References of "Scientific journals"      in Complete repository Arts & humanities   Archaeology   Art & art history   Classical & oriental studies   History   Languages & linguistics   Literature   Performing arts   Philosophy & ethics   Religion & theology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Business & economic sciences   Accounting & auditing   Production, distribution & supply chain management   Finance   General management & organizational theory   Human resources management   Management information systems   Marketing   Strategy & innovation   Quantitative methods in economics & management   General economics & history of economic thought   International economics   Macroeconomics & monetary economics   Microeconomics   Economic systems & public economics   Social economics   Special economic topics (health, labor, transportation…)   Multidisciplinary, general & others Engineering, computing & technology   Aerospace & aeronautics engineering   Architecture   Chemical engineering   Civil engineering   Computer science   Electrical & electronics engineering   Energy   Geological, petroleum & mining engineering   Materials science & engineering   Mechanical engineering   Multidisciplinary, general & others Human health sciences   Alternative medicine   Anesthesia & intensive care   Cardiovascular & respiratory systems   Dentistry & oral medicine   Dermatology   Endocrinology, metabolism & nutrition   Forensic medicine   Gastroenterology & hepatology   General & internal medicine   Geriatrics   Hematology   Immunology & infectious disease   Laboratory medicine & medical technology   Neurology   Oncology   Ophthalmology   Orthopedics, rehabilitation & sports medicine   Otolaryngology   Pediatrics   Pharmacy, pharmacology & toxicology   Psychiatry   Public health, health care sciences & services   Radiology, nuclear medicine & imaging   Reproductive medicine (gynecology, andrology, obstetrics)   Rheumatology   Surgery   Urology & nephrology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Law, criminology & political science   Civil law   Criminal law & procedure   Criminology   Economic & commercial law   European & international law   Judicial law   Metalaw, Roman law, history of law & comparative law   Political science, public administration & international relations   Public law   Social law   Tax law   Multidisciplinary, general & others Life sciences   Agriculture & agronomy   Anatomy (cytology, histology, embryology...) & physiology   Animal production & animal husbandry   Aquatic sciences & oceanology   Biochemistry, biophysics & molecular biology   Biotechnology   Entomology & pest control   Environmental sciences & ecology   Food science   Genetics & genetic processes   Microbiology   Phytobiology (plant sciences, forestry, mycology...)   Veterinary medicine & animal health   Zoology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Physical, chemical, mathematical & earth Sciences   Chemistry   Earth sciences & physical geography   Mathematics   Physics   Space science, astronomy & astrophysics   Multidisciplinary, general & others Social & behavioral sciences, psychology   Animal psychology, ethology & psychobiology   Anthropology   Communication & mass media   Education & instruction   Human geography & demography   Library & information sciences   Neurosciences & behavior   Regional & inter-regional studies   Social work & social policy   Sociology & social sciences   Social, industrial & organizational psychology   Theoretical & cognitive psychology   Treatment & clinical psychology   Multidisciplinary, general & others     Showing results 35301 to 35400 of 49053     349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359     Management of Fulminant Hepatic FailureDetry, Olivier ; Honore, Pierre ; Meurisse, Michel et alin Acta Chirurgica Belgica (1998), 98(6), 235-40Fulminant hepatic failure is an infrequent but dreadful disease, occurring usually in young patients. Despite fulminant hepatic failure is reversible in most of the cases, some patients develop brain ... [more ▼]Fulminant hepatic failure is an infrequent but dreadful disease, occurring usually in young patients. Despite fulminant hepatic failure is reversible in most of the cases, some patients develop brain edema and intracranial hypertension, which are the most common cause of death in these patients. Liver transplantation significantly improves the prognosis of selected patients in who precise criteria predict a low chance of survival. This review summarizes the modern standard of care of patients with fulminant hepatic failure, with particular underlining of the management of brain oedema and intracranial hypertension. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 29 (7 ULg) Transplantation hépatique: expérience et résultats du programme de l'Université de LiègeHonore, Pierre ; Detry, Olivier ; Meurisse, Michel et alin Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(12), 735-7The orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) program of the University of Liege was initiated in 1986. Between 1986 and December 1998, 150 adult OLT have been performed in our institution, including 18 ... [more ▼]The orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) program of the University of Liege was initiated in 1986. Between 1986 and December 1998, 150 adult OLT have been performed in our institution, including 18 liver retransplantations, 1 combined heart and liver transplantation and 3 combined liver and kidney transplantations. The aim of this study was to report the last 3 years of our experience. From January 1996 to November 1998, we performed 50 OLT on 49 patients. Three were retransplantations and two were combined liver and kidney transplantations. Fourty-three patients were transplanted for chronic liver disease and 6 for acute or subacute hepatopathy. Mean waiting time on the list was 4 weeks. Immunosuppression was based on triple therapy (cyclosporin A/tacrolimus, steroids, azathioprine), with steroid and azathioprine withdrawal in most of the patients after 3 months. In the chronic liver disease group, operative (< 30 days) survival was 95% (peroperative myocardial infarction in 2 patients). In the acute liver disease group, postoperative survival was 66%. No perioperative death occurred in 1997 and 1998. Actuarial one year survival was 87%. In our experience, OLT has become a safe procedure. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 68 (14 ULg) Purification and Characterization of a 315 Kda Keratinolytic Subtilisin-Like Serine Protease from Microsporum Canis and Evidence of Its Secretion in Naturally Infected CatsMignon, Bernard ; Swinnen, M.; Bouchara, J. P. et alin Medical Mycology (1998), 36(6), 395-404A keratinolytic protease, secreted as the major component by a feline clinical isolate of Microsporum canis cultivated in a minimal medium containing cat keratin, was purified by affinity chromatography ... [more ▼]A keratinolytic protease, secreted as the major component by a feline clinical isolate of Microsporum canis cultivated in a minimal medium containing cat keratin, was purified by affinity chromatography on bacitracin agarose and gel filtration. The apparent molecular mass of the enzyme was 31.5 kDa and the pI was 11.8. The enzyme was not glycosylated and its first 15 N-terminal amino acids showed numerous similarities with other fungal subtilisins. The optimum pH was around 9 while inactivation of the enzyme was reversible at pH 4, but not at pH 11. The enzyme was stable at 37 degrees C with an apparent optimum temperature around 55 degrees C. PMSF, soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI) and chymostatin strongly inhibited the proteinase. The highest affinity (Km of 0.37 mM) and physiological efficiency (k(cat)/Km) were obtained for the synthetic substrate N-Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide. These results indicate that the keratinase belongs to the subtilisin-like serine protease family. Purified rabbit immunoglobulins G prepared against the keratinase and used in an immunohistochemical test allowed the detection of the keratinase produced by the fungus invading hair structures in naturally infected cats. The in vitro keratinolytic activity of the enzyme and its production in vivo suggest that it may contribute to pathogenicity. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 41 (5 ULg) Spontaneous Apamin-Sensitive Hyperpolarizations in Dopaminergic Neurons of Neonatal RatsSeutin, Vincent ; Massotte, Laurent ; Scuvée-Moreau, Jacqueline et alin Journal of Neurophysiology (1998), 80(6), 3361-4Spontaneous apamin-sensitive hyperpolarizations in dopaminergic neurons of neonatal rats. J. Neurophysiol. 80: 3361-3364, 1998. Intracellular recordings from substantia nigra slices revealed the existence ... [more ▼]Spontaneous apamin-sensitive hyperpolarizations in dopaminergic neurons of neonatal rats. J. Neurophysiol. 80: 3361-3364, 1998. Intracellular recordings from substantia nigra slices revealed the existence of spontaneous hyperpolarizations (amplitude 2-8 mV, duration 100-400 ms) at -60 mV in most dopaminergic neurons of neonatal (9-15 days) but not adult rats. These events were blocked by apamin (300 nM) and bicuculline methochloride (100-300 microM), which blocks apamin-sensitive currents. They were unaffected by the selective gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) antagonists SR95531 (100 microM) and picrotoxin (30-50 microM), the GABAB antagonist CGP35348 (300 microM), the D2 antagonist haloperidol (1 microM), and the metabotropic antagonist MCPG (1 mM). The hyperpolarizations were strongly attenuated or abolished when recording electrodes contained 200 mM 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid. They were resistant to tetrodotoxin in the majority of the cells. They had some voltage dependency and were in some cases transiently potentiated when cells were briefly depolarized by current injection. We conclude that dopaminergic neurons have developmentally regulated physiological properties. These spontaneous hyperpolarizations might affect the firing rate of these cells, which was found to be lower in neonates than in adults. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 24 (18 ULg) Recent developments in anionic polymerizationJérôme, Robert ; Tong, Jiangdongin Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science (1998), 3(6), 573-578The past year witnessed very significant advances in the living anionic polymerization of (meth)acrylate monomers, particularly in hydrocarbons at or below 0°C. Block polymerization of alkyl methacrylates ... [more ▼]The past year witnessed very significant advances in the living anionic polymerization of (meth)acrylate monomers, particularly in hydrocarbons at or below 0°C. Block polymerization of alkyl methacrylates with primary alkyl acrylates, although somewhat improved, remains a challenge. Anionic polymerization of styrene, diene and its derivatives was carried out with the aim of synthesizing functional polymers and block copolymers of various architectures. There has been a trend towards combining different living techniques in order to design polymers of unique architectures and properties. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 32 (1 ULg) Chlorophyll Synthesis in Dark-Grown Pine Primary NeedlesSchoefs, B.; Franck, Fabrice in Plant Physiology (1998), 118(4), 1159-68The pigment content of dark-grown primary needles of Pinus jeffreyi L. and Pinus sylvestris L. was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The state of protochlorophyllide a and of ... [more ▼]The pigment content of dark-grown primary needles of Pinus jeffreyi L. and Pinus sylvestris L. was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The state of protochlorophyllide a and of chlorophylls during dark growth were analyzed by in situ 77 K fluorescence spectroscopy. Both measurements unambiguously demonstrated that pine primary needles are able to synthesize chlorophyll in the dark. Norflurazon strongly inhibited both carotenoid and chlorophyll synthesis. Needles of plants treated with this inhibitor had low chlorophyll content, contained only traces of xanthophylls, and accumulated carotenoid precursors. The first form of chlorophyll detected in young pine needles grown in darkness had an emission maximum at 678 nm. Chlorophyll-protein complexes with in situ spectroscopic properties similar to those of fully green needles (685, 695, and 735 nm) later accumulated in untreated plants, whereas in norflurazon-treated plants the photosystem I emission at 735 nm was completely lacking. To better characterize the light-dependent chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway in pine needles, the 77 K fluorescence properties of in situ protochlorophyllide a spectral forms were studied. Photoactive and nonphotoactive protochlorophyllide a forms with emission properties similar to those reported for dark-grown angiosperms were found, but excitation spectra were substantially red shifted. Because of their lower chlorophyll content, norflurazon-treated plants were used to study the protochlorophyllide a photoreduction process triggered by one light flash. The first stable chlorophyllide photoproduct was a chlorophyllide a form emitting at 688 nm as in angiosperms. Further chlorophyllide a shifts usually observed in angiosperms were not detected. The rapid regeneration of photoactive protochlorophyllide a from nonphotoactive protochlorophyllide after one flash was demonstrated. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 16 (1 ULg) Patterns of the Immunohistochemical Expression of Melanoma-Associated Antigens and Density of Cd45r0+ Activated T Lymphocytes and L1-Protein Positive Macrophages in Primary Cutaneous MelanomasPierard-Franchimont, Claudine ; Letawe, C.; Nikkels, Arjen et alin International Journal of Molecular Medicine (1998), 2(6), 721-724There is ample evidence for spontaneous antimelanoma immune reactivity mediated by melanocyte-differentiation-antigens (MDAs). Our aim was to determine whether MDA immunoreactivity is associated with ... [more ▼]There is ample evidence for spontaneous antimelanoma immune reactivity mediated by melanocyte-differentiation-antigens (MDAs). Our aim was to determine whether MDA immunoreactivity is associated with increased tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and macrophages (TIM). A retrospective study was conducted in 30 medium and high grade primary cutaneous melanomas (PCM) as identified by CART-analysis. All of the cases had developed clinical evidence for metastasis within 3 years following surgical excision of the PCM. We used immunohistochemistry and computerized image analysis to quantify MDAs positive cells (Melan A/MART-1, gp100/Pmel 17/HMB45, tyrosinase), CD45R0-positive TIL and LI-protein-positive TIM. A stochastic relationship was present between the MDA immuno-reactivities and the densities in TIL and TIM. An inverse relationship was yielded between TIL and TIM. No specific pattern of PCM immunoreactivity for MDAs, TIL and TIM was found to predict metastases. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (0 ULg) Effects of Regular Insulin or Insulin Lispro on Glucose Metabolism after an Oral Glucose Load in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes MellitusPaquot, Nicolas ; Roulin, D.; Schneiter, P. et alin Diabètes & Métabolism (1998), 24(6), 523-8Seven obese Type 2 diabetic patients were studied for two 4-h periods after ingestion of a glucose load to determine the effects of preprandial subcutaneous injection of Insulin Lispro (5 min before the ... [more ▼]Seven obese Type 2 diabetic patients were studied for two 4-h periods after ingestion of a glucose load to determine the effects of preprandial subcutaneous injection of Insulin Lispro (5 min before the meal) or regular insulin (20 min before the meal) on glucose metabolism. Glucose production and utilisation were measured using a dual isotope method. After Lispro, the mean postprandial increase in plasma glucose was 29% lower and the increase in insulin concentration 25% higher than after regular insulin (p < 0.05). Suppression of endogenous glucose production was similar with both types of insulin. Thus, preprandial injection of Lispro reduced postprandial glucose increments in Type 2 diabetic patients as compared to regular insulin. This effect is best explained by the increased postprandial bioavailability of Lispro. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (1 ULg) Hystéroscopie opératoire ou hystérectomie dans le traitement des lésions utérines bénignes. Que choisir en 1998?Herman, Philippe ; Gaspard, Ulysse ; Foidart, Jean-Michel in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(12), 756-61In the past, the treatment of benign uterine lesions required, in many instances, a hysterectomy. These days, most cases can be successfully treated by hysteroscopy. To be reliable, this technique must ... [more ▼]In the past, the treatment of benign uterine lesions required, in many instances, a hysterectomy. These days, most cases can be successfully treated by hysteroscopy. To be reliable, this technique must lead to a significant reduction in the number of hysterectomies performed for benign uterine lesions. The electroresection technique is preferred to that using the Nd-YAG laser because of its lower cost and its equivalent efficacy. By using the uterine perfusion pump device, the risk of resorption syndrome can be reduced to its minimum. Submucosal myomas < 1 cm, benign endometrial hyperplasia and adenomyosis are the commonest benign lesions treated. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding can also be treated by an endometrectomy. A preoperative workup includes a transvaginal ultrasound and a biopsy. This ensures that only benign lesions that are accessible to a hysteroscopy will be submitted to this technique and that no cases of endometrial cancer or atypical hyperplasia would be ignored. This study presents 270 cases of operative hysteroscopy with a follow-up to 4 years. 82.8% of myomatous lesions were treated with success. The results for patients with benign endometrial polyps or benign endometrial hyperplasia are also excellent with only 4.6% and 5.6% rate of secondary surgery respectively. Adenomyosis does not appear to be a good indication for hysteroscopy as only 37% of patients did not need a definitive hysterectomy. Rates of operative complications (post-operative bleeding, uterine perforation, resorption syndrome and difficulty of access) are acceptable and get less frequent as the surgeon experience increases. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 27 (2 ULg) A propos des prothèses mammaires. L'examen senologique conventionnelLifrange, Eric ; Colin, Claude in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(12), 746-9Detailed reference viewed: 7 (1 ULg) European multicentre evaluation of the Super Aution SA-4220 urinalysis analyserGalimany, R.; Arambarri, M.; Biosca et alin Clinical Chemistry & Laboratory Medicine (1998), 36(12), 947-58A multicentre evaluation of the urine test strip analyser Super Aution-4220 was carried out in six laboratories. The analytical performance of the instrument with regard to imprecision, linearity ... [more ▼]A multicentre evaluation of the urine test strip analyser Super Aution-4220 was carried out in six laboratories. The analytical performance of the instrument with regard to imprecision, linearity, detection limit, drift, carry-over and method comparison was studied. Using the Aution stick 8 test strip the pH, glucose, protein, ketones, bilirubin, blood, urobilinogen and leukocyte esterase were analysed. Specific gravity measurements were performed by refractive index method. Within-run and between-run imprecision determined at three levels of analyte were good. No carry-over was observed. Obtained results were linear through all the described analytical range. No significant drift was detected. Method comparison with some quantitative methods was performed and showed a good correlation with most of the analytes. The study of interferences showed minor interferences by common therapeutic drugs with the measurement of some analytes. During the assessment period of about 6 months no breakdown occurred in any laboratory. The Super Aution urine analyser appeared to be a highly automated analyser of urinary test strips. The operation was simple and the maintenance required only a few minutes a day. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 19 (0 ULg) Suspension de l'exécution d'un permis d'urbanisme : conditionsDelnoy, Michel in Immobilier (1998), 20Detailed reference viewed: 10 (0 ULg) Relative Reproductive success of males in polyandrous crosses of Barbus meridionalis (Cyprinidae) revealed by microsatellite genotypingChenuil, A.; Cattaneo-Berrebi, G.; Binda et alin Folia Zoologica (1998), 47Using microsatellite genotyping in Barbus meridionalis, we tried to assess the identity of fathers of progeny produced during four experimental polyandrous crosses involving the same four males and one or ... [more ▼]Using microsatellite genotyping in Barbus meridionalis, we tried to assess the identity of fathers of progeny produced during four experimental polyandrous crosses involving the same four males and one or two females. The pooled analysis revealed that males had significantly different reproductive successes. We found no conspicuous causes explaining differential reproductive success in the behavioural data or in the physical characteristics of the males but a genetic determinism is the most parsimonious hypothesis to account for this variability. We argue that this conclusion is compatible with the hypothesis that the reproductive strategy of barbels, which involves large aggregations of males, is a result of sexual selection. This study provides guidelines for future interspecific crosses and constitutes the preliminary experiment of an investigation of the origin of a hybrid zone between Barbus barbus and Barbus meridionalis. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 50 (4 ULg) Three photometric methods tested on ground-based data of Q 2237+0305Burud, I.; Stabell, R.; Magain, Pierre et alin Astronomy and Astrophysics (1998), 339The Einstein Cross, Q 2237+0305, has been photometrically observed in four bands on two successive nights at NOT (La Palma, Spain) in October 1995. Three independent algorithms have been used to analyse ... [more ▼]The Einstein Cross, Q 2237+0305, has been photometrically observed in four bands on two successive nights at NOT (La Palma, Spain) in October 1995. Three independent algorithms have been used to analyse the data: an automatic image decomposition technique, a CLEAN algorithm and the new MCS deconvolution code. The photometric and astrometric results obtained with the three methods are presented. No photometric variations were found in the four quasar images. Comparison of the photometry from the three techniques shows that both systematic and random errors affect each method. When the seeing is worse than 1farcs0 , the errors from the automatic image decomposition technique and the Clean algorithm tend to be large (0.04-0.1 magnitudes) while the deconvolution code still gives accurate results (1sigma error below 0.04) even for frames with seeing as bad as 1farcs7 . Reddening is observed in the quasar images and is found to be compatible with either extinction from the lensing galaxy or colour dependent microlensing. The photometric accuracy depends on the light distribution used to model the lensing galaxy. In particular, using a numerical galaxy model, as done with the MCS algorithm, makes the method less seeing dependent. Another advantage of using a numerical model is that eventual non-homogeneous structures in the galaxy can be modeled. Finally, we propose an observational strategy for a future photometric monitoring of the Einstein Cross. Based on observations obtained at NOT, La Palma. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (1 ULg) Shape signifiers for throttle control of a low-order compressor modelSepulchre, Rodolphe ; Kokotovic, Petarin IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control (1998), 43(11), 1643-1648Rotating stall and surge, two instability mechanisms limiting the performance of aeroengines compressors, are studied on the third-order Moore–Greitzer model. The skewness of the compressor characteristic ... [more ▼]Rotating stall and surge, two instability mechanisms limiting the performance of aeroengines compressors, are studied on the third-order Moore–Greitzer model. The skewness of the compressor characteristic, a single parameter shape signifier, is shown to determine the key qualitative properties of feedback control. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 6 (0 ULg) Evaluation of a Diphenylphosphorylazide-Crosslinked Collagen Membrane for Guided Bone Regeneration in Mandibular Defects in RatsZahedi, Sharam ; Legrand, Roman ; Brunel, G. et alin Journal of Periodontology (1998), 69(11), 1238-46In the present study, the potential of a diphenylphosphorylazide-crosslinked type I bovine collagen membrane was evaluated in the healing of mandibular bone defects applying the biological concept of ... [more ▼]In the present study, the potential of a diphenylphosphorylazide-crosslinked type I bovine collagen membrane was evaluated in the healing of mandibular bone defects applying the biological concept of guided bone regeneration. The experiment was carried out on 25 Wistar rats. After exposing the mandibular ramus bilaterally, 5 mm diameter full-thickness circular bone defects were surgically created. While the defect on one side was covered by the membrane (experimental), the defect on the other side was left uncovered (control) before closure of the overlying soft tissues. The rats were sacrificed in groups of 5 after 7, 15, 30, 90, and 180 days of healing. Although at early stages of healing similar amounts of bone formation were observed in the experimental and control defects, after 1 month of healing, most of the experimental defects were completely closed with new bone, while in the control defects, only limited amounts of new bone were observed at the rims and in the lingual aspect of the lesions. In the 90- and 180-day animals, all experimental defects were completely closed, while in the control defects, no statistically significant increase in bone regeneration was observed. The increase in percentage of bone regeneration in the experimental defects was statistically significant between the 15-day specimens as compared with the 7-day specimens (P < 0.01) and likewise between 30-day and 15-day specimens (P < 0.001). It can be concluded that a DPPA-crosslinked collagen membrane yields biocompatibility, ad hoc mechanical hindrance, and handling characteristics suitable for guided bone regeneration applications in this experimental model. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (2 ULg) Cultured Oligodendrocyte Progenitors Derived from Cerebral Cortex Express a Glycine Receptor Which Is Pharmacologically Distinct from the Neuronal IsoformBelachew, Shibeshih ; Rogister, Bernard ; Rigo, Jean-Michel et alin European Journal of Neuroscience (1998), 10(11), 3556-64Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we demonstrate glycine-induced currents in oligosphere-derived oligodendrocyte progenitors cultured from newborn rats. Similar inward currents are also ... [more ▼]Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we demonstrate glycine-induced currents in oligosphere-derived oligodendrocyte progenitors cultured from newborn rats. Similar inward currents are also triggered by beta-alanine and taurine, two established glycine receptor agonists. In our recording conditions, glycine-gated currents in oligodendrocyte progenitors reverse about 0 mV and are reversibly inhibited by the glycine competitive antagonist strychnine, the Cl- channel blocker picrotoxinin and the non-competitive antagonist cyanotriphenylborate. The oligodendrocyte progenitors glycine receptor (GlyR) differs from the corresponding neuronal receptor: [3H]strychnine binding data and the strychnine inhibition curve of glycine-induced currents in oligodendrocyte progenitor cultures suggest the existence of two strychnine binding sites on the oligodendroglial GlyR. Using total RNA isolated from oligodendrocyte progenitors cultures, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of glycine receptor subunit expression shows the presence of alpha2 and beta subunits and immunocytochemical stainings confirm that this GlyR contains an alpha subunit which is not alpha1. The molecular structure of the oligodendroglial GlyR could be either homopentameric alpha2 or heteromeric alpha2beta but in both cases, the sequence of the alpha2 or beta subunits have to be different from the known neuronal sequences in order to explain, respectively, the cyanotriphenylborate (alpha2) and picrotoxinin (beta) sensitivities. This work thus demonstrates that GlyR are expressed by oligodendrocytes obtained not only from spinal cord but also from supraspinal structures. The pharmacological properties and presumably the molecular structure of oligodendroglial GlyR are original. The physiological meaning of the presence of such receptors on developing and mature oligodendrocytes remains unknown. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 42 (3 ULg) Electrografting of acrylic and methacrylic monomers onto metals: influence of the relative polarity and donor-acceptor properties of the monomer and the solventBaute, Noëlle; Teyssié, Philippe; Martinot, Lucien et alin European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry (1998), 1998(11), 1711-1720The possibility of grafting a series of alkyl polyacrylates and polymethacrylates onto a nickel cathode by electropoly-merization of the parent monomers has been investigated and has emphasized the ... [more ▼]The possibility of grafting a series of alkyl polyacrylates and polymethacrylates onto a nickel cathode by electropoly-merization of the parent monomers has been investigated and has emphasized the critical importance of the solvent used. Indeed, the intensity of the inhibition peak, which is the electrochemical mark of the cathode passivation as result of the polymer grafting, clearly depends on both the polarity and the donor-acceptor properties of the solvent. The Gutmann concept is used to account for these experimental results. An increase in the donicity of the solvent used for the electrochemical medium has allowed, for the very first time, several polyacrylates and polymethacrylates [such as poly(ethyl acrylate), poly(methyl methacrylate), and poly(2-trimethylsilyloxyethyl methacrylate)] to be electrografted onto Ni. This observation is consistent with a competition process between the monomer and the solvent for being adsorbed on the cathode and amassing in its very close vicinity. The outcome of this competition is controlled by the relative polarity (in case of low donicity) and the relative donor-acceptor properties (when the difference is high enough) of the monomer/solvent pair, and by the monomer concentration (in case of weak competition). A semiquantitative relationship has also been observed between the monomer ability to be electrografted and the electron-accepting character of the vinyl β-carbon atom as measured by 13C NMR. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 56 (10 ULg) Les effets de l'induction du travail sur le déroulement de l'accouchementGucciardo, L.; Thoumsin, H.; Foidart, Jean-Michel in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(11), 665-8Labour induction has become a common practice. Given the significant number of induced deliveries carried out each year, it is important to know the consequences of this induction policy. The effects of ... [more ▼]Labour induction has become a common practice. Given the significant number of induced deliveries carried out each year, it is important to know the consequences of this induction policy. The effects of labour induction on the childbirth are still the subject of considerable controversy. The increase of the caesarean and instrumental extraction rates has already been emphasized in previous studies. This article is based on an analysis of 10,045 deliveries carried out in the CHR Obstetrical Clinic of La Citadelle, between 1991 and 1997. The conclusions are instructive. Thus a departmental policy of setting an induction level of 35% will allocate 2/3 of the workload between 8:00 AM and 8:00 PM during the week, with a preponderance on Friday. The Caesarean rate is not increased but peridurals and recourse to instrumental extraction are more frequent. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 21 (0 ULg) Laminar difference in GABA uptake and GAT-1 expression in rat CA1Engel, Dominique ; Schmitz, D; Gloveli, T et alin Journal of Physiology (1998), 512(Pt3), 643-649Detailed reference viewed: 7 (0 ULg) Morphometric Study of the Equine Navicular Bone: Variations with Breeds and Types of Horse and Influence of ExerciseGabriel, Annick ; Jolly, Sandra ; Detilleux, Johann et alin Journal of Anatomy (1998), 193((Pt 4)), 535-49Navicular bones from the 4 limbs of 95 horses, classified in 9 categories, were studied. The anatomical bases were established for the morphometry of the navicular bone and its variations according to the ... [more ▼]Navicular bones from the 4 limbs of 95 horses, classified in 9 categories, were studied. The anatomical bases were established for the morphometry of the navicular bone and its variations according to the category of horse, after corrections were made for front or rear limb, sex, weight, size and age. In ponies, navicular bone measurements were smallest for light ponies and regularly increased with body size, but in horses, navicular bone dimensions were smallest for the athletic halfbred, intermediate for draft horse, thoroughbreds and sedentary halfbreds and largest for heavy halfbreds. The athletic halfbred thus showed reduced bone dimensions when compared with other horse types. Navicular bones from 61 horses were studied histomorphometrically. Light horses and ponies possessed larger amounts of cancellous bone and less cortical bone. Draft horses and heavy ponies showed marked thickening of cortical bone with minimum intracortical porosity, and a decrease in marrow spaces associated with more trabecular bone. Two distinct zones were observed for the flexor surface cortex: an external zone composed mainly of poorly remodelled lamellar bone, disposed in a distoproximal oblique direction, and an internal zone composed mainly of secondary bone, with a lateromedial direction for haversian canals. Flexor cortex external zone tended to be smaller for heavy ponies than for the light ponies. It was the opposite for horses, with the largest amount of external zone registered for draft horses. In athletic horses, we observed an increase in the amount of cortical bone at the expense of cancellous bone which could be the result of reduced resorption and increased formation at the corticoendosteal junction. Cancellous bone was reduced for the athletic horses but the number of trabeculae and their specific surfaces were larger. Increased bone formation and reduced resorption could also account for these differences. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 46 (9 ULg) “Sainte” : le double procès du texteDurand, Pascal in Op. Cit. : Revue de Littératures Française et Comparée (1998), 11Detailed reference viewed: 24 (9 ULg) Transplantation d'un rein prélevé laparoscopiquement chez un donneur vivant apparenteDetry, Olivier ; Defechereux, Thierry ; Hamoir, Etienne et alin Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(11), 657-9Transplantation of kidney grafts harvested in living donors has demonstrated better results than grafts harvested from brain dead donors. Recently, laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy has been introduced ... [more ▼]Transplantation of kidney grafts harvested in living donors has demonstrated better results than grafts harvested from brain dead donors. Recently, laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy has been introduced to reduce the live procurement morbidity. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 53 (3 ULg) Method Development Strategies for the Enantioseparation of Drugs by Capillary Electrophoresis Using Cyclodextrins as Chiral AdditivesFillet, Marianne ; Hubert, Philippe ; Crommen, Jacques in Electrophoresis (1998), 19(16-17), 2834-40General strategies for the development of capillary electrophoretic methods for the enantiomeric separation of basic, acidic or neutral drugs were developed. For all kinds of compounds, the use of a ... [more ▼]General strategies for the development of capillary electrophoretic methods for the enantiomeric separation of basic, acidic or neutral drugs were developed. For all kinds of compounds, the use of a buffer made of 100 mM phosphoric acid adjusted to pH 3 with triethanolamine and containing anionic and/or uncharged cyclodextrin (CD) derivatives as chiral selectors was recommended. Two different optimization schemes depending on the acidic or basic character of the analytes, were elaborated. For most basic compounds present in cationic form at pH 3, enantiomeric separation could be achieved in the normal polarity mode. Different beta-cyclodextrin derivatives were first tested at a given concentration. Five derivatives were found to be particularly useful for enantioseparations in capillary electrophoresis (CE): the anionic carboxymethyl-beta-CD (CMCD) and sulfobutyl-beta-CD (SBCD) and the neutral dimethyl-beta-CD (DMCD), trimethyl-beta-CD (TMCD) and hydroxypropyl-beta-CD (HPCD). After selection of the most suitable CD, its concentration was optimized with respect to chiral resolution. If necessary, a further improvement in resolution could often be obtained for the enantiomers of cationic solutes by increasing the buffer pH from 3 to 5 using CMCD as chiral additive. Another possible alternative for enhancement in chiral resolution was the addition of metharlol or cyclohexanol to the buffer. For acidic drugs, essentially present in uncharged form at pH 3, and for neutral solutes, anionic CD derivatives such as SBCD or CMCD were first tested at a given concentration in the reversed polarity mode. Dual systems, based on the simultaneous addition of a charged CD (SBCD or CMCD) and a neutral CD (TMCD or DMCD), could then be investigated for resolution improvement. After optimization of the CD concentrations, the use of dual systems with CMCD at pH 5 could also be tested if necessary, especially for very weak acidic and neutral drugs. By applying these optimization strategies, 48 of the 50 drugs examined as model compounds could be fully enantioseparated by CE in short analysis times (usually less than 10 min). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 17 (5 ULg) Varicella-zoster virus IE63, a virion component expressed during latency and acute infection, elicits humoral and cellular immunitySadzot-Delvaux, Catherine ; Arvin, Ann M.; Rentier, Bernard in Journal of Infectious Diseases (1998), 178(Suppl. 1), 43-47Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) latency in human dorsal root ganglia is characterized by the transcription of large regions of its genome and by the expression of large amounts of some polypeptides, which ... [more ▼]Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) latency in human dorsal root ganglia is characterized by the transcription of large regions of its genome and by the expression of large amounts of some polypeptides, which are also expressed during lytic cycles. The immediate early 63 protein (IE63) is a virion component expressed very early in cutaneous lesions and the first viral protein detected during latency. Immune response against IE63 has been evaluated among naturally immune adults with a history of chickenpox: Specific antibodies were detected in serum, and most subjects who had a T cell proliferation with unfractionated VZV antigens had T cell recognition of purified IE63. The cytotoxic T cell (CTL) response to IE63 was equivalent to CTL recognition of IE62, the major tegument component of VZV, whose immunogenicity has been previously described. T cell recognition of IE63 and other VZV proteins is one of the likely mechanisms involved in controlling VZV reactivation from latency. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 26 (3 ULg) Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis and Del(22q11) Syndrome: A Non-Random AssociationVerloes, Alain ; Curry, C.; Jamar, Michelle et alin Journal of Medical Genetics (1998), 35(11), 943-7Del(22q11) is a common microdeletion syndrome with an extremely variable phenotype. Besides classical manifestations, such as velocardiofacial (Shprintzen) or DiGeorge syndromes, del(22q11) syndrome may ... [more ▼]Del(22q11) is a common microdeletion syndrome with an extremely variable phenotype. Besides classical manifestations, such as velocardiofacial (Shprintzen) or DiGeorge syndromes, del(22q11) syndrome may be associated with unusual but probably causally related anomalies that expand its phenotype and complicate its recognition. We report here three children with the deletion and a chronic, erosive polyarthritis resembling idiopathic cases of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). Patient 1, born in 1983, initially presented with developmental delay, facial dysmorphism, velopharyngeal insufficiency, and severe gastro-oesophageal reflux requiring G tube feeding. From the age of 3 years, he developed JRA, which resulted in severe restrictive joint disease, osteopenia, and platyspondyly. Patient 2, born in 1976, had tetralogy of Fallot and peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis. She developed slowly, had mild dysmorphic facial features, an abnormal voice, and borderline intelligence. JRA was diagnosed at the age of 5 years. The disorder followed a subacute course, with relatively mild inflammatory phenomena, but an extremely severe skeletal involvement with major osteopenia, restrictive joint disease (bilateral hip replacement), and almost complete osteolysis of the carpal and tarsal bones with phalangeal synostoses, leading to major motor impairment and confinement to a wheelchair. Patient 3, born in 1990, has VSD, right embryo-toxon, bifid uvula, and facial dysmorphism. She developed JRA at the age of 1 year. She is not mentally retarded but has major speech delay secondary to congenital deafness inherited from her mother. In the three patients, a del(22q11) was shown by FISH analysis. These observations, and five other recently published cases, indicate that a JRA-like syndrome is a component of the del(22q11) spectrum. The deletion may be overlooked in those children with severe, chronic inflammatory disorder. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (0 ULg) Crossing of two mobile averages: A method for measuring the roughness exponentVandewalle, Nicolas ; Ausloos, Marcel in Physical Review. E : Statistical Physics, Plasmas, Fluids, and Related Interdisciplinary Topics (1998), 58(5), 6832-6834Self-affine signals characterized by a defined Hurst (roughness) exponent H can be investigated through mobile averages. The density rho of crossing points between any two moving averages is a measure of ... [more ▼]Self-affine signals characterized by a defined Hurst (roughness) exponent H can be investigated through mobile averages. The density rho of crossing points between any two moving averages is a measure of long-range power-law correlations in the signal. The method is compared to the detrended fluctuation analysis. We rake advantage of our findings in order to propose a practically powerful and accurate technique for determining H and apply it right away to cases with persistent or antipersistent correlations. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 44 (0 ULg) Fgf-3 and Fgf-4 Elicit Distinct Oncogenic Properties in Mouse Mammary Myoepithelial CellsHajitou, Amin; Baramova, Eugénia; Bajou, Khalid et alin Oncogene (1998), 17(16), 2059-71Fibroblast Growth Factors 3 (FGF-3) and 4 (FGF-4) were compared for the effects they each exert on EF43 mouse cells. This non-transformed mammary cell line appears to be myoepithelial mainly because it ... [more ▼]Fibroblast Growth Factors 3 (FGF-3) and 4 (FGF-4) were compared for the effects they each exert on EF43 mouse cells. This non-transformed mammary cell line appears to be myoepithelial mainly because it expresses alpha-smooth muscle actin. The EF43 cells were infected with similar vectors that carry either the short fgf-3 sequence (the product of which goes into the secretory pathway), fgf-4 or the selection gene only as control. In syngeneic animals, EF43.fgf-3 cells were tumorigenic only when orthotopically implanted whereas EF43.fgf-4 cells invariably gave rise to aggressive tumors. However, both tumor types were metastatic as evidenced by the blue micrometastases observed when the implanted cells expressed lacZ. In vitro, the FGF-3 producing cells were strongly invasive in matrigel coated chambers whereas the EF43.fgf-4 cells only were invasive in type I-collagen gels. Interestingly, FGF-3 production greatly stimulated the synthesis of pro-MMP-9 (Matrix Metalloprotease-9) and, to a lesser extent, that of pro-MMP-2. FGF-3 also up-regulated the production of plasminogen activators. In contrast, FGF-4 had no effect on these secretions and the medium conditioned by the EF43.fgf-4 cells displayed the largest plasminogen activator-inhibitor activity. These results show that FGF-3 and FGF-4 have distinct mechanisms of action on myoepithelial cells. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 16 (4 ULg) Transmission and confocal fluorescence microscopy and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy combined with a laser trap: investigation of optically trapped block copolymer micellesGensch, Thomas; Hofkens, Johan; van Stam, Jan et alin Journal of Physical Chemistry B (1998), 102(43), 8440-8451Optical trapping was combined with transmission microscopy (TM), confocal and nonconfocal fluorescence scanning microscopy (CFSM and FSM, respectively), and confocal and nonconfocal time-resolved ... [more ▼]Optical trapping was combined with transmission microscopy (TM), confocal and nonconfocal fluorescence scanning microscopy (CFSM and FSM, respectively), and confocal and nonconfocal time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (CTRFS and TRFS, respectively) to study latex particles and block copolymer micelles. Dye-labeled latex particles of various size, in polymer composite films as well as optically trapped in solution, were studied with CFSM to characterize the limits of the setup. CFSM revealed that the resolution in the x- and y-directions was near the theoretical limit, i.e., 200−250 nm. CTRFS on the labeled latex particles revealed that the decay time of the label was not influenced by the polymer matrix nor the optical trap. Poly(tert-butylstyrene-block-sodium methacrylate) micelles (diameter approximately 30−40 nm) in deuterated aqueous solutions could be optically trapped, this region of high copolymer micelle concentration being referred to as a trapped cluster. In the transmission images, trapped clusters of 1.5−2 μm diameter were detected. Fluorescence images were obtained using perylene as a fluorophore that is specifically dissolved within the block copolymer micelles. The size of the trapped cluster, estimated from TM and FSM images, increases with increasing irradiation time and power, respectively. In the TM images, the trapped cluster appears as a dark spot (low transmission) with a bright (high transmission) corona-like ring around it. The appearance of the corona is explained as a light deflection phenomenon; i.e., the trapped cluster acts as lens due to a lateral refractive index gradient. When the corona is taken into account when the diameter of the trapped clusters is calculated, a very good agreement is found between TM and FSM. Long irradiation times lead to the formation of large trapped clusters, which are stable for about 10 s, with diameters of several hundred nanometers, while, for short irradiation times, the trapped cluster is smaller and disappears within a time less than 1 s. With CFSM it could be shown that the trapped particle has a spot size of approximately 1.7 μm in the region of the IR laser focus, while the diameter extends up to 5 μm without using the confocal imaging capability. The reason for this is that the conditions for optical trapping are fulfilled not only in but also above and below the focal region. Due to the high numerical aperture, a dumbbell-like shape of the trapped cluster results. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 41 (5 ULg) Investigation of methyl methacrylate and vinyl acetate polymerization promoted by Al(iBu)3/2,2'-bipyridine and Al(iBu)3/2,2'-bipyridine/TEMPO complexesGranel, Claude; Jérôme, Robert ; Teyssié, Philippe et alin Macromolecules (1998), 31(21), 7133-7141Results of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and vinyl acetate (VOAc) polymerization using the Al(iBu)3/2,2‘-bipyridine/TEMPO initiating system at room temperature failed to confirm the “living” radical mechanism ... [more ▼]Results of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and vinyl acetate (VOAc) polymerization using the Al(iBu)3/2,2‘-bipyridine/TEMPO initiating system at room temperature failed to confirm the “living” radical mechanism reported earlier. Several species apparently propagate without control in a normal free radical process and only above a critical initiator concentration. No evidence was found for the penta- and hexacoordinated aluminum species previously suggested, but high conversion to an alkoxyamine was observed. Additionally, mixing Al(iBu)3 and BIPY promotes a variety of reactions involving alkyl and hydride transfers to the aromatic rings forming reduced BIPY products, along with a persistent organoaluminum radical. All these results illustrate that the process is considerably more complicated than postulated before. Conversely, at −78 °C, a single active species excluding the participation of TEMPO has been put in evidence, displaying some “living” characteristics. Several experiments support its anionic nature, as previously suggested by Ikeda. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 28 (1 ULg) Tnf-Alpha and Ifn-Gamma Down-Regulate the Expression of the Metastasis-Associated Bi-Functional 37lrp/P40 Gene and Protein in Transformed KeratinocytesClausse, Nathalie; van den Brûle, Frédéric; Delvenne, Philippe et alin Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (1998), 251(2), 564-9The 37 LRP/p40 molecule is a bi-functional protein in which expression is increased in a large variety of cancers in association with their metastatic phenotype. Here we present the first data concerning ... [more ▼]The 37 LRP/p40 molecule is a bi-functional protein in which expression is increased in a large variety of cancers in association with their metastatic phenotype. Here we present the first data concerning the 37 LRP/p40 gene promoter activity and show that it is very active in a cervix carcinoma cell line. Interestingly, despite hallmarks of a housekeeping gene, we show that the 37 LRP/p40 gene promoter can be down-regulated by two potentially anticancerous cytokines, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. In addition, the dual fate of the protein, i.e., being intracellularly involved in the cell translation machinery and incorporated into a 67-kDa cell surface protein functioning as a laminin receptor (67LR), is differentially affected by the treatment. Our data suggest multiple regulation levels in the control of the 67LR/37LRP/p40 molecule expression and uncover new clues for the understanding of both the control of expression of this metastasis-associated molecule and the IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha anticancerous action. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 137 (112 ULg) Carbon Dioxide Emission from European EstuariesFrankignoulle, Michel; Abril, Gwenaël; Borges, Alberto et alin Science (1998), 282(5388), 434-6The partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in surface waters and related atmospheric exchanges were measured in nine European estuaries. Averaged fluxes over the entire estuaries are usually in the ... [more ▼]The partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in surface waters and related atmospheric exchanges were measured in nine European estuaries. Averaged fluxes over the entire estuaries are usually in the range of 0.1 to 0.5 mole of CO2 per square meter per day. For wide estuaries, net daily fluxes to the atmosphere amount to several hundred tons of carbon (up to 790 tons of carbon per day in the Scheldt estuary). European estuaries emit between 30 and 60 million tons of carbon per year to the atmosphere, representing 5 to 10% of present anthropogenic CO2 emissions for Western Europe. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 56 (12 ULg) Positive parity pentaquarks in a Goldstone boson exchange modelStancu, Floarea in Physical Review. D : Particles and Fields (1998), D58We study the stability of the pentaquarks $uudd\overline{Q}$, $uuds\overline{Q}$ and $udss\overline{Q}$ ($Q = c$ or $b$) of positive parity in a constituent quark model based on Goldstone boson exchange ... [more ▼]We study the stability of the pentaquarks $uudd\overline{Q}$, $uuds\overline{Q}$ and $udss\overline{Q}$ ($Q = c$ or $b$) of positive parity in a constituent quark model based on Goldstone boson exchange interaction between quarks. The pentaquark parity is the antiquark parity times that of a quark excited to a p-shell. We show that the Goldstone boson exchange interaction favors these pentaquarks much more than the negative parity ones of the same flavour content but all quarks in the ground state. We find that the nonstrange pentaquarks are stable against strong decays. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 9 (4 ULg) Acromegalie : OnderzoekenBeckers, Albert ; Stevenaert, Achille in Medical News (1998), 51Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 ULg) Canonical variabes of aquatic bryophyte combinations for predicting water trophic level.Vanderpoorten, Alain ; Palm, Rodolphe in Hydrobiologia (1998), 386Detailed reference viewed: 4 (0 ULg) X-ray analysis of the NMC-A beta-lactamase at 1.64-A resolution, a class A carbapenemase with broad substrate specificitySwaren, Peter; Maveyraud, Laurent; Raquet, Xavier et alin Journal of Biological Chemistry (1998), 273(41), 26714-26721Detailed reference viewed: 17 (0 ULg) Acromégalie : Examens complémentairesBeckers, Albert ; Stevenaert, Achille in Medical News (1998), 51Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 ULg) 4-Methoxypyridine N-Oxide: a new regulator for the controlled free radical polymerization of methyl methacrylateDetrembleur, Christophe ; Lecomte, Philippe ; Caille, Jean-Raphaël et alin Macromolecules (1998), 31(20), 7115-7117Detailed reference viewed: 43 (11 ULg) Electrochemical synthesis of polypyrrole nanowiresJérôme, Christine ; Jérôme, Robert in Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English) (1998), 37(18), 2488-2490Through a hole in a poly(ethyl acrylate) (PEA) layer that is electrochemically grafted to the surface of a vitreous carbon electrode-that is the route that must be taken by a growing polypyrrole nanowire ... [more ▼]Through a hole in a poly(ethyl acrylate) (PEA) layer that is electrochemically grafted to the surface of a vitreous carbon electrode-that is the route that must be taken by a growing polypyrrole nanowire in the electropolymerization of pyrrole. Chain growth is controlled by diffusion of the monomer through the DMF-swollen PEA layer, which acts as a template for the formation of nanowires (shown in the picture) with diameters of 400-1000 nm and lengths of up to 300 m. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 27 (1 ULg) Acromégalie : Diagnostic différentielBeckers, Albert ; Stevenaert, Achille in Medical News (1998), 50Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 ULg) Acromegalie : Differentiaal-diagnoseBeckers, Albert ; Stevenaert, Achille in Medical News (1998), 50Detailed reference viewed: 23 (0 ULg) Cyclical Spectral and Photometric Variations of the Apparently Single Wolf-Rayet Star WR 134Morel, Thierry ; Marchenko, S. V.; Eenens, P. R. J. et alin Astrophysics & Space Science (1998), 260Evidence is presented for the existence of a 2.3 day periodicity in the line-profile changes of the apparently singleWolf-Rayet star WR 134. This cyclical variability may be induced either by the presence ... [more ▼]Evidence is presented for the existence of a 2.3 day periodicity in the line-profile changes of the apparently singleWolf-Rayet star WR 134. This cyclical variability may be induced either by the presence of an orbiting collapsed companion, or by the rotational modulation of a largely inhomogeneous outflow. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 6 (4 ULg) Molecular Cloning of a Mutated Hoxb7 Cdna Encoding a Truncated Transactivating Homeodomain-Containing ProteinChariot, Alain ; Senterre-Lesenfants, Sylviane; Sobel, Mark E et alin Journal of Cellular Biochemistry (1998), 71(1), 46-54Homeodomain-containing proteins regulate, as transcription factors, the coordinated expression of genes involved in development, differentiation, and malignant transformation. We report here the molecular ... [more ▼]Homeodomain-containing proteins regulate, as transcription factors, the coordinated expression of genes involved in development, differentiation, and malignant transformation. We report here the molecular cloning of a mutated HOXB7 transcript encoding a truncated homeodomain-containing protein in MCF7 cells. This is a new example of mutation affecting the coding region of a HOX gene. In addition, we detected two HOXB7 transcripts in several breast cell lines and demonstrated that both normal and mutated alleles were expressed at the RNA level in MCF7 cells as well as in a variety of breast tissues and lymphocytes, suggesting that a truncated HOXB7 protein might be expressed in vivo. Using transient co-transfection experiments, we demonstrated that both HOXB7 proteins can activate transcription from a consensus HOX binding sequence in breast cancer cells. Our results provide evidence that HOXB7 protein has transcription factor activity in vivo and that the two last amino acids do not contribute to this property. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (5 ULg) Expression and Modulation of Homeobox Genes from Cluster B in Endothelial CellsBelotti, D.; Clausse, Nathalie; Flagiello, D. et alin Laboratory Investigation : Journal of Technical Methods & Pathology (1998), 78(10), 1291-9Angiogenesis is a complex phenomenon likely to be under the strict control of a group of transcription factor(s). Homeobox (HOX)-containing proteins have been identified as regulators controlling the ... [more ▼]Angiogenesis is a complex phenomenon likely to be under the strict control of a group of transcription factor(s). Homeobox (HOX)-containing proteins have been identified as regulators controlling the coordinated expression of genes involved in organ development and tissue differentiation. In this study, we have demonstrated that human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) express 8 of the 10 HOX genes contained in cluster B. Treatment of HUVEC with tissue plasminogen activator (TPA), an agent known to induce morphologic changes in endothelial cells, or vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF), a proliferative and angiogenesis inducer, results in a specific time-dependent modulation of the eight HOX genes identified. Interestingly, neither basic fibroblast growth factor, an endothelial proliferative agent, nor TNP-470, a fumagillin derivative with potent antiendothelial cell proliferation properties, affected expression of these HOX genes. Specific modulation of HOX genes by differentiating agents but not by proliferative or antiproliferative molecules suggests that they could be involved in the control of the genetic program that coordinates the construction of new blood vessels. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 26 (1 ULg) Prevalence and Molecular Typing of Attaching and Effacing Escherichia Coli among Calf Populations in BelgiumChina, B.; Pirson, V.; Mainil, Jacques in Veterinary Microbiology (1998), 63(2-4), 249-259Attaching and effacing Escherichia coli are involved in diarrhea in 2 to 8-week old calves. The virulence factors of these bacteria include: (i) the secretion of proteins (i.e. EspB) involved in ... [more ▼]Attaching and effacing Escherichia coli are involved in diarrhea in 2 to 8-week old calves. The virulence factors of these bacteria include: (i) the secretion of proteins (i.e. EspB) involved in microvilli effacement, (ii) the production of the intimin, a 94 kDa outer membrane protein encoded by the eaeA gene and involved in the intimate attachment of bacteria to epithelial cell and (iii) the production of verotoxins: VT1 and/or VT2. We investigated the presence and the pathotype of these strains in several calf populations by colony hybridization or by genetic amplification. Using the colony hybridization method we showed first that only 5% of calves who died from diarrhea presented EaeA+ E. coli strains and secondly that 19% of healthy calves showed an asymptomatic carriage. However, using colony hybridization and genetic amplification, we identified EaeA+ strains in 91% of calves living in farms with recurrent diarrhea problems. In 66% of the calves, there was a correlation between the presence of AEEC and diarrhea. At the pathotype level, most of the EaeA+ isolates were negative for VT probes. In VT+ bacteria, the majority were VT1+. The number of VT positive bacteria was significantly higher in calves who died from diarrhea than in healthy or sick calves. This underlined the aggravating role of verotoxins in the disease. Moreover, only 25% of the bovine AEEC were positive with the EaeB probe. Surprisingly, the proportion of EaeB+ strains was significantly higher in healthy calves than in other populations. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 9 (0 ULg) Efficacy and Tolerability of Calcitonin in the Prevention and Treatment of OsteoporosisHalkin, V; Reginster, Jean-Yves in BioDrugs : Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals & Gene Therapy (1998), 10(4), 295-300Calcitonin in general, and, more specifically, salmon calcitonin (salcatonin), has been known for 30 years to be a specific inhibitor of bone resorption. Studies have confirmed its efficacy in metabolic ... [more ▼]Calcitonin in general, and, more specifically, salmon calcitonin (salcatonin), has been known for 30 years to be a specific inhibitor of bone resorption. Studies have confirmed its efficacy in metabolic bone diseases characterised by excessive bone resorption, such as osteoporosis. Most randomised studies in which salcatonin and oral calcium were administered for 1 to 5 years to recently postmenopausal women for the prevention of osteoporosis have shown that bone mineral density or bone content of the lumbar spine increased significantly, compared with a reduction among women receiving calcium only. Prospective studies have shown that salcatonin is effective in the treatment of established osteoporosis, reducing significantly the relative risk of new vertebral fractures. The benefits of salcatonin nasal spray therapy were observed in the majority of women studied, and it has been shown to be an effective alternative for osteoporotic women more than 5 years postmenopausal who refuse estrogens, or for whom estrogens are contraindicated. Finally, in established osteoporosis, nasal calcitonin possesses a potent analgesic effect. The well-demonstrated effects of nasal calcitonin permit it to be considered a well tolerated and efficient approach for prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 8 (4 ULg) 18fdg-Pet for the Assessment of Primary Head and Neck Tumors: Clinical, Computed Tomography, and Histopathological Correlation in 38 PatientsPaulus, Patrick; Sambon, A.; Vivegnis, Danielle et alin Laryngoscope (1998), 108(10), 1578-83OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical usefulness of FDG-PET (fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose-positron emission tomography) in the detection of lymph node involvement and recurrences in patients with head and neck ... [more ▼]OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical usefulness of FDG-PET (fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose-positron emission tomography) in the detection of lymph node involvement and recurrences in patients with head and neck cancer. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review of 38 patients with biopsy-proven head and neck cancers who underwent clinical, computed tomography (CT), and FDG-PET examinations. Twenty-five patients were studied prior to therapy and 13 patients were evaluated for disease recurrence. METHODS: All patients were operated and clinical data, CT, and FDG-PET results were correlated with histopathological findings. RESULTS: All primary tumors in 25 patients were detected, with the exception of one small superficial localization of the epiglottis. Histopathological examination showed lymph node involvement in 10 patients; PET detected lymph node involvement in five. FDG-PET found one case of nodal disease not identified by clinical and CT examination. With so few cases, this could be anecdotal. Five false-negative results (microscopic lymph node involvement) and two false positives were noted. Twelve of 13 patients with recurrent disease were correctly identified with FDG-PET. FDG-PET was the only imaging technique to identify local recurrence in two patients and lymph node involvement in two others. One false-positive result occurred in a patient with a foreign body granuloma. CONCLUSIONS: FDG-PET is a useful diagnostic modality for the detection of recurrent tumors and, in selected cases, precise lymph node involvement. The best way to further investigate the utility of clinical FDG-PET is in the follow-up of treated patients. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 41 (1 ULg) In Vitro Propagated Dendritic Cells from Patients with Human-Papilloma Virus-Associated Preneoplastic Lesions of the Uterine Cervix: Use of Flt3 LigandHubert, Pascale ; Greimers, Roland ; Franzen-Detrooz, E. et alin Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy (1998), 47(2), 81-9Dendritic cells (DC) are the most efficient antigen presenting cells. The clinical use of DC as vectors for antitumor and anti-infectious disease immunotherapy has been limited by their low level and ... [more ▼]Dendritic cells (DC) are the most efficient antigen presenting cells. The clinical use of DC as vectors for antitumor and anti-infectious disease immunotherapy has been limited by their low level and accessibility in normal tissue. Substantial numbers of DC can be generated from peripheral blood cultured in the presence of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). We showed in this study that substantial numbers of DC can be obtained from the peripheral blood of patients with (pre)neoplastic lesions of the uterine cervix. The procedure required relatively small blood samples (10 ml) and the presence of 100 U/ml IL-4 and 800 U/ml GM-CSF in the culture medium. There was no significant difference in the morphology, yield, phenotype and function of generated DC between patients with cervical (pre)neoplastic lesions and healthy individuals. When the hematopoietic factor Flt3 ligand (Flt3L, 40 ng;ml) was added, there was an average increase in the DC population of 26% compared to cultures with GM-CSF and IL-4 alone. Approximately 1.2 x 10(6) cells with the characteristics of dendritic cells could be obtained when Flt3L was included in the medium. The addition of Flt3L did not modify the phenotypic profile of DC (HLA-DR+, CD1a+, CD4+, CD54+, CD80+, CD86+. CD40+, CD3- and CD14-). In addition, Flt3L generated functional DC capable of stimulating the proliferation of alloreactive T cells. These results suggest that Flt3L, in association with GM-CSF and IL-4, provides an advantageous tool for the large-scale generation of DC and that an immunotherapy based on the use of DC generated in vitro is possible in patients with (pre)neoplastic lesions of the uterine cervix. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 68 (18 ULg) L'image du mois. Embolisation utérine d'une tumeur trophoblastique persistanteFoidart, Jean-Michel ; Henroteaux, D.; Schaaps, Jean-Pierre in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(10), 585Detailed reference viewed: 10 (0 ULg) Stadsverkeer: problemen en olpossingenMarchal, Jean in Publication du CAWET (Comité van de Academie voor Wetenschappen en Techniek) (1998)Detailed reference viewed: 2 (0 ULg) Le matérialisme transcendantalSeba, Jean-Renaud in Cahiers marxistes (1998)Detailed reference viewed: 86 (4 ULg) Conception des ouvrages hydrauliquesRigo, Philippe in Ingénieur et Industrie, APPS éditions, n°5 (1998)Detailed reference viewed: 49 (8 ULg) Clinical Pattern of Corticosteroid Dependent Crohn's DiseaseFranchimont, D. P.; Louis, Edouard ; Croes, F. et alin European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology (1998), 10(10), 821-5OBJECTIVES: Corticosteroid dependency in Crohn's disease (CD) is characterized by the need for chronic use of corticosteroids to maintain clinical remission. Several definitions have been used. Depending ... [more ▼]OBJECTIVES: Corticosteroid dependency in Crohn's disease (CD) is characterized by the need for chronic use of corticosteroids to maintain clinical remission. Several definitions have been used. Depending on the definition, 10-30% of the patients are considered as corticosteroid dependent. The aim of the study was to define a clinical pattern of corticosteroid dependent CD patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Epidemiological and clinical characteristics were retrospectively compared between 20 corticosteroid dependent CD patients and 248 non-corticosteroid dependent CD patients by using univariate and multivariate analyses. Corticosteroid dependency was defined either by two successive relapses during the 2 months after discontinuing glucocorticoids (n=5) or by two successive relapses at dose tapering, after successful treatment of a flare-up by using glucocorticoids (n=15). RESULTS: Corticosteroid dependent CD patients were younger at diagnosis (P < 0.001), and were characterized by a higher frequency of colonic location (P< 0.05), but lower frequency of ileal location (P < 0.01), and higher ano-perineal location (P < 0.05). They were also more frequently smokers (P< 0.05) and users of contraceptive pills (P< 0.01). The inflammatory type of the disease was increased (P < 0.01), while the fibrostenotic type was decreased (P < 0.001) in corticosteroid dependent CD patients. By multivariate analysis, a smoking habit (P < 0.01), a colonic location (P < 0.05), a non-fibrostenotic type (P< 0.05) and a younger age at diagnosis (P< 0.05) were shown to be independently associated with corticosteroid dependency. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests a clinical pattern associated with corticosteroid dependency. Whether this clinical pattern is simply associated with the dependency, or whether a primary decrease of corticosensitivity produces this clinical pattern, is not known. Further prospective studies will have to determine whether the presence of these clinical characteristics is predictive of corticosteroid dependency and whether this prediction will be useful for the management of this condition. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 10 (0 ULg) A new theory for torsional stiffness of multi-span bundle overhead transmission lines.Wang, Jianwei; Lilien, Jean-Louis in IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery (1998), 13(N°4), 1405-1411A new theory for torsional stiffness of multi-span bundle overhead lines is presented.Detailed reference viewed: 24 (1 ULg) An unusual pituitary pathologyPetrossians, Patrick ; Delvenne, Philippe ; Flandroy, P. et alin Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (1998), 83(10), 3454-3458Detailed reference viewed: 18 (2 ULg) La troponine, nouveau marqueur de l'infarctus du myocardeChapelle, Jean-Paul in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(10), 619-24The troponin (Tn) complex consists of three protein subunits referred to as TnT, TnI and TnC. Myocardium contains TnI and TnT isoforms which are not present in skeletal muscles and which can be separated ... [more ▼]The troponin (Tn) complex consists of three protein subunits referred to as TnT, TnI and TnC. Myocardium contains TnI and TnT isoforms which are not present in skeletal muscles and which can be separated from the muscular isoforms by immunological techniques. Using commercially available immunoassays, clinical laboratories are able to determine cardiac TnT and TnI (cTnT and cTnI) as quickly and reliably as classical cardiac markers. After acute myocardial infarction, cTnT and cTnI concentrations start to increase in serum in a rather similar way than CK-MB, but return to normal after longer periods of time (approximately one week). Because of their excellent cardiac specificity, Tn subunits appear ideally suited for the differential diagnosis of myocardial and muscular damage, for example in non cardiac surgery patients, in patients with muscular trauma or with chronic muscular diseases, or after intensive physical exercise. cTnT and cTnI may also be used for detecting evidence of minor myocardial damage, and therefore may find new applications in the management of patients with unstable angina. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 66 (2 ULg) Le cas clinique du mois. L'endocardite métastatique: observation clinique et revue de la littératureGraas, M.P.; Evrard, P.; CREEMERS, Etienne et alin Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(10), 588-91The authors describe a case of metastatic endocarditis associated with a gastric carcinoma. The diagnosis was made early and the treatment by surgery and chemotherapy allowed a survival of 18 months ... [more ▼]The authors describe a case of metastatic endocarditis associated with a gastric carcinoma. The diagnosis was made early and the treatment by surgery and chemotherapy allowed a survival of 18 months, which is unusually long. The differential diagnosis is discussed and includes nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis, infectious endocarditis and primary tumors of the heart. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 13 (1 ULg) Restriction of mobility in model liquid crystalline ionomersGohy, Jean-François; Jérôme, Robert ; Van den Bossche, Guy et alin Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics (1998), 199(10), 2205-2210Model liquid crystalline ionomers have been analyzed by SAXS both in bulk and in toluene solution. These compounds are referred to as liquid crystalline halatosemitelechelic polystyrenes (LC HSTP's) and ... [more ▼]Model liquid crystalline ionomers have been analyzed by SAXS both in bulk and in toluene solution. These compounds are referred to as liquid crystalline halatosemitelechelic polystyrenes (LC HSTP's) and consist of low molecular weight polystyrene chains end-capped at one end by a sulfonate group associated to a mesogenic counterion. The results are in agreement with a microphase separation between the polymer chain and the mesogenic counterion. The main characteristic feature of the SAXS profile for the bulk material is the so-called ionic peak, whose position obeys a general law which is in favor of a rod-like organization of the multiplets and which shows that the polymer chains are stretched in the very close vicinity of the mesogenic core, in agreement with the Eisenberg, Hird and Moore model for ionomers. The thickness of this region of restricted mobility has been estimated to 1 nm, which is the order of magnitude of the persistence length of polystyrene. This very local restriction in mobility persists in toluene solution, in contrast to what is observed for the ω-Li-sulfonato-polystyrene precursors. The results also agree with an isotropic distribution of the multiplets in toluene. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 17 (4 ULg) Foam-like evolution in polycrystalline systems following successive 'melt and growth' cyclesVandewalle, Nicolas ; Delisse, B.; Ausloos, Marcel et alin Philosophical Magazine B-Physics of condensed matter statistical mechanics electronic optical and magnetic properties (1998), 78(4), 397-408A stochastic model of multigrain growth which allows for successive melting-growth cycles is investigated on a square lattice. Two fundamental constraints are introduced: (i) the melted mass amplitude and ... [more ▼]A stochastic model of multigrain growth which allows for successive melting-growth cycles is investigated on a square lattice. Two fundamental constraints are introduced: (i) the melted mass amplitude and (ii) the number of cycles guide the process. The evolution of the microstructure is found to be quite similar to foam systems, i.e. topological rearrangements are observed together with the increase of the-mean grain area. A drastic crossover between two types of growth regimes is found as a function of the amplitude of the melting-growth cycles. This allows one to envisage the existence of optimal conditions for polycrystal processing. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg) Pharma clinics. Comment je traite ... ou préviens une douleur par "patches"Pierard, Gérald in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(10), 586-7There exists two distinct types of patches aiming at increasing the pain threshold either systematically or locally. The first type of analgesic patch is a real transdermal delivery system releasing ... [more ▼]There exists two distinct types of patches aiming at increasing the pain threshold either systematically or locally. The first type of analgesic patch is a real transdermal delivery system releasing fentanyl. Such potent opioid drug exerts a systemic effect. The other type of patch associates lidocain and prilocain to induce a local anesthesia of the skin without inducing a systemic effect. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 4 (0 ULg) The burden of illness of hypopituitary adults with growth hormone deficiency.Hakkaart-van Roijen, L.; Beckers, Albert ; Stevenaert, Achille et alin PharmacoEconomics (1998), 14(4), 395-403Objective: The negative metabolic and psychosocial consequences of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in adults are now well established. In the present study, an attempt was made to quantify the burden of ... [more ▼]Objective: The negative metabolic and psychosocial consequences of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in adults are now well established. In the present study, an attempt was made to quantify the burden of illness, in terms of lost productivity and increased medical consumption, associated with hypopituitarism and untreated GHD. Design and Setting: The study population consisted of 129 Belgian adults with untreated GHD associated with hypopituitarism after pituitary surgery. The Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) was used to assess health status, and the Health and Labour Questionnaire was used to measure production losses and labour performance. Data on medical consumption were also collected. Main Outcome Measures and Results: Hypopituitary patients reported a lower health status than that of the general population in all but two dimensions of the SF-36 (pain and physical functioning). Nearly 11% of the patients reported being incapacitated for paid employment due to health problems, compared with 4.8% of the general Belgian population. Patients in paid employment reported a mean of 19.8 days of sickness leave per year, which is twice that in the general population. The annual number of visits to general practitioners and specialists was also higher in the patients (9.6 and 6.5 visits, respectively, for the patients compared with corresponding figures of 2.1 and 1.5 for the general Belgian population). The average annual number of days spent in hospital was 3.5 for the patients compared with 2.3 in the general population. The annual healthcare costs and costs due to production losses calculated for hypopituitary patients who had received pituitary surgery amounted to 135 024 Belgian francs (BeF) or $US4340 (1995 values). This compares with the mean annual cost per person for the Belgian population as a whole of BeF68 569 or$US2204. Conclusions: Hypopituitary patients with untreated GHD therefore have a higher cost to society in terms of lost production and medical consumption than the average Belgian population. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (0 ULg) Acromegalie : ConsultBeckers, Albert ; Stevenaert, Achille in Medical News (1998), 49Detailed reference viewed: 7 (0 ULg) Acromégalie : ConsultationBeckers, Albert ; Stevenaert, Achille in Medical News (1998), 49Detailed reference viewed: 10 (0 ULg) Influence of end group and molecular weight on polybutadiene fingerprint secondary ion mass spectraVanden Eynde, X.; Bertrand, P.; Dubois, Philippe et alin Macromolecules (1998), 31(19), 6409-6416Polybutadiene samples of different molecular weight have been synthesized by anionic polymerization as initiated by sec-butyllithium with low polydispersity and a major content of 1,2-vinyl units. They ... [more ▼]Polybutadiene samples of different molecular weight have been synthesized by anionic polymerization as initiated by sec-butyllithium with low polydispersity and a major content of 1,2-vinyl units. They have been analyzed by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) in order to investigate the sensitivity of this method toward the sec-butyl end group and toward the molecular weight. The SIMS spectra show the characteristic fragment of the end group, C4H9+ at m/z = 57, whose the peak intensity is strongly dependent on the polymer molecular weight, as is the case for almost all the fragment intensities. A model consistent with the peak intensity variations is used to give some new insights into the fragmentation mechanism at the end groups and within the main chain. Moreover, the analysis of the end group fragment allows Mn to be readily determined up to Mn = 4 × 104 from, for example, the Y(53)/Y(57) intensity ratio where Y(53) is the intensity of the deprotonated repeat unit ([M − H]+). Other Mn calibration methods have also been used and are discussed in terms of their accuracy and physical meaning. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 8 (1 ULg) Decreased Protein Levels of the C-Cbl Protooncogene in Murine AidsTrebak, Mohamed; Lambert, Charles A; Rahmouni, Souad et alin Cellular Immunology (1998), 188(2), 151-7Murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (MAIDS) can be viewed as a lymphoproliferative disease which involves B cells as well as T cells from spleen and lymph nodes while thymus and Peyer's patches do ... [more ▼]Murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (MAIDS) can be viewed as a lymphoproliferative disease which involves B cells as well as T cells from spleen and lymph nodes while thymus and Peyer's patches do not participate in the process. The 120-kDa protooncogene product c-Cbl was initially cloned from the murine Cas NS-1 B cell lymphoma. It is a main target of immunoreceptor (TCR and BCR)-mediated protein tyrosine kinase activity. Moreover, recent data suggest that c-Cbl might play a crucial role in the regulation of cell proliferation through regulation of GTP-binding proteins. Therefore, the involvement of c-Cbl was evaluated in the lymphoproliferative disease induced by the MAIDS virus. The expression of the c-Cbl protein was dramatically reduced in the lymph node of infected mice while it remained normal in the thymus. In contrast, the expression of actin, TCR-zeta chain, ZAP-70, and p59(fyn) remained similar in controls and infected mice. Identical results were obtained with sorted B cells and T cells. Surprisingly, a B cell lymphoma line derived from late stage MAIDS mice displayed a normal level of c-Cbl. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 24 (3 ULg) Simultaneous Determination of Methylphenobarbital Enantiomers and Phenobarbital in Human Plasma by on-Line Coupling of an Achiral Precolumn to a Chiral Liquid Chromatographic ColumnCeccato, Attilio ; Boulanger, Bruno ; Chiap, Patrice et alin Journal of Chromatography. A (1998), 819(1-2), 143-53A fully automated liquid chromatographic (LC) method for the simultaneous determination of methylphenobarbital enantiomers and phenobarbital in human plasma has been developed. The method is based on the ... [more ▼]A fully automated liquid chromatographic (LC) method for the simultaneous determination of methylphenobarbital enantiomers and phenobarbital in human plasma has been developed. The method is based on the use of a precolumn packed with an internal-surface reversed-phase packing material (LiChrospher ADS) for sample clean-up coupled to LC analysis on a cellulose tris(4-methylbenzoate) based chiral stationary phase (Chiralcel OJ-R). A 100-microliter plasma sample was injected directly on the precolumn packed with LiChrospher RP-18 ADS using a mixture of pH 5.0 phosphate buffer-methanol (97:3, v/v) as washing liquid. The analytes were then eluted in the back-flush mode with the LC mobile phase. The enantiomeric separation of methylphenobarbital was achieved on Chiralcel OJ-R). The retention times were modelled using a D-optimal design with ten experimental points in order to optimise the LC mobile phase for the separation of phenobarbital from the enantiomers of mephobarbital. The factors selected were the acetonitrile content, the pH and the sodium perchlorate concentration in the mobile phase. A Derringer's desirability function was used to find an optimal and robust solution within the experimental domain. The mobile phase selected consisted of a mixture of pH 7.0 phosphate buffer-acetonitrile (60:40, v/v). The elution profiles of phenobarbital, methylphenobarbital and blank plasma samples on the precolumn and the time needed for analyte transfer from the precolumn to the analytical column were then determined. Finally, the method developed was validated. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 21 (1 ULg) Simultaneous Determination of Pirlindole Enantiomers and Dehydropirlindole by Chiral Liquid ChromatographyCeccato, Attilio ; Hubert, Philippe ; De Tullio, Pascal et alin Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (1998), 17(6-7), 1071-9Liquid chromatography was employed for the determination of pirlindole enantiomers and its oxidation product dehydropirlindole (DHP). The direct separation of pirlindole enantiomers and DHP was achieved ... [more ▼]Liquid chromatography was employed for the determination of pirlindole enantiomers and its oxidation product dehydropirlindole (DHP). The direct separation of pirlindole enantiomers and DHP was achieved on a cellulose tris-(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) chiral stationary phase (Chiralcel OD-R). Acetonitrile was used as the organic modifier and sodium perchlorate was used as an ionic additive in the mobile phase. The influence of acetonitrile and sodium perchlorate concentrations on enantioselectivity and achiral selectivity towards DHP was investigated in order to find suitable conditions for the determination of low amounts of each analyte. The mobile phase selected consisted of a mixture of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer (pH 5.0) containing sodium perchlorate (0.05 M) (35:65, v/v) and the UV detector was set at 220 nm. The method developed was validated and was found to be linear in the 0.1-5 microg ml(-1) range (r2 = 0.999 for the three compounds). Repeatability and the intermediate precision for the three analytes at a concentration of 0.1 microg ml(-1) were about 3 and 4%, respectively. This concentration corresponds to the quantification of 0.1% for the minor enantiomer. Actual determinations of enantiomeric purity for single enantiomers of pirlindole were performed. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (3 ULg) Hubble Space Telescope imaging of Jupiter's UV aurora during the Galileo orbiter missionClarke, John T; Ben Jaffel, Lotfi; Gérard, Jean-Claude in Journal of Geophysical Research (1998), 103Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide-Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC 2) images of Jupiter's aurora have been obtained close in time with Galileo ultraviolet spectrometer (UVS) spectra and in situ particles ... [more ▼]Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide-Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC 2) images of Jupiter's aurora have been obtained close in time with Galileo ultraviolet spectrometer (UVS) spectra and in situ particles, fields, and plasma wave measurements between June 1996 and July 1997, overlapping Galileo orbits G1, G2, G7, G8, and C9. This paper presents HST images of Jupiter's aurora as a first step toward a comparative analysis of the auroral images with the in situ Galileo data. The WFPC 2 images appear similar to earlier auroral images, with the main ovals at similar locations to those observed over the preceding 2 years, and rapidly variable emissions poleward of the main ovals. Further examples have been observed of the equatorward surge of the auroral oval over 140-180° longitude as this region moves from local morning to afternoon. Comparison of the WFPC 2 reference auroral ovals north and south with the VIP4 planetary magnetic field model suggests that the main ovals map along magnetic field lines exceeding 15R[SUB]J[/SUB], and that the Io footprint locations have lead angles of 0-10° from the instantaneous magnetic projection. There was an apparent dawn auroral storm on June 23, 1996, and projections of the three dawn storms imaged with HST to date demonstrate that these appear consistently along the WFPC 2 reference oval. Auroral emissions have been consistently observed from Io's magnetic footprints on Jupiter. Possible systematic variations in brightness are explored, within factor of 6 variations in brightness with time. Images are also presented marked with expected locations of any auroral footprints associated with the satellites Europa and Ganymede, with localized emissions observed at some times but not at other times. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 6 (0 ULg) Effects of Brain Testosterone Implants on Appetitive and Consummatory Components of Male Sexual Behavior in Japanese QuailRiters, L. V.; Absil, Philippe ; Balthazart, Jacques in Brain Research Bulletin (1998), 47(1), 69-79Aromatization of testosterone (T) into an estrogen is necessary for the activation of consummatory and appetitive sexual behavior in male Japanese quail. T action within the medial preoptic nucleus (POM ... [more ▼]Aromatization of testosterone (T) into an estrogen is necessary for the activation of consummatory and appetitive sexual behavior in male Japanese quail. T action within the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) is necessary and sufficient to activate consummatory behavior, and some evidence suggests that POM might be involved in the control of appetitive behavior, but other brain regions, such as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), an area that contains a dense population of aromatase-immunoreactive neurons, are also likely to be involved. This study was performed to assess the effects of stereotaxic T implants targeting either the POM or the BST on the activation of both components of sexual behavior in castrated male quail. Appetitive sexual behavior was measured by an acquired social proximity response in which a male will approach a window providing visual access to a female after the window has been repeatedly paired with physical access to a female and the possibility to freely interact with her. Rhythmic cloacal sphincter movements that are produced by the male when given visual access to a female were used as another measure of appetitive sexual behavior that does not appear to depend on sexual learning. The experiments confirmed that copulation is necessary for males to develop the social proximity response that is used to measure the appetitive sexual behavior. T implants in the POM activated both components of sexual behavior, suggesting that these components cannot be completely dissociated. In contrast, T implants located within the BST did not affect either component, but because implants in the BST did not activate copulatory behavior, these results do not preclude a role for BST in the expression of a previously acquired appetitive sexual behavior. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 28 (0 ULg) Sensus communisSpinoy, Erik in De Vlaamse Gids (1998), 82(4), 13-15This article is a critical reflection on the literary views held by the Dutch postwar poet Rutger Kopland.Detailed reference viewed: 18 (1 ULg) Fluorine-18 deoxyglucose positron emission tomography for the detection of bone metastases in patients with non-small cell lung cancerBury, Thierry ; BARRETO, A.; Daenen, Frédéric et alin European Journal of Nuclear Medicine (1998), 9Despite advances in morphological imaging, some patients with lung cancer are found to have non resectable disease at surgery or die of recurrence within a year of surgery. At present, metastatic bone ... [more ▼]Despite advances in morphological imaging, some patients with lung cancer are found to have non resectable disease at surgery or die of recurrence within a year of surgery. At present, metastatic bone involvement is usually assessed using bone scintigraphy, which has a high sensitivity but a poor specificity. We have attempted to evaluate the utility of the fluorine-18 deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) for the detection of bone metastasis. One hundred and ten consecutive patients with histological diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who underwent both FDG PET and bone scintigraphy were selected for this review. In this group, there were 43 patients with metastatic disease (stage IV). Among these. 21 (19% of total group) had one or several bone metastases confirmed by biopsy (n = 8) or radiographic techniques (n = 13). Radionuclide bone scanning correctly identified 54 out of 89 cases without osseous involvement and 19 out of 21 osseous involvements. On the other hand, FDG PET correctly identified the absence of osseous involvement in 87 out of 89 patients and the presence of bone metastasis in 19 out of 21 patients. Thus using PET there were two false-negative and two false-positive cases. PET and bone scanning had, respectively, an accuracy of 96% and 66% in the evaluation of osseous involvement in patients with NSCLC. In conclusion, our data suggest that whole-body FDG PET may be useful in detecting bone metastases in patients with known NSCLC. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (3 ULg) Esquisse de bilanDuchesne, Jean-Patrick in Nouvelles du Patrimoine (Les) (1998), 78Detailed reference viewed: 3 (0 ULg) Infections à Cytomegalovirus (CMV) chez les transplantés d’organesDetry, Olivier in Virologics : la Virologie du Sida au Zona (1998)Detailed reference viewed: 38 (8 ULg) Supramolecular organization of model liquid crystalline ionomersGohy, Jean-François; Jérôme, Robert ; Van den Bossche, Guy et alin Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics (1998), 199(9), 1791-1799A mesogenic cation was associated with low molecular weight carboxylato- and sulfonato(se-mi)telechelic polymers. These compounds were prepared by ion-exchange of the quaternary ammonium group attached to ... [more ▼]A mesogenic cation was associated with low molecular weight carboxylato- and sulfonato(se-mi)telechelic polymers. These compounds were prepared by ion-exchange of the quaternary ammonium group attached to the mesogen for the metal counterion of the halato(semi)telechelic polymer. The accordingly formed liquid crystalline halato(semi)telechelic polymers (LC H(S)TP's) were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized-light optical microscopy (POM), and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). On the basis of these experimental results, a model for the supramolecular organization of the LC H(S)TP's is proposed. The final morphology results from the interplay of two competitive effects: the dipolar interaction of the ion-pairs known for multiplet formation and the propensity of the mesogenic moiety to form mesophases. The outcome of this competition depends on the mobility of the mesogenic counterion, i.e., on the strength of the dipolar interactions, the mobility of the polymer backbone and the mesogen/poly-mer ratio which is controlled by the molecular weight of the polymer. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 17 (3 ULg) Stratégies vaccinales pour le médecin généraliste. I. A propos d'une recherche-actionLimme, C.; Bouüaert, Corine ; Miermans, Marie-Christine et alin Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(9), 541-52The methodology of "Research-Action" requires that the general practitioner acts as the observant as well the actor. This methodology is a good way to identify the several problems and to find their ... [more ▼]The methodology of "Research-Action" requires that the general practitioner acts as the observant as well the actor. This methodology is a good way to identify the several problems and to find their solution. In this option, the G.P. is the main person to plan, to manage and to follow the vaccination program for the "six and more years old children". [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 29 (8 ULg) The Relationship between Spermine Content of Human Milk During the First Postnatal Month and Allergy in ChildrenPeulen, Olivier ; Dewé, Walthère ; Dandrifosse, Guy et alin Public Health Nutrition (1998), 1(3), 181-4DESIGN: Qualitative case study and mathematical model. SETTING: Belgium. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the correlation between the polyamine mean concentration of the milk drunk during the first postnatal month ... [more ▼]DESIGN: Qualitative case study and mathematical model. SETTING: Belgium. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the correlation between the polyamine mean concentration of the milk drunk during the first postnatal month and the appearance of allergy in children who drank this milk. RESULTS: A model that describes the dependence of the allergy appearance with the spermine mean concentration of milk drunk during the first postnatal month was established. CONCLUSIONS: This model shows that 5.02 nmol ml(-1) of spermine is a critical value to prevent the appearance of allergy. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (4 ULg) BIG LUCKY CARTER - Richard HITE - LEROY MARTINSacré, Robert in Soul Bag (1998), (152), 25Photo : Richard HITE, Leroy MARTIN et Big Lucky CARTER ( Memphis, TN, avril 1985)Detailed reference viewed: 19 (0 ULg) L'art publicDuchesne, Jean-Patrick in Nouvelles du Patrimoine (Les) (1998), 78Detailed reference viewed: 13 (7 ULg) Big Lucky CARTER photoSacré, Robert in Soul Bag (1998), (152), Big Lucky Carter , Memphis -PhotoDetailed reference viewed: 9 (0 ULg) Zoonoses cutanées transmises par les chiens et les chatsPierard, Gérald ; Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine ; Arrese Estrada, Jorge et alin Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(9), 532-536Pets like dogs and cats are responsible for a series of zoonotic disorders. Some of these diseases are inflicted by bites, scratches or licking. Others result from a close contact with fur, or are ... [more ▼]Pets like dogs and cats are responsible for a series of zoonotic disorders. Some of these diseases are inflicted by bites, scratches or licking. Others result from a close contact with fur, or are transmitted by ectoparasites or by the contaminated environment. Some systemic infectious and parasitic diseases are transmitted from animals to humans and vice versa. Such situation may lead to endemic problems in some communities. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 67 (7 ULg) La transplantation rénale: aspect chirurgicalDetry, Olivier ; Bonnet, Pierre ; Meurisse, Michel in Horizon (1998), 18(70), 48-49Detailed reference viewed: 38 (4 ULg) Physiologic Response to Dobutamine Infusion During Cardiac Stress Testing of DogsMc Entee, Kathleen ; Amory, Hélène ; Clercx, Cécile et alin American Journal of Veterinary Research (1998), 59(9), 1160-5OBJECTIVE: To evaluate response of various cardiovascular variables after administration of incremental doses of dobutamine in healthy conscious dogs, using standardized dobutamine stress echocardiography ... [more ▼]OBJECTIVE: To evaluate response of various cardiovascular variables after administration of incremental doses of dobutamine in healthy conscious dogs, using standardized dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE). ANIMALS: 8 healthy dogs. PROCEDURE: A DSE was performed twice on each dog within 24 hours. Dobutamine was infused at a rate of 12.5 to 42.5 microg/kg/min, using incremental increases of 10 microg/kg/min. Doppler sphygmomanometry, electrocardiography, and echocardiography were performed. Left ventricular size, global ventricular performance, and left ventricular systolic myocardial function were measured by means of echocardiography. RESULTS: At the highest dosage, dobutamine induced an increase of 20+/-3% and 109+/-12% in systolic blood pressure and cardiac index, respectively. The latter was associated with a significant increase in heart rate and stroke index. Fractional shortening of the left ventricle, fractional thickening of the left ventricular free wall and interventricular septum, ejection fraction, and mean velocity of fiber shortening had a progressive and significant increase during dobutamine infusion. Preejection period and left ventricular ejection time had a progressive and significative decrease during the stress test. CONCLUSIONS: The technique used was feasable, safe, and repeatable in healthy conscious dogs. Control values were determined. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Data for these healthy dogs might be useful for comparison with results obtained from dogs with known or suspected cardiovascular disease. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 25 (1 ULg) ÉVALUATION MULTICRITÈRE D’ENTREPRISES PUBLIQUES DU RAILMbangala, Mapapa ; Colson, Gérard in Finéco (1998), 8Les performances de dix entreprises publiques africaines du rail sont comparées entre elles au moyen des méthodes multicritères ELECTRE I, PROMETHEE II et JUDGES. Les 25 critères de premier niveau retenus ... [more ▼]Les performances de dix entreprises publiques africaines du rail sont comparées entre elles au moyen des méthodes multicritères ELECTRE I, PROMETHEE II et JUDGES. Les 25 critères de premier niveau retenus sont regroupés d’abord en 8 familles capturant chacune un objectif de deuxième niveau. L’efficacité du service est mesurée par une fonction d’évaluation technicoéconomique regroupant les 4 premières familles. Son efficience est mesurée par une fonction d’évaluation où interviennent les 4 autres familles constituées de ratios financiers classiques susceptibles de capter l’équilibre de gestion et l’origine des ressources financières. Les auteurs effectuent des analyses longitudinales et transversales des données en comparant les résultats obtenus par ELECTRE et PROMETHEE. Le logiciel JUDGES fait apparaître successivement l’arbre des corrélations observées entre les 8 familles de critères, et les distributions de rangs des entreprises selon 8 familles. D’un point de vue méthodologique, ce travail propose une variante d’ELECTRE I et vérifie la pertinence des méthodes multicritères en matière de classement de performance des entreprises publiques. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 33 (2 ULg) La chirurgie du cancer oesophagien à Liège: III. Evaluation clinique et radiographique de la qualité de vie à long terme après oesophagectomieKolh, Philippe ; Boverie, Jacques ; Honore, Pierre et alin Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(9), 564-70OBJECTIVE: Functional evaluation of digestive transplants after oesophagectomy for cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We evaluated alimentary comfort and quality of life and performed a videofluoroscopy ... [more ▼]OBJECTIVE: Functional evaluation of digestive transplants after oesophagectomy for cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We evaluated alimentary comfort and quality of life and performed a videofluoroscopy (radiocinema) in 34 patients who were alive and disease-free one year or more after oesophagectomy for malignancy. There were 22 males and 12 females; mean age was 64 years. Twenty-three patients had a gastric pull-up and 11 a colonic graft. Mean follow-up was 36 months (range: 12-100 months). Possible correlations between clinical symptoms and radiographic observations were studied with Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: Most-cited symptoms were gurgling in 16 patients, early fullness during eating in 15, diarrhea in 14, postprandial sweating in 9, pyrosis in 8, nocturnal cough in 7, and dysphagia in 5. Most patients considered the side effects of the operation as mild to moderate and mean rating of alimentary comfort was 7.6/10. Twenty-five patients qualified their quality of life as good, 8 as satisfactory, and 1 as poor. Twenty-nine patients led active lives. Videofluoroscopic evaluation showed that colonic grafts emptied mainly by gravity, while active contractions were observed in the antrum of gastric transplants. There was a significant correlation between alimentary symptoms and radiographic distension of the transplant. Oro-pharyngeal abnormalities, site of proximal anastomosis, nature, motility, or active versus passive emptying of the transplant did not correlate with clinical complaints. CONCLUSIONS: In most patients quality of life and alimentary comfort are good after oesophagectomy and gastric or colonic interposition. Radiocinema is an adequate method to evaluate the dynamic of the transplant and shows a better emptying of gastric grafts, compared to colonic grafts, particularly when the proximal portion of the oesophagus triggers the progression. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 31 (3 ULg) L'Obésité chez l'enfant.Guillaume, Michèle ; Burniat, W.in ONE (1998)Detailed reference viewed: 18 (10 ULg) Transglutaminase-Mediated Oligomerization of Galectin-3 Modulates Human Melanoma Cell Interactions with Lamininvan den Brule, F. A.; Liu, F. T.; Castronovo, Vincenzo in Cell Adhesion and Communication (1998), 5(6), 425-35Tumor cell adhesion and migration to laminin are important events during invasion and metastatic spread. Galectin-3, a multifunctional member of the galectin family, binds specifically the poly-N ... [more ▼]Tumor cell adhesion and migration to laminin are important events during invasion and metastatic spread. Galectin-3, a multifunctional member of the galectin family, binds specifically the poly-N-acetyllactosamine residues of laminin and has been implicated in tumor invasion and metastasis. Galectin-3 is multimerized by transglutaminase, an enzyme that catalyzes cross-linking between glutamine and other aminoacid residues. In this study, we examined the consequences of transglutaminase-mediated galectin-3 oligomerization on the interactions between cancer cells and laminin. We first demonstrated that human galectin-3 is cross-linked by guinea pig liver transglutaminase, forms oligomers, and incorporates the marker 5-(biotinamido) pentylamine. Expression of transglutaminase activity in the A375 and A2058 human melanoma cell extracts was revealed by its ability to induce galectin-3 oligomerization and 5-(biotinamido) pentylamine incorporation. Transglutaminase-treated galectin-3 did not affect adhesion or migration of the melanoma cells to laminin but consistently induced a significant increase of the percentage of cell spreading compared to the control (23.5 +/- 2.3%, vs. 10.6 +/- 1.9% at 180 min, p < 0.05), or to untreated galectin-3 or transglutaminase alone. Our study is the first demonstration that human galectin-3 is oligomerized by transglutaminase with, as a consequence, a specific effect of melanoma cell spreading on laminin. This phenomenon could be of significance in the modulation of cancer cell interactions with laminin during tumor invasion and metastasis. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 24 (0 ULg) Attachment but Not Penetration of Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Is Necessary to Induce Apoptosis in Target CellsHanon, Emmanuel; Meyer, Gilles; Vanderplasschen, Alain et alin Journal of Virology (1998), 72(9), 7638-41Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) induces apoptotic cell death in bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells and B-lymphoma cells. Using a BHV-1 glycoprotein H null mutant, we have demonstrated that although ... [more ▼]Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) induces apoptotic cell death in bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells and B-lymphoma cells. Using a BHV-1 glycoprotein H null mutant, we have demonstrated that although penetration of BHV-1 is not required, attachment of BHV-1 viral particles is essential for the induction of apoptosis. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 13 (0 ULg) Nouveau code wallon de l'urbanisme : évolutions récentesDelnoy, Michel in Immobilier (1998), 15Detailed reference viewed: 13 (1 ULg) Diffusive radical entry as the rate-determining step in amphiphilic block polyelectrolyte mediated emulsion polymerizationLeemans, Luc; Jérôme, Robert ; Teyssié, Philippein Macromolecules (1998), 31(17), 5565-5571The amphiphilic water soluble block polyelectrolytes PMMA-b-SPGMA and PMMA-b-QPDMAEMA are efficient surfactants for the radical emulsion polymerization. Negatively charged, neutral, and positively charged ... [more ▼]The amphiphilic water soluble block polyelectrolytes PMMA-b-SPGMA and PMMA-b-QPDMAEMA are efficient surfactants for the radical emulsion polymerization. Negatively charged, neutral, and positively charged entering radicals were used in combination with polyanionically and polycationically tailored PMMA latex particles. It was shown that the rate of polymerization was very high for systems wherein the entering radical species had an electrical charge sign identical with that of the polyelectrolyte corona around the latex particle. PMMA-b-SPGMA turned out to be 4 times as efficient as compared to SDS emulsified MMA polymerization at 0.6 wt %. Systems wherein polyelectrolyte block and entering radical were of opposite sign displayed strongly reduced polymerization rates. When the polyelectrolyte barrier became thick enough, as in the case of a Mn = 26 000 PMMA-b-QPDMAEMA, no more polymerization was observed. The observed polymerization rate effects are discussed in terms of repulsion of equal charge radicals, leading to enhanced mobility and counterion mobility restriction of the radicals of opposite sign to the polyelectrolyte block. In the latter case, this slowed counterion diffusion of radicals of opposite sign leads to premature aqueous phase termination of free radicals and consequently low flux of entering radicals with low rates of polymerization. The experimental results obtained are consistent with the theoretically predicted case, where the “control by aqueous phase growth” theory for the entry of free radicals in latex particles is invalid. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 30 (1 ULg) New ligands for the living high-molecular-weight anionic (co)polymerization of acrylates in toluene at 0°C.1,2 3. Ligation of sec-butyllithium by lithium silanolatesZundel, Thomas; Teyssié, Philippe; Jérôme, Robert in Macromolecules (1998), 31(17), 5577-5581sec-Butyllithium combined with a new family of ligands, (i.e., lithium silanolates), has been used to initiate the ligated anionic polymerization of n-butyl acrylate (BuA) in toluene at low temperature ... [more ▼]sec-Butyllithium combined with a new family of ligands, (i.e., lithium silanolates), has been used to initiate the ligated anionic polymerization of n-butyl acrylate (BuA) in toluene at low temperature. Compared to other μ-ligands, sBuMe2SiOLi is a more efficient stabilizer of the active centers. Thus, under selectively chosen reaction conditions, the polymerization proceeds quantitatively at −40 °C, producing a high-molecular-weight polymer with narrow-molecular-weight distribution (Mw/Mn < 1.2). When the copolymerization of BuA is initiated by a living {PMMALi, 5·sBuDLi} in toluene at −78 °C, the experimental data agree with a well-controlled block copolymerization reaction, since the final molecular-weight distribution is very narrow (Mw/Mn ≤ 1.1) and the polymerization efficiency very high. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (2 ULg) Partial Cloning and Distribution of Estrogen Receptor Beta in the Avian BrainLakaye, Bernard ; Foidart, Agnès ; Grisar, Thierry et alin Neuroreport (1998), 9(12), 2743-8A partial estrogen receptor beta (ER-beta) cDNA was isolated from testicular quail RNA by RT-PCR with degenerate primers specific to the rat ER-beta sequence. A high expression of ER-beta was demonstrated ... [more ▼]A partial estrogen receptor beta (ER-beta) cDNA was isolated from testicular quail RNA by RT-PCR with degenerate primers specific to the rat ER-beta sequence. A high expression of ER-beta was demonstrated by RT-PCR in the telencephalon, diencephalon, pituitary, testis and kidneys of male quail but little or no expression was detected in the cerebellum, pectoral muscle and adrenal gland. In situ hybridization with a 35S-labelled oligoprobe in sections through the preoptic area-rostral hypothalamus identified high expression in the medial preoptic nucleus, bed nucleus striae terminalis and nucleus taeniae. These data demonstrate the presence of an ER-beta in brain areas implicated in the control of reproduction in a non-mammalian species. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (1 ULg) Appetitive and consummatory male sexual behavior in Japanese quail are differentially regulated by subregions of the preoptic medial nucleusBalthazart, Jacques ; Absil, Philippe ; Gérard, Marie-Paule et alin Journal of Neuroscience (1998), 18(16), 6512-6527Central testosterone aromatization is required for the activation of both appetitive (ASB) and consummatory (CSB) male sexual behavior in Japanese quail. There are two major clusters of aromatase ... [more ▼]Central testosterone aromatization is required for the activation of both appetitive (ASB) and consummatory (CSB) male sexual behavior in Japanese quail. There are two major clusters of aromatase immunoreactive (ARO-ir) cells in the rostral forebrain; these outline the nucleus preopticus medialis (POM) and the nucleus striae terminalis (BST). We investigated the role of these nuclei in the regulation of ASB and CSB. Appetitive male sexual behavior was measured with the use of a learned social proximity procedure that quantified the time spent by a male in front of a window with a view of a female who was subsequently released into the cage, providing an opportunity for CSB. Males first acquired the response and then received bilateral electrolytic lesions aimed at the POM or BST, followed by retesting for ASB and CSB. Brain sections were stained for ARO-ir, and lesions to the two ARO-ir cell groups were quantitatively characterized. Lesions damaging the POM completely abolished CSB and also significantly decreased ASB. Lesions of the rostral BST had no effect on ASB, but moderately decreased CSB. Detailed anatomical analysis revealed that lesions of a subdivision of the POM just rostral to the anterior commissure specifically impair CSB, whereas lesions that are more rostral to this subdivision induce a severe deficit in ASB. These data indicate that different subregions of the POM regulate ASB and CSB in a somewhat independent manner, whereas the BST is only important in the regulation of CSB. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 28 (4 ULg) Early and late onset manifestations of cerebral vasculitis related to varicella zoster.Hausler, M. G.; RAMAEKERS, Vincent ; Reul, J. et alin Neuropediatrics (1998), 29(4), 202-7Varicella-zoster associated cerebral vasculitis (VZCV) as a cause of cerebral infarction has hitherto been considered a rare condition. Ischemic stroke in previously healthy children has occurred during ... [more ▼]Varicella-zoster associated cerebral vasculitis (VZCV) as a cause of cerebral infarction has hitherto been considered a rare condition. Ischemic stroke in previously healthy children has occurred during recovery from chickenpox or has been attributed to virus reactivation among immunosuppressed patients. The clinical, radiologic and immunologic findings in four children with VZCV will be reported. Clinical manifestations included sudden onset of hemiparesis, motor aphasia and disturbed consciousness in previously healthy children. Only one child had a history of chickenpox six weeks prior to the onset of stroke, whereas a latency period of up to four years between chickenpox and the onset of stroke was found in the other three children. Diagnosis of VZCV was confirmed repeatedly by demonstrating intrathecal production of varicella-zoster IgG antibodies in three children or a four-fold increase of varicella-zoster serum IgA-antibodies in one child. Intrathecal production of antibodies against other latent viruses and borreliosis could be excluded. PCR for varicella on CSF, performed in two patients, remained negative. No intrathecal production of varicella-zoster antibodies has been found in a control group of twenty clinically healthy children (age range from 2-18 years) with a previous varicella infection. During follow-up two children recovered completely whereas two children still suffer from serious neurological deficits. Immunological investigations, performed in three children, showed circulating immune-complexes with slightly lowered complement concentrations in two patients. In addition a lowered T-helper/T-suppressor cell ratio of unknown origin was found in three children. These immunological findings will be discussed in the light of the pathophysiology of VZCV. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 4 (0 ULg) An Unconscious Patient with an Electrocardiogram Mimicking an Acute Myocardial InfarctLambermont, Bernard ; Fraipont, V.; Ghuysen, Alexandre et alin Postgraduate Medical Journal (1998), 74(874), 499-501Detailed reference viewed: 10 (3 ULg) Nitric Oxide Downregulates Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) Stimulated IL-6, IL-8, and Prostaglandin E2 Production by Human ChondrocytesHenrotin, Yves ; Zheng, S. X.; Deby, G. P. et alin Journal of Rheumatology (1998), 25(8), 1595-601OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of endogenously produced nitric oxide (NO) on interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-8, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and proteoglycan production by human chondrocytes. METHODS: Human ... [more ▼]OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of endogenously produced nitric oxide (NO) on interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-8, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and proteoglycan production by human chondrocytes. METHODS: Human articular chondrocytes were isolated from their extracellular matrix by triple successive enzymatic digestion of the cartilage and cultured 48 h in a well defined culture medium. IL-6 and IL-8 were directly assayed into culture media by specific enzyme amplified sensitivity immunoassays. Proteoglycans and PGE2 were quantified by specific radioimmunoassays. Cell culture media were assayed for NO2 using a spectrophotometric assay based upon the Griess reaction. RESULTS: Unstimulated chondrocytes produced low levels of NO, IL-6, IL-8, and PGE2. Production was significantly stimulated by IL-1beta and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). As well, proteoglycan synthesis was profoundly inhibited by IL-1beta and LPS. Inhibition of NO synthesis with the competitive inhibitor NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) led to enhancement of IL-6, IL-8, and PGE2 production stimulated by either IL-1beta alone or in combination with LPS, whereas the inhibition of proteoglycan production by IL-1beta was not modified by L-NMMA. CONCLUSION: LPS and IL-1beta stimulated IL-6, IL-8, and PGE2 production are downregulated by endogenously produced NO, which could limit the inflammatory reaction occurring in arthritis. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 21 (8 ULg) Response to 'Comments on Microsporum Canis'Mignon, Bernard in Medical Mycology (1998), 36(4), 248Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 ULg) Pharma clinics. Comment je préviens et je traite ... les ulcères de stressFraipont, V.; Lambermont, Bernard ; Gast, Pierrette et alin Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(8), 444-9Stress related ulcers are superficial and extensive gastric mucosal lesions. They occur in almost all critically ill patients but lead to gastrointestinal bleedings in only 5 to 10%. Endoscopy permits ... [more ▼]Stress related ulcers are superficial and extensive gastric mucosal lesions. They occur in almost all critically ill patients but lead to gastrointestinal bleedings in only 5 to 10%. Endoscopy permits definitive diagnostic. Stress related mucosal diseases encount for substantial morbidity and mortality. The preventive therapeutic choice depends on efficacy, side effects as cost and nosocomial pneumonia. Sulcralfate appears to be the best choice because of its lower cost, comparable efficacy (sucralfate versus anti-H2) and its lower risk of inducing nosocomial pneumonia. Patients who greatly benefit from prevention, present respiratory failure with at least 48 hours mechanical ventilation, coagulopathy, sepsis or burns. Global management avoiding hypoxia, hypotension and acidosis, takes an important part in the prevention. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 30 (1 ULg) The Role of Early Measurement of Nitrogen-13 Ammonia Uptake for Predicting Contractile Recovery after Acute Myocardial InfarctionLANCELLOTTI, Patrizio ; Melon, P. G.; de Landsheere, C. M. et alin International Journal of Cardiac Imaging (1998), 14(4), 261-7269-70Previous studies have shown that the maintenance of cell membrane integrity and metabolism requires the persistence of residual myocardial blood flow. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of N ... [more ▼]Previous studies have shown that the maintenance of cell membrane integrity and metabolism requires the persistence of residual myocardial blood flow. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of N-13 ammonia positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging performed early after an acute myocardial infarction for predicting functional recovery. Seventeen patients with an acute myocardial infarction were included in the study. Thirteen received thrombolytic therapy, 2 underwent immediate angioplasty of the infarct-related artery and 2 were treated with heparin. N-13 ammonia imaging was performed 6 +/- 2 days after the acute event and was followed by elective angioplasty in 13 patients. Using a 16-segment polar map display, regional N-13 ammonia uptake was expressed as a percentage of maximal segmental uptake and classified as normal (> 63%), moderately reduced (63-50%) and severely reduced (< 50%) based on values of tracer uptake obtained from healthy subjects. By echocardiographic assessment of regional wall thickening within 96 hours and at 1 month after the infarct, we examined the relationship between blood flow and functional outcome of myocardial segments in the infarct-related area. Regional wall thickening was graded on a 4-point scale: normal (1), hypokinesia (2), akinesia (3) and dyskinesia (4). Of 77 dyssynergic segments at baseline echocardiographic study, 43 had normal flow, 15 moderately reduced flow and 19 severely reduced flow. Segments with N-13 ammonia uptake > or = 50% demonstrated a significant improvement in wall thickening score at follow-up (p < 0.001), whereas segments with N-13 ammonia uptake < 50% showed no improvement in wall thickening scores (p < 0.001). The proportion of segments improving contractility by at least 1 score was significantly higher in the group of segments with N-13 ammonia uptake > 63%. The predictive value for defining functional recovery with segmental N-13 ammonia uptake > 63% was 86%. The predictive value for absence of recovery (uptake < 50%) was 54%. In conclusion, our data showed that early after an acute myocardial infarction N-13 ammonia imaging provides information regarding functional outcome. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 10 (2 ULg) Effects of Peep on Systemic Venous CapacitanceLambermont, Bernard ; Detry, Olivier ; D'Orio, Vincenzo et alin Archives of Physiology & Biochemistry (1998), 105(4), 373-8The aim of the present study was to determine effects of positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) application on peripheral venous capacitance and relate them to concomitant central hemodynamic ... [more ▼]The aim of the present study was to determine effects of positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) application on peripheral venous capacitance and relate them to concomitant central hemodynamic disturbances. The venous volume-pressure (V/P) relationships were studied in 6 intact anesthetized pigs to describe the effects of PEEP on systemic venous compliance (computed as the slope of the V/P relationship) and unstressed volume (referred to as the extrapolated volume intercept). Cardiac volumes as well as partitioning of circulating blood volume between central (ITBV) and peripheral (PBV) compartments were assessed by thermo-dye dilution techniques. During a 15 cm H2O PEEP application, venous compliance was reduced by 48%, while unstressed volume was increased by 25% and peripheral blood pooling increased from 63 to 74%. As a result, left heart and right ventricular end diastolic volumes were decreased by 8% and by 44%, respectively. It is concluded that increased venous unstressed volume and reduced compliance depicted the distension of the venous tree secondary to PEEP which acted as an impediment to venous return. As a consequence, cardiac output was reduced because of decreased preload. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 12 (1 ULg) Laryngeal Rhabdomyoma in a Golden RetrieverClercx, Cécile ; Desmecht, Daniel ; Michiels, L. et alin Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (1998), 143(7), 196-8A three-year-old male golden retriever had had progressive dyspnoea, exercise intolerance, stridor, and a modified bark for five months. A mass 2 cm in diameter was present dorsal to the right side of the ... [more ▼]A three-year-old male golden retriever had had progressive dyspnoea, exercise intolerance, stridor, and a modified bark for five months. A mass 2 cm in diameter was present dorsal to the right side of the larynx. Histological examination revealed cross-striations in some elongated cells, consistent with a diagnosis of rhabdomyoma, a diagnosis which was confirmed by positive immunohistochemical staining for myoglobin and desmin. The mass could not be removed without total laryngectomy and a permanent tracheostomy and the dog was euthanased. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 24 (5 ULg)