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See detailImproved rank-based dependence measures for categorical data
Vandenhende, François; Lambert, Philippe ULg

in Statistics & Probability Letters (2003), 63

We extend rank-based dependence measures like Spearman's rho to categorical data so that the same ±1 limits are always reached under complete dependence. A goodness-of-fit procedure is derived for ... [more ▼]

We extend rank-based dependence measures like Spearman's rho to categorical data so that the same ±1 limits are always reached under complete dependence. A goodness-of-fit procedure is derived for dependence models using copulas. [less ▲]

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See detailLes échecs électifs en mathématique : un regard inspiré de la didactique.
Schneider, Marguerite ULg

in Mathématique et Pédagogie (2003), 140

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See detailCalculation of the scattering coefficient of a sine-shaped surface by using the BEM method
De Geetere, L.; Embrechts, Jean-Jacques ULg; Vermeir, G.

in Proceedings of the Institute of Acoustics (2003), 25(5), 75-83

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See detailL'immersion linguistique dans l'enseignement fondamental en Communauté française de Belgique
Blondin, Christiane ULg

in Journal de l'Immersion (2003), 25(2), 19-31

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See detailLa majoration des quotités insaisissables pour enfant à charge
Georges, Frédéric ULg

in Actualités du Droit (2003)

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See detailAnalysis of bivariate tail dependence using extreme values copulas: An application to the SOA medical large claims database
Cebrian, Ana; Denuit, Michel; Lambert, Philippe ULg

in Belgian Actuarial Bulletin (2003)

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See detailInstrumental investigations in primary headache. An updated review and new perspectives
Friberg, L.; Sandrini, G.; Janig, W. et al

in Functional Neurology (2003), 18(3, JUL-SEP), 127-144

While some instrumental techniques are clearly useful for differentiating symptomatic forms from primary headache, the usefulness of certain other techniques, neurophysiological investigations in ... [more ▼]

While some instrumental techniques are clearly useful for differentiating symptomatic forms from primary headache, the usefulness of certain other techniques, neurophysiological investigations in particular, in clinical practice is still debated. A Task Force of the European Federation of Neurological Societies has recently proposed guidelines and recommendations on the use of neurophysiological tests and neuroimaging procedures in non-acute headache. This article reviews many of the most important literature references relevant to this topic and looks at the prospects for future research. [less ▲]

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See detailRuthenium alkylidenes: a new class of catalysts for Kharasch addition and controlled radical polymerisation of vinyl monomers
Delfosse, Sébastien; Richel, Aurore ULg; Demonceau, Albert ULg et al

in e-polymers (2003)

Air-stable and readily available ruthenium benzylidene complexes of the general type (RuCl2 (=CHPh)(L)(L')) (L, L' = P(cC5H9)3, PCy3 and/or a N-heterocyclic carbene) constitute a new class of catalyst ... [more ▼]

Air-stable and readily available ruthenium benzylidene complexes of the general type (RuCl2 (=CHPh)(L)(L')) (L, L' = P(cC5H9)3, PCy3 and/or a N-heterocyclic carbene) constitute a new class of catalyst precursors for atom transfer radical addition (ATRA, also called Kharasch addition) and atom transfer radical polymerisation (ATRP) of methyl methacrylate and styrene, and provide an unprecedented example for the involvement of ruthenium alkylidenes in radical reactions. They promote the addition of carbon tetrachloride to methyl methacrylate and styrene in moderate to high yield (Table 1). They also promote the polymerisation of methyl methacrylate and styrene in a controlled way with good to excellent yields (Table 2). The ligands L (P(cC5H9)3, PCy3 and/or a N-heterocyclic carbene) play a particularly important role in determining the rate of the polymerisation. A similarly pronounced influence is exerted by the substituents on the N-heterocyclic carbene. Our results indicate that: 􀀀 The catalysts decompose quickly under ATRA and ATRP conditions; 􀀀 Polymerisations are mediated by both (RuCl2(=CHPh)(L)(L')) complexes and ruthenium species bereft of the benzylidene moiety. [less ▲]

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See detailReview of James Procter's Dwelling Places: Postwar Black British Writing
Ledent, Bénédicte ULg

in Moving Worlds : A Journal of Transcultural Writings (2003), 3(2), 138-139

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See detaille monument à Léopold Ier: aux origines de l'urbanisation de Laeken
Houbart, Claudine ULg

in Notre Comté. Annales du cercle d'histoire, d'archéologie et de folklore du comté de Jette et de sa région (2003), XXX

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See detailBiostratigraphic correlation at the Late or/and Latest Famennian from Western, Central and Eastern European sections. State of the art.
Streel, Maurice ULg; Avkhimovitch, V.I.; Berkowski, B et al

in Newsletter. Subcommission on Devonian Stratigraphy (2003), 19

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See detailTierce décision obligatoire et motivation
Caprasse, Olivier ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2003)

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See detailGeneralized Pareto fit to the Society of Actuaries large claims database
Cebrian, Ana; Denuit, Michel; Lambert, Philippe ULg

in North American Actuarial Journal (2003), 7

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See detailRooting blockage in the tobacco rac mutant occurs at the initiation phase, and induces diversion to xylem differentiation
Faivre-Rampant, Odile; D'Angeli, S.; Falasca, G. et al

in Plant Biosystems (2003), 137(2), 163-174

The rac mutant of Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthii is impaired in adventitious root formation. The objective of the present study was to determine whether or not the root induction phase occurs in the rac ... [more ▼]

The rac mutant of Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthii is impaired in adventitious root formation. The objective of the present study was to determine whether or not the root induction phase occurs in the rac mutant, and if so, to determine what causes the induced cells to become incapable of organising root primordia. To this end, rac and wild-type shoots were cultured in vitro for 7 days under conditions suitable for obtaining roots in the wild-type (i.e., exposure to 5 muM indole-3-butyric acid for 4 h, and then transfer to hormone-free medium), and then histologically and biochemically analysed during culture. The variations in peroxidase activity, and in cellular levels of auxins and polyamines revealed that the induction phase occurs in rac shoots, although it lasts longer than in the wild-type ones. Furthermore, both auxin and polyamines were consistently higher in rac shoots compared to the wild-type. After induction, auxin and putrescine levels abruptly decreased in the wild-type shoots, whereas they decreased much more slowly in the rac mutant. The histological analysis of the wild-type shoots showed that the abrupt decrease in auxin and polyamine levels were correlated with a normal initiation phase. In fact, wild-type shoots showed cell divisions in the procambium already at day 2, resulting in the formation of root primordia at day 4, and in root emergence between days 5 and 7. In rac shoots, despite the fact that the procambium cells were activated to undergo cell division, the initiation phase was highly perturbed, and the procambial cells developed tracheary elements instead of adventitious roots. The different morphogenic responses of the two genotypes are discussed in the light of the differences in auxin content after the induction phase. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of the fast multipole method to the 2D finite element-boundary element analysis of electromechanical devices
V Sabariego, Ruth ULg; Gyselinck, J.; Geuzaine, Christophe ULg et al

in COMPEL (2003), 22(3), 659-673

The present paper deals with the fast multipole acceleration of the 2D finite element-boundary element modelling of electromechanical devices. It is shown that the fast multipole method, usually applied ... [more ▼]

The present paper deals with the fast multipole acceleration of the 2D finite element-boundary element modelling of electromechanical devices. It is shown that the fast multipole method, usually applied to large 3D problems, can also lead to a reduction in computational time when dealing with relatively small 2D problems, provided that an adaptive truncation scheme for the expansion of the 2D Laplace Green function is used. As an application example, the 2D hybrid modelling of a linear actuator is studied, taking into account saturation, the voltage supply and the mechanical equation. The computational cost without and with fast multipole acceleration is discussed for both the Linear and nonlinear case. [less ▲]

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See detailProvider continuity in family medicine: does it make a difference for total health care costs?
De Maeseneer, Jan M; De Prins, Lutgarde; Gosset, Christiane ULg et al

in Annals of Family Medicine (2003), 1(3), 144-8

BACKGROUND: International comparisons of health care systems have shown a relationship at the macro level between a well-structured primary health care plan and lower total health care costs. The ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: International comparisons of health care systems have shown a relationship at the macro level between a well-structured primary health care plan and lower total health care costs. The objective of this study was to assess whether provider continuity with a family physician is related to lower health care costs using the individual patient as the unit of analysis. METHODS: We undertook a study of a stratified sample of patients (age, sex, region, insurance company) for which 2 cohorts were constructed based on the patients' utilization pattern of family medicine (provider continuity or not). Patient utilization patterns were observed for 2 years. The setting was the Belgian health care system. The participants were 4,134 members of the 2 largest health insurance companies in 2 regions (Aalst and Liege). The main outcome measures were the total health care costs of patients with and without provider continuity with a family physician, controlling for variables known to influence health care utilization (need factors, predisposing factors, enabling factors). RESULTS: Bivariate analyses showed that patients who were visiting the same family physician had a lower total cost for medical care. A multivariate linear regression showed that provider continuity with a family physician was one of the most important explanatory variables related to the total health care cost. CONCLUSIONS: Provider continuity with a family physician is related to lower total health care costs. This finding brings evidence to the debate on the importance of structured primary health care (with high continuity for family practice) for a cost-effective health policy. [less ▲]

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See detailRelB/p50 dimers are differentially regulated by tumor necrosis factor-alpha and lymphotoxin-beta receptor activation: critical roles for p100.
Derudder, Emmanuel; Dejardin, Emmanuel ULg; Pritchard, Linda L. et al

in The Journal of biological chemistry (2003), 278(26), 23278-84

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and lymphotoxin-beta receptor (LTbetaR) signaling both play important roles in inflammatory and immune responses through activation of NF-kappaB. Using various ... [more ▼]

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and lymphotoxin-beta receptor (LTbetaR) signaling both play important roles in inflammatory and immune responses through activation of NF-kappaB. Using various deficient mouse embryonic fibroblast cells, we have compared the signaling pathways leading to NF-kappaB induction in response to TNF-alpha and LTbetaR activation. We demonstrate that LTbetaR ligation induces not only RelA/p50 dimers but also RelB/p50 dimers, whereas TNF-alpha induces only RelA/p50 dimers. LTbetaR-induced binding of RelB/p50 requires processing of p100 that is mediated by IKKalpha but is independent of IKKbeta, NEMO/IKKgamma, and RelA. Moreover, we show that RelB, p50, and p100 can associate in the same complex and that TNF-alpha but not LTbeta signaling increases the association of p100 with RelB/p50 dimers in the nucleus, leading to the specific inhibition of RelB DNA binding. These results suggest that the alternative NF-kappaB pathway based on p100 processing may account not only for the activation of RelB/p52 dimers but also for that of RelB/p50 dimers and that p100 regulates the binding activity of RelB/p50 dimers via at least two distinct mechanisms depending on the signaling pathway involved. [less ▲]

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See detailRheumatoid hand joint synovitis: gray-scale and power Doppler US quantifications following anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha treatment: pilot study
Ribbens, Clio ULg; Andre, Béatrice ULg; Marcelis, Stefaan et al

in Radiology (2003), 229(2), 562-569

PURPOSE: To evaluate by using B-mode and power Doppler ultrasonography (US) and clinical assessment the response of hand joint synovitis in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to treatment with ... [more ▼]

PURPOSE: To evaluate by using B-mode and power Doppler ultrasonography (US) and clinical assessment the response of hand joint synovitis in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to treatment with the anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha agent infliximab. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wrists, metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints, and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints in 11 patients with active RA were assessed before and 6 weeks after three infliximab infusions. US assessment was performed at a single site in the MCP and PIP joints and at two sites (radiocarpal and intercarpal) in the wrists. Twenty measurements were performed in the wrists; 110 measurements, in the MCP joints; and 103 measurements, in the PIP joints. Two wrists and seven PIP joints were excluded owing to complete joint destruction. US parameters (synovial thickness, number of US-positive joints [ie, with synovial thickness > or = 1 mm], cumulative synovial thickness index, and presence of Doppler signal) and clinical parameters (swollen joint count) were independently assessed and compared with baseline values by using the McNemar chi2 and paired Student t tests. RESULTS: After infliximab treatment, there was a significant decrease in the mean numbers of swollen and US-positive joints and in the cumulative synovial thickness (P <.05). The mean synovial thickness decreased in all joints swollen at baseline and in the MCP and PIP joints not swollen at baseline (P <.01). Change from baseline cumulative synovial thickness correlated significantly with change in disease activity score (r = 0.69, P <.05). The number of positive Doppler US signals decreased significantly (in 13 US-positive joints at baseline, in five after treatment; P <.05). CONCLUSION: US is a feasible imaging modality for measurement of the response of RA small-joint synovitis to therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailOff-line processing of memory traces during human sleep: Contribution of functional neuroimaging
Maquet, Pierre ULg; Peigneux, Philippe ULg; Laureys, Steven ULg et al

in Sleep & Biological Rhythms (2003), 1

Sleep is thought to participate in the consolidation of recent memory traces. We tested this hypothesis in humans by using functional neuroimaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron ... [more ▼]

Sleep is thought to participate in the consolidation of recent memory traces. We tested this hypothesis in humans by using functional neuroimaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography). First, following the training procedural visuo-motor learning task (pursuit task), total sleep deprivation on the first post-training night significantly deteriorates the gain in performance, which is usually observed after one complete night of sleep. In parallel, sleep deprivation hampers the changes in functional segregation and connectivity, which underpin the gain in performance usually observed in subjects allowed to sleep on the first post-training night. Second, following the training on an implicit memory task (probabilistic serial reaction time task), some brain areas are reactivated during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep on the first post-training night. The reactivation was shown to be related to the processing of high-level material and to be modulated by the amount of learning achieved during the training session. These changes in activity do not involve isolated brain areas but entire macroscopic cortico-subcortical networks. Taken together, the results suggest an off-line processing of recent memory traces during sleep. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of induction of late embryonic mortality on plasma profiles of pregnancy associated glycoprotein 1 in heifers
Szenci, Otto; Beckers, Jean-François ULg; Sulon, Joseph ULg et al

in Veterinary Journal (2003), 165(3), 307-313

Inoculation with Actinomyces pyogenes and administration of prostaglandin (PG) F-2alpha were used to induce late embryonic mortality (LEM) in heifers (n = 8) on Days 30-38 of pregnancy in order to compare ... [more ▼]

Inoculation with Actinomyces pyogenes and administration of prostaglandin (PG) F-2alpha were used to induce late embryonic mortality (LEM) in heifers (n = 8) on Days 30-38 of pregnancy in order to compare the profile for bovine pregnancy associated glycoprotein 1 (PAG1), progesterone and 15-keto-13,14-dihydro-PGF(2alpha) (PGFM). Two pregnant heifers were used as controls. Inoculation into the uterine body caused LEM, as established by ultrasonography in each heifer within 24 h of treatment. When the inoculum was injected into the first part of the cervix, LEM occurred in one of two heifers (Heifer A) between 48 and 72 h after treatment. Similarly, PGF(2alpha) treatment caused LEM in three of four heifers. In six of eight heifers, PAG1 started to decrease steadily when it was accompanied by the subsequent death of the embryo. Inoculation through the cervix caused luteolysis in three of four heifers within 6-10 days after induction. After induction of LEM, PGFM concentrations showed a two to 3.8 fold increase in three of four heifers during the following six days, and from that time changed within normal ranges. The results of this study indicate that a PAG1 assay may provide an alternative method to ultrasonography for determining LEM in the cow. [less ▲]

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See detailp-mode Oscillations of alpha Cen A
Thoul, Anne ULg; Scuflaire, Richard ULg; Vatovez, B. et al

in Astrophysics & Space Science (2003), 284

Models of alpha Cen A & B have been computed using the masses determined by Pourbaix et al. (2002) and the data derived from the spectroscopic analysis of Neuforge and Magain (1997). The seismological ... [more ▼]

Models of alpha Cen A & B have been computed using the masses determined by Pourbaix et al. (2002) and the data derived from the spectroscopic analysis of Neuforge and Magain (1997). The seismological data obtained by Bouchy and Carrier (2001, 2002) do help improve our knowledge of the evolutionary status of the system. All the constraints are satisfied with a model which gives an age of about 6 Gyr for the binary. [less ▲]

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See detailDuplex ultrasound as first-line screening test for patients suspected of renal artery stenosis: prospective evaluation in high-risk group.
NCHIMI LONGANG, Alain ULg; Biquet, J. F.; Brisbois, D. et al

in European Radiology (2003), 13(6), 1413-9

Our objective was to assess how far the progress in ultrasound devices has increased feasibility and accuracy of Duplex ultrasound (DUS) for the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis (RAS), in a population ... [more ▼]

Our objective was to assess how far the progress in ultrasound devices has increased feasibility and accuracy of Duplex ultrasound (DUS) for the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis (RAS), in a population with high prevalence of atherosclerotic renovascular lesions. Ninety-one hypertensive patients with atherosclerotic disease were prospectively evaluated by both DUS and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) of the renal arteries. Only proximal criteria (peak systolic velocity >180 mm/s or renal-to-aortic ratio >3.5) were used for the diagnosis of significant RAS (>60% narrowing). For both techniques, two readers were involved for interobserver variability study. Two hundred one arteries were demonstrated by DSA on 182 available kidneys. The prevalence of RAS among the study group was 37%. Sixteen of the 19 accessory arteries were not seen at DUS; in 8 patients, one renal artery was not seen at DUS (feasibility 91%). On the 177 arteries assessed, in comparison with DSA, DUS yielded 96, 91, and 97% mean values of accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, respectively. Kappa for interobserver agreement was 0.95 for DUS and 0.92 for DSA. Although still unreliable for the detection of accessory arteries, DUS is in our experience an accurate and reproducible diagnostic test for RAS. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of a Mesoscopic Cell Modeling the Damage Process in Steel at Elevated Temperature
Castagne, Sylvie; Remy, M.; Habraken, Anne ULg

in Key Engineering Materials [=KEM] (2003), 233-236

An on going project whose goal is the development and identification of a mathematical model of steel at elevated temperature using a mesoscopic approach is presented. The research aims to study the ... [more ▼]

An on going project whose goal is the development and identification of a mathematical model of steel at elevated temperature using a mesoscopic approach is presented. The research aims to study the damage process at elevated temperature using information from the macroscopic and mesoscopic scales. As a final application our results will be used to study the industrial process of continuous casting of low carbon steel. [less ▲]

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See detailSHIP2 et signalisation de l'insuline: quel role dans la pathogenese et le traitement du diabete de type 2?
Schurmans, Stéphane ULg

in Bulletin et Mémoires de l'Académie Royale de Médecine de Belgique (2003), 158(7-9), 335-9

Based on the analysis of SHIP2+/- and SHIP2-/- mice showing that the lipid phophatase SHIP2 is an important negative regulator of the insulin pathway, we have suggested that the enzyme is a candidate gene ... [more ▼]

Based on the analysis of SHIP2+/- and SHIP2-/- mice showing that the lipid phophatase SHIP2 is an important negative regulator of the insulin pathway, we have suggested that the enzyme is a candidate gene for genetic predisposition to type 2 diabetes, and a potential therapeutic target for the same disease. Two years after, we propose to review these hypothesis in light of recent results from our laboratory, from international collaborations and from competitors in the field. [less ▲]

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See detailA recombinant 31.5 kDa keratinase and a crude exo-antigen from Microsporum canis fail to protect against a homologous experimental infection in guinea pigs.
Descamps, Frederic F; Brouta, Frederic; Vermout, Sandy M et al

in Veterinary Dermatology (2003), 14(6), 305-312

A Microsporum canis recombinant 31.5 kDa keratinase and a M. canis crude exo-antigen were tested as vaccines in an experimental infection model in guinea pigs. Animals were vaccinated subcutaneously three ... [more ▼]

A Microsporum canis recombinant 31.5 kDa keratinase and a M. canis crude exo-antigen were tested as vaccines in an experimental infection model in guinea pigs. Animals were vaccinated subcutaneously three times at two-week intervals with either the keratinase, the exo-antigen or the adjuvant alone. Cutaneous challenge was performed blindly. Both humoral and cellular-specific immune responses to M. canis antigens were evaluated every 14 days, while a blind evaluation of clinical lesion development and fungal persistency in skin were monitored weekly. Vaccination induced very high and significant (P < 0.01) antibody responses towards both antigens. High cell-mediated immune responses to both immunogens were also induced by vaccination. After challenge, however, scores reflecting the severity of dermatophytic lesions did not differ significantly between vaccinated and control groups at any time after challenge. These results suggest that, in the guinea pig, the induction of specific immune responses against the M. canis-secreted antigens used in this study are not protective against challenge exposure. [less ▲]

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See detailThe callipyge locus: evidence for the trans interaction of reciprocally imprinted genes
Georges, Michel ULg; Charlier, Carole ULg; Cockett, N.

in Trends in Genetics (2003), 19

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See detailL'adiponectine: une nouvelle adipocytokine.
Lebas, Eglantine ULg; Paquot, Nicolas ULg; Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(9), 554-8

Adipose tissue is not simply a store of excess energy, but also secretes a variety of proteins into circulating blood that influence systemic metabolism. These include tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha ... [more ▼]

Adipose tissue is not simply a store of excess energy, but also secretes a variety of proteins into circulating blood that influence systemic metabolism. These include tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), leptin, resistine and adiponectin. These are collectively known as adipocytokines. Adiponectin (also referred to as AdipoQ, Acrp 30, apM1 or GBP28) is a novel adipose-specific protein. A recent genome study mapped a susceptibility locus for type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome on chromosome 3q27, where the adiponectin gene is located. Adiponectin is a peculiar adipocytokine because in contrast to the markedly increased levels of many others, as leptin or TNF-alpha, its level is reduced in obesity and type 2 diabetes. The administration of thiazolidinediones, which are synthetic PPARs-gamma ligands, significantly increases the plasma adiponectin concentrations, an effect that could improve insulin sensitivity. Thus, the administration of adiponectin may provide a novel treatment modality for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. [less ▲]

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See detailL’idole brisée : la droite belge francophone et la crise morale de la France (1934-1938)
Lanneau, Catherine ULg

in Journal of Belgian History = Revue Belge d'Histoire Contemporaine = Belgisch Tijdschrift voor Nieuwste Geschiedenis (2003), XXXIII(1-2), 177-214

The French-speaking right wing in Belgium has always granted a paramount place to France in its ideological cosmography. The concept of everlasting France, of her “mission”, of the part she could play on ... [more ▼]

The French-speaking right wing in Belgium has always granted a paramount place to France in its ideological cosmography. The concept of everlasting France, of her “mission”, of the part she could play on the international scene are topics wondered about constantly in intellectual and middle-class circles. The thirties and mostly the Popular Front era provide the Conservatives with a splendid opportunity to describe the future of their cultural icon with awe: the more the international context is threatening, the more France seems to have become fragile, isolated and going down the slope. Using the news given by the national papers or the widely circulated Parisian press, right-wing Belgians brood, of course, about the eclipse of France’s might, but point chiefly to the moral crisis as its cause. Very often they feel some nostalgia for the “Ancien Régime” and see the origin of the worrying current phenomenon in the hated French Revolution. Lot of factors are intertwined in the definition of the moral decay, but some are particularly highlighted. France is accused to be invaded by foreigners (their Jewish origins and Marxist creeds being stressed); Free-Masonry has a bad influence, as well as laic teaching, perverting youth by its pacifist and internationalist leanings. The degeneration of the religious spirit is lamented on account of its influence on the birth rate: the “Elder Daughter of the Church” gets emptier and emptier, whereas the populations of Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany are blooming. Opposition to parliamentary system is to the fore, as the politico-financial scandals, the governmental instability, the disreputable ways of the politicians themselves contribute all to the idea of the moral crisis. A cultural decline is parallel, with a loss of spirituality in the French society, engulfed in materialism and coarseness. Their stinging attacks, their bombastic style show how deeply rooted is the “decay of France” thesis among Belgian Conservatives. Beyond the French case, they fear a possible contamination of Belgium and the disappearance of their own traditional but vanishing values. Their fears and frights have certainly played a part in the 1936 turn-around towards the so-called Belgian “politique d’indépendance” in foreign affairs. [less ▲]

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See detailHierarchically mesoporous/macroporous metal oxides templated from polyethylene oxide surfactant assemblies
Blin, J.-L.; Léonard, Alexandre ULg; Yuan, Z.-Y. et al

in Angewandte Chemie International Edition (2003), 42(25), 2872-2875

Wormhole-like mesoporous walls are observed within macroporous metal oxides that were synthesized in one step using nonionic alkyl-PEO surfactants as templates. The uniform macropores have a funnel-like ... [more ▼]

Wormhole-like mesoporous walls are observed within macroporous metal oxides that were synthesized in one step using nonionic alkyl-PEO surfactants as templates. The uniform macropores have a funnel-like shape (tapered towards the center) and are arranged parallel to each other and perpendicular to the tangent of the particle surface (see micrographs). The mesochannels are interconnected with funnel-like macrochannels. [less ▲]

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See detailHépatite C: dépistage, traitement et prévention. Recommandations pratiques-résumé
Brenard, R.; Michielsen, P.; Bourgeois, N. et al

in La Revue de la Medicine Generale (2003), 205

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See detailEffets fonctionnels respiratoires induits par l'inhalation de glycopyrrolate chez le cheval poussif en crise
Art, Tatiana ULg; De Moffarts, Brieuc; Van Erck, Emmanuelle et al

in Pratique Vétérinaire Equine (2003), 35(139), 23-29

An acute respiratory attack with bronchospasm is associated with excessive stimulation of the parasympathic nervous system. It may be reduced by administration of anticholinergic agents. Atropine and ... [more ▼]

An acute respiratory attack with bronchospasm is associated with excessive stimulation of the parasympathic nervous system. It may be reduced by administration of anticholinergic agents. Atropine and ipratropium bromide have been tested. This study is to evaluate the efficacy of the synthetic antimuscarinic compound glycopyrrolate as a bronchodilator in horses. Respiratory crisis was induced in seven allergic horses by exposure to natural allergens. Prior to the study, it was established that the attack could be stopped using intravenous atropine sulphate. Pulmonary function tests (ventilation and arterial blood gas analysis) were performed on the horses before and then after aerosol administration of 1500 µg of glycopyrrolate (Robinul®). The attack was characterised by an increase in total pulmonary resis¬tance and maximum pleural pressure variation and by decreased compliance. This study demonstrates that glycopyrrolate exhibits affects that are just as rapid and effective as intravenous atropine or aerosol administration of 1200 µg dry powder Ipratropium. In addi¬tion the treatment was well tolerated and no side-effects were observed in contrast to those seen with intravenous administration of atro¬pine. Therefore this drug has an important role to play among the therapeutics available to practitioners for acute respiratory attacks in horses [less ▲]

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See detailCompte-rendu de l'ouvrage de V. Boudon : Galien, Tome II. Exhortation à l’étude de la médecine, Art médical
Nissen, Cécile ULg

in Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences (2003)

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See detailMathematical modelling and design of an advanced once-through heat recovery steam generator
Dumont, Marie-Noëlle ULg; Heyen, Georges ULg

in Computer Aided Chemical Engineering (2003), 14

The once-through heat recovery steam generator design is ideally matched to very high temperature and pressure, well into the supercritical range. Moreover this type of previous termboilernext term is ... [more ▼]

The once-through heat recovery steam generator design is ideally matched to very high temperature and pressure, well into the supercritical range. Moreover this type of previous termboilernext term is structurally simpler than a conventional one, since no drum is required. A specific mathematical model has been developed. Thermodynamic model has been implemented to suit very high pressure (up to 240 bar), sub- and supercritical steam properties. We illustrate the model use with a 180 bar once-through previous termboilernext term (OTB). [less ▲]

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See detailPET scan imaging in oncology.
Jerusalem, Guy ULg; Hustinx, Roland ULg; Beguin, Yves ULg et al

in European Journal of Cancer (2003), 39(11), 1525-34

With the emergence of positron emission tomography (PET) from research laboratories into routine clinical use, it is important to redefine the most appropriate use of each imaging technique. The aim of ... [more ▼]

With the emergence of positron emission tomography (PET) from research laboratories into routine clinical use, it is important to redefine the most appropriate use of each imaging technique. The aim of this review article is to show the potential of PET in oncology. We discuss the most promising indications and the perspectives for the future. We will also point out the shortcomings and the important questions to be answered before fully considering PET as a necessary tool in the day-to-day practice of oncology. Although many studies have documented the high accuracy of 18F-FDG PET for the detection and staging of malignant tumours and for the monitoring of therapy results in these patients, it is very important to assess the impact of the technique on patient outcome and to show cost-effectiveness from the societal viewpoint. [less ▲]

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See detailA propos de la prescription des mensualités d'un crédit
Biquet, Christine ULg

in Annuaire juridique du crédit et du règlement collectif de dettes (2003)

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See detailMarine mammals from Northeast Atlantic: relationship between their trophic status as determined by delta C-13 and delta N-15 measurements and their trace metal concentrations
Das, Krishna ULg; Beans, Cristina; Holsbeek, Ludo et al

in Marine Environmental Research (2003), 56(3),

The relationship between trophic position through delta(13)C and delta(15)N and trace metal concentrations (Zn, Cd, Cu and Hg) was investigated in the tissues of six marine mammal species from the ... [more ▼]

The relationship between trophic position through delta(13)C and delta(15)N and trace metal concentrations (Zn, Cd, Cu and Hg) was investigated in the tissues of six marine mammal species from the Northeast Atlantic: striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba, common dolphin, Delphinus delphis. Atlantic white-sided dolphin Lagenorhynchus acutus, harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena, white beaked-dolphin Lagenorhynchus albirostris, grey seal Halichoerus grypus stranded on French Channel and Irish coasts. White-beaked dolphins, harbour porpoises, white-sided dolphins, common and striped dolphins display the same relative and decreasing trophic position, as measured by delta(15)N values, along both the Irish and French channel coasts, reflecting conservative trophic habits between these two places. Hepatic and renal Cd concentrations were significantly correlated to muscle delta(13)C and delta(15)N values while Hg, Zn and Cu did not. These results suggest that Cd accumulation is partly linked to the diet while other factors Such as age or body condition might explain Hg, Zn or Cu variability in marine mammals. Combined stable isotope and trace metal analyses appear to be useful tools for the study of marine mammal ecology. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detail50-60 Hz electric and magnetic field effects on cognitive function in humans: A review
Crasson, Marion ULg

in Radiation Protection Dosimetry (2003), 106(4), 333-340

This paper reviews the effect of 50-60 Hz weak electric, magnetic and combined electric and magnetic field exposure on cognitive functions such as memory, attention, information processing and time ... [more ▼]

This paper reviews the effect of 50-60 Hz weak electric, magnetic and combined electric and magnetic field exposure on cognitive functions such as memory, attention, information processing and time perception, as determined by electroencephalographic methods and performance measures. Overall, laboratory studies that have investigated the acute effects of power frequency fields on cognitive functioning in humans are heterogeneous, in terms of both electric and magnetic field (EMF) exposure and the experimental design and measures used. Results are inconsistent and difficult to interpret with regard to functional relevance for possible health risks. Statistically significant differences between field and control exposure, when they are found, are small, subtle, transitory, without any clear dose-response relationship and difficult to reproduce. The human performance or event related potentials (ERPs) measures that might specifically be affected by EMF exposure, as well as a possible cerebral structure or function that could be more sensitive to EMF, cannot be better determined. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst order elastic modeling of the Aden ridge propagation and the Anatolian extrusion process
Hubert, Aurelia ULg; King, G. C. P.; Manighetti, I. et al

in Geophysical Journal International (2003), 153

The evolution of the Gulf of Aden and the Anatolian Fault systems are modelled using the principles of elastic fracture mechanics usually applied to smaller scale cracks or faults. The lithosphere is ... [more ▼]

The evolution of the Gulf of Aden and the Anatolian Fault systems are modelled using the principles of elastic fracture mechanics usually applied to smaller scale cracks or faults. The lithosphere is treated as a plate, and simple boundary conditions are applied that correspond to the known plate boundary geometry and slip vectors. The models provide a simple explanation for many observed geological features. For the Gulf of Aden the model predicts why the ridge propagated from east to west from the Owen Fracture Zone towards the Afar and the overall form of its path. The smaller en echelon offsets can be explained by upward propagation from the initially created mantle dyke while the larger ones may be attributed to the propagating rupture interacting with pre-existing structures. For Anatolia the modelling suggests that the East Anatolian Fault was created before the North Anatolian Fault could form. Once both faults were formed however, activity could switch between them. The time scales over which this should take place are not known, but evidence for switching can be found in the historical seismicity. For Aden and Anatolia pre-existing structures or inhomogeneous stress fields left from earlier orogenic events have modified the processes of propagation and without an understanding of the existence of such features the propagation processes cannot be fully understood. Furthermore a propagating fault can extend into an active region where it would not have initiated. The North Anatolian Fault encountered slow but active extension when it entered the Aegean about 5 Ma and the stress field associated with the extending fault has progressively modified Aegean extension. In the central Aegean activity has been reduced while to the north-west on features such as the Gulfs of Evvia and Corinth activity has been increased. The field observation that major structures propagate and the success of simple elastic mod- els suggest that the continental crust behaves in an elastic-brittle or elastic-plastic fashion even though laboratory tests may be interpreted to suggest viscous behaviour. There are major prob- lems in scaling from the behaviour of small homogeneous samples to the large heterogeneous mantle and large-scale observations should be treated more seriously than extrapolations of the behaviour of laboratory experiments over many orders of magnitude in space and time. The retention of long-term elasticity and localised failure suggests a similar gross rheology for the oceanic and continental lithospheres. Even though it is incorrect to attribute differences in behaviour to the former being rigid (i.e. elastic) and the latter viscous, oceanic and continental lithosphere behave in different ways. Unlike oceanic crust, continental crust is buoyant and cannot be simply created or destroyed. The process of thickening or thinning works against gravity preventing large displacements on extensional or contractional features in the upper mantle. The equivalents of ridge or subduction systems are suppressed before they can accom- modate large displacements and activity must shift elsewhere. On the other hand, strike-slip boundaries and extrusion processes are favoured. [less ▲]

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See detailDistinction Between Cultivated And Wild Chicory Gene Pools Using Aflp Markers
Van Cutsem, P.; Du Jardin, Patrick ULg; Boutte, C. et al

in Theoretical & Applied Genetics = Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik (2003), 107(4),

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See detailIncidence and survival rate of women with cervical cancer in the Greater Amsterdam area.
BULK, Saskia ULg; Visser, O.; Rozendaal, L. et al

in British journal of cancer (2003), 89(5), 834-9

To evaluate the effect of population-based cervical cancer screening on the occurrence of cervical cancer in The Netherlands, we investigated the incidence and survival of cervical cancer registered by a ... [more ▼]

To evaluate the effect of population-based cervical cancer screening on the occurrence of cervical cancer in The Netherlands, we investigated the incidence and survival of cervical cancer registered by a cancer registry in the Greater Amsterdam area. The incidence rate of squamous cell carcinoma decreased significantly from 9.2/100,000 women in 1988 to 5.9/100,000 in 2000 (P<0.001). The incidence rate of adenocarcinomas remained stable. After adjustment for age, stage and lymph node involvement, the relative risk of death was 1.6 times higher for patients with adenocarcinomas than for patients with squamous cell carcinoma (95% CI 1.2-2.1). The decreased survival was related to histological type, as the effect remained significant after correction for confounding factors. Over time, the prognosis of women with squamous cell carcinoma improved significantly. No significant change was observed for women diagnosed with adenocarcinoma. These results suggest that the screening programme in The Netherlands as executed in the Greater Amsterdam area is associated with a decreased incidence and increased survival of patients with squamous cell carcinoma, but fails to detect (pre)malignant lesions of adenocarcinoma. Since more than 92% of adenocarcinomas and its precursors contain high-risk HPV, adding HPV testing to cytologic screening might improve the present screening programme in detecting adenocarcinoma and its precursor lesions. [less ▲]

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See detailCompte-rendu de l'ouvrage de P. Buchholz : Psoriasis. Therapeutische Ansätze vom 18. bis zum 20. Jahrhundert
Nissen, Cécile ULg

in Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences (2003)

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See detailLa responsabilité extra-contractuelle des dirigeants de sociétés
Caprasse, Olivier ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2003)

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See detailInteraction of retroviral Tax oncoproteins with tristetraprolin and regulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression.
Twizere, Jean-Claude ULg; Kruys, Veronique; Lefebvre, Laurent et al

in Journal of the National Cancer Institute (2003), 95(24), 1846-59

BACKGROUND: The Tax oncoproteins are transcriptional regulators of viral expression involved in pathogenesis induced by complex leukemogenic retroviruses (or delta-retroviruses, i.e., primate T-cell ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The Tax oncoproteins are transcriptional regulators of viral expression involved in pathogenesis induced by complex leukemogenic retroviruses (or delta-retroviruses, i.e., primate T-cell leukemia viruses and bovine leukemia virus). To better understand the molecular pathways leading to cell transformation, we aimed to identify cellular proteins interacting with Tax. METHODS: We used a yeast two-hybrid system to identify interacting cellular proteins. Interactions between Tax and candidate interacting cellular proteins were confirmed by glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown assays, co-immunoprecipitation, and confocal microscopy. Functional interactions between Tax and one interacting protein, tristetraprolin (TTP), were assessed by analyzing the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), which is regulated by TTP, in mammalian cells (HeLa, D17, HEK 293, and RAW 264.7) transiently transfected with combinations of intact and mutant Tax and TTP. RESULTS: We obtained seven interacting cellular proteins, of which one, TTP, was further characterized. Tax and TTP were found to interact specifically through their respective carboxyl-terminal domains. The proteins colocalized in the cytoplasm in a region surrounding the nucleus of HeLa cells. Furthermore, coexpression of Tax was associated with nuclear accumulation of TTP. TTP is an immediate-early protein that inhibits expression of TNF-alpha at the post-transcriptional level. Expression of Tax reverted this inhibition, both in transient transfection experiments and in stably transfected macrophage cell lines. CONCLUSION: Tax, through its interactions with the TTP repressor, indirectly increases TNF-alpha expression. This observation is of importance for the cell transformation process induced by leukemogenic retroviruses, because TNF-alpha overexpression plays a central role in pathogenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of reimbursement criteria on the appropriateness of 'statin' prescribing.
Autier, Philippe; Creplet, Jean; Vansant, Greet et al

in European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation (2003), 10(6), 456-62

BACKGROUND: In Belgium, regulations restrict the reimbursement of statins to patients with total serum cholesterol above 250 mg/dl (6.41 mmol/l) after a three-month lipid-lowering diet. We investigated ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: In Belgium, regulations restrict the reimbursement of statins to patients with total serum cholesterol above 250 mg/dl (6.41 mmol/l) after a three-month lipid-lowering diet. We investigated the possible impact of these regulations on characteristics of Belgian patients receiving a lipid-lowering drug. DESIGN: From 1998 to 2000, standard questionnaires on coronary risk factors and treatments with lipid-lowering drugs were completed by 301 GPs sampled at random in the 11 Belgian Provinces. Questionnaires had to be completed for 18 consecutive patients 35 years old or more attending GPs' practices, irrespective of the underlying motive for attendance. RESULTS: Of the 5511 patients included in the study, 1519 (28%) had established coronary disease or diabetes mellitus, or > or = 2 non-cholesterol coronary risk factors. Most (70%) of these patients were not treated with a lipid-lowering drug. Only 22% of patients with established coronary disease, 10% of patients with diabetes mellitus and 9% of patients with > or = 2 coronary risk factors were treated with a statin. Fifty-nine percent of fibrate users and 50% of statin users had a pre-treatment cholesterol level above 250 mg/dl, but had no or only one non-cholesterol coronary risk factor. CONCLUSIONS: In Belgium, the majority of patients at higher risk of coronary event do not benefit from lipid-lowering drugs, particularly the statins. In contrast, one of two statin users and three of five fibrate users should probably not receive the drug prescribed. Regulation based on blood cholesterol level encourages the overlooking of other risk factors relevant for selecting patients having the greatest chance to benefit from statin treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailLarge phosphorus hyperfine coupling as a sensitive tool for studying molecular dynamics : ESR and Molecular Mechanics studies of ring interconversion in cis-2,5-diphosphoryl-2,5-dimethyl-pyrrolidinoxyl radical
Rockenbauer, Antal; Gaudel-Siri, Anouk; Siri, Didier et al

in Journal of Physical Chemistry A (2003), 107(19), 3851-3857

ESR spectra of cis- and trans-â-diphosphorylated pyrrolidine-N-oxyl radicals, c-1 and t-1, were studied in liquid and frozen solution. The expected 1:2:1 triplet (aP (2)) of the 1:1:1 triplet (aN) was ... [more ▼]

ESR spectra of cis- and trans-â-diphosphorylated pyrrolidine-N-oxyl radicals, c-1 and t-1, were studied in liquid and frozen solution. The expected 1:2:1 triplet (aP (2)) of the 1:1:1 triplet (aN) was observed for t-1; however, for c-1, the inner lines of the 1:2:1 triplet showed a dramatic broadening characteristic of chemical exchange between two equivalent conformations. Owing to the large difference in the hyperfine splitting constants (hfsc) of the exchanging phosphorus (¢aP 21 G), the coalescence temperature was unusually high (193 K, in n-pentane), and the potential barrier for ring interconversion (10.5 kJ mol-1) was easily obtained from the temperature dependence of the exchange rate. This value was in very good agreement with the value obtained for an empirical pseudorotational potential (11 kJ mol-1) that was adjusted to fit the temperature dependence of the phosphorus hfsc. For c-1, molecular mechanics calculations gave similar characteristics for the pseudorotational potential and indicated the existence of two identical minima with distorted geometries lying between 3T4 and 3E or 4T3 and E3. For t-1, only the 3T4 conformer was found to be significantly populated. Frozen solution spectra showed that the phosphorus hfsc anisotropy is higher when the C-P bond is pseudoaxial; this result can be explained by a geometry-dependent delocalization of the unpaired electron into the phosphorus 3p orbitals. [less ▲]

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See detailEthique de la régulation, régulation par l'éthique
Geuens, Geoffrey ULg

in Réseaux : Revue Interdisciplinaire de Philosophie Morale et Politique (2003), 97-98-99 ("Éthique et pouvoir des médias")

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See detailL'urticaire et ses implications systémiques
Dezfoulian, Bita ULg; Khalil, Z.; de LA BRASSINNE, Michel ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(12), 751-756

Urticaria is a transient eruption of erythematous or oedematous swelling of the dermis and is usually associated with itching which clinically is very easy to diagnose. However, it causes several ... [more ▼]

Urticaria is a transient eruption of erythematous or oedematous swelling of the dermis and is usually associated with itching which clinically is very easy to diagnose. However, it causes several etiological, pathophysiological and therapeutic problems. We will develop the acute and chronic urticaria as well as their different associations with systemic diseases. Some current data concerning chronic idiopathic autoimmune urticaria is reviewed. The management and therapeutics will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailC.R. de La Chanson de Croissant en prose du XVe siècle (éd. M. Raby)
Henrard, Nadine ULg

in Moyen Age (Le) (2003), CIX(3-4), 665-668

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See detailL'image du mois. Sous le pont myocardique coule la coronaire.
ROUSSEAU, Anne-Françoise ULg; MIEVIS, Eric

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(10), 601-604

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See detailBiomarquers d’exposition en milieu terrestre : impact d’hydrocarbures halogénés sur l’activité de trois systèmes enzymatiques chez Drosophila pseudoobscura
Dannau, Marie; Amichot, Marcel; Leenaers, Lionel et al

in Environnement Risques & Santé (2003), 2

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See detailUltradispersity of diamond at the nanoscale
Raty, Jean-Yves ULg; Galli, G.

in Nature Materials (2003), 2(12), 792-795795

Nanometre-sized diamond has been found in meteorites, protoplanetary nebulae, and interstellar dusts, as well as in residues of detonation and in diamond films. Remarkably, the size distribution of ... [more ▼]

Nanometre-sized diamond has been found in meteorites, protoplanetary nebulae, and interstellar dusts, as well as in residues of detonation and in diamond films. Remarkably, the size distribution of diamond nanoparticles seems to be peaked around 2-5 nm, and to be largely independent of preparation conditions. We have carried out ab initio calculations of the stability of nanodiamond as a function of surface hydrogen coverage and of size. We have found that at about 3 nm, and for a broad range of pressures and temperatures, particles with bare, reconstructed surfaces become thermodynamically more stable than those with hydrogenated surfaces, thus preventing the formation of larger grains. Our findings provide an explanation of the size distribution of extraterrestrial and of terrestrial nanodiamond found in ultradispersed and ultracrystalline diamond films. They also provide an atomistic structural model of these films, based on the topology and structure of 2-3 nm diamond clusters consisting of a diamond core surrounded by a fullerene-like carbon network [less ▲]

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See detailEpisode de dyspnée consécutive à une intoxication par l’ergot dans une exploitation laitière
Brihoum, Mounir ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg; Bony, S. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2003), 147(5), 353-358

A chronic consumption (3.5 months) of ergot (Claviceps purpurea) contaminated triticale in dairy cows resulted in dyspnea, mainly expiratory, consistent with interstitial pneumonia and emphysema. These ... [more ▼]

A chronic consumption (3.5 months) of ergot (Claviceps purpurea) contaminated triticale in dairy cows resulted in dyspnea, mainly expiratory, consistent with interstitial pneumonia and emphysema. These troubles can be compared to many observations done in humans after long lasting treatments with ergot derivatives [less ▲]

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See detailEstimation of habitat quality based on plant community, and effects of isolation in a network of butterfly habitat patches
Sawchik, J.; Dufrêne, Marc ULg; Lebrun, Philippe

in Acta Oecologica (2003), 24(1), 25-33

Minimum viable site networks are crucial for many threatened species but their design is always a difficult procedure. The present study investigated methods to estimate habitat quality of patches, in an ... [more ▼]

Minimum viable site networks are crucial for many threatened species but their design is always a difficult procedure. The present study investigated methods to estimate habitat quality of patches, in an ecological network for five butterfly species (Brenthis ino, Clossiana selene, Lycaena helle, Lycaena hippothoe, Proclossiana eunomia) inhabiting wet meadows. Abundance predictions were performed on the basis of botanical relevés with a multiple-species approach combining canonical correspondence analysis and multiple regression. Models are defined on a reference site set and are evaluated on a test site set. All the fitted models predicted the abundance of the butterfly species considerably well (from 61 to 86% of the variation). We evaluated the potential consequences of isolation on local populations, by comparing predicted and observed abundance. It was expected that greater differences would be observed when sites were more isolated. On the test set, differences between predicted and observed abundance were largely correlated to site isolation for L. helle and P. eunomia. The most isolated sites had greater chances to be empty, even if they had high-quality habitat. Reciprocally, when the sites were less isolated, the abundance observed was always greater than predicted, seeming to confirm the role of rescue effects. © 2003 Éditions scientifiques et médicales Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailCarbohydrates and resistance to Phytophthora infestans in potato plants
Evers, Danièle; Dommes, Jacques ULg; Hausman, Jean-François

in Acta Physiologiae Plantarum (2003), 25(2), 171-178

Plants generally deal with biotic or abiotic stresses by altering components as for example cell wall constituents and metabolites. Infection by Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight ... [more ▼]

Plants generally deal with biotic or abiotic stresses by altering components as for example cell wall constituents and metabolites. Infection by Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight, constitutes a stress condition for the plants and they react to it with changes arising in their metabolism depending on the resistance level of the plants. The present work compares two potato hybrids differing in their level of horizontal resistance to late blight. Carbohydrate content in stems and leaves of infected and uninfected plants was determined by HPLC. Some carbohydrates accumulated in the stems of the resistant hybrid infected by P. infestans, whereas they remained unchanged in the susceptible hybrid. On the other hand, in the leaves, these carbohydrates accumulated only in the infected susceptible hybrid. [less ▲]

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See detailCensure et stéréotype. Structures du sens commun journalistique
Durand, Pascal ULg

in Réseaux : Revue Interdisciplinaire de Philosophie Morale et Politique (2003), 97-99

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See detailOptimal design of outdoor lighting systems by genetic algorithms - Discussion
Embrechts, Jean-Jacques ULg

in Lighting Research & Technology (2003), 35(3), 278-280

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See detailThe Sahelian drought may have ended during the 1990s
Ozer, Pierre ULg; Erpicum, Michel ULg; Demarée, Gaston et al

in Hydrological Sciences Journal = Journal des Sciences Hydrologiques (2003), 48(3), 489-492

The severe drought that affects the Sahel since the late 1960s has been very closely studied and monitored during the last three decades. Recently, after several wet years, it was questioned from a ... [more ▼]

The severe drought that affects the Sahel since the late 1960s has been very closely studied and monitored during the last three decades. Recently, after several wet years, it was questioned from a statistical point of view whether the drought was over. The conclusions of a recent study were that the rainfall deficit was not over at the end of 2000 and that the drought continues. The analysis of the change points in the station rainfall time series suggests differentiating these findings. There is now growing evidence that there is a potential shift towards a more humid state. However, the present analysis shows that the assumption that a significant increase in rainfall may have occurred around the early 1990s could only be verified at the customary confidence level in about 10 years from now. [less ▲]

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See detailPlacental proteins secreted in maternal circulation: useful indicators for both pregnancy diagnosis and embryonic mortality in bovine species
Moreira da Silva, F.; Melo de Sousa, Noelita ULg; Figueiredo, J. R. et al

in Revista Portuguesa de Zootecnia (2003), 10(1), 99-121

During the last decades, several research groups developed investigations in order to characterize proteins or glycoproteins synthesized by ruminant placenta. As result of these investigations, a large ... [more ▼]

During the last decades, several research groups developed investigations in order to characterize proteins or glycoproteins synthesized by ruminant placenta. As result of these investigations, a large family of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins was identified in bovine ovine and caprine placenta. By using molecular biology techniques, it was demonstrated that they are members of the aspartic proteinase superfamily, in which they co-exist with pepsinogens, renin, cathepsin D and E, etc. Due to their secretion in large amounts by the trophoblastic binucleated cells, bovine PAGs are detectable in maternal circulation soon after implantation. In the present work, in addition to the physiological and biochemical characterization of bovine PAGs, it will be showed how the measurement of PAG concentrations in maternal blood is useful for both pregnancy confirmation and follow-up of the fetus-placental well-being. Available information related to other placental proteins will be also discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of the impulse oscillometry system for testing pulmonary function during methacholine bronchoprovocation in horses.
Van Erck, Emmanuelle ULg; Votion, Dominique ULg; Kirschvink, Nathalie et al

in American Journal of Veterinary Research (2003), 64(11), 1414-1420

OBJECTIVE: To compare sensitivity of the impulse oscillometry system (IOS) with that of the conventional reference technique (CRT; ie, esophageal balloon method) for pulmonary function testing in horses ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To compare sensitivity of the impulse oscillometry system (IOS) with that of the conventional reference technique (CRT; ie, esophageal balloon method) for pulmonary function testing in horses. ANIMALS: 10 horses (4 healthy; 6 with recurrent airway obstruction [heaves] in remission). PROCEDURE: Healthy horses (group-A horses) and heaves-affected horses (group-B horses) were housed in a controlled environment. At each step of a methacholine bronchoprovocation test, threshold concentration (TC(2SD); results in a 2-fold increase in SD of a value) and sensitivity index (SI) were determined for respiratory tract system resistance (R(rs)) and respiratory tract system reactance (X(rs)) at 5 to 20 Hz by use of IOS and for total pulmonary resistance (RL) and dynamic lung compliance (C(dyn)), by use of CRT. RESULTS: Bronchoconstriction resulted in an increase in R(rs) at 5 Hz (R(5Hz)) and a decrease in X(rs) at all frequencies. Most sensitive parameters were X(rs) at 5 Hz (X(5Hz)), R(5Hz), and R(5Hz):R(10Hz) ratio; RL and the provocation concentration of methacholine resulting in a 35% decrease in dynamic compliance (PC(35)C(dyn)) were significantly less sensitive than these IOS parameters. The TC(2SD) for X(rs) at 5 and 10 Hz was significantly lower in group-B horses, compared with group-A horses. The lowest TC(2SD) was obtained for X(5Hz) in group-B horses and R(5Hz) in group-A horses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In contrast to CRT parameters, IOS parameters were significantly more sensitive for testing pulmonary function.The IOS provides a practical and noninvasive pulmonary function test that may be useful in assessing subclinical changes in horses. [less ▲]

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See detailDes statines pour le cerveau?
Sadzot, Bernard ULg; HANS, Grégory ULg; Bottin, P. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(10), 621-7

Whether cholesterol lowering decreases risk of stroke has long remained unclear. Large epidemiological studies have found only weak links between cholesterol levels and stroke. Recent studies with statins ... [more ▼]

Whether cholesterol lowering decreases risk of stroke has long remained unclear. Large epidemiological studies have found only weak links between cholesterol levels and stroke. Recent studies with statins, more potent cholesterol lowering agents, have now demonstrated significant reductions of stroke incidence and total mortality when administered for secondary prevention in patients with wide ranges of cholesterol values. It remains unknown if a statin is superior to others for the secondary prevention of stroke. [less ▲]

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See detailGolden shares, droit des sociétés et marché intérieur
Thirion, Nicolas ULg

in Cahiers de Droit Européen (2003)

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See detailAttitudes et controverses dans la prevention secondaire de l'accident ischemique cerebral.
HANS, Grégory ULg; Sadzot, Bernard ULg; Moonen, Gustave ULg

in Revue medicale de Liege (2003), 58(5), 287-92

Stroke is the third leading cause of death and the main cause of prolonged disability of adults in industrialised countries. After a first transient ischemic attack or a first minor stroke, the risk of ... [more ▼]

Stroke is the third leading cause of death and the main cause of prolonged disability of adults in industrialised countries. After a first transient ischemic attack or a first minor stroke, the risk of recurrence is 16 folds higher than in control subjects. Therefore each patient suspect of a first ischemic cerebral event should be evaluated for the presence of a specific cause which could be treated. If such a cause is not found, platelet antiaggregant medications should be started. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges in function of iron-loaded alveolar macrophages after in vivo administration of desferrioxamine and/or chloroquine.
Legssyer, Rachida; Josse, Claire ULg; Piette, Jacques ULg et al

in Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry (2003), 94(1-2), 36-42

Both desferrioxamine (DFO) and chloroquine can significantly reduce hepatic iron in experimental animals with iron overload by chelating iron from the low-molecular-weight pool or decreasing iron uptake ... [more ▼]

Both desferrioxamine (DFO) and chloroquine can significantly reduce hepatic iron in experimental animals with iron overload by chelating iron from the low-molecular-weight pool or decreasing iron uptake by the transferrin-transferrin receptor cycle, respectively. However, no previous studies have investigated whether combination therapy of these two drugs would further decrease the tissue iron overload as well as iron-induced toxicity. Chloroquine administration, 15 mg/kg, 5x/week, to rats during the iron loading regime, 10 mg/kg, 3x/week for 4 weeks, significantly decreased both hepatic (54%) and macrophage iron content (24%). However when administered in combination with desferrioxamine, 10 mg/kg, 3x/week for 2 weeks at the cessation of iron loading, no further reduction of hepatic iron content was noted while the iron content of the macrophages significantly increased, possibly indicating the flux of ferrioxamine through these cells. Further studies are warranted to investigate the speciation of iron within these macrophages. Macrophages isolated from chloroquine-treated iron loaded rats showed a reduction in latent NFkappaB activation and a significant increase in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated nitrite release by comparison to these parameters in iron loaded macrophages. Co-administration of chloroquine and desferrioxamine normalised the latent activity of NFkappaB to that of control macrophages as well as increasing LPS-stimulated NO release towards control values. However, DFO alone did not have any significant effect upon either of these parameters. Such results may have important relevance for the reduced immune function of iron loaded macrophages isolated from thalassaemia patients receiving chelation therapy and their propensity to increased infection. [less ▲]

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See detailExcitability of visual V1-V2 and motor cortices to single transcranial magnetic stimuli in migraine: a reappraisal using a figure-of-eight coil.
Bohotin, V.; Fumal, Arnaud ULg; Vandenheede, M. et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2003), 23(4), 264-70

We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with a figure-of-eight coil to excite motor and visual V1-V2 cortices in patients suffering from migraine without (MO) (n = 24) or with aura (MA) (n = 13 ... [more ▼]

We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with a figure-of-eight coil to excite motor and visual V1-V2 cortices in patients suffering from migraine without (MO) (n = 24) or with aura (MA) (n = 13) and in healthy volunteers (HV) (n = 33). Patients who had a migraine attack within 3 days before or after the recordings were excluded. All females were recorded at mid-cycle. Single TMS pulses over the occipital cortex elicited phosphenes in 64% of HV, 63% of MO and 69% of MA patients. Compared with HV, the phosphene threshold was significantly increased in MO (P = 0.001) and in MA (P = 0.007), but there was no difference between the two groups of migraineurs. The motor threshold tended to be higher in both migraine groups than in HV, but the differences were not significant. In conclusion, this study shows that two-thirds (64.86%) of patients affected by either migraine type present an increased phosphene threshold in the interictal period, which suggests that their visual cortex is hypoexcitable. [less ▲]

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See detailL’herpèsvirus bovin 4
Markine-Goriaynoff, N.; Minner, F.; De Fays, K. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2003), 147(4), 215-247

Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) belongs to the Herpesviridae family, Gammaherpesvirinae subfamily, Rhadinovirus genus like human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), the causative agent of Kaposi's sarcoma. BoHV-4 has a ... [more ▼]

Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) belongs to the Herpesviridae family, Gammaherpesvirinae subfamily, Rhadinovirus genus like human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), the causative agent of Kaposi's sarcoma. BoHV-4 has a worldwide distribution in the cattle population. It has been isolated from cattle showing various clinical signs as well as from healthy cattle. The interest of the scientific community for BoHV-4 is explained by two reasons. Firstly, BoHV-4 represents an homologous virus/host species model to study the biology of gammaherpesviruses. Secondly, the use of BoHV-4 as a recombinant vector for expression both in vitro and in vivo has been proposed. For these reasons, a considerable amount of data has been collected on this virus. In the present paper, the authors will present a general overview of the literature published on this virus addressing clinical, epidemiological and fundamental aspects of BoHV-4. Finally, in the light of their recent phylogenetic data, the authors will discuss the origin and the host species of BoHV-4 leading to the conclusion that this virus should be considered as a virus of the African buffalo rather than cattle. [less ▲]

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See detailAcetazolamide acts on neuromuscular transmission abnormalities found in some migraineurs.
Ambrosini, A.; Pierelli, F.; Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2003), 23(2), 75-8

Mild subclinical impairment of neuromuscular transmission can be detected with single-fibre electromyography (SFEMG) in subgroups of patients suffering from migraine and could be due to dysfunctioning Ca2 ... [more ▼]

Mild subclinical impairment of neuromuscular transmission can be detected with single-fibre electromyography (SFEMG) in subgroups of patients suffering from migraine and could be due to dysfunctioning Ca2+-channels on motor axons controlling stimulation-induced acetylcholine release. Acetazolamide, which is thought to ameliorate ion channel function, was shown effective in familial hemiplegic migraine and episodic ataxia type 2, both of which are associated with mutations of the neuronal Ca2+-channel gene CACNA1A, as well as in aura status. We treated therefore in an open pilot study five non-hemiplegic migraineurs showing mild SFEMG abnormalities with acetazolamide for several weeks. This was followed by a normalization of SFEMG recordings in all patients and by clinical improvement in four. These results support the assumption that the subclinical impairment of neuromuscular transmission found in certain migraineurs might be due to dysfunctioning Ca2+-channels. [less ▲]

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See detailReactive oxygen species downregulate the expression of pro-inflammatory genes by human chondrocytes.
Mathy, Marianne ULg; Martin, G.; Devel, P. et al

in Inflammation Research (2003), 52(3), 111-8

OBJECTIVES: To determine the regulatory effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the expression by human osteoarthritic chondrocytes of interleukin (IL)-1beta, -6 and -8, inducible nitric oxide ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: To determine the regulatory effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the expression by human osteoarthritic chondrocytes of interleukin (IL)-1beta, -6 and -8, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene in response to interleukin (IL)-1beta or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). METHODS: Human chondrocytes in monolayer culture were incubated for 3 h with ROS generating molecules such as S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine (SNAP, 100 microM), 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1, 100 microM), with chemically synthesised peroxynitrite (ONOO-, 10 microM) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 100 microM). After treatment by ROS, chondrocytes were washed and then cultured for the next 24 h with or without lipopolysaccharide LPS (10 microg/ml) or IL-1beta (1.10(-11) M). IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, iNOS and COX-2 gene expression was analysed by real time and quantitative RT PCR. IL-6, IL-8 and prostaglandin (PG) E2 productions were assayed by specific immunoassays. Nitrite was measured in the culture supernatants by the Griess procedure. RESULTS: LPS and IL-1beta stimulated IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, iNOS and COX-2 gene expression. SNAP significantly downregulated LPS induced overall gene expressions, whereas SIN-1 had no effect. ONOO- inhibited iNOS and COX-2 gene expression but not that of the cytokine genes. When chondrocytes were incubated with IL-1beta, SIN-1 and ONOO dramatically decreased all gene expressions while SNAP was inefficient. H2O2 treatment inhibited both LPS and IL-1beta induced gene expressions. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide an evidence that ROS may have anti-inflammatory properties by depressing inflammatory gene expression. Further, we demonstrate that ROS effects are dependent on the nature of radical species and the signalling pathway that is activated. These findings should be taken into consideration for the management of antioxidant therapy in treatment of inflammatory joint diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailIntramyocardial synthesis of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in infants with congenital cardiac defects.
Qing, Ma; Schumacher, Kathrin; Heise, Ruth et al

in Journal of the American College of Cardiology (2003), 41(12), 2266-74

OBJECTIVES: We sought to test the hypothesis that cytokines would be expressed in the myocardium of infants with congenital cardiac defects and to identify the signaling pathways involved. BACKGROUND ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: We sought to test the hypothesis that cytokines would be expressed in the myocardium of infants with congenital cardiac defects and to identify the signaling pathways involved. BACKGROUND: Mechanical stress upregulates pro-inflammatory cytokines in the myocardium. METHODS: Fifteen infants with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) (n = 7) or with ventricular septal defects (VSDs) (n = 8) were investigated. Concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and/or Western blotting in the right ventricular myocardium taken during cardiac surgery. Activation of the nuclear factor-kappa-B (NF-kappa-B) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways was assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay with supershift and/or Western blotting, respectively. RESULTS: The pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1-beta, and IL-6 and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were detected in the myocardium of all patients. Concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and also of phosphorylated p38 MAPK were higher in patients with TOF than in those with VSD and correlated with the degree of pressure overload of the right ventricle. Levels of phosphorylated I-kappa-B-alpha, iNOS, and IL-10 were similar in patients with TOF and in those with VSD. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show intramyocardial synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines in infants with congenital cardiac defects. This is associated with activation of both the NF-kappa-B and p38 MAPK pathways. The latter could be particularly important for the transduction of mechanical signals in the infant's myocardium. Synthesis of IL-10 indicates an intramyocardial anti-inflammatory potential in this age group. [less ▲]

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See detailFlow cytometric cerebrospinal fluid analysis in children
Häusler, M.; Sellhaus, B.; Schweizer, K. et al

in Pathology Research and Practice (2003), 199(10), 667-675

Flow cytometry (FC) is of increasing importance for the analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lymphocytes because of its ability to detect a large spectrum of cellular characteristics (granularity, volume ... [more ▼]

Flow cytometry (FC) is of increasing importance for the analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lymphocytes because of its ability to detect a large spectrum of cellular characteristics (granularity, volume, surface antigen expression) even in small amounts of cells. Data on CSF FC in children are very limited. Here, we summarize our 3-year experience of CSF FC routinely performed in pediatric patients with assumed inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) disease. Among 109 samples sent for analysis, flow cytometric detection of major leukocyte subsets was possible in 78% (85 out of 109), which exceeds the 31% rate of our retrospective microscopic pediatric control group. Apart from physiologic lymphocytes (100%) or monocytes (48%), 11 out of these 85 samples showed granulocytes, two showed proliferated monocytes, and nine displayed proliferated lymphocytes. In most children, the proliferated lymphocytes consisted of a polyclonal population of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Compared with literature data, eight children showed abnormally composed lymphocyte subsets (surface antigen expression) within the main lymphocyte population. However, none of these changes was specific for distinct diseases or allowed a distinction between patients with and without primary inflammatory processes. These data suggest that CSF FC may be the most effective modality to differentiate major CSF leukocyte subsets. At present, further differentiation of distinct cell populations, such as proliferated lymphocytes, is of limited clinical impact. This may, however, gain increasing interest in the future. [less ▲]

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See detailSpasmogenic action of endothelin-1 on isolated equine pulmonary artery and bronchus
Benamou, A. E. M.; Marlin, D. J.; Callingham, B. C. et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal (2003), 35(2), 190-6

Reasons for performing study: There is currently little published information about the effects of endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent endogenous spasmogen of vascular and airway smooth muscle, on pulmonary ... [more ▼]

Reasons for performing study: There is currently little published information about the effects of endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent endogenous spasmogen of vascular and airway smooth muscle, on pulmonary vasculature and airways or which ET receptor subtypes mediate ET-1 induced vasoconstrictive and bronchoconstrictive action in the horse. Objectives: To investigate the effect of endothelin-1 (ET-1) on smooth muscle from isolated equine pulmonary artery and bronchus. In addition, the roles of ETA and ETB receptors in ET-1 mediated contraction in these tissues were assessed. Methods: The force generation of ring segments from pulmonary arteries or third-generation airways (obtained from horses subjected to euthanasia for orthopaedic reasons) were studied in an organ bath at 37°C in response to exogenous endothelin and selective endothelin A (BQ123) or B receptor (BQ788) antagonists. Results: ET-1 produced concentration-dependent contractions of the equine pulmonary artery and bronchus. The threshold for contraction was 10-10 and 10-9 mol/l ET-1 for pulmonary artery and bronchus, respectively. The maximal contraction induced by the highest ET-1 concentration (10-7 mol/l) was 173 and 194% of the contraction obtained with 100 mmol/l KCl in pulmonary artery and bronchus, respectively. ET-1 potency was 25 times greater in equine pulmonary artery than in equine bronchus (concentration of ET-1 producing 50% of maximal contraction [EC50] = 5.6 10-9 mol/l and 2.2 10-8 mol/l, respectively). In pulmonary artery, ET-1 induced contractions were significantly inhibited by the ETA receptor antagonist BQ123 (1 μmol/l; dose-response curve to ET-1 was shifted to the right by 5.4-fold), but not by the ETB antagonist BQ788. In bronchus, dose-responses curves to ET-1 were shifted to the right by BQ123 (1 μmol/l; 2.5-fold), but not by BQ788 (1 μmol/l). In the presence of both antagonists, the dose-response curve to ET-1 was shifted to the right by 4.5-fold. Conclusions: These functional studies demonstrate that ET-1 is a potent spasmogen of equine third generation pulmonary artery and bronchus, and that contractions are mediated via ETA receptors in the former and both ETA and ETB receptors in the latter. Potential clinical relevance: Endothelin receptor antagonists may have potential for treating equine pulmonary hypertension or bronchoconstriction. [less ▲]

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See detailMoins-values et plus-values d'urbanisme: La révision de l'article 70 du CWATUP
Pâques, Michel ULg

in Revue du Notariat Belge (2003)

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See detailHow do paedomorphic newts cope with lake drying?
Denoël, Mathieu ULg

in Ecography (2003), 26(4), 405-410

Paedomorphosis, in which adult individuals retain larval traits, is widespread in newts and salamanders. Most evolutionary models predict the maintenance of this life-history trait in favourable aquatic ... [more ▼]

Paedomorphosis, in which adult individuals retain larval traits, is widespread in newts and salamanders. Most evolutionary models predict the maintenance of this life-history trait in favourable aquatic habitats surrounded by hostile terrestrial environments. Nevertheless, numerous ponds inhabited by paedomorphic individuals are unpredictable and temporary. In an experimental framework, I showed that paedomorphic newts were able to metamorphose and thus survive in the absence of water. However, the mere decrease of water level or the life space do not seem to induce metamorphosis in paedomorphs. On the contrary, drying up induces almost all individuals to move on land and after that to colonize other aquatic sites located nearby. Such terrestrial migrations allow survival in drying conditions without metamorphosis as long as the distances of terrestrial migration are short. These results are consistent with the presence of paedomorphs in drying ponds and are in favor of classic optimality models predicting metamorphosis in unfavorable environments. [less ▲]

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See detailDesign and simulation of a solar dryer for agriculture products
Bennamoun, Lyes ULg; Belhamri, Azeddine

in Journal of Food Engineering (2003), 59(2-3),

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See detailCarbon dioxide daily variations and atmospheric fluxes over the Great Bahama Bank using a novel autonomous measuring system
Frankignoulle, Michel; Biondo, Renzo ULg; Théate, Jean-Marie et al

in Caribbean Journal of Sience (2003), 39(3), 257-264

A novel autonomous measuring device that acquires the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) by equilibration and several other parameters is described. This device, the Floating Equilibrator System (FES) was ... [more ▼]

A novel autonomous measuring device that acquires the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) by equilibration and several other parameters is described. This device, the Floating Equilibrator System (FES) was tested in field conditions for the first time in the Great Bahama Bank, in December 2000. We successfully carried out two 24 h cycles in Norman’s Pond, one in front of the Caribbean Marine Research Centre (CMRC) and another one near Bock Cay. Over-saturation of CO2 with respect to atmospheric equilibrium was observed systematically at the three sites, although significantly more marked at Norman’s Pond. The higher values of pCO2 and atmospheric CO2 fluxes obtained at Norman’s Pond, than in the adjacent open waters of the Great Bahama Bank, suggest a comparatively stronger heterotrophy at Norman’s Pond. This is most likely related to the organic carbon inputs to the water column and sediments from the dense mangrove forest surrounding Norman’s Pond. The larger amplitude of pCO2 daily variations observed, during the Norman’s Pond 24 h cycles, is probably due to higher biological activity than in the adjacent open waters of the Great Bahama Bank. This is corroborated by a tentative estimation of Gross Primary Production based on simple computations. We speculate that calcification could also contribute to some extent to different amplitude of the pCO2 daily variations between the mangrove pond and the open waters of the Great Bahama Bank. [less ▲]

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See detailDetuning effects on the mazer
Martin, John ULg; Bastin, Thierry ULg

in Physicalia Magazine (2003), 25

A short review of the theoretical studies of the cold atom micromaser (mazer) is presented. Existing models are then improved by considering more general working conditions. Especially, the mazer physics ... [more ▼]

A short review of the theoretical studies of the cold atom micromaser (mazer) is presented. Existing models are then improved by considering more general working conditions. Especially, the mazer physics is investigated in the situation where a detuning between the cavity mode and the atomic transition frequency is present. Interesting new effects are pointed out. Especially, it is shown that the cavity may slow down or speed up the atoms according to the sign of the detuning and that the induced emission process may be completely blocked by use of a positive detuning. The transmission probability of ultracold atoms through a micromaser is also studied and we generalize previous results established in the resonant case. In particular, it is shown that the velocity selection of cold atoms passing through the micromaser can be very easily tuned and enhanced using a nonresonant field inside the cavity. [less ▲]

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See detailPlmA, a new member of the GntR family, has plasmid maintenance functions in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120
Lee, M. H.; Scherer, K.; Rigali, Sébastien ULg et al

in Journal of Bacteriology (2003), 185(15), 4315-4325

The filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena (Nostoc) sp. strain PCC 7120 maintains a genome that is divided into a 6.4-Mb chromosome, three large plasmids of more that 100 kb, two medium-sized plasmids of 55 ... [more ▼]

The filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena (Nostoc) sp. strain PCC 7120 maintains a genome that is divided into a 6.4-Mb chromosome, three large plasmids of more that 100 kb, two medium-sized plasmids of 55 and 40 kb, and a 5.5-kb plasmid. Plasmid copy number can be dynamic in some cyanobacterial species, and the genes that regulate this process have not been characterized. Here we show that mutations in an open reading frame, all1076, reduce the numbers of copies per chromosome of several plasmids. In a mutant strain, plasmids pCC7120delta and pCC7120zeta are both reduced to less than 50% of their wild-type levels. The exogenous pDU1-based plasmid pAM1691 is reduced to less than 25% of its wild-type level, and the plasmid is rapidly lost. The peptide encoded by all1076 shows similarity to members of the GntR family of transcriptional regulators. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a new domain topology within the GntR family. PlmA homologs, all coming from cyanobacterial species, form a new subfamily that is distinct from the previously identified subfamilies. The all1076 locus, named plmA, regulates plasmid maintenance functions in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. [less ▲]

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See detailComment on 'Quantum inversion of cold atoms in a microcavity: spatial dependence'
Bastin, Thierry ULg; Martin, John ULg

in Journal of Physics : B Atomic Molecular & Optical Physics (2003), 36

In a recent work, Abdel-Aty and Obada (2002 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 35 807-13) analysed the quantum inversion of cold atoms in a microcavity, the motion of the atoms being described quantum ... [more ▼]

In a recent work, Abdel-Aty and Obada (2002 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 35 807-13) analysed the quantum inversion of cold atoms in a microcavity, the motion of the atoms being described quantum mechanically. Two-level atoms were assumed to interact with a single mode of the cavity, and the off-resonance case was considered (namely the atomic transition frequency is detuned from the single-mode cavity frequency). We demonstrate in this paper that this case is incorrectly treated by these authors, and we therefore question their conclusions. [less ▲]

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See detailJambes lourdes et microangiopathie de stase. Approches préventives et thérapeutiques.
Henry, Frédérique ULg; Paquet, Philippe ULg; Pierard, Claudine ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(6), 435-8

Venous insufficiency of the legs is a frequent and insidious disorder which, through its consequences' cascade, lead to some cutaneous microangiopathy with relative ischemia. Chronic leg ulcer is the late ... [more ▼]

Venous insufficiency of the legs is a frequent and insidious disorder which, through its consequences' cascade, lead to some cutaneous microangiopathy with relative ischemia. Chronic leg ulcer is the late issue of the process accompanied by varied medical and socio-economic aspects. The pathogeny of the cutaneous lesions is directly related to alterations in hemorrheology and leukocyte adhesion inside capillaries. Elastic contention and some venotropic drugs exert preventive effects on the development of leg ulcers. They also bring some therapeutic improvement of the symptoms of leg heaviness. [less ▲]

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See detailSpeed of Sound Measurements of the Third Metacarpal Bone in Young Exercising Thoroughbred Racehorses
Carstanjen, B.; Lepage, O. M.; Hars, O. et al

in BONE (2003), 33

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See detailField-dependent vortex pinning strength in a periodic array of antidots
Silhanek, Alejandro ULg; Raedts, S.; Lange et al

in Physical Review. B : Condensed Matter (2003), 67(6),

We explore the dynamic response of vortex lines in a Pb thin film with a periodic array of antidots by means of ac-susceptibility measurements. For low drive field amplitudes, within the Campbell regime ... [more ▼]

We explore the dynamic response of vortex lines in a Pb thin film with a periodic array of antidots by means of ac-susceptibility measurements. For low drive field amplitudes, within the Campbell regime, vortex motion is of intravalley type and the penetration depth is related to the curvature of the pinning potential well alpha. For dc fields below the first matching field H-1, alpha reaches its highest value associated with a Mott insulator like phase where vortex lines are strongly localized at the pinning sites. For H-1<H-dc<H-2, the response is mainly due to the interstitial vortices and α drops to smaller values as expected for this metallic like regime. Strikingly, for H-2<H-dc<H-3, we observe that α reduces further down. However, for H-3<H-dc<H-4, a reentrance in the pinning strength is observed, due to a specific configuration of the flux-line lattice which strongly restricts the mobility of vortices. We present a possible explanation for the measured α(H-dc) dependence based on the different flux-line lattice configurations. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the use of control surface excitation in flutter testing
Wright, Jan R; Wong, Jerry; Cooper, Jonathan E et al

in Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers - Part G - Journal of Aerospace Engineering (2003), 217(6), 317-332

Flutter testing is aimed at demonstrating that the aircraft flight envelope is flutter free. Response measurements from deliberate excitation of the structure are used to identify and track frequency and ... [more ▼]

Flutter testing is aimed at demonstrating that the aircraft flight envelope is flutter free. Response measurements from deliberate excitation of the structure are used to identify and track frequency and damping values against velocity. In this paper, the common approach of using a flight control surface to provide the excitation is examined using a mathematical model of a wing and control surface whose rotation is restrained by a simple actuator. In particular, it is shown that it is essential to use the demand signal to the actuator as a reference signal for data processing. Use of the actuator force (or strain) or control angle (or actuator displacement) as a reference signal is bad practice because these signals contain response information. It may also be dangerous in that the onset of flutter may not be seen in the test results. [less ▲]

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See detailFeasibility and reproducibility of off-line tissue Doppler measurement of regional myocardial function during dobutamine stress echocardiography.
Fraser, A. G.; Payne, N.; Madler, C. F. et al

in European journal of echocardiography : the journal of the Working Group on Echocardiography of the European Society of Cardiology (2003), 4(1), 43-53

AIMS: Off-line post-processing of colour tissue Doppler from digital loops may allow objective quantification of dobutamine stress echocardiography. We assessed the reproducibility of off-line ... [more ▼]

AIMS: Off-line post-processing of colour tissue Doppler from digital loops may allow objective quantification of dobutamine stress echocardiography. We assessed the reproducibility of off-line measurements of regional myocardial velocities. METHODS AND RESULTS: Nine observers analysed 10 studies, each making 2400 observations. Coefficients of variation in basal segments from apical windows, at rest and maximal stress, were 9-14% and 11-18% for peak systolic velocity, 16-18% and 17-19% for time-to-peak systolic velocity, 9-17% and 18-24% for systolic velocity time integral, and 18-23% and 21-27% for systolic acceleration. Coefficients of variation for diastolic velocities in basal segments at rest were 11-40%. Coefficients of variation for peak systolic velocity were 10-24% at rest and 14-28% at peak in mid segments, and 19-53% and 29-69% in apical segments. From parasternal windows coefficients of variation for peak systolic velocity were 14-16% in basal posterior, and 19-29% in mid-anterior segments. High variability makes measurement unreliable in apical and basal anterior septal segments. The feasibility of obtaining traces was tested in 92 subjects, and >90% in all basal and mid segments apart from the anterior septum. CONCLUSION: Quantification of myocardial functional reserve by off-line analysis of colour tissue Doppler acquired during dobutamine stress is feasible and reproducible in 11 segments of the left ventricle. The most reliable measurements are systolic velocities of longitudinal motion in basal segments. [less ▲]

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See detailTime-dependent behaviour of oil reservoir chalk: A multiphase approach
De Gennaro, Vincenzo; Delage, Pierre; Cui, Yu Jun et al

in Soils and Foundations (2003), 43(4),

In the North Sea Ekofisk oilfield, oil is located in a 300 m thick layer of porous chalk (n = 40-50%) at a 3000 m depth. After the initial phase of depletion an enhanced oil recovery procedure was carried ... [more ▼]

In the North Sea Ekofisk oilfield, oil is located in a 300 m thick layer of porous chalk (n = 40-50%) at a 3000 m depth. After the initial phase of depletion an enhanced oil recovery procedure was carried out by injecting sea water (waterflooding). An unexpected consequence of this waterflooding has been the occurrence of a seafloor subsidence, corresponding up to now to a decrease of the seafloor level of approximately 10 m. It is now well recognised that hydro-mechanical coupling involving multiphase fluid interactions (oil and water) is determinant for the interpretation of the phenomenological aspects associated with the chalk compaction and the related subsidence observed in the North Sea oilfields (Ekofisk reservoir) when water flooded. The subsidence due to waterflooding is interpreted as a collapse phenomenon due to suction decrease, typical of loose and low plasticity unsaturated soils when wetted under load. On the other hand, time-dependent stress-strain behaviour of geomaterials is one of the major concerns in soil mechanics and, in effect, subsidence includes creep effects. A multiphase approach, including creep effects under controlled suction levels, is proposed in this paper; the preliminary results of this study are presented and discussed. Attention will be focused at first on the theoretical approach, supplying the essential elements for the work, and on the interpretation of the experimental results. This will provide secondly the base for formulation and validation of the constitutive law proposed for the description of the time-dependent mechanical behaviour of the chalk. [less ▲]

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See detailRedefining the role of psr in beta-lactam resistance and cell autolysis of Enterococcus hirae.
Sapunaric, Frédéric ULg; Franssen, Christine; Stefanic, Patrick et al

in Journal of Bacteriology (2003), 185(20), 5925-35

The contribution of penicillin-binding protein 5 (PBP5) and the PBP5 synthesis repressor (Psr) to the beta-lactam resistance, growth, and cell autolysis of wild-type strain ATCC 9790 and resistant strain ... [more ▼]

The contribution of penicillin-binding protein 5 (PBP5) and the PBP5 synthesis repressor (Psr) to the beta-lactam resistance, growth, and cell autolysis of wild-type strain ATCC 9790 and resistant strain R40 of Enterococcus hirae was investigated by disruption or substitution of the corresponding pbp5 and psr genes by Campbell-type recombination. The resulting modifications were confirmed by hybridization and PCR. The low susceptibility of E. hirae to beta-lactams was confirmed to be largely dependent on the presence of PBP5. However, against all expectations, inactivation of psr in ATCC 9790 or complementation of R40 cells with psr did not modify the susceptibility to benzylpenicillin or the growth and cell autolysis rates. These results indicated that the psr gene does not seem to be involved in the regulation of PBP5 synthesis and consequently in beta-lactam resistance or in the regulation of cell autolysis in E. hirae. [less ▲]

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See detailDiurnal Centroid Of Ecosystem Energy And Carbon Fluxes At Fluxnet Sites
Wilson, Kb.; Baldocchi, D.; Falge, E. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres (2003), 108(D21),

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See detailJansénisme et monachisme féminin aux pays de Liège et de Luxembourg
Henneau, Marie-Elisabeth ULg

in Chroniques de Port-Royal (2003), 52

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See detailProspective studyof CD4 and CD8 T-lynphocyte apoptosis as a marker for radiation induced late effects in 399 individual patients
Ozsahin; Crompton; Shi et al

in International Journal of Radiation, Oncology, Biology, Physics (2003), 55(2), 551-552

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See detailPatterns Of Bryophyte Diversity And Rarity At A Regional Scale
Vanderpoorten, Alain ULg; Engels, Patrick ULg

in Biodiversity & Conservation (2003), 12(3),

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See detailInfluence Molecular Arrangement in Self-assembled Monolayers on Adhesion Forces Measured by Chemical Force Microscopy
Duwez, Anne-Sophie ULg; Jonas, Ulrich; Klein, Hubert

in Chemphyschem : A European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry (2003), 4

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See detailMosaicism of Solid Gold supports the causality of a noncoding A-to-G transition in the determinism of the callipyge phenotype.
Smit, Maria; SEGERS, Karin ULg; Carrascosa, Laura Garcia et al

in Genetics (2003), 163(1), 453-6

To identify the callipyge mutation, we have resequenced 184 kb spanning the DLK1-, GTL2-, PEG11-, and MEG8-imprinted domain and have identified an A-to-G transition in a highly conserved dodecamer motif ... [more ▼]

To identify the callipyge mutation, we have resequenced 184 kb spanning the DLK1-, GTL2-, PEG11-, and MEG8-imprinted domain and have identified an A-to-G transition in a highly conserved dodecamer motif between DLK1 and GTL2. This was the only difference found between the callipyge (CLPG) allele and a phylogenetically closely related wild-type allele. We report that this SNP is in perfect association with the callipyge genotype. The demonstration that Solid Gold-the alleged founder ram of the callipyge flock-is mosaic for this SNP virtually proves the causality of this SNP in the determinism of the callipyge phenotype. [less ▲]

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See detailFattening of Belgian Blue double-muscled culled females: animal performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality
Cabaraux, Jean-François ULg; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg; Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2003), 147(6, DEC-JAN), 423-431

In order to measure Animal performance and, carcass and meat characteristics of Belgian Blue double-muscled culled females, a fattening trial was carried out on a total of 78 animals. Fifteen females were ... [more ▼]

In order to measure Animal performance and, carcass and meat characteristics of Belgian Blue double-muscled culled females, a fattening trial was carried out on a total of 78 animals. Fifteen females were slaughtered at the beginning of the trial and 63 were fattened on a maize silage based diet. The initial average live weight was 571.2kg. The total fattening gain was 91.1 kg for a period of 91.4 days. At slaughter, the warm carcass weight was 405.9kg and the killing-out proportion 63.3%. The carcasses were characterised by a high proportion of muscles (67.6%) and rather low proportions of adipose tissue (18.2%) and bones (14.2%). The muscle and adipose tissue accretions were 36.0 and 28.2 kg. Meat was lean as indicated by high protein content (88.5%) and low fat content (6.6%) in dry matter. A high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids was also found (6.8 mol %). [less ▲]

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See detailPostnatal NG2 proteoglycan-expressing progenitor cells are intrinsically multipotent and generate functional neurons.
Belachew, Shibeshih ULg; Chittajallu, Ramesh; Aguirre, Adan A. et al

in Journal of Cell Biology (2003), 161(1), 169-86

Neurogenesis is known to persist in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS). The identity of the cells that generate new neurons in the postnatal CNS has become a crucial but elusive issue. Using ... [more ▼]

Neurogenesis is known to persist in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS). The identity of the cells that generate new neurons in the postnatal CNS has become a crucial but elusive issue. Using a transgenic mouse, we show that NG2 proteoglycan-positive progenitor cells that express the 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase gene display a multipotent phenotype in vitro and generate electrically excitable neurons, as well as astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. The fast kinetics and the high rate of multipotent fate of these NG2+ progenitors in vitro reflect an intrinsic property, rather than reprogramming. We demonstrate in the hippocampus in vivo that a sizeable fraction of postnatal NG2+ progenitor cells are proliferative precursors whose progeny appears to differentiate into GABAergic neurons capable of propagating action potentials and displaying functional synaptic inputs. These data show that at least a subpopulation of postnatal NG2-expressing cells are CNS multipotent precursors that may underlie adult hippocampal neurogenesis. [less ▲]

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