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See detailSoil apparent conductivity measurements for planning and analysis of agricultural experiments: A case study from Western-Thailand
Rudolph, Sebastian; Wongleecharoen, Chalemchart; Lark, Murray et al

in Geoderma (2016), 267

In experimental trials, the success or failure of agricultural improvements is commonly evaluated on the agronomic response of crops, using proper experimental designs with sufficient statistical power ... [more ▼]

In experimental trials, the success or failure of agricultural improvements is commonly evaluated on the agronomic response of crops, using proper experimental designs with sufficient statistical power. Since fine-scale variability of the experimental site can reduce statistical power, efficiency gains in the experimental design can be achieved if this variation is known and used to design blocking, or some proxy variable is used as a covariate. Near-surface geophysical techniques such as electromagnetic induction (EMI), which describes subsurface properties non-invasively by measuring soil apparent conductivity (ECa), may be one source of this information. The motivation of our study was to investigate the effectiveness of EMI-derived ECa measurements for planning and analysis of agricultural experiments. ECa and plant height measurements (the response variable) were taken from an agroforestry experiment in Western Thailand, and their variability was quantified to simulate multiple realizations of ECa and the residuals of the response variable from treatment means. These were combined to produce simulated data from different experimental designs and treatment effects. The simulated data were then used to evaluate the statistical power by detecting three orthogonal contrasts among the treatments in the original experiment. We considered three experimental designs, a simple random design (SR), a complete randomized block design (CRB), and a complete randomized block design with spatially adjusted blocks on plot means of ECa (CRBECa). Using analysis of variance (ANOVA), the smallest effect sizes could be detected with the CRBECa design, which indicates that ECa measurements could be used in the planning phase of an experiment to achieve efficiencies by improved blocking. In contrast, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) demonstrated that substantial power improvements could be gained when ECa was considered as a covariate in the analysis. We therefore recommend that ECa measurements should be used to characterize subsurface variability of experimental sites and to support the statistical analysis of agricultural experiments. [less ▲]

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See detailContrasted accumulation patterns of persistent organic pollutants and mercury in sympatric tropical dolphins from the south-western Indian Ocean
Dirtu, Alin; Malavannan, Govindan; Das, Krishna ULg et al

in Environmental Research (2016), 146

Due to their high trophic position and long life span, small cetaceans are considered as suitable bioindicators to monitor the presence of contaminants in marine ecosystems. Here, we document the ... [more ▼]

Due to their high trophic position and long life span, small cetaceans are considered as suitable bioindicators to monitor the presence of contaminants in marine ecosystems. Here, we document the contamination with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and total mercury (T-Hg) of spinner (Stenella longirostris, n=21) and Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus, n=32) sampled from the coastal waters of La Réunion (south-western Indian Ocean). In addition, seven co-occurring teleost fish species were sampled and analyzed as well. Blubber samples from living dolphins and muscle from teleosts were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and metabolites (DDTs), chlordanes (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs), reported as having a natural origin, were also analyzed. T-Hg levels were measured in blubber and skin biopsies of the two living dolphin species. δ13C and δ15N values were determined in skin of the dolphins and in the muscle of teleosts. For PCBs, HCHs and T-Hg, concentrations were significantly higher in T. aduncus than in S. longirostris. For other POP levels, intra-species variability was high. MeO-PBDEs were the dominant compounds (55% of the total POPs) in S. longirostris, while PCBs dominated (50% contribution) in T. aduncus. Other contaminants showed similar profiles between the two species. Given the different patterns of POPs and T-Hg contamination and the stable isotope composition observed among analyzed teleosts, dietary and foraging habitat preferences possibly explain the contrasted contaminant profiles observed in the two dolphin species. Levels of each class of contaminants were significantly higher in males than females. Despite their spatial and temporal overlap in the waters of La Réunion, S. longirostris and T. aduncus are differently exposed to contaminant accumulation. [less ▲]

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See detailInsertion professionnelle et parcours enseignants : mise en perspective
Simons, Germain ULg

in Didactiques en pratique (2016), (2),

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See detailMicrowave-assisted extraction of pectin from unutilized pumpkin biomass
Košťálová, Zuzana; Aguedo, Mario ULg; Hromádkováa, Zdenka

in Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification (2016), 102

Microwave-assisted extraction was employed to extract polysaccharides from pumpkin biomass and compared to the usual extraction by conventional heating. The effect of microwave heating time, liquid/solid ... [more ▼]

Microwave-assisted extraction was employed to extract polysaccharides from pumpkin biomass and compared to the usual extraction by conventional heating. The effect of microwave heating time, liquid/solid (L/S) ratio and extraction temperature on the yield and molecular mass of extracted pectin from the seeded oil pumpkin biomass was investigated. Heating times ranged from 2 to 10 min, L/S ratio from 30/1 to 50/1 and temperature from 80 to 120 °C. The response surface methodology was used to optimize the effects of processing parameters to isolate pectin with medium molecular weight and with the highest yield. The retained conditions were as follows: liquid/solid ratio 50/1, microwave heating time of 10 min and a temperature of 102.2 °C. Among the studied factors, the liquid/solid ratio had the greatest influence on yield and molecular mass, respectively. Application of microwave heating in the extraction of pumpkin biomass gave a pectin with medium Mw and dramatically reduced extraction time in comparison to traditional hot acid extraction. Microwave is an excellent tool for extraction and modification of polysaccharides in one step. [less ▲]

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See detailDepressive symptomatology and the influence of the behavioral avoidance and activation: A gender-specific investigation
Wagener, Aurélie ULg; Baeyens, Céline; Blairy, Sylvie ULg

in Journal of Affective Disorders (2016), 193

BACKGROUNG: Depression is a highly prevalent disorder which is usually considered as differentially experienced depending on gender. Behavioral theories of depression pinpoint the importance of the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUNG: Depression is a highly prevalent disorder which is usually considered as differentially experienced depending on gender. Behavioral theories of depression pinpoint the importance of the behavioral avoidance in the maintenance of depression. However, little is known about the specific impact of the behavioral avoidance and activation on each depressive symptom as well as on gender differences on the behavioral features of depression. METHODS: This study’s aim was two-fold: (1) to assess the presence of gender differences on the BDI-II; (2) to investigate the respective predictive value of behavioral avoidance and of behavioral activation on each depressive symptom assessed by the BDI-II depending on gender. Community adults and adults attending mental healthcare composed the sample. RESULTS: Results showed differences in symptomatology profiles depending on gender (e.g. higher scores of sadness, self-criticalness in women, higher scores of past failure and loss of pleasure in men). Behavioral avoidance positively predicted almost all depressive symptoms in women and in men while behavioral activation negatively predicted almost all symptoms in both gender. Nevertheless, the strengths of these relationships were different for some symptoms (e.g. pessimism). LIMITATIONS: The use of self-report instruments; the lack of assessment of causal or precipitating factors of the depressive symptomatology; the higher number of women in the sample. CONCLUSIONS: Results are discussed with respect to previous findings and present clinical implications: (1) to underline the relevance of the combination of gender-specific assessment tools; (2) to highlight the need of tailored psychological intervention. [less ▲]

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See detailThe compositional evolution of C/2012 S1 (ISON) from ground-based high-resolution infrared spectroscopy as part of a worldwide observing campaign
Dello Russo, N.; Vervack, R. J.; Kawakita, H. et al

in Icarus (2016), 266

Volatile production rates, relative abundances, rotational temperatures, and spatial distributions in the coma were measured in C/2012 S1 (ISON) using long-slit high-dispersion (λ/Δλ ∼ 2.5 × 10[SUP]4[/SUP ... [more ▼]

Volatile production rates, relative abundances, rotational temperatures, and spatial distributions in the coma were measured in C/2012 S1 (ISON) using long-slit high-dispersion (λ/Δλ ∼ 2.5 × 10[SUP]4[/SUP]) infrared spectroscopy as part of a worldwide observing campaign. Spectra were obtained on UT 2013 October 26 and 28 with NIRSPEC at the W.M. Keck Observatory, and UT 2013 November 19 and 20 with CSHELL at the NASA IRTF. H[SUB]2[/SUB]O was detected on all dates, with production rates increasing markedly from (8.7 ± 1.5) × 10[SUP]27[/SUP] molecules s[SUP]-1[/SUP] on October 26 (R[SUB]h[/SUB] = 1.12 AU) to (3.7 ± 0.4) × 10[SUP]29[/SUP] molecules s[SUP]-1[/SUP] on November 20 (R[SUB]h[/SUB] = 0.43 AU). Short-term variability of H[SUB]2[/SUB]O production is also seen as observations on November 19 show an increase in H[SUB]2[/SUB]O production rate of nearly a factor of two over a period of about 6 h. C[SUB]2[/SUB]H[SUB]6[/SUB], CH[SUB]3[/SUB]OH and CH[SUB]4[/SUB] abundances in ISON are slightly depleted relative to H[SUB]2[/SUB]O when compared to mean values for comets measured at infrared wavelengths. On the November dates, C[SUB]2[/SUB]H[SUB]2[/SUB], HCN and OCS abundances relative to H[SUB]2[/SUB]O appear to be within the range of mean values, whereas H[SUB]2[/SUB]CO and NH[SUB]3[/SUB] were significantly enhanced. There is evidence that the abundances with respect to H[SUB]2[/SUB]O increased for some species but not others between October 28 (R[SUB]h[/SUB] = 1.07 AU) and November 19 (R[SUB]h[/SUB] = 0.46 AU). The high mixing ratios of H[SUB]2[/SUB]CO/CH[SUB]3[/SUB]OH and C[SUB]2[/SUB]H[SUB]2[/SUB]/C[SUB]2[/SUB]H[SUB]6[/SUB] on November 19, and changes in the mixing ratios of some species with respect to H[SUB]2[/SUB]O between October 28 to November 19, indicates compositional changes that may be the result of a transition from sampling radiation-processed outer layers in this dynamically new comet to sampling more pristine natal material as the outer processed layer was increasingly eroded and the thermal wave propagated into the nucleus as the comet approached perihelion for the first time. On November 19 and 20, the spatial distribution for dust appears asymmetric and enhanced in the antisolar direction, whereas spatial distributions for volatiles (excepting CN) appear symmetric with their peaks slightly offset in the sunward direction compared to the dust. Spatial distributions for H[SUB]2[/SUB]O, HCN, C[SUB]2[/SUB]H[SUB]6[/SUB], C[SUB]2[/SUB]H[SUB]2[/SUB], and H[SUB]2[/SUB]CO on November 19 show no definitive evidence for significant contributions from extended sources; however, broader spatial distributions for NH[SUB]3[/SUB] and OCS may be consistent with extended sources for these species. Abundances of HCN and C[SUB]2[/SUB]H[SUB]2[/SUB] on November 19 and 20 are insufficient to account for reported abundances of CN and C[SUB]2[/SUB] in ISON near this time. Differences in HCN and CN spatial distributions are also consistent with HCN as only a minor source of CN in ISON on November 19 as the spatial distribution of CN in the coma suggests a dominant distributed source that is correlated with dust and not volatile release. The spatial distributions for NH[SUB]3[/SUB] and NH[SUB]2[/SUB] are similar, suggesting that NH[SUB]3[/SUB] is the primary source of NH[SUB]2[/SUB] with no evidence of a significant dust source of NH[SUB]2[/SUB]; however, the higher production rates derived for NH[SUB]3[/SUB] compared to NH[SUB]2[/SUB] on November 19 and 20 remain unexplained. This suggests a more complete analysis that treats NH[SUB]2[/SUB] as a distributed source and accounts for its emission mechanism is needed for future work. [less ▲]

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See detailReduced Order Model for Accounting for High Frequency Effects in Power Electronic Components
Paquay, Yannick ULg; Geuzaine, Christophe ULg; Hasan, Md. Rokibul et al

in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics (2016)

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See detailNonlinear Interpolation on Manifold of Reduced Order Models in Magnetodynamic Problems
Paquay, Yannick ULg; Bruls, Olivier ULg; Geuzaine, Christophe ULg

in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics (2016), 52(3), 1-4

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See detailDecoding intracranial EEG data with multiple kernel learning method
Schrouff, Jessica ULg; Mourao-Miranda, Janaina; Phillips, Christophe ULg et al

in Journal of Neuroscience Methods (2016), 261

Machine learning models have been successfully applied to neuroimaging data to make predictions about behavioral and cognitive states of interest. While these multivariate methods have greatly advanced ... [more ▼]

Machine learning models have been successfully applied to neuroimaging data to make predictions about behavioral and cognitive states of interest. While these multivariate methods have greatly advanced the field of neuroimaging, their application to electrophysiological data has been less common especially in the analysis of human intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG, also known as electrocorticography or ECoG) data, which contains a rich spectrum of signals recorded from a relatively high number of recording sites. In the present work, we introduce a novel approach to determine the contribution of different bandwidths of EEG signal in different recording sites across different experimental conditions using the Multiple Kernel Learning (MKL) method. To validate and compare the usefulness of our approach, we applied this method to an ECoG dataset that was previously analysed and published with univariate methods. Our findings proved the usefulness of the MKL method in detecting changes in the power of various frequency bands during a given task and selecting automatically the most contributory signal in the most contributory site(s) of recording. With a single computation, the contribution of each frequency band in each recording site in the estimated multivariate model can be highlighted, which then allows formulation of hypotheses that can be tested a posteriori with univariate methods if needed. [less ▲]

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See detailLike a bridge over troubled water – opening pathways for integrating social sciences and humanities into nuclear research
Turcanu, Catrinel; Schröder, Jantine; Meskens, Gaston et al

in Journal of Environmental Radioactivity (2016), 153

Research on nuclear technologies has been largely driven by a detachment of the 'technical content' from the 'social context'. However, social studies of science and technology - also for the nuclear ... [more ▼]

Research on nuclear technologies has been largely driven by a detachment of the 'technical content' from the 'social context'. However, social studies of science and technology - also for the nuclear domain – emphasize that 'the social' and 'the technical' dimensions of technology development are inter-related and co-produced. In an effort to create links between nuclear research and innovation and society in mutually beneficial ways, the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre started fifteen years ago a ‘Programme of Integration of Social Aspects into nuclear research’ (PISA). In line with broader science-policy agendas (responsible research and innovation and technology assessment), this paper argues that the importance of such programmes is threefold. First, their multi-disciplinary basis and participatory character contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between science, technology and society, in general, and the complexity of nuclear technology assessment in particular. Second, their functioning as (self )critical policy supportive research with outreach to society is an essential prerequisite for policies aiming at generating societal trust in the context of controversial issues related to nuclear technologies and exposure to ionising radiation. Third, such programmes create an enriching dynamic in the organisation itself, stimulating collective learning and transdisciplinarity. The paper illustrates with concrete examples these claims and concludes by discussing some key challenges that researchers face while engaging in work of this kind. [less ▲]

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See detailWitnessing Fukushima Secondhand: Collage, Archive and Travelling Memory in Jacques Ristorcelli’s Les Écrans
Crucifix, Benoît ULg

in The Comics Grid: Journal of Comics Scholarship (2016), 6

Cultural memory in comics studies mostly seems to revolve around nonfictional graphic novels tackling major historical events. Drawing on recent trends in cultural memory studies, this paper focuses on ... [more ▼]

Cultural memory in comics studies mostly seems to revolve around nonfictional graphic novels tackling major historical events. Drawing on recent trends in cultural memory studies, this paper focuses on Jacques Ristorcelli‘s Les Écrans (2014) as an experimental counterpoint where memory is animated by the author’s use of collage. Delving into an ‘archive’ of heterogeneous elements, Les Écrans borrows from old war comics in a way that reflexively constructs a discourse on the past of the medium and its memory. Through the analysis of Ristorcelli’s book, this paper highlights how collage can function in comics as a work of memory that reaches back to appropriative practices common to both readers and fine artists. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamics of upstream movements of the European eel Anguilla anguilla in an inland area of the River Meuse over the last 20 years
Nzau Matondo, Billy ULg; Ovidio, Michaël ULg

in Environmental Biology of Fishes (2016)

The dynamics of upstream movements of the yellow eel Anguilla anguilla were investigated at Lixhe on the Belgian River Meuse in an inland fish pass regularly monitored from 1992 to 2014. Based on a ... [more ▼]

The dynamics of upstream movements of the yellow eel Anguilla anguilla were investigated at Lixhe on the Belgian River Meuse in an inland fish pass regularly monitored from 1992 to 2014. Based on a constant year-to-year sampling effort, we examined the abundance of ascending yellow eels and their body size, seasonal movement, and the associated water temperature and flow. Over the last 23 years, the number of ascending yellow eels has declined at an average 4.2% per year since 1992. The abundance of eels in 2014 is estimated at 4.5% of the ascending stock in 1992. We observed that some annual variations in eel abundance at Lixhe might be related to opening fish passes downstream of the study site. The results clearly demonstrated that long-term declining abundance of eels has resulted in increased sizes (mean increase, 4.1 mm per year since 1992) and temperatures triggering the upstream movement process (1.03°C per decade), with earlier dates for the last eel passages reducing the difference between temperature extremes of eel passages through the fish pass during the migration season. Eel movements occurred in spring and summer at low river discharge and were mainly triggered by high-temperature events. Eels have become larger with time because of improved feeding opportunities and more growth habitats available resulting from the long-term reduction in recruitment. This study highlights the importance of investigating long time spans for a better comprehension of the changes observed in yellow eels and for the optimization of management measures and future research. [less ▲]

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See detailComprehensive study of the thermo-reversibility of Diels-Alder based PCL polymer networks
Defize, Thomas ULg; Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg; Alexandre, Michaël et al

in Polymer (2016), 84

Chemical crosslinking is an efficient tool to improve or impart new properties to conventional polymers. Especially, crosslinking imparts remarkable shapeememory properties to poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL ... [more ▼]

Chemical crosslinking is an efficient tool to improve or impart new properties to conventional polymers. Especially, crosslinking imparts remarkable shapeememory properties to poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) materials. Nevertheless, the processing of networks is often tricky due to infusibility and insolubility of cross-linked chains. Therefore, the synthesis of PCL networks including thermo-reversible crosslinks based on (retro)-Diels-Alder (DA) reaction were developed to allowpreserving the melt-processing while keeping the required mechanical properties below the melting point. This paper aims at studying in depth, such thermo-dependent network formation and stability. Besides conventional swelling experi- ments, Raman spectroscopy was revealed as a powerful tool to follow the formation of the DA adduct during the crosslinking. In combination with rheological measurements, we were able to determine the most appropriate temperatures to form the network (DA crosslinking) and to process it (retro-DA re- action) without degradation of the material. [less ▲]

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See detailThe α CrB binary system: A new radial velocity curve, apsidal motion, and the alignment of rotation and orbit axes
Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Schröder, K.-P.; Rauw, Gregor ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 586

We present a new radial velocity curve for the two components of the eclipsing spectroscopic binary α CrB. This binary consists of two main-sequence stars of types A and G in a 17.3599-day orbit ... [more ▼]

We present a new radial velocity curve for the two components of the eclipsing spectroscopic binary α CrB. This binary consists of two main-sequence stars of types A and G in a 17.3599-day orbit, according to the data from our robotic TIGRE facility that is located in Guanajuato, Mexico. We used a high-resolution solar spectrum to determine the radial velocities of the weak secondary component by cross-correlation and wavelength referencing with telluric lines for the strongly rotationally broadened primary lines (v sin(i) = 138 km s[SUP]-1[/SUP]) to obtain radial velocities with an accuracy of a few hundred m/s. We combined our new RV data with older measurements, dating back to 1908 in the case of the primary, to search for evidence of apsidal motion. We find an apsidal motion period between 6600 and 10 600 yr. This value is consistent with the available data for both the primary and secondary and is also consistent with the assumption that the system has aligned orbit and rotation axes. [less ▲]

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See detailThe MiMeS survey of magnetism in massive stars: introduction and overview
Wade, G. A.; Neiner, C.; Alecian, E. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2016), 456

The MiMeS (Magnetism in Massive Stars) project is a large-scale, high-resolution, sensitive spectropolarimetric investigation of the magnetic properties of O- and early B-type stars. Initiated in 2008 and ... [more ▼]

The MiMeS (Magnetism in Massive Stars) project is a large-scale, high-resolution, sensitive spectropolarimetric investigation of the magnetic properties of O- and early B-type stars. Initiated in 2008 and completed in 2013, the project was supported by three Large Program allocations, as well as various programmes initiated by independent principal investigators, and archival resources. Ultimately, over 4800 circularly polarized spectra of 560 O and B stars were collected with the instruments ESPaDOnS (Echelle SpectroPolarimetric Device for the Observation of Stars) at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, Narval at the Télescope Bernard Lyot and HARPSpol at the European Southern Observatory La Silla 3.6 m telescope, making MiMeS by far the largest systematic investigation of massive star magnetism ever undertaken. In this paper, the first in a series reporting the general results of the survey, we introduce the scientific motivation and goals, describe the sample of targets, review the instrumentation and observational techniques used, explain the exposure time calculation designed to provide sensitivity to surface dipole fields above approximately 100 G, discuss the polarimetric performance, stability and uncertainty of the instrumentation, and summarize the previous and forthcoming publications. [less ▲]

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See detailFe XXV line profiles in colliding wind binaries
Rauw, Grégor ULg; Mossoux, Enmanuelle; Nazé, Yaël ULg

in New Astronomy (2016), 43

Strong wind-wind collisions in massive binaries generate a very hot plasma that frequently produces a moderately strong iron line. The morphology of this line depends upon the properties of the wind ... [more ▼]

Strong wind-wind collisions in massive binaries generate a very hot plasma that frequently produces a moderately strong iron line. The morphology of this line depends upon the properties of the wind interaction zone and its orientation with respect to the line of sight. As the binary components revolve around their common centre of mass, the line profiles are thus expected to vary. With the advent of the next generation of X-ray observatories (Astro-H, Athena) that will offer high-resolution spectroscopy above 6 keV, it will become possible to exploit these changes as the most sensitive probe of the inner parts of the colliding wind interaction. Using a simple prescription of the wind-wind interaction in an early-type binary, we have generated synthetic line profiles for a number of configurations and orbital phases. These profiles can help constrain the properties of the stellar winds in such binary systems. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring rotation periods of solar-like stars using TIGRE. A study of periodic CaII H+K S-index variability
Hempelmann, A.; Mittag, M.; Gonzalez-Perez, J. N. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 586

Context. The rotation period of a star is a key parameter both for the stellar dynamo that generates magnetic fields as well as for stellar differential rotation. <BR /> Aims: We present the results from ... [more ▼]

Context. The rotation period of a star is a key parameter both for the stellar dynamo that generates magnetic fields as well as for stellar differential rotation. <BR /> Aims: We present the results from the first year of monitoring a sample of solar-like stars by the TIGRE facility in Guanajuato (Mexico), which will study rotation in solar analogs. <BR /> Methods: TIGRE is an automatically operating 1.2 m telescope equipped with an Échelle spectrograph with a spectral resolution of 20 000, which covers a spectral range of between 3800 and 8800 Å. A main task is the monitoring the stellar activity of cool stars, mainly in the emission cores of the CaII H and K lines. We observed a number of stars with a sampling between 1-3 days over one year. <BR /> Results: A total number of 95 stars were observed between August 1 2013 and July 31 2014, the total number of spectra taken for this program was appoximately 2700. For almost a third of the sample stars the number of observations was rather low (less than 20), mainly because of bad weather. Fifty-four stars show a periodic signal but often with low significance. Only 24 stars exhibit a significant period. We interpret these signals as stellar rotation. For about half of them the rotation periods were already previously known, in which case our period measurements are usually in good agreement with the literature values. Besides the periodic signals, trends are frequently observed in the time series. <BR /> Conclusions: TIGRE is obviously able to detect stellar rotation periods in the CaII H+K emission cores when the time series contains a sufficient number of data points. However, this is frequently not achievable during the wet summer season in Guanajuato. Hence, future estimates of rotation periods will concentrate on stars that are observable during the winter season from October until April. [less ▲]

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See detailLens galaxies in the Illustris simulation: power-law models and the bias of the Hubble constant from time delays
Xu, Dandan; Sluse, Dominique ULg; Schneider, Peter et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2016), 456

A power-law density model, i.e. ρ (r) ∝ r^{-γ ^' }}, has been commonly employed in strong gravitational lensing studies, including the so-called time-delay technique used to infer the Hubble constant H ... [more ▼]

A power-law density model, i.e. ρ (r) ∝ r^{-γ ^' }}, has been commonly employed in strong gravitational lensing studies, including the so-called time-delay technique used to infer the Hubble constant H[SUB]0[/SUB]. However, since the radial scale at which strong lensing features are formed corresponds to the transition from the dominance of baryonic matter to dark matter, there is no known reason why galaxies should follow a power law in density. The assumption of a power law artificially breaks the mass-sheet degeneracy, a well-known invariance transformation in gravitational lensing which affects the product of Hubble constant and time delay and can therefore cause a bias in the determination of H[SUB]0[/SUB] from the time-delay technique. In this paper, we use the Illustris hydrodynamical simulations to estimate the amplitude of this bias, and to understand how it is related to observational properties of galaxies. Investigating a large sample of Illustris galaxies that have velocity dispersion σ[SUB]SIE[/SUB] ≥ 160 km s[SUP]-1[/SUP] at redshifts below z = 1, we find that the bias on H[SUB]0[/SUB] introduced by the power-law assumption can reach 20-50 per cent, with a scatter of 10-30 per cent (rms). However, we find that by selecting galaxies with an inferred power-law model slope close to isothermal, it is possible to reduce the bias on H[SUB]0[/SUB] to ≲ 5 per cent and the scatter to ≲ 10 per cent. This could potentially be used to form less biased statistical samples for H[SUB]0[/SUB] measurements in the upcoming large survey era. [less ▲]

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See detailDiversity and ecology survey of mosquitoes potential vectors in Belgian equestrian farms: A threat prevention of mosquito-borne equine arboviruses
Boukraa, Slimane ULg; de la Grandière, Maria Ana ULg; Bawin, Thomas ULg et al

in Preventive Veterinary Medicine (2016), 124

Emergence of West Nile Virus was recently recorded in several European countries, which can lead to severe health problems in horse populations. Europe is also at risk of introduction of mosquito-borne ... [more ▼]

Emergence of West Nile Virus was recently recorded in several European countries, which can lead to severe health problems in horse populations. Europe is also at risk of introduction of mosquito-borne equine alphavirus from Americas. Prevention of these arboviruses requires a clear understanding of transmission cycles, especially their vectors. To characterize mosquito fauna, their ecology and identify potential vectors of equine arboviruses in Belgium, entomological surveys of six equestrian farms located in the Wolloon Region were conducted during 2011–2012. The harvest of mosquitoes was based on larval sampling (272 samples from 111 breeding sites) and monthly adults trapping (CO2-baited traps, Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus). Among 51,493 larvae and 319 adult mosquitoes collected, morphological identification showed the presence of 11 species: Anopheles claviger (Meigen), An. maculipennis s.l. (Meigen), An. plumbeus (Stephens), Culex hortensis (Ficalbi), Cx. territans (Walker), Cx. pipiens s.l. L., Cx. torrentium (Martini), Coquillettidia richiardii (Ficalbi), Culiseta annulata (Schrank), Aedes cantans (Meigen), Ae. geniculatus (Olivier). Molecular identification of Cx. pipiens species complex allowed the detection of three molecular forms, Pipiens (92.3%), Molestus (4.6%) and Hybrid (3.1%). Larvae of Cx. pipiens sl and Cx. torrentium were omnipresent and the most abundant species. Water troughs, ponds and slurry (liquid manure) were the most favorable breeding sites of mosquito larvae. Based upon behavior and ecology of the identified mosquito species, Studied Belgian equestrian farms seem to provide a suitable environment and breeding sites for the proliferation of potential vectors of arboviruses and those being a real nuisance problem for horses and neighboring inhabitants. [less ▲]

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See detailCoeur de crèche
Courtejoie, Fabienne ULg

in A+ Architecture en Belgique (2016), 258

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See detailMesh Management Methods in Finite Element Simulations of Orthodontic Tooth Movement
Mengoni, Marlène ULg; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg; Boman, Romain ULg

in Medical Engineering & Physics (2016), 38(2), 140-147

In finite element simulations of orthodontic tooth movement, one of the challenges is to represent long term tooth movement. Large deformation of the periodontal ligament and large tooth displacment due ... [more ▼]

In finite element simulations of orthodontic tooth movement, one of the challenges is to represent long term tooth movement. Large deformation of the periodontal ligament and large tooth displacment due to bone remodelling lead to large distortions of the finite element mesh when a Lagrangian formalism is used. We propose in this work to use an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) formalism to delay remeshing operations. A large tooth displacement is obtained including effect of remodelling without the need of remeshing steps but keeping a good-quality mesh. Very large deformations in soft tissues such as the periodontal ligament is obtained using a combination of the ALE formalism used continuously and a remeshing algorithm used when needed. This work demonstrates that the ALE formalism is a very efficient way to delay remeshing operations. [less ▲]

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See detailDiacerein: Benefits, Risks and Place in the Management of Osteoarthritis. An Opinion-Based Report from the ESCEO
Pavelka, Karel; Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Cooper, Cyrus et al

in Drugs & Aging (2016)

Diacerein is a symptomatic slow-acting drug in osteoarthritis (SYSADOA) with anti-inflammatory, anti-catabolic and pro-anabolic properties on cartilage and synovial membrane. It has also recently been ... [more ▼]

Diacerein is a symptomatic slow-acting drug in osteoarthritis (SYSADOA) with anti-inflammatory, anti-catabolic and pro-anabolic properties on cartilage and synovial membrane. It has also recently been shown to have protective effects against subchondral bone remodelling. Following the end of the revision procedure by the Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee of the European Medicines Agency, the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) constituted a panel of 11 experts to better define the real place of diacerein in the armamentarium for treating OA. Based on a literature review of clinical trials and meta-analyses, the ESCEO confirms that the efficacy of diacerein is similar to that of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) after the first month of treatment, and superior to that of paracetamol. Additionally, diacerein has shown a prolonged effect on symptoms of several months once treatment was stopped. The use of diacerein is associated with common gastrointestinal disorders such as soft stools and diarrhoea, common mild skin reactions, and, uncommonly, hepatobiliary disorders. However, NSAIDs and paracetamol are known to cause potentially severe hepatic, gastrointestinal, renal, cutaneous and cardiovascular reactions. Therefore, the ESCEO concludes that the benefit–risk balance of diacerein remains positive in the symptomatic treatment of hip and knee osteoarthritis. Furthermore, similarly to other SYSADOAs, the ESCEO positions diacerein as a first-line pharmacological background treatment of osteoarthritis, particularly for patients in whom NSAIDs or paracetamol are contraindicated [less ▲]

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See detailSimultaneous production of acetic and gluconic acids by a thermotolerant Acetobacter strain during acetous fermentation in a bioreactor
Mounir, Majid ULg; shafiei, rasoul; Zarmehrkhorshid, Raziyeh et al

in Journal of Bioscience & Bioengineering (2016), 121(2), 166-171

The activity of bacterial strains significantly influences the quality and the taste of vinegar. Previous studies of acetic acid bacteria have primarily focused on the ability of bacterial strains to ... [more ▼]

The activity of bacterial strains significantly influences the quality and the taste of vinegar. Previous studies of acetic acid bacteria have primarily focused on the ability of bacterial strains to produce high amounts of acetic acid. However, few studies have examined the production of gluconic acid during acetous fermentation at high temperatures. The production of vinegar at high temperatures by two strains of acetic acid bacteria isolated from apple and cactus fruits, namely AF01 and CV01, respectively, was evaluated in this study. The simultaneous production of gluconic and acetic acids was also examined in this study. Biochemical and molecular identification based on a 16s rDNA sequence analysis confirmed that these strains can be classified as Acetobacter pasteurianus. To assess the ability of the isolated strains to grow and produce acetic acid and gluconic acid at high temperatures, a semi-continuous fermentation was performed in a 20-L bioreactor. The two strains abundantly grew at a high temperature (41°C). At the end of the fermentation, the AF01 and CV01 strains yielded acetic acid concentrations of 7.64% (w/v) and 10.08% (w/v), respectively. Interestingly, CV01 was able to simultaneously produce acetic and gluconic acids during acetic fermentation, whereas AF01 mainly produced acetic acid. In addition, CV01 was less sensitive to ethanol depletion during semi-continuous fermentation. Finally, the enzymatic study showed that the two strains exhibited high ADH and ALDH enzyme activity at 38°C compared with the mesophilic reference strain LMG 1632, which was significantly susceptible to thermal inactivation. [less ▲]

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See detailL'arrêt de mort des (trop) petites circonscriptions électorales wallonnes
Bouhon, Frédéric ULg

in Journal des Tribunaux (2016), 6634

Cet article propose un commentaire de l'arrêt n° 169/2015 de la Cour constitutionnelle belge, par lequel elle a considéré que les règles législatives qui instaurent les plus petites circonscriptions ... [more ▼]

Cet article propose un commentaire de l'arrêt n° 169/2015 de la Cour constitutionnelle belge, par lequel elle a considéré que les règles législatives qui instaurent les plus petites circonscriptions utilisées pour les élections du Parlement wallon sont inconstitutionnelles. L'article revient sur les enjeux du découpage du territoire en circonscriptions électorales, sur la jurisprudence antérieure en la matière et suggère un certain nombre d'adaptations que le législateur wallon pourrait adopter pour réagir à l'arrêt. [less ▲]

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See detailDoing better in more complex patients: leading the way for QUIP.
Osnabrugge, Ruben L.; Kappetein, A. Pieter; Head, Stuart J. et al

in European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery (2016), 49(2), 397-8

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See detailNumerical modeling of the long term behavior of Municipal Solid Waste in a bioreactor landfill
Hubert, Julien ULg; Collin, Frédéric ULg; Xianfeng, Liu

in Computers and Geotechnics (2016), 72

This paper presents a thermo-hydro–biochemo-mechanical model for simulating the long term behavior of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in a bioreactor landfill, in which the multi-physics coupling mechanism ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a thermo-hydro–biochemo-mechanical model for simulating the long term behavior of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in a bioreactor landfill, in which the multi-physics coupling mechanism plays a dominant role. In the model, a two-stage anaerobic biochemical model based on McDougall’s formulation is incorporated into a fully coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical models originally developed for unsaturated porous medium. The mechanical model is a modified Camclay model allowing for biochemical hardening/softening, while the thermal model is described by a classical energy balance equation with a source term accounting for the heat generation from the biodegradation of organic matter. The hydraulic model is an unsaturated flow model using Richard’s equation. The derived coupled model is implemented into an in-house built multi-physics finite element code. Finally, numerical simulations were performed to illustrate the capability of the proposed model for estimating long-term settlement of a bioreactor landfill and its aptitude as a landfill management tool for optimizing the landfill operation [less ▲]

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See detailUse of carbon - chlorine dual isotope analysis to assess the degradation pathways of 1,1,1-trichloroethane in groundwater
Palau, Jordi; Jamin, Pierre ULg; Badin, Alice et al

in Water Research (2016)

Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) is a powerful tool to track contaminant fate in groundwater. However, the application of CSIA to chlorinated ethanes has received little attention so far. These ... [more ▼]

Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) is a powerful tool to track contaminant fate in groundwater. However, the application of CSIA to chlorinated ethanes has received little attention so far. These compounds are toxic and prevalent groundwater contaminants of environmental concern. The high susceptibility of chlorinated ethanes like 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA) to be transformed via different competing pathways (biotic and abiotic) complicates the assessment of their fate in the subsurface. In this study, the use of a dual C-Cl isotope approach to identify the active degradation pathways of 1,1,1-TCA is evaluated for the first time in an aerobic aquifer impacted by 1,1,1-TCA and trichloroethylene (TCE) with concentrations of up to 20 mg/L and 3.4 mg/L, respectively. The reaction-specific dual carbon-chlorine (C-Cl) isotope trends determined in a recent laboratory study illustrated the potential of a dual isotope approach to identify contaminant degradation pathways of 1,1,1-TCA. Compared to the dual isotope slopes (Δδ13C/Δδ37Cl) previously determined in the laboratory for dehydrohalogenation / hydrolysis (DH/HY, 0.33 ± 0.04) and oxidation by persulfate (∞), the slope determined from field samples (0.6 ± 0.2, r2 = 0.75) is closer to the one observed for DH/HY, pointing to DH/HY as the predominant degradation pathway of 1,1,1-TCA in the aquifer. The observed deviation could be explained by a minor contribution of additional degradation processes. This result, along with the little degradation of TCE determined from isotope measurements, confirmed that 1,1,1-TCA is the main source of the 1,1-dichlorethylene (1,1-DCE) detected in the aquifer with concentrations of up to 10 mg/L. This study demonstrates that a dual C-Cl isotope approach can strongly improve the qualitative and quantitative assessment of 1,1,1-TCA degradation processes in the field. [less ▲]

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See detailMapping of riparian invasive species with supervised classification of Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) imagery
Michez, Adrien ULg; Piégay, Hervé; Lisein, Jonathan ULg et al

in International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation (2016), 44

Riparian zones are key landscape features, representing the interface between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Although they have been influenced by human activities for centuries, their degradation ... [more ▼]

Riparian zones are key landscape features, representing the interface between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Although they have been influenced by human activities for centuries, their degradation has increased during the 20th century. Concomitant with (or as consequences of) these disturbances, the invasion of exotic species has increased throughout the world’s riparian zones. In our study, we propose a easily reproducible methodological framework to map three riparian invasive taxa using Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) imagery: Impatiens glandulifera Royle, Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier and Levier, and Japanese knotweed (Fallopia sachalinensis (F. Schmidt Petrop.), Fallopia japonica (Houtt.) and hybrids). Based on visible and near-infrared UAS orthophoto, we derived simple spectral and texture image metrics computed at various scales of image segmentation (10,30, 45, 60 using eCognition software). Supervised classification based on the random forests algorithm was used to identify the most relevant variable (or combination of variables) derived from UAS imagery for mapping riparian invasive plant species. The models were built using 20% of the dataset, the rest of the dataset being used as a test set (80%). Except for H. mantegazzianum, the best results in terms of global accuracy were achieved with the finest scale of analysis (segmentation scale parameter = 10). The best values of overall accuracies reached 72%, 68%, and 97% for I. glandulifera, Japanese knotweed, and H. mantegazzianum respectively. In terms of selected metrics, simple spectral metrics (layer mean / camera brightness) were the most used. Our results also confirm the added value of texture metrics (GLCM derivatives) for mapping riparian invasive species. The results obtained for I. glandulifera and Japanese knotweed do not reach sufficient accuracies for operational applications. However, the results achieved for H. mantegazzianum are encouraging. The high accuracies values combined to relatively light model-inputs needed (delineation of a few umbels) make our approach a serious contender as a cost-effective tool to improve the field management of H. mantegazzianum. [less ▲]

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See detailEmployee Emotional Competence: Construct Conceptualization and Validation of a Customer-Based Measure
Delcourt, Cécile ULg; Gremler, Dwayne; van Riel, Allard et al

in Journal of Service Research (2016), 19(1), 72-87

Customers often experience intense emotions during service encounters. Their perceptions of how well contact employees demonstrate emotional competence in emotionally charged service encounters can affect ... [more ▼]

Customers often experience intense emotions during service encounters. Their perceptions of how well contact employees demonstrate emotional competence in emotionally charged service encounters can affect their service evaluations and loyalty intentions. Previous studies examining employees’ potential to behave in emotionally competent ways (i.e., employee emotional intelligence [EEI]) have used self- or supervisor-reported scales to predict customer outcomes, presenting EEI as stable and independent of the context. However, service firms should be more concerned with the actual display of emotionally competent behaviors by employees (employee emotional competence [EEC]), because employee behaviors vary across encounters. Moreover, a customer perspective of EEC is useful as customer perceptions of employee performance are crucial predictors of satisfaction and loyalty. Therefore, this study proposes a conceptualization and operationalization of EEC in a service encounter context. On the basis of a comprehensive literature review and in-depth interviews, the authors develop a scale to capture customer-perceived EEC, defined as an employee’s competence in perceiving, understanding, and regulating customer emotions during a discrete service encounter. The scale achieves good reliability and validity. Researchers can use it to explore the role of EEC in service contexts; managers can employ the scale to diagnose EEC and improve customers’ service encounter experiences. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes biobased polymer achieve better environmental impacts than fossil polymer? Comparison of fossil HDPE and biobased HDPE produced from sugar beet and wheat
Belboom, Sandra ULg; Léonard, Angélique ULg

in Biomass & Bioenergy (2016), 85

Polymers are one of the most used materials and the majority of their production is based on fossil fuels. Due to the decrease of oil resources and concerns about climate change, alternatives are needed ... [more ▼]

Polymers are one of the most used materials and the majority of their production is based on fossil fuels. Due to the decrease of oil resources and concerns about climate change, alternatives are needed, the transformation of biobased ethanol into biobased polymer being one of them. This paper undertakes an environmental evaluation of the production of biobased polymer produced from two different feedstock cultivated in Belgium: sugar beet and wheat. Both crops cultivation are studied as well as their transformation into biobased ethanol, first, and then to biobased ethylene, focusing on high-density polyethylene (HDPE) as final product. These scenarios are analyzed and compared with the production of conventional polymer using the life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology with reference to relevant environmental impact categories. This study shows a reduction of impact of around 60% for both climate change and fossil fuel depletion categories when using biobased HDPE instead of its fossil counterpart. For all other impact categories, fossil HDPE achieves better results than the biobased product. [less ▲]

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See detailData-driven selection of the minimum-gradient support parameter in time-lapse focused electrical imaging
Nguyen, Frédéric ULg; Kemna, Andreas; Robert, Tanguy et al

in Geophysics (2016), 81(1), 1-5

We have considered the problem of the choice of the minimum-gradient support (MGS) parameter in focused inversion for time-lapse (TL) electric resistivity tomography. Most existing approaches have relied ... [more ▼]

We have considered the problem of the choice of the minimum-gradient support (MGS) parameter in focused inversion for time-lapse (TL) electric resistivity tomography. Most existing approaches have relied either on an arbitrary choice of this parameter or one based on the prior information, such as the expected contrast in the TL image. We have decided to select the MGS parameter using a line search based on the value of the TL data root-mean-square misfit at the first iteration of the nonlinear inversion procedure. The latter was based on a Gauss-Newton scheme minimizing a regularized objective function in which the regularization functional was defined by the MGS functional. The regularization parameter was optimized to achieve a certain target level, following the Occam principles. We have validated our approach on a synthetic benchmark using a complex and heterogeneous model and determined its effectiveness on electric tomography TL data collected during a salt tracer experiment in fractured limestone. Our results have determined that the approach was successful in retrieving the focused anomaly and did not rely on prior information. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentités, préférences et attitudes des parlementaires envers le fédéralisme belge après la sixième réforme de l’État
Dodeigne, Jérémy ULg; Reuchamps, Min; Sinardet, Dave

in Courrier Hebdomadaire du CRISP (2016), 33

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See detailCompte-rendu de l'ouvrage de S. Gatto : Blues delle zucche
Curreri, Luciano ULg

in La poesia e lo spirito (2016)

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See detailA comparative study of models for shear strength of reinforced concrete deep beams
Liu, Jian ULg; Mihaylov, Boyan ULg

in Engineering Structures (2016), 112(April), 81-89

Since the 1960s, researchers have proposed different empirical formulas and analytical models for the shear strength of deep reinforced concrete beams. Some of these approaches have shown adequate ... [more ▼]

Since the 1960s, researchers have proposed different empirical formulas and analytical models for the shear strength of deep reinforced concrete beams. Some of these approaches have shown adequate accuracy when applied to small sets of beam tests, while their ability to predict the effect of a large range of test variables remains unknown. This paper presents a summary of models for deep beams from 73 publications, and focuses on a detailed evaluation of ten more recent models by using a database of 574 deep beam tests. It is found that a semi-empirical strut-and-tie model (STM) and a two-parameter kinematic theory (2PKT) for deep beams produce the least scattered predictions. The former model produced an average shear strength experimental-to-predicted ratio Vexp/Vpred of 1.00 with a coefficient of variation (COV) of 19.8%, while the latter resulted in an average of 1.08 with a COV of 15.4%. The two models are also compared by plotting the Vexp/Vpred ratios against different tests variables, and by performing parametric studies with individual test series. It is shown that the semi-empirical STM exhibits certain bias with respect to the shear-span-to-depth ratio, while the 2PKT produces uniform results across the entire range of experimental data. It is also noted that the semi-empirical STM requires somewhat less computational effort than the 2PKT approach. [less ▲]

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See detailSoil-specific calibration of capacitance sensors considering clay content and bulk density
Parvin, Nargish ULg; Degré, Aurore ULg

in Australian Journal of Soil Research (2016)

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See detailTradeoffs between Maize Silage Yield and Nitrate Leaching in a Mediterranean Nitrate- Vulnerable Zone under Current and Projected Climate Scenarios
Basso, Bruno; Giola, Pietro; Dumont, Benjamin ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2016), 11(1): e0146360

Future climatic changes may have profound impacts on cropping systems and affect the agronomic and environmental sustainability of current N management practices. The objectives of this work were to i ... [more ▼]

Future climatic changes may have profound impacts on cropping systems and affect the agronomic and environmental sustainability of current N management practices. The objectives of this work were to i) evaluate the ability of the SALUS crop model to reproduce experimental crop yield and soil nitrate dynamics results under different N fertilizer treatments in a farmer’s field, ii) use the SALUS model to estimate the impacts of different N fertilizer treatments on NO3- leaching under future climate scenarios generated by twenty nine different global circulation models, and iii) identify the management system that best minimizes NO3- leaching and maximizes yield under projected future climate conditions. A field experiment (maize-triticale rotation) was conducted in a nitrate vulnerable zone on the west coast of Sardinia, Italy to evaluate N management strategies that include urea fertilization (NMIN), conventional fertilization with dairy slurry and urea (CONV), and no fertilization (N0). An ensemble of 29 global circulation models (GCM) was used to simulate different climate scenarios for two Representative Circulation Pathways (RCP6.0 and RCP8.5) and evaluate potential nitrate leaching and biomass production in this region over the next 50 years. Data collected from two growing seasons showed that the SALUS model adequately simulated both nitrate leaching and crop yield, with a relative error that ranged between 0.4% and 13%. Nitrate losses under RCP8.5 were lower than under RCP6.0 only for NMIN. Accordingly, levels of plant N uptake, N use efficiency and biomass production were higher under RCP8.5 than RCP6.0. Simulations under both RCP scenarios indicated that the NMIN treatment demonstrated both the highest biomass production and NO3- losses. The newly proposed best management practice (BMP), developed from crop N uptake data, was identified as the optimal N fertilizer management practice since it minimized NO3- leaching and maximized biomass production over the long term. [less ▲]

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See detailLa médecine dans l’œil du cyclone
COUCKE, Philippe ULg

in Le spécialiste (2016)

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See detailFeasibility of improving a priori regional climate model estimates of Greenland ice sheet surface mass loss through assimilation of measured ice surface temperatures
Navari, M.; Margulis, S.A.; Bateni, S.M. et al

in Cryosphere (The) (2016), 10

The Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) has been the focus of climate studies due to its considerable impact on sea level rise. Accurate estimates of surface mass fluxes would contribute to understanding the cause ... [more ▼]

The Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) has been the focus of climate studies due to its considerable impact on sea level rise. Accurate estimates of surface mass fluxes would contribute to understanding the cause of its recent changes and would help to better estimate the past, current and future contribution of the GrIS to sea level rise. Though the estimates of the GrIS surface mass fluxes have improved significantly over the last decade, there is still considerable disparity between the results from different methodologies (e.g., Rae et al., 2012; Vernon et al., 2013). The data assimilation approach can merge information from different methodologies in a consistent way to improve the GrIS surface mass fluxes. In this study, an ensemble batch smoother data assimilation approach was developed to assess the feasibility of generating a reanalysis estimate of the GrIS surface mass fluxes via integrating remotely sensed ice surface temperature measurements with a regional climate model (a priori) estimate. The performance of the proposed methodology for generating an improved posterior estimate was investigated within an observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) framework using synthetically generated ice surface temperature measurements. The results showed that assimilation of ice surface temperature time series were able to overcome uncertainties in near-surface meteorological forcing variables that drive the GrIS surface processes. Our findings show that the proposed methodology is able to generate posterior reanalysis estimates of the surface mass fluxes that are in good agreement with the synthetic true estimates. The results also showed that the proposed data assimilation framework improves the root-mean-square error of the posterior estimates of runoff, sublimation/evaporation, surface condensation, and surface mass loss fluxes by 61, 64, 76, and 62 %, respectively, over the nominal a priori climate model estimates. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of thermal comfort in existing pre-1945 residential building stock
Kumar Singh, Manoj; Attia, Shady ULg; Mahapatra, Sadha et al

in Energy (2016), 98(March), 122-134

The building sector is the third-largest consumer of primary energy in Belgium. This is partly because of the high percentage of old buildings (buildings constructed before 1945) in its building stock ... [more ▼]

The building sector is the third-largest consumer of primary energy in Belgium. This is partly because of the high percentage of old buildings (buildings constructed before 1945) in its building stock. Existing international standards on thermal comfort focus primarily on new construction and commercial buildings but tend to overlook old buildings. This study involves a thermal comfort assessment of fully functional (in use) residential buildings constructed before 1945 in Liège (Belgium). The research methodology is based on continuous long term monitoring of the indoor environment (November 2011 to May 2012) and followed by comfort surveys for selected houses in the city. The analysis of the collected data shows that family composition, envelope performance and the occupants' interaction with the indoor environment greatly affected occupant preferences and functioning of the indoor thermal environment. This study reveals that the occupants' interaction with the indoor thermal environment to restore comfortable thermal conditions varies throughout the day, by adjusting the temperature in different rooms of the house at different times of the day. This study argues that modern comfort standards have failed to estimate the comfort level in these old buildings and, if applied, they would lead to under estimation of their thermal comfort. [less ▲]

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See detailTranscriptome-wide distribution and function of RNA hydroxymethylcytosine
Delatte, Benjamin; Wang, F; Ngoc, LV et al

in Science (2016), 351(6270), 282-285

Hydroxymethylcytosine, well described in DNA, occurs also in RNA. Here, we show that hydroxymethylcytosine preferentially marks polyadenylated RNAs and is deposited by Tet in Drosophila. We map the ... [more ▼]

Hydroxymethylcytosine, well described in DNA, occurs also in RNA. Here, we show that hydroxymethylcytosine preferentially marks polyadenylated RNAs and is deposited by Tet in Drosophila. We map the transcriptome-wide hydroxymethylation landscape, revealing hydroxymethylcytosine in the transcripts of many genes, notably in coding sequences, and identify consensus sites for hydroxymethylation. We found that RNA hydroxymethylation can favor mRNA translation. Tet and hydroxymethylated RNA are found to be most abundant in the Drosophila brain, and Tet-deficient fruitflies suffer impaired brain development, accompanied by decreased RNA hydroxymethylation. This study highlights the distribution, localization, and function of cytosine hydroxymethylation and identifies central roles for this modification in Drosophila. [less ▲]

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See detailColor in the urban environment: A user-oriented protocol for chromatic characterization and the development of a parametric typology
Nguyen, Ngoc Luan ULg; Teller, Jacques ULg

in Color Research and Application (2016)

This article presents a user-oriented protocol that can be used to characterize chromatic attributes of an urban area. A need for both affordable and reliable assessment method of color has been observed ... [more ▼]

This article presents a user-oriented protocol that can be used to characterize chromatic attributes of an urban area. A need for both affordable and reliable assessment method of color has been observed in the field of urban design. The challenge is to provide statistical answers to these two questions: how is color organized, how does it develop its own structure in the city? The main purpose of the research is hence to investigate mean color types within the city via the implementation of a characterization tool; an urban area of the four main classes (historic center, periurban housing districts, working-class neighborhoods, and commercial zones) being characterized by a specific color palette, or a layout of specific color types. The developed instrumentation allows the assessment of the homogeneous and consistent features of an urban district. Their characterization protocol was tested through an application to several streets of the city of Liège (Belgium). [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing the toxicity of Pb- and Sn-based perovskite solar cells in model organism Danio rerio
Babayigit, Aslihan; Dinh Duy Thanh, ULg; Ethirajan, Anitha et al

in Scientific Reports (2016), 6

Intensive development of organometal halide perovskite solar cells has lead to a dramatic surge in power conversion efficiency up to 20%. Unfortunately, the most efficient perovskite solar cells all ... [more ▼]

Intensive development of organometal halide perovskite solar cells has lead to a dramatic surge in power conversion efficiency up to 20%. Unfortunately, the most efficient perovskite solar cells all contain lead (Pb), which is an unsettling flaw that leads to severe environmental concerns and is therefore a stumbling block envisioning their large-scale application. Aiming for the retention of favorable electro-optical properties, tin (Sn) has been considered the most likely substitute. Preliminary studies have however shown that Sn-based perovskites are highly unstable and, moreover, Sn is also enlisted as a harmful chemical, with similar concerns regarding environment and health. To bring more clarity into the appropriateness of both metals in perovskite solar cells, we provide a case study with systematic comparison regarding the environmental impact of Pb- and Sn-based perovskites, using zebrafish (Danio Rerio) as model organism. Uncovering an unexpected route of intoxication in the form of acidification, it is shown that Sn based perovskite may not be the ideal Pb surrogate. [less ▲]

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See detailA comparison of two stretching programs for hamstring muscles: A randomized controlled assessor-blinded study
Demoulin, Christophe ULg; Wolfs, Sébastien ULg; Chevalier, Madeline et al

in Physiotherapy Theory & Practice (2016)

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See detailEffects of regional climate change on brown rust disease in winter wheat
JUNK, Jürgen; Kouadio, Louis; Delfosse, Philippe et al

in Climatic Change (2016)

Projected climate changes will affect wheat crop production both in the main processes of plant growth and development but also in the occurrences and severities of plant diseases. We assessed the ... [more ▼]

Projected climate changes will affect wheat crop production both in the main processes of plant growth and development but also in the occurrences and severities of plant diseases. We assessed the potential infection periods of wheat leaf rust (WLR) at two climatologically differentsites in Luxembourg. A threshold-based model, taking hourlyvalues of air temperatures, relative humidity and precipitation during night-time into account, was used for calculating favourable WLR infection days during three periods throughout the cropping season. Field experiments were conducted during the 2003–2013 period at the selected sites. Projected climate data, from a multi model ensemble of regional climate models (spatial resolution 25 km) as well as an additional projection with a higher spatial resolution of 1.3 km, were used for investigating the potential WLR infection periods for two future time spans. Results showed that the infections of WLR were satisfactorily simulated during the development of wheat at both sites for the 2003–2013 period. The probabilities of WLR detection were close to 1 and the critical success index ranged from 0.80 to 0.94 (perfect score = 1 for both). Moreover, the highest proportions of favourable days of WLR infection were simulated during spring and summer at both sites. Regional climate projections showed an increase in temperatures by 1.6 K for 2041–2050 and by 3.7 K for 2091–2100 compared to the reference period1991–2000. Positivetrends infavourableWLR infection conditions occur at both sites more conducive than in the reference period due to projected climatic conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailCollaborative analysis of multi-gigapixel imaging data using Cytomine
Marée, Raphaël ULg; Rollus, Loïc; Stévens, Benjamin et al

in Bioinformatics (2016)

Motivation: Collaborative analysis of massive imaging datasets is essential to enable scientific discoveries. Results: We developed Cytomine to foster active and distributed collaboration of ... [more ▼]

Motivation: Collaborative analysis of massive imaging datasets is essential to enable scientific discoveries. Results: We developed Cytomine to foster active and distributed collaboration of multidisciplinary teams for large-scale image-based studies. It uses web development methodologies and machine learning in order to readily organize, explore, share, and analyze (semantically and quantitatively) multi-gigapixel imaging data over the internet. We illustrate how it has been used in several biomedical applications. Availability: Cytomine (http://www.cytomine.be/) is freely available under an open-source license from http://github.com/cytomine/. A documentation wiki (http://doc.cytomine.be) and a demo server (http://demo.cytomine.be) are also available. [less ▲]

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See detailReview of M.G. Vassanji: Essays on His Works (edited by Asma Sayed)
Munos, Delphine ULg

in South Asian Diaspora (2016), online

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See detailSpin texture induced by oxygen vacancies in strontium perovskite (001) surfaces: A theoretical comparison between SrTiO3 and SrHfO3
Garcia Castro, Andrés Camilo ULg; Vergniory, Maia G.; Bousquet, Eric ULg et al

in Physical Review B (2016), 93

The electronic structure of SrTiO3 and SrHfO3 (001) surfaces with oxygen vacancies is studied by means of first-principles calculations. We reveal how oxygen vacancies within the first atomic layer of the ... [more ▼]

The electronic structure of SrTiO3 and SrHfO3 (001) surfaces with oxygen vacancies is studied by means of first-principles calculations. We reveal how oxygen vacancies within the first atomic layer of the SrTiO3 surface (i) induce a large antiferrodistortive motion of the oxygen octahedra at the surface, (ii) drive localized magnetic moments on the Ti 3d orbitals close to the vacancies, and (iii) form a two-dimensional electron gas localized within the first layers. The analysis of the spin texture of this system exhibits a splitting of the energy bands according to the Zeeman interaction, lowering of the Ti 3dxy level in comparison with dxz and dyz, and also an in-plane precession of the spins. No Rashba-like splitting for the ground state or for the ab initio molecular dynamics trajectory at 400 K is recognized as suggested recently by A. F. Santander-Syro et al. [Nat. Mater. 13, 1085 (2014)]. Instead, a sizable Rashba-like splitting is observed when the Ti atom is replaced by a heavier Hf atom with a much larger spin-orbit interaction. However, we observe the disappearance of the magnetism and the surface two-dimensional electron gas when full structural optimization of the SrHfO3 surface is performed. Our results uncover the sensitive interplay of spin-orbit coupling, atomic relaxations, and magnetism when tuning these Sr-based perovskites. [less ▲]

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See detailFar beyond primary poly(vinylamine)s through free radical copolymerization and amide hydrolysis
Dréan, Mathilde ULg; Guégan, Philippe; Jérôme, Christine ULg et al

in Polymer Chemistry (2016), 7(1), 69-78

Due to their affinity for many supports, their pH responsiveness, metal binding capacity and polyelectro- lyte complexation, poly(vinylamine) derivatives have attracted attention for many applications ... [more ▼]

Due to their affinity for many supports, their pH responsiveness, metal binding capacity and polyelectro- lyte complexation, poly(vinylamine) derivatives have attracted attention for many applications including coatings, water purification, or gas membrane separation. Nevertheless, most of them possess only pendant primary amines despite the possible benefits of incorporating different amino groups along the chain. In this work, a straightforward and scalable synthesis route towards polymers bearing primary and secondary amines, as well as imidazole groups, is reported. The general strategy relies on the radical copolymerization of different vinylamides and vinyl imidazoles followed by the hydrolysis of the resulting poly(vinylamide) derivatives. Binary and ternary free radical copolymerizations of N-vinylacetamide (NVA), N-methyl vinylacetamide (NMVA) and 1-vinylimidazole (VIm) were investigated and the reactivity ratios for each copolymerization system were determined. Thanks to these values a series of statistical copolymers with predictable composition and low deviation over the chain distribution could then be synthesized. Finally, the acidic hydrolysis of the acetamide functions towards the corresponding amine was performed and optimized. Copolymers containing various pendant amino groups and with low dispersity in the chain composition could be obtained, which opens new perspectives for the above mentioned applications. [less ▲]

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See detailProcessing of a new class of multifunctional hybrid for electromagnetic absorption based on a foam filled honeycomb
Bollen, Pierre; Quievy, Nicolas; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg et al

in Materials & Design (2016), 89

A multifunctional hybrid material class in the form of a sandwich panel has been developed towards the com- bined optimization of mechanical and electromagnetic absorption performance. The faces of the ... [more ▼]

A multifunctional hybrid material class in the form of a sandwich panel has been developed towards the com- bined optimization of mechanical and electromagnetic absorption performance. The faces of the panel are made of glass fibre reinforced epoxy composites and the core is made of carbon nanotube reinforced polymer foam filling a metallic honeycomb. The different processing strategies and options tested to fabricate the core material are described aswell as the associated scientific and technological issues. The most efficient processing route is by foaming the nanocomposite with a chemical foaming agent directly inside the honeycomb. This route offers a good surface finish and the operation can be achieved in one step. But, in order to produce large panels with a semi-continuous process, thermo-mechanical insertion of the foamed nanocomposite with supercritical CO2 can be more suitable. The characterization of the electromagnetic absorption of the panels produced by dif- ferent routes shows that the performance is not much sensitive to processing defects making possible upscaling to mass production. [less ▲]

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See detailA prospective cohort study of the clinical presentation of non-traumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head: spine and knee symptoms as clinical presentation of hip osteonecrosis.
HAUZEUR, Jean-Philippe ULg; Malaise, Michel ULg; de MARTELAER, v

in International Orthopaedics (2016)

To study the clinical presentation of femoral head osteonecrosis (ONFH). Publications dedicated to this aspect of ONFH are rare. Our aim was to systematically collect and describe the clinical data.

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See detailComprehensive comparison of the chemical and structural characterization of landfill leachate and leonardite humic fractions
Tahiri, Abdelghani ULg; Richel, Aurore ULg; Destain, Jacqueline ULg et al

in Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry (2016)

Humic substances (HS) are complex and heterogeneous mixtures of organic compounds that occur everywhere in the environment. They represent most of the dissolved organic matter in soils, sediments (fossil ... [more ▼]

Humic substances (HS) are complex and heterogeneous mixtures of organic compounds that occur everywhere in the environment. They represent most of the dissolved organic matter in soils, sediments (fossil), water, and landfills. The exact structure of HS macromolecules has not yet been determined because of their complexity and heterogeneity. Various descriptions of HS are used depending on specific environments of origin and research interests. In order to improve the understanding of the structure of HS extracted from landfill leachate (LHS) and commercial HS from leonardite (HHS), this study sought to compare the composition and characterization of the structure of LHS and HHS using elemental composition, chromatographic (high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)), and spectroscopic techniques (UV–vis, FTIR, NMR, and MALDI-TOF). The results showed that LHS molecules have a lower molecular weight and less aromatic structure than HHS molecules. The characteristics of functional groups of both LHS and HHS, however, were basically similar, but there was some differences in absorbance intensity. There were also less aliphatic and acidic functional groups and more aromatic and polyphenolic compounds in the humic acid (HA) fraction than in the fulvic acid (FA) and other molecules (OM) fractions of both origins. The differences between LHS and HHS might be due to the time course of humification. Combining the results obtained from these analytical techniques cold improve our understanding of the structure of HS of different origins and thus enhance their potential use. [less ▲]

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See detailInsan her şeyin ölçüsü şüdür? Çağdas dünya ısiğinda Protagoras
Gavray, Marc-Antoine ULg

in Sabah Ülkesi (2016), 46

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See detailAmplitude and frequency variations of oscillation modes in the pulsating DB white dwarf star KIC~08626021. The likely signature of nonlinear resonant mode coupling
Zong, W.; Charpinet, S.; Vauclair, G. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 585

Context. The signatures of nonlinear effects affecting stellar oscillations are difficult to observe from ground observatories because of the lack of continuous high-precision photometric data spanning ... [more ▼]

Context. The signatures of nonlinear effects affecting stellar oscillations are difficult to observe from ground observatories because of the lack of continuous high-precision photometric data spanning extended enough time baselines. The unprecedented photometric quality and coverage provided by the Kepler spacecraft offers new opportunities to search for these phenomena. Aims: We use the Kepler data accumulated on the pulsating DB white dwarf KIC 08626021 to explore in detail the stability of its oscillation modes, searching, in particular, for evidence of nonlinear behaviors. Methods: We analyze nearly two years of uninterrupted short-cadence data, concentrating on identified triplets that are caused by stellar rotation and that show intriguing behaviors during the course of the observations. Results: We find clear signatures of nonlinear effects that could be attributed to resonant mode coupling mechanisms. These couplings occur between the components of the triplets and can induce different types of behaviors. We first notice that a structure at 3681 μHz, identified as a triplet in previous published studies, is in fact forming a doublet, with the third component being an independent mode. We find that a triplet at 4310 μHz and this doublet at 3681 μHz (most likely the two visible components of an incomplete triplet) have clear periodic frequency and amplitude modulations, which are typical of the so-called intermediate regime of the resonance, with timescales consistent with theoretical expectations. Another triplet at 5073 μHz is likely in a narrow transitory regime in which the amplitudes are modulated while the frequencies are locked. Using nonadiabatic pulsation calculations, based on a model representative of KIC 08626021 to evaluate the linear growth rates of the modes in the triplets, we also provide quantitative information that could be useful for future comparisons with numerical solutions of the amplitude equations. Conclusions: The observed modulations are the clearest hints of nonlinear resonant couplings occurring in white dwarf stars identified so far. These should resonate as a warning to projects that aim at measuring the evolutionary cooling rate of KIC 08626021, and of white dwarf stars in general. Nonlinear modulations of the frequencies can potentially jeopardize any attempt to measure such rates reliably, unless they can be corrected beforehand. These results should motivate further theoretical work to develop the nonlinear stellar pulsation theory. [less ▲]

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See detailVariability in the super-Earth 55 Cnc e
Demory, Brice-Olivier; Gillon, Michaël ULg; Madhusudhan, Nikku et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2016), 455

Considerable progress has been made in recent years in observations of atmospheric signatures of giant exoplanets, but processes in rocky exoplanets remain largely unknown due to major challenges in ... [more ▼]

Considerable progress has been made in recent years in observations of atmospheric signatures of giant exoplanets, but processes in rocky exoplanets remain largely unknown due to major challenges in observing small planets. Numerous efforts to observe spectra of super-Earths, exoplanets with masses of 1-10 Earth masses, have thus far revealed only featureless spectra. In this paper, we report a 4σ detection of variability in the dayside thermal emission from the transiting super-Earth 55 Cancri e. Dedicated space-based monitoring of the planet in the mid-infrared over eight eclipses revealed the thermal emission from its dayside atmosphere varying by a factor of 3.7 between 2012 and 2013. The amplitude and trend of the variability are not explained by potential influence of star spots or by local thermal or compositional changes in the atmosphere over the short span of the observations. The possibility of large-scale surface activity due to strong tidal interactions possibly similar to Io, or the presence of circumstellar/circumplanetary material appear plausible and motivate future long-term monitoring of the planet. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effects of a documentary film about schizophrenia on cognitive, affective and behavioural aspects of stigmatisation
Thonon, Bénédicte ULg; Pletinx, Amandine; Grandjean, Allison et al

in Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry (2016), 50

Background and Objectives: Stereotypes about schizophrenia may lead to prejudicial attitudes and discrimination with debilitating effects on people diagnosed with schizophrenia. There is thus a need to ... [more ▼]

Background and Objectives: Stereotypes about schizophrenia may lead to prejudicial attitudes and discrimination with debilitating effects on people diagnosed with schizophrenia. There is thus a need to develop interventions aiming to prevent, reduce or eliminate such stereotypes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a documentary film on schizophrenia on cognitive, affective and behavioural aspects of stigmatisation. Methods: Forty-nine participants were assessed on measures of stereotypes and social distance, and on the Model of Stereotype Content, which includes measures of stereotypes, emotional reactions and behavioural tendencies. Participants were randomly assigned into either a condition in which they viewed the documentary film (Film group), or into a control condition in which no intervention was conducted (Control group). Results: Only participants in the Film group revealed a significant decrease of negative stereotypes (Dangerousness and Unpredictability) and desired Social distance, and a significant increase in the perception of sociability in persons with schizophrenia. Limitations: Small sample size and its reduced generalizability are the main limitations in this study. Conclusions: These findings suggest that a documentary film promoting indirect contact with people diagnosed with schizophrenia is a promising tool to prevent and reduce stigmatisation regarding schizophrenia. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrical resistivity tomography to monitor enhanced biodegradation of hydrocarbons with Rhodococcus erythropolis T902.1 at a pilot scale
Masy, Thibaut ULg; Caterina, David; Tromme, Oliver et al

in Journal of Contaminant Hydrology (2016), 184

Petroleum hydrocarbons (HC) represent the most widespread contaminants and in-situ bioremediation remains a competitive treatment in terms of cost and environmental concerns. However, the efficiency of ... [more ▼]

Petroleum hydrocarbons (HC) represent the most widespread contaminants and in-situ bioremediation remains a competitive treatment in terms of cost and environmental concerns. However, the efficiency of such a technique (by biostimulation or bioaugmentation) strongly depends on the environment affected and is still difficult to predict a priori. In order to overcome these uncertainties, Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) appears as a valuable non-invasive tool to detect soil heterogeneities and to monitor biodegradation. The main objective of this study was to isolate an electrical signal linked to an enhanced bacterial activity with ERT, in an aged HC-contaminated clayey loam soil. To achieve this, a pilot tank was built to mimic field conditions. Compared to a first insufficient biostimulation phase, bioaugmentation with Rhodococcus erythropolis T902.1 led to a HC depletion of almost 80% (6900 to 1600 ppm) in 3 months in the center of the contaminated zone, where pollutants were less bioavailable. In the meantime, lithological heterogeneities and microbial activities (growth and biosurfactant production) were successively discriminated by ERT images. In the future, this cost-effective technique should be more and more transferred to the field in order to monitor biodegradation processes and assist in selecting the most appropriate remediation technique. [less ▲]

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See detailVaricella paediatric hospitalisations in Belgium: a 1-year national survey.
Blumental, Sophie; Sabbe, Martine; Lepage, Philippe et al

in Archives of disease in childhood (2016), 101(1), 16-22

BACKGROUND: Varicella universal vaccination (UV) has been implemented in many countries for several years. Nevertheless, varicella UV remains debated in Europe and few data are available on the real ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Varicella universal vaccination (UV) has been implemented in many countries for several years. Nevertheless, varicella UV remains debated in Europe and few data are available on the real burden of infection. We assessed the burden of varicella in Belgium through analysis of hospitalised cases during a 1-year period. METHODS: Data on children admitted to hospital with varicella were collected through a national network from November 2011 to October 2012. Inclusion criteria were either acute varicella or related complications up to 3 weeks after the rash. RESULTS: Participation of 101 hospitals was obtained, covering 97.7% of the total paediatric beds in Belgium. 552 children were included with a median age of 2.1 years. Incidence of paediatric varicella hospitalisations reached 29.5/10(5) person-years, with the highest impact among those 0-4 years old (global incidence and odds of hospitalisation: 79/10(5) person-years and 1.6/100 varicella cases, respectively). Only 14% (79/552) of the cohort had an underlying chronic condition. 65% (357/552) of children had >/=1 complication justifying their admission, 49% were bacterial superinfections and 10% neurological disorders. Only a quarter of children (141/552) received acyclovir. Incidence of complicated hospitalised cases was 19/10(5) person-years. Paediatric intensive care unit admission and surgery were required in 4% and 3% of hospitalised cases, respectively. Mortality among Belgian paediatric population was 0.5/10(6) and fatality ratio 0.2% among our cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Varicella demonstrated a substantial burden of disease in Belgian children, especially among the youngest. Our thorough nationwide study, run in a country without varicella UV, offers data to support varicella UV in Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of coil orientation on strength-duration time constant and I-wave activation with controllable pulse parameter transcranial magnetic stimulation
D'Ostilio, Kevin ULg; Goetz, Stefan; Hannah, Ricci et al

in Clinical Neurophysiology (2016), 1

Objective: To compare the strength-duration (S-D) time constants of motor cortex structures activated by current pulses oriented posterior-anterior (PA) or anterior-posterior (AP) across the central ... [more ▼]

Objective: To compare the strength-duration (S-D) time constants of motor cortex structures activated by current pulses oriented posterior-anterior (PA) or anterior-posterior (AP) across the central sulcus. Methods: Motor threshold and input–output curve, along with motor evoked potential (MEP) latencies, of first dorsal interosseus were determined at pulse widths of 30, 60, and 120 μs using a controllable pulse parameter (cTMS) device, with the coil oriented PA or AP. These were used to estimate the S-D time constant and we compared with data for responses evoked by cTMS of the ulnar nerve at the elbow. Results: The S-D time constant with PA was shorter than for AP stimulation (230.9 ± 97.2 vs. 294.2 ± 90.9 us; p<0.001). These values were similar to those calculated after stimulation of ulnar nerve (197 ± 47us). MEP latencies to AP, but not PA stimulation were affected by pulse width, showing longer latencies following short duration stimuli. Conclusion: PA and AP stimuli appear to activate the axons of neurons with different time constants. Short duration AP pulses are more selective than longer pulses in recruiting longer latency corticospinal output. [less ▲]

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See detailProvenance of Ichthyosaura alpestris (Caudata: Salamandridae) introductions to France and New Zealand assessed by mitochondrial DNA analysis
Arntzen, Jan W.; King, Tania M.; Denoël, Mathieu ULg et al

in The Herpetological Journal (2016), 26(1), 49-56

The last century has seen an unparalleled movement of species around the planet as a direct result of human activity, which has been a major contributor to the biodiversity crisis. Amphibians represent a ... [more ▼]

The last century has seen an unparalleled movement of species around the planet as a direct result of human activity, which has been a major contributor to the biodiversity crisis. Amphibians represent a particularly vulnerable group, exacerbated by the devastating effects of chytrid fungi. We report the malicious translocation and establishment of the alpine newt (Ichthyosaura alpestris) to its virtual antipode in North Island of New Zealand. We use network analysis of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes to identify the original source population as I. a. apuana from Tuscany, Italy. Additionally, a population in southern France, presumed to be introduced, is identified as I. a. alpestris from western Europe. However, the presence of two differentiated haplotypes suggests a mixed origin. This type of analysis is made possible by the recent availability of a phylogenetic analysis of the species throughout its natural range. We discuss the particulars of both introductions. [less ▲]

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See detailCost-effectiveness of personalized supplementation with vitamin D-rich dairy products in the prevention of osteoporotic fractures
Ethgen, Olivier ULg; Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Burlet, Nansa et al

in Osteoporosis International (2016), 27

Summary: Titrated supplementations with vitamin D-fortified yogurt, based on spontaneous calcium and vitamin D intakes, can be cost-effective in postmenopausal women with or without increased risk of ... [more ▼]

Summary: Titrated supplementations with vitamin D-fortified yogurt, based on spontaneous calcium and vitamin D intakes, can be cost-effective in postmenopausal women with or without increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. Introduction: The objective of this study is to assess the costeffectiveness of the vitamin D-fortified yogurt given to women with and without an increased risk of osteoporotic fracture. Methods: Avalidated cost-effectiveness microsimulation Markov model of osteoporosis management was used. Three personalized supplementation scenarios to reflect the Ca/Vit D needs taking into account the well-known variations in dietary habits and a possible pharmacological supplementation in Ca/ Vit D, given above or in combination with anti-osteoporosis medications: one yogurt per day, i.e., 400 mg of Ca+200 IU of Vit D (scenario 1 U), two yogurts per day, i.e., 800 mg of Ca+ 400 IU of Vit D (scenario 2 U), or three yogurts per day, i.e., 1, 200 mg of Ca+600 IU of Vit D (scenario 3 U). Results: One yogurt is cost-effective in the general population above the age of 70 years and in all age groups in women with low bone mineral density (BMD) or prevalent vertebral fracture (PVF). The daily intake of two yogurts is cost-effective above 80 years in the general population and above 70 years in the two groups of women at increased risk of fractures. However, an intake of three yogurts per day is only cost-effective above 80 years old in the general population, as well as in women with low BMD or PVF. Conclusions: Our study is the first economic analysis supporting the cost-effectiveness of dairy products, fortified with vitamin D, in the armamentarium against osteoporotic fractures. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamical thermalization in Bose-Hubbard systems
Schlagheck, Peter ULg; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

in Physical Review. E : Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics (2016), 93

We numerically study a Bose-Hubbard ring of finite size with disorder containing a finite number of bosons that are subject to an on-site two-body interaction. Our results show that moderate interactions ... [more ▼]

We numerically study a Bose-Hubbard ring of finite size with disorder containing a finite number of bosons that are subject to an on-site two-body interaction. Our results show that moderate interactions induce dynamical thermalization in this isolated system. In this regime the individual many-body eigenstates are well described by the standard thermal Bose-Einstein distribution for well-defined values of the temperature and the chemical potential, which depend on the eigenstate under consideration. We show that the dynamical thermalization conjecture works well at both positive and negative temperatures. The relations to quantum chaos, quantum ergodicity, and the Åberg criterion are also discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailProjecting alternative urban growth patterns: The development and application of a remote sensing assisted calibration framework for the Greater Dublin Area
Van de Voorde, Tim; van der Kwast, Johannes; Poelmans, Lien et al

in Ecological Indicators (2016), 60

Land use change models are powerful tools that allow planners and policy makers to assess the long-term spatial and environmental impacts of their decisions. In order for these models to produce a ... [more ▼]

Land use change models are powerful tools that allow planners and policy makers to assess the long-term spatial and environmental impacts of their decisions. In order for these models to produce a realistic output, they should be properly calibrated. This is usually achieved by comparing simulated land-use maps of dates in the past to reference land-use maps of a corresponding date. As land-use data are often not readily or frequently available, we propose a two-stage calibration framework that includes existing land-use maps as well as remote sensing derived maps of the urban extent. Urban growth patterns for the Dublin area represented by remote sensing based maps were compared to simulated growth using spatial metrics in order to fine-tune the calibration of the MOLAND urban growth model of Dublin. We then used the calibrated model to forecast future urban growth according to four urban planning scenarios that have been defined for the Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Greater Dublin Area. We examined a selection of spatial metrics in order to determine their sensitivity to differences in spatial patterns between simulated and remote sensing derived data. We also investigated whether these metrics are useful to characterise future changes in the urban spatial structure that ensue from the planning scenarios. We found that with the exception of some metrics that strongly respond to differences in the amount of urban land, most metrics showed similar trends for simulated and remote sensing derived maps. Most metrics were also able to distinguish the growth patterns induced by the different spatial planning scenarios. The “business as usual scenario” in particular showed a clearly distinct trend compared to the other scenarios. We could also conclude that the urban growth pattern of Dublin as observed from both the remote sensing derived maps and the simulated maps of future land use seems to confirm the theory of alternating phases of diffusive growth and coalescence. [less ▲]

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See detailQuand la force enfonce des portes ouvertes. Analyse du traitement de Star Wars Episode VII par la critique professionnelle et amateure.
Krywicki, Boris ULg

in Culture, le Magazine Culturel de l'Université de Liège (2016)

On a rarement aperçu des phénomènes cinématographiques de l’ampleur de Star Wars. La plupart des séances étaient déjà complètes plusieurs semaines avant la sortie du dernier épisode. Les spectateurs sont ... [more ▼]

On a rarement aperçu des phénomènes cinématographiques de l’ampleur de Star Wars. La plupart des séances étaient déjà complètes plusieurs semaines avant la sortie du dernier épisode. Les spectateurs sont tous conquis en amont par ce messie monolithique. Quand il s'agit d'aborder un film-événement comme Star Wars, la critique de cinéma se cherche. Les timides tentatives de la rigide presse professionnelle qui hésite toujours à critiquer les productions hollywoodiennes font face à des vidéos de youtubeurs décomplexés. Cet article analyse les contrats de lecture de ces différents énonciateurs et le lecteur-modèle qu'ils envisagent pour traiter de Star Wars Episode VII. [less ▲]

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See detailCompte-rendu de : GÉRARD E., DE RIDDER W., MULLER F., Qui a tué Julien Lahaut ? Les ombres de la Guerre Froide en Belgique, Bruxelles, La Renaissance du Livre, 2015, 352 p.
Genin, Vincent ULg

in Bulletin d'Information de l'Association Belge d'Histoire Contemporaine = Mededelingenblad van de Belgische Vereniging voor Nieuwste Geschiedenis (2016), XXXVII(2015/4), 21-24

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See detailPopulatieonderzoek naar de Hazelmuis in de Voerstreek
Verbeylen, Goedele; Mouton, Alice ULg; Driessens, Gerald et al

in De Levende Natuur (2016), (numero 1),

The Hazel dormouse (Muscardinus avellanarius) is a habitat specialist that prefers dense shrub and tree vegetation and needs a high diversity of food plants on a limited area. Due to habitat degradation ... [more ▼]

The Hazel dormouse (Muscardinus avellanarius) is a habitat specialist that prefers dense shrub and tree vegetation and needs a high diversity of food plants on a limited area. Due to habitat degradation and fragmentation the Flemish distribution area of this critically endangered species has been reduced to the eastern part of the municipality of Voeren, where it forms a cross-border population with the Dutch Hazel dormice. Since 2003 the Mammal Working Group of Natuurpunt studies the remaining Flemish population to find out more about population parameters, habitat use, the influence of habitat quality and management actions. In 2007 a standardised monitoring started by counting autumnal nests along fixed transects. In 2013 an intensive capture-mark-recapture study was set up based on nest box and nest tube checks and live-trapping on custom made hanging platforms; also a first test with radiocollars took place. The information gathered from the combination of all these methods will be used to validate the monitoring method and to formulate better protection measures. First results show that late summer and autumn should not be considered as the main reproduction period, at least not in an early year like 2014 when first young were already born at the beginning of May. Hazel dormice do not only cross significant barriers like the railway during dispersal, but also do this regularly during their nightly movements within their home range. Expansion of the population on a location with sufficient connectivity seems to be hampered by a too low population density resulting from insufficient habitat quality and (in this case) a high predation pressure by house cats. On the scale of the Meuse-Rhine Euregion, genetic analyses carried out by the University of Liège reveal four genetically isolated clusters, for which a vision to interconnect these was computed in the Interreg-project ‘Habitat Euregio’. [less ▲]

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See detailLater learning stages in procedural memory are impaired in children with Specific Language Impairment
Desmottes, Lise ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg; Maillart, Christelle ULg

in Research in Developmental Disabilities (2016)

Background According to the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH), difficulties in the procedural memory system may contribute to the language difficulties encountered by children with Specific Language ... [more ▼]

Background According to the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH), difficulties in the procedural memory system may contribute to the language difficulties encountered by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Most studies investigating the PDH have used the sequence learning paradigm; however these studies have principally focused on initial sequence learning in a single practice session. Aims The present study sought to extend these investigations by assessing the consolidation stage and longer-term retention of implicit sequence-specific knowledge in 42 children with or without SLI. Methods and procedures Both groups of children completed a serial reaction time task and were tested 24 h and one week after practice. Outcomes and results Results showed that children with SLI succeeded as well as children with typical development (TD) in the early acquisition stage of the sequence learning task. However, as training blocks progressed, only TD children improved their sequence knowledge while children with SLI did not appear to evolve any more. Moreover, children with SLI showed a lack of the consolidation gains in sequence knowledge displayed by the TD children. Conclusions and implications Overall, these results were in line with the predictions of the PDH and suggest that later learning stages in procedural memory are impaired in SLI. [less ▲]

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See detailLa psychothérapie institutionnelle : un processus thérapeutique au service de la régulation émotionnelle et de l'empathie
Triffaux, Jean-Marc ULg; Gernay, Delphine; Servais, Catherine et al

in Encéphale (L') (2016)

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See detailComment je traite... la sténose aortique asymptomatique
MEURICE, Caroline ULg; DULGHERU, Raluca Elena ULg; PIERARD, Luc ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2016), (71), 6-10

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See detailPre-employement examination for low back risk in workers exposesd to manual handling of loads : French guidelines
PETIT, Audrey; ROUSSEAU, Sandrine; HUEZ, Jean-François et al

in International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health (2016), 89

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See detailDeveloping Tourism Products and new Partnerships through Participative Action Research in Rural Cameroon
Schmitz, Serge ULg; Lekane Tsoubgou, Dieudonné

in Geographical Research (2016)

The paper explores possible synergies between microfinance institutions and small and medium medium tourism businesses in the West Cameron Chiefdooms. Based on a research action the authors emphasise the ... [more ▼]

The paper explores possible synergies between microfinance institutions and small and medium medium tourism businesses in the West Cameron Chiefdooms. Based on a research action the authors emphasise the obstacles to the formation of partnership and describe how the researchers facilitated networking. [less ▲]

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See detail2D dynamic studies combined with the surface curvature analysis to predict Arias Intensity amplification
Torgoev, Almazbek ULg; Havenith, Hans-Balder ULg

in Journal of Seismology (2016)

A 2D elasto-dynamic modelling of the pure topographic seismic response is performed for six models with a total length of around 23.0 km. These models are reconstructed from the real topographic settings ... [more ▼]

A 2D elasto-dynamic modelling of the pure topographic seismic response is performed for six models with a total length of around 23.0 km. These models are reconstructed from the real topographic settings of the landslide-prone slopes situated in the Mailuu-Suu River Valley, Southern Kyrgyzstan. The main studied parameter is the Arias Intensity (Ia, m/sec), which is applied in the GIS-based Newmark method to regionally map the seismically-induced landslide susceptibility. This method maps the Ia values via empirical attenuation laws and our studies investigate a potential to include topographic input into them. Numerical studies analyse several signals with varying shape and changing central frequency values. All tests demonstrate that the spectral amplification patterns directly affect the amplification of the Ia values. These results let to link the 2D distribution of the topographically amplified Ia values with the parameter called as smoothed curvature. The amplification values for the low-frequency signals are better correlated with the curvature smoothed over larger spatial extent, while those values for the high-frequency signals are more linked to the curvature with smaller smoothing extent. The best predictions are provided by the curvature smoothed over the extent calculated according to Geli’s law. The sample equations predicting the Ia amplification based on the smoothed curvature are presented for the sinusoid-shape input signals. These laws cannot be directly implemented in the regional Newmark method, as 3D amplification of the Ia values addresses more problem complexities which are not studied here. Nevertheless, our 2D results prepare the theoretical framework which can potentially be applied to the 3D domain and, therefore, represent a robust basis for these future research targets. [less ▲]

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See detailCross-Modal Decoding of Neural Patterns Associated with Working Memory: Evidence for Attention-Based Accounts of Working Memory
Majerus, Steve ULg; Cowan, Nelson; Peters, Frédéric ULg et al

in Cerebral Cortex (2016), 26

Recent studies suggest common neural substrates involved in verbal and visual working memory (WM), interpreted as reflecting shared attention-based, short-term retention mechanisms. We used a machine ... [more ▼]

Recent studies suggest common neural substrates involved in verbal and visual working memory (WM), interpreted as reflecting shared attention-based, short-term retention mechanisms. We used a machine-learning approach to determine more directly the extent to which common neural patterns characterize retention in verbal WM and visual WM. Verbal WM was assessed via a standard delayed probe recognition task for letter sequences of variable length. Visual WM was assessed via a visual array WM task involving the maintenance of variable amounts of visual information in the focus of attention. We trained a classifier to distinguish neural activation patterns associated with high- and low-visual WM load and tested the ability of this classifier to predict verbal WM load (high–low) from their associated neural activation patterns, and vice versa. We observed significant between-task prediction of load effects during WM maintenance, in posterior parietal and superior frontal regions of the dorsal attention network; in contrast, between-task prediction in sensory processing cortices was restricted to the encoding stage. Furthermore, between-task prediction of load effects was strongest in those participants presenting the highest capacity for the visual WM task. This study provides novel evidence for common, attention-based neural patterns supporting verbal and visual WM. [less ▲]

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See detailPremière consultation de contraception chez les adolescentes
BELIARD, Aude ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2016), 71(1), 28-33

Adequate contraception prescription is mandatory for teenagers to avoid any unwanted pregnancy. Counselling and description of side effect improve compliance. Use of condom is important to avoid sexually ... [more ▼]

Adequate contraception prescription is mandatory for teenagers to avoid any unwanted pregnancy. Counselling and description of side effect improve compliance. Use of condom is important to avoid sexually transmitted infections. Combined estroprogestin contraception has multiple non-contraceptive benefits, e.g. dysmenorrhea improvement. Familial and personal history is needed before contraception prescription. Further consultation 3 months later has to be planned to evaluate compliance, side effects and to adapt contraception if needed. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterizing the morphology of suburban settlements: a method based on a semi-automatic classification of building clusters
de Smet, Fabian; Teller, Jacques ULg

in Landscape Research (2016), 41(1), 113-130

Urban sprawl is transforming our landscapes and rural areas at a spectacular pace. Measuring the strength of the phenomenon and proposing dynamic ways to delineate suburban areas have been the object of ... [more ▼]

Urban sprawl is transforming our landscapes and rural areas at a spectacular pace. Measuring the strength of the phenomenon and proposing dynamic ways to delineate suburban areas have been the object of much debate amongst scientists. The present article takes the view that, beyond measuring and delineating suburban areas, more efforts should be directed to qualifying the morphology of built settlements within these areas. Therefore it proposes a method based on a semi-automatic classification system of building clusters, designed to describe and interpret the phenomenon from a morphological perspective. This method is based on a combination of field surveys with numerical analyses of digital land cadastre maps. The application of this classification system to the suburban area around Liege reveals that, far from developing in a complete indifference of local conditions, contemporary suburban settlements are influenced by landscape structures inherited from the past. [less ▲]

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See detailXenobiotic and Immune-Relevant Molecular Biomarkers in Harbor Seals as Proxies for Pollutant Burden and Effects?
Lehnert, Kristina; Ronnenberg, Katrin; Weijs, Liesbeth et al

in Archives of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology (2016), 70(1), 106-120

Harbor seals are exposed to increasing pressure caused by anthropogenic activities in their marine environment. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and trace elements are hazardous contaminants which ... [more ▼]

Harbor seals are exposed to increasing pressure caused by anthropogenic activities in their marine environment. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and trace elements are hazardous contaminants which accumulate in tissues of harbor seals. POPs and trace elements can negatively affect the immune-system and have been reported e.g. to increase susceptibility to viral infections in seals. Biomarkers of the xenobiotic metabolism, cytokines and heat-shock-protein as cell mediators of the immune-system were established to evaluate the impact of environmental stressors on harbor seals. Harbor seals (n=54) were captured on sandbanks in the North Sea during 2009 to 2012. Medicals including hematology were performed, RNAlater blood samples were taken and analyzed using quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction. Normalized transcript copy numbers were correlated to hematology and POP concentration in blood, and trace metals in blood and fur. [less ▲]

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See detailShaping Pulses to Control Bistable Systems: Analysis, Computation and Counterexamples
Sootla, Aivar ULg; Oyarzun, Diego; Angeli, David et al

in Automatica (2016), 63

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See detailarchiDART: an R package for the automated computation of plant root architectural traits
Delory, Benjamin ULg; Baudson, Caroline ULg; Brostaux, Yves ULg et al

in Plant and Soil (2016), 398(1), 351-365

Background and Aims In order to analyse root system architectures (RSAs) from captured images, a variety of manual (e.g. Data Analysis of Root Tracings, DART), semi-automated and fully automated software ... [more ▼]

Background and Aims In order to analyse root system architectures (RSAs) from captured images, a variety of manual (e.g. Data Analysis of Root Tracings, DART), semi-automated and fully automated software packages have been developed. These tools offer complementary approaches to study RSAs and the use of the Root System Markup Language (RSML) to store RSA data makes the comparison of measurements obtained with different (semi-) automated root imaging platforms easier. The throughput of the data analysis process using exported RSA data, however, should benefit greatly from batch analysis in a generic data analysis environment (R software). Methods We developed an R package (archiDART) with five functions. It computes global RSA traits, root growth rates, root growth directions and trajectories, and lateral root distribution from DART-generated and/or RSML files. It also has specific plotting functions designed to visualise the dynamics of root system growth. Results The results demonstrated the ability of the package’s functions to compute relevant traits for three contrasted RSAs (Brachypodium distachyon [L.] P. Beauv., Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. and Solanum lycopersicum L.). Conclusions This work extends the DART software package and other image analysis tools supporting the RSML format, enabling users to easily calculate a number of RSA traits in a generic data analysis environment. [less ▲]

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See detailBreakdown of Anderson localization in the transport of Bose-Einstein condensates through one-dimensional disordered potentials
Dujardin, Julien ULg; Engl, Thomas; Schlagheck, Peter ULg

in Physical Review A (2016), 93

We study the transport of an interacting Bose–Einstein condensate through a 1D correlated disorder potential. We use for this purpose the truncated Wigner method, which is, as we show, corresponding to ... [more ▼]

We study the transport of an interacting Bose–Einstein condensate through a 1D correlated disorder potential. We use for this purpose the truncated Wigner method, which is, as we show, corresponding to the diagonal approximation of a semiclassical van Vleck–Gutzwiller representation of this many-body transport process. We also argue that semiclassical corrections beyond this diagonal approximation are vanishing under disorder average, thus confirming the validity of the truncated Wigner method in this context. Numerical calculations show that, while for weak atom-atom interaction strengths Anderson localization is preserved with a slight modification of the localization length, for larger interaction strengths a crossover to a delocalized regime exists due to inelastic scattering. In this case, the transport is fully incoherent. [less ▲]

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See detailL’infraction d’obstacle à la surveillance sous le spectre du droit au silence et du droit de ne pas s’auto-incriminer
Michiels, Olivier ULg; Falque, Géraldine ULg

in Orientations : la Revue du Droit Social et de la Gestion du Personnel (2016), (2006/1), 2-11

L'article fait le point sur le contrôle de l’application des lois sociales par les inspecteurs sociaux et le délit d’obstacle à la surveillance envisagé sous l'angle du droit au silence et du droit de ne ... [more ▼]

L'article fait le point sur le contrôle de l’application des lois sociales par les inspecteurs sociaux et le délit d’obstacle à la surveillance envisagé sous l'angle du droit au silence et du droit de ne pas s'auto-incriminer. Il envisage encore la cohabitation entre le délit d'obstacle et le droit au silence sous l’angle de la jurisprudence de la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme et du droit interne. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Methylmercury on Harbour Seal Peripheral Blood Leucocytes In Vitro Studied by Electron Microscopy
Dupont, Aurélie; De Pauw-Gillet, Marie-Claire ULg; Schnitzler, Joseph ULg et al

in Archives of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology (2016), 70(1), 133-142

Methylmercury MeHg is highly immunotoxic and can alter the health status of the harbour seal, Phoca vitulina, from the North Sea. To investigate the mechanism of MeHg-induced toxicity in harbour seal ... [more ▼]

Methylmercury MeHg is highly immunotoxic and can alter the health status of the harbour seal, Phoca vitulina, from the North Sea. To investigate the mechanism of MeHg-induced toxicity in harbour seal lymphocytes, ConA-stimulated peripheral blood leucocytes were exposed in vitro to sub-lethal concentrations of MeHgCl (0.2, 1 and 2 µM) for 72h, and then analysed for their viability and ultrastructure. After 72h of incubation, cells were counted with a propidium iodide staining technique, a metabolic MTS assay was performed, and cells exposed to 1 µM MeHgCl were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Alive cell numbers decreased with increased MeHgCl concentrations. In presence of ConA and 1µM of MeHgCl, TEM images revealed a higher frequency of apoptotic cells. Exposed cells displayed condensation of the chromatin at the nuclear membrane and mitochondrial damages. The results suggest that in vitro MeHgCl induced apoptosis in harbour seal lymphocytes through a mitochondrial pathway. [less ▲]

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See detailSmall-Angle Neutron Scattering investigation of cholesterol-doped DMPC liposomes interacting with β-cyclodextrin
Joset, Arnaud ULg; Grammenos, Angeliki; Hoebeke, Maryse ULg et al

in Journal of Inclusion Phenomena and Macrocyclic Chemistry (2016), 84(1), 153-161

The Small-Angle Neutron Scattering technique (SANS) has been applied to characterize the influence of a randomly methylated β–cyclodextrin (CD), called RAMEB, on dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC ... [more ▼]

The Small-Angle Neutron Scattering technique (SANS) has been applied to characterize the influence of a randomly methylated β–cyclodextrin (CD), called RAMEB, on dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) liposomes doped with cholesterol. From the modelling of the experimental neutron scattering crosssections, the detailed response of the vesicle structure upon addition of increasing amounts of RAMEB up to 30 mM has been assessed. This study has been performed below and above the DMPC bilayer phase transition temperature and shows that cholesterol extraction by RAMEB is linked to a decrease of the average radius and of the aggregation number of the vesicles. This extraction takes place in a dose-dependent way until a more monodisperse population of cholesterol-free liposomes was obtained. In addition, the bilayer thickness evolution was inferred, as well as the liposome coverage by RAMEB. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomatic artifacts and arousals detection in whole-night sleep EEG recordings
Coppieters't Wallant, Dorothée ULg; Muto, Vincenzo ULg; Gaggioni, Giulia ULg et al

in Journal of Neuroscience Methods (2016), 258

In sleep electroencephalographic (EEG) signals, artifacts and arousals marking are usually part of the processing. This visual inspection by a human expert has two main drawbacks: it is very time ... [more ▼]

In sleep electroencephalographic (EEG) signals, artifacts and arousals marking are usually part of the processing. This visual inspection by a human expert has two main drawbacks: it is very time consuming and subjective. To detect artifacts and arousals in a reliable, systematic and reproducible automatic way, we developed an automatic detection based on time and frequency analysis with adapted thresholds derived from data themselves. The automatic detection performance is assessed using 5 statistic parameters, on 60 whole night sleep recordings coming from 35 healthy volunteers (male and female) aged between 19 and 26. The proposed approach proves its robustness against inter- and intra-, subjects and raters’ scorings, variability. The agreement with human raters is rated overall from substantial to excellent and provides a significantly more reliable method than between human raters. Existing methods detect only specific artifacts or only arousals, and/or these methods are validated on short episodes of sleep recordings, making it difficult to compare with our whole night results. The method works on a whole night recording and is fully automatic, reproducible, and reliable. Furthermore the implementation of the method will be made available online as open source code. [less ▲]

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See detailL'intentionnalité cognitive et ses modes. Reinach critique de Brentano
Dewalque, Arnaud ULg

in Philosophie (2016), 128(Janvier 2016), 20-33

Dans cet article, je suggère que la théorie reinachienne du jugement peut être vue comme une contribution à une théorie générale de l’intentionnalité cognitive et de ses modes. À cette fin, je focaliserai ... [more ▼]

Dans cet article, je suggère que la théorie reinachienne du jugement peut être vue comme une contribution à une théorie générale de l’intentionnalité cognitive et de ses modes. À cette fin, je focaliserai mon attention sur certaines divergences significatives entre Reinach et Brentano. Après quelques réflexions introductives (§§ 1-2), j’examinerai plus exactement les questions suivantes : quels sont les motifs théoriques qui ont conduit Reinach à s’écarter de la théorie brentanienne du jugement (§§ 3-4) ? Et que retenir de ses analyses aujourd’hui (§§ 5-6) ? [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of seed traits variation on seedling performance of the invasive weed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.
Ortmans, William ULg; Mahy, Grégory ULg; Monty, Arnaud ULg

in Acta Oecologica: International Journal of Ecology (2016), 71

Seedling performance can determine the survival of a juvenile plant and impact adult plant performance. Understanding the factors that may impact seedling performance is thus critical, especially for ... [more ▼]

Seedling performance can determine the survival of a juvenile plant and impact adult plant performance. Understanding the factors that may impact seedling performance is thus critical, especially for annuals, opportunists or invasive plant species. Seedling performance can vary among mothers or populations in response to environmental conditions or under the influence of seed traits. However, very few studies have investigated seed traits variations and their consequences on seedling performance. Specifically, the following questions have been addressed by this work: 1) How the seed traits of the invasive Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. vary among mothers and populations, as well as along the latitude; 2) How do seed traits influence seedling performance; 3) Is the influence on seedlings temperature dependent. With seeds from nine Western Europe ruderal populations, seed traits that can influence seedling development were measured. The seeds were sown into growth chambers with warmer or colder temperature treatments. During seedling growth, performance-related traits were measured. A high variability in seed traits was highlighted. Variation was determined by the mother identity and population, but not latitude. Together, the temperature, population and the identity of the mother had an effect on seedling performance. Seed traits had a relative impact on seedling performance, but this did not appear to be temperature dependent. Seedling performance exhibited a strong plastic response to the temperature, was shaped by the identity of the mother and the population, and was influenced by a number of seed traits. [less ▲]

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See detailRe-visiting plant plasma membrane lipids in tobacco: a focus on sphingolipids
Cacas, Jean Luc; Buré, Corinne; Grosjean, Kevin et al

in Plant Physiology (2016), 170

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See detailCompeting effects of volume change and water uptake on the water retention behaviour of a compacted MX-80 bentonite/sand mixture
Gatabin, Claude; Talandier, Jean; Collin, Frédéric ULg et al

in Applied Clay Science (2016), 121-122

Bentonite-based materials have been studied as potential barriers for the geological disposal of radioactive waste. In this context, the hydro-mechanical behaviour of the engineered barrier is first ... [more ▼]

Bentonite-based materials have been studied as potential barriers for the geological disposal of radioactive waste. In this context, the hydro-mechanical behaviour of the engineered barrier is first characterized by free swelling conditions (as a consequence of the progressive filling of technological gaps) followed by constant volume conditions. This paper presents an experimental study conducted in order to characterize the water retention behaviour of a compacted MX-80 bentonite/sand mixture. The water retention properties upon wetting were investigated under both free swelling and constant volume conditions. In the high suction range, the water content was not influenced by the imposed volume constraints. On the contrary, swelling significantly affected the water retention behaviour at low suctions, and the quantity of water stored was higher under free swelling conditions than it was under prevented swelling. In this case, competing effects between bentonite swelling and water uptake did not lead to an increase of the degree of saturation upon wetting, as it was observed for samples wetted under constant volume conditions. The influence of the very strong hydro-mechanical coupling is further discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailTreacher Collins syndrome: a clinical and molecular study based on a large series of patients.
Vincent, Marie; Genevieve, David; Ostertag, Agnes et al

in Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics (2016), 18(1), 49-56

PURPOSE: Treacher Collins/Franceschetti syndrome (TCS; OMIM 154500) is a disorder of craniofacial development belonging to the heterogeneous group of mandibulofacial dysostoses. TCS is classically ... [more ▼]

PURPOSE: Treacher Collins/Franceschetti syndrome (TCS; OMIM 154500) is a disorder of craniofacial development belonging to the heterogeneous group of mandibulofacial dysostoses. TCS is classically characterized by bilateral mandibular and malar hypoplasia, downward-slanting palpebral fissures, and microtia. To date, three genes have been identified in TCS:,TCOF1, POLR1D, and POLR1C. METHODS: We report a clinical and extensive molecular study, including TCOF1, POLR1D, POLR1C, and EFTUD2 genes, in a series of 146 patients with TCS. Phenotype-genotype correlations were investigated for 19 clinical features, between TCOF1 and POLR1D, and the type of mutation or its localization in the TCOF1 gene. RESULTS: We identified 92/146 patients (63%) with a molecular anomaly within TCOF1, 9/146 (6%) within POLR1D, and none within POLR1C. Among the atypical negative patients (with intellectual disability and/or microcephaly), we identified four patients carrying a mutation in EFTUD2 and two patients with 5q32 deletion encompassing TCOF1 and CAMK2A in particular. Congenital cardiac defects occurred more frequently among patients with TCOF1 mutation (7/92, 8%) than reported in the literature. CONCLUSION: Even though TCOF1 and POLR1D were associated with extreme clinical variability, we found no phenotype-genotype correlation. In cases with a typical phenotype of TCS, 6/146 (4%) remained with an unidentified molecular defect.Genet Med 18 1, 49-56. [less ▲]

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See detailcompte rendu de : Lenglet-Dufresnoy, Écrits inédits sur le roman. Édité par J. Herman et J. Cormier. Oxford, Voltaire Foundation, 2014.
Decoster, Sara ULg

in Revue d'Histoire Littéraire de la France (2016), 116(1), 222-224

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See detailReconstruction of the Schmallenberg virus epidemic in Belgium: Complementary use of disease surveillance approaches
Poskin, A; Theron, Léonard ULg; Hanon, JB et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (2016), 183

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See detailDes situations-limites au dépassement de la situation : phénoménologie d'un concept sartrien
Cormann, Grégory ULg; Englebert, Jérôme ULg

in Sartre Studies International (2016), 22(1),

Dans cet article, nous explorons le concept de situation, en-deçà et au-delà de sa thématisation par Sartre, à partir de L’imaginaire, dans les Carnets de la drôle de guerre puis dans L’être et le néant ... [more ▼]

Dans cet article, nous explorons le concept de situation, en-deçà et au-delà de sa thématisation par Sartre, à partir de L’imaginaire, dans les Carnets de la drôle de guerre puis dans L’être et le néant. Notre approche se fonde sur un double mouvement : d’une part, une archéologie du concept dans le contexte de la première percée de la phénoménologie en France dans les années 1930 ; d’autre part, une attention à son possible dépassement deux décennies plus tard. Dans une relation serrée avec les développements de la psychopathologie de son temps, il s’agit d’abord de situer la prétention de l’Esquisse d’une théorie des émotions à poser les bases d’une phénoménologie de « l’homme en situation », ensuite d’éclairer la reprise critique du concept dans Questions de méthode, dans l’exposition de la méthode progressive-régressive. En somme, il s’agit de montrer comment s’élabore progressivement chez Sartre une « herméneutique de l’existence » qui fait droit à la liberté, puis se donne les moyens d’en suivre l’action effective dans le monde. [less ▲]

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See detailLes croyances délétères des patients lombalgiques : revue narrative de la littérature
Demoulin, Christophe ULg; Roussel, Nathalie; Marty, Marc et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2016), 71(1), 40-46

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See detailBrentano, la théorie des catégories et la définition de la substance
Boccaccini, Federico ULg

in Etudes Philosophiques (2016)

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See detailDe la perversion au pervers ; du sexuel à l’adaptatif
Englebert, Jérôme ULg

in Psychosomatique Relationnelle (2016), 5(1),

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See detailFlexible estimation in cure survival models using Bayesian P-splines
Bremhorst, Vincent; Lambert, Philippe ULg

in Computational Statistics & Data Analysis (2016), 93

In the analysis of survival data, it is usually assumed that any unit will experience the event of interest if it is observed for a sufficiently long time. However, it can be explicitly assumed that an ... [more ▼]

In the analysis of survival data, it is usually assumed that any unit will experience the event of interest if it is observed for a sufficiently long time. However, it can be explicitly assumed that an unknown proportion of the population under study will never experience the monitored event. The promotion time model, which has a biological motivation, is one of the survival models taking this feature into account. The promotion time model assumes that the failure time of each subject is generated by the minimum of N independent latent event times with a common distribution independent of N. An extension which allows the covariates to influence simultane- ously the probability of being cured and the latent distribution is presented. The latent distribution is estimated using a flexible Cox proportional hazard model where the logarithm of the baseline hazard function is specified using Bayesian P-splines. Introducing covariates in the latent distribution implies that the population hazard function might not have a proportional hazard structure. However, the use of P- splines provides a smooth estimation of the population hazard ratio over time. The identification issues of the model are discussed and a restricted use of the model when the follow up of the study is not sufficiently long is proposed. The accuracy of our methodology is evaluated through a simulation study and the model is illustrated on data from a Melanoma clinical trial. [less ▲]

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See detailPalindromic sequences generated from marked morphisms
Labbé, Sébastien ULg; Pelantova, Edita

in European Journal of Combinatorics (2016), 51

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See detailCompte rendu, La mise en scène des produits et des marques. Représentations,significations, publics
Duchesne, Caroline ULg

in Questions de Communication (2016), 28

Actes d’un colloque interdisciplinaire organisé en juillet 2013 à l’Institut universitaire de technologie Nancy-Charlemagne, le volume rassemble douze contributions envisageant, en trois temps ... [more ▼]

Actes d’un colloque interdisciplinaire organisé en juillet 2013 à l’Institut universitaire de technologie Nancy-Charlemagne, le volume rassemble douze contributions envisageant, en trois temps, l’évolution stratégique de la mise en scène des marques, la place symbolique occupée par celles-ci dans l’espace social et l’interpénétration grandissante des registres commerciaux et culturels présidant à leur positionnement stratégique. [less ▲]

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