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See detailLa question du diagnostic en psychiatrie infanto-juvénile
de Becker, Emmanuel; François, Anne; Kinoo, Philippe et al

in Psychiatrie de l'Enfant (La) (in press)

Dans le vaste champ de l’aide et des soins à l’égard de l’enfant et de l’adolescent, les questions liées au diagnostic transcendent souvent les aspects de prises en charge et de liens thérapeutiques ainsi ... [more ▼]

Dans le vaste champ de l’aide et des soins à l’égard de l’enfant et de l’adolescent, les questions liées au diagnostic transcendent souvent les aspects de prises en charge et de liens thérapeutiques ainsi que les multiples échanges entre professionnels concernés. Le diagnostic pédopsychiatrique est un processus dynamique, modifiable et momentané, les organisations pathologiques étant pour la plupart en transformation permanente. De manière spécifique et en fonction du processus développemental, la thématique du diagnostic en pédopsychiatrie renvoie plus à la question du risque évolutif qu’à la question d’un état pathologique en soi. Les aspects de la continuité des troubles mentaux de l’enfance à l’âge adulte représentent en effet un véritable enjeu développemental. Deux points de vue s’opposent dans la littérature. Le premier, en lien avec un prédéterminisme, estime que les trajectoires sont toutes tracées, l’incertitude reposant dans le diagnostic ; concrètement, il s’agit de repérer de manière précoce des individus à risque parce qu’ils sont porteurs d’un trouble qu’il faut traiter. Le second point de vue considère que les trajectoires ne sont pas déterminées mais sont en réécriture permanente ; ici, le risque ne se situe plus au niveau du diagnostic mais du pronostic, dans un souci de prévention et non de prédiction. L’article propose les réflexions de quatre cliniciens psychiatres infanto-juvéniles sur cette thématique, à la lumière de leur pratique et de leurs échanges. [less ▲]

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See detailValidity and reliability of the French translation of the VISA-A questionnaire for Achilles tendinopathy
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Delvaux, François ULg; Oppong-Kyei, Julian et al

in Disability & Rehabilitation (in press)

Purpose The Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment – Achilles tendinopathy questionnaire (VISA-A) evaluates the clinical severity of Achilles tendinopathy. The aim of this study was to translate the VISA ... [more ▼]

Purpose The Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment – Achilles tendinopathy questionnaire (VISA-A) evaluates the clinical severity of Achilles tendinopathy. The aim of this study was to translate the VISA-A into French and to study the reliability and validity of this French version, the VISA-AF. Method The VISA-A was translated into French to produce the VISA-AF using a validated methodology in six steps. Thereafter, several psychometric properties of this French version such as test–retest reliability, internal consistency, construct validity and floor and ceiling effects were evaluated. Therefore, we recruited 116 subjects, distributed into 3 groups: pathological patients (n¼31), at-risk athletes (n¼63) and healthy people (n¼22). Results The final version of the VISAAF was approved by an expert committee. On a scale ranging from 0 to 100, the average scores of the VISA-AF obtained were 59 (± 18) for the pathological group, 99 (± 1) for the healthy group and 94 (± 7) for the at-risk group. The VISA-AF shows excellent reliability, low correlations with the discriminant subscales of the SF-36 and moderate correlations with the convergent subscales of the SF-36. Conclusions The French version of the VISA-A is equivalent to its original version and is a reliable and valid questionnaire for French-speaking patients with Achilles tendinopathy. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh Resolution postontrast time of flight MR angiography of intracranial perforators at 7.0 Tesla
Harteveld, A; de Cocker, L; Dieleman, N et al

in American Journal of Neuroradiology (in press)

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See detailFrémok: Comics Out-of-Bounds
Dejasse, Erwin ULg

in World Literature Today (in press)

Article about that analize the history, background and publishing policity of French-Belgian publisher Frémok

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See detailReview: Implementing biostimulants and biocontrol strategies in the agroecological management of cultivated ecosystems
Le Mire, Géraldine ULg; Nguyen, Minh ULg; Fassotte, Bérénice ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (in press)

This review describes the current methods for exploiting and applying plant growth-promoting rhizbacteria (PGPR), elicitors and semiochemical products in contemporary agricultural systems. The future of ... [more ▼]

This review describes the current methods for exploiting and applying plant growth-promoting rhizbacteria (PGPR), elicitors and semiochemical products in contemporary agricultural systems. The future of these biostimulant and biocontrol tools for the sustainable management of agricultural practices is also discussed. Special attention is given to the formulation of these products and the network of interactions taking place in cultivated ecosystems [less ▲]

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See detailNote a Jacopino del Conte e approfondimenti sulla sua attività giovanile
Geremicca, Antonio ULg

in Proporzioni. Annali della Fondazione Roberto Longhi (in press)

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See detailOne-pot synthesis of double poly(ionic liquid) block copolymers by cobalt-mediated radical polymerization-induced self assembly (CMR-PISA) in water
Cordella, Daniela ULg; Debuigne, Antoine ULg; Jérôme, Christine ULg et al

in Macromolecular Rapid Communications (in press)

Amphiphilic double poly(ionic liquid) (PIL) block copolymers are directly prepared by cobalt- mediated radical polymerization induced self-assembly (CMR-PISA) in water of N-vinyl imida- zolium monomers ... [more ▼]

Amphiphilic double poly(ionic liquid) (PIL) block copolymers are directly prepared by cobalt- mediated radical polymerization induced self-assembly (CMR-PISA) in water of N-vinyl imida- zolium monomers carrying distinct alkyl chains. The cobalt-mediated radical polymerization of N-vinyl-3-ethyl imidazolium bromide (VEtImBr) is first carried out until high conversion in water at 30 °C, using an alkyl bis(acetylacetonate)cobalt(III) adduct as initiator and con- trolling agent. The as-obtained hydrophilic poly(N-vinyl-3- ethyl imidazolium bromide) (PVEtImBr) is then used as a macroinitiator for the CMR-PISA of N-vinyl-3-octyl imidazo- lium bromide (VOcImBr). Self-assembly of the amphiphilic PVEtImBr-b-PVOcImBr block copolymer, i.e., of PIL-b-PIL-type, rapidly takes place in water, forming polymer nanoparticles consisting of a hydrophilic PVEtImBr corona and a hydro- phobic PVOcImBr core. Preliminary investigation into the effect of the size of the hydrophobic block on the dimension of the nanoparticles is also described. [less ▲]

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See detailTribute to an astronomer: the work of Max Ernst on Wilhelm Tempel
Nazé, Yaël ULg

in Journal for the History of Astronomy (in press)

In 1964-1974, the German artist Max Ernst created, with the help of two friends, a series of works (books, movie, paintings) related to the astronomer Wilhelm Tempel. Mixing actual texts by Tempel and ... [more ▼]

In 1964-1974, the German artist Max Ernst created, with the help of two friends, a series of works (books, movie, paintings) related to the astronomer Wilhelm Tempel. Mixing actual texts by Tempel and artistic features, this series pays homage to the astronomer by recalling his life and discoveries. Moreover, the core of the project, the book Maximiliana or the Illegal Practice of Astronomy, actually depicts the way science works, making this artwork a most original tribute to a scientist. [less ▲]

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See detailHenry Flynt : Catalogue des oeuvres
Levaux, Christophe ULg

in Revue et Corrigée (in press), 109

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See detailA cross-sectional analysis of developmental trajectories of vocabulary comprehension among children and adolescents with Down syndrome or intellectual disability of undifferentiated aetiology
Facon, Bruno; Courbois, Yannick; Magis, David ULg

in Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability (in press)

Background: This work seeks to expand our knowledge of developmental trajectories of subcomponents of the language systems of individuals with intellectual disability (ID). It aims to explore how general ... [more ▼]

Background: This work seeks to expand our knowledge of developmental trajectories of subcomponents of the language systems of individuals with intellectual disability (ID). It aims to explore how general and relational vocabularies evolve as a function of cognitive level. Method: Developmental trajectories of general and relational vocabulary comprehension were compared among typically developing children (TYP) and children and adolescents with ID of undifferentiated aetiology (UND) or Down syndrome (DS). Results: Comparisons between TYP and UND participants showed no interaction between cognitive level and diagnostic status for general vocabulary, and only a very weak interaction for relational vocabulary. Comparisons between TYP and DS participants failed to reveal groupspecific trajectories. Performance in general vocabulary was higher than in relational vocabulary for both UND and DS participants. Conclusion: The developmental trajectories of vocabulary appear to be globally comparable for participants with or without ID. [less ▲]

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See detailDe Rome à Wilderen : Alexandre Ier et Raoul de Saint-Trond
Schmidt, Kevin ULg

in Revue Belge de Philologie et d'Histoire (in press)

While Rudolf, the abbot of Sint-Truiden (1108-1138) was forced to abandon his monastery in 1121 after having opposed the claim to power of the future prince-bishop of Liège, Alexandre I (1128-1135), both ... [more ▼]

While Rudolf, the abbot of Sint-Truiden (1108-1138) was forced to abandon his monastery in 1121 after having opposed the claim to power of the future prince-bishop of Liège, Alexandre I (1128-1135), both men hastily set out for Rome on the eve of 1129, in order to meet Pope Honorius the Second. The Gesta abbatum Trudonensium have preserved this colorful account of the perilous circumstances under which they crossed the Great St. Bernard Pass together in full winter. Starting from this particular anecdote, the document, which recounts the evolving personal relationship between the bishop of Liège, Alexandre I and abbot Rudolf of Sint-Truiden, returns to the circumstances surrounding this surprising rapprochement, which came to pass against all expectations. It seeks to demonstrate that Rudolf of Sint-Truiden’s motivations to accompany his former enemy to Italy were political rather than spiritual. [less ▲]

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See detailBiochemical characterization of the oil of durum wheat germ (Tunisian variety)
Kammoun, Maroua; Rassâa, Neila; Mejri-Gaïda, Myriam et al

in Journal of New Sciences (in press)

The wheat germ oil may constitute an alternative to the misuse of this cereal grain resource. The Tunisian exploitation is limited, at present, in the human and animal feed in the grain form, straw or ... [more ▼]

The wheat germ oil may constitute an alternative to the misuse of this cereal grain resource. The Tunisian exploitation is limited, at present, in the human and animal feed in the grain form, straw or some transformed products. For the purpose of characterization, the wheat germ oil has been extracted by Soxhlet apparatus from a Tunisian variety of durum wheat (Maali) based on the hexane as a solvent. An analysis by gas chromatography (GC) was then performed to identify and quantify the fatty acids of the oil. Then, the oil has submitted to a second chromatography analysis in liquid phase (HPLC) to quantify the tocopherols. The most important fatty acids constituting have been the two polyunsaturated acids linoleic acid C18:2 (OMEGA 6) and the gamma acid- linoleic C18:3 : 58.24 % and 4.19 % respectively; and the acid monounsaturated oleic acid C18:1 ( 24.49 %) but also some saturated acid: palmitic acid C16:0 with ( 19.50 % ), and the stearic acid C18:0 (1.29%). For this variety of Tunisian durum wheat, the wheat germ oil contains, in addition, 80.27 mg / 100g of α- tocopherols (vitamin E). The wheat germ oil extracted from the Tunisian variety 'Maali' has proved rich in vitamin E and omega-6 ; a better valorisation on the nutritional or pharmaceutical plan is to this title recommended. [less ▲]

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See detailPoplar-root-knot nematode interaction: a model for perennial woody species
Baldacci-Cresp, Fabien; Sacre, Pierre-Yves ULg; Twyffels, Laure et al

in Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions [=MPMI] (in press)

Plant root-knot nematode interaction studies are performed on several host plant models. However, even though root-knot nematodes interact with trees, no perennial woody model has been explored so far. We ... [more ▼]

Plant root-knot nematode interaction studies are performed on several host plant models. However, even though root-knot nematodes interact with trees, no perennial woody model has been explored so far. We show here that poplar (Populus tremula x Populus alba) grown in vitro is susceptible to Meloidogyne incognita as this nematode is able to penetrate, to induce feeding sites and to reproduce in poplar roots. As analyzed by Raman spectromicroscopy, the cell walls of the giant cells, with typical characteristics of transfer cell walls, were not lignified and were composed mainly of pectin and cellulose. To better depict the poplar-nematode interaction at the molecular level, a quantitative RT-PCR analysis was performed to study changes in poplar gene expression in galls compared to non-infected roots. Three marker genes, reported for other plant hosts, including expansin A, histone 3.1 and asparagine synthase, were conserved for poplar-nematode interaction. In addition, the down-regulation of four genes coding for enzymes of the lignin biosynthesis pathway was evidenced in galls, suggesting a modification in lignin composition within galls developed in poplar roots. Together, this study shows that poplar is a suitable model host for specific traits of tree-nematode interaction. [less ▲]

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See detailThe chlorophyll a fluorescence induction curve in the green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis: Further insight into the nature of the P-S-M fluctuation and its relationship with the "low-wave" phenomenon at steady-state
Fratamico, Anthony ULg; Tocquin, Pierre ULg; Franck, Fabrice ULg

in Photosynthesis Research (in press)

Chlorophyll fluorescence is an information-rich signal which provides an access to the management of light absorbed by PSII. A good example of this is the succession of fast fluorescence fluctuations ... [more ▼]

Chlorophyll fluorescence is an information-rich signal which provides an access to the management of light absorbed by PSII. A good example of this is the succession of fast fluorescence fluctuations during light-induced photosynthetic induction after dark-adaptation. During this period, the fluorescence trace exhibits several inflexion points: O-J-I-P-S-M-T. Thereas the OJIP part of this kinetics has been the subject of many studies, the processes that underly the PSMT transient are less understood. Here, we report an analysis of the PSMT phase in the green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis in terms of electron acceptors and light use by photochemistry, fluorescence and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). We identify additional sub-phases between P and S delimited by an inflexion point, that we name Q, found in the second time-scale. The P-Q phase expresses a transient photochemical quenching specifically due to alternative electron transport to oxygen. During the transition from Q to S, the NPQ increases and then relaxes during the S-M phase in about 1 min. It is suggested that this transient NPQ observed during induction is a high energy state quenching (qE) dependent the alternative electron transport to molecular oxygen. We further show that this NPQ is of the same nature than the NPQ, known as the low-wave phenomenon, which is transiently observed after a saturating light pulse given at steady-state. In both cases, the NPQ is oxygen-dependent. This NPQ is observed at external pH 6.0, but not at pH 7.5, which seems correlated with faster saturation of the PQ pool at pH 6.0. [less ▲]

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See detailGlioblastoma-derived extracellular vesicles induce tumor-supportive phenotypes in monocytic cells
de Vrij, Jeroen; Maas, Sybren; Kwappenberg, Kitty et al

in International Journal of Cancer = Journal International du Cancer (in press)

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See detailSpinoza contre Spinoza: l'antihumanisme de Lordon, un althussérisme?
Mancuso, Eva ULg

in Dissensus (in press), 6

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See detailLes associations des enfants et jeunes travailleurs du Burkina Faso comme espace d’expression de la capacité d’action des enfants ?
Wouango, Joséphine ULg

in Enfances Familles Générations (in press)

Les Associations des Enfants et Jeunes Travailleurs du Burkina Faso (AEJT/BF) sont une représentation nationale du Mouvement Africain des Enfants et Jeunes Travailleurs (MAEJT), créé à la fin des années ... [more ▼]

Les Associations des Enfants et Jeunes Travailleurs du Burkina Faso (AEJT/BF) sont une représentation nationale du Mouvement Africain des Enfants et Jeunes Travailleurs (MAEJT), créé à la fin des années 1980. Le mouvement est fondé sur deux grands principes : les douze droits prioritaires des enfants et jeunes travailleurs et le principe du « protagonisme » (l’enfant travailleur comme acteur capable) . Ce chapitre présente et analyse le fonctionnement de ce mouvement au Burkina Faso, les changements qu’il a contribué à apporter à la question sociale du travail des enfants et les résultats de la mise en application des principes annoncés. S’appuyant sur une enquête ethnographique menée en son sein, le texte offre des données inédites sur les réalités d’un acteur collectif qui, en utilisant à son avantage la rhétorique de la « participation » des enfants (art.12, Convention des droits de l’enfant), a réussi à s’insérer dans l’arène nationale de la protection de l’enfance. Toutefois, la question de la place et du rôle des enfants ainsi que celle du “vieillissement” des membres sont quelques-uns des défis auxquels la section burkinabè du mouvement doit faire face. [less ▲]

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See detailCutaneous involvement in multiple myeloma: a multi-institutional retrospective study of 53 patients
Jurczyszyn, .; Olszewska-Szopa, M.; Hungria, V. et al

in Leukemia & Lymphoma (in press)

Skin infiltration in multiple myeloma (skin MM) is a rare clinical problem. Only a few cases of skin involvement have been reported, primarily in single case reports. We analyzed and present the clinical ... [more ▼]

Skin infiltration in multiple myeloma (skin MM) is a rare clinical problem. Only a few cases of skin involvement have been reported, primarily in single case reports. We analyzed and present the clinical outcomes, immunohistochemistry and cytogenetic features, and relevant laboratory data on 53 biopsy-proven skin MM cases. The median time from MM diagnosis to skin involvement was 2 years. There appears to be an overrepresentation of immunoglobulin class A (IgA) and light chain disease in skin MM. We found no correlation between CD56 negative MM and skin infiltration. We found that skin MM patients presented in all MM stages (i.e. ISS stages I to III), and there was no preferential cytogenetic abnormality. Patients with skin MM carry a very poor prognosis with a median overall survival (OS) of 8.5 months as time from skin involvement. Moreover, patients with IgA disease and plasmablastic morphology appear to have a worse OS. [less ▲]

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See detailSérialités tintamarresques. Du faux-feuilleton au dictionnaire
Saint-Amand, Denis ULg

in Belphégor : Littérature Populaire et Culture Médiatique (in press)

Parmi les journaux comiques les plus en vue du XIXe siècle, l’hebdomadaire Tintamarre occupe une place de choix. Ses fers de lance, Jean-Louis Commerson et Eugène Vachette s’adjoignent les services ... [more ▼]

Parmi les journaux comiques les plus en vue du XIXe siècle, l’hebdomadaire Tintamarre occupe une place de choix. Ses fers de lance, Jean-Louis Commerson et Eugène Vachette s’adjoignent les services imaginaires de l’écrivain de papier Joseph Citrouillard, qui va rapidement se révéler l’un des contributeurs les plus fidèles du Tintamarre et le sujet de nombreux articles. C’est, dès lors, une double logique sérielle qui se développe autour de Citrouillard, à la fois canular auctorial et antihéros populaire. Cet article interroge les implications et les effets de cette double casquette fantaisiste en ce qui concerne la logique interne du journal et le développement en son sein d’une poétique parodique spécifique, mais également en matière d’institutionnalisation d’une forme de mystification littéraire. [less ▲]

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See detailLoop
Levaux, Christophe ULg

in Rock Music Studies (in press)

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See detailCritique du capitalisme néolibéral et travail rhétorique chez Frédéric Lordon : un discours d’affectation.
Provenzano, François ULg; Janvier, Antoine ULg

in Dissensus (in press)

Les ouvrages de Frédéric Lordon ont offert ces dernières années un éclairage nouveau des mécanismes de la finance et du capitalisme en régime néolibéral, en vertu de la place centrale qu’ils accordent aux ... [more ▼]

Les ouvrages de Frédéric Lordon ont offert ces dernières années un éclairage nouveau des mécanismes de la finance et du capitalisme en régime néolibéral, en vertu de la place centrale qu’ils accordent aux affects. Il est frappant que cette entreprise – qui est triple: analyse de la finance, analyse du capitalisme, analyse de la domination – soit doublée d’une attention portée au discours même qui la développe. On peut repérer une telle attention dans la pluralité des genres de discours qu’investit Frédéric Lordon : ouvrages « savants » ou « universitaires », mais aussi courts essais engagés aux éditions Raisons d’agir, articles de presse dans Le Monde Diplomatique notamment, tenue du blog « La pompe à phynance » sur le site du même journal, et même pièce de théâtre récemment adaptée au cinéma, D’un retournement l’autre. Comédie sérieuse sur la crise financière. En quatre actes, et en alexandrins . Diversité de genre entre les différents types de textes, donc. Diversité interne à chacun de ces textes, aussi : le lecteur de Frédéric Lordon se trouve toujours à cheval sur plusieurs codes rhétoriques dont joue l’auteur dans un même ouvrage. On pourrait bien sûr tenir cette double diversité pour la simple conséquence du talent d’écriture de Lordon, ou d’un plaisir pris par l’auteur à jouer du langage et des ethos qu’il construit. Le présent article propose au contraire de considérer cette diversité comme le résultat d’un véritable travail sur les modalités rhétoriques du discours critique sur le capitalisme financiarisé, qu’il faut articuler aux principaux postulats de sa théorie sociale. L’hypothèse défendue sera, précisément, de considérer qu’il y a une construction rhétorique qui participe de l’entreprise critique et, du même coup, qui s’inscrit comme un geste politique dans une « société des affects ». [less ▲]

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See detailLate Pleistocene molecular dating of past population fragmentation and demographic changes in African rain forest tree species supports the forest refuge hypothesis
Duminil, Jérôme; Mona, Stefano; Mardulyn, Patrick et al

in Journal of Biogeography (in press)

Aim : Phylogeographical signatures of past population fragmentation and demographic change have been reported in several African rain forest trees. These signatures have usually been interpreted in the ... [more ▼]

Aim : Phylogeographical signatures of past population fragmentation and demographic change have been reported in several African rain forest trees. These signatures have usually been interpreted in the light of the Pleistocene forest refuge hypothesis, although dating these events has remained impracticable because of inadequate genetic markers. We assess the timing of interspecific and intraspecific genetic differentiation and demographic changes within two rain forest Erythrophleum tree species (Fabaceae: Caesalpinioideae). Location : Tropical forests of Upper Guinea (West Africa) and Lower Guinea (Atlantic Central Africa). Methods : Six single-copy nuclear genes were used to characterize the phylogeographical patterns of the parapatric sister species Erythrophleum suaveolens (characteristic of semi-deciduous or gallery forests) and Erythrophleum ivorense (characteristic of evergreen forests). The number of gene pools within each species was determined and the timings of their divergence and past demographic changes were estimated using Bayesian-based coalescent approaches. Results : Three geographically separated gene pools were identified within E. suaveolens, and a single gene pool was inferred in E. ivorense. All gene pools show signatures of demographic bottlenecks concomitant with the last glacial period (c. 120–12 ka). Species-tree inferences show that the two species diverged c. 600 ka, whereas the divergence between E. suaveolens gene pools was dated to the late Pleistocene (first divergence c. 120 ka, second c. 60 ka). Main conclusions : (1) Molecular dating of demographic changes of two African tropical forest tree species is consistent with the Pleistocene forest refuge hypothesis. (2) Tree species from Guinean evergreen tropical forests might have been less affected by past climate change than semi-deciduous species. (3) Our phylogeographical data support a recent date (Holocene) of the last opening of the Dahomey Gap. [less ▲]

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See detailLevallois et Gravettien
Otte, Marcel ULg; Noiret, Pierre ULg

in Praehistoria (in press)

Par opposition à ceux de l’Aurignacien, les ensembles lithiques gravettiens procèdent selon une méthode rappelant le Levallois quant à la préparation des supports. Mais les variations observables au sein ... [more ▼]

Par opposition à ceux de l’Aurignacien, les ensembles lithiques gravettiens procèdent selon une méthode rappelant le Levallois quant à la préparation des supports. Mais les variations observables au sein du Gravettien touchent autant les processus de symbolisation dans l’art et les sépultures. Elles affectent différents substrats eurasiatiques, plutôt septentrionaux, comme mis en réserve dès les Néandertaliens. [less ▲]

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See detailMonitoring the laccase reaction of vanillin and poplar hydrolysate
Sòti, Valentin; Jacquet, Nicolas ULg; Apers, Sandra et al

in Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology (in press)

BACKGROUND: Laccase is an intensively researched enzyme for industrial use. Except for decolorisation measurements, HPLC analysis is the conventional method for monitoring the phenolic removal during ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Laccase is an intensively researched enzyme for industrial use. Except for decolorisation measurements, HPLC analysis is the conventional method for monitoring the phenolic removal during laccase enzyme reaction. This paper reports an investigation of the continuous UV absorbance follow-up of the laccase reaction with steam pretreated poplar hydrolysate. RESULTS: Vanillin was used as a model substrate and lignocellulose xylose rich fraction (XRF) as a biologically complex substrate for laccase detoxification. The reaction was followed by HPLC-UV as well as by UV spectrometric measurements. Results suggest that the reaction can be successfully monitored by measuring the change of UV absorbance at 280 nm, without previous compound separation. In case of XRF experiments the spectrophotometric follow-up is especially useful, as HPLC analysis takes a long time and provides less information than in case of single substrates. The method seems to be suitable for optimization and process control. CONCLUSION: The obtained results can help to construct a fast, easy and straightforward monitoring system for laccase-phenolic substrate reactions. [less ▲]

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See detailSpectrofluorimetric and Zeta potential studies of alkylbetainate chloreide surfactants interaction with model membranes
Nsimba Zakanda, Francis; Lins, Laurence ULg; Razafindralambo, Hary et al

in Journal of Colloid Science and Biotechnology (in press)

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See detailMolecular patterns of rhizobacteria involved in plant immunity elicitation.
Mariutto, Martin ULg; Ongena, Marc ULg

in Advances in Botanical Research (in press)

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See detailThe right dorsal premotor mosaic: organization, functions, and connectivity
Genon, Sarah ULg; Li, Hai; Fan, Lingzhong et al

in Cerebral Cortex (in press)

The right dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) of humans has been reported to be involved in a broad range of motor and cognitive functions. We explored the basis of this behavioral heterogeneity by performing a ... [more ▼]

The right dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) of humans has been reported to be involved in a broad range of motor and cognitive functions. We explored the basis of this behavioral heterogeneity by performing a connectivity-based parcellation using meta-analytic approach applied to PMd coactivations. We compared our CBP results to parcellations obtained through resting-state functional connectivity and probabilistic diffusion tractography,. Functional connectivity profiles and behavioral decoding of the resulting PMd subregions allowed characterizing their respective behavior profile. These procedures divided the right PMd into five distinct subregions that formed a cognitive-motor gradient along a rostro-caudal axis. In particular, we found (i) a rostral subregion functionally connected with prefrontal cortex, which likely supports high-level cognitive processes, such as working memory (ii) a central subregion showing a mixed behavioral profile and functional connectivity to parietal regions of the dorsal attention network, and (iii) a caudal subregion closely integrated with the motor system. Additionally, we found (iv) a dorsal subregion, preferentially related to hand movements and connected to both cognitive and motor regions, and (v) a ventral subregion, whose functional profile fits the concept of an eye-movement related field. In conclusion, right PMd may be considered as a functional mosaic formed by five subregions. [less ▲]

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See detailThe network model of depression as a basis for new therapeutic strategies for treating major depressive disorder in Parkinson’s disease
D'Ostilio, Kevin ULg; Garraux, Gaëtan ULg

in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (in press)

The high prevalence of major depressive disorder in people with Parkinson's disease, its negative impact on health-related quality of life and the low response rate to conventional pharmacological ... [more ▼]

The high prevalence of major depressive disorder in people with Parkinson's disease, its negative impact on health-related quality of life and the low response rate to conventional pharmacological therapies call to seek innovative treatments. Here, we review the new approaches for treating major depressive disorder in patients with Parkinson's disease within the framework of the network model of depression. According to this model, major depressive disorder reflects maladaptive neuronal plasticity. Non-invasive brain stimulation using high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the prefrontal cortex has been proposed as a feasible and effective strategy with minimal risk. The neurobiological basis of its therapeutic effect may involve neuroplastic modifications in limbic and cognitive networks. However, the way this networks reorganize might be strongly influenced by the environment. To address this issue, we propose a combined strategy that includes non-invasive brain stimulation together with cognitive and behavioral interventions. [less ▲]

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See detailIs the sword moss (Bryoxiphium) a preglacial Tertiary relict?
Patino, J.; Goffinet, B.; Sim-Sim, M.A. et al

in Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution (in press)

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See detailPhysiological and bio-functional properties of gum arabic: a notable interest for certain human diseases
Eloundou Mballa, Pierre; Goffin, Dorothée ULg; Destain, Jacqueline ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (in press)

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See detailCompte rendu de G. TOUSSAINT, Kreuz und Knochen. Reliquien zur Zeit der Kreuzzüge, Berlin, 2011.
George, Philippe ULg

in Cahiers de Civilisation Médiévale (in press)

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See detailLarge-Eddy Simulations of microcarrier exposure to potentially damaging eddies inside mini-bioreactors
Collignon, Marie-Laure ULg; Delafosse, Angélique; Calvo, Sébastien ULg et al

in Biochemical Engineering Journal (in press)

Mechanically stirred vessels equipped with rotating impellers generate heterogeneous transitional or turbulent flows. However, some cells as animal or human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) adhered on ... [more ▼]

Mechanically stirred vessels equipped with rotating impellers generate heterogeneous transitional or turbulent flows. However, some cells as animal or human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) adhered on microcarriers, are reputed sensitive to hydromechanical stresses arising from stirring. Many publications, especially using Computational Fluid Dynamics, characterize spatial fields of velocity and turbulence inside bioreactors but the exposure frequency to these stresses is never taken into account in the case of animal cell culture bioreactor description. To fill this gap, this study used both CFD Reynolds-Averaged and Large-Eddy Simulations to characterize the hydrodynamics inside 250 mL mini-bioreactors, which is a relevant volume for hMSC cultures. Five impeller geometries were studied. From the velocity and turbulence fields calculated, an energy dissipation/circulation function, related to both frequency and intensity of potentially damaging hydrodynamic events for the cells, was determined for various operating conditions. Based on the simulation results, the marine propeller operating in up-pumping mode seems to be the most adapted condition, since it exhibits a low frequency of exposure to an acceptable intensity of the turbulent dissipation rate. From a general point of view, the new methodology proposed should be used in the future to screen the most adapted bioreactor geometry to biological constraints. [less ▲]

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See detailRelative Ease in Creating Detailed Orthographic Representations Contrasted with Severe Difficulties to Maintain Them in Long-term Memory Among Dyslexic Children
Binamé, Florence ULg; Poncelet, Martine ULg

in Dyslexia (in press)

Most research into orthographic learning abilities has been conducted in English with typically developing children using reading-based tasks. In the present study, we examined the abilities of French ... [more ▼]

Most research into orthographic learning abilities has been conducted in English with typically developing children using reading-based tasks. In the present study, we examined the abilities of French-speaking children with dyslexia to create novel orthographic representations for subsequent use in spelling and to maintain them in long-term memory. Their performance was compared with that of chronological age (CA)-matched and reading age (RA)-matched control children. We used an experimental task designed to provide optimal learning conditions (i.e. 10 spelling practice trials) ensuring the short-term acquisition of the spelling of the target orthographic word forms. After a 1-week delay, the long-term retention of the targets was assessed by a spelling post-test. Analysis of the results revealed that, in the short term, children with dyslexia learned the novel orthographic word forms well, only differing from both CA and RA controls on the initial decoding of the targets and from CA controls on the first two practice trials. In contrast, a dramatic drop was observed in their long-term retention relative to CA and RA controls. These results support the suggestion of the self-teaching hypothesis (Share, 1995) that initial errors in the decoding and spelling of unfamiliar words may hinder the establishment of fully specified novel orthographic representations. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh concentrations of Myeloperoxidase in the equine uterus as an indicator of endometritis
Parrilla Hernandez, Sonia ULg; Ponthier, Jérôme ULg; Franck, Thierry ULg et al

in Theriogenology (in press)

Intra-luminal fluid and excessive abnormal hyper-edema are regularly used for the diagnosis of endometritis in the mare, which is routinely confirmed by the presence of neutrophils on endometrial smears ... [more ▼]

Intra-luminal fluid and excessive abnormal hyper-edema are regularly used for the diagnosis of endometritis in the mare, which is routinely confirmed by the presence of neutrophils on endometrial smears. Studies show a relation between neutrophils and myeloperoxidase (MPO), an enzyme contained in and released by neutrophils during degranulation or after cell lysis. This enzyme has been found in many fluids and tissues and associated with different inflammatory pathologies in the horse. The aims of this study were to assess the presence and concentration of MPO in the equine uterus, and to investigate its relation with neutrophils, and other clinical signs of endometritis. Mares (n=51) were evaluated for presence of intra-luminal fluid and excessive endometrial edema before breeding, and a small volume lavage and cytology samples were obtained. From 69 cycles, supernatant of the uterine flushes was analysed with a specific equine MPO ELISA assay to measure MPO concentration. Cytology samples were used for the diagnosis of endometritis. MPO was present in the uterus of all estrus mares in highly variable concentrations. MPO concentrations were significantly (p<0.05) higher in samples with positive cytologies and in presence of intra-luminal fluid. Occasionally, some samples with negative cytologies showed high MPO concentration, but the opposite was never observed. Cycles presenting hyper-edema weren’t associated to high concentration of MPO, intra-luminal fluid or positive cytology making it a poor diagnostic tool of endometritis. [less ▲]

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See detailPower System Dynamic Simulations using a Parallel Two-level Schur-complement Decomposition
Aristidou, Petros; Lebeau, Simon; Van Cutsem, Thierry ULg

in IEEE Transactions on Power Systems (in press)

As the need for faster power system dynamic simulations increases, it is essential to develop new algorithms that exploit parallel computing to accelerate those simulations. This paper proposes a parallel ... [more ▼]

As the need for faster power system dynamic simulations increases, it is essential to develop new algorithms that exploit parallel computing to accelerate those simulations. This paper proposes a parallel algorithm based on a two-level, Schur complement-based, domain decomposition method. The two-level partitioning provides high parallelization potential (coarse and fine-grained). In addition, due to the Schur-complement approach used to update the sub-domain interface variables, the algorithm exhibits high global convergence rate. Finally, it provides significant numerical and computational acceleration. The algorithm is implemented using the shared-memory parallel programming model, targeting inexpensive multi-core machines. Its performance is reported on a real system as well as on a large test system combining transmission and distribution networks. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficient ANOVA for directional data
Swan, Yvik ULg; Ley, Christophe; Verdebout, Thomas

in Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics (in press)

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See detailLe rôle des pays émergents dans la gouvernance économique mondiale
Wintgens, Sophie ULg; Zacharie, Arnaud ULg

in Annuaire français de Relations internationales (in press), XVII(2016),

Since the 2000s, the rising power of emerging countries – China, East Asian countries and the BRICS in particular – changed the balance of power within the system of global economic governance. In an ... [more ▼]

Since the 2000s, the rising power of emerging countries – China, East Asian countries and the BRICS in particular – changed the balance of power within the system of global economic governance. In an increasingly multipolar world, external policies of the main emerging countries are aimed more at legitimizing their status of regional powers rather than at promoting a truly democratic multilateralism. By doing so, the global shift in wealth puts the multilateralism to the test. Although emerging countries have claimed more room in the international economic organizations, many of their demands have not been heard by the Western traditional powers, which prompted them to launch their own initiatives. This creates an increasing fragmentation of international financial and trade rules, which makes more complex the political conditions for effectively regulate the international system. Although emerging countries have contributed to challenge the legitimacy of the global economic governance architecture, they have so far failed to change its nature or to make it more consistent. [less ▲]

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See detailLarge deviation spectra based on wavelet leaders
Bastin, Françoise ULg; Esser, Céline ULg; Jaffard, Stéphane ULg

in Revista Matemática Iberoamericana (in press)

We introduce a new multifractal formalism, based on distributions of wavelet leaders, which allows to detect non-concave and decreasing multifractal spectra, and we investigate the properties of the ... [more ▼]

We introduce a new multifractal formalism, based on distributions of wavelet leaders, which allows to detect non-concave and decreasing multifractal spectra, and we investigate the properties of the associated function spaces. [less ▲]

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See detailA Theory of Soft Capture
Agrell, Per; Gautier, Axel ULg

in Scandinavian Journal of Economics (in press)

n this paper, wee propose a model for regulatory capture that is based on information transmission and asymmetric information. In a three-tier model, a regulator is charged by a political principal to ... [more ▼]

n this paper, wee propose a model for regulatory capture that is based on information transmission and asymmetric information. In a three-tier model, a regulator is charged by a political principal to provide a signal for the type of a regulated firm. Only the firm can observe his type and the production of a correlated signal with a given accuracy is costly for the regulator. The firm can costlessly provide an alternative signal of lower accuracy that is presented to the regulator. In a self-enforcing equilibrium, the regulator transmits the firm-produced signal, internalizes its own savings in information cost and the firm enjoys higher information rents. The main feature of soft capture is that it is not based on a reciprocity of favors but on a congruence of interests between the firm and the regulator. [less ▲]

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See detailRisk assessment of soil compaction in the Walloon region in Belgium
D'Or, Dimitri; Destain, Marie-France ULg

in Mathematical Geosciences (in press)

It is well known that soil compaction affects root growth and disrupts the activity of soil microfauna and microorganisms, resulting in yield loss. With the more intensive use of heavy machines in ... [more ▼]

It is well known that soil compaction affects root growth and disrupts the activity of soil microfauna and microorganisms, resulting in yield loss. With the more intensive use of heavy machines in agriculture and forestry, the risk of soil compaction is increasing. In this study, precompression stress (Pc) was chosen as an indicator of the susceptibility of soils to compaction and was calculated using pedotransfer functions (PTFs). PTFs involve eight variables related to the hydraulic and mechanical behaviour of soils: organic matter content; bulk density; air capacity; available water capacity; non-plant available water capacity; saturated hydraulic conductivity; cohesion; and angle of internal friction. Combining these PTFs with geostatistics and Monte Carlo simulations, Pc maps were produced at the regional scale for Wallonia in Belgium, accompanied by uncertainty quantification maps. These maps were then used to produce compaction risk maps based on common scenarios. The results showed that the modal Pc map was coherent with the spatial distribution of the main variables, namely soil texture and organic matter content. The risk maps enabled areas with a compaction risk in both agricultural and forestry contexts to be identified. These maps could be useful in drawing up soil protection measures and policies. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental Tests and Numerical Modelling on Slender Steel Columns at High Temperatures
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; Zhao, Bin; Gernay, Thomas ULg

in Journal of Structural Fire Engineering (in press)

This paper is about a series of experimental fire tests on eight full scale steel columns made of slender I shaped class 4 sections. Six columns were made of welded sections (some prismatic and some ... [more ▼]

This paper is about a series of experimental fire tests on eight full scale steel columns made of slender I shaped class 4 sections. Six columns were made of welded sections (some prismatic and some tapered members) and two columns were made of hot rolled sections. The nominal length of the columns was 2.7 meters with the whole length being heated. The load was applied at ambient temperature after which the temperature was increased under constant load. The load was applied concentrically on some tests and with an eccentricity in other tests. Heating was applied by electrical resistances enclosed in ceramic pads. Numerical simulations were performed with the software SAFIR® using shell elements. The paper presents the results obtained in terms of failure mode and ultimate temperature, in the experimental tests and in the numerical simulations. [less ▲]

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See detailRoot-emitted volatile organic compounds: can they mediate belowground plant-plant interactions?
Delory, Benjamin ULg; Delaplace, Pierre ULg; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULg et al

in Plant and Soil (in press)

Background Aboveground, plants release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that act as chemical signals between neighbouring plants. It is now well documented that VOCs emitted by the roots in the plant ... [more ▼]

Background Aboveground, plants release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that act as chemical signals between neighbouring plants. It is now well documented that VOCs emitted by the roots in the plant rhizosphere also play important ecological roles in the soil ecosystem, notably in plant defence because they are involved in interactions between plants, phytophagous pests and organisms of the third trophic level. The roles played by root-emitted VOCs in between- and within-plant signalling, however, are still poorly documented in the scientific literature. Scope Given that (1) plants release volatile cues mediating plant-plant interactions aboveground, (2) roots can detect the chemical signals originating from their neighbours, and (3) roots release VOCs involved in biotic interactions belowground, the aim of this paper is to discuss the roles of VOCs in between- and within-plant signalling belowground. We also highlight the technical challenges associated with the analysis of root-emitted VOCs and the design of experiments targeting volatile-mediated root-root interactions. Conclusions We conclude that root-root interactions mediated by volatile cues deserve more research attention and that both the analytical tools and methods developed to study the ecological roles played by VOCs in interplant signalling aboveground can be adapted to focus on the roles played by root-emitted VOCs in between- and within-plant signalling. [less ▲]

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See detailJohn of Trevisa légitimise la traduction en langue anglaise (vers 1387)
Dor, Juliette ULg

in The Medieval Translator. Traduire au Moyen Âge (in press), TMT 16

A l'instar de Chaucer ou des milieux wyclifiens, Trevisa revendique pour le nouveau lectorat/auditorat vernaculaire le droit d'accéder au savoir. Il s'appuie notamment sur la "translatio studii", le ... [more ▼]

A l'instar de Chaucer ou des milieux wyclifiens, Trevisa revendique pour le nouveau lectorat/auditorat vernaculaire le droit d'accéder au savoir. Il s'appuie notamment sur la "translatio studii", le modèle français et l'autorité culturelle qu'avait connue l'anglais avant Hastings. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreased diversification rates correlate with bisexuality in liverworts
Laenen, B.; Machac, A.; Gradstein, S.R. et al

in New Phytologist (in press)

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See detailSurvivances et métamorphoses. Les gemmes isiaques remployées au Moyen Âge et leur interprétation
Veymiers, Richard ULg

in Anabases : Traditions et Réception de l'Antiquité (in press)

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See detailMetabolic variability in bioprocessing : implications of microbial phenotypic heterogeneity
Delvigne, Frank ULg; Zune, Quentin ULg; Lara, Alvaro et al

in Trends in Biotechnology (in press)

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See detailEpistémologie de la théorie du complot
Jamin, Jérôme ULg

in Cahiers de l'Éducation Permanente (Les) (in press)

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See detailSpecific expression and function of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase C (ITPKC) in wild type and knock-out mice
Scoumanne, Ariane; Molina Ortiz, Patricia ULg; Monteyne, Daniel et al

in Advances in Biological Regulation (in press)

Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase C (ITPKC) is the last identified member of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinases family which phosphorylates inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate into inositol 1,3,4,5 ... [more ▼]

Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase C (ITPKC) is the last identified member of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinases family which phosphorylates inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate into inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate. Although expression and function of the two other family members ITPKA and ITPKB are rather well characterized, similar information is lacking for ITPKC. Here, we first defined the expression of Itpkc mRNA and protein in mouse tissues and cells using in situ hybridization and new antibodies. Surprisingly, we found that cells positive for ITPKC in the studied tissues express either a multicilium (tracheal and bronchial epithelia, brain ependymal cells), microvilli forming a brush border (small and large intestine, and kidney proximal tubule cells) or a flagellum (spermatozoa), suggesting a role for ITPKC either in the development or the function of these specialized cellular structures. Given this surprising expression, we then analyzed ITPKC function in multiciliated tracheal epithelial cells and sperm cells using our Itpkc knock-out mouse model. Unfortunately, no significant difference was observed between control and mutant mice for any of the parameters tested, leaving the exact in vivo function of this third Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinase still open. [less ▲]

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See detailPlanning urban megaprojects in the Gulf: The international consultancy firms in urban planning between global and contingent
Aoun, Oula ULg; Teller, Jacques ULg

in Frontiers of Architectural Research (in press)

Driven by globalization and market openings, many architecture and engineering firms have become global. By focusing on the urban megaprojects in the Gulf, a particular cultural and political context ... [more ▼]

Driven by globalization and market openings, many architecture and engineering firms have become global. By focusing on the urban megaprojects in the Gulf, a particular cultural and political context, this paper argues that such firms have a major role in the rapid urban transformation of Gulf countries and act as transfer agents of an international knowledge in the urban planning domain. However, the transfer is adapted by several context-related char- acteristics, such as local governance, urban knowledge, and regulatory framework. This paper explores the procedural adaptation of these firms to the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) in terms of internal structure, methodology, adopted tools, and interaction with the context. The level of learning that results from this transfer is also investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailSociologie de la communication politique
Devresse, Jenifer ULg

in Communication (in press)

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See detailFungal biofilm reactor improves the productivity of hydrophobin HFBII
Khalesi, Mohammadreza; Zune, Quentin ULg; Telek, Samuel ULg et al

in Biochemical Engineering Journal (in press)

Production and purification of hydrophobin HFBII has recently been the subject of intensive research, but the yield of production needs to be further improved for a generic use of this molecule at ... [more ▼]

Production and purification of hydrophobin HFBII has recently been the subject of intensive research, but the yield of production needs to be further improved for a generic use of this molecule at industrial scale. In a first step, the influence of different carbon sources on the growth of Trichoderma reesei and the production of HFBII was investigated. The optimum productivity was obtained by using 40 g/L lactose. Carbon starvation and excretion of extracellular enzyme were determined as two main conditions for the production of HFBII. In the second phase, and according to the physiological mechanisms observed during the screening phase, a bioreactor set up has been designed and two modes of cultures have been investigated, i.e. the classical submerged fermentation and a fungal biofilm reactor. In this last set-up, the broth is continuously recirculated on a metal packing exhibiting a high specific surface. In this case, the fungal biomass was mainly attached to the metal packing, leading to a simplification of downstream processing scheme. More importantly, the HFBII concentration increased up to 48.6 ± 6.2 mg/L which was 1.8 times higher in this reactor configuration and faster than the submerged culture. X-ray tomography analysis shows that the biofilm overgrowth occurs when successive cultures are performed on the same packing. However, this phenomenon has no significant influence on the yield of HFBII, suggesting that this process could be operated in continuous mode. Protein hydrolysis during stationary phase was observed by MALDI-TOF analysis according to the removal of the last amino acid from the structure of HFBII after 48 h from the beginning of fermentation in biofilm reactor. Hopefully this modification does not lead to alternation of the main physicochemical properties of HFBII. [less ▲]

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See detailArrêts sur images – usages et pratiques du photogramme
Thonon, Jonathan ULg

in MethIS : Méthodes et Interdisciplinarité en Sciences Humaines (in press)

Le photogramme est, au cinéma, la plus petite unité de prise de vue. Image fixe, unité élémentaire du film, le photogramme forme la cellule figée d’un mouvement qui se reconstitue sous l’effet d’un ... [more ▼]

Le photogramme est, au cinéma, la plus petite unité de prise de vue. Image fixe, unité élémentaire du film, le photogramme forme la cellule figée d’un mouvement qui se reconstitue sous l’effet d’un défilement réglé (24 photogrammes/seconde) par le dispositif technique du cinéma. Image paradoxale en ce qu’elle reste invisible au spectateur malgré sa force iconique, le photogramme trouve cependant, dans le flux qui le conduit insensiblement à la disparition, certaines zones de visibilité qui en révèlent le caractère à la fois fragile et intensif. Nous allons donc envisager certaines pratiques ou certains usages du photogramme cinématographique, tout en essayant de dégager, au départ de ces pratiques, les éléments d’une théorie du photogramme, que Roland Barthes et Sylvie Pierre appelaient déjà de leurs vœux. Des protos-photogrammes et de leur usage scientifique chez Muybridge et Marey, aux usages artistiques contemporains, en passant par des pratiques publicitaires, promotionnelles ou analytiques, nous allons voir que le photogramme reste un objet singulier. [less ▲]

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See detailSU(3) Clebsch-Gordan coefficients at large $N_c$
Stancu, Floarea ULg

in Nuclear Physics A (2016), 945

It is argued that several papers where SU(3) Clebsch-Gordan coefficients were calculated in order to describe properties of hadronic systems are, up to a phase convention, particular cases of analytic ... [more ▼]

It is argued that several papers where SU(3) Clebsch-Gordan coefficients were calculated in order to describe properties of hadronic systems are, up to a phase convention, particular cases of analytic formulae derived by Hecht in 1965 in the context of nuclear physics. This is valid for irreducible representations with multiplicity one in the corresponding Clebsch-Gordan series. For multiplicity two, Hecht has proposed an alternative which can provide correct $1/N_c$ sub-leading orders in large $N_c$ studies. [less ▲]

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See detailStatistically Bundled Shewhart Control Charts for Monitoring Delivery Chains Systems
Foster, Earnest; Faraz, Alireza ULg; Heuchenne, Cédric ULg

in European Journal of Industrial Engineering (2016)

Continuous monitoring of Delivery Time variables by means of control charts in a delivery chain is a very recent application of Statistical Process Control (SPC) to the service sector. The aim of the ... [more ▼]

Continuous monitoring of Delivery Time variables by means of control charts in a delivery chain is a very recent application of Statistical Process Control (SPC) to the service sector. The aim of the proposed method is to provide supply chain decision makers with an easy to be managed tool monitoring the current functioning state of the delivery chain. The implementation of SPC control charts makes it possible to limit over-corrections to false alarm conditions and to maintain at an acceptable level the safety stock, with a consequent reduction of the overall management costs of the delivery chain. An illustrative example shows the proposed control chart implementation in a real delivery chain. [less ▲]

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See detailPerformance et Innovation en PME: une relation à questionner
Ajzen, Michel; Rondeaux, Giseline ULg; Pichault, François ULg et al

in Revue Internationale P.M.E. (2016), 29(2),

Noting that in management science, management policies would have all, the ultimate ambition of contributing to company performance and the innovative capacity of a company would be a sine qua non of this ... [more ▼]

Noting that in management science, management policies would have all, the ultimate ambition of contributing to company performance and the innovative capacity of a company would be a sine qua non of this performance, this article shows that (if) these two concepts refer to disparate content; (ii) the performance is primarily measured by distanced indicators (financial); (iii) the nature of the interdependence between innovation and performance is not unequivocal. Considering the weight of contextual variables, we show the interest to adopt a broader vision of concepts of innovation and performance in SMEs, capitalizing on the diversity of performance and innovation characterizations, and adopting an agnostic approach establishing no a priori link between them. This article proposes to broaden the concepts of innovation and performance by mobilizing indicators specific to SMEs and outlines a methodology to measure and weigh them as well as to provide researchers with tools to better understand the interactions between these variables. In doing so, we contribute to a critical approach of de-naturalization to emancipate SMEs and, more broadly, public and regulatory authorities, from narrow performative standards. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-species measurements of nitrogen isotopic composition r 1 eveal the spatial constraints and 2 biological drivers of ammonium attenuation across a highly contaminated groundwater system
Wells, Naomi S.; Hakoun, Vivien ULg; Brouyère, Serge ULg et al

in Water Research (2016), 98

Groundwater under industrial sites is characterised by heterogeneous chemical mixtures, making it difficult to assess the fate and transport of individual contaminants. Quantifying the in-situ biological ... [more ▼]

Groundwater under industrial sites is characterised by heterogeneous chemical mixtures, making it difficult to assess the fate and transport of individual contaminants. Quantifying the in-situ biological removal (attenuation) of nitrogen (N) is particularly difficult due to its reactivity and ubiquity. Here a multi-isotope approach is developed to distinguish N sources and sinks within groundwater affected by complex industrial pollution. Samples were collected from 70 wells across the two aquifers underlying a historic industrial area in Belgium. Below the industrial site the groundwater contained up to 1000 mg Nl-1 ammonium (NH4 +) and 300 mg N l-1 nitrate (NO3-), while downgradient concentrations decreased to ~1 mg l-1 DIN ([DIN] = [NH4+-N] + [NO3--N] + [NO2--N]). Mean δ1534 N-DIN increased from ~2‰ to +20‰ over this flow path, broadly confirming that biological N attenuation drove the measured concentration decrease. Multi-variate analysis of water chemistry identified two distinct NH4+ sources (δ15N-NH4+ from -14‰ and +5‰) within the contaminated zone of both aquifers. Nitrate dual isotopes co-varied (δ15 N: -3‰ - +60‰; δ18O: 0‰ - +50‰) within the range expected for coupled nitrification and denitrification of the identified sources. The fact that δ15N-NO2- values were 50‰ to 20‰ less than δ15N-NH4+ values in 40 the majority of wells confirmed that nitrification controlled N turnover across the site. However, the fact that δ15N-NO2- was greater than δ15N-NH4+ in wells with the highest [NH4+] shows that an autotrophic NO2- reduction pathway (anaerobic NH4+ oxidation or nitrifier-denitrification) drove N attenuation closest to the contaminant plume. This direct empirical evidence that both autotrophic and heterotrophic biogeochemical processes drive N attenuation in contaminated aquifers demonstrates the power of multiple N isotopes to untangle N cycling in highly complex systems. [less ▲]

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See detailA simple calibration approach based on film-casting for confocal Raman microscopy to support the development of a Hot-Melt Extrusion process
Netchacovitch, Lauranne ULg; Thiry, Justine ULg; De Bleye, Charlotte ULg et al

in Talanta (2016), 154

When developing a new formulation, the development, calibration and validation steps of analytical methods based on vibrational spectroscopy are time-consuming. For each new formulation, real samples must ... [more ▼]

When developing a new formulation, the development, calibration and validation steps of analytical methods based on vibrational spectroscopy are time-consuming. For each new formulation, real samples must be produced and a “reference method” must be used in order to determine the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) content of each sample. To circumvent this issue, the paper presents a simple approach based on the film-casting technique used as a calibration tool in the framework of hot-melt extrusion process. Confocal Raman microscopic method was successfully validated for the determination of itraconazole content in film-casting samples. Then, hot-melt extrusion was carried out to produce real samples in order to confront the results obtained with confocal Raman microscopy and Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC). The agreement between both methods was demonstrated using a comparison study based on the Bland and Altman’s plot. [less ▲]

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See detailScreening study of SFC critical method parameters for the determination of pharmaceutical compounds
Dispas, Amandine ULg; Lebrun, Pierre ULg; Sacre, Pierre-Yves ULg et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2016), 125

Nowadays, supercritical fluid chromatography is commonly presented as a promising alternative technique in the field of separation sciences. Nevertheless the selection of chromatographic conditions and ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, supercritical fluid chromatography is commonly presented as a promising alternative technique in the field of separation sciences. Nevertheless the selection of chromatographic conditions and sample preparation of pharmaceutical compounds remain a challenge and peak distortion was previously highlighted. The main objective of the present work was to evaluate the impact of different critical method parameters (CMPs), i.e. stationary phase, mobile phase composition and injection solvent nature. The experiments were performed considering two groups of antimalarial molecules: one group with neutral/apolar compounds and the other one with salt form of polar compounds. In this context, another objective was to propose a suitable sample solvent for quantitative analysis. The interest of new generation stationary phase to obtain good peak shape and the interest to tune the mobile phase composition were demonstrated. During this study, design of experiments and desirability function approach enabled to highlight optimal chromatographic conditions in order to maximise peak capacity and to get acceptable value of symmetry factor. Regarding sample injection solvent composition, some counterintuitive results were observed: solvents closer to the mobile phase polarity (i.e heptane or 2-propanol/heptane mixture) did not provide best results in terms of peak symmetry. In addition, acetonitrile and short aliphatic alcohols offered an interesting alternative as injection solvent: toxicity of solvents used is clearly reduced and better quantitative performances could be expected while keeping high peak capacity and symmetric sharp peaks. Finally, the quantitative performances were evaluated by the method validation for the quantitative determination of quinine sulfate in a pharmaceutical formulation. These better understandings on critical method parameters led SFC to be an even more promising technique in the field of the analysis of pharmaceutical compounds. [less ▲]

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See detailLaboratory idenification of anaerobic bacteria isolated on Clostridium difficile selective medium
Rodriguez Diaz, Cristina ULg; Warszawski, Nathalie; Korsak Koulagenko, Nicolas ULg et al

in Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica (2016)

Despite increasing interest in the bacterium, the methodology for Clostridium difficile recovery has not yet been standardised. Cycloserine cefoxitin fructose taurocholate (CCFT) has historically been the ... [more ▼]

Despite increasing interest in the bacterium, the methodology for Clostridium difficile recovery has not yet been standardised. Cycloserine cefoxitin fructose taurocholate (CCFT) has historically been the most used medium for C. difficile isolation from human, animal, environmental and food samples, and presumptive identification is usually based on colony morphologies. However, CCFT is not totally selective. This study describes the recovery of 24 bacteria species belonging to 10 different genera other than C. difficile, present in the environment and foods of a retirement establishment that were not inhibited in the C. difficile selective medium. These findings provide insight for further environmental and food studies as well as for isolation of C. difficile on supplemented CCFT. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Exact Method for Designing Shewhart X ̅ and S2 Control Charts to Guarantee the In-Control Performance
Faraz, Alireza ULg; Heuchenne, Cédric ULg

in Journal of Quality Technology (2016)

The in-control performance of the Shewhart X ̅ and S2 control charts with estimated in-control parameters has been evaluated by a number of authors. Results indicate an unrealistically large amount of ... [more ▼]

The in-control performance of the Shewhart X ̅ and S2 control charts with estimated in-control parameters has been evaluated by a number of authors. Results indicate an unrealistically large amount of Phase I data is needed to have the desired in-control average run length (ARL) value in Phase II. To overcome this problem, it has been recommended that the control limits be adjusted based on a bootstrap method to guarantee that the in-control ARL is at least a specified value with a certain specified probability. In our paper we present simple formulas for the required control limits so that practitioners do not have to use the bootstrap method. An assumption of normality is required. The advantage of our proposed method is in its simplicity; there is no bootstrapping and the control chart constants do not depend on the Phase I sample data. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes sector-specific experience matter? The case of European higher education ministers
Jacqmin, Julien ULg; Lefebvre, Mathieu ULg

in Research Policy (2016), 45(5), 987998

This paper looks at the relationship between higher education ministers and the performance of the sector that they govern. Using an original panel dataset with the characteristics of European higher ... [more ▼]

This paper looks at the relationship between higher education ministers and the performance of the sector that they govern. Using an original panel dataset with the characteristics of European higher education ministers, we find that having a past experience in the sector leads to a higher level of performance, as measured by ranking data. Making a parallel with the literature about the impact of education on the educated, we discuss potential explanations behind the impact of this on-the-job learning experience. As we find that this characteristic has no impact on the spendings of the sector, we argue that this academic experience makes them more prone to introduce adequate reforms that makes the sector more attractive for top-researchers. Furthermore, we find that this result is driven by ministers with both sector-specific and electoral experience, the latter measured by a successful election at the regional or national level. This tends to show that political credibility should not be overshadowed by the importance of the sector-specific experience of ministers. [less ▲]

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See detailExplaining the diversity of motivations behind community renewable energy
Bauwens, Thomas ULg

in Energy Policy (2016), 93

Community-based renewable energy initiatives may be important actors in the transition toward low-carbon energy systems. In turn, stimulating investments in renewable energy production at the community ... [more ▼]

Community-based renewable energy initiatives may be important actors in the transition toward low-carbon energy systems. In turn, stimulating investments in renewable energy production at the community level requires a better understanding of investors’ motives. This paper aims to study the heterogeneity of motivations that drive individuals to participate in community renewable energy projects and the underlying explanatory factors behind this, as well as the implications for their level of engagement in initiatives. Based on quantitative data from an original survey conducted with two renewable energy cooperatives in Flanders, the statistical analysis shows that cooperative members should not be considered as one homogeneous group. Several categories of members with different motives and levels of engagement can be distinguished. This heterogeneity is explained by contrasts in terms of institutional settings, spatial patterns and attitudes to the diffusion of institutional innovations. Regarding policy implications, the findings suggest that this heterogeneity should be taken into account in designing more effective supporting policies to stimulate investments at the community level. The activation of social norms is also shown to be a promising mechanism for triggering investment decisions, although the implications of its interplay with economic incentives should be further explored. [less ▲]

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See detailCarbon xerogels as model materials: toward a relationship between pore texture and electrochemical behavior as anodes for lithium-ion batteries
Piedboeuf, Marie-Laure ULg; Léonard, Alexandre ULg; Deschamps, Fabien ULg et al

in Journal of Materials Science (2016), 51(9), 4358-4370

The mechanisms of Li+ insertion in porous hard carbons used as anodes for Li-ion batteries are still a matter of debate, especially considering the divergence of electrochemical performances observed in ... [more ▼]

The mechanisms of Li+ insertion in porous hard carbons used as anodes for Li-ion batteries are still a matter of debate, especially considering the divergence of electrochemical performances observed in literature. Since these materials usually exhibit several levels of porosity, the pore texture vs. electrochemical behavior relationship is difficult to establish. In this paper, we propose to use carbon xerogels, prepared from aqueous resorcinol-formaldehyde mixtures, as model materials for Li-ion battery anodes to study the influence of the pore texture on the overall electrochemical behavior. Indeed, carbon xerogels are described as microporous nodules linked together to form meso- or macroporous voids inside a 3D gel structure; the size of these voids can be tuned by changing the synthesis conditions without affecting other parameters such as the micropore volume. The materials are chosen so as to obtain identical average particle sizes, homogeneous coatings with similar thicknesses and a comparable surface chemistry. The electrochemical behavior of carbon xerogels as Li-ion anodes are correlated with the surface accessible to the electrolyte and are not dependent on the total specific surface area calculated by the BET method from nitrogen adsorption isotherms. The key parameter proposed to understand their behavior is the external surface area of the nodules, which corresponds to the surface of the meso/macropores. [less ▲]

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See detailReflexive Loops on Scaling issues in Landscape Quality Assessment
Schmitz, Serge ULg; Vanderheyden, Vincent ULg

in Land Use Policy (2016), 53

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See detailCystatin C standardization decreases assay variation and improves assessment of glomerular filtration rate
Ebert, N; DELANAYE, Pierre ULg; Shlipak, M et al

in Clinica Chimica Acta (2016), 456

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See detailTrophic plasticity of Antarctic echinoids under contrasted environmental conditions
Michel, Loïc ULg; David, Bruno; Dubois, Philippe et al

in Polar Biology (2016), 39(5), 913-923

Echinoids are common members of Antarctic zoobenthos, and different groups can show important trophic diversity. As part of the ANT-XXIX/3 cruise of RV Polarstern, trophic plasticity of sea urchins was ... [more ▼]

Echinoids are common members of Antarctic zoobenthos, and different groups can show important trophic diversity. As part of the ANT-XXIX/3 cruise of RV Polarstern, trophic plasticity of sea urchins was studied in three neighbouring regions (Drake Passage, Bransfield Strait and Weddell Sea) featuring several depth-related habitats offering different trophic environments to benthic consumers. Three families with contrasting feeding habits (Cidaridae, Echinidae and Schizasteridae) were studied. Gut content examination and stable isotopes ratios of C and N suggest that each of the studied families showed a different response to variation in environmental and food conditions. Schizasteridae trophic plasticity was low, and these sea urchins were bulk sediment feeders relying on sediment-associated organic matter in all regions and/or depth-related habitats. Cidaridae consumed the most animal-derived material. Their diet varied according to the considered area, as sea urchins from Bransfield Strait relied mostly on living and/or dead animal material, while specimens from Weddell Sea fed on a mixture of dead animal material and other detritus. Echinidae also showed important trophic plasticity. They fed on various detrital items in Bransfield Strait, and selectivity of ingested material varied across depth-related habitats. In Weddell Sea, stable isotopes revealed that they mostly relied on highly 13C-enriched food items, presumably microbially-reworked benthic detritus. The differences in adaptive strategies could lead to family-specific responses of Antarctic echinoids to environmental and food-related changes. [less ▲]

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See detailCross-cultural adaptation and validation of the VISA-P questionnaire for French-speaking patients with patellar tendinopathy
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Delvaux, François ULg; Oppong-Kyei, Julian et al

in Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy (2016), 46(5), 384-393

Study Design Clinical measurement study. Background The Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment–Patellar tendinopathy questionnaire (VISA-P), originally developed in English, assesses the severity of ... [more ▼]

Study Design Clinical measurement study. Background The Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment–Patellar tendinopathy questionnaire (VISA-P), originally developed in English, assesses the severity of patellar tendinopathy symptoms. No French version of the questionnaire exists. Objectives The aim of our study was to translate the VISA-P in French and verify its psychometric properties. Methods The translation and cultural adaptation were performed according to international recommendations in six steps: initial translation, translation merging, back translation to the original language, expert committee to reach a pre-final version, test of the pre-final version, and expert committee appraisal of a final version. Afterwards, the psychometric properties the final French version (VISA-PF) were assessed in 92 subjects, divided into three groups: pathological subjects (n = 28), asymptomatic subjects (n = 22) and sports-risk subjects (n = 42). Results All members of the expert committee agreed with the final version. On a scale ranging from 0 to 100 (asymptomatic subject), the average scores of the VISA-PF obtained were 53 (± 17) for the pathological group, 99 (± 2) for the healthy group and 86 (± 14) for the sports-risk group. The test-retest reliability of the VISA-PF was excellent and good internal consistency. Correlations between the VISA-PF and diverging validity of the SF-36 were low and the correlation coefficient values measured between the VISA-PF scores and converged items of the SF-36 were higher. Conclusion The VISA-PF is understandable, valid and suitable for French-speaking patients with patellar tendinopathy. [less ▲]

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See detailL’institutionnalisation du droit international (1869-1873). Les réseaux internationaux de Gustave Rolin-Jaequemyns
Genin, Vincent ULg

in Journal of the History of International Law / Revue d'Histoire du Droit International (2016), 18(2-3), 181-196

This article deals with a phenomenon which appears in a particular context: the institutionalisation of international law between 1869 (creation of the Revue de droit international et de législation ... [more ▼]

This article deals with a phenomenon which appears in a particular context: the institutionalisation of international law between 1869 (creation of the Revue de droit international et de législation comparée) and 1873 (birth of the Institut de Droit International), through the international networks of the Belgian lawyer Gustave Rolin-Jaequemyns. He was close to Pasquale Mancini, John Westlake, James Lorimer, Franz Von Holtzendorff, but also to the least-known Michael Corr-Van der Maeren, a publicist. Until this period of crystallisation this field was not structured and represented an aggregate of individualities. What can we say about such a process of institutionalisation on the basis of unpublished archives? The history of international law, until today, especially studied by lawyers, was very neglected by historians, whose methods and sources are complementary to those of the lawyer. Our contribution wishes to contribute to the development of a history of international law written by historians. [less ▲]

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See detailNonbelieved memories in middle-aged and older adults
Brédart, Serge ULg; Bouffier, Marion

in Consciousness & Cognition (2016), 42(2), 352-357

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See detailDeveloping Tourism Products and new Partnerships through Participative Action Research in Rural Cameroon
Schmitz, Serge ULg; Lekane Tsoubgou, Dieudonné

in Geographical Research (2016), 54(2), 143-152

The paper explores possible synergies between microfinance institutions and small and medium medium tourism businesses in the West Cameron Chiefdooms. Based on a research action the authors emphasise the ... [more ▼]

The paper explores possible synergies between microfinance institutions and small and medium medium tourism businesses in the West Cameron Chiefdooms. Based on a research action the authors emphasise the obstacles to the formation of partnership and describe how the researchers facilitated networking. [less ▲]

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See detailUnderground pumped storage hydroelectricity using abandoned works (deep mines or open pits) and the impact on groundwater flow
Pujades, Estanislao ULg; Willems, Thibault ULg; Bodeux, Sarah ULg et al

in Hydrogeology Journal (2016)

Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants using open-pit or deep mines can be used in flat regions to store the excess of electricity produced during low-demand energy periods. It is ... [more ▼]

Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants using open-pit or deep mines can be used in flat regions to store the excess of electricity produced during low-demand energy periods. It is essential to consider the interaction between UPSH plants and the surrounding geological media. There has been little work on the assessment of associated groundwater flow impacts. The impacts on groundwater flow are determined numerically using a simplified numerical model which is assumed to be representative of open-pit and deep mines. The main impact consists of oscillation of the piezometric head, and its magnitude depends on the characteristics of the aquifer/geological medium, the mine and the pumping and injection intervals. If an average piezometric head is considered, it drops at early times after the start of the UPSH plant activity and then recovers progressively. The most favorable hydrogeological conditions to minimize impacts are evaluated by comparing several scenarios. The impact magnitude will be lower in geological media with low hydraulic diffusivity; however, the parameter that plays the more important role is the volume of water stored in the mine. Its variation modifies considerably the groundwater flow impacts. Finally, the problem is studied analytically and some solutions are proposed to approximate the impacts, allowing a quick screening of favorable locations for future UPSH plants. [less ▲]

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See detailTropospheric water vapour isotopologue data (H216O, H218O and HD16O) as obtained from NDACC/FTIR solar absorption spectra
Barthlott, Sabine; Schneider, Matthias; Hase, Frank et al

in Earth System Science Data Discussions (2016)

We report on the ground-based FTIR (Fourier Transform InfraRed) tropospheric water vapour isotopologue remote sensing data that have been recently made available via the database of NDACC (Network for the ... [more ▼]

We report on the ground-based FTIR (Fourier Transform InfraRed) tropospheric water vapour isotopologue remote sensing data that have been recently made available via the database of NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change; ftp://ftp.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/ndacc/MUSICA/) and via doi:10.5281/zenodo.48902. Currently, data are available for 12 globally distributed stations. They have been centrally retrieved and quality filtered in the framework of the MUSICA project (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water). We explain particularities of retrieving the water vapour isotopologue state (vertical distribution of H162O, H182O and HD16O) and reveal the need for a new meta-data template for archiving such FTIR isotopologue data. We describe the format of different data components and give recommendations for correct data usage. Data are provided as two data types. The first type is best-suited for tropospheric water vapour distribution studies disregarding different isotopologues (comparison with radiosonde data, analyses of water vapour variability and trends, etc.). The second type is needed for analysing moisture pathways by means of {H2O,delta-D}-pair distributions. [less ▲]

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See detailNovel approaches for preventing acute graftversus- host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
SERVAIS, Sophie ULg; BEGUIN, Yves ULg; Delens, Loïc ULg et al

in Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs (2016)

Introduction Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) offers potential curative treatment for a wide range of malignant and nonmalignant hematological disorders. However, its success ... [more ▼]

Introduction Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) offers potential curative treatment for a wide range of malignant and nonmalignant hematological disorders. However, its success may be limited by post-transplant acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), a systemic syndrome in which donor’s immune cells attack healthy tissues in the immunocompromised host. aGVHD is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality after alloHSCT. Despite standard GVHD prophylaxis regimens, aGVHD still develops in approximately 40–60% of alloHSCT recipients. Areas covered In this review, after a brief summary of current knowledge on the pathogenesis of aGVHD, the authors review the current combination of a calcineurin inhibitor with an antimetabolite with or without added anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) and emerging strategies for GVHD prevention. Expert opinion A new understanding of the involvement of cytokines, intracellular signaling pathways, epigenetics and immunoregulatory cells in GVHD pathogenesis will lead to new standards for aGVHD prophylaxis allowing better prevention of severe aGVHD without affecting graft-versus-tumor effects. [less ▲]

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See detailNo Evidence of Herpesvirus Infection in West Highland Terriers with Canine Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis
Roels, Elodie ULg; Dourcy, Mickael ULg; Holopainen, S. et al

in Veterinary Pathology (2016)

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See detailFire Fragility Curves for Steel Buildings in a Community Context: A Methodology
Gernay, Thomas ULg; Elhami Khorasani, Negar; Garlock, Maria

in Engineering Structures (2016), 113

This paper proposes a novel methodology for developing fire fragility functions for an entire steel building - meaning that the function is not specific to a location within the building. The aim is to ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes a novel methodology for developing fire fragility functions for an entire steel building - meaning that the function is not specific to a location within the building. The aim is to characterize the probabilistic vulnerability of steel buildings to fire in the context of community resilience assessment. In developing the fragility functions, uncertainties in the fire model, the heat transfer model and the thermo-mechanical response are considered. In addition several fire scenarios at different locations in the building are studied. Monte Carlo Simulations and Latin Hypercube Sampling are used to generate the probability distributions of demand placed on the members and structural capacity relative to selected damage thresholds. By assessing demand and capacity in the temperature domain, the thermal and the structural problems can be treated separately to improve the efficiency of the probabilistic analysis. After the probability distributions are obtained for demand and capacity, the fragility functions can be obtained by convolution of the distributions. Finally, event tree analysis is used to combine the functions associated with fire scenarios in different building locations. The developed fire fragility functions yield the probability of exceedance of predefined damage states as a function of the fire load in the building. The methodology is illustrated on an example consisting in a prototype nine-story steel building based on the SAC project. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom Near-Infrared and Raman to Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy: Progress, Limitations, Perspectives in Bioanalysis
Dumont, Elodie ULg; De Bleye, Charlotte ULg; Sacre, Pierre-Yves ULg et al

in Bioanalysis (2016), 8(10), 1077-1103

Over recent decades, spreading environmental concern entailed the expansion of green chemistry analytical tools. Vibrational spectroscopy, belonging to this class of analytical tool, is particularly ... [more ▼]

Over recent decades, spreading environmental concern entailed the expansion of green chemistry analytical tools. Vibrational spectroscopy, belonging to this class of analytical tool, is particularly interesting taking into account its numerous advantages such as fast data acquisition and no sample preparation. In this context, Near-Infrared, Raman and mainly Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) have thus gained interest in many fields including bioanalysis. The two former techniques only ensure the analysis of concentrated compounds in simple matrices, whereas the emergence of SERS improved the performances of vibrational spectroscopy to very sensitive and selective analyses. Complex SERS substrates were also developed enabling biomarker measurements, paving the way for SERS immunoassays. Therefore, in this paper, the strengths and weaknesses of these techniques will be highlighted with a focus on recent progress. [less ▲]

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See detailNew 2016 MeSH addressing information gap, poverty, violence and danger of medicine set the tone for policy makers in patient care
Jamoulle, Marc ULg

in International Journal of Health Policy and Management (2016)

A careful review of the list of newly published Medical subject Heading in 2016 allows to identify 52 new or updated MESH in 2016 relevant to General Practice Family Medicine management (i.e. non-clinical ... [more ▼]

A careful review of the list of newly published Medical subject Heading in 2016 allows to identify 52 new or updated MESH in 2016 relevant to General Practice Family Medicine management (i.e. non-clinical) fields. Information society gap, poverty, violence and quaternary prevention related MeSH are outstandingly frequent. The 52 identified MeSH are proposed in supplementary material. [less ▲]

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See detailDirect one-pot synthesis of poly(ionic liquid) nanogels by cobalt-mediated radical cross-linking copolymerization in organic or aqueous media
Weiss-Maurin, Mathilde ULg; Cordella, Daniela ULg; Jérôme, Christine ULg et al

in Polymer Chemistry (2016), 7(14), 2521-2530

Nanogels of controlled kinetic chain length were synthesized by cobalt-mediated radical cross-linking copolymerization (CMRccP) involving a vinyl monomer and a divinyl cross-linker. This strategy was ... [more ▼]

Nanogels of controlled kinetic chain length were synthesized by cobalt-mediated radical cross-linking copolymerization (CMRccP) involving a vinyl monomer and a divinyl cross-linker. This strategy was first validated to achieve neutral poly(vinyl acetate) nanogels by CMRccP of vinyl acetate and divinyl adipate as cross-linker, at 40 °C, in presence of an alkyl- cobalt(III) serving both as initiator and controlling agent, using ethyl acetate as solvent. Poly(ionic liquid) nanogels were then directly obtained by CMRccP of N-vinyl-3-ethyl imidazolium bromide, in presence of 1,13-divinyl-3-decyl diimidazolium bromide as cross-linker. CMRccP experiments could be conducted either in organic solvent using dimethyl formamide or, more interestingly, in aqueous solution, demonstrating the robustness and the versatility of this one-step process. Chain extensions of PILs nanogels were also carried out in water, forming core-shell structures, thus opening new avenues in the design of functional nanogels. [less ▲]

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See detailLow-rank plus sparse decomposition for exoplanet detection in direct-imaging ADI sequences. The LLSG algorithm
Gómez González, Carlos ULg; Absil, Olivier ULg; Absil, P.-A. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 589

Context. Data processing constitutes a critical component of high-contrast exoplanet imaging. Its role is almost as important as the choice of a coronagraph or a wavefront control system, and it is ... [more ▼]

Context. Data processing constitutes a critical component of high-contrast exoplanet imaging. Its role is almost as important as the choice of a coronagraph or a wavefront control system, and it is intertwined with the chosen observing strategy. Among the data processing techniques for angular differential imaging (ADI), the most recent is the family of principal component analysis (PCA) based algorithms. It is a widely used statistical tool developed during the first half of the past century. PCA serves, in this case, as a subspace projection technique for constructing a reference point spread function (PSF) that can be subtracted from the science data for boosting the detectability of potential companions present in the data. Unfortunately, when building this reference PSF from the science data itself, PCA comes with certain limitations such as the sensitivity of the lower dimensional orthogonal subspace to non-Gaussian noise. <BR /> Aims: Inspired by recent advances in machine learning algorithms such as robust PCA, we aim to propose a localized subspace projection technique that surpasses current PCA-based post-processing algorithms in terms of the detectability of companions at near real-time speed, a quality that will be useful for future direct imaging surveys. <BR /> Methods: We used randomized low-rank approximation methods recently proposed in the machine learning literature, coupled with entry-wise thresholding to decompose an ADI image sequence locally into low-rank, sparse, and Gaussian noise components (LLSG). This local three-term decomposition separates the starlight and the associated speckle noise from the planetary signal, which mostly remains in the sparse term. We tested the performance of our new algorithm on a long ADI sequence obtained on β Pictoris with VLT/NACO. <BR /> Results: Compared to a standard PCA approach, LLSG decomposition reaches a higher signal-to-noise ratio and has an overall better performance in the receiver operating characteristic space. This three-term decomposition brings a detectability boost compared to the full-frame standard PCA approach, especially in the small inner working angle region where complex speckle noise prevents PCA from discerning true companions from noise. [less ▲]

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See detailAnthropogenic forcing dominates global mean sea-level rise since 1970
Slagen, A.; Church, J.; Agosta, Cécile ULg et al

in Nature Climate Change (2016)

Sea-level change is an important consequence of anthropogenic climate change, as higher sea levels increase the frequency of sea-level extremes and the impact of coastal flooding and erosion on the ... [more ▼]

Sea-level change is an important consequence of anthropogenic climate change, as higher sea levels increase the frequency of sea-level extremes and the impact of coastal flooding and erosion on the coastal environment, infrastructure and coastal communities1, 2. Although individual attribution studies have been done for ocean thermal expansion3, 4 and glacier mass loss5, two of the largest contributors to twentieth-century sea-level rise, this has not been done for the other contributors or total global mean sea-level change (GMSLC). Here, we evaluate the influence of greenhouse gases (GHGs), anthropogenic aerosols, natural radiative forcings and internal climate variability on sea-level contributions of ocean thermal expansion, glaciers, ice-sheet surface mass balance and total GMSLC. For each contribution, dedicated models are forced with results from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate model archive6. The sum of all included contributions explains 74 ± 22% (±2σ) of the observed GMSLC over the period 1900–2005. The natural radiative forcing makes essentially zero contribution over the twentieth century (2 ± 15% over the period 1900–2005), but combined with the response to past climatic variations explains 67 ± 23% of the observed rise before 1950 and only 9 ± 18% after 1970 (38 ± 12% over the period 1900–2005). In contrast, the anthropogenic forcing (primarily a balance between a positive sea-level contribution from GHGs and a partially offsetting component from anthropogenic aerosols) explains only 15 ± 55% of the observations before 1950, but increases to become the dominant contribution to sea-level rise after 1970 (69 ± 31%), reaching 72 ± 39% in 2000 (37 ± 38% over the period 1900–2005). [less ▲]

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See detailCO2-blown microcellular non-isocyanate polyurethane (NIPU) foams: from bio- and CO2-sourced monomers to potentially thermal insulating materials
Grignard, Bruno ULg; Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg; Gennen, Sandro ULg et al

in Green Chemistry (2016), 18(7), 2206-2215

Bio- and CO2-sourced non-isocyanate polyurethane (NIPU) microcellular foams were prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) foaming technology. These low-density foams offer low thermal ... [more ▼]

Bio- and CO2-sourced non-isocyanate polyurethane (NIPU) microcellular foams were prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) foaming technology. These low-density foams offer low thermal conductivity and have an impressive potential for use in insulating materials. They constitute attractive alternatives to conventional polyurethane foams. We investigated CO2’s ability to synthesize the cyclic carbonates that are used in the preparation of NIPU by melt step-growth polymerization with a bio-sourced amino-telechelic oligoamide and for NIPU foaming. Our study shows that CO2 is not only sequestered in the material for long-term application, but is also valorized as a blowing agent in the production of NIPU foams. Such foams will contribute to energy conservation and savings by reducing CO2 emissions. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluating ethane and methane emissions associated with the development of oil and natural gas extraction in North America
Franco, Bruno ULg; Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg; Emmons, L. K. et al

in Environmental Research Letters (2016), 11(4), 044010

Sharp rises in the atmospheric abundance of ethane (C2H6) have been detected from 2009 onwards in the Northern Hemisphere as a result of the unprecedented growth in the exploitation of shale gas and tight ... [more ▼]

Sharp rises in the atmospheric abundance of ethane (C2H6) have been detected from 2009 onwards in the Northern Hemisphere as a result of the unprecedented growth in the exploitation of shale gas and tight oil reservoirs in North America. Using time series of C2H6 total columns derived from ground-based FTIR observations made at five selected NDACC sites, we characterize the recent C2H6 evolution and determine growth rates of ~5%/yr at mid-latitudes and of ~3%/yr at remote sites. Results from CAM-chem simulations with the HTAP2 bottom-up inventory for anthropogenic emissions are found to greatly underestimate the current C2H6 abundances. Doubling global emissions is required to reconcile the simulations and the observations prior to 2009. We further estimate that North American anthropogenic C2H6 emissions have increased from 1.6 Tg/yr in 2008 to 2.8 Tg/yr in 2014, i.e. by 75% over these six years. We also completed a second simulation with new top-down emissions of C2H6 from North American oil and gas activities, biofuel consumption and biomass burning, inferred from space-borne observations of methane (CH4) from GOSAT. In this simulation, GEOS-Chem is able to reproduce FTIR measurements at the mid-latitudinal sites, underscoring the impact of the North American oil and gas development on the current C2H6 abundance. Finally we estimate that the North American oil and gas emissions of CH4, a major greenhouse gas, grew from 20 to 35 Tg/yr over the period 2008 to 2014, in association with the recent C2H6 rise. [less ▲]

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See detailReconstruction and analysis of long-term satellite-derived sea surface temperature for the South China Sea
Huynh, Thi Hong Ngu ULg; Alvera Azcarate, Aïda ULg; Barth, Alexander ULg et al

in Journal of Oceanography (2016)

Sea surface temperature (SST) is one of the key variables often used to investigate ocean dynamics, ocean-atmosphere interaction, and climate change. Unfortunately, the SST data sources in the South China ... [more ▼]

Sea surface temperature (SST) is one of the key variables often used to investigate ocean dynamics, ocean-atmosphere interaction, and climate change. Unfortunately, the SST data sources in the South China Sea (SCS) are not abundant due to sparse measurements of in situ SST and a high percentage of missing data in the satellite-derived SST. Therefore, SST data sets with low resolution and/or a short-term period have often been used in previous researches. Here we used Data INterpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions, a self-consistent and parameter-free method for filling in missing data, to reconstruct the daily nighttime 4-km AVHRR Pathfinder SST for the long-term period spanning from 1989 to 2009. In addition to the reconstructed field, we also estimated the local error map for each reconstructed image. Comparisons between the reconstructed and other data sets (satellite-derived microwave and in situ SSTs) show that the results are reliable for use in many different researches, such as validating numerical models, or identifying and tracking meso-scale oceanic features. Moreover, the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis of the reconstructed SST and the reconstructed SST anomalies clearly shows the subseasonal, seasonal, and interannual variability of SST under the influence of monsoon and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), as well as reveals some oceanic features that could not be captured well in previous EOF analyses. The SCS SST often lags ENSO by about half a year. However, in this study, we see that the time lag changes with the frequencies of the SST variability, from 1 to 6 months. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of solid-supported methodology for the preparation of peptidoglycan fragments containing (2S,6R)-diaminopimelic acid
Simon, Justine ULg; Lamborelle, Nicolas ULg; Zervosen, Astrid et al

in Tetrahedron Letters (2016)

Herein, we describe the development of an efficient solid-supported methodology for the stereoselective synthesis of two peptides containing (2S,6R)-diaminopimelic acid, (S)-Ala-γ-(R)-Glu-(2S,6R)-A2pm-(R ... [more ▼]

Herein, we describe the development of an efficient solid-supported methodology for the stereoselective synthesis of two peptides containing (2S,6R)-diaminopimelic acid, (S)-Ala-γ-(R)-Glu-(2S,6R)-A2pm-(R)-Ala 1 and γ-(R)-Glu-(2S,6R)-A2pm 2. The platform consists of a Wang resin anchored by an amino acid chain including allylglycine. By olefin cross metathesis with vinylglycine, unsaturated protected (2S,6R)-A2pm was fixed on solid support. Peptides were achieved by cleavage of cross metathesis products from resin, followed by reduction of double bonds along removing of protecting groups. Furthermore, this efficient solid phase approach will lead to peptide and muropeptide libraries. [less ▲]

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See detailEnrichment of Central African logged forests with high-value tree species: testing a new approach to regenerating degraded forests
Doucet, Jean-Louis ULg; Daïnou, Kasso ULg; Ligot, Gauthier ULg et al

in International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services and Management (2016)

In natural forests of Central Africa, several studies indicate a dramatic decrease in commercial trees, including species of concern for conservation. Enrichment planting with these species will favor ... [more ▼]

In natural forests of Central Africa, several studies indicate a dramatic decrease in commercial trees, including species of concern for conservation. Enrichment planting with these species will favor both the long-term recovery of their populations and biodiversity conservation in logged forests. In this study, we analyzed the survival and growth of 23 species in plantations. Fourteen 0.2–1.1 ha mixed species plantations consisting of single-species 15 × 15 m blocks were studied for 5 years in a logging concession of southeastern Cameroon. The plantation design considered both species light requirements and sensitivity to damage by pests. To identify the best species for enrichment planting, we assessed both species performance and plantation costs. We also tested for relationships between species traits and species performance. Mean annual diameter growth increments ranged from 1.67 to 42.9 mm. No significant relationship was found between growth and survival. Herbivory by wild Bovidae was the main cause of mortality and should be carefully considered in rehabilitation efforts. We found a significant negative relationship between wood density and maximum growth rate. The other traits tested were not good predictors of species performance in plantations. The two best-performing species, Triplochiton scleroxylon and Terminalia superba, could reach the minimum cutting diameter during a 30-year cutting cycle. Costs were high and mechanized site preparation is suggested to reduce them. Widespread adoption of such plantations will only occur if financial incentives or national regulations for assuring regeneration are implemented. [less ▲]

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See detailAs above, so below? Narrative Salience and Side Effects of National Innovation Systems
Claisse, Frédéric ULg; Delvenne, Pierre ULg

in Critical Policy Studies (2016)

This article furthers previous attempts at integrating narratology in policy analysis. Embracing an open-ended definition of narrative, it stresses the importance of maintaining distinct narrative levels ... [more ▼]

This article furthers previous attempts at integrating narratology in policy analysis. Embracing an open-ended definition of narrative, it stresses the importance of maintaining distinct narrative levels and, more generally, of taking into account the pragmatic dimension of narration as an activity, including the often-implicit role and focalization of the policy analyst. Developing a conceptual analogy between storytelling and the exercise of power, it argues for a critical use of practical imagination in ‘cold’ situations of ‘narrative salience’, characterized by the absence of controversy or uncertainty, an uneven distribution of the power of scenarization. These propositions for a ‘revisited’ approach to policy narratives, equidistant from the positivist and post-positivist dichotomy, are tested on the case of ‘narrative salience’ where a particular storyline, national innovation systems, is so dominant that there appears to be no ‘counter-story’. [less ▲]

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See detailObservational signatures of past mass-exchange episodes in massive binaries: The case of HD 149 404
Raucq, Françoise ULg; Rauw, Gregor ULg; Gosset, Eric ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 588

Context. Mass and momentum exchanges in close massive binaries play an important role in their evolution, and produce several observational signatures such as asynchronous rotation and altered chemical ... [more ▼]

Context. Mass and momentum exchanges in close massive binaries play an important role in their evolution, and produce several observational signatures such as asynchronous rotation and altered chemical compositions, that remain after the stars detach again. Aims: We investigated these effects for the detached massive O-star binary HD 149 404 (O7.5 If + ON9.7 I, P = 9.81 days), which is thought to have experienced a past episode of case A Roche-lobe overflow (RLOF). Methods: Using phase-resolved spectroscopy, we performed the disentangling of the optical spectra of the two stars. The reconstructed primary and secondary spectra were then analysed with the CMFGEN model atmosphere code to determine stellar parameters, such as the effective temperatures and surface gravities, and to constrain the chemical composition of the components. We complemented the optical study with the study of IUE spectra, which we compare to the synthetic binary spectra. The properties of the stars were compared to evolutionary models. Results: We confirmed a strong overabundance in nitrogen ([N/C] ~ 150[N/C][SUB]⊙[/SUB]) for the secondary and a slight nitrogen overabundance ([N/C] ~ 5[N/C][SUB]⊙[/SUB]) for the primary star. Comparing the two stars, we found evidence for asynchronous rotation, with a rotational period ratio of 0.50 ± 0.11. Conclusions: The hypothesis of a past case A RLOF interaction in HD 149 404 is most plausible to explain its chemical abundances and rotational asynchronicity. Some of the observed properties, such as the abundance pattern, are clearly a challenge for current case A binary evolution models, however. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscovering novel enzymes y functional screening of plurigenomic libraries from alga-associated Flavobacteriia and Gammaproteobacteria
Martin, Marjolaine ULg; Vandermies, Marie ULg; Joyeux, Coline et al

in Microbiological Research (2016), 186

Alga-associated microorganisms, in the context of their numerous interactions with the host and thecomplexity of the marine environment, are known to produce diverse hydrolytic enzymes with ... [more ▼]

Alga-associated microorganisms, in the context of their numerous interactions with the host and thecomplexity of the marine environment, are known to produce diverse hydrolytic enzymes with originalbiochemistry. We recently isolated several macroalgal-polysaccharide-degrading bacteria from the sur-face of the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum. These active isolates belong to two classes: the Flavobacteriiaand the Gammaproteobacteria. In the present study, we constructed two “plurigenomic” (with multi-ple bacterial genomes) libraries with the 5 most interesting isolates (regarding their phylogeny andtheir enzymatic activities) of each class (Fv and Gm libraries). Both libraries were screened for diversehydrolytic activities. Five activities, out of the 48 previously identified in the natural polysaccharolyticisolates, were recovered by functional screening: a xylanase (GmXyl7), a beta-glucosidase (GmBg1), anesterase (GmEst7) and two iota-carrageenases (Fvi2.5 and Gmi1.3). We discuss here the potential role ofthe used host-cell, the average DNA insert-sizes and the used restriction enzymes on the divergent screen-ing yields obtained for both libraries and get deeper inside the “great screen anomaly”. Interestingly, thediscovered esterase probably stands for a novel family of homoserine o-acetyltransferase-like-esterases,while the two iota-carrageenases represent new members of the poorly known GH82 family (contain-ing only 19 proteins since its description in 2000). These original results demonstrate the efficiencyof our uncommon “plurigenomic” library approach and the underexplored potential of alga-associatedcultivable microbiota for the identification of novel and algal-specific enzymes. [less ▲]

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See detailLa polykystose rénale autosomique dominante : comment et pourquoi identifier les patients "rapidement progresseurs" vers l'insuffisance rénale terminale?
bodson, aurélie; MEUNIER, Paul ULg; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2016), 71(4), 184-192

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common inherited disease characterised by the progressive development of multiple and bilateral cysts in kidneys and other organs. Most patients ... [more ▼]

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common inherited disease characterised by the progressive development of multiple and bilateral cysts in kidneys and other organs. Most patients with ADPKD will develop, sooner or later, end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The morbidity and mortality associated with ESRD prompt physicians to identify early ADPKD patients considered as «rapid progressors», who have the greatest risk to rapidly develop ESRD. The rate of progression can be assessed by clinical - especially with the «predicting renal outcome in polycystic kidney disease score» (PROPKD-Score) -, biological (a decline of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 4,4 - 5,9 ml/min/year and/or the doubling of serum creatinine within a 36-month period), or radiological criteria (total kidney volume (TKV) adjusted for the size > 600 cc/m and/or TKV annual growth rate > 5 %). Nowadays, there is no curative treatment for ADPKD. However, vasopressin-2 receptor antagonists, such as tolvaptan, appear to slow down the growth of renal cysts and the slope of GFR decline. The current management of ADPKD patients is mostly based on correcting the risk factors for progression, i.e. encouraging (over)-hydration, normalizing blood pressure, stimulating smoking cessation. [less ▲]

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See detailSoil apparent conductivity measurements for planning and analysis of agricultural experiments: A case study from Western-Thailand
Rudolph, Sebastian; Wongleecharoen, Chalemchart; Lark, Murray et al

in Geoderma (2016), 267

In experimental trials, the success or failure of agricultural improvements is commonly evaluated on the agronomic response of crops, using proper experimental designs with sufficient statistical power ... [more ▼]

In experimental trials, the success or failure of agricultural improvements is commonly evaluated on the agronomic response of crops, using proper experimental designs with sufficient statistical power. Since fine-scale variability of the experimental site can reduce statistical power, efficiency gains in the experimental design can be achieved if this variation is known and used to design blocking, or some proxy variable is used as a covariate. Near-surface geophysical techniques such as electromagnetic induction (EMI), which describes subsurface properties non-invasively by measuring soil apparent conductivity (ECa), may be one source of this information. The motivation of our study was to investigate the effectiveness of EMI-derived ECa measurements for planning and analysis of agricultural experiments. ECa and plant height measurements (the response variable) were taken from an agroforestry experiment in Western Thailand, and their variability was quantified to simulate multiple realizations of ECa and the residuals of the response variable from treatment means. These were combined to produce simulated data from different experimental designs and treatment effects. The simulated data were then used to evaluate the statistical power by detecting three orthogonal contrasts among the treatments in the original experiment. We considered three experimental designs, a simple random design (SR), a complete randomized block design (CRB), and a complete randomized block design with spatially adjusted blocks on plot means of ECa (CRBECa). Using analysis of variance (ANOVA), the smallest effect sizes could be detected with the CRBECa design, which indicates that ECa measurements could be used in the planning phase of an experiment to achieve efficiencies by improved blocking. In contrast, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) demonstrated that substantial power improvements could be gained when ECa was considered as a covariate in the analysis. We therefore recommend that ECa measurements should be used to characterize subsurface variability of experimental sites and to support the statistical analysis of agricultural experiments. [less ▲]

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See detailHerschel observations of the nebula M1-67 around the Wolf-Rayet star WR 124
Vamvatira-Nakou, C.; Hutsemekers, Damien ULg; Royer, P. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 588

Infrared Herschel imaging and spectroscopic observations of the nebula M1-67 around the Wolf-Rayet star WR 124 have been obtained along with optical imaging observations. The infrared images reveal a ... [more ▼]

Infrared Herschel imaging and spectroscopic observations of the nebula M1-67 around the Wolf-Rayet star WR 124 have been obtained along with optical imaging observations. The infrared images reveal a clumpy dusty nebula that extends up to 1 pc. The comparison with the optical images shows that the ionized gas nebula coincides with the dust nebula, the dust and the gas being mixed together. A photodissociation region is revealed from the infrared spectroscopic analysis. The analysis of the infrared spectrum of the nebula, where forbidden emission lines of ionized elements were detected, showed that the nebula consists of mildly processed material with the calculated abundance number ratios being N/O = 1.0 ± 0.5 and C/O = 0.46 ± 0.27. Based on a radiative transfer model, the dust mass of the nebula was estimated to be 0.22 M[SUB]⊙[/SUB] with a population of large grains being necessary to reproduce the observations. The comparison of the mass-loss rate and the abundance ratios to theoretical models of stellar evolution led to the conclusion that the nebular ejection took place during a RSG/YSG evolutionary phase of a central star with an initial mass of 32 M[SUB]⊙[/SUB]. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Based in part on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile. [less ▲]

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See detailIntensive enteral nutrition is ineffective for individuals with severe alcoholic hepatitis treated with corticosteroids.
Moreno, C; Deltenre, P; Senterre, C et al

in Gastroenterology (2016), 150

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Severe alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a lifethreatening disease for which adequate oral nutritional support is recommended. We performed a randomized controlled trial to determine whether ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Severe alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a lifethreatening disease for which adequate oral nutritional support is recommended. We performed a randomized controlled trial to determine whether the combination of corticosteroid and intensive enteral nutrition therapy is more effective than corticosteroid therapy alone in patients with severe AH. METHODS: We enrolled 136 heavy consumers of alcohol (age, 18–75 y) with recent onset of jaundice and biopsy-proven severe AH in our study, performed at 18 hospitals in Belgium and 2 in France, from February 2010 through February 2013. Subjects were assigned randomly (1:1) to groups that received either intensive enteral nutrition plus methylprednisolone or conventional nutrition plus methylprednisolone (controls). In the intensive enteral nutrition group, enteral nutrition was given via feeding tube for 14 days. The primary end point was patient survival for 6 months. RESULTS: In an intention-to-treat analysis, we found no significant difference between groups in 6-month cumulative mortality: 44.4% of patients died in the intensive enteral nutrition group (95% confidence interval [CI], 32.2%–55.9%) and 52.1% of controls died (95% CI, 39.4%– 63.4%) (P ¼ .406). The enteral feeding tube was withdrawn prematurely from 48.5% of patients, and serious adverse events considered to be related to enteral nutrition occurred in 5 patients. Regardless of group, a greater proportion of patients with a daily calorie intake less than 21.5 kcal/kg/day died (65.8%; 95% CI, 48.8–78.4) than patients with a higher intake of calories (33.1%; 95% CI, 23.1%–43.4%) (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: In a randomized trial of patients with severe AH treated with corticosteroids, we found that intensive enteral nutrition was difficult to implement and did not increase survival. However, low daily energy intake was associated with greater mortality, so adequate nutritional intake should be a main goal for treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailLa multimorbidité : le médecin généraliste et les systèmes de santé mis au défi
Belche, Jean ULg; Crismer, André ULg

in Minerva: Tijdschrift Voor Evidence Based Medicine (2016), 15(3), 55-57

Nous observons une hausse de la prévalence des maladies chroniques et, dans la majorité des situations, la présence concomitante d’au moins deux maladies chroniques, définition minimale de la ... [more ▼]

Nous observons une hausse de la prévalence des maladies chroniques et, dans la majorité des situations, la présence concomitante d’au moins deux maladies chroniques, définition minimale de la multimorbidité, chez un même patient. La manière dont sont structurés la production scientifique et les systèmes de santé, dont le paradigme dominant est la prise en charge de patients avec une seule morbidité, complique la prise en charge adéquate de cette population (1). Søndergaard a dès lors exploré les difficultés que rencontre le médecin généraliste (MG) face aux patients en situation de multimorbidité au travers d’ateliers auxquels ont participé près de 180 MG et chercheurs scandinaves. [less ▲]

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See detailPlatelet Rich Plasma for Treating Chronic Tendinopathy
Kaux, Jean-François ULg

in Aspetar Sports Medicine Journal (2016), 4(1), 118-122

Tendinopathy is a major problem in medicine and sports traumatology. It is due, inter alia, to mechanical overload. It remains a challenge for the medical world to the extent that its frequent resistance ... [more ▼]

Tendinopathy is a major problem in medicine and sports traumatology. It is due, inter alia, to mechanical overload. It remains a challenge for the medical world to the extent that its frequent resistance to conventional treatments never promises the patient a favourable response following therapeutic management. The development of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a new hope when therapeutic treatments such as NSAIDs, corticosteroid injections, eccentric rehabilitation, shock waves, etc. have shown their limits. Furthermore, since January 2011, it is no longer included on the list of doping substances (http://www.wada-ama.org/). Indeed, platelets contain various growth factors (PDGF, TGF-β, FGF, VEGF, HGF, IGF-1) which participate to the tendon healing process. PRP is obtained by centrifugation of autologous blood to obtain a platelet concentration greater than that of the blood, which varies according to the production method. PRP also contains a variable amount of lymphocytes and erythrocytes that can have a detrimental effect on wound healing. Currently, there is no formal consensus regarding the production method or the biological composition of PRP. Many laboratory studies (in vitro and/or on animal) emphasize the acceleration of the healing tendon process after injection of PRP, each growth factor exerting a specific action during healing. PRP would cause the proliferation, migration and differentiation of cells derived from circulation, improving the initial phase of the tendon healing. This anabolic process initiates the type I collagen synthesis. Although currently the effectiveness of PRP on tendon healing in vitro or in animals seems to be confirmed, clinical studies are currently still controversial. In addition, there is still only a limited number of randomized and controlled studies reviewing PRP for treating tendinopathy. However, it seems that PRP can be efficient to treat lateral epicondylitis, patellar tendinopathies and plantar fasciitis, even if the level of proofs remains low. Up to now there is not enough proofs concerning the use of PRP to treat rotator cuff or Achilles tendinopathies. More randomized, controlled and blinded studies remain needed. In conclusion, experimentally, PRP, through the local release of various growth factors stimulates tendon healing. This therapy could optimize the healing of pathological human tendons. PRP should be analysed to see whether it improves tendon healing in both humans and animals through other randomized controlled trials. [less ▲]

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See detailAdaptation transculturelle et validation des questionnaires VISA-P et VISA-A en français
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Delvaux, François ULg; Oppong-Kyei, Julian et al

in Science & Sports (2016), 31(2), 65-72

Objectives Patellar and calcaneal tendinopathies remain very common musculoskeletal disorders in athletes. The Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment – Patellar and – Achilles (VISA-P and VISA-A ... [more ▼]

Objectives Patellar and calcaneal tendinopathies remain very common musculoskeletal disorders in athletes. The Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment – Patellar and – Achilles (VISA-P and VISA-A), English questionnaires developed respectively to assess the severity of patellar and calcaneal tendinopathies. The purpose of our study was to validate a French version of these questionnaires. Materials and methods The French translation and intercultural adaptation of the VISA-P and the VISA-A are made according to international recommendations. For these adaptations, 92 (VISA-P) and 116 (VISA-A) subjects were recruited and divided into 3 groups (pathological, asymptotic and sporting risk), in order to test these psychometric properties. All these subjects also had to answer to the MOS SF-36 for the validity of construct. Results The mean VISA-PF scores were 99 for the healthy people, 53 for patients with patellar tendinopathy and 86 for the athletes. The VISA-PF shows excellent reliability with an inter-class correlation coefficient of 0.99. The internal consistency was 0.9 (Cronbach's alpha). The VISA-PF shows low correlations with the divergent sub-scales of the SF-36 and moderate correlations with the convergent sub-scales of the SF-36. The mean VISA-AF scores were 99 in the healthy group, 59 in the pathological group, and 94 in the group of athletes. The VISA-AF shows excellent reliability with an inter-class correlation coefficient of 0.99. The internal consistency was 0.92 (Cronbach's alpha). The VISA-AF shows low correlations with the divergent sub-scales of the SF-36 and moderate correlations with the convergent sub-scales of the SF-36. No floor and ceiling effects were detected during the evaluation of the two questionnaires. Conclusion The French versions of the VISA-P and VISA-A questionnaires are therefore French comprehensible adaptation, reliable and adapted to French-speaking patients suffering from patellar or calcaneal tendinopathies. [less ▲]

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