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See detailUltimate strength of cylindrical shells with cutouts
Eui Lee, Sang; Sahin; Rigo, Philippe ULg et al

in Ships and Offshore Structures (2017)

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See detailInfluence of granular fraction and origin of recycled concrete aggregates on their properties
Zhao, Zengfeng ULg; Courard, Luc ULg; Michel, Frédéric ULg et al

in European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering (2017)

Large quantities of construction and demolition wastes are produced each year. In order to make good use of recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) in concrete, it is very important to study the influence of ... [more ▼]

Large quantities of construction and demolition wastes are produced each year. In order to make good use of recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) in concrete, it is very important to study the influence of the granular fraction and the origin of RCA on their properties. In this study, RCA from industrial produced blocks (RCA_Blocks) and slabs (RCA_Slabs) were crushed and then separated into four granular fractions (0/2, 2/6.3, 6.3/14, 14/20 mm). Each granular fraction of RCA was physically characterised. Real RCA from recycling plant were also used for comparison. The results showed that recycled sands offered significantly higher cement paste content (higher bound water content) than coarse recycled aggregates. The fine RCA had therefore a higher water absorption coefficient compared to coarser fractions of RCA. The water absorption of finer fraction of RCA could be extrapolated precisely from the relationship between water absorption and cement paste content (or bound water content) of three coarse fractions of RCA. The values of hardened cement paste content obtained for the RCA_Blocks were lower than those measured on the RCA_Slabs, which was due to a smaller amount of initial cement paste content in blocks. The results showed that RCA_Slabs were more angular than RCA_Blocks. [less ▲]

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See detailStatistics of localized phase slips in tunable width planar point contacts
Baumans, Xavier ULg

in Scientific Reports (2017), 7

The main dissipation mechanism in superconducting nanowires arises from phase slips. Thus far, most of the studies focus on long nanowires where coexisting events appear randomly along the nanowire. In ... [more ▼]

The main dissipation mechanism in superconducting nanowires arises from phase slips. Thus far, most of the studies focus on long nanowires where coexisting events appear randomly along the nanowire. In the present work we investigate highly confined phase slips at the contact point of two superconducting leads. Profiting from the high current crowding at this spot, we are able to shrink in-situ the nanoconstriction. This procedure allows us to investigate, in the very same sample, thermally activated phase slips and the probability density function of the switching current I sw needed to trigger an avalanche of events. Furthermore, for an applied current larger than I sw , we unveil the existence of two distinct thermal regimes. One corresponding to efficient heat removal where the constriction and bath temperatures remain close to each other, and another one in which the constriction temperature can be substantially larger than the bath temperature leading to the formation of a hot spot. Considering that the switching current distribution depends on the exact thermal properties of the sample, the identification of different thermal regimes is of utmost importance for properly interpreting the dissipation mechanisms in narrow point contacts. [less ▲]

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See detailModelling of organic Rankine cycle power systems in off-design conditions: an experimentally-validated comparative study
Dickes, Rémi ULg; Dumont, Olivier ULg; Daccord, Rémi et al

in Energy (2017), 123

Because of environmental issues and the depletion of fossil fuels, the world energy sector is undergoing many changes toward increased sustainability. Among the many fields of research and development ... [more ▼]

Because of environmental issues and the depletion of fossil fuels, the world energy sector is undergoing many changes toward increased sustainability. Among the many fields of research and development, power generation from low-grade heat sources is gaining interest and the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is seen as one of the most promising technologies for such applications. In this paper, it is proposed to perform an experimentally-validated comparison of different modelling methods for the off-design simulation of ORC-based power systems. To this end, three types of modelling paradigms (namely a constant-efficiency method, a polynomial-based method and a semi-empirical method) are compared both in terms of their fitting and extrapolation capabilities. Post-processed measurements gathered on two experimental ORC facilities are used as reference for the models calibration and evaluation. The study is first applied at a component level (i.e. each component is analysed individually) and then extended to the characterization of the entire organic Rankine cycle power systems. Benefits and limi- tations of each modelling method are discussed. The results show that semi-empirical models are the most reliable for simulating the off-design working conditions of ORC systems, while constant-efficiency and polynomial-based models are both demonstrating lack of accuracy and/or robustness. [less ▲]

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See detailMacroH2A histone variants maintain nuclear organization and heterochromatin architecture.
Douet, Julien; Corujo, David; Malinverni, Roberto et al

in Journal of Cell Science (2017)

Genetic loss-of-function studies in development, cancer and somatic cell reprogramming have suggested that the group of macroH2A histone variants might function through stabilizing the differentiated ... [more ▼]

Genetic loss-of-function studies in development, cancer and somatic cell reprogramming have suggested that the group of macroH2A histone variants might function through stabilizing the differentiated state by a yet unknown mechanism. Here, we present results demonstrating that macroH2A variants have a major function in maintaining nuclear organization and heterochromatin architecture. Specifically, we find that a substantial amount of macroH2A is associated with heterochromatic repeat sequences. We further identify macroH2A on sites of interstitial heterochromatin decorated by H3K9me3. Loss of macroH2A leads to major defects in nuclear organization including reduced nuclear circularity, disruption of nucleoli and a global loss of dense heterochromatin. Domains formed by repeat sequences when depleted of macroH2A are disorganized, expanded and fragmented and mildly re-expressed. On the molecular level we find that macroH2A is required for the interaction of repeat sequences with the nucleostructural protein Lamin B1. Taken together our results argue that a major function of macroH2A histone variants is to link nucleosome composition to higher order chromatin architecture. [less ▲]

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See detailBehavior of digital sequences through exotic numeration systems
Leroy, Julien ULg; Rigo, Michel ULg; Stipulanti, Manon ULg

in Electronic Journal of Combinatorics (2017), 24(1), 14436

Many digital functions studied in the literature, e.g., the summatory function of the base-k sum-of-digits function, have a behavior showing some periodic fluctuation. Such functions are usually studied ... [more ▼]

Many digital functions studied in the literature, e.g., the summatory function of the base-k sum-of-digits function, have a behavior showing some periodic fluctuation. Such functions are usually studied using techniques from analytic number theory or linear algebra. In this paper we develop a method based on exotic numeration systems and we apply it on two examples motivated by the study of generalized Pascal triangles and binomial coefficients of words. [less ▲]

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See detailStrategic Points in Aquaponics
Junge, Ranka; König, Bettina; Villarroel, Morris et al

in Water (2017), 9(182),

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See detailPouvoir politique et audace des juges
Grandjean, Geoffrey ULg

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2017), (1), 231-237

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See detailBioavailability enhancement of itraconazole-based solid dispersions produced by hot melt extrusion in the framework of the Three Rs rule
Thiry, Justine ULg; Kok, Miranda ULg; Collard, Laurence ULg et al

in European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (2017), 99

Solid dispersion formulations made of itraconazole (ITZ) and Soluplus® (polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl acetate and polyvinylcaprolactame-based graft copolymer abbreviated SOL) were produced using hot melt ... [more ▼]

Solid dispersion formulations made of itraconazole (ITZ) and Soluplus® (polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl acetate and polyvinylcaprolactame-based graft copolymer abbreviated SOL) were produced using hot melt extrusion. Since ITZ possesses a water solubility of less than 1 ng/mL, the aim of this work was to enhance the aqueous solubility of ITZ, and thereby improve its bioavailability. The three formulations consisted of a simple SOL/ITZ amorphous solid dispersion (ASD), an optimized SOL/ITZ/AcDiSol® (super-disintegrant) ASD and an equimolar inclusion complex of ITZ in hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (substitution degree = 0.63, CD) with SOL. The three formulations were compared in vitro and in vivo to the marketed product Sporanox®. The in vitro enhancement of dissolution rate was evaluated using a biphasic dissolution test. In vitro dissolution results showed that all three formulations had a higher percentage of ITZ released than Sporanox® with the following ranking: SOL/ITZ/CD > SOL/ITZ/AcDiSol® > SOL/ITZ > Sporanox®. The bioavailability of these four formulations was evaluated in rats. The bioanalytical method was optimized so that only 10 μL of blood was withdrawn from the rats using specific volumetric absorptive microsampling devices. This enabled to keep the same rats during the whole study, which was in accordance with the Three Rs rules (reduction, refinement and replacement). Furthermore, this technique allowed the suppression of inter-individual variability. Higher Cmax and AUC were obtained after the administration of all three formulations compared to the levels after the use of Sporanox® as follows: SOL/ITZ/AcDiSol® > SOL/ITZ/CD > SOL/ITZ > Sporanox®. The inversion in the ranking between SOL/ITZ/CD and SOL/ITZ/AcDiSol® made impossible the establishment of an in vitro–vivo correlation. Indeed, very different release rates were obtained in vitro and in vivo for the two optimized formulations. These results suggest that ITZ would be protected inside the core of the SOL micelles even during the absorption step at the intestine, while some agents present in the intestinal fluids could displace ITZ from the hydrophobic cavity of CD by competition. [less ▲]

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See detailLinking Forest Cover to Water Quality: A Multivariate Analysis of Large Monitoring Datasets
Brogna, Delphine; Michez, Adrien ULg; Jacobs, Sander et al

in Water (2017), 9(3), 176

Forested catchments are generally assumed to provide higher quality water. However, this hypothesis must be validated in various contexts as interactions between multiple land use and land cover (LULC ... [more ▼]

Forested catchments are generally assumed to provide higher quality water. However, this hypothesis must be validated in various contexts as interactions between multiple land use and land cover (LULC) types, ecological variables and water quality variables render this relationship highly complex. This paper applies a straightforward multivariate approach on a typical large monitoring dataset of a highly managed and densely populated area (Wallonia, Belgium; 10-year dataset), quantifying forest cover effects on nine physico-chemical water quality variables. Results show that forest cover explains about one third of the variability of water quality and is positively correlated with higher quality water. When controlling for spatial autocorrelation, forest cover still explains 9% of water quality. Unlike needle-leaved forest cover, broad-leaved forest cover presents an independent effect from ecological variables and explains independently 4.8% of water quality variability while it shares 5.8% with cropland cover. This study demonstrates clear independent effects of forest cover on water quality, and presents a method to tease out independent LULC effects from typical large multivariate monitoring datasets. Further research on explanatory variables, spatial distribution effects and water quality datasets could lead to effective strategies to mitigate pollution and reach legal targets. [less ▲]

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See detailBioreducible cross-linked core polymer micelles enhance in vitro activity of methotrexate in breast cancer cells
Gulfam, Muhammad ULg; Matini, Teresa; Monteiro, Patrícia F et al

in Biomaterials Science (2017), 5(3), 532-550

Polymer micelles have emerged as promising carriers for controlled release applications, however, several limitations of micelle-based drug delivery have also been reported. To address these issues, we ... [more ▼]

Polymer micelles have emerged as promising carriers for controlled release applications, however, several limitations of micelle-based drug delivery have also been reported. To address these issues, we have synthesized a functional biodegradable and cytocompatible block copolymer based on methoxypoly (ethyleneglycol)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone-co-α-azido-ε-caprolactone) (mPEG-b-poly(εCL-co-αN3εCL)) as a precursor of reduction sensitive core-crosslinked micelles. The synthesized polymer was formulated as micelles using a dialysis method and loaded with the anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer drug metho- trexate (MTX). The micellar cores were subsequently crosslinked at their pendent azides by a redox- responsive bis(alkyne). The size distributions and morphology of the polymer micelles were assessed using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy, and drug release assays were performed under simplified (serum free) physiological and reductive conditions. Cellular uptake studies in human breast cancer cells were performed using Oregon-green loaded core-crosslinked micelles. The MTX-loaded core-crosslinked micelles were assessed for their effects on metabolic activity in human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells by evaluating the reduction of the dye MTT 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide. The apoptosis inducing potential of MTX-loaded core-crosslinked micelles was analysed using Hoechst/propidium iodide (PI) and annexin-V/PI assays. The data from these experi- ments indicated that drug release from these cross-linked micelles can be controlled and that the redox- responsive micelles are more effective carriers for MTX than non-crosslinked analogues and the free drug in the cell-lines tested. [less ▲]

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See detailWASP-South transiting exoplanets: WASP-130b, WASP-131b, WASP-132b, WASP-139b, WASP-140b, WASP-141b & WASP-142b
Hellier, Coel; Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 465

We describe seven new exoplanets transiting stars of V = 10.1 to 12.4. WASP-130b is a "warm Jupiter" having an orbital period of 11.6 d, the longest yet found by WASP. It transits a V = 11.1, G6 star with ... [more ▼]

We describe seven new exoplanets transiting stars of V = 10.1 to 12.4. WASP-130b is a "warm Jupiter" having an orbital period of 11.6 d, the longest yet found by WASP. It transits a V = 11.1, G6 star with [Fe/H] = +0.26. Warm Jupiters tend to have smaller radii than hot Jupiters, and WASP-130b is in line with this trend (1.23 Mjup; 0.89 Rjup). WASP-131b is a bloated Saturn-mass planet (0.27 Mjup; 1.22 Rjup). Its large scale height coupled with the V = 10.1 brightness of its host star make the planet a good target for atmospheric characterisation. WASP-132b is among the least irradiated and coolest of WASP planets, being in a 7.1-d orbit around a K4 star. It has a low mass and a modest radius (0.41 Mjup; 0.87 Rjup). The V = 12.4, [Fe/H] = +0.22 star shows a possible rotational modulation at 33 d. WASP-139b is the lowest-mass planet yet found by WASP, at 0.12 Mjup and 0.80 Rjup. It is a "super-Neptune" akin to HATS-7b and HATS-8b. It orbits a V = 12.4, [Fe/H] = +0.20, K0 star. The star appears to be anomalously dense, akin to HAT-P-11. WASP-140b is a 2.4-Mjup planet in a 2.2-d orbit that is both eccentric (e = 0.047) and with a grazing transit (b = 0.93) The timescale for tidal circularisation is likely to be the lowest of all known eccentric hot Jupiters. The planet's radius is large (1.4 Rjup), but uncertain owing to the grazing transit. The host star is a V = 11.1, [Fe/H] = +0.12, K0 dwarf showing a prominent 10.4-d rotational modulation. The dynamics of this system are worthy of further investigation. WASP-141b is a typical hot Jupiter, being a 2.7 Mjup, 1.2 Rjup planet in a 3.3-d orbit around a V = 12.4, [Fe/H] = +0.29, F9 star. WASP-142b is a typical bloated hot Jupiter (0.84 Mjup, 1.53 Rjup) in a 2.1-d orbit around a V = 12.3, [Fe/H] = +0.26, F8 star. [less ▲]

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See detailH0LiCOW. VI. Testing the fidelity of lensed quasar host galaxy reconstruction
Ding, Xuheng; Liao, Kai; Treu, Tommaso et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 465

The empirical correlation between the mass of a supermassive black hole (M_BH) and its host galaxy properties is widely considered to be an evidence of their co-evolution. A powerful way to test the co ... [more ▼]

The empirical correlation between the mass of a supermassive black hole (M_BH) and its host galaxy properties is widely considered to be an evidence of their co-evolution. A powerful way to test the co-evolution scenario and learn about the feedback processes linking galaxies and nuclear activity is to measure these correlations as a function of redshift. Unfortunately, currently M_BH can only be estimated in active galaxies at cosmological distances. At these distances, bright active galactic nuclei (AGNs) can outshine the host galaxy, making it extremely difficult to measure the host's luminosity. Strongly lensed AGNs provide in principle a great opportunity to improve the sensitivity and accuracy of the host galaxy luminosity measurements as the host galaxy is magnified and more easily separated from the point source, provided the lens model is sufficiently accurate. In order to measure the M_BH-L correlation with strong lensing, it is necessary to ensure that the lens modelling is accurate, and that the host galaxy luminosity can be recovered to at least a precision and accuracy better than that of the typical M_BH measurement. We carry out extensive and realistic simulations of deep Hubble Space Telescope observations of lensed AGNs obtained by our collaboration. We show that the host galaxy luminosity can be recovered with better accuracy and precision than the typical uncertainty in M_BH(˜0.5 dex) for hosts as faint as 2-4 mag dimmer than the AGN itself. Our simulations will be used to estimate bias and uncertainties in the actual measurements to be presented in a future paper. [less ▲]

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See detailH0LiCOW - V. New COSMOGRAIL time delays of HE 0435-1223: H0 to 3.8 per cent precision from strong lensing in a flat ΛCDM model
Bonvin, V.; Courbin, F.; Suyu, S. H. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 465

We present a new measurement of the Hubble Constant H[SUB]0[/SUB] and other cosmological parameters based on the joint analysis of three multiply imaged quasar systems with measured gravitational time ... [more ▼]

We present a new measurement of the Hubble Constant H[SUB]0[/SUB] and other cosmological parameters based on the joint analysis of three multiply imaged quasar systems with measured gravitational time delays. First, we measure the time delay of HE 0435-1223 from 13-yr light curves obtained as part of the COSMOGRAIL project. Companion papers detail the modelling of the main deflectors and line-of-sight effects, and how these data are combined to determine the time-delay distance of HE 0435-1223. Crucially, the measurements are carried out blindly with respect to cosmological parameters in order to avoid confirmation bias. We then combine the time-delay distance of HE 0435-1223 with previous measurements from systems B1608+656 and RXJ1131-1231 to create a Time Delay Strong Lensing probe (TDSL). In flat Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) with free matter and energy density, we find H[SUB]0[/SUB] =71.9^{+2.4}_{-3.0} {km s^{-1} Mpc^{-1}} and Ω _{Λ }=0.62^{+0.24}_{-0.35}. This measurement is completely independent of, and in agreement with, the local distance ladder measurements of H[SUB]0[/SUB]. We explore more general cosmological models combining TDSL with other probes, illustrating its power to break degeneracies inherent to other methods. The joint constraints from TDSL and Planck are H[SUB]0[/SUB] = 69.2_{-2.2}^{+1.4} {km s^{-1} Mpc^{-1}}, Ω _{Λ }=0.70_{-0.01}^{+0.01} and Ω _k=0.003_{-0.006}^{+0.004} in open ΛCDM and H[SUB]0[/SUB] =79.0_{-4.2}^{+4.4} {km s^{-1} Mpc^{-1}}, Ω _de=0.77_{-0.03}^{+0.02} and w=-1.38_{-0.16}^{+0.14} in flat wCDM. In combination with Planck and baryon acoustic oscillation data, when relaxing the constraints on the numbers of relativistic species we find N[SUB]eff[/SUB] = 3.34_{-0.21}^{+0.21} in N[SUB]eff[/SUB]ΛCDM and when relaxing the total mass of neutrinos we find Σm[SUB]ν[/SUB] ≤ 0.182 eV in m[SUB]ν[/SUB]ΛCDM. Finally, in an open wCDM in combination with Planck and cosmic microwave background lensing, we find H[SUB]0[/SUB] =77.9_{-4.2}^{+5.0} {km s^{-1} Mpc^{-1}}, Ω _de=0.77_{-0.03}^{+0.03}, Ω _k=-0.003_{-0.004}^{+0.004} and w=-1.37_{-0.23}^{+0.18}. [less ▲]

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See detailH0LiCOW - IV. Lens mass model of HE 0435-1223 and blind measurement of its time-delay distance for cosmology
Wong, Kenneth C.; Suyu, Sherry H.; Auger, Matthew W. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 465

Strong gravitational lenses with measured time delays between the multiple images allow a direct measurement of the time-delay distance to the lens, and thus a measure of cosmological parameters ... [more ▼]

Strong gravitational lenses with measured time delays between the multiple images allow a direct measurement of the time-delay distance to the lens, and thus a measure of cosmological parameters, particularly the Hubble constant, H[SUB]0[/SUB]. We present a blind lens model analysis of the quadruply imaged quasar lens HE 0435-1223 using deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging, updated time-delay measurements from the COSmological MOnitoring of GRAvItational Lenses (COSMOGRAIL), a measurement of the velocity dispersion of the lens galaxy based on Keck data, and a characterization of the mass distribution along the line of sight. HE 0435-1223 is the third lens analysed as a part of the H[SUB]0[/SUB] Lenses in COSMOGRAIL's Wellspring (H0LiCOW) project. We account for various sources of systematic uncertainty, including the detailed treatment of nearby perturbers, the parametrization of the galaxy light and mass profile, and the regions used for lens modelling. We constrain the effective time-delay distance to be D_{Δ t}= 2612_{-191}^{+208} Mpc, a precision of 7.6 per cent. From HE 0435-1223 alone, we infer a Hubble constant of H[SUB]0[/SUB] = 73.1_{-6.0}^{+5.7} km s^{-1 Mpc^{-1}} assuming a flat ΛCDM cosmology. The cosmographic inference based on the three lenses analysed by H0LiCOW to date is presented in a companion paper (H0LiCOW Paper V). [less ▲]

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See detailLacustrine clay mineral assemblages as a proxy for land-use and climate changes over the last 4 kyr: The Amik Lake case study, Southern Turkey
El Ouahabi, Meriam ULg; Hubert, Aurelia ULg; Fagel, Nathalie ULg

in Quaternary International (2017), 1/15

Lake sediments are sensitive to landscape changes and most of these changes seem to be modulated by land-use (anthropogenic factors) coupled to palaeoenvironmental/palaeoclimatic changes. In its detrital ... [more ▼]

Lake sediments are sensitive to landscape changes and most of these changes seem to be modulated by land-use (anthropogenic factors) coupled to palaeoenvironmental/palaeoclimatic changes. In its detrital fraction, the lacustrine sediments record the history of soil erosion within its catchment via the inputs of clays and others detrital products. Within a Mediterranean context, the study investigates the upper sediments infilling the central part of the Amik basin in southern Turkey. This tectonic basin was occupied and exploited by modern human at least since 6000-7000 BC. We focus on the clay mineralogy (x-ray diffraction on oriented aggregates) and magnetic susceptibility measurements (Bartington) of the sedimentary record in the area over the last 4000 years, to assess environmental changes in relation with the different land uses and/or weathering during the successive Bronze, Iron, Roman, Islamic/Ottoman and Modern civilizations. The clay fraction of Amik Lake sediments comprises smectite, kaolinite, illite, chlorite and chlorite/smectite mixed layers that are the inherited clay phases. A relative change in abundance and crystallinity and chemistry of illite attests that environmental conditions evolved in the Amik Plain from the Bronze to Modern Age in relation with climates and/or land-use changes. The history of the Amik Lake reveals different soil erosion episode. The most intense erosion phase occurred during the Bronze/Iron Ages as indicated by the clay and magnetic susceptibility proxies. The Roman period was an exceptional period with soil erosion products arriving from the watershed, probably due the water channelization. A reduction of soil erosion occurred during the post Roman period until nowadays. Significant pedogenesis transformations are evidenced, especially during the Islamic/Ottoman periods suggesting intense chemical weathering conditions related to climate change. [less ▲]

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See detailTwo massive rocky planets transiting a K-dwarf 6.5 parsecs away
Gillon, Michaël ULg; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Van Grootel, Valérie ULg et al

in Nature Astronomy (2017), 1

HD 219134 is a K-dwarf star at a distance of 6.5 parsecs around which several low-mass planets were recently discovered[SUP]1,2[/SUP]. The Spitzer Space Telescope detected a transit of the innermost of ... [more ▼]

HD 219134 is a K-dwarf star at a distance of 6.5 parsecs around which several low-mass planets were recently discovered[SUP]1,2[/SUP]. The Spitzer Space Telescope detected a transit of the innermost of these planets, HD 219134 b, whose mass and radius (4.5 M[SUB]⊕[/SUB] and 1.6 R[SUB]⊕[/SUB] respectively) are consistent with a rocky composition[SUP]1[/SUP]. Here, we report new high-precision time-series photometry of the star acquired with Spitzer revealing that the second innermost planet of the system, HD 219134c, is also transiting. A global analysis of the Spitzer transit light curves and the most up-to-date HARPS-N velocity data set yields mass and radius estimations of 4.74 ± 0.19 M[SUB]⊕[/SUB] and 1.602 ± 0.055 R[SUB]⊕[/SUB] for HD 219134 b, and of 4.36 ± 0.22 M[SUB]⊕[/SUB] and 1.511 ± 0.047 R[SUB]⊕[/SUB] for HD 219134 c. These values suggest rocky compositions for both planets. Thanks to the proximity and the small size of their host star (0.778 ± 0.005 R[SUB]⊙[/SUB])[SUP]3[/SUP], these two transiting exoplanets — the nearest to the Earth yet found — are well suited for a detailed characterization (for example, precision of a few per cent on mass and radius, and constraints on the atmospheric properties) that could give important constraints on the nature and formation mechanism of the ubiquitous short-period planets of a few Earth masses. [less ▲]

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See detailPhotosynthetic trichomes contain a specific Rubisco with a modified pH9 dependent activity
Laterre, Raphaëlle; Pottier, Mathieu; Remacle, Claire ULg et al

in Plant Physiology (2017)

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See detailQuel « PRP » pour traiter les tendinopathies chroniques ?
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Emonds-Alt, Thibault ULg

in Journal de Traumatologie du Sport (2017), 34(1), 76-90

Plasma rich platelets (PRP) consist of blood plasma with a high concentration of platelets autologous constituting a huge reservoir of growthfactors. The clinical use of the PRP is widespread in various ... [more ▼]

Plasma rich platelets (PRP) consist of blood plasma with a high concentration of platelets autologous constituting a huge reservoir of growthfactors. The clinical use of the PRP is widespread in various medical applications. Even it is very popular with athletes, the use of PRP intendinopathies is still scientifically discussed, particularly related to a disparity in the products called PRP. In order to optimize employment, itshould be interested in the different stages of obtaining of the PRP. In this literature review, we analyzed in particular 8 parameters that can influencethe quality of the PRP: (1) anticoagulants used to preserve the best feature of platelet; (2) centrifuge speeds used in order to extract platelets; (3)platelet concentrations and the presence of leukocytes and erythrocytes in the PRP; (4) the platelet activators for the mast of platelets and thus therelease of growth factors; (5) use of local anesthetics to achieve infiltration, in addition to these parameters, it might be interesting to analyze othervariables like: (6) employment or not of buffer to neutralize the acidity caused by anticoagulants; (7) injection under US guidance or not; and (8)volume of PRP injected to determine their influence on the healing potential. [less ▲]

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See detailUn regard comparatif sur les régionalismes africain et latino-américain
Santander, Sébastian ULg

in Interventions Economiques = Papers in Political Economy (2017)

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See detailSeasonal plasticity of auditory saccular sensitivity in “sneaker” type II male plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus
Bhandiwad, Ashwin A.; Whitchurch, Elizabeth A.; Colleye, Orphal ULg et al

in Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural and Behavioral Physiology (2017), 203(3), 211-222

Adult female and nesting (type I) male midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) exhibit an adaptive form of auditory plasticity for the enhanced detection of social acoustic signals. Whether this adaptive ... [more ▼]

Adult female and nesting (type I) male midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) exhibit an adaptive form of auditory plasticity for the enhanced detection of social acoustic signals. Whether this adaptive plasticity also occurs in “sneaker” type II males is unknown. Here, we characterize auditory-evoked potentials recorded from hair cells in the saccule of reproductive and non-reproductive “sneaker” type II male midshipman to determine whether this sexual phenotype exhibits seasonal, reproductive state-dependent changes in auditory sensitivity and frequency response to behaviorally relevant auditory stimuli. Saccular potentials were recorded from the middle and caudal region of the saccule while sound was presented via an underwater speaker. Our results indicate saccular hair cells from reproductive type II males had thresholds based on measures of sound pressure and acceleration (re. 1 μPa and 1 ms−2, respectively) that were ~8–21 dB lower than non-reproductive type II males across a broad range of frequencies, which include the dominant higher frequencies in type I male vocalizations. This increase in type II auditory sensitivity may potentially facilitate eavesdropping by sneaker males and their assessment of vocal type I males for the selection of cuckoldry sites during the breeding season. [less ▲]

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See detailLA THÉRAPIE MANUELLE ORTHOPÉDIQUE : définition, caractéristiques et mise au point sur la situation en Belgique
Demoulin, Christophe ULg; Depas, Yannick ULg; Vanderthommen, Marc ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2017), 72(3), 126-131

Orthopaedic manual therapy : definition, characteristics and update on the situation in Belgium Summary : Although orthopaedic manual therapy (OMT) has existed for decades, and although a recent Belgian ... [more ▼]

Orthopaedic manual therapy : definition, characteristics and update on the situation in Belgium Summary : Although orthopaedic manual therapy (OMT) has existed for decades, and although a recent Belgian Royal Decree, published in 2014, recognized it as a particular professional qualification in physiotherapy for the treatment of neuromusculoskeletal dysfunctions, OMT remains little known by patients, but also by healthcare professionals. Yet, this professional qualification, based on clinical reasoning, using highly specific treatments, guided by the best available scientific and clinical evidence and the specific biopsychosocial characteristics of each patient, is the subject of a growing number of scientific studies pointing out its effectiveness. This article summarizes the knowledge related to OMT (definition, history, characteristics, techniques, indications, access and reimbursement) and describes its situation in Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of local outliers detection techniques in spatial multivariate data
Ernst, Marie ULg; Haesbroeck, Gentiane ULg

in Data Mining & Knowledge Discovery (2017), 31(2), 371399

Outlier detection techniques in spatial data should allow to identify two types of outliers: global and local ones. Local outliers typically have non-spatial attributes that strongly differ from those ... [more ▼]

Outlier detection techniques in spatial data should allow to identify two types of outliers: global and local ones. Local outliers typically have non-spatial attributes that strongly differ from those observed on their neighbors. Detecting local outliers requires to be able to work locally, on neighborhoods, in order to take into account the spatial dependence between the statistical units under consideration, even though the outlyingness is usually measured on the non-spatial variables. Many procedures have been outlined in the literature, but their number reduces when one wants to deal with multivariate non-spatial attributes. In this paper, focus is on the multivariate context. A review of existing procedures is done. A new approach, based on a two-step improvement of an existing one, is also designed and compared with the benchmarked methods by means of examples and simulations. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude de la composition chimique et de l’activité antioxydante des différents extraits de la Lavande dentée (Lavandula dentata)
Bettaieb Rebey, I.; Bourgou, S.; Saidani Tounsi, M. et al

in Journal of New Sciences Agri & Biotech (2017), 39(2), 2096-2105

In this study, Lavandula dentata organs (roots, stems and leaves) were investigated for their essential oils, total phenolics, flavonoids contents and antioxidant activities. Essential oil yields were 0 ... [more ▼]

In this study, Lavandula dentata organs (roots, stems and leaves) were investigated for their essential oils, total phenolics, flavonoids contents and antioxidant activities. Essential oil yields were 0.22% in roots, 0.68 % in stems and 0.89 % in flowers. Major components of the oils were β-ocimene, limonene and 1,8 cineol in roots, stems and leaves and flowers, respectively. In all organs, total phenolics content ranged from 42.57 to 16.17 mg gallic acid equivalents per gram of dry weight (mg GAE/g DW).The antioxidant activities of Lavandula dentata extracts obtained from the three organs were assessed using two tests (DPPH and reducing power). The root extract was strongly effective as DPPH radical scavenger and reducing agent. Thus, the identification of individual target polyphenolic compounds of roots was performed by RP-HPLC. The major phenolic compound detected in roots was rosmarinic acid. This activity was high enough for the plant to be a new and natural source of strongly antioxidant substances for use as natural additives in food and pharmaceutical industry. [less ▲]

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See detailCollecte in vivo d’ovocytes d’ânesses et chronologie de la maturation in vitro
Reigner, Fabrice; Barrière, Philippe; Blard, Thierry et al

in Pratique Vétérinaire Equine (2017), 49(193), 38-43

La plupart des espèces d’ânes sauvages et domestiques est en danger d’extinction. Leur préservation nécessite la cryoconservation du sperme, des ovocytes et des embryons. L’objectif de cette étude était ... [more ▼]

La plupart des espèces d’ânes sauvages et domestiques est en danger d’extinction. Leur préservation nécessite la cryoconservation du sperme, des ovocytes et des embryons. L’objectif de cette étude était de mettre au point une technique de collecte in vivo et de maturation in vitro des ovocytes d’ânesses. Les ovocytes ont été collectés par ponction folliculaire transvaginale sous guide échographique, placés dans un milieu de maturation in vitro pendant 24, 30, 34 ou 38 heures puis analysés. Quatre-vingt-douze ovocytes ont été collectés dans 193 follicules (48%) avec une moyenne de 4,2 ovocytes par ânesse. Après 34 heures de maturation in vitro, 45% des ovocytes ont été matures. Pour la première fois une technique de collecte in vivo et de maturation in vitro d’ovocytes d’ânesses a été développée. Cette technique permet d’envisager la cryoconservation et la fécondation in vitro de ces ovocytes. [less ▲]

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See detailFlux penetration in a superconducting film partially capped with a conducting layer
Brisbois, Jérémy ULg; Gladilin, V. N.; Tempere, J. et al

in Physical Review B (2017), 95

The influence of a conducting layer on the magnetic flux penetration in a superconducting Nb film is studied by magneto-optical imaging. The metallic layer partially covering the superconductor provides ... [more ▼]

The influence of a conducting layer on the magnetic flux penetration in a superconducting Nb film is studied by magneto-optical imaging. The metallic layer partially covering the superconductor provides an additional velocity-dependent damping mechanism for the flux motion that helps protecting the superconducting state when thermomagnetic instabilities develop. If the flux advances with a velocity slower than w = 2/µ0σt, where σ is the cap layer conductivity and t is its thickness, the flux penetration remains unaffected, whereas for incoming flux moving faster than w, the metallic layer becomes an active screening shield. When the metallic layer is replaced by a perfect conductor, it is expected that the flux braking effect will occur for all flux velocities. We demonstrate this effect by investigating Nb samples with a thickness step. Some of the observed features, namely the deflection and the branching of the flux trajectories at the border of the thick centre, as well as the favoured flux penetration at the indentation, are reproduced by time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau simulations. [less ▲]

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See detailUltrasonic spray pyrolysis as a processing route for templated electrochromic tungsten oxide films
Chatzikyriakou, Dafni ULg; Maho, Anthony ULg; Cloots, Rudi ULg et al

in Microporous and Mesoporous Materials (2017), 240

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See detailThe origin of CIMP or how to increase international contacts between Paleozoic palynologists during the second part of last century.
Streel, Maurice ULg

in Commission internationale de la microflore du Paléozoïque CIMP Newsletter (2017), 86

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See detailL'acte d'imagination: Approches phénoménologiques
Hagelstein, Maud ULg; Hervy, Alievtina ULg; Leclercq, Bruno ULg

in Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique (2017), 13 (2017)(2),

Du 25 au 29 avril 2016, le centre « Phénoménologies » de l’Université de Liège a tenu la dixième édition de son séminaire international de recherche en phénoménologie. Autour du thème général L’Acte ... [more ▼]

Du 25 au 29 avril 2016, le centre « Phénoménologies » de l’Université de Liège a tenu la dixième édition de son séminaire international de recherche en phénoménologie. Autour du thème général L’Acte d’imagination : approches phénoménologiques, vingt-huit chercheurs issus de vingt-deux universités différentes se sont rencontrés pendant une semaine entière pour discuter dans le détail plusieurs aspects de la problématique. Le volume actuel reprend la plupart des communications qui avaient été présentées durant cette semaine, communications ici retravaillées pour intégrer les propositions qu’avaient suscitées leur présentation originale et plus généralement l’ensemble des débats très riches qu’avait permis la constitution ponctuelle d’une vraie communauté philosophique. Kant avait notoirement fait de la faculté d’imagination un intermédiaire (un peu indécis) entre la réceptivité de l’expérience sensible et la spontanéité de l’entendement. En s’installant plus nettement sur le terrain de la psychologie descriptive et en abandonnant le vocabulaire des « facultés » pour lui préférer celui des actes mentaux ou des fonctions psychiques, les brentaniens s’étaient donné les moyens d’analyser plus finement les composantes de l’acte d’imagination (mode de visée, contenu réel, contenu intentionnel...), les rapports de fondation qu’il entretient avec d’autres types d’actes, et par là le rôle qu’il peut jouer dans les fonctions cognitives ou évaluatives de l’esprit. C’est de cet acte d’imagination, envisagé par la phénoménologie en tant que psychologie descriptive, qu’il sera ici question. [less ▲]

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See detailCouper et coller ? Une anecdote dans les manuscrits avestiques : l’exemple de K5 et K6
Ferrer-Losilla, Joan Josep ULg

in Estudios Iranios y Turanios. fәrā amәṣ̌ā spәṇtā gāθā̊ gə̄uruuāin Homenaje a Helmut Humbach en su 95º aniversario (2017), 3(1), 59-66

The present paper analyses an anecdotic case of “copy and paste” between two manuscripts belonging to two different lines of the Zoroastrian manuscript transmission: the Pahlavi exegetical (ms. K5) and ... [more ▼]

The present paper analyses an anecdotic case of “copy and paste” between two manuscripts belonging to two different lines of the Zoroastrian manuscript transmission: the Pahlavi exegetical (ms. K5) and the Sanskrit exegetical (ms. K6). I have found that a lost fragment of K5 is pasted, in fact, in K6 in a context hardly comprehensible. [less ▲]

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See detailEntandrophragma cylindricum (Sprague) Sprague (Meliaceae), une espèce ligneuse concurrentielle en Afrique centrale (synthèse bibliographique)
Tabi Eckebil, Paule ULg; Verheggen, François ULg; Doucet, Jean-Louis ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment (2017), 21(1), 80-97

Introduction. De nos jours, la gestion des ressources forestières ne se focalise plus sur l’exploitation exclusive du bois d’oeuvre, mais prend également en considération les produits forestiers non ... [more ▼]

Introduction. De nos jours, la gestion des ressources forestières ne se focalise plus sur l’exploitation exclusive du bois d’oeuvre, mais prend également en considération les produits forestiers non ligneux. Entandrophragma cylindricum (Sprague) Sprague, de son nom commercial « sapelli/sapele », de la famille des Meliaceae, illustre parfaitement cette situation. Le présent article fait un état de l’art des connaissances concernant E. cylindricum et présente quelques informations sur la chenille qui lui est inféodée. Littérature. Le sapelli est une des espèces ligneuses les plus exploitées d’Afrique centrale pour son bois d’oeuvre. Il est répandu dans la forêt dense humide semi-caducifoliée du domaine guinéo-congolais. C’est une espèce semi-héliophile, son mode de dispersion est anémochore et sa phénologie est régulière. Selon la sylviculture appliquée, sa croissance en diamètre peut atteindre jusque 0,82 cm par an. Cette essence est également l’hôte d’une espèce de chenille comestible riche en protéines, I. oyemensis Rougeot. Fortement appréciée par les populations locales, cette chenille fait également l’objet d’un commerce régional et international. Enfin, l’écorce du sapelli est reconnue pour son intérêt ethnobotanique, particulièrement en médecine traditionnelle. Conclusions. Les informations tirées de la littérature ont permis de mettre en évidence certaines lacunes relatives à l’écologie et au mode de reproduction de cette espèce et, ceci, en dépit de son importance pour le commerce du bois. De plus, les inconnues quant à la productivité et la saisonnalité des chenilles d’Imbrasia oyemensis sur cet arbre nécessitent de développer des recherches complémentaires pour garantir la durabilité de l’exploitation simultanée de la ressource ligneuse et non ligneuse et pour proposer des modes de gestion concertés entre exploitants industriels et populations locales. [less ▲]

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See detailComment les vidéastes gagnent-ils leur vie sur Youtube ?
Krywicki, Boris ULg

in Culture, le Magazine Culturel de l'Université de Liège (2017)

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See detailConstraining the efficiency of angular momentum transport with asteroseismology of red giants: the effect of stellar mass
Eggenberger, P.; Lagarde, N.; Miglio, A. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2017), 599

Context: Constraints on the internal rotation of red giants are now available thanks to asteroseismic observations. Preliminary comparisons with rotating stellar models indicate that an undetermined ... [more ▼]

Context: Constraints on the internal rotation of red giants are now available thanks to asteroseismic observations. Preliminary comparisons with rotating stellar models indicate that an undetermined additional process for the internal transport of angular momentum is required in addition to purely hydrodynamic processes. Aims: We investigate how asteroseismic measurements of red giants can help us characterize the additional transport mechanism. Methods: We first determine the efficiency of the missing transport mechanism for the low-mass red giant KIC 7341231 by computing rotating models that include an additional viscosity corresponding to this process. We then discuss the change in the efficiency of this transport of angular momentum with the mass, metallicity and evolutionary stage. Results: In the case of the low-mass red giant KIC 7341231, we find that the viscosity corresponding to the additional mechanism is constrained to the range 1 x 10^3 - 1.3 x 10^4 cm^2/s. This constraint on the efficiency of the unknown additional transport mechanism during the post-main sequence is obtained independently of any specific assumption about the modelling of rotational effects during the pre-main sequence and the main sequence (in particular, the braking of the surface by magnetized winds and the efficiency of the internal transport of angular momentum before the post-main-sequence phase). When we assume that the additional transport mechanism is at work during the whole evolution of the star together with a solar-calibrated braking of the surface by magnetized winds, the range of nu_add is reduced to 1 - 4 x 10^3 cm^2/s. In addition to being sensitive to the evolutionary stage of the star, we show that the efficiency of the unknown process for internal transport of angular momentum increases with the stellar mass. [less ▲]

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See detailSpin waves on chains of YIG particles: dispersion relations, Faraday rotation, and power transmission
Pike, Nicholas ULg; Stroud, David

in European Physical Journal B -- Condensed Matter (2017), 90

We calculate the dispersion relations for spin waves on a periodic chain of spherical or cylindrical Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) particles. We use the quasistatic approximation, appropriate when kd <<1 ... [more ▼]

We calculate the dispersion relations for spin waves on a periodic chain of spherical or cylindrical Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) particles. We use the quasistatic approximation, appropriate when kd <<1, where k is the wave number and d the interparticle spacing. In this regime, because of the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction between the localized magnetic excitations on neighboring particles, dispersive spin waves can propagate along the chain. The waves are analogous to plasmonic waves generated by electric dipole-dipole interactions between plasmons on neighboring metallic particles. The spin waves can be longitudinal (L), transverse (T ), or elliptically polarized. We find that a linearly polarized spin wave undergoes a Faraday rotation as it propagates along the chain. The amount of Faraday rotation can be tuned by varying the off-diagonal component of the permeability tensor. We also discuss the possibility of wireless power transmission along the chain using these coupled spin waves. [less ▲]

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See detailLésions mixtes des mâchoires, radio-opaques et radio-transparentes
MILICEVIC, Mladen ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2017), 72(3), 151-155

Les Lésions néoplasiques et non néoplasiques des mâchoires sont généralement classifiées comme radio-opaques ou radio-transparentes, odontogènes ou non odontogènes. Toutefois, il existe un nombre ... [more ▼]

Les Lésions néoplasiques et non néoplasiques des mâchoires sont généralement classifiées comme radio-opaques ou radio-transparentes, odontogènes ou non odontogènes. Toutefois, il existe un nombre significatif de pathologies qui peuvent être classifiées comme étant mixtes ou qui, au départ, sont radio-transparentes et deviennent ultérieurement radio-opaques ou mixtes. certaines pathologies s'expriment en différents stades de développement qui sont radio-transparents, radio-opaques ou mixtes. Le but de cet article est d'apporter une meilleure compréhension de l'imagerie de ces lésions, fondée sur une revue de la littérature, illustrée par des images de cas cliniques personnels. [less ▲]

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See detailScrutin proportionnel scrutin majoritaire
Verjans, Pierre ULg; Matagne, Geoffroy ULg; Counet, Maxime ULg

in Politique revue belge d'analyse et de débats (2017), 98-99

Le scrutin proportionnel utilisé en Belgique produit des gouvernements de coalition où la recherche du compromis et du consensus est obligatoire tandis que le scrutin majoritaire utilisé en France produit ... [more ▼]

Le scrutin proportionnel utilisé en Belgique produit des gouvernements de coalition où la recherche du compromis et du consensus est obligatoire tandis que le scrutin majoritaire utilisé en France produit des gouvernements monopartisans qui tentent de transformer leur société par des mesures non négociées. Chaque mode de sélection a ses avantages. [less ▲]

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See detailStructure impact of two galactomannan fractions on their viscosity properties in dilute solution, unperturbed state and gel state
Gillet, Sébastien; Aguedo, Mario ULg; Petrut, Raoul et al

in International Journal of Biological Macromolecules (2017), 96

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See detailLocal Identification of Voltage Instability from Load Tap Changer Response
Weckesser, Johannes ULg; Papangelis, Lampros ULg; Vournas, Costas et al

in Sustainable Energy, Grids and Networks (2017)

This paper presents a local long-term voltage instability monitoring method, which is suitable for on-line applications. The proposed extended-time Local Identification of Voltage Emergency Situations ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a local long-term voltage instability monitoring method, which is suitable for on-line applications. The proposed extended-time Local Identification of Voltage Emergency Situations (eLIVES) method is a significantly modified version of the previously presented LIVES method. The new method is not bound to assessing system response over a predefined LTC tapping period. This allows handling LTCs with variable delays, as well as events taking place during the tapping sequence impacting the distribution voltages. For that purpose, eLIVES applies recursive least square fitting to acquired distribution voltage measurements and a new set of rules to detect a voltage emergency situation. The effectiveness of the eLIVES method is presented on the IEEE Nordic test system for voltage stability and security assessment. [less ▲]

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See detailFactors controlling the evolution of groundwater dynamics and chemistry in the Senegal River Delta
Gning, Abdoul Aziz; Orban, Philippe ULg; Gesels, Julie ULg et al

in Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies (2017), 10

tStudy region: Senegal River Delta. Study focus: The Senegal River Delta is a strategic region for the development of irri-gated agriculture. Despite a Sahelian climatic context, the management of the ... [more ▼]

tStudy region: Senegal River Delta. Study focus: The Senegal River Delta is a strategic region for the development of irri-gated agriculture. Despite a Sahelian climatic context, the management of the river withdams ensures water availability throughout the year. With the intensification of agri-culture, degradation of cultivated soils is observed, mostly linked to the existence of ashallow salty aquifer. In this context, regional surveys were performed to characterizegroundwater–surface water interactions and to identify the impact of artificial river man-agement and agricultural intensification on the evolution of groundwater dynamics andchemistry.New hydrological insights for the region: Results show that groundwater far away from riversand outside irrigated plots has evolved from marine water to brines under the influenceof evapotranspiration. Near rivers, salinity of groundwater is lower than seawater andgroundwater mineralization seems to evolve in the direction of softening through cationicexchanges related to permanent contact with fresh water. Despite large volumes of waterused for rice cultivation, groundwater does not show any real softening trend in the culti-vated parcels. Results show that the mechanisms that contribute to repel salt water fromthe sediments correspond to a lateral flush near permanent surface water streams and notto vertical drainage and dilution with rainfall or irrigation water. It is however difficultto estimate the time required to come back to more favorable conditions of groundwatersalinity. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental Correction of Radiation Patterns Between Electromagnetic Environments
Spirlet, Maxime ULg; Geuzaine, Christophe ULg; Beauvois, Véronique ULg

in IEEE Transactions on Antennas & Propagation (2017), 65(03),

This manuscript presents an experimental method to estimate a radiation pattern obtained in a particular echoic environment (for example from in-situ measurements) as if measurements were performed in a ... [more ▼]

This manuscript presents an experimental method to estimate a radiation pattern obtained in a particular echoic environment (for example from in-situ measurements) as if measurements were performed in a given anechoic chamber. The correction is achieved using some reference measurements collected both in echoic and anechoic environments. An angular transfer function is estimated from these two sets of measurements and deconvolved from the measured radiation pattern to be corrected. [less ▲]

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See detailDe l’information (légale) à l'action (illégale) : Tests génétiques et technologies de pouvoir
Fallon, Catherine ULg

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2017)

sur la base de l’étude des transformations technologiques récentes en matière de tests génétiques prénataux, ce texte propose une analyse comparée de l’évolution de ces dispositifs et des pratiques en ... [more ▼]

sur la base de l’étude des transformations technologiques récentes en matière de tests génétiques prénataux, ce texte propose une analyse comparée de l’évolution de ces dispositifs et des pratiques en Belgique et en Argentine. Les mêmes techniques et les mêmes connaissances sont disponibles dans les deux pays, que ce soit en matière de dépistage prénatal ou d’avortement médicamenteux, mais les conditions normatives, économiques, sociales et culturelles sont très différentes dans les deux pays. La prise en charge par les programmes publics médicaux assure un suivi « émancipateur » aux couples belges pendant la grossesse. En Argentine, où le recours à l'avortement légal est très restrictif, le dispositif public de dépistage prénatal reste inachevé. Dans les deux pays, il est possible de comparer comment ces dispositifs de « biopolitique » sont transformés par les innovations technologiques au niveau des réseaux de savoir et des relations de pouvoir entre l’état, le corps médical et les familles. Dans un tel cadre, la question de l’illégalité est moins centrale que l’étude de la normativité émergente [less ▲]

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See detailRendre compte de la société d’aujourd’hui
Quoilin, Cécile; Postula, Jean-Louis ULg

in Cahiers de muséologie - Dans la marge (2017)

Founded a century ago as a classical museum of regional ethnography, the Museum of Walloon Life is now facing the challenge of an essential update and the redefinition of its museum project. For about ten ... [more ▼]

Founded a century ago as a classical museum of regional ethnography, the Museum of Walloon Life is now facing the challenge of an essential update and the redefinition of its museum project. For about ten years, the choice of the approach known as "society museum" on the occasion of the total renovation of the building, led to an in-depth review of the acquisition and exhibition policies but also of the nature of field research and relationships with its different audiences. This article shows the practical consequences of the implementation of this new model, which now places the man rather than the collections at the center of discourse, on all museum functions. One of its fundamental objectives is to allow the development within the Museum of the sometimes complex issues of contemporary society. [less ▲]

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See detailUnified treatment of boundary conditions and efficient algorithms for estimating tangent operators of the homogenized behavior in the computational homogenization method
Nguyen, Van Dung ULg; Wu, Ling ULg; Noels, Ludovic ULg

in Computational Mechanics (2017), 59(3), 483-505

This work provides a unified treatment of arbitrary kinds of microscopic boundary conditions usually considered in the multi-scale computational homogenization method for nonlinear multi-physics problems ... [more ▼]

This work provides a unified treatment of arbitrary kinds of microscopic boundary conditions usually considered in the multi-scale computational homogenization method for nonlinear multi-physics problems. An efficient procedure is developed to enforce the multi-point linear constraints arising from the microscopic boundary condition either by the direct constraint elimination or by the Lagrange multiplier elimination methods. The macroscopic tangent operators are computed in an efficient way from a multiple right hand sides linear system whose left hand side matrix is the stiffness matrix of the microscopic linearized system at the converged solution. The number of vectors at the right hand side is equal to the number of the macroscopic kinematic variables used to formulate the microscopic boundary condition. As the resolution of the microscopic linearized system often follows a direct factorization procedure, the computation of the macroscopic tangent operators is then performed using this factorized matrix at a reduced computational time. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of different in vitro dissolution tests based on level A in vitro–in vivo correlations for fenofibrate self-emulsifying lipid-based formulations
Pestieau, Aude ULg; Lebrun, Sonia; Cahay, Bernard et al

in European Journal of Pharmaceutics & Biopharmaceutics (2017), 112

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See detailCluster growth in driven granular gases
Noirhomme, Martial ULg; Ludewig, François; Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg et al

in Physical Review. E : Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics (2017)

We investigate numerically and theoretically the internal structures of a driven granular gas in cuboidal cell geometries. Clustering is reported and particles are classified as gaseous or clustered via a ... [more ▼]

We investigate numerically and theoretically the internal structures of a driven granular gas in cuboidal cell geometries. Clustering is reported and particles are classified as gaseous or clustered via a local packing fraction criterion based on a Voronoi tessellation. We observe that small clusters arise in the corners of the box, elucidating early reports of partial clustering. These aggregates have a condensation-like surface growth. When a critical size is reached, a structural transition occurs and all clusters merge together, leaving a hole in the center of the cell. This hole then becomes the new center of particle capture. Taking into account all structural modifications and defining a saturation packing fraction, we propose an empirical model for the cluster growth. [less ▲]

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See detailSeven temperate terrestrial planets around the nearby ultracool dwarf star
Gillon, Michaël ULg; Triaud, Amaury; Demory, Brice-Olivier et al

in Nature (2017), 542

One focus of modern astronomy is to detect temperate terrestrial exoplanets well-suited for atmospheric characterisation. A milestone was recently achieved with the detection of three Earth-sized planets ... [more ▼]

One focus of modern astronomy is to detect temperate terrestrial exoplanets well-suited for atmospheric characterisation. A milestone was recently achieved with the detection of three Earth-sized planets transiting (i.e. passing in front of) a star just 8% the mass of the Sun 12 parsecs away. Indeed, the transiting configuration of these planets combined with the Jupiter-like size of their host star - named TRAPPIST-1 - makes possible indepth studies of their atmospheric properties with current and future astronomical facilities. Here we report the results of an intensive photometric monitoring campaign of that star from the ground and with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Our observations reveal that at least seven planets with sizes and masses similar to the Earth revolve around TRAPPIST-1. The six inner planets form a near-resonant chain such that their orbital periods (1.51, 2.42, 4.04, 6.06, 9.21, 12.35 days) are near ratios of small integers. This architecture suggests that the planets formed farther from the star and migrated inward. The seven planets have equilibrium temperatures low enough to make possible liquid water on their surfaces. [less ▲]

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See detailEnergy Efficiency in the Romanian Residential Building Stock: A Literature Review
Muresan, Adina Ana; Attia, Shady ULg

in Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (2017), 74

The building sector in Romania is dominated by residential buildings that are old and have poor thermal performance. As member of the European Union, Romania has to reach the objectives imposed by the ... [more ▼]

The building sector in Romania is dominated by residential buildings that are old and have poor thermal performance. As member of the European Union, Romania has to reach the objectives imposed by the Directive 2009/28/EC and to fulfill the requirements of the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) by year 2020. To reach the 2020 objectives, the old buildings from the Romanian building stock should be rehabilitated and the new buildings should be designed according to the latest thermal performance characteristics. The following paper presents the literature review of building energy performance in Romania. The purpose of the literature review analysis is to provide an overview on current building energy efficiency in Romania. The paper also presents future perspectives on implementation of high performance buildings such as the Passive House (PH), nearly Zero Energy Buildings (nZEB) and Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEB). The reviewed publications and case studies are classified under three categories: policy and regulations, technology and feasibility. Finally, the paper presents a holistic perspective on the Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats (SWOTs) of energy efficiency in Romania's residential building sector. [less ▲]

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See detailA Multiplatform Experiment to Unravel Meso- and Submesoscale Processes in an Intense Front (AlborEx)
Pascual, Ananda; Ruiz, Simon; Olita, Antonio et al

in Frontiers in Marine Science (2017)

The challenges associated with meso- and submesoscale variability (between 1 and 100 km) require high-resolution observations and integrated approaches. Here we describe a major oceanographic experiment ... [more ▼]

The challenges associated with meso- and submesoscale variability (between 1 and 100 km) require high-resolution observations and integrated approaches. Here we describe a major oceanographic experiment designed to capture the intense but transient vertical motions in an area characterized by strong fronts. Finescale processes were studied in the eastern Alboran Sea (Western Mediterranean) about 400 km east of the Strait of Gibraltar, a relatively sparsely sampled area. In-situ systems were coordinated with satellite data and numerical simulations to provide a full description of the physical and biogeochemical variability. Hydrographic data confirmed the presence of an intense salinity front formed by the confluence of Atlantic Waters, entering from Gibraltar, with the local Mediterranean waters. The drifters coherently followed the northeastern limb of an anticyclonic gyre. Near real time data from acoustic current meter data profiler showed consistent patterns with currents of up to 1 m/s in the southern part of the sampled domain. High-resolution glider data revealed submesoscale structures with tongues of chlorophyll-a and oxygen associated with the frontal zone. Numerical results show large vertical excursions of tracers that could explain the subducted tongues and filaments captured by ocean gliders. A unique aspect of AlborEx is the combination of high-resolution synoptic measurements of vessel-based measurements, autonomous sampling, remote sensing and modeling, enabling the evaluation of the underlying mechanisms responsible for the observed distributions and biogeochemical patchiness. The main findings point to the importance of fine-scale processes enhancing the vertical exchanges between the upper ocean and the ocean interior. [less ▲]

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See detailConception of a near-infrared spectrometer for ground-based observations of massive stars
Kintziger, Christian ULg; Desselle, Richard ULg; Loicq, Jerôme ULg et al

in Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems (2017), 3(1), 015002

In our contribution, we outline the different steps in the design of a fiber-fed spectrographic instrument for stellar astrophysics. Starting from the derivation of theoretical relationships from the ... [more ▼]

In our contribution, we outline the different steps in the design of a fiber-fed spectrographic instrument for stellar astrophysics. Starting from the derivation of theoretical relationships from the scientific requirements and telescope characteristics, the entire optical design of the spectrograph is presented. Specific optical elements, such as a toroidal lens, are introduced to improve the instrument’s efficiency. Then the verification of predicted optical performances is investigated through optical analyses, such as resolution checking. [less ▲]

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See detailThe importance of pollen chemistry in evolutionary host shifts of bees
Vanderplanck, Maryse ULg; Vereecken, Nicolas; Grumiau, Laurent et al

in Scientific Reports (2017)

Although bee-plant associations are generally maintained through speciation processes, host shifts have occurred during evolution. Understanding shifts between both phylogenetically and morphologically ... [more ▼]

Although bee-plant associations are generally maintained through speciation processes, host shifts have occurred during evolution. Understanding shifts between both phylogenetically and morphologically unrelated plants (i.e., host-saltation) is especially important since they could have been key processes in the origin and radiation of bees. Probably far from being a random process, such host-saltation might be driven by hidden constraints associated with plant traits. We selected two clades of oligolectic bees (i.e., Colletes succinctus group and Melitta leporina group) foraging on co-flowering but unrelated host-plants to test this hypothesis. We analyzed floral scent, floral color and chemical composition of pollen from host and non-host plants of these two clades. We did not find evidence for host-plant evolution in the Melitta leporina group driven by one of the assayed floral traits. On the contrary, hosts of the C. succinctus group display similar primary nutritive content of pollen (i.e., amino acids and sterols) but not similar floral scent or color, suggesting that shared pollen chemistry probably mediates saltation in this clade. Our study revealed that constraints shaping floral associations are diverse and clearly depend on species life-history traits, but evidence suggests that pollen chemistry may act as a major floral filter and guide evolutionary host-shifts. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular Mechanisms Involved in Schwann Cell Plasticity
Boerboom, Angélique ULg; Dion, Valérie ULg; CHARIOT, Alain ULg et al

in Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience (2017)

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See detailEnergy harvesting from galloping of prisms: A wind tunnel experiment
Hémon, Pascal; Amandolèse, Xavier; Andrianne, Thomas ULg

in Journal of Fluids & Structures (2017), 70

We study the energy harvesting from the galloping oscillations of rigid prisms flexibly mounted in a wind tunnel. A square section and a 2/3 rectangular section are tested and the inclination angle of the ... [more ▼]

We study the energy harvesting from the galloping oscillations of rigid prisms flexibly mounted in a wind tunnel. A square section and a 2/3 rectangular section are tested and the inclination angle of the prisms referred to the flow direction is optimally adapted. The energy harvester is based on magnets moving with the prism in the front of a coil-core at rest. Energy is dissipated in a load resistance for which an optimal value is found. Efficiency of the "prism wind turbine" is weak compared to usual wind turbine due to the physics of the galloping mechanism. However such systems remain interesting for their potential of adaptation to various situations. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of natural radioactivity and associated radiation hazards in sand building material used in Douala Littoral Region of Cameroon, using gamma spectrometry
Guembou Shouop, Cébastien Joel ULg; Ndontchueng Moyo, Maurice; Chene, Grégoire ULg et al

in Environmental Earth Sciences (2017), 76(164),

Twenty-four sand samples were collected from different sand quarries from Douala Littoral Region (Wouri, Dibamba, Mungo and Docteur Anse rivers and Atlantic Sea) along the Guinea Golf. These samples were ... [more ▼]

Twenty-four sand samples were collected from different sand quarries from Douala Littoral Region (Wouri, Dibamba, Mungo and Docteur Anse rivers and Atlantic Sea) along the Guinea Golf. These samples were investigated using gamma-ray spectrometry system. Highest values of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K measured specific activities expressed in Bq Kg−1 units were, respectively, 146.7 (in Youpoue–Bamenda 2) 102.9 (in Village 1) and 928 (in Northern Akwa 6) while the lowest values were found to be, respectively, 11.8 (in Northern Akwa 6), 8.0 (in Bonaberi–Bonamikano 4) and 54.0 (Youpoue 3). The potential radiological hazards parameters were assessed by calculating successively radium equivalent activity (Raeq), outdoor absorbed gamma dose rate (Dout), annual effective dose rate, internal hazard (Hin) and external hazard (Hex) indices and alpha and gamma index from using those sand in the construction of dwellings and large buildings. Results obtained show that annual dose absorbed by inhabitants due to sand construction use in Douala is below 1.0 mSv year−1. Therefore, most of the types of sands studied and incorporated in constructions appear to be safe as building material. The outputs from this research will be useful to assess the radiation hazards of sand building material in humans and to initiate a sand database together with a radiological map of the area at stake. [less ▲]

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See detailModeling the thickness dependence of the magnetic phase transition temperature in thin FeRh film
Ostler, Thomas ULg; Craig, Barton; Thomas, Thomson et al

in Physical Review. B : Condensed Matter (2017), 95

FeRh and its first-order phase transition can open new routes for magnetic hybrid materials and devices under the assumption that it can be exploited in ultra-thin-film structures. Motivated by ... [more ▼]

FeRh and its first-order phase transition can open new routes for magnetic hybrid materials and devices under the assumption that it can be exploited in ultra-thin-film structures. Motivated by experimental measurements showing an unexpected increase in the phase transition temperature with decreasing thickness of FeRh on top of MgO, we develop a computational model to investigate strain effects of FeRh in such magnetic structures. Our theoretical results show that the presence of theMgO interface results in a strain that changes the magnetic configuration which drives the anomalous behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailDraft Genome of the Axenic Strain Phormidesmis priestleyi ULC007, a Cyanobacterium Isolated from Lake Bruehwiler (Larsemann Hills, Antarctica)
Lara, Yannick ULg; Durieu, Benoit ULg; Cornet, Luc ULg et al

in Genome Announcements (2017)

Phormidesmis priestleyi ULC007 is an Antarctic freshwater cyanobacte- rium. Its draft genome is 5,684,389 bp long. It contains a total of 5,604 protein- encoding genes, of which 22.2% have no clear ... [more ▼]

Phormidesmis priestleyi ULC007 is an Antarctic freshwater cyanobacte- rium. Its draft genome is 5,684,389 bp long. It contains a total of 5,604 protein- encoding genes, of which 22.2% have no clear homologues in known genomes. To date, this draft genome is the first one ever determined for an axenic cyanobacterium from Antarctica. [less ▲]

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See detailCyclotheonellazoles A–C, Potent Protease Inhibitors from the Marine Sponge Theonella aff. swinhoei
Issac, Michal; Aknin, Maurice; Gauvin-Bialecki, Anne et al

in Journal of Natural Products (2017)

he extract of a sample of the sponge Theonella aff. swinhoei collected in Madagascar exhibited promising in vitro antiplasmodial activity. The antiplasmodial activity was ascribed in part to the known ... [more ▼]

he extract of a sample of the sponge Theonella aff. swinhoei collected in Madagascar exhibited promising in vitro antiplasmodial activity. The antiplasmodial activity was ascribed in part to the known metabolite swinholide A. Further investigation of the extract afforded three unusual cyclic peptides, cyclotheonellazoles A–C (1–3), which contain six nonproteinogenic amino acids out of the eight acid units that compose these natural products. Among these acids the most novel were 4-propenoyl-2-tyrosylthiazole and 3-amino-4-methyl-2-oxohexanoic acid. The structure of the compounds was elucidated by interpretation of the 1D and 2D NMR data, HRESIMS, and advanced Merfay’s techniques. The new compounds were found to be nanomolar inhibitors of chymotrypsin and sub-nanomolar inhibitors of elastase, but did not present antiplasmodial activity. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of different tillage systems on aggregate structure and inner distribution of organic carbon
Gao, Lili ULg; Beckers, Eléonore ULg; Liang, Guopeng et al

in Geoderma (2017), 288

Tillage is a common agricultural practice affecting soil structure and biogeochemistry. Pore network geometries are crucial to oxygen concentration, gas diffusivity, water location and water movement ... [more ▼]

Tillage is a common agricultural practice affecting soil structure and biogeochemistry. Pore network geometries are crucial to oxygen concentration, gas diffusivity, water location and water movement. Soil aggregates, 4–6 mm in diameter and collected from silty loam in Belgium and sandy loam in China, were scanned using a micro-computed tomography scanner. Images with a pixel size of 6.9 μm were then processed with ImageJ software for pore network analysis. The treatments were no tillage (C-NT) and conventional tillage (C-CT) in China, and shallow tillage (G-ST) and conventional tillage (G-CT) in Belgium. The results showed that aggregates in conservational tillage (G-ST and C-NT) had numerous connected pores compared with conventional tillage (G-CT and C-CT). The Euler number (Ev) was significantly lower and visible total porosity and surface area (SA) were significantly higher in conservational tillage (G-ST and C-NT) than in conventional tillage (G-CT and C-CT) in both studied locations. The predominant size of pores was significantly higher in conservational tillage (G-ST and C-NT) than in conventional tillage (G-CT and C-CT) (> 150 μm vs 90–120 μm). Pore location within the aggregates also showed differences, with porosity being evenly distributed in the aggregates under conventional tillage (G-CT and C-CT). Under conservational tillage (G-ST and C-NT), the aggregates were heterogeneous, showing higher porosity at the center of the aggregates. There was a higher soil organic carbon (SOC) content in the external layer than in the internal layer in conservational tillage in Belgium (G-ST). In no tillage in China (C-NT), the SOC in the external and internal layers, however, showed similar results. Overall, conventional tillage (G-CT and C-CT) reduced the proportion of the largest pores within soil aggregates, whereas there was no significant relationship between pore morphologies and SOC content. Further investigation is required to measure the active and slow carbon pool distribution in the different layers and under different tillage practices. [less ▲]

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See detailThe desire of parenthood: intuitive co-parental behaviors and quality of couple relationship among Italian and Belgian same-sex and opposite-sex couples.
Miscioscia, Marina ULg; Blavier, Adelaïde ULg; Pagone, Paolo et al

in Frontiers in Psychology (2017), 8(110),

Studies that focused on family issues have allowed a great understanding of the aspectsrelated to its subsystems, such as parenting desire and its expectations, couples’satisfaction and quality of child’s ... [more ▼]

Studies that focused on family issues have allowed a great understanding of the aspectsrelated to its subsystems, such as parenting desire and its expectations, couples’satisfaction and quality of child’s outcomes. All these aspects are greatly interconnectedand contribute to the creation of specific family dynamics, such as the quality offamily interactions. The present study focuses on intuitive co-parental behaviors andthe quality of couple relationship observed during the decision process (intention anddesire) to be (or become) parents. Our first goal was to explore these aspects ina cross-national sample made of Italian and Belgian heterosexual, lesbian and gaycouples. We then aimed to evaluate if the degree of internalized homophobia affectsco-parental alliance. The quality of couple relationship and co-parental behaviors havebeen evaluated through the recruitment of a group of 115 stable heterosexual, gay andlesbian couples (230 individuals, 20–50 years of age) without children, who wanted tobecome parents. We used the Prenatal Lausanne Trilogue Play to evaluate the Co-parental Alliance; the couple’s satisfaction was assessed with the Dyadic AdjustmentScale and the Internalized Homophobia with the MISS-LG. In line with the existentliterature, the analysis did not find any difference between lesbian, gay and heterosexualcouples in terms of co-parental alliance. High levels of couple adjustment lead to betterparental performances among both Italian and Belgian couples. The results suggestalso that sexual stigma differs from one country to another, and it has an impact on thecapability of managing co-parenting. Clinical implications should be verified in furtherlongitudinal studies in order to observe the impact on the inter-generational transmissionof psychopathology. [less ▲]

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See detailMagnetocaloric Properties of Zinc-Nickel Ferrites Around Room Temperature
El Maalam, Khadija; Fkhar, lahcen; Mohammed, Hamedoun et al

in Journal of Superconductivity and Novel Magnetism (2017)

In this paper, structural, magnetic, and magnetocaloric properties of zinc-doped nickel ferrite, Zn1−xNixFe2O4 (x = 0.3 and 0.4) were investigated. The samples were prepared using solid-state reaction. X ... [more ▼]

In this paper, structural, magnetic, and magnetocaloric properties of zinc-doped nickel ferrite, Zn1−xNixFe2O4 (x = 0.3 and 0.4) were investigated. The samples were prepared using solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and magnetization measurements were performed to study crystallographic structure and magnetic properties. For a magnetic field changing from 0 to 5 T, the corresponding isothermal entropy change was found to be near 1.4 J/kg K for both samples. The decreasing of Ni content from x = 0.4 to 0.3, enables to shift the Curie temperature of Zn1−xNixFe2O4 from 450 K toward (325 K). As main results, it was found that the relative cooling power (RCP) could be significantly enhanced by changing Ni concentration in Zn1−xNixFe2O4 (505 J/kg (for x = 0.3) and 670 J/kg (for x = 0.4)), which is considered as a recommended parameter for a wide temperature range in magnetic refrigeration application. Our finding should inspire and open new ways for the enhancement of the magnetocaloric effect in spinel ferrite-based materials. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of primary and secondary polyvinylamines for efficient gene transfection
Dréan, Mathilde; Debuigne, Antoine ULg; Gonçalves, Christine et al

in Biomacromolecules (2017), 18(2), 440-441

Gene transfection with polymeric carrier remains a challenge, particularly high transfection levels combined with low toxicity are hard to achieve. We herein revisit polyvinylamines, an old and neglected ... [more ▼]

Gene transfection with polymeric carrier remains a challenge, particularly high transfection levels combined with low toxicity are hard to achieve. We herein revisit polyvinylamines, an old and neglected family of cationic polymers. They can be readily obtained by controlled hydrolysis of polyvinylamides prepared through (controlled) radical polymerization. A series of tailor-made and well-defined polyvinylamines bearing primary amino groups, and poly(N- methylvinylamine) bearing secondary amines, were evaluated for the transfection of cells with pDNA as a function of their molar mass, molar mass distribution and degree of deacetylation. Unexpected high transfection levels, in combination with low cytotoxicity were recorded for both series. Surprisingly, a great impact of the molar mass was observed for the primary amine polyvinylamine series, whereas the results were mostly independent on molar mass or dispersity for the polymer bearing secondary amine. It was further established that a certain percentage of acetamide groups increased the transfection level, while maintaining low cytotoxicity. These results highlight for the first time the real potential of polyvinylamines as gene carriers, and make these polymers very attractive for further development in gene therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailHow phosphorus limitation can control climate-active gas sources and sinks
Gypens, Nathalie; Borges, Alberto ULg; Ghyoot, Caroline

in Journal of Marine Systems (2017), 170

Since the 1950's, anthropogenic activities have increased nutrient river loads to European coastal areas. Subsequent implementation of nutrient reduction policies have led to considerably reduction of ... [more ▼]

Since the 1950's, anthropogenic activities have increased nutrient river loads to European coastal areas. Subsequent implementation of nutrient reduction policies have led to considerably reduction of phosphorus (P) loads from the mid-1980's, while nitrogen (N) loads were maintained, inducing a P limitation of phytoplankton growth in many eutrophied coastal areas such as the Southern Bight f the North Sea (SBNS). When dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) is limiting, most phytoplankton organisms are able to indirectly acquire P from dissolved organic P (DOP). We investigate the impact of DOP use on phytoplankton production and atmospheric fluxes of CO2 and dimethylsulfide (DMS) in the SBNS from 1951 to 2007 using an extended version of the RMIRO-BIOGAS model. This model includes a description of the ability of phytoplankton organisms to use DOP as a source of P. Results show that primary production can increase up to 30% due to DOP uptake under limiting DIP conditions. Consequently, simulated DMS emissions also increase proportionally while CO2 emissions to the atmosphere decrease, relative to the reference simulation without DOP uptake [less ▲]

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See detailThermoelectric properties of layered calcium cobaltite Ca3Co4O9 from hybrid functional first-principles calculations
Lemal, Sébastien ULg; Varignon, Julien ULg; Bilc, Daniel ULg et al

in Physical Review B (2017), 95

Using a combination of first-principles calculations based on density functional theory and Boltzmann semiclassical transport theory, we compute and study the properties of pristine layered calcium ... [more ▼]

Using a combination of first-principles calculations based on density functional theory and Boltzmann semiclassical transport theory, we compute and study the properties of pristine layered calcium cobaltite Ca3Co4O9. We model the system with the B1WC hybrid functional. Two supercells of increasing size which approximate the incommensurate crystallographic structure of the compound are studied and we determine their structural, magnetic, and electronic properties. It is found that the B1WC hybrid functional is appropriate to reproduce the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties, which are then extensively discussed. From the electronic band structure, the Seebeck (S) and electrical resistivity (ρ) tensors are computed using Boltzmann transport theory within the constant relaxation-time approximation. The differences between the diagonal components are detailed and reveal a strong in-plane anisotropy of the properties. The qualitative behavior of the averaged in-plane properties, S // and ρ//, is consistent with the measurements reported in the literature. Our calculation clarifies and provides a broad picture of the evolution of the thermoelectric properties with both carrier density and temperature, and suggests that the change in S// and ρ// around 100 K is not necessarily related to the magnetic transitions occurring around 100 K. [less ▲]

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See detailStress indicator gene expression profiles, colony dynamics and tissue development of honey bees exposed to sub-lethal doses of imidacloprid in laboratory and field experiments
De Smet, Lina; Hatjina; Ioannidis, Pavlos et al

in PLOS One (2017), 10(137),

In this study, different context-dependent effects of imidacloprid exposure on the honey bee response were studied. Honey bees were exposed to different concentrations of imidacloprid during a time period ... [more ▼]

In this study, different context-dependent effects of imidacloprid exposure on the honey bee response were studied. Honey bees were exposed to different concentrations of imidacloprid during a time period of 40 days. Next to these variables, a laboratory-field comparison was conducted. The influence of the chronic exposure on gene expression levels was determined using an in-house developed microarray targeting different immunity-related and detoxification genes to determine stress-related gene expression changes. Increased levels of the detoxification genes encoding, CYP9Q3 and CYT P450, were detected in imidacloprid- exposed honey bees. The different context-dependent effects of imidacloprid exposure on honey bees were confirmed physiologically by decreased hypopharyngeal gland sizes. Honey bees exposed to imidacloprid in laboratory cages showed a general immunosuppression and no detoxification mechanisms were triggered significantly, while honey bees infield showed a resilient response with an immune stimulation at later time points. However, the treated colonies had a brood and population decline tendency after the first brood cycle in the field. In conclusion, this study highlighted the different context-dependent effects of imidacloprid exposure on the honey bee response. These findings warn for possible pitfalls concerning the generalization of results based on specific experiments with short exposure times. The increased levels of CYT P450 and CYP9Q3 combined with an immune response reaction can be used as markers for bees which are exposed to pesticides in the field. [less ▲]

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See detailPerineuronal nets and vocal plasticity in songbirds: a proposed mechanism to explain the difference between closed-ended and open-ended learning
Cornez, Gilles ULg; Madison, F.N.; Van der Linden, A. et al

in Developmental Neurobiology (2017)

Perineuronal nets (PNN) are aggregations of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans surrounding the soma and proximal processes of neurons, mostly GABAergic interneurons expressing parvalbumin. They limit the ... [more ▼]

Perineuronal nets (PNN) are aggregations of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans surrounding the soma and proximal processes of neurons, mostly GABAergic interneurons expressing parvalbumin. They limit the plasticity of their afferent synaptic connections. In zebra finches PNN develop in an experience-dependent manner in the song control nuclei HVC and RA (nucleus robustus arcopallialis) when young birds crystallize their song. Because songbird species that are open-ended learners tend to recapitulate each year the different phases of song learning until their song crystallizes at the beginning of the breeding season, we tested whether seasonal changes in PNN expression would be found in the song control nuclei of a seasonally breeding species such as the European starling. Only minimal changes in PNN densities and total number of cells surrounded by PNN were detected. However, comparison of the density of PNN and of PNN surrounding parvalbumin-positive cells revealed that these structures are far less numerous in starlings that show extensive adult vocal plasticity, including learning of new songs throughout the year, than in the closed-ended learner zebra finches. Canaries that also display some vocal plasticity across season but were never formally shown to learn new songs in adulthood were intermediate in this respect. Together these data suggest that establishment of PNN around parvalbumin-positive neurons in song control nuclei has diverged during evolution to control the different learning capacities observed in songbird species. This differential expression of PNN in different songbird species could represent a key cellular mechanism mediating species variation between closed-ended and open-ended learning strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailCrystal structure and biochemical characterization of the transmembrane PAP2 type phosphatidylglycerol phosphate phosphatase from Bacillus subtilis.
El Ghachi, Meriem ULg; Howe, Nicole; Auger, Rodolphe et al

in Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS (2017)

Type 2 phosphatidic acid phosphatases (PAP2s) can be either soluble or integral membrane enzymes. In bacteria, integral membrane PAP2s play major roles in the metabolisms of glycerophospholipids ... [more ▼]

Type 2 phosphatidic acid phosphatases (PAP2s) can be either soluble or integral membrane enzymes. In bacteria, integral membrane PAP2s play major roles in the metabolisms of glycerophospholipids, undecaprenyl-phosphate (C55-P) lipid carrier and lipopolysaccharides. By in vivo functional experiments and biochemical characterization we show that the membrane PAP2 coded by the Bacillus subtilis yodM gene is the principal phosphatidylglycerol phosphate (PGP) phosphatase of B. subtilis. We also confirm that this enzyme, renamed bsPgpB, has a weaker activity on C55-PP. Moreover, we solved the crystal structure of bsPgpB at 2.25 A resolution, with tungstate (a phosphate analog) in the active site. The structure reveals two lipid chains in the active site vicinity, allowing for PGP substrate modeling and molecular dynamic simulation. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed the residues important for substrate specificity, providing a basis for predicting the lipids preferentially dephosphorylated by membrane PAP2s. [less ▲]

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See detailNumerical study of Balearic meteotsunami generation and propagation under synthetic gravity wave forcing
Matjaž, Ličer; Mourre, Baptiste; Troupin, Charles ULg et al

in Ocean Modelling (2017), 111

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See detailVLT/SPHERE robust astrometry of the HR8799 planets at milliarcsecond-level accuracy. Orbital architecture analysis with PyAstrOFit
Wertz, Olivier; Absil, Olivier ULg; Gómez González, Carlos ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2017), 598

HR8799 is orbited by at least four giant planets, making it a prime target for the recently commissioned Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet REsearch (VLT/SPHERE). As such, it was observed on ... [more ▼]

HR8799 is orbited by at least four giant planets, making it a prime target for the recently commissioned Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet REsearch (VLT/SPHERE). As such, it was observed on five consecutive nights during the SPHERE science verification in December 2014. We aim to take full advantage of the SPHERE capabilities to derive accurate astrometric measurements based on H-band images acquired with the Infra-Red Dual-band Imaging and Spectroscopy (IRDIS) subsystem, and to explore the ultimate astrometric performance of SPHERE in this observing mode. We also aim to present a detailed analysis of the orbital parameters for the four planets. We report the astrometric positions for epoch 2014.93 with an accuracy down to 2.0 mas, mainly limited by the astrometric calibration of IRDIS. For each planet, we derive the posterior probability density functions for the six Keplerian elements and identify sets of highly probable orbits. For planet d, there is clear evidence for nonzero eccentricity ($e \simeq 0.35$), without completely excluding solutions with smaller eccentricities. The three other planets are consistent with circular orbits, although their probability distributions spread beyond $e = 0.2$, and show a peak at $e \simeq 0.1$ for planet e. The four planets have consistent inclinations of about $30\deg$ with respect to the sky plane, but the confidence intervals for the longitude of ascending node are disjoint for planets b and c, and we find tentative evidence for non-coplanarity between planets b and c at the $2 \sigma$ level. [less ▲]

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See detailInteractive family dynamics and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in psychiatric adolescent patients: a single case study
Gatta, Michela; Miscioscia, Marina ULg; Sisti, Marta et al

in Frontiers in Psychology (2017), 8(46),

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See detailLe behaviorisme logique en question
Dony, Arthur ULg

in Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique (2017), XIII(1), 1-19

Dans une démarche inspirée des sciences de la nature, le behaviorisme logique se présente comme une théorie philosophique visant à rendre compte des états mentaux de façon « objective », en réduisant ceux ... [more ▼]

Dans une démarche inspirée des sciences de la nature, le behaviorisme logique se présente comme une théorie philosophique visant à rendre compte des états mentaux de façon « objective », en réduisant ceux-ci au comportement observable. Comme l’énonçait déjà Hempel, il s’agit de traduire tout énoncé psychologique en un énoncé où ne figurent plus que des concepts physiques de façon à faire l’économie de la dimension subjective de l’expérience, laquelle ne constituerait rien de plus qu’un simple rouage à vide, inessentiel à l’état mental lui-même. Dans cet article, je propose d’examiner les principaux arguments, désormais jugés classiques, avancés par Wittgenstein, Ryle et Dennett en faveur de cette théorie. Mon but est non seulement de mettre au jour les déficiences de l’argumentation et les présupposés problématiques qui la guident, mais plus fondamentalement de montrer en quoi cette doctrine, en dépit de la popularité qu’elle s’est acquise en philosophie contemporaine, s’avère à l’analyse inconsistante. [less ▲]

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See detailModified Thomas splint-cast combination for the management of limb fractures in small equids
Ladefogen, Soren; Grulke, Sigrid ULg; Busoni, Valeria ULg et al

in Veterinary Surgery : The Official Journal of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons (2017)

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See detailA new asteroseismic diagnostic for internal rotation in γ Doradus stars
Ouazzani, Rhita-Maria; Salmon, Sébastien ULg; Antoci, V. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 465

With four years of nearly-continuous photometry from Kepler, we are finally in a good position to apply asteroseismology to $\gamma$ Doradus stars. In particular several analyses have demonstrated the ... [more ▼]

With four years of nearly-continuous photometry from Kepler, we are finally in a good position to apply asteroseismology to $\gamma$ Doradus stars. In particular several analyses have demonstrated the possibility to detect non-uniform period spacings, which have been predicted to be directly related to rotation. In the present work, we define a new seismic diagnostic for rotation in $\gamma$ Doradus stars that are too rapidly rotating to present rotational splittings. Based on the non uniformity of their period spacings, we define the observable $\Sigma$ as the slope of the period spacing when plotted as a function of period. We provide a one-to-one relation between this observable $\Sigma$ and the internal rotation, which applies widely in the instability strip of $\gamma$ Doradus stars. We apply the diagnostic to a handful of stars observed by Kepler. Thanks to g-modes in $\gamma$ Doradus stars, we are now able to determine the internal rotation of stars on the lower main sequence, which is still not possible for Sun-like stars. [less ▲]

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See detailStrong XUV irradiation of the Earth-sized exoplanets orbiting the ultracool dwarf TRAPPIST-1
Wheatley, Peter J.; Louden, Tom; Bourrier, Vincent et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 465

We present an XMM-Newton X-ray observation of TRAPPIST-1, which is an ultracool dwarf star recently discovered to host three transiting and temperate Earth-sized planets. We find the star is a relatively ... [more ▼]

We present an XMM-Newton X-ray observation of TRAPPIST-1, which is an ultracool dwarf star recently discovered to host three transiting and temperate Earth-sized planets. We find the star is a relatively strong and variable coronal X-ray source with an X-ray luminosity similar to that of the quiet Sun, despite its much lower bolometric luminosity. We find L_x/L_bol=2-4x10^-4, with the total XUV emission in the range L_xuv/L_bol=6-9x10^-4. Using a simple energy-limited model we show that the relatively close-in Earth-sized planets, which span the classical habitable zone of the star, are subject to sufficient X-ray and EUV irradiation to significantly alter their primary and perhaps secondary atmospheres. Understanding whether this high-energy irradiation makes the planets more or less habitable is a complex question, but our measured fluxes will be an important input to the necessary models of atmospheric evolution. [less ▲]

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See detail“Don't pretend to be my friend!” When an informal brand communication style backfires on social media
Gretry, Anaïs ULg; Horváth, Csilla; Belei, Nina et al

in Journal of Business Research (2017), 74

Social media are now essential platforms for marketing communications, and the volume of consumer-brand in- teractions on these platforms is exploding. Even so, it remains unclear how brands should ... [more ▼]

Social media are now essential platforms for marketing communications, and the volume of consumer-brand in- teractions on these platforms is exploding. Even so, it remains unclear how brands should communicate with consumers to foster relationships and, in particular, to gain their trust. A fundamental decision in this regard is the choice of a communication style, specifically, whether an informal or a formal style should be used in social media communications. In this paper, we investigate how adopting an informal (vs. formal) communication style affects brand trust and demonstrate that using an informal style can either have a positive or negative effect on brand trust, depending on whether consumers are familiar with the brand or not. We further show that these ef- fects occur because consumers expect brands to behave according to social norms, such that the use of an infor- mal style is perceived to be appropriate for familiar brands and inappropriate for unfamiliar ones. [less ▲]

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See detailStructure and distribution of the sensilla on the antennae of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)
Bawin, Thomas ULg; Collard, France ULg; De Backer, Lara ULg et al

in Micron (2017), 96

The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a widespread devastating pest that develops on tomato and other economically important solanaceous crops. Current semiochemically-based ... [more ▼]

The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a widespread devastating pest that develops on tomato and other economically important solanaceous crops. Current semiochemically-based management strategies still fail to significantly reduce damages and need to be improved. Here we describe under scanning and transmission electron microscopy the structure and distribution of the sensilla that are displayed on adult antennae. These were similar in size between males (3424.4 ± 135.3 μm) and females (3292.1 ± 111.5 μm), being segmented into a scape, a pedicel, and a distal filiform flagellum. Eight morphological sensilla types were observed on both sexes: Böhm’s bristles, sensilla squamiformia, sensilla trichodea, sensilla basiconica (two subtypes), sensilla chaetica, sensilla coeloconica, sensilla auricillica, and sensilla styloconica. The main sexual dimorphism was related to the higher abundance of sensilla trichodea in males, twice as abundant as in females. The putative functional significance of the different sensilla types regarding the insect ecology is discussed based on the available literature. This work provides descriptions of the antennae and related sensory structures. We expect these results to help develop further electrophysiological investigations aiming to a better understanding of T. absoluta olfaction. [less ▲]

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See detailPhenotypes to genetically reduce greenhouse gas emissions in dairying
de Haas, Yvette; Pszczola, Marcin; Soyeurt, Hélène ULg et al

in Journal of Dairy Science (2017), 100(2), 855-870

Phenotypes have been reviewed to select for lower-emitting animals in order to decrease the environmental footprint of dairy cattle products. This includes direct selection for breath measurements, as ... [more ▼]

Phenotypes have been reviewed to select for lower-emitting animals in order to decrease the environmental footprint of dairy cattle products. This includes direct selection for breath measurements, as well as indirect selection via indicator traits such as feed intake, milk spectral data, and rumen microbial communities. Many of these traits are expensive or difficult to record, or both, but with genomic selection, inclusion of methane emission as a breeding goal trait is feasible, even with a limited number of registrations. At present, methane emission is not included among breeding goals for dairy cattle worldwide. There is no incentive to include enteric methane in breeding goals, although global warming and the release of greenhouse gases is a much-debated political topic. However, if selection for reduced methane emission became a reality, there would be limited consensus as to which phenotype to select for: methane in liters per day or grams per day, methane in liters per kilogram of energy-corrected milk or dry matter intake, or a residual methane phenotype, where methane production is corrected for milk production and the weight of the cow. We have reviewed the advantages and disadvantages of these traits, and discuss the methods for selection and consequences for these phenotypes. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantitative determination of salbutamol sulfate impurities using achiral supercritical fluid chromatography
Dispas, Amandine ULg; Desfontaine, Vincent; Andri, Bertyl ULg et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2017), 134

In the last years, supercritical fluid chromatography has largely been acknowledged as a singular and performing technique in the field of separation sciences. Recent studies highlighted the interest of ... [more ▼]

In the last years, supercritical fluid chromatography has largely been acknowledged as a singular and performing technique in the field of separation sciences. Recent studies highlighted the interest of SFC for the quality control of pharmaceuticals, especially in the case of the determination of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API).Nevertheless, quality control requires also the determination of impurities. The objectives of the present work were to i) demonstrate the interest of SFC as a reference technique for the determination of impurities in salbutamol sulfate API and ii) to propose an alternative to a reference HPLC method from the European Pharmacopeia (EP) involving ionpairing reagent. Firstly, a screening was carried out to select the most adequate and selective stationary phase. Secondly, in the context of robust optimization strategy, the method was developed using design space methodology. The separation of salbutamol sulfate and related impurities was achieved in 7 minutes, which is seven times faster than the LC-UV method proposed by European Pharmacopeia (total run time of 50 minutes). Finally, full validation using accuracy profile approach was successfully achieved for the determination of impurities B, D, F and G in salbutamol sulfate raw material. The validated dosing range covered 50 to 150 % of the targeted concentration (corresponding to 0.3 % concentration level), LODs close to 0.5 μg/mL were estimated. The SFC method proposed in this study could be presented as a suitable fast alternative to EP LC method for the quantitative determination of salbutamol impurities. [less ▲]

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See detailPédagogie universitaire et Evaluation de l’enseignement par les étudiants 
Younes, Nathalie; Paivendi, Saeed; Detroz, Pascal ULg

in Education & Formation (2017), e307

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See detailTowards a community-based concession model in the DRC
Vermeulen, Cédric ULg; Karsenty, Alain

in International Forestry Review (2017)

In 2014 Decree 14/018 laying down the rules for granting forest concessions to local communities, followed by Ministerial Order 0/25 on the same issue, was published in the DRC. This paper aims to analyse ... [more ▼]

In 2014 Decree 14/018 laying down the rules for granting forest concessions to local communities, followed by Ministerial Order 0/25 on the same issue, was published in the DRC. This paper aims to analyse the abovementioned legislation with respect to participatory management of forests. The explicit recognition of the duality of a customary de facto local community forest and a modern legal entity (concession) is an innovation. However, viewed from the perspective of the long-established habits within the country, the question remains whether these legal measures can be sufficient for ensuring the sustainable development of these community-held forested areas. Allowing community concessions up to 50,000 ha demonstrated a shift in the government policy away from the industrial timber cultivation model. However, an area this size is much larger than the communities can monitor, particularly in the case of artisanal charcoal or wood exploitation. [less ▲]

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See detailTraitement du pectus excavatum chez le chat
Hamon, Martin ULg; Claeys, Stéphanie ULg

in Monde Vétérinaire (Le) (2017), 166

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See detailIs langdurig ziekteverzuim voorspelbaar en meetbaar ?
Goorts, Kaat; Duchesnes, Christiane ULg; Vandenbroeck, Sofie et al

in Tijdschrift voor Bedrijfs- en Verzekeringsgeneeskunde (2017), 25(2), 59-62

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See detailClinical settings in knee osteoarthritis: Pathophysiology guides treatment
Herrero-Beaumont, Gabriel; Roman-Blas, Jorge A; Bruyère, Olivier ULg et al

in Maturitas (2017), 96

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic joint disorder and its prevalence increases rapidly during midlife. Complex interactions of genetic alterations, sex hormone deficit, and aging with ... [more ▼]

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic joint disorder and its prevalence increases rapidly during midlife. Complex interactions of genetic alterations, sex hormone deficit, and aging with mechanical factors and systemic inflammation-associated metabolic syndrome lead to joint damage. Thus, the expression of a clinical phenotype in the early stages of OA relies on the main underlying pathway and predominant joint tissue involved at a given time. Moreover, OA often coexists with other morbidities in the same patient, which in turn condition the OA process. In this scenario, an appropriate identification of clinical phenotypes, especially in the early stages of the disease, may optimize the design of individualized treatments in OA. An ESCEO-EUGMS (European Union Geriatric Medicine Society) working group has recently suggested possible patient profiles in OA. Hereby, we propose the existence of 4 clinical phenotypes – biomechanical, osteoporotic, metabolic and inflammatory – whose characterization would help to properly stratify patients with OA in clinical trials or studies. Further research in this field is warranted. [less ▲]

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See detailVoyage[s] à travers le thymus
Geenen, Vincent ULg

in Science et Culture (2017), (465), 14-15

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See detailThe constant of recognizability is computable for primitive morphisms
Durand, Fabien; Leroy, Julien ULg

in Journal of Integer Sequences (2017), 20(4),

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See detailDescription of patients consulting the voice clinic regarding gender, age, occupational status, and diagnosis
Remacle, Angélique ULg; Petitfils, Cloé; FINCK, Camille ULg et al

in European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology : Official Journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) (2017), 274(3), 1567-1576

Purpose. To describe the gender, age, occupational status and diagnosis of dysphonic patients. Method. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 1079 patients examined at the Voice clinic of the ... [more ▼]

Purpose. To describe the gender, age, occupational status and diagnosis of dysphonic patients. Method. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 1079 patients examined at the Voice clinic of the University hospital of Liège in French-speaking Belgium. Results. Overall, seven out of 10 patients who attended the voice clinic for dysphonia were females. The patients’ ages ranged from 4 to 93 (mean=43.5). Females predominantly consulted at the age of 54 and males at the age of 9. Regarding the occupational status, workers represented more than half of our patients (53%), while 11.2% were unemployed, 15.4% were students, and 19.9% were retired. Regarding the diagnoses of the 1079 patients, nodules were the most common pathologies (n=182, 16.9% of the patients), prevailing in females (n=142, 18.8% of the females), encountered in 16.8% of the workers and 42.8% of the students consulting the voice clinic. Following nodules, laryngeal mobility disorders were diagnosed in 16.4% of the patients (n=177), mainly females (n=115), and was the most frequent diagnosis in retirees (n=75, 34.9%). Conclusions. The majority of the patients consulting the voice clinic for dysphonia were adult females, in their workforce, diagnosed with vocal nodules. The identification of the patients’ characteristics and diagnoses is important to develop treatments and prevention of dysphonia, estimate their costs, and allow comparisons across referral centers. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of design space optimization strategy to the developmentof LC methods for simultaneous analysis of 18 antiretroviral medicinesand 4 major excipients used in various pharmaceutical formulations
Habyalimana, Védaste ULg; Mbinze Kindenge, Jérémie ULg; Yemoa, Loconon ULg et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2017), 139

tAs one of the world’s most significant public health challenges in low- and middle-income countries,HIV/AIDS deserves to be treated with appropriate medicines, however which are not spared from coun ... [more ▼]

tAs one of the world’s most significant public health challenges in low- and middle-income countries,HIV/AIDS deserves to be treated with appropriate medicines, however which are not spared from coun-terfeiting. For that, we developed screening and specific HPLC methods that can analyze 18 antiretroviralmedicines (ARV) and 4 major excipients. Design of experiments and design space methodology wereinitially applied for 15 ARV and the 4 excipients with prediction thanks to Monte Carlo simulations andfocusing on rapidity and affordability thus using short column and low cost organic solvent (methanol)in gradient mode with 10 mM buffer solutions of ammonium hydrogen carbonate. Two other specificmethods dedicated to ARV in liquid and in solid dosage formulations were also predicted and opti-mized. We checked the ability of one method for the analysis of a fixed-dose combination composedby emtricitabine/tenofovir/efavirenz in tablet formulations. Satisfying validation results were obtainedby applying the total error approach taking into account the accuracy profile as decision tool. Then, thevalidated method was applied to test two samples coded A and B, and claimed to contain the tested ARV.Assay results were satisfying only for sample B. [less ▲]

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See detailDe l'évaluation des Enseignements à la régulation des pratiques des enseignants: quels possibles et quelles conditions ?
Detroz, Pascal ULg; Verpoorten, Dominique ULg

in Education & Formation (2017), e307

Cet article propose une modélisation des divers usages des résultats de l’évaluation des enseignements par les étudiants (EEE). Nous considérons l’usage et les effets sur les enseignements, mais également ... [more ▼]

Cet article propose une modélisation des divers usages des résultats de l’évaluation des enseignements par les étudiants (EEE). Nous considérons l’usage et les effets sur les enseignements, mais également ceux produits sur le développement pédagogique des enseignants. Nous déterminons ensuite certains éléments du dispositif EEE favorisant une utilisation accrue et pertinente. [less ▲]

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See detailThe recent increase of atmospheric methane from 10 years of ground-based NDACC FTIR observations since 2005
Bader, Whitney ULg; Bovy, Benoît ULg; Conway, Stephanie et al

in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (2017)

Changes of atmospheric methane total columns (CH4/ since 2005 have been evaluated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) solar observations carried out at 10 ground-based sites, affiliated to the Network ... [more ▼]

Changes of atmospheric methane total columns (CH4/ since 2005 have been evaluated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) solar observations carried out at 10 ground-based sites, affiliated to the Network for Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). From this, we find an increase of atmospheric methane total columns of 0.31±0.03 %/year (2-sigma level of uncertainty) for the 2005–2014 period. Comparisons with in situ methane measurements at both local and global scales show good 10 agreement. We used the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model tagged simulation, which accounts for the contribution of each emission source and one sink in the total methane, simulated over 2005–2012. After regridding according to NDACC vertical layering using a conservative 15 regridding scheme and smoothing by convolving with respective FTIR seasonal averaging kernels, the GEOS-Chem simulation shows an increase of atmospheric methane total columns of 0.35±0.03 %/year between 2005 and 2012, which is in agreement with NDACC measurements over the same time period (0.30±0.04 %/year, averaged over 10 stations). Analysis of the GEOS-Chem-tagged simulation allows us to quantify the contribution of each tracer to the global methane change since 2005. We find that natural sources such as wetlands and biomass burning contribute to the interannual variability of methane. However, anthropogenic emissions, such as coal mining, and gas and oil transport and exploration, which are mainly emitted in the Northern Hemisphere and act as secondary contributors to the global budget of methane, have played a major role in the increase of atmospheric methane observed since 2005. Based on the GEOS-Chem-tagged simulation, we discuss possible cause(s) for the increase of methane since 2005, which is still unexplained. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasurement of pleural pressure swings with a fluid-filled esophageal catheter vs pulmonary artery occlusion pressure
VERSCHEURE, Sara ULg; MASSION, Paul ULg; GOTTFRIED, S et al

in Journal of Critical Care (2017), 37

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See detailLes marqueurs biologiques de l’arthrose: De la découverte à l’analyse biologique de routine
Henrotin, Yves ULg

in Rhumatos (2017), 14(123), 180-183

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See detailTwo-domain and three-domain limit cycles in a typical aeroelastic system with freeplay in pitch
Verstraelen, Edouard ULg; Dimitriadis, Grigorios ULg; Dal Ben Rossetto, Gustavo et al

in Journal of Fluids & Structures (2017), 69

Freeplay is a significant source of nonlinearity in aeroelastic systems and is strictly regulated by airworthiness authorities. It splits the phase plane of such systems into three piecewise linear ... [more ▼]

Freeplay is a significant source of nonlinearity in aeroelastic systems and is strictly regulated by airworthiness authorities. It splits the phase plane of such systems into three piecewise linear subdomains. Depending on the location of the freeplay, limit cycle oscillations can result that span either two or three of these subdomains. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the existence of two-domain cycles both theoretically and experimentally. A simple aeroelastic system with pitch, plunge and control deflection degrees of freedom is investigated in the presence of freeplay in pitch. It is shown that two-domain and three-domain cycles can result from a grazing bifurcation and propagate in the decreasing airspeed direction. Close to the bifurcation, the two limit cycle branches interact with each other and aperiodic oscillations ensue. Equivalent linearization is used to derive the conditions of existence of each type of limit cycle and to predict their amplitudes and frequencies. Comparisons with measurements from wind tunnel experiments demonstrate that the theory describes these phenomena with accuracy. [less ▲]

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See detailLa littérature belge francophone en classe de FLE
Outers, Pierre ULg; Stilmant, Nicolas

in Bulletin SUF (2017), 89

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See detailLearning from blind tests: Determining the function of experimental grinding stones through use-wear and residue analysis
Hayes, Elspeth H.; Cnuts, Dries ULg; Lepers, Christian et al

in Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports (2017), 11

Abstract Blind tests provide an objective means to evaluate the accuracy of functional interpretations based on the presence of use-wear and residue traces on stone tools. Previous blind tests have ... [more ▼]

Abstract Blind tests provide an objective means to evaluate the accuracy of functional interpretations based on the presence of use-wear and residue traces on stone tools. Previous blind tests have highlighted interpretive errors commonly associated with use-wear and residue analyses leading to significant methodological developments in each of the respective fields. While a number of blind tests have been performed on flaked stone tools, only a single blind test has been published for use-wear on grinding tools. We present the results of a two-part blind test performed on 15 experimental grinding implements that were used in a controlled setting, designed to evaluate the relative importance of residue analysis for determining the worked material (1) when contextual information is available and (2) when contextual information is absent. We argue that use-wear and residue analyses are successful procedures to identify the use of grinding stones, and that residue analysis may be a particularly valuable means for determining the worked material on tools that have insufficient use-wear development. We suggest that residues should be sufficiently abundant to infer use, if we are to avoid the potential confusion caused by contamination. [less ▲]

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See detailInduced Drag Calculations with the Unsteady Vortex Lattice Method for Cambered Wings
Lambert, Thomas ULg; Dimitriadis, Grigorios ULg

in AIAA Journal (2017), 55(2), 668-672

The Unsteady Vortex Lattice Method (UVLM) is an approach widely used to estimate the aerodynamic loads in unsteady subsonic flows. It is based on modeling the camber surface of a lifting body by means of ... [more ▼]

The Unsteady Vortex Lattice Method (UVLM) is an approach widely used to estimate the aerodynamic loads in unsteady subsonic flows. It is based on modeling the camber surface of a lifting body by means of bound vortex rings. Even though this method has been known and used for several decades, there is little discussion of the modeling of the leading-edge suction in the literature. To address this concern, Simpson et al. [1] presented a comparison of two different ways to model this effect for the case of uncambered airfoils and wings in harmonic pitch or plunge motions. They concluded that the Joukowski method converges significantly faster than the Katz technique as the number of chorwise panels is increased. The present paper is an extension of the study by Simpson et al. to cambered lifting surfaces. It shows that the presence of camber can change radically the convergence performance of the two methods. For cambered wings, the Katz approach converges significantly faster than the Joukowski technique. [less ▲]

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See detailThe importance of open data and software: Is energy research lagging behind?
Pfenninger, Stefan; DeCariolis, Joseph; Hirth, Lion et al

in Energy Policy (2017)

Energy policy often builds on insights gained from quantitative energy models and their underlying data. As climate change mitigation and economic concerns drive a sustained transformation of the energy ... [more ▼]

Energy policy often builds on insights gained from quantitative energy models and their underlying data. As climate change mitigation and economic concerns drive a sustained transformation of the energy sector, transparent and well-founded analyses are more important than ever. We assert that models and their associated data must be openly available to facilitate higher quality science, greater productivity through less duplicated effort, and a more effective science-policy boundary. There are also valid reasons why data and code are not open: ethical and security concerns, unwanted exposure, additional workload, and institutional or personal inertia. Overall, energy policy research ostensibly lags behind other fields in promoting more open and reproducible science. We take stock of the status quo and propose actionable steps forward for the energy research community to ensure that it can better engage with decision-makers and continues to deliver robust policy advice in a transparent and reproducible way. [less ▲]

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See detailLe rôle des rongeurs dans la dispersion des diaspores en milieu forestier (synthèse bibliographique)
Evrard, Quentin ULg; Haurez, Barbara ULg; Doucet, Jean-Louis ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment (2017)

Introduction. Seed dispersal is a key interaction that influences a number of ecological processes that are important to the maintenance of diversity in forest ecosystems. Rodents, mainly considered as ... [more ▼]

Introduction. Seed dispersal is a key interaction that influences a number of ecological processes that are important to the maintenance of diversity in forest ecosystems. Rodents, mainly considered as seed predators, can carry, hide and discard seeds, often transporting them over considerable distances from the parent tree and thus leading to an enhanced germination rate. The role of rodents on forest regeneration therefore depends upon several environmental variables influencing their behavior. Literature. Many publications demonstrate that rodents are mostly seed predators for many species. Nevertheless, because it is hard to define their movement pattern, the role of rodents on regeneration could be underestimated. Through scatter-hoarding, rodents may play a crucial role, particularly in those forests where anthropogenic pressures have led to a reduction in the density of large mammals. However, very few studies have been conducted in African moist forests where defaunation can be high, and the role of rodents has been very poorly studied. Conclusions. To understand the phenomenon, we suggest to further investigate the interactions between seeds and rodents by employing methods that have been commonly used on other continents. [less ▲]

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