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See detailOrigin of the exponential decay of the Loschmidt echo in integrable systems
Dubertrand, Rémy ULg; Goussev, A

in Physical Review. E : Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics (2014), 89

We address the time decay of the Loschmidt echo, measuring the sensitivity of quantum dynamics to small Hamiltonian perturbations, in one-dimensional integrable systems. Using a semiclassical analysis, we ... [more ▼]

We address the time decay of the Loschmidt echo, measuring the sensitivity of quantum dynamics to small Hamiltonian perturbations, in one-dimensional integrable systems. Using a semiclassical analysis, we show that the Loschmidt echo may exhibit a well-pronounced regime of exponential decay, similar to the one typically observed in quantum systems whose dynamics is chaotic in the classical limit. We derive an explicit formula for the exponential decay rate in terms of the spectral properties of the unperturbed and perturbed Hamilton operators and the initial state. In particular, we show that the decay rate, unlike in the case of the chaotic dynamics, is directly proportional to the strength of the Hamiltonian perturbation. Finally, we compare our analytical predictions against the results of a numerical computation of the Loschmidt echo for a quantum particle moving inside a one-dimensional box with Dirichlet-Robin boundary conditions, and find the two in good agreement. [less ▲]

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See detailResidual stress profiles in veneering ceramic on Y-TZP, alumina and ZTA frameworks: Measurement by hole-drilling
Fukushima, K. A.; Sadoun, M. J.; Cesar, P. F. et al

in Dental materials (2014), 30(2), 105-111

OBJECTIVES: The residual stress profile developed within the veneering ceramic during the manufacturing process is an important predicting factor in chipping failures, which constitute a well-known ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: The residual stress profile developed within the veneering ceramic during the manufacturing process is an important predicting factor in chipping failures, which constitute a well-known problem with yttria-tetragonal-zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) based restorations. The objectives of this study are to measure and to compare the residual stress profile in the veneering ceramic layered on three different polycrystalline ceramic framework materials: Y-TZP, alumina polycrystal (AL) and zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA). METHODS: The stress profile was measured with the hole-drilling method in bilayered disk samples of 19mm diameter with a 0.7mm thick Y-TZP, AL or ZTA framework and a 1.5mm thick layer of the corresponding veneering ceramic. RESULTS: The AL samples exhibited increasing compressive stresses with depth, while compressive stresses switching into interior tensile stresses were measured in Y-TZP samples. ZTA samples exhibited compressive stress at the ceramic surface, decreasing with depth up to 0.6mm from the surface, and then becoming compressive again near the framework. SIGNIFICANCE: Y-TZP samples exhibited a less favorable stress profile than those of AL and ZTA samples. Results support the hypothesis of the occurrence of structural changes within the Y-TZP surface in contact with the veneering ceramic to explain the presence of tensile stresses. Even if the presence of Y-TZP in the alumina matrix seems to negatively affect the residual stress profiles in ZTA samples in comparison with AL samples, the registered profiles remain positive in terms of veneer fracture resistance. [less ▲]

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See detailDo Photobiont Switch and Cephalodia Emancipation Act as Evolutionary Drivers in the Lichen Symbiosis? A Case Study in the Pannariaceae (Peltigerales)
Magain, Nicolas ULg; Sérusiaux, Emmanuël ULg

in PLoS ONE (2014), 9(2), 89876

Lichen symbioses in the Pannariaceae associate an ascomycete and either cyanobacteria alone (usually Nostoc; bipartite thalli) or green algae and cyanobacteria (cyanobacteria being located in dedicated ... [more ▼]

Lichen symbioses in the Pannariaceae associate an ascomycete and either cyanobacteria alone (usually Nostoc; bipartite thalli) or green algae and cyanobacteria (cyanobacteria being located in dedicated structures called cephalodia; tripartite thalli) as photosynthetic partners (photobionts). In bipartite thalli, cyanobacteria can either be restricted to a well-delimited layer within the thallus (‘pannarioid’ thalli) or spread over the thallus that becomes gelatinous when wet (‘collematoid’ thalli). We studied the collematoid genera Kroswia and Physma and an undescribed tripartite species along with representatives of the pannarioid genera Fuscopannaria, Pannaria and Parmeliella. Molecular inferences from 4 loci for the fungus and 1 locus for the photobiont and statistical analyses within a phylogenetic framework support the following: (a) several switches from pannarioid to collematoid thalli occured and are correlated with photobiont switches; the collematoid genus Kroswia is nested within the pannarioid genus Fuscopannaria and the collematoid genus Physma is sister to the pannarioid Parmeliella mariana group; (b) Nostoc associated with collematoid thalli in the Pannariaceae are related to that of the Collemataceae (which contains only collematoid thalli), and never associated with pannarioid thalli; Nostoc associated with pannarioid thalli also associate in other families with similar morphology; (c) ancestors of several lineages in the Pannariaceae developed tripartite thalli, bipartite thalli probably resulting from cephalodia emancipation from tripartite thalli which eventually evolved and diverged, as suggested by the same Nostoc present in the collematoid genus Physma and in the cephalodia of a closely related tripartite species; Photobiont switches and cephalodia emancipation followed by divergence are thus suspected to act as evolutionary drivers in the family Pannariaceae. [less ▲]

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See detailClassification et régimes dans les prisons belges
Devresse, Marie-Sophie; Robert, Luc; Vanneste, Charlotte ULg

in Revue de droit pénal et de criminologie (2014)

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See detailPrecision synthesis of poly(ionic liquid)-based block copolymers by cobalt-mediated radical polymerization and preliminary study of their self-assembling properties
Coupillaud, Paul; Fèvre, Maréva; Wirotius, Anne-Laure et al

in Macromolecular Rapid Communications (2014), 35(4), 422-430

A poly(ionic liquid)-based block copolymer (PIL BCP), namely, poly(vinyl acetate)-b-poly(N-vinyl-3-butylimidazolium bromide), PVAc-b-PVBuImBr, is synthesized by sequential cobalt-mediated radical ... [more ▼]

A poly(ionic liquid)-based block copolymer (PIL BCP), namely, poly(vinyl acetate)-b-poly(N-vinyl-3-butylimidazolium bromide), PVAc-b-PVBuImBr, is synthesized by sequential cobalt-mediated radical polymerization (CMRP). A PVAc precursor is first prepared at 30 °C in bulk by CMRP of VAc, using bis(acetylacetonato)cobalt(II), Co(acac)2, and a radical source (V-70). Growth of PVBuImBr from PVAc-Co(acac)2 is accomplished by CMRP in DMF/MeOH (2:1, v/v). This PIL BCP self-assembles in the sub-micron size range into aggregated core–shell micelles in THF, whereas polymeric vesicles are observed in water, as evidenced by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Thin-solid sample cut from raw materials analyzed by TEM shows an ordered lamellar organization by temperature-dependent synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Anion exchange can be accomplished to achieve the corresponding PIL BCP with bis(trifluorosulfonyl)imide (Tf2N−) anions, which also gives rise to an ordered lamellar phase in bulk samples. A complete suppression of SAXS second-order reflection suggests that this compound has a symmetric volume fraction (f ≈ 0.5). SAXS characterization of both di- and triblock PIL BCP analogues previously reported also shows a lamellar phase of very similar behavior, with only an increase of the period by about 8% at 60 °C. [less ▲]

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See detailSoft power chinois et Hollywood: de la méfiance à la coopération?
Vlassis, Antonios ULg

in Interventions Economiques = Papers in Political Economy (2014)

"La culture et les industries culturelles restent jusqu’à présent un facteur méconnu de la puissance chinoise"

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See detailCharacterization of riparian zones in wallonia (belgium) from local to regional scale using aerial lidar data and photogrammetric DSM
Michez, Adrien ULg; Piégay, Hervé; Lejeune, Philippe et al

in EARSeL eProceedings (2014), 13(2),

The present study proposes an innovative approach to automatically extract riparian zone characteristics in order to assess its quality, from pre-determined river management reaches (1-3 km long) to ... [more ▼]

The present study proposes an innovative approach to automatically extract riparian zone characteristics in order to assess its quality, from pre-determined river management reaches (1-3 km long) to regional scale (ca. 13000 km for 1000 management sectors). The aim of this remotely sensed monitoring is to improve the river and riparian zone management and planning by providing some key information for river managers. The methodology was developed based on two watersheds covering approximately 500 km of river network (ca. 200 management sectors). The riparian zone quality is evaluated through various indicators of its ecological integrity (e.g. longitudinal continuity of riparian forest, mean vegetation height and relative standard deviation), hydromorphological quality and physical settings (e.g. flow channel extent, floodplain width, channel sinuosity). The physical characteristics of the riparian zone are mainly extracted from a high quality Digital Terrain Model (derived from ALS data) while the attributes of the riparian forest are derived from a « hybrid » Canopy Height Model (photogrammetric Digital Surface Model – LiDAR derived DTM). This first research is exclusively based on data which are available at the regional scale (170000 square km) to develop automated tools to implement the methodology to the whole Walloon river network (13000 km) before 2015 with an update frequency of 3 years (photogrammetric DSM survey frequency). Moreover, our approach is based on a photogrammetric Digital Surface Model which is derived from raw images of an orthophoto coverage. As most of European countries are regularly covered by orthophoto surveys, our approach is widely replicable in countries where a quality DTM is available. [less ▲]

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See detailSubspace-based identification of a nonlinear spacecraft in the time and frequency domains
Noël, Jean-Philippe ULg; Marchesiello, Stefano; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg

in Mechanical Systems & Signal Processing (2014), 43(1-2), 217-236

The objective of the present paper is to address the identification of a strongly nonlinear satellite structure. To this end, two nonlinear subspace identification methods formulated in the time and ... [more ▼]

The objective of the present paper is to address the identification of a strongly nonlinear satellite structure. To this end, two nonlinear subspace identification methods formulated in the time and frequency domains are exploited, referred to as the TNSI and FNSI methods, respectively. The modal parameters of the underlying linear structure and the coefficients of the nonlinearities will be estimated by these two approaches based on periodic random measurements. Their respective merits will also be discussed in terms of both accuracy and computational efficiency and the use of stabilisation diagrams in nonlinear system identification will be introduced. The application of interest is the SmallSat spacecraft developed by EADS-Astrium, which possesses an impact-type nonlinear device consisting of eight mechanical stops limiting the motion of an inertia wheel mounted on an elastomeric interface. This application is challenging for several reasons including the non-smooth nature of the nonlinearities, high modal density and high non-proportional damping. [less ▲]

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See detailLes enjeux stratégiques de l’Union européenne et de la Turquie dans les Balkans occidentaux
Lika, Liridon ULg

in Interventions Economiques = Papers in Political Economy (2014)

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See detailThe role of protein modifications in senescence of freeze-dried Acetobacter senegalensis during storage
Shafiei, Rasoul ULg; Zarmehrkhorshid, Raziyeh ULg; Bentaib, Azeddine ULg et al

in Microbial Cell Factories (2014)

Background Loss of viability is one of the most important problems during starter culture production. Previous research has mostly focused on the production process of bacterial starters, but there are ... [more ▼]

Background Loss of viability is one of the most important problems during starter culture production. Previous research has mostly focused on the production process of bacterial starters, but there are few studies about cellular protein deterioration causing cell defectiveness during storage. In the present study, we investigated the influence of storage temperature (−21, 4, 35°C) on the cellular protein modifications which may contribute to the senescence of freeze-dried Acetobacter senegalensis. Results Heterogeneous populations composed of culturable cells, viable but non-culturable cells (VBNC) and dead cells were generated when freeze-dried cells were kept at −21 and 4°C for 12 months whereas higher storage temperature (35°C) mainly caused death of the cells. The analysis of stored cell proteome by 2D-DiGE demonstrated a modified pattern of protein profile for cell kept at 4 and 35°C due to the formation of protein spot trains and shift of Isoelectric point (pI). Quantification of carbonylated protein by ELISA showed that the cells stored at 4 and 35°C had higher carbonylated protein contents than fresh cells. 2D-DiGE followed by Western blotting also confirmed the carbonylation of cellular proteins involved in translation process and energy generation. The auto-fluorescent feature of cells kept at 35°C increased significantly which may be an indication of protein glycation during storage. In addition, the percentage of cellular unsaturated fatty acid and the solubility of cellular proteins decreased upon storage of cells at higher temperature suggesting that peroxidation of fatty acids and possibly protein lipidation and oxidation occurred. Conclusions High storage temperature induces some deteriorative reactions such as protein oxidation, lipidation and glycation which may cause further protein modifications like pI-shift, and protein insolubility. These modifications can partly account for the changes in cell viability. It can also be deduced that even moderate carbonylation of some critical cellular proteins (like ribosomal proteins) may lead to VBNC formation or death of freeze-dried bacteria. Moreover, it seems that other mechanisms of biomolecule deterioration preceding protein carbonylation lead to VBNC formation under very low storage temperature. [less ▲]

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See detailProduction écrite en langue étrangère, feedback correctif et révision assistée: une étude de cas
Noiroux, Kevin ULg; Simons, Germain ULg

in Babylonia (2014)

Corrective feedback, which consists in informing the student that he has made a linguistic error, is a teaching practice that is often used by second language teachers. Written corrective feedback takes ... [more ▼]

Corrective feedback, which consists in informing the student that he has made a linguistic error, is a teaching practice that is often used by second language teachers. Written corrective feedback takes different forms that range from the approximate localization of the error to the explanation of the rule that underlies the error that the student committed. In this case study, we wanted to compare the types of written corrective feedback that research has identified to those used by a foreign language teacher working in a French speaking secondary school. We also wanted to determine the quantity of errors that the students corrected while revising their written production with the help of the teacher, the researcher, their schoolmate and reference books. The results show, on the one hand, that the teacher mainly uses corrective feedback that can be rapidly delivered and, on the other hand, that the students manage to correct most errors, whatever the type of corrective feedback may be. These encouraging results may be attributed to the teaching activity, which allowed the teacher and the researcher to explain part of the corrective feedback that the students could not have understood by themselves. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-incubation time-interferon-gamma release assays in response to PPD-, ESAT-6- and/or CFP-10 for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children
Schepers, Kinda; Mouchet, Françoise; Dirix, Violette et al

in Clinical and Vaccine Immunology (2014), 21(2), 111-118

Background: Diagnosis of childhood active tuberculosis (aTB) or latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection (LTBI) remains a challenge, and replacement of tuberculin skin tests (TST) by ... [more ▼]

Background: Diagnosis of childhood active tuberculosis (aTB) or latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection (LTBI) remains a challenge, and replacement of tuberculin skin tests (TST) by commercialized interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA) is not currently recommended. Methods: 266 children between 1 month and 15 years of age, 214 being at risk of recent Mtb infection and 51 being included as controls, were prospectively enrolled. According results of clinical evaluation, TST, chest X-Ray and microbiology, children were classified as non-infected, LTBI or aTB. Long-incubation time PPD-, ESAT-6-, and CFP-10-IGRA were performed and evaluated for their accuracy to correctly classify the children. Results: Whereas both TST and PPD-IGRA were suboptimal to detect aTB, combining CFP-10-IGRA with TST or with PPD-IGRA allowed us to detect all the children with aTB, with 96% specificity for children who were positive for CFP-10-IGRA. Moreover, combination of CFP-10- and PPD-IGRA also detected 96% of children classified as LTBI, but a strong IFN-γ response to CFP-10 (>500 pg/ml) was highly suggestive of aTB at least among children less than 3 years old. Conclusions: Long-incubation time CFP-10- and PPD-IGRA should help the clinicians to identify quickly aTB or LTBI in young children. [less ▲]

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See detailINFLUENCE OF JUMPING STRATEGY ON KINETIC PARAMETERS
Jidovtseff, Boris ULg; Quievre, Jacques; Harris Nigel et al

in Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness (2014), 54

Aim: Different jumping strategies can be used during plyometric training. Understanding how manipulating variables such as the counter-movement, flexion amplitude, the drop and the load could influence ... [more ▼]

Aim: Different jumping strategies can be used during plyometric training. Understanding how manipulating variables such as the counter-movement, flexion amplitude, the drop and the load could influence neuromuscular adaptation would be beneficial for coaches and athletes. The purpose of this study was to analyze how these variations in the vertical jump influenced kinematic and kinetic parameters as measured by a force platform. Methods: Ten male subjects performed, eight kinds of vertical jumps on a force platform : (1) squat jump (SJ); (2) shallow counter-movement jump (S-CMJ); (3) natural counter-movement jump (N-CMJ); (4) deep counter-movement jump (D-CMJ); (5) loaded (20kg) counter-movement jump (20-CMJ); (6) shallow drop jump (S-DJ); (7) deep drop jump (D-DJ); (8) six consecutive jump test (6CJ). Customised Labview software was used to calculate time, displacement, velocity, acceleration, force, power, impulse and stiffness. After statistical analysis, jumping variables were grouped to achieve spécific training objectives. Results: The mechanical parameters were largely influenced by the jump strategy, all the deep jumps produced superior jump heights and concentric velocities as compared to the shallow jumps. The exercises associated with greater power outputs were the S-DJ (5386±1095w) and 6CJ (5795±1365w) that involved short impulse durations and very high accelerations. The greatest values of muscle stiffness were not recorded during the highest vertical jumps, meaning that stiffness is not critical for jumping high. Conclusion: This study gives an overview of what is changing when we manipulate jumping variables and instructions given to the athletes. Plyometric exercises should be carefully selected according to the sport and specific individual needs. [less ▲]

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See detailMicroorganisms living on macroalgae: diversity, interactions, and biotechnological applications
Martin, Marjolaine ULg; Portetelle, Daniel ULg; Michel, Gurvan et al

in Applied Microbiology & Biotechnology (2014)

Marine microorganisms play key roles in every marine ecological process, hence the growing interest in studying their populations and functions. Microbial communities on algae remain underexplored ... [more ▼]

Marine microorganisms play key roles in every marine ecological process, hence the growing interest in studying their populations and functions. Microbial communities on algae remain underexplored, however, despite their huge biodiversity and the fact that they differ markedly from those living freely in seawater. The study of this microbiota and of its relationships with algal hosts should provide crucial information for ecological investigations on algae and aquatic ecosystems. Furthermore, because these microorganisms interact with algae in multiple, complex ways, they constitute an interesting source of novel bioactive compounds with biotechnological potential, such as dehalogenases, antimicrobials, and alga-specific polysaccharidases (e.g., agarases, carrageenases, and alginate lyases). Here, to demonstrate the huge potential of alga-associated organisms and their metabolites in developing future biotechnological applications, we first describe the immense diversity and density of these microbial biofilms. We further describe their complex interactions with algae, leading to the production of specific bioactive compounds and hydrolytic enzymes of biotechnological interest. We end with a glance at their potential use in medical and industrial applications. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of the ultrastructure of sonic muscles: a kind of neoteny?
Millot, Sandie; Parmentier, Eric ULg

in BMC Evolutionary Biology (2014), 14

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See detailDevelopment of a colorimetric method for the dosage of OI- anions and I2 in aqueous media
Bafort, Françoise ULg; Barthelemy, Jean-Paul ULg; Parisi, Olivier ULg et al

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2014), 79(1), 155-160

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See detailSpectrometric monitoring of atmospheric carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) above the Jungfraujoch station since 1989: evidence of continued increase but at a slowing rate
Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg; Zander, Rodolphe ULg; Toon, G. C. et al

in Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (2014), 7

The long-term evolution of the vertical column abundance of carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) above the high-altitude Jungfraujoch station (Swiss Alps, 46.5° N, 8.0° E, 3580 m a.s.l.) has been derived from the ... [more ▼]

The long-term evolution of the vertical column abundance of carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) above the high-altitude Jungfraujoch station (Swiss Alps, 46.5° N, 8.0° E, 3580 m a.s.l.) has been derived from the spectrometric analysis of Fourier transform infrared solar spectra recorded at that site between 1989 and 2012. The investigation is based on a multi-microwindow approach, two encompassing pairs of absorption lines belonging to the R-branch of the strong ν3 band of CF4 centered at 1283 cm−1, and two additional ones to optimally account for weak but overlapping HNO3 interferences. The analysis reveals a steady accumulation of the very long-lived CF4 above the Jungfraujoch at mean rates of (1.38 ± 0.11) × 1013 molec cm−2 yr−1 from 1989 to 1997, and (0.98 ± 0.02) × 1013 molec cm−2 yr−1 from 1998 to 2012, which correspond to linear growth rates of 1.71 ± 0.14 and 1.04 ± 0.02% yr−1 respectively referenced to 1989 and 1998. Related global CF4 anthropogenic emissions required to sustain these mean increases correspond to 15.8 ± 1.3 and 11.1 ± 0.2 Gg yr−1 over the above specified time intervals. Findings reported here are compared and discussed with respect to relevant northern mid-latitude results obtained remotely from space and balloons as well as in situ at the ground, including new gas chromatography mass spectrometry measurements performed at the Jungfraujoch since 2010. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of uncertainty in surface mass balance–elevation feedback on projections of the future sea level contribution of the Greenland ice sheet
Edwards, T.; Fettweis, Xavier ULg; Gagliardini, O. et al

in Cryosphere (The) (2014), 8

We apply a new parameterisation of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) feedback between surface mass balance (SMB: the sum of surface accumulation and surface ablation) and surface elevation in the MAR ... [more ▼]

We apply a new parameterisation of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) feedback between surface mass balance (SMB: the sum of surface accumulation and surface ablation) and surface elevation in the MAR regional climate model (Edwards et al., 2014) to projections of future climate change using five ice sheet models (ISMs). The MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional: Fettweis, 2007) climate projections are for 2000–2199, forced by the ECHAM5 and HadCM3 global climate models (GCMs) under the SRES A1B emissions scenario. The additional sea level contribution due to the SMB–elevation feedback averaged over five ISM projections for ECHAM5 and three for HadCM3 is 4.3% (best estimate; 95% credibility interval 1.8–6.9%) at 2100, and 9.6% (best estimate; 95% credibility interval 3.6–16.0%) at 2200. In all results the elevation feedback is significantly positive, amplifying the GrIS sea level contribution relative to the MAR projections in which the ice sheet topography is fixed: the lower bounds of our 95% credibility intervals (CIs) for sea level contributions are larger than the "no feedback" case for all ISMs and GCMs. Our method is novel in sea level projections because we propagate three types of modelling uncertainty – GCM and ISM structural uncertainties, and elevation feedback parameterisation uncertainty – along the causal chain, from SRES scenario to sea level, within a coherent experimental design and statistical framework. The relative contributions to uncertainty depend on the timescale of interest. At 2100, the GCM uncertainty is largest, but by 2200 both the ISM and parameterisation uncertainties are larger. We also perform a perturbed parameter ensemble with one ISM to estimate the shape of the projected sea level probability distribution; our results indicate that the probability density is slightly skewed towards higher sea level contributions. [less ▲]

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See detailÀ la Chandeleur, la crêpe reprend vigueur
Frankinet, Baptiste ULg; Lempereur, Françoise ULg

in Culture, le Magazine Culturel de l'Université de Liège (2014)

Entretien avec Françoise Lempereur autour de l’origine de cette fête et des multiples coutumes qui y sont liées

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See detailProbabilistic parameterisation of the surface mass balance–elevation feedback in regional climate model simulations of the Greenland ice sheet
Edwards, T.; Fettweis, Xavier ULg; Gagliardini, O. et al

in Cryosphere (The) (2014), 8

We present a new parameterisation that relates surface mass balance (SMB: the sum of surface accumulation and surface ablation) to changes in surface elevation of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) for the ... [more ▼]

We present a new parameterisation that relates surface mass balance (SMB: the sum of surface accumulation and surface ablation) to changes in surface elevation of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) for the MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional: Fettweis, 2007) regional climate model. The motivation is to dynamically adjust SMB as the GrIS evolves, allowing us to force ice sheet models with SMB simulated by MAR while incorporating the SMB–elevation feedback, without the substantial technical challenges of coupling ice sheet and climate models. This also allows us to assess the effect of elevation feedback uncertainty on the GrIS contribution to sea level, using multiple global climate and ice sheet models, without the need for additional, expensive MAR simulations. We estimate this relationship separately below and above the equilibrium line altitude (ELA, separating negative and positive SMB) and for regions north and south of 77° N, from a set of MAR simulations in which we alter the ice sheet surface elevation. These give four "SMB lapse rates", gradients that relate SMB changes to elevation changes. We assess uncertainties within a Bayesian framework, estimating probability distributions for each gradient from which we present best estimates and credibility intervals (CI) that bound 95% of the probability. Below the ELA our gradient estimates are mostly positive, because SMB usually increases with elevation: 0.56 (95% CI: −0.22 to 1.33) kg m−3 a−1 for the north, and 1.91 (1.03 to 2.61) kg m−3 a−1 for the south. Above the ELA, the gradients are much smaller in magnitude: 0.09 (−0.03 to 0.23) kg m−3 a−1 in the north, and 0.07 (−0.07 to 0.59) kg m−3 a−1 in the south, because SMB can either increase or decrease in response to increased elevation. [less ▲]

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See detailOn transvaginal endoscopy for elucidating pathogenesis and treatment of ovarian endometria
Nisolle, Michelle ULg

in Gynecological Surgery (2014), 11(1),

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See detailLes aventures du corps et de l’identité dans la photographie de mode
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg

in Nouveaux Actes Sémiotiques (2014), 117

L’objectif de ce travail est d’explorer certaines caractéristiques de la photographie de mode : en premier lieu, les façons dont elle se met en scène en tant que photo de mode, et en second lieu, les ... [more ▼]

L’objectif de ce travail est d’explorer certaines caractéristiques de la photographie de mode : en premier lieu, les façons dont elle se met en scène en tant que photo de mode, et en second lieu, les manières dont elle-même théorise le fonctionnement plus général de l’univers de la mode. [less ▲]

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See detailUntangling spatial and temporal trends in the variability of the Black Sea Cold Intermediate Layer and mixed Layer Depth using the DIVA detrending procedure
Capet, Arthur ULg; Troupin, Charles ULg; Cartensen, Jacob et al

in Ocean Dynamics (2014), 64(3), 315-324

Current spatial interpolation products may be biased by uneven distribution of measurements in time. This manuscript presents a detrending method that recognizes and eliminates this bias. The method ... [more ▼]

Current spatial interpolation products may be biased by uneven distribution of measurements in time. This manuscript presents a detrending method that recognizes and eliminates this bias. The method estimates temporal trend components in addition to the spatial structure and has been implemented within the Data Interpolating Variational Analysis (DIVA) analysis tool. The assets of this new detrending method are illustrated by producing monthly and annual climatologies of two vertical properties of the Black Sea while recognizing their seasonal and interannual variabilities : the mixed layer depth, and the cold content of its Cold Intermediate Layer (CIL). The temporal trends, given as by-products of the method, are used to analyze the seasonal and interannual variability of these variables over the past decades (1955-2011). In particular, the CIL interannual variability is related to the cumulated winter air temperature anomalies, explaining 88\% of its variation. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of a liquid chromatographic method for thesimultaneous quantification of curcumin, -arteether,tetrahydrocurcumin and dihydroartemisinin. Application to lipid-based formulations
Memvanga Bondo, Patrick; Mbinze Kindenge, Jérémie ULg; Rozet, Eric ULg et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2014), 88(-), 447-456

A liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous separation of curcumin, B-arteether, tetrahydrocurcumin and dihydroartemisinin based on the design of experiments and the design space ... [more ▼]

A liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous separation of curcumin, B-arteether, tetrahydrocurcumin and dihydroartemisinin based on the design of experiments and the design space methodology. The influence of the percentage of organic modifier, flow rate of the mobile phase and column temperature on the analytes separation was investigated. The optimal chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column (125 mm × 4 mm, 5 µm) using an isocratic elution with a mobile phase consisting of methanol:ammonium acetate (pH 4; 10 mM) (80/20, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.45 ml/min and a column temperature of 32.5◦C. This method was then validated for simultaneous quantification of curcumin and B -arteether contained in lipid-based formulations taking into account the B -expectation tolerance interval for the total error measurement. Finally, the suitability of the proposed liquid chromatographic method for routine analysis of curcumin and B -arteether loaded in lipid-based formulations has been proven. [less ▲]

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See detailImprovement of a stability-indicating method by Quality-by-Design versus Quality-by-Testing: A case of a learning process
Hubert, Cédric ULg; Lebrun, Pierre ULg; Houari, Sabah ULg et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2014), 88

The understanding of the method is a major concern when developing a stability-indicating method and even more so when dealing with impurity assays from complex matrices. In the presented case study, a ... [more ▼]

The understanding of the method is a major concern when developing a stability-indicating method and even more so when dealing with impurity assays from complex matrices. In the presented case study, a Quality-by-Design approach was applied in order to optimize a routinely used method. An analytical issue occurring at the last stage of a long-term stability study involving unexpected impurities perturbing the monitoring of characterized impurities needed to be resolved. A compliant Quality-by-Design (QbD) methodology based on a Design of Experiments (DoE) approach was evaluated within the framework of a Liquid Chromatography (LC) method. This approach allows the investigation of Critical Process Parameters (CPPs), which have an impact on Critical Quality Attributes (CQAs) and, consequently, on LC selectivity. Using polynomial regression response modeling as well as Monte Carlo simulations for error propagation, Design Space (DS) was computed in order to determine robust working conditions for the developed stability-indicating method. This QbD compliant development was conducted in two phases allowing the use of the Design Space knowledge acquired during the first phase to define the experimental domain of the second phase, which constitutes a learning process. The selected working condition was then fully validated using accuracy profiles based on statistical tolerance intervals in order to evaluate the reliability of the results generated by this LC/ESI-MS stability-indicating method. A comparison was made between the traditional Quality-by-Testing (QbT) approach and the QbD strategy, highlighting the benefit of this QbD strategy in the case of an unexpected impurities issue. On this basis, the advantages of a systematic use of the QbD methodology were discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailMetallothioneins pattern during ontogeny of coastal dolphin, Pontoporia blainvillei, from Argentina
Polizzi, P.S.; Romero, M.B.; Chiodi Boudet, L.N. et al

in Marine Pollution Bulletin (2014)

Metallothioneins are signals of metal exposure and widely used in biomonitoring. Franciscana dolphin is an endemic cetacean from the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean, classified as Vulnerable A3d by the IUCN ... [more ▼]

Metallothioneins are signals of metal exposure and widely used in biomonitoring. Franciscana dolphin is an endemic cetacean from the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean, classified as Vulnerable A3d by the IUCN. Metallothionein, copper and zinc in Franciscana were assessed in two geographic groups; one inhabits La Plata River estuary, anthropogenically impacted, and the other inhabits marine coastal ecosystems, with negligible pollution. Despite the environment, hepatic and renal MT concentrations were similar, but there was a declining trend from early to later developmental stages. Metallothionein K/L, Cu and Zn levels corresponded to normal reported ranges. MT was not related with Cd. Fetal concentrations were higher than its mother. These results and the health status of dolphins are suggesting that MT correspond to physiological ranges for the species, and they are closely to homeostasis of Zn and Cu, according to its ontogenetic changes. The information constitutes the first MT information on Franciscana dolphin and can be considered as baseline for the species conservation. [less ▲]

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See detailClassification of periodic orbits of two-dimensional homogeneous granular crystals with no pre-compression
Detroux, Thibaut ULg; Starosvetsky, Yuli; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg et al

in Nonlinear Dynamics (2014), 76(April 2014), 673-696

In the present study we classify the periodic orbits of a squarely packed, uncompressed and undamped, homogeneous granular crystal, assuming that all elastic granules oscillate with the same frequency (i ... [more ▼]

In the present study we classify the periodic orbits of a squarely packed, uncompressed and undamped, homogeneous granular crystal, assuming that all elastic granules oscillate with the same frequency (i.e., under condition of 1:1 resonance); this type of Hamiltonian periodic orbits have been labeled as nonlinear normal modes. To this end we formulate an auxiliary system which consists of a two-dimensional, vibro-impact lattice composed of non-uniform “effective particles” oscillating in an anti-phase fashion. The analysis is based on the idea of balancing linear momentum in both horizontal and vertical directions for separate, groups of particles, whereby each such a group is represented by the single effective particle of the auxiliary system. It is important to emphasize that the auxiliary model can be defined for general finite, squarely packed granular crystals composed of n rows and m columns. The auxiliary model is successful in predicting the total number of such periodic orbits, as well as the amplitude ratios for different periodic regimes including strongly localized ones. In fact this methodology enables one to systematically study the generation of mode localization in these strongly nonlinear, highly degenerate dynamical systems. Good correspondence between the results of the theoretical model and direct numerical simulations is observed. The results presented herein can be further extended to study the intrinsic dynamics of the more complex granular materials, such as heterogeneous two-dimensional and three-dimensional granular crystals and multi-layered structures. [less ▲]

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See detailTwo spondylodiscitis due to a contamination by Brucella melitensis in a mother and daughter back from holidays
MALAISE, Olivier ULg; LIBON, Florence ULg; BRICMAAN J et al

in Revue Médicale de la Suisse Romande (2014), 10(404), 197-200

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See detailMilli-Interacting Dark Matter Interpretation of the Direct-Search Experiments
Wallemacq, Quentin ULg

in Advances in High Energy Physics (2014), 2014

We reinterpret the results of the direct searches for dark matter in terms of milli-interacting dark particles. The model reproduces the positive results from DAMA/LIBRA and CoGeNT and is consistent with ... [more ▼]

We reinterpret the results of the direct searches for dark matter in terms of milli-interacting dark particles. The model reproduces the positive results from DAMA/LIBRA and CoGeNT and is consistent with the absence of signal in the XENON100, CDMS-II/Ge, and LUX detectors. Dark atoms, interacting with standard atoms through a kinetic mixing between photons and dark photons and a mass mixing of sigma mesons with dark scalars, diffuse elastically in terrestrial matter where they deposit all their energy. Reaching underground detectors through gravity at thermal energies, they form bound states with nuclei of the active medium by radiative capture, which causes the emission of photons that produce the observed signals. The parameter space of the model is explored and regions reproducing the results at the 2 sigma level are obtained for each experiment. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis and biological evaluation of amino acid methyl ester conjugates of 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oic acid against the production of nitric oxide (NO)
Onyango, Evans; Liangfeng, Fu; Cao, Martine ULg et al

in Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters (2014)

2-Cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO, 2) was condensed with various amino acid methyl esters at the C-28 carboxylic acid. The new amide conjugates were evaluated for their inhibition of ... [more ▼]

2-Cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO, 2) was condensed with various amino acid methyl esters at the C-28 carboxylic acid. The new amide conjugates were evaluated for their inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with interferon-γ (IFNγ). Of these new compounds, CDDO conjugates with alanine, valine, and serine are nearly equipotent to CDDO-ethyl amide (4), a triterpenoid with promising biological activity in numerous disease models. Some of these conjugates also induce the in vitro expression of heme oxygenase-1, and inhibit the proliferation of Panc-1343 pancreatic cells. [less ▲]

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See detailLa Caléfaction
Darbois-Texier, Baptiste ULg; Dupeux, Guillaume; Lagubeau, Guillaume et al

in Reflets de la physique (2014), 37

Ingénieurs et physiciens s’intéressent depuis plusieurs siècles au comportement des liquides volatils sur des plaques chaudes, et à la lévitation du liquide sur un coussin de vapeur, ou caléfaction, qui ... [more ▼]

Ingénieurs et physiciens s’intéressent depuis plusieurs siècles au comportement des liquides volatils sur des plaques chaudes, et à la lévitation du liquide sur un coussin de vapeur, ou caléfaction, qui en résulte. Plusieurs phénomènes nouveaux ont été récemment décrits, en particulier si l’on texture le solide (friction spéciale, autopropulsion). Mais ces systèmes sont aussi un moyen de produire une situation modèle, où l’on manipule ou place sous champ un liquide détaché de son support. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of decreased glomerular filtration rate in intensive care units: serum cystatin C versus serum creatinine
DELANAYE, Pierre ULg; CAVALIER, Etienne ULg; Morel, Jérôme et al

in BMC Nephrology (2014), 15(9), 1471-2369

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See detailWASP-103b: a new planet at the edge of tidal disruption
Gillon, Michaël ULg; Anderson, D. R.; Collier-Cameron, A. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014)

We report the discovery of WASP-103b, a new ultra-short-period planet (P=22.2 hr) transiting a 12.1 V-magnitude F8-type main-sequence star (1.22+-0.04 Msun, 1.44-0.03+0.05 Rsun, Teff = 6110+-160 K). WASP ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery of WASP-103b, a new ultra-short-period planet (P=22.2 hr) transiting a 12.1 V-magnitude F8-type main-sequence star (1.22+-0.04 Msun, 1.44-0.03+0.05 Rsun, Teff = 6110+-160 K). WASP-103b is significantly more massive (1.49+-0.09 Mjup) and larger (1.53-0.07+0.05 Rjup) than Jupiter. Its large size and extreme irradiation (around 9 10^9 erg/s/cm^2) make it an exquisite target for a thorough atmospheric characterization with existing facilities. Furthermore, its orbital distance is less than 20% larger than its Roche radius, meaning that it might be significantly distorted by tides and might experience mass loss through Roche-lobe overflow. It thus represents a new key object for understanding the last stage of the tidal evolution of hot Jupiters. [less ▲]

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See detailWind collisions in three massive stars of Cygnus OB2
Cazorla, Constantin ULg; Nazé, Yaël ULg; Rauw, Grégor ULg

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 561

Aims. We wish to study the origin of the X-ray emission of three massive stars in the CygOB2 association: CygOB2#5, Cyg OB2 #8A, and Cyg OB2 #12. Methods. To this aim, dedicated X-ray observations from ... [more ▼]

Aims. We wish to study the origin of the X-ray emission of three massive stars in the CygOB2 association: CygOB2#5, Cyg OB2 #8A, and Cyg OB2 #12. Methods. To this aim, dedicated X-ray observations from XMM-Newton and Swift are used, as well as archival ROSAT and Suzaku data. Results. Our results on Cyg OB2 #8A improve the phase coverage of the orbit and confirm previous studies: the signature of a wind- wind collision is conspicuous. In addition, signatures of a wind-wind collision are also detected in Cyg OB2 #5, but the X-ray emission appears to be associated with the collision between the inner binary and the tertiary component orbiting it with a 6.7 yr period, without a putative collision inside the binary. The X-ray properties strongly constrain the orbital parameters, notably allowing us to discard some proposed orbital solutions. To improve the knowledge of the orbit, we revisit the light curves and radial velocity of the inner binary, looking for reflex motion induced by the third star. Finally, the X-ray emission of Cyg OB2 #12 is also analyzed. It shows a marked decrease in recent years, compatible with either a wind-wind collision in a wide binary or the aftermath of a recent eruption. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Tax protein and the minichromosome maintenance protein complex MCM2-7 affect cell replication and viral transcription
Barez, Pierre-Yves ULg; Carpentier, Alexandre ULg; Boxus, Mathieu et al

in Retrovirology (2014), 11(S1), 96

The Tax oncoprotein plays a key role in the mechanisms of transformation, viral persistence and pathogenicity. Recently, we showed that Tax interacts with the minichromosome maintenance MCM2-7 helicase ... [more ▼]

The Tax oncoprotein plays a key role in the mechanisms of transformation, viral persistence and pathogenicity. Recently, we showed that Tax interacts with the minichromosome maintenance MCM2-7 helicase and binds to origins of DNA replication (Boxus et al, 2012 Blood 119:151). In fact, Tax modulates the spatiotemporal program of origin activation during the S phase of cell cycle. By this mechanism, Tax accelerates S phase progression through early firing of late replication origins. By interacting with the 5’ LTR, the MCM2-7 complex also modulates Tax transactivation. Together, our data thus demonstrates that interaction between Tax and MCM2-7 modulates reprogramming of replication origins as well as viral transcription. [less ▲]

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See detailCheckpoints modulation by the Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 Tax protein
Carpentier, Alexandre ULg; Barez, Pierre-Yves ULg; Boxus, Mathieu et al

in Retrovirology (2014), 11(S1), 90

HTLV-1 is responsible for two main diseases, Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma and HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis, for which there is currently no satisfactory treatment. Among the ... [more ▼]

HTLV-1 is responsible for two main diseases, Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma and HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis, for which there is currently no satisfactory treatment. Among the proteins encoded by HTLV-1, Tax appears to play an important role in the mechanisms leading to pathogenicity. We are interested in the mechanisms of cell transformation by Tax and more particularly in the interplay between the viral Tax oncoprotein and the DNA damage response (DDR). We demonstrated that transient expression of Tax results in DNA damage, cell cycle arrest and activation of the DDR. In fibroblasts, cell cycle arrest occurs at the G1 and G2 phases depending on the p53 background. Although Tax induces apoptosis and senescence in fibroblasts, HTLV-1 infected lymphocytes proliferate continuously and appear to be adapted to the checkpoint control. This mechanism allows infected lymphocytes to proliferate despite the presence of genomic lesions. With these observations, we propose a novel therapeutic approach based on the principle of synthetic lethality. [less ▲]

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See detailReversibly crosslinked thermo- and redox-responsive nanogels for controlled drug release
Liu, Ji ULg; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Hurtgen, Marie ULg et al

in Polymer Chemistry (2014), 5(1), 77-88

Reversibly crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) PVOH-b-PNVCL nanogels were prepared by using a redox-responsive crosslinking agent, 3,30-dithiodipropionic acid (DPA), to crosslink ... [more ▼]

Reversibly crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) PVOH-b-PNVCL nanogels were prepared by using a redox-responsive crosslinking agent, 3,30-dithiodipropionic acid (DPA), to crosslink the PVOH corona, above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the PNVCL block. The stability of the as-prepared nanogels against heating and diluting with water was studied by dynamic light scattering (DLS) to follow the evolution of the hydrodynamic diameter and size distribution. Stability under reductive conditions was also studied by DLS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after exposure to dithiothreitol (DTT) buffer solutions at different pH. The reversibility of the crosslinking was evaluated by treating the de-crosslinked nanogels with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) above the LCST. As a hydrophobic drug model, Nile red (NR) was loaded into the nanogels, and triggered release behaviours were studied after exposure to the same DTT buffer solutions. Moreover, two PVOH-b-PNVCL copolymers with different compositions and LCST were used to evaluate the effect of the LCST on the release behaviours of the nanogels. The cytotoxicity of the nanogels against a mouse fibroblast-like L929 cell line was assessed via the MTS assay, and preliminary studies on cellular uptake of the nanogels within human melanoma MEL-5 cells were also carried out by fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. [less ▲]

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See detailOrigin and evolution of metal P-type ATPases in Plantae (Archaeplastida)
Hanikenne, Marc ULg; Baurain, Denis ULg

in Frontiers in Plant Science (2014), 4

Metal ATPases are a subfamily of P-type ATPases involved in the transport of metal cations across biological membranes. They all share an architecture featuring eight transmembrane domains in pairs of two ... [more ▼]

Metal ATPases are a subfamily of P-type ATPases involved in the transport of metal cations across biological membranes. They all share an architecture featuring eight transmembrane domains in pairs of two and are found in prokaryotes as well as in a variety of Eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, eight metal P-type ATPases have been described, four being specific to copper transport and four displaying a broader metal specificity, including zinc, cadmium and possibly copper and calcium. So far, few efforts have been devoted to elucidating the origin and evolution of these proteins in Eukaryotes. In this work, we use large-scale phylogenetics to show that metal P-type ATPases form a homogenous group among P-type ATPases and that their specialisation into either monovalent (Cu) or divalent (Zn, Cd…) metal transport stems from a gene duplication that took place early in the evolution of Life. Then, we demonstrate that the four subgroups of plant metal ATPases all have a different evolutionary origin and a specific taxonomic distribution, only one tracing back to the cyanobacterial progenitor of the chloroplast. Finally, we examine the subsequent evolution of these proteins in green plants and conclude that the genes thoroughly characterised in model organisms are often the result of lineage-specific gene duplications, which calls for caution when attempting to infer function from sequence similarity alone in non-model organisms. [less ▲]

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See detailHeat-triggered drug release systems based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles filled with a maghemite core and phase-change molecules as gatekeepers
Liu, Ji ULg; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; De Pauw-Gillet, Marie-Claire ULg et al

in Journal of Materials Chemistry B (2014), 2(1), 59-70

Core–shell nanoparticlesmade of a maghemite core and a mesoporous silica shell were developed as drug delivery systems (DDS). Doxorubicin® (DOX, DNA intercalating drug) was loaded within the mesoporous ... [more ▼]

Core–shell nanoparticlesmade of a maghemite core and a mesoporous silica shell were developed as drug delivery systems (DDS). Doxorubicin® (DOX, DNA intercalating drug) was loaded within the mesoporous cavities, while phase-change molecules (PCMs), e.g. 1-tetradecanol (TD) with a melting temperature (Tm) of 39 °C, were introduced as gatekeepers to regulate the release behaviours. An overall loading amount of ca. 20 wt% (TD/DOX ca. 50/50 wt/wt) was confirmed. Heat-triggered release of DOX evidenced a “zero premature release” (<3% of the entire payload in 96 h release) under physiological conditions (37°C), and however, a sustainable release (ca. 40% of the entire payload in 96 h) above Tm of TD (40 °C). It also demonstrated the possibility to deliver drug payloads in small portions (pulsatile release mode) via multiple heating on/off cycles, due to the reversible phase change of the PCMs. In vitro heattriggered release of DOX within cell culture of the MEL-5 melanoma cell line was also tested. It was found that DOX molecules were trapped efficiently within the mesopores even after internalization within the cytoplasm of MEL-5 cells at 37 °C, with the potential toxicity of DOX strongly quenched (>95% viability after 72 h incubation). However, continuous cell apoptosis was detected at cell culture temperature above Tm of TD, due to the heat-triggered release of DOX (<50% viability after 72 h incubation at 40 °C). Moreover, due to the presence of a maghemite core within the DDS, T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging performance was also confirmed. These as-designed core–shell nanoparticles are envisaged to become promising DDS for “on-demand” heat-triggered release. [less ▲]

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See detailHyper-replicative bovine leukemia virus by mutation of an envelope N-linked glycosylation site
De Brogniez, Alix ULg; Bouzar, Amel-Baya; Jacques, Jean-Rock ULg et al

in Retrovirology (2014), 11(1), 141

Reverse genetics can be used in the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) system to characterize mechanisms of viral persistence and pathogenesis. The question addressed here pertains to the role of glycans bound ... [more ▼]

Reverse genetics can be used in the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) system to characterize mechanisms of viral persistence and pathogenesis. The question addressed here pertains to the role of glycans bound to the BLV envelope glycoprotein (SU). A commonly accepted hypothesis is that addition of carbohydrates to the SU protein potentially creates a structure called « glycan shield » that confers resistance to the virus against the host immune response. On the other hand, glycosylation can also modulate attachment of the virus to the cell membrane. To unravel the role of SU glycosylation, three complementary strategies were developed: pharmacological inhibition of different glycosylation pathways, interference with glycan attachment and site-directed mutagenesis of N-glycosylation sites in an infectious BLV provirus. The different approaches show that glycosylation is required for cell fusion, as expected. Simultaneous mutation of all 8 potential N-glycosylation sites destroys infectivity. Surprisingly, mutation of the asparagine residue at position 230 creates a virus having an increased capacity to form syncytia in vitro. Compared to wild-type BLV, mutant N230 also replicates at accelerated rates in vivo. Collectively, this data thus illustrates an example of a N-glycosylation site that restricts viral replication, contrasting with the hypothesis supported by glycan shield model. [less ▲]

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See detailRelationships between mind-wandering and attentional control abilities in young adults and adolescents
Stawarczyk, David ULg; Majerus, Steve ULg; Catale, Corinne ULg et al

in Acta Psychologica (2014), 148

Recent findings suggest that mind-wandering—the occurrence of thoughts that are both stimulus-independent and task-unrelated—corresponds to temporary failures in attentional control processes involved in ... [more ▼]

Recent findings suggest that mind-wandering—the occurrence of thoughts that are both stimulus-independent and task-unrelated—corresponds to temporary failures in attentional control processes involved in maintaining constant task-focused attention. Studies supporting this proposal are, however, limited by a possible confound between mind-wandering episodes and other kinds of conscious experiences, such as external distractions (i.e., interoceptive sensations and exteroceptive perceptions). In the present study, we addressed this issue by examining, in adolescents and young adults, the relations between tasks measuring attentional control abilities and a measure of mind-wandering that is distinct from external distractions. We observed (1) that adolescents experienced more frequent external distractions, but not more mind-wandering, than young adults during the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) and (2) that, in young adults, the influence of external distractions on SART performance was fully accounted for by attentional control abilities, whereas mind-wandering was associated with decreases in SART performance above and beyond what was explained by attentional control abilities. These results show that mind-wandering cannot be entirely reduced to failures in the ability to maintain one’s attention focused on task, and suggest that external distractions rather than mind-wandering are due to attentional control failures. [less ▲]

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See detailExpanding the scope of controlled radical polymerization via cobalt–tellurium radical exchange reaction
Kermagoret, Anthony ULg; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Bourguignon, Maxime et al

in ACS Macro Letters (2014), 3(1), 114-118

Cobalt-mediated radical polymerization (CMRP) and tellurium-mediated radical polymerization (TERP) were combined for the first time, offering new perspectives in the precision design of macromolecular ... [more ▼]

Cobalt-mediated radical polymerization (CMRP) and tellurium-mediated radical polymerization (TERP) were combined for the first time, offering new perspectives in the precision design of macromolecular structures. In particular, the present work highlights the benefits of this strategy for the synthesis of novel poly(vinyl acetate)-based block copolymers. A range of well-defined poly(vinyl acetate)s (PVAc) were first produced via CMRP using the bis(acetylacetonato)cobalt(II) complex (Co(acac)2) as a regulating agent. Substitution of a methyltellanyl moiety for Co(acac)2 at the ω-chain end of the precursor was then achieved upon treatment with dimethylditelluride. In contrast to the PVAc prepared by TERP, the ones produced by sequential CMRP and Co/Te exchange reaction almost exclusively consist of regular head-to-tail-TeMe chain-end species that can be activated by TERP. Ultimately, a series of monomers problematic in Co(acac)2-mediated radical polymerization including N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM), 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl acrylate (ADAME), n-butyl acrylate (BA), isoprene (IP), and vinylimidazole (NVIm) were polymerized by TERP from the PVAc–TeMe macroinitiators leading to novel diblock copolymers that cannot be made by each technique used separately. [less ▲]

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See detailBi-directional Modulation of Somatosensory Mismatch Negativity with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: An event Related Potential Study
Chen, Jui-Cheng; Hammerer, Dorothea; D'Ostilio, Kevin ULg et al

in The journal of Physiology (2014)

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See detailThe effect of surface orientation on spray retention
Massinon, Mathieu ULg; Boukhalfa, Hassina dite Hafida ULg; Lebeau, Frédéric ULg

in Precision Agriculture (2014)

Research in precision spraying investigates the means to reduce the amount of herbicide applied by directing droplets more accurately towards the weeds. The trend in the development of spot spraying ... [more ▼]

Research in precision spraying investigates the means to reduce the amount of herbicide applied by directing droplets more accurately towards the weeds. The trend in the development of spot spraying equipment is an increase of the spatial resolution and new actuators that are able to target very small areas. However, there is a lack of methods for assigning rates of herbicides relating target to optimal droplet features. A wide range of droplet impact angles occurs during the spray application process because of droplet trajectories and the variability of leaf orientation. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to highlight the effect of surface orientation on droplet impact outcomes (adhesion, rebound or splashing) on two very difficult-to-wet surfaces: an artificial surface with a regular roughness pattern and an excised black-grass leaf with an anisotropic roughness pattern. Measurements were performed for different surface orientations with a high-speed camera coupled with backlighting LED. Droplets of two formulations (distilled water and distilled water + a surfactant) were produced with a moving flat-fan hydraulic nozzle to obtain a wide range of droplet sizes and velocities, which were measured by image analysis. Increasing surface angle reduces surface area available for droplet capture. Droplet impact behaviors are then modified since surface tilt induces a tangential velocity component at impact and, consequently, a reduction of the normal component. Impact modifications have also been observed due to the anisotropic roughness pattern of a black-grass leaf. The integration of droplet-surface interaction information offers a significant way to further improve the precision spraying efficiency by considering the optimal droplet size, speed and ejection angle depending on the target surface and architecture. [less ▲]

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See detailA search for pulsations in the HgMn star HD 45975 with CoRoT photometry and ground-based spectroscopy
Morel, Thierry ULg; Briquet, Maryline ULg; Auvergne, M. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 561

The existence of pulsations in HgMn stars is still being debated. To provide the first unambiguous observational detection of pulsations in this class of chemically peculiar objects, the bright star HD ... [more ▼]

The existence of pulsations in HgMn stars is still being debated. To provide the first unambiguous observational detection of pulsations in this class of chemically peculiar objects, the bright star HD 45975 was monitored for nearly two months by the CoRoT satellite. Independent analyses of the light curve provide evidence of monoperiodic variations with a frequency of 0.7572 d[SUP]-1[/SUP] and a peak-to-peak amplitude of ~2800 ppm. Multisite, ground-based spectroscopic observations overlapping the CoRoT observations show the star to be a long-period, single-lined binary. Furthermore, with the notable exception of mercury, they reveal the same periodicity as in photometry in the line moments of chemical species exhibiting strong overabundances (e.g., Mn and Y). In contrast, lines of other elements do not show significant variations. As found in otherHgMn stars, the pattern of variability consists in an absorption bump moving redwards across the line profiles. We argue that the photometric and spectroscopic changes are more consistent with an interpretation in terms of rotational modulation of spots at the stellar surface. In this framework, the existence of pulsations producing photometric variations above the ~50 ppm level is unlikely in HD 45975. This provides strong constraints on the excitation/damping of pulsation modes in this HgMn star. The CoRoT space mission was developed and is operated by the French space agency CNES, with participation of ESA's RSSD and Science Programmes, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Germany, and Spain. This work is based on observations collected at La Silla and Paranal Observatories, ESO (Chile), with the HARPS and UVES spectrographs at the 3.6-m and very large telescopes, under programmes LP185.D-0056 and 287.D-5066. It is also based on observations made with the Mercator Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma by the Flemish Community, at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. Based on observations obtained with the HERMES spectrograph, which is supported by the Fund for Scientific Research of Flanders (FWO), Belgium, the Research Council of K.U. Leuven, Belgium, the Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS), Belgium, the Royal Observatory of Belgium, the Observatoire de Genève, Switzerland, and the Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Germany. [less ▲]

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See detailTwo spotted and magnetic early B-type stars in the young open cluster NGC2264 discovered by MOST and ESPaDOnS
Fossati, L.; Zwintz, K.; Castro, N. et al

in ArXiv e-prints (2014), 1401

Star clusters are known as superb tools for understanding stellar evolution. In a quest for understanding the physical origin of magnetism and chemical peculiarity in about 7% of the massive main-sequence ... [more ▼]

Star clusters are known as superb tools for understanding stellar evolution. In a quest for understanding the physical origin of magnetism and chemical peculiarity in about 7% of the massive main-sequence stars, we analysed two of the ten brightest members of the ~10 Myr old Galactic open cluster NGC 2264, the early B-dwarfs HD47887 and HD47777. We find accurate rotation periods of 1.95 and 2.64 days, respectively, from MOST photometry. We obtained ESPaDOnS spectropolarimetric observations, through which we determined stellar parameters, detailed chemical surface abundances, projected rotational velocities, and the inclination angles of the rotation axis. Because we found only small (<5 km/s) radial velocity variations, most likely caused by spots, we can rule out that HD47887 and HD47777 are close binaries. Finally, using the least-squares deconvolution technique, we found that both stars possess a large-scale magnetic field with an average longitudinal field strength of about 400 G. From a simultaneous fit of the stellar parameters we determine the evolutionary masses of HD47887 and HD47777 to be 9.4+/-0.7 M0 and 7.6+/-0.5 M0. Interestingly, HD47777 shows a remarkable helium underabundance, typical of helium-weak chemically peculiar stars, while the abundances of HD47887 are normal, which might imply that diffusion is operating in the lower mass star but not in the slightly more massive one. Furthermore, we argue that the rather slow rotation, as well as the lack of nitrogen enrichment in both stars, can be consistent with both the fossil and the binary hypothesis for the origin of the magnetic field. However, the presence of two magnetic and apparently single stars near the top of the cluster mass-function may speak in favour of the latter. [less ▲]

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See detailToward a Unique Nitrogen Isotopic Ratio in Cometary Ices
Rousselot, Philippe; Pirali, Olivier; Jehin, Emmanuel ULg et al

in Astrophysical Journal Letters (2014), 780

Determination of the nitrogen isotopic ratios in different bodies of the solar system provides important information regarding the solar system's origin. We unambiguously identified emission lines in ... [more ▼]

Determination of the nitrogen isotopic ratios in different bodies of the solar system provides important information regarding the solar system's origin. We unambiguously identified emission lines in comets due to the [SUP]15[/SUP]NH[SUB]2[/SUB] radical produced by the photodissociation of [SUP]15[/SUP]NH[SUB]3[/SUB]. Analysis of our data has permitted us to measure the [SUP]14[/SUP]N/[SUP]15[/SUP]N isotopic ratio in comets for a molecule carrying the amine (-NH) functional group. This ratio, within the error, appears similar to that measured in comets in the HCN molecule and the CN radical, and lower than the protosolar value, suggesting that N[SUB]2[/SUB] and NH[SUB]3[/SUB] result from the separation of nitrogen into two distinct reservoirs in the solar nebula. This ratio also appears similar to that measured in Titan's atmospheric N[SUB]2[/SUB], supporting the hypothesis that, if the latter is representative of its primordial value in NH[SUB]3[/SUB], these bodies were assembled from building blocks sharing a common formation location. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalytical Derivation of Single-Impulse Maneuvers Guaranteeing Bounded Relative Motion Under J2
Martinusi, Vladimir ULg; Gurfil, Pini

in Journal of Guidance Control Dynamics (2014), 37

Keeping a cluster of satellites within bounded relative distances requires active control, because natural perturbations (the most significant of which is the J2 term in the geopotential) tend to move the ... [more ▼]

Keeping a cluster of satellites within bounded relative distances requires active control, because natural perturbations (the most significant of which is the J2 term in the geopotential) tend to move the satellites apart. Whereas there is abundant literature on controlling the relative drift using multiple impulsive maneuvers and approximate astrodynamical models involving mean orbital elements, the works that attempt to minimize the number of impulses while using the inertial position and velocity vectors of the satellites are scarce. In this paper, single-impulse distance-keeping maneuvers are derived, without approximating the J2-perturbed dynamics. An analytical derivation of minimum-fuel impulsive maneuvers between equatorial orbits is provided, while relying on radial period and orbital angle matching conditions. Then, a continuation procedure is used to obtain single-impulse relative distance control between inclined orbits. The development of the impulsive maneuvers relies on the inertial position and velocity vectors of the satellites and does not involve mean elements. In each step, necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a single-impulse maneuver are provided. The results are illustrated using a number of realistic scenarios, such as a simulation that includes a 21×21 gravitational model, drag, and lunisolar attraction. [less ▲]

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See detailLes datacenters, métaphore du capitalisme
Thoreau, François ULg

in Politique : Revue de Débats (2014), 83(1), 66-73

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See detailEnzymatic creatinine assays allowestimation of glomerular filtration rate in stages 1 and 2 chronic kidney disease using CKD-EPI equation
Kuster, Nils; Cristol, Jean-Paul; CAVALIER, Etienne ULg et al

in Clinica Chimica Acta (2014), 428

The National Kidney Disease Education Program group demonstrated that MDRD equation is sensitive to creatinine measurement error, particularly at higher glomerular filtration rates. Thus, MDRD-based eGFR ... [more ▼]

The National Kidney Disease Education Program group demonstrated that MDRD equation is sensitive to creatinine measurement error, particularly at higher glomerular filtration rates. Thus, MDRD-based eGFR above 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 should not be reported numerically. However, little is known about the impact of analytical error on CKD-EPI-based estimates. This study aimed at assessing the impact of analytical characteristics (bias and imprecision) of 12 enzymatic and 4 compensated Jaffe previously characterized creatinine assays on MDRD and CKD-EPI eGFR. In a simulation study, the impact of analytical error was assessed on a hospital population of 24 084 patients. Ability using each assay to correctly classify patients according to chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages was evaluated. For eGFR between 60 and 90 mL/min/1.73 m2, both equations were sensitive to analytical error. Compensated Jaffe assays displayed high bias in this range and led to poorer sensitivity/specificity for classification according to CKD stages than enzymatic assays. As compared to MDRD equation, CKD-EPI equation decreases impact of analytical error in creatinine measurement above 90 mL/min/1.73 m2. Compensated Jaffe creatinine assays lead to important errors in eGFR and should be avoided. Accurate enzymatic assays allow estimation of eGFR until 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 with MDRD and 120 mL/min/1.73 m2 with CKD-EPI equation. [less ▲]

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See detailThe 24-h recall instrument for home nursing to measure the activity profile of home nurses:development and psychometric testing
De Vliegher, Kristel; Aaertgeerts, Bert; Declercq, Anja et al

in Primary Health Care Research & Development (2014)

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See detailQuantifying cortical EEG responses to TMS in (un)consciousness
Sarasso, S; Rosanova, M; Casali, A.G et al

in Clinical EEG and Neuroscience : Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS) (2014)

We normally assess another individual's level of consciousness based on her or his ability to interact with the surrounding environment and communicate. Usually, if we observe purposeful behavior ... [more ▼]

We normally assess another individual's level of consciousness based on her or his ability to interact with the surrounding environment and communicate. Usually, if we observe purposeful behavior, appropriate responses to sensory inputs, and, above all, appropriate answers to questions, we can be reasonably sure that the person is conscious. However, we know that consciousness can be entirely within the brain, even in the absence of any interaction with the external world; this happens almost every night, while we dream. Yet, to this day, we lack an objective, dependable measure of the level of consciousness that is independent of processing sensory inputs and producing appropriate motor outputs. Theoretically, consciousness is thought to require the joint presence of functional integration and functional differentiation, otherwise defined as brain complexity. Here we review a series of recent studies in which Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation combined with electroencephalography (TMS/EEG) has been employed to quantify brain complexity in wakefulness and during physiological (sleep), pharmacological (anesthesia) and pathological (brain injury) loss of consciousness. These studies invariably show that the complexity of the cortical response to TMS collapses when consciousness is lost during deep sleep, anesthesia and vegetative state following severe brain injury, while it recovers when consciousness resurges in wakefulness, during dreaming, in the minimally conscious state or locked-in syndrome. The present paper will also focus on how this approach may contribute to unveiling the pathophysiology of disorders of consciousness affecting brain-injured patients. Finally, we will underline some crucial methodological aspects concerning TMS/EEG measurements of brain complexity. [less ▲]

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See detailWhere are the politics in responsible innovation? European governance, technology assessments, and beyond
Van Oudheusden, Michiel ULg

in Journal of Responsible Innovation (2014), 1(1), 67-86

Responsible innovation (RI) is founded on the idea that present modes of innovating with science and technology fail because they insufficiently take into account societal needs and values. Hence ... [more ▼]

Responsible innovation (RI) is founded on the idea that present modes of innovating with science and technology fail because they insufficiently take into account societal needs and values. Hence, proponents of RI solicit society's opinions in an attempt to render science and technology developments, institutions, and policies more socially responsive. This article asks how the RI concept is taken up and elaborated, based on accounts developed on the EU policy level and on a Flemish, technology assessment level. It finds that, notwithstanding important differences between these two deliberative frameworks, neither one leaves much room for politics, understood as the constitution and contestation of power. Rather, these frameworks largely ignore questions about the politics in and of deliberation, the authoritative allocation of values, and the institutional uptake of deliberative engagements. The article's aim is to provide constructive criticism of the RI paradigm by rendering these political issues explicit and proposing ways of taking them into account. [less ▲]

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See detailAntiplasmodial anthraquinones and hemisynthetic derivatives from the leaves of Tectona grandis (Verbenaceae)
Kopa, T.K.; Tchinda Tiabou, Alembert ULg; Tala, M.F. et al

in Phytochemistry Letters (2014), 8

Chemical investigation of the methanol extract of the leaves of Tectona grandis led to the isolation of one new anthraquinone derivative, grandiquinone A (3-acetoxy-8-hydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone) (1 ... [more ▼]

Chemical investigation of the methanol extract of the leaves of Tectona grandis led to the isolation of one new anthraquinone derivative, grandiquinone A (3-acetoxy-8-hydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone) (1), along with nine known compounds: 5,8-dihydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (2), hydroxysesamone (3), 3-hydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (4), quinizarine (5), betulinic acid (6), ursolic acid (7), tectograndone (8), corosolic acid (9) and sitosterol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (10). Compounds 2 and 3 were isolated for the first time from the leaves of this plant, while 5 has never been reported from the genus Tectona. Hydroxysesamone (3) and tectograndone (8) were subjected to cyclisation and acetylation reactions to afford two hemisynthetic derivatives, 6,9-dihydroxy-2,2-(dimethyldihydropyrano)-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[g]chromene-5,10-dione (11) and acetyltectograndone (12) respectively, which are reported here for the first time. The ethyl acetate-soluble portion, some of the isolated compounds and hemisynthetic derivatives were evaluated for their antiplasmodial activity against the multidrug-resistant Dd2 strain of Plasmodium falciparum. Compound 3 showed a prominent activity, while 2, 8, 9, 11 and 12 showed significant in vitro anti-malarial activity. Compound 1 was weakly active in this test. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and comparison of the data with the literature. [less ▲]

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See detailRecommandations européennes pour la prise en charge des cardiopathies congénitales complexes de l'adulte
MILTNER, Béatrice ULg; LANCELLOTTI, Patrizio ULg; SEGHAYE, Marie-Christine ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014), 69(1), 16-25

THe number of patients with Grown-Up Congenital Heart disease (GUCH) consulting adult cardiologists is steadily increasing. These patients have either a non-diagnosed congenital heart disease revealed at ... [more ▼]

THe number of patients with Grown-Up Congenital Heart disease (GUCH) consulting adult cardiologists is steadily increasing. These patients have either a non-diagnosed congenital heart disease revealed at adulthood, or a diagnosed congenital heart disease for which one or multiple interventions have possibly been performed during childhood. In this article, we summarize the recommendations of the European Society of Cardiology of 2010 for complex congenital heart disease. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of PSII antenna size heterogeneity of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during state transitions
de Marchin, Thomas ULg; Ghysels, Bart ULg; Nicolay, Samuel ULg et al

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-Bioenergetics (2014), 1837(1), 121-130

PSII antenna size heterogeneity has been intensively studied in the past. Based on DCMU fluorescence rise kinetics, multiple types of photosystems with different properties were described. However, due to ... [more ▼]

PSII antenna size heterogeneity has been intensively studied in the past. Based on DCMU fluorescence rise kinetics, multiple types of photosystems with different properties were described. However, due to the complexity of fluorescence signal analysis, multiple questions remain unanswered. The number of different types of PSII is still debated as well as their degree of connectivity. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii we found that PSIIα possesses a high degree of connectivity and an antenna 2-3 times larger than PSIIβ, as described previously. We also found some connectivity for PSIIβ in contrast with the majority of previous studies. This is in agreement with biochemical studies which describe PSII mega-, super- and core- complexes in Chlamydomonas. In these studies, the smallest unit of PSII in vivo would be a dimer of two core complexes hence allowing connectivity. We discuss the possible relationships between PSIIα and PSIIβ and the PSII mega-, super- and core- complexes. We also showed that strain and medium dependent variations in the half-time of the fluorescence rise can be explained by variations in the proportions of PSIIα and PSIIβ. When analyzing the state transition process in vivo, we found that this process induces an inter-conversion of PSIIα and PSIIβ. During a transition from state 2 to state 1, DCMU fluorescence rise kinetics are satisfactorily fitted by considering two PSII populations with constant kinetic parameters. We discuss our findings about PSII heterogeneity during state transitions in relation with recent results on the remodeling of the pigment-protein PSII architecture during this process. [less ▲]

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See detailA review on simulation-based optimization methods applied to building performance analysis
Nguyen, Anh Tuan ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg; Rigo, Philippe ULg

in Applied Energy (2014), 113

Recent progress in computer science and stringent requirements of the design of “greener” buildings put forwards the research and applications of simulation-based optimization methods in the building ... [more ▼]

Recent progress in computer science and stringent requirements of the design of “greener” buildings put forwards the research and applications of simulation-based optimization methods in the building sector. This paper provides an overview on this subject, aiming at clarifying recent advances and outlining potential challenges and obstacles in building design optimization. Key discussions are focused on handling discontinuous multi-modal building optimization problems, the performance and selection of optimization algorithms, multi-objective optimization, the application of surrogate models, optimization under uncertainty and the propagation of optimization techniques into real-world design challenges. This paper also gives bibliographic information on the issues of simulation programs, optimization tools, efficiency of optimization methods, and trends in optimization studies. The review indicates that future researches should be oriented towards improving the efficiency of search techniques and approximation methods (surrogate models) for large-scale building optimization problems; and reducing time and effort for such activities. Further effort is also required to quantify the robustness in optimal solutions so as to improve building performance stability. [less ▲]

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See detailGeometrically exact beam finite element formulated on the special Euclidean group SE(3)
Sonneville, Valentin ULg; Cardona, Alberto; Bruls, Olivier ULg

in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics & Engineering (2014), 268

This paper describes a dynamic formulation of a straight beam finite element in the setting of the special Euclidean group SE(3). First, the static and dynamic equilibrium equations are derived in this ... [more ▼]

This paper describes a dynamic formulation of a straight beam finite element in the setting of the special Euclidean group SE(3). First, the static and dynamic equilibrium equations are derived in this framework from variational principles. Then, a non-linear interpolation formula using the exponential map is introduced. It is shown that this framework leads to a natural coupling in the interpolation of the position and rotation variables. Next, the discretized internal and inertia forces are developed. The semi-discrete equations of motion take the form of a second-order ordinary differential equation on a Lie group, which is solved using a Lie group time integration scheme. It is remarkable that no parameterization of the nodal variables needs to be introduced and that the proposed Lie group framework leads to a compact and easy-to-implement formulation. Some important numerical and theoretical aspects leading to a computationally efficient strategy are highlighted and discussed. For instance, the formulation leads to invariant tangent stiffness and mass matrices under rigid body motions and a locking free element. The proposed formulation is successfully tested in several numerical static and dynamic examples. [less ▲]

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See detailCircadian and circannual variations in cord blood hematopoietic cell composition
Servais, Sophie ULg; BAUDOUX, Etienne ULg; Brichard, B. et al

in Haematologica (2014)

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See detailToward genomic prediction from whole-genome sequence data: impact of sequencing design on genotype imputation and accuracy of predictions.
Druet, Tom ULg; Macleod, I. M.; Hayes, B. J.

in Heredity (2014), 112(1), 39-47

Genomic prediction from whole-genome sequence data is attractive, as the accuracy of genomic prediction is no longer bounded by extent of linkage disequilibrium between DNA markers and causal mutations ... [more ▼]

Genomic prediction from whole-genome sequence data is attractive, as the accuracy of genomic prediction is no longer bounded by extent of linkage disequilibrium between DNA markers and causal mutations affecting the trait, given the causal mutations are in the data set. A cost-effective strategy could be to sequence a small proportion of the population, and impute sequence data to the rest of the reference population. Here, we describe strategies for selecting individuals for sequencing, based on either pedigree relationships or haplotype diversity. Performance of these strategies (number of variants detected and accuracy of imputation) were evaluated in sequence data simulated through a real Belgian Blue cattle pedigree. A strategy (AHAP), which selected a subset of individuals for sequencing that maximized the number of unique haplotypes (from single-nucleotide polymorphism panel data) sequenced gave good performance across a range of variant minor allele frequencies. We then investigated the optimum number of individuals to sequence by fold coverage given a maximum total sequencing effort. At 600 total fold coverage (x 600), the optimum strategy was to sequence 75 individuals at eightfold coverage. Finally, we investigated the accuracy of genomic predictions that could be achieved. The advantage of using imputed sequence data compared with dense SNP array genotypes was highly dependent on the allele frequency spectrum of the causative mutations affecting the trait. When this followed a neutral distribution, the advantage of the imputed sequence data was small; however, when the causal mutations all had low minor allele frequencies, using the sequence data improved the accuracy of genomic prediction by up to 30%.Heredity advance online publication, 3 April 2013; doi:10.1038/hdy.2013.13. [less ▲]

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See detailQu'apportent les nouvelles recommandations américaines à propos de la prise en charge des dyslipidémies en prévention cardiovasculaire ? Comparaison avec les recommandations européennes et belges
Descamps, O; Rietzschel, E; Langlois, M et al

in Louvain Medical (2014), 133(1), 26-35

Les dernières recommandations américaines concernant la prise en charge des dyslipidémies en prévention cardiovasculaire ont soulevé de nombreuses questions par leurs différences avec nos approches ... [more ▼]

Les dernières recommandations américaines concernant la prise en charge des dyslipidémies en prévention cardiovasculaire ont soulevé de nombreuses questions par leurs différences avec nos approches habituelles. Entre autres, elles ont éradiqué la nécessité de « cible » de LDL-C à atteindre en fonction du niveau de risque cardiovasculaire et ont proposé plutôt une stratégie basée sur l’intensité de la réduction relative du LDL-C. L’examen critique et la comparaison des recommandations font apparaitre, toutefois, plus de similitudes que de différences, tout en encourageant à repenser certains aspects de notre pratique et à raviver notre motivation pour le plus grand bien des patients. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Silence of the Labs
Hendrickx, Kim ULg

in LIMN (2014), (4),

Is sugar a choice? Kim hendrickx explores how a sugar museum puts life and health in perspective

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See detailDescription of a standardized rehabilitation program based on sub-maximal eccentric following a platelet-rich plasma infiltration for jumper’s knee.
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg; NAMUROIS, Marie-Hélène ULg et al

in Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal (2014), 4(1), 85-89

Introduction: Different series emphasized the necessity of rehabilitation program after infiltration of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in case of tendinopathy. However, most of them describe only briefly the ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Different series emphasized the necessity of rehabilitation program after infiltration of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in case of tendinopathy. However, most of them describe only briefly the reeducation protocol and these programs vary. Our aim was to extensively describe a specific standardized rehabilitation program. Methods: After a review of literature of post-PRP infiltration protocols, we had developed a standardized rehabilitation protocol. This protocol was evaluated by 30 subjects with chronic jumper’s knee who. A a standardised progressive sub-maximal eccentric program supervised by a physical therapist for 6 weeks was started 1 week post-infiltration. The patient benefited also from electromyostimulation, isometric strengthening and stretching of the quadriceps, cycloergometer and cryotherapy. After the supervised program, the patient had to make an auto-reeducation added to the reathletisation protocol for 6 more weeks which was followed by maintenance exercises up to 1 year. The assessments were made using a VAS, IKDC and VISA-P scores. Results: The VAS , IKDC and VISA-P scores decreased very significantly with time. The compliance to auto-reeducation was good. Conclusion: We proposed a simple and efficient protocol based on sub-maximal eccentric reeducation to add to PRP infiltrations in case of patellar tendinopathy. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantitative analysis using near infrared spectroscopy, application to tablet content uniformity test, II
Ginot, Y.-M.; Bernard-Moulin, P.; Boiret, M. et al

in STP Pharma Pratiques (2014), 24(1), 3-36

The first part of this article [1] described the methodology to follow to develop a technique for the quantitative analysis of active substance in a solid tablet type formulation using near infrared ... [more ▼]

The first part of this article [1] described the methodology to follow to develop a technique for the quantitative analysis of active substance in a solid tablet type formulation using near infrared spectroscopy. It seems appropriate to complete this description by detailing the different steps involved through illustrated examples and by proposing useful guidelines for new users. The quantitative analysis example chosen is that of content uniformity (CU) of tablet type solid forms (cf. Ph. Eur. 2.9.6/2.9.40) [2], a test required in the pharmaceutical industry and for which this alternative quantitative analysis could offer substantial gains. It should be noted that the approach described applies to other types of quantitative analysis (mean assay, water content in raw materials, polymorph assay within a tablet, etc.). [less ▲]

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See detailVascular Endothelial Growth Factor-111 (VEGF-111) and tendon healing: preliminary results in a rat model of tendon injury
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Janssen, Lauriane ULg; Drion, Pierre ULg et al

in Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal (2014), 4(1), 25-28

Tendon lesions are among the most frequent musculoskeletal pathologies. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to regulate angiogenesis. VEGF-111, a biologically active and proteolysis ... [more ▼]

Tendon lesions are among the most frequent musculoskeletal pathologies. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to regulate angiogenesis. VEGF-111, a biologically active and proteolysis-resistant splice variant of this family, was recently identified. This study aimed at evaluating whether VEGF-111 could have a therapeutic interest in tendon pathologies. Surgical section of one Achilles tendon of rats was performed before a local injection of either saline or VEGF-111. After 5, 15 and 30 days, the Achilles tendons of 10 rats of both groups were sampled and submitted to a biomechanical tensile test. The force necessary to induce tendon rupture was greater for tendons of the VEGF-111 group (p<0.05) while the section areas of the tendons were similar. The mechanical stress was similar at 5 and 15 days in the both groups but was improved for the VEGF-111 group at day 30 (p <0.001). No difference was observed in the mRNA expression of collagen III, tenomodulin and MMP-9. In conclusion, we observed that a local injection of VEGF-111 improves the early phases of the healing process of rat tendons after a surgical section. Further confirmatory experimentations are needed to consolidate our results. [less ▲]

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See detailGold nanorods with phase-changing polymer corona for remotely near-infrared-triggered drug release
Liu, Ji ULg; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Grignard, Bruno ULg et al

in Chemistry : An Asian Journal (2014), 9(1), 275-288

Herein, we report a new drug-delivery system (DDS) that is comprised of a near-infrared (NIR)- light-sensitive gold-nanorod (GNR) core and a phase-changing poly(e-caprolactone)- b-poly(ethylene glycol ... [more ▼]

Herein, we report a new drug-delivery system (DDS) that is comprised of a near-infrared (NIR)- light-sensitive gold-nanorod (GNR) core and a phase-changing poly(e-caprolactone)- b-poly(ethylene glycol) polymer corona (GNR@PCL-b-PEG). The underlying mechanism of the drugloading and triggered-release behaviors involves the entrapment of drug payloads among the PCL crystallites and a heat-induced phase change, respectively. A low premature release of the pre-loaded doxorubicin was observed in PBS buffer (pH 7.4) at 37 °C (<10% of the entire payload after 48 h). However, release could be activated within 30 min by conventional heating at 50 °C, above the Tm of the crystalline PCL domain (43.5 °C), with about 60% release over the subsequent 42 h at 37 °C. The NIR-induced heating of an aqueous suspension of GNR@PCL-b- PEG under NIR irradiation (802 nm) was investigated in terms of the irradiation period, power, and concentrationdependent heating behavior, as well as the NIR-induced shape-transformation of the GNR cores. Remotely NIR-triggered release was also explored upon NIR irradiation for 30 min and about 70% release was achieved in the following 42 h at 37°C, with a mild warming (<4 °C) of the surroundings. The cytotoxicity of GNR@PCL-b-PEG against the mouse fibroblastic-like L929 cell-line was assessed by MTS assay and good compatibility was confirmed with a cell viability of over 90% after incubation for 72 h. The cellular uptake of GNR@PCL-b-PEG by melanoma MEL-5 cells was also confirmed, with an averaged uptake of 1250 ( ± 110) particles cell-1 after incubation for 12 h (50 mg mL-1). This GNR@PCL-b-PEG DDS is aimed at addressing the different requirements for therapeutic treatments and is envisaged to provide new insights into DDS targeting for remotely triggered release by NIR activation. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of limestone fillers on surface free energy and electrical conductivity of the interstitial solution of cement mixes
Courard, Luc ULg; Michel, Frédéric ULg; Perkowicz, Sylwia et al

in Cement and Concrete Composites (2014), 45

Most of concrete formulations actually contain mineral additives that are used as an inert filler or supplementary cementitious material (as type II addition). These materials are generally used in order ... [more ▼]

Most of concrete formulations actually contain mineral additives that are used as an inert filler or supplementary cementitious material (as type II addition). These materials are generally used in order to increase concrete performances both in its fresh and hardened states. The mineral additives usually improve the consistency and workability of fresh concrete and reduce the water demand for a required concrete slump because of an additional volume of fines. The way of action depends on the physical and chemical characteristics of fillers. The study of surface free energies and electric conductivities of interstitial solutions of cement mixes modified by blast furnace slags and limestone fillers contributes to a better knowledge of hardening and interaction process. [less ▲]

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See detailAutograph/Holograph and Authorial Manuscripts in Arabic Script [Conference Review]
Franssen, Elise ULg

in Comparative Oriental Manuscript Studies Newsletter (2014), 7

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See detailArrêt Essent c. Pays-Bas: l'interdiction absolue de privatisation à l'épreuve de la libre circulation des capitaux
Demoulin, Iris ULg; Sibony, Anne-Lise ULg

in Journal de Droit Européen [=JDE] (2014), 1

La prévention des conflits d’intérêts dans les industries de réseau peut rendre légitimes des mesures antiprivatisation. De telles mesures peuvent être justifiées par la poursuite d’objectifs d’intérêt ... [more ▼]

La prévention des conflits d’intérêts dans les industries de réseau peut rendre légitimes des mesures antiprivatisation. De telles mesures peuvent être justifiées par la poursuite d’objectifs d’intérêt général. [less ▲]

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See detailRisk Taking of Executives under Different Incentive Contracts: Experimental Evidence
Lefebvre, Mathieu ULg; Vieider, Ferdinand

in Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization (2014), 97

Classic financial agency theory recommends compensation through stock options rather than shares to counteract excessive risk aversion in agents. In a setting where any kind of risk taking is suboptimal ... [more ▼]

Classic financial agency theory recommends compensation through stock options rather than shares to counteract excessive risk aversion in agents. In a setting where any kind of risk taking is suboptimal for shareholders, we show that excessive risk taking may occur for one of two reasons: risk preferences or incentives. Even when compensated through restricted company stock, experimental CEOs take large amounts of excessive risk. This contradicts classical financial theory, but can be explained through risk preferences that are not uniform over the probability and outcome spaces, and in particular, risk seeking for small probability gains and large probability losses. Compensation through options further increases risk taking as expected. We show that this effect is driven mainly by the personal asset position of the experimental CEO, thus having deleterious effects on company performance. [less ▲]

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See detailIsolation of an amylolytic chrysophyte, Poterioochromonas sp. from the digestive tract of the termite R. santonensis
Tarayre, Cédric ULg; Bauwens, Julien ULg; Brasseur, Catherine ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(1),

The aim of this work was the isolation and cultivation of amylolytic protists living in the digestive tract of the termite Reticulitermes santonensis (Feytaud). A chrysophyte identified as ... [more ▼]

The aim of this work was the isolation and cultivation of amylolytic protists living in the digestive tract of the termite Reticulitermes santonensis (Feytaud). A chrysophyte identified as Poterioochromonas sp. was isolated in a special medium containing rice grains as a source of carbon and nitrogen. Then, the protist was grown in a medium containing starch as a carbon source, tryptone, and a phosphate buffer at different pH values (5, 6 and 7). Yeast extract was added or not. Ciprofloxacin was used to avoid the bacterial development. Other antibiotics were also tested but showed an inhibitive effect on the growth of Poterioochromonas sp. Yeast extract allowed reaching 1.9 (pH 5), 2.3 (pH 6) and 2.2 (pH 7) times higher final cell concentrations, and 2.8 (pH 5), 2.8 (pH 6) and 2.2 (pH 7) times higher biomass yields. The starch concentration did not decrease in the medium until 3 and 4 days of culture, with and without yeast extract, respectively. Eight days of culture were necessary for hydrolyzing the starch completely, with and without yeast extract. Maltose and maltotriose were detected in the culture media and were hydrolyzed progressively. Maximal maltose concentrations were 0.68, 0.66 and 0.51 g.l-1 in the medium containing yeast extract. Maltotriose concentrations were only 0.17, 0.14 and 0.12 g.l-1. Other glucose oligomers were also detected but in lower quantities. It was determined that the protist developed a weak amylase activity, particularly at a weakly acidic pH (5-6). Such a pH also allowed a better growth of the protist. A maximal amylase activity of 112 nkat.l-1 was measured with yeast extract at pH 5. No other enzymatic activity (protease, cellulase or xylanase) was detected except amylase. The degradation products of starch which were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis allow the identification of α-amylase, amyloglucosidase and possibly β-amylase activities. [less ▲]

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See detailDIRECTED INFORMATION TRANSFER IN SCALP ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC RECORDINGS: INSIGHTS ON DISORDERS OF CONSCIOUSNESS
Marinazzo, Daniele; Gosseries, Olivia ULg; Boly, Mélanie ULg et al

in Clinical EEG and Neuroscience : Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS) (2014)

Introduction: The neural mechanisms underlying electrophysiological changes observed in patients with disorders of consciousness following a coma remain poorly understood. The aim of this article is to ... [more ▼]

Introduction: The neural mechanisms underlying electrophysiological changes observed in patients with disorders of consciousness following a coma remain poorly understood. The aim of this article is to investigate the mechanisms underlying the differences in spontaneous electroencephalography between patients in vegetative/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, minimally conscious state, emergence of the minimally conscious state and age-matched healthy control subjects. <br />Methods: Forty recording of spontaneous scalp electroencephalography were performed in 27 patients who were comatose on admission, and on healthy controls. Multivariate Granger Causality and Transfer Entropy were applied on the data. <br />Results: Distinctive patterns of putative bottlenecks of information were associated to each conscious state. Healthy controls are characterized by a greater amount of synergetic contributions from duplets of variables. <br />Conclusion: A novel set of measures was tested to get a novel insight on the pattern of information transfer in a network of scalp electrodes in patients with disorders of consciousness. [less ▲]

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See detailModelling the Holocene migrational dynamics of Fagus sylvatica L. and Picea abies (L.) H. Karst
Lehsten, Lehsten; Dullinger, Stefan; Hülber, Karl et al

in Global Ecology and Biogeography (2014)

Aim: Vegetation dynamics and the competitive interactions involved are assumed to restrict the ability of species to migrate. But in most migration modelling approaches disturbance-driven succession and ... [more ▼]

Aim: Vegetation dynamics and the competitive interactions involved are assumed to restrict the ability of species to migrate. But in most migration modelling approaches disturbance-driven succession and competition processes are reduced to simple assumptions or are even missing. The aim of this study was to test a combination of a migration model and a dynamic vegetation model to estimate the migration of tree species controlled by climate, environment and local species dynamics such as succession and competition. Location: Europe. Methods: To estimate the effect of vegetation dynamics on the migration of European beech and Norway spruce, we developed a post-process migration tool (LPJ-CATS). This tool integrates outputs of the migration model CATS and the dynamic vegetation model LPJ-GUESS. The model LPJ-CATS relies on a linear dependency between the dispersal kernel and migration rate and is based on the assumption that competition reduces fecundity. Results: Simulating potential migration rates with the CATS model, which does not account for competition and disturbance, resulted in mean Holocene migra- tion rates of 435 ± 55 and 330 ± 95 m year−1 for the two species Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica, respectively. With LPJ-CATS, these mean migration rates were reduced to 250 ± 75 and 170 ± 60 m year−1 for spruce and beech, respectively. Moreover, LPJ-CATS simulated migration pathways of these two species that gen- erally comply well with those documented in the palaeo-records. Main conclusions: Our ‘hybrid’ modelling approach allowed for the simulation of generally realistic Holocene migration rates and pathways of the two study species on a continental scale. It suggests that competition can considerably modify spread rates, but also the magnitude of its effect depends on how close climate conditions are to the niche requirements of a particular species. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of Lactobacillus strains isolated from Algerian children faeces for their probiotic properties
Bahri, F.; Lejeune, Annick ULg; Dubois-Dauphin, R. et al

in African Journal of Microbiology Research [=AJMR] (2014), 8(3), 297-303

Lactic acid bacteria termed probiotics have preventive as well as curative effects on several types of diarrhoea of different aetiologies. The main objective of this study was to screen lactobacilli ... [more ▼]

Lactic acid bacteria termed probiotics have preventive as well as curative effects on several types of diarrhoea of different aetiologies. The main objective of this study was to screen lactobacilli strains having probiotic traits, isolated from Algerian healthy children faeces on the purpose of using them further in children diarrheal illnesses. One hundred and twenty (120) lactic acid bacteria isolates were selected from faecal samples of healthy Algerian children aged between five and ten years. Gram positive rods and catalase negative bacteria (52 isolates) were screened, in vitro, for their probiotic potential properties including ability to survive in simulated gastro-intestinal conditions, adherence to Caco-2 cells and their antimicrobial activity. The results show that only five strains resisted in simulated gastric juice at pH 1.5 and pepsin. Four of them were resistant to simulated intestinal conditions at pH 8 and pancreatin and have a good adherence. In the end, three of them were retained as they display interesting probiotic profiles characterized by a strong antimicrobial effect against some intestinal pathogenic bacteria. They were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Lactobacillus plantarum F12, Lactobacillus brevis G6 and Lactobacillus paracasei B13. [less ▲]

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See detailLe droit pour le prévenu de comparaître personnellement devant les juridictions répressives
Michiels, Olivier ULg

in Revue de Droit Pénal et de Criminologie (2014), 1/2014(janvier), 113-119

La note rappelle les règles belges relatives à la comparution du prévenu personne physique devant les juridictions répressives en les mettant en parallèle avec la jurisprudence de la Cour européenne des ... [more ▼]

La note rappelle les règles belges relatives à la comparution du prévenu personne physique devant les juridictions répressives en les mettant en parallèle avec la jurisprudence de la Cour européenne des droits de l'homme. Elle s'attache ensuite à examiner la question de l'incapacité pour une partie d'être présente à son procès. [less ▲]

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See detailIsocinétisme : aspects spécifiques chez le sportif
Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg et al

in Kinésithérapie Scientifique (2014), 550

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See detailA missense mutation accelerating the gating of the lysosomal Cl-/H+-exchanger ClC-7/Ostm1 causes osteopetrosis with gingival hamartomas in cattle.
Sartelet, Arnaud ULg; Stauber, Tobias; Coppieters, Wouter ULg et al

in Disease Models & Mechanisms (2014), 7

Chloride/proton exchange by the lysosomal anion transporter ClC-7/Ostm1 is of pivotal importance for the physiology of lysosomes and bone resorption. Mice lacking either ClC-7 or Ostm1 develop a lysosomal ... [more ▼]

Chloride/proton exchange by the lysosomal anion transporter ClC-7/Ostm1 is of pivotal importance for the physiology of lysosomes and bone resorption. Mice lacking either ClC-7 or Ostm1 develop a lysosomal storage disease and mutations in either protein have been found to underlie osteopetrosis in mice and humans. Some human disease-causing CLCN7 mutations accelerate the usually slow voltage-dependent gating of ClC-7/Ostm1. However, it has remained unclear whether the fastened kinetics is indeed causative for the disease. Here we identified and characterized a new deleterious ClC-7 mutation in Belgian Blue Cattle with a severe symptomatology including peri-natal lethality and in most cases gingival hamartomas. By autozygosity mapping and genome-wide sequencing we found a handful of candidate variants, including a cluster of three private SNPs causing the substitution of a conserved tyrosine in the CBS2 domain of ClC-7 by glutamine. The case for ClC-7 was strengthened by subsequent examination of affected calves that revealed severe osteopetrosis. The Y750Q mutation largely preserved the lysosomal localization and assembly of ClC-7/Ostm1, but drastically accelerated its activation by membrane depolarization. These data provide first evidence that accelerated ClC-7/Ostm1 gating per se is deleterious, highlighting a physiological importance of the slow voltage-activation of ClC-7/Ostm1 in lysosomal function and bone resorption. [less ▲]

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See detailL'enseignement de l'informatique en Belgique francophone : état des lieux
Joris, Noémie ULg; Henry, Julie ULg

in 1024 - Bulletin de la société informatique de France (2014), (2), 107-116

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See detailA 3400 year lacustrine paleoseismic record from the North Anatolian Fault, Turkey: Implications for bimodal recurrence behavior
Avsar, Ulas; Hubert, Aurelia ULg; De Batist, Marc et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2014), 41(2), 377-384

High-resolution physical, geochemical, and geochronological analyses on the sedimentary sequence of Yeniçağa Lake, located in a fault-bounded basin along the North Anatolian Fault, reveal fingerprints of ... [more ▼]

High-resolution physical, geochemical, and geochronological analyses on the sedimentary sequence of Yeniçağa Lake, located in a fault-bounded basin along the North Anatolian Fault, reveal fingerprints of paleoearthquakes. A robust sediment chronology, spanning the last 3400 years, is constructed by radiocarbon dating and time-stratigraphical correlation with the precisely dated Sofular Cave speleothem record. Yeniçağa sedimentary sequence contains 11 seismically induced event deposits characterized by siliciclastic-enriched intervals. Some of the event deposits are also associated with implications of sudden lake deepening, which may be related to coseismic subsidence. The paleoearthquake series having an average recurrence interval of ca. 260 years are interrupted by two possible seismic gaps of ca. 420 and 540 years. [less ▲]

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See detailLa qualité d'accueil fait débat
Pirard, Florence ULg

in Revue [Petite] Enfance (2014), 113

La qualité des services d'accueil et d'éducation des jeunes enfants constitue un enjeu sociétal d'actualité, mais peut faire l'objet d'interprétations multiples. Fondé sur les résultats d'une recherche ... [more ▼]

La qualité des services d'accueil et d'éducation des jeunes enfants constitue un enjeu sociétal d'actualité, mais peut faire l'objet d'interprétations multiples. Fondé sur les résultats d'une recherche menée dans une démarche de théorisation ancrée, cet article donne de manière synthétique une grille de lecture de différentes manières de considérer la qualité des services d'accueil et d'éducation des jeunes enfants dans un cadre professionnel. [less ▲]

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See detailA 3400 year lacustrine paleoseismic record from the North Anatolian Fault, Turkey: Implications for bimodal recurrence behavior
Avsar, Ulas; Hubert, Aurelia ULg; De Batist, Marc et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2014), 41(2), 377-384

High-resolution physical, geochemical, and geochronological analyses on the sedimentary sequence of Yeniçağa Lake, located in a fault-bounded basin along the North Anatolian Fault, reveal fingerprints of ... [more ▼]

High-resolution physical, geochemical, and geochronological analyses on the sedimentary sequence of Yeniçağa Lake, located in a fault-bounded basin along the North Anatolian Fault, reveal fingerprints of paleoearthquakes. A robust sediment chronology, spanning the last 3400 years, is constructed by radiocarbon dating and time-stratigraphical correlation with the precisely dated Sofular Cave speleothem record. Yeniçağa sedimentary sequence contains 11 seismically induced event deposits characterized by siliciclastic-enriched intervals. Some of the event deposits are also associated with implications of sudden lake deepening, which may be related to coseismic subsidence. The paleoearthquake series having an average recurrence interval of ca. 260 years are interrupted by two possible seismic gaps of ca. 420 and 540 years. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction d’approches socioconstructivistes dans le cours d’éducation physique. Avis des acteurs sur l’utilisation de fiches d’observation et du débat d’idées
Cloes, Marc ULg; Derome, Stéphane; Bonvoisin, Pierre-Henry

in e Journal de la Recherche sur l'Intervention en Éducation Physique et Sport (2014), 31

Two specific teaching approaches respecting the socioconstructivist principles (observation cards and students verbal exchanges) have been implemented in three secondary PE school classes during short ... [more ▼]

Two specific teaching approaches respecting the socioconstructivist principles (observation cards and students verbal exchanges) have been implemented in three secondary PE school classes during short teaching volleyball units. The study examines the opinions of the teachers and students about their experience. Both kind of actors were positively surprised by these original teaching approaches. PE teachers had some difficulties to share the leadership with their students but were impressed by the behavior of their students. The latter underlined that they appreciated to have the opportunity to learn by themselves. More resources should be developed to help the PE teachers to adopt such teaching approaches. [less ▲]

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See detailEL TLC UE – Colombia – Perú y la integración regional latinoamericana. ¿Hacia una norteamericanización de la estrategia interregional europea?
Parra Santamaria, Lusmiriam Andrea ULg

in Comentario Internacional (2014), 12

This document compares the contents of the Free Trade Agreements (FTA) that have been signed by the European Union and by the United States with Colombia. It analyses them from a perspective that ... [more ▼]

This document compares the contents of the Free Trade Agreements (FTA) that have been signed by the European Union and by the United States with Colombia. It analyses them from a perspective that characterizes FTAs into “WTO-extra” and “WTO-plus” agreements. By this analysis, an “Americanization” of the European interregional strategy is partially verified. Nevertheless, this “Americanization” appears to be partial, due to the inclusion of “regional integration” as a transversal theme in European FTA. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomated analysis of background EEG and reactivity during therapeutic hypothermia in comatose patients after cardiac arrest
Noirhomme, Quentin ULg; Lehembre, Rémy; Lugo, Zulay et al

in Clinical EEG and Neuroscience : Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS) (2014)

Visual analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) background and reactivity during therapeutic hypothermia provides important outcome information, but is time-consuming and not always consistent between ... [more ▼]

Visual analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) background and reactivity during therapeutic hypothermia provides important outcome information, but is time-consuming and not always consistent between reviewers. Automated EEG analysis may help quantify the brain damage. Forty-six comatose patients in therapeutic hypothermia, after cardiac arrest, were included in the study. EEG background was quantified with burst-suppression ratio (BSR) and approximate entropy, both used to monitor anesthesia. Reactivity was detected through change in the power spectrum of signal before and after stimulation. Automatic results obtained almost perfect agreement (discontinuity) to substantial agreement (background reactivity) with a visual score from EEG-certified neurologists. Burst-suppression ratio was more suited to distinguish continuous EEG background from burst-suppression than approximate entropy in this specific population. Automatic EEG background and reactivity measures were significantly related to good and poor outcome. We conclude that quantitative EEG measurements can provide promising information regarding current state of the patient and clinical outcome, but further work is needed before routine application in a clinical setting. [less ▲]

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See detailLa transposition didactique en français langue étrangère et seconde
Bento, Margaret; Defays, Jean-Marc ULg; Meunier, Deborah ULg

in Français dans le Monde. Revue Internationale et Francophone des Professeurs de Français. Recherches et Applications (2014), 55

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See detailA 660-Kb Deletion with Antagonistic Effects on Fertility and Milk Production Segregates at High Frequency in Nordic Red Cattle: Additional Evidence for the Common Occurrence of Balancing Selection in Livestock
Kumar Kadri, Naveen; Sahana, Goutam; Charlier, Carole ULg et al

in PLoS Genetics (2014), 10(1), 1004049

In dairy cattle, the widespread use of artificial insemination has resulted in increased selection intensity, which has led to spectacular increase in productivity. However, cow fertility has ... [more ▼]

In dairy cattle, the widespread use of artificial insemination has resulted in increased selection intensity, which has led to spectacular increase in productivity. However, cow fertility has concomitantly severely declined. It is generally assumed that this reduction is primarily due to the negative energy balance of high-producing cows at the peak of lactation. We herein describe the fine-mapping of a major fertility QTL in Nordic Red cattle, and identify a 660-kb deletion encompassing four genes as the causative variant. We show that the deletion is a recessive embryonically lethal mutation. This probably results from the loss of RNASEH2B, which is known to cause embryonic death in mice. Despite its dramatic effect on fertility, 13%, 23% and 32% of the animals carry the deletion in Danish, Swedish and Finnish Red Cattle, respectively. To explain this, we searched for favorable effects on other traits and found that the deletion has strong positive effects on milk yield. This study demonstrates that embryonic lethal mutations account for a non-negligible fraction of the decline in fertility of domestic cattle, and that associated positive effects on milk yield may account for part of the negative genetic correlation. Our study adds to the evidence that structural variants contribute to animal phenotypic variation, and that balancing selection might be more common in livestock species than previously appreciated. [less ▲]

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See detailSensitivity analysis for multibody systems formulated on a Lie group
Sonneville, Valentin ULg; Bruls, Olivier ULg

in Multibody System Dynamics (2014), 31

A direct differentiation method and an adjoint variable method are proposed for the efficient semi-analytical evaluation of the sensitivities of multibody systems formulated in a matrix Lie group ... [more ▼]

A direct differentiation method and an adjoint variable method are proposed for the efficient semi-analytical evaluation of the sensitivities of multibody systems formulated in a matrix Lie group framework. These methods rely on the linearization of the equations of motion and/or of the time integration procedure. The simpler structure of the equations of motion in the Lie group formalism appears as an advantage for that purpose. Lie bracket contributions and the non-linearity of the exponential map need to be taken into account in the sensitivity algorithms. Nevertheless, essential characteristics of formulations of the direct differentiation method and the adjoint variable method on linear spaces are recovered. Some implementation issues are discussed and two relevant examples illustrate the properties of these methods. [less ▲]

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See detailArrêt Essent c. Pays-Bas: l'interdiction absolue de privatisation à l'épreuve de la libre circulation des capitaux
Demoulin, Iris ULg; Sibony, Anne-Lise ULg

in Journal de Droit Européen [=JDE] (2014), 1

La prévention des conflits d’intérêts dans les industries de réseau peut rendre légitimes des mesures antiprivatisation. De telles mesures peuvent être justifiées par la poursuite d’objectifs d’intérêt ... [more ▼]

La prévention des conflits d’intérêts dans les industries de réseau peut rendre légitimes des mesures antiprivatisation. De telles mesures peuvent être justifiées par la poursuite d’objectifs d’intérêt général. [less ▲]

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See detailSensitivity analysis for multibody systems formulated on a Lie group
Sonneville, Valentin ULg; Bruls, Olivier ULg

in Multibody System Dynamics (2014), 31

A direct differentiation method and an adjoint variable method are proposed for the efficient semi-analytical evaluation of the sensitivities of multibody systems formulated in a matrix Lie group ... [more ▼]

A direct differentiation method and an adjoint variable method are proposed for the efficient semi-analytical evaluation of the sensitivities of multibody systems formulated in a matrix Lie group framework. These methods rely on the linearization of the equations of motion and/or of the time integration procedure. The simpler structure of the equations of motion in the Lie group formalism appears as an advantage for that purpose. Lie bracket contributions and the non-linearity of the exponential map need to be taken into account in the sensitivity algorithms. Nevertheless, essential characteristics of formulations of the direct differentiation method and the adjoint variable method on linear spaces are recovered. Some implementation issues are discussed and two relevant examples illustrate the properties of these methods. [less ▲]

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See detailSubjective Evaluation of the Audiovisual Spatial Congruence in the Case of Stereoscopic-3D Video and Wave Field Synthesis
André, Cédric ULg; Corteel, Etienne; Embrechts, Jean-Jacques ULg et al

in International Journal of Human-Computer Studies (2014), 72(1), 23-32

While 3D cinema is becoming increasingly established, little effort has focused on the general problem of producing a 3D sound scene spatially coherent with the visual content of a stereoscopic-3D (s-3D ... [more ▼]

While 3D cinema is becoming increasingly established, little effort has focused on the general problem of producing a 3D sound scene spatially coherent with the visual content of a stereoscopic-3D (s-3D) movie. The perceptual relevance of such spatial audiovisual coherence is of significant interest. In this paper, a subjective experiment is carried out where an angular error between an s-3D video and a spatially accurate sound reproduced through Wave Field Synthesis (WFS) is simulated. The psychometric curve is measured with the method of constant stimuli, and the threshold for bimodal integration is estimated. The impact of the presence of background noise is also investigated. A comparison is made between the case without any background noise and the case with an SNR of 4 dB(A). Estimates of the thresholds and the slopes, as well as their confidence intervals, are obtained for each level of background noise. When background noise was present, the point of subjective equality (PSE) was higher (19.4° instead of 18.3°) and the slope was steeper (-0.077 instead of -0.062 per degree). Because of the overlap between the confidence intervals, however, it was not possible to statistically differentiate between the two levels of noise. The implications for the sound reproduction in a cinema theater are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailLa voix n'est pas infatigable
Tréger, Isabelle; Remacle, Angélique ULg

in L'Orthophoniste (2014), 335

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