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See detailNew lipolitic enzymes identified by screening two metagenomic libraries derived from the soil of a winter wheat field
Stroobants, Aurore ULg; Martin, Renée ULg; Roosens, Lyse et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2015), 19(2), 125-131

Lipolytic enzymes are widely distributed and fulfil important physiological functions in the microorganisms inhabiting diverse environments. Soils are rich, diversified environments containing microbial ... [more ▼]

Lipolytic enzymes are widely distributed and fulfil important physiological functions in the microorganisms inhabiting diverse environments. Soils are rich, diversified environments containing microbial communities that remain largely unknown. [less ▲]

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See detailPour une étude croisée des armes et des lettres
Dumont, Jonathan ULg; Masson, Christophe ULg

in Moyen Age (Le) (2015), CXXI(I), 11-20

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See detailA network meta-analysis of everolimus plus exemestane versus chemotherapy in the first- and second-line treatment of estrogen receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer.
Generali, Daniele; Venturini, Sergio; Rognoni, Carla et al

in Breast cancer research and treatment (2015), 152(1), 95-117

The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy and toxicity of chemotherapy to exemestane plus everolimus (EXE/EVE) through a network meta-analysis (NMA) of randomized controlled trials. NMA methods ... [more ▼]

The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy and toxicity of chemotherapy to exemestane plus everolimus (EXE/EVE) through a network meta-analysis (NMA) of randomized controlled trials. NMA methods extend standard pairwise meta-analysis to allow simultaneous comparison of multiple treatments while maintaining randomization of individual studies. The method enables "direct" evidence (i.e., evidence from studies directly comparing two interventions) and "indirect" evidence (i.e., evidence from studies that do not compare the two interventions directly) to be pooled under the assumption of evidence consistency. We used NMA to evaluate progression-free survival (PFS) and time to progression (TTP) curves in 34 studies, and response rate (RR) and the hazard ratios (HRs) of the PFS/TTP in 36 studies. A number needed to treat (NNT) analysis was also performed as well as descriptive comparison of reported toxicities. The NMA for PFS/TTP curves and for HR shows EXE/EVE is more efficacious than capecitabine plus sunitinib, CMF, megestrol acetate and tamoxifen, with an average of related-PFS/TTP difference ranging from about 10 months for capecitabine plus sunitinib to more than 6 months for tamoxifen. The NMA for overall RR shows that EXE/EVE provides a better RR than bevacizumab plus capecitabine, capecitabine, capecitabine plus sorafenib, capecitabine plus sunitinib, CMF, gemcitabine plus epirubicin plus paclitaxel, EVE plus tamoxifen, EXE, FEC, megestrol acetate, mitoxantrone, and tamoxifen. Finally, the NMA for NNT shows that EXE/EVE is more beneficial as compared to BMF, capecitabine, capecitabine plus sunitinib, CMF, FEC, megestrol acetate, mitoxantrone, and tamoxifen. The combination of EXE/EVE as first- or second-line therapy for ER+ve/HER2-ve metastatic breast cancer is more efficacious than several chemotherapy regimens that were reported in the literature. Toxicities also favored EXE/EVE in most instances. [less ▲]

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See detailAmélioration de la biodégradation du biphényle par Rhodococcus erythropolis t902.1 en présence de Fe2O3 et de nanoparticules de fer encapsulées dans un xérogel de silice
wanoussa; Hiligsmann, Serge ULg; Tasseroul, Ludivine ULg et al

in Déchets Sciences et Techniques (2015), 69

In this work, the effect of iron oxide particles Fe2O3 and iron nanoparticles encapsulated in a porous silica matrix (xerogel Fe/SiO2) was investigated on biphenyl biodegradation by the strain Rhodococcus ... [more ▼]

In this work, the effect of iron oxide particles Fe2O3 and iron nanoparticles encapsulated in a porous silica matrix (xerogel Fe/SiO2) was investigated on biphenyl biodegradation by the strain Rhodococcus erythropolis T902.1. After 18 days of incubation biodegradation yields of 75% and 85% were achieved respectively in presence of non-autoclaved or autoclaved xerogel Fe/SiO2 at 10-5 M iron. These results are 42 and 60 % higher than in standard conditions without nanoparticles. They suggest that the autoclave procedure lead to the release of some iron less anchored in the silica matrix. This study highlights that siderophore production by Rhodococcus erythropolis T902.1 would be related to the presence of iron nanoparticles in the culture. It suggests that the production of these strong chelating compounds decreases with increase of iron release from xerogel Fe/SiO2. Moreover, most of the surfactants synthesized by Rhodococcus erythropolis T902.1 which are glycolipids containing trehalose (hexose), would be linked to cell surface and not excreted in the culture medium; the biomass hexose content also increased by 85% in presence of iron nanoparticles. [less ▲]

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See detailAnisotropic and feature sensitive triangular remeshing using normal lifting
Nivoliers, Vincent; Lévy, Bruno; Geuzaine, Christophe ULg

in Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics (2015), 289

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See detailUncertainties in Models of Stellar Structure and Evolution
Noels-Grötsch, Arlette ULg; Bragaglia, Angela

in Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings (2015), 39

Numerous physical aspects of stellar physics have been presented in Session 2 and the underlying uncertainties have been tentatively assessed. We try here to highlight some specific points raised after ... [more ▼]

Numerous physical aspects of stellar physics have been presented in Session 2 and the underlying uncertainties have been tentatively assessed. We try here to highlight some specific points raised after the talks and during the general discussion at the end of the session and eventually at the end of the workshop. A table of model uncertainties is then drawn with the help of the participants in order to give the state of the art in stellar modeling uncertainties as of July 2013. [less ▲]

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See detailLa notification du décès d’une partie à la cause
Moreau, Pierre ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2015), (17), 778-779

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See detailTrans-iron elements in the hot DO-type white dwarf RE 0503-289 and the prospective search for technetium
Werner, K; Rauch, T; Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J R et al

in The Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series (2015), 493

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See detailIntegrating hydrological features and 1 genetically validated occurrence data in occupancy 2 modeling of an endemic and endangered semi‐aquatic mammal species, Galemys pyrenaicus. 3 4
Charbonnel, Anaïs; Buisson, Laetitia; Biffi, Marjorie et al

in Biological Conservation (2015), Sous Presse

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See detailLe genre Guibourtia Benn., un taxon à haute valeur commerciale et sociétale (synthèse bibliographique)
Tosso, Dji-ndé Félicien ULg; Daïnou, Kasso ULg; Hardy, J. Olivier et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2015), 19(1),

Known as a genus of great socio-cultural and economical importance, Guibourtia Benn. includes morphologically very similar multipurpose sister species, found in various habitats with different climate and ... [more ▼]

Known as a genus of great socio-cultural and economical importance, Guibourtia Benn. includes morphologically very similar multipurpose sister species, found in various habitats with different climate and soil conditions. In many places, Guibourtia is subject to local overexploitation by forest companies and local communities. As the population density of Guibourtia species is generally very low, it may be necessary to conduct scientific investigations that will provide valuable information for the management of the populations concerned. This paper is based on an extensive literature review and summarizes the available information on the genus Guibourtia, in terms of botany, ecology, genetics, forestry and ethnobotany. Our review provided evidence that, to date, ecological and silvicultural knowledge regarding Guibourtia species is lacking and that it is very difficult to morphologically differentiate very similar sister species. In addition, we provide a new determination key for the genus Guibourtia. Based on the available information, it is difficult to assess the conservation status of these taxa. Further investigations are needed to suggest appropriate management strategies for Guibourtia. Moreover, species diversity within this genus and its distribution in various tropical biomes make it an excellent biological model for understanding the historical, biological and environmental mechanisms that explain the diversity of tropical moist forests. [less ▲]

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See detailRecel et repentir
Moreau, Pierre ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2015), (17), 797-798

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See detailClinical and genetic characterization of pituitary gigantism: an international study in 208 patients.
Rostomyan, Liliya ULg; Daly, Adrian ULg; PETROSSIANS, Patrick ULg et al

in Endocrine-related cancer (2015)

Despite being a classical growth disorder, pituitary gigantism has not been studied previously in a standardized way. We performed a retrospective, multicenter, international study to characterize a large ... [more ▼]

Despite being a classical growth disorder, pituitary gigantism has not been studied previously in a standardized way. We performed a retrospective, multicenter, international study to characterize a large series of pituitary gigantism patients. We included 208 patients (163 males; 78.4%) with growth hormone excess and current/previous abnormal growth velocity for age or final height >2SD above country normal means. The median onset of rapid growth was 13.0 years and occurred significantly earlier in females than in males; pituitary adenomas were diagnosed earlier in females than males (15.8 vs. 21.5 years, respectively). Adenomas were >/=10 mm (i.e. macroadenomas) in 84%, of which extrasellar extension occurred in 77% and invasion in 54%. GH/IGF-1 control was achieved in 39% during long-term follow-up. Final height was greater in those with younger age of onset, with larger tumors and higher GH levels. Later disease control was associated with a greater difference from mid-parental height (r=0.23, P=0.02). AIP mutations occurred in 29%; microduplication at Xq26.3 -X-linked acro-gigantism (X-LAG)- occurred in two familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) kindreds and in ten sporadic patients. Tumor size was not different in X-LAG, AIP mutated and genetically-negative patient groups. AIP-mutated and X-LAG patients had significantly younger age at onset and diagnosis, but disease control was worse in genetically-negative cases. Pituitary gigantism patients are characterized by male predominance and large tumors that are difficult to control. Treatment delay increases final height and symptom burden. AIP mutations and X-LAG explain many cases, but no genetic etiology is seen in >50% of cases. [less ▲]

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See detailMerging multi-camera data to reduce motion analysis instrumental errors using Kalman filters
Schwartz, Cédric ULg; Denoël, Vincent ULg; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg et al

in Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering (2015), 18(9), 952-960

In motion capture systems, markers are often seen by multiple cameras. All cameras do not measure the position of the markers with the same reliability because of environmental factors such as the ... [more ▼]

In motion capture systems, markers are often seen by multiple cameras. All cameras do not measure the position of the markers with the same reliability because of environmental factors such as the position of the marker in the field of view or the light intensity received by the cameras. Kalman filters offer a general framework to take the reliability of the various cameras into account and consequently improve the estimation of the marker position. The proposed process can be applied to both passive and active systems. Several reliability models of the cameras are compared for the Codamotion active system, which is considered as a specific illustration. The proposed method significantly reduces the noise in the signal, especially at long range distances. Therefore, it improves the confidence of the positions at the limits of the field of view. [less ▲]

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See detailCancer du sein : de la thérapie ciblée à la médecine personnalisée
JERUSALEM, Guy ULg; COLLIGNON, Joëlle ULg; Josse, Claire ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2015), 70(5-6), 269-276

Dans cet article, les auteurs passent en revue les grands principes de prise en charge du traitement systémique du cancer du sein et posent la question suivante : jusqu'où réellement aujourd'hui ce ... [more ▼]

Dans cet article, les auteurs passent en revue les grands principes de prise en charge du traitement systémique du cancer du sein et posent la question suivante : jusqu'où réellement aujourd'hui ce traitement est-il individualisé ? Les nouvelles technologies permettent une analyse détaillée des anomalies génomiques au niveau des cellules cancéreuses. Malheureusement, nous n'avons pas encore compris comment utiliser au mieux ces données au bénéfice du patient. La majorité des modifications du génome sont des évènements relativement rares compliquant le développement de nouveaux médicaments dans le cadre d'une médecine de précision. De plus, les tumeurs présentent une grande hétérogénéité temporelle et spatiale dont il faudra tenir compte lors de ce développement. Une collaboration internationale intensive est en cours pour tenter de confirmer que la médecine de précision permet d'optimiser les résultats du traitement systémique dans le cancer du sein. [less ▲]

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See detailComplex dynamics of a nonlinear aerospace structure: numerical continuation and normal modes
Renson, Ludovic ULg; Noël, Jean-Philippe ULg; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg

in Nonlinear Dynamics (2015), 79(2), 1293-1309

This paper investigates the dynamics of a real-life aerospace structure possessing a strongly nonlinear component with multiple mechanical stops. A full-scale finite element model is built for gaining ... [more ▼]

This paper investigates the dynamics of a real-life aerospace structure possessing a strongly nonlinear component with multiple mechanical stops. A full-scale finite element model is built for gaining additional insight into the nonlinear dynamics that was observed experimentally, but also for uncovering additional nonlinear phenomena, such as quasiperiodic regimes of motion. Forced/unforced, damped/undamped numerical simulations are carried out using advanced techniques and theoretical concepts such as numerical continuation and nonlinear normal modes. [less ▲]

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See detailCompte-rendu de l'ouvrage de Pierre RICHÉ, Être enfant au Moyen Âge
Close, Florence ULg

in Moyen Age (Le) (2015), 121(1), 181-182

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See detailCharacterization of collagen fibrils after equine suspensory ligament injury: an ultrastructural and biochemical approach
Shikh Al Sook, Mohamad Khir ULg; Gabriel, Annick ULg; Salouci, Moustafa et al

in Veterinary Journal (2015)

Suspensory ligament (SL) injuries are an important cause of lameness in horses. The mechanical properties of connective tissue in normal and pathological ligaments are mainly related to the fibril ... [more ▼]

Suspensory ligament (SL) injuries are an important cause of lameness in horses. The mechanical properties of connective tissue in normal and pathological ligaments are mainly related to the fibril morphology, as well as the collagen content and types. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, using biochemical and ultrastructural approaches, the alterations in collagen fibrils after injury. Eight Warmblood horses with visible signs of injury in only one forelimb SL were selected and specimens were examined by transmission electron microscope (TEM). Collagen types I, III and V were purified by differential salt precipitation after collagen extraction with acetic acid containing pepsin. TEM revealed abnormal organization as well as alterations in the diameter and shape of fibrils after SL injury. The bands corresponding to types I, III and V collagen were assessed by densitometry after sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Densitometric analysis indicated that the proportions of type III and type V collagen were significantly higher (P <0.001) in damaged tissues compared to normal tissues with a mean increase of 20.9 and 17.3% respectively. Concurrently, a significant decrease (P <0.001) in type I collagen within damaged tissues was recorded with a mean decrease of 15.2%. These alterations could be the hallmark of a decrease in the tissue quality and mechanical properties of the ligament. This provides new insight for subsequent research on tissue regeneration that may lead to the development of future treatment strategies for SL injury. [less ▲]

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See detailPharmacodynamics, Efficacy and Safety of Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter Type 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Scheen, André ULg

in Drugs (2015), 75(1), 33-59

Inhibitors of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) are proposed as a novel approach for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Several compounds are already available in many countries ... [more ▼]

Inhibitors of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) are proposed as a novel approach for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Several compounds are already available in many countries (dapagliflozin, canagliflozin, empagliflozin and ipragliflozin) and some others are in a late phase of development. The available SGLT2 inhibitors share similar pharmacokinetic characteristics, with a rapid oral absorption, a long elimination half-life allowing once-daily administration, an extensive hepatic metabolism mainly via glucuronidation to inactive metabolites, the absence of clinically relevant drug-drug interactions and a low renal elimination as parent drug. SGLT2 co-transporters are responsible for reabsorption of most (90 %) of the glucose filtered by the kidneys. The pharmacological inhibition of SGLT2 co-transporters reduces hyperglycaemia by decreasing renal glucose threshold and thereby increasing urinary glucose excretion. The amount of glucose excreted in the urine depends on both the level of hyperglycaemia and the glomerular filtration rate. Results of numerous placebo-controlled randomised clinical trials of 12-104 weeks duration have shown significant reductions in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), resulting in a significant increase in the proportion of patients reaching HbA1c targets, and a significant lowering of fasting plasma glucose when SGLT2 inhibitors were administered as monotherapy or in addition to other glucose-lowering therapies including insulin in patients with T2DM. In head-to-head trials of up to 2 years, SGLT2 inhibitors exerted similar glucose-lowering activity to metformin, sulphonylureas or sitagliptin. The durability of the glucose-lowering effect of SGLT2 inhibitors appears to be better; however, this remains to be more extensively investigated. The risk of hypoglycaemia was much lower with SGLT2 inhibitors than with sulphonylureas and was similarly low as that reported with metformin, pioglitazone or sitagliptin. Increased renal glucose elimination also assists weight loss and could help to reduce blood pressure. Both effects were very consistent across the trials and they represent some advantages for SGLT2 inhibitors when compared with other oral glucose-lowering agents. The pharmacodynamic response to SGLT2 inhibitors declines with increasing severity of renal impairment, and prescribing information for each SGLT2 inhibitor should be consulted regarding dosage adjustments or restrictions in moderate to severe renal dysfunction. Caution is also recommended in the elderly population because of a higher risk of renal impairment, orthostatic hypotension and dehydration, even if the absence of hypoglycaemia represents an obvious advantage in this population. The overall effect of SGLT2 inhibitors on the risk of cardiovascular disease is unknown and will be evaluated in several ongoing prospective placebo-controlled trials with cardiovascular outcomes. The impact of SGLT2 inhibitors on renal function and their potential to influence the course of diabetic nephropathy also deserve more attention. SGLT2 inhibitors are generally well-tolerated. The most frequently reported adverse events are female genital mycotic infections, while urinary tract infections are less commonly observed and generally benign. In conclusion, with their unique mechanism of action that is independent of insulin secretion and action, SGLT2 inhibitors are a useful addition to the therapeutic options available for the management of T2DM at any stage in the natural history of the disease. Although SGLT2 inhibitors have already been extensively investigated, further studies should even better delineate the best place of these new glucose-lowering agents in the already rich armamentarium for the management of T2DM. [less ▲]

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See detailCorrelation between ethanol behavioral sensitization and midbrain dopamine neuron reactivity to ethanol
Didone, Vincent ULg; Masson, Sébastien; Quoilin, Caroline et al

in Addiction Biology (2015)

Repeated ethanol injections lead to a sensitization of its stimulant effects in mice. Some recent results argue against a role for ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons in ethanol behavioral ... [more ▼]

Repeated ethanol injections lead to a sensitization of its stimulant effects in mice. Some recent results argue against a role for ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons in ethanol behavioral sensitization. The aim of the present study was to test whether in vivo ethanol locomotor sensitization correlates with changes in either basal- or ethanol evoked firing rates of dopamine neurons in vitro. Female Swiss mice were daily injected with 2.5 g/kg ethanol (or saline in the control group) for 7 days and their locomotor activity was recorded. At the end of the sensitization procedure, extracellular recordings were made from dopaminergic neurons in midbrain slices from these mice. Significantly higher spontaneous basal firing rates of dopamine neurons were recorded in ethanol-sensitized mice relative to control mice, but without correlations with the behavioral effects. The superfusion of sulpiride, a dopamine D2 antagonist, induced a stronger increase of dopamine neuron firing rates in ethanol-sensitized mice. This shows that the D2 feedback in dopamine neurons is preserved after chronic ethanol administration and argues against a reduced D2 feedback as an explanation for the increased dopamine neuron basal firing rates in ethanol-sensitized mice. Finally, ethanol superfusion (10–100 mM) significantly increased the firing rates of dopamine neurons and this effect was of higher magnitude in ethanol-sensitized mice. Furthermore, there were significant correlations between such a sensitization of dopamine neuron activity and ethanol behavioral sensitization. These results support the hypothesis that changes in brain dopamine neuron activity contribute to the behavioral sensitization of the stimulant effects of ethanol. [less ▲]

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See detailOxygen as a critical determinant of bone fracture healing-a multiscale model.
Carlier, Aurelie; Geris, Liesbet ULg; Gastel, Nick Van et al

in Journal of theoretical biology (2015), 365

A timely restoration of the ruptured blood vessel network in order to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the fracture zone is crucial for successful bone healing. Indeed, oxygen plays a key role in the ... [more ▼]

A timely restoration of the ruptured blood vessel network in order to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the fracture zone is crucial for successful bone healing. Indeed, oxygen plays a key role in the aerobic metabolism of cells, in the activity of a myriad of enzymes as well as in the regulation of several (angiogenic) genes. In this paper, a previously developed model of bone fracture healing is further improved with a detailed description of the influence of oxygen on various cellular processes that occur during bone fracture healing. Oxygen ranges of the cell-specific oxygen-dependent processes were established based on the state-of-the art experimental knowledge through a rigorous literature study. The newly developed oxygen model is compared with previously published experimental and in silico results. An extensive sensitivity analysis was also performed on the newly introduced oxygen thresholds, indicating the robustness of the oxygen model. Finally, the oxygen model was applied to the challenging clinical case of a critical sized defect (3mm) where it predicted the formation of a fracture non-union. Further model analyses showed that the harsh hypoxic conditions in the central region of the callus resulted in cell death and disrupted bone healing thereby indicating the importance of a timely vascularization for the successful healing of a large bone defect. In conclusion, this work demonstrates that the oxygen model is a powerful tool to further unravel the complex spatiotemporal interplay of oxygen delivery, diffusion and consumption with the several healing steps, each occurring at distinct, optimal oxygen tensions during the bone repair process. [less ▲]

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See detailLe délit de presse à l’ère numérique
Behrendt, Christian ULg

in Revue Belge de Droit Constitutionnel [= RBDC] (2014), 2014

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See detailCaractéristiques et performances de reproduction du Zebu. Le cas du Niger.
Moussa Garba, Mahamadou; Issa, M; Hanzen, Christian ULg

in Revue Africaine de Santé et de Productions Animales [=RASPA] (2014), 12(3-4), 135-141

This review presents an overview of the physiological and anatomical but also reproductive performance of African zebu characteristics. It is a first step to increase his milk and and meat potential by ... [more ▼]

This review presents an overview of the physiological and anatomical but also reproductive performance of African zebu characteristics. It is a first step to increase his milk and and meat potential by using more intensively artificial insemination (AI). The use of AI depends on the use of hormonal protocols to induce and synchronize oestrus. Actually, pregnancy rates obtained are between 31.4 and 46.6% respectively after use of PGF2a or progestagens. In Niger, the average pregnancy rates after artificial insemination is 29.9%. It is higher after in natural heat (43.4%) than induced heat (25.6%); It is also considerably lower after use of PGF2a (8.4%) than progestogens (23.4 to 39.5%). Improvement requires a better understanding of the effect of dietary factors, livestock or pathological responsible for fertility and fecundity. It is therefore important to continue and intensify field trials on more substantial numbers of animals. [less ▲]

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See detailMyzus persicae feeding on water stressed Arabidopsis affects the emission profile of plant volatile organic compounds
Truong, Dieu-Hien; Delaplace, Pierre ULg; Brostaux, Yves ULg et al

in Journal of Environment and Ecology (2014), 5(2),

Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by water-controlled or water-stressed Arabidopsis thaliana infested or not infested with Myzus persicae were evaluated by headspace solid phase ... [more ▼]

Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by water-controlled or water-stressed Arabidopsis thaliana infested or not infested with Myzus persicae were evaluated by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The infestations were maintained for 0–24 h, 24–48 h, and 48–72 h, and the emission profile for each time period was determined. Under these controlled conditions, the proportion of 4-methylpentyl isothiocyanate and dimethyl disulfide emitted by aphid-infested, water-stressed Arabidopsis was greater than that for aphid-infested water-controlled Arabidopsis over the 48–72 h sampling period. The proportion of terpene emitted by aphid-infested water-stressed plants also significantly increased compared with the other treatments over the three assayed sampling periods. In contrast, the proportion of 2-ethylhexanal (the only detected aldehyde) and ketones for the water-controlled plants generally remained high following aphid infestation. Taken together, these original data ascertain that abiotic factors can greatly interact to biotic stresses to alter the VOC emission profiles of plants. [less ▲]

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See detailCaractérisation de colluvions triasiques utilisés dans l'élaboration d'ustensiles rustiques de cuisson, cas de Talatast (Région de Marrakech, Maroc)
El Boudour El Idrissi, Hicham ULg; Daoudi, Lahcen; Collin, Frédéric ULg et al

in Verres, Céramiques & Composites (2014), 3(2), 18-22

The raw material used in the potter site of Talatast (Morocco) is collected from Triassic colluviums. Our study aims to characterize the mineralogical and geotechnical properties of the local clayey ... [more ▼]

The raw material used in the potter site of Talatast (Morocco) is collected from Triassic colluviums. Our study aims to characterize the mineralogical and geotechnical properties of the local clayey material before and after cooking. Our results confirm that the coarse particle size, the mineralogy of the clay fraction and the rate of fondants are suitable for the cookware material production. Defects encountered during the production are mainly related to the use of traditional ovens. Understanding the origin of the main defects could be helpful to promote the local pottery production. [less ▲]

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See detailMinimal anomaly-free chiral fermion sets and gauge coupling unification
Ceboa, Luis; Emmanuel-Costa, David; González Felipe, Ricardo et al

in Physical Review. D, Particles, Fields, Gravitation, and Cosmology (2014)

We look for minimal chiral sets of fermions beyond the standard model that are anomaly free and, simultaneously, vectorlike particles with respect to color SU(3) and electromagnetic U(1). We then study ... [more ▼]

We look for minimal chiral sets of fermions beyond the standard model that are anomaly free and, simultaneously, vectorlike particles with respect to color SU(3) and electromagnetic U(1). We then study whether the addition of such particles to the standard model particle content allows for the unification of gauge couplings at a high energy scale, above 5.0 × 1015 GeV so as to be safely consistent with proton decay bounds. The possibility to have unification at the string scale is also considered. Inspired in grand unified theories, we also search for minimal chiral fermion sets that belong to SU(5) multiplets, restricted to representations up to imension 50. It is shown that, in various cases, it is possible to achieve gauge unification provided that some of the extra fermions decouple at relatively high intermediate scales. [less ▲]

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See detailCO Gas Inside the Protoplanetary Disk Cavity in HD 142527: Disk Structure from ALMA
Perez, S.; Casassus, S.; Ménard, F. et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2014), 798

Inner cavities and annular gaps in circumstellar disks are possible signposts of giant planet formation. The young star HD 142527 hosts a massive protoplanetary disk with a large cavity that extends up to ... [more ▼]

Inner cavities and annular gaps in circumstellar disks are possible signposts of giant planet formation. The young star HD 142527 hosts a massive protoplanetary disk with a large cavity that extends up to 140 AU from the central star, as seen in continuum images at infrared and millimeter wavelengths. Estimates of the survival of gas inside disk cavities are needed to discriminate between clearing scenarios. We present a spatially and spectrally resolved carbon monoxide isotopologue 2-1 line of $^12$CO, $^13$CO, and C[SUP]18[/SUP]$O obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). We detect emission coming from inside the dust-depleted cavity in all three isotopologues. Based on our analysis of the gas in the dust cavity, the $^12$CO emission is optically thick, while $^13$CO and C[SUP]18[/SUP]$O emissions are both optically thin. The total mass of residual gas inside the cavity is \~1.5-2 M $_Jup$. We model the gas with an axisymmetric disk model. Our best-fit model shows that the cavity radius is much smaller in CO than it is in millimeter continuum and scattered light observations, with a gas cavity that does not extend beyond 105 AU (at 3$\sigma$). The gap wall at its outer edge is diffuse and smooth in the gas distribution, while in dust continuum it is manifestly sharper. The inclination angle, as estimated from the high velocity channel maps is 28 \plusmn 0.5 deg, higher than in previous estimates, assuming a fix central star mass of 2.2 M $_&sun;$. [less ▲]

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See detailBacterial Community Composition in Three Freshwater Reservoirs of Different Alkalinity and Trophic Status
Llirós, Marc; Inceoğlu, Özgul; García-Armisen, Tamara et al

in PLoS ONE (2014)

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See detailDetection of response to command using voluntary control of breathing in disorders of consciousness
Charland-Verville, Vanessa ULg; Lesenfants, Damien; Sela, Lee et al

in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (2014), 8(1020),

BACKGROUND: Detecting signs of consciousness in patients in a vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS/VS) or minimally conscious state (MCS) is known to be very challenging. Plotkin et al ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Detecting signs of consciousness in patients in a vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS/VS) or minimally conscious state (MCS) is known to be very challenging. Plotkin et al. (2010) recently showed the possibility of using a breathing-controlled communication device in patients with locked in syndrome. We here aim to test a breathing-based "sniff controller" that could be used as an alternative diagnostic tool to evaluate response to command in severely brain damaged patients with chronic disorders of consciousness (DOC). METHODS: Twenty-five DOC patients were included. Patients' resting breathing-amplitude was measured during a 5 min resting condition. Next, they were instructed to end the presentation of a music sequence by sniffing vigorously. An automated detection of changes in breathing amplitude (i.e., >1.5 SD of resting) ended the music and hence provided positive feedback to the patient. RESULTS: None of the 11 UWS/VS patients showed a sniff-based response to command. One out of 14 patients with MCS was able to willfully modulate his breathing pattern to answer the command on 16/19 trials (accuracy 84%). Interestingly, this patient failed to show any other motor response to command. DISCUSSION: We here illustrate the possible interest of using breathing-dependent response to command in the detection of residual cognition in patients with DOC after severe brain injury. [less ▲]

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See detailRapid dynamic activation of a marine-based Arctic ice cap
McMillan, M; Shepherd, A; Gourmelen, N et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2014), 41(24), 89028909

We use satellite observations to document rapid acceleration and ice loss from a formerly slow-flowing, marine-based sector of Austfonna, the largest ice cap in the Eurasian Arctic. During the past two ... [more ▼]

We use satellite observations to document rapid acceleration and ice loss from a formerly slow-flowing, marine-based sector of Austfonna, the largest ice cap in the Eurasian Arctic. During the past two decades, the sector ice discharge has increased 45-fold, the velocity regime has switched from predominantly slow (~ 101 m/yr) to fast (~ 103 m/yr) flow, and rates of ice thinning have exceeded 25 m/yr. At the time of widespread dynamic activation, parts of the terminus may have been near floatation. Subsequently, the imbalance has propagated 50 km inland to within 8 km of the ice cap summit. Our observations demonstrate the ability of slow-flowing ice to mobilize and quickly transmit the dynamic imbalance inland; a process that we show has initiated rapid ice loss to the ocean and redistribution of ice mass to locations more susceptible to melt, yet which remains poorly understood. [less ▲]

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See detailEarly history of extended irreversible thermodynamics (1953-1983): an exploration beyond local equilibrium and classical transport theory
Lebon, Georgy ULg; Jou, david

in European Physical Journal H. Historical Perspectives on Contemporary Physics (2014), 5(23),

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See detailDrivers of inorganic carbon dynamics in first-year sea ice: A model study.
Moreau, Sebastien; Vancoppenolle, Martin; Delille, Bruno ULg et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Oceans (2014)

Sea ice is an active source or a sink for carbon dioxide (CO2), although to what extent is not clear. Here, we analyze CO2 dynamics within sea ice using a one-dimensional halo-thermodynamic sea ice model ... [more ▼]

Sea ice is an active source or a sink for carbon dioxide (CO2), although to what extent is not clear. Here, we analyze CO2 dynamics within sea ice using a one-dimensional halo-thermodynamic sea ice model including gas physics and carbon biogeochemistry. The ice-ocean fluxes and vertical transport of total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) are represented using fluid transport equations. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude des facteurs influençant la visite des oiseaux dans les champs de riz
Nasasagare, Régine-Pacis; Ntakimazi, Gaspard; Libois, Roland ULg

in Bulletin scientifique de l'Institut national pour l'environnement et la conservation de la nature (2014), 13

This study was conducted in order to show pest bird species on rice in Burundi. An exhaustive ornithologic inventory was done in 45 fields in the plain of Rusizi and 30 in Ngozi fields were randomly ... [more ▼]

This study was conducted in order to show pest bird species on rice in Burundi. An exhaustive ornithologic inventory was done in 45 fields in the plain of Rusizi and 30 in Ngozi fields were randomly chosen and classified in 3 categories for Rusizi plain (2 for Ngozi): fully guarded plots, partially guarded plots and not guarded plots. There were no fields partially guarded for Ngozi. Resultats revealed a list of bird species that have a real impact on rice production in Burundi. The current study also allowed to put in evidence factors of the motivation of their visit. [less ▲]

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See detailMapping Gene Regulatory Networks in Drosophila Eye Development by Large-Scale Transcriptome Perturbations and Motif Inference
Potier, Delphine; Davie, Kristofer; Hulselmans, Gert et al

in Cell Reports (2014), 9(6), 2290-2303

Genome control is operated by transcription factors (TFs) controlling their target genes by binding to promoters and enhancers. Conceptually, the interactions between TFs, their binding sites, and their ... [more ▼]

Genome control is operated by transcription factors (TFs) controlling their target genes by binding to promoters and enhancers. Conceptually, the interactions between TFs, their binding sites, and their functional targets are represented by gene regulatory networks (GRNs). Deciphering in vivo GRNs underlying organ development in an unbiased genome-wide setting involves identifying both functional TF-gene interactions and physical TF-DNA interactions. To reverse engineer the GRNs of eye development in Drosophila, we performed RNA-seq across 72 genetic perturbations and sorted cell types and inferred a coexpression network. Next, we derived direct TF-DNA interactions using computational motif inference, ultimately connecting 241 TFs to 5,632 direct target genes through 24,926 enhancers. Using this network, we found network motifs, cis-regulatory codes, and regulators of eye development. We validate the predicted target regions of Grainyhead by ChIP-seq and identify this factor as a general cofactor in the eye network, being bound to thousands of nucleosome-free regions. [less ▲]

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See detailCyclovirus CyCV-VN species distribution is not limited to Vietnam and extends to Africa
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Hagen, Ralf Mathias; Frickmann, Hagen et al

in Scientific Reports (2014), 4

Cycloviruses, small ssDNA viruses of the Circoviridae family, have been identified in the cerebrospinal fluid from symptomatic human patients. One of these species, cyclovirus-Vietnam (CyCV-VN), was shown ... [more ▼]

Cycloviruses, small ssDNA viruses of the Circoviridae family, have been identified in the cerebrospinal fluid from symptomatic human patients. One of these species, cyclovirus-Vietnam (CyCV-VN), was shown to be restricted to central and southern Vietnam. Here we report the detection of CyCV-VN species in stool samples from pigs and humans from Africa, far beyond their supposed limited geographic distribution. [less ▲]

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See detailEffets de deux associations culturales à base de blé sur les populations de pucerons (Homoptera: Aphididae) et d’auxiliaires aphidiphages: étude préliminaire menée en Chine
Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULg; Bosquée, Emilie ULg; Honba, David et al

in Entomologie Faunistique = Faunistic Entomology (2014), 67

Crop associations have several advantages when plant species and crop production methods, including harvesting, are well selected. This preliminary study was conducted in the Shandong province (China) to ... [more ▼]

Crop associations have several advantages when plant species and crop production methods, including harvesting, are well selected. This preliminary study was conducted in the Shandong province (China) to better characterize the effect of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)/oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and wheat/pea (Pisum sativum L.) associations on the aphid and aphidophagous beneficial populations. Aphids observed on wheat tillers were significantly more abundant in the pure stand of wheat during the two weeks prior to their population peak, compared with crop associations. Considering the aphidophagous beneficials, significantly more ladybirds were observed in the associations, compared with the pure stand during their abundance peak. Yellow pan traps were also used to assess the diversity and abundance of adult beneficial species. The parasitoid species Aphidius gifuensis (Ashmead) was prevalent. Among predators, Propylea japonica (Thunberg) and Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) were the most abundant species. This study contributes to better understand the potential of crop associations with wheat as a sustainable method to control aphid populations in this region of China. [less ▲]

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See detailLa mémoire du génocide des Juifs chez les jeunes. Connaissances, émotions et évaluations
Grandjean, Geoffrey ULg

in Questions de mémoire et de représentation (2014)

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See detailFirst Evidence of a Volatile Sex Pheromone in Lady Beetles
Fassotte, Bérénice ULg; Fischer, Christophe ULg; Durieux, Delphine ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2014)

To date, volatile sex pheromones have not been identified in the Coccinellidae family; yet, various studies have suggested that such semiochemicals exist. Here, we collected volatile chemicals released by ... [more ▼]

To date, volatile sex pheromones have not been identified in the Coccinellidae family; yet, various studies have suggested that such semiochemicals exist. Here, we collected volatile chemicals released by virgin females of the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), which were either allowed or not allowed to feed on aphids. Virgin females in the presence of aphids, exhibited “calling behavior”, which is commonly associated with the emission of a sex pheromone in several Coleoptera species. These calling females were found to release a blend of volatile compounds that is involved in the remote attraction (i.e., from a distance) of males. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses revealed that (–)-β-caryophyllene was the major constituent of the volatile blend (ranging from 80 to 86%), with four other chemical components also being present; β-elemene, methyl-eugenol, α-humulene, and α-bulnesene. In a second set of experiments, the emission of the five constituents identified from the blend was quantified daily over a 9-day period after exposure to aphids. We found that the quantity of all five chemicals significantly increased across the experimental period. Finally, we evaluated the activity of a synthetic blend of these chemicals by performing bioassays which demonstrated the same attractive effect in males only. The results confirm that female H. axyridis produce a volatile sex pheromone. These findings have potential in the development of more specific and efficient biological pest-control management methods aimed at manipulating the behavior of this invasive lady beetle. [less ▲]

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See detailHepatitis C Virus Life Cycle and Lipid Metabolism
Popescu, Costin-Ioan; Riva, Laura ULg; Vlaicu, Ovidiu et al

in Biology (2014), 3

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See detailSound production in Onuxodon fowleri (Carapidae) and its amplification by the host shell
Kever, Loïc ULg; Colleye, Orphal ULg; Lugli, Marco et al

in Journal of Experimental Biology (2014), 217

Onuxodon species are well known for living inside pearl oysters. As in other carapids, their anatomy highlights their ability to make sounds but sound production has never been documented in Onuxodon ... [more ▼]

Onuxodon species are well known for living inside pearl oysters. As in other carapids, their anatomy highlights their ability to make sounds but sound production has never been documented in Onuxodon. This paper describes sound production in Onuxodon fowleri as well as the anatomy of the sound production apparatus. Single-pulsed sounds and multiple-pulsed sounds that sometimes last more than 3 s were recorded in the field and in captivity (Makemo Island, French Polynesia). These pulses are characterized by a broadband frequency spectrum from 100 to 1000 Hz. Onuxodon fowleri is mainly characterized by its ability to modulate the pulse period, meaning that this species can produce pulsed sounds and tonal-like sounds using the same mechanism. In addition, the sound can be remarkably amplified by the shell cavity (peak gain can exceed 10 dB for some frequencies). The sonic apparatus of O. fowleri is characterized by a rocker bone in front of the swimbladder, modified vertebrae and epineurals, and two pairs of sonic muscles, one of which (primary sonic muscle) inserts on the rocker bone. The latter structure, which is absent in other carapid genera, appears to be sexually dimorphic suggesting differences in sound production in males and females. Sound production in O. fowleri could be an example of adaptation where an animal exploits features of its environment to enhance communication. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring the Effect of Stochastic Perturbation Component in Cellular Automata Urban Growth Model
El Saeid Mustafa, Ahmed Mohamed ULg; Saadi, Ismaïl ULg; Cools, Mario ULg et al

in Procedia Environmental Sciences (2014), 22(Winter), 156168

Urban environments are complex dynamic systems whose prediction of the future states cannot exclusively rely on deterministic rules. Although several studies on urban growth were carried out using ... [more ▼]

Urban environments are complex dynamic systems whose prediction of the future states cannot exclusively rely on deterministic rules. Although several studies on urban growth were carried out using different modelling approaches, the measurement of uncertainties was commonly neglected in these studies. This paper investigates the effect of uncertainty in urban growth models by introducing a stochastic perturbation method. A cellular automaton is used to simulate predicted urban growth. The effect of stochastic perturbation is addressed by comparing series of urban growth simulations based on different degree of stochastic perturbation randomness with the original urban growth simulation, obtained with the sole cellular automata neighbouring effects. These simulations are evaluated using cell-to-cell location agreement and a number of spatial metrics. The model framework has been applied to the Ourthe river basin in Belgium. The results show that the accuracy of the model is increased by introducing a stochastic perturbation component with a limited degree of randomness, in the cellular automata urban growth model. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of small amounts of human adenoviruses in stools: comparison of a new immuno real-time PCR assay with classical tools.
Bonot, Sebastian; Ogorzaly, Leslie; Elmoualij, Benaïssa ULg et al

in Clinical Microbiology & Infection (2014), 20(12), 1-7

The detection of low virus concentrations in biological matrices, especially stool samples, is facing significant limitations as far as common diagnostic methods (enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA ... [more ▼]

The detection of low virus concentrations in biological matrices, especially stool samples, is facing significant limitations as far as common diagnostic methods (enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR)) are considered. Here the development of a new immuno real-time PCR (iPCR) is described and its performance in the detection of human adenoviruses (HAdVs) in spiked stools is compared with those of ELISA and qPCR assays. For the iPCR, detection of the sandwich formed by the complexation of capture antibody-antigen-detection antibody was performed by qPCR thanks to the substitution of peroxydase by a chimeric DNA. This modification increased the detection sensitivity 200-fold compared to ELISA. The direct qPCR results revealed that only 0.3–9.5% of the spiked HAdV were detectable, resulting from important losses of DNA occurring at the extraction step. This step was not necessary in the iPCR workflow, avoiding this drawback. The losses of viral particles occurred at the elution step from the stool only. The recovery rate of the iPCR was thus better and ranged between 21 and 54%. As a result, iPCR enabled the detection of lower virus concentrations in stool samples compared to those detected by ELISA and qPCR. The iPCR could be considered as a ‘hyper sensitive ELISA’ for early detection of HAdV infections, especially in the case of immunocompromised patients after haematopoietic stem cell transplant. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification des risques professionnels dans l’industrie textile en République Démocratique du Congo
Panda Lukongo, Kitronza ULg

in The Pan African Medical Journal. (2014), 19(373),

Introduction: The aim of this study is to highlight the occupational risk factors related to working conditions in DRC. Methods: The qualitative study was carried out by a multidisciplinary team in the ... [more ▼]

Introduction: The aim of this study is to highlight the occupational risk factors related to working conditions in DRC. Methods: The qualitative study was carried out by a multidisciplinary team in the textile industry of the north-eastern DRC, including an occupational physician, a public health physician, a toxicologist, two nursing from the center hospital plant, a representative of health committee and a prevention technician. The methodological approach consisted of interviews, observations and guided visit of workplace of the company. Results: In cotton, the effects of high exposure to pesticides can cause acute poisoning, chronic and even death. Other risks include accidents, occupational diseases, and psychological disorders. In industry, workers are exposed to risks associated with dusting of cotton fibers, traumatic risk factors, physical (noise, vibration) and chemical (strong acids, bases, solvents and inorganic dyes ) as well as factors related to the environment of the workplace including psychosocial. The environmental pollution and ecotoxicity are a result of the use of great quantities of agricultural inputs, fertilizers and pesticides. Conclusion: This study has highlighted the various risk factors that are subject textile workers and the environmental risks associated with this activity. This will allow the establishment of an effective strategy of prevention and protection. [less ▲]

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See detailRGD surface functionalization of the hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens material to control posterior capsular opacification
Huang, Yi-Shiang ULg; Bertrand, Virginie ULg; Bozukova, Dimitriya et al

in PLoS ONE (2014), 9(12), 32

Posterior Capsular Opacification (PCO) is the capsule fibrosis developed on implanted IntraOcular Lens (IOL) by the de-differentiation of Lens Epithelial Cells (LECs) undergoing Epithelial Mesenchymal ... [more ▼]

Posterior Capsular Opacification (PCO) is the capsule fibrosis developed on implanted IntraOcular Lens (IOL) by the de-differentiation of Lens Epithelial Cells (LECs) undergoing Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT). Literature has shown that the incidence of PCO is multifactorial including the patient’s age or disease, surgical technique, and IOL design and material. Reports comparing hydrophilic and hydrophobic acrylic IOLs have shown that the former has more severe PCO. On the other hand, we have previously demonstrated that the adhesion of LECs is favored on hydrophobic compared to hydrophilic materials. By combining these two facts and contemporary knowledge in PCO development via the EMT pathway, we propose a biomimetically inspired strategy to promote LEC adhesion without de-differentiation to reduce the risk of PCO development. By surface grafting of a cell adhesion molecule (RGD peptide) onto the conventional hydrophilic acrylic IOL material, the surface-functionalized IOL can be used to reconstitute a capsule-LEC-IOL sandwich structure, which has been considered to prevent PCO formation in literature. Our results show that the innovative biomaterial improves LEC adhesion, while also exhibiting similar optical (light transmittance, optical bench) and mechanical (haptic compression force, IOL injection force) properties compared to the starting material. In addition, compared to the hydrophobic IOL material, our bioactive biomaterial exhibits similar abilities in LEC adhesion, morphology maintenance, and EMT biomarker expression, which is the crucial pathway to induce PCO. The in vitro assays suggest that this biomaterial has the potential to reduce the risk factor of PCO development. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing spatio-temporal variability and trends in modelled and measured Greenland Ice Sheet albedo (2000–2013)
Alexander, P.; Tedesco, M.; Fettweis, Xavier ULg et al

in Cryosphere (The) (2014), 8

Accurate measurements and simulations of Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) surface albedo are essential, given the role of surface albedo in modulating the amount of absorbed solar radiation and meltwater ... [more ▼]

Accurate measurements and simulations of Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) surface albedo are essential, given the role of surface albedo in modulating the amount of absorbed solar radiation and meltwater production. In this study, we assess the spatio-temporal variability of GrIS albedo during June, July, and August (JJA) for the period 2000–2013. We use two remote sensing products derived from data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), as well as outputs from the Modèle Atmosphérique Régionale (MAR) regional climate model (RCM) and data from in situ automatic weather stations. Our results point to an overall consistency in spatio-temporal variability between remote sensing and RCM albedo, but reveal a difference in mean albedo of up to ~0.08 between the two remote sensing products north of 70° N. At low elevations, albedo values simulated by the RCM are positively biased with respect to remote sensing products by up to ~0.1 and exhibit low variability compared with observations. We infer that these differences are the result of a positive bias in simulated bare ice albedo. MODIS albedo, RCM outputs, and in situ observations consistently indicate a decrease in albedo of −0.03 to −0.06 per decade over the period 2003–2013 for the GrIS ablation area. Nevertheless, satellite products show a decline in JJA albedo of −0.03 to −0.04 per decade for regions within the accumulation area that is not confirmed by either the model or in situ observations. These findings appear to contradict a previous study that found an agreement between in situ and MODIS trends for individual months. The results indicate a need for further evaluation of high elevation albedo trends, a reconciliation of MODIS mean albedo at high latitudes, and the importance of accurately simulating bare ice albedo in RCMs. [less ▲]

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See detailReversible cross-linking of aliphatic polyamides bearing thermo- and photoresponsive cinnamoyl moieties
Tunc, Deniz ULg; Le Coz, Cédric; Alexandre, Michaël et al

in Macromolecules (2014), 47(23), 8247-8254

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See detailHigh plasma concentrations of sclerostin, an inhibitor of the Wnt signaling pathway in young horses affected by osteochondrosis
Serteyn, Didier ULg; Mendoza García, Luis ULg; Sandersen, Charlotte ULg et al

in Open journal of orthepedics (2014)

Osteochondrosis (OC) is a developmental disease in horses with a significant impact on the horse’s welfare and performance. The early disturbance of enchondral ossification progresses to inflammatory and ... [more ▼]

Osteochondrosis (OC) is a developmental disease in horses with a significant impact on the horse’s welfare and performance. The early disturbance of enchondral ossification progresses to inflammatory and healing process in older horses. Metabolic pathway analysis showed an obvious dysregulation of several signaling pathways related to cartilage formation and cartilage repair such as Wnt/β-catenin, Indian hedgehog and TGF-β signaling pathways. Other regulated genes appeared to be involved in high carbohydrate diet, abnormal insulin metabolism or inflammation. Sclerostin is an osteocyte-secreted soluble antagonist of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. It is crucial for osteoblast development and activity and is increased in naturally occurring lesions of equine osteochondrosis. The aim of this study is to compare the circulating sclerostin levels between OC-affected (n = 20) and healthy horses (n = 19). A significant linear regression between plasma sclerostin and age is observed especially in the healthy young horses. The mean plasma sclerostin concentration is significantly higher in young horses suffering from osteochondrosis compared to the control horses. These results reinforce the possible role of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in the OC pathogeny. The inhibition of this essential pathway could disturb the osteo-chondral differentiation. More studies are currently needed to define the eventual clinic interest of plasma sclerostin as future biomarker in bone and cartilage diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailConstraining the Exozodiacal Luminosity Function of Main-sequence Stars: Complete Results from the Keck Nuller Mid-infrared Surveys
Mennesson, B.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Serabyn, E. et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2014), 797

Forty-seven nearby main-sequence stars were surveyed with the Keck Interferometer mid-infrared Nulling instrument (KIN) between 2008 and 2011, searching for faint resolved emission from exozodiacal dust ... [more ▼]

Forty-seven nearby main-sequence stars were surveyed with the Keck Interferometer mid-infrared Nulling instrument (KIN) between 2008 and 2011, searching for faint resolved emission from exozodiacal dust. Observations of a subset of the sample have already been reported, focusing essentially on stars with no previously known dust. Here we extend this previous analysis to the whole KIN sample, including 22 more stars with known near- and/or far-infrared excesses. In addition to an analysis similar to that of the first paper of this series, which was restricted to the 8-9 mum spectral region, we present measurements obtained in all 10 spectral channels covering the 8-13 mum instrumental bandwidth. Based on the 8-9 mum data alone, which provide the highest signal-to-noise measurements, only one star shows a large excess imputable to dust emission (eta Crv), while four more show a significant (>3sigma) excess: beta Leo, beta UMa, zeta Lep, and gamma Oph. Overall, excesses detected by KIN are more frequent around A-type stars than later spectral types. A statistical analysis of the measurements further indicates that stars with known far-infrared (lambda >= 70 mum) excesses have higher exozodiacal emission levels than stars with no previous indication of a cold outer disk. This statistical trend is observed regardless of spectral type and points to a dynamical connection between the inner (zodi-like) and outer (Kuiper-Belt-like) dust populations. The measured levels for such stars are clustering close to the KIN detection limit of a few hundred zodis and are indeed consistent with those expected from a populat [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of the protein context on the polyglutamine length-dependent elongation of amyloid fibrils
Huynen, Céline ULg; Willet, Nicolas ULg; Duwez, Anne-Sophie ULg et al

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-Proteins and Proteomics (2014)

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See detailFlow Cytometry Assessment of CD34+ Viability in Thawed Cord Blood Units: A Multi-Center Eurocord and Netcord Study
SACCARDI, RICCARDO; AZQUETA, Carmen; BALLERINI, Lara et al

in Blood (2014), 124

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See detailDirect route to well-defined poly(ionic liquid)s by controlled radical polymerization in water
Cordella, Daniela ULg; Kermagoret, Anthony ULg; Debuigne, Antoine ULg et al

in ACS Macro Letters (2014), 3

The precision synthesis of poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) in water is achieved for the first time by the cobalt-mediated radical polymerization (CMRP) of N-vinyl-3-alkylimidazolium-type monomers following two ... [more ▼]

The precision synthesis of poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) in water is achieved for the first time by the cobalt-mediated radical polymerization (CMRP) of N-vinyl-3-alkylimidazolium-type monomers following two distinct protocols. The first involves the CMRP of various 1-vinyl-3-alkylimidazolium bromides conducted in water in the presence of an alkyl–cobalt(III) complex acting as a monocomponent initiator and mediating agent. Excellent control over molar mass and dispersity is achieved at 30 °C. Polymerizations are complete in a few hours, and PIL chain-end fidelity is demonstrated up to high monomer conversions. The second route uses the commercially available bis(acetylacetonato)cobalt(II) (Co(acac)2) in conjunction with a simple hydroperoxide initiator (tert-butyl hydroperoxide) at 30, 40, and 50 °C in water, facilitating the scaling-up of the technology. Both routes prove robust and straightforward, opening new perspectives onto the tailored synthesis of PILs under mild experimental conditions in water. [less ▲]

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See detailEnrichment of Logging Gaps with a High Conservation Value Species (Pericopsis elata) in a Central African Moist Forest
Ouedraogo, Dakis-Yaoba ULg; Fayolle, Adeline ULg; Daïnou, Kasso ULg et al

in Forests (2014), 5(12), 3031-3047

In central Africa, most of the timber species require high light at the seedling stage for survival and growth. Forest managers face a regeneration shortage of these light-demanding timber species. To ... [more ▼]

In central Africa, most of the timber species require high light at the seedling stage for survival and growth. Forest managers face a regeneration shortage of these light-demanding timber species. To achieve long-term sustainability, there is a need for enrichment methods combining low cost and high species performance. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of Pericopsis elata seedlings in enriched logging gaps in Cameroon. Over five years; the survival and size of each seedling was monitored in 27 logging gaps that were either left without maintenance or cleared. Gaps were relatively small with an average total area of 155 m2. We found that planted seedlings of P. elata performed well in logging gaps. Even without any maintenance 61% of the planted seedlings survived after five years with an average annual diameter increment of 0.28 cm. P. elata appeared to be a good candidate species for enrichment in logging gaps. We demonstrated that the seedlings of P. elata tolerated a wide range of soil conditions but that their performance was strongly influenced by light availability (gap clearance), suggesting potentially improved performance of P. elata in high light environments such as in plantation or larger gaps. [less ▲]

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See detailNanocomposites based on MWCNT and polystyrene, styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer, or polymethylmethacrylate, obtained by miniemulsion polymerization
Donescu, Dan; Corobea, Mihai Cosmin; Petcu, Cristian et al

in Journal of Applied Polymer Science (2014), 131(23), 411481-10

Free radical miniemulsion polymerization of styrene (St), St/acrylonitrile 3 : 1 mixture or methylmethacrylate in the presence of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) was proven as a convenient way to ... [more ▼]

Free radical miniemulsion polymerization of styrene (St), St/acrylonitrile 3 : 1 mixture or methylmethacrylate in the presence of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) was proven as a convenient way to obtain homogenous hybrids with perspectives in associated applications like foams specialties materials. Miniemulsion polymerization was viable up to 2% wt. MWCNT to monomer, without agglomerations. The grafting on MWCNT during the polymerization occurs without the need for supplementary functionalization and the polymer grafted nanotubes showed stable dispersions in the polymer solvent. Monomer polarity affected the grafting ability during the polymerization process. The nanocomposites obtained after purification and drying were used in foaming process. MWCNT presence in the related nanocomposites decreased the pore sizes in foam-like materials (for all three different matrices). At 1 wt % MWCNT content, low density (< 0.3 g/cm3), low pore size (< 10 μm) and high cell density (>109 cell/cm3) were achieved. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst-line crizotinib versus chemotherapy in ALK-positive lung cancer.
Solomon, Benjamin J.; Mok, Tony; Kim, Dong-Wan et al

in The New England journal of medicine (2014), 371(23), 2167-77

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of the ALK inhibitor crizotinib as compared with standard chemotherapy as first-line treatment for advanced ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is unknown. METHODS: We ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of the ALK inhibitor crizotinib as compared with standard chemotherapy as first-line treatment for advanced ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is unknown. METHODS: We conducted an open-label, phase 3 trial comparing crizotinib with chemotherapy in 343 patients with advanced ALK-positive nonsquamous NSCLC who had received no previous systemic treatment for advanced disease. Patients were randomly assigned to receive oral crizotinib at a dose of 250 mg twice daily or to receive intravenous chemotherapy (pemetrexed, 500 mg per square meter of body-surface area, plus either cisplatin, 75 mg per square meter, or carboplatin, target area under the curve of 5 to 6 mg per milliliter per minute) every 3 weeks for up to six cycles. Crossover to crizotinib treatment after disease progression was permitted for patients receiving chemotherapy. The primary end point was progression-free survival as assessed by independent radiologic review. RESULTS: Progression-free survival was significantly longer with crizotinib than with chemotherapy (median, 10.9 months vs. 7.0 months; hazard ratio for progression or death with crizotinib, 0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35 to 0.60; P<0.001). Objective response rates were 74% and 45%, respectively (P<0.001). Median overall survival was not reached in either group (hazard ratio for death with crizotinib, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.54 to 1.26; P=0.36); the probability of 1-year survival was 84% with crizotinib and 79% with chemotherapy. The most common adverse events with crizotinib were vision disorders, diarrhea, nausea, and edema, and the most common events with chemotherapy were nausea, fatigue, vomiting, and decreased appetite. As compared with chemotherapy, crizotinib was associated with greater reduction in lung cancer symptoms and greater improvement in quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: Crizotinib was superior to standard first-line pemetrexed-plus-platinum chemotherapy in patients with previously untreated advanced ALK-positive NSCLC. (Funded by Pfizer; PROFILE 1014 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01154140.). [less ▲]

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See detailMixed modes in red giants: a window on stellar evolution
Mosser, B.; Benomar, O.; Belkacem, K. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 572

Context. The detection of oscillations with a mixed character in subgiants and red giants allows us to probe the physical conditions in their cores. <BR /> Aims: With these mixed modes, we aim at ... [more ▼]

Context. The detection of oscillations with a mixed character in subgiants and red giants allows us to probe the physical conditions in their cores. <BR /> Aims: With these mixed modes, we aim at determining seismic markers of stellar evolution. <BR /> Methods: Kepler asteroseismic data were selected to map various evolutionary stages and stellar masses. Seismic evolutionary tracks were then drawn with the combination of the frequency and period spacings. <BR /> Results: We measured the asymptotic period spacing for 1178 stars at various evolutionary stages. This allows us to monitor stellar evolution from the main sequence to the asymptotic giant branch and draw seismic evolutionary tracks. We present clear quantified asteroseismic definitions that characterize the change in the evolutionary stages, in particular the transition from the subgiant stage to the early red giant branch, and the end of the horizontal branch. <BR /> Conclusions: The seismic information is so precise that clear conclusions can be drawn independently of evolution models. The quantitative seismic information can now be used for stellar modeling, especially for studying the energy transport in the helium-burning core or for specifying the inner properties of stars entering the red or asymptotic giant branches. Modeling will also allow us to study stars that are identified to be in the helium-subflash stage, high-mass stars either arriving or quitting the secondary clump, or stars that could be in the blue-loop stage. Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/572/L5">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/572/L5</A> [less ▲]

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See detailAbility to Maintain Internal Arousal and Motivation Modulates Brain Responses to Emotions
Sterpenich, Virginie; Schwartz, Sophie; MAQUET, Pierre ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2014)

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See detailWASP-94 A and B planets: hot-Jupiter cousins in a twin-star system
Neveu-VanMalle, M.; Queloz, D.; Anderson, D. R. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 572

We report the discovery of two hot-Jupiter planets, each orbiting one of the stars of a wide binary system. <ASTROBJ>WASP-94A</ASTROBJ> (<ASTROBJ>2MASS 20550794-3408079</ASTROBJ>) is an F8 type star ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery of two hot-Jupiter planets, each orbiting one of the stars of a wide binary system. <ASTROBJ>WASP-94A</ASTROBJ> (<ASTROBJ>2MASS 20550794-3408079</ASTROBJ>) is an F8 type star hosting a transiting planet with a radius of 1.72 ± 0.06 R<SUB>Jup</SUB>, a mass of 0.452 ± 0.034 M<SUB>Jup</SUB>, and an orbital period of 3.95 days. The Rossiter-McLaughlin effect is clearly detected, and the measured projected spin-orbit angle indicates that the planet occupies a retrograde orbit. <ASTROBJ>WASP-94B</ASTROBJ> (<ASTROBJ>2MASS 20550915-3408078</ASTROBJ>) is an F9 stellar companion at an angular separation of 15'' (projected separation 2700 au), hosting a gas giant with a minimum mass of 0.618 ± 0.028 M<SUB>Jup</SUB> with a period of 2.008 days, detected by Doppler measurements. The orbital planes of the two planets are inclined relative to each other, indicating that at least one of them is inclined relative to the plane of the stellar binary. These hot Jupiters in a binary system bring new insights into the formation of close-in giant planets and the role of stellar multiplicity. The radial-velocity and photometric data used for this work are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/572/A49">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/572/A49</A> [less ▲]

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See detailThe use of microorganisms of cassava retting for the production of pectinolytic enzymes
Kouhounde, Sonagnon Hermann Serge ULg; Adeoti, Kifouli; Delvigne, Frank ULg et al

in Journal of Microbiology Biotechnology and Food Sciences (2014), 4(3), 277-281

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See detailShort-term spectroscopic variability of Plaskett's star
Palate, Matthieu ULg; Rauw, Grégor ULg

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 572

Context. Plaskett's star (HD 47129) is a very massive O-star binary in a post Roche-lobe overflow stage. CoRoT observations of this system revealed photometric variability with a number of frequencies ... [more ▼]

Context. Plaskett's star (HD 47129) is a very massive O-star binary in a post Roche-lobe overflow stage. CoRoT observations of this system revealed photometric variability with a number of frequencies. <BR /> Aims: The aim of this paper is to characterize the variations in spectroscopy and investigate their origin. <BR /> Methods: To sample its short-term variability, HD 47129 was intensively monitored during two spectroscopic campaigns of six nights each. The spectra were disentangled and Fourier analyses were performed to determine possible periodicities and to investigate the wavelength dependence of the phase constant and the amplitude of the periodicities. <BR /> Results: Complex line profile variations are observed. Frequencies near 1.65, 0.82, and 0.37 d[SUP]-1[/SUP] are detected consistently in the He i λ 4471, He ii λ 4542, and N iii λ 4510-4518 lines. These frequencies are consistent with those of the strongest signals detected in photometry. The possibilities that these variations stem from pulsations, a recently detected magnetic field or tidal interactions are discussed. <BR /> Conclusions: Whilst all three scenarios have their strengths, none of them can currently account for all the observed properties of the line profile variations. Based on observations collected at the Observatoire de Haute Provence (OHP, France). [less ▲]

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See detailAlignment of quasar polarizations with large-scale structures
Hutsemekers, Damien ULg; Braibant, Lorraine ULg; Pelgrims, Vincent ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 572

We have measured the optical linear polarization of quasars belonging to Gpc scale quasar groups at redshift z ~ 1.3. Out of 93 quasars observed, 19 are significantly polarized. We found that quasar ... [more ▼]

We have measured the optical linear polarization of quasars belonging to Gpc scale quasar groups at redshift z ~ 1.3. Out of 93 quasars observed, 19 are significantly polarized. We found that quasar polarization vectors are either parallel or perpendicular to the directions of the large-scale structures to which they belong. Statistical tests indicate that the probability that this effect can be attributed to randomly oriented polarization vectors is on the order of 1%. We also found that quasars with polarization perpendicular to the host structure preferentially have large emission line widths while objects with polarization parallel to the host structure preferentially have small emission line widths. Considering that quasar polarization is usually either parallel or perpendicular to the accretion disk axis depending on the inclination with respect to the line of sight, and that broader emission lines originate from quasars seen at higher inclinations, we conclude that quasar spin axes are likely parallel to their host large-scale structures. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under program ID 092.A-0221.Table 1 is available in electronic form at <A href="http://www.aanda.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201424631/olm">http://www.aanda.org</A> [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of the durability of hydrophobic treatments on concrete architectural heritage
Lucquiaud, Vincent ULg; Courard, Luc ULg; Gérard, Olivier et al

in Restoration of Buildings and Monuments = Bauinstandsetzen und Baudenkmalpflege (2014), 20(6), 395404

The protection of historical concrete structures is a challenge for the coming years. Hydrophobic treatment may reduce the deterioration process while providing protection against water penetration ... [more ▼]

The protection of historical concrete structures is a challenge for the coming years. Hydrophobic treatment may reduce the deterioration process while providing protection against water penetration. Existing commercial products —mainly silane or siloxane in either water or solvent based formulations– were submitted to different ageing processes including UV radiation, dry-wet cycles, thermal shocks, freeze-thaw cycles, carbonation and their effectiveness has been evaluated on the basis of contact angle, vapour and chloride permeability and, capillarity water absorption. The results obtained clearly show that hydrophobic treatments display a good behaviour under the main ageing conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailDietary early-life exposure to contaminated eels does not impair spatial cognitive performances in adult offspring mice as assessed in the Y-maze and the Morris water maze
Dridi, Imen; Leroy, Delphine; Guignard, Cedric et al

in Nutrition Research (2014), 34(12), 1075-1084

Many environmental contaminants are introduced via the diet and may act as neurotoxins and endocrine disrupters, especially influencing growing organisms in early life. The purpose of this study was to ... [more ▼]

Many environmental contaminants are introduced via the diet and may act as neurotoxins and endocrine disrupters, especially influencing growing organisms in early life. The purpose of this study was to examine whether dietary exposure of dams to fish naturally contaminated with xenobiotics, especially with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and heavy metals (e.g. mercury and lead), resulted in cognitive function deficits in adult offspring mice. Daily, four groups of dams (n = 10/group) ingested standard diet plus paste with/without eels, during gestation and lactation, from gestational day (GD) six until post natal day (PND) 21 (weaning). Dams orally ingested a standardized amount of eel (0.8 mgkg-1 d-1) containing the six non-dioxin-like (NDL) PCBs (σ6 NDL-PCBs: 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180) at 0, 85, 216, and 400 ngkg-1 d-1. Results showed that early-life exposure to contaminated eels did not (compared to non-exposed controls) impair immediate working memory in the Y-maze in the offspring assessed at PND 38. Furthermore, it did not significantly impact spatial learning and retention memory as measured in the Morris water maze in adult offspring mice (PND 120-123). Our results suggest that perinatal exposure to contaminated eels does not affect spatial cognitive performances, as assessed by the Y-maze and Morris water maze at adult age. Adverse effects of xenobiotics reported earlier might be camouflaged by beneficial eel constituents, such as n-3 fatty acids. However, additional studies are needed to differentiate between potential positive and negative effects following consumption of food items both rich in nutrients and contaminants. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailDe Christophe Colomb à Barack Obama - une chronologie des musiques afro-américaines
Sacré, Robert ULg

in ABS Magazine (2014), (44), 15

Compte rendu d'un ouvrage de Jean Paul Levet , tome 1 ( sous titré Une chronologie des musiques afro-américaines)

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See detailLa camorra e la periferia nel bosco
De Biase, Marco ULg

in Lavoro Culturale (2014)

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See detailPlasma riche en plaquettes et tendinopathies
KAUX, Jean-François ULg; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg

in Ortho-Rhumato (2014), 12(6), 35-39

Certaines tendinopathies présentent une évolution désespérément chronique malgré l’instauration d’un traitement conservateur bien conduit. Diverses études soulignent les propriétés réparatrices des ... [more ▼]

Certaines tendinopathies présentent une évolution désespérément chronique malgré l’instauration d’un traitement conservateur bien conduit. Diverses études soulignent les propriétés réparatrices des plaquettes qui pourraient accélérer la cicatrisation de différents tissus. Le plasma riche en plaquettes (platelet-rich plasma ou PRP) représenterait une thérapeutique d’avenir. Les plaquettes libéraient, lors de leur dégranulation, divers facteurs de croissance. Ceux-ci favoriseraient la cicatrisation tendineuse. Actuellement, les effets du PRP restent toujours discutés voire controversés : les résultats cliniques sont parfois contradictoires même si son efficacité in vitro et sur animal apparait plus franche. Cette variabilité pourrait s’expliquer par l’absence de consensus relatif au mode de préparation du PRP, à la concentration plaquettaire, à la présence ou non de leucocytes, à la technique d’infiltration et au protocole post-infiltration. [less ▲]

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See detailMafia Practices and Italian Entrepreneurial Activities in the Belgian Food Sector. Research Objectives
De Biase, Marco ULg

in The European Review of Organised Crime (2014), 1(2), 81-96

This research aims to study the social and economic processes which encourage the spread of mafia practices among some Italian entrepreneurs in the Belgian food sector. My working hypothesis is that mafia ... [more ▼]

This research aims to study the social and economic processes which encourage the spread of mafia practices among some Italian entrepreneurs in the Belgian food sector. My working hypothesis is that mafia practices are violent and predatory strategies to monopolize the economic market, which rely on the use of heterogeneous and cross-class social networks. In this view, these activities of old and new Italian entrepreneurs in Belgium are not the result of the exportation of mafia methods through migratory or cultural ties, but rather the outcome of a complex economic system of production in which certain Italian entrepreneurs have established profitable enterprises in the legal market using violent modalities of accumulation and specific strategies of relation. This research is developed through an ethnographic approach grounded on biographical collection and on participant observation, which is carried out through direct involvement in commercial activities in the sectors of interest. [less ▲]

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See detailPolysaccharide-coated PCL nanofibers for wound dressing applications
Croisier, Florence ULg; Atanasova, Ganka; Poumay, Yves et al

in Advanced Healthcare Materials (2014), 3(12), 2032-2039

Polysaccharide-based nanofibers with amultilayered structure are prepared by combining electrospinning (ESP) and layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition techniques. Charged nanofibers are firstly prepared by ... [more ▼]

Polysaccharide-based nanofibers with amultilayered structure are prepared by combining electrospinning (ESP) and layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition techniques. Charged nanofibers are firstly prepared by electrospinning poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) with a block-copolymer bearing carboxylic acid functions. After deprotonation of the acid groups, the layer-by-layer deposition of polyelectrolyte polysaccharides, notably chitosan and hyaluronic acid, is used to coat the electrospun fibers. A multilayered structure is achieved by alternating the deposition of the positively charged chitosan with the deposition of a negatively charged polyelectrolyte. The construction of this multi-layered structure is followed by Zeta potential measurements, and confirmed by observation of hollow nanofibers resulting from the dissolution of the PCL core in a selective solvent. These novel polysaccharide-coated PCL fiber mats remarkably combine the mechanical resistance typical of the core material (PCL) – particularly in the hydrated state –, with the surface properties of chitosan. The control of the nanofiber structure offered by the electrospinning technology, makes the developed process very promising to precisely design biomaterials for tissue engineering. Preliminary cell culture tests corroborate the potential use of such system in wound healing applications. [less ▲]

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See detailGrey-box identification of a non-linear solar array structure using cubic splines
Noël, Jean-Philippe ULg; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg; Foltête, Emmanuel et al

in International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics (2014), 67

Most identification methods in non-linear structural dynamics assume in advance a mathematical model of the non-linearities. This is however possible in specific situations only, since non-linear effects ... [more ▼]

Most identification methods in non-linear structural dynamics assume in advance a mathematical model of the non-linearities. This is however possible in specific situations only, since non-linear effects may be caused by numerous phenomena and a priori knowledge is generally limited. The present paper investigates the usefulness of piecewise third-order polynomials, termed cubic splines, to identify the complex non-linear dynamics of solar arrays in their stowed configuration. The estimation of the model parameters is achieved using the frequency-domain non-linear subspace identification (FNSI) method. A distinct advantage of the FNSI approach is its capability to calculate accurately a large number of parameters, while maintaining an acceptable computational burden. This makes tractable the use of cubic splines to represent non-linearity in real-life mechanical systems, as the dimensionality of the inverse problem is known to increase dramatically in this case. The experimental structure of interest consists of two parallel aluminium plates assembled with bolted connections. This application is challenging because of the existence of impacts between the two plates at high excitation amplitude, and of the activation of complicated stiffness and damping mechanisms within the bolted connections. [less ▲]

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See detailLaTeX, un peu, beaucoup (6. Tableaux)
Dupont, Pascal ULg

in Losanges (2014), 27

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See detailNeoformed mineral phases during clay ceramic firing
El Ouahabi, Meriam ULg; Daoudi, Lachen; Hatert, Frédéric ULg et al

in Clays and Clay Minerals (2014), 62(6), 470478

Ceramic clays are one of the most complicated ceramic systems because of the very complex relationship between the behavior of minerals during the ceramic processing and the transformations during heating ... [more ▼]

Ceramic clays are one of the most complicated ceramic systems because of the very complex relationship between the behavior of minerals during the ceramic processing and the transformations during heating. A major challenge is to predict the phase transformations in clay ceramics. The aims are to establish reference data of ceramics products that can be formed based on the mineralogical composition of the local raw materials. These data, in turn, can be compared with the archaeological ceramics in order to study their origins. The mineralogical compositions and transformations during the firing (550 to 1100ºC under oxidizing conditions) of seven clayey materials sampled from the main clay deposits of Northern Morocco were evaluated by X-ray powder diffraction. Two groups of clays were evidenced according to the type of neoformed high-temperature minerals: non-calcareous clays and calcareous clays. For the non-calcareous raw materials, spinel is produced at 950°C. Cristobalite and mullite were formed above 1000ºC from clays that contain illite, kaolinite and chlorite. In clays containing vermiculite and high amount of chlorite, hematite was formed from 950°C. Firing of calcareous clays at temperatures > 950ºC yielded Ca-silicates (diopside, gehlenite and wollastonite), spinel, cristobalite, hematite and feldspars. Mullite may also form in the calcareous clay products, when the carbonates content exceeds 10%. [less ▲]

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See detailThe PAX2-null immunophenotype defines multiple lineages with common expression signatures in benign and neoplastic oviductal epithelium.
Ning, Gang; Bijron, Jonathan G.; Yamamoto, Yusuke et al

in Journal of Pathology (The) (2014), 234

The oviducts contain high-grade serous cancer (HGSC) precursors (serous tubal intraepithelial neoplasia or STINs), which are gamma-H2AXp - and TP53 mutation-positive. Although they express wild-type p53 ... [more ▼]

The oviducts contain high-grade serous cancer (HGSC) precursors (serous tubal intraepithelial neoplasia or STINs), which are gamma-H2AXp - and TP53 mutation-positive. Although they express wild-type p53, secretory cell outgrowths (SCOUTs) are associated with older age and serous cancer; moreover, both STINs and SCOUTs share a loss of PAX2 expression (PAX2n ). We evaluated PAX2 expression in proliferating adult and embryonic oviductal cells, normal mucosa, SCOUTs, Walthard cell nests (WCNs), STINs, and HGSCs, and the expression of genes chosen empirically or from SCOUT expression arrays. Clones generated in vitro from embryonic gynaecological tract and adult Fallopian tube were Krt7p /PAX2n /EZH2p and underwent ciliated (PAX2n /EZH2n /FOXJ1p ) and basal (Krt7n /EZH2n /Krt5p ) differentiation. Similarly, non-ciliated cells in normal mucosa were PAX2p but became PAX2n in multi-layered epithelium undergoing ciliated or basal (WCN) cell differentiation. PAX2n SCOUTs fell into two groups: type 1 were secretory or secretory/ciliated with a 'tubal' phenotype and were ALDH1n and beta-cateninmem (membraneous only). Type 2 displayed a columnar to pseudostratified (endometrioid) phenotype, with an EZH2p , ALDH1p , beta-cateninnc (nuclear and cytoplasmic), stathminp , LEF1p , RCN1p , and RUNX2p expression signature. STINs and HGSCs shared the type 1 immunophenotype of PAX2n , ALDH1n , beta-cateninmem , but highly expressed EZH2p , LEF1p , RCN1p , and stathminp . This study, for the first time, links PAX2n with proliferating fetal and adult oviductal cells undergoing basal and ciliated differentiation and shows that this expression state is maintained in SCOUTs, STINs, and HGSCs. All three entities can demonstrate a consistent perturbation of genes involved in potential tumour suppressor gene silencing (EZH2), transcriptional regulation (LEF1), regulation of differentiation (RUNX2), calcium binding (RCN1), and oncogenesis (stathmin). This shared expression signature between benign and neoplastic entities links normal progenitor cell expansion to abnormal and neoplastic outgrowth in the oviduct and exposes a common pathway that could be a target for early prevention. Copyright (c) 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailFamily Members of Patients with Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms are at Increased Risk for Aneurysms: Analysis of 618 Probands and their Families from the Liege AAA Family Study.
SakalihasanN, Natzi ULg; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier ULg; Kerstenne, Marie-Ange et al

in Annals of vascular surgery (2014), 28

BACKGROUND: The objectives were to answer the following questions using a well-characterized population in Liege, Belgium: 1) what percentage of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients have a positive ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The objectives were to answer the following questions using a well-characterized population in Liege, Belgium: 1) what percentage of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients have a positive family history for AAA, 2) what is the prevalence of AAAs among relatives of AAA patients; and 3) do familial and sporadic AAA cases differ in clinical characteristics. METHODS AND RESULTS: Unrelated AAA patients diagnosed at the Cardiovascular Surgery Department, University Hospital of Liege, Belgium, between 1999 and 2012 were invited to the study. A detailed family history was obtained in interviews and recorded using Progeny software. In the initial interview 62 (10%) of the 618 AAA patients reported a positive family history for AAA. We divided the 618 patients into two study groups: Group I: 296 AAA patients (268; 91% males) were followed up with computerized tomography combined with positron emission tomography, and Group II: 322 AAA patients (295; 92% males) whose families were invited to ultrasonography screening. Ultrasonography screening identified 24 new AAAs among 186 relatives (>/= 50 years) of 144 families yielding a prevalence of 13%. The highest prevalence (25%) was found among brothers. By combining the number of AAAs found by ultrasonography screening with those diagnosed previously the observed lifetime prevalence of AAA was estimated to be 32% in brothers. The familial AAA cases were more likely to have a ruptured AAA than the sporadic cases (8% vs. 2.4%; P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The findings confirm previously found high prevalence of AAA among brothers, support genetic contribution to AAA pathogenesis and provide rationale for targeted screening of relatives of AAA patients. [less ▲]

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See detailAbout the Uniform Hölder Continuity of Generalized Riemann Function
Bastin, Françoise ULg; Nicolay, Samuel ULg; Simons, Laurent ULg

in Mediterranean Journal of Mathematics (2014)

In this paper, we study the uniform H\"{o}lder continuity of the generalized Riemann function~$R_{\alpha,\beta}$ (with $\alpha>1$ and $\beta>0$) defined by \[ R_{\alpha,\beta}(x)=\sum_{n=1}^{+\infty}\frac ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we study the uniform H\"{o}lder continuity of the generalized Riemann function~$R_{\alpha,\beta}$ (with $\alpha>1$ and $\beta>0$) defined by \[ R_{\alpha,\beta}(x)=\sum_{n=1}^{+\infty}\frac{\sin(\pi n^\beta x)}{n^\alpha},\quad x\in\mathbb{R}, \] using its continuous wavelet transform. In particular, we show that the exponent we find is optimal. We also analyse the behaviour of~$R_{\alpha,\beta}$ as $\beta$ tends to infinity. [less ▲]

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See detailVitrification, an efficient cryopreservation procedure but still rising some debates
Vanderzwalmen, Pierre; Ectors, Fabien ULg; Stecher, Astrid et al

in Current Trends in Clinical Embryology (2014), 1(1), 34-45

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See detailPonte et qualité d'oeufs de cailles élevées en conditions semi intensives dans l'Est algérien
Moula, Nassim ULg; Philippe, François-Xavier ULg; Ait Kaki, Asma et al

in Archivos de Zootecnia (2014), 63(244), 693-696

This work investigates laying performances and egg quality of 200 quails during 266 laying days. The first collected 240 eggs, for the periods: 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 44 weeks were used in this ... [more ▼]

This work investigates laying performances and egg quality of 200 quails during 266 laying days. The first collected 240 eggs, for the periods: 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 44 weeks were used in this study. The average laying rate calculated over a period of 37 weeks is 74.44 %. All studied eggs quality parameters were significantly (p<0.001) influenced by the age of the quail. The average weight of the whole egg (13.66 g), yolk (3.99 g) and shell (2.28 g) reach their maximum value at the 40th week. The maximum albumen average weight (7.45 g) was observed at 32nd week. Albumen (12.02) and yolk (48.72) indices recorded their highest values at the 12th and the 16th weeks, respectively. The eggs freshness, expressed here by Haugh units decreased with age. They range from 89.56 at the 12th week to 83.71 at the 44th week of age. Yolk color registered values with irregular fluctuations (7.12 to 9.33) in a colorimetric scale of 15 ladders. Highly significant and positive correlations (p<0.001) and were recorded between the whole egg weight and the weight of albumen, yolk and shell. To conclude, the quail age affects significantly the various egg quality parameters. [less ▲]

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See detailUn blog plutôt qu’un Word ? Retour d’expérience de l’insertion d’un cours en ligne dans un programme de formation d’enseignants du supérieur.
Jérôme, Françoise ULg; Verpoorten, Dominique ULg

in Education & Formation (2014), e-302

En 2012-2013, le CAPAES (Certificat d’Aptitude Pédagogique Approprié à l’Enseignement Supérieur) de l’Université de Liège a incorporé pour la première fois à son programme un cours entièrement en ligne ... [more ▼]

En 2012-2013, le CAPAES (Certificat d’Aptitude Pédagogique Approprié à l’Enseignement Supérieur) de l’Université de Liège a incorporé pour la première fois à son programme un cours entièrement en ligne. L’article en expose les motivations sous-jacentes, présente les outils utilisés et analyse la réception du dispositif par les étudiants. Les données récoltées font apparaitre : a) la familiarité antérieure restreinte des enseignants avec les deux outils exploités dans le cours (une plate-forme eLearning traditionnelle et un blog comme représentant du Web 2.0), b) la capacité, en dépit de cette familiarité limitée, de faire bon usage des deux outils en tant qu’apprenant, c) une satisfaction générale pour le cours en ligne mais faiblement liée à la découverte des deux outils et à la prise de conscience, en tant qu’enseignant, de leur potentiel pédagogique. (L'article fournit en annexe le questionnaire complet utilisé pour recueillir le feed-back des enseignants ayant terminé le cours en ligne). [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of gender difference in hospital outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention. Results of the Belgian Working Group on Interventional Cardiology (BWGIC) registry
LEMPEREUR, Mathieu ULg; Magne, Julien; Cornelis, Kristoff et al

in EuroIntervention : Journal of EuroPCR in Collaboration with the Working Group on Interventional Cardiology of the European Society of Cardiology (2014)

Aims: To determine whether there are gender-based differences in in-hospital outcomes among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods and results: We studied a large cohort ... [more ▼]

Aims: To determine whether there are gender-based differences in in-hospital outcomes among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods and results: We studied a large cohort using clinical data from a registry of 130,985 PCI procedures in Belgium, from January 2006 to February 2011. Compared to males, females were significantly older (70.3 vs. 64.8 years), and were more frequently diabetic or hypertensive. Men smoked more and more frequently had previous myocardial infarction (MI), previous PCI or previous coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Coronary artery disease (CAD) was less severe in women, and PCI to the left anterior descending artery was more common in female patients. Unadjusted in-hospital mortality rates were higher in females versus males (2.5% for women and 1.6% for men, p<0.0001). After multivariable analysis, female gender remained an independent predictor of mortality (odds ratio 1.35, 95% CI: 1.22-1.49, p<0.0001). Conclusions: Gender-based differences in hospital mortality rates after PCI were observed in this large registry. Female sex remained an independent predictor of mortality after multivariable adjustment. [less ▲]

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See detailThe construction of workers’ rights consciousness through legal intermediations: the case of employment discrimination in Belgium
Lejeune, Aude ULg; Orianne, Jean-François ULg

in International Journal of Discrimination and the Law (2014), 14(4), 221-243

Through their different encounters with union, court, and government equality agency lawyers, workers report diverse understandings of their personal experience of injustice in the workplace. This paper ... [more ▼]

Through their different encounters with union, court, and government equality agency lawyers, workers report diverse understandings of their personal experience of injustice in the workplace. This paper examines workers’ experiences of discrimination and the role legal professionals play in litigating these issues in Belgium. Bringing together legal and rights consciousness studies and the sociology of intermediation and tracking different stages in the construction of discrimination cases, from the moment when a future litigant describes an event as an injustice to the moment when the judge recognises a discriminatory behaviour (or conversely, dismisses a case), we suggest several possible empirical explanations of the way in which interactions with legal intermediaries affect workers’ rights consciousness. Because we refer to socio-legal studies from common law countries, this paper also calls into question how best to import these studies to assist in analysing legal mobilisations and legal consciousness in continental Europe. [less ▲]

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See detailBronchial thermoplasty: a new therapeutic option for the treatment of severe, uncontrolled asthma in adults.
Dombret, Marie-Christine; Alagha, Khuder; Philippe Boulet, Louis et al

in European respiratory review : an official journal of the European Respiratory Society (2014), 23(134), 510-8

Bronchial thermoplasty is a young yet promising treatment for severe asthma whose benefit for long-term asthma control outweighs the short-term risk of deterioration and hospitalisation in the days ... [more ▼]

Bronchial thermoplasty is a young yet promising treatment for severe asthma whose benefit for long-term asthma control outweighs the short-term risk of deterioration and hospitalisation in the days following the treatment. It is an innovative treatment whose clinical efficacy and safety are beginning to be better understood. Since this is a device-based therapy, the overall evaluation of risk-benefit is unlike that of pharmaceutical products; safety aspects, regulatory requirements, study design and effect size assessment may be unfamiliar. The mechanisms of action and optimal patient selection need to be addressed in further rigorous clinical and scientific studies. Bronchial thermoplasty fits in perfectly with the movement to expand personalised medicine in the field of chronic airway disorders. This is a device-based complimentary asthma treatment that must be supported and developed in order to meet the unmet needs of modern severe asthma management. The mechanisms of action and the type of patients that benefit from bronchial thermoplasty are the most important challenges for bronchial thermoplasty in the future. [less ▲]

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See detailLa mémoire du présent. Péguy lecteur de Bergson
Soskin, Jonathan ULg

in Cahiers du GRM (2014), 4

L’article interroge le bergsonisme de Péguy à partir de sa résurgence dans le climat existentialiste de l’intelligentsia française à l’issue de la guerre civile européenne.

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See detailChanges in cerebral metabolism in patients with a minimally conscious state responding to zolpidem.
Chatelle, Camille ULg; Thibaut, Aurore ULg; Gosseries, Olivia ULg et al

in Frontiers in Neuroscience (2014)

Background:Zolpidem,ashort-actingnon-benzodiazepineGABAagonisthypnotic,hasbeenshowntoinduceparadoxicalresponsesinsomepatientswithdisordersofconsciousness(DOC ... [more ▼]

Background:Zolpidem,ashort-actingnon-benzodiazepineGABAagonisthypnotic,hasbeenshowntoinduceparadoxicalresponsesinsomepatientswithdisordersofconsciousness(DOC),leadingtorecoveryofarousalandcognitiveabilities.Wehereassessedzolpidem-inducedchangesinregionalbrainmetabolisminthreepatientswithknownzolpidemresponseinchronicpost-anoxicminimallyconsciousstate(MCS).Methods:[18F]-fluorodeoxyglucosepositronemissiontomography(FDG-PET)andstandardizedclinicalassessmentsusingtheComaRecoveryScale-Revisedwereperformedafteradministrationof10mgzolpidemorplaceboinarandomizeddoubleblind2-dayprotocol.PETdatapreprocessingandcomparisonwithahealthyage-matchedcontrolgroupwereperformedusingstatisticalparametricmapping(SPM8).Results:Behaviorally,allpatientsrecoveredfunctionalcommunicationafteradministrationofzolpidem(i.e.,emergencefromtheMCS).FDG-PETshowedincreasedmetabolismindorsolateralprefrontalandmesiofrontalcorticesafterzolpidembutnotafterplaceboadministration.Conclusion:Ourdatashowametabolicactivationofprefrontalareas,corroboratingtheproposedmesocircuithypothesistoexplaintheparadoxicaleffectofzolpidemobservedinsomepatientswithDOC.ItalsosuggeststhekeyroleoftheprefrontalcorticesintherecoveryoffunctionalcommunicationandobjectuseinhypoxicpatientswithchronicMCS. [less ▲]

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See detailDe la satisfaction à la performance : Dépasser les indicateurs de satisfaction pour évaluer et réguler efficacement
Jacquet, Maud ULg; Maillart, Christelle ULg; Georges, François ULg et al

in Education & Formation (2014), e-302

Dans le cadre de la formation en logopédie à l'ULg, un examen certificatif de langue française a été mis en place afin de répondre aux exigences de la profession. Pour y préparer les étudiants, l’unité de ... [more ▼]

Dans le cadre de la formation en logopédie à l'ULg, un examen certificatif de langue française a été mis en place afin de répondre aux exigences de la profession. Pour y préparer les étudiants, l’unité de logopédie clinique, l’Institut Supérieur des Langues Vivantes (ISLV) et le Laboratoire de Soutien aux synergies Enseignement-Technologie (LabSET) de l’Université de Liège (ULg) ont conçu un dispositif hybride d’apprentissage et de remédiation en langue française. Depuis 2011, ce dispositif offre aux étudiants un environnement de travail en ligne visant à soutenir leur apprentissage autonome du français. Malgré une importante satisfaction vis-à-vis du dispositif, les performances demeurent insuffisantes. Cependant, un groupe d’étudiants se distinguent. Une analyse qualitative basée sur des interviews met en évidence chez ces étudiants 1) une bonne connaissance des stratégies cognitives efficaces en termes d’apprentissage, 2) une certaine capacité à planifier et ajuster leur travail et 3) des indicateurs d’une motivation autodéterminée et intrinsèque. Soutenus par le dispositif et ses caractéristiques, il est probable que ces facteurs soient à l’origine de leur succès. Pour des étudiants peut-être encore trop scolaires, principalement soucieux de leurs résultats à l'examen et peu enclins à identifier leurs besoins, la liberté offerte par le dispositif fait naitre un sentiment de satisfaction mais ne suffit pas à un apprentissage de qualité. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing approximate dynamic programming for estimating the revenues of a hydrogen-based high-capacity storage device
François-Lavet, Vincent ULg; Fonteneau, Raphaël ULg; Ernst, Damien ULg

in IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence (2014)

This paper proposes a methodology to estimate the maximum revenue that can be generated by a company that operates a high-capacity storage device to buy or sell electricity on the day-ahead electricity ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes a methodology to estimate the maximum revenue that can be generated by a company that operates a high-capacity storage device to buy or sell electricity on the day-ahead electricity market. The methodology exploits the Dynamic Programming (DP) principle and is specified for hydrogen-based storage devices that use electrolysis to produce hydrogen and fuel cells to generate electricity from hydrogen. Experimental results are generated using historical data of energy prices on the Belgian market. They show how the storage capacity and other parameters of the storage device influence the optimal revenue. The main conclusion drawn from the experiments is that it may be advisable to invest in large storage tanks to exploit the inter-seasonal price fluctuations of electricity. [less ▲]

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See detailStructure de l'univers - quand l'observation guide la théorie... ou pas
Nazé, Yaël ULg

in Azimuth (2014), 2(4), 15-39

The scientific method is often presented, e.g. to children, as a linear process, starting by a question and ending by the elaboration of a theory, with a few experiments in-between. The reality of the ... [more ▼]

The scientific method is often presented, e.g. to children, as a linear process, starting by a question and ending by the elaboration of a theory, with a few experiments in-between. The reality of the building of science is much more complex, with back-and-forth motions between theories and observations, with some intervention of technology and randomness. This complex process is not always correctly understood and assimilated, even amongst scientists. The hero cult, mixed with some revisionism, still exists despite in-depth historical studies. In this context, it may be useful to comparatively examine the reaction to crucial observations, their interpretation and their impact on the contemporaneous theory development. Four examples are presented here, all linked to the question of the ‘construction of the heavens’ but at different epochs. [less ▲]

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See detailAboveground biomass mapping of African forest mosaics using canopy texture analysis: toward a regional approach.
Bastin, Jean-François ULg; Barbier, Nicolas; Couteron, Pierre et al

in Ecological Applications (2014), 24(8), 1984-2001

In the context of the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions caused by deforestation and forest degradation (the REDD+ program), optical very high resolution (VHR) satellite images provide an opportunity ... [more ▼]

In the context of the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions caused by deforestation and forest degradation (the REDD+ program), optical very high resolution (VHR) satellite images provide an opportunity to characterize forest canopy structure and to quantify aboveground biomass (AGB) at less expense than methods based on airborne remote sensing data. Among the methods for processing these VHR images, Fourier textural ordination (FOTO) presents a good potential to detect forest canopy structural heterogeneity and therefore to predict AGB variations. Notably, the method does not saturate at intermediate AGB values as do pixelwise processing of available space borne optical and radar signals. However, a regional scale application requires to overcome two difficulties: (i) instrumental effects due to variations in sun-scene-sensor geometry or sensor-specific responses that preclude the use of wide arrays of images acquired under heterogeneous conditions and (ii) forest structural diversity including monodominant or open canopy forests, which are of particular importance in Central Africa. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of a rigorous regional study of canopy texture by harmonizing FOTO indices of images acquired from two different sensors (Geoeye-1 and QuickBird-2) and different sun-scene-sensor geometries and by calibrating a piecewise biomass inversion model using 26 inventory plots (1 ha) sampled across very heterogeneous forest types. A good agreement was found between observed and predicted AGB (RSE=15%; R²=0.85; p-value<0.001) across a wide range of AGB levels from 26 Mg/ha to 460 Mg/ha, and was confirmed by cross validation. A high-resolution biomass map (100 m pixels) was produced for a 400 km² area, and predictions obtained from both imagery sources were consistent with each other (r=0.86; slope=1.03; intercept=12.01 Mg/ha). These results highlight the horizontal structure of forest canopy as a powerful descriptor of the entire forest stand structure and heterogeneity. In particular, we show that quantitative metrics resulting from such textural analysis offer new opportunities to characterize the spatial and temporal variation of the structure of dense forests and may complement the toolbox used by tropical forest ecologists, managers or REDD+ national monitoring, reporting and verification bodies. [less ▲]

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See detailA novel experimental study of aeolian snow transport in Adelie Land (Antarctica)
Trouvilliez, Alexandre; Naaim-Bouvet, Florence; Genthon, Christophe et al

in Cold Regions Science and Technology (2014), 108

None of the previous aeolian snow transport campaigns in Antarctica meet the requirements in terms of tempo- ral resolution, long-term series and qualified instruments for evaluations of meteorological ... [more ▼]

None of the previous aeolian snow transport campaigns in Antarctica meet the requirements in terms of tempo- ral resolution, long-term series and qualified instruments for evaluations of meteorological and climate models including parameterization for aeolian snow transport. Consequently, determining the quantity of snow transported remains a challenge. A field campaign was therefore launched in January 2009, in Adélie Land, Antarctica, to acquire new model-evaluation-oriented observations within the European ICE2SEA project, with the logistical support of the French polar Institute (IPEV). The available aeolian snow transport sensors are reviewed and the sensor that best suited our specific needs was chosen: FlowCaptTM acoustic sensors. Three au- tomatic weather stations were deployed with FlowCaptsTM close to the coast. The stations' locations are distinct, ranging from 1 to 100 km inland, one of them with a 7-m mast with six levels of anemometers and thermohygrometers. The fluid and impact threshold friction velocities recorded were 0.48 ± 0.09 m s− 1 and 0.4 ± 0.09 m s−1, respectively, with a high standard deviation of 0.12 ± 0.03 m s−1 and 0.13 ± 0.03 m s−1, respectively. The aeolian snow transport frequency in Adélie Land was very high with seasonal variation of trans- port occurring with minima during the austral summer. Seven percent of the aeolian snow transport events were drifting snow (maximum particle's height, b1 m above the surface). The snow quantity transported was above 1 kiloton per year in the first meter above the surface. [less ▲]

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See detailEnfants en situation de vulnérabilité médico-psycho-sociale repérés par la médecine scolaire : les oubliés du réseau de soins ?
Noirhomme-Renard, Florence ULg; Bullens, Quentin ULg; Malchair, Alain ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014), 69(12),

Les besoins actuels de santé des enfants sortent largement du cadre biomédical. La prise en compte des déterminants sociaux de la santé dans la surveillance des enfants offre au médecin scolaire un poste ... [more ▼]

Les besoins actuels de santé des enfants sortent largement du cadre biomédical. La prise en compte des déterminants sociaux de la santé dans la surveillance des enfants offre au médecin scolaire un poste « vigie » pour le repérage d’enfants en situation de vulnérabilité, qui le conduit à la nécessité d’un réel « travail en réseau » pour concourir au développement harmonieux de l’enfant. [less ▲]

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See detailA New Shift-Share Method
Artige, Lionel ULg; Van Neuss, Leif ULg

in Growth and Change (2014), 45(4), 667-683

Shift-share analysis is a decomposition technique widely used in regional studies to quantify an industry-mix effect and a competitive effect on the growth of regional employment (or any other relevant ... [more ▼]

Shift-share analysis is a decomposition technique widely used in regional studies to quantify an industry-mix effect and a competitive effect on the growth of regional employment (or any other relevant variable) relative to the national average. This technique has always been subject to criticism for its lack of theoretical basis. This paper presents a critical assessment of the methods suggested by Dunn (1960) and by Esteban-Marquillas (1972) and proposes a new shift-share method, which separates out the two effects unambiguously. By way of illustration, we provide an application to manufacturing employment in the Belgian provinces between 1995 and 2007. [less ▲]

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See detailThree sub-Jupiter-mass planets: WASP-69b & WASP-84b transit active K dwarfs and WASP-70Ab transits the evolved primary of a G4+K3 binary
Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Delrez, Laetitia ULg et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2014), 445(2),

We report the discovery of the transiting exoplanets WASP-69b, WASP-70Ab and WASP-84b, each of which orbits a bright star (V ˜ 10). WASP-69b is a bloated Saturn-mass planet (0.26 MJup, 1.06 RJup) in a 3 ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery of the transiting exoplanets WASP-69b, WASP-70Ab and WASP-84b, each of which orbits a bright star (V ˜ 10). WASP-69b is a bloated Saturn-mass planet (0.26 MJup, 1.06 RJup) in a 3.868-d period around an active, ˜1-Gyr, mid-K dwarf. ROSAT detected X-rays 60±27 arcsec from WASP-69. If the star is the source then the planet could be undergoing mass-loss at a rate of ˜1012 g s-1. This is one to two orders of magnitude higher than the evaporation rate estimated for HD 209458b and HD 189733b, both of which have exhibited anomalously large Lyman alpha absorption during transit. WASP-70Ab is a sub-Jupiter-mass planet (0.59 MJup, 1.16 RJup) in a 3.713-d orbit around the primary of a spatially resolved, 9-10-Gyr, G4+K3 binary, with a separation of 3.3 arcsec (>=800 au). WASP-84b is a sub-Jupiter-mass planet (0.69 MJup, 0.94 RJup) in an 8.523-d orbit around an active, ˜1-Gyr, early-K dwarf. Of the transiting planets discovered from the ground to date, WASP-84b has the third-longest period. For the active stars WASP-69 and WASP-84, we pre-whitened the radial velocities using a low-order harmonic series. We found that this reduced the residual scatter more than did the oft-used method of pre-whitening with a fit between residual radial velocity and bisector span. The system parameters were essentially unaffected by pre-whitening. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic parameters for direct and maternal calving ease in Walloon dairy cattle based on linear and threshold models
Vanderick, Sylvie ULg; Troch, Thibault ULg; Gillon, Alain et al

in Journal of Animal Breeding & Genetics (2014), 131(6), 513-521

Calving ease scores from Holstein dairy cattle in the Walloon Region of Belgium were analysed using univariate linear and threshold animal models. Variance components and derived genetic parameters were ... [more ▼]

Calving ease scores from Holstein dairy cattle in the Walloon Region of Belgium were analysed using univariate linear and threshold animal models. Variance components and derived genetic parameters were estimated from a dataset including 33,155 calving records. Included in the models were season, herd and sex of calf age of dam classes group of calvings interaction as fixed effects, herd year of calving, maternal permanent environment and animal direct and maternal additive genetic as random effects. Models were fitted with the genetic correlation between direct and maternal additive genetic effects either estimated or constrained to zero. Direct heritability for calving ease was about 8% with linear models and about 12% with threshold models. Maternal heritabilities were about 2% and 4%, respectively. Genetic correlation between direct and maternal additive effects was found to be not significantly different from zero. Models were compared in terms of goodness of fit and predictive ability. Criteria of comparison such as mean squared error, correlation between observed and predicted calving ease scores as well as between estimated breeding values were estimated from 85,118 calving records. The results provided few differences between linear and threshold models even though correlations between estimated breeding values from subsets of data for sires with progeny from linear model were 17% and 23 % greater for direct and maternal genetic effects, respectively, than from threshold model. For the purpose of genetic evaluation for calving ease in Walloon Holstein dairy cattle, the linear animal model without covariance between direct and maternal additive effects was found to be the best choice. [less ▲]

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See detailNatural killer and dendritic cells collaborate in the immune response induced by the vaccine against uterine cervical cancer.
Langers, Inge ULg; Renoux, Virginie; Reschner, Anca et al

in European journal of immunology (2014), 44

Virus-like particles (VLPs) of human papillomavirus (HPV) are used as a vaccine against HPV-induced cancer, and recently we have shown that these VLPs are able to activate natural killer (NK) cells. Since ... [more ▼]

Virus-like particles (VLPs) of human papillomavirus (HPV) are used as a vaccine against HPV-induced cancer, and recently we have shown that these VLPs are able to activate natural killer (NK) cells. Since NK cells collaborate with dendritic cells (DCs) to induce an immune response against viral infections and tumors, we studied the impact of this crosstalk in the context of HPV vaccination. NK cells in the presence of HPV-VLPs enhanced DC maturation as shown by an upregulation of CD86 and HLA-DR and an increased production of IL-12p70, but not of the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10. This activation was bi-directional. Indeed, in the presence of HPV-VLPs, DCs further activated NK cells by inducing the upregulation of cell surface activation markers (CD69 and HLA-DR). The function of NK cells was also improved as shown by an increase in IFN-gamma secretion and cytotoxic activity against an HPV+ cell line. This crosstalk between NK cells and DCs needed CD40 interaction and IL-12p70 secretion, whereas NKG2D was not implicated. Our results provide insight into how VLPs interact with innate immune cells and how NK cells and DCs play a role in the immune response induced by this vaccine agent. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailComposantes métacognitives ; Définitions et outils d’évaluation
Frenkel, Stéphanie ULg

in Enfance : Psychologie, Pédagogie, Neuropsychiatrie, Sociologie (2014), 4

Many tools have been developed since the 1970s in order to assess metacognition and its first implementations. Over time, questionnaires, tests, interviews, observations, computer programmes, and other ... [more ▼]

Many tools have been developed since the 1970s in order to assess metacognition and its first implementations. Over time, questionnaires, tests, interviews, observations, computer programmes, and other methods have become more and more based on self-regulated learning theories. At the same time, for the last fifteen years or so, the number of students with learning difficulties linked to the way they learn seems to be increasing slowly but steadily. Therefore, it seems essential to enable these learners develop a more efficient learning behaviour. Similarly, we see that professional field workers are increasingly asking for efficient and adapted tools in this field. The purpose of this paper is twofold: it provides a review of the above-mentioned assessment tools, and it discusses them in order to contribute to the creation of new tools with a wider scope. Following an analysis of the abundant literature on the subject, two classifications were developed. Thirty-five tools were kept and categorised: first, according to a developmental perspective (preschool, primary school, secondary school and/or adult), second, according to the metacognitive component they assess (metacognitive knowledge, strategies and/or experiences). However, no existing tool covers the whole period of compulsory education. Moreover, in order to assess the learners’ metacognitive abilities fully, it is necessary to combine online and offline assessments in concrete situations. There are still some needs to be met in this regard. [less ▲]

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