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See detailInterplay of anisotropy and competing correlated pinning mechanisms in the angular dependence of the irreversible magnetization of YBa2Cu3O7 crystals
Silhanek, Alejandro ULg; Civale, L.

in Physica C: Superconductivity (2000), 341(Part 2), 1227-1228

We measured the angular dependence of the irreversible magnetization of a YBa2Cu3O7 single crystal with columnar defects (CD) inclined with respect to the c-axis. At temperatures T greater than or equal ... [more ▼]

We measured the angular dependence of the irreversible magnetization of a YBa2Cu3O7 single crystal with columnar defects (CD) inclined with respect to the c-axis. At temperatures T greater than or equal to 40K and high fields we observe a sharp maximum centered at the tracks' direction. At T less than or equal to 20K the behavior is quite different. At high fields a broad bump at the tracks' direction is still visible, but its height is small and it appears only as a perturbation to the angular dependence due to material anisotropy. However, by performing the usual anisotropic rescaling (Blatter et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 875, 1992) we recover the strong unidirectional effects due to CD's. [less ▲]

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See detailHet botkapitaal : een spaarboekje dat in de wieg begint
Halkin, V; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in De Agenda Pediatrie (2000), 22

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See detailGenetics of Crohn's Disease Behaviour
Louis, Edouard ULg; Belaiche, Jacques ULg

in Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica (2000), 63(4, Oct-Dec), 377-9

Crohn's disease is probably an heterogeneous entity. This heterogeneity may be linked to either genetics or environment. In particular the behaviour of the disease, i.e. the tendency to develop ... [more ▼]

Crohn's disease is probably an heterogeneous entity. This heterogeneity may be linked to either genetics or environment. In particular the behaviour of the disease, i.e. the tendency to develop stricturing and/or penetrating lesions, may be linked to the genetic background. While epidemiological and clinical data suggest the relevance of these behavioural classifications, the progresses in the characterization of the immuno-inflammatory reaction in the bowel wall shed a new light on possible candidate genes for these genetic predispositions to various Crohn's disease behaviours. Association studies an linkage analysis focusing on growth factors, metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors as well as cytokines may bring new interesting data in this field. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence for decoupling of atmospheric CO2 and global climate during the Phanerozoic eon
Veizer, J.; Godderis, Y.; François, Louis ULg

in Nature (2000), 408(6813), 698-701

Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are believed to drive climate changes from glacial to interglacial modes', although geological(1-3) and astronomical(4-6) mechanisms have been invoked as ultimate ... [more ▼]

Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are believed to drive climate changes from glacial to interglacial modes', although geological(1-3) and astronomical(4-6) mechanisms have been invoked as ultimate causes. Additionally, it is unclear(7,8) whether the changes between cold and warm modes should be regarded as a global phenomenon, affecting tropical and high-latitude temperatures alike(9-13), or if they are better described as an expansion and contraction of the latitudinal climate zones, keeping equatorial temperatures approximately constant(14-16). Here we present a reconstruction of tropical sea surface temperatures throughout the phanerozoic eon (the past similar to 550 Myr) from our database(17) of oxygen isotopes in calcite and aragonite shells. The data indicate large oscillations of tropical sea surface temperatures in phase with the cold-warm cycles, thus favouring the idea of climate variability as a global phenomenon. But our data conflict with a temperature reconstruction using an energy balance model that is forced by reconstructed atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations(18). The results can be reconciled if atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations were not the principal driver of climate variability on geological timescales for at least one-third of the Phanerozoic eon, or if the reconstructed carbon dioxide concentrations are not reliable. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrophysiological behavior of Purkinje cells and motor coordination in calretinin knock-out mice
Cheron, Guy; Schurmans, Stéphane ULg; Lohof, Ann et al

in Progress in Brain Research (2000), 124

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See detailInfluence du 'sense of coherence' dans l'adaptation aux conséquences aversives du traumatisme
François, G.; Brouette, Béatrice ULg; Etienne, Anne-Marie ULg et al

in Revue Francophone de Clinique Comportementale et Cognitive (2000), V(1), 20-27

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See detailAffections cardiaques et intolérances à l'effort. 1-Les troubles du rythme.
Amory, Hélène ULg; Art, Tatiana ULg

in Pratique Vétérinaire Equine (2000), 32(Numéro Spécial), 71-78

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See detailPatologia hipofisaria y NEM-1
Valdes Socin, Hernan Gonzalo ULg; Betea, Daniela ULg; Beckers, Albert ULg

in Revista Argentina de Endocrinologia y Metabolismo (2000), 37(3), 181-193

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by neoplasia of the parathyroid glands, the endocrine pancreas and the anterior pituitary gland. Recently the ... [more ▼]

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by neoplasia of the parathyroid glands, the endocrine pancreas and the anterior pituitary gland. Recently the identification on chromosome 11 (locus q13) of the gene responsible for MEN 1 has allowed direct genetic diagnosis of MEN 1-affected family members. To date almost 300 families have been described and genetically characterized. The genetic etiology of most pituitary tumours remains unknown. Pituitary adenomas can develop sporadically or as a part of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. In this review, the recently published data on the pathology of the MEN 1 syndrome will be summarized. The clinical, morphological and genetic aspects of sporadic and MEN 1-associated pituitary adenomas will be outlined. [less ▲]

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See detailVitamines anti-oxydantes dans la prevention des maladies cardio-vasculaires. 2eme partie: le point sur les essais cliniques.
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(2), 105-9

Various epidemiological studies suggested that individuals with high intake of antioxidant vitamins (E, A and C) have a better cardiovascular prognosis than subjects with relative deficiencies in such ... [more ▼]

Various epidemiological studies suggested that individuals with high intake of antioxidant vitamins (E, A and C) have a better cardiovascular prognosis than subjects with relative deficiencies in such vitamins. However, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials did not demonstrate that a specific supplementation in either alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) or beta-carotene (vitamin A) allows to reduce the incidence of major cardiovascular events, in the general population or even in various subgroups at high risk, and there is no such controlled trials with vitamin C alone. Some studies suggested that combined supplements of several antioxidant vitamins might be more efficacious, and these observations led to initiate several large controlled studies. Thus, until now, there is no convincing arguments in the literature in favour of artificial supplements of antioxidant vitamins. It seems preferable to encourage a well-balanced healthy diet while awaiting the results of the large prospective ongoing trials with combined supplementation. [less ▲]

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See detailLa prescription des pensions alimentaires allouées par décision de justice. Note sous Liège, 18 octobre 1999
Kohl, Benoît ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2000)

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See detailNuclear imaging methods for non-invasive drug monitoring.
Bhatnagar, A.; Hustinx, Roland ULg; Alavi, A.

in Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews (2000), 41(1), 41-54

Functional imaging techniques provide complimentary information to that provided by structural studies such as MRI and CT. Functional imaging is based upon known parameters such as physiology, metabolism ... [more ▼]

Functional imaging techniques provide complimentary information to that provided by structural studies such as MRI and CT. Functional imaging is based upon known parameters such as physiology, metabolism, biochemistry, pharmacology, and any other biological process. As such, this methodology plays a major role in understanding the basic mechanisms of a multitude of disorders, accurate diagnosis of certain diseases, and developing effective treatment for serious illnesses such as cancer and central nervous system maladies. Although this type of imaging can be performed with various modalities, nuclear procedures have played the leading role in this discipline. Advances made in labeling various radionuclides to biologically important compounds, and development of sophisticated instruments have substantially contributed to the growth of the field of functional imaging. The introduction of positron emission topography (PET), which is based on imaging of compounds labeled with elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and fluorine, has added a major dimension to the evolution of the discipline. This review deals with a brief introduction to the methodologies utilized with radiolabeled tracers and then deals with specific applications of this technology. These applications include assessment of blood flow and metabolism, receptor imaging, elucidating the pathophysiologic process, evaluating role of labeled therapeutic agents, and the potential of these techniques in the development of novel biologic therapies. Functional imaging with radiolabeled tracers will play an increasingly important role in modern medicine, and its impact will be substantial in the management of patients with various disorders. [less ▲]

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See detailMutagenesis of plants overexpressing CONSTANS demonstrates novel interactions among Arabidopsis flowering-time genes.
Onouchi, Hitoshi; Igeno, M. Isabel; Périlleux, Claire ULg et al

in Plant Cell (2000), 12(6), 885-900

CONSTANS (CO) promotes flowering of Arabidopsis in response to long photoperiods. Transgenic plants carrying CO fused with the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (35S::CO) flowered earlier than did the ... [more ▼]

CONSTANS (CO) promotes flowering of Arabidopsis in response to long photoperiods. Transgenic plants carrying CO fused with the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (35S::CO) flowered earlier than did the wild type and were almost completely insensitive to length of day. Genes required for CO to promote flowering were identified by screening for mutations that suppress the effect of 35S::CO. Four mutations were identified that partially suppressed the early-flowering phenotype caused by 35S::CO. One of these mutations, suppressor of overexpression of CO 1 (soc1), defines a new locus, demonstrating that the mutagenesis approach is effective in identifying novel flowering-time mutations. The other three suppressor mutations are allelic with previously described mutations that cause late flowering. Two of them are alleles of ft, indicating that FT is required for CO to promote early flowering and most likely acts after CO in the hierarchy of flowering-time genes. The fourth suppressor mutation is an allele of fwa, and fwa soc1 35S::CO plants flowered at approximately the same time as co mutants, suggesting that a combination of fwa and soc1 abolishes the promotion of flowering by CO. Besides delaying flowering, fwa acted synergistically with 35S::CO to repress floral development after bolting. The latter phenotype was not shown by any of the progenitors and was most probably caused by a reduction in the function of LEAFY. These genetic interactions suggest models for how CO, FWA, FT, and SOC1 interact during the transition to flowering. [less ▲]

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See detailEpidemiologie, physiopathologie et traitement d'une affection frequente: tinea pedis.
Lambert, Jean-Luc ULg; Richert, Bertrand ULg; Dezfoulian, Bita ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(3), 161-8

Tinea pedis is an infection of the stratum corneum caused by dermatophytes. Nowadays, fitness centers, saunas, subtropical swimming pools and sport-shoes are more and more fashionable and are certainly ... [more ▼]

Tinea pedis is an infection of the stratum corneum caused by dermatophytes. Nowadays, fitness centers, saunas, subtropical swimming pools and sport-shoes are more and more fashionable and are certainly responsible for the increase of cases of tinea pedis as dermatophytes grow preferentially in warm and humid environments. The clinical aspect is affected by several factors such as the host reaction to the infection, the virulence of the infective strain, species, and some local and environmental factors. If a dermatophytosis is suspected, it is mandatory to validate the provisional diagnosis by demonstration of the fungus (by culture or/and microscopic examination) to avoid useless and expensive treatments. The new antifungal molecules are very effective, well tolerated and allow short course of therapy improving the compliance of the patient in clinical practice. Relapse of tinea pedis is very common but could be avoided by several simple preventive measures of hygiene. [less ▲]

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See detailRecommandations a propos du traitement de l'hypertension arterielle chez le patient diabetique.
Scheen, André ULg; Rorive, Marcelle ULg; Estrella, F. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(5), 376-82

Diabetes mellitus is frequently associated with arterial hypertension and the combination of the two entities markedly increases the cardiovascular risk and accelerates the progression of microangiopathy ... [more ▼]

Diabetes mellitus is frequently associated with arterial hypertension and the combination of the two entities markedly increases the cardiovascular risk and accelerates the progression of microangiopathy (more particularly nephropathy) in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. Numerous international guidelines have been published during the last few years to help the practitioner in targeting ideal arterial blood pressure levels (lower in diabetic than in non-diabetic patients) and in selecting first-choice antihypertensive agents. We will concisely summarize the main messages of these recommendations and insist upon the persistence of uncertainties, or even the existence of inconsistencies, more particularly regarding preferential indications of antihypertensive agents in diabetic patients. [less ▲]

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See detailRelative impact of a seagrass bed and its adjacent epilithic algal community in consumer diets
Lepoint, Gilles ULg; Nyssen, Fabienne ULg; Gobert, Sylvie ULg et al

in Marine Biology (2000), 136

The aim of this work was to identify and compare, using nitrogen and carbon stable isotope data, the food sources supporting consumer communities in a Mediterranean seagrass bed (Gulf of Calvi, Corsica ... [more ▼]

The aim of this work was to identify and compare, using nitrogen and carbon stable isotope data, the food sources supporting consumer communities in a Mediterranean seagrass bed (Gulf of Calvi, Corsica) with those in an adjacent epilithic algal dominated community. Isotopic data for consumers are not significantly different in the two communities. Particulate matter and algal material (seagrass epiflora and dominant epilithic macroalgae) appear to be the main food sources in both communities. Generally, the 13C of animals suggests that the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile represents only a minor component of their diet or of the diet of their prey, but the occurrence of a mixed diet is not excluded. P.oceanica dominates the diet of only of few species, among which holothurians appear as key components in the cycling of seagrass material. [less ▲]

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See detailLa mesure de l'efficacite therapeutique, etape essentielle dans la medecine factuelle.
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(4), 206-10

Evidence-based medicine relies on the results from clinical trials. We will describe the various modes of expression of the results (absolute risk reduction, relative risk reduction, odds ratios, number ... [more ▼]

Evidence-based medicine relies on the results from clinical trials. We will describe the various modes of expression of the results (absolute risk reduction, relative risk reduction, odds ratios, number needed to treat to avoid one event,...) and we will insist upon the clinical significance and the pitfalls in the interpretation of these various indices of therapeutic efficacy. [less ▲]

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See detailLe virus de la varicelle et du zona dans le système nerveux : retraite silencieuse ou guérilla permanente ?
Rentier, Bernard ULg; Sadzot-Delvaux, Catherine ULg

in Virologie (2000), 4(3), 207-216

Varicella-zoster virus is a Herpesvirus responsible for three distinct clinical features : chicken pox (varicella), shingles (herpes zoster) and post-zosterian pain (post-herpetic neuralgia). Neurological ... [more ▼]

Varicella-zoster virus is a Herpesvirus responsible for three distinct clinical features : chicken pox (varicella), shingles (herpes zoster) and post-zosterian pain (post-herpetic neuralgia). Neurological aspects of these diseases such as complications of chicken pox, viral latency in sensory gan-glia and reactivation as shingles with concurrent and at times subsequent prolonged pain, are the sequels of the invasion of the peripheral nervous system during primary infection. Prevention is achieved by vaccination with a live attenuated virus strain and therapy calls for specific antiviral agents. In many respects, VZV behaves differently from close relatives. In particular, viral latency in the nervous system is quite different from that of other Herpesviri-dae. The recent discovery of the expression and accumulation of some viral regulatory proteins during latency, although VZV latency had always been considered silent, as well as the demonstration that these proteins are immu-nogenic are opening new avenues to investigate the mechanisms of VZV latency and the immune control of VZV reactivation. [less ▲]

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See detailSpatial autocorrelation of allozyme and quantitative markers within a natural population of Centaurea jacea (Asteraceae)
Hardy, O. J.; Vanderhoeven, SONIA ULg; Meerts, P. et al

in Journal of Evolutionary Biology (2000), 13(4), 656-667

This paper compares the fine-scale genetic structure of quantitative traits and allozyme markers within a natural population of Centaurea jacea s.l. To that end, a spatial autocorrelation approach is ... [more ▼]

This paper compares the fine-scale genetic structure of quantitative traits and allozyme markers within a natural population of Centaurea jacea s.l. To that end, a spatial autocorrelation approach is developed based on pairwise correlation coefficients between individuals and using sib families. Statistical properties of the proposed statistics are investigated with numerical simulations. Our results show that most quantitative traits have a significant spatial structure for their genetic component. On average, allozyme markers and the genetic component of quantitative traits have similar patterns of spatial autocorrelation that are consistent with a neutral model of isolation by distance. We also show evidence that environmental heterogeneity generates a spatial structure for the environmental component of quantitative traits. Results are discussed in terms of mechanisms generating spatial structure and are compared with those obtained on a large geographical scale. [less ▲]

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See detailLa compréhension des opérations additives et soustractives au travers de la résolution de problèmes arithmétiques : présentation des axes directeurs d'une thèse de doctorat en cours de préparation
Fagnant, Annick ULg

in Cahiers du Service de Pédagogie Expérimentale (SPE) (2000), (3-4), 117-132

Cette recherche fait l'objet d'une thèse de doctorat, présentée par l'auteur du présent article dans le cadre d'un mandat d'aspirant au F.N.R.S. Le projet est encadré par une comité de thèse constitué de ... [more ▼]

Cette recherche fait l'objet d'une thèse de doctorat, présentée par l'auteur du présent article dans le cadre d'un mandat d'aspirant au F.N.R.S. Le projet est encadré par une comité de thèse constitué de Marcel Crahay (directeur de thèse, ULg), de Jacqueline Beckers (ULg) et de Lieven Verschaffel (KUL). A l'heure actuelle, l'état d'avancement des travaux ne permet pas encore de présenter les résultats des investigations. Le présent article vise à donner un aperçu des différents axes sur lesquels porte l'étude. [less ▲]

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See detailA clinical comparison of sumatriptan nasal spray and dihydroergotamine nasal spray in the acute treatment of migraine.
Boureau, F.; Kappos, L.; Schoenen, Jean ULg et al

in International Journal of Clinical Practice (2000), 54(5), 281-6

A multinational, multicentre, randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, crossover study (368 patients treating two attacks) was conducted to compare the efficacy and tolerability of sumatriptan nasal spray ... [more ▼]

A multinational, multicentre, randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, crossover study (368 patients treating two attacks) was conducted to compare the efficacy and tolerability of sumatriptan nasal spray (20 mg) with dihydroergotamine (DHE) nasal spray (1 mg plus optional 1 mg). At the primary efficacy time point of 60 minutes after dosing, significantly more patients obtained headache relief (change from moderate or severe to none or mild) after treatment with sumatriptan than with DHE (53% sumatriptan, 41% DHE, p < 0.001). Significantly more patients reported relief of nausea after sumatriptan than after DHE at 60 minutes (64% sumatriptan, 49% DHE, p = 0.006). A significant difference between the two treatments was first observed at 45 minutes with respect to both headache relief (38% sumatriptan, 31% DHE, p = 0.037) and relief of nausea (55% sumatriptan, 40% DHE, p = 0.014). There were no significant differences between the two treatments for other measures of efficacy. Both treatments were well tolerated, with only 10% of patients in each group reporting one or more adverse events. The most frequently reported adverse event after sumatriptan was a bad or bitter taste, which was reported by 5% of patients. After DHE, 4% of patients reported symptoms of the nasal cavity/sinuses and 3% reported nausea and/or vomiting as adverse events. It is concluded that sumatriptan nasal spray is superior to DHE nasal spray in the relief of pain and nausea associated with acute migraine headache. [less ▲]

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See detailPET scanning and neuronal loss in acute vegetative state
Laureys, Steven ULg; Faymonville, Marie ULg; Moonen, Gustave ULg et al

in Lancet (2000), 355(9217), 1825-1826

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See detailThe medical management of severe acute and chronic ulcerative colitis--current recommendations from the Belgian Working Group.
Melange, M.; D'Haens, G.; Devos, Martine ULg et al

in Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica (2000), 63(3), 273-4

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See detailIndicateurs de volume et de déplacement d'une structure isostatique : cas de la travée horizontale chargée verticalement
Samyn, Philippe; Latteur, Pierre ULg

in Bulletin n°7/12/2000 de la Classe des sciences de l'Académie royale de Belgique (2000)

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See detailDevelopment Of An In Vitro Pod Culture Technique For Young Pods Of Phaseolus Vulgaris L.
Geerts, P.; Sassi, K.; Mergeai, Guy ULg et al

in In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Plant (2000), 36(6),

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See detailEvidence of nutriceutical effectiveness in the treatment of osteoarthritis
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Gillot, Vincent; Bruyère, Olivier ULg et al

in Current Rheumatology Reports (2000), 2(6), 472-477

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See detailEducation pour le troisième millénaire : mes craintes, mes espoirs ... pour l’Université
Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULg

in Education-Formation (2000), (259), 18-19

Courte réflexion sur les défis de l'Université en termes de formation au début du XXIe siécle

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See detailThe effect of pressure on DSr (plag/melt) and DCr (opx/melt): implications for anorthosite petrogenesis
Vander Auwera, Jacqueline ULg; Longhi, John; Duchesne, Jean-Clair ULg

in Earth & Planetary Science Letters (2000), 178

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See detailOsteoporose bij de bejaarde
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Taquet, AN; Fraikin, G

in Medi-Sfeer (2000), 103

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See detailStudy of the Virulence of Five Strains of Amyxomatous Myxoma Virus in Crossbred New Zealand White/Californian Conventional Rabbits, with Evidence of Long-Term Testicular Infection in Recovered Animals
Marlier, Didier ULg; Mainil, Jacques ULg; Sulon, Joseph ULg et al

in Journal of Comparative Pathology (2000), 122(2-3, Feb-Apr), 101-13

The virulence of five amyxomatous myxoma virus (MV) strains, the clinical and pathogenetic effects of which had been studied previously in specific pathogen-free (SPF) rabbits, was determined by ... [more ▼]

The virulence of five amyxomatous myxoma virus (MV) strains, the clinical and pathogenetic effects of which had been studied previously in specific pathogen-free (SPF) rabbits, was determined by inoculation of five groups of 10 crossbred New Zealand White/Californian conventional rabbits. A much more acute myxomatosis syndrome was produced in conventional rabbits than that reproduced previously in SPF animals. However, the main clinical signs were of the respiratory type. The MV strains MYX 254/95 and 801 appeared very virulent, killing all the inoculated animals. The strains MYX 217/95, MYX 555/94 and Saint Benoist were somewhat attenuated, killing only seven, six and six rabbits, respectively. Extensive lung lesions due to supervening bacterial infections were observed in 36 of the 39 rabbits that died. Lethality was found to be a better estimate of virulence than mean survival time. By 98 days after viral inoculation, all the surviving animals had completely recovered. At that time, they were immunosuppressed by treatment with adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) for 10 days to determine whether they still harboured the virus. After the ACTH treatment, eight of the 11 surviving rabbits showed clinical signs that resembled amyxomatous myxomatosis. All the virological examinations performed on naso-conjunctival exudate, on mononuclear cells, on eyelids and on ovaries remained negative but infectious virus was isolated from the testes of three of six surviving male rabbits. [less ▲]

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See detailRestoration of thalamocortical connectivity after recovery from persistent vegetative state
Laureys, Steven ULg; Faymonville, Marie-Elisabeth ULg; Luxen, André ULg et al

in Lancet (2000), 355(9217), 1790-1791

Moreover, the performance on these factors is correlated to different anterior and posterior

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See detailClinical and para-clinical tests in the routine examination of headache patients.
Friberg, L.; Sandrini, G.; Janig, W. et al

in Functional Neurology (2000), 15 Suppl 3

Para-clinical examinations in the diagnosis and treatment control of headache patients vary considerably between clinics and headache centers. Among the neurological societies in Europe there has been a ... [more ▼]

Para-clinical examinations in the diagnosis and treatment control of headache patients vary considerably between clinics and headache centers. Among the neurological societies in Europe there has been a consensus that some common procedures and recommendations should be created. In the Fall of 1998, the European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) commissioned a Task Force on Neurophysiological Tests and Imaging Procedures in Headache Patients. Members of the Task Force are the present authors and we have reviewed the literature on 1) neurophysiological tests (EEG and evoked potentials), 2) autonomic nervous system and clinical tests and 3) imaging and cerebrovascular tests (X-ray, CT, MR, fMRI, PET, SPECT and transcranial Doppler). The literature was carefully evaluated with respect to validity and strength of the data. The task was to reach conclusions about each technique in the form of guidelines for clinical use. Finally, selected areas for future research will be outlined. The extensive review and the guidelines will be published by the EFNS during 2000. [less ▲]

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See detailPolitique et usage des manuels scolaires en mathématiques et en sciences
Monseur, Christian ULg; Demeuse, Marc ULg

in Cahiers du Service de Pédagogie Expérimentale (SPE) (2000), (3-4), 177-183

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See detailSibling cannibalism in dorada under experimental conditions. I. Ontogeny, dynamics, bioenergetics of cannibalism and prey size selectivity
Baras, E.; Ndao, E.; Maxi, M. et al

in Journal of Fish Biology (2000), 57

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See detailChemical profiles of Amblystegium riparium, Fontinalis antipyretica and Rhynchostegium riparioides in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg
Vanderpoorten, Alain ULg; Ector, L.; Hoffmann, L.

in Nova Hedwigia (2000), 71(1-2), 209-221

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See detailCurrent and future trends in groundwater vulnerability assessment
Gogu, Radu; Dassargues, Alain ULg

in Environmental Geology (2000), 39(6), 549-559

The concept of groundwater vulnerability is a useful tool for environmental planning and decision-making. Many different methods have been developed for assessing this vulnerability. Hydrogeologists have ... [more ▼]

The concept of groundwater vulnerability is a useful tool for environmental planning and decision-making. Many different methods have been developed for assessing this vulnerability. Hydrogeologists have failed to reach a consensus concerning the definitions of and reference terms for groundwater vulnerability assessment. Therefore, a review of vulnerability assessment and mapping methods providing a new classification system is necessary. This is focused on techniques that use the overlay and index class methods. New research challenges in vulnerability assessment are identified, especially the need for developing dynamic links between numerical models and overlay and index methods. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh Resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy Investigation of the Vibrational Structure and Order of an Octadecanethiol Monolayer on Gold Substrates
Duwez, Anne-Sophie ULg; Yu, Li-Ming; Riga, Joseph et al

in Journal of Physical Chemistry B (2000), 104

The vibrational spectra induced by electron beam from octadecanethiol monolayers adsorbed on gold are reported as a contribution to study in detail the structure of the layers, through an analysis of the ... [more ▼]

The vibrational spectra induced by electron beam from octadecanethiol monolayers adsorbed on gold are reported as a contribution to study in detail the structure of the layers, through an analysis of the interaction mechanisms between the electrons and these organic ultrathin films. To show the different spatial distribution of scattered electrons from dipole and impact interactions with the monolayer, angular distributions of elastic and inelastic scattered electrons were measured for various primary energies. The absolute electron scattering loss probabilities from both dipole and impact interactions were estimated for different vibrational modes. The study of these different mechanisms was first hampered by the poor order of the layers adsorbed on evaporated gold. It became therefore highly desirable to perform the experiments on a single-crystal substrate. Using Au(111) and Au(100) single crystals as substrates, it was possible to separate the spectral response from impact and dipole interacting electrons. A negative ion resonant behavior has been observed in the energy dependence of the electron scattering differential cross sections [less ▲]

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See detailMass Transfer Across an Interface Induces Formation of Droplets in Lattice Systems
Pfennig, Andreas ULg

in Chemical Engineering Science (2000), 55(22), 5333-5339

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See detailL'évaluation externe en lecture menée à l'entrée en 3e secondaire : morceaux choisis
Lafontaine, Dominique ULg

in Cahiers du Service de Pédagogie Expérimentale (SPE) (2000), (1-2), 7-11

En octobre 1998, une évaluation externe en lecture s'est déroulée dans un échantillon représentatif de classes de 3e année de l'enseignement secondaire en Communauté française de Belgique. A cette ... [more ▼]

En octobre 1998, une évaluation externe en lecture s'est déroulée dans un échantillon représentatif de classes de 3e année de l'enseignement secondaire en Communauté française de Belgique. A cette occasion, on a non seulement évalué dans quelle mesure les élèves maîtrisent certaines des compétences essentielles reprises dans les socles, mais aussi tenté de comprendre les rapports complexes que les adolescents entretiennent avec le monde de l'écrit. [less ▲]

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See detailFractionation and reconstitution experiments provide insight into the role of gluten and starch interactions in pasta quality
Delcour, Jan; Vansteelandt, J.; Hythier, M. C. et al

in Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2000), 48(9), 3767-3773

Commercial durum wheat (Triticum durum desf.) semolina was fractionated into starch, gluten, and water extractables. Starch surface proteins and surface lipids were removed, and two starches with ... [more ▼]

Commercial durum wheat (Triticum durum desf.) semolina was fractionated into starch, gluten, and water extractables. Starch surface proteins and surface lipids were removed, and two starches with manipulated granule size distributions were produced to influence starch properties, affecting its interaction with other semolina components. Reconstituted spaghetti was made with untreated (control) or treated starches. The pasta made from the starting semolina material had lower cooking time and was of lower quality than the samples made from reconstituted material. This was not due to changes in gluten properties as a result of the first step of the fractionation process. For the reconstituted samples, starch interaction behavior was not changed after surface protein or surface lipid removal. Starch surface properties thus do not influence the starch interaction behavior, indicating that starch-gluten interaction in raw (uncooked) pasta is mainly due to physical inclusion. All reconstituted pasta samples also had generally the same cooking quality. It was concluded that the small changes in starch gelatinization behavior, caused by the above;mentioned starch modifications, are of little importance for pasta quality. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphological comparison of the buccal apparatus in two bivalve commensal Teleostei : Encheliophis dubius and Onuxodon fowleri (Carapidae, Ophidiiformes)
Parmentier, Eric ULg; Castro-Aguirre, J. L.; Vandewalle, Pierre ULg

in Zoomorphology (2000), 120

Onuxodon fowleri and Encheliophis dubius are two Carapidae species that live in bivalve hosts and, their diet is made of the same type of prey. The aim of this study is to compare their cephalic ... [more ▼]

Onuxodon fowleri and Encheliophis dubius are two Carapidae species that live in bivalve hosts and, their diet is made of the same type of prey. The aim of this study is to compare their cephalic morphology to see whether 1) the head anatomy of both species is related to the constraints of their way of life, and 2) there are difference between these species and commensal carapids that shelter in other invertebrates. The components of their skeletons and muscles are similar, but differ in size and are arranged differently. In O. fowleri, the buccal cavity is smaller than in E. dubius, the jaws (bearing very large anterior teeth) are larger, the quadrato-mandibular joint lies further to the rear, the fibres of muscle bundles A3a, A2a and A2b are more vertical and insert higher on the neurocranium. The buccal system of O. fowleri appears better suited for ingesting food by biting and grasping. That of E. dubius seems better adapted to a feeding mechanism where sucking would have a more important role. The E. dubius head morphology is more similar to the cephalic anatomy of non-bivalve commensal species than to O. fowleri features. Diet constraints may have greater influence than the different host constraints on the head construction. A simulated backward rotation of the posterior part of the E. dubius suspensorium around the posterior joint between the hyomandibular and the neurocranium brings the jaws and the cheeks to coincide with those of O. fowleri. This model could be indicative of how structure modifications and their influences on annex pieces could in part have a role in the biodiversity. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation thérapeutique précoce par tomographie à émission de positons
Jerusalem, Guy ULg; Beguin, Yves ULg; Fassotte, Marie-France ULg et al

in Médecine et Hygiène (2000), 58

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See detailTuna and dolphin associations in the Northeast Atlantic: Evidence of different ecological niches from stable isotope and heavy metal measurements
Das, Krishna ULg; Lepoint, Gilles ULg; Loizeau, Véronique et al

in Marine Pollution Bulletin (2000), 40

Associations of tunas and dolphins in the wild are quite frequent events and the question arises how predators requiring similar diet in the same habitat share their environmental resources. As isotopic ... [more ▼]

Associations of tunas and dolphins in the wild are quite frequent events and the question arises how predators requiring similar diet in the same habitat share their environmental resources. As isotopic composition of an animal is related to that of its preys, stable isotopes (13C/12C and 15N/14N) analyses were performed in three predator species from the Northeast Atlantic: the striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba, the common dolphin Delphinus delphis, and the albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga, and compared to their previously described stomach content. Heavy metals (Cd, Zn, Cu and Fe) are mainly transferred through the diet and so, have been determined in the tissues of the animals. Tunas muscles display higher delta15N than in common and striped dolphins (mean: 11.4 0/00 vs. 10.3 0/00 and 10.4 0/00, respectively) which reflects its higher trophic level nutrition. Higher delta13C are found in common (-18.4 0/00) and striped dolphin (-18.10/00) muscles than in albacore tuna (-19.3 0/00) likely in relation with its migratory pattern. The most striking feature is the presence of two levels of cadmium concentrations in the livers of the tunas (32 mg kg-1 dry weight vs. 5 mg kg-1 dry weight). These two groups also differ by their iron concentrations and their delta15N and delta 13C liver values. These results suggest that in the Biscay Bay, tunas occupy two different ecological niches likely based on different squid input in their diet. [less ▲]

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See detailProtective Effects Of A Live Attenuated Bovine Leukaemia Virus Vaccine With Deletion In The R3 And G4 Genes
Reichert, M.; Cantor, Gh.; Willems, Luc ULg et al

in Journal of General Virology (2000), 81

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See detailModulation if growth hormone action by active immunization in dairy cows
Vleurick, Lieve; Deaver, Daniel; Bertozzi, Carlo et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2000), 4

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See detailHuitième campagne de fouilles à Tell Beydar
Van der Stede, Véronique ULg; Talon, Philippe

in Annales d'Histoire de l'Art et d'Archéologie (2000), XXII

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See detailMass-murder deletion of 19 Orfs from Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome XI
Vandenbol, Micheline ULg; Fairhead, C.

in Gene (2000), 247(1-2),

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See detailRandomized comparison of intranasal and transdermal estradiol.
Lopes, P.; Merkus, H. M.; Nauman, J. et al

in Obstetrics & Gynecology (2000), 96(6), 906-12

To compare the efficacy and patient acceptability of intranasal versus transdermal 17 beta-estradiol (E2) delivery systems for postmenopausal symptoms. METHODS: Postmenopausal women were randomly assigned ... [more ▼]

To compare the efficacy and patient acceptability of intranasal versus transdermal 17 beta-estradiol (E2) delivery systems for postmenopausal symptoms. METHODS: Postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to intranasal 17 beta-E2, 300 microg daily (n = 176) or transdermal 17 beta-E2 (delivering 50 microg/day), two patches per week (n = 185) for 12 weeks, followed by a 4-week period with the alternate treatment. Efficacy was compared between groups using the Kupperman Index and vasomotor symptoms at week 12. Patient acceptability was compared by patient choice of administration route and by questionnaire at week 16. RESULTS: Intranasal and transdermal therapy produced significant reductions in the Kupperman Index and in the occurrence of hot flushes and night sweats at week 12. Alleviation of climacteric symptoms was statistically equivalent in the two treatment groups (P <.001). The difference between groups in the Kupperman Index score of -0.5 +/- 0.9 (95% confidence interval -2.3, 1.3) was within the predetermined interval of equivalence. Both therapies were well tolerated with similar adverse event rates, except for moderate and severe mastalgia which was significantly less frequent with intranasal E2 (7.2%) than with the patch (15.5%, P =.02). Sixty-six percent of patients chose to continue the intranasal therapy and 34% the transdermal therapy (P <.001). Satisfaction was greater with intranasal therapy at week 16 (P <.001). CONCLUSION: Intranasal and transdermal estrogen delivery systems had equivalent efficacy and similar safety profiles. Intranasal therapy was the patients' choice for long-term treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailThe use of conducting polymers as cathodes for the electrochemical deposition of magnetic transition metal/rare alloys
Martinot, Lucien; Leroy, Delphine ULg; Zhan, H. et al

in Journal of Materials Chemistry (2000), 10(3), 729-735

We report the electrodeposition of Cu and Ni in aqueous solutions together with the deposition of lanthanides (Gd, Sm, Dy, Tb) and amorphous magnetic alloys of lanthanides with transition metals (Fe, Co ... [more ▼]

We report the electrodeposition of Cu and Ni in aqueous solutions together with the deposition of lanthanides (Gd, Sm, Dy, Tb) and amorphous magnetic alloys of lanthanides with transition metals (Fe, Co) onto various polymer cathodes in formamide solutions. We used conducting polymers (polypyrrole, PPy; polyethylenedioxythiophene, PEDOT) sprayed on different substrates and in addition composite materials based on carbon black (CB) mixed either with polyethylene (PE) or with polycarbonate (PC). In the latter case, the conducting material is easily shaped out in various forms. When deposited on some of these substrates, the alloys appear as an interesting material for magneto-optic recording. The electrochemical process was used for the preparation of Gd/Co and Dy/Fe alloys for which the measured coercitive fields ranged from 250–300 Oe (Dy/Fe) to about 350 Oe (Gd/Fe). We demonstrated also the feasibility of an additional electrografting of a transparent protective layer of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in order to avoid the corrosion of the alloys by the atmosphere. [less ▲]

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See detailL'ouvrier, l'usine et le syndicalisme wallons. Involutions et enjeux (1960-2000). Le crépuscule des industrieux
Geerkens Provin, Eric ULg

in Reflets et Perspectives de la Vie Economique (2000), (2-3), 254-255

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See detailCharacterization of embryos derived from calf oocytes: kinetics of cleavage, cell allocation to inner cell mass, and trophectoderm and lipid metabolism.
Majerus, V.; Lequarré, Anne-Sophie ULg; Ferguson, E. M. et al

in Molecular Reproduction and Development (2000), 57(4), 346-52

Embryos derived from calf oocytes were compared with adult cow oocyte-derived embryos (1) by studying the kinetics of embryo development using time-lapse cinematography (2) by evaluating the ratio between ... [more ▼]

Embryos derived from calf oocytes were compared with adult cow oocyte-derived embryos (1) by studying the kinetics of embryo development using time-lapse cinematography (2) by evaluating the ratio between inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) cells in blastocysts (3) by measuring the triglyceride content of the blastocysts. The rate of calf oocyte-derived embryos reaching the blastocyst stage was reduced (26 vs. 46% for adult derived embryos). Calf oocyte-derived embryos preferably arrested their development before the 9-cell stage. Those that developed into blastocysts had cleaved earlier to reach the 2-cell or 3-cell stages than embryos that arrested before the 9-cell stage. The 9-cell stage tended to appear later in calf oocyte-derived embryo that reached the blastocyst stage than in adult-derived embryos. This difference became significant at the morula stage. Accordingly, the fourth cell cycle duration was longer for calf oocyte-derived embryos. Day 8 blastocysts from both sources had similar total cell numbers (calf: 89 +/- 20; cow: 100 +/- 30) and cell distribution between TE and ICM. The triglyceride content of day 7 blastocysts was similar for both sources (64 +/- 15 vs. 65 +/- 6 ng/embryo, respectively). In conclusion, calf oocyte-derived embryos are characterized by a higher rate of developmental arrest before the 9-cell stage and by a longer lag phase preceding the major onset of embryonic genome expression. These changes might be related to insufficient "capacitation" of the calf oocyte during follicular growth. Despite these differences, modifications in the quality of the resulting blastocysts were not detected. [less ▲]

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See detailElaboration d'une méthode quantitative et globale d'évaluation de l'aptitude des terres à l'agriculture : application à la Région wallonne (Belgique)
Morelle, David; Lejeune, Philippe ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2000), 4(1), 51-57

To counteract the wasteful use of good quality farmlands by other land uses, we have developed a quantitative method for land evaluation. By splitting up soil map symbols, we have drawn up suitability ... [more ▼]

To counteract the wasteful use of good quality farmlands by other land uses, we have developed a quantitative method for land evaluation. By splitting up soil map symbols, we have drawn up suitability maps for cultivation and for grazing. Farming factors, such as slope, closeness to the farmhouses and size of the farmland blocks, were integrated in the soil suitability map with the help of a geographic information system. The multiplication of the weighted coefficients linked to these factors lead to a global farmland evaluation map. This method has been tested in 10 districts of the Walloon Region. Results seem to be close to farmers practices. The validation problems of this map and the benefits of a factorial and quantitative method are also discussed in this paper. [less ▲]

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See detailSegmentation of multispectral images in optical metallography
Pirard, Eric ULg; Bertholet, Vincent

in Revue de Métallurgie - Sciences et Génie des Matériaux (2000), Fév. 2000

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See detailLe Sart Tilman et Louvain-la-Neuve
Frankignoulle, Pierre ULg

in Cahiers de l'Urbanisme (Les) (2000), 28-29

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See detailComments on the criticisms of Coquel and Abdesselam-Rouighi (1999) to the paper of Loboziak et al. (1998)
Loboziak, S; Melo; Streel, Maurice ULg

in Annales de la Société Géologique du Nord (2000), 8

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See detailRespiratory responses of mature horses to intravenous lobeline bolus
Marlin, D. J.; Roberts, C. A.; Schroter, R. C. et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal (2000), 32(3), 200-207

The respiratory stimulant lobeline has been used in equine clinical practice to increase inspiratory and expiratory airflow rates at rest in orderto facilitate investigation of both lower and upper airway ... [more ▼]

The respiratory stimulant lobeline has been used in equine clinical practice to increase inspiratory and expiratory airflow rates at rest in orderto facilitate investigation of both lower and upper airway function. Some of the responses to lobeline in the pony have been reported, but the detailed time course, effect of dose, possible side effects and reproducibility associated with lobeline administration have not been described in the horse. Respiratory airflow rates and oesophageal pre s s u re were measured with a Fleisch No. 5 pneumotachometer and lightweight facemask and amicrotip pressure transducer catheter, respectively. The output of the Fleisch pneumotachometer was calibrated for flow rates up to ± 70 l/s. Seven mature horses with no clinical signs of respiratory disease were studied. Investigations were conducted to determine: (1) the responses to different doses of lobeline (0.15, 0.20, 0.25 and 0.30 mg/kg bwt) as a rapid i.v. bolus (6 horses); (2) arterial blood gases during and after lobeline administration (0.20 mg/kg bwt; 3 horses); and (3) the reproducibility of lobeline-stimulated hyperpnoea (5 horses; 2 doses of 0.20 mg/kg bwt lobeline, 15 min apart). All horses tolerated the lobeline-stimulated hyperpnoea well, although one always coughed or snorted at the onset. Mild tremor was noted following the highest dose in several horses. Apnoea of approximately 40 s was common after the hyperpnoea. Both tidal volume (VT) and frequency (fR) increased with lobeline dose. During peak hyperpnoea at a dose of 0.30 mg/kg bwt, peak inspired flow rate (PIF), peak expired flow rate (PEF) and minute ventilation (.VE) were mean ± s.e. 41 ± 5 l/s, 61 ± 10 l/s and 920 ± 99 l/min, respectively. The hyperpnoea also caused marked changes in arterial PaO2, PaCO2 and pHa at 90 s after lobeline (0.20 mg/kg bwt) administration (mean ± s.e. 146.0 ± 6.9 mmHg, 20.6 ± 0.8 mmHg and 7.707 ± 0.020, respectively) compared to at rest (mean ± s.e. 104.0 ± 4.0 mmHg, 50.6 ± 2.8 mmHg and 7.432 ± 0.012). Dynamic lung compliance (Cdyn) was unaltered by lobeline administration. The lobeline-induced hyperpnoea was highly reproducible, with no significant difference in any of the parameters during 2 stimulations 15 min apart. Lobeline induced highly reproducible responses without any apparent adverse effects and may be useful in the investigation of pulmonary function in healthy horses and those with airway disease. [less ▲]

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See detailComposition chimique du nététu, condiment alimentaire produit par fermentation des graines du caroubier africain Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth.
Ndir, Babacar; Lognay, Georges ULg; Wathelet, Bernard ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2000), 4(2), 101-105

The seed oils and cakes of netetu of different origins available on the Senegalian market have been studied to evaluate the nutritional potentialities of this important food condiment used in many African ... [more ▼]

The seed oils and cakes of netetu of different origins available on the Senegalian market have been studied to evaluate the nutritional potentialities of this important food condiment used in many African countries. The total oil content ranged from 141 to 349 g.kg-1. Careful gas chromatography and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry) investigations revealed seven major fatty acids among which linoleic (41.9–46.8% of the total fatty acids), oleic (12.6–14.6%), palmitic (10.2–11.3%), stearic (10.0–13.4%), and behenic (12.6–13.4%) predominate. Significant differences were observed between fermented and non-fermented seeds as well as between netetu of different origins. The tocopherol content was found very low (17.7 to 30.6 mg.100g-1 fat). The total amino acid patterns showed that beside high level of proteins (331 à 540 g.kg-1) and interesting levels of essential constituents, there is an important deficiency of tryptophane, cysteine, methionine and threonine. [less ▲]

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See detailHistory is a fiction. Quentin Legrand talks with Johan Muyle and CarlHavelange
Havelange, Carl ULg

in Janus. Magazine on art and culture (2000), 2000(4), 7-13

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See detailEvidence for expression of some Microtubule-associated Protein 1B in neurons as a plasma membrane glycoprotein.
Franzen, Rachelle ULg; Tanner, Sandy; Jaffe, Howard et al

in Journal of Neurochemistry (2000), 75

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See detailReduced Sperm Counts In Guppies (Poecilia Reticulata) Following Exposure To Low Levels Of Tributyltin And Bisphenol A
Haubruge, Eric ULg; Petit, François ULg; Gage, Mjg.

in Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences (2000), 267(1459),

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See detailComparaison de l'usage d'huiles d'origine végétale ou minérale pour la lubrification de chaines de tronconneuse.
Bieswal, Marc; Debouche, Charles ULg; van Belle, Laurent

in Silva Belgica (2000), 107(2), 18-21

Des études en laboratoire ont montré que les huiles végétales présentent un pouvoir lubrifiant supérieur aux huiles minérales dans le domaine de la lubrification limite (Kabuya 1995). Par ailleurs, des ... [more ▼]

Des études en laboratoire ont montré que les huiles végétales présentent un pouvoir lubrifiant supérieur aux huiles minérales dans le domaine de la lubrification limite (Kabuya 1995). Par ailleurs, des chiffres avancés dans la littérature ou par des fournisseurs de lubrifiants annoncent la possibilité de réduire la consommation de lubrifiant en passant à un lubrifiant à base d'huile végétale. Des chiffres de réduction d'usure sont aussi avancés par des constructeurs de tronçonneuses. L'essai décrit dans cet article n'a pas permis de confirmer ces réductions de consommation et de frottement. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Bureaucracy of Crime : J. G. Ballard’s Cocaine Nights and the Speculative Thriller
Delville, Michel ULg

in Analele Universităţii Oradea - Seria Filologie, Fascicola Limba şi literatura (2000), 8

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See detailAn Original integration scheme. Application to a simple shear test of anisotropic material
de Montleau, P.; Habraken, Anne ULg

in International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering (2000)

Finite element simulations involving large deformations and large displacements imply the setting up of a precise kinematic for the integration scheme. Moreover, anisotropic mechanical behaviors have to ... [more ▼]

Finite element simulations involving large deformations and large displacements imply the setting up of a precise kinematic for the integration scheme. Moreover, anisotropic mechanical behaviors have to be expressed in an appropriate local reference frame. In the present paper, a computational procedure is derived from a particular velocity gradient de¯nition. The implementation in the ¯nite element code Lagamine developed in the M&S department is described. An application to a simple shear test is proposed. A sinusoidal behavior of the shear component stress is emphasized. It is due to the anisotropic yield locus and appears in the case of a saturated isotropic hardening law. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular diversity of Microcystis strains (Cyanophyceae, Chroococcales) based on 16S rDNA sequences
LEPERE, Claire ULg; Wilmotte, Annick ULg; Meyer, Barbara

in Systematics and Geography of Plants (2000), 70

Partial 16S rDNA sequences were determined for six Microcystis strains from lakes in the region of Plön (Northern Germany) assigned to four different species on the basis of their morphology. These ... [more ▼]

Partial 16S rDNA sequences were determined for six Microcystis strains from lakes in the region of Plön (Northern Germany) assigned to four different species on the basis of their morphology. These sequences appear very similar to each other and to those of 71 Microcystis strains from four continents available in the databases. This great genotypic homogeneity, as measured by 16S rDNA sequence similarity (334 characters), is contrasting with the conspicuous morphological differences observed for the studied strains. [less ▲]

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See detailRupture of a Thoracic Aneurysm in the Left Bronchus
SCHILS, F.; Deprez, A. F.; CREEMERS, Etienne ULg et al

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (2000), 100(2), 74-6

Aortobronchic fistula is a very unusual complication of thoracic aneurysm. We report the case of a 71-year old man with rupture of a thoracic aortic aneurysm in the left main bronchus. The patient had ... [more ▼]

Aortobronchic fistula is a very unusual complication of thoracic aneurysm. We report the case of a 71-year old man with rupture of a thoracic aortic aneurysm in the left main bronchus. The patient had suffered a car crash fifteen years ago, without any evidence of aortic rupture at the time. Thereafter, he developed an aortic isthmic dilation (36 mm in diameter). The patient suffered from long standing pulmonary insufficiency and emphysema and was admitted several times on an urgent basis for acute dyspnea. During an hospitalization for respiratory distress, he presented haemoptysis and left lung hyperinflation secondary to partial fistulization and extrinsic compression of the main left bronchus. Isthmic aortic resection and prosthetic grafting was performed and the left main bronchus was closed by an autologous pericardial patch. Ten days later, following an air-leak from the bronchial closure, a transposed latissimus dorsi flap was used by the plastic surgeon to repair the defect. Nevertheless, the patient died from multisystemic failure six weeks later. [less ▲]

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See detailLa langue des testaments dans l'Egypte du IIIe siècle apr. J.-C.
Rochette, Bruno ULg

in Revue Internationale des Droits de l'Antiquité [= RIDA] (2000), 47

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See detailElectrochemical study of the uranium exchange by polypyrrole-based resins
Jérôme, Christine ULg; Martinot, Lucien; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Journal of Applied Polymer Science (1999), 74(14), 3473-3484

Electrochemical control of the binding of uranium ions by redox active polypyrrole resins was studied. The experimental conditions for this binding were optimized with respect to the uranium ions to be ... [more ▼]

Electrochemical control of the binding of uranium ions by redox active polypyrrole resins was studied. The experimental conditions for this binding were optimized with respect to the uranium ions to be fixed, the resin, and the solution. [less ▲]

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See detailDispense de permis d'urbanisme en Région wallonne (III)
Delnoy, Michel ULg

in Immobilier (1999), 23

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See detailAnti-Inflammatory and Immunological Effects of Centaurea Cyanus Flower-Heads
Garbacki, Nancy ULg; Gloaguen, Vincent; Damas, Jacques ULg et al

in Journal of Ethnopharmacology (1999), 68(1-3), 235-41

Centaurea cyanus flower-heads are used in European phytotherapy for the treatment of minor ocular inflammations. Different pharmacological experiments (inhibition of carrageenan, zymosan and croton oil ... [more ▼]

Centaurea cyanus flower-heads are used in European phytotherapy for the treatment of minor ocular inflammations. Different pharmacological experiments (inhibition of carrageenan, zymosan and croton oil-induced oedemas, inhibition of plasma haemolytic activity, induction of anaphylatoxin activity) showed that polysaccharides extracted from C. cyanus flower-heads had anti-inflammatory properties and interfered with complement. Moreover, these polysaccharides were found to be mainly composed of galacturonic acid, arabinose, glucose, rhamnose and galactose. [less ▲]

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See detailDispense de permis d'urbanisme en Région wallonne (II)
Delnoy, Michel ULg

in Immobilier (1999), 22

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See detailSynthesis and characterization of poly(methyl methacrylate)-block-poly(n-butyl acrylate)-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) copolymers by two-step controlled radical polymerization (ATRP) catalyzed by NiBr2(PPh3)2, 1+
Moineau, Georges; Minet, Michaël; Teyssié, Philippe et al

in Macromolecules (1999), 32(25), 8277-8282

Poly(methyl methacrylate)-block-poly(n-butyl acrylate)-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) triblock copolymers (MnBM) have been synthesized by the sequential controlled radical polymerization (atom transfer ... [more ▼]

Poly(methyl methacrylate)-block-poly(n-butyl acrylate)-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) triblock copolymers (MnBM) have been synthesized by the sequential controlled radical polymerization (atom transfer radical polymerization, ATRP) of n-butyl acrylate (n-BuA) followed by methyl methacrylate (MMA). The polymerization of n-BuA has been first initiated by the difunctional (diethyl meso-2,5-dibromoadipate) initiator in the presence of the NiBr2(PPh3)2 catalyst. After isolation, the α,ω-dibromo poly(n-butyl acrylate) chains have been used as macroinitiators for the polymerization of either n-BuA or MMA leading to chain extension or to the desired triblock copolymers, respectively. The kinetic study of the two-step process has shown that the initiation of the MMA polymerization by the poly(n-BuA) macroinitiator is slow and leads to PMMA outer blocks of broad polydispersity. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamical mechanical analysis (DMA) have confirmed the two-phase morphology of the triblocks. Finally, DMA and tensile testing of these copolymers have emphasized poor mechanical properties in possible relation to the broad polydispersity of the PMMA outer blocks. [less ▲]

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See detailMaisons de justice
Dantinne, Michaël ULg

in Journal des Tribunaux (1999), (5947),

Description de l'institution des maisons de justice en Belgique.

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See detailApplications of statistical physics to economic and financial topics
Ausloos, Marcel ULg; Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Boveroux, P. et al

in Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications (1999), 274(1-2), 229-240

Problems in economy and finance have started to attract the interest of statistical physicists. Fundamental problems pertain to the existence or not of long-, medium-, short-range power-law correlations ... [more ▼]

Problems in economy and finance have started to attract the interest of statistical physicists. Fundamental problems pertain to the existence or not of long-, medium-, short-range power-law correlations in economic systems as well as to the presence of financial cycles. Methods like the extended detrented fluctuation analysis, and the multi-affine analysis are recalled emphasizing their value in sorting out correlation ranges and predictability. Among spectacular results, the possibility of crash predictions is indicated. The well known financial analyst technique, the so-called moving average, is shown to raise questions about fractional Brownian motion properties. Finally, the (m,k)-Zipf method and the i-variability diagram technique are presented for sorting out short range correlations. Analogies with other fields of modem applied statistical physics are also presented in view of some universal openess. [less ▲]

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See detailThe self-enrichment of galactic halo globular clusters. A clue to their formation?
Parmentier, Geneviève ULg; Jehin, Emmanuel ULg; Magain, Pierre ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (1999), 352

We present a model of globular cluster self-enrichment. In the protogalaxy, cold and dense clouds embedded in the hot protogalactic medium are assumed to be the progenitors of galactic halo globular ... [more ▼]

We present a model of globular cluster self-enrichment. In the protogalaxy, cold and dense clouds embedded in the hot protogalactic medium are assumed to be the progenitors of galactic halo globular clusters. The massive stars of a first generation of metal-free stars, born in the central areas of the proto-globular cluster clouds, explode as Type II supernovae. The associated blast waves trigger the expansion of a supershell, sweeping all the material of the cloud, and the heavy elements released by these massive stars enrich the supershell. A second generation of stars is born in these compressed and enriched layers of gas. These stars can recollapse and form a globular cluster. This work aims at revising the most often encountered argument against self-enrichment, namely the presumed ability of a small number of supernovae to disrupt a proto-globular cluster cloud. We describe a model of the dynamics of the supershell and of its progressive chemical enrichment. We show that the minimal mass of the primordial cluster cloud required to avoid disruption by several tens of Type II supernovae is compatible with the masses usually assumed for proto-globular cluster clouds. Furthermore, the corresponding self-enrichment level is in agreement with halo globular cluster metallicities. [less ▲]

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See detailThermal crosslinking of poly(methyl methacrylate) by reaction of methyl ester and quaternary ammonium salt and application to (meth)acrylate-based TPEs
Tong, Jiang-Dong; Goethals, Eric; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry (1999), 37(23), 4402-4411

Copolymers of N-vinylbenzyl N-methyl pyrrolidinium chloride (VBMPC) and methyl methacrylate, PVBMPC-co-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), were synthesized by free-radical copolymerization and proved to be ... [more ▼]

Copolymers of N-vinylbenzyl N-methyl pyrrolidinium chloride (VBMPC) and methyl methacrylate, PVBMPC-co-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), were synthesized by free-radical copolymerization and proved to be prone to crosslinking as a result of the reaction of methyl ester groups with benzyl methyl pyrrolidinium chloride (BMPC) moieties at temperatures higher than 110 °C. When the VBMPC content was lower than 20 wt %, these copolymers were miscible with homo-PMMA. Blends of homo-PMMA and PVBMPC-co-PMMA fully could be cured above 150 °C, when the molecular weight of PMMA exceeded 10,000 and the VBMPC content of the copolymer was higher than 5 wt %. This reaction was carried out to crosslink selectively the PMMA microdomains of PMMA-b-poly(isooctyl acrylate) (PIOA)-b-PMMA (MIM) triblock copolymers to explain the mechanism for the mechanical failure of fully (meth)acrylic thermoplastic elastomers. Comparison of the ultimate tensile properties of MIM block copolymers, when the dispersed PMMA phases and PIOA matrix were crosslinked, led to the conclusion that the ductile failure of the hard PMMA microdomains rather than the elastic failure of the PIOA matrix was the reason for the mechanical failure of MIM triblocks. [less ▲]

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See detailDeep Imaging of AX J2019+112: The Luminosity of a ``Dark Cluster''
Benítez, Narciso; Broadhurst, Tom; Rosati, Piero et al

in Astrophysical Journal (1999), 527

We detect a distant cluster of galaxies centered on the QSO lens and luminous X-ray source AX J2019+112, a.k.a. the ``Dark Cluster.'' Using deep V and I Keck images and wide-field K[SUB]s[/SUB] imaging ... [more ▼]

We detect a distant cluster of galaxies centered on the QSO lens and luminous X-ray source AX J2019+112, a.k.a. the ``Dark Cluster.'' Using deep V and I Keck images and wide-field K[SUB]s[/SUB] imaging from the New Technology Telescope (NTT), a tight red sequence of galaxies is identified within a radius of 0.2 h[SUP]-1[/SUP] Mpc of the known z=1.01 elliptical lensing galaxy. The sequence, which includes the central elliptical galaxy, has a slope in good agreement with the model predictions of Kodama et al. for z~1. We estimate the integrated rest-frame luminosity of the cluster to be L[SUB]V[/SUB]>=3.2x10[SUP]11[/SUP] h[SUP]-2[/SUP] L[SUB]solar[/SUB] (after accounting for significant extinction at the low latitude of this field), more than an order of magnitude higher than previous estimates. The central region of the cluster is deconvolved using the technique of Magain, Courbin, & Sohy, revealing a thick central arc coincident with an extended radio source. All the observed lensing features are readily explained by differential magnification of a radio-loud active galactic nucleus by a shallow elliptical potential. The QSO must lie just outside the diamond caustic, producing two images; the arc is a highly magnified image formed from a region close to the center of the host galaxy, projecting inside the caustic. The mass-to-light ratio within an aperture of 0.4 h[SUP]-1[/SUP] Mpc is M[SUB]X[/SUB]/L[SUB]V[/SUB]=224[SUP]+112[/SUP][SUB]- 78[/SUB]h(M/L[SUB]V[/SUB])[SUB]solar[/SUB], using the X-ray temperature. The strong lens model yields a compatible value, M/L[SUB]V[/SUB]=372[SUP]+94[/SUP][SUB]- 94[/SUB]h(M/L[SUB]V[/SUB])[SUB]solar[/SUB], whereas an independent weak-lensing analysis sets an upper limit of M/L[SUB]V[/SUB]<520h(M/L[SUB]V[/SUB])[SUB]solar[/SUB], typical of massive clusters. [less ▲]

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See detailApplications of statistical physics - Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop held at Technical University of Budapest Hungary, 19-22 May 1999 - Preface
Gadomski, A.; Kertesz, J.; Stanley, H. E. et al

in Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications (1999), 274(1-2), -

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See detailLa prévention des rechutes adictives
Kempeneers, Philippe ULg

in Revue Francophone de Clinique Comportementale et Cognitive (1999), 4(4), 24-34

Relapse prevention (RP) is a model of therapeutic intervention started in the field of substance abuses but applicable to all addictive behaviors. This papper first specifies the concept of addiction ... [more ▼]

Relapse prevention (RP) is a model of therapeutic intervention started in the field of substance abuses but applicable to all addictive behaviors. This papper first specifies the concept of addiction. Follows a description of the principles of RP concerning the relapse process and a specification of RP as a clinical and theorical model. Finally there is a more detailed presentation of several mechansisms characteristics of addictive relapses as well as the modes of treatment the RP offers [less ▲]

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See detailLa loi de protection du malade mental du 26 juin 1990. Présentation et jurisprudence
Boxho, Philippe ULg

in Journal des Juges de Paix = Tijdschrift van de Vrederecters (1999), 12

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See detailIntérêt de la tomographie a émission de positons dans l'évaluation des tumeurs digestives
Hustinx, Roland ULg; Paulus, Patrick; Daenen, Frédéric ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(12), 925-30

Imaging and endoscopic techniques have taken an increasing part in the management of gastroenterological disorders. Among these techniques, FDG-PET imaging has emerged as a powerful tool in the management ... [more ▼]

Imaging and endoscopic techniques have taken an increasing part in the management of gastroenterological disorders. Among these techniques, FDG-PET imaging has emerged as a powerful tool in the management of several cancer diseases, including tumors of the digestive tract. In particular, the role of PET for diagnosing and staging recurrent colorectal cancers, and for differentiating mass forming pancreatitis from carcinoma is now well established. In this review, we will briefly discuss the place of PET imaging in the work-up of the tumors of the digestive tract. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide for the Preparation of a Piroxicam-Beta-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Compound
Van Hees, Thierry ULg; Piel, Géraldine ULg; Evrard, Brigitte ULg et al

in Pharmaceutical Research (1999), 16(12), 1864-70

PURPOSE: Piroxicam is a poorly soluble NSAID, whose solubility is enhanced when included into beta-cyclodextrin. The preparation of a piroxicam-beta-cyclodextrin inclusion compound using supercritical CO2 ... [more ▼]

PURPOSE: Piroxicam is a poorly soluble NSAID, whose solubility is enhanced when included into beta-cyclodextrin. The preparation of a piroxicam-beta-cyclodextrin inclusion compound using supercritical CO2 was investigated. METHODS: The solubility and the stability of piroxicam in supercritical CO2 were determined. Then, the influence of the temperature, the pressure and the time of exposure on the inclusion rate was studied. RESULTS: The solubility of piroxicam varied over a wide range depending on the temperature and pressure (from 0.006 to 1.500 mg/g of CO2). The temperature and the time of exposure had a great influence on the inclusion yield, while pressure did not and a complete inclusion was achieved by keeping a physical mixture of piroxicam and beta-cyclodextrin (1:2.5 mol/mol) for 6 hours at 150 degrees C and 15 MPa of CO2. This complex was characterized by Differential Scanning Calorimetry, differential solubility and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry. CONCLUSIONS: Supercritical carbon dioxide may prove to be a novel useful complexation method of drugs into beta-cyclodextrin. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom living to controlled aluminium alkoxide mediated ring-opening polymerization of (di)lactones, a powerful tool for the macromolecular engineering of aliphatic polyesters
Mecerreyes, David; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics (1999), 200(12), 2581-2590

The aluminium alkoxide mediated ring-opening polymerization of (di)lactones offers a great versatility to the point where the main situations covered by the definition of living and controlled ... [more ▼]

The aluminium alkoxide mediated ring-opening polymerization of (di)lactones offers a great versatility to the point where the main situations covered by the definition of living and controlled polymerizations can be illustrated. Furthermore, substitution of a coordination-insertion mechanism for the traditional anionic polymerization of these monomers results in species of lower reactivity and in a kinetic control of the polyaddition reaction. This control, combined with the use of Al alkoxides of different structures and functionalities, has opened the way to the macromolecular design of a family of biocompatible and biodegradable polyesters, e.g., controlled synthesis of telechelic polymers, block and graft copolymers, and polymers of various molecular architectures. These polymers can be used as such, or as building parts of more sophisticated polymeric assemblies. [less ▲]

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See detailCabergoline in the treatment of hyperprolactinemia: a study in 455 patients.
Verhelst, Johan; Abs, Roger; Maiter, Dominique et al

in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (1999), 84(7), 2518-22

Cabergoline is a new long-acting dopamine agonist that is very effective and well tolerated in patients with pathological hyperprolactinemia. The aim of this study was to examine, in a very large number ... [more ▼]

Cabergoline is a new long-acting dopamine agonist that is very effective and well tolerated in patients with pathological hyperprolactinemia. The aim of this study was to examine, in a very large number of hyperprolactinemic patients, the ability to normalize PRL levels with cabergoline, to determine the effective dose and tolerance, and to assess the effect on clinical symptoms, tumor shrinkage, and visual field abnormalities. We also evaluated the effects of cabergoline in a large subgroup of patients with bromocriptine intolerance or -resistance. We retrospectively reviewed the files of 455 patients (102 males and 353 females) with pathological hyperprolactinemia treated with cabergoline in 9 Belgian centers. Among these patients, 41% had a microadenoma; 42%, a macroadenoma; 16%, idiopathic hyperprolactinemia; and 1%, an empty sella. The median pretreatment serum PRL level was 124 microg/L (range, 16-26,250 microg/L). A subgroup of 292 patients had previously been treated with bromocriptine, of which 140 showed bromocriptine intolerance and 58 showed bromocriptine resistance. Treatment with cabergoline normalized serum PRL levels in 86% of all patients: in 92% of 244 patients with idiopathic hyperprolactinemia or a microprolactinoma and in 77% of 181 macroadenomas. Pretreatment visual field abnormalities normalized in 70% of patients, and tumor shrinkage was seen in 67% of cases. Side effects were noted in 13% of patients, but only 3.9% discontinued therapy because of side effects. The median dose of cabergoline at the start of therapy was 1.0 mg/week but could be reduced to 0.5 mg/week once control was achieved. Patients with a macroprolactinoma needed a higher median cabergoline dose, compared with those with idiopathic hyperprolactinemia or a microprolactinoma: 1.0 mg/week vs. 0.5 mg/week, although a large overlap existed between these groups. Twenty-seven women treated with cabergoline became pregnant, and 25 delivered a healthy child. One patient had an intended abortion and another a miscarriage. In the patients with bromocriptine intolerance, normalization of PRL was reached in 84% of cases, whereas in the bromocriptine-resistant patients, PRL could be normalized in 70%. We confirmed, in a large-scale retrospective study, the high efficacy and tolerability of cabergoline in the treatment of pathological hyperprolactinemia, leaving few patients with unacceptable side effects or inadequate clinical response. Patients with idiopathic hyperprolactinemia or a microprolactinoma, on average, needed only half the dose of cabergoline as those with macroprolactinomas and have a higher chance of obtaining PRL normalization. Cabergoline also normalized PRL in the majority of patients with known bromocriptine intolerance or -resistance. Once PRL secretion was adequately controlled, the dose of cabergoline could often be significantly decreased, which further reduced costs of therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailMaximum-likelihood reconstruction with ordered subsets in bone SPECT
Blocklet, Didier; Seret, Alain ULg; Popa, Niculaie et al

in Journal of Nuclear Medicine : Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine (1999), 40(12), 1978-1984

This study was aimed at determining whether the ordered-subset expectation maximum (OSEM) is more effective than filtered backprojection (FBP) for bone SPECT in the routine clinical context. Methods ... [more ▼]

This study was aimed at determining whether the ordered-subset expectation maximum (OSEM) is more effective than filtered backprojection (FBP) for bone SPECT in the routine clinical context. Methods. Fifty-seven consecutive bone SPECT studies were analyzed. They included pelvic and lumbar spine, thoraco lumbar spine, head and neck, feet and shoulders. A 64-projection SPECT study was acquired over 360° by single-head cameras 2–3h after the injection of 750 MBq 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate. Three observers compared the OSEM and FBP reconstructed images. Results. Streak artifacts, always present with FBP, were rarely generated with the OSEM. When present (n = 24), artifacts associated with negative values near hyperactivities in FBP were not generated with the OSEM in 67% of the cases (n = 16), permitting a satisfactory interpretation of these regions. In half of the other cases (17%, n = 4/24), interpretation was precluded. In only one case did the three observers agree that more hyperactivities were seen with the OSEM. Ninety-six percent of the OSEM pictures were superior or equal to FBP for anatomic resolution and were clearly better in 12% of the cases. The extent of the lesion with the OSEM seemed better or equally defined in 96% and clearly better in 14% of the cases. The low-activity regions were better or equally visualized in all cases and were clearly better seen in 23% of the cases. The quality of the pictures was found to be better or superior with the OSEM in 98% of the cases and definitely better in 65% of the cases. Conclusion: Replacement of FBP by the OSEM in bone SPECT would be beneficial to clinical practice. [less ▲]

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See detailThe homeodomain-containing proteins: an update on their interacting partners
Chariot, Alain ULg; Gielen, Jacques; Merville, Marie-Paule ULg et al

in Biochemical Pharmacology (1999), 58

Homeodomain-containing proteins are transcription regulators controlling the coordinated expression of genes involved in development, differentiation, and cellular transformation. They share a highly ... [more ▼]

Homeodomain-containing proteins are transcription regulators controlling the coordinated expression of genes involved in development, differentiation, and cellular transformation. They share a highly conserved 60-amino-acid region (the "homeodomain"), which allows them to bind DNA and modulate the expression of multiple target genes, whose identities remain largely unknown. Although each HOX gene product exhibits in vivo specificity, they harbor very similar DNA-binding affinities in vitro, suggesting that other mechanisms such as protein-protein interactions are critical to modulate their function. In this commentary, we describe the proteins that can interact with the HOX gene products, including newly identified partners such as CREB binding protein and the NF-kappaB/IkappaB-alpha proteins. We also outline the molecular programs that are regulated by the transcriptional complexes involving the HOX gene products and where new pharmacological tools could find interesting targets. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalytic and clinical evaluation of the Abbott AxSYM cardiac troponin I assay
Elst, K. M. V.; Chapelle, Jean-Paul ULg; Boland, P. et al

in American Journal of Clinical Pathology (1999), 122(6), 745-752

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See detail50 Hz Magnetic Field Exposure Influence on Human Performance and Psychophysiological Parameters: Two Double-Blind Experimental Studies
Crasson, Marion ULg; Legros, Jean-Jacques ULg; Legros, Willy ULg et al

in Bioelectromagnetics (1999), 20(8), 474-86

Two double-blind studies were performed to examine magnetic field (MF) exposure effects and to determine the impact of temporal variation (continuous vs. intermittent exposure) of 100 mu T(rms) 50 Hz MF ... [more ▼]

Two double-blind studies were performed to examine magnetic field (MF) exposure effects and to determine the impact of temporal variation (continuous vs. intermittent exposure) of 100 mu T(rms) 50 Hz MF diurnal exposure on psychological and psychophysiological parameters in healthy humans. Three cephalic exposure sessions of 30-min, i.e., sham, continuous, and intermittent (15 s ON/OFF cycles) MF conditions, were involved. Each subject participated in all sessions, which were spaced at 1-wk intervals. In each session, mood ratings and performance measures were obtained before, during, or after exposure and several electrophysiological data (event-related brain potentials [ERP]) were recorded after each exposure session. These criteria were chosen to evaluate sensory functions as well as automatic and voluntary attentional processes. In experiment 1, 21 healthy male volunteers (20 to 27 years of age) were studied. Ten subjects were exposed at 13:30 h, and 11 subjects were exposed at 16:30 h. Statistically significant changes in the amplitude of ERP were observed after MF exposure in the dichotic listening task, indexing selective attention processes. Eighteen of the 21 original male volunteers took part in experiment 2, undertaken to better understand the results related to information processing involved in selective attention and control for ultradian rhythmicity. Exposure time for all the subjects was at 13:30 h. The analysis of the data again revealed significant amplitude changes of the ERP recorded in the dichotic listening task. Moreover, they demonstrated ERP latency and reaction time slowing in the oddball paradigm, a visual discrimination task after real MF exposure. These results also indicate that a low level 50 Hz MF may have a slight influence on event-related potentials and reaction time under specific circumstances of sustained attention. [less ▲]

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See detailVimentin Contributes to Human Mammary Epithelial Cell Migration
Gilles, Christine ULg; Polette, M.; Zahm, J. M. et al

in Journal of Cell Science (1999), 112((Pt 24)), 4615-25

Vimentin expression in human mammary epithelial MCF10A cells was examined as a function of their migratory status using an in vitro wound-healing model. Analysis of the trajectories of the cells and their ... [more ▼]

Vimentin expression in human mammary epithelial MCF10A cells was examined as a function of their migratory status using an in vitro wound-healing model. Analysis of the trajectories of the cells and their migratory speeds by time lapse-video microscopy revealed that vimentin mRNA and protein expression were exclusively induced in cells at the wound's edge which were actively migrating towards the center of the lesion. Actin labeling showed the reorganization of actin filaments in cells at the wound's edge which confirmed the migratory phenotype of this cell subpopulation. Moreover, the vimentin protein disappeared when the cells became stationary after wound closure. Using cells transfected with the vimentin promoter controlling the green fluorescent protein gene, we also demonstrated the specific activation of the vimentin promoter in the migratory cells at the wound's edge. Transfection of the antisense vimentin cDNA into MCF10A cells clearly reduced both their ability to express vimentin and their migratory speed. Taken together, these observations demonstrate that vimentin is transiently associated with, and could be functionally involved in, the migratory status of human epithelial cells. [less ▲]

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See detailLes ingénieurs chimistes et leurs instruments: Le cas de l'analyse polarimétrique dans l'industrie sucrière
Melard, François ULg

in Chimie Nouvelle (1999), 17(68), 3008-3011

This article put forward the complexe relations that exists between chemists ingeneers and the development of the Sugar industry in Belgium (in the 19s century). The argument is that the technical ... [more ▼]

This article put forward the complexe relations that exists between chemists ingeneers and the development of the Sugar industry in Belgium (in the 19s century). The argument is that the technical dimension of the implementation of a new chemical protocol for the delivery of sugar beets may be of some importance in order to understand the sociological dimension of contractual relations between actors and the role of scientific expertise in such a context. [less ▲]

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See detailDes éditeurs sans édition. Genèse et structure de l’espace éditorial en Belgique francophone
Durand, Pascal ULg; Winkin, Yves

in Actes de la Recherche en Sciences Sociales (1999), 130

L'édition n'est pas seulement un objet à étudier; elle est aussi un observatoire des pratiques culturelles. En prenant pour terrain d'analyse le marché de la production du livre en Belgique francophone ... [more ▼]

L'édition n'est pas seulement un objet à étudier; elle est aussi un observatoire des pratiques culturelles. En prenant pour terrain d'analyse le marché de la production du livre en Belgique francophone, on se donne le moyen de saisir au concret le rapport d'implication réciproque entretenu par les œuvres avec les vecteurs de leur production et de leur diffusion. Ce rapport, comme ces vecteurs, ont une histoire, particulièrement déterminante et complexe, mais aussi répétitive, dans les territoires belges. Ainsi, il est frappant de constater l’impossibilité, pour l’édition en Belgique, de lui désigner dans l’histoire un moment de naissance à partir duquel elle se serait continûment déployée. C’est, à différents moments, de naissances à répétition qu’il s’agit plutôt et donc, aussi bien, d’extinctions successives. D'où le fait qu'aucune culture éditoriale, au sens le plus littéraire de l'expression, ne se soit véritablement développée en Belgique francophone. Plantin au XVIe siècle édifie certes, à force d’énergie, d’ambition intellectuelle et d’opportunisme politico-religieux, une maison de rayonnement international, mais fait figure d’isolé, mal relayé de surcroît par ses héritiers. Les imprimeurs liégeois et bruxellois, du XVIIIe siècle aux années 1850, inondent l’Europe d’ouvrages contrefaits : ils bloquent pour longtemps le système éditorial dans des routines de reproduction et s’effondreront sous le coup de la Convention franco-belge de 1852. Au XIXe siècle, Casterman fait tourner ses presses au profit des missels et des ouvrages de dévotion : les convoyeurs de la haute littérature attendront. Dans les années 1890, quelques petits éditeurs parviennent à esquisser les contours d’une édition spécifiquement littéraire : tous font très vite faillite quand ils ne s’écroulent pas sous le poids de la censure. Il faudra attendre le nouveau Casterman et Marabout pour que se déploient en Belgique des maisons de rayonnement international, mais dans des genres dominés tels que la bande dessinée et le livre de poche industriel. Des attitudes toutefois se maintiennent, se transmettent peut-être d'une génération à l'autre. L'hypothèse conductrice de l'article est la suivante : de Plantin aux éditeurs littéraires contemporains se construit en Belgique un habitus techniciste, autrement dit une représentation de l'activité éditoriale comme fabrication de livres plutôt que comme production de biens symboliques aptes à circuler sur le marché littéraire à force égale avec ceux que la France, ayant mieux négocié le passage de l'imprimerie à l'édition, produit de son côté. Cette situation n'est pas sans présenter quelques ressources pour l'avenir. A l'heure des mouvements de concentration internationaux, il se pourrait bien en effet que les éditeurs de Belgique, comme ceux d'autres zones marginales, contribuent, du fait de leur fonctionnement apparemment "archaïque", à maintenir la possibilité d'une édition indépendante. [less ▲]

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See detailRepeatability of the Intensity Dependence of Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials in the Assessment of Cortical Information Processing
Sandor, P. S.; Roon, K. I.; Ferrari, M. D. et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (1999), 19(10), 873-9

Data on repeatability and optimal settings are needed when studying the influence of drugs on the intensity dependence of auditory evoked cortical potentials (IDAP). IDAP was recorded at intervals of 1, 2 ... [more ▼]

Data on repeatability and optimal settings are needed when studying the influence of drugs on the intensity dependence of auditory evoked cortical potentials (IDAP). IDAP was recorded at intervals of 1, 2, and 24 h at two centers in 22 healthy volunteers. Settings were modified to compare fixed versus randomly varied stimulus repetition rate, as well as 30 Hz and 100 Hz low pass filters. Repeatability was assessed for different intervals and different settings. Group means did not differ between centers, the 2-h or 24-h retest, or when using different settings. We observed an order effect for the 1 h retest. Fixed repetition rate and the 30 Hz filter improved repeatability with still high intraindividual variability. IDAP group means can be compared between centers for retest intervals of 2 h and 24 h and different settings. Variability is too large to compare individuals. [less ▲]

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See detailPharma-clinics le médicament du mois. La nevirapine. Viramune
Nkoghe, D.; Leonard, Philippe ULg; Moutschen, Michel ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(12), 948-51

Nevirapine is the first non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor registered in Belgium and indicated in the treatment of HIV-1 infection. In association with 2 nucleoside analogues, its efficiency ... [more ▼]

Nevirapine is the first non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor registered in Belgium and indicated in the treatment of HIV-1 infection. In association with 2 nucleoside analogues, its efficiency is similar to a tritherapy with protease inhibitor, particularly in naive patients with low viral load. It has a good tolerance profile and is easy to take. Studies in progress should permit to widen its indications. [less ▲]

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See detailPharma-clinics comment je traite ... une infection par le VIH. III. Les inhibiteurs non nucléosidiques de la transcriptase inverse
Nkoghe, D.; Moutschen, Michel ULg; Leonard, Philippe ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(12), 909-11

Non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) are a new arm in the treatment of the HIV infection. They inhibit the replication by direct non competitive binding to the enzyme, and do not ... [more ▼]

Non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) are a new arm in the treatment of the HIV infection. They inhibit the replication by direct non competitive binding to the enzyme, and do not require phosphorylation. The fast emergence of resistance in monotherapy obliges to use them in a triple association. The 103 mutation confers a cross-resistance. The most common adverse event is rash. Association with nucleoside analogues is additive or even synergistic. They are metabolized by the cytochrome P450. Within a combined therapy, their efficiency is comparable to protease inhibitors, notably in patients with low viral load. [less ▲]

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See detailMice Transgenic for a Soluble Form of Murine Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Antigen 4 Are Refractory to Murine Acquired Immune Deficiency Sydrome Development
de Leval, Laurence ULg; Debrus, S.; Lane, P. et al

in Immunology (1999), 98(4), 630-8

Interactions between B and CD4+ T cells are central to the pathogenesis of retrovirus-induced murine acquired immune deficiency virus (MAIDS). Prompted by previous work showing that treatment with ... [more ▼]

Interactions between B and CD4+ T cells are central to the pathogenesis of retrovirus-induced murine acquired immune deficiency virus (MAIDS). Prompted by previous work showing that treatment with cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 immunoglobulin (CTLA4Ig) partly inhibited the disease, we studied the course of infection in mice deficient for CD28-B7 interactions (mCTLA4-Hgamma1 transgenic mice). Despite a relative viral load identical to that of non-transgenic mice, the transgenic mice did not develop any of the major MAIDS symptoms (i.e. lymphoproliferation and immune anergy). The mCTLA4-Hgamma1 did not however, completely inhibit B-cell activation as indicated by a slight hypergammaglobulinaemia and microscopic blastic transformation. Absence of MAIDS in transgenic mice was associated with much lower levels of both interleukin-4 and interferon-gamma transcripts following viral infection. These results support the theory that the CD28/B7 costimulatory pathway is a critical determinant to MAIDS development. [less ▲]

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