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See detailMonitoring of anatabine release by methyl jasmonate elicited BY-2 cells using surface-enhanced Raman scattering
De Bleye, Charlotte ULg; Dumont, Elodie ULg; Dispas, Amandine ULg et al

in Talanta (2016), 160

A new application of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) in the field of plant material analysis is proposed in this study. The aim was to monitor the release of anatabine by methyl jasmonate (MeJa ... [more ▼]

A new application of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) in the field of plant material analysis is proposed in this study. The aim was to monitor the release of anatabine by methyl jasmonate (MeJa) elicited Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) cells. Gold nanoparticles (AuNps) were used as SERS substrate. The first step was to study the SERS activity of anatabine in a complex matrix comprising the culture medium and BY-2 cells. The second step was the calibration. This one was successfully performed directly in the culture medium in order to take into account the matrix effect, by spiking the medium with different concentrations of anatabine, leading to solutions ranging from 250 to 5000 µg L-1. A univariate analysis was performed, the intensity of a band situated at 1028 cm-1, related to anatabine, was plotted against the anatabine concentration. A linear relationship was observed with a R2 of 0.9951. During the monitoring study, after the MeJa elicitation, samples were collected from the culture medium containing BY-2 cells at 0, 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h and were analyzed using SERS. Finally, the amount of anatabine released in the culture medium was determined using the response function, reaching a plateau after 72h of 82 µg of anatabine released / g of fresh weight (FW) MeJa elicited BY-2 cells. [less ▲]

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See detailCollaborative Care regarding major depressed patients: A review of guidelines and current practices
Van den Broeck, Kris; Remmen, Roy; Vanmeerbeek, Marc ULg et al

in Journal of Affective Disorders (2016), 200

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a severe and common mental disorder. A growing body of evidence suggests that stepped and/or collaborative care treatment models have several advantages for severely ... [more ▼]

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a severe and common mental disorder. A growing body of evidence suggests that stepped and/or collaborative care treatment models have several advantages for severely depressed patients and caretakers. However, despite the availability of these treatment strategies and guidance initiatives, many depressive patients are solely treated by the general practitioner (GP), and collaborative care is not common. In this paper, we review a selected set of international guidelines to inventory the best strategies for GPs and secondary mental health care providers to collaborate when treating depressed patients. Additionally, we systematically searched the literature, listing potential ways of cooperation, and potentially supporting tools. We conclude that the prevailing guidelines only include few and rather vague directions regarding the cooperation between GPs and specialised mental health practitioners. Inspiring recent studies, however, suggest that relatively little efforts may result in effective collaborative care and a broader implementation of the guidelines in general. [less ▲]

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See detailA general methodology for optimal load management with distributed renewable energy generation and storage in residential housing
Georges, Emeline ULg; Braun, James; Lemort, Vincent ULg

in Journal of Building Performance Simulation [=JBPS] (2016)

In the US, buildings represent around 40% of the primary energy consumption and 74% of the electrical energy consumption [U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). 2012. 2011 Buildings Energy Data Book. Energy ... [more ▼]

In the US, buildings represent around 40% of the primary energy consumption and 74% of the electrical energy consumption [U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). 2012. 2011 Buildings Energy Data Book. Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy]. Incentives to promote the installation of on-site renewable energy sources have emerged in different states, including net metering programmes. The fast spread of such distributed power generation represents additional challenges for the management of the electricity grid and has led to increased interest in smart control of building loads and demand response programmes. This paper presents a general methodology for assessing opportunities associated with optimal load management in response to evolving utility incentives for residential buildings that employ renewable energy sources and energy storage. An optimal control problem is formulated for manipulating thermostatically controlled domestic loads and energy storage in response to the availability of renewable energy generation and utility net metering incentives. The methodology is demonstrated for a typical American house built in the 1990s and equipped with a single-speed air-to-air heat pump, an electric water heater and photovoltaic (PV) collectors. The additional potential associated with utilizing electrical batteries is also considered. Load matching performance for on-site renewable energy generation is characterized in terms of percentage of the electricity production consumed on-site and the proportion of the demand covered. For the purpose of assessing potential, simulations were performed assuming perfect predictions of the electrical load profiles. The method also allows determination of the optimal size of PV systems for a given net metering programme. Results of the case study showed significant benefits associated with control optimization including an increase of load matching between 3% and 28%, with the improvement dependent on the net metering tariff and available storage capacity. The estimated cost savings for the consumer ranged from 6.4% to 27.5% compared to no optimization with a unitary buy-back ratio, depending on the available storage capacity. Related reduction in CO2 emissions were between 11% and 46%. Optimal load management of the home thermal systems allowed an increase in the optimal size of the PV system in the range of 13–21%. [less ▲]

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See detailDownstream community impact lesson for future: case study of multipurpose Nam Mang 3 hydropower Project in Lao PDR
Kouangpalath, Phimthong ULg; Lebailly, Philippe ULg; Ducourtieux, Olivier

in Sky Journal of Agricultural Research (2016)

Considering future projects, this paper examines the effects of hydropower dam projects on downstream communities. This study was conducted in the multi-purpose hydropower and irrigated areas of the Nam ... [more ▼]

Considering future projects, this paper examines the effects of hydropower dam projects on downstream communities. This study was conducted in the multi-purpose hydropower and irrigated areas of the Nam Mang 3 Hydropower. Using a survey study with various stakeholders, household survey, several interviews were held with key informants in addition to field work observation. It was determined that this project has caused a number of negative impacts on farmers, especially those in downstream areas, directly reducing the water supply for agriculture and affecting the benefits from irrigation.. The main findings show that farmers are able to grow a second season of rice crops, but the electricity generated in the rainy season from the dam leads to the rice fields flooding along the downstream areas. [less ▲]

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See detailGuided group purchases of energy renovation services and works in deprived urban neighbourhoods
Ruelle, Christine ULg; Teller, Jacques ULg

in Energy Efficiency (2016), 9(4), 861-874

The energy retrofitting of housings is progressing very slowly in Wallonia (Belgium) despite individual fiscal measures and subsidies offered by public authorities to support households engaging in this ... [more ▼]

The energy retrofitting of housings is progressing very slowly in Wallonia (Belgium) despite individual fiscal measures and subsidies offered by public authorities to support households engaging in this process. This paper explores the use of a method called ‘Guided Group Purchases’ (GPPs), i.e. an approach combining support, guidance and group purchasing of energy renovation services and works, as a possible method to accelerate the retrofitting of the existing housing stock. It reports on an action research experiment conducted in the context of the Interreg project ‘SUN’ (Sustainable Urban Neighbourhoods). The results of this experiment are quite promising. Within a few months, some 80 energy retrofitting interventions (energy audits or insulation works) were implemented in one neighbourhood of the city of Liège. Our evaluation of the experiment showed that the prospect of achieving cost reductions was one of the main initial expectations of participants to the GGPs. Still the participants rather insisted on other benefits after taking part to the initiative. These benefits were mostly related to the guidance they received, to the facilitation with contractors and to the social dynamics generated by the initiative. Several weaknesses were also identified by participants, like the lack of follow-up during and after the works. Our evaluation also highlighted that the main landlords did not participate in the initiative and that the influence of GGPs on costs was limited to specific types of interventions. Despite observed limitations and possible improvements, such a neighbourhood-based approach certainly constitutes a promising avenue for public authorities to support and accelerate the energy retrofitting of private residential buildings in urban neighbourhoods. [less ▲]

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See detailLes cuvettes oasiennes du Niger oriental: entre pratiques foncières et cadre législatif
Malam Boukar, Awa Krou; Yamba, Boubacar; Andres, Ludovic ULg et al

in Revue Internationale des Sciences de Développement (2016), 4(6), 376-388

Despite the new context of the land-law with the land committee, the property owner depends on the traditional law. This paper shows the land system in the south east of the Niger. Nine basin oasis have ... [more ▼]

Despite the new context of the land-law with the land committee, the property owner depends on the traditional law. This paper shows the land system in the south east of the Niger. Nine basin oasis have selected in function of the food system and the proof of the phreatic table. An investigation with 105 producters has showed the description and the analysis of the land access and the conflicts. The analysis shows the strong influence of traditional authorities and the lack of operationalization of COFOB. Finally, the conflicts are generalized between many actors (farmers, pastoralists and agro-pastoralists) and settlement is done mainly by conciliation. Furthermore, the disparity between the men and the women land access is very important. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh gene flow between alternative morphs and the evolutionary persistence of facultative paedomorphosis
Oromi Farrús, Neus ULg; Michaux, Johan ULg; Denoël, Mathieu ULg

in Scientific Reports (2016), 6

Paedomorphosis and metamorphosis are two major developmental processes that characterize the evolution of complex life cycles in many lineages. Whereas these processes were fixed in some taxa, they ... [more ▼]

Paedomorphosis and metamorphosis are two major developmental processes that characterize the evolution of complex life cycles in many lineages. Whereas these processes were fixed in some taxa, they remained facultative in others, with alternative phenotypes expressed in the same populations. From a genetic perspective, it is still unknown whether such phenotypes form a single population or whether they show some patterns of isolation in syntopy. This has deep implications for understanding the evolution of the phenotypes, i.e. towards their persistence or their fixation and speciation. Newts and salamanders are excellent models to test this hypothesis because they exhibit both developmental processes in their populations: the aquatic paedomorphs retain gills, whereas the metamorphs are able to colonize land. Using microsatellite data of coexisting paedomorphic and metamorphic palmate newts (Lissotriton helveticus), we found that they formed a panmictic population, which evidences sexual compatibility between the two phenotypes. The high gene flow could be understood as an adaptation to unstable habitats in which phenotypic plasticity is favored over the fixation of developmental alternatives. This makes then possible the persistence of a polyphenism: only metamorphosis could be maintained in case of occasional drying whereas paedomorphosis could offer specific advantages in organisms remaining in water. [less ▲]

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See detailStatistically Bundled Shewhart Control Charts for Monitoring Delivery Chains Systems
Foster, Earnest; Faraz, Alireza ULg; Heuchenne, Cédric ULg

in European Journal of Industrial Engineering (2016)

Continuous monitoring of Delivery Time variables by means of control charts in a delivery chain is a very recent application of Statistical Process Control (SPC) to the service sector. The aim of the ... [more ▼]

Continuous monitoring of Delivery Time variables by means of control charts in a delivery chain is a very recent application of Statistical Process Control (SPC) to the service sector. The aim of the proposed method is to provide supply chain decision makers with an easy to be managed tool monitoring the current functioning state of the delivery chain. The implementation of SPC control charts makes it possible to limit over-corrections to false alarm conditions and to maintain at an acceptable level the safety stock, with a consequent reduction of the overall management costs of the delivery chain. An illustrative example shows the proposed control chart implementation in a real delivery chain. [less ▲]

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See detailDu côté de chez...Godefroid Kurth. Réflexions personnelles
Genin, Vincent ULg

in Bulletin Trimestriel de l'Institut Archéologique du Luxembourg Arlon (2016), 92(3/4), 99-107

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See detailCalcium-Iron Oxide as Energy Storage Medium in Rechargeable Oxide Batteries
Berger, Cornelius M.; Mahmoud, Abdelfattah ULg; Hermann, Raphaël ULg et al

in Journal of the American Ceramic Society (2016)

Rechargeable oxide batteries (ROB) comprise a regenerative solid oxide cell (rSOC) and a storage medium for oxygen ions. A sealed ROB avoids pumping loss, heat loss, and gas purity expenses in comparison ... [more ▼]

Rechargeable oxide batteries (ROB) comprise a regenerative solid oxide cell (rSOC) and a storage medium for oxygen ions. A sealed ROB avoids pumping loss, heat loss, and gas purity expenses in comparison with conventional rSOC. However, the iron oxide base storage medium degrades during charging– discharging cycles. In comparison, CaFe3O5 has improved cyclability and a high reversible oxygen storage capacity of 22.3 mol%. In this study, we analyzed the redox mechanism of this compound. After a solid-state synthesis of CaFe3O5, we verified the phase composition and studied the redox reaction by means of X-ray diffraction, Mossbauer spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy. Results show a great potential to operate the battery with this storage material during multiple charging–discharging cycles. [less ▲]

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See detailStable biofilms of Rhodococcus erythropolis T902.1 in draining pavement structures for runoff water decontamination
Masy, Thibaut ULg; Bertrand, Christelle ULg; Paul-Marie, Xavier et al

in International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation (2016), 112

Permeable Pavement Systems (PPS) are sustainable devices designed to collect, store and treat urban stormwater before its release into the ground. However, this system must sufficiently retain pollutants ... [more ▼]

Permeable Pavement Systems (PPS) are sustainable devices designed to collect, store and treat urban stormwater before its release into the ground. However, this system must sufficiently retain pollutants brought by water runoff in order to comply with the current legislation. This study aims at evaluating the implementation in PPS of a hydrocarbonoclastic bacterium, Rhodococcus erythropolis T902.1, in terms of resilience and improvement of the degrading capacity. First results revealed that this strain could durably colonize the different gravels used in the construction of PPS. A 15-month experience in a real parking area showed that this biofilm remained viable without any replenishment of nutrients or bacteria. During accelerated pollution tests at a pilot scale, the structure bioaugmented with pre-coated biofilms was more efficient than a non-inoculated structure to limit hydrocarbon leaching below 50 μg L−1 and to degrade hydrocarbons adsorbed to the gravels. Over the long term, this innovative assembly should maintain the degrading capacity of PPS and ensure an effective treatment of stormwater before its infiltration into the soil. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomatic learning of fine operating rules for online power system security control
Sun, Hongbin; Zhao, Feng; Wang, Huifang et al

in IEEE Transactions on Neural networks and learning systems (2016), 27(8), 1708-1719

Fine operating rules for security control and an automatic system for their online discovery were developed to adapt to the development of smart grids. The automatic system uses the real-time system state ... [more ▼]

Fine operating rules for security control and an automatic system for their online discovery were developed to adapt to the development of smart grids. The automatic system uses the real-time system state to determine critical flowgates, and then a continuation power flow-based security analysis is used to compute the initial transfer capability of critical flowgates. Next, the system applies the Monte Carlo simulations to expected short-term operating condition changes, feature selection, and a linear least squares fitting of the fine operating rules. The proposed system was validated both on an academic test system and on a provincial power system in China. The results indicated that the derived rules provide accuracy and good interpretability and are suitable for real-time power system security control. The use of high-performance computing systems enables these fine operating rules to be refreshed online every 15 min. [less ▲]

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See detailFruit biomass availability along a forest cover gradiant
Pessoa; Rocca, Larissa; Talora, Daniela et al

in Biotropica (2016)

Habitat loss is the main driver of the current high rate of species extinction, particularly in tropical forests. Understanding the factors associated with biodiversity loss, such as the extinction of ... [more ▼]

Habitat loss is the main driver of the current high rate of species extinction, particularly in tropical forests. Understanding the factors associated with biodiversity loss, such as the extinction of species interactions and ecological functions, is an urgent priority. Here, our aim was to evaluate how landscape-scale forest cover influences fruit biomass comparing different tree functional groups. We sampled 20 forest fragments located within landscapes with forest cover ranging from 2 to 93 percent in the Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia, Brazil. In each fragment, we established five plots of 25 × 4 m and carried out phenological observations on fleshy fruit throughout one year on all trees ≥ 5 cm dbh. We estimated fruit availability by direct counting all fruits and derived fruit biomass from this count. We used spatial mixed linear models to evaluate the effects of forest cover on species richness, abundance, and fruit biomass. Our results indicated that forest cover was the main explanatory variable and negatively influenced the total richness and abundance of zoochoric and shade-tolerant but not shade-intolerant species. A linear model best explained variations in richness and abundance of total and shade-tolerant species. We also found that forest cover was positively correlated with the fruit biomass produced by all species and by the shade-tolerant assemblages, with linear models best explaining both relationships. The loss of shade-tolerant species and the lower fruit production in fragments with lower landscape-scale forest cover may have implications for the maintenance of frugivore, seed dispersal service, and plant recruitment. [less ▲]

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See detailDEM modeling of ball mills with experimental validation: influence of contact parameters on charge motion and power draw
Boemer, Dominik ULg; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg

in Computational Particle Mechanics (2016)

Discrete element method simulations of a 1:5-scale laboratory ball mill are presented in this paper to study the influence of the contact parameters on the charge motion and the power draw. The position ... [more ▼]

Discrete element method simulations of a 1:5-scale laboratory ball mill are presented in this paper to study the influence of the contact parameters on the charge motion and the power draw. The position density limit is introduced as an efficient mathematical tool to describe and to compare the macroscopic charge motion in different scenarios, i.a. with different values of the contact parameters. While the charge motion and the power draw are relatively insensitive to the stiffness and the damping coefficient of the linear spring-slider-damper contact law, the coefficient of friction has a strong influence since it controls the sliding propensity of the charge. Based on the experimental calibration and validation by charge motion photographs and power draw measurements, the descriptive and predictive capabilities of the position density limit and the discrete element method are demonstrated, i.e. the real position of the charge is precisely delimited by the respective position density limit and the power draw can be predicted with an accuracy of about 5 %. [less ▲]

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See detailApports phénoménologiques à l’étude de la relation au corps dans le jeu vidéo
Delbouille, Julie ULg

in Implications philosophiques (2016)

J’évite un obstacle. Je cours. Je saute. Alors que quelques notes de musique m’avertissent de l’échec de ce dernier mouvement, je vois mon corps chuter, happé par le vide au-delà de l’écran. Cette scène ... [more ▼]

J’évite un obstacle. Je cours. Je saute. Alors que quelques notes de musique m’avertissent de l’échec de ce dernier mouvement, je vois mon corps chuter, happé par le vide au-delà de l’écran. Cette scène, qui tout comme ses multiples variations s’inscrit en filigrane au cœur de nombreuses expériences vidéoludiques, soulève la question du rapport au corps dans le jeu vidéo. Dans le champ des Game et des Play Studies, nombreux sont les chercheurs qui se sont déjà emparés de l’interactivité comme objet d’étude, et d’une de ses modalités dans le jeu vidéo : l’avatar. Interface récurrente entre le joueur et l’univers vidéoludique, nous postulons que cette « enveloppe pilotable » constitue une porte d’entrée pour envisager la problématique corporelle dans le jeu vidéo. En effet, la fonction d’incarnation permise par l’avatar ajoute à la relation entre le corps et l’esprit du joueur une dimension nouvelle : celle du corps virtuel. Ce corps « autre », dont le joueur prend possession, constitue une des conditions de son « insertion » dans le monde du jeu. [less ▲]

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See detailEpiphytic bryozoans on Neptune grass – a sample-based data set
Lepoint, Gilles ULg; Heughebaert, André; Michel, Loïc ULg

in ZooKeys (2016), 606

Background The seagrass Posidonia oceanica L. Delile, commonly known as Neptune grass, is an endemic species of the Mediterranean Sea. It hosts a distinctive and diverse epiphytic community, dominated by ... [more ▼]

Background The seagrass Posidonia oceanica L. Delile, commonly known as Neptune grass, is an endemic species of the Mediterranean Sea. It hosts a distinctive and diverse epiphytic community, dominated by various macroalgal and animal organisms. Mediterranean bryozoans have been extensively studied but quantitative data assessing temporal and spatial variability have rarely been documented. In Lepoint et al. (2014a, b) occurrence and abundance data of epiphytic bryozoan communities on leaves of P. oceanica inhabiting the Revellata Bay (Corsica, Mediterranean Sea) were reported and trophic ecology of Electra posidoniae Gautier assessed. New information Here, we provide metadata information on data set discussed in Lepoint et al. 2014a and published on the GBIF portal as a sampling-event data set: http://ipt.biodiversity.be/resource?r=ulg_bryozoa&v=1.0). The data set, compared to Lepoint et al. 2014a, is enriched by data concerning species settled on Posidonia scales (dead petiole of Posidonia leaves, remaining after limb abscission). [less ▲]

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See detailHCOOH distributions from IASI for 2008-2014: comparison with ground-based FTIR measurements and a global chemistry-transport model
Pommier, M.; Clerbaux, C.; Coheur, P.-F. et al

in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (2016), 16

Formic acid (HCOOH) is one of the most abundant volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere. It is a major contributor to rain acidity in remote areas. There are, however, large uncertainties on the ... [more ▼]

Formic acid (HCOOH) is one of the most abundant volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere. It is a major contributor to rain acidity in remote areas. There are, however, large uncertainties on the sources and sinks of HCOOH and therefore HCOOH is misrepresented by global chemistry-transport models. This work presents global distributions from 2008 to 2014 as derived from the measurements of the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), based on conversion factors between brightness temperature differences and representative retrieved total columns over seven regions: Northern Africa, southern Africa, Amazonia, Atlantic, Australia, Pacific, and Russia. The dependence of the measured HCOOH signal on the thermal contrast is taken into account in the conversion method. This conversion presents errors lower than 20 % for total columns ranging between 0.5 and 1 × 1016 molec/cm2 but reaches higher values, up to 78 %, for columns that are lower than 0.3 × 1016 molec/cm2. Signatures from biomass burning events are highlighted, such as in the Southern Hemisphere and in Russia, as well as biogenic emission sources, e.g., over the eastern USA. A comparison between 2008 and 2014 with ground-based Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements obtained at four locations (Maido and Saint-Denis at La Réunion, Jungfraujoch, and Wollongong) is shown. Although IASI columns are found to correlate well with FTIR data, a large bias (> 100 %) is found over the two sites at La Réunion. A better agreement is found at Wollongong with a negligible bias. The comparison also highlights the difficulty of retrieving total columns from IASI measurements over mountainous regions such as Jungfraujoch. A comparison of the retrieved columns with the global chemistry-transport model IMAGESv2 is also presented, showing good representation of the seasonal and interannual cycles over America, Australia, Asia, and Siberia. A global model underestimation of the distribution and a misrepresentation of the seasonal cycle over India are also found. A small positive trend in the IASI columns is observed over Australia, Amazonia, and India over the 2008–2014 period (from 0.7 to 1.5 %/year), while a decrease of ∼ 0.8 %/year is measured over Siberia. [less ▲]

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See detailLa biodiversité entomologique comme source d’aliments à Kinshasa (République démocratique du Congo)
Nsevolo, Papy; Alabi, Taofic ULg; Caparros Megido, Rudy ULg et al

in Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (2016)

L’exploitation des produits forestiers non ligneux dont notamment les insectes comestibles jouent un rôle important dans les habitudes alimentaires et économies locales des populations autochtones du ... [more ▼]

L’exploitation des produits forestiers non ligneux dont notamment les insectes comestibles jouent un rôle important dans les habitudes alimentaires et économies locales des populations autochtones du bassin du Congo. Bien que la consommation d’insectes en République Démocratique du Congo soit une pratique ancienne, l’inventaire et l’identification taxonomique des espèces consommées ainsi que la caractérisation de la filière « entomophagie » sont encore mal maitrisés. Toutefois, nos études axées sur la ville de Kinshasa ont permis d’inventorier 14 espèces comestibles régulièrement consommées. Elles appartiennent à l’ordre des Lépidoptères (46,7%), des Isoptères (18,6%), des Orthoptères (17,6%), des Coléoptères (9,7%) et des Hyménoptères (3,7%). De façon générale, 80% de la population de Kinshasa consomment au minimum une espèce d’insecte 5 jours par mois avec des quantités variant de 66,4 à 154 g d’insectes par personne par jour en fonction des différents ordres. Les acteurs de la filière sont majoritairement des femmes. Les revenus générés par l’activité concourent au bien-être des ménages, à la réduction de la pauvreté et de l’insécurité alimentaire dans de la capitale Kinshasa. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst characterization and validation of FORLI-HNO3 vertical profiles retrieved from IASI/Metop
Ronsmans, G.; Langerock, B.; Wespes, C. et al

in Atmospheric Measurement Techniques. Papers in Open Discussion (2016), 2016

Knowing the spatial and seasonal distributions of nitric acid (HNO3) around the globe is of great interest to apprehend the processes regulating stratospheric ozone, especially in the polar regions ... [more ▼]

Knowing the spatial and seasonal distributions of nitric acid (HNO3) around the globe is of great interest to apprehend the processes regulating stratospheric ozone, especially in the polar regions. Thanks to its unprecedented spatial and temporal sampling, the nadir-viewing Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) allows sounding the atmosphere twice a day globally, with good spectral resolution and low noise. With the Fast Optimal Retrievals on Layers for IASI (FORLI) algorithm, we are retrieving, in near-real time, columns as well as vertical profiles of several atmospheric species, amongst which is HNO3. We present in this paper the first characterization of the FORLI-HNO3 profile products, in terms of vertical sensitivity and error budgets. We show that the sensitivity of IASI to HNO3 is highest in the lower stratosphere (10–20km), where the largest amounts of HNO3 are found, but that the vertical sensitivity of IASI only allows one level of information on the profile (DOFS 1). The sensitivity near the surface is negligible in most cases, and for this reason, a partial column (5–35km) is used for the analyses. Both vertical profiles and partial columns are compared to FTIR ground-based measurements from the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) to characterize the accuracy and precision of the FORLI-HNO3 product. The profile validation is conducted through the smoothing of the raw FTIR profiles by the IASI averaging kernels and gives good results, with a slight overestimation of IASI measurements in the Upper Troposphere-Lower Stratosphere (UTLS) at the 6 chosen stations (Thule, Kiruna, Jungfraujoch, Izaña, Lauder and Arrival Heights). The validation of the partial columns (5–35km) is also conclusive with a mean correlation of 0.93 between IASI and the FTIR measurements. An initial survey of the HNO3 spatial and seasonal variabilities obtained from IASI measurements for a one year (2011) data set shows that the expected latitudinal gradient of concentrations from low to high latitudes and the large seasonal variability in polar regions (cycle amplitude around 30% of the seasonal signal, peak-to-peak) are well represented with IASI data. [less ▲]

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See detailAzacytidine mitigates experimental sclerodermic graft-versus-host disease
Fransolet, Gilles ULg; Ehx, Grégory ULg; SOMJA, Joan ULg et al

in Journal of Hematology & Oncology (2016)

Background Previous studies have demonstrated that regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a protective role in the pathogenesis of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). Tregs constitutively express the gene ... [more ▼]

Background Previous studies have demonstrated that regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a protective role in the pathogenesis of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). Tregs constitutively express the gene of the transcription factor Foxp3 whose CNS2 region is heavily methylated in conventional CD4+ T cells (CD4+Tconvs) but demethylated in Tregs. Methods Here, we assessed the impact of azacytidine (AZA) on cGVHD in a well-established murine model of sclerodermic cGVHD (B10.D2 (H-2d) → BALB/cJ (H-2d)). Results The administration of AZA every 48 h from day +10 to day +30 at the dose of 0.5 mg/kg or 2 mg/kg mitigated chronic GVHD. Further, AZA-treated mice exhibited higher blood and thymic Treg frequencies on day +35, as well as higher demethylation levels of the Foxp3 enhancer and the IL-2 promoter in splenocytes at day +52. Interestingly, Tregs from AZA-treated mice expressed more frequently the activation marker CD103 on day +52. AZA-treated mice had also lower counts of CD4+Tconvs and CD8+ T cells from day +21 to day +35 after transplantation, as well as a lower proportion of CD4+Tconvs expressing the Ki67 antigen on day +21 demonstrating an anti-proliferating effect of the drug on T cells. Conclusions Our results indicate that AZA prevented sclerodermic cGVHD in a well-established murine model of cGVHD. These data might serve as the basis for a pilot study of AZA administration for cGVHD prevention in patients at high risk for cGVHD. [less ▲]

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See detailDémographie et performances zootechniques des élevages bovins traditionnels au Nord Bénin
Chabi Toko, Roukayath ULg; Adégbidi, Anselme; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

in Revue d'Elévage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux (2016), 69(1), 33-39

The study was conducted with 150 Fulani herders in the departments of Borgu and Alibori in Benin. It aimed to determine the zootechnical parameters of traditional cattle farms. The survey collected ... [more ▼]

The study was conducted with 150 Fulani herders in the departments of Borgu and Alibori in Benin. It aimed to determine the zootechnical parameters of traditional cattle farms. The survey collected information on the characteristics of cattle herds. The results showed a high proportion of females (76%), an average herd size (66 animals) and the prevalence of the Borgu breed (86%). The herds also showed a low breeding performance, characterized by a high calf mortality rate (10%), and low reproductive parameters (64% calving and fertility rates). In a year, 0.57 calf was weaned on average by its dam. The low performance of cattle farms in coastal countries such as Benin is consistent with that of pastoral areas, which is complementary in terms of meat supply to West African markets. [less ▲]

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See detailAsymptotic properties of free monoid morphisms
Charlier, Emilie ULg; Leroy, Julien ULg; Rigo, Michel ULg

in Linear Algebra & its Applications (2016), 500

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See detailLe sexe ratio chez les bovins : facteurs de variation
Hanzen, Christian ULg; Chastant-Maillard, Sylvie; Rao, Anne-Sophie ULg et al

in Point Vétérinaire (Le) : Expert Rural (2016), 367

Le sexe ratio secondaire, défini comme la proportion de mâles à la naissance, est de 52% chez les bovins, avec des variations selon les populations étudiées de 46 à 57%. Il est plus élevé lors des ... [more ▼]

Le sexe ratio secondaire, défini comme la proportion de mâles à la naissance, est de 52% chez les bovins, avec des variations selon les populations étudiées de 46 à 57%. Il est plus élevé lors des premières étapes du développement embryonnaire, et les conceptus mâles meurent proportionnellement plus au cours de la gestation que les conceptus femelles. Les facteurs de variation potentiels sont nombreux, mais peu d’effets sont unanimement observés. L’effet de la parité ou du statut social de la vache ne sont pas clairement démontrés. Les ovulations sur l’ovaire droit donneraient naissance à une plus forte proportion de mâles ; le rôle du taureau est probablement limité et la répétabilité du sexe du veau d’une gestation à l’autre est faible. Le moment de l’insémination par rapport à l’ovulation ne semble pas avoir d’influence alors qu’il aurait pu constituer un moyen de maîtrise assez simple à mettre en œuvre. [less ▲]

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See detailLe sexe ratio chez les bovins : mécanismes potentiels.
Hanzen, Christian ULg; Chastant-Maillard, Sylvie; Rao, Anne-Sophie ULg et al

in Point Vétérinaire (2016), 367

Le sexe ratio (proportion de veaux mâles nés) peut varier sous l’effet de nombreux facteurs (voir l’article dans un numéro précédent). Les mécanismes d’action biologiques expliquant ces variations sont ... [more ▼]

Le sexe ratio (proportion de veaux mâles nés) peut varier sous l’effet de nombreux facteurs (voir l’article dans un numéro précédent). Les mécanismes d’action biologiques expliquant ces variations sont potentiellement nombreux. Tout d’abord l’origine des ovocytes (le sexe ratio varie entre l’ovaire droit et l’ovaire gauche), alors que l’influence de la corne qui héberge le fœtus ne semble pas avoir d’influence. Les spermatozoïdes porteurs du chromosome Y seraient plus rapides mais moins résistants que les spermatozoïdes porteurs du X, expliquant l’influence du moment de l’insémination par rapport à l’ovulation (influence néanmoins non systématiquement observée). La glycémie de la mère orienterait le sexe ratio par un impact sur la maturation ovocytaire et sur le début du développement embryonnaire, les embryons montrant des différences dans leur métabolisme et dans leur résistance au stress. Néanmoins, ces mécanismes restent hypothétiques et mal élucidés. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychological transition and adjustment processes related to retirement: Influence on cognitive functioning
Grotz, Catherine ULg; Matharan, Fanny; Pérès, Karine et al

in Aging & Mental Health (2016), 0

Objective: To investigate the relationship between psychological transition and adjustment to retirement and cognitive performances in older adults. Methods: The study’s sample was taken from the Approche ... [more ▼]

Objective: To investigate the relationship between psychological transition and adjustment to retirement and cognitive performances in older adults. Methods: The study’s sample was taken from the Approche Multidisciplinaire Int egr ee cohort, a French prospective study of retirees from agriculture, aged 65 and over, living in rural settings in southwestern France. The cross-sectional analyses were conducted on a sample of 590 elderly people without dementia at baseline and for whom information on perception of the work setting, experience of the retirement transition and adaptation to retirement life (nine variables) as well as neuropsychological measures (global cognitive functioning, episodic memory, verbal fluency, attention and psychomotor speed) were available at first visit. Results: Multivariable linear regression analyses, including nine variables related to retirement and adjusted for potential confounding factors, indicated that three of them positive consideration of former work situation, development of new activities during retirement and good adaptation to free time were associated with better cognitive performances. Conclusions: We found that several factors proved to be determinants of good cognitive functioning at retirement and could serve as a basis for the development of more efficient intervention programs aimed at helping retirees to maintain good cognitive functioning after retirement. [less ▲]

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See detailPhilosophie et esthétique de la modernité: Approches phénoménologiques et sociologiques
Hagelstein, Maud ULg; Zincq, Aurélien ULg

in Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique (2016), 12 (2016)(4),

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See detailEuropean Commission, trade agreements, and diversity of cultural expressions: between autonomy and influence
Vlassis, Antonios ULg

in European Journal of Communication (2016), 31(4)

The Convention on diversity of cultural expressions – adopted by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization in 2005 – is a main international instrument within the global governance ... [more ▼]

The Convention on diversity of cultural expressions – adopted by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization in 2005 – is a main international instrument within the global governance of cultural and audiovisual industries. For its part, the European Commission played a critical role in the negotiation, leading to the Convention on Diversity of Cultural Expressions’ adoption. In this respect, the article aims to explore why and how the Commission uses the Convention on Diversity of Cultural Expressions throughout the recent European Union trade negotiations, for which purposes and how the Convention on Diversity of Cultural Expressions influences the European Union foreign policy and its objectives. The article is more concerned with analysing the policy process through which the Commission’s strategy is formulated in light of the Convention on Diversity of Cultural Expressions and of the place of cultural and audiovisual industries within the European Union trade agreements and also concerned with understanding whether the Commission’s autonomy is transformed into influence within the policy process. [less ▲]

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See detailInsight into biting diversity to capture benthic prey in damselfishes (Pomacentridae)
Olivier, Damien ULg; Parmentier, Eric ULg; Frederich, Bruno ULg

in Zoologischer Anzeiger (2016), 264

The cerato-mandibular (c-md) ligament, joining the hyoid bar to the coronoid process of the angular, allows Pomacentridae to slam their mouth shut in a few milliseconds. Previous works have revealed that ... [more ▼]

The cerato-mandibular (c-md) ligament, joining the hyoid bar to the coronoid process of the angular, allows Pomacentridae to slam their mouth shut in a few milliseconds. Previous works have revealed that such a mechanism is used to feed, but some variability in biting patterns has been observed between two damselfish species. The pelagic feeder Amphiprion clarkii performs two different kinematic patterns to bite fixed prey, one that does not depend on the c-md ligament (biting-1) and one that does (biting-2). The benthic feeder Stegastes rectifraenum only performs biting-2. The present study aims to shed light on the occurrence of biting-2 in the feeding behaviour of Pomacentridae. To test our hypothesis that biting-2 would be the only biting pattern for benthic feeders, we compared biting behaviours among four species: one pelagic feeder, A. clarkii, and three benthic feeders, Neoglyphidodon nigroris, Stegastes leucostictus and S. rectifraenum. Our results showed that the four species were able to perform biting-2, but they do not support that the use of this pattern is related to trophic habits. Contrary to S. rectifraenum, the two other benthic feeders randomly used biting-1 and biting-2 patterns, similar to A. clarkii. Two hypotheses are discussed for explaining this variability within Pomacentridae. Finally, it has been recently shown that some damselfishes do not possess the c-md ligament. We therefore included two species lacking the c-md ligament (Chromis chromis and Abudefduf troschelii) in our study and we demonstrate our expectation that they are unable to perform biting-2. [less ▲]

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See detailSusceptibility of pigs to zoonotic hepatitis E virus genotype 3 isolated from a wild boar
Thiry, Damien ULg; Rose, Nicolas; Mauroy, Axel ULg et al

in Transboundary and Emerging Diseases (2016)

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See detailPlant mitochondrial complex I composition and assembly: a review
Subrahmanian, Nitya; Remacle, Claire ULg; Hamel, Patrice

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-Bioenergetics (2016), 1857(7), 1001-1014

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See detailDynamics of a thin radial liquid flow
De Cock, Nicolas ULg; Massinon, Mathieu ULg; Ouled Taleb Salah, Sofiene ULg et al

in Fire Safety Journal (2016), 83

The present work proposes an extension of the existing analytical development on the radial spread of a liquid jet over a horizontal surface to the case of a thin radial flow. When the gap, H, between the ... [more ▼]

The present work proposes an extension of the existing analytical development on the radial spread of a liquid jet over a horizontal surface to the case of a thin radial flow. When the gap, H, between the jet nozzle and the plate is reduced the discharging area may be smaller than the inlet area leading to an increase of the main flow velocity downstream of the thin cylindrical opening. This increase of velocity, de fined here as 1/alpha , can be related to the relative gap of the nozzle H/R with R the nozzle pipe radius. Numerical computations with a volume of fluid method were realised with for H/R ranging from 0.2 to 3 and with flow rates Q of 3 and 6 l/min1. The results of these computations allowed to express alpha in respect of H/R. Taking in account the flow acceleration allowed to extend the set of equation from the jet impacting flow to the thin cylindrical opening flow. The liquid layer thickness and the surface velocity diff er with a maximum error of 4% between the flow predicted by the model and computations. Main discrepancies appear in the region close to the nozzle where the analytical model assumption of a constant velocity outside the boundary layer is not valid. However, further downstream the model and the computations are in good agreement. [less ▲]

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See detailEntretien avec Michel Dumoulin. Regards sur les mondes de la recherche et de l'histoire.
Genin, Vincent ULg

in Contemporanea (2016), XXXVIII(2),

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See detailAnionic flow polymerizations toward functional polyphosphoesters in microreactors: Polymerization and UV-modification
Baeten, Evelien; Vanslambrouck, Stéphanie; Jérôme, Christine ULg et al

in European Polymer Journal (2016), 80

The polymerization of cyclic phosphates to poly(phosphoester)s, PPEs, is optimized for chip- based microreactors under continuous flow conditions. The anionic ring-opening polymerization of 2-isobutyoxy-2 ... [more ▼]

The polymerization of cyclic phosphates to poly(phosphoester)s, PPEs, is optimized for chip- based microreactors under continuous flow conditions. The anionic ring-opening polymerization of 2-isobutyoxy-2-oxo-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane (iBP) via the use of two organocatalytic systems allowed to polymerize to nearly quantitative monomer conversion within 10 or 3 minutes, respectively at a reaction temperature of 40 °C. Further, the optimized polymerization protocol was applied to 2-butenoxy-2-oxo-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane (BP) which yields a polymer that carries an alkene functionality per monomer repeating unit. This material can be postmodified in an UV-induced radical thiol-ene reaction, which was also shown to proceed with very high efficiency under UV-flow conditions. Eventually, both reactions were coupled in a two-stage reactor setup, showing that the thermally-activated polymerization can be coupled with high efficiency to the UV-activated post-polymerization modification reaction. The introduced reactor setup can in the future be used to produce and screen a broad variety of functional PPE materials with various functionalities and physical properties. [less ▲]

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See detailBoosting shape classifiers accuracy by considering the inverse shape
Pierard, Sébastien ULg; Lejeune, Antoine ULg; Van Droogenbroeck, Marc ULg

in Journal of Pattern Recognition Research (2016), 11(1), 41-54

Many techniques exist for describing shapes. These techniques almost exclusively consider the contour or the inside of the shape; the major problem for describing the outside of a shape, or inverse shape ... [more ▼]

Many techniques exist for describing shapes. These techniques almost exclusively consider the contour or the inside of the shape; the major problem for describing the outside of a shape, or inverse shape, being that it has an infinite extension. In this paper, we show how to adapt two shape descriptors, one region based, the Cover By Rectangles, and one transform based, the Zernike moments, to be applicable to the inverse shape. We analyze their properties, and show how to deal with the infinite extension of the inverse shape. Then, we apply these descriptors to shape classification and compare representations that use the shape, its inverse, or both. Our experiments establish that, for shape classification, a representation integrating the inverse shape often outperforms a representation restricted to the shape. This opens the path for better techniques that could use, as a rule of thumb, both the representations of a shape and its inverse for the purpose of classification. [less ▲]

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See detailPassive linearization of nonlinear resonances
Habib, Giuseppe ULg; Grappasonni, Chiara ULg; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg

in Journal of Applied Physics (2016), 120

The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that the addition of properly-tuned nonlinearities to a nonlinear system can increase the range over which a speci c resonance responds linearly. Speci cally ... [more ▼]

The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that the addition of properly-tuned nonlinearities to a nonlinear system can increase the range over which a speci c resonance responds linearly. Speci cally, we seek to enforce two important properties of linear systems, namely the force-displacement proportionality and the invariance of resonance frequencies. Numerical simulations and experiments are used to validate the theoretical ndings. [less ▲]

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See detailPoor Performance of a Retrofitted Downstream Bypass Revealed by the Analysis of Approaching Behaviour in Combination with a Trapping System
Ovidio, Michaël ULg; Dierckx, Arnaud ULg; Bunel, Sarah et al

in River Research & Applications (2016), DOI: 10.1002/rra.3062

The implementation of fish downstream migration bypass systems is still a major challenge, and there is interest in validating the adequacy of different configurations of bypass devices. In the Amblève ... [more ▼]

The implementation of fish downstream migration bypass systems is still a major challenge, and there is interest in validating the adequacy of different configurations of bypass devices. In the Amblève River (Belgium), a mobile 3.3-m height dam feeds two principal Francis and one Francis micro-turbine and is equipped with a modern vertical slot fish pass and a downstream bypass. The aim of this study was to test the bypass attraction and efficiency (i.e. percentage of fish that approach the entrance and use the bypass) for Atlantic salmon smolts. During three consecutive years, a total of 1346 smolts were equipped with a radio frequency identification tag and released from March to May upstream of the dam of Lorcé. The entrance of the downstream migration bypass was equipped with a radio frequency identification antenna in order to detect the smolts approaching. In 2014, a capture cage was also placed downstream the bypass to evaluate its efficiency. The mean percentage of detected smolts at the entrance varied from 26.2 to 39.7%. In 2014, 16.5% of the released smolts entered the bypass and were finally caught in the cage, representing 39% of the smolts detected at the entrance. More than 98% of the detections occurred during night (mainly between 9 PM and 3 AM). The searching delay near the bypass entrance varied from less than 5 min to more than 5 days (median 4.3 min). Visual observation indicated a behavioural reluctance before entering the bypass, with a shift from positive to negative rheotaxy. Our results underline the difficulty to install retrofitted bypass system on old existing hydropower plants. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailLes mustères de la "Viege noire" ou comment se passe la demande d'allocation de handicap
Marquet, Françoise; RADERMECKER, Régis ULg

in Revue de l'Association Belge du Diabète (2016), 59(4), 9-13

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See detailCapillary electrophoresis method to determine siRNA complexation with cationic liposomes
Furst, Tania ULg; Bettonville, Virginie ULg; Farcas, Elena ULg et al

in Electrophoresis (2016)

Small interfering RNA (siRNA) inducing gene silencing has great potential to treat many human diseases. To ensure effective siRNA delivery, it must be complexed with an appropriate vector, generally ... [more ▼]

Small interfering RNA (siRNA) inducing gene silencing has great potential to treat many human diseases. To ensure effective siRNA delivery, it must be complexed with an appropriate vector, generally nanoparticles. The nanoparticulate complex requires an optimal physiochemical characterization and the complexation efficiency has to be precisely determined. The methods usually used to measure complexation are gel electrophoresis and RiboGreen® fluorescence-based assay. However, those approaches are not automated and present some drawbacks such as the low throughput and the use of carcinogenic reagents. The aim of this work is to develop a new simple and fast method to accurately quantify the complexation efficiency. In this research, capillary electrophoresis (CE) was used to determine the siRNA complexation with cationic liposomes. The short-end injection mode applied enabled siRNA detection in less than 5 min. Moreover, the CE technique offers many advantages compared to the other classical methods. It is automated, does not require sample preparation and expensive reagents. Moreover, no mutagenic risk is associated to CE approach since no carcinogenic product is used. Finally, this methodology can also be extended to the characterization of other types of nanoparticles encapsulating siRNA, such as cationic polymeric nanoparticles. [less ▲]

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See detailEstimating the out-of-sample predictive ability of trading rules: a robust bootstrap approach
Hambuckers, julien ULg; Heuchenne, Cédric ULg

in Journal of Forecasting (2016), 35(4), 347-372

In this paper, we provide a novel way to estimate the out-of-sample predictive ability of a trading rule. Usually, this ability is estimated using a sample splitting scheme, true out-of-sample data being ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we provide a novel way to estimate the out-of-sample predictive ability of a trading rule. Usually, this ability is estimated using a sample splitting scheme, true out-of-sample data being rarely available. We argue that this method makes a poor use of the available data and creates data mining possibilities. Instead, we introduce an alternative .632 bootstrap approach. This method enables to build in- sample and out-of-sample bootstrap datasets that do not overlap but exhibit the same time dependencies. We show in a simulation study that this technique drastically reduces the mean squared error of the estimated predictive ability. We illustrate our methodology on IBM, MSFT and DJIA stock prices, where we compare 11 trading rules speci cations. For the considered datasets, two different filter rule specifications have the highest out-of-sample mean excess returns. However, all tested rules cannot beat a simple buy-and-hold strategy when trading at a daily frequency. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of SMOS sea surface salinity data using DINEOF
Alvera Azcarate, Aïda ULg; Barth, Alexander ULg; Parard, Gaëlle ULg et al

in Remote Sensing of Environment (2016), 180

n analysis of daily Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) at 0.15 ° × 0.15° spatial resolution from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite mission using DINEOF (Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal ... [more ▼]

n analysis of daily Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) at 0.15 ° × 0.15° spatial resolution from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite mission using DINEOF (Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions) is presented. DINEOF allows reconstructing missing data using a truncated EOF basis, while reducing the amount of noise and errors in geophysical datasets. This work represents a first application of DINEOF to SMOS SSS. Results show that a reduction of the error and the amount of noise is obtained in the DINEOF SSS data compared to the initial SMOS SSS data. Errors associated to the edge of the swath are detected in 2 EOFs and effectively removed from the final data, avoiding removing the data at the edges of the swath in the initial dataset. The final dataset presents a centered root mean square error of 0.2 in open waters when comparing with thermosalinograph data at their original spatial and temporal resolution. Constant biases present near land masses, large scale biases and latitudinal biases cannot be corrected with DINEOF because persistent signals are retained in high order EOFs, and therefore these need to be corrected separately. The signature of the Douro and Gironde rivers is detected in the DINEOF SSS. The minimum SSS observed in the Gironde plume corresponds to a flood event in June 2013, and the shape and size of the Douro river shows a good agreement with chlorophyll-a satellite data. These examples show the capacity of DINEOF to remove noise and provide a full SSS dataset at a high temporal and spatial resolution with reduced error, and the possibility to retrieve physical signals in zones with high initial errors. [less ▲]

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See detailCognitive processes across anxiety disorders related to intolerance of uncertainty: Clinical Review
Vander Haegen, Marie ULg; Etienne, Anne-Marie ULg

in Cogent Psychology (2016), 3

Abstract: Objective: Being a relatively recent concept, the intolerance of uncertainty (IU) suffers from inconsistent definitions and conceptual overlap. The core objective of the study is to clarify its ... [more ▼]

Abstract: Objective: Being a relatively recent concept, the intolerance of uncertainty (IU) suffers from inconsistent definitions and conceptual overlap. The core objective of the study is to clarify its clinical manifestations and its involved cognitive processes. Method: The procedure is based on algorithms (equations of keywords) encoded simultaneously in databases (Scopus, PubMed, and PsycArticles). Results are filtered by the year (range of 10 years [2005–2015] because it is a recent concept) and the relevance of abstracts. Once the studies are appraised, results are categorized in two groups: studies which examine the IU in a clinical perspective (relations with one or several anxiety disorders) (cluster A) and those which measure the IU through a cognitive perspective (cognition, metacognition) (cluster B). Results: 66 results are retrieved: 50 results concern the cluster A and 16 examine the cluster B. The state of the IU varies between studies (e.g. predictor and mediator), which make comparisons difficult. Notwithstanding, the IU construct seems to be a broad transdiagnostic maintaining risk factor involved in a range of psychological disorders. Conclusion: This clustering supported that researchers and clinicians may benefit from incorporating IU within cognitive and computational research design and as a specific treatment target. [less ▲]

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See detailLes puissances émergentes dans la bataille mondiale de l'attraction: Bollywood, vecteur du soft power de l'Inde?
Vlassis, Antonios ULg

in Interventions Economiques = Papers in Political Economy (2016), 55(July),

This article deals with the importance of the Indian film industry for the strengthening of India’s soft power and with the capability of the country to build an international status of active cultural ... [more ▼]

This article deals with the importance of the Indian film industry for the strengthening of India’s soft power and with the capability of the country to build an international status of active cultural power. As such, on the one hand, I seek to analyze the institutional features of the Indian movie system and to focus on the role of India within the international regime for audiovisual sector, and on the other hand, I aim to emphasize the worldwide cultural competition that India faces. The findings will show that the domestic structures are a major factor in order to understand the influence of India and its status within the world audiovisual economy, within which Hollywood has highly financing abilities and global distribution strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailPerformance et Innovation en PME: une relation à questionner
Ajzen, Michel; Rondeaux, Giseline ULg; Pichault, François ULg et al

in Revue Internationale P.M.E. (2016), 29(2),

Noting that in management science, management policies would have all, the ultimate ambition of contributing to company performance and the innovative capacity of a company would be a sine qua non of this ... [more ▼]

Noting that in management science, management policies would have all, the ultimate ambition of contributing to company performance and the innovative capacity of a company would be a sine qua non of this performance, this article shows that (if) these two concepts refer to disparate content; (ii) the performance is primarily measured by distanced indicators (financial); (iii) the nature of the interdependence between innovation and performance is not unequivocal. Considering the weight of contextual variables, we show the interest to adopt a broader vision of concepts of innovation and performance in SMEs, capitalizing on the diversity of performance and innovation characterizations, and adopting an agnostic approach establishing no a priori link between them. This article proposes to broaden the concepts of innovation and performance by mobilizing indicators specific to SMEs and outlines a methodology to measure and weigh them as well as to provide researchers with tools to better understand the interactions between these variables. In doing so, we contribute to a critical approach of de-naturalization to emancipate SMEs and, more broadly, public and regulatory authorities, from narrow performative standards. [less ▲]

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See detailTemporal habitat shift of a polymorphic newt species under predation risk
Winandy, Laurane ULg; Colin, Mélanie; Denoël, Mathieu ULg

in Behavioral Ecology (2016), 27(4), 1025-1032

The temporal partitioning hypothesis suggests that the evolution of different diel activity rhythms in animals might facilitate the coexistence between prey and predators. However, the temporal shift of ... [more ▼]

The temporal partitioning hypothesis suggests that the evolution of different diel activity rhythms in animals might facilitate the coexistence between prey and predators. However, the temporal shift of habitat use induced by predation has rarely been observed. The study of such a mechanism is particularly relevant for introduced species because it might explain how native species can persist or decline in response to the presence of alien species. The introduction of fish into ponds inhabited by amphibians has severe consequences for their occurrence and abundance. Fish particularly affect an alternative newt phenotype, the paedomorph, which does not undergo metamorphosis and maintains larval traits such as gills at the adult stage. In a laboratory design, we assessed the diel patterns of habitat use in the 2 distinct morphological phenotypes of palmate newt (Lissotriton helveticus) in the presence or absence of goldfish (Carassius auratus). Both newt phenotypes avoided a risky habitat more in the presence than in the absence of fish. This habitat shift was more pronounced during the daytime (i.e., when the risk could be considered higher for the newts) than during nighttime. However, in contrast to metamorphs, paedomorphs showed less adaptive changes according to temporal risk and remained in their shelter for most of the time. Temporal and habitat partitioning at the diel scale between native and alien species might promote their coexistence, but diel change can also imply a cost in the overall reduction of the time allocated to essential activities, showing that species interactions remain complex. [less ▲]

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See detailCyclin-dependent protein kinase inhibitors in breast cancer treatment
FRERES, Pierre ULg; LOUSBERG, Laurence ULg; JERUSALEM, Guy ULg

in Belgian Journal of Medical Oncology [=BJMO] (2016), 10(4), 132-138

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See detailA simple calibration approach based on film-casting for confocal Raman microscopy to support the development of a Hot-Melt Extrusion process
Netchacovitch, Lauranne ULg; Thiry, Justine ULg; De Bleye, Charlotte ULg et al

in Talanta (2016), 154

When developing a new formulation, the development, calibration and validation steps of analytical methods based on vibrational spectroscopy are time-consuming. For each new formulation, real samples must ... [more ▼]

When developing a new formulation, the development, calibration and validation steps of analytical methods based on vibrational spectroscopy are time-consuming. For each new formulation, real samples must be produced and a “reference method” must be used in order to determine the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) content of each sample. To circumvent this issue, the paper presents a simple approach based on the film-casting technique used as a calibration tool in the framework of hot-melt extrusion process. Confocal Raman microscopic method was successfully validated for the determination of itraconazole content in film-casting samples. Then, hot-melt extrusion was carried out to produce real samples in order to confront the results obtained with confocal Raman microscopy and Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC). The agreement between both methods was demonstrated using a comparison study based on the Bland and Altman’s plot. [less ▲]

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See detailTopology optimization for minimum weight with compliance and simpli ed nominal stress constraints for fatigue resistance
Collet, Maxime ULg; Bruggi, Matteo; Duysinx, Pierre ULg

in Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization (2016)

This work investigates a simpli ed approach to cope with the optimization of preliminary design of structures under local fatigue constraints along with a global enforcement on the overall compliance. The ... [more ▼]

This work investigates a simpli ed approach to cope with the optimization of preliminary design of structures under local fatigue constraints along with a global enforcement on the overall compliance. The problem aims at the minimization of the weight of linear elastic structures under given loads and boundary conditions. The expected sti ness of the optimal structure is provided by the global constraint, whereas a set of local stress-based constraints ask for a structure to be fatigue resistant. A modi ed Goodman fatigue strength comparison is implemented through the same formalism to address pressure-dépendent failure in materials as in Drucker-Prager strength criterion. As a simplification, the Sines approach is used to de ne the equivalent mean and alternating stresses to address the fatigue resistance for an infinite life time. Sines computation is based on the equivalent mean and alternate stress depending on the invariants of the stress tensor and itsdeviatoric part, respectively. The so-called singularity phenomenon is overcome by the implementation of a suitable qp-relaxation of the equivalent stress measures. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the features of the achieved optimal layouts and of the proposed algorithm. [less ▲]

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See detailMontage et résistance du réel chez S. Kracauer : Photographie, cinéma, texte
Hagelstein, Maud ULg; Hamers, Jérémy ULg

in Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique (2016), 12 (2016)(4),

En tant que témoin et acteur des vifs débats sur le montage qui marquent l’Europe artistique et intellectuelle de l’après-guerre, Kracauer rédige dans les années 1920 une série de « feuilletons » sur la ... [more ▼]

En tant que témoin et acteur des vifs débats sur le montage qui marquent l’Europe artistique et intellectuelle de l’après-guerre, Kracauer rédige dans les années 1920 une série de « feuilletons » sur la modernité weimarienne repris dans L’Ornement de la masse (1963). Un texte en particulier retiendra ici notre attention qui permet de poser, en dehors des analyses vouées au cinéma, la question du montage. Ce texte, « Le Hall d’hôtel », est extrait d’un ouvrage sur le roman policier non publié à l’époque. Il vise à énoncer le problème du sens dans une société où la religion s’effondre progressivement. Selon Kracauer, la production artistique est toute entière prise dans cette vocation de solutionner la perte de sens consécutive à la modernité. Comme il l’évoque en des termes apparemment naïfs, plus le monde se déréalise, plus l’art doit exercer son rôle d’éducateur2. Là où le monde est devenu muet, là où son sens général s’est obscurci, la forme esthétique peut encore produire selon Kracauer une « sorte de langage ». L’art permet en effet d’exprimer à nouveaux frais les relations existant entre des éléments décousus et « reposant les uns à côté des autres en ordre dispersé ». Vecteur d’une sortie de l’état désenchanté du monde moderne, l’éducateur se définit par conséquent chez Kracauer comme celui qui relie entre eux des éléments épars. Et l’artiste devient bien un tel éducateur lorsqu’il vise, à travers un « organisme esthétique », une totalité qui permet de ressaisir les « éléments d’un monde en décomposition dispersés à l’aveuglette »3. Or, dans ce texte de jeunesse déjà, Kracauer introduit une nuance : car si le rôle de l’artiste est déterminant dans sa tentative de résoudre le désenchantement du monde, il risque aussi de s’engager sur la voie néfaste qui consisterait à ré-enchanter le monde de manière abusive. Face à ces éléments dispersés qu’il s’agit de réorganiser, l’artiste peut soit être un véritable éducateur-voyant et restituer avec justesse les liens entre les éléments (il est alors du côté du « bon » montage qui respecte la réalité), soit construire un monde totalement artificiel, potentiellement enclin à donner une idée fausse de la réalité, voire idéologiquement trompeuse, en somme une sorte de « mauvais » montage. Kracauer se méfiera jusqu’à la fin de sa vie de ce montage-là, sans cependant jamais définir précisément le « principe de réalité » auquel s’adosse la normativité établie par lui comme fondement de toute l’esthétique matérielle. [less ▲]

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See detailIsolation and Identification of Steroid and Flavonoid Glycosides from the Flowers of Allium gramineum
Mskhiladze, Lasha; Chincharadze, David; St-Gelais, Alexis et al

in International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research (2016), 8(4), 240-243

The isolation and identification of β-sitosterol 3-O-β-glucopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside, isorhamnetin 3,4'-di-O-β-glucopyranosideand isorhamnetin 3,7-di-O-β-glucopyranosidefrom the flowers ... [more ▼]

The isolation and identification of β-sitosterol 3-O-β-glucopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside, isorhamnetin 3,4'-di-O-β-glucopyranosideand isorhamnetin 3,7-di-O-β-glucopyranosidefrom the flowers of Allium gramineumthat growsin Georgia.The structures of isolated compounds havebeen determined by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) Isolation and Identification of Steroid and Flavonoid Glycosides from the Flowers of Allium gramineum. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/305851744_Isolation_and_Identification_of_Steroid_and_Flavonoid_Glycosides_from_the_Flowers_of_Allium_gramineum [accessed Aug 5, 2016]. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-species measurements of nitrogen isotopic composition reveal the spatial constraints and biological drivers of ammonium attenuation across a highly contaminated groundwater system
Wells, Naomi S.; Hakoun, Vivien ULg; Brouyère, Serge ULg et al

in Water Research (2016), 98

Groundwater under industrial sites is characterised by heterogeneous chemical mixtures, making it difficult to assess the fate and transport of individual contaminants. Quantifying the in-situ biological ... [more ▼]

Groundwater under industrial sites is characterised by heterogeneous chemical mixtures, making it difficult to assess the fate and transport of individual contaminants. Quantifying the in-situ biological removal (attenuation) of nitrogen (N) is particularly difficult due to its reactivity and ubiquity. Here a multi-isotope approach is developed to distinguish N sources and sinks within groundwater affected by complex industrial pollution. Samples were collected from 70 wells across the two aquifers underlying a historic industrial area in Belgium. Below the industrial site the groundwater contained up to 1000 mg Nl-1 ammonium (NH4 +) and 300 mg N l-1 nitrate (NO3-), while downgradient concentrations decreased to ~1 mg l-1 DIN ([DIN] = [NH4+-N] + [NO3--N] + [NO2--N]). Mean δ1534 N-DIN increased from ~2‰ to +20‰ over this flow path, broadly confirming that biological N attenuation drove the measured concentration decrease. Multi-variate analysis of water chemistry identified two distinct NH4+ sources (δ15N-NH4+ from -14‰ and +5‰) within the contaminated zone of both aquifers. Nitrate dual isotopes co-varied (δ15 N: -3‰ - +60‰; δ18O: 0‰ - +50‰) within the range expected for coupled nitrification and denitrification of the identified sources. The fact that δ15N-NO2- values were 50‰ to 20‰ less than δ15N-NH4+ values in 40 the majority of wells confirmed that nitrification controlled N turnover across the site. However, the fact that δ15N-NO2- was greater than δ15N-NH4+ in wells with the highest [NH4+] shows that an autotrophic NO2- reduction pathway (anaerobic NH4+ oxidation or nitrifier-denitrification) drove N attenuation closest to the contaminant plume. This direct empirical evidence that both autotrophic and heterotrophic biogeochemical processes drive N attenuation in contaminated aquifers demonstrates the power of multiple N isotopes to untangle N cycling in highly complex systems. [less ▲]

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See detailQuand Caïn scrute Abel. Reflets mutuels des neutralités belge et suisse autour de la Première Guerre mondiale
Genin, Vincent ULg

in Revue Générale (2016), 2016/4(juillet-août),

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See detailSoyons optimistes
RADERMECKER, Régis ULg

in Revue de l'Association Belge du Diabète (2016), 59(4), 3

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See detailSafety of Everolimus Plus Exemestane In Patients With Hormone-Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer Progressing on Prior Non-Steroidal Aromatase Inhibitors: Primary Results of a Phase 3b, Open-Label, Single-Arm, Expanded-Access Multicenter Trial (BALLET).
Jerusalem, Guy ULg; Mariani, G.; Ciruelos, E. M. et al

in Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / ESMO (2016)

BACKGROUND: This European phase 3b, expanded-access multicenter trial evaluated the safety of EVE plus EXE in a patient population similar to BOLERO-2. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Postmenopausal women aged (3 ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: This European phase 3b, expanded-access multicenter trial evaluated the safety of EVE plus EXE in a patient population similar to BOLERO-2. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Postmenopausal women aged (3)18 years with hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor-receptor-2-negative advanced breast cancer (ABC) recurring/progressing during/after prior non-steroidal aromatase inhibitors (NSAIs) were enrolled. Primary objective was safety of EVE plus EXE based on frequency of adverse events (AEs), and serious AEs (SAEs). Secondary objective was to evaluate AEs of grade 3/4 severity. RESULTS: Median treatment duration was 5.1 months (95% CI, 4.8-5.6) for EVE and 5.3 months (95% CI, 4.8-5.6) for EXE. Overall, 2131 patients were included in the analysis; 81.8% of patients experienced EVE- or EXE-related or EVE/EXE-related AEs (investigator assessed); 27.2% were of grade 3/4 severity. The most frequently reported non-hematologic AEs were (overall %, % EVE-related) stomatitis (52.8%; 50.8%) and asthenia (22.8%; 14.6%). The most frequently reported hematologic AE were (overall %, % EVE-related) anemia (14.4%; 8.1%) and thrombocytopenia (5.9%; 4.6%). AE-related treatment discontinuations were higher in elderly ((3)70 years) versus non-elderly patients (23.8% vs. 13.0%). The incidence of EVE-related AEs in both elderly and non-elderly patients appeared to be lower in first-line ABC versus later lines. The incidence of AEs (including stomatitis/pneumonitis) was independent of BMI status (post-hoc analysis). Overall, 8.5% of patients experienced at least one EVE-related SAE. Of the 121 on-treatment deaths (5.7%), 66 (3.1%) deaths were due to disease progression and 46 (2.2%) due to AEs; 4 deaths were suspected to be EVE-related. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest ever reported safety dataset on a general patient population presenting ABC treated with EVE plus EXE and included a sizeable elderly subset. Although the patients were more heavily pretreated, the safety profile of EVE plus EXE in BALLET was consistent with BOLERO-2. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT Number: 2012-000073-23. [less ▲]

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See detailIntegrating roots into a whole plant network of flowering time genes in Arabidopsis thaliana
Bouché, Frédéric ULg; D'Aloia, Maria; Tocquin, Pierre ULg et al

in Scientific Reports (2016), 6

Molecular data concerning the involvement of roots in the genetic pathways regulating floral transition are lacking. In this study, we performed global analyses of the root transcriptome in Arabidopsis in ... [more ▼]

Molecular data concerning the involvement of roots in the genetic pathways regulating floral transition are lacking. In this study, we performed global analyses of the root transcriptome in Arabidopsis in order to identify flowering time genes that are expressed in the roots and genes that are differentially expressed in the roots during the induction of flowering. Data mining of public microarray experiments uncovered that about 200 genes whose mutations are reported to alter flowering time are expressed in the roots (i.e. were detected in more than 50% of the microarrays). However, only a few flowering integrator genes passed the analysis cutoff. Comparison of root transcriptome in short days and during synchronized induction of flowering by a single 22-h long day revealed that 595 genes were differentially expressed. Enrichment analyses of differentially expressed genes in root tissues, gene ontology categories, and cis-regulatory elements converged towards sugar signaling. We concluded that roots are integrated in systemic signaling, whereby carbon supply coordinates growth at the whole plant level during the induction of flowering. This coordination could involve the root circadian clock and cytokinin biosynthesis as a feed forward loop towards the shoot. [less ▲]

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See detailLe rôle des pays émergents dans la gouvernance économique mondiale
Wintgens, Sophie ULg; Zacharie, Arnaud ULg

in Annuaire français de Relations internationales (2016), XVII(2016),

Since the 2000s, the rising power of emerging countries – China, East Asian countries and the BRICS in particular – changed the balance of power within the system of global economic governance. In an ... [more ▼]

Since the 2000s, the rising power of emerging countries – China, East Asian countries and the BRICS in particular – changed the balance of power within the system of global economic governance. In an increasingly multipolar world, external policies of the main emerging countries are aimed more at legitimizing their status of regional powers rather than at promoting a truly democratic multilateralism. By doing so, the global shift in wealth puts the multilateralism to the test. Although emerging countries have claimed more room in the international economic organizations, many of their demands have not been heard by the Western traditional powers, which prompted them to launch their own initiatives. This creates an increasing fragmentation of international financial and trade rules, which makes more complex the political conditions for effectively regulate the international system. Although emerging countries have contributed to challenge the legitimacy of the global economic governance architecture, they have so far failed to change its nature or to make it more consistent. [less ▲]

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See detailEulerian Formulation of Elastic Rods
Huynen, Alexandre ULg; Detournay, Emmanuel; Denoël, Vincent ULg

in Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences (2016), 472(2190),

In numerous biological, medical and engineering applications, elastic rods are constrained to deform inside or around tube-like surfaces. To solve efficiently this class of problems, the equations ... [more ▼]

In numerous biological, medical and engineering applications, elastic rods are constrained to deform inside or around tube-like surfaces. To solve efficiently this class of problems, the equations governing the deflection of elastic rods are reformulated within the Eulerian framework of this generic tubular constraint defined as a perfectly stiff canal surface. This reformulation hinges on describing the rod deformed configuration by means of its relative position with respect to a reference curve, defined as the axis or spine curve of the constraint, and on restating the rod local equilibrium in terms of the curvilinear coordinate parameterizing this curve. Associated with a segmentation strategy, which partitions the global problem into a sequence of rod segments either in continuous contact with the constraint or free of contact (except for their extremities), this approach not only trivializes the detection of new contacts but also suppresses the isoperimetric constraints resulting from the self-feeding feature of these elementary problems and the imposition of the rod position at the extremities of each rod segments. [less ▲]

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See detailControlled synthesis of poly(vinylamine)-based copolymers by organometallic-mediated radical polymerization
Dréan, Mathilde ULg; Guégan, Philippe; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg et al

in Macromolecules (2016), 49(13), 4817-4827

iving/controlled polymerization methods have enabled the synthesis of numerous (co)polymers with defined compositions and architectures. However, the precision design of poly(vinylamine)-based copolymers ... [more ▼]

iving/controlled polymerization methods have enabled the synthesis of numerous (co)polymers with defined compositions and architectures. However, the precision design of poly(vinylamine)-based copolymers remains challenging despite their extensive use in various fields of applications and the clear benefits to finely tune their properties. Here, we report on a two-step strategy for the synthesis of tailor-made poly(vinylamine) derivatives through the organometallic- mediated radical (co)polymerization (OMRP) of N-vinyl- acetamide and/or N-methylvinylacetamide followed by acid hydrolysis of the acetamide groups. A series of well-defined homopolymers as well as statistical and block copolymers with pendant primary and/or secondary amines having controlled molar masses, compositions, and low dispersities were produced accordingly. The reactivity ratios of the comonomers as well as the composition drift along the chain were determined in order to have a precise idea of the polymer structures. These advances represent a significant step toward an efficient platform for synthesis of this important class of amino group-containing (co)polymers. [less ▲]

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See detailTransparent superhydrophobic coatings from amphiphilic-fluorinated block copolymers synthesized by aqueous polymerization-induced self-assembly
Ouhib, Farid ULg; Dirani, Ali; Aqil, Abdelhafid ULg et al

in Polymer Chemistry (2016), 7(24), 3998-4003

Preparation of transparent and superhydrophobic coatings by co-deposition of an aqueous solution of an amphiphilic fluorinated block copolymer (FBC) with silica particles was developped. Spin- coating of ... [more ▼]

Preparation of transparent and superhydrophobic coatings by co-deposition of an aqueous solution of an amphiphilic fluorinated block copolymer (FBC) with silica particles was developped. Spin- coating of this aqueous solution onto glass followed by an appropriate thermal treatment promotes the self-assembly of the hybrid material with the formation of superhydrophobic, robust and transparent coatings. [less ▲]

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See detailLa joie qui vient après l'attente. Retour sur la parution de J.-M. Mouillie et J.-P. Narboux, Sartre. L'Être et le néant. Nouvelles lectures, Paris, Les Belles Lettres, 2015, 212 p.
Recchia, Fabio ULg

in Année Sartrienne (L') (2016)

Cette publication consiste en une recension des "Nouvelles lectures" de "L'Être et le Néant", publiées à l'occasion de la sélection de ce texte à l'agrégation externe de philosophie 2015. Il s'agit de ... [more ▼]

Cette publication consiste en une recension des "Nouvelles lectures" de "L'Être et le Néant", publiées à l'occasion de la sélection de ce texte à l'agrégation externe de philosophie 2015. Il s'agit de faire retour sur cet événement que constitue la parution d'un tel recueil proposant, selon nous, une "relecture franche" de l'Essai de 1943 - une texte longtemps tenu pour le parent pauvre de la philosophie de Sartre, dans la mesure où cet ouvrage compte peu de monographies spécialisées à son sujet. Identifiant par ailleurs que ces "Nouvelles lectures" renvoient à nouvelle génération de chercheurs, cette recension souligne de quelle manière ce recueil apporte un commentaire lumineux de l'appareillage ontologique de l'Essai de 1943, témoigne en outre d'une attention particulièrement vive à l'égard des thématiques de l'individuation ainsi que de l'intersubjectivité chez Sartre, et articule enfin un dialogue entre les champs des "Études sartriennes" et celui de la philosophie de l'esprit contemporaine. [less ▲]

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See detailDiaspore heteromorphism in the invasive Bromus tectorum L. (Poaceae): sterile fl orets increase dispersal propensity and distance
Monty, Arnaud ULg; Maebe, Laura ULg; Mahy, Grégory ULg et al

in Flora (2016)

Within a species, the distance travelled by a particular diaspore depends on its morphology. In Poaceae, the presence of terminal sterile florets can lead to diaspore heteromorphism, which may influence ... [more ▼]

Within a species, the distance travelled by a particular diaspore depends on its morphology. In Poaceae, the presence of terminal sterile florets can lead to diaspore heteromorphism, which may influence dispersal. We tested the hypothesis that the presence of sterile florets favored dispersal in Bromus tectorum L., an invasive grass in the Western US. We used field and controlled experiments to study the dispersal of caryopses with and without sterile florets attached (respectively complex and simple diaspores), as well as pieces of inflorescence that detached from the mother plants. We considered both primary and secondary dispersal, as well as abiotic and biotic dispersal agents. The distance travelled by the diaspores and their attachment to animal fur were related to the presence and number of sterile florets. Abiotic agents moved diaspores over relatively short distances, both in terms of primary and secondary dispersal. A significant proportion of diaspores attached to fur, suggesting a potential for dispersal over longdistances. Complex diaspores were better dispersers than simple ones (and pieces of inflorescence), and this pattern was consistent across the study. However, among complex diaspores, the number of sterile florets had little or no influence. Considering primary and secondary dispersal by abiotic and biotic agents provided a general picture of the dispersal ecology of B. tectorum. For all the dispersal steps and dispersal agents we studied, the presence of sterile florets favored dispersal. These results highlight the functional significance of diaspore heteromorphism induced by floret sterility in the dispersal of Poaceae. [less ▲]

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See detailForest Inventory with Terrestrial LiDAR: A Comparison of Static and Hand-Held Mobile Laser Scanning
Bauwens, Sébastien ULg; Bartholomeus, Harm; Calders, Kim et al

in Forests (2016), 7(6), 127

The application of static terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in forest inventories is becoming more effective. Nevertheless, the occlusion effect is still limiting the processing efficiency to extract ... [more ▼]

The application of static terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in forest inventories is becoming more effective. Nevertheless, the occlusion effect is still limiting the processing efficiency to extract forest attributes. The use of a mobile laser scanner (MLS) would reduce this occlusion. In this study, we assessed and compared a hand-held mobile laser scanner (HMLS) with two TLS approaches (single scan: SS, and multi scan: MS) for the estimation of several forest parameters in a wide range of forest types and structures. We found that SS is competitive to extract the ground surface of forest plots, while MS gives the best result to describe the upper part of the canopy. The whole cross-section at 1.3 m height is scanned for 91% of the trees (DBH > 10 cm) with the HMLS leading to the best results for DBH estimates (bias of 0.08 cm and RMSE of 1.11 cm), compared to no fully-scanned trees for SS and 42% fully-scanned trees for MS. Irregularities, such as bark roughness and non-circular cross-section may explain the negative bias encountered for all of the scanning approaches. The success of using MLS in forests will allow for 3D structure acquisition on a larger scale and in a time-efficient manner. [less ▲]

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See detailGreenland Ice Sheet seasonal and spatial mass variability from model simulations and GRACE (2003–2012)
Alexander, P.; Tedesco, M.; Schlegel, N-J et al

in Cryosphere (The) (2016), 10

Improving the ability of regional climate models (RCMs) and ice sheet models (ISMs) to simulate spatiotemporal variations in the mass of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is crucial for prediction of future ... [more ▼]

Improving the ability of regional climate models (RCMs) and ice sheet models (ISMs) to simulate spatiotemporal variations in the mass of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is crucial for prediction of future sea level rise. While several studies have examined recent trends in GrIS mass loss, studies focusing on mass variations at sub-annual and sub-basin-wide scales are still lacking. At these scales, processes responsible for mass change are less well understood and modeled, and could potentially play an important role in future GrIS mass change. Here, we examine spatiotemporal variations in mass over the GrIS derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites for the January 2003–December 2012 period using a "mascon" approach, with a nominal spatial resolution of 100 km, and a temporal resolution of 10 days. We compare GRACE-estimated mass variations against those simulated by the Modèle Atmosphérique Régionale (MAR) RCM and the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM). In order to properly compare spatial and temporal variations in GrIS mass from GRACE with model outputs, we find it necessary to spatially and temporally filter model results to reproduce leakage of mass inherent in the GRACE solution. Both modeled and satellite-derived results point to a decline (of −178.9 ± 4.4 and −239.4 ± 7.7 Gt yr−1 respectively) in GrIS mass over the period examined, but the models appear to underestimate the rate of mass loss, especially in areas below 2000 m in elevation, where the majority of recent GrIS mass loss is occurring. On an ice-sheet-wide scale, the timing of the modeled seasonal cycle of cumulative mass (driven by summer mass loss) agrees with the GRACE-derived seasonal cycle, within limits of uncertainty from the GRACE solution. However, on sub-ice-sheet-wide scales, some areas exhibit significant differences in the timing of peaks in the annual cycle of mass change. At these scales, model biases, or processes not accounted for by models related to ice dynamics or hydrology, may lead to the observed differences. This highlights the need for further evaluation of modeled processes at regional and seasonal scales, and further study of ice sheet processes not accounted for, such as the role of subglacial hydrology in variations in glacial flow. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular Alterations and Everolimus Efficacy in Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Overexpressing Metastatic Breast Cancers: Combined Exploratory Biomarker Analysis From BOLERO-1 and BOLERO-3.
Andre, Fabrice; Hurvitz, Sara; Fasolo, Angelica et al

in Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (2016), 34(18), 2115-24

PURPOSE: Two recent phase III trials, BOLERO-1 and BOLERO-3 (Breast Cancer Trials of Oral Everolimus), evaluated the addition of everolimus to trastuzumab and chemotherapy in human epidermal growth factor ... [more ▼]

PURPOSE: Two recent phase III trials, BOLERO-1 and BOLERO-3 (Breast Cancer Trials of Oral Everolimus), evaluated the addition of everolimus to trastuzumab and chemotherapy in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-overexpressing advanced breast cancer. The current analysis aimed to identify biomarkers to predict the clinical efficacy of everolimus treatment. METHODS: Archival tumor samples from patients in BOLERO-1 and BOLERO-3 were analyzed using next-generation sequencing, immunohistochemistry, and Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: Biomarker data were available for 549 patients. PIK3CA activating mutations and PTEN loss were reported in 30% and 16% of BOLERO-1 samples and in 32% and 12% of BOLERO-3 samples, respectively. PI3K pathway was hyperactive (PIK3CA mutations and/or PTEN loss and/or AKT1 mutation) in 47% of BOLERO-1 and 41% of BOLERO-3 samples. In both studies, differential progression-free survival (PFS) benefits of everolimus were consistently observed in patient subgroups defined by their PI3K pathway status. When analyzing combined data sets of both studies, everolimus was associated with a decreased hazard of progression in patients with PIK3CA mutations (hazard ratio [HR], 0.67; 95% CI, 0.45 to 1.00), PTEN loss (HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.96), or hyperactive PI3K pathway (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.48 to 0.93). Patients with wild-type PIK3CA (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.46), normal PTEN (HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.80 to 1.26), or normal PI3K pathway activity (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.87 to 1.62) did not derive PFS benefit from everolimus. CONCLUSION: This analysis, although exploratory, suggests that patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive advanced breast cancer having tumors with PIK3CA mutations, PTEN loss, or hyperactive PI3K pathway could derive PFS benefit from everolimus. [less ▲]

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See detailMitochondrial function and aerobic capacity assessed by high resolution respirometry in Thoroughbred horses
Serteyn, Didier ULg; Ceusters, Justine ULg; Nonnenmacher et al

in Comparative Exercise Physiology (2016), 12(2), 67-73

During the initial stages of training of young Thoroughbred horses, low intensity exercise is employed to increase aerobic capacity. High Resolution Respirometry (HRR) allows the determination of aerobic ... [more ▼]

During the initial stages of training of young Thoroughbred horses, low intensity exercise is employed to increase aerobic capacity. High Resolution Respirometry (HRR) allows the determination of aerobic capacities in small samples of permeabilised muscle fibres. The aim of the study was to measure the mitochondrial function by HRR in Thoroughbred horses, to compare these values to Warmblood horses and to evaluate the effect of a 10-weeks training period. The mitochondrial function was measured by HRR using different substrate-uncoupler protocols (SUIT 1 and 2) in muscle microbiopsies from two groups of untrained horses: 17 Warmblood and 8 Thoroughbred and in the group of 8 Thoroughbred horses before and after a 10-week training period. The SUIT1 protocol employed to compare the two groups of horses showed that in Thoroughbred horses, the mean values for oxygen flux expressed as tissue mass-specific respiration were significantly higher for complex I (CI)Glutamate+Malate, CI + complex II, and maximum electron transport capacities (ETSmax) than the mean values measured in Warmblood horses. The SUIT 1 and SUIT 2 protocols revealed large differences among Thoroughbred horses before and after training. The SUIT 2 protocols showed a significant difference for the complex I activity before and after training but only when the oxygen flux was expressed as percentage of ETSmax. This study shows the interest of HRR in equine sport medicine and exercise physiology, but shows that the technique requires further refinement. Indeed significant differences have been shown between the Thoroughbred and the Warmblood horses highlighting the need to have baseline data for each breed. The Thoroughbred horses had globally a high oxidative phosphorylation capacity with an increase of CI activity induced by an aerobic training program. [less ▲]

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See detailReversal of global atmospheric ethane and propane trends largely due to US oil and natural gas production
Helmig, Detlev; Rossabi, Samuel; Hueber, Jacques et al

in Nature Geoscience (2016)

Non-methane hydrocarbons such as ethane are important precursors to tropospheric ozone and aerosols. Using data from a global surface network and atmospheric column observations we show that the steady ... [more ▼]

Non-methane hydrocarbons such as ethane are important precursors to tropospheric ozone and aerosols. Using data from a global surface network and atmospheric column observations we show that the steady decline in ethane concentrations that began in the 1970s halted between 2005 and 2010 in most of the Northern Hemisphere, and has since reversed. We calculate a yearly increase in ethane emissions in the Northern Hemisphere of 0.42 (+/-0.19) Tg/yr between mid-2009 and mid-2014. The largest increases in ethane and for the shorter-lived propane are seen over the central and eastern USA, with a spatial distribution that suggests North American oil and natural gas development as the primary source of increasing emissions. By including other co-emitted oil and natural gas non-methane hydrocarbons, we estimate a Northern Hemisphere total non-methane hydrocarbon yearly emission increase of 1.2 (+/-0.8) Tg/yr. Atmospheric chemical transport modelling suggests that these emissions could augment summertime mean surface ozone by several nanomoles per mole near oil and natural gas production regions. Methane/ethane oil and natural gas emission ratios suggest a significant increase in associated methane emissions; however, this increase is inconsistent with observed leak rates in production regions and changes in methane’s global isotopic ratio. [less ▲]

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See detailMassive marine methane emissions from near-shore shallow coastal areas
Borges, Alberto ULg; Champenois, Willy ULg; Gypens, N et al

in Scientific Reports (2016), 6

Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas contributing to climate warming. The open ocean is a minor source of methane to the atmosphere. We report intense methane emissions from the near-shore ... [more ▼]

Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas contributing to climate warming. The open ocean is a minor source of methane to the atmosphere. We report intense methane emissions from the near-shore southern region of the North Sea characterized by the presence of extensive areas with gassy sediments. The average flux intensities (~130 μmol m−2 d−1) are one order of magnitude higher than values characteristic of continental shelves (~30 μmol m−2 d−1) and three orders of magnitude higher than values characteristic of the open ocean (~0.4 μmol m−2 d−1). The high methane concentrations (up to 1,128 nmol L−1) that sustain these fluxes are related to the shallow and well-mixed water column that allows an efficient transfer of methane from the seafloor to surface waters. This differs from deeper and stratified seep areas where there is a large decrease of methane between bottom and surface by microbial oxidation or physical transport. Shallow well-mixed continental shelves represent about 33% of the total continental shelf area, so that marine coastal methane emissions are probably under-estimated. Near-shore and shallow seep areas are hot spots of methane emission, and our data also suggest that emissions could increase in response to warming of surface waters. [less ▲]

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See detailFingerprinting and validation of a LC-DAD method for the analysis of biflavanones in Garcinia kola-based antimalarial improved traditional medicines
Tshisekedi Tshibangu, Pascal ULg; Mutwale Kapepula, Paulin ULg; Kabongo Kapinga, Marie Josée et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis (2016), 128(2016), 382-390

African populations use traditional medicines in their initial attempt to treat a range of diseases. Nevertheless, accurate knowledge of the composition of these drugs remains a challenge in terms of ... [more ▼]

African populations use traditional medicines in their initial attempt to treat a range of diseases. Nevertheless, accurate knowledge of the composition of these drugs remains a challenge in terms of ensuring the health of population and in order to advance towards improved traditional medicines (ITMs). In this paper chromatographic methods were developed for qualitative and quantitative analyses of a per os antimalarial ITM containing Garcinia kola. The identified analytical markers were used to establish TLC and HPLC fingerprints. G. kola seeds were analysed by HPLC to confirm the identity of the extract used by the Congolese manufacturer in the ITM. The main compounds (GB1, GB2, GB-1a and Kolaflavanone) were isolated by preparative TLC and identified by UPLC–MS and NMR. For the quantification of the major compound GB1, a simple and rapid experimental design was applied to develop an LC method, and then its validation was demonstrated using the total error strategy with the accuracy profile as a decision tool. The accurate results were observed within 0.14–0.45 mg/mL range of GB1 expressed as naringenin. The extracts used in several batches of the analysed oral solutions contained GB1 (expressed as naringenin) within 2.04–2.43%. Both the fingerprints and the validated LC-DAD were found suitable for the quality control of G. kolabased raw material and finished products, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailLa consecratio du terrain de la domus palatine de Cicéron
Berthelet, Yann ULg

in Mélanges de l'École Française de Rome. Antiquité (2016), 128(2),

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See detailComplete coding sequence of one H9 and three H7 low pathogenic influenza viruses circulating in wild birds in Belgium, 2009-2012
Van Borm, Steven; Rosseel, Toon; Marché, Sylvie et al

in Genome Announcements (2016), 4(3),

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See detailArctic cut-off high drives the poleward shift of a new Greenland melting record
Tedesco, M.; Mote, T.; Fettweis, Xavier ULg et al

in Nature Communications (2016), 7(11723),

Large-scale atmospheric circulation controls the mass and energy balance of the Greenland ice sheet through its impact on radiative budget, runoff and accumulation. Here, using reanalysis data and the ... [more ▼]

Large-scale atmospheric circulation controls the mass and energy balance of the Greenland ice sheet through its impact on radiative budget, runoff and accumulation. Here, using reanalysis data and the outputs of a regional climate model, we show that the persistence of an exceptional atmospheric ridge, centred over the Arctic Ocean, was responsible for a poleward shift of runoff, albedo and surface temperature records over the Greenland during the summer of 2015. New records of monthly mean zonal winds at 500 hPa and of the maximum latitude of ridge peaks of the 5,700±50 m isohypse over the Arctic were associated with the formation and persistency of a cutoff high. The unprecedented (1948–2015) and sustained atmospheric conditions promoted enhanced runoff, increased the surface temperatures and decreased the albedo in northern Greenland, while inhibiting melting in the south, where new melting records were set over the past decade. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of GPR101 transcripts structure and expression patterns
Trivellin, Giampaolo; Ivana, Bjelobaba; Daly, Adrian ULg et al

in Journal of Molecular Endocrinology (2016)

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See detailImpurity scattering effects on the superconducting properties and the tetragonal-to-orthorhombic phase transition in FeSe
Abdel-Hafiez, Mahmoud; Pu, Y. J.; Brisbois, Jérémy ULg et al

in Physical Review B (2016), 93

A comprehensive study of the doping dependence of the phase diagram of FeSe-based superconductors is still required due to the lack of a clean and systematic means of doping control. Here, we report on ... [more ▼]

A comprehensive study of the doping dependence of the phase diagram of FeSe-based superconductors is still required due to the lack of a clean and systematic means of doping control. Here, we report on the magneto-optical imaging, thermodynamic and transport properties, as well as in situ angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) studies, on the impurity scattering in stoichiometric FeSe single crystals. Co doping at the Fe site is found to decrease the superconducting transition temperature. The upper critical field and specific heat all indicate a possible multiband superconductivity with strong coupling in the Co-doped system. A remarkable feature in FeSe is that its temperature dependent resistivity exhibits a wide hump at high temperatures, a signature of a crossover from a semiconductinglike behavior to metallic behavior. A structural tetragonal-to-orthorhombic phase transition Ts (a consequence of the electronic nematicity) is suppressed by either physical or chemical pressures. Due to the reconstruction of the Fermi surface at Ts, specific heat anomalies at Ts present ΔCp/Ts≈γn, the Sommerfield coefficient at low temperature. This reflects additional electronic instability in the FeSe(1−x)Sx system. ARPES data between 180 and 282 K indicates the existence of a chemical potential shift with increasing thermal excitations, resulting in a change of the Fermi-surface topology and exhibiting a semimetal behavior. We found that the temperature-induced Lifshitz transition is much higher than the temperature for the nematic order. [less ▲]

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See detailBrexit et défense européenne. Décryptage
Dumoulin, André ULg

in e-Note (2016), 20

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See detailEnthalpy-Entropy Compensation in the Binding of Modulators at Ionotropic Glutamate Receptor GluA2
Krintel, Christian; Francotte, Pierre ULg; Pickering, Darryl S. et al

in Biophysical Journal (2016), 110

The 1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxide type of positive allosteric modulators of the ionotropic glutamate receptor A2 (GluA2) are promising lead compounds for the treatment of cognitive disorders, e.g ... [more ▼]

The 1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxide type of positive allosteric modulators of the ionotropic glutamate receptor A2 (GluA2) are promising lead compounds for the treatment of cognitive disorders, e.g., Alzheimer’s disease. The modulators bind in a cleft formed by the interface of two neighboring ligand binding domains and act by stabilizing the agonist-bound open- channel conformation. The driving forces behind the binding of these modulators can be significantly altered with only minor substitutions to the parent molecules. In this study, we show that changing the 7-fluorine substituent of modulators BPAM97 (2) and BPAM344 (3) into a hydroxyl group (BPAM557 (4) and BPAM521 (5), respectively), leads to a more favorable binding enthalpy (DH, kcal/mol) from 4.9 (2) and 7.5 (3) to 6.2 (4) and 14.5 (5), but also a less favorable binding entropy ( TDS, kcal/mol) from 2.3 (2) and 1.3 (3) to 0.5 (4) and 4.8 (5). Thus, the dissociation constants (Kd, mM) of 4 (11.2) and 5 (0.16) are similar to those of 2 (5.6) and 3 (0.35). Functionally, 4 and 5 potentiated responses of 10 mM L-glutamate at homomeric rat GluA2(Q)i receptors with EC50 values of 67.3 and 2.45 mM, respectively. The binding mode of 5 was examined with x-ray crystallography, showing that the only change compared to that of earlier compounds was the orientation of Ser-497 pointing toward the hydroxyl group of 5. The favorable enthalpy can be explained by the formation of a hydrogen bond from the side-chain hydroxyl group of Ser-497 to the hydroxyl group of 5, whereas the unfavorable entropy might be due to desolva- tion effects combined with a conformational restriction of Ser-497 and 5. In summary, this study shows a remarkable example of enthalpy-entropy compensation in drug development accompanied with a likely explanation of the underlying structural mechanism. [less ▲]

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See detailIntegrated and systemic management of storm damage by the forest-based sector and public authorities
Riguelle, Simon ULg; Hebert, Jacques ULg; Jourez, Benoît ULg

in Annals of Forest Science : a Multidisciplinary and International Journal (2016), 73

The paper’s goals are to identify key challenges in the currentwindthrow management framework and present a blueprint for howto progress in the settlement of regional strategies.SWOT analyses are used to ... [more ▼]

The paper’s goals are to identify key challenges in the currentwindthrow management framework and present a blueprint for howto progress in the settlement of regional strategies.SWOT analyses are used to highlight relevant issues and opportunities in classical approaches from both the forest-based sector and public authorities’ perspectives. Despite the large body of knowledge that allows decision-makers to react promptly after huge storms, strategic responses still suffer from too individual and fragmented decisions and a lack of holistic economic assessments. To tackle these issues, the paper suggests using systemic and integrated risk management approaches. It also presents the ways to enhance the forest-based sector’s resistance and resilience towards economic shock and supports decision-making with the help of systemic analysis. This shift of paradigm is one of the key requirements in optimizing the way of dealing with storm damage, but public authorities should concur with it more actively by improving decisional and administrative frameworks. Contribution of the co-authors Co-authors are PhD thesis’ supervisors and have thoroughly reviewed the paper. [less ▲]

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See detailUniversal amorphous-amorphous transition in GexSe100−x glasses under pressure
Yildirim, Can ULg; Micoulaut, Matthieu; Boolchand, Punit et al

in Scientific Reports (2016), 6

Pressure induced structural modifications in vitreous GexSe100−x (where 10 ≤ x ≤ 25) are investigated using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) along with supplementary X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments ... [more ▼]

Pressure induced structural modifications in vitreous GexSe100−x (where 10 ≤ x ≤ 25) are investigated using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) along with supplementary X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations. Universal changes in distances and angle distributions are observed when scaled to reduced densities. All compositions are observed to remain amorphous under pressure values up to 42 GPa. The Ge-Se interatomic distances extracted from XAS data show a two-step response to the applied pressure; a gradual decrease followed by an increase at around 15–20 GPa, depending on the composition. This increase is attributed to the metallization event that can be traced with the red shift in Ge K edge energy which is also identified by the principal peak position of the structure factor. The densification mechanisms are studied in details by means of AIMD simulations and compared to the experimental results. The evolution of bond angle distributions, interatomic distances and coordination numbers are examined and lead to similar pressure-induced structural changes for any composition. [less ▲]

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See detailImprinting superconducting vortex footsteps in a magnetic layer
Brisbois, Jérémy ULg; Motta, Maycon; Avila Osses, Jonathan ULg et al

in Scientific Reports (2016), 6

Local polarization of a magnetic layer, a well-known method for storing information, has found its place in numerous applications such as the popular magnetic drawing board toy or the widespread credit ... [more ▼]

Local polarization of a magnetic layer, a well-known method for storing information, has found its place in numerous applications such as the popular magnetic drawing board toy or the widespread credit cards and computer hard drives. Here we experimentally show that a similar principle can be applied for imprinting the trajectory of quantum units of flux (vortices), travelling in a superconducting film (Nb), into a soft magnetic layer of permalloy (Py). In full analogy with the magnetic drawing board, vortices act as tiny magnetic scribers leaving a wake of polarized magnetic media in the Py board. The mutual interaction between superconducting vortices and ferromagnetic domains has been investigated by the magneto-optical imaging technique. For thick Py layers, the stripe magnetic domain pattern guides both the smooth magnetic flux penetration as well as the abrupt vortex avalanches in the Nb film. It is however in thin Py layers without stripe domains where superconducting vortices leave the clearest imprints of locally polarized magnetic moment along their paths. In all cases, we observe that the flux is delayed at the border of the magnetic layer. Our findings open the quest for optimizing magnetic recording of superconducting vortex trajectories. [less ▲]

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See detailScreening study of SFC critical method parameters for the determination of pharmaceutical compounds
Dispas, Amandine ULg; Lebrun, Pierre ULg; Sacre, Pierre-Yves ULg et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2016), 125

Nowadays, supercritical fluid chromatography is commonly presented as a promising alternative technique in the field of separation sciences. Nevertheless the selection of chromatographic conditions and ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, supercritical fluid chromatography is commonly presented as a promising alternative technique in the field of separation sciences. Nevertheless the selection of chromatographic conditions and sample preparation of pharmaceutical compounds remain a challenge and peak distortion was previously highlighted. The main objective of the present work was to evaluate the impact of different critical method parameters (CMPs), i.e. stationary phase, mobile phase composition and injection solvent nature. The experiments were performed considering two groups of antimalarial molecules: one group with neutral/apolar compounds and the other one with salt form of polar compounds. In this context, another objective was to propose a suitable sample solvent for quantitative analysis. The interest of new generation stationary phase to obtain good peak shape and the interest to tune the mobile phase composition were demonstrated. During this study, design of experiments and desirability function approach enabled to highlight optimal chromatographic conditions in order to maximise peak capacity and to get acceptable value of symmetry factor. Regarding sample injection solvent composition, some counterintuitive results were observed: solvents closer to the mobile phase polarity (i.e heptane or 2-propanol/heptane mixture) did not provide best results in terms of peak symmetry. In addition, acetonitrile and short aliphatic alcohols offered an interesting alternative as injection solvent: toxicity of solvents used is clearly reduced and better quantitative performances could be expected while keeping high peak capacity and symmetric sharp peaks. Finally, the quantitative performances were evaluated by the method validation for the quantitative determination of quinine sulfate in a pharmaceutical formulation. These better understandings on critical method parameters led SFC to be an even more promising technique in the field of the analysis of pharmaceutical compounds. [less ▲]

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See detailUnveiling the Room-Temperature Magnetoelectricity of Troilite FeS
Ricci, Fabio ULg; Bousquet, Eric ULg

in Physical Review Letters (2016), 116

We report on a first-principles study of the troilite phase of iron sulfide (FeS). We show that even if, a few decades ago, this material was thought to be ferroelectric, the structural transition from ... [more ▼]

We report on a first-principles study of the troilite phase of iron sulfide (FeS). We show that even if, a few decades ago, this material was thought to be ferroelectric, the structural transition from the high P63/mmc to the low P6¯2c symmetry phase does not involve polar instabilities, though the space inversion center symmetry is broken. Our calculations and symmetry analysis nevertheless reveal that FeS is magnetoelectric at room temperature with a response larger than the prototypical room-temperature magnetoelectric crystal Cr2O3. We also show that the spin channel decomposition of the polarization exhibits nonzero values in the opposite direction in FeS, which is actually a general hint of the presence of a magnetoelectric monopole in diagonal magnetoelectrics. [less ▲]

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See detailHydrogeological assessment of non-linear underground enclosures
Pujades, Estanislao ULg; Jurado Elices, Anna ULg; Carrera, Jesus et al

in Engineering Geology (2016), 207

Excavations below the water table are usually undertaken by combining the protection of retaining walls with dewatering by pumping wells. Severe difficulties may arise if the retaining walls have defects ... [more ▼]

Excavations below the water table are usually undertaken by combining the protection of retaining walls with dewatering by pumping wells. Severe difficulties may arise if the retaining walls have defects. Therefore, their state must be determined and, if needed, the defects repaired or the dewatering system redesigned. The state of underground retaining walls can be evaluated using hydrogeological methods, but these methods are well-established only for linear excavations. The objective of this work is to propose a procedure to evaluate the state of non-linear underground enclosures by analyzing the groundwater response to pumping inside the enclosure. The proposed method, which is based on diagnostic plots (derivative of drawdown with respect to the logarithm of time), allows (1) determining if an underground non-linear enclosure has isolated openings or numerous defects and (2) computing its effective conductance or effective hydraulic conductivity. The methodology is tested with data collected during the excavation of a shaft required for the construction of the high speed train (HST) tunnel in Barcelona, Spain. The procedure can be applied using the wells drilled for dewatering. Although a test before the excavation is recommended to evaluate the underground retaining walls (Watertightness Assessment Test), the method can be applied using data collected at the beginning of the dewatering stage. [less ▲]

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See detailStructure Characterization and Properties of K‑Containing Copper Hexacyanoferrate
Ojwang, Dickson O.; Grins, Jekabs; Wardecki, Dariusz et al

in Inorganic Chemistry (2016), 55

Copper hexacyanoferrate, CuII[FeIII(CN)6]2/3·nH2O, was synthesized, and varied amounts of K+ ions were inserted via reduction by K2S2O3 (aq). Ideally, the reaction can be written as CuII[FeIII(CN)6]2 ... [more ▼]

Copper hexacyanoferrate, CuII[FeIII(CN)6]2/3·nH2O, was synthesized, and varied amounts of K+ ions were inserted via reduction by K2S2O3 (aq). Ideally, the reaction can be written as CuII[FeIII(CN)6]2/3·nH2O + 2x/3K+ + 2x/3e− ↔ K2x/3CuII[FeIIxFeIII1−x(CN)6]2/3·nH2O. Infrared, Raman, and Mössbauer spectroscopy studies show that FeIII is continuously reduced to FeII with increasing x, accompanied by a decrease of the a-axis of the cubic Fm3̅m unit cell. Elemental analysis of K by inductively coupled plasma shows that the insertion only begins when a significant fraction, ∼20% of the FeIII, has already been reduced. Thermogravimetric analysis shows a fast exchange of water with ambient atmosphere and a total weight loss of ∼26wt % upon heating to 180 °C, above which the structure starts to decompose. The crystal structures of CuII[FeIII(CN)6]2/3·nH2O and K2/3Cu[Fe(CN)6]2/3·nH2O were refined using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data. In both, one-third of the Fe(CN)6 groups are vacant, and the octahedron around CuII is completed by water molecules. In the two structures, difference Fourier maps reveal three additional zeolitic water sites (8c, 32f, and 48g) in the center of the cavities formed by the −Cu−N−C−Fe− framework. The K-containing compound shows an increased electron density at two of these sites (32f and 48g), indicating them to be the preferred positions for the K+ ions. [less ▲]

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See detailSepramesh and postoperative peritoneal adhesions in a rat model
Arung, Willy; Drion, Pierre ULg; DETRY, Olivier ULg

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (2016), Online

Purpose: The present study aimed to investigate the safety and the anti-postoperative peritoneal adhesion (PPA) characteristics of SeprameshVR (Davol), a composite mesh made of polypropylene covered with ... [more ▼]

Purpose: The present study aimed to investigate the safety and the anti-postoperative peritoneal adhesion (PPA) characteristics of SeprameshVR (Davol), a composite mesh made of polypropylene covered with Seprafilm, when intraperitoneally placed in a rat model. Methods: Twenty male rats were randomized into a control group and a Sepramesh group. They underwent a primary surgical procedure aiming to induce a peritoneal injury in order to induce PPAs. In the Sepramesh group, the burnt peritoneum was covered with a 2-cm diameter disc of Sepramesh prosthesis. The mesh was fixed to the parietal peritoneum with four 3-0 absorbable stitches. PPAs were assessed during a second laparotomy 10 days later using quantitative and qualitative scoring systems. Results: There was no difference in terms of mean number of PPAs between both groups. All the rats from the control group developed PPAs. In the Sepramesh group, no adhesions were observed at the site of the injured peritoneum that had been covered with the Sepramesh prosthesis, but PPAs occurred at the extremities of the mesh, where there was close contact between polypropylene and viscera, or where the fixation sutures were placed. The severity and the type of adhesions were significantly higher in the control group. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that for the Sepramesh prostheses, the Seprafilm layer might be effective in PPA prevention, but damage caused by the section and fixation of Sepramesh should be limited in order to limit PPAs. [less ▲]

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See detailVibration mode shapes visualization in industrial environment by real-time time-averaged phase-stepped electronic speckle pattern interferometry at 10.6  μm and shearography at 532 nm
Languy, Fabian ULg; Vandenrijt, Jean-François ULg; Thizy, Cédric ULg et al

in Optical Engineering : The Journal of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (2016), 55(12), 121704

We present our investigations on two interferometric methods suitable for industrial conditions dedicated to the visualization of vibration modes of aeronautic blades. First, we consider long-wave ... [more ▼]

We present our investigations on two interferometric methods suitable for industrial conditions dedicated to the visualization of vibration modes of aeronautic blades. First, we consider long-wave infrared (LWIR) electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI). The use of long wavelength allows measuring larger amplitudes of vibrations compared with what can be achieved with visible light. Also longer wavelengths allow lower sensitivity to external perturbations. Second, shearography at 532 nm is used as an alternative to LWIR ESPI. Both methods are used in time-averaged mode with the use of phase-stepping. This allows transforming Bessel fringes, typical to time averaging, into phase values that provide higher contrast and improve the visualization of vibration mode shapes. Laboratory experimental results with both techniques allowed comparison of techniques, leading to selection of shearography. Finally a vibration test on electrodynamic shaker is performed in an industrial environment and mode shapes are obtained with good quality by shearography. [less ▲]

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See detailMultimodal evoked potentials for functional quantification and prognosis in multiple sclerosis
GIFFROY, Xavier ULg

in BMC Neurology (2016)

Functional biomarkers able to identify multiple sclerosis (MS) patients at high risk of fast disability progression are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of multimodal (upper and ... [more ▼]

Functional biomarkers able to identify multiple sclerosis (MS) patients at high risk of fast disability progression are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of multimodal (upper and lower limbs motor, visual, lower limbs somatosensory) evoked potentials (EP) to monitor disease course and identify patients exposed to unfavourable evolution. One hundred MS patients were assessed with visual, somatosensory and motor EP and rated on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) at baseline (T0) and about 6 years later (T1). The Spearman correlation (rS) was used to evaluate the relationship between conventional EP scores and clinical findings. Multiple (logistic) regression analysis estimated the predictive value of baseline electrophysiological data for three clinical outcomes: EDSS, annual EDSS progression, and the risk of EDSS worsening. In contrast to longitudinal correlations, cross-sectional correlations between the different EP scores and EDSS were all significant (0.33 ≤ rS < 0.67, p < 0.001). Baseline global EP score and EDSS were highly significant predictors (p < 0.0001) of EDSS progression 6 years later. The aseline global EP score was found to be an independent predictor of the EDSS annual progression rate (p < 0.001), and of the risk of disability progression over time (p < 0.005). Based on a ROC curve determination, we defined a Global EP Score cut off point (17/30) to identify patients at high risk of disability progression illustrated by a positive predictive value of 70 %. This study provides a proof of the concept that electrophysiology could be added to MRI and used as another complementary prognostic tool in MS patients. [less ▲]

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See detailAbout the multifractal nature of Cantor's bijection: Bounds for the Hölder exponent at almost every irrational point
Nicolay, Samuel ULg; Simons, Laurent

in Fractals (2016), 24(2), 1650014-1-1650014-9

In this note, we investigate the regularity of Cantor’s one-to-one mapping between the irrational numbers of the unit interval and the irrational numbers of the unit square. In particular, we explore the ... [more ▼]

In this note, we investigate the regularity of Cantor’s one-to-one mapping between the irrational numbers of the unit interval and the irrational numbers of the unit square. In particular, we explore the fractal nature of this map by showing that its Hölder regularity lies between 0.35 and 0.72 almost everywhere (with respect to the Lebesgue measure). [less ▲]

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See detailEncore du nouveau à propos du Reliquaire de Charles le Téméraire
Dumont, Jonathan ULg

in Trésor de Liège : Bulletin Trimestriel (2016), 47(juin 2016), 3-7

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See detailEtude de cas, cathédrale de Beauvais (Oise), histoire de la construction et datations grâce à l'archéologie du bois
Hoffsummer, Patrick ULg

in Monumental : Revue Scientifique et Technique des Monuments Historiques (2016), 2016 1

L'archéologie des charpentes de la cathédrale de Beauvais combinée à la dendrochronologie et aux analyses de la couverture en plomb a largement contribué à l'enrichissement des connaissances à propos de l ... [more ▼]

L'archéologie des charpentes de la cathédrale de Beauvais combinée à la dendrochronologie et aux analyses de la couverture en plomb a largement contribué à l'enrichissement des connaissances à propos de l'histoire mouvementée du plus haut chœur gothique. [less ▲]

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See detailCompte rendu de Voltaire, Œuvres complètes, vol. 51A : Recueil des facéties parisiennes, éd. dirigée par Nicholas Cronk
Daubercies, Laurence ULg

in COnTEXTES : Revue de Sociologie de la Littérature (2016)

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See detailDu programme d'origine à la restauration des charpentes et couvertures
Hoffsummer, Patrick ULg

in Monumental : Revue Scientifique et Technique des Monuments Historiques (2016), 2016 1(1), 6-11

Les toitures des monuments historiques en France représentent un patrimoine pour l'histoire de l'architecture et l'histoire de la construction. Leur typologie dépend de nombreux facteurs: type de bâtiment ... [more ▼]

Les toitures des monuments historiques en France représentent un patrimoine pour l'histoire de l'architecture et l'histoire de la construction. Leur typologie dépend de nombreux facteurs: type de bâtiment, contexte historique, géographique. Leur conservation exige une analyse profonde de leur état et impose certains choix au moment de la restauration en fonction de leur réaffectation. [less ▲]

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See detailCerebral metabolism before and after external trigeminal nerve stimulation in episodic migraine
MAGIS, Delphine ULg; D'Ostilio, Kevin ULg; Thibaut, Aurore ULg et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2016)

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See detailAuditory evoked potential audiograms in post-settlement stage individuals of coral reef fishes
Colleye, Orphal ULg; Kever, Loïc ULg; Lecchini, David et al

in Journal of Experimental Marine Biology & Ecology (2016), 483

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See detailLe contexte social de l’isolement des personnes âgées de 65 ans et plus en Belgique
Maggi, Patrick ULg

in Chronique de la ligue des droits de l'Homme (2016), 174

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See detailHeat tracer test in an alluvial aquifer: field experiment and inverse modelling
Klepikova, Maria; Wildemeersch, Samuel; Hermans, Thomas ULg et al

in Journal of Hydrology (2016), 540

Using heat as an active tracer for aquifer characterization is a topic of increasing interest. In this study, we investigate the potential of using heat tracer tests for characterization of a shallow ... [more ▼]

Using heat as an active tracer for aquifer characterization is a topic of increasing interest. In this study, we investigate the potential of using heat tracer tests for characterization of a shallow alluvial aquifer. A thermal tracer test was conducted in the alluvial aquifer of the Meuse River, Belgium. The tracing experiment consisted in simultaneously injecting heated water and a dye tracer in an injection well and monitoring the evolution of groundwater temperature and tracer concentration in the pumping well and in measurement intervals. To get insights in the 3D characteristics of the heat transport mechanisms, temperature data from a large number of observation wells closely spaced along three transects were used. Temperature breakthrough curves in observation wells are contrasted with what would be expected in an ideal layered aquifer. They reveal strongly unequal lateral and vertical components of the transport mechanisms. The observed complex behavior of the heat plume is explained by the groundwater flow gradient on the site and heterogeneities in the hydraulic conductivity field. Moreover, due to high injection temperatures during the field experiment a temperature-induced fluid density effect on heat transport occurred. By using a flow and heat transport numerical model with variable density coupled with a pilot point approach for inversion of the hydraulic conductivity field, the main preferential flow paths were delineated. The successful application of a field heat tracer test at this site suggests that heat tracer tests is a promising approach to image hydraulic conductivity field. This methodology could be applied in aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) projects for assessing future efficiency that is strongly linked to the hydraulic conductivity variability in the considered aquifer. [less ▲]

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See detailAir-ice carbon pathways inferred from a sea ice tank experiment
Kotovitch, Marie ULg; Moreau, Sébastien; Zhou, Jiayun et al

in Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene (2016)

Air-ice CO2 fluxes were measured continuously using automated chambers from the initial freezing of a sea ice cover until its decay. Cooling seawater prior to sea ice formation acted as a sink for ... [more ▼]

Air-ice CO2 fluxes were measured continuously using automated chambers from the initial freezing of a sea ice cover until its decay. Cooling seawater prior to sea ice formation acted as a sink for atmospheric CO2, but as soon as the first ice crystals started to form, sea ice turned to a source of CO2, which lasted throughout the whole ice growth phase. Once ice decay was initiated by warming the atmosphere, the sea ice shifted back again to a sink of CO2. Direct measurements of outward ice-atmosphere CO2 fluxes were consistent with the depletion of dissolved inorganic carbon in the upper half of sea ice. Combining measured air-ice CO2 fluxes with the partial pressure of CO2 in sea ice, we determined strongly different gas transfer coefficients of CO2 at the air-ice interface between the growth and the decay phases (from 2.5 to 0.4 mol m−2 d−1 atm−1). A 1D sea ice carbon cycle model including gas physics and carbon biogeochemistry was used in various configurations in order to interpret the observations. All model simulations correctly predicted the sign of the air-ice flux. By contrast, the amplitude of the flux was much more variable between the different simulations. In none of the simulations was the dissolved gas pathway strong enough to explain the large fluxes during ice growth. This pathway weakness is due to an intrinsic limitation of ice-air fluxes of dissolved CO2 by the slow transport of dissolved inorganic carbon in the ice. The best means we found to explain the high air-ice carbon fluxes during ice growth is an intense yet uncertain gas bubble efflux, requiring sufficient bubble nucleation and upwards rise. We therefore call for further investigation of gas bubble nucleation and transport in sea ice. [less ▲]

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