sea
Thomas, H.; Bozec, Y.; de Baar, Hein J. W. et al

in Biogeosciences (2005), 2(1), 87-96

A carbon budget has been established for the North Sea, a shelf sea on the NW European continental shelf. The carbon exchange fluxes with the North Atlantic Ocean dominate the gross carbon budget. The net ... [more ▼]

A carbon budget has been established for the North Sea, a shelf sea on the NW European continental shelf. The carbon exchange fluxes with the North Atlantic Ocean dominate the gross carbon budget. The net carbon budget – more relevant to the issue of the contribution of the coastal ocean to the marine carbon cycle – is dominated by the carbon inputs from rivers, the Baltic Sea and the atmosphere. The North Sea acts as a sink for organic carbon and thus can be characterised as a heterotrophic system. The dominant carbon sink is the final export to the North Atlantic Ocean. More than 90% of the CO2 taken up from the atmosphere is exported to the North Atlantic Ocean making the North Sea a highly efficient continental shelf pump for carbon. [less ▲]

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See detailNote on topology optimization of continuum structures including self-weight
Bruyneel, Michael; Duysinx, Pierre ULiege

in Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization (2005), 29(4), 245-256

This paper proposes to investigate topology optimization with density-dependent body forces and especially self-weight loading. Surprisingly the solution of such problems cannot be based on a direct ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes to investigate topology optimization with density-dependent body forces and especially self-weight loading. Surprisingly the solution of such problems cannot be based on a direct extension of the solution procedure used for minimum-compliance topology optimization with fixed external loads. At first the particular difficulties arising in the considered topology problems are pointed out: non-monotonous behaviour of the compliance, possible unconstrained character of the optimum and the parasitic effect for low densities when using the power model (SIMP). To get rid of the last problem requires the modification of the power law model for low densities. The other problems require that the solution procedure and the selection of appropriate structural approximations be revisited. Numerical applications compare the efficiency of different approximation schemes of the MMA family. It is shown that important improvements are achieved when the solution is carried out using the gradient-based method of moving asymptotes (GBMMA) approximations. Criteria for selecting the approximations are suggested. In addition, the applications also provide the opportunity to illustrate the strong influence of the ratio between the applied loads and the structural weight on the optimal structural topology. [less ▲]

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See detailServitude vicinale anomale : quelques précisions
Lecocq, Pascale ULiege

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2005)

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See detailContribution to the optimization of closed-loop multibody systems: Application to parallel manipulators
Collard, Jean-François; Fisette, Paul; Duysinx, Pierre ULiege

in Multibody System Dynamics (2005), 13(1), 69-84

This paper describes an original and robust method to optimize the design of closed-loop mechanisms, especially parallel manipulators. These mechanisms involve non linear assembling constraints. During ... [more ▼]

This paper describes an original and robust method to optimize the design of closed-loop mechanisms, especially parallel manipulators. These mechanisms involve non linear assembling constraints. During optimization, the Newton-Raphson algorithm we use to solve these constraints may fail when the Jacobian matrix of the constraints is ill-conditioned and stops the redesign process. To circumvent the difficulty, the technique we propose takes advantage of numerical conditioning to penalize the objective function. Applications to an academic example and parallel robots demonstrate the capabilities of the methodology. [less ▲]

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See detailRegions of the varicella-zoster virus open reading frame 63 latency-associated protein important for replication in vitro are also critical for efficient establishment of latency.
Cohen, Jeffrey I; Krogmann, Tammy; Bontems, Sébastien ULiege et al

in Journal of Virology (2005), 79(8), 5069-77

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) open reading frame 63 (ORF63) is one of the most abundant transcripts expressed during VZV latency in humans, and ORF63 protein has been detected in human ganglia by several ... [more ▼]

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) open reading frame 63 (ORF63) is one of the most abundant transcripts expressed during VZV latency in humans, and ORF63 protein has been detected in human ganglia by several laboratories. Deletion of over 90% of the ORF63 gene showed that the protein is required for efficient establishment of latency in rodents. We have constructed viruses with a series of mutations in ORF63. While prior experiments showed that transfection of cells with a plasmid expressing ORF63 but lacking the putative nuclear localization signal of the protein resulted in increased expression of the protein in the cytoplasm, we found that ORF63 protein remained in the nucleus in cells infected with a VZV ORF63 nuclear localization signal deletion mutant. This mutant was not impaired for growth in cell culture or for latency in rodents. Replacement of five serine or threonine phosphorylation sites in ORF63 with alanines resulted in a virus that was impaired for replication in vitro and for latency. A series of ORF63 carboxy-terminal mutants showed that the last 70 amino acids do not affect replication in vitro or latency in rodents; however, the last 108 amino acids are important for replication and latency. Thus, regions of ORF63 that are important for replication in vitro are also required for efficient establishment of latency. [less ▲]

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See detailRecepteurs PPAR-gamma, nouvelle cible therapeutique dans les pathologies metaboliques et cardio-vasculaires.
Scheen, André ULiege; Paquot, Nicolas ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2005), 60(2), 89-95

PPARs ("Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors") belong to a superfamily of nuclear receptors with several isoforms, among which PPAR-alpha mainly located in the liver and PPAR-gamma mainly located ... [more ▼]

PPARs ("Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors") belong to a superfamily of nuclear receptors with several isoforms, among which PPAR-alpha mainly located in the liver and PPAR-gamma mainly located in the adipose tissue. These receptors are considered as major pharmacological targets since the discovery of their activation by specific agonists, which lead to various favourable metabolic effects. Improvement of lipid profile by fibrates is explained by the activation of liver PPAR-alpha receptors. However, PPAR-gamma receptors have focused most fundamental and clinical research in recent years after the demonstration of their activation by thiazolidinediones (pioglitazone, rosiglitazone), a new class of antidiabetic agents. Beyond their effects on insulin sensitivity, glitazones exert pleiotropic effects that may result in cardiovascular protection in high risk patients. It has been recently demonstrated that certain angiotensin AT1 receptor blockers (sartans) can also exert a partial agonist activity on PPAR-gamma. Among the molecules of this class, telmisartan appears to exert this effect at the lower concentrations. Thus, PPAR-y, as common pharmacological target, may, at least partially, explain some of the effects observed with both thiazolidinediones and inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system, in particular the improvement in insulin sensitivity (in particular via an increase in adiponectin levels), the protection against type 2 diabetes, the reduction in arterial blood pressure and the prevention of cardiovascular complications. There is currently a major interest from the pharmaceutical industry in the development of new molecules able to activate both PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma. [less ▲]

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See detailThe vacuum UV photoabsorption spectrum of methyl bromide (CH3Br) and its perdeuterated isotopomer CD3Br: a vibrational analysis
Locht, Robert ULiege; Leyh, Bernard ULiege; Dehareng, Dominique ULiege et al

in Chemical Physics (2005), 317(1), 87-102

The fine structure of the vacuum UV photoabsorption spectrum of CH3Br and CD3Br has been analyzed in the 6.9-10.2 eV photon energy range. A large number of lines have been observed, classified and ... [more ▼]

The fine structure of the vacuum UV photoabsorption spectrum of CH3Br and CD3Br has been analyzed in the 6.9-10.2 eV photon energy range. A large number of lines have been observed, classified and assigned to the vibrational excitation accompanying a series of Rydberg transitions. The effects of the Jahn-Teller distortion and of the spin-orbit splitting of the ground electronic state of the ion have been considered. The former effect has been evaluated by ab initio calculations, showing that the E-2 state (in the C-3v symmetry group) splits into (2)A' and (2)A" states in the C-s symmetry group. Even though the energy difference of about 1 meV is extremely small, the (2)A' state is energetically the lowest component whereas the (2)A" is found to be a transition state. The Jahn-Teller stabilization energy and the wavenumbers associated with all vibrational modes have been calculated. Experimentally, the entire fine structure could be described in terms of three vibrational modes, i.e., hc omega(4) = 146 +/- 6 meV (1178 +/- 48 cm(-1)), hc omega(5) = 107 +/- 6 meV (863 +/- 48 cm(-1)) and hc omega(6) = 71 +/- 4 meV (572 +/- 32 cm(-1)), respectively, as resulting from an average over all analyzed Rydberg states. In CD3Br the corresponding energies are hc omega(4) = 104 +/- 3 meV (839 +/- 24 cm(-1)), hc omega(5)=82 +/- 4 meV (661 +/- 32 cm(-1)) and hc omega(6) = 62 +/- 4 meV (500 +/- 32 cm(-1)). These values are in fairly good agreement with those predicted by the present ab initio calculations for the ionic ground state. The experimental isotopic ratio rho(i) = [omega/omega(isot)](i) is 1.15 +/- 0.14, 1.31 +/- 0.14 and 1.39 +/- 1.0 and is predicted to be 1.04, 1.34 and 1.36, respectively, for omega(6), omega(5) and omega(4). On the basis of the present study an alternative assignment of the CH3Br+((X) over tilde E-2) photoelectron band structure is proposed. (C) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of the dose and the number of drug-context pairings on the magnitude and the long-lasting retention of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference in C57BL/6J mice
Brabant, Christian ULiege; Quertemont, Etienne ULiege; Tirelli, Ezio ULiege

in Psychopharmacology (2005), 180(1), 33-40

Rationale: The place conditioning procedure is increasingly used to study relapse in drug seeking in mice. However, the retention course of drug-induced place preference has not been systematically ... [more ▼]

Rationale: The place conditioning procedure is increasingly used to study relapse in drug seeking in mice. However, the retention course of drug-induced place preference has not been systematically characterized. Methods: The effects of cocaine doses and number of conditioning trials on both the magnitude and the persistence of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) were investigated in C57BL/6J mice. Twelve groups of animals were injected with saline, 4, 8 or 12 mg/kg cocaine (i.p.) and submitted to an unbiased counterbalanced place conditioning protocol including one, two or four drug-pairing sessions. Subsequently, the animals were tested at various time intervals after the last conditioning session. Results: One cocaine-pairing session was insufficient to induce a CPP. Two and four pairing sessions resulted in significant place preferences of similar magnitude for all tested doses of cocaine, the place preference induced by the greatest number of pairing sessions being the strongest. In the two-pairing groups, place preference lasted less than 14 days for any tested dose of cocaine. In contrast, all four-pairing groups still showed significant place preference 28 days after the last conditioning session. However, the magnitude of cocaine place preference slowly declined at a rate that was dependent upon cocaine dose. On the 35-day post-conditioning interval, only the 12-mg/kg cocaine group still displayed a significant place preference, whereas place preference was undetectable at 42 and 56 days post-conditioning for all groups. Conclusions: The number of cocaine-pairing sessions, but not cocaine dose, affected the magnitude of cocaine place preference in mice when tested 1 day after the last conditioning session. In contrast, both cocaine doses and the number of pairing sessions affected the persistence of cocaine place preference. Overall, these results demonstrate that cocaine-induced place preference is a long lasting phenomenon that is strongly affected by the number of drug-pairing trials. [less ▲]

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See detailA new substrate cycle in plants. Evidence for a high glucose-phosphate-to-glucose turnover from in vivo steady-state and pulse-labeling experiments with [13C]glucose and [14C]glucose.
Alonso, Ana Paula; Vigeolas, Hélène ULiege; Raymond, Philippe et al

in Plant Physiology (2005), 138(4), 2220-32

Substrate (futile) cycling involving carbohydrate turnover has been widely reported in plant tissues, although its extent, mechanisms, and functions are not well known. In this study, two complementary ... [more ▼]

Substrate (futile) cycling involving carbohydrate turnover has been widely reported in plant tissues, although its extent, mechanisms, and functions are not well known. In this study, two complementary approaches, short and steady-state labeling experiments, were used to analyze glucose metabolism in maize (Zea mays) root tips. Unidirectional rates of synthesis for storage compounds (starch, Suc, and cell wall polysaccharides) were determined by short labeling experiments using [U-14C]glucose and compared with net synthesis fluxes to determine the rate of glucose production from these storage compounds. Steady-state labeling with [1-(13)C]glucose and [U-13C]glucose showed that the redistribution of label between carbon C-1 and C-6 in glucose is close to that in cytosolic hexose-P. These results indicate a high resynthesis flux of glucose from hexose-P that is not accounted for by glucose recycling from storage compounds, thus suggesting the occurrence of a direct glucose-P-to-glucose conversion. An enzyme assay confirmed the presence of substantial glucose-6-phosphatase activity in maize root tips. This new glucose-P-to-glucose cycle was shown to consume around 40% of the ATP generated in the cell, whereas Suc cycling consumes at most 3% to 6% of the ATP produced. The rate of glucose-P cycling differs by a factor of 3 between a maize W22 line and the hybrid maize cv Dea, and is significantly decreased by a carbohydrate starvation pretreatment. [less ▲]

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See detailYersinia phosphatase induces mitochondrially dependent apoptosis of T cells.
Bruckner, Shane; Rahmouni, Souad ULiege; Tautz, Lutz et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2005), 280(11), 10388-94

To evade the immune system, the etiologic agent of plague, Yersinia pestis, injects an exceptionally active tyrosine phosphatase called YopH into host cells using a type III secretion system. We recently ... [more ▼]

To evade the immune system, the etiologic agent of plague, Yersinia pestis, injects an exceptionally active tyrosine phosphatase called YopH into host cells using a type III secretion system. We recently reported that YopH acutely inhibits T cell antigen receptor signaling by dephosphorylating the Lck tyrosine kinase. Here, we show that prolonged presence of YopH in primary T cells or Jurkat T leukemia cells causes apoptosis, detected by annexin V binding, mitochondrial breakdown, caspase activation, and internucleosomal fragmentation. YopH also causes cell death when expressed in HeLa cells, and this cell death was inhibited by YopH-specific small molecule inhibitors. Cell death induced by YopH was also prevented by caspase inhibition or co-expression of Bcl-xL. We conclude that YopH not only paralyzes T cells acutely, but also ensures that the cells will not recover to induce a protective immune response but instead undergo mitochondrially regulated programmed cell death. [less ▲]

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See detailIncertitudes sur l'habitus
Frère, Bruno ULiege

in Archives Européennes de Sociologie = European Journal of Sociology = Europaisches Archiv für Soziologie (2005), XLVI(3), 469-494

Bourdieu fut le fondateur d’un paradigme structuraliste aujourd’hui appliqué à l’envi par certains sociologues et radicalement évincé par d’autres. Nous nous intéresserons ici aux tentatives ... [more ▼]

Bourdieu fut le fondateur d’un paradigme structuraliste aujourd’hui appliqué à l’envi par certains sociologues et radicalement évincé par d’autres. Nous nous intéresserons ici aux tentatives intermédiaires de Lahire et Corcuff qui, sans omettre de pointer des impasses, ont bien vu l’intérêt du concept d’habitus « singulier ». Après avoir repris leurs approches, nous proposerons une définition « fictionnelle » de cet habitus afin de rendre ce paradigme opérationnel sur des terrains pour lesquels sa capacité heuristique est faible (comme les nouveaux mouvements sociaux). Bourdieu was the founder of a structuralist paradigm which is now often applied by some sociologists and strongly criticised by others. We are interested here in the intermediate attempts of Lahire and Corcuff. Without omitting to notice some dead ends, they understood the interest of the "singular" habitus concept. After following their approach, we propose a "fictional" definition of this habitus in order to make this paradigm operational in areas where its heuristic capacity is low (like the new social movements). [less ▲]

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See detailLa phénoménologie de merleau-ponty : vers une pensée du consensus
Frère, Bruno ULiege

in Etudes Phénoménologiques (2005), 41-42

L’histoire de la phénoménologie au 20e siècle s’est élaborée essentiellement autour de la question du sujet héritée de la modernité philosophique. On peut aujourd’hui distinguer a posteriori deux ... [more ▼]

L’histoire de la phénoménologie au 20e siècle s’est élaborée essentiellement autour de la question du sujet héritée de la modernité philosophique. On peut aujourd’hui distinguer a posteriori deux traditions de pensée s’opposant l’une à l’autre par les réponses qu’elles ont voulu lui donner. D’une part, l’initiateur du mouvement phénoménologique que fut Husserl suggère une philosophie qui maintienne l’Ego transcendantal kantien au cœur de la réflexion en lui concédant la priorité sur le monde. La conscience de cet Ego est en effet à l’origine du sens donné au monde qui l’entoure et autrui, dans ce monde, ne se verra octroyer le statut de sujet que par projection analogique depuis cette même conscience. Nous voudrions montrer que ce courant « subjectiviste » a fortement imprégné certains des paradigmes sociologiques qui ont cherché à travailler sur le thème du conflit. Cet article voudrait avancer l’hypothèse que, conjointement à une phénoménologie « subjectiviste » qui a trouvé à se décliner de la sorte empiriquement dans les sociologies du conflit (en se rapprochant fortement de la pensée de Sartre), s’est développée une autre tradition qui pourrait, pour sa part, inspirer une sociologie du compromis encore inexistante. Pour Merleau-Ponty, le monde culturel dans lequel je vis est imprégné de significations qui ne sont pas le fruit de ma conscience mais celui des communautés historiques où elle évolue. Selon nous, sa pensée peut dès lors inaugurer une sociologie dans laquelle le sens donné au monde est le fait d’un consensus « transcendantal » passé entre les différents sujets constituants ma communauté présente et celles qui l’ont précédé. [less ▲]

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See detailVolatile Constituents And Antimicrobial Activity Of Lavandula Stoechas L. Oil From Tunisia
Bouzouita, N.; Kachouri, F.; Hamdi, M. et al

in Journal of Essential Oil Research (2005), 17(5), 584-586

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See detailQuantitative aspects of the spatial distribution and morphological characteristics of the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.; Teleostei, Serranidae) trunk lateral line neuromasts.
Faucher, Karine ULiege; Lagardère, Jean-Paul; Aubert, Anne

in Brain, Behavior & Evolution (2005), 65(4), 231-43

The results presented herein report quantitative data relative to the distribution and morphological characteristics of both types of neuromasts encountered on the trunk lateral line of the sea bass ... [more ▼]

The results presented herein report quantitative data relative to the distribution and morphological characteristics of both types of neuromasts encountered on the trunk lateral line of the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.). These data were obtained from scanning electron micrographs. They indicate that, as expected, each modified scale of the sea bass possessed a single canal neuromast with long axis oriented parallel to the fish's long axis. In contrast to several fish species, two thirds of superficial neuromasts observed herein were oriented perpendicular to the fish's long axis. However, whatever the main orientation of superficial neuromasts, two thirds of their hair bundles were oriented parallel to the long axis of the animal with approximately half of them in the direction of the head. Similar ratios were observed for canal neuromasts whatever the area of the maculae: central or peripheral. For both types of neuromasts it was not possible to clearly distinguish a paired organization of hair bundles with opposing polarities. Superficial neuromasts on each trunk canal scale were located on either the dorsal or ventral side of the canal and appeared to be distributed along the trunk lateral line with a higher probability to be encountered closer to the operculum. The frequency of presence and the average number of superficial neuromasts per scale increased with fish size. We observed a size gradient for canal neuromasts between the operculum and caudal peduncle. This gradation was correlated with a reduction of the width of the central area of the canal segment. Canal neuromasts were always localized in the larger portions of the canal segments. Taken together, these results point out some specific features associated with the sea bass trunk lateral line. With the previous report, they establish the first full description of the trunk lateral line of sea bass and will be useful for upcoming experiments regarding the function of the two types of neuromasts. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of hydroxyethylstarch on renal function in cardiac surgery: A large scale retrospective study
Wiesen, Patricia ULiege; Canivet, Jean-Luc ULiege; Ledoux, Didier ULiege et al

in Acta Anaesthesiologica Belgica (2005), 56(3), 257-263

BACKGROUND: Recent reports indicated negative effects of hydroxyethylstarch (HES) on renal function. The goal of this large scale retrospective study was to detect whether there was an association between ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Recent reports indicated negative effects of hydroxyethylstarch (HES) on renal function. The goal of this large scale retrospective study was to detect whether there was an association between postoperative deterioration of renal function and the use of HES 200 kD, 0.5 DS in the cardiac surgery setting. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of daily collected data in 3124 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass and/or valvular surgery. Three groups were compared according to differences in fluid therapy: --GEL: gelatin was used as priming fluid of extracorporeal circulation (ECC) and for postoperative filling (n = 1276). --MIX: HES was used as priming fluid of ECC an gelatin was used for postoperative filling (n = 1008). --HES: HES was used as priming fluid of ECC and for postoperative filling (n = 840). MAIN RESULTS: There were no significant differences in postoperative serum creatinine concentrations between the 3 groups: GEL: 12,2 +/- 0,5 mg/l; MIX: 12,3 +/- 0.5 mg/l; HES: 12,3 +/- 0.6 mg/l. The need for postoperative extrarenal epuration was not significantly different between the 3 periods: GEL: 2,9%; MIX: 3,1%; HES: 3,8%. CONCLUSION: The use of HES 200 kD, 0.5 DS in cardiac surgery does not seem to be associated with a clinically significant deterioration of postoperative renal function. [less ▲]

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See detail4. Il senso della fine nel “Robinson Crusoe” di Daniel Defoe
Benzoni, Pietro ULiege

in Strumenti critici (2005), 107(1), 101-126

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See detailCopropriété et arbitrage
Caprasse, Olivier ULiege

in Revue Générale de Droit Civil Belge = Tijdschrift voor Belgisch Burgerlijk (2005)

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See detailEditorial
Kulbertus, Henri ULiege; Scheen, André ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2005), 60(1), 1-4

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See detailGenetic management of infectious diseases: An heterogeneous epidemio-genetic model illustrated with S. aureus mastitis
Detilleux, Johann ULiege

in Genetics, Selection, Evolution (2005), 37(4), 437-453

Given that individuals are genetically heterogeneous in their degree of resistance to infection, a model is proposed to formulate appropriate choices that will limit the spread of an infectious disease ... [more ▼]

Given that individuals are genetically heterogeneous in their degree of resistance to infection, a model is proposed to formulate appropriate choices that will limit the spread of an infectious disease. The model is illustrated with data on S. aureus mastitis and is based on parameters characterizing the spread of the disease (contact rate, probability of infection after contact, and rate of recovery after infection), the demography (replacement and culling rates) and the genetic composition (degree of relationship and heritability of the disease trait) of the animal population. To decrease infection pressure, it is possible to apply non-genetic procedures that increase the culling (e.g., culling of chronically infected cows) and recovery (e.g., antibiotic therapy) rates of infected cows. But the contribution of the paper is to show that genetic management of infectious disease is also theoretically possible as a control measure complementary to non-genetic actions. Indeed, the probability for an uninfected individual to become infected after contact with an infected one is partially related to their degree of kinship: the more closely they are related, the more likely they are to share identical genes like those associated to the non-resistance to infection. Different prospective genetic management procedures are proposed to decrease the contact rate between infected and uninfected relatives and keep the number of secondary cases generated by one infected animal below 1. [less ▲]

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See detailLes bibliothèques vues par le monde de l'enseignement
Baye, Ariane ULiege; Lafontaine, Dominique ULiege

in Lectures : La Revue des Bibliothèques (2005), 141

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See detailMax Frisch: Blaubart. Freigesprochen - aber nicht unschuldig? Max Frischs letzte Erzählung: Zwischen Realität und Wahn
Letawe, Céline ULiege

in Arte Buchtipp, Reihe Junge Literaturkritik (2005)

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See detailEin neuer Blick auf Uwe Johnsons "Jahrestage"
Letawe, Céline ULiege

in Johnson-Jahrbuch (2005), 11

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See detailProteomic mass spectra classification using decision tree based ensemble methods.
Geurts, Pierre ULiege; Fillet, Marianne ULiege; De Seny, Dominique ULiege et al

in Bioinformatics (2005), 21(14), 3138-45

MOTIVATION: Modern mass spectrometry allows the determination of proteomic fingerprints of body fluids like serum, saliva or urine. These measurements can be used in many medical applications in order to ... [more ▼]

MOTIVATION: Modern mass spectrometry allows the determination of proteomic fingerprints of body fluids like serum, saliva or urine. These measurements can be used in many medical applications in order to diagnose the current state or predict the evolution of a disease. Recent developments in machine learning allow one to exploit such datasets, characterized by small numbers of very high-dimensional samples. RESULTS: We propose a systematic approach based on decision tree ensemble methods, which is used to automatically determine proteomic biomarkers and predictive models. The approach is validated on two datasets of surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight measurements, for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel diseases. The results suggest that the methodology can handle a broad class of similar problems. [less ▲]

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See detailSymbiotic leghemoglobins are crucial for nitrogen fixation in legume root nodules but not for general plant growth and development.
Ott, Thomas; van Dongen, Joost T; Gunther, Catrin et al

in Current Biology (2005), 15(6), 531-5

Hemoglobins are ubiquitous in nature and among the best-characterized proteins. Genetics has revealed crucial roles for human hemoglobins, but similar data are lacking for plants. Plants contain symbiotic ... [more ▼]

Hemoglobins are ubiquitous in nature and among the best-characterized proteins. Genetics has revealed crucial roles for human hemoglobins, but similar data are lacking for plants. Plants contain symbiotic and nonsymbiotic hemoglobins; the former are thought to be important for symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF). In legumes, SNF occurs in specialized organs, called nodules, which contain millions of nitrogen-fixing rhizobia, called bacteroids. The induction of nodule-specific plant genes, including those encoding symbiotic leghemoglobins (Lb), accompanies nodule development. Leghemoglobins accumulate to millimolar concentrations in the cytoplasm of infected plant cells prior to nitrogen fixation and are thought to buffer free oxygen in the nanomolar range, avoiding inactivation of oxygen-labile nitrogenase while maintaining high oxygen flux for respiration. Although widely accepted, this hypothesis has never been tested in planta. Using RNAi, we abolished symbiotic leghemoglobin synthesis in nodules of the model legume Lotus japonicus. This caused an increase in nodule free oxygen, a decrease in the ATP/ADP ratio, loss of bacterial nitrogenase protein, and absence of SNF. However, LbRNAi plants grew normally when fertilized with mineral nitrogen. These data indicate roles for leghemoglobins in oxygen transport and buffering and prove for the first time that plant hemoglobins are crucial for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. [less ▲]

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See detailCrystal structures of oxidized and reduced forms of human mitochondrial thioredoxin 2
Smeets, Aude; Evrard, Christine ULiege; Landtmeters, Marie et al

in Protein Science : A Publication of the Protein Society (2005), 14

Mammalian thioredoxin 2 is a mitochondrial isoform of highly evolutionary conserved thioredoxins. Thioredoxins are small ubiquitous protein–disulfide oxidoreductases implicated in a large variety of ... [more ▼]

Mammalian thioredoxin 2 is a mitochondrial isoform of highly evolutionary conserved thioredoxins. Thioredoxins are small ubiquitous protein–disulfide oxidoreductases implicated in a large variety of biological functions. In mammals, thioredoxin 2 is encoded by a nuclear gene and is targeted to mitochondria by a N-terminal mitochondrial presequence. Recently, mitochondrial thioredoxin 2 was shown to interact with components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and to play a role in the control of mitochondrial membrane potential, regulating mitochondrial apoptosis signaling pathway. Here we report the first crystal structures of a mammalian mitochondrial thioredoxin 2. Crystal forms of reduced and oxidized human thioredoxin 2 are described at 2.0 and 1.8A ˚ resolution. Though the folding is rather similar to that of human cytosolic/nuclear thioredoxin 1, important differences are observed during the transition between the oxidized and the reduced states of human thioredoxin 2, compared with human thioredoxin 1. In spite of the absence of the Cys residue implicated in dimer formation in human thioredoxin 1, dimerization still occurs in the crystal structure of human thioredoxin 2, mainly mediated by hydrophobic contacts, and the dimers are associated to form two-dimensional polymers. Interestingly, the structure of human thioredoxin 2 reveals possible interaction domains with human peroxiredoxin 5, a substrate protein of human thioredoxin 2 in mitochondria. [less ▲]

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See detailNet ecosystem metabolism in a micro-tidal estuary (Randers Fjord, Denmark): evaluation of methods
Gazeau, Frédéric; Borges, Alberto ULiege; Barrón, Cristina et al

in Marine Ecology. Progress Series (2005), 301

The metabolic status, the difference between organic matter production and consumption of an estuary (Randers Fjord, Denmark) has been assessed based on 2 field cruises in April and August 2001 and a ... [more ▼]

The metabolic status, the difference between organic matter production and consumption of an estuary (Randers Fjord, Denmark) has been assessed based on 2 field cruises in April and August 2001 and a number of approaches: (1) the oxygen (02) incubation method, (2) dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) budgets, (3) the response surface difference (RSD) method based on diel O-2 changes and (4) land-ocean interaction in the coastal zone (LOICZ) budgets based on dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP). Although each method has its own associated limitations and uncertainties, the above approaches converged most of the time in consistent metabolic estimates, both in sign and magnitude, and revealed that this system was near metabolic balance in spring (net ecosystem production: NEP similar to 0) and net heterotrophic in summer (NEP similar to -50 mmol C m(-2) d(-1)). In this shallow estuary (mean depth = 1.6 m), the benthic compartment was very active and represented 70 and 30% of the total gross primary production in April and August, respectively. NEP rates measured during this study are in the range of previously reported rates in estuaries. [less ▲]

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See detailConservation genetics and population history of the threatened European mink Mustela lutreola, with an emphasis on the west European population.
Michaux, Johan ULiege; Hardy, O. J.; Justy, F. et al

in Molecular Ecology (2005), 14(8), 2373-88

In species of great conservation concern, special attention must be paid to their phylogeography, in particular the origin of animals for captive breeding and reintroduction. The endangered European mink ... [more ▼]

In species of great conservation concern, special attention must be paid to their phylogeography, in particular the origin of animals for captive breeding and reintroduction. The endangered European mink lives now in at least three well-separated populations in northeast, southeast and west Europe. Our aim is to assess the genetic structure of these populations to identify 'distinct population segments' (DPS) and advise captive breeding programmes. First, the mtDNA control region was completely sequenced in 176 minks and 10 polecats. The analysis revealed that the western population is characterized by a single mtDNA haplotype that is closely related to those in eastern regions but nevertheless, not found there to date. The northeast European animals are much more variable (pi = 0.012, h = 0.939), with the southeast samples intermediate (pi = 0.0012, h = 0.469). Second, 155 European mink were genotyped using six microsatellites. The latter display the same trends of genetic diversity among regions as mtDNA [gene diversity and allelic richness highest in northeast Europe (H(E) = 0.539, R(S) = 3.76), lowest in west Europe (H(E) = 0.379, R(S) = 2.12)], and provide evidences that the southeast and possibly the west populations have undergone a recent bottleneck. Our results indicate that the western population derives from a few animals which recently colonized this region, possibly after a human introduction. Microsatellite data also reveal that isolation by distance occurs in the western population, causing some inbreeding because related individuals mate. As genetic data indicate that the three populations have not undergone independent evolutionary histories for long (no phylogeographical structure), they should not be considered as distinct DPS. In conclusion, the captive breeding programme should use animals from different parts of the species' present distribution area. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of the estrous cycle on urodynamic and morphometric measurements of the lower portion of the urogenital tract in dogs
Hamaide, Annick ULiege; Verstegen, John; Snaps, Frédéric ULiege et al

in American Journal of Veterinary Research (2005), 66(6), 1075-1083

OBJECTIVES: To compare the values of the urodynamic parameters of the lower portion of the urinary tract and vaginourethral measurements obtained during the phases of the estrous cycle in dogs and ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: To compare the values of the urodynamic parameters of the lower portion of the urinary tract and vaginourethral measurements obtained during the phases of the estrous cycle in dogs and determine possible functional or anatomic modifications of the lower portion of the urinary tract associated with those phases. ANIMALS: 7 adult female Beagles. PROCEDURE: Urethral pressure profilometry, diuresis cystometry, and vaginourethrography were performed in each dog during proestrus; estrus; early, mid, and late diestrus; and early and late anestrus. The maximum urethral pressure (MUP), maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP), urethral functional and anatomic profile lengths (UFPL and UAPL, respectively), integrated pressure, threshold pressure, threshold volume, compliance, urethral length, and vaginal length and width were measured. RESULTS: For all measurements, significant interindividual variation was detected. Integrated and threshold pressures, APL, and each morphometric value significantly increased from late anestrus to proestrus. Compared with other phases, MUP, MUCP, and integrated pressure values were significantly lower in estrus and early diestrus; UAPL and UFPL values were significantly lower in late diestrus. At each cycle phase in old dogs, MUP, MUCP, threshold pressure, and vaginal length and width were significantly lower (except in proestrus for vaginal measurements) and threshold volume and compliance values were significantly higher, compared with middle-aged dogs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Urodynamic and morphometric measurements of the lower portion of the urogenital tract are affected by the changes in hormonal balance that occur during the estrous cycle. In sexually intact female dogs, estrous phase determination is important for the interpretation of urodynamic data. [less ▲]

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See detailHypertension et diabète
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULiege; Weekers, Laurent ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2005), 60(5-6, May-Jun), 572-577

Hypertension frequently accompanies diabetes mellitus, as it is present in 50% of diabetic patients. Hypertension can sometimes preceed diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance plays a major role ... [more ▼]

Hypertension frequently accompanies diabetes mellitus, as it is present in 50% of diabetic patients. Hypertension can sometimes preceed diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance plays a major role in the hypertensive risk. In type 1 diabetes, nephropathy is often noted as soon as hypertension is present. Both hypertension and diabetes increase the risk for cardiovascular and renal complications. For their prevention, first of all, modification of the diet with increasing exercise must be proposed, associated to antihypertensive agents with a blood pressure target lower than 130/80 mmHg. Renin-angiotensin blockers constitute the main drug therapy in such patients associated with diuretics or betablocker if angina pectoris is present or even calcium channel blocker when large arteries abnormalities exist. A frequent evaluation of the cardiovascular risk is required together with research of renal dysfunction or microproteinuria. [less ▲]

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See detailYB-1 represses AP1-dependent gene transactivation and interacts with an AP-1 DNA sequence.
Samuel, Shaija; Twizere, Jean-Claude ULiege; Bernstein, Lori R

in Biochemical Journal (2005), 388(Pt 3), 921-8

Involvement of the AP-1 (activator protein-1) transcription factor has been demonstrated previously in the regulation of cell proliferation and cell-cycle progression, in the control of cell migration ... [more ▼]

Involvement of the AP-1 (activator protein-1) transcription factor has been demonstrated previously in the regulation of cell proliferation and cell-cycle progression, in the control of cell migration, invasion and metastasis, and in signal transduction, stress responsiveness, DNA replication and DNA repair. YB-1 (Y-box-binding protein-1) has also been implicated in many of these processes. However, the mechanism by which YB-1 mediates these processes is poorly understood. In the present study, we report that overexpression of a transfected gene encoding YB-1 in human HeLa cervical carcinoma cells significantly represses the transactivation of a minimal AP-1 reporter construct in response to the tumour promoter PMA. YB-1 also represses mRNA expression and PMA-induced promoter transactivation of the endogenous AP-1 target gene encoding matrix metalloproteinase-12 (metalloelastase). YB-1 transrepression of both the minimal and matrix metalloproteinase-12 promoter reporter constructs is dependent on the AP-1 sequence. To identify new nuclear proteins that bind specifically to the AP-1 DNA-binding site, we devised a DNA-affinity-chromatography-based assay termed NAPSTER (nucleotide-affinity preincubation specificity test of recognition) and discovered a 49 kDa protein from human cancer cells that binds in a sequence-specific manner to the AP-1 DNA sequence. By tandem MS fragmentation sequencing analyses we determined that p49 is a YB-1. Immunoblotting of the NAPSTER-purified p49 protein using anti-YB-1 antibodies confirmed YB-1 binding to the AP-1 DNA sequence, as did gel mobility-supershift assays using YB-1 antibodies. This is the first report of YB-1 transrepression and interaction at the AP-1 DNA-binding site. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of autogenous fascia lata graft for perineal herniorrhaphy in dogs
Bongartz, Alexandre; Carofiglio, Francesca; Balligand, Marc ULiege et al

in Veterinary Surgery : The Official Journal of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons (2005), 34(4, JUL-AUG), 405-413

Objective-To evaluate the effectiveness of a herniorrhaphy technique, using an autogenous fascia lata graft (FLG) for perineal hernia (PH) repair in dogs. Study Design-Prospective clinical study. Animals ... [more ▼]

Objective-To evaluate the effectiveness of a herniorrhaphy technique, using an autogenous fascia lata graft (FLG) for perineal hernia (PH) repair in dogs. Study Design-Prospective clinical study. Animals-Twelve dogs with PH. Method-PHs were repaired with FLG harvested from the dog's ipsilateral thigh and sutured directly into the perineal defect. Correction of associated conditions, and castration were performed. Surgical time, pain, inflammation, pattern of defecation, lameness, hospitalization time, postoperative complications, and owner satisfaction were recorded. Histopathologic examination was performed in 1 dog euthanatized 10 months after repair. Results-Hernia did not recur (mean follow-up, 5.8 months). Lameness was the most frequent minor complication, and was resolved within a few days. Transient rectal prolapse occurred in 2 dogs with bilateral PH. The mean (+/- SD) hospitalization was 1.8 +/- 0.9 days, and the surgical time was 76.5 +/- 9.8 minutes. Histopathologic examination in 1 dog revealed perfect integration of FLG into adjacent tissues without substantial tissue reaction. Conclusions-FLG reconstruction of PH is a simple, effective method of treatment. Clinical Relevance-FLG can be used without major complications for primary repair of PH, as an augmentation procedure when the internal obturator muscle is thin or friable, or when herniation has recurred after another repair technique. (c) Copyright 2005 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons. [less ▲]

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See detailNonlinear resonant transport of Bose-Einstein condensates
Paul, T.; Richter, K.; Schlagheck, Peter ULiege

in Physical Review Letters (2005), 94(2),

The coherent flow of a Bose-Einstein condensate through a quantum dot in a magnetic waveguide is studied. By the numerical integration of the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation in the presence of a ... [more ▼]

The coherent flow of a Bose-Einstein condensate through a quantum dot in a magnetic waveguide is studied. By the numerical integration of the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation in the presence of a source term, we simulate the propagation process of the condensate through a double barrier potential in the waveguide. We find that resonant transport is suppressed in interaction-induced regimes of bistability, where multiple scattering states exist at the same chemical potential and the same incident current. We demonstrate, however, that a temporal control of the external potential can be used to circumvent this limitation and to obtain enhanced transmission near the resonance on experimentally realistic time scales. [less ▲]

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See detailSo close and so different: comparative phylogeography of two small mammal species, the yellow-necked fieldmouse (Apodemus flavicollis) and the woodmouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) in the Western Palearctic region.
Michaux, Johan ULiege; Libois, Roland ULiege; Filippucci, M*-G

in Heredity (2005), 94(1), 52-63

In Europe, concordant geographical distribution among genetic lineages within different species is rare, which suggests distinct reactions to Quaternary ice ages. This study aims to determine whether such ... [more ▼]

In Europe, concordant geographical distribution among genetic lineages within different species is rare, which suggests distinct reactions to Quaternary ice ages. This study aims to determine whether such a discrepancy also affects a pair of sympatric species, which are morphologically and taxonomically closely related but which have slight differences in their ecological habits. The phylogeographic structures of two European rodents, the Yellow-necked fieldmouse (A. flavicollis) and the woodmouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) were, therefore, compared on the basis of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b (mtDNA cyt b) sequences (965 base pairs) from 196 specimens collected from 59 European localities spread throughout the species distributions. The results indicate that the two species survived in different ways through the Quaternary glaciations. A. sylvaticus survived in the Iberian Peninsula from where it recolonized almost all Europe at the end of the last glaciation. Conversely, the refuge from which A. flavicollis recolonized Europe, including northern Spain, during the Holocene corresponds to the Italo-Balkan area, where A. sylvaticus suffered a serious genetic bottleneck. This study confirms that even closely related species may have highly different phylogeographic histories and shows the importance of ecological plasticity of the species for their survival through climate change. Finally, it suggests that phylogeographic distinctiveness may be a general feature of European species. [less ▲]

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See detailResonance- and chaos-assisted tunneling in mixed regular-chaotic systems
Eltschka, C.; Schlagheck, Peter ULiege

in Physical Review Letters (2005), 94(1), 014101

We present evidence that nonlinear resonances govern the tunneling process between symmetry-related islands of regular motion in mixed regular-chaotic systems. In a similar way as for near-integrable ... [more ▼]

We present evidence that nonlinear resonances govern the tunneling process between symmetry-related islands of regular motion in mixed regular-chaotic systems. In a similar way as for near-integrable tunneling, such resonances induce couplings between regular states within the islands and states that are supported by the chaotic sea. On the basis of this mechanism, we derive a semiclassical expression for the average tunneling rate, which yields good agreement in comparison with the exact quantum tunneling rates calculated for the kicked rotor and the kicked Harper. [less ▲]

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See detailOvid, Metamorphoses 1.258: Textual Criticism and Ovidian Mockery
Vanhaegendoren, Koen ULiege

in Antiquité Classique : Revue Interuniversitaire d'Etudes Classiques (2005), 74

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See detailNanoporous Thin Films from Self-Assembled Metallo-supramolecular Block Copolymers
Fustin, Charles-André; Lohmeijer, Bas G.G.; Duwez, Anne-Sophie ULiege et al

in Advanced Materials (2005), 17

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See detailKinetics of Exchange of Alkanethiol Monolayers Self-Assembled on Polycrystalline Gold
Baralia, Gabriel G.; Duwez, Anne-Sophie ULiege; Nysten, Bernard et al

in Langmuir (2005), 21

We report on the exchange between a hydrophilic thiol (11-mercapto-1-undecanol) in a liquid or gas phase and a hydrophobic thiol (dodecanethiol) of similar length self-assembled on a polycrystalline gold ... [more ▼]

We report on the exchange between a hydrophilic thiol (11-mercapto-1-undecanol) in a liquid or gas phase and a hydrophobic thiol (dodecanethiol) of similar length self-assembled on a polycrystalline gold surface for a wide range of temperatures and times. The molecular composition of the mixed monolayers is determined by the static water contact angle and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Atomic force microscopy in lateral forcemodeis used to characterize the molecular domains at the nanometer level. The exchange first occurs rapidly at the gold grain boundaries, with an activation energy of about 66 ( 4 kJ/mol. Then, boundaries of ordered thiol domains are progressively replaced, and the exchange is slowed because only regions of increasing perfection are left untouched. Higher temperatures lead to faster kinetics of replacement and the removal of larger amounts of the original thiol. No significant difference could be detected between exchange occurring in an ethanol solution or in the gas phase, and the initial rate of exchange was found to be similar for the displacement of dodecanethiol by 11-mercapto- 1-undecanol molecules and for the converse displacement [less ▲]

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See detailA quantitative and qualitative assessment of verbal short-term memory and phonological processing in 8-year-olds with a history of repetitive otitis media
Majerus, Steve ULiege; Amand, Pierre; Boniver, Vincent et al

in Journal of Communication Disorders (2005), 38(6), 473-498

Language outcome in children experiencing fluctuant hearing loss due to otitis media (OME) remains highly equivocal. In the current study, we assessed performance on highly sensitive verbal short-term ... [more ▼]

Language outcome in children experiencing fluctuant hearing loss due to otitis media (OME) remains highly equivocal. In the current study, we assessed performance on highly sensitive verbal short-term memory (STM), new word learning and phonological processing tasks in 8-year-old children who had suffered from recurrent OME before the age of 3. Relative to a control group with no history of OME, we observed strictly normal performance for different STM and new word learning tasks. Performance on these tasks was also normally influenced by phonotactic, lexical and semantic variables. However, at the level of phonological processing, a small but significant decrease of performance was found in a speeded nonword identification task and a rhyme judgment task. The results of this study suggest that outcome of OME is characterized by subtle impairments at the level of perceptual-phonological analysis, but there is no significant impact on verbal STM and new word learning abilities. Learning outcomes: As a result of this activity, the participant will be able to (1) explain the outcome of recurrent OME before age 3 on later language and verbal STM development, (2) be aware of the complex relationships that link language development and verbal STM, (3) explain how fluctuant hearing loss during infancy and early childhood could affect verbal STM development and learning capacity for new phonological information, (4) describe different verbal STM measures that distinguish retention capacities for phonological and lexico-semantic information, and (5) explain the influence of phonotactic frequency on nonword processing in language and verbal STM tasks. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailVis maior and vis cui resisti non potest
Gerkens, Jean-François ULiege

in Ex iusta traditur. Essays in honour of Eric H. Pool, University of South Africa ( Fundamina Editio specialis (2005)

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See detailExcited baryons in the 1/N(c) expansion
Matagne, Nicolas; Stancu, Floarea ULiege

in World Scientific (2005)

We review results for the mass spectrum of orbitally excited baryons obtained in the $1/N_c$ expansion. We show the dependence of various contributions to the mass operator as a function of the excitation ... [more ▼]

We review results for the mass spectrum of orbitally excited baryons obtained in the $1/N_c$ expansion. We show the dependence of various contributions to the mass operator as a function of the excitation energy. [less ▲]

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See detailDe Petronio Pompei Trogi lectore
Vanhaegendoren, Koen ULiege

in Bollettino di Studi Latini (2005), 34(2), 555-557

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See detailNonlinear transport of Bose-Einstein condensates through waveguides with disorder
Paul, T.; Leboeuf, P.; Pavloff, N. et al

in Physical Review. A (2005), 72(6),

We study the coherent flow of a guided Bose-Einstein condensate incident over a disordered region of length L. We introduce a model of disordered potential that originates from magnetic fluctuations ... [more ▼]

We study the coherent flow of a guided Bose-Einstein condensate incident over a disordered region of length L. We introduce a model of disordered potential that originates from magnetic fluctuations inherent to microfabricated guides. This model allows for analytical and numerical studies of realistic transport experiments. The repulsive interaction among the condensate atoms in the beam induces different transport regimes. Below some critical interaction (or for sufficiently small L) a stationary flow is observed. In this regime, the transmission decreases exponentially with increasing L. For strong interaction (or large L), the system displays a transition toward a time-dependent flow with an algebraic decay of the time-averaged transmission. [less ▲]

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See detailSodium nitroprusside-induced osteoblast apoptosis is mediated by long chain ceramide and is decreased by raloxifene.
Olivier, Sabine ULiege; Fillet, Marianne ULiege; Malaise, Michel ULiege et al

in Biochemical Pharmacology (2005), 69(6), 891-901

Release of high levels of nitric oxide (NO) is associated with osteoblastic cell death. The mechanisms of NO-induced cytotoxicity are not well documented and it is presently not known if estrogenic ... [more ▼]

Release of high levels of nitric oxide (NO) is associated with osteoblastic cell death. The mechanisms of NO-induced cytotoxicity are not well documented and it is presently not known if estrogenic compounds prevent this effect. We studied the role of ceramides in cell death induced by the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and we tested the possibility that 17beta-estradiol, the anti-estrogen ICI 182.780 and two selective estrogen receptor modulators raloxifene and tamoxifen modify osteoblastic cell apoptosis. SNP dose-dependently decreased MC3T3-E1 osteoblast viability, increased NO production in the culture media and enhanced the release of intracellular ceramides C22 and C24. Cell death induced by SNP was partially inhibited when MC3T3-E1 cells were pretreated with raloxifene and tamoxifen but was not modified when the cells were pretreated with 17beta-estradiol or ICI 182.780. Cell death induced by SNP resulted from apoptosis as demonstrated by Annexin-V and propidium iodide labeling and a reduction of SNP-induced MC3T3-E1 apoptosis was confirmed in the presence of raloxifene and tamoxifen. SNP induction of C22 and C24 production was inhibited by a pretreatment with raloxifene but not with 17beta-estradiol. Moreover, the synthetic ceramide C24 (0.75 and 1microM) decreased MC3T3-E1 cell viability and osteoblast cell death induced by C24 was partially decreased by raloxifene and to a lesser extent by 17beta-estradiol. These data demonstrate that SNP-induced cell death is mediated by the long chain ceramides C22 and C24 and that raloxifene protected osteoblast from apoptosis induced by SNP, an effect that might be relevant to its pharmacological properties on bone remodeling. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential expression of proteins in response to ceramide-mediated stress signal in colon cancer cells by 2-D gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF-MS.
Fillet, Marianne ULiege; Cren-Olive, Cécile; Renert, A.-F. et al

in Journal of Proteome Research (2005), 4(3), 870-80

Comparative cancer cell proteome analysis is a strategy to study the implication of ceramides in the transmission of stress signals. To better understand the mechanisms by which ceramide regulate some ... [more ▼]

Comparative cancer cell proteome analysis is a strategy to study the implication of ceramides in the transmission of stress signals. To better understand the mechanisms by which ceramide regulate some physiological or pathological events and the response to the pharmacological treatment of cancer, we performed a differential analysis of the proteome of HCT-116 (human colon carcinoma) cells in response to these substances. We first established the first 2-dimensional map of the HCT-116 proteome. Then, HCT116 cell proteome treated or not with C6-ceramide have been compared using two-dimensional electrophoresis, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry and bioinformatic (genomic databases). 2-DE gel analysis revealed more than fourty proteins that were differentially expressed in control cells and cells treated with ceramide. Among them, we confirmed the differential expression of proteins involved in apoptosis and cell adhesion. [less ▲]

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See detailPlasticity of cultured mesenchymal stem cells: switch from nestin-positive to excitable neuron-like phenotype.
Wislet-Gendebien, Sabine ULiege; Hans, Grégory ULiege; Leprince, Pierre ULiege et al

in Stem Cells (2005), 23(3), 392-402

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into several types of mesenchymal cells, including osteocytes, chondrocytes, and adipocytes, but, under appropriate experimental conditions, can ... [more ▼]

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into several types of mesenchymal cells, including osteocytes, chondrocytes, and adipocytes, but, under appropriate experimental conditions, can also differentiate into nonmesenchymal cells--for instance, neural cells. These observations have raised interest in the possible use of MSCs in cell therapy strategies for various neurological disorders. In the study reported here, we addressed the question of in vitro differentiation of MSCs into functional neurons. First, we demonstrate that when they are co-cultured with cerebellar granule neurons, adult MSCs can express neuronal markers. Two factors are needed for the emergence of neuronal differentiation of the MSCs: the first one is nestin expression by MSCs (nestin is a marker for the responsive character of MSCs to extrinsic signals), and the second one is a direct cell-cell interaction between neural cells and MSCs that allows the integration of these extrinsic signals. Three different approaches suggest that neural phenotypes arise from MSCs by a differentiation rather than a cell fusion process, although this last phenomenon can also coexist. The expression of several genes--including sox, pax, notch, delta, frizzled, and erbB--was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in order to further characterize the nestin-positive phenotype compared to the nestin-negative one. An overexpression of sox2, sox10, pax6, fzd, erbB2, and erbB4 is found in nestin-positive MSCs. Finally, electrophysiological analyses demonstrate that MSC-derived neuron-like cells can fire single-action potentials and respond to several neurotransmitters such as GABA, glycine, and glutamate. We conclude that nestin-positive MSCs can differentiate in vitro into excitable neuron-like cells. [less ▲]

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See detailDecay rates of planar helium
Madronero, J.; Schlagheck, Peter ULiege; Hilico, L. et al

in Europhysics Letters [=EPL] (2005), 70(2), 183-189

We compare the autoionization rates of characteristic configurations of the doubly excited helium atom, in one, two and three dimensions. We find that the decay rates of the two-dimensional restriction ... [more ▼]

We compare the autoionization rates of characteristic configurations of the doubly excited helium atom, in one, two and three dimensions. We find that the decay rates of the two-dimensional restriction are in quantitative agreement with those of the real physical system, whilst the one-dimensional model can underestimate the actual decay rates by orders of magnitude. [less ▲]

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See detailCurrent roles for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation following nonmyeloablative or reduced-intensity conditioning.
Baron, Frédéric ULiege; Storb, Rainer

in Clinical Advances in Hematology & Oncology (2005), 3(10), 799-819

Nonmyeloablative and reduced-intensity conditioning regimens followed by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) have been evaluated in patients with hematologic malignancies who were not ... [more ▼]

Nonmyeloablative and reduced-intensity conditioning regimens followed by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) have been evaluated in patients with hematologic malignancies who were not considered candidates for conventional HCT because of age or medical comorbidities and in selected patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. The regimens have relied more on graft-versus-tumor effects than on chemoradiation therapy to facilitate engraftment and eradicate malignant cells. While nonmyeloablative HCT has been associated with reduced regimen-related toxicities and has been curative for a number of patients with hematologic malignancies, challenges have remained in regard to graft-versus-host disease, infections, and disease progression. In this article, we review data from a number of published phase I and II studies that describe the results of allogeneic HCT after nonmyeloablative conditioning. [less ▲]

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See detailLa sécurité pour des élections libres et transparentes
Verjans, Pierre ULiege

in Fédéralisme - Régionalisme (2005), 5(n° spécial République démocratique du Congo, actes du colloque du 4 avril 2005),

Les conditions de construction d'un Etat de droit dépendent de l'existence préalable d'un Etat, c'est-à-dire d'un appareil bureaucratique qui peut empêcher la violence des autres institutions sur son ... [more ▼]

Les conditions de construction d'un Etat de droit dépendent de l'existence préalable d'un Etat, c'est-à-dire d'un appareil bureaucratique qui peut empêcher la violence des autres institutions sur son territoire et vis-à-vis de sa population. La première tâche en République démocratique du Congo, avant les élections de 2006, consiste à renforcer son appareil militaire. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis and biological evaluation of novel naphthocarbazoles as potential anticancer agents.
Routier, Sylvain; Peixoto, Paul ULiege; Merour, Jean-Yves et al

in Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2005), 48(5), 1401-13

We report the efficient synthesis involving palladium-catalyzed reactions and biological evaluation of new naphthocarbazoles designed as potential anticancer agents. The use of 5- and 6-benzyloxyindoles ... [more ▼]

We report the efficient synthesis involving palladium-catalyzed reactions and biological evaluation of new naphthocarbazoles designed as potential anticancer agents. The use of 5- and 6-benzyloxyindoles generated three substitution sites which were successively exploited to introduce several hydrophilic side chains. The cytotoxicity of the newly designed compounds was evaluated on three cell lines. Several compounds showed a marked cytotoxicity with IC(50) values in the sub-micromolar range. This is the case for the 3-hydroxy-naphthopyrrolocarbazoledione 37, bearing a dimethylaminoethyl side chain, which is extremely cytotoxic to L1210 and DU145 cells (IC(50): 36 nM, 108 nM) and induces an accumulation of L1210 cells in the G2+M phases of the cell cycle. Some of the most cytotoxic compounds were tested for inhibition of CDK-5, GSK-3 and topoisomerase I, and their interaction with DNA was also evaluated. Interaction with DNA was detected, suggesting that nucleic acids represent a privileged target for these molecules. [less ▲]

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See detailUtilization of methyloleate in production of microbial lipase
Destain, Jacqueline ULiege; Fickers, Patrick ULiege; Weekers, F. et al

in Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology (2005), 121(Spring), 269-277

In this article, we report the development and optimization of an industrial culture medium for the production of extracellular lipase in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. Until now olive oil in combination ... [more ▼]

In this article, we report the development and optimization of an industrial culture medium for the production of extracellular lipase in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. Until now olive oil in combination with glucose was used as the carbon source and inducer for the production of lipase. Our results demonstrate that methyloleate, a cheap hydrophobic compound, could efficiently substitute olive oil as the inducer and carbon source for lipase production. A new process of lipase production was developed yielding a twofold increase in the level of production compared with the levels in previous reports. [less ▲]

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See detailHaben die Zikaden eine Stimme? Anmerkungen zum Zirpen der Grillen in den Zikaden Ingeborg Bachmanns
Vanhaegendoren, Koen ULiege

in Il confronto letterario (2005), 43

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See detailRaymond Bouillenne
Gaspar, T; Streel, Maurice ULiege; Bernier, G et al

in Annuaire de l’Académie Royale de Belgique (2005)

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See detailTrophic position of Antarctic amphipods: enhanced analysis by a 2-dimensional biomarker assay
Nyssen, Fabienne ULiege; Brey, Thomas; Dauby, Patrick et al

in Marine Ecology. Progress Series (2005), 300

The discrepancy between the ecological significance of amphipods in the Antarctic and our poor knowledge of their ecofunctional role calls for a more detailed investigation of their trophic status in this ... [more ▼]

The discrepancy between the ecological significance of amphipods in the Antarctic and our poor knowledge of their ecofunctional role calls for a more detailed investigation of their trophic status in this ecosystem. A total of 12 amphipod species from suspension feeder to scavenger have been considered in this study. Our objective was to investigate whether the combination of fatty-acid and stable-isotope signatures into a 2-dimensional trophic biomarker assay would increase accuracy in the identification of Antarctic benthic amphipod trophic position. Amphipod isotopic averages ranged from -29.3 parts per thousand (delta(13)C) and 4.1 parts per thousand (delta(15)N) for the suspension feeder Ampelisca richardsoni to -21.7 parts per thousand (delta(13)C) and 11.9 parts per thousand (delta(15)N) for the high predator Iphimediella sp. Cluster analysis of the fatty-acid composition separated the amphipod species into 4 trophic groups: suspension feeders, macroherbivores, omnivores and scavengers. The suspension feeder was isolated due to an important proportion of 18:4(n-3), a fatty-acid biomarker of phytoplankton. Macro-herbivores were found to rely heavily on macroalgal carbon, containing a high percentage of arachidonic acid (20:4(n-6)). Scavenger amphipods revealed a unique fatty-acid composition dominated by 1 single fatty acid, 18:1(n-9), probably the result of a very intensive de novo biosynthesis to cope with starvation periods. Our data emphasise the need to combine different types of information to be able to draw the right conclusions regarding trophic ecology. Indeed, in some cases, the exclusive use of 1 type of tracing method, fatty acids or stable isotopes, would have resulted in misleading/false conclusions in the trophic classification of amphipods. Therefore, a 2-dimensional biomarker assay is a useful tool to elucidate the trophic positions of benthic amphipods. [less ▲]

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See detailVaricella-zoster virus IE63 protein phosphorylation by roscovitine-sensitive cyclin-dependent kinases modulates its cellular localization and activity.
Habran, Lionel ULiege; Bontems, Sébastien ULiege; Di Valentin, Emmanuel ULiege et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2005), 280(32), 29135-43

During the first stage of Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV) infection, IE63 (immediate early 63 protein) is mostly expressed in the nucleus and also slightly in the cytoplasm, and during latency, IE63 ... [more ▼]

During the first stage of Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV) infection, IE63 (immediate early 63 protein) is mostly expressed in the nucleus and also slightly in the cytoplasm, and during latency, IE63 localizes in the cytoplasm quite exclusively. Because phosphorylation is known to regulate various cellular mechanisms, we investigated the impact of phosphorylation by roscovitine-sensitive cyclin-dependent kinase (RSC) on the localization and functional properties of IE63. We demonstrated first that IE63 was phosphorylated on Ser-224 in vitro by CDK1 and CDK5 but not by CDK2, CDK7, or CDK9. Furthermore, by using roscovitine and CDK1 inhibitor III (CiIII), we showed that CDK1 phosphorylated IE63 on Ser-224 in vivo. By mutagenesis and the use of inhibitors, we demonstrated that phosphorylation on Ser-224 was important for the correct localization of the protein. Indeed, the substitution of these residues by alanine led to an exclusive nuclear localization of the protein, whereas mutations into glutamic acid did not modify its subcellular distribution. When transfected or VZV-infected cells were treated with roscovitine or CiIII, an exclusive nuclear localization of IE63 was also observed. By using a transfection assay, we also showed that phosphorylation on Ser-224 and Thr-222 was essential for the down-regulation of the basal activity of the VZV DNA polymerase gene promoter. Similarly, roscovitine and CiIII impaired these properties of the wild-type form of IE63. These observations clearly demonstrated the importance of CDK1-mediated IE63 phosphorylation for a correct distribution of IE63 between both cellular compartments and for its repressive activity toward the promoter tested. [less ▲]

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See detailLa politique agricole commune et l'environnement : sont-ils compatibles ?
Burny, Philippe ULiege

in Environment and Progress (2005), (5/2005), 51-58

This paper presents the successive regarding environment and included in the CAP. When the treaty establishing the European Economic Community was signed at Rome in 1957, a common policy was established ... [more ▼]

This paper presents the successive regarding environment and included in the CAP. When the treaty establishing the European Economic Community was signed at Rome in 1957, a common policy was established in the field of agriculture, and five objectives were defined. [less ▲]

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See detailZur Intentionalität der Benutzung literarischer Quellen bei Ammianus Marcellinus
Vanhaegendoren, Koen ULiege

in Klio : Beiträge zur alten Geschichte (2005), 87

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See detailConsensus algorithms for the generation of all maximal bicliques
Alexe, Gabriela; Alexe, Sorin; Crama, Yves ULiege et al

in Discrete Applied Mathematics (2004), 145(1 Sp. Iss. SI), 11-21

We describe a new algorithm for generating all maximal bicliques (i.e. complete bipartite. not necessarily induced subgraphs) of a graph. The algorithm is inspired by, and is quite similar to. the ... [more ▼]

We describe a new algorithm for generating all maximal bicliques (i.e. complete bipartite. not necessarily induced subgraphs) of a graph. The algorithm is inspired by, and is quite similar to. the consensus method used in propositional logic. We show that some variants of the algorithm are totally polynomial, and even incrementally polynomial. The total complexity of the most efficient variant of the algorithms presented here is polynomial in the input size. and only linear in the output size. Computational experiments demonstrate its high efficiency on randomly generated graphs with up to 2000 vertices and 20,000 edges. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailGeneration of transient dayside subauroral proton precipitation
Fuselier, S. A.; Gary, S. P.; Thomsen, M. F. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics (2004), 109(A12),

The Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration ( IMAGE) spacecraft obtained the first global images of the proton aurora. One of the discoveries from these images was a region of proton ... [more ▼]

The Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration ( IMAGE) spacecraft obtained the first global images of the proton aurora. One of the discoveries from these images was a region of proton precipitation equatorward of the nominal auroral oval. This precipitation can be observed for similar to10 min immediately following a large solar wind pressure pulse. Various mechanisms have been proposed for producing this precipitation. This study focuses on one of the proposed mechanisms, the scattering and precipitation of protons due to interaction with electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves. Using data from the IMAGE spacecraft FUV and EUV imagers, in situ ring current data from the Los Alamos geosynchronous spacecraft, and in situ solar wind data from the ACE spacecraft, two features of the precipitation, the local time occurrence and limited latitudinal extent, are explained. The local time occurrence of the precipitation is correlated with the orientation of the pressure pulse front in the solar wind. The limited latitudinal extent of the emissions appears to be related to the interaction between the hot ring current protons and the cold plasmaspheric ions that gives rise to EMIC wave growth. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of response models for optimising HPLC methods
Dewé, Walthère ULiege; Marini Djang'Eing'A, Roland ULiege; Chiap, Patrice ULiege et al

in Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems (2004), 74(2), 263-268

For optimizing a liquid chromatographic method, direct modeling some responses like minimum resolution is sometimes difficult to perform. By modeling the retention time at apex and the times associated to ... [more ▼]

For optimizing a liquid chromatographic method, direct modeling some responses like minimum resolution is sometimes difficult to perform. By modeling the retention time at apex and the times associated to 13.4% of the peak height, it is possible to obtain estimations of these responses using an adequate cascade of equations, these equations being the definitions of these responses. As a multi-criteria decision has to be taken in most of these optimizations, a Derringer's function can be defined for each response of interest and a overall desirability, on which the final is taken, can be derived. In addition, the chromatogram in any experimental point can be predicted. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailLactone end-capped poly(ethylene oxide) as a new building block for biomaterials
Rieger, Jutta ULiege; Bernaerts, Katrien V.; Du Prez, Filip E et al

in Macromolecules (2004), 37(26), 9738-9745

This paper reports on the synthesis of a novel poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) macromonomer, which can be copolymerized with epsilon-caprolactone (epsilon-CL) by ring-opening polymerization (ROP). PEO chains ... [more ▼]

This paper reports on the synthesis of a novel poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) macromonomer, which can be copolymerized with epsilon-caprolactone (epsilon-CL) by ring-opening polymerization (ROP). PEO chains end-capped by an epsilon-caprolactone unit (gammaPEO(.)CL) have been synthesized by living anionic ring-opening polymerization of ethylene oxide (EO) initiated by the potassium alkoxide of 1,4-dioxaspiro[4.5]decan-8-ol, followed by derivatization of the acetal into a ketone and the Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of the ketone into a lactone. The end-capping of PEO by epsilon-CL was assessed by FTIR, MALDI-TOF, and H-1 NMR spectroscopy. This type of macromonomer is a precursor of amphiphilic comblike copolymers consisting of a biodegradable hydrophobic backbone of poly-(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) and hydrophilic PEO grafts. Copolymerization of gammaPEO(.)CL with epsilon-CL was successfully initiated by aluminum alkoxide. [less ▲]

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See detailMCI conversion to dementia and the APOE genotype : A prediction study with FDG-PET
Mosconi, L.; Perani, D.; Sorbi, S. et al

in Neurology (2004), 63(12), 2332-2340

Objectives: To investigate whether the combination of fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET measures with the APOE genotype would improve prediction of the conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to ... [more ▼]

Objectives: To investigate whether the combination of fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET measures with the APOE genotype would improve prediction of the conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer disease ( AD). Method: After 1 year, 8 of 37 patients with MCI converted to AD (22%). Differences in baseline regional glucose metabolic rate (rCMRglc) across groups were assessed on a voxel-based basis using a two-factor analysis of variance with outcome (converters [n = 8] vs nonconverters [n = 29]) and APOE genotype (E4 carriers [E4+] [n = 16] vs noncarriers [E4-] [n = 21]) as grouping factors. Results were considered significant at p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons. Results: All converters showed reduced rCMRglc in the inferior parietal cortex (IPC) as compared with the nonconverters. Hypometabolism in AD-typical regions, that is, temporoparietal and posterior cingulate cortex, was found for the E4+ as compared with the E4- patients, with the E4+/converters (n = 5) having additional rCMRglc reductions within frontal areas, such as the anterior cingulate (ACC) and inferior frontal (IFC) cortex. For the whole MCI sample, IPC rCMRglc predicted conversion to AD with 84% overall diagnostic accuracy (p = 0.003). Moreover, ACC and IFC rCMRglc improved prediction for the E4+ group, yielding 100% sensitivity, 90% specificity, and 94% accuracy (p < 0.0005), thus leading to an excellent discrimination. Conclusion: Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-PET measures may improve prediction of the conversion to Alzheimer disease, especially in combination with the APOE genotype. [less ▲]

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See detailCrp of Streptomyces Coelicolor Is the Third Transcription Factor of the Large Crp-Fnr Superfamily Able to Bind Camp
Derouaux, Adeline ULiege; Dehareng, Dominique ULiege; Lecocq, Elke et al

in Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (2004), 325(3), 983-90

The chromosomal inactivation of the unique transcription factor of Streptomyces coelicolor that displays a cyclic-nucleotide-binding domain, Crp(Sco), led to a germination-defective phenotype similar to ... [more ▼]

The chromosomal inactivation of the unique transcription factor of Streptomyces coelicolor that displays a cyclic-nucleotide-binding domain, Crp(Sco), led to a germination-defective phenotype similar to the mutant of the adenylate cyclase gene (cya) unable to produce cAMP. By means of cAMP affinity chromatography we demonstrate the specific cAMP-binding ability of Crp(Sco), which definitely demonstrate that a Cya/cAMP/Crp system is used to trigger germination in S. coelicolor. However, electromobility shift assays with the purified Crp(Sco)-cAMP complex and the CRP-like cis-acting element of its own promoter failed. Moreover, we were unable to complement an Escherichia coli crp mutant in trans with Crp(Sco). The fact that Vfr from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and GlxR from Corynebacterium glutamicum could complement such an E. coli mutant suggests that the way Crp(Sco) interacts with DNA should mechanistically differ from its most similar members. This hypothesis was further supported by homology modelling of Crp(Sco) that confirmed an unusual organisation of the DNA-binding domain compared to the situation observed in Crp(Eco). [less ▲]

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See detailHypogonadism in a Patient with a Mutation in the Luteinizing Hormone Beta-Subunit Gene
Valdes Socin, Hernan Gonzalo ULiege; Salvi, R.; Daly, Adrian ULiege et al

in New England Journal of Medicine [=NEJM] (2004), 351(25), 2619-2625

A 30-year-old man who presented with delayed puberty and infertility was found to have hypogonadism associated with an absence of circulating luteinizing hormone. The patient had a homozygous missense ... [more ▼]

A 30-year-old man who presented with delayed puberty and infertility was found to have hypogonadism associated with an absence of circulating luteinizing hormone. The patient had a homozygous missense mutation in the gene that encodes the beta subunit of luteinizing hormone (Gly36Asp), a mutation that disrupted a vital cystine knot motif and abrogated the heterodimerization and secretion of luteinizing hormone. Treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin increased circulating testosterone, promoted virilization, and was associated with the appearance of normal spermatozoa in low concentrations. This case illustrates the important physiological role that luteinizing hormone plays in male sexual maturation and fertility. [less ▲]

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See detailBubble and granular flows: differences and similarities
Caps, Hervé ULiege; Trabelsi, Samy ULiege; Dorbolo, Stéphane ULiege et al

in Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications (2004), 344(3-4), 424-430

We have experimentally studied the dense flow of identical bubbles below planes inclined at an angle theta. The flow is driven by the fast motion of dislocations. As a function of the density of ... [more ▼]

We have experimentally studied the dense flow of identical bubbles below planes inclined at an angle theta. The flow is driven by the fast motion of dislocations. As a function of the density of dislocations (controlled by the parameter theta), a transition occurs between a simple collective block motion and a granular-like surface flow regime. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailZoledronic acid up-regulates bone sialoprotein expression in osteoblastic cells through Rho GTPase inhibition
Chaplet, Michaël; Deroanne, Christophe ULiege; Fisher, Larry W. et al

in Biochemical Journal (2004), 384(Pt 3), 591-598

Clinical practice reveals that osteoporotic women treated with BPs (bisphosphonates) show an increased bone mass density and a reduced risk of fractures. However, the mechanisms leading to these ... [more ▼]

Clinical practice reveals that osteoporotic women treated with BPs (bisphosphonates) show an increased bone mass density and a reduced risk of fractures. However, the mechanisms leading to these beneficial effects of BPs are still poorly understood. We hypothesized that ZOL (zoledronic acid), a potent third-generation BP, may induce the expression of proteins associated with the bone-forming potential of osteoblastic cells such as BSP (bone sialoprotein). Expression of BSP gene is up-regulated by hormones that promote bone formation and has been associated with de novo bone mineralization. Using real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR and Western-blot analysis, we demonstrated that ZOL increased BSP expression in Saos-2 osteoblast-like cells. Nuclear run-on and mRNA decay assays showed no effect at the transcriptional level but a stabilization of BSP transcripts in ZOL-treated cells. ZOL effect on BSP expression occurred through an interference with the mevalonate pathway since it was reversed by either mevalonate pathway intermediates or a Rho GTPase activator. We showed that ZOL impaired membrane localization of RhoA in Saos-2 cells indicating reduced prenylation of this protein. By the use of small interfering RNAs directed to RhoA and Rac1, we identified both Rho GTPases as negative regulators of BSP expression in Saos-2 cells. Our study demonstrates that ZOL induces BSP expression in osteoblast-like cells through inactivation of Rho GTPases and provides a potential mechanism to explain the favourable effects of ZOL treatment on bone mass and integrity. [less ▲]

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See detailCurrent levels of drug resistance among therapy-naive HIV-infected patients have significant impact on treatment response
Derdelinckx, Inge; Van Laethem, Kristel; Maes, Bart et al

in Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes [=JAIDS] (2004), 37(5), 1664-1666

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See detailCyclo-oxygenase type 2-dependent prostaglandin E-2 secretion is involved in retrovirus-induced T-cell dysfunction in mice
Rahmouni, Souad ULiege; Aandahl, Einar Martin; Nayjib, Btissam ULiege et al

in Biochemical Journal (2004), 384(Pt 3), 469-476

MAIDS (murine AIDS) is caused by infection with the murine leukaemia retrovirus RadLV-Rs and is characterized by a severe immunodeficiency and T-cell anergy combined with a lymphoproliferative disease ... [more ▼]

MAIDS (murine AIDS) is caused by infection with the murine leukaemia retrovirus RadLV-Rs and is characterized by a severe immunodeficiency and T-cell anergy combined with a lymphoproliferative disease affecting both B- and T-cells. Hyperactivation of the cAMP-protein kinase A pathway is involved in the T-cell dysfunction of MAIDS and HIV by inhibiting T-cell activation through the T-cell receptor. In the present study, we show that MAIDS involves a strong and selective up-regulation of cyclo-oxygenase type 2 in the CD11b+ subpopulation of T- and B-cells of the lymph nodes, leading to increased levels of PGE2 (prostaglandin E2). PGE2 activates the cAMP pathway through G-protein-coupled receptors. Treatment with cyclo-oxygenase type 2 inhibitors reduces the level of PGE2 and thereby reverses the T-cell anergy, restores the T-cell immune function and ameliorates the lymphoproliferative disease. [less ▲]

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See detailPreparation and characterization of xerogel catalyst microspheres
Alié, Christelle ULiege; Ferauche, Fabrice; Heinrichs, Benoît ULiege et al

in Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids (2004), 350

For easier handling and use in fixed bed reactors, Pd-Ag/SiO2 aerogel-like xerogel catalysts were shaped into microspheres using the microencapsulation process developed by BRACE GmbH. Before the bead ... [more ▼]

For easier handling and use in fixed bed reactors, Pd-Ag/SiO2 aerogel-like xerogel catalysts were shaped into microspheres using the microencapsulation process developed by BRACE GmbH. Before the bead production process, the xerogel catalyst was ground in water and mixed with ethylene glycol and sodium alginate, the latter of which is the gelation agent. The beads were formed at a vibrating nozzle and solidified during their fall in a water tank containing calcium ions, which induce cross-linking of the alginate and consequent bead hardening. Preliminary work was done using a syringe instead of the material-consuming BRACE unit. The beads were made from a suspension of dried only, dried and calcined, or dried, calcined, and reduced catalyst. The textural properties of the beads were analyzed by nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms and mercury porosimetry; and bead catalytic activity was tested for selective hydrodechlorination of 1,2-dichloroethane. The beads made from a suspension of dried catalyst appear to have properties the closest to that of the xerogel reference catalyst. Porosity and surface area are maintained at their level before bead formation. However conversion of 1,2-dichloroethane decreases after the production process, possibly due to poisoning by calcium ions. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailMise en évidence de la faille de Marenne sur la carte géologique Aye - Marche-en-Famenne
Coen-Aubert, Marie; Barchy, Laurent ULiege; Marion, Jean-Marc ULiege et al

in Bulletin de l'Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique, Sciences de la Terre (2004), 74(supplement), 59-7118

The revision of the geological map Aye - Marche-en-Famenne (Belgium, Wallonia, Hotton) has emphasized an important deformation structure named the Marenne Fault. This fault is clearly visible at the ... [more ▼]

The revision of the geological map Aye - Marche-en-Famenne (Belgium, Wallonia, Hotton) has emphasized an important deformation structure named the Marenne Fault. This fault is clearly visible at the southeastern face of the Marenne quarry. The dating by rugose corals has allowed to define with precision the Givetian lithologic units that have been put in contact by this normal faul with a later, right-lateral strike-slip component. This fault, that may be traced over a few kilometers to the East, is probably late Hercynian, of the same type and origin as the Lamsoul Fault know to the South of Marche-en-Famenne. It seems to form part of a family of faults which are regularly observed on the south side of the Dinant Synclinorium. [less ▲]

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See detailA period and a prediction for the Of ? p spectrum alternator HD 191612
Walborn, Nolan R.; Howarth, Ian D.; Rauw, Grégor ULiege et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2004), 617(1, Part 2), 61-64

The observational picture of the enigmatic O-type spectrum variable HD 191612 has been sharpened substantially. A symmetrical, low-amplitude light curve with a period near 540 days has recently been ... [more ▼]

The observational picture of the enigmatic O-type spectrum variable HD 191612 has been sharpened substantially. A symmetrical, low-amplitude light curve with a period near 540 days has recently been reported from Hipparcos photometry. This period satisfies all of the spectroscopy since at least 1982, including extensive new observations during 2003 and 2004, and it has predicted the next transition during 2004 September - October. Measurements of the Ha equivalent width reveal a sharp emission peak in the phase diagram, in contrast to the apparently sinusoidal light curve. The He II absorption-line strength is essentially constant, while He I varies strongly, possibly filled in by emission in the O6 state, thus producing the apparent spectral type variations. The O8 state appears to be the "normal" one. Two intermediate O7 observations have been obtained, which fall at the expected phases, but these are the only modern observations of the transitions so far. The period is too long for rotation or pulsation; although there is no direct evidence as yet for a companion, a model in which tidally induced oscillations drive an enhanced wind near periastron of an eccentric orbit appears promising. Further observations during the now predictable transitions may provide a critical test. Ultraviolet and X-ray observations during both states will likely also prove illuminating. [less ▲]

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See detailEts-dependent regulation of target gene expression during megakaryopoiesis
Jackers, Pascale ULiege; Szalai, Gabor; Moussa, Omar et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2004), 279(50), 52183-52190

Megakaryopoiesis is the process by which hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow differentiate into mature megakaryocytes. The expression of megakaryocytic genes during megakaryopoiesis is controlled ... [more ▼]

Megakaryopoiesis is the process by which hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow differentiate into mature megakaryocytes. The expression of megakaryocytic genes during megakaryopoiesis is controlled by specific transcription factors. Fli-1 and GATA-1 transcription factors are required for development of megakaryocytes and promoter analysis has defined in vitro functional binding sites for these factors in several megakaryocytic genes, including GPIIb, GPIX, and C-MPL. Herein, we utilize chromatin immunoprecipitation to examine the presence of Ets-1, Fli-1, and GATA-1 on these promoters in vivo. Fli-1 and Ets-1 occupy the promoters of GPIIb, GPIX, and C-MPL genes in both Meg-01 and CMK11-5 cells. Whereas GPIIb is expressed in both Meg-01 and CMK11-5 cells, GPIX and C-MPL are only expressed in the more differentiated CMK11-5 cells. Thus, in vivo occupancy by an Ets factor is not sufficient to promote transcription of some megakaryocytic genes. GATA-1 and Fli-1 are both expressed in CMK11-5 cells and co-occupy the GPIX and C-MPL promoters. Transcription of all three megakaryocytic genes is correlated with the presence of acetylated histone H3 and phosphorylated RNA polymerase II on their promoters. We also show that exogenous expression of GATA-1 in Meg-01 cells leads to the expression of endogenous c-mpl and gpIX mRNA. Whereas GPIIb, GPIX, and C-MPL are direct target genes for Fli-1, both Fli-1 and GATA-1 are required for formation of an active transcriptional complex on the C-MPL and GPIX promoters in vivo. In contrast, GPIIb expression appears to be independent of GATA-1 in Meg-01 cells. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphology and seasonal variations of global auroral proton precipitation observed by IMAGE-FUV
Coumans, Valérie ULiege; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULiege; Hubert, Benoît ULiege et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics (2004), 109(A12),

Observations with the FUV imagers on board the IMAGE satellite have been used to map the auroral electron and proton energy fluxes during the summer and winter solstices of 2000, in order to construct a ... [more ▼]

Observations with the FUV imagers on board the IMAGE satellite have been used to map the auroral electron and proton energy fluxes during the summer and winter solstices of 2000, in order to construct a statistical view of the global auroral proton precipitation. The distribution for electrons compare well both in morphology and in magnitude with those obtained previously with the Polar-UVI instruments and with an empirical auroral precipitation model based on DMSP data. The proton morphology also closely resembles the statistical ion oval derived from DMSP data, showing a "C-shaped'' morphology with a minimum located in the morning sector. The precipitation proton auroral power is on the order of 2.2 GW for an average Kp value of 2, also in close agreement with the values of the DMSP empirical model. The FUV data also reveal the presence of seasonal effects in the proton precipitation. Specifically, the latitudinal width of the proton oval is larger in summer than in winter so that the globally precipitated proton power is 1.5 times higher in summer than in winter. The occurrence probability of intense proton auroras (with energy flux >0.5 mW m(-2)) is also shown to be nearly three times higher in summer than in winter. This seasonal effect in the proton precipitation contrasts with those observed for electrons, where intense electron events occur more often in winter than in summer. We discuss a mechanism that may account for these results based on the presence of field-aligned potential drops which accelerate auroral electrons downward in regions of upward directed field-aligned current, while suppressing the precipitating magnetospheric proton flux. The presence of such field-aligned potentials is dependent on the differing solar illumination in winter and summer. [less ▲]

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See detailThe p40* adhesin pseudogene of Mycoplasma bovis
Thomas, Anne; Linden, Annick ULiege; Mainil, Jacques ULiege et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (2004), 104(3-4), 213-217

An analogue of the adhesin gene p40 of Mycoplasma agalactiae was found in Mycoplasma bovis. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the p40* gene in M. bovis revealed the presence of a large deletion involving a ... [more ▼]

An analogue of the adhesin gene p40 of Mycoplasma agalactiae was found in Mycoplasma bovis. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the p40* gene in M. bovis revealed the presence of a large deletion involving a frameshift that causes premature truncation of the translated protein, indicating that p40* exists as a pseudogene in M. bovis. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimal procurement decisions in the presence of total quantity discounts and alternative product recipes
Crama, Yves ULiege; Pascual, R.; Torres, A.

in European Journal of Operational Research (2004), 159(2), 364-378

We describe the purchasing decisions faced by a multi-plant company. The suppliers of this company offer complex discount schedules based on the total quantity (rather than cost) of ingredients purchased ... [more ▼]

We describe the purchasing decisions faced by a multi-plant company. The suppliers of this company offer complex discount schedules based on the total quantity (rather than cost) of ingredients purchased. The schedules simultaneously account both for corporate purchases and for purchases at the individual plant level. The complexity of the purchasing decisions is further increased due to the existence of alternative production recipes for each final product. We formulate the corresponding cost-minimization problem as a nonlinear mixed 0-1 programming problem. We propose various ways to linearize this formulation, and we evaluate the quality of the resulting models on real-world data. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailKinetic and structural optimization to catalysis at low temperatures in a psychrophilic cellulase from the Antarctic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis
Garsoux, G.; Lamotte, J.; Gerday, Charles ULiege et al

in Biochemical Journal (2004), 384(Pt 2), 247-253

The cold-adapted cellulase CelG has been purified from the culture supernatant of the Antarctic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis and the gene coding for this enzyme has been cloned, sequenced and ... [more ▼]

The cold-adapted cellulase CelG has been purified from the culture supernatant of the Antarctic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis and the gene coding for this enzyme has been cloned, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli. This cellulase is composed of three structurally and functionally distinct regions: an N-terminal catalytic domain belonging to glycosidase family 5 and a C-terminal cellulose-binding domain belonging to carbohydrate-binding module family 5. The linker of 107 residues connecting both domains is one of the longest found in cellulases, and optimizes substrate accessibility to the catalytic domain by drastically increasing the Surface of cellulose available to a bound enzyme molecule. The psychrophilic enzyme is closely related to the cellulase Cel5 from Erwinia chrysanthemi. Both k(cat) and k(cat)/K-m values at 4 degreesC for the psychrophilic cellulase are similar to the values for Cel5 at 30-35 degreesC, suggesting temperature adaptation of the kinetic parameters. The thermodynamic parameters of activation of CelG suggest a heat-labile, relatively disordered active site with low substrate affinity, in agreement with the experimental data. The structure of CelG has been constructed by homology modelling with a molecule of cellotetraose docked into the active site. No structural alteration related to cold-activity can be found in the catalytic cleft, whereas several structural factors in the overall structure can explain the weak thermal stability, suggesting that the loss of stability provides the required active-site mobility at low temperatures. [less ▲]

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See detailAsteroseismology of the β Cephei star ν Eridani: massive exploration of standard and non-standard stellar models to fit the oscillation data
Ausseloos, M.; Scuflaire, Richard ULiege; Thoul, Anne ULiege et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2004), 355

We present the results of a detailed seismic modelling of the β Cephei star ν Eridani with the Liège evolution and pulsation codes. We selected four clearly detected, well-identified and independent ... [more ▼]

We present the results of a detailed seismic modelling of the β Cephei star ν Eridani with the Liège evolution and pulsation codes. We selected four clearly detected, well-identified and independent pulsation modes from the frequency spectrum obtained from a recent five-month multisite, multitechnique campaign, while previous modelling work only took into account three frequencies. We show by means of a massive exploration of the parameter space that no standard stellar model both matches and excites these four observed modes, in contrast to the conclusion reached when considering only three frequencies. Therefore, we have considered stellar models with different metal mixtures and different initial hydrogen abundance values. We show that an increase in the relative number fraction of iron throughout the whole star or a large decrease in the initial hydrogen abundance make the stellar models matching the four selected modes satisfy all observational constraints and we provide the general properties of the best such physical models. [less ▲]

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See detailPhylogeny, biogeography, and the evolution of life-history traits in Leucadendron (Proteaceae)
Barker, N. P.; Vanderpoorten, Alain ULiege; Morton, C. M. et al

in Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution (2004), 33(3), 845-860

Leucadendron is a moderately large genus of Proteaccae almost entirely restricted to the Cape Floristic Region of southern Africa. The genus is unusual in being dioecious and sexually dimorphic. ITS ... [more ▼]

Leucadendron is a moderately large genus of Proteaccae almost entirely restricted to the Cape Floristic Region of southern Africa. The genus is unusual in being dioecious and sexually dimorphic. ITS sequence data were obtained from 62 of the 96 currently recognized taxa (85 species and 11 subspecies). Phylogenetic analyses were conducted under Maximum Likelihood and parsimony and resolved nine groups of species with varying degrees of bootstrap support, but relationships between these groups are largely unsupported. The phylogeny conflicts with the current taxonomic arrangement, which is based mainly on fruit morphology. The two sections of the genus, Alatosperma and Leucadendron, and several subsections within these sections, are resolved as non-monophyletic. This means that taxonomically important characters (such as fruit shape) have evolved multiple times, as the species with nutlike fruit (resolved into two of the nine groups) appear to have evolved independently from ancestors with winged fruit. Based on the topology obtained, the life history traits of anemophily, myrmechochory, and re-sprouting have also originated multiple times. Dispersal-Vicariance (DIVA) analysis suggests that the genus had an ancestral area in the Karoo Mountain and Southeastern phytogeographic centres of endemism in the southwestern Cape. (C) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreased expression of receptor activator of NF-kappa B ligand (RANKL), its receptor RANK and its decoy receptor osteoprotegerin in the colon of Crohn's disease patients
Franchimont, N.; Reenaers, Catherine ULiege; Lambert, Chantal ULiege et al

in Clinical & Experimental Immunology (2004), 138(3), 491-498

Crohn's disease (CD) is associated with low bone mass due to chronic inflammation and other factors. Receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL), its receptor RANK and its decoy receptor ... [more ▼]

Crohn's disease (CD) is associated with low bone mass due to chronic inflammation and other factors. Receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL), its receptor RANK and its decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG) are potentially involved in this process as they regulate osteoclastogenesis and are influenced by pro-inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of soluble RANKL (sRANKL), RANK and OPG expression both in the serum and in the colon of CD patients. Levels of sRANKL and OPG were assessed in the serum and the supernatants of cultured colonic biopsies in patients with CD and controls by ELISA. RANK expression was explored by immunostaining and immunofluorescence of fixed colonic samples. OPG and sRANKL levels were higher in the serum of CD patients as compared to age- and sex-matched controls. Levels of sRANKL and OPG were significantly enhanced in cultured colonic biopsies from CD, and OPG levels correlated with histological inflammation, and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels. No significant correlation was found for sRANKL. RANK(+) cells were increased in the colon of CD, particularly in inflamed areas. These cells were positive for CD68 or S100 protein. We conclude that serum and local levels of sRANKL and OPG are increased in CD. Moreover, RANK is expressed in the colonic mucosa by subpopulations of activated macrophages or dendritic cells at higher levels in CD compared to normal colon. [less ▲]

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See detailAn insulin-like growth factor 2-derived self-antigen inducing a regulatory cytokine profile after presentation to peripheral blood mononuclear cells from DQ8(+) type 1 diabetic adolescents - Preliminary design of a thymus-based tolerogenic self-vaccination
Geenen, Vincent ULiege; Louis, Céline ULiege; Martens, Henri ULiege

in Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (2004), 1037

This work aims to evaluate the potential use of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) as the dominant thymic self-antigen precursor of the insulin family in designing a tolerogenic approach to type 1 ... [more ▼]

This work aims to evaluate the potential use of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) as the dominant thymic self-antigen precursor of the insulin family in designing a tolerogenic approach to type 1 diabetes (T1D) prevention. This evaluation was primarily based on cytokine profile driven by MHC presentation of insulin and IGF-2-derived antigens to PBMC cultures derived from 16 T1D DQ8(+) adolescents. Insulin B9-23, one dominant P-cell autoantigen, and the homologous sequence B11-25 of IGF-2 display the same affinity and fully compete for binding to DQ8, a MHC-II allele conferring major genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, compared to insulin beta 9-23, presentation of IGF-2 B11-25 elicits a suppressive/regulatory cytokine profile with a higher number of IL-10-secreting cells (P < 0.05), a much higher ratio of IL-10/IFN-gamma (P < 0.01), as well as a lower number of IL-4-secreting cells (P < 0.05). Thus, with regard to T1D prevention, administration of IGF-2-derived self-antigen(s) seems to be an efficient approach that combines both antagonism for binding to a major susceptibility MHC-II allele, as well as downstream promotion of an antigen-driven tolerogenic response. [less ▲]

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See detailInformation et échanges autour de la vaccination : une expérience positive
Miermans, Marie-Christine ULiege

in Promouvoir la santé à l'école (2004), (8), 3-4

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See detailWealth Breeds Decline: Reversals of Leadership and Consumption Habits
Artige, Lionel ULiege; Camacho, Carmen; de la Croix, David

in Journal of Economic Growth (2004), 9(4), 423-449

In a two-region model, we formalize Kindlebergerrsquos idea that wealth breeds first more wealth, and then decline: when one region leads, its inhabitants develop consumption habits incompatible with the ... [more ▼]

In a two-region model, we formalize Kindlebergerrsquos idea that wealth breeds first more wealth, and then decline: when one region leads, its inhabitants develop consumption habits incompatible with the necessary investment in knowledge to remain the leader. This gives the other region a window of opportunity to gain economic primacy. The theory suggests that differences across regions that have similar characteristics may persist even if physical capital flows from rich to poor regions. We study patterns of overtaking, alternating primacy, irreversible decline, and monotonic convergence, according to the initial dispersion of knowledge and the strength of consumption habits. Even though exogenous factors may matter on some occasions, we show that they are not necessary to reverse economic leadership. [less ▲]

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See detailNew integrative method to generate Bacillus subtilis recombinant strains free of selection markers
Brans, Alain ULiege; Filée, Patrice ULiege; Chevigné, Andy ULiege et al

in Applied and Environmental Microbiology (2004), 70(12), 7241-7250

The novel method described in this paper combines the use of blaI, which encodes a repressor involved in Bacillus licheniformis BlaP beta-lactamase regulation, an antibiotic resistance gene, and a B ... [more ▼]

The novel method described in this paper combines the use of blaI, which encodes a repressor involved in Bacillus licheniformis BlaP beta-lactamase regulation, an antibiotic resistance gene, and a B. subtilis strain (BS1541) that is conditionally auxotrophic for lysine. We constructed a BlaI cassette containing blaI and the spectinomycin resistance genes and two short direct repeat DNA sequences, one at each extremity of the cassette. The BS1541 strain was obtained by replacing the B. subtilis P(lysA) promoter with that of the P(blaP) beta-lactamase promoter. In the resulting strain, the cloning of the blaI repressor gene confers lysine auxotrophy to BS1541. After integration of the BlaI cassette into the chromosome of a conditionally lys-auxotrophic (BS1541) strain by homologous recombination and positive selection for spectinomycin resistance, the eviction of the BlaI cassette was achieved by single crossover between the two short direct repeat sequences. This strategy was successfully used to inactivate a single gene and to introduce a gene of interest in the Bacillus chromosome. In both cases the resulting strains are free of selection marker. This allows the use of the BlaI cassette to repeatedly further modify the Bacillus chromosome. [less ▲]

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See detailPrimary prevention of osteoporosis: Mass screening scenario or prescreening with questionnaires? An economic perspective
Richy, F.; Ethgen, Olivier ULiege; Bruyère, Olivier ULiege et al

in Journal of Bone and Mineral Research (2004), 19(12), 1955-1960

This study focuses on the controversy surrounding selective approaches to screen for osteoporosis. Seven screening approaches were compared in terms of cost-effectiveness and incremental cost ... [more ▼]

This study focuses on the controversy surrounding selective approaches to screen for osteoporosis. Seven screening approaches were compared in terms of cost-effectiveness and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios in a sample of 4035 postmenopausal women. Our results show that certain prescreening strategies are more efficient than DXA-based approaches. These results are of considerable value for health policy decision-makers and the scientific community. [less ▲]

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See detailCerebral folate deficiency
Ramaekers, Vincent ULiege; Blau, Nenad

in Developmental medicine and child neurology (2004), 46(12), 843-51

Cerebral folate deficiency (CFD) can be defined as any neurological syndrome associated with low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5MTHF), the active folate metabolite, in the presence ... [more ▼]

Cerebral folate deficiency (CFD) can be defined as any neurological syndrome associated with low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5MTHF), the active folate metabolite, in the presence of normal folate metabolism outside the nervous system. CFD could result from either disturbed folate transport or from increased folate turnover within the central nervous system (CNS). We report on a novel neurometabolic syndrome in 20 children, which we term 'idiopathic CFD'. Typical features became manifest from the age of 4 months, starting with marked unrest, irritability, and sleep disturbances followed by psychomotor retardation, cerebellar ataxia, spastic paraplegia, and dyskinesia; epilepsy developed in about one third of the children. Most children showed deceleration ofhead growth from the age of 4 to 6 months. Visual disturbances began to develop around the age of 3 years and progressive sensorineural hearing loss started from the age of 6 years. Neuroimaging showed atrophy of frontotemporal regions and periventricular demyelination in seven children, slowly progressive supra- and infratentorial atrophy in three children, and normal findings in the remainder. Because active folate transport to the CNS occurs through receptor-mediated folate receptor protein 1 (FR1) endocytosis, DNA sequencing of the FR1 gene was performed and found to be normal. However, CSF protein analysis revealed a non-functional FR1 protein, suspected to result from either post-translational defects of FR1 protein N-glycosylation, the presence of folate antagonists with irreversible binding, or autoantibodies blocking the folate binding site of FR1. Oral treatment with 5-formyltetrahydrofolate (folinic acid) should be started in low doses at 0.5-1mg/kg/day, but in some patients higher daily doses of folinic acid at 2-3 mg/kg/day are required to normalize CSF 5MTHF values. This proposed treatment protocol resulted in a favourable clinical response in patients identified before the age of six years while partial recovery with poorer outcome was found beyond the age of 6 years. Careful clinical and EEG monitoring should be performed 1, 3, and 6 months after the beginning of treatment. After four to six months of folinic acid treatment, CSF analysis should be repeated in order to prevent over- or under-dosage of folinic acid. Secondary forms of CFD have been recognized during chronic use of antifolate and anticonvulsant drugs and in various known conditions such as Rett syndrome, Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome, 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency, dihydropteridine reductase deficiency, aromatic amino acid decarboxylase deficiency, and Kearns-Sayre syndrome. The pathogenic link between these underlying specific disease entities and the observed secondary CFD has not been resolved. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of transplantation on Posidonia oceanica shoots
Vangeluwe, Denis; Lepoint, Gilles ULiege; Bouquegneau, Jean-Marie ULiege et al

in Vie et Milieu-Life and Environment (2004), 54(4), 223-230

Posidonia oceanica shoots sampled from the healthy meadow in the bay of Revelatta (Corsica, France) were transplanted on metallic grids at 10 m depth. Transplanted shoots have been regularly monitored by ... [more ▼]

Posidonia oceanica shoots sampled from the healthy meadow in the bay of Revelatta (Corsica, France) were transplanted on metallic grids at 10 m depth. Transplanted shoots have been regularly monitored by the measurement of growth, biomass and C, N and P contents in the leaves and the belowground parts. After six months of experiment, the survival rates varied from 14 to 84 % on the different transplantation sites. Leaf biomass on the transplanted cuttings was lower than biomass in the control shoots but root biomass raised from December 2000 to May 2001 on the transplanted shoots. Transplant growth (8,3 +/- 2,3 mm.d(-1).shoot(-1)) after six months was similar to control growth (8,2 +/- 2,8 mm.d(-1). shoot(-1)). The C, N and P contents in transplants were significatively lower than in control shoots suggesting that transplanted cuttings are unable to meet their nutrient requirements. The modifications of the C, N, P contents in the belowground parts of the transplanted shoots indicate a mobilization of these nutrients in those compartments to produce new roots and restore a normal nutrients absorption. [less ▲]

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See detailApplications of C and N stable isotopes to ecological and environmental studies in seagrass ecosystems
Lepoint, Gilles ULiege; Dauby, Patrick ULiege; Gobert, Sylvie ULiege

in Marine Pollution Bulletin (2004), 49(11-12), 887-891

Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen are increasingly used in marine ecosystems, for ecological and environmental studies. Here, we examine some applications of stable isotopes as ecological integrators ... [more ▼]

Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen are increasingly used in marine ecosystems, for ecological and environmental studies. Here, we examine some applications of stable isotopes as ecological integrators or tracers in seagrass ecosystem studies. We focus on both the use of natural isotope abundance as food web integrators or environmental tracers and on the use of stable isotopes as experimental tools. As ecosystem integrators, stable isotopes have helped to elucidate the general structure of trophic webs in temperate, Mediterranean and tropical seagrass ecosystems. As environmental tracers, stable isotopes have proven their utility in sewage impact measuring and mapping. However, to make such environmental studies more comprehensible, future works on understanding of basic reasons for variations of N and C stable isotopes in seagrasses should be encouraged. At least, as experimental tracers, stable isotopes allow the study of many aspects of N and C cycles at the scale of a plant or at the scale of the seagrass ecosystem. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailL'image du mois. Ulcere perineal chez une patiente atteinte de spina bifida
Lorquet, Sophie ULiege; Conti, V.; Nervo, Patricia ULiege et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2004), 59(12), 688-90

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See detailZerebrale Funktionen bei hirngeschädigten Patienten. Was bedeuten Koma, "vegetative state“, "minimally conscious state“, "Locked-in-Syndrom“ und Hirntod?
Faymonville, Marie-Elisabeth ULiege; Pantke, Karl-Heinz; Berré, Jacques et al

in Anaesthesist (2004), 53(12), 1195-1202

Comatose, vegetative, minimally conscious or locked-in patients represent a problem in terms of diagnosis, prognosis, treatment and everyday management at the intensive care unit. The evaluation of ... [more ▼]

Comatose, vegetative, minimally conscious or locked-in patients represent a problem in terms of diagnosis, prognosis, treatment and everyday management at the intensive care unit. The evaluation of possible cognitive functions in these patients is difficult because voluntary movements may be very small, inconsistent and easily exhausted. Functional neuroimaging cannot replace the clinical assessment of patients with altered states of consciousness. Nevertheless, it can describe objectively how deviant from normal the cerebral activity is and its regional distribution at rest and under various conditions of stimulation. The quantification of brain activity differentiates patients who sometimes only differ by a brief and incomplete blink of an eye. In the present paper, we will first try to define consciousness as it can be assessed at the patient's bedside. We then review the major clinical entities of altered states of consciousness encountered in the intensive care unit. Finally, we discuss the functional neuroanatomy of these conditions as assessed by positron emission tomography (PET) scanning. [less ▲]

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See detailApprentissage par problèmes, à distance. Présentation et analyse d'un dispositif de formation.
Dury, Cécile ULiege

in Recherche en Soins Infirmiers (2004), 79

Cet article présente et analyse un dispositif de formation visant l’acquisition de compétences en soins infirmiers. Les objectifs poursuivis sont le développement: - d’une méthode pédagogique active ... [more ▼]

Cet article présente et analyse un dispositif de formation visant l’acquisition de compétences en soins infirmiers. Les objectifs poursuivis sont le développement: - d’une méthode pédagogique active : l’apprentissage par problèmes (APP) ; - de l’approche interdisciplinaire et interculturelle, les mêmes problèmes étant résolus par des étudiants de différentes disciplines et cultures ; - de l’utilisation des nouvelles technologies de l’information et de la communication (NTIC) afin de permettre une collaboration maximale « à distance » entre les différents partenaires du projet. L’analyse du dispositif montre que les objectifs pédagogiques poursuivis par l’APP sont atteints. L’approche pluridisciplinaire et pluriculturelle, pour être optimale, demande une grande coordination entre les partenaires, un équilibre entre les groupes d’étudiants des différents pays et disciplines, une formation et un soutien des tuteurs dans l’utilisation de la plate-forme d’enseignement à distance. [less ▲]

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See detailUn homme, une vocation
Claustriaux, Jean-Jacques ULiege; Nuyt, Cécile

in Echosud (2004), 5

Quelles sont les raisons pour lesquelles un universitaire s'intéresse aux pays du Sud ?

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