References of "Scientific journals"      in Complete repository Arts & humanities   Archaeology   Art & art history   Classical & oriental studies   History   Languages & linguistics   Literature   Performing arts   Philosophy & ethics   Religion & theology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Business & economic sciences   Accounting & auditing   Production, distribution & supply chain management   Finance   General management & organizational theory   Human resources management   Management information systems   Marketing   Strategy & innovation   Quantitative methods in economics & management   General economics & history of economic thought   International economics   Macroeconomics & monetary economics   Microeconomics   Economic systems & public economics   Social economics   Special economic topics (health, labor, transportation…)   Multidisciplinary, general & others Engineering, computing & technology   Aerospace & aeronautics engineering   Architecture   Chemical engineering   Civil engineering   Computer science   Electrical & electronics engineering   Energy   Geological, petroleum & mining engineering   Materials science & engineering   Mechanical engineering   Multidisciplinary, general & others Human health sciences   Alternative medicine   Anesthesia & intensive care   Cardiovascular & respiratory systems   Dentistry & oral medicine   Dermatology   Endocrinology, metabolism & nutrition   Forensic medicine   Gastroenterology & hepatology   General & internal medicine   Geriatrics   Hematology   Immunology & infectious disease   Laboratory medicine & medical technology   Neurology   Oncology   Ophthalmology   Orthopedics, rehabilitation & sports medicine   Otolaryngology   Pediatrics   Pharmacy, pharmacology & toxicology   Psychiatry   Public health, health care sciences & services   Radiology, nuclear medicine & imaging   Reproductive medicine (gynecology, andrology, obstetrics)   Rheumatology   Surgery   Urology & nephrology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Law, criminology & political science   Civil law   Criminal law & procedure   Criminology   Economic & commercial law   European & international law   Judicial law   Metalaw, Roman law, history of law & comparative law   Political science, public administration & international relations   Public law   Social law   Tax law   Multidisciplinary, general & others Life sciences   Agriculture & agronomy   Anatomy (cytology, histology, embryology...) & physiology   Animal production & animal husbandry   Aquatic sciences & oceanology   Biochemistry, biophysics & molecular biology   Biotechnology   Entomology & pest control   Environmental sciences & ecology   Food science   Genetics & genetic processes   Microbiology   Phytobiology (plant sciences, forestry, mycology...)   Veterinary medicine & animal health   Zoology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Physical, chemical, mathematical & earth Sciences   Chemistry   Earth sciences & physical geography   Mathematics   Physics   Space science, astronomy & astrophysics   Multidisciplinary, general & others Social & behavioral sciences, psychology   Animal psychology, ethology & psychobiology   Anthropology   Communication & mass media   Education & instruction   Human geography & demography   Library & information sciences   Neurosciences & behavior   Regional & inter-regional studies   Social work & social policy   Sociology & social sciences   Social, industrial & organizational psychology   Theoretical & cognitive psychology   Treatment & clinical psychology   Multidisciplinary, general & others     Showing results 301 to 400 of 60115     1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9     Impact of canopy aerodynamic distance spatial and temporal variability on long term eddy covariance measurementsHurdebise, Quentin ; Heinesch, Bernard ; De Ligne, Anne et alin Agricultural and Forest Meteorology (2017), 247(2017), 131-138Understanding if and how the spatial and temporal variability of the surrounding environment affects turbulence is essential for long-term eddy covariance measurements. It requires characterizing the ... [more ▼]Understanding if and how the spatial and temporal variability of the surrounding environment affects turbulence is essential for long-term eddy covariance measurements. It requires characterizing the surrounding environment. One way to achieve this is to analyse the canopy aerodynamic distance (Δ), which is the difference between measurement height (zm) and displacement height (d). In this work, an original method to estimate the canopy aerodynamic distance at a fine spatial (30° sectors) and temporal (one year) resolution was proposed. It was based on sensible heat cospectra analysis, calibrated on a measurement height change and validated using canopy height inventories. This method was applied to 20 years of eddy covariance measurements from the Vielsalm Terrestrial Observatory (VTO), a site located in a mixed temperate forest. The method allowed Δ spatio-temporal variability due to changes in canopy or measurement height to be detected. Relationships between Δ and turbulence statistics were then analysed: the momentum correlation coefficient (ruw) was found to be dependent on Δ, confirming that the measurements were made in the roughness sublayer of the atmospheric surface layer. In contrast, no such relationship was found sensible heat, CO2 or water vapour correlation coefficients, suggesting that the Δ variability did not affect significantly these fluxes. There were significant differences, however, between azimuthal directions, suggesting that these scalars were affected by forest heterogeneity in a different way. Various hypotheses were put forward to explain the differences and their relevance was evaluated. This study highlighted the need to consider the spatial and temporal variability of the surrounding environment in order to verify the consistency of long-term eddy covariance datasets. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 30 (7 ULg) Mild synthesis of poly(HEMA)-networks as well-defined nanoparticles in supercritical carbon dioxideParilti, Rahmet ; Alaimo, David; Grignard, Bruno et alin Journal of Materials Chemistry B (2017), 5(29), 5806-5815Free-radical dispersion polymerisation of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate was carried out in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) in the presence of stabilisers based on polyethylene oxide (PEO) and poly ... [more ▼]Free-radical dispersion polymerisation of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate was carried out in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) in the presence of stabilisers based on polyethylene oxide (PEO) and poly(heptadecafluorodecyl acrylate) (PFDA). Different architectures of copolymers (random, palm-tree and diblock) were tested for their surface tension, cloud point and as a stabilising agent. The diblock architecture was found to be the best candidate resulting in poly(HEMA) spherical particles with a size of 316 nm. Furthermore, the effect of the CO2-phobic block (PEO) in the diblock architecture was investigated by using three different chain lengths (1000, 2000, 5000 g mol−1). By optimizing the stabiliser composition and structure, mild reaction conditions have been identified allowing us to obtain well-defined spherical cross-linked poly(HEMA) particles with a mean diameter of unprecedented low size (216 nm) at a temperature as low as 35 °C. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (1 ULg) Oviposition deterrent activity of basil plants and their essentials oils against Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)Yarou, Boni Barthélémy ; Bawin, Thomas; Boullis, Antoine et alin Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2017)The leafminer Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is one of the most important pests of tomato, reducing crop yields by up to 100% in greenhouses and fields, in several countries globally ... [more ▼]The leafminer Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is one of the most important pests of tomato, reducing crop yields by up to 100% in greenhouses and fields, in several countries globally. Because synthetic insecticides lead to resistance and have adverse effects on natural enemies and the health of producers, alternative control methods are needed. In this study, we assessed the oviposition-deterring effect of basil plants, Ocimum gratissimum L. and O. basilicum L. (Lamiaceae), using dual-choice behavioural assays performed in flight tunnels. We found that both plants significantly reduced T. absoluta oviposition behaviour on a tomato plant located nearby. To evaluate the potential effect of basil volatile organic compounds, we formulated essential oils of both plant species in paraffin oil, and observed a similar oviposition-deterring effect. Gas chromatography analyses detected 18 constituents in these essential oils which the major constituents included thymol (33.3%), p-cymene (20.4%), γ-terpinene (16.9%), myrcene (3.9%) in O. gratissimum and estragol (73.8%), linalool (8.6%), β-elemene (2.9%) and E-β-ocimene (2.6%) in O. basilicum. Twenty and 33 compounds were identified of the volatiles collected on O. gratissimum and O. basilicum plants, respectively. The main components include the following: p-cymene (33.5%), γ-terpinene (23.6%), α-terpinene (7.2%), α-thujene (6.7%) and E-α-bergamotene (38.9%) in O. gratissimum, and methyl eugenol (26.1%), E-β-ocimene (17.7%), and linalool (9.4%) in O. basilicum. Four compounds (α-pinene, β-pinene, Myrcene, Limonene) were common in essential oils and plants. Our results suggest the valuable potential of basil and associated essential oils as a component of integrated management strategies against the tomato leafminer. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (0 ULg) Impact of Financial Assumptions on the Cost Optimality towards Nearly Zero Energy Buildings- A case studyHamdy, Mohamed; Siren, Kai; Attia, Shady in Energy and Buildings (2017)Detailed reference viewed: 72 (2 ULg) Social sustainability assessments in the biobased economy: Towards a systemic approachRafiaani, Parisa ; Kuppens, Tom; Van Dael, Miet et alin Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews (2017)The majority of impact assessments for the biobased economy are primarily focused on the environmental and (techno-)economic aspects, while social aspects are rarely considered. This study proposes a ... [more ▼]The majority of impact assessments for the biobased economy are primarily focused on the environmental and (techno-)economic aspects, while social aspects are rarely considered. This study proposes a modified systemic approach for a social sustainability impact assessment of the biobased economy, based on a review on the common methodologies for assessing social impacts. Accordingly, the proposed approach follows the four general iterative steps of social life cycle analysis (SLCA) as it considers all life cycle phases of the biobased economy. The systemic approach considers the potential social impacts on local communities, workers, and consumers as the main three groups of the stakeholders. The review showed that the most common social indicators for inventory analysis within the biobased economy include health and safety, food security, income, employment, land- and worker-related concerns, energy security, profitability, and gender issues. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) was also highlighted as the broadly utilized methodology for aggregating the results of impact assessments within the biobased economy. Taking a life cycle perspective, this study provides a holistic view of the full sustainability of research, design, and innovation in the biobased economy by suggesting the integration of the social aspects with techno-economic and an environmental life cycle assessment. Our proposed systemic approach makes possible to integrate the social impacts that are highly valued by the affected stakeholders into the existing sustainability models that focus only on environmental and techno-economic aspects. We discuss the steps of the proposed systemic approach in order to identify the challenges of applying them within the biobased economy. These challenges refer mainly to the definition of the functional unit and system boundaries, the selection and the analysis of social indicators (inventory analysis), the aggregation of the inventory to impact categories, and the uncertainties associated with the social sustainability evaluation. The result of this review and the proposed systemic approach serve as a foundation for industry and policy makers to gain a better insight into the importance of social sustainability impacts assessment within the biobased economy. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 50 (5 ULg) The Far Ultra-Violet Imager on the Icon MissionMende, Stephen; Frey, Harald; Rider, Kodi et alin Space Science Reviews (2017)ICON Far UltraViolet (FUV) imager contributes to the ICON science objectives by providing remote sensing measurements of the daytime and nighttime atmosphere/ ionosphere. During sunlit atmospheric ... [more ▼]ICON Far UltraViolet (FUV) imager contributes to the ICON science objectives by providing remote sensing measurements of the daytime and nighttime atmosphere/ ionosphere. During sunlit atmospheric conditions, ICON FUV images the limb altitude profile in the shortwave (SW) band at 135.6 nm and the longwave (LW) band at 157 nm perpendicular to the satellite motion to retrieve the atmospheric O/N2 ratio. In conditions of atmospheric darkness, ICON FUV measures the 135.6 nm recombination emission of O+ ions used to compute the nighttime ionospheric altitude distribution. ICON Far Ultra- Violet (FUV) imager is a Czerny–Turner design Spectrographic Imager with two exit slits and corresponding back imager cameras that produce two independent images in separate wavelength bands on two detectors. All observations will be processed as limb altitude profiles. In addition, the ionospheric 135.6 nm data will be processed as longitude and latitude spatial maps to obtain images of ion distributions around regions of equatorial spread F. The ICON FUV optic axis is pointed 20 degrees below local horizontal and has a steering mirror that allows the field of view to be steered up to 30 degrees forward and aft, to keep the local magnetic meridian in the field of view. The detectors are micro channel plate (MCP) intensified FUV tubes with the phosphor fiber-optically coupled to Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs). The dual stack MCP-s amplify the photoelectron signals to overcome the CCD noise and the rapidly scanned frames are co-added to digitally create 12-second integrated images. Digital on-board signal processing is used to compensate for geometric distortion and satellite motion and to achieve data compression. The instrument was originally aligned in visible light by using a special grating and visible cameras. Final alignment, functional and environmental testing and calibration were performed in a large vacuum chamber with a UV source. The test and calibration program showed that ICON FUV meets its design requirements and is ready to be launched on the ICON spacecraft. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (4 ULg) Exergy analysis applied to performance of buildings in EuropeSartor, Kevin ; Dewallef, Pierre in Energy and Buildings (2017), 148Energy performance of buildings generally assesses the energy consumption of buildings such as heating, domestic heat water, ventilation systems, etc. However, this approach is based on the first law of ... [more ▼]Energy performance of buildings generally assesses the energy consumption of buildings such as heating, domestic heat water, ventilation systems, etc. However, this approach is based on the first law of thermodynamics and considers only the quantity of energy used without considering its ‘quality’ and leads to a lack of information about the energy conversion processes. This is particularly true in the new low-energy buildings where sometimes high temperatures sources are used to meet low-temperature needs. The exergy analysis of a system, based on first and second thermodynamic laws, can be used to overcome this. In this work, it is proposed to compare the energy and the exergy consumption and the related CO2 emissions of several kinds of buildings to determine the best systems in terms of energy and exergy needs. The energy demand calculations are performed using the official software available in Belgium and some assumptions are implemented to consider the exergy approach. As exergy calculations require a reference state, some different climatic conditions are also investigated. Finally, some conclusions are discussed to rank the sources of energy and their related exergy losses. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 26 (7 ULg) The inner structure of early-type galaxies in the Illustris simulationXu, Dandan; Springel, Volker; Sluse, Dominique et alin Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 469Early-type galaxies provide unique tests for the predictions of the cold dark matter cosmology and the baryonic physics assumptions entering models for galaxy formation. In this work, we use the Illustris ... [more ▼]Early-type galaxies provide unique tests for the predictions of the cold dark matter cosmology and the baryonic physics assumptions entering models for galaxy formation. In this work, we use the Illustris simulation to study correlations of three main properties of early-type galaxies, namely the stellar orbital anisotropies, the central dark matter fractions and the central radial density slopes, as well as their redshift evolution since z = 1.0. We find that lower mass galaxies or galaxies at higher redshift tend to be bluer in rest-frame colour, have higher central gas fractions, and feature more tangentially anisotropic orbits and steeper central density slopes than their higher mass or lower redshift counterparts, respectively. The projected central dark matter fraction within the effective radius shows a very mild mass dependence but positively correlates with galaxy effective radii due to the aperture effect. The central density slopes obtained by combining strong lensing measurements with single-aperture kinematics are found to differ from the true density slopes. We identify systematic biases in this measurement to be due to two common modelling assumptions, isotropic stellar orbital distributions and power-law density profiles. We also compare the properties of early-type galaxies in Illustris to those from existing galaxy and strong lensing surveys; we find in general broad agreement but also some tension, which poses a potential challenge to the stellar formation and feedback models adopted by the simulation. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 16 (1 ULg) Chondrocyte secretome: a source of novel insights and exploratory biomarkers of osteoarthritisSanchez, Christelle ; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Pap, Thomas et alin Osteoarthritis and Cartilage (2017), 25Detailed reference viewed: 43 (6 ULg) Can electoral inequalities be legally justified?Bouhon, Frédéric in European Review of Public Law (2017), 2016(Automn), 839-879In light of the principle of equality, German, Belgian and British election law contain some legal rules that tend to distribute the faculty to influence the composition of the elected assemblies equally ... [more ▼]In light of the principle of equality, German, Belgian and British election law contain some legal rules that tend to distribute the faculty to influence the composition of the elected assemblies equally among the governed people, and others that tend to distribute it unequally. The inequality caused by the latter group may be to some extent legally justified by concerns for the general interest, but also provides rulers with means that help them to remain in power, which is hardly justifiable from a legal perspective. In these legal systems, parties are expected to gain a significant portion of the people’s support: not only should the parliament (as a whole) and its members (as individuals) represent the governed people, but the parties themselves are expected to be sufficiently representative of the people in order to access the legislative assemblies. Notably, this thesis draws examples from the case law of the European Court of Human Rights, from which relevant decisions are mentioned here. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (4 ULg) Similarity of the Jovian satellite footprints: spots multiplicity and dynamicsBonfond, Bertrand ; Grodent, Denis ; Badman, S. V. et alin Icarus (2017), 292(2017), 208217In the magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn, the intense interaction of the satellites Io, Europa, Ganymede and Enceladus with their surrounding plasma environment leaves a signature in the aurora of the ... [more ▼]In the magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn, the intense interaction of the satellites Io, Europa, Ganymede and Enceladus with their surrounding plasma environment leaves a signature in the aurora of the planet. Called satellite footprints, these auroral features appear either as a single spot (Europa and Enceladus) or as multiple spots (Io and Ganymede). Moreover, they can be followed by extended trailing tails in the case of Io and Europa, while no tail has been reported for Ganymede and Enceladus, yet. Here we show that all Jovian footprints can be made of several spots. Furthermore, the footprints all experience brightness variations on timescale of 2-3 minutes. We also demonstrate that the satellite location relative to the plasma sheet is not the only driver for the footprint brightness, but that the plasma environment and the magnetic field strength also play a role. These new findings demonstrate that the Europa and Ganymede footprints are very similar to the Io footprint. As a consequence, the processes expected to take place at Io, such as the bi-directional electron acceleration by Alfvén waves or the partial reflection of these waves on plasma density gradients, can most likely be extended to the other footprints, suggesting that they are indeed universal processes. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 79 (18 ULg) Innovative polyelectrolytes/poly(ionic liquid)s for energy and environmentAjjan, Fátima N.; Ambrogi, Martina; Tiruye, Girum Ayalneh et alin Polymer International (2017), 66(8), 1119-1126This manuscript presents the work carried out within the European Project RENAISSANCE-ITN, which was dedicated to the development of innovative polyelectrolytes for energy and environmental applications ... [more ▼]This manuscript presents the work carried out within the European Project RENAISSANCE-ITN, which was dedicated to the development of innovative polyelectrolytes for energy and environmental applications. Within the project different types of innovative polyelectrolytes were synthesized such as poly(ionic liquid)s coming from renewable or natural ions, thiazolium cations, cathechol functionalities or from a new generation of cheap deep-eutectic monomers. Further, macromolecular architectures such as new poly(ionic liquid) block copolymers and new (semi)conducting polymer/polyelectrolyte complexes were also developed. As the final goal, the application of these innovative polymers in energy and environment was investigated. Important advances in energy storage technologies included the development of new carbonaceous materials, new lignin/conducting polymer biopolymer electrodes, new iongels and single-ion conducting polymer electrolytes for supercapacitors and batteries and new poly(ionic liquid) binders for batteries. On the other hand, the use of the innovative polyelectrolytes into sustainable environmental technologies led to the development of new liquid and dry water, new materials for water cleaning technologies such as floculants, oil absorbers, new recyclable organocatalysts platform and multifunctional polymer coatings with antifouling and antimicrobial properties. All in all this article demonstrates the potential of the poly(ionic liquid)s for high-value applications in Energy & Enviromental areas. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 94 (23 ULg) Regiospecific radiolabelling of Nanofitin on Ni Magnetic Beads with [18F]FBEM and in vivo PET studiesDammicco, Sylvestre ; Goux, Marine; Lemaire, Christian et alin Nuclear Medicine & Biology (2017)Introduction: Nanofitins are low molecular weight, single chain and cysteine-free protein scaffolds able to selectively bind a defined biological target. They derive from Sac7d bacterial protein family ... [more ▼]Introduction: Nanofitins are low molecular weight, single chain and cysteine-free protein scaffolds able to selectively bind a defined biological target. They derive from Sac7d bacterial protein family and are highly stable over a wide range of pH (0-13) and temperature (Tm ~80°C). Their extreme stability, low cost of production and high tolerability for chemical coupling make Nanofitins a very interesting alternative to antibodies and their fragments. Here, a hexahistidine tagged model Nanofitin (H4) directed against hen egg white lysozyme was radiolabelled and injected in mice to provide a baseline biodistribution and pharmacokinetic profiles to support future Nanofitin development programs. Method: A single cysteine residue has been genetically inserted in a model Nanofitin and its regioselective radiolabelling has been performed with 4-[18F]fluorobenzamido-N-ethylamino-maleimide ([18F]FBEM). The synthesis of [18F]FBEM has been completely implemented on a radiosynthesis unit (FastLab) including HPLC purification and formulation. Coupling with the [18F]FBEM has been achieved on a solid support (Ni magnetic beads) allowing rapid purification at room temperature without organic solvent. PET-MRI studies on C57BL/6 mice were conducted after injection of [18F]FBEM-Cys-H4 in order to access the biodistribution of this Nanofitin model. Results: Radiochemical yield (decay corrected) of 54±7% (n=4) was obtained after optimization for coupling the [18F]FBEM to Nanofitin. Pharmacokinetics results of [18F]FBEM-Cys-H4 revealed a fast clearance through the liver and the kidneys. Conclusion: An efficient new method on Ni magnetic beads was developed to radiolabelled his-tagged biomolecules with [18F]FBEM. This procedure was applied on a Nanofitin model Cys-H4 and biodistribution kinetic studies were achieved to evaluate the potential use of Nanofitin for diagnostic imaging. Fast clearance indicates that Nanofitins represent very interesting tools for diagnostic imaging. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 39 (10 ULg) Les experts belges auprès de la Cour Permanente de Justice Internationale (1921-1930). Indicateurs de la position de la Belgique dans la hiérarchie internationale ?Genin, Vincent in Cahiers SIRICE (2017), 2017/1(18), 61-76Detailed reference viewed: 14 (1 ULg) EYK1 encoding erythrulose kinase as a catabolic selectable marker for genome editing in the non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolyticaVandermies, Marie ; Denies, Olivia ; Nicaud, Jean-Marc et alin Journal of Microbiological Methods (2017), 139We report here on EYK1, encoding erythrulose kinase, as an eﬃcient catabolic selectable marker for genome editing in Y. lipolytica. Compared to auxotrophic markers, EYK1 increases the growth rate of ... [more ▼]We report here on EYK1, encoding erythrulose kinase, as an eﬃcient catabolic selectable marker for genome editing in Y. lipolytica. Compared to auxotrophic markers, EYK1 increases the growth rate of transformants and allows improved eﬃciency of transformation. The utility of the marker EYK1 in a replicative vector was also demonstrated. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (2 ULg) Energy Dissipation Within the Wave Run-Up at Stepped RevetmentsKerpen, Nils B.; Bung, Daniel B.; Valero Huerta, Daniel et alin Journal of Ocean University of China (2017), 16(4), 649-654To understand the processes and energy dissipation performance caused by turbulence during the wave run-up over a stepped revetment, hydraulic model tests with steady flow conditions are conducted and ... [more ▼]To understand the processes and energy dissipation performance caused by turbulence during the wave run-up over a stepped revetment, hydraulic model tests with steady flow conditions are conducted and correlated with unsteady flow conditions of the wave run-up within a short time frame. Under irregular waves, the run-up reduction over a stepped revetment is dependent on the Iribarren number and decreases for decreasing Iribarren numbers. Velocity gradients are found to be similar in a steady and unsteady flow regime near the pseudo-bottom. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 48 (2 ULg) Organometallic-mediated alternating radical copolymerization of tert-butyl-2- trifluoromethacrylate with vinyl acetate and synthesis of block copolymers thereofBanerjee, Sanjib; Ladmiral, Vincent; Debuigne, Antoine et alin Macromolecular Rapid Communications (2017), 38(15), 1700203Organometallic-mediated radical polymerization (OMRP) has given access to well-defined poly(vinyl acetate-alt-tert-butyl-2-trifluoromethacrylate)-b-poly(vinyl acetate) and poly (VAc- alt-MAF-TBE ... [more ▼]Organometallic-mediated radical polymerization (OMRP) has given access to well-defined poly(vinyl acetate-alt-tert-butyl-2-trifluoromethacrylate)-b-poly(vinyl acetate) and poly (VAc- alt-MAF-TBE) copolymers composed of two electronically distinct monomers: vinyl acetate (VAc, donor, D) and tert-butyl-2-trifluoromethacrylate (MAF-TBE, acceptor, A), with low dispersity (≤1.24) and molar masses up to 57 000 g mol−1. These copolymers have a precise 1:1 alternating structure over a wide range of comonomer feed compositions. The reactivity ratios are determined as rVAc = 0.01 ± 0.01 and rMAF-TBE = 0 at 40 °C. Remarkably, from a feed containing >50% molar VAc content, poly(VAc-alt-MAF-TBE)-b- PVAc block copolymers are produced via a one- pot synthesis. Such diblock copolymers exhibit two glass transition temperatures attributed to the alternating and homopolymer sequences. The OMRP of this fluorine-containing alter- nating monomer system may provide access to a wide range of new polymer materials. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 32 (5 ULg) Synthesis and complexation of superbulky imidazolium-2-dithiocarboxylate ligandsBeltran Alvarez, Tomás Francisco ; Zaragoza, Guillermo; Delaude, Lionel in Dalton Transactions (Cambridge, England : 2003) (2017), 46(28), 9036-9048The superbulky N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) 2,6-bis(diphenylmethyl)-4-methylimidazol-2-ylidene (IDip*Me) and its 4-methoxy analogue (IDip*OMe) reacted instantaneously with carbon disulfide to afford the ... [more ▼]The superbulky N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) 2,6-bis(diphenylmethyl)-4-methylimidazol-2-ylidene (IDip*Me) and its 4-methoxy analogue (IDip*OMe) reacted instantaneously with carbon disulfide to afford the corresponding imidazolium-2-dithiocarboxylate zwitterions in high yields. These new dithiolate ligands were fully characterized and their coordination chemistry toward common Re(i) and Ru(ii) metal sources was thoroughly investigated. Neutral [ReBr(CO)3(S2C[middle dot]NHC)] chelates featured three facially-arranged carbonyl groups on a distorted octahedron, whereas cationic [RuCl(p-cymene)(S2C[middle dot]NHC)]PF6 complexes displayed a piano-stool geometry. The molecular structures of the six new compounds revealed that the NHC[middle dot]CS2 inner salts were highly flexible. Indeed, the torsion angle between their anionic and cationic moieties varied between ca. 63[degree] in the free ligands and 3[degree] in the ruthenium complexes. Concomitantly, the S-C-S bite angle underwent a contraction from 131[degree] to 110-113[degree] upon chelation. Computation of the %VBur parameter showed that the dithiocarboxylate unit of the NHC[middle dot]CS2 betaines chiefly determined the steric requirements of the imidazolium moieties, irrespective of the metal center involved in the complexation. The replacement of the p-methyl substituents of IDip*Me with p-methoxy groups in IDip*OMe did not significantly affect the ligand bulkiness. The more electron-donating methoxy group led, however, to small changes in various IR wavenumbers used to probe the electron donor properties of the carbene moiety. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 17 (2 ULg) Occupational social and mental stimulation and cognitive decline with advancing ageGrotz, Catherine ; Meillon, Céline; Amieva, Hélène et alin Age and Ageing (2017)Detailed reference viewed: 26 (0 ULg) Shape and spin determination of Barbarian asteroidsDevogele, Maxime ; Tanga, P.; Bendjoya, P. et alin Astronomy and Astrophysics (2017)The so-called Barbarian asteroids share peculiar, but common polarimetric properties, probably related to both their shape and composition. They are named after (234) Barbara, the first on which such ... [more ▼]The so-called Barbarian asteroids share peculiar, but common polarimetric properties, probably related to both their shape and composition. They are named after (234) Barbara, the first on which such properties were identified. As has been suggested, large scale topographic features could play a role in the polarimetric response, if the shapes of Barbarians are particularly irregular and present a variety of scattering/incidence angles. This idea is supported by the shape of (234) Barbara, that appears to be deeply excavated by wide concave areas revealed by photometry and stellar occultations. Aims. With these motivations, we started an observation campaign to characterise the shape and rotation properties of Small Main- Belt Asteroid Spectroscopic Survey (SMASS) type L and Ld asteroids. As many of them show long rotation periods, we activated a worldwide network of observers to obtain a dense temporal coverage. Methods. We used light-curve inversion technique in order to determine the sidereal rotation periods of 15 asteroids and the con- vergence to a stable shape and pole coordinates for 8 of them. By using available data from occultations, we are able to scale some shapes to an absolute size. We also study the rotation periods of our sample looking for confirmation of the suspected abundance of asteroids with long rotation periods. Results. Our results show that the shape models of our sample do not seem to have peculiar properties with respect to asteroids with similar size, while an excess of slow rotators is most probably confirmed. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 27 (1 ULg) Evaluating model simulations of 20th century sea-level rise. Part 1: AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY Global mean sea-level changeSlangen, A.; Meyssignac, B.; Agosta, Cécile et alin Journal of Climate (2017)Sea-level change is one of the major consequences of climate change and is projected to affect coastal communities around the world. Here, we compare Global Mean Sea-Level (GMSL) change estimated by 12 ... [more ▼]Sea-level change is one of the major consequences of climate change and is projected to affect coastal communities around the world. Here, we compare Global Mean Sea-Level (GMSL) change estimated by 12 climate models from the 5th phase of the World Climate Research Programme’s Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) to observational estimates for the period 1900-2015. We analyse observed and simulated individual contributions to GMSL change (thermal expansion, glacier mass change, ice sheet mass change, landwater storage change) and compare the summed simulated contributions to observed GMSL change over the period 1900-2007 using tide gauge reconstructions, and over the period 1993-2015 using satellite altimetry estimates. The model-simulated contributions allow us to explain 50 ± 30% (uncertainties 1.65σ unless indicated otherwise) of the mean observed change from 1901-1920 to 1988-2007. Based on attributable biases between observations and models, we propose to add a number of corrections, which result in an improved explanation of 75 ± 38% of the observed change. For the satellite era (1993-1997 to 2011-2015) we find an improved budget closure of 102 ± 33% (105 ± 35% when including the proposed bias corrections). Simulated decadal trends over the 20th century increase, both in the thermal expansion and the combined mass contributions (glaciers, ice sheets and landwater storage). The mass components explain the majority of sea-level rise over the 20th century, but the thermal expansion has increasingly contributed to sea-level rise, starting from 1910 onwards and in 2015 accounting for 46% of the total simulated sea-level change. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 25 (1 ULg) Acromegaly at diagnosis in 3173 patients from the Liege Acromegaly Survey (LAS) database.PETROSSIANS, Patrick ; Daly, Adrian ; Natchev, Emil et alin Endocrine-Related Cancer (2017)Acromegaly is a rare disorder caused by chronic growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion. While diagnostic and therapeutic methods have advanced, little information exists on trends in acromegaly ... [more ▼]Acromegaly is a rare disorder caused by chronic growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion. While diagnostic and therapeutic methods have advanced, little information exists on trends in acromegaly characteristics over time. The Liege Acromegaly Survey (LAS) database, a relational database, is designed to assess the profile of acromegaly patients at diagnosis and during long-term follow-up at multiple treatment centers. The study population consisted of 3173 acromegaly patients from ten countries; 54.5% were female. Males were significantly younger at diagnosis than females (43.5 vs. 46.4 years; p<0.001). The median delay from first symptoms to diagnosis was two years longer in females (p=0.015). Ages at diagnosis and first symptoms increased significantly over time (p<0.001). Tumors were larger in males than females (p<0.001); tumor size and invasion were inversely related to patient age (p<0.001). Random GH at diagnosis correlated with nadir GH levels during OGTT (p<0.001). GH was inversely related to age in both sexes (p<0.001). Diabetes mellitus was present in 27.5%, hypertension in 28.8%, sleep apnea syndrome in 25.5% and cardiac hypertrophy in 15.5%. Serious cardiovascular outcomes like stroke, heart failure and myocardial infarction were present in <5% at diagnosis. Erythrocyte levels were increased and correlated with IGF-1 values. Thyroid nodules were frequent (34.0%); 820 patients had colonoscopy at diagnosis and 13% had polyps. Osteoporosis was present at diagnosis in 12.3% and 0.6-4.4% had experienced a fracture. This study of >3100 patients is the largest international acromegaly database and shows clinically relevant trends in the characteristics of acromegaly at diagnosis. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 33 (2 ULg) Typical versus delayed speech onset influences verbal reporting of autistic interestsChiodo, Liliane ; Majerus, Steve ; Mottron, Laurentin Molecular Autism (2017)The distinction between autism and Asperger syndrome has been abandoned in the DSM-5. However, this clinical categorization largely overlaps with the presence or absence of a speech onset delay which is ... [more ▼]The distinction between autism and Asperger syndrome has been abandoned in the DSM-5. However, this clinical categorization largely overlaps with the presence or absence of a speech onset delay which is associated with clinical, cognitive, and neural differences. It is unknown whether these different speech development pathways and associated cognitive differences are involved in the heterogeneity of the restricted interests that characterize autistic adults. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 33 (1 ULg) Natural patches in Posidonia oceanica meadows: the seasonal biogeochemical pore water characteristics of two edge typesAbadie, A; Borges, Alberto ; Champenois, Willy et alin Marine Biology (2017), 164:166Seagrass meadows can be assimilated to seascape matrixes encompassing a mosaic of natural and anthropogenic patches. Natural patches within the Mediterranean Posidonia oceanica meadows show a structural ... [more ▼]Seagrass meadows can be assimilated to seascape matrixes encompassing a mosaic of natural and anthropogenic patches. Natural patches within the Mediterranean Posidonia oceanica meadows show a structural particularity which consist in a duality of their edge types. One edge is eroded by bottom currents, while the adjacent meadow colonizes the bare sediments. This study aims to study the dynamics of these two edges through the investigation of the biogeochemistry (pH, total alkalinity, dissolved inorganic carbon, CO2, CH4, N2O, H2S, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, PO4 3−) within vegetated and unvegetated sediments. These observations are compared with the adjacent meadow to have a better understanding of the colonization processes. Our results reveal that the P. oceanica matrix shows differences from the vegetated edges of sand patches, especially with regard to nutrient availability, which is generally more important at the colonized edge (dissolved inorganic nitrogen up to 65.39 μM in June). A clear disparity also occurs between the eroded and colonized edge with both a seasonal and bathymetrical variation of leaf biomass with higher disparities at 10 m in June (colonized edge 1415 gDW m−2; eroded edge 1133 gDW m−2). Themost important contrasts during this study were assessed in June, suggesting that the warm period of the year is more suitable for sampling to highlight disparate characteristics in temperate seagrass meadows. These findings put into light the potential importance of biogeochemical processes in the dynamics of natural patch edges. We hypothesize that they may influence the structural dynamics of P. oceanica seascapes. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (3 ULg) Compte-rendu de l'ouvrage de J. van der Steen: Memory Wars in the Low Countries, 1566-1700Regibeau, Julien in Émulations. Revue des jeunes chercheuses et chercheurs en sciences sociales (2017)Detailed reference viewed: 29 (3 ULg) Negative velocity fluctuations and non-equilibrium fluctuation relation for a driven high critical current vortex stateBag, Biplab; Shaw, Gorky ; Banerjee, S. S. et alin Scientific Reports (2017), 7(1), 5531Under the influence of a constant drive the moving vortex state in 2H-NbS2 superconductor exhibits a negative differential resistance (NDR) transition from a steady flow to an immobile state. This state ... [more ▼]Under the influence of a constant drive the moving vortex state in 2H-NbS2 superconductor exhibits a negative differential resistance (NDR) transition from a steady flow to an immobile state. This state possesses a high depinning current threshold ( $$\boldsymbolI_\boldsymbolc^\boldsymbolh$$ I c h ) with unconventional depinning characteristics. At currents well above $$\boldsymbolI_\boldsymbolc^\boldsymbolh$$ I c h , the moving vortex state exhibits a multimodal velocity distribution which is characteristic of vortex flow instabilities in the NDR regime. However at lower currents which are just above $$\boldsymbolI_\boldsymbolc^\boldsymbolh$$ I c h , the velocity distribution is non-Gaussian with a tail extending to significant negative velocity values. These unusual negative velocity events correspond to vortices drifting opposite to the driving force direction. We show that this distribution obeys the Gallavotti-Cohen Non-Equilibrium Fluctuation Relation (GC-NEFR). Just above $$\boldsymbolI_\boldsymbolc^\boldsymbolh$$ I c h , we also find a high vortex density fluctuating driven state not obeying the conventional GC-NEFR. The GC-NEFR analysis provides a measure of an effective energy scale (E eff ) associated with the driven vortex state. The E eff corresponds to the average energy dissipated by the fluctuating vortex state above $$\boldsymbolI_\boldsymbolc^\boldsymbolh$$ I c h . We propose the high E eff value corresponds to the onset of high energy dynamic instabilities in this driven vortex state just above $$\boldsymbolI_\boldsymbolc^\boldsymbolh$$ I c h . [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 29 (3 ULg) Adeline CORNET, Le vécu des femmes magistrates en Belgique francophone. Analyse d’une profession sous l’angle des rapports sociaux de sexe. Représentativité, profils et pouvoirs, Limal, Anthemis, 2016, 433 p.Grandjean, Geoffrey in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2017), 2Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg) Global regression model for moisture content determination using near-infrared spectroscopyClavaud, Matthieu ; Roggo, Yves; Degardin, Klara et alin European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics (2017)Near-infrared (NIR) global quantitative models were evaluated for the moisture content (MC) determination of three different freeze-dried drug products. The quantitative models were based on 3822 spectra ... [more ▼]Near-infrared (NIR) global quantitative models were evaluated for the moisture content (MC) determination of three different freeze-dried drug products. The quantitative models were based on 3822 spectra measured on two identical spectrometers to include variability. The MC, measured with the reference Karl Fischer (KF) method, were ranged from 0.05% to 4.96%. Linear and non-linear regression models using Partial Least Square (PLS), Decision Tree (DT), Bayesian Ridge Regression (Bayes-RR), K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), and Support Vector Regression (SVR) algorithms were created and evaluated. Among them, the SVR model was retained for a global application. The Standard Error of Calibration (SEC) and the Standard Error of Prediction (SEP) were respectively 0.12% and 0.15%. This model was then evaluated in terms of total error and risk-based assessment, linearity, and accuracy. It was observed that MC can be fastly and simultaneously determined in freeze-dried pharmaceutical products thanks to a global NIR model created with different medicines. This innovative approach allows to speed up the validation time and the in-lab release analyses. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 39 (5 ULg) Effects of an experimental resource pulse on the macrofaunal assemblage inhabiting seagrass macrophytodetritusRemy, François ; Gobert, Sylvie ; Lepoint, Gilles in Belgian Journal of Zoology (2017), 147(1), 1-15Physical disturbances and resource pulses are major structuring drivers of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The accumulations of exported dead leaves from the Neptune grass, Posidonia oceanica (L ... [more ▼]Physical disturbances and resource pulses are major structuring drivers of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The accumulations of exported dead leaves from the Neptune grass, Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile are ephemeral and highly dynamic detrital habitats offering food sources and shelter for vagile macrofauna community. These habitats are frequently subject to wind and storms which can add “new” detrital material to previous accumulations; these can be defined as resource pulses and could potentially impact the associated macrofauna. This study assesses the impact of an experimental resource pulse on the macrofauna associated with exported P. oceanica litter accumulations. The experimental design consisted of two pulse treatments (the addition of dead leaves with and without the associated fauna), and two controls (one procedural, and one total control), where the added material was left underwater for 14 days. Invertebrates then present in the sampled detritus were all identified and counted. Our data suggest that the responses of these invertebrates to resource pulses present intermediate characteristics between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems responses. Inputting a moderate amount of dead P. oceanica leaves into experimental mesocosms had a non-negligible impact and rapidly affected the macrofauna community. Specialist detritivores species were boosted while herbivore/detritivore species dramatically decreased. Predators also showed a modest but significant density increase, demonstrating the fast propagation of the pulse response throughout the entire community and through several trophic levels. Strict hypoxia-tolerant species were also only observed in the treated mesocosms, indicating the strong influence of resource pulses on physico-chemical conditions occurring inside litter accumulations. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 65 (12 ULg) Compte rendu de Gemeinhardt, Peter, Lieve Van Hoof and Peter Van Nuffelen (edd.), Education and religion in late antique Christianity: reflections, social contexts and genres, London; New York: Routledge, 2016Carlig, Nathan in Bryn Mawr Classical Review [=BMCR] (2017)Detailed reference viewed: 19 (2 ULg) Cosmological Time, Entropy and InfinityHauret, Clémentine ; Magain, Pierre ; Biernaux, Judith in Entropy (2017), 19(7), Time is a parameter playing a central role in our most fundamental modelling of natural laws. Relativity theory shows that the comparison of times measured by different clocks depends on their relative ... [more ▼]Time is a parameter playing a central role in our most fundamental modelling of natural laws. Relativity theory shows that the comparison of times measured by different clocks depends on their relative motion and on the strength of the gravitational field in which they are embedded. In standard cosmology, the time parameter is the one measured by fundamental clocks (i.e., clocks at rest with respect to the expanding space). This proper time is assumed to flow at a constant rate throughout the whole history of the universe. We make the alternative hypothesis that the rate at which the cosmological time flows depends on the dynamical state of the universe. In thermodynamics, the arrow of time is strongly related to the second law, which states that the entropy of an isolated system will always increase with time or, at best, stay constant. Hence, we assume that the time measured by fundamental clocks is proportional to the entropy of the region of the universe that is causally connected to them. Under that simple assumption, we find it possible to build toy cosmological models that present an acceleration of their expansion without any need for dark energy while being spatially closed and finite, avoiding the need to deal with infinite values. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (5 ULg) Does Belgian Holocene speleothem record solar forcing and cold events?Allan, Mohammed ; Deliège, Adrien ; Nicolay, Samuel et alin Climate of the Past Discussions (2017)We present a decadal-centennial scale Holocene climate record based on trace elements contents from a 65 cm stalagmite (Père Noël) from Belgian Père Noël cave. Père Noël (PN) stalagmite covers the last 12 ... [more ▼]We present a decadal-centennial scale Holocene climate record based on trace elements contents from a 65 cm stalagmite (Père Noël) from Belgian Père Noël cave. Père Noël (PN) stalagmite covers the last 12.7 ka according to U/Th dating. High spatial resolution measurements of trace elements (Sr, Ba, Mg and Al) were done by Laser-Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Trace elements profiles were interpreted as environmental and climate changes in the Han-sur-Lesse region. Power spectrum estimators and continuous wavelet transform were applied on trace elements time series to detect any statistically signiﬁcant periodicities in the PN stalagmite. Spectral analyses reveal decadal to millennial periodicities (i.e., 68–75, 133–136, 198–209, 291–358, 404–602, 912–1029 and 2365–2670 yr) in the speleothem record. Results were compared to reconstructed sunspot number data to determine whether solar signal is presents in PN speleothem. The occurrence of signiﬁcant solar periodicities (i.e., cycles of Gleissberg, de Vries, unnamed 500 years, Eddy and Hallstat) supports for an impact of solar forcing on PN speleothem trace elements contents. Moreover, several intervals of significant rapid climate change were detected during the Holocene at 10.3, 9.3–9.5, around 8.2, 6.4–6.2, 4.7–4.5, and around 2.7 ka BP. Those intervals are similar to the cold events evidenced in different natural paleoclimate archivers, suggesting common climate forcing mechanisms related to changes in solar irradiance. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 52 (1 ULg) Does Belgian Holocene speleothem record solar forcing and cold events?Allan, Mohammed ; Deliège, Adrien ; Nicolay, Samuel et alin Climate of the Past Discussions (2017)We present a decadal-centennial scale Holocene climate record based on trace elements contents from a 65 cm stalagmite (Père Noël) from Belgian Père Noël cave. Père Noël (PN) stalagmite covers the last 12 ... [more ▼]We present a decadal-centennial scale Holocene climate record based on trace elements contents from a 65 cm stalagmite (Père Noël) from Belgian Père Noël cave. Père Noël (PN) stalagmite covers the last 12.7 ka according to U/Th dating. High spatial resolution measurements of trace elements (Sr, Ba, Mg and Al) were done by Laser-Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Trace elements profiles were interpreted as environmental and climate changes in the Han-sur-Lesse region. Power spectrum estimators and continuous wavelet transform were applied on trace elements time series to detect any statistically signiﬁcant periodicities in the PN stalagmite. Spectral analyses reveal decadal to millennial periodicities (i.e., 68–75, 133–136, 198–209, 291–358, 404–602, 912–1029 and 2365–2670 yr) in the speleothem record. Results were compared to reconstructed sunspot number data to determine whether solar signal is presents in PN speleothem. The occurrence of signiﬁcant solar periodicities (i.e., cycles of Gleissberg, de Vries, unnamed 500 years, Eddy and Hallstat) supports for an impact of solar forcing on PN speleothem trace elements contents. Moreover, several intervals of significant rapid climate change were detected during the Holocene at 10.3, 9.3–9.5, around 8.2, 6.4–6.2, 4.7–4.5, and around 2.7 ka BP. Those intervals are similar to the cold events evidenced in different natural paleoclimate archivers, suggesting common climate forcing mechanisms related to changes in solar irradiance. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 52 (1 ULg) In vitro antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activities of sesquiterpene lactones from Vernonia fimbrillifera Less. (Asteraceae)Bordignon, Annélise ; Frederich, Michel ; Ledoux, Allison et alin Natural Product Research (2017)According to the World Health Organization (WHO 2016 WHO. 2016. World Malaria report 2016 [Internet]; [cited 2016 Dec 20]. Available from: https://www.who.int/malaria/publications/world-malaria-report ... [more ▼]According to the World Health Organization (WHO 2016 WHO. 2016. World Malaria report 2016 [Internet]; [cited 2016 Dec 20]. Available from: https://www.who.int/malaria/publications/world-malaria-report-2016/report/en/ [Google Scholar] ), malaria caused at least 429 000 deaths globally in 2015. Among these, 70% were children under the age of five and 99% were due to the parasite species Plasmodium falciparum. The fight against this major public health problem is threatened by the rapid emergence and spread of parasite strains resistant towards available approved treatments. Urgent efforts are therefore needed to identify new antimalarial drugs. As such, our research groups decided to study Reunion Island as a potential source for the discovery of new antiplasmodial metabolites. This natural patrimony has been identified as a biodiversity hotspot due to its numerous endemic species and its preserved ecosystems (Myers et al. 2000 Myers N, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG, DaFonesca GAB, Kent J. 2000. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature. 403:853–858.10.1038/35002501 [CrossRef], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar] ). The National Botanical Conservatory of the Mascarenes indicates that Vernonia fimbrillifera Less. is an endemic species from Reunion Island, locally named ‘bois de source’, which grows in the humid tropical forest (Lavergne and Véra 1989 Lavergne R, Véra R. 1989. Etude ethnobotanique des plantes utilisées dans la pharmacopée traditionnelle à La Réunion [Ethnobotanical study of plants used in the traditional pharmacopoeia of Reunion Island]. Paris: Agence de coopération culturelle et technique. [Google Scholar] ). To the best of our knowledge, neither phytochemical nor pharmacological works have been performed up to now on V. fimbrillifera. This study isolated and determined the structure of three antiplasmodial sesquiterpene lactones. Compounds were additionally tested in vitro for their cytotoxicity and their selectivity indices were established. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 11 (1 ULg) Implicit Belittlements Call for Implicit Measures: Emotional Reactions to Youth Paternalistic StereotypesSilvestre, Aude ; Huart, Johanne ; Dardenne, Benoît in Psychologica Belgica (2017), 57(2), 133-153Age discrimination at work can potentially affect every worker. Indeed, like ‘old’ workers, young ones hired in their first job elicit the idea that they have quite interesting social abilities but lack ... [more ▼]Age discrimination at work can potentially affect every worker. Indeed, like ‘old’ workers, young ones hired in their first job elicit the idea that they have quite interesting social abilities but lack of competence, which constitutes a case of paternalistic stereotypes (Fiske, Cuddy, Glick, & Xu, 2002). Generally, the negative (incompetence) facet of such stereotypes is not blatantly expressed, but is subtly conveyed behind an apparently positive discourse. Consequently, it is considered as being generally under-detected, while harmful. In this paper, we examine whether paternalistic stereotyping’s under-detection is real or if it is due to the use of inadequate measures. Based on a study showing that targets feel that something is wrong (Dardenne, Dumont, & Bollier 2007), we rely on affective measures to investigate whether the detection of the subtly conveyed negative facet of paternalistic stereotypes calls for subtle, implicit measures. In Study 1, explicit self-reports of targets’ affective states after a meeting with a paternalistic boss revealed mainly positive affect. In Study 2, an implicit emotional measure however revealed the presence of a negative affective state. The last Study, using a more ecological affective measure, demonstrates that paternalistic stereotypes trigger an ambivalent affective reaction. Altogether, the three studies suggest that the negative facet of paternalistic stereotypes is not as under-detected as we thought. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (1 ULg) Conditions for thermally induced all-optical switching in ferrimagnetic alloys: Modeling of TbCoMoreno, Roberto; Ostler, Thomas ; Chantrell, Roy et alin Physical Review B (2017), 96Detailed reference viewed: 13 (1 ULg) Propagation of material and surface profile uncertainties on MEMS micro-resonators using a stochastic second-order computational multi-scale approachLucas, Vincent ; Golinval, Jean-Claude ; Voicu, Rodica et alin International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering (2017), 111(1), 26-68This paper aims at accounting for the uncertainties due to material structure and surface topology of microbeams in a stochastic multiscale model. For micro-resonators made of anisotropic polycrystalline ... [more ▼]This paper aims at accounting for the uncertainties due to material structure and surface topology of microbeams in a stochastic multiscale model. For micro-resonators made of anisotropic polycrystalline materials, micro-scale uncertainties are due to the grain size, grain orientation, and to the surface profile. First, microscale realizations of stochastic volume elements (SVEs) are obtained based on experimental measurements. To account for the surface roughness, the SVEs are defined as a volume element having the same thickness as the MEMS, with a view to the use of a plate model at the structural scale. The uncertainties are then propagated up to an intermediate scale, the meso-scale, through a second-order homogenization procedure.From the meso-scale plate resultant material property realizations, a spatially correlated random field of the in plane, out of plane, and cross resultant material tensors can be characterized. Owing to this characterized random field, realizations of MEMS-scale problems can be defined on a plate finite element model. Samples of the macro-scale quantity of interest can then be computed by relying on a Monte-Carlo simulation procedure. As a case study, the resonance frequency of MEMS micro-beams is investigated for different uncertainty cases, such as grain preferred orientations and surface roughness effects. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 80 (41 ULg) Influence of environmental factors on food intake among nursing home residents: a survey combined with a video approachBuckinx, Fanny ; Reginster, Jean-Yves ; Morelle, Alison et alin Clinical Interventions in Aging (2017), 12Background: In addition to the well-known physiological factors, dietary behavior that affects health seems to be influenced by a wide variety of environmental factors. The aim of this study was to assess ... [more ▼]Background: In addition to the well-known physiological factors, dietary behavior that affects health seems to be influenced by a wide variety of environmental factors. The aim of this study was to assess, by means of an original video approach, the influence of the environment on food intake in nursing homes. Methods: The perception of the environment during meals in nursing homes was evaluated by residents and by two groups of volunteers who either work in the field of geriatrics, or who do not work in the field of geriatrics. First, a random sample of residents answered a self-administered questionnaire related to different indicators (ie, noise, space, comfort, light, odors, perceived satisfaction of meals, taste of meals, presentation of meals, service and setting). Second, two separate panels, one including the people who work in the field of geriatrics (ie, experts) and one including the people who have no particular interest in geriatrics (ie, nonexperts), were asked to answer a questionnaire on their perception of the environment after having watched a video of the lunch in each nursing home. Then, the food intake of the residents was measured by a precise food-weighing method. Results: A total of 88 residents from nine different nursing homes, 18 experts and 45 nonexperts answered the questionnaires. This study highlighted that, on the one hand, after adjustment on confounding variables, the perception of the quantity of food served by the residents is the only single factor associated with food consumption (P=0.003). On the other hand, experts and nonexperts did not perceive any environmental factor that seems to be significantly associated with residents’ food intake. Conclusion: Our results highlighted that, in a nursing home setting, environmental factors have limited influence on the food intake of the residents, with the exception of their own perception of the quantity served. The relevance of this factor deserves further investigation. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 48 (2 ULg) H0LiCOW - I. H0 Lenses in COSMOGRAIL's Wellspring: program overviewSuyu, S. H.; Bonvin, V.; Courbin, F. et alin Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 468Strong gravitational lens systems with time delays between the multiple images allow measurements of time-delay distances, which are primarily sensitive to the Hubble constant that is key to probing dark ... [more ▼]Strong gravitational lens systems with time delays between the multiple images allow measurements of time-delay distances, which are primarily sensitive to the Hubble constant that is key to probing dark energy, neutrino physics and the spatial curvature of the Universe, as well as discovering new physics. We present H0LiCOW (H[SUB]0[/SUB] Lenses in COSMOGRAIL's Wellspring), a program that aims to measure H[SUB]0[/SUB] with <3.5 per cent uncertainty from five lens systems (B1608+656, RXJ1131-1231, HE 0435-1223, WFI2033-4723 and HE 1104-1805). We have been acquiring (1) time delays through COSMOGRAIL and Very Large Array monitoring, (2) high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope imaging for the lens mass modelling, (3) wide-field imaging and spectroscopy to characterize the lens environment and (4) moderate-resolution spectroscopy to obtain the stellar velocity dispersion of the lenses for mass modelling. In cosmological models with one-parameter extension to flat Λ cold dark matter, we expect to measure H[SUB]0[/SUB] to <3.5 per cent in most models, spatial curvature Ω[SUB]k[/SUB] to 0.004, w to 0.14 and the effective number of neutrino species to 0.2 (1σ uncertainties) when combined with current cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments. These are, respectively, a factor of ˜15, ˜2 and ˜1.5 tighter than CMB alone. Our data set will further enable us to study the stellar initial mass function of the lens galaxies, and the co-evolution of supermassive black holes and their host galaxies. This program will provide a foundation for extracting cosmological distances from the hundreds of time-delay lenses that are expected to be discovered in current and future surveys. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 21 (2 ULg) Ground-based monitoring of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko gas activity throughout the Rosetta missionOpitom, C.; Snodgrass, C.; Fitzsimmons, A. et alin Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 469Simultaneously to the ESA Rosetta mission, a world-wide ground-based campaign provided measurements of the large scale activity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko through measurement of optically active ... [more ▼]Simultaneously to the ESA Rosetta mission, a world-wide ground-based campaign provided measurements of the large scale activity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko through measurement of optically active gas species and imaging of the overall dust coma. We present more than 2 yr of observations performed with the FORS2 low-resolution spectrograph at the VLT, TRAPPIST and ACAM at the WHT. We focus on the evolution of the CN production as a tracer of the comet activity. We find that it is asymmetric with respect to perihelion and different from that of the dust. The CN emission is detected for the first time at 1.34 au pre-perihelion and production rates then increase steeply to peak about 2 weeks after perihelion at (1.00 ± 0.10) × 10[SUP]25[/SUP] molecules s[SUP]-1[/SUP], while the post-perihelion decrease is more shallow. The evolution of the comet activity is strongly influenced by seasonal effects with enhanced CN production when the Southern hemisphere is illuminated. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 ULg) Baudelaire: traductor auctoritasMogollon Zapata, Juan Manuel in Literatura: Historia, Teoría, Crítica (2017), 19(2), 19-51In order to achieve visibility in the media and a position recognized by both the public and their peers, translators are compelled to take advantage of spaces of enunciation such as those provided by ... [more ▼]In order to achieve visibility in the media and a position recognized by both the public and their peers, translators are compelled to take advantage of spaces of enunciation such as those provided by prefaces, criticism, or biographical notes. Thanks to these spaces, in which translators deploy discursive and institutional strategies that allow them to position themselves and their translation project, translators acquire the status of translator-auctoritas, that is, a level of symbolic authority capable of endowing them with a public image. Through the detailed analysis of the editorial strategies and institutional calculations implemented by Baudelaire in order to position his project of translating Edgar Allan Poe, we show how the poet achieves the status of translator-autoritas and the role the latter played in the construction of his own literary identity [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 119 (12 ULg) Probing the atmosphere of a sub-Jovian planet orbiting a cool dwarfSedaghati, Elyar; Boffin, Henri M. J.; Delrez, Laetitia et alin Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 468We derive the 0.01 $\mu$m binned transmission spectrum, between 0.74 and 1.0 $\mu$m, of WASP-80b from low resolution spectra obtained with the FORS2 instrument attached to ESO's Very Large Telescope. The ... [more ▼]We derive the 0.01 $\mu$m binned transmission spectrum, between 0.74 and 1.0 $\mu$m, of WASP-80b from low resolution spectra obtained with the FORS2 instrument attached to ESO's Very Large Telescope. The combination of the fact that WASP-80 is an active star, together with instrumental and telluric factors, introduces correlated noise in the observed transit light curves, which we treat quantitatively using Gaussian Processes. Comparison of our results together with those from previous studies, to theoretically calculated models reveals an equilibrium temperature in agreement with the previously measured value of 825K, and a sub-solar metallicity, as well as an atmosphere depleted of molecular species with absorption bands in the IR ($\gg 5\sigma$). Our transmission spectrum alone shows evidence for additional absorption from the potassium core and wing, whereby its presence is detected from analysis of narrow 0.003 $\mu$m bin light curves ($\gg 5\sigma$). Further observations with visible and near-UV filters will be required to expand this spectrum and provide more in-depth knowledge of the atmosphere. These detections are only made possible through an instrument-dependent baseline model and a careful analysis of systematics in the data. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg) The role of mucus in cell-based models used to screen mucosal drug deliveryLechanteur, Anna ; das Neves, José; Sarmento, Brunoin Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews (2017)The increasing interest in developing tools to predict drug absorption through mucosal surfaces is fostering the establishment of epithelial cell-based models. Cell-based in vitro techniques for drug ... [more ▼]The increasing interest in developing tools to predict drug absorption through mucosal surfaces is fostering the establishment of epithelial cell-based models. Cell-based in vitro techniques for drug permeability assessment are less laborious, cheaper and address the concerns of using laboratory animals. Simultaneously, in vitro barrier models that thoroughly simulate human epithelia or mucosae may provide useful data to speed up the entrance of new drugs and new drug products into the clinics. Nevertheless, standard cell-based in vitro models that intend to reproduce epithelial surfaces often discard the role of mucus in influencing drug permeation/absorption. Biomimetic models of mucosae in which mucus production has been considered may not be able to fully reproduce the amount and architecture of mucus, resulting in biased characterization of permeability/absorption. In these cases, artificial mucus may be used to supplement cell-based models but still proper identification and quantification are required. In this review, considerations regarding the relevance of mucus in the development of cell-based epithelial and mucosal models mimicking the gastro-intestinal tract, the cervico-vaginal tract and the respiratory tract, and the impact of mucus on the permeability mechanisms are addressed. From simple epithelial monolayers to more complexes 3D structures, the impact of the presence of mucus for the extrapolation to the in vivo scenario is critically analyzed. Finally, an overview is provided on several techniques and methods to characterize the mucus layer over cell-based barriers, in order to intimately reproduce human mucosal layer and thereby, improve in vitro/in vivo correlation. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 25 (2 ULg) Changes in cannabis use in emerging adulthood: The influence of peer network, impulsivity, anxiety and depressionGlowacz, Fabienne ; Schmits, Emilie in European Review of Applied Psychology = Revue Européenne de Psychologie Appliquée (2017), 67(4), 171-179Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug with the highest prevalence reported among 15- to 24-year-olds. This specific period of emerging adulthood constitutes a critical age for substance use and ... [more ▼]Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug with the highest prevalence reported among 15- to 24-year-olds. This specific period of emerging adulthood constitutes a critical age for substance use and for future consumption. Cannabis use patterns change during college or university and the post-college transition; users are at greater risk of adverse health outcomes (especially if they start or maintain a pattern of frequent use). Objectives The overall aim of this study was to highlight psychological and relational factors that might be associated with changes (including cessation and fluctuation) in cannabis use during this specific period, separately for males and females. Methods The subjects were 682 first-year college students (69.94% of female), aged between 18 and 25 years (M = 18.59 years, SD = 1.56). Four groups were formed according to cannabis consumption: “non-users” (54.64%), “desisting users” (14.04%), “fluctuating users” (16.23%), and “persistent users” (15.07%). A self-report questionnaire was administered to evaluate prevalence, frequency and trajectory of use, number of peer cannabis users, alcohol use, impulsivity, anxiety (trait and social) and depression. Results Females appear more sensitive to the romantic partner's consumption than males. For both sexes, having more friends who use cannabis appears to be a determinant. Depression and anxiety were not related to changes in cannabis use. Impulsivity is a significant factor for the maintenance of cannabis use in emerging adulthood, with higher lack of premeditation for males and higher sensation seeking for females among fluctuating and persistent users. Conclusions Results are discussed in terms of maintenance of use and the spiral of consumption, including clinical implications for prevention and interventions. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 37 (6 ULg) MUSE-inspired view of the quasar Q2059-360, its Lyman α blob, and its neighborhoodNorth, P. L.; Marino, R. A.; Gorgoni, C. et alin Astronomy and Astrophysics (2017), 604The radio-quiet quasar Q2059-360 at redshift z = 3.08 is known to be close to a small Lyman α blob (LAB) and to be absorbed by a proximate damped Lyα (PDLA) system. Here, we present the Multi Unit ... [more ▼]The radio-quiet quasar Q2059-360 at redshift z = 3.08 is known to be close to a small Lyman α blob (LAB) and to be absorbed by a proximate damped Lyα (PDLA) system. Here, we present the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) integral field spectroscopy follow-up of this quasi-stellar object (QSO). Our primary goal is to characterize this LAB in detail by mapping it both spatially and spectrally using the Lyα line, and by looking for high-ionization lines to constrain the emission mechanism. Combining the high sensitivity of the MUSE integral field spectrograph mounted on the Yepun telescope at ESO-VLT with the natural coronagraph provided by the PDLA, we map the LAB down to the QSO position, after robust subtraction of QSO light in the spectral domain. In addition to confirming earlier results for the small bright component of the LAB, we unveil a faint filamentary emission protruding to the south over about 80 pkpc (physical kpc); this results in a total size of about 120 pkpc. We derive the velocity field of the LAB (assuming no transfer effects) and map the Lyα line width. Upper limits are set to the flux of the N v λ1238 - 1242, C iv λ1548 - 1551, He ii λ1640, and C iii] λ1548 - 1551 lines. We have discovered two probable Lyα emitters at the same redshift as the LAB and at projected distances of 265 kpc and 207 kpc from the QSO; their Lyα luminosities might well be enhanced by the QSO radiation. We also find an emission line galaxy at z = 0.33 near the line of sight to the QSO. This LAB shares the same general characteristics as the 17 others surrounding radio-quiet QSOs presented previously. However, there are indications that it may be centered on the PDLA galaxy rather than on the QSO. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programme 60.A-9331(A). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (1 ULg) Polarization of the changing-look quasar J1011+5442Hutsemekers, Damien ; Agis-Gonzalez, Beatriz ; Sluse, Dominique et alin Astronomy and Astrophysics (2017), 604If the disappearance of the broad emission lines observed in changing-look quasars were caused by the obscuration of the quasar core through moving dust clouds in the torus, high linear polarization ... [more ▼]If the disappearance of the broad emission lines observed in changing-look quasars were caused by the obscuration of the quasar core through moving dust clouds in the torus, high linear polarization typical of type 2 quasars would be expected. We measured the polarization of the changing-look quasar J1011+5442 in which the broad emission lines have disappeared between 2003 and 2015. We found a polarization degree compatible with null polarization. This measurement suggests that the observed change of look is not due to a change of obscuration hiding the continuum source and the broad line region, and that the quasar is seen close to the system axis. Our results thus support the idea that the vanishing of the broad emission lines in J1011+5442 is due to an intrinsic dimming of the ionizing continuum source that is most likely caused by a rapid decrease in the rate of accretion onto the supermassive black hole. Based on observations made with the William Herschel telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 26 (4 ULg) Violences conjugales et justice pénale: un couple à problémes ? Introduction au dossierGlowacz, Fabienne ; Vanneste, Charlotte in Champ Pénal = Penal Field (2017), Vol. XIV | 2017Detailed reference viewed: 22 (2 ULg) A Receding Horizon Approach to Incorporate Frequency Support into the AC/DC Converters of a Multi-Terminal DC GridPapangelis, Lampros ; Panciatici, Patrick; Debry, Marie-Sophie et alin Electric Power Systems Research (2017)This paper proposes a novel control scheme for provision of frequency support among asynchronous AC areas through HVDC grids. It is based on local controllers, each acting on a voltage source converter ... [more ▼]This paper proposes a novel control scheme for provision of frequency support among asynchronous AC areas through HVDC grids. It is based on local controllers, each acting on a voltage source converter, using local measurements only, and supporting frequency of the adjacent AC area after a significant disturbance. The new discrete control is combined with the existing DC voltage droop technique. The formulation, inspired of Receding Horizon Control, enables providing to the AC area the desired frequency support, while at the same time taking into account various constraints, such as maintaining the DC voltage between secure operating limits. Examples obtained from a test system with a five-terminal DC network connecting two asynchronous areas demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control scheme in various scenarios, with emphasis on component failures. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 55 (21 ULg) Macroevolutionary analysis of the tempo of diversification in snappers and fusiliers (Percomorpha: Lutjanidae)Frederich, Bruno ; Santini, Francescoin Belgian Journal of Zoology (2017), 147(1), 17-35The percomorph fish family Lutjanidae (snappers and fusiliers) includes about 135 reef-dwelling species, mainly confined to tropical and subtropical marine waters. The great majority of snappers are ... [more ▼]The percomorph fish family Lutjanidae (snappers and fusiliers) includes about 135 reef-dwelling species, mainly confined to tropical and subtropical marine waters. The great majority of snappers are active predators feeding on fishes or crustaceans, even though some species, including the fusiliers (Caesioninae), have evolved zooplanktivory. Lutjanids show a great diversity of habitat preferences, based on depth segregation and distribution across reef and associated habitats (e.g. mangroves, seagrass beds, estuaries). In spite of their great ecological and economic importance little is known about the tempo of evolution in this group. The present study provides the most comprehensive molecular phylogeny to date for lutjanids, including 70% of extant species and 19 of the 21 currently described genera. We time-calibrated our molecular tree using the oldest described lutjanid fossils, and show how this group likely originated during the Late Cretaceous to Early Paleocene. Lutjanids experienced significant radiation during the Late Eocene and Early Oligocene, in contrast to a pattern of Late Oligocene/Miocene radiation observed in many other reef-associated groups. The time-tree allows us to investigate the tempo of diversification, and our results suggest a variation in the rate of speciation during the evolution of the major clade formed by “lutjanins and caesionins”. Variation in diet and life history strategies could explain this clade-specific dynamic, even though future phylogenetic comparative studies combining additional ecological and morphological data are needed to test this hypothesis. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 248 (9 ULg) Violences conjugales : un dilemme pour la justice pénale ? Leçons d’une analyse des enregistrements statistiques effectués dans les parquets belgesVanneste, Charlotte in Champ pénal/Penal field (2017), XIVDrawing on the analysis of statistics regarding Intimate Partner Violence collected on a large scale at the level of the Belgian prosecutors’ offices, the article reveals a wide gap between the zero ... [more ▼]Drawing on the analysis of statistics regarding Intimate Partner Violence collected on a large scale at the level of the Belgian prosecutors’ offices, the article reveals a wide gap between the zero tolerance rhetoric conveyed in the normative discourse and actual implementation, which is generally weak and showing divergent judicial practices in the field. Faced with this dilemma, the highly contestable impact of the zero tolerance policy observed in preventing recidivism offers a substantial argument to revisit the role of the criminal justice system in this area. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 ULg) Enhancing erythritol productivity in Yarrowia lipolytica using metabolic engineeringCarly, Frédéric; Vandermies, Marie ; Telek, Samuel et alin Metabolic Engineering (2017), 42Erythritol (1,2,3,4-butanetetrol) is a four-carbon sugar alcohol with sweetening properties that is used by the agrofood industry as a food additive. In this study, we demonstrated that metabolic ... [more ▼]Erythritol (1,2,3,4-butanetetrol) is a four-carbon sugar alcohol with sweetening properties that is used by the agrofood industry as a food additive. In this study, we demonstrated that metabolic engineering can be used to improve the production of erythritol from glycerol in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. The best results were obtained using a mutant that overexpressed GUT1 and TKL1, which encode a glycerol kinase and a transketolase, respectively, and in which EYK1, which encodes erythrulose kinase, was disrupted; the latter enzyme is involved in an early step of erythritol catabolism. In this strain, erythritol productivity was 75% higher than in the wild type; furthermore, the culturing time needed to achieve maximum concentration was reduced by 40%. An additional advantage is that the strain was unable to consume the erythritol it had created, further increasing the process's efficiency. The erythritol productivity values we obtained here are among the highest reported thus far. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (1 ULg) A Theory of Soft CaptureAgrell, Per; Gautier, Axel in Scandinavian Journal of Economics (2017), 119(3), 571-596n this paper, wee propose a model for regulatory capture that is based on information transmission and asymmetric information. In a three-tier model, a regulator is charged by a political principal to ... [more ▼]n this paper, wee propose a model for regulatory capture that is based on information transmission and asymmetric information. In a three-tier model, a regulator is charged by a political principal to provide a signal for the type of a regulated firm. Only the firm can observe his type and the production of a correlated signal with a given accuracy is costly for the regulator. The firm can costlessly provide an alternative signal of lower accuracy that is presented to the regulator. In a self-enforcing equilibrium, the regulator transmits the firm-produced signal, internalizes its own savings in information cost and the firm enjoys higher information rents. The main feature of soft capture is that it is not based on a reciprocity of favors but on a congruence of interests between the firm and the regulator. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 89 (22 ULg) La Legal Origins Theory : droit, économie, idéologieVandenbulke, Antoine in Revue Internationale de Droit Economique (2017), 1The Legal Origins Theory argues that the legal origins of a state have a significant influence on its economic growth. This theory originated mainly and prospered in the field of company law. A group of ... [more ▼]The Legal Origins Theory argues that the legal origins of a state have a significant influence on its economic growth. This theory originated mainly and prospered in the field of company law. A group of researchers has enquired about the degree of protection granted to minority shareholders in various states throughout the world. They concluded that states belonging to the legal family of common law granted the best protection, sourcing an efficient market and easing their economic growth. The Legal Origins Theory spread out widely and expanded to several other legal domains, while continuing to emphasize and highlight the efficiency of the common law. It was furthermore at the heart of the “Doing Business” reports of the World Bank. This theory has led to many critiques, which the present paper aims to show. Beyond this analysis and the review of criticisms, our study finally attempts to identify the philosophical assumptions that support the Theory of Legal Origins, through the review of the developments authored by Friedrich von Hayek and Bruno Leoni. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 37 (2 ULg) Multiple uprising invasions of Pelophylax water frogs, potentially inducing a new hybridogenetic complexDufresne, Christophe; Denoël, Mathieu ; Di Santo, Lionel et alin Scientific Reports (2017), 7The genetic era has revolutionized our perception of biological invasions. Yet, it is usually too late to understand their genesis for efficient management. Here, we take the rare opportunity to ... [more ▼]The genetic era has revolutionized our perception of biological invasions. Yet, it is usually too late to understand their genesis for efficient management. Here, we take the rare opportunity to reconstruct the scenario of an uprising invasion of the famous water frogs (Pelophylax) in southern France, through a fine-scale genetic survey. We identified three different taxa over less than 200 km2: the autochthonous P. perezi, along with the alien P. ridibundus and P. kurtmuelleri, which have suddenly become invasive. As a consequence, the latter hybridizes and may now form a novel hybridogenetic complex with P. perezi, which could actively promote its replacement. This exceptional situation makes a textbook application of genetics to early-detect, monitor and understand the onset of biological invasions before they pose a continental-wide threat. It further emphasizes the alarming rate of amphibian translocations, both at global and local scales, as well as the outstanding invasive potential of Pelophylax aliens. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 31 (2 ULg) Infusion of mesenchymal stromal cells after deceased liver transplantation: A phase I-II, open-label, clinical study.DETRY, Olivier ; VANDERMEULEN, Morgan ; DELBOUILLE, Marie-Hélène et alin Journal of Hepatology (2017), 67(1), 47-55BACKGROUND & AIM: Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) infusion could be a mean to establish tolerance in solid organ recipients. The aim of this prospective, controlled, phase-1 study was to evaluate the ... [more ▼]BACKGROUND & AIM: Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) infusion could be a mean to establish tolerance in solid organ recipients. The aim of this prospective, controlled, phase-1 study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety and tolerability of a single infusion of MSCs in liver transplant recipients. METHODS: Ten liver transplant recipients under standard immunosuppression received 1.5-3x106/kg third-party unrelated MSCs on post-operative day 3+/-2, and were prospectively compared to a control group of 10 liver transplant recipients. As primary end-points, MSC infusional toxicity was evaluated, and infectious and cancerous complications were prospectively recorded until month 12 in both groups. As secondary end-points, rejection rate, month-6 graft biopsies, and peripheral blood lymphocyte phenotyping were compared. Progressive immunosuppression weaning was attempted from month 6 to 12 in MSC recipients. RESULTS: No variation in vital parameters or cytokine release syndrome could be detected during and after MSC infusion. No patient developed impairment of organ functions (including liver graft function) following MSC infusion. No increased rate of opportunistic infection or de novo cancer was detected. As secondary end-points, there was no difference in overall rates of rejection or graft survival. Month-6 biopsies did not demonstrate a difference between groups in the evaluation of rejection according to the Banff criteria, in the fibrosis score or in immunohistochemistry (including Tregs). No difference in peripheral blood lymphocyte typing could be detected. The immunosuppression weaning in MSC recipients was not successful. CONCLUSIONS: No side effect of MSC infusion at day 3 after liver transplant could be detected, but this infusion did not promote tolerance. This study opens the way for further MSC or Treg-based trials in liver transplant recipients. LAY SUMMARY: Therapy with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) has been proposed as a mean to improve results of solid organ transplantation. One of the potential MSC role could be to induce tolerance after liver transplantation, i.e. allowing the cessation of several medications with severe side effects. This study is the first-in-man use of MSC therapy in 10 liver transplant recipients. This study did not show toxicity after a single MSC infusion but it was not sufficient to allow withdrawal of immunosuppression. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 71 (15 ULg) Imaging of super-fast dynamics and flow instabilities of superconducting vorticesEmbon, L.; Anahory, Y.; Jelic, Zeljko et alin Nature Communications (2017), 8Quantized magnetic vortices driven by electric current determine key electromagnetic properties of superconductors. While the dynamic behavior of slow vortices has been thoroughly investigated, the ... [more ▼]Quantized magnetic vortices driven by electric current determine key electromagnetic properties of superconductors. While the dynamic behavior of slow vortices has been thoroughly investigated, the physics of ultrafast vortices under strong currents remains largely unexplored. Here, we use a nanoscale scanning superconducting quantum interference device to image vortices penetrating into a superconducting Pb film at rates of tens of GHz and moving with velocities of up to tens of km/s, which are not only much larger than the speed of sound but also exceed the pair-breaking speed limit of superconducting condensate. These experiments reveal formation of mesoscopic vortex channels which undergo cascades of bifurcations as the current and magnetic field increase. Our numerical simulations predict metamorphosis of fast Abrikosov vortices into mixed Abrikosov-Josephson vortices at even higher velocities. This work offers an insight into the fundamental physics of dynamic vortex states of superconductors at high current densities, crucial for many applications. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 32 (2 ULg) Réalisation du attelle de Thomas modifiée pour un membre antérieurMaquet, Celine ; Casalta, Hélène ; Touati, Kamal et alin Point Vétérinaire (2017), 377Detailed reference viewed: 13 (1 ULg) The European Union’s Ambition to Harmonize Rules to Counter the Abuse of Member States’ Disparate Tax LegislationsDocclo, Caroline in Bulletin for International fiscal documentation (2017)Detailed reference viewed: 39 (2 ULg) Réalisation du attelle de Thomas modifiée pour un membre postérieurMaquet, Celine ; Casalta, Hélène ; Touati, Kamal et alin Point Vétérinaire (2017), 377Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 ULg) Practical Trajectories of Parametric Tools in Small and Medium Architectural FirmsStals, Adeline ; Elsen, Catherine ; Jancart, Sylvie in CAAD Futures 2017 (2017)Detailed reference viewed: 56 (18 ULg) Consistency of spatiotemporal sound features supports the use of passive acoustics for long-term monitoringParmentier, Eric ; Di Iorio, Lucia; Picciulin, Marta et alin Animal Conservation (2017)Many studies stress the usefulness of fish calls as effective indicators of distinct species occurrence. However, most of these studies have been undertaken in a given area and during restricted periods ... [more ▼]Many studies stress the usefulness of fish calls as effective indicators of distinct species occurrence. However, most of these studies have been undertaken in a given area and during restricted periods of time. There is a need to show passive acoustic monitoring is a reliable method to study vocal species over space and time. This study aims to use passive acoustic methods to follow the brown meagre Sciaena umbra at relevant temporal and spatial scales. Specimens of S. umbra were recorded in both aquarium and in the field. In situ recordings were made at two regions (Corsica and Sardinia) during four summers (2008–2012–2013–2015). Temporal and frequency parameters of the fish calls were collected by different teams and compared to test the ability to unequivocally identify the fish sound. The comparison between our data and the bibliography highlights the capability to identify S. umbra during a period of 17 years in different Mediterranean regions, clearly supporting the usefulness of acoustic monitoring to discover and protect aggregation sites of this endangered species. The sound producing mechanism in S. umbra consists of high-speed sonic muscles surrounding dorsally the posterior end of the swim bladder, which can explain the low acoustic variability that helps in the species identification. Similar mechanisms are found in other Sciaenidae, suggesting that a similar conclusion can be drawn for many other adult sciaenids that could be used as sentinel species. This study should be of high interest to policymakers and scientists because it shows passive acoustic can be confidently used in resource management. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 10 (2 ULg) Violences au sein des relations amoureuses des adolescents et jeunes adultes : une réalité à ne pas négligerGlowacz, Fabienne ; Courtain, Audrey in Champ Pénal = Penal Field (2017), XIVAu cours des dernières décennies, la violence conjugale a fait l’objet d’un intérêt majeur par la science et la société, donnant lieu à l’élaboration de textes légaux et à des stratégies judiciaires ... [more ▼]Au cours des dernières décennies, la violence conjugale a fait l’objet d’un intérêt majeur par la science et la société, donnant lieu à l’élaboration de textes légaux et à des stratégies judiciaires, psycho-sociales et préventives spécifiques. Ces avancées ont été initiées par la mobilisation des mouvements féministes qui ont sensibilisé la société aux violences faites aux femmes, tout particulièrement la violence physique, pour ensuite également considérer différentes formes de violences. Ainsi, les recherches scientifiques et les politiques publiques se sont concentrées principalement sur les violences dans les couples entre partenaires adultes. La violence dans les relations amoureuses des adolescents et des jeunes adultes est peu envisagée à un niveau sociétal, alors que la recherche montre que différentes formes de violences sont présentes au sein de ces relations. Dans le cadre de cette contribution, nous proposons de développer sur base d’une revue de la littérature et de données d’enquêtes menées auprès d’adolescents et de jeunes adultes, les spécificités des violences au sein des relations amoureuses durant cette période de développement, leurs prévalences et les dynamiques en cours, ainsi que les iens entre attitudes et violences agies et subies dans les relations amoureuses. Les questions relatives à la bidirectionnalité et à la symétrie de la violence, débattues pour la violence conjugale, seront également discutées à la lumière des éléments émanant des recherches menées au niveau international et d’une enquête menée en Belgique. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 26 (3 ULg) The thermal structure of the Venus atmosphere: Intercomparison of Venus Express and ground based observations of vertical temperature and density profiles✰Limaye, Sanjay S.; Lebonnois, Sebastien; Mahieux, Arnaud et alin Icarus (2017), 294The Venus International Reference Atmosphere (VIRA) model contains tabulated values of temperature and number densities obtained by the experiments on the Venera entry probes, Pioneer Venus Orbiter and ... [more ▼]The Venus International Reference Atmosphere (VIRA) model contains tabulated values of temperature and number densities obtained by the experiments on the Venera entry probes, Pioneer Venus Orbiter and multi-probe missions in the 1980s. The instruments on the recent Venus Express orbiter mission generated a significant amount of new observational data on the vertical and horizontal structure of the Venus atmosphere from 40 km to about 180 km altitude from April 2006 to November 2014. Many ground based experiments have provided data on the upper atmosphere (90-130 km) temperature structure since the publication of VIRA in 1985. The "Thermal Structure of the Venus Atmosphere" Team was supported by the International Space Studies Institute (ISSI), Bern, Switzerland, from 2013 to 2015 in order to combine and compare the ground-based observations and the VEx observations of the thermal structure as a first step towards generating an updated VIRA model. Results of this comparison are presented in five latitude bins and three local time bins by assuming hemispheric symmetry. The intercomparison of the ground-based and VEx results provides for the first time a consistent picture of the temperature and density structure in the 40 km-180 km altitude range. The Venus Express observations have considerably increased our knowledge of the Venus atmospheric thermal structure above ∼40 km and provided new information above 100 km. There are, however, still observational gaps in latitude and local time above certain regions. Considerable variability in the temperatures and densities is seen above 100 km but certain features appear to be systematically present, such as a succession of warm and cool layers. Preliminary modeling studies support the existence of such layers in agreement with a global scale circulation. The intercomparison focuses on average profiles but some VEx experiments provide sufficient global coverage to identify solar thermal tidal components. The differences between the VEx temperature profiles and the VIRA below 0.1 mbar/95 km are small. There is, however, a clear discrepancy at high latitudes in the 10-30 mbar (70-80 km) range. The VEx observations will also allow the improvement of the empirical models (VTS3 by Hedin et al., 1983 and VIRA by Keating et al., 1985) above 0.03 mbar/100 km, in particular the 100-150 km region where a sufficient observational coverage was previously missing. The next steps in order to define the updated VIRA temperature structure up to 150 km altitude are (1) define the grid on which this database may be provided, (2) fill what is possible with the results of the data intercomparison, and (3) fill the observational gaps. An interpolation between the datasets may be performed by using available General Circulation Models as guidelines. An improved spatial coverage of observations is still necessary at all altitudes, in latitude-longitude and at all local solar times for a complete description of the atmospheric thermal structure, in particular on the dayside above 100 km. New in-situ observations in the atmosphere below 40 km are missing, an altitude region that cannot be accessed by occultation experiments. All these questions need to be addressed by future missions. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 23 (2 ULg) Réalisation du attelle de Thomas modifiée chez le bovinMaquet, Celine ; Casalta, Hélène ; Sartelet, Arnaud et alin Point Vétérinaire (2017), 377Detailed reference viewed: 18 (1 ULg) Stochastic Inventory Routing for Perishable ProductsCrama, Yves ; Rezaei Sadrabadi, Mahmood ; Savelsbergh, Martin et alin Transportation Science (2017)Different solution methods are developed to solve an inventory routing problem for a perishable product with stochastic demands. The solution methods are compared empirically in terms of average profit ... [more ▼]Different solution methods are developed to solve an inventory routing problem for a perishable product with stochastic demands. The solution methods are compared empirically in terms of average profit, service level, and actual freshness. The benefits of explicitly considering demand uncertainty are quantified. The computational study highlights that in certain situations a simple ordering policy can already reach a very good performance, but that statistically and economically significant improvements are achieved when using more advanced solution methods. Managerial insights concerning the impact of shelf life and store capacity on profit are also obtained. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 27 (1 ULg) Identification and management of patients at increased risk of osteoporotic fracture: outcomes of an ESCEO expert consensus meeting.Kanis, J.A.; Cooper, C.; Rizzoli, R. et alin Osteoporosis International (2017), 28(7), 2023-2034Summary: Osteoporosis represents a significant and increasing healthcare burden in Europe, but most patients at increased risk of fracture do not receive medication, resulting in a large treatment gap ... [more ▼]Summary: Osteoporosis represents a significant and increasing healthcare burden in Europe, but most patients at increased risk of fracture do not receive medication, resulting in a large treatment gap. Identification of patients who are at particularly high risk will help clinicians target appropriate treatment more precisely and cost-effectively, and should be the focus of future research. Introduction: The purpose of the study was to review data on the identification and treatment of patients with osteoporosis at increased risk of fracture. Methods: Aworking group convened by the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis met to review current data on the epidemiology and burden of osteoporosis and the patterns of medical management throughout Europe. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 17 (3 ULg) MIP-based constructive heuristics for the three-dimensional Bin Packing Problem with transportation constraintsPaquay, Célia ; Limbourg, Sabine ; Schyns, Michael et alin International Journal of Production Research (2017)This article is about seeking a good feasible solution in a reasonable amount of computation time to the three-dimensional Multiple Bin Size Bin Packing Problem (MBSBPP). The MBSBPP studied considers ... [more ▼]This article is about seeking a good feasible solution in a reasonable amount of computation time to the three-dimensional Multiple Bin Size Bin Packing Problem (MBSBPP). The MBSBPP studied considers additional constraints encountered in real world air transportation situations, such as cargo stability and the particular shape of containers. This MBSBPP has already been formulated as a Mixed Integer linear Programming problem, but as yet only poor results have been achieved for even fairly small problem sizes. The goal of the work this paper describes is to develop heuristics that are able to quickly provide good initial feasible solutions for the MBSBPP. Three methodologies are considered, which are based on the decomposition of the original problem into easier subproblems: the matheuristics Relax-and-Fix, Insert-and-Fix and Fractional Relax-and-Fix. They have been parametrised on real data sets and then compared to each other. In particular, two of these techniques show promising results in reasonable computational times. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (0 ULg) Specular setsBerthé, Valérie; De Felice, Clelia; Delecroix, Vincent et alin Theoretical Computer Science (2017), 684Detailed reference viewed: 16 (2 ULg) Faire émerger les problèmes (présentation du dossier)Gavray, Marc-Antoine in Diotime. Revue internationale de didactique de la philosophie (2017), 73Detailed reference viewed: 14 (0 ULg) Le recours à l'arbitrage en matière de succession internationale ou la rencontre entre deux mondes qui s'ignorentWautelet, Patrick in Revue du Notariat Belge (2017), 143(3119), 378-405L'arbitrage est-il possible et, si oui, dans quelle mesure, dans le domaine des successions internationales? Pour répondre à cette question, le texte prend appui sur le Règlement 650/2012. L’arbitrage ... [more ▼]L'arbitrage est-il possible et, si oui, dans quelle mesure, dans le domaine des successions internationales? Pour répondre à cette question, le texte prend appui sur le Règlement 650/2012. L’arbitrage présente des avantages considérables pour régler les différends issus d’une suc- cession présentant une dimension internationale. Des obstacles importants peuvent néanmoins limiter, voire empêcher le recours à l’arbitrage en matière successorale. Sont abordées successivement dans cette contribution, les questions d'accès à l'arbitrage et de déroulement de l'arbitrage, en particulier sous l'angle du droit applicable à l'arbitrage successoral. Deux difficultés majeures seront examinées au titre des questions relatives à l'accès à l'arbitrage : la première tient à la possibilité pour une juridiction arbitrale de se prononcer sur les droits réservataires dont bénéficient certains proches du défunt, la seconde à la fragilité qui pèse sur le choix par un testateur de confier à une juridiction arbitrale la résolution des différends. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 31 (0 ULg) Cyanobacterial Contribution to Travertine Deposition in the Hoyoux River System, BelgiumKleinteich, Julia; Golubic, Stjepko; Pessi, Igor S. et alin Microbial Ecology (2017), 74Travertine deposition is a landscape-forming process, usually building a series of calcareous barriers differentiating the river flow into a series of cascades and ponds. The process of carbonate ... [more ▼]Travertine deposition is a landscape-forming process, usually building a series of calcareous barriers differentiating the river flow into a series of cascades and ponds. The process of carbonate precipitation is a complex relationship between biogenic and abiotic causative agents, involving adapted microbial assemblages but also requiring high levels of carbonate saturation, spontaneous degassing of carbon dioxide and slightly alkaline pH. We have analysed calcareous crusts and water chemistry from four sampling sites along the Hoyoux River and its Triffoy tributary (Belgium) in winter, spring, summer and autumn 2014. Different surface textures of travertine deposits correlated with particular microenvironments and were influenced by the local water flow. In all microenvironments, we have identified the cyanobacterium Phormidium incrustatum (Nägeli) Gomont as the organism primarily responsible for carbonate precipitation and travertine fabric by combining morphological analysis with molecular sequencing (16S rRNA gene and ITS, the Internal Transcribed Spacer fragments), targeting both field populations and cultures to exclude opportunistic microorganisms responding favourably to culture conditions. Several closely related cyanobacterial strains were cultured; however, only one proved identical with the sequences obtained from the field population by direct PCR. This strain was the dominant primary producer in the calcareous deposits under study and in similar streams in Europe. The dominance of one organism that had a demonstrated association with carbonate precipitation presented a valuable opportunity to study its function in construction, preservation and fossilisation potential of ambient temperature travertine deposits. These relationships were examined using scanning electron microscopy and Raman microspectroscopy. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 44 (9 ULg) Mapping degenerate vortex states in a kagomé lattice of elongated antidots via scanning Hall probe microscopyXue, Cun; Ge, Jun-Yi; He, An et alin Physical Review. B : Condensed Matter (2017), 96We investigate the degeneracy of the superconducting vortex matter ground state by directly visualizing the vortex con gurations in a kagomé lattice of elongated antidots via scanning Hall probe ... [more ▼]We investigate the degeneracy of the superconducting vortex matter ground state by directly visualizing the vortex con gurations in a kagomé lattice of elongated antidots via scanning Hall probe microscopy (SHPM). The observed vortex patterns, at specifi c applied magnetic fi elds, are in good agreement with the confi gurations obtained using time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL) simulation. Both results indicate that the long range interaction in this nano-structured superconductor is unable to lift degeneracy between different vortex states and the pattern formation is mainly ruled by the nearest neighbour interaction. This simpli cation allows the identi cation of a set of simple rules characterizing the vortex con gurations. We demonstrated that these rules can explain both the observed vortex distributions and the magnetic fi eld dependent degree of degeneracy. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 53 (8 ULg) Natural and induced loss of function mutations in SlMBP21 MADS-box gene led to jointless-2 phenotype in tomatoGomez Roldan, Maria Victoria; Périlleux, Claire ; Morin, Halima et alin Scientific Reports (2017), 7Abscission is the mechanism by which plants disconnect unfertilized flowers, ripe fruits, senescent or diseased organs from the plant. In tomato, pedicel abscission is an important agronomic factor that ... [more ▼]Abscission is the mechanism by which plants disconnect unfertilized flowers, ripe fruits, senescent or diseased organs from the plant. In tomato, pedicel abscission is an important agronomic factor that controls yield and post-harvest fruit quality. Two non-allelic mutations, jointless (j) and jointless-2 (j-2), controlling pedicel abscission zone formation have been documented but only j-2 has been extensively used in breeding. J was shown to encode a MADS-box protein. Using a combination of physical mapping and gene expression analysis we identified a positional candidate, Solyc12g038510, associated with j-2 phenotype. Targeted knockout of Solyc12g038510, using CRISPR/Cas9 system, validated our hypothesis. Solyc12g038510 encodes the MADS-box protein SlMBP21. Molecular analysis of j-2 natural variation revealed two independent loss-of-function mutants. The first results of an insertion of a Rider retrotransposable element. The second results of a stop codon mutation that leads to a truncated protein form. To bring new insights into the role of J and J-2 in abscission zone formation, we phenotyped the single and the double mutants and the engineered alleles. We showed that J is epistatic to J-2 and that the branched inflorescences and the leafy sepals observed in accessions harboring j-2 alleles are likely the consequences of linkage drags. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 58 (3 ULg) The influence of health concerns in scientific and policy debates on climate changeSchütte, Stefanie; Depoux, Anneliese; Vigil Diaz Telenti, Sara et alin Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health (2017)Detailed reference viewed: 38 (0 ULg) Spaces of in-between-ness and unbelonging: The hotel in short stories by Sefi Atta and Chimamanda Ngozi AdichieToivanen, Anna-Leena in English Studies in Africa (2017), 60(1), 1-11Spaces of in-between-ness and unbelonging: The hotel in short stories by Se fi Atta and Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie Anna-Leena Toivanen The fi gure of the migrant has become a paradigmatic representative of ... [more ▼]Spaces of in-between-ness and unbelonging: The hotel in short stories by Se fi Atta and Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie Anna-Leena Toivanen The fi gure of the migrant has become a paradigmatic representative of globalised postcoloniality. Yet, not all ‘ postcolonial ’ mobilities can be equated with migration. Cases in point are the travelling African protagonists of two diasporic Nigerian short stories, Se fi Atta ’ s ‘ Housekeeping ’ (2010) and Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie ’ s ‘ Transition to Glory ’ (2006). The short stories feature the fi gures of the African leisure traveller, tourist, and, in particular, hotel guest. The hotel articulates different dimensions of a site that is frequently conceived, both in fi ction and in theory, as a place and symbol of in-between- ness, deviance and displacement. In ‘ Housekeeping ’ , the hotel serves as a setting for exploring the socio-economic differences between migrant travellers and symbolises a sense of diasporic unbelonging. In ‘ Transition to Glory ’ ,the hotel room is used as a setting and symbol for an adulterous relationship. It comes across as a space of deviance which is not properly inscribed either in the private/domestic or the public. While set in spaces of in-between-ness and transit, both texts articulate metaphorical senses of longing for home. By analysing the literary representation of the hotel trope, this article contributes to widening the scope of how postcolonial mobilities can be understood. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 25 (1 ULg) Decreasing cloud cover drives the recent mass loss on the Greenland Ice SheetHofer, S.; Tedstone, A.; Fettweis, Xavier et alin Science (2017), 3(6), The Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has been losing mass at an accelerating rate since the mid-1990s. This has been due to both increased ice discharge into the ocean and melting at the surface, with the ... [more ▼]The Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has been losing mass at an accelerating rate since the mid-1990s. This has been due to both increased ice discharge into the ocean and melting at the surface, with the latter being the dominant contribution. This change in state has been attributed to rising temperatures and a decrease in surface albedo. We show, using satellite data and climate model output, that the abrupt reduction in surface mass balance since about 1995 can be attributed largely to a coincident trend of decreasing summer cloud cover enhancing the melt-albedo feedback. Satellite observations show that, from 1995 to 2009, summer cloud cover decreased by 0.9 ± 0.3% per year. Model output indicates that the GrIS summer melt increases by 27 ± 13 gigatons (Gt) per percent reduction in summer cloud cover, principally because of the impact of increased shortwave radiation over the low albedo ablation zone. The observed reduction in cloud cover is strongly correlated with a state shift in the North Atlantic Oscillation promoting anticyclonic conditions in summer and suggests that the enhanced surface mass loss from the GrIS is driven by synoptic-scale changes in Arctic-wide atmospheric circulation. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 19 (3 ULg) Characterizing the leaching of sperrylite (PtAs2) in cyanide-based solutionsMwase Malumbo, James ; Petersen, Jochenin Hydrometallurgy (2017)The mineral sperrylite (PtAs2), unlike other Pt minerals, has shown to be resistant to cyanide leaching, even at elevated temperatures of 50 °C. This has prevented further development of a two-stage heap ... [more ▼]The mineral sperrylite (PtAs2), unlike other Pt minerals, has shown to be resistant to cyanide leaching, even at elevated temperatures of 50 °C. This has prevented further development of a two-stage heap leaching process, of which the second stage is cyanide leaching for a Platreef ore, due to a considerable portion of the Pt being present as sperrylite. Through a comprehensive set of leaching tests, this study has shown that sperrylite leaches slowly in cyanide due to eventual passivation. The addition of ferricyanide to the cyanide solution results in significantly more Pt being leached (up to 16 times) than with cyanide only under identical process conditions. However, over time passivation occurred in this system also, but can be seemingly be overcome by filtering, rinsing and re-suspending the sperrylite. This was further investigated using a reactor system continuously fed with a ferricyanide-cyanide to leach a fixed bed of sperrylite mineral. Again, gradual passivation of the mineral phase was observed, which was fully reversible following a day of feeding with distilled water. XPS analysis of fresh and leached mineral indicated a depletion of As on the mineral surface, which tallied with an observed preferential leaching of As during leaching, at least initially. As a result, it is postulated that a less cyanide-soluble compound of the form PtAs(X) forms, where x is < 2. The ease with which the leaching process can be restarted after rinsing the mineral indicates that the adsorption of solution species is the key step in forming a passivating layer. This adsorption is potentially favoured by the gradual surface transformation. Finally, an electrochemical study confirmed that the ferricyanide-cyanide system facilitated an electron transfer reaction at the sperrylite surface with the likely oxidation of As and reduction of the ferricyanide. Gradual passivation of the surface was also observed in this system. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 11 (1 ULg) Evidence of activation of vagal afferents by non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation: An electrophysiological study in healthy volunteersNONIS, Romain ; D'Ostilio, Kevin; SCHOENEN, Jean et alin Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2017)Detailed reference viewed: 23 (1 ULg) Untangling glycaemia and mortality in critical careUyttendaele, Vincent ; Dickson, Jennifer L.; Shaw, Geoffrey M. et alin Critical Care (2017), 21(1), 152Background: Hyperglycaemia is associated with adverse outcomes in the intensive care unit, and initial studies suggested outcome benefits of glycaemic control (GC). However, subsequent studies often ... [more ▼]Background: Hyperglycaemia is associated with adverse outcomes in the intensive care unit, and initial studies suggested outcome benefits of glycaemic control (GC). However, subsequent studies often failed to replicate these results, and they were often unable to achieve consistent, safe control, raising questions about the benefit or harm of GC as well as the nature of the association of glycaemia with mortality and clinical outcomes. In this study, we evaluated if non-survivors are harder to control than survivors and determined if glycaemic outcome is a function of patient condition and eventual outcome or of the glycaemic control provided. Methods: Clinically validated, model-based, hour-to-hour insulin sensitivity (SI) and its hour-to-hour variability (%ΔSI) were identified over the first 72 h of therapy in 145 patients (119 survivors, 26 non-survivors). In hypothesis testing, we compared distributions of SI and %ΔSI in 6-hourly blocks for survivors and non-survivors. In equivalence testing, we assessed if differences in these distributions, based on blood glucose measurement error, were clinically significant. Results: SI level was never equivalent between survivors and non-survivors (95% CI of percentage difference in medians outside ±12%). Non-survivors had higher SI, ranging from 9% to 47% higher overall in 6-h blocks, and this difference became statistically significant as glycaemic control progressed. %ΔSI was equivalent between survivors and non-survivors for all 6-hourly blocks (95% CI of difference in medians within ±12%) and decreased in general over time as glycaemic control progressed. Conclusions: Whereas non-survivors had higher SI levels, variability was equivalent to that of survivors over the first 72 h. These results indicate survivors and non-survivors are equally controllable, given an effective glycaemic control protocol, suggesting that glycaemia level and variability, and thus the association between glycaemia and outcome, are essentially determined by the control provided rather than by underlying patient or metabolic condition. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 36 (16 ULg) One-step hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemical performance of sodium-manganese-iron phosphate as cathode material for Li-ion batteriesKaregeya, Claude ; Mahmoud, Abdelfattah ; Vertruyen, Bénédicte et alin Journal of Solid State Chemistry (2017), 253The sodium-manganese-iron phosphate Na2Mn1.5Fe1.5(PO4)3 (NMFP) with alluaudite structure was obtained by a one-step hydrothermal synthesis route. The physical properties and structure of this material ... [more ▼]The sodium-manganese-iron phosphate Na2Mn1.5Fe1.5(PO4)3 (NMFP) with alluaudite structure was obtained by a one-step hydrothermal synthesis route. The physical properties and structure of this material were obtained through XRD and Mössbauer analyses. X-ray diffraction Rietveld refinements confirm a cationic distribution of Na+ and presence of vacancies in A(2)’, Na+ and small amounts of Mn2+ in A(1), Mn2+ in M(1) , 0.5 Mn2+ and Fe cations (Mn2+,Fe2+ and Fe3+) in M(2), leading to the structural formula Na2Mn(Mn0.5Fe1.5)(PO4)3. The particles morphology was investigated by SEM. Several reactions with different hydrothermal reaction times were attempted to design a suitable synthesis protocol of NMFP compound. The time of reaction was varied from 6 to 48 hours at 220°C. The pure phase of NMFP particles was firstly obtained when the hydrothermal reaction of NMFP precursors mixture was maintained at 220°C for 6 hours. When the reaction time was increased from 6 to 12, 24 and 48 hours, the dandelion structure was destroyed in favor of NMFP micro-rods. The combination of NMFP (NMFP-6H, NMFP-12H, NMFP-24H and NMFP-48H) structure refinement and Mössbauer characterizations shows that the increase of the reaction time leads to the progressive increment of Fe(III) and the decrease of the crystal size. The electrochemical tests indicated that NMFP is a 3 V sodium intercalating cathode. The comparison of the discharge capacity evolution of studied NMFP electrode materials at C/5 current density shows different capacities of 48, 40, 34 and 34 mAhg-1 for NMFP-6H, NMFP-12H, NMFP-24H and NMFP-48H respectively. Interestingly, all samples show excellent capacity retention of about 99 % during 50 cycles. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (0 ULg) Morphology Development and Mechanical Properties Variation during Cold-Drawing of Polyethylene-Clay Nanocomposite FibersCoppola, Bartolomeo ; Scarfato, Paola; Incarnato, Loredana et alin Polymers (2017), 9(6), 235-251In this work, the influence of composition and cold-drawing on nano- and micro-scale morphology and tensile mechanical properties of PE/organoclay nanocomposite fibers was investigated. Nanocomposites ... [more ▼]In this work, the influence of composition and cold-drawing on nano- and micro-scale morphology and tensile mechanical properties of PE/organoclay nanocomposite fibers was investigated. Nanocomposites were prepared by melt compounding in a twin-screw extruder, using a maleic anhydride grafted linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE–g–MA) and an organomodified montmorillonite (Dellite 67G) at three different loadings (3, 5 and 10 wt %). Fibers were produced by a single-screw extruder and drawn at five draw ratios (DRs): 7.25, 10, 13.5, 16 and 19. All nanocomposites, characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, and FT-IR techniques, showed an intercalated/exfoliated morphology. The study evidenced that the nanoclay presence significantly increases both elastic modulus (up to +115% for fibers containing 10 wt % of D67G) and drawability of as-spun nanocomposite fibers. Moreover, at fixed nanocomposite composition, the cold-drawing process increases fibers elastic modulus and tensile strength at increasing DRs. However, at high DRs, “face-to-edge” rearrangement phenomena of clay layers (i.e., clay layers tend to rotate and touch each other) arise in fibers at high nanoclay loadings. Finally, nanocomposite fibers show a lower diameter reduction during drawing, with respect to the plain system, and surface feature of adjustable roughness by controlling the composition and the drawing conditions. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 11 (2 ULg) Design and experimental validation of an adaptive control law to maximize power generation of a small-scale waste heat recovery systemHernandez Naranjo, Jairo Andrés ; Desideri, Adriano ; Gusev, Sergei et alin Applied Energy (2017), 203Increasing the energy efficiency of industrial processes is a challenge that involves, not only improving the methodologies for design and manufacturing, but optimizing performance during part-load ... [more ▼]Increasing the energy efficiency of industrial processes is a challenge that involves, not only improving the methodologies for design and manufacturing, but optimizing performance during part-load operation and transient conditions. A well-adopted solution consists of developing waste heat recovery (WHR) systems based on Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) power units. The highest efficiency for such cycle is obtained at low superheating values, corresponding to the situation where the system exhibits time-varying nonlinear dynamics, triggered by the fluctuating nature of the waste heat source. In this paper, an adaptive control law using the Model Predictive Control (MPC) framework is proposed. This work goes a step beyond most of the existing scientific works in the field of ORC power systems, since the MPC controller is implemented in a lab-scale prototype, and its performance compared against a gain-scheduled PID strategy. The experimental results show that the adaptive MPC outperforms the gain-scheduled PID based strategy, as it allows to accurately regulate the evaporating temperature, while keeping vapor condition at the inlet of the expander i.e., the superheating, in a safe operating range, thus increasing the net power generation. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (7 ULg) Contributions of U-Th-Pb dating on the diagenesis and sediment sources of the Lower Group (BI) of the Mbuji-Mayi Supergroup (Democratic Republic of Congo)François, Camille ; Kabamba Baludikay, Blaise ; Storme et alin Precambrian Research (2017)In this paper, we present new age constraints for the lower part of the Meso-Neoproterozoic sedimentary Mbuji-Mayi Supergroup (Democratic Republic of Congo, DRC). This Supergroup preserves a large ... [more ▼]In this paper, we present new age constraints for the lower part of the Meso-Neoproterozoic sedimentary Mbuji-Mayi Supergroup (Democratic Republic of Congo, DRC). This Supergroup preserves a large diversity of organic-walled microfossils, evidencing the diversification of early eukaryotes for the first time in Central Africa. We use different methods such as in situ U-Pb geochronology by LA-ICP-MS and U-Th-Pb chemical datings by Electron Microprobe on diagenetic and detrital minerals such as xenotimes, monazites and zircons. We attempt to better constrain the provenance of the Mbuji-Mayi sediments and the minimum age of the Mbuji-Mayi Supergroup to constrain the age of the microfossils. Results with LA-ICP-MS and EMP provide new ages between 1030 and 1065 Ma for the diagenesis of the lower part of the sedimentary sequence. These results are consistent with data on biostratigraphy supporting the occurrence of worldwide changes at the Mesoproterozoic/Neoproterozoic boundary. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 10 (2 ULg) Development of an open-source algorithm based on inertial measurement units (IMU) of a smartphone to detect cattle grass intake and ruminating behaviorsAndriamandroso, Andriamasinoro ; Lebeau, Frédéric ; Beckers, Yves et alin Computers & Electronics in Agriculture (2017), 139In this paper, an open algorithm was developed for the detection of cattle’s grass intake and rumination activities. This was done using the widely available inertial measurement unit (IMU) from a ... [more ▼]In this paper, an open algorithm was developed for the detection of cattle’s grass intake and rumination activities. This was done using the widely available inertial measurement unit (IMU) from a smartphone, which contains an accelerometer, a gyroscope, a magnetometer and location sensors signals sampled at 100 Hz. This equipment was mounted on 19 grazing cows of different breeds and daily video sequences were recorded on pasture of different forage allowances. After visually analyzing the cows’ movements on a calibration database, signal combinations were selected and thresholds were determined based on 1-s time windows, since increasing the time window did not increase the accuracy of detection. The final algorithm uses the average value and standard deviation of two signals in a two-step discrimination tree: the gravitational acceleration on x-axis (Gx) expressing the cows’ head movements and the rotation rate on the same x-axis (Rx) expressing jaw movements. Threshold values encompassing 95% of the normalized calibrated data gave the best results. Validation on an independent database resulted in an average detection accuracy of 92% with a better detection for rumination (95%) than for grass intake (91%). The detection algorithm also allows for characterization of the diurnal feeding activities of cattle at pasture. Any user can make further improvements, for data collected at the same way as the iPhone’s IMU has done, since the algorithm codes are open and provided as supplementary data. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 34 (9 ULg) Frustrated crystallization of a monolayer of magnetized beads under geometrical confinementSchockmel, Julien ; Vandewalle, Nicolas ; Opsomer, Eric et alin Physical Review. E : Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics (2017)We present a systematic experimental study of the confinement effect on the crystallization of a monolayer of magnetized beads. The particles are millimeter-scale grains interacting through the short ... [more ▼]We present a systematic experimental study of the confinement effect on the crystallization of a monolayer of magnetized beads. The particles are millimeter-scale grains interacting through the short range magnetic dipole-dipole potential induced by an external magnetic field. The grains are confined by repulsing walls and are homogeneously distributed inside the cell. A two-dimensional (2d) Brownian motion is induced by horizontal mechanical vibrations. Therefore, the balance between magnetic interaction and agitation allows investigating 2d phases through direct visualization. The effect of both confinement size and shape on the grains’ organization in the low-energy state has been investigated. Concerning the confinement shape, triangular, square, pentagonal, hexagonal, heptagonal, and circular geometries have been considered. The grain organization was analyzed after a slow cooling process. Through the measurement of the averaged bond order parameter for the different confinement geometries, it has been shown that cell geometry strongly affects the ordering of the system. Moreover, many kinds of defects, whose observation rate is linked to the geometry, have been observed: disclinations, dislocations, defects chain, and also more exotic defects such as a rosette. Finally, the influence of confinement size has been investigated and we point out that no finite-size effect occurs for a hexagonal cell, but the finite-size effect changes from one geometry to another. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 24 (1 ULg) Body shape convergence driven by small size optimum in marine angelfishesFrederich, Bruno ; Santini, Francesco; Konow, Nicolai et alin Biology Letters (2017), 13Convergent evolution of small body size occurs across many vertebrate clades and may reflect an evolutionary response to shared selective press- ures. However it remains unclear if other aspects of ... [more ▼]Convergent evolution of small body size occurs across many vertebrate clades and may reflect an evolutionary response to shared selective press- ures. However it remains unclear if other aspects of phenotype undergo convergent evolution in miniaturized lineages. Here we present a comparative analysis of body size and shape evolution in marine angelfishes (Pomacanthidae), a reef fish family characterized by repeated transitions to small body size. We ask if lineages that evolve small sizes show convergent evolution in body shape. Our results reveal that angelfish lineages evolved three different stable size optima with one corresponding to the group of pygmy angelfishes (Centropyge). Then, we test if the observed shifts in body size are associated with changes to new adaptive peaks in shape. Our data suggest that independent evolution to small size optima have induced repeated convergence upon deeper body and steeper head profile in Centropyge. These traits may favour manoeuvrability and visual aware- ness in these cryptic species living among corals, illustrating that functional demands on small size may be related to habitat specialization and predator avoidance. The absence of shape convergence in large marine angelfishes also suggests that more severe requirements exist for small than for large size optima. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 27 (2 ULg) Comparison of UAS photogrammetric products for tree detection and characterization of coniferous standsBonnet, Stéphanie ; Lisein, Jonathan ; Lejeune, Philippe in International Journal of Remote Sensing (2017), 38(19), 5310-5337The use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) opens a new era for remote sensing and forest management, which requires accurate and regular quantification of resources. In this study, we propose a ... [more ▼]The use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) opens a new era for remote sensing and forest management, which requires accurate and regular quantification of resources. In this study, we propose a comprehensive workflow to detect trees and assess forest attributes in the particular context of coniferous stands in transformation from even-aged to uneven-aged stands, using UAS imagery, from data acquisition to model construction. We implement a local maxima detection to identify the tree tops, based on a fixed-radius moving window in a Canopy Height Model (CHM) and images produced from UAS surveys. To compare the contribution of different photogrammetric products, we analysed the local maxima detected from the CHM, from three image types (individual rectified and ortho-rectified images and ortho-mosaic) and from a combination of both CHM and images. The local maxima detection gave promising results, with low omission and true-positive rates of up to 89.2%. A filtering process of false positives was implemented, using a supervised classification which decreased the false positives up to 2.6%. Based on the local maxima combined with an area-based approach, we constructed models to assess top height (R2: 83%, root mean square error [RMSE]: 5.7%), number of stems (R2: 71%, RMSE: 28.3%), basal area (R2: 70%, RMSE: 16.2%), volume (R2: 69%, RMSE: 20.1%), and individual tree height (R2: 70%, RMSE: 7.2%). Despite a suboptimal data acquisition, our simple and flexible method has yielded good results and shows great potential for application. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (5 ULg) Luteinizing Hormone Deficiency: Historical Views and PerspectivesVALDES SOCIN, Hernan Gonzalo ; Daly, Adrian ; BECKERS, Albert in Austin Andrology (2017), 2(1), 1-2Fertility in men requires normal testicular development, which is controlled by chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in utero and thereafter by luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH ... [more ▼]Fertility in men requires normal testicular development, which is controlled by chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in utero and thereafter by luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Some rare observations, such as, mutations in the luteinizing hormone subunit beta gene [2] have contributed substantially to our understanding of reproductive development and male infertility. In this editorial we summaryze current knowledge about beta LH mutations and polymorphism in men and discuss fertility issues. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 23 (1 ULg) Methodological approach for the implementation of a simulator in augmented reality in a radiation therapy departmentServotte, Jean-Christophe ; Guillaume, Michèle ; BOGA, Deniz et alin International Journal of Healthcare Management (2017), 10(3), 154-159Radiation therapy (RT) is one of the cornerstones for the treatment of cancer. In most countries RT machines are handled by professionals benefitting from an ad hoc training in theoretical knowledge as ... [more ▼]Radiation therapy (RT) is one of the cornerstones for the treatment of cancer. In most countries RT machines are handled by professionals benefitting from an ad hoc training in theoretical knowledge as well as technical and non-technical skills. In Belgium, RT departments are hiring in nurses for this activity. In countries where there is a specified core curriculum for basic training of radiation technologist, this basic training falls short once in practice and there is an obvious requirement for a continuous updating of skills in order to keep up with the accelerating evolution of technology. Therefore, the decision has been taken to implement a simulator in augmented reality in the RT department in Liège, to face the double challenge i.e. basic professional training as well as continuous education in technical and nontechnical skills and Crew Resource Management. We describe a methodological approach to implement this simulator in augmented reality. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (4 ULg) Le principe non bis in idem et les procédures mixtes : un camouflet infligé à la jurisprudence Zalotoukhine ?Michiels, Olivier ; Falque, Géraldine in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2017), (2017/23), 1069-1078Pour lutter contre certains comportements socialement inacceptables, les États peuvent concevoir des réponses juridiques complémentaires au moyen de procédures mixtes pour autant que celles-ci forment un ... [more ▼]Pour lutter contre certains comportements socialement inacceptables, les États peuvent concevoir des réponses juridiques complémentaires au moyen de procédures mixtes pour autant que celles-ci forment un tout cohérent, c’est-à-dire qu’elles soient liées par un lien matériel et temporel suffisamment étroit. Le cumul des sanctions pénales et administratives est autorisé dès lors que les deux procédures poursuivent des buts complémentaires et traitent d’aspects différents de l’acte préjudiciable, que le cumul des sanctions soit prévisible, qu’il n’y ait pas de répétition dans la collecte et dans l’appréciation des preuves et qu’un mécanisme de compensation entre les sanctions soit prévu. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 37 (4 ULg) EMT and inflammation: inseparable actors of cancer progression.Suarez-Carmona, Meggy; Lesage, Julien; Cataldo, Didier et alin Molecular Oncology (2017)Tumors can be depicted as wounds that never heal, and are infiltrated by a large array of inflammatory and immune cells. Tumor-associated chronic inflammation is a hallmark of cancer that fosters ... [more ▼]Tumors can be depicted as wounds that never heal, and are infiltrated by a large array of inflammatory and immune cells. Tumor-associated chronic inflammation is a hallmark of cancer that fosters progression to a metastatic stage, as has been extensively reviewed lately. Indeed, inflammatory cells persisting in the tumor establish a cross-talk with tumor cells that may result in a phenotype switch into tumor-supporting cells. This has been particularly well described for macrophages and is referred to as tumor-associated "M2" polarization. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), the embryonic program that loosens cell-cell adherence complexes and endows cells with enhanced migratory and invasive properties, can be co-opted by cancer cells during metastatic progression. Cancer cells that have undergone EMT are more aggressive, displaying increased invasiveness, stem-like features and resistance to apoptosis. EMT programs can also stimulate the production of pro-inflammatory factors by cancer cells. Conversely, inflammation is a potent inducer of EMT in tumors. Therefore, the two phenomena may sustain each other, in an alliance for metastasis. This is the focus of this review, where the interconnections between EMT programs and cellular and molecular actors of inflammation are described. We also recapitulate data linking the EMT/inflammation axis to metastasis. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 25 (3 ULg) Discovery and Characterization of R/S-N-3-Cyanophenyl-N'-(6-tert-butoxycarbonylamino-3,4-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-benzopyran-4-yl)urea, a New Histone Deacetylase Class III Inhibitor Exerting Antiproliferative Activity against Cancer Cell LinesSchnekenburger, M; Goffin, Eric ; Lee, J-Y et alin Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2017), 60(11), 4714-4733A new series of N-aryl-N'-3,4-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-benzopyran-4-yl)ureas bearing an alkoxycarbonylamino group at the 6-position were synthesized and examined as putative anticancer agents targeting ... [more ▼]A new series of N-aryl-N'-3,4-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-benzopyran-4-yl)ureas bearing an alkoxycarbonylamino group at the 6-position were synthesized and examined as putative anticancer agents targeting sirtuins in glioma cells. On the basis of computational docking combined to in vitro sirtuin 1/2 inhibition assays, we selected compound 18 [R/S-N-3-cyanophenyl-N'-(6-tert-butoxycarbonylamino-3,4-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-benzopyran-4-yl)urea] which displays a potent antiproliferative activity on various glioma cell types, assessed by quantitative videomicroscopy, eventually triggering senescence. The impact on normal glial cells was lower with a selectivity index of >10. Furthermore, human U373 and Hs683 glioblastoma cell lines served to demonstrate the inhibitory activity of 18 against histone deacetylase (HDAC) class III sirtuins 1 and 2 (SIRT1/2) by quantifying acetylation levels of histone and non-histone proteins. The translational potential of 18 was validated by an NCI-60 cell line screen and validation of growth inhibition of drug resistant cancer cell models. Eventually, the anticancer potential of 18 was validated in 3D glioblastoma spheroids and in vivo by zebrafish xenografts. In summary, compound 18 is the first representative of a new class of SIRT inhibitors opening new perspectives in the medicinal chemistry of HDAC inhibitors. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 24 (3 ULg) SbCOMT (Bmr12) is involved in the biosynthesis of tricin-lignin in sorghumEudes, Aymerick; Dutta, Tanmoy; Deng, Kei et alin PLoS ONE (2017), 12(6), 1-11Lignin in plant biomass represents a target for engineering strategies towards the development of a sustainable bioeconomy. In addition to the conventional lignin monomers, namely p-coumaryl, coniferyl ... [more ▼]Lignin in plant biomass represents a target for engineering strategies towards the development of a sustainable bioeconomy. In addition to the conventional lignin monomers, namely p-coumaryl, coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols, tricin has been shown to be part of the native lignin polymer in certain monocot species. Because tricin is considered to initiate the polymerization of lignin chains, elucidating its biosynthesis and mechanism of export to the cell wall constitute novel challenges for the engineering of bioenergy crops. Late steps of tricin biosynthesis require two methylation reactions involving the pathway intermediate selgin. It has recently been demonstrated in rice and maize that caffeate O-methyltransferase (COMT) involved in the synthesis syringyl (S) lignin units derived from sinapyl alcohol also participates in the synthesis of tricin in planta. In this work, we validate in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) that the O-methyltransferase responsible for the production of S lignin units (SbCOMT / Bmr12) is also involved in the synthesis of lignin-linked tricin. In particular, we show that biomass from the sorghum bmr12 mutant contains lower level of tricin incorporated into lignin, and that SbCOMT can methylate the tricin precursors luteolin and selgin. Our genetic and biochemical data point toward a general mechanism whereby COMT is involved in the synthesis of both tricin and S lignin units. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (2 ULg) Molecular surveillance of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapies in the Democratic Republic of CongoMvumbi Makaba, Dieudonné; Bobanga Lengu, Thierry; Kayembe Ntumba, Jean-Marie et alin PLoS ONE (2017)Malaria is a major public health problem in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Despite progress achieved over the past decade in the fight against malaria, further efforts have to be done such as in the ... [more ▼]Malaria is a major public health problem in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Despite progress achieved over the past decade in the fight against malaria, further efforts have to be done such as in the surveillance and the containment of Plasmodium falciparum resistant strains. We investigated resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapies currently in use in Democratic Republic of Congo by surveying molecular polymorphisms in three genes: pfcrt, pfmdr1 and pfk13 to explore possible emergence of amodiaquine, lumefantrine or artemisinin resistance in Democratic Republic of Congo. This study essentially revealed that resistance to chloroquine is still decreasing while polymorphism related to amodiaquine resistance seems to be not present in Democratic Republic of Congo, that three samples, located in the east of the country, harbor Pfmdr1 amplification and that none of the mutations found in South-East Asia correlated with artemisinine resistance have been found in Democratic Republic of Congo. But new mutations have been identified, especially the M476K, occurred in the same position that the M476I previously identified in the F32-ART strain, strongly resistant to artemisinine. Antimalarial first-line treatments currently in use in Democratic Republic of Congo are not associated with emergence of molecular markers of resistance. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (2 ULg) Methylglyoxal-derived stress: an emerging biological factor involved in the onset and progression of cancer.Bellahcene, Akeila ; Nokin, Marie-Julie ; Castronovo, Vincenzo et alin Seminars in Cancer Biology (2017)Detailed reference viewed: 25 (9 ULg) Diversity of farming systems integrating fish pond aquaculture in the province of Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of the CongoMafwila Kinkela, Patrick ; Kambashi Mutiaka, Bienvenu ; Dogot, Thomas et alin Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics (2017), Vol 118(No 1), 149-160Agriculture and aquaculture systems are used by many farmers in various tropical countries of Asia, America and Africa. They have proven their relevancy to increase the productivity of farms by optimising ... [more ▼]Agriculture and aquaculture systems are used by many farmers in various tropical countries of Asia, America and Africa. They have proven their relevancy to increase the productivity of farms by optimising nutrient fluxes and reducing requirements for external fertilisers. This article analysed the current state of fish farming and the way it is integrated with other farm subsystems in the urban/peri-urban and rural areas of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. More precisely, it examined the allocation of resources at the farm level, the recovery of helophytes plants, and the fate of fish production choices and it explored the possibility of intensifying these existing integrated farming systems. After a census of ponds in the urban and rural areas of Kinshasa, an on-site survey was conducted on 150 fish pond farms to assess the different activities practiced on farms, the impact of integrating crops and livestock to fish pond aquaculture and the constraints of the system. A total of three thousand and twenty (3020) fish ponds were recorded in the urban and rural areas of Kinshasa. Among these farms integrated aquaculture-agriculture systems exist with a wide diversity of practices (about 79% of farms combined fish with livestock and/or vegetable production). No striking differences between fish farms according to the allocation of resources, fish production method such as monoculture or polyculture, the recovery of helophytes plants and the fate of fish production choice were found depending on the location. However, fish farms were differently managed when combined with agriculture and/or livestock. Regarding the integration of the different subsystems through nutrient fluxes, 11 different movements of material between subsystems were found in integrated farms. However, not all fluxes are equally used in all farms and therefore improvements cannot be generalised. Improvements to be explored are such as making better use of manure pond mud and helophyte plants. For this purpose, proper training of farmers might be critical. Finally, bringing farmers together in cooperatives could also contribute to reduce the cost of purchase and transportation of fish fry and feed. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 38 (2 ULg) Whole blood microsampling for the quantitation of estetrol without derivatization by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometryNys, Gwenaël ; Gallez, Anne ; Kok, Miranda et alin Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2017), 140Detailed reference viewed: 48 (24 ULg) L’article 458 du Code des impôts sur les revenus est-il un frein à l’intervention du fisc en procédure pénale ?Michiels, Olivier in Journal des Tribunaux (2017), 2017/21(n° 6691), 398-400L'article aborde la question de la constitution de partie civile de l'Etat, administration des contributions directes, en cas de fraude fiscale. Il envisage notamment ce sujet au regard de l'article 458 ... [more ▼]L'article aborde la question de la constitution de partie civile de l'Etat, administration des contributions directes, en cas de fraude fiscale. Il envisage notamment ce sujet au regard de l'article 458 du CIR qui prévoit que les personnes qui auront été condamnées comme auteurs ou complices d’infractions visées aux articles 449 à 452 du Code des impôts sur les revenus seront tenues solidairement au paiement de l’impôt éludé. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 25 (4 ULg) Activation of the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR27 by surrogate ligands promotes β-arrestin 2 recruitmentDupuis, Nadine ; Laschet, Céline ; Franssen, Delphine et alin Molecular Pharmacology (2017), 91(6), 595-608G protein-coupled receptors are the most important drug targets for human diseases. An important number of them remain devoid of confirmed ligands. GPR27 is one of these orphan receptors, characterized by ... [more ▼]G protein-coupled receptors are the most important drug targets for human diseases. An important number of them remain devoid of confirmed ligands. GPR27 is one of these orphan receptors, characterized by a high level of conservation among vertebrates and a predominant expression in the central nervous system. In addition, it has recently been linked to insulin secretion. However, the absence of endogenous or surrogate ligands for GPR27 complicates the examination of its biological function. Our aim was to validate GPR27 signaling pathways and therefore we sought to screen a diversity oriented synthesis library to identify GPR27-specific surrogate agonists. In order to select an optimal screening assay, we investigated GPR27 ligand-independent activity. Both in G protein-mediated pathways and in β-arrestin 2 recruitment, no ligand-independent activity could be measured. However, we observed a recruitment of β-arrestin 2 to a GPR27V2 chimera in the presence of membrane-anchored β-adrenergic receptor kinase 1 (GRK2). Therefore, we optimized a firefly luciferase complementation assay to screen against this chimeric receptor. We identified two compounds (N-[4-(anilinocarbonyl)phenyl]-2,4-dichlorobenzamide (ChemBridge ID5128535) and 2,4-dichloro-N-{4-[(1,3-thiazol-2-ylamino)sulfonyl]phenyl}benzamide (ChemBridge ID5217941)) sharing a N-phenyl-2,4-dichlorobenzamide scaffold, which were selective for GPR27 over its closely related family members GPR85 and GPR173. The specificity of the activity was confirmed with a NanoBiT® β-arrestin 2 assay, imaging of GFP-tagged β-arrestin 2 and PathHunter® β-arrestin 2 Assay. Interestingly, no G protein activation was detected upon activation of GPR27 by these compounds. Our study provides the first selective surrogate agonists for the orphan GPR27. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 29 (15 ULg) The VLT/NaCo large program to probe the occurrence of exoplanets and brown dwarfs at wide orbits. IV. Gravitational instability rarely forms wide, giant planetsVigan, A.; Bonavita, M.; Biller, B. et alin Astronomy and Astrophysics (2017), 603Understanding the formation and evolution of giant planets (≥1 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB]) at wide orbital separation (≥5 AU) is one of the goals of direct imaging. Over the past 15 yr, many surveys have placed ... [more ▼]Understanding the formation and evolution of giant planets (≥1 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB]) at wide orbital separation (≥5 AU) is one of the goals of direct imaging. Over the past 15 yr, many surveys have placed strong constraints on the occurrence rate of wide-orbit giants, mostly based on non-detections, but very few have tried to make a direct link with planet formation theories. In the present work, we combine the results of our previously published VLT/NaCo large program with the results of 12 past imaging surveys to constitute a statistical sample of 199 FGK stars within 100 pc, including three stars with sub-stellar companions. Using Monte Carlo simulations and assuming linear flat distributions for the mass and semi-major axis of planets, we estimate the sub-stellar companion frequency to be within 0.75-5.70% at the 68% confidence level (CL) within 20-300 AU and 0.5-75 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB], which is compatible with previously published results. We also compare our results with the predictions of state-of-the-art population synthesis models based on the gravitational instability (GI) formation scenario with and without scattering. We estimate that in both the scattered and non-scattered populations, we would be able to detect more than 30% of companions in the 1-75 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB] range (95% CL). With the threesub-stellar detections in our sample, we estimate the fraction of stars that host a planetary system formed by GI to be within 1.0-8.6% (95% CL). We also conclude that even though GI is not common, it predicts a mass distribution of wide-orbit massive companions that is much closer to what is observed than what the core accretion scenario predicts. Finally, we associate the present paper with the release of the Direct Imaging Virtual Archive (DIVA), a public database that aims at gathering the results of past, present, and future direct imaging surveys. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile (ESO Large Program 184.C-0157 and Open Time 089.C-0137A and 090.C-0252A). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 32 (3 ULg)