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See detailDifferentiation between begnin and malignant breast lesions with MR imaging and scintimammography
Servais, Fabienne; Blocklet, Didier; Seret, Alain ULg et al

in Radiology (1997), 205(1), 283

No abstract for this letter.

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See detailAutomated Determination of Tramadol Enantiomers in Human Plasma Using Solid-Phase Extraction in Combination with Chiral Liquid Chromatography
Ceccato, Attilio ULg; Chiap, Patrice ULg; Hubert, Philippe ULg et al

in Journal of Chromatography. B : Biomedical Sciences and Applications (1997), 698(1-2), 161-70

A sensitive and automated method for the separation and individual determination of tramadol enantiomers in plasma has been developed using solid-phase extraction (SPE) on disposable extraction cartridges ... [more ▼]

A sensitive and automated method for the separation and individual determination of tramadol enantiomers in plasma has been developed using solid-phase extraction (SPE) on disposable extraction cartridges (DECs) in combination with chiral liquid chromatography (LC). The SPE operations were performed automatically by means of a sample processor equipped with a robotic arm (ASPEC system). The DEC filled with ethyl silica (50 mg) was first conditioned with methanol and phosphate buffer, pH 7.4. A 1.0-ml volume of plasma was then applied on the DEC. The washing step was performed with the same buffer. The analytes were eluted with 0.15 ml of methanol, and 0.35 ml of phosphate buffer, pH 6.0, containing sodium perchlorate (0.2 M) were added to the extract before injection into the LC system. The enantiomeric separation of tramadol was achieved using a Chiralcel OD-R column containing cellulose tris-(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) as chiral stationary phase. The mobile phase was a mixture of phosphate buffer, pH 6.0, containing sodium perchlorate (0.2 M) and acetonitrile (75:25). The mobile-phase pH and the NaClO4 concentration were optimized with respect to enantiomeric resolution. The method developed was validated. Recoveries for both enantiomers of tramadol were about 100%. The method was found to be linear in the 2.5-150 ng/ml concentration range [r2=0.999 for (+)- and (-)-tramadol]. The repeatability and intermediate precision at a concentration of 50 ng/ml were 6.5 and 8.7% for (+)-tramadol and 6.1 and 7.6% for (-)-tramadol, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailMacromolecular engineering of lactones and lactides. 24. Controlled synthesis of (R,S)-β-butyrolactone-b-ε-caprolactone block copolymers by anionic and coordination polymerization
Kurcok, Piotr; Dubois, Philippe ULg; Sikorska, Wanda et al

in Macromolecules (1997), 30(19), 5591-5595

Block copolymers of (R,S)-β-butyrolactone and ε-caprolactone have been synthesized by combining the anionic polymerization of the first monomer with the coordinative ring-opening polymerization of the ... [more ▼]

Block copolymers of (R,S)-β-butyrolactone and ε-caprolactone have been synthesized by combining the anionic polymerization of the first monomer with the coordinative ring-opening polymerization of the second one. The copolymerization yield is close to 100% and the final molecular weight of each sequence can be predicted from the initial monomer-to-initiator molar ratio. The molecular weight distribution of copolymers obtained is quite narrow (Mw/Mn ≤ 1.3). According to NMR and DSC analysis, the polybutyrolactone block is atactic and totally amorphous, in contrast to the polycaprolactone block which is semicrystalline. A partial miscibility of the two blocks in the amorphous phase has however been detected. Thermal and enzymatic degradations of the block copolymers have been investigated. The enzymatic degradation rate promoted by the lipase form Rhizopus arrhizus strongly depends on the copolyester composition and increases with the β-butyrolactone content. [less ▲]

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See detailAnionic block copolymerization of 4-vinylpyridine and tert-butyl methacrylate at "elevated" temperature : influence of various additives on the molecular parameters
Creutz, Serge; Teyssié, Philippe; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Macromolecules (1997), 30(19), 5596-5601

The living anionic polymerization of 4-vinylpyridine (4VP) in 9/1 pyridine/THF at 0 °C has been reported lately (Creutz, S.; Teyssié, Ph.; Jérôme, R. Macromolecules 1997, 30, 1). The success of its block ... [more ▼]

The living anionic polymerization of 4-vinylpyridine (4VP) in 9/1 pyridine/THF at 0 °C has been reported lately (Creutz, S.; Teyssié, Ph.; Jérôme, R. Macromolecules 1997, 30, 1). The success of its block copolymerization with tert-butyl methacrylate (tBMA) has been shown to be dependent on the addition mode, highlighting the difference in reactivity between the two monomers. Moreover, the (co)solvent also strongly influences the fate of that copolymerization. Thus, the impact of various (co)solvents and additives has been investigated more thoroughly, revealing the interesting possibility of modifying the apparent relative reactivities of these two monomers. [less ▲]

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See detailIntramolecular excited-state processes of a halato-telechelic polymer, evaluated by global compartmental analysis of the fluorescence decay surface with the use of model coumpounds
van Stam, Jan; De Schryver, Frans C; Boens, Noël et al

in Macromolecules (1997), 30(19), 5582-5590

The excited-state processes of the halato-telechelic polymer bis[(N,N-dimethyl-N-[3-(1-pyrenyl)propyl]ammonio)trifluoromethanesulfonate]-end-capped poly(tetrahydrofuran) at low concentrations are ... [more ▼]

The excited-state processes of the halato-telechelic polymer bis[(N,N-dimethyl-N-[3-(1-pyrenyl)propyl]ammonio)trifluoromethanesulfonate]-end-capped poly(tetrahydrofuran) at low concentrations are investigated by time-resolved fluorescence. The photophysical processes can be described by an intramolecular three-state excited-state model. Such a system is not identifiable in the absence of a priori information. It is possible to perform a global compartmental analysis of the fluorescence decay surface using the scanning technique, based on model compound data previously obtained [Hermans et al., J. Phys. Chem. 1994, 98, 13583 and Hermans et al. Macromolecules 1995, 28, 3380]. The value boundaries on the rate constant for ring closure of the chain ends show that this process is close to diffusion-controlled. [less ▲]

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See detailBovine Attaching and Effacing Escherichia Coli Possess a Pathogenesis Island Related to the LEE of the Human Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli Strain E2348/69
Goffaux, F.; Mainil, Jacques ULg; Pirson, V. et al

in FEMS Microbiology Letters (1997), 154(2), 415-421

Attaching and effacing Escherichia coli (AEEC) has been described as a cause of diarrhea in calves. The molecular pathogenesis of AEEC was mainly studied in human enteropathogenic E. coli strain E2348/69 ... [more ▼]

Attaching and effacing Escherichia coli (AEEC) has been described as a cause of diarrhea in calves. The molecular pathogenesis of AEEC was mainly studied in human enteropathogenic E. coli strain E2348/69 in which the virulence correlated with the presence of a 35.4 kb pathogenesis island called LEE. We showed that several strains isolated from calves with diarrhea were able to produce attaching and effacing lesions in a rabbit ileal loop model and that they possess a pathogenesis island related to the LEE. Moreover, we showed that the LEE from bovine strains was inserted mainly at a different position in the chromosome compared to the human enteropathogenic E. coli strain E2348/69. [less ▲]

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See detailJl 13, a Potential Successor to Clozapine, Is Less Sensitive to Oxidative Phenomena
Liégeois, Jean-François ULg; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange ULg; Bruhwyler, J. et al

in Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (1997), 238(1), 252-5

The oxidation behaviour of JL 13, a promising antipsychotic, was investigated in comparison with clozapine and loxapine, by measuring their direct "radical scavenging" abilities and their efficacies in ... [more ▼]

The oxidation behaviour of JL 13, a promising antipsychotic, was investigated in comparison with clozapine and loxapine, by measuring their direct "radical scavenging" abilities and their efficacies in inhibiting the lipid peroxidation. In the lipid peroxidation system, the reactivity of these compounds with free radicals produced by gamma-irradiation of linoleic acid may be presented as follows: JL 13 = loxapine < clozapine. In two enzymatic systems (HRP/GSH and HRP/H2O2/ GSH) which generate the thiyl free radicals, clozapine produces a strong enhancement of the thiyl-radical EPR signal intensity while JL 13 and loxapine exhibit no or minimal effect on this signal. The redox potential values for the three derivatives confirm the spectro-photometric and EPR results. Following this study, we show that JL 13, although presenting a preclinical clozapine-like profile, appears less sensitive to oxidation than clozapine. [less ▲]

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See detailQuelles causes de justification devant le juge pénal ?
Delnoy, Michel ULg

in Immobilier (1997), 16

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See detailNoms propres d'étoiles.
Renson, Pierre ULg

in Ciel (Le) (1997), 59

Not Available

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See detailLa restauration de la Grande Lunette Méridienne de l'Observatoire de Cointe.
Gosset, Eric ULg

in Ciel (Le) (1997), 59

Not Available

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See detailRetrievable patent ductus arteriosus plug for interventional, transvenous occlusion of the patent ductus arteriosus : Evaluation in lambs and preliminary clinical results.
Grabitz, R. G.; Schrader, R.; Sigler, M. et al

in Investigative Radiology (1997), 32(9), 523-8

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The clinically most widely used devices (Porstmann-plug, Rashkind-umbrella, Botallooccluder) have inherent specific limitations (eg, transarterial approach, residual shunts ... [more ▼]

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The clinically most widely used devices (Porstmann-plug, Rashkind-umbrella, Botallooccluder) have inherent specific limitations (eg, transarterial approach, residual shunts, limited retrieval). The authors assess practicability, efficacy, and tissue reaction of the new retrievable transvenous plug device for the occlusion of the persistent patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). METHODS: A foam plug (polyvinyl alcohol) is mounted on a titanium core pin where, at both ends, small legs (titanium nickel alloy) with titanium heads are anchored, to ensure safe fixation in the ductus. The device is introduced transvenously through a long sheath (Mullins sheath) and held by a modified biopsy forceps allowing complete retrieval until final release. A common lamb model of large PDAs (n = 11) was used to test for practicability and the histomorphologic outcome. Clinical results were obtained from a consecutive series of 16 patients (aged 13 to 71 years). RESULTS: In all lambs, placement of the plug within the PDA was possible. Histopathology (follow-up 10 to 215 days; mean 112 days) revealed an adequate ingrowing of the device and no pathologic foreign body reaction. The diameter of the human PDAs ranged from 3 to 7 mm (mean 5 mm). The size of the sheath used for introducing the plug (diameter 8 to 16 mm) ranged from 8 to 16 French. Fourteen of 16 PDAs were closed immediately after or on day 1 after implantation, 1 was closed after the 12-month follow-up, and 1 needed an additional plug after 30 months for definitive closure. CONCLUSIONS: The device demonstrated practicability and biocompatibility in our experimental lamb model and effectively closed the PDA in a consecutive series of 16 patients. A greater number of patients and a longer follow-up period are necessary for the definitive clinical assessment of the new device. [less ▲]

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See detailAirway response of horses with COPD to dry powder inhalation of ipratropium bromide
Duvivier, Dominique Hannia; Votion, Dominique ULg; Vandenput, Sandrina ULg et al

in Veterinary Journal (1997), 154(2), 149-53

To determine the effects of the dry powder inhalation (DPI) of ipratropium bromide (ipratropium) on the airways of health horses and the dose-response curve in horses suffering from chronic obstructive ... [more ▼]

To determine the effects of the dry powder inhalation (DPI) of ipratropium bromide (ipratropium) on the airways of health horses and the dose-response curve in horses suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by means of pulmonary function tests, five healthy horses were first studied. Ipratropium (2400 micrograms ipratropium horse-1) was contained in gelatine capsules and administered using a dry powder device connected to an adapted face mask. Pulmonary function tests were recorded before inhalation and 15 and 60 min after inhalation. No modification of pulmonary function was observed. The airway response to ipratropium DPI was then determined in six horses suffering from COPD. To induce airway obstruction, the horses were bedded on straw and fed hay. When the maximal change in pleural pressure during tidal breathing exceeded 1.96 kPa, pulmonary function tests were recorded before DPI, and 15 and 60 min post-inhalation. Placebo (six capsules horse-1) or ipratropium (600, 1200 and 2400 micrograms horse-1) was administered in a randomized order to each horse using the dry powder device and the adapted face mask. Neither ipratropium nor placebo DPI affected respiratory frequency (f) or tidal volume (VT). Inhalation of 600 micrograms ipratropium horse-1 resulted in a delayed decrease of total pulmonary resistance (RL) whereas dynamic compliance (Cdyn) was improved (although not significantly) at both times of measurement when compared with values following placebo inhalation. Simultaneous decreased RL and increased Cdyn, was observed within 15 min after DPI of 1200 micrograms ipratropium horse-1 and persisted for the 1 h duration of the experiment. Doubling the dose also improved pulmonary function but not significantly more than following inhalation of 1200 micrograms ipratropium. No systemic side effects were observed in either group of horses. [less ▲]

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See detailLes cysteinyl-leucotrienes: des mediateurs importants dans l'asthme
Louis, Renaud ULg; Neven, I.; Quaedvlieg, Valérie ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1997), 52(9), 598-602

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See detailDescription et commentaire de deux approches méthodologiques de la vidéo-évaluation des stages pratiques en didactique des langues germaniques à l'ULg (II)
Simons, Germain ULg

in Education-Formation (1997), (247), 1-8

Dans cette deuxième partie (voir commentaire ci-dessous), nous décrivons une approche particulière de l'HETEROscopie de la pratique enseignante. Outre le formateur, cet atelier d'évaluation assistée par ... [more ▼]

Dans cette deuxième partie (voir commentaire ci-dessous), nous décrivons une approche particulière de l'HETEROscopie de la pratique enseignante. Outre le formateur, cet atelier d'évaluation assistée par la vidéo regroupe seize personnes : deux enseignants-stagiaires (E-S) qui ont accepté d'être filmés dans le cadre de leurs stages, leurs deux maîtres de stages, et douze E-S. Ces derniers sont amenés à observer, à analyser, à évaluer, sous différents angles, les leçons données par leurs deux collègues. Les deux E-S qui ont été filmés contextualisent le montage-vidéo (max. 20') de leur leçon et précisent les objectifs qu'ils poursuivaient. Les douze E-S sont répartis en quatre groupes de trois. Chaque groupe reçoit la grille d'évaluation utilisée dans le cadre des stages et choisit un foyer d'évaluation spécifique. A l'intérieur des quatre groupes, chaque étudiant a la responsabilité d'un sous-foyer d'évaluation particulier. Une synthèse de l'évaluation est ensuite proposée par un rapporteur de chaque groupe. Pour la deuxième leçon, les trois groupes changent de foyer d'évaluation. Des suggestions prioritaires sont finalement formulées par le formateur, les maîtres de stages et, éventuellement, les collègues E-E. L'article se clôture en examinant l'intégration de ces deux ateliers de vidéo-évaluation (voir commentaire ci-dessous) dans la macro-structure méthodologique de la formation initiale en didactique des langues germaniques à l'ULg. [less ▲]

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See detailExpression of Bone Sialoprotein in Human Lung Cancer
Bellahcene, Akeila ULg; Maloujahmoum, Naïma ULg; Fisher, L. W. et al

in Calcified Tissue International (1997), 61(3), 183-8

Lung cancer belongs to the group of malignant lesions that specifically select bone as secondary implantation site. The molecular bases for this property, defined as osteotropism, is still largely unknown ... [more ▼]

Lung cancer belongs to the group of malignant lesions that specifically select bone as secondary implantation site. The molecular bases for this property, defined as osteotropism, is still largely unknown. The recent demonstration that human breast cancer cells express and attach to bone sialoprotein (BSP), a sulfated phosphoprotein rich in bone and other mineralized tissues, could provide a clue to elucidating bone metastases formation. BSP contains the integrin binding peptide Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD), as well as non-RGD cell attachment domain. Using an immunoperoxidase technique and a specific polyclonal antibody directed against a BSP synthetic peptide, we examined the expression of BSP in 48 lung lesions including 25 squamous carcinoma, 21 adenocarcinoma, and 2 bronchioloalveolar cancers, as well as 38 human ovarian carcinoma that constitute a group of generally nonosteotropic cancers. BSP was not specifically detected in normal lung tissue with the exception of cartilage associated with bronchi. Most of the adenocarcinoma (74%) and all squamous carcinoma of the lung examined exhibited detectable levels of BSP. Staining was mainly cytoplasmic and membrane associated. The two bronchioloalveolar lung cancers examined did not show detectable amounts of BSP. When microcalcifications were observed in pulmonary malignant lesions, they were usually associated with cancer cells expressing BSP. Only 21% of the ovarian cancers examined contained malignant cells with 2+ or 3+ positivity for BSP. We further demonstrated that in 8 of 10 additional lung cancers, BSP was detected at the mRNA level. Our observation is the first demonstration that BSP is expressed in non-small cell lung carcinoma. Lung cancer cells are now the second type of osteotropic malignant cells described to express BSP. Added to the observation that BSP expression is not frequent in ovarian carcinoma, a low osteotropic cancer, our study supports our hypothesis that BSP could play a role in determining the affinity of cancer cells to bone. [less ▲]

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See detailMelting and crystallization of poly(vinylidene fluoride) blended with polyamide 6
Liu, Zhehui; Maréchal, Philippe; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Polymer (1997), 38(20), 5149-5153

Melting and crystallization of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) blended with polyamide 6 (PA6) has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry. The melting of PVDF and PA6 is observed over a small ... [more ▼]

Melting and crystallization of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) blended with polyamide 6 (PA6) has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry. The melting of PVDF and PA6 is observed over a small temperature range, i.e. 174 to 181 degrees C and 220 to 230 degrees C, respectively, over the whole blend composition. This observation indicates that PVDF and PA6 are immiscible and do not co-crystallize, although evidence for intermolecular interactions between PVDF and PA6 has been previously reported. Crystallinity of PVDF seems to decrease on addition of the first 30 wt% PA6, although this effect is not so different from the experimental errors. Kinetics of non-isothermal crystallization of pure PVDF and PVDF blends containing 20 and 40 wt% PA6 has been investigated. The crystallization rate of PVDF is not influenced by PA6 in the temperature range 138.5-145 degrees C. At lower temperatures, it is, however, adversely affected by addition of PA6. The non-isothermal crystallization data for PVDF are fitted by the Ozawa equation in the temperature range 131-141 degrees C. The Ozawa index, or Avrami exponent, for pure PVDF decreases from 3 to 1 on decreasing temperature. This observation agrees with the nucleation of PVDF crystals which is heterogeneous, and a decrease from 3 to 1 in the growth dimension. The main effect of PA6 is to restrict the decrease of the Avrami exponent from 3 to 2 on decreasing temperature, more likely due to a slower decrease in the growth dimension. PA6 does not contribute to nucleation although it is phase separated. [less ▲]

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See detailMachine-learning approaches to power-system security assessment
Wehenkel, Louis ULg

in IEEE Expert (1997), 12(5), 60-72

The paper discusses a framework that uses machine learning and other automatic-learning methods to assess power-system security. The framework exploits simulation models in parallel to screen diverse ... [more ▼]

The paper discusses a framework that uses machine learning and other automatic-learning methods to assess power-system security. The framework exploits simulation models in parallel to screen diverse simulation scenarios of a system, yielding a large database. Using data mining techniques, the framework extracts synthetic information about the simulated system's main features from this database [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic Risk in Natural and Medically Assisted Procreation
Koulischer, Lucien ULg; Verloes, Alain ULg; Lesenfants, S. et al

in Early Pregnancy (1997), 3(3), 164-71

Current in vitro fertilization techniques (IVF) including intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), microepididymal sperm aspiration (MESA) or testicular sperm extraction (TESE) clearly prevent any ... [more ▼]

Current in vitro fertilization techniques (IVF) including intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), microepididymal sperm aspiration (MESA) or testicular sperm extraction (TESE) clearly prevent any spontaneous choice of ova or spermatozoa. According to the widely admitted concept of gamete selection, pregnancies following IVF, when compared to natural fertilization, could therefore present a higher risk of genetic anomalies. However, no increased fetal or newborn abnormalities are noticed with IVF, except perhaps for sex chromosome aneuploidies. Data from the literature support the view that the uterus is, indeed, the organ where selection mechanisms occur (when they do so), as suggested by Carr in 1971. This selection concerns mainly autosome imbalances; unbalanced conceptuses are aborted. Sex chromosome aneuploidies, apparently, are less prone to natural abortion, but their higher rate of occurrence, as reported in a few series of studies, does not seem to be associated with the IVF procedures. [less ▲]

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See detailLa transposition corrigée des gros vaisseaux ou double discordance
RADERMECKER, Marc ULg; Limet, Raymond ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1997), 52(9), 603-5

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See detailAerosol Deposition in Equine Lungs Following Ultrasonic Nebulisation Versus Jet Aerosol Delivery System
Votion, Dominique ULg; Ghafir, Y.; Munsters, K. et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal (1997), 29(5), 388-393

Therapeutic aerosols pay an increasing role in the treatment of equine respiratory disorders. This route of delivery permits concentration of significant amounts of drugs at the site of action without ... [more ▼]

Therapeutic aerosols pay an increasing role in the treatment of equine respiratory disorders. This route of delivery permits concentration of significant amounts of drugs at the site of action without unwanted high systemic concentration and resultant side effects. The efficiency of such a topical therapy depends on the quantity of inhaled drugs deposited in the lungs and, for some drugs, on the proportion retained in specific parts of the lungs. The objective of this study was to define and to compare quantitative (dose deposited) and qualitative (regional distribution) deposition of an aerosol in the equine lungs, using either a ultrasonic nebuliser (UN) currently used in human medicine or a high pressure jet nebuliser (JN) especially developed for the equine species. This comparison was possible owing to gamma-scintigraphy, a noninvasive technique ideally suited to give information about both total and regional deposition of inhaled drugs in the respiratory tract. The quantitative study did not point out any difference between the 2 systems concerning the activity released from the nebuliser proportionally to the initial loaded dose (mean +/- s.d. 45.95 +/- 4.93% for the UN vs. 46.47 +/- 8.49% for the JN). By contrast, the percentage of the dose released reaching the lungs was significantly lower with the UN compared to the JN (5.09 +/- 0.66% vs. 7.35 +/- 1.96%). The qualitative analysis did not show any significant difference in size of aerosol deposition image between the 2 nebulisers. However peripheral deposition was significantly higher with JN compared to UN. In conclusion, both nebulisers may be used for aerosol therapy in the equine species. The ultrasonic and pneumatic nebulisation achieved drug deposition in the peripheral part of the lungs (i.e. small airways and lung parenchyma). [less ▲]

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See detailIncreased plasma malondialdehyde associated with cerebellar structural defects.
RAMAEKERS, Vincent ULg; Bosman, Bernard ULg; Jansen, G. A. et al

in Archives of disease in childhood (1997), 77(3), 231-4

BACKGROUND: Malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma is regarded as an indicator for increased lipid peroxidation. METHOD: Measurements of MDA concentrations in plasma were compared among healthy children (n = 31 ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma is regarded as an indicator for increased lipid peroxidation. METHOD: Measurements of MDA concentrations in plasma were compared among healthy children (n = 31), patients with neurological disorders or epileptic syndromes (n = 15), and children with pontocerebellar structural defects (n = 31), where the cause or genetic defect remained unknown. RESULTS: In healthy children the median MDA value was 5.86 nmol/ml (mean (SD) value: 6.25 (1.97), range: 3.76-11.19). For the group with various neurological disorders or epilepsy, the values were similar with the median value at 5.66 nmol/ml (range 0.22-10.86). Compared with healthy controls and the neurological/ epileptic group, the 31 children with pontocerebellar structural defects had significantly increased MDA values with a median value at 11.29 nmol/ml (mean (SD) value: 11.62 (3.27), range 3.65-19.22). IMPLICATION: These findings of increased plasma MDA in the majority of children with pontocerebellar structural defects of unknown origin raised the question whether increased lipid peroxidation leads to prenatal and postnatal pontocerebellar maldevelopment or degeneration. [less ▲]

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See detailUso di immagini GAC NDVI per la previsione dei rendimenti agricoli in Aree Saheliane
Romanelli, Stefano; Lorenzo, Bottai; Andrea, Di Vecchia et al

in Rivista Italiana di Telerilevamento (1997), 11

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See detailD.m.a. and d.s.c. investigations of the β transition of poly(vinylidene fluoride)
Liu, Zhehui; Maréchal, Philippe; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Polymer (1997), 38(19), 4925-4929

The origin of the beta transition in poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) is still a pending question. This transition has been studied by dynamic mechanical analysis (d.m.a.) and differential scanning ... [more ▼]

The origin of the beta transition in poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) is still a pending question. This transition has been studied by dynamic mechanical analysis (d.m.a.) and differential scanning calorimetry (d.s.c.) in dependence on sample annealing and dilution with epsilon-caprolactam (CPL). The beta transition temperature is increased upon annealing and thus influenced by the polymer crystallization. Upon addition of CPL, there is no systematic shift in the beta transition temperature, in contrast to the PVDF crystallinity that increases steadily. A shoulder on the low temperature side of the beta transition peak is also observed as a result of annealing. It is shifted to lower temperatures when CPL is added, consistently with a glass transition. It thus appears that the so-called beta-transition is sensitive to the amorphous material, but in a close relationship with the polymer crystallization. Comparison of the observations by d.s.c, and d.m.a. shows that the broad transition observed for the unannealed samples would result from the overlap of two transitions: the glass transition of the unconstrained amorphous phase and the glass transition of chains constrained by the crystalline phase. This situation can account for the complex dependence of the beta transition on the polymer history. [less ▲]

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See detailComment j'explore ... nouveaux critères pour le diagnostic du diabète sucré
Scheen, A. J.; Paquot, Nicolas ULg; Lefebvre, P. J.

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1997), 52(9), 606-9

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See detailDifferential Effects of D1 and D2 Dopamine-Receptor Agonists and Antagonists on Appetitive and Consummatory Aspects of Male Sexual Behavior in Japanese Quail
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Castagna, C.; Ball, G. F.

in Physiology & Behavior (1997), 62(3), 571-80

Pharmacological studies in Japanese quail based on behavioral tests with a variety of dopaminergic compounds suggest that the activation of D2 dopamine receptors inhibits, and the activation of D1 ... [more ▼]

Pharmacological studies in Japanese quail based on behavioral tests with a variety of dopaminergic compounds suggest that the activation of D2 dopamine receptors inhibits, and the activation of D1 dopamine receptors enhances, appetitive and consummatory components of male sexual behavior. This hypothesis was tested by studying the behavioral effects of specific D1 and D2 dopaminergic-receptor agonists and antagonists in castrated male Japanese quail chronically treated with exogenous testosterone (subcutaneous Silastic implants). The effects of 5 compounds were tested: 1 D1 (SKF38393) and 2 D2 (PPHT and quinpirole) agonists, and 1 D1 (SCH23390) and 1 D2 (Spiperone) antagonist. All compounds were tested at a low and a high dose (0.1 and 1 mg/kg, respectively, for all drugs, except spiperone where the doses were 2 and 10 mg/kg). A consistent effect of all drugs on consummatory sexual behavior was observed: it was stimulated by the D1 agonist and the D2 antagonist, but inhibited by the D1 antagonist and the D2 agonists. Far fewer effects of the treatments were detected on the measures of appetitive behavior. Measures of appetitive behavior were decreased by the 2 D2 agonists, but not affected by the other treatments. These data suggest that male copulatory behavior in quail is stimulated by dopamine acting on D1 receptors, but inhibited by activation of the D2 receptor subtype. The partial dissociation observed between the effects of the same treatments on appetitive and consummatory aspects of sexual behavior also suggests that these 2 behavioral systems may be controlled by the action of dopamine on different neuronal systems. [less ▲]

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See detailBulk polymerization of lactides initiated by aluminum isopropoxide. 1. Mechanism and kinetics
Degée, Philippe; Dubois, Philippe ULg; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Macromolecular Symposia (1997), 123

Commercially available Al isopiopoxide (Al(OiPr)3) has proved to be an efficient initiator for the bulk polymerization of lactide. The ring-opening polymerization proceeds through a "coordination ... [more ▼]

Commercially available Al isopiopoxide (Al(OiPr)3) has proved to be an efficient initiator for the bulk polymerization of lactide. The ring-opening polymerization proceeds through a "coordination-insertion" mechanism and the selective rupture of the acyl-oxygen bond of the monomer Polyester chains are selectively end-capped with an aluminum alkoxide and an isopropoxy group. Therefore, substitution of Al tris(4-penten-1-olate) for Al(OiPr)3 leads to the formation of macromonomers In the temperature range from 110 to 150°C, polymerization is "living", i.e. the molecular weight can be predicted by the initial monomer-to-Al molar ratio and the monomer conversion. The narrower polydispetsity of poly(L,L-lactide) compared to the amorphous poly(D,L-lactide) ( 1.3 compared to 1.9, respectively), both prepared in the bulk, is thought to result from the restricted mobility of the crystallized isotactic polyester chains. When the temperature is increased up to 180°C, inter- and intramolecular transesterification reactions interfere with chain propagation. [less ▲]

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See detailVaricella-zoster virus open reading frame 4 encodes an immediate-early protein with posttranscriptional regulatory properties
Defechereux, Patricia; Debrus, Serge; Baudoux, Laurence et al

in Journal of Virology (1997), 71(9), 7073-7079

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) encodes four putative immediate-early proteins based on sequence homology with herpes simplex virus type I: the products of ORF4, -61, -62, and -63. Until now, only two VZV ... [more ▼]

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) encodes four putative immediate-early proteins based on sequence homology with herpes simplex virus type I: the products of ORF4, -61, -62, and -63. Until now, only two VZV proteins have been described as being truly expressed with immediate-early kinetics (IE62 and IE63). The ORF4-encoded protein can stimulate gene expression either alone or in synergy with the major regulatory protein IE62. Making use of a sequential combination of transcription and protein synthesis inhibitors (actinomycin D and cycloheximide, respectively), we demonstrated the immediate-early nature of the ORF4 gene product, which can thus be named IE4. The fact that IE4 is expressed with kinetics similar to that of IE62 further underlines the possible cooperation between these two VZV proteins in gene expression. Analysis of the IE4-mediated autologous or heterologous viral gene expression at the mRNA levels clearly indicated that IE4 may have several mechanisms of action. Activation of the two VZV genes tested could occur partly by a posttranscriptional mechanism, since increases in chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) mRNA levels do not account for the stimulation of CAT activity. On the other hand, stimulation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat-or the cytomegalovirus promoter-associated CAT activity is correlated with an increase in the corresponding CAT mRNA. [less ▲]

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See detailExiste-t-il une relation entre les champs électromagnétiques 50-60 Hz et le risque de cancer?
Crasson, Marion ULg

in Tempo Médical (1997)

Cette publication permet de mieux comprendre à quoi correspond la notion de champs électromagnétiques et d'évaluer les résultats des études épidémiologiques en connaissant leurs principales difficultés ... [more ▼]

Cette publication permet de mieux comprendre à quoi correspond la notion de champs électromagnétiques et d'évaluer les résultats des études épidémiologiques en connaissant leurs principales difficultés méthodologiques et les principales hypothèses concernant l'interaction entre ces champs électromagnétiques et les organismes biologiques. [less ▲]

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See detailPoly[methyl methacrylate (M)-b-styrene (S)-b-butadiene (B)-b-S-b-M] pentablock copolymers: synthesis, morphology, and properties.
Yu, Jian Ming; Dubois, Philippe ULg; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Macromolecules (1997), 30(17), 4984-4994

A series of poly[methyl methacrylate (M)-b-styrene (S)-b-butadiene (B)-b-S-b-M], or MSBSM, pentablock copolymers have been successfully synthesized by sequential living anionic polymerization initiated ... [more ▼]

A series of poly[methyl methacrylate (M)-b-styrene (S)-b-butadiene (B)-b-S-b-M], or MSBSM, pentablock copolymers have been successfully synthesized by sequential living anionic polymerization initiated with the diadduct of tert-butyllithium (t-BuLi) onto m-diisopropenylbenzene (m-DIB) in a cyclohexane/diethyl ether mixture for the butadiene and styrene polymerization at room temperature and in a cyclohexane/THF mixture for the MMA polymerization at −78 °C. All the pentablock copolymers have a monomodal and narrow molecular weight distribution (Mw/Mn < 1.20), and their weight composition varies from 11 to 55% M, 18 to 55% S, and 15 to 64% B. Toluene-cast films of these copolymers have been analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). All these materials show a phase separation of the soft B component from the hard S and M blocks, which cannot, however, be distinguished one from each other by DSC or DMA. Indeed, a single transition is observed for the binary hard phase at a temperature intermediate between the glass transition temperature of polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). In addition to classical phase morphologies, such as cylindrical and lamellar phase organization, two nonclassical morphologies, i.e., catenoid−lamellar and strut phase structures have been observed by TEM. The phase morphology strongly depends on the pentablock composition and any chemical modification of blocks. For instance, the cylindrical morphology, characteristic of an MSBSM copolymer containing equal amounts of hard and soft phases, is changed into a lamellar morphology upon hydrogenation of the B midblock. Copolymers of a relatively low hard phase content typically behave as thermoplastic elastomers of high ultimate tensile strength (ca. 30 MPa) and elongation at break (ca. 900%). These mechanical properties, however, depend on the casting solvent. [less ▲]

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See detailTriblock copolymer based thermoreversible gels. 4. Effect of the midblock and characterization of the sol-gel transition
Yu, Jian Ming; Blacher, Silvia ULg; Brouers, F. et al

in Macromolecules (1997), 30(16), 4619-4625

Thermoreversible gelation has been studied in o-xylene for poly(methyl methacrylate) containing 80% syndiotactic triads (sPMMA) and block copolymers of the MXM type, where M is sPMMA and X is either ... [more ▼]

Thermoreversible gelation has been studied in o-xylene for poly(methyl methacrylate) containing 80% syndiotactic triads (sPMMA) and block copolymers of the MXM type, where M is sPMMA and X is either polybutadiene (PBD), hydrogenated PBD (PEB), poly(styrene-b-butadiene-b-styrene) (SBS) triblock, or the hydrogenated version of this triblock (SEBS). In o-xylene, which is a selective solvent for the central X block, sPMMA forms thermoreversible gels provided that the molecular weight is high enough. When sPMMA is the outer block of MXM triblock copolymers, the midblock X appears to favor the gelation and it considerably improves the thermal stability of the matured gels. This thermal stability is, however, largely independent of the actual nature of the midblock. The dynamic properties of solutions and gels have been analyzed and discussed on the basis of scaling assumptions. At the gel point, where the loss angle tan δc = G‘‘/G‘ is independent of the probing frequency, the sample obeys the typical power law G‘(ω) G‘‘(ω) ωΔ. The scaling exponent Δ is found in the 0.65−0.75 range for both sPMMA and MXM block copolymers, independent of the nature of the midblock. Modulus−frequency master curves have been built by using appropriate reaction time dependent renormalization factors for the individual frequency and modulus data. The scaling of these factors with reaction time has allowed us to calculate the static scaling exponents for the increase observed in both modulus and viscosity. The accordingly calculated values agree with the scalar elasticity percolation model. [less ▲]

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See detailThe geometry of the quadruply imaged quasar PG 1115+080: implications for H_0_.
Courbin, F.; Magain, Pierre ULg; Keeton, C. R. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (1997), 324

Time delay measurements have recently been reported for the lensed quasar PG 1115+080. These measurements can be used to derive H_0_, but only if we can constrain the lensing potential. We have applied a ... [more ▼]

Time delay measurements have recently been reported for the lensed quasar PG 1115+080. These measurements can be used to derive H_0_, but only if we can constrain the lensing potential. We have applied a recently developed deconvolution technique to analyze sub-arcsecond I band images of PG 1115+080, obtained at the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) and the Canada France Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). The high performance of the deconvolution code allows us to derive precise positions and magnitudes for the four lensed images of the quasar, as well as for the lensing galaxy. The new measurement of the galaxy position improves its precision by a factor of 3 and thus strengthens the constraints on the lensing potential. With the new data, a range of models incorporating some of the plausible systematic uncertainties yields H_0_=53^+10^_-7_km/s/Mpc. [less ▲]

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See detailThe onset of photometric variability in red giant stars.
Jorissen, A.; Mowlavi, N.; Sterken, C. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (1997), 324

The onset of variability in red giant stars is studied from the data collected by the `Long-Term Photometry of Variables' project which operates at ESO (La Silla) since 1982. The differential nature of ... [more ▼]

The onset of variability in red giant stars is studied from the data collected by the `Long-Term Photometry of Variables' project which operates at ESO (La Silla) since 1982. The differential nature of the observations combined with a multi-night reduction algorithm enables to study the variability of over 50 red giants with an accuracy of the order of 2 to 3 millimagnitudes on time scales ranging from days to years. All red giants with spectral types late G to early K (i.e. b-y~0.6-0.8) are stable at the level Ï _y_<6millimag (where Ï _y_ is the standard deviation of the Stroemgren y magnitude). Red giants with later spectral types are all variable, and it is found that the minimum variability level Ï _y, min_ increases with increasing b-y, thus defining a minimum-variability boundary. The new data obtained in this paper reveal that the time scale of the associated variability increases with increasing b-y (and thus amplitude), and that the stability of this time scale improves concomitantly. More precisely, irregular variations on time scales of 5 to 10-days (and Ï _y_~7millimag) characterize red giants with b-y~1.0, whereas the variations (with Ï _y_~100millimag) become more regular with periods of the order of 50d for red giants with b-y~1.3. A radial-velocity jitter (of the order of 1.5km/s r.m.s.) is associated with this photometric variability, and suggests that stellar oscillations may be responsible for the observed variations. [less ▲]

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See detailLes constellations (IV).
Renson, Pierre ULg

in Ciel et Terre (1997), 113

Not Available

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See detailSuccessful Controlled Limb Reperfusion after Severe Prolonged Ischemia
Defraigne, Jean-Olivier ULg; Pincemail, Joël ULg; Laroche, C. et al

in Journal of Vascular Surgery : Official Publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery and International Society For Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter (1997), 26(2), 346-50

Controlled limb reperfusion was performed in two patients who were admitted for lower limb-threatening ischemia as a result of embolism. After embolectomy, the inflow blood was drained with a cannula and ... [more ▼]

Controlled limb reperfusion was performed in two patients who were admitted for lower limb-threatening ischemia as a result of embolism. After embolectomy, the inflow blood was drained with a cannula and mixed with a crystalloid solution to obtain an hyperosmolar, hypocalcemic, alkalotic, and substrate-enriched (aspartate, glutamate) reperfusate. This reperfusate was reinjected with a roller pump for 30 minutes through two cannulas inserted in the profunda and superficial femoral arteries. Temperature, intraarterial pressures, and flow were closely controlled. No complications occurred, and complete recovery of motor and sensory functions were observed, with restoration of pedal pulses. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of the Biochemical Properties of, and Complex Formation between, Glycoproteins H and L of the Gamma2 Herpesvirus Bovine Herpesvirus-4
Lomonte, P.; Filée, Patrice ULg; Lyaku, J. R. et al

in Journal of General Virology (The) (1997), 78((Pt 8)), 2015-23

Genes encoding glycoprotein gH and gL homologues were localized in the genome of the gamma-herpesvirus bovine herpesvirus-4 (BHV-4). Both genes were sequenced and glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins ... [more ▼]

Genes encoding glycoprotein gH and gL homologues were localized in the genome of the gamma-herpesvirus bovine herpesvirus-4 (BHV-4). Both genes were sequenced and glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins were produced and used to immunize rabbits against the translation products of the two genes. The anti-gH serum recognized a protein with an apparent molecular mass (MM) of 110 kDa both in infected cells and in virions. This protein was sensitive to endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminase-H (endoH) and endoglycosidase F-N-glycosidase F (endoF-PNGaseF) digestion. A protein with the same relative mobility was immunoprecipitated from infected cells radiolabelled with [3H]glucosamine which confirmed that this product (gp110), now designated BHV-4 gH, was glycosylated. Western blotting with the anti-gL serum detected in infected cells a product with an apparent MM ranging from 31-35 kDa and diffusely migrating protein species ranging from 45-65 kDa. Tunicamycin, monensin, endoH or endoF-PNGaseF treatments showed that both the 31-35 kDa and the 45-65 kDa proteins were glycosylated, gp31-35 being a precursor of the 45-65 kDa glycoprotein species. In radioimmunoprecipitation assays, the anti-gL serum immunoprecipitated from infected cells two glycosylated proteins with apparent MMs of 31-35 kDa (gp31-35) and 45-55 kDa (gp45-55). However a third glycoprotein, gp110, was also immunoprecipitated together with gp31-35 and gp45-55. gp110 and gp45-55 were subsequently confirmed to be virion glycoproteins corresponding to mature forms of BHV-4 gH and gL respectively. In addition, the present study clearly demonstrated complex formation between BHV-4 gH and gL both in virions and in infected cells. [less ▲]

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See detailLa néphropathie épidémique a Hantavirus
Weekers, Laurent ULg; Biessaux, Yves ULg; Lamproye, Anne ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1997), 52(8), 515-519

L'Entre-Sambre-et-Meuse a été le siège d'une épidémie de néphropathie épidémique à Hantavirus (NE) en 199293. Cinq cas ont été rencontrés au CHU de Liège en moins d'un an. Le virus responsable de cette ... [more ▼]

L'Entre-Sambre-et-Meuse a été le siège d'une épidémie de néphropathie épidémique à Hantavirus (NE) en 199293. Cinq cas ont été rencontrés au CHU de Liège en moins d'un an. Le virus responsable de cette affection appartient à la famille dès Hantavirus dont il existe huit sérotypes aux caractéristiques propres en terme de vecteur (rongeurs), de distribution géographique et de pathogénicité. Les pathologies induites chez l'homme vont de la néphropathie épidémique à Hantavirus - d'évolution le plus souvent bénigne- au syndrome pulmonaire à Hantavirus (SPH) - fréquemment mortel - en passant par la fièvre hémorragique avec syndrome rénal (FHSR) de sévérité intermédiaire. Dans nos contrées, on rencontre le sérotype Puumala dont le vecteur est le campagnol roussâtre. L'homme s'infecte par inhalation de particules contaminées et développe dans un pourcentage non précisé des cas, après une période d'incubation de 1 à 3 semaines, un tableau clinique de néphropathie épidémique à Hantavirus. Celui-ci se caractérise par l'apparition brutale d'une fièvre, de myalgies diffuses, de douleurs abdominales et/ou lombaires et de céphalées. Apparaissent ensuite à des degrés divers: nausées et vomissements, oligurie, myopie aiguë, toux,diathèse hémorragique, diarrhée... Biologiquement, on observe l'association d'une insuffisance rénale aiguë et d'une thrombopénie. L'évolution est spontanément favorable dans les deux à trois semaines. Le diagnostic suggéré par la clinique sera confirmé par la sérologie. La physiopathologie de l'insuffisance rénale et de la thrombopénie fait intervenir des interactions complexes entre l'hôte et le virus. Il n'existe pas de thérapeutique spécifique pour la néphropathie épidémique à Hantavirus. Les formes plus sévères (SPH et FHSR) peuvent bénéficierd'un traitement par Ribavirineen iv. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of platelet-activating factor on bovine pulmonary function
Van de Weerdt, ML; Desmecht, Daniel ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (1997), 141(7), 168-172

The objectives of this study were to determine whether the infusion of platelet-activating factor would modify bovine pulmonary function, heart rate and platelet count and whether any such modifications ... [more ▼]

The objectives of this study were to determine whether the infusion of platelet-activating factor would modify bovine pulmonary function, heart rate and platelet count and whether any such modifications could be antagonised by the prior intravenous injection of a specific antagonist (WEB 2086). In saline-pretreated calves, the respiratory rate, total lung resistance (RL) and maximal changes in transpulmonary pressure (delta Ptp) were significantly increased whereas lung dynamic compliance (CLdyn), tidal volume (VT), platelet count and heart rate were significantly decreased. The changes in RL, CLdyn, VT and delta Ptp were abolished by pretreatment with WEB 2086, whereas respiratory rate remained significantly increased to 125 per cent of the baseline value, but less than in the saline-pretreated calves in which it was 250 per cent of the baseline value. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential expression of galectin-1 and galectin-3 during first trimester human embryogenesis.
van den Brûle, Frédéric; Fernandez, Pedro L.; Buicu, Crina et al

in Developmental Dynamics : An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists (1997), 209(4), 399-405

Development of complex organisms requires specific temporospatial differentiation and expression of the correct phenotype through activation of a variety of genes. Galectins are mammalian lectins able to ... [more ▼]

Development of complex organisms requires specific temporospatial differentiation and expression of the correct phenotype through activation of a variety of genes. Galectins are mammalian lectins able to interact with various extracellular matrix glycoconjugates and have been implicated in several biological events including cell attachment, differentiation, apoptosis, embryogenesis, and cancer invasion and metastasis. In this study, we have examined the expression of galectin-1 and galectin-3 during human first trimester embryogenesis using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Variable amounts of galectin-1 and galectin-3 were detected in all tissue protein extracts. Galectin-1 expression was demonstrated in the connective tissue and derived tissues such as smooth and striated muscle cells, and in some epithelia, such as in the basal layers of the skin after 14 weeks and in the epithelial cells of the gonads. Galectin-3 was detected mainly in epithelia, such as the skin, epithelial lining of the digestive and respiratory tract, and urothelium and excretory tubes of the kidney, but also in the myocardial cells, in the peripheral and preossifying hypertrophic chondrocytes, and in the notochord and in the liver. Our study constitutes the first demonstration of galectin-1 and galectin-3 during human embryogenesis. The differential expression of these two lectins suggests that they could participate in the complex processes of tissue differentiation. [less ▲]

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See detailEsquisse d'un bilan provisoire
Beckers, Jacqueline ULg; Motte, André

in Puzzle (1997), 4

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See detailInsuffisance rénale, syndrome inflammatoire et anévrysme de l'aorte abdominale ... où est le lien?
Vazquez, C.; Bonnet, Pierre ULg; Fastre, M. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1997), 52(8), 511-4

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See detailBiodegradable and biocompatible inorganic-organic hybrid materials. 1. Synthesis and characterization
Tian, Dong; Dubois, Philippe ULg; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry (1997), 35(11), 2295-2309

The hydroxyl or vinyl end-groups of linear or three-arm star-shaped poly(-caprolactone) (PCL) chains have been derivatized into triethoxysilane groups reactive in the sol-gel process. New transparent ... [more ▼]

The hydroxyl or vinyl end-groups of linear or three-arm star-shaped poly(-caprolactone) (PCL) chains have been derivatized into triethoxysilane groups reactive in the sol-gel process. New transparent hybrid materials that combine tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and PCL known for biodegradability and biocompatibility have accordingly been prepared. The sol-gel process is, however, limited by the early vitrification of the reactive system. However, thermal posttreatment can overcome these diffusional and/or kinetic limitations as assessed by a set of analytical methods. The thermal stability of PCL is improved by incorporation into the silica network. Conversely, the thermal stability of the ceramer depends on the effective PCL content. The extent of PCL incorporation into the silica network depends on PCL molecular weight, number, and reactivity of the PCL functional groups. IR spectroscopy has shown that hydrogen bonding occurs between the ester groups of PCL and residual OH groups of the silicate component. © 1997 John Wiley [less ▲]

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See detailThrombolysis of Occluded Infrainguinal Bypass Grafts
VAN DAMME, Hendrik ULg; TROTTEUR, Geneviève ULg; Dongelinger, R.F. et al

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (1997), 97(4), 177-83

From January 1993 to December 1995, intraarterial catheter guided urokinase infusion was used as an initial approach in the management of 29 episodes of infrainguinal graft thrombosis (12 venous and 17 ... [more ▼]

From January 1993 to December 1995, intraarterial catheter guided urokinase infusion was used as an initial approach in the management of 29 episodes of infrainguinal graft thrombosis (12 venous and 17 prosthetic grafts) in 27 patients. The infusion catheter was embedded inside the occluding clot which was infiltrated by 225.000 U urokinase from distal to proximal. Local low-dose urokinase (1.000 U/kg/hr) was continued for a mean of 39 hours. By this regimen, prompt relief of ischaemia was achieved in 69% (20/29) of cases. Complete recanalization was obtained in 79% of cases. In six cases, the graft remained totally (n = 3) or partially (n = 3) occluded. Two of these patients benefited from secondary surgery, two improved clinically by conservative treatment, and two required amputation. In the 23 successful cases, thrombolysis unmasked an underlying flow-limiting stenosis in 83% (19/23), that was subsequently corrected by percutaneous balloon angioplasty (n = 15), by surgery (n = 3), or by a combination of both (n = 4). One early rethrombosis resulted in an amputation. The immediate limb-salvage rate was 89% (26/29). Surgical intervention was avoided in 17 cases (58%). The main hospital stay was 13 days. The short-term follow-up (mean of 17 months) reveals a high early rethrombosis rate (8/23 or 35%) within one year. Four of these repeated graft failures evolved to amputation. At one year, the overall limb salvage rate dropped to 79%. Thrombolytic management of infrainguinal occluded bypass grafts gives excellent initial technical results (79%), minimizing the need for major surgical revision. It is however characterized by a high procedure-related morbidity (21%). These immediate favourable results are not longstanding. Diffuse graft disease, limited outflow and high recurrence rate of anastomotic stenoses after balloon angioplasty explain poor long-term results after thrombolysis of failed grafts. [less ▲]

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See detailConsequences of Cold and Warm Ischemia on Pulmonary Mitochondrial Respiratory Function
Detry, Olivier ULg; Willet, K.; Lambermont, Bernard ULg et al

in Transplantation Proceedings (1997), 29(5), 2338-9

IN RECENT years, pulmonary transplantation has become the treatment of choice for several end-stage lung diseases, but remains limited by the scarcity of suitable donors and the lack of reliable prolonged ... [more ▼]

IN RECENT years, pulmonary transplantation has become the treatment of choice for several end-stage lung diseases, but remains limited by the scarcity of suitable donors and the lack of reliable prolonged method of lung preservation.1 Transplantation of lung 6 hours postharvest leads to an increased incidence of primary graft dysfunction, due in part to ischemic damage of pulmonary cell structure and metabolism, and to acute reperfusion injury. However, very little is known about the real mechanisms of pulmonary cell injuries before, during, and after lung transplantation. <br /> <br />During ischemia, the cytosolic and mitochondrial adenine nucleotide content falls,2,3 phospholipids are degraded, membrane permeabilities are increased, and the cytosolic levels of Na+, Ca2+ and phosphate are raised.4 Thus, cold and warm ischemia may induce cell dysfunctions and irreversible injuries responsible for necrosis. As mitochondia are believed to be the site of the determinants of irreversibility,5 the study of permanent oxidative phosphorylation damage after ischemia should be of great interest. <br /> <br />The aim of this present study was to investigate the consequences of warm and cold ischemia on the oxidative phosphorylation of isolated lung mitochondria [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis and characterization of hydrogenated poly[alkylmethacrylate(-b-styrene)-b-butadiene-b-(styrene-b-) alkylmethacrylate] triblock and pentablock copolymers
Yu, Jian Ming; Yu, Yisong; Dubois, Philippe ULg et al

in Polymer (1997), 38(12), 3091-3101

Triblock and pentablock copolymers of the X(Y)B(Y)X type have been synthesized by the sequential living anionic polymerization of butadiene (B), styrene (Y) and alkylmethacrylate (X), respectively. The ... [more ▼]

Triblock and pentablock copolymers of the X(Y)B(Y)X type have been synthesized by the sequential living anionic polymerization of butadiene (B), styrene (Y) and alkylmethacrylate (X), respectively. The diadduct of t-BuLi onto m-diisopropenylbenzene (m-DIB) has been used as a difunctional initiator. Methylmethacrylate (MMA), t-butylmethacrylate (tBMA) and isobornylmethacrylate (IBMA) have been used as precursors of the outerblocks X. The polybutadiene (PBD) midblock that contains ca 42-45% 1,2-units has been selectively hydrogenated into a saturated poly(ethylene-co-1-butene) (PEB) block. The homogeneous hydrogenation catalysis has no deleterious effect on the copolymer integrity. These completely soluble thermoplastic elastomers have been characterized by FT i.r., n.m.r., d.s.c. and d.m.a. The PEB midblock has a low Tg (-50°C) and a small propensity to crystallize. The effect of hydrogenation on the morphology and mechanical properties depends on the outer block. Upon hydrogenation of the PBD midblock in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and polyisobornylmethacrylate (PIBMA) containing triblock copolymers, the ultimate tensile strength is increased (except for a hard block content > 50%) due to a sharper phase separation, whereas the elongation at break is decreased. The extent of phase separation is reduced in polyt-butylmethacrylate(PtBMA) containing triblock copolymers upon hydrogenation and the ultimate tensile strength is slightly decreased. Stereocomplexation of the syndiotactic PMMA outerblocks is observed to occur upon blending with isotactic PMMA [less ▲]

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See detailLiving anionic homo- and block copolymerization of 2-(tert-butylamino) ethyl methacrylate
Creutz, Serge; Teyssié, Philippe; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry (1997), 35(10), 2035-2040

Anionic polymerization of 2-(tert-butylamino)ethyl methacrylate (tBAEMA), which bears an unprotected secondary amine moiety, has been investigated in THF at -78°C. The presence of lithium chloride has ... [more ▼]

Anionic polymerization of 2-(tert-butylamino)ethyl methacrylate (tBAEMA), which bears an unprotected secondary amine moiety, has been investigated in THF at -78°C. The presence of lithium chloride has been shown to be desirable to afford narrow molecular weight distribution as well as a good agreement between theoretical and observed molecular weight. The living character of the polymerization has also been demonstrated, and the synthesis of block copolymers carried out successfully. They have been analyzed by SEC by adding a mixture of secondary and tertiary amines to the eluent (THF) so as to avoid any polymer adsorption during elution. © 1997 John Wiley [less ▲]

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See detailCoupling of α,ω-dichloropoly (methylphenylsilane) and living poly (styryllithium). Study of the coupling reaction
Demoustier-Champagne, Sophie; Canivet, I.; Devaux, Jacques et al

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry (1997), 35(10), 1939-1948

Both di- and triblock copolymers consisting of polystyrene (PS) in conjunction with poly(methylphenylsilane) (PMPS) have been successfully prepared by coupling of ,-dichloro-PMPS with poly(styryllithium ... [more ▼]

Both di- and triblock copolymers consisting of polystyrene (PS) in conjunction with poly(methylphenylsilane) (PMPS) have been successfully prepared by coupling of ,-dichloro-PMPS with poly(styryllithium). The study of this reaction has shown a sudden limitation of the coupling yield, which however depends on the PS block length. Both the polymer concentration and the solvent have also an effect on the coupling reaction. Morphology of the PS-PMPS block copolymers has been observed by transmission electron microscopy. Very complex morphologies have been reported more likely as the result of the competition between the phase separation induced by PS and PMPS immiscibility and the tendency of PMPS to form ordered structures. [less ▲]

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See detailDifunctional initiator based on 1,3-diisopropenylbenzene. 6. Synthesis of methyl methacrylate-butadiene-methyl methacrylate triblock copolymers
Yu, Y. S.; Dubois, Philippe ULg; Teyssié, Philippe et al

in Macromolecules (1997), 30(15), 4254-4261

Synthesis of PMMA−PBD−PMMA (MBM) triblock copolymers with a 1,3-diisopropenylbenzene- (DIB-) based initiator is studied. Diethyl ether, tert-butyl methyl ether, N,N,N‘,N‘-tetramethylethylenediamine (TMEDA ... [more ▼]

Synthesis of PMMA−PBD−PMMA (MBM) triblock copolymers with a 1,3-diisopropenylbenzene- (DIB-) based initiator is studied. Diethyl ether, tert-butyl methyl ether, N,N,N‘,N‘-tetramethylethylenediamine (TMEDA) and THF were found to be efficient polar additives for obtaining PMMA−PBD−PMMA triblock copolymers, but these triblock copolymers displayed a high 1,2-microstructure of the PBD block. A combination of the initiator seeding technique and weakly polar additives has allowed MBM triblock copolymers with high 1,4-microstructure of PBD to be obtained. These copolymers exhibited a definitely higher upper service temperature than conventional thermoplastic elastomers, i.e. SBS or SIS Kratons. The influence of chain microstructure, copolymer composition and block length on the mechanical properties has been studied. Short polystyrene blocks of ca. Mn 2000 have been incorporated in between the PBD central block and the PMMA outer sequences. A higher tensile strength was observed for these MBM-like triblock coplymers. Contamination by a diblock structure expectedly had a very depressive effect on the bulk properties, and the stress−strain behavior mainly depended on the PMMA content and secondarily on molecular weight. [less ▲]

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See detailExchange of polymer molecules between block copolymer micelles studied by emission spectroscopy. A method for the quantification of unimer exchange rates
Creutz, Serge; van Stam, Jan; Antoun, Sayed et al

in Macromolecules (1997), 30(14), 4078-4083

Amphiphilic block copolymers, composed of poly(sodium methacrylate) (PMANa) as the water soluble sequence and poly((dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) as the hydrophobic sequence, were ... [more ▼]

Amphiphilic block copolymers, composed of poly(sodium methacrylate) (PMANa) as the water soluble sequence and poly((dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) as the hydrophobic sequence, were anionically synthesized. Due to their amphiphilic character, these polymers aggregate into micelles in aqueous solutions. Of particular interest is the possibility of exchange of free chains, called unimers, between micelles and the bulk and the quantification of the exchange rate. The exchange of unimers between the micellar aggregates was determined spectroscopically. A donor molecule, naphthalene, was covalently bound to the hydrophobic blocks of the copolymers, while the acceptor, pyrene, was dissolved in aggregates built up from an identical, but unlabeled, copolymer. The energy transfer from an excited donor to a ground-state acceptor, with subsequent emission from the acceptor, was used to follow the migration of donor-labeled chains into micelles containing the dissolved acceptor. These data were analyzed according to a kinetic model, and the respective kinetic parameters could be determined. The influence of the relative composition of the block copolymer on the exchange rate was investigated to illustrate the usability of the kinetic model. While keeping the relative amount of comonomers as well as the molecular weights constant, the molecular architecture was also studied: hence the diblock (PDMAEMA-b-PMANa) and the corresponding triblocks (PDMAEMA-b-PMANa-b-PDMAEMA) and (PMANa-b-PDMAEMA-b-PMANa) were investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailDesign of polymer blend rheology: 4. Effect of polymethacrylic ionomers on the melt viscosity of polyamide m x D,6
Degée, Philippe; Vankan, R.; Teyssié, Philippe et al

in Polymer (1997), 38(15), 3861-3867

Rheological properties of blends of polyamide m x D,6 (PA) with random copolymers of methyl methacrylate and methacrylic acid (P(MMA-co-MAA)) and the related ionomers (P(MMA-co-metal MA)), respectively ... [more ▼]

Rheological properties of blends of polyamide m x D,6 (PA) with random copolymers of methyl methacrylate and methacrylic acid (P(MMA-co-MAA)) and the related ionomers (P(MMA-co-metal MA)), respectively, have been investigated at 260°C. Addition of small amounts of suitable ionomers (up to 5 wt%) remarkably increases the melt viscosity of PA. At low shear rates and depending on the metal cation of the ionomer, the rheofluidity of PA is reduced by at least two orders of magnitude. The PA melt viscosity increases with the cation as follows: Ni2+ < Ba2+ < Mg2+ < Li+ < Na+ < K+ < Cs+. The major effect is believed to occur when the polymer compatibility is improved to the point where a finely dispersed two-phase system with a low interfacial tension is reached, as a result of strong ion-dipole interactions. Polyblends show a rheothinning behaviour which agrees with the reversibility of H-bonding and dipolar interactions. [less ▲]

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See detailChronic varicella-zoster virus skin lesions in patients with human immunodeficiency virus are related to decreased expression of gE and gB
Nikkels, Arjen ULg; Rentier, Bernard ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Journal of Infectious Diseases (1997), 176(1), 261-264

The pathogenesis of chronic, verrucous varicella-zoster virus (VZV) cutaneous lesions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons is unknown. It has been hypothesized that these lesions are due ... [more ▼]

The pathogenesis of chronic, verrucous varicella-zoster virus (VZV) cutaneous lesions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons is unknown. It has been hypothesized that these lesions are due to an altered pattern of virus gene expression. Immediate early and late (L) gene expression in five chronic verrucous VZV lesions, four full-blown herpes zoster vesicular lesions in HIV-infected persons, and eight vesicular herpes zoster lesions in immunocompetent individuals was semiquantitatively assessed immunohistochemically using specific antibodies to the IE63, gE (L), and gB (L) proteins. All patients had evidence of IE63 expression in keratinocytes; however, gE expression was either weak or absent in keratinocytes of three verrucous lesions, and gB was either weak or absent in two. These results suggest that chronic VZV skin lesions are associated with diminished gE and gB expression. It is inferred that the VZV behavior in keratinocytes may vary from a latency-like state to a fully developed, productive infection. [less ▲]

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See detailVasotocinergic Innervation of Areas Containing Aromatase-Immunoreactive Cells in the Quail Forebrain
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Absil, Philippe ULg; Viglietti-Panzica, C. et al

in Journal of Neurobiology (1997), 33(1), 45-60

In the male quail forebrain, aromatase-immunoreactive (ARO-ir) elements are clustered within the sexually dimorphic medial preoptic nucleus (POM), nucleus striae terminalis (nST), nucleus accumbens (nAc ... [more ▼]

In the male quail forebrain, aromatase-immunoreactive (ARO-ir) elements are clustered within the sexually dimorphic medial preoptic nucleus (POM), nucleus striae terminalis (nST), nucleus accumbens (nAc), and ventromedial and tuberal hypothalamus. These ARO-ir cells are sensitive to testosterone and its metabolites: Their number and size increase after exposure to these steroids. The POM and lateral septum are also characterized by a dense vasotocinergic innervation that is also sensitive to testosterone. We analyzed here the anatomical relationships between ARO-ir elements and VT-ir fibers in the quail prosencephalon. Sequential staining for vasotocin, aromatase, or vasotocin plus aromatase was performed on adjacent 30-microm-thick cryostat sections. High concentrations of thin VT-ir fibers were observed within the POM, nST, lateral septum, periventricular mesencephalic central gray, and ventromedial and tuberal hypothalamus. There was a close correspondence between the extension of the ARO-ir cells and of VT-ir fibers. In double-labeled sections, all clusters of ARO-ir cells with the exception of those located in the nAc were embedded in a dense network of VT-ir fibers. Many of the VT-ir terminals appeared to end in the neuropile surrounding ARO-ir elements rather than directly on their cell bodies. This study supports the idea that the testosterone-dependent aromatase system is directly innervated by a testosterone-dependent peptidergic system. Aromatase-containing cells could therefore be modulated by steroids both directly and indirectly through the vasotocin system. Alternatively, this neuroanatomical arrangement may mediate the control of vasotocin synthesis or release by steroids. Functional studies demonstrate that both aromatase and vasotocin affect reproductive behavior in quail, and the present data provide anatomical support for the integration of these effects. [less ▲]

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See detailDual Multimodular Class a Penicillin-Binding Proteins in Mycobacterium Leprae
Lepage, Sophie; Dubois, Philippe ULg; Ghosh, Thushar-Kanti et al

in Journal of Bacteriology (1997), 179(14), 4627-4630

The ponA gene of cosmid L222 of the Mycobacterium leprae genome library encodes a multimodular class A penicillin-binding protein (PBP), PBP1. The PBP, labelled with a polyhistidine sequence, has been ... [more ▼]

The ponA gene of cosmid L222 of the Mycobacterium leprae genome library encodes a multimodular class A penicillin-binding protein (PBP), PBP1. The PBP, labelled with a polyhistidine sequence, has been produced in Escherichia coli, extracted from the membranes with 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)-dimethylammonio]-1-propane-sulfonate (CHAPS) and purified by Ni2(+)-nitrilotriacetic acid-agarose chromatography. In contrast to the pon1-encoded class A PBP1, PBP1 undergoes denaturation at temperatures higher than 25 degrees C, it catalyzes acyl transfer reactions on properly structured thiolesters, and it binds penicillin with high affinity. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficiency of T Cell Triggering by Anti-Cd3 Monoclonal Antibodies (Mab) with Potential Usefulness in Bispecific Mab Generation
Jacobs, Nathalie ULg; Mazzoni, A.; Mezzanzanica, D. et al

in Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy (1997), 44(5), 257-64

T cell triggering can be achieved by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for the CD3/TcR complex. In the presence of appropriate costimulation and/or progression factors, such triggering permits the ... [more ▼]

T cell triggering can be achieved by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for the CD3/TcR complex. In the presence of appropriate costimulation and/or progression factors, such triggering permits the generation of effector cells for immunotherapy protocols involving the redirection of T cell lysis against tumor cells by mAbs bispecific for anti-CD3/anti-tumor cells (bs-mAbs). Focusing our analysis on the clinically relevant bs-mAb OC/TR, we found that bs-mAbs generated with the same anti tumor specificity, but two other anti-CD3 mAbs, TR66 and OKT3, have the same and a significantly lower lytic potential, respectively, compared with that of OC/TR. To evaluate the relevance of the anti-CD3 component, we examined several anti-CD3 mAbs with respect to binding parameters and the ability to trigger T lymphocytes. Competitive binding assays suggested that all anti-CD3 mAbs recognized the same or overlapping epitopes, although mAbs BMA030 and OC/TR bound with lower avidity than did alpha CD3 (the bivalent anti-CD3 mAb produced by the hybrid hybridoma OC/TR). TR66 and OKT3, as determined by measurement of the affinity constants. In all lymphocyte populations examined, which included resting peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), activated PBMC and T cell clones, OKT3, BMA033 and OC/TR failed to mobilize Ca2+ without cross-linking, whereas alpha CD3, in both murine and murine-human chimeric versions, TR66 and BMA030, did not require cross-linking. The ability to induce CD3 modulation was associated in part with the induction of Ca2+ fluxes. Despite the differences in the behavior of these mAbs in triggering the events that precede proliferation, all of them ultimately led to expression of the IL-2 receptor and to proliferation in T cells in the presence of accessory cells. Our data suggest that anti-CD3 mAbs that bind more rapidly (strong Ca2+ mobilizers) and more tightly under physiological conditions are good candidates for retargeting T cells in the bs-mAb clinical application. [less ▲]

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See detailCHICK WILLIS
Sacré, Robert ULg

in Soul Bag (1997), (147), 26

Photo : CHICK WILLIS , Peer 20 juillet 1996

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See detailDétection de la viabilité myocardique: rôle de l'échocardiographie de stress
Pierard, Luc ULg; Hoffer, E.

in Archives des Maladies du Coeur et des Vaisseaux (1997), 90(Spec No 4), 3-16

Identification of myocardial viability is of great clinical importance in patients with acute coronary events or chronic coronary artery disease. Stress echocardiography has emerged as a new accurate and ... [more ▼]

Identification of myocardial viability is of great clinical importance in patients with acute coronary events or chronic coronary artery disease. Stress echocardiography has emerged as a new accurate and cost-effective imaging modality to detect contractile reserve. Numerous studies have recently been published in this field. This article summarizes the main findings of these investigations and presents practical aspects of the method. [less ▲]

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See detailArt, Mail-art, “Médiart”
Durand, Pascal ULg

in Cyber-Flux-News (1997)

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See detailLe contrôle des juridictions de fond sur la désignation par procureur général du magistrat compétent en application de l’article 155, alinéa 2, du Code judiciaire.
Michiels, Olivier ULg

in Journal des Tribunaux (1997), 5849

L’arrêt prononcé par la Cour de cassation le 8 octobre 1996 permet d’apprécier l’étendue du contrôle que peuvent exercer les juridictions de jugement sur la compétence de l’organe du ministère public ... [more ▼]

L’arrêt prononcé par la Cour de cassation le 8 octobre 1996 permet d’apprécier l’étendue du contrôle que peuvent exercer les juridictions de jugement sur la compétence de l’organe du ministère public amené à engager des poursuites pénales en cas de concours ou de connexité entre des infractions qui relèvent de la compétence des juridictions du travail et des infractions de droit commun. [less ▲]

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See detailApports et perspectives des dérivés de l'hémoglobine
Remy, Bernadette ULg; Deby, Ginette ULg; Lamy, Maurice ULg

in Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift (1997), 127(25), 1088-96

Anoxia-reoxygenation leads to severe metabolic alterations, which result in a generalized inflammatory reaction and multiple organ dysfunction. Direct blood transfusion limits these alterations, but is ... [more ▼]

Anoxia-reoxygenation leads to severe metabolic alterations, which result in a generalized inflammatory reaction and multiple organ dysfunction. Direct blood transfusion limits these alterations, but is accompanied by risk of transmission of infections or viral diseases. To avoid these risks, "blood substitutes" have been designed. The modified hemoglobins are not true blood substitutes because they do not possess the complex functions of erythrocytes. They are only oxygen carriers, with a short intravascular life, adapted for temporary use. They are stable, devoid of toxicity and antigenicity, and are able to carry and deliver O2 without regulation of this oxygen transport and without chemical reaction with O2. They possess rheologic properties and an oncotic pressure like those of blood. The use of natural hemoglobin solutions, obtained after lysis of erythrocytes, remains "at risk" because these solutions easily form methemoglobin, increase the oncotic pressure, present renal toxicity, and possess a too high affinity for O2. For these reasons, 5 types of modified hemoglobin solutions have been designed, prepared from human or bovine hemoglobin or by genetic engineering. These hemoglobins are highly purified to eliminate trace amounts of stroma, lipids and endotoxins, which are responsible for acute toxicity. They are modified by internal cross-linking between the monomers, or by binding to macromolecules. Afterwards, they can be polymerized or encapsulated in liposomes. The purpose of these modifications is to modulate the affinity for O2 (by decreasing the binding of O2 and increasing its delivery to tissue), to reduce the dissociation into monomers and to guard against oxidation into methemoglobin. Encapsulation in liposomes allows co-encapsulation of effector molecules and protective substances. Genetic engineering allows the production of recombinant hemoglobin with selective modifications. The modified hemoglobin solutions are essentially used in hemorrhagic shock and perioperative hemodilution. Experimental work in animals has afforded good results: restoration of normal O2 pressure and no toxicity. These assays allow frequent observation of an unexpected rapid hypertensive effect, transient, reversible, and that could be controlled by antihypertensive drugs. The mechanisms of this hypertensive effect remain controverted (stimulation of endothelin production, inhibition of nitric oxide effects, etc.). In humans, studies with healthy volunteers have been completed, while phase II clinical studies are under way in hypovolemic shock, in major abdominal, orthopedic and cardiac surgery, in stroke and in intensive care patients after surgery. The detailed results are awaited, but the modified hemoglobin solutions already appear to be without toxicity and present the same hypertensive effect as observed in animals. However, until now only low doses have been used, and the catabolism of these solutions remains largely unknown. [less ▲]

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See detailPolarised light induced birefringence in azo dye doped polymer: a new model and polarised holographic experiments
Blanche, Pierre-Alexandre ULg; Lemaire, P. C.; Maertens, Christophe et al

in Optics Communications (1997), 139(1-3), 92-98

The photoinduced birefringence of azo dye DMNPAA (2,5-dimelthyl-4-(p-nitrophenylazo)anisole) in PVK (Poly(N-vinylcarbazole)) thin film is reported. A two-layer model of the film is proposed to take into ... [more ▼]

The photoinduced birefringence of azo dye DMNPAA (2,5-dimelthyl-4-(p-nitrophenylazo)anisole) in PVK (Poly(N-vinylcarbazole)) thin film is reported. A two-layer model of the film is proposed to take into account the different results obtained in photoinduced birefringence experiments. According to this model, the sample exhibits intrinsic birefringence but the absorbed light can induce orientation of the optically active molecules contained in the first layer of the film, lending to photoinduced birefringence. Holographic experiments have been carried out in this media with recording at 514 nm and readout at 633 nm. Diffraction efficiency versus polarisation shows that these polymers can record polarisation states as well as intensity patterns. [less ▲]

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See detailNeonatal and Preweanling Rats Are Able to Express Short-Term Behavioral Sensitization to Cocaine
Tirelli, Ezio ULg; Ferrara, Marie-Antoinette ULg

in European Journal of Pharmacology (1997), 328(2-3), 103-14

The present study assessed the ability of suckling rats to express short-term behavioral sensitization to cocaine prior to weaning. Rat pups, aged either 3, 5, 10, 12, 17 or 19 days at the beginning of ... [more ▼]

The present study assessed the ability of suckling rats to express short-term behavioral sensitization to cocaine prior to weaning. Rat pups, aged either 3, 5, 10, 12, 17 or 19 days at the beginning of the experiment, were placed in a chamber after daily injection with cocaine (7.5 or 15 mg/kg. i.p.) for either 2 or 4 consecutive days, and were tested for behavioral responsiveness to cocaine in the same chamber 24 h later (at either 7, 14 or 21 days of age). Such a short post-treatment interval was adopted, along with a consistent pairing of the testing context with the drug effect and a sensitive technique of behavioral measurement (video recording), in order to maximize the possibility of detecting any cocaine sensitization. Locomotion was sensitized at all ages, after both regimens in 14-day-old pups, but solely after 2 injections in 21- and 4 injections in 7-day-old pups. Sensitization was also expressed via behaviors specific to each age. Four cocaine injections augmented cocaine-induced uncoordinated movements of head, paws and body (horizontal activity) in 7-day-old pups, and mouth movements in 14-day-old pups. In 21-day-old pups, sensitization was dose- and regimen-dependently expressed via adult-like stereotyped head movements. In neonatal 7-day-old pups, cocaine sensitization was also visible as reductions in immobility (both injection regimens). Contrary to previous studies, these results indicate that, given the use of an appropriate methodology, short-term sensitization to the motoric effects of cocaine can be expressed by suckling rats prior to weaning, even after relatively short regimens of daily injections. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of Catecholaminergic Inputs to and Outputs from Aromatase-Containing Brain Areas of the Japanese Quail by Tract Tracing Combined with Tyrosine Hydroxylase Immunocytochemistry
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Absil, Philippe ULg

in Journal of Comparative Neurology (The) (1997), 382(3), 401-28

In the quail brain, aromatase-immunoreactive (ARO-ir) neurons located in the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) and caudal paleostriatum ventrale/nucleus accumbens/nucleus striae terminalis complex (PVT/nAc ... [more ▼]

In the quail brain, aromatase-immunoreactive (ARO-ir) neurons located in the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) and caudal paleostriatum ventrale/nucleus accumbens/nucleus striae terminalis complex (PVT/nAc/nST) receive catecholaminergic inputs identified by the presence of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) fibers and punctate structures. The origin of these inputs was analyzed by retrograde tracing with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) or red latex fluospheres (RLF) combined with TH immunocytochemistry. CTB and RLF injected in the POM or PVT/nAc/nST were found in cells located in anatomically discrete areas in the telencephalon (hippocampus, septum, archistriatum), hypothalamus (many areas in periventricular position), thalamus, mesencephalon, and pons. In these last two regions, many retrogradely labeled cells were located in dopaminergic areas such as the retroruberal field (RRF), substantia nigra (SN), and area ventralis of Tsai (AVT) but also in noradrenergic cell groups such as the locus ceruleus and subceruleus. CTB tracing showed that most of these connections are bidirectional. Many retrogradely labeled cells contained TH-ir material. As a mean, 10-20% and 40-60% of the RLF-containing cells in the dopaminergic areas were TH-ir when RLF had been injected in the POM or PVT/nAc/nST, respectively. TH-ir cells projecting to the POM appeared to be mostly located in the periventricular hypothalamus and in AVT, whereas projections to the PVT/nAc/nST originated mainly in the SN (with significant contributions from the RRF and AVT). These data support the existence of functional relationships between aromatase and catecholamines. [less ▲]

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See detailOptical Spectroscopy of EZ Canis Majoris: Indication for Large-Scale Structures in a Wolf-Rayet Wind
Morel, Thierry ULg; St-Louis, Nicole; Marchenko, Sergey V

in Astrophysical Journal (1997), 482

We have carried out optical spectroscopy of the Wolf-Rayet star EZ CMa during 20 consecutive nights in 1995 January in support of the IUE Mega-project. In parallel with this optical spectroscopy, we also ... [more ▼]

We have carried out optical spectroscopy of the Wolf-Rayet star EZ CMa during 20 consecutive nights in 1995 January in support of the IUE Mega-project. In parallel with this optical spectroscopy, we also monitored EZ CMa using narrowband photometry. The light curve was found to be remarkably stable when folded with the P=3.77 day period, and it had a peak-to-valley amplitude of 0.1 mag. The P Cygni absorption components of He I lambda 3889 and He I lambda 5876 display a similar global pattern of variability as was found for the simultaneously acquired UV profiles. The strengthening of the P Cygni absorption component of these transitions is associated with the maximum of the continuum flux. Conversely, the absorption trough of N V lambda 4604 gradually disappears as the star brightens. Although the emission parts of the lines are variable at different levels, they all show the same pattern of variability, which consists of phase-dependent shifts of extra emission components superposed on the profiles. A strong correlation is found between the continuum-light level and the equivalent width of most transitions. The line skewness and the full-width at half-maximum show a daily recurrence timescale, reflecting the light curve changes. We have addressed in a rigorous statistical way the significance of the variations by calculating the "temporal variance spectrum." For any given line, we found enhanced variability at some velocities, although the whole profile displays a statistically significant level of variability. Arguments against a compact companion as the cause of the observed periodic variability are presented. Instead, our observations strongly support the suggestion in the IUE Mega analysis that the atypical level of variability results from the rotation of a structured wind. We propose that the wind variability of EZ CMa is triggered by photospheric activity, or that the wind is controlled by a large-scale magnetic field. [less ▲]

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See detailComment on ``A model for meteoric magnesium in the ionosphere'' by W. J. McNeil, S. T. Lai, and E. Murad
Fesen, C. G.; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Hays, P. B. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research (1997), 102

Not Available

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See detailThe puzzling Luminous Blue Variable-like object HD 5980 in the Small Magellanic Cloud.
Heydari-Malayeri, M.; Rauw, Grégor ULg; Esslinger, O. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (1997), 322

We have observed the exceptional SMC star HD 5980 during several runs from 1989 to 1995 at ESO La Silla. CASPEC at the 3.6m telescope and EMMI in echelle and long slit modes at NTT were used for ... [more ▼]

We have observed the exceptional SMC star HD 5980 during several runs from 1989 to 1995 at ESO La Silla. CASPEC at the 3.6m telescope and EMMI in echelle and long slit modes at NTT were used for spectroscopy. Sub-arcsecond images were obtained using SUSI at NTT and also an adaptive optics system at the 3.6m telescope. In all our spectra taken before 1994 September HD 5980 shows a spectral type of WN6. The 1994 September spectra were taken shortly after the maximum of the visual light-curve of the LBV-like phenomenon (Bateson & Jones, 1993PVSS...19...50B) and about one month before the observations of Barba et al. (1995ApJ...446L..23B). Near maximum visual brightness, HD 5980 displays a WN11-like spectrum with the HeI lines and the Balmer lines Hdelta and Hgamma showing well-developed PCyg profiles. The sub-arcsecond images (0.17" FWHM), through the near infrared bands J, H, and K, obtained in 1993 and 1996, show no stellar components down to 6.7 mag fainter than HD 5980 in K at a separation of 1.0" and the 3sigma level. For a separation of 0.3" this upper bound is 4.1mag fainter than HD 5980. The observed behavior of this object raises serious problems for our comprehension of the LBV phenomenon in the conventional scenarios of massive star evolution. The present observations cover a crucial period in the evolution of HD 5980 and will therefore be helpful for better understanding this peculiar object especially during its outburst as well as the evolution of W-R stars in general. [less ▲]

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See detailLes constellation (III).
Renson, Pierre ULg

in Ciel et Terre (1997), 113

Not Available

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See detailThe mean magnetic field modulus of AP stars
Mathys, G.; Hubrig, S.; Landstreet, J. D. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Supplement Series (1997), 123

We present new measurements of the mean magnetic field modulus of a sample of Ap stars with spectral lines resolved into magnetically split components. We report the discovery of 16 new stars having this ... [more ▼]

We present new measurements of the mean magnetic field modulus of a sample of Ap stars with spectral lines resolved into magnetically split components. We report the discovery of 16 new stars having this property. This brings the total number of such stars known to 42. We have performed more than 750 measurements of the mean field modulus of 40 of these 42 stars, between May 1988 and August 1995. The best of them have an estimated accuracy of 25 - 30 G. The availability of such a large number of measurements allows us to discuss for the first time the distribution of the field modulus intensities. A most intriguing result is the apparent existence of a sharp cutoff at the low end of this distribution, since no star with a field modulus (averaged over the rotation period) smaller than 2.8 kG has been found in this study. For more than one third of the studied stars, enough field determinations well distributed throughout the stellar rotation cycle have been achieved to allow us to characterize at least to some extent the variations of the field modulus. These variations are often significantly anharmonic, and it is not unusual for their extrema not to coincide in phase with the extrema of the longitudinal field (for the few stars for which enough data exist about the latter). This, together with considerations on the distribution of the relative amplitude of variation of the studied stars, supports the recently emerging evidence for markedly non-dipolar geometry and fine structure of the magnetic fields of most Ap stars. New or improved determinations of the rotation periods of 9 Ap stars have been achieved from the analysis of the variations of their mean magnetic field modulus. Tentative values of the period have been derived for 5 additional stars, and lower limits have been established for 10 stars. The shortest definite rotation period of an Ap star with magnetically resolved lines is 3.4 deg, while those stars that rotate slowest appear to have periods in excess of 70 or 75 years. As a result of this study, the number of known Ap stars with rotation periods longer than 30 days is almost doubled. We briefly rediscuss the slow-rotation tail of the period distribution of Ap stars. This study also yielded the discovery of radial velocity variations in 8 stars. There seems to be a deficiency of binaries with short orbital periods among Ap stars with magnetically resolved lines. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory (La Silla, Chile; ESO programmes Nos. 43.7-004, 44.7-012, 49.7-030, 50.7-067, 51.7-041, 52.7-063, 53.7-028, 54.E-0416, and 55.E-0751), at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (Saint-Michel-l'Observatoire, France), at Kitt Peak National Observatory, and at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Tables 2, 3, and 4 are also available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring Central Action of Acute Antimigraine Drugs in Humans
Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (1997), 17(Suppl 17), 12-515-6

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See detailStability of Steel Columns in Case of Fire : Numerical Modelling
Talamona, didier; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; Schleich, Jean-Baptiste et al

in Journal of Structural Engineering (1997), 123(6), 713-720

This paper describes the numerical simulations that have been performed within the frame of an ECSC reserch project. This research project lead to the buckling curve that has been considered in Eurocode 3 ... [more ▼]

This paper describes the numerical simulations that have been performed within the frame of an ECSC reserch project. This research project lead to the buckling curve that has been considered in Eurocode 3 for the design of steel colmns subjected to fire. [less ▲]

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See detailEndogenous nitric oxide production and atrial natriuretic peptide biological activity in infants undergoing cardiac operations
Seghaye, Marie-Christine ULg; Duchateau, J.; Bruniaux, J. et al

in Critical Care Medicine (1997), 25(6), 1063-1070

Objectives: To examine whether preoperative heart failure end cardiac surgery influence nitric oxide production and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) biological activity in infants and whether nitric oxide ... [more ▼]

Objectives: To examine whether preoperative heart failure end cardiac surgery influence nitric oxide production and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) biological activity in infants and whether nitric oxide and ANP participate in the control of postoperative pulmonary vascular tone. Design: Prospective, clinical study. Setting: Tertiary pediatric cardiac intensive care unit in a referral cardiosurgical center. Patients: Nineteen infants (median age 4 months) undergoing cardiac surgery: 13 infants with ventricular or atrioventricular septal defect associated with heart failure and pulmonary hypertension (group 1); and six infants with tetralogy of Fallot, without heart failure (group 2). Interventions: Blood samples obtained from indwelling catheters or bypass circuit outlets. Measurements and Main Results: Nitrite and nitrate blood concentrations (as a marker for nitric oxide synthesis) and the molar ratio of cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) to ANP (as a marker for ANP biological activity) were determined before, during, and up to 24 hrs after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). In group 1 patients, these biological parameters were related to postoperative pulmonary arterial pressure. Preoperative nitrite and nitrate concentrations were higher in group 1 patients than in group 2 patients (p < .02), and this difference persisted during CPB. Nitrite and nitrate concentrations 24 hrs postoperatively were lower than preoperative values in group 1 patients (p < .05) end were unchanged in group 2 patients. An inverse correlation was observed postoperatively between nitrite and nitrate concentrations and systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (r2 = 0.4, p < .05). Group 1 patients had a lower preoperative cGMP/ANP ratio than group 2 patients (p < .05), despite higher ANP levels (p < .005). The cGMP/ANP ratio decreased during CPB in both groups (p < .0001), and in group 2 patients, cGMP and ANP values remained below preoperative values ≤24 hrs postoperatively. A correlation was observed between ANP levels and systolic pulmonary arterial pressure 2 and 4 hrs postoperatively (r2 = .4, p < .05, respectively), but no correlation was observed between ANP biological activity and postoperative pulmonary arterial pressure. Conclusions: Infants with heart failure and pulmonary hypertension have increased nitric oxide synthesis and decreased ANP biological activity; both phenomena may be involved in the pathophysiology of this clinical condition. CPB has no detectable effect on nitric oxide production but does decrease ANP biological activity. In patients with preoperative heart failure and pulmonary hypertension, endogenous nitric oxide appears to play a role in the control of postoperative pulmonary vascular tone. [less ▲]

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See detailLigated anionic block copolymerization of methyl methacrylate with n-butyl acrylate and n-nonyl acrylate as promoted by lithium 2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethoxide/diphenylmethyllithium
Nugay, Nihan; Nugay, Turgut; Jérôme, Robert ULg et al

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry (1997), 35(8), 1543-1548

Poly(methyl methacrylate-b-n-butyl acrylate) (PMMA-b-Pn-BuA) and poly(methyl methacrylate-b-n-nonyl acrylate) (PMMA-b-Pn-NonA) diblock copolymers have been successfully synthesized by the sequential ... [more ▼]

Poly(methyl methacrylate-b-n-butyl acrylate) (PMMA-b-Pn-BuA) and poly(methyl methacrylate-b-n-nonyl acrylate) (PMMA-b-Pn-NonA) diblock copolymers have been successfully synthesized by the sequential anionic polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and the n-alkyl acrylate (n-BuA or n-NonA), in a 90/10 toluene/ tetrahydrofuran (THF) mixture at -78°C. When diphenylmethyllithium (DPMLi) ligated with lithium 2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethoxide (LiOEEM) is used as the initiator, the polymerization of each block appears to be living. Molecular weight and composition of block copolymers can be predicted from the monomer over initator molar ratio and the molecular weight distribution is narrow. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) supports that no homo-PMMA contaminates the final copolymer. Although the reverse polymerization sequence Pn-NonA-b-PMMA always results in some contamination by homo-Pn-NonA, it has no really significant effect on the final product characteristics. [less ▲]

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See detailBulk polymerization of lactides initiated by aluminium isopropoxide, 2a). Beneficial effect of Lewis bases and transfer agents
Degée, Philippe; Dubois, Philippe ULg; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics (1997), 198(6), 1973-1984

A high increase in the bulk polymerization rate of L,L-lactide and racemic D,L-lactide is observed when aluminium isopropoxide is added with an equimolar amount of a Lewis base, such as triphenylphosphine ... [more ▼]

A high increase in the bulk polymerization rate of L,L-lactide and racemic D,L-lactide is observed when aluminium isopropoxide is added with an equimolar amount of a Lewis base, such as triphenylphosphine (P(Φ)3) and better 4-picoline (C6H7N). Polylactide of high molecular weight and narrow molecular weight distribution is accordingly prepared in a controlled manner when the Al(OiPr)3 ; C6H7N combination is used as an initiator over a large temperature range from 110 to 180°C. A secondary alcohol, such as 2-propa-nol, has proved to be an efficient transfer agent, which allows the amount of Al per kg of polylactide to be advantageously reduced. All the alcohol molecules participate in the ring-opening polymerization even at an [iPrOH]0/[Al] ratio as high as 103. [less ▲]

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See detailThe 37 LRP/P40 polypeptide: a multifunctional pleiotropic molecule involved in tumorigenesis and metastasis - A review
Clausse, Nathalie; Jackers, Pascale ULg; Castronovo, Vincenzo ULg

in Belgian Journal of Zoology (1997), 127(issue 1), 3-11

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See detailBlues à Lire: "Swamp Pop & Creole Rhythm & Blues" ( Shane K.Bernard)
Sacré, Robert ULg

in Jazz Hot (1997), (541), 37

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See detailSynthesis of novel conjugated oligomers for second-order nonlinear optics: incorporation of a central spacer as a conjugation modulator
Zhang, Jian Xang; Dubois, Philippe ULg; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Journal of the Chemical Society. Perkin Transactions (1997), 2(6), 1209-1216

A new series of second-order nonlinear optical chromophores has been synthesized that consists of a conjugated segment end-capped with an electron acceptor and an electron donor, respectively, and a ... [more ▼]

A new series of second-order nonlinear optical chromophores has been synthesized that consists of a conjugated segment end-capped with an electron acceptor and an electron donor, respectively, and a central spacer intended to modulate the electro-optical effect. Conjugated chains have been tailored with trans-vinylene-1,5-thienylene as the building unit and N,N-dimethylamino and nitro groups as the donor–acceptor pair. Four spacers have been incorporated into the central part of the conjugated oligomers, which range from saturated to totally unsaturated functions, i.e. from methylene to vinylene units. The general strategy relies upon two consecutive Wittig or Wittig–Horner reactions between the spacer precursor and an aromatic phosphonium or phosphonate bearing the strong electron donor and the acceptor, respectively. Two synthetic pathways have been studied. The first procedure is based on the use of a symmetric precursor for the spacer. However, a reaction byproduct is formed, which must be removed and decreases the reaction efficiency. The second approach requires an asymmetric precursor for the spacer, the synthesis of which is a multistep process. In order to evaluate the effect of the spacer, a completely conjugated oligomer has been prepared by the one-step coupling of two conjugated segments end-functionalized by the electron donor and the acceptor, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailRevascularisation coronaire multiple par pontages exclusivement artériels (mammaires internes et artère radiale gauche)
RADERMECKER, Marc ULg; Grenade, Thierry ULg; Cao-Thian, S.K. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1997), 52(6), 377-8

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See detailBulk polymerization of lactides initiated by aluminium isopropoxide, 3a). Thermal stability and viscoelastic properties
Degée, Philippe; Dubois, Philippe ULg; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics (1997), 198(6), 1985-1995

The thermal stability of poly(L-lactide) and L/D-lactide stereocopolymers polymerized in bulk with aluminium isopropoxide as initiator was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis, and time and ... [more ▼]

The thermal stability of poly(L-lactide) and L/D-lactide stereocopolymers polymerized in bulk with aluminium isopropoxide as initiator was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis, and time and température dependence of molecular weight and polydispersity. Compared to poly(L-lactide) prepared with stannous octoate as catalyst, the thermal stability of polylactides is remarkably enhanced when the ring-opening polymerization is initiated by aluminium alkoxide. Ultimate mechanical properties and viscoelasticity of these melt-stable thermoplastics have also been studied in relation to the polyester enan-tiomeric composition. [less ▲]

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See detailLe rapport au capital, noyau dur de la coopération de production
Defourny, Jacques ULg

in Economie et Humanisme (1997), (341), 28-33

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See detailComment je traite ... une onychomycose par thérapie pulsée
Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1997), 52(6), 379-81

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See detailAcute Migraine Therapy: The Newer Drugs
Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Current Opinion in Neurology (1997), 10(3), 237-43

In 1996, our knowledge of acute antimigraine therapy expanded in three major areas. First, large surveys have confirmed the remarkable efficacy profile of sumatriptan in clinical practice. No satisfying ... [more ▼]

In 1996, our knowledge of acute antimigraine therapy expanded in three major areas. First, large surveys have confirmed the remarkable efficacy profile of sumatriptan in clinical practice. No satisfying clinical, pharmacokinetic or genetic explanations were found for its major shortcomings: nonresponders, headache recurrence and noncardiac chest symptoms. Second, the novel 5-HT1B/D agonists zolmitriptan (311C90), rizatriptan (MK-462), eletriptan (UK-116,044), avitriptan (BMS-180048) and alniditan (R091274) were all proved superior to placebo for attack treatment, but their advantages over sumatriptan are yet to be analysed in more detail. A higher lipophilicity explains (except for alniditan) their greater oral bioavailability and better central nervous system penetration. A central action now proved experimentally in animals and in humans for 5-HT1B/D agonists such as zolmitriptan may be advantageous for the antimigraine efficacy, but it could also increase sedation. Third, an endothelin (Ro470203, bosentan) and a neurokinin 1 (RPR100893) receptor antagonist were found to be ineffective in migraine. Both compounds are potent inhibitors of neurogenic plasma extravasation in rat dura mater, which might suggest that this pharmacological property does not necessarily predict efficacy in aborting migraine attacks. [less ▲]

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See detailSuccessful Management of Acute Aortic Dissection in a Heart Transplant Recipient
Defraigne, Jean-Olivier ULg; Demoulin, J. C.; Detry, Olivier ULg et al

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (1997), 97(3), 141-4

A case of type III aortic dissection which occurred fourteen months after heart transplantation is presented. Medical therapy was instituted to achieve controlled hypotension. The evolution was favorable ... [more ▼]

A case of type III aortic dissection which occurred fourteen months after heart transplantation is presented. Medical therapy was instituted to achieve controlled hypotension. The evolution was favorable and the patient could be discharged after one month. Hypertension and increased ejection fraction after transplantation could have been predisposing factors via an increase of the shear stress in the aorta. [less ▲]

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See detailReseña de Port-Soudan, de Olivier Rolin, acompañada de una entrevista con el autor
Willson, Patricia ULg

in Espacios de crítica y producción (1997), (22), 61-64

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See detailDescription et commentaire de deux approches méthodologiques de la vidéo-évaluation des stages pratiques en didactique des langues germaniques à l'ULg (I)
Simons, Germain ULg

in Education-Formation (1997), (246), 43-49

La première partie de cet article (voir commentaire ci-dessous) porte sur la présentation et l'analyse d'un atelier de vidéo-évaluation des stages d'enseignement que nous proposons aux étudiants de l ... [more ▼]

La première partie de cet article (voir commentaire ci-dessous) porte sur la présentation et l'analyse d'un atelier de vidéo-évaluation des stages d'enseignement que nous proposons aux étudiants de l'Agrégation de l'Enseignement Secondaire Supérieur (AESS) en Langues et littératures germaniques à l'ULg. L'approche "confidentielle" de la vidéo-évaluation est une forme d'AUTOscopie qui repose sur cinq grandes étapes : 1. l'étudiant-stagiaire (E-S) est filmé pendant une leçon qu'il donne dans le cadre de ses stages ; 2. l'E-S exprime son ressenti par rapport à la leçon donnée (auto-évaluation "à chaud") puis visionne la vidéo (évaluation "à froid") ; 3. l'E-S est invité à identifier les différences entre son évaluation "à chaud" et "à froid" ; 4. le formateur complète cette auto-évaluation par son analyse de la leçon filmée ; 5. l'E-S. identifie les axes prioritaires sur lesquels il travaillera dans les stages suivants et le formateur fournit quelques pistes pour faciliter ce transfert dans la pratique. Les principaux avantages et inconvénients de cette approche de l'autoscopie sont abordés dans la conclusion provisoire de cet article. [less ▲]

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See detailREVEREND MILTON BRUNSON 1930-1997
Sacré, Robert ULg

in JAZZ HOT (1997), (541), 37

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See detailComparison of Biotyping, Ribotyping, and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis for Investigation of a Common-Source Outbreak of Burkholderia Pickettii Bacteremia
Chetoui, H.; Melin, Pierrette ULg; Struelens, M. J. et al

in Journal of Clinical Microbiology (1997), 35(6), 1398-403

Over a 3-month period, six immunocompromised patients developed one or more episodes of Burkholderia pickettii bacteremia and/or catheter infection. Vials of a commercially available, "sterile" saline for ... [more ▼]

Over a 3-month period, six immunocompromised patients developed one or more episodes of Burkholderia pickettii bacteremia and/or catheter infection. Vials of a commercially available, "sterile" saline for injection which had been used for flushing the patients' indwelling intravenous devices were implicated as the common source of the organisms. No further cases were diagnosed once the use of this saline was discontinued. Twenty-six isolates, including 9 outbreak-related strains from case patients and contaminated saline as well as 17 control strains, were tested comparatively by biotyping, ribotyping with EcoRI and HindIII, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with SpeI. Macrorestriction analysis revealed nine PFGE groups and was more discriminating than ribotyping (seven ribotypes) and biotyping (two biovars). Among the outbreak-related isolates, one B. pickettii type was found by the three typing methods. Furthermore, PFGE was useful for subdividing ribotypes and for distinguishing isolates involved in the outbreak from all epidemiologically unrelated strains. [less ▲]

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See detailEnantioselective Determination of Oxprenolol in Human Plasma Using Dialysis Coupled on-Line to Reversed-Phase Chiral Liquid Chromatography
Ceccato, Attilio ULg; Toussaint, B.; Chiap, Patrice ULg et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (1997), 15(9-10), 1365-74

A fully automated method for the determination of the enantiomers of oxprenolol in human plasma was developed, involving dialysis through a cellulose acetate membrane, clean-up and enrichment of the ... [more ▼]

A fully automated method for the determination of the enantiomers of oxprenolol in human plasma was developed, involving dialysis through a cellulose acetate membrane, clean-up and enrichment of the dialysate on a short precolumn and subsequent chiral liquid chromatographic (LC) analysis. All sample handling operations were executed automatically by a sample processor equipped with a robotic arm (ASTED system). The trace enrichment column (TEC) was packed with octadecylsilica. After conditioning of the TEC with the LC mobile phase and pH 3.0 acetate buffer. After the enrichment step, the analyte was transferred by the LC mobile phase to the analytical column by means of a switching valve. The influence of different parameters of the dialysis process on the recovery of oxprenolol was first investigated using achiral LC conditions. The volume as well as the aspirating and dispensing flow rates of the acceptor solution were the main parameters studied. Oxprenolol was separated on a C18 stationary phase used for the enantioseparation of oxprenolol was a Chiralcel OD-R column which contained cellulose tris (3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) coated on silica as chiral selector. The corresponding mobile phase consisted of a mixture of pH 6.0 phosphate buffer containing NaClO4 at 0.45 M concentration and acetonitrile (70:30 v/v). UV detection was performed at 273 nm. The method developed was validated. Recoveries for each enantiomer of oxprenolol were about 80%. The method was found to be linear in the 50-2500 ng ml-1 concentration range (r2 = 0.999 for both enantiomers) and good results with respect to intra- and inter-day reproducibility as well as accuracy were obtained. [less ▲]

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See detailMyocardial Viability. Stress Echocardiography Vs Nuclear Medicine
Pierard, Luc ULg; Lancellotti, Patrizio ULg; Benoit, T.

in European Heart Journal (1997), 18(Suppl D), 117-23

Myocardial dyssynergy does not necessarily indicate myocardial necrosis in patients with coronary artery disease. The differentiation between viable and non-viable tissue is of great clinical importance ... [more ▼]

Myocardial dyssynergy does not necessarily indicate myocardial necrosis in patients with coronary artery disease. The differentiation between viable and non-viable tissue is of great clinical importance in order to make the most appropriate clinical decision in the individual patient. Several techniques are used to assess myocardial viability. Nuclear medicine gives reliable information on regional perfusion, metabolism and cell membrane integrity, while echocardiography provides real time visualization of myocardial thickening in basal conditions and continuously during pharmacological interventions. The presence or absence of contractile reserve in akinetic regions can be evaluated by pharmacological stress echocardiography. This article presents the semiology of myocardial viability as characterized by these different methods and reviews their relative value in different clinical settings. [less ▲]

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See detailPlasma Estradiol Concentrations and Pharmacokinetics Following Transdermal Application of Menorest 50 or Systen (Evorel) 50
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Albert, Adelin ULg; Deroisy, Rita ULg et al

in Maturitas (1997), 27(2), 179-86

OBJECTIVES: In order to compare the pharmacokinetics of two transdermal estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) systems designed to release 50 micrograms 17 beta-estradiol/day, two studies were performed in ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: In order to compare the pharmacokinetics of two transdermal estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) systems designed to release 50 micrograms 17 beta-estradiol/day, two studies were performed in healthy postmenopausal volunteers. METHODS: Both studies had a cross-over design and incorporated a 1-week wash-out period between treatments. In the first study, Menorest 50 and Systen 50 (Evorel 50) were compared over four days of application in 30 women. In the second, 13 women wore each of the two systems for a total of 12 days each (three patches each for 4 days), and comparison was made during the third patch period (steady state, between days 8 and 12). Plasma 17 beta-estradiol levels were assayed using specific direct radioimmunoassays, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by standard methods. All the samples of the first study were re-analysed using a different radioimmunoassay and the results of both assays were compared. RESULTS: In both studies, plasma 17 beta-estradiol levels rose at a comparable rate and reached similar peak levels with each of the two formulations. Levels then remained relatively constant throughout both evaluation periods with Menorest 50, but began to decline after 12 hours in the first study and after 30 h under steady state conditions in the second study with Systen 50. The difference between the two products was statistically significant in both studies. Analysis of pharmacokinetic parameters confirmed the greater bioavailability of Menorest 50. In addition, 17 beta-estradiol levels remained within the suggested therapeutic ranges for relief of acute symptoms and protection against osteoporosis for longer periods of time with Menorest 50 than with Systen 50. CONCLUSION: Since the acute efficacy, long-term protective effects, side effects and risks associated with ERT may depend on critical threshold plasma levels, much attention should be paid to the pharmacokinetic profiles of different formulations. The comparison of these two different radioimmunoassays demonstrates the comparability of their results. [less ▲]

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See detailAmende et emprisonnement pour infraction : qui est visé ?
Delnoy, Michel ULg

in Immobilier (1997), 11

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See detailL'expertise pénale du fond (enfin) contradictoire
Masset, Adrien ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (1997), 20(1997), 792-796

La Cour constitutionnelle belge est à l'origine d'une évolution majeure en procédure pénale en ce qui concerne le caractère contradictoire des expertises ordonnées en matière pénale.

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See detailMacromolecular engineering of polylactones and polylactides. 22. Copolymerization of ε-caprolactone and 1,4,8-trioxaspiro[4.6]-9-undecanone initiated by aluminum isopropoxide
Tian, Dong; Dubois, Philippe ULg; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Macromolecules (1997), 30(9), 2575-2581

Novel biodegradable and biocompatible polyesters have been prepared by random copolymerization of ε-caprolactone (ε-CL) and 1,4,8-trioxaspiro[4.6]-9-undecanone (TOSUO) initiated by Al(OiPr)3. Copolyesters ... [more ▼]

Novel biodegradable and biocompatible polyesters have been prepared by random copolymerization of ε-caprolactone (ε-CL) and 1,4,8-trioxaspiro[4.6]-9-undecanone (TOSUO) initiated by Al(OiPr)3. Copolyesters of molecular weight (Mn) up to 104 and containing up to 90 mol % TOSUO repeating units have been prepared. The copolymer molecular weight is controlled by the molar ratio of the consumed comonomers and the initiator. The TOSUO constitutive units have been quantitatively deacetalized into ketones, which have also been efficiently reduced into hydroxyl groups without any apparent chain degradation. Therefore, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) with well-defined content of ketone or hydroxyl pendent groups have been made available. The ε-CL and TOSUO comonomer units are randomly distributed within the copolymers, as assessed by the 13C-NMR sequence analysis. Indeed, the reactivity ratios (rC and rT) have been calculated from the average length of the ε-CL sequences (LC) and the TOSUO sequences (LT) and found to be 1.3 (rC) and 1.0 (rT), respectively. There is an interesting parallelism between the crystallinity and the average length of the ε-CL sequences. Copolyesters containing a molar fraction of TOSUO units smaller than 0.15 are semicrystalline, whereas the incorporation of larger amounts of TOSUO units results in amorphous copolyesters. Conversion of the ethylene acetal pendent groups into ketones and ultimately into hydroxyl pendent groups results in increasing glass transition temperature (Tg), melting temperature (Tm), and melting enthalpy (ΔHm). The thermal stability depends on the copolyester composition, since it decreases as the molar fraction of TOSUO units is increased. [less ▲]

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See detailRadiological Assessment of the Effects of a Full Rolling Motion Shoe During Asymmetrical Bearing
Caudron, Isabelle; Miesen, Myriam; Grulke, Sigrid ULg et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal. Supplement (1997), (23), 20-2

The authors used a new radiological method to assess asymmetrical articular compression of the interphalangeal joints. This method was based on the measurements of 3 angles obtained on dorsopalmar ... [more ▼]

The authors used a new radiological method to assess asymmetrical articular compression of the interphalangeal joints. This method was based on the measurements of 3 angles obtained on dorsopalmar radiographs. Variations of these angles were studied during experimental asymmetrical bearing on unshod feet. It was concluded that 2 angles were interesting parameters to assess asymmetrical articular compression and to define the position of the phalanx in the horny box. Furthermore, variations of these angles induced by experimental asymmetrical bearing were compared without shoe, with a standard shoe and with an orthopaedic full rolling motion shoe. It was observed that the effects of the asymmetrical bearing were reduced when feet were shod with a full rolling motion shoe. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of Six Water-Soluble Vitamins in a Pharmaceutical Formulation by Capillary Electrophoresis
Fotsing, Lucas ULg; Fillet, Marianne ULg; Bechet, I. et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (1997), 15(8), 1113-23

A method was developed for the quantitative analysis of six water-soluble vitamins (thiamine, nicotinamide, riboflavine, pyridoxine, ascorbic acid and pantothenic acid) in a pharmaceutical formulation ... [more ▼]

A method was developed for the quantitative analysis of six water-soluble vitamins (thiamine, nicotinamide, riboflavine, pyridoxine, ascorbic acid and pantothenic acid) in a pharmaceutical formulation, using free solution capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) in uncoated fused silica capillaries and UV detection. The influence of different parameters, such as the nature of the buffer anionic component and buffer concentration on the CZE separation of vitamins was investigated using four vitamins of the B group as model compounds. A good compromise between resolution, analysis time and analyte stability was obtained by use of a 50 mM borax buffer of pH 8.5. This CZE method was found to be very useful for the separation of more complex samples, a mixture of ten water-soluble vitamins being completely resolved in about 10 min. However, cyanocobalamine could not be separated from nicotinamide in this CZE system, the two compounds being in uncharged form at the pH used. These two compounds could easily be resolved by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC), the anionic surfactant dodecylsulfate being added to the running buffer at 25 mM concentration. In the pharmaceutical formulation, some excipients were found to be adsorbed to the capillary surface, giving rise to a progressive decrease of the electroosmotic flow and consequently to a simultaneous increase of analyte migration times. A capillary wash with sodium hydroxide had to be made between successive runs in order to minimize these effects. Good results with respect to linearity, precision and accuracy were obtained in the concentration range studied for the six vitamins, using nicotinic acid as internal standard. [less ▲]

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See detailHet Congres voor de Vrijheid van de Cultuur
Vanden Berghe, Kristine ULg

in Onze Alma Mater (1997), 51(2), 193-211

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See detailSeminoma arising in corrected and uncorrected inguinal cryptorchidism: Treatment and prognosis in 66 patients
Li; COUCKE, Philippe ULg; Tu-Nan, Qian et al

in International Journal of Radiation, Oncology, Biology, Physics (1997), 38(2), 343-350

Image : The purpose of this study was to analyze prognosis and treatment results for seminoma arising in corrected and uncorrected inguinal cryptorchidism (SCIC and SUIC). Image : We reviewed 66 patients ... [more ▼]

Image : The purpose of this study was to analyze prognosis and treatment results for seminoma arising in corrected and uncorrected inguinal cryptorchidism (SCIC and SUIC). Image : We reviewed 66 patients with inguinal seminomas between June 1958 and December 1991 at the Cancer Hospital and Institute of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. Of these patients, 23 had prior orchiopexy and 43 presented with an inguinal form of cryptorchidism. At presentation, 17 of 66 (26%) patients had nodal metastases. This nodal involvement was 30% (7 of 23) for SCIC and 23% (10 of 43) for SUIC, respectively. These numbers are comparable with those in a series of patients treated for scrotal seminoma at our institution (26% vs. 20%). However, 3 of 23 (13%) patients who had prior orchiopexy presented with inguinal nodal metastasis as compared with 0 of 43 patients with SUIC or 4 of 237 patients with scrotal seminoma (p < 0.5). There were 49 stage I, 5 stage IIA, 8 stage IIB, 3 stage III, and 1 stage IV patients. All patients underwent radical orchiectomy and received further radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or both. Patients with stage I and stage II disease were treated primarily with radiotherapy, whereas patients with stage III and IV disease were treated with chemotherapy. Image : The overall and disease-free survival at 5 and 10 years was 94% and 92%, 89% and 87%, respectively. The overall 5- and 10-year survival by stage was 100% and 100% for stage I, and 77% and 68% for stage II, respectively (p < .05). There was no significant difference in survival between SUIC and SCIC (93% vs. 96% at 5 years). Four patients developed relapse. Two of these four patients experienced relapse at the inguinal area, due to a marginal miss. Three of four patients with relapse were successfully salvaged, and one died of disease. Image : Our results indicate that prognosis for inguinal seminoma is excellent and similar to that of scrotal seminoma. Postorchiectomy radiotherapy can be considered as the standard treatment for stage I and IIA inguinal seminoma. We recommend routinely including the para-aortic and ipsilateral pelvic nodes. [less ▲]

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