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See detailWR 138: new results from X-ray and optical spectroscopy
Palate, Matthieu ULg; Rauw, Grégor ULg; De Becker, Michaël ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2013), 560

Massive-binary evolution models predict that some systems will go through an evolutionary phase where the original primary has become a supernova and left a compact object behind that then orbits a Wolf ... [more ▼]

Massive-binary evolution models predict that some systems will go through an evolutionary phase where the original primary has become a supernova and left a compact object behind that then orbits a Wolf-Rayet (WR) star. WR 138 is an X-ray bright WR star that has been described as a triple system, including a compact companion in a short-period orbit. Our goal is to search for spectroscopic evidence of a compact companion around WR 138. We used optical and X-ray spectra to search for signatures of a compact companion, which can be revealed by systematic variations in WR optical spectral lines induced by orbital motion of the compact companion or by hard, luminous X-rays from accretion onto this companion. The optical spectra display emission-line profile variations that are most probably caused by clumps inside the stellar winds. The radial velocities do not vary on a short time-scale compatible with the suggested orbital period of a putative compact companion. The X-ray spectra are found to be normal for a WN5-6+OB system with no indication of accretion by a compact companion. There is no evidence for the presence of a compact companion, and we therefore conclude that WR 138 is a normal long-period (P ~ 1521 d) eccentric WR+OB system. [less ▲]

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See detailEarly-type stars observed in the ESO UVES Paranal Observatory Project - IV. Studies of CN, CH+ and CH in the interstellar medium
Smoker, J.; Ledoux, C.; Jehin, Emmanuel ULg et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2013)

High spectral resolution (˜80 000) and signal-to-noise observations from the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph Paranal Observatory Project (UVES-POP) are used to study the interstellar molecular ... [more ▼]

High spectral resolution (˜80 000) and signal-to-noise observations from the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph Paranal Observatory Project (UVES-POP) are used to study the interstellar molecular lines CN (3874 Å), CH[SUP]+[/SUP] (3957, 4232 Å) and CH (3886, 4300 Å) towards 74 O- and B-type stellar sightlines. Additionally, archive data are presented for 140 ELODIE early-type stellar sightlines at R = 42 000, plus 25 FEROS at R = 48 000 and 3 UVES at R > 50 000, mainly in the CH[SUP]+[/SUP] (4232 Å) and CH (3886, 4300 Å) transitions. Detection rates are ˜45 per cent for CN and ˜67 per cent for the other lines in the POP sample, and ˜10-15 per cent for CH[SUP]+[/SUP] and CH lines in the additional sample. CH and CH[SUP]+[/SUP] are well correlated between log[N(CH) cm[SUP]-2[/SUP]]˜12-14, implying that these clouds are CH[SUP]+[/SUP]-like CH and not CN-like CH. CH is also very well correlated with Na I D in the range log[N(Na I cm[SUP]-2[/SUP]]) ˜12.2-14.2. A few sightlines show tentative velocity shifts of ˜2 km s[SUP]-1[/SUP] between CH and CH[SUP]+[/SUP], which appear to be caused by differences in component strength in blends, and hence do not provide firm evidence for shocks. Finally, we describe a search for [SUP]13[/SUP]CH[SUP]+[/SUP] in a sightline towards HD 76341. No [SUP]13[/SUP]CH[SUP]+[/SUP] is detected, placing a limit on the [SUP]13[/SUP]CH[SUP]+[/SUP] to [SUP]12[/SUP]CH[SUP]+[/SUP] ratio of ˜0.01. If a formal fit is attempted, the equivalent width ratio in the two isotopes is a factor ˜90 but with large errors. [less ▲]

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See detailPreliminary description of the diet of Hippopotamus amphibius L. in Loango National Park (Gabon)
Michez, Adrien ULg; Doucet, Jean-Louis ULg; Dendocker, Nicolas et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2013), 17(4), 580-583

Due to the paucity of suitable habitat, hippos are very rare in the Congo Bassin. Compared to East-African populations, Central African populations of hippos have been less studied. Information found in ... [more ▼]

Due to the paucity of suitable habitat, hippos are very rare in the Congo Bassin. Compared to East-African populations, Central African populations of hippos have been less studied. Information found in the literature regarding the animal’s basic ecology is limited. This study focuses on the description of the diet of an isolated hippo population in Loango National Park (Gabon), comparing faecal analysis with a reference collection ofherbaceous species from the savannas. The effectiveness of using faecal analysis versus using the floristic description of hippos’ pastures was demonstrated. The most frequent herbaceous species identified in faeces samples were Paspalum vaginatum, Axonopus compressus, Stenotaphrum secundatum (Poaceae) and Desmodium triflorum (Fabaceae). The voluntary consumption of a dicotyledonous species (Desmodium triflorum) is novel for this species. [less ▲]

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See detailSafety and patients' satisfaction of transcutaneous supraorbital neurostimulation (tSNS) with the Cefaly® device in headache treatment: a survey of 2,313 headache sufferers in the general population.
MAGIS, Delphine ULg; SAVA, Simona Liliana ULg; D'Elia, Tullia Sasso et al

in Journal of Headache & Pain (2013), 14

BACKGROUND: Transcutaneous supraorbital nerve stimulation (tSNS) with the Cefaly® device was recently found superior to sham stimulation for episodic migraine prevention in a randomized trial. Its safety ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Transcutaneous supraorbital nerve stimulation (tSNS) with the Cefaly® device was recently found superior to sham stimulation for episodic migraine prevention in a randomized trial. Its safety and efficiency in larger cohorts of headache sufferers in the general population remain to be determined.The objective of this study was to assess the satisfaction with the Cefaly® device in 2,313 headache sufferers who rented the device for a 40-day trial period via Internet. METHODS: Only subjects using specific anti-migraine drugs, and thus most likely suffering from migraine, were included in the survey. Adverse events (AEs) and willingness to continue tSNS were monitored via phone interviews after the trial period. A built-in software allowed monitoring the total duration of use and hence compliance in subjects who returned the device to the manufacturer after the trial period. RESULTS: After a testing period of 58.2 days on average, 46.6% of the 2,313 renters were not satisfied and returned the device, but the compliance check showed that they used it only for 48.6% of the recommended time. The remaining 54.4% of subjects were satisfied with the tSNS treatment and willing to purchase the device. Ninety-nine subjects out of the 2,313 (4.3%) reported one or more AEs, but none of them was serious. The most frequent AEs were local pain/intolerance to paresthesia (47 subjects, i.e. 2.03%), arousal changes (mostly sleepiness/fatigue, sometimes insomnia, 19 subjects, i.e. 0.82%), headache after the stimulation (12 subjects, i.e. 0.52%). A transient local skin allergy was seen in 2 subjects, i.e. 0.09%. CONCLUSIONS: This survey of 2,313 headache sufferers in the general population confirms that tSNS with is a safe and well-tolerated treatment for migraine headaches that provides satisfaction to a majority of patients who tested it for 40 days. Only 4.3% of subjects reported AEs, all of them were minor and fully reversible. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysical properties and transmission spectrum of the WASP-80 planetary system from multi-colour photometry
Mancini, L.; Southworth, J.; Ciceri, S. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2013), 1312

WASP-80 is one of only two systems known to contain a hot Jupiter which transits its M-dwarf host star. We present eight light curves of one transit event, obtained simultaneously using two defocussed ... [more ▼]

WASP-80 is one of only two systems known to contain a hot Jupiter which transits its M-dwarf host star. We present eight light curves of one transit event, obtained simultaneously using two defocussed telescopes. These data were taken through the Bessell I, Sloan griz and near-infrared JHK passbands. We use our data to search for opacity-induced changes in the planetary radius, but find that all values agree with each other. Our data are therefore consistent with a flat transmission spectrum to within the observational uncertainties. We also measure an activity index of the host star of log R'_HK=-4.495, meaning that WASP-80A shows strong chromospheric activity. The non-detection of starspots implies that, if they exist, they must be small and symmetrically distributed on the stellar surface. We model all available optical transit light curves to obtain improved physical properties and orbital ephemerides for the system. [less ▲]

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See detailLa Deuxième Guerre mondiale aurait-elle eu un impact sur la population rwandaise? Regard sur l'historiographie de ce tournant historique
Singiza, Dantès ULg

in Bulletin d'Information de l'Association Belge d'Histoire Contemporaine = Mededelingenblad van de Belgische Vereniging voor Nieuwste Geschiedenis (2013), Numéro 4

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See detailEstimation of the error on the mean velocity and on the Reynolds stress due to a misoriented ADV probe in the horizontal plane: case of experiments in a compound open-channel
Peltier, Yann ULg; Rivière, Nicolas; Proust, Sébastien et al

in Flow Measurement & Instrumentation (2013), 34(C), 34-41

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See detailDéploiement de la solution discovery Primo à l'Université de Liège
Renaville, François ULg; Richelle, Laurence ULg

in Cahiers de la Documentation = Bladen voor Documentatie (2013), (4), 41-53

En quelques années, les Bibliothèques de l'Université de Liège (ULg) ont procédé à d'importants changements dans les systèmes documentaires informatisés qu'elles exploitent (SIGB, OPAC, résolveur de liens ... [more ▼]

En quelques années, les Bibliothèques de l'Université de Liège (ULg) ont procédé à d'importants changements dans les systèmes documentaires informatisés qu'elles exploitent (SIGB, OPAC, résolveur de liens, plate-forme PIB…). Cet article retrace le passage, en 2013, d’un OPAC traditionnel à une "solution discovery". L'équipe de projet propose une analyse des étapes qui ont précédé la mise en œuvre de la solution Primo, dans ses différents aspects historique, technique et humain. La campagne de communication en interne, au moyen principalement de séances de formation, est également abordée. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Parecoxib on The Prevention of Postoperative Peritoneal Adhesions in Rats.
Arung, Willy; Jehaes, Francois; Cheramy, Jean-Paul et al

in Journal of Investigative Surgery : The Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research (2013), 26(6), 340-346

ABSTRACT Background: No systemic preventive therapy has been successful in inhibiting the development of postoperative peritoneal adhesions (PPAs). Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the ... [more ▼]

ABSTRACT Background: No systemic preventive therapy has been successful in inhibiting the development of postoperative peritoneal adhesions (PPAs). Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effects of 5 day administration of parecoxib, on PPA prevention and on suture or wound healing in rats. Methods: In a model of PPAs induced by peritoneal electrical burn, 30 rats were randomized into 3 groups according to parecoxib administration route (control; intraperitoneal (IP); intramuscular (IM)). Plasma and peritoneal levels of PAI-1 and tPA were measured at T0, after 90 min of surgery (T90), and on postoperative day 10 (D10). In a cecum resection model, 20 rats were randomized into two groups (control and IP parecoxib), and abdominal wound healing and suture leakage were assessed at D10. In both models, PPAs were evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively on D10. Results: Administration of parecoxib significantly decreased the quantity (p < .05) and the severity (p < .01) of PPAs in both models. In addition, parecoxib administration did not cause healing defects or infectious complications in the two models. In the peritoneal burn model, IP or IM parecoxib administration inhibited the increase of postoperative plasma and peritoneum PAI-1 levels, an increase that was observed in the control group (p < .01). No anastomosis leakage could be demonstrated in both groups in the cecum resection model. Conclusion: This study showed that, in these rat models, parecoxib might reduce PPA formation. Confirmation of the safety of parecoxib on intestinal anastomoses is required and should be investigated in further animal models. [less ▲]

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See detailRhétorique visuelle et énonciation
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg

in Visible (2013), 10

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See detailSpectroimmunohistochemistry: A Novel Form of MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging Coupled to Immunohistochemistry for Tracking Antibodies.
Longuespée, Rémi ULg; Boyon, Charlotte; Desmons, Annie et al

in OMICS : A Journal of Integrative Biology (2013)

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See detailFarm tourism across Europe
Potocnick, Irma; Schmitz, Serge ULg

in European Countryside (2013), 5(4), 265-376

Because we acknowledge both the importance of the geographical context on agritourism and the richness of benchmarking, discussions aim to underline and to understand original agritourism practices in ... [more ▼]

Because we acknowledge both the importance of the geographical context on agritourism and the richness of benchmarking, discussions aim to underline and to understand original agritourism practices in relation to their spatial context. According to Sznajder et al. (2009) attention has to be paid to the historical structure of economy, the state of farming, the demographic situation, the accessibility, the social attitudes, the capital resources. Therefore the structure of the farms, the available labour force and buildings, the capital resources as well as the surroundings (including landscape features, natural and cultural heritages) comprise the main characteristics. This special issue aims to explore both the local impacts of agritourism development and the positioning of agritourism on tourist market. [less ▲]

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See detailActivité physique et maladies neuromusculaires
WANG, François-Charles ULg

in Lettre du Neurologue (La) : le Courrier du Spécialiste (2013)

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See detailModel Predictive Control of Voltages in Active Distribution Networks
Valverde Mora, Gustavo ULg; Van Cutsem, Thierry ULg

in IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid (2013), 4(4), 2152-2161

This paper presents a centralized control scheme to regulate distribution network voltages in the presence of high penetration of distributed generation. The approach is inspired of Model Predictive ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a centralized control scheme to regulate distribution network voltages in the presence of high penetration of distributed generation. The approach is inspired of Model Predictive Control in order to compensate for modeling inaccuracies and measurement noise. The control actions, calculated from a multi-step optimization, are updated and corrected by real-time measurements. The proposed controller uses a linear model to predict the behavior of the system and the optimization is solved using quadratic programming. The proposed corrective control has been tested in a 11-kV distribution network including 75 nodes and hosting 22 distributed generating units. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of a quantitative immunocapture real-time PCR assay for detecting structurally intact adenoviral particles in water
Ogorzaly, Leslie; Bonot, Sébastien; Elmoualij, Benaïssa ULg et al

in Journal of Virological Methods (2013), 194

Development of rapid, sensitive and specific methods for detection of infectious enteric viruses in water is challenging but crucial for gaining reliable information for risk assessment. An immunocapture ... [more ▼]

Development of rapid, sensitive and specific methods for detection of infectious enteric viruses in water is challenging but crucial for gaining reliable information for risk assessment. An immunocapture real-time PCR (IC-qPCR) was designed to detect jointly the two major viral particle components, i.e. the capsid protein and the viral genome. Targeting both constituents helps circumventing the technical limits of cell culture approaches and the inability of PCR based methods to predict the infectious status. Two waterborne pathogenic virus models, human adenovirus types 2 and 41, were chosen for this study. IC-qPCR showed a detection limit of 10 MPNCU/reaction with a dynamic range from 102 to 106 MPNCU/reaction. Sensitivity was thus 100-fold higher compared to ELISA-based capture employing the same anti-hexon antibodies. After optimisation, application on environmental water samples was validated, and specificity towards the targeted virus types was obtained through the qPCR step. Heat-treated pure samples as well as surface water samples brought evidence that this method achieves detection of encapsidated viral genomes while excluding free viral genome amplification. As a consequence, adenovirus concentrations estimated by IC-qPCR were below those calculated by direct qPCR. The results demonstrate that the IC-qPCR method is a sensitive and rapid tool for detecting, in a single-tube assay, structurally intact and thus potentially infectious viral particles in environmental samples. [less ▲]

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See detailTrophic Relationships and Habitat Preferences of Delphinids from the Southeastern Brazilian Coast Determined by Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Composition
Bisi, Tatiana; Dorneles, Paulo; Lailson-Brito, José et al

in PLoS ONE (2013), 8(12),

To investigate the foraging habitats of delphinids in southeastern Brazil, we analyzed stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes in muscle samples of the following 10 delphinid species: Sotalia ... [more ▼]

To investigate the foraging habitats of delphinids in southeastern Brazil, we analyzed stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes in muscle samples of the following 10 delphinid species: Sotalia guianensis, Stenella frontalis, Tursiops truncatus, Steno bredanensis, Pseudorca crassidens, Delphinus sp., Lagenodelphis hosei, Stenella attenuata, Stenella longirostris and Grampus griseus. We also compared the δ13C and δ15N values among four populations of S. guianensis. Variation in carbon isotope results from coast to ocean indicated that there was a significant decrease in δ13C values from estuarine dolphins to oceanic species. S. guianensis from Guanabara Bay had the highest mean δ13C value, while oceanic species showed significantly lower δ13C values. The highest δ15N values were observed for P. crassidens and T. truncatus, suggesting that these species occupy the highest trophic position among the delphinids studied here. The oceanic species S. attenuata, G. griseus and L. hosei had the lowest δ15N values. Stable isotope analysis showed that the three populations of S. guianensis in coastal bays had different δ13C values, but similar δ15N results. Guiana dolphins from Sepetiba and Ilha Grande bays had different foraging habitat, with specimens from Ilha Grande showing more negative δ13C values. This study provides further information on the feeding ecology of delphinids occurring in southeastern Brazil, with evidence of distinctive foraging habitats and the occupation of different ecological niches by these species in the study area. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphological and Molecular Characterization of Lymnaeid Snails and Their Potential Role in Transmission of Fasciola spp. in Vietnam
Bui Thi, Dung ULg; Pham Ngoc, Doanh; Dang Tat, The et al

in Korean Journal of Parasitology (2013), 51(6), 657-662

Freshwater snails of the family Lymnaeidae play an important role in the transmission of fascioliasis worldwide. In Vietnam, 2 common lymnaeid species, Lymnaea swinhoei and Lymnaea viridis, can be ... [more ▼]

Freshwater snails of the family Lymnaeidae play an important role in the transmission of fascioliasis worldwide. In Vietnam, 2 common lymnaeid species, Lymnaea swinhoei and Lymnaea viridis, can be recognized on the basis of morphology, and a third species, Lymnaea sp., is known to exist. Recent studies have raised controversy about their role in transmission of Fasciola spp. because of confusion in identification of the snail hosts. The aim of this study is, therefore, to clarify the identities of lymnaeid snails in Vietnam by a combination of morphological and molecular approaches. The molecular analyses using the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA clearly showed that lymnaeids in Vietnam include 3 species, Austropeplea viridis (morphologically identified as L. viridis), Radix auricularia (morphologically identified as L. swinhoei) and Radix rubiginosa (morphologically identified as Lymnaea sp.). R. rubiginosa is a new record for Vietnam. Among them, only A. viridis was found to be infected with Fasciola spp. These results provide a new insight into lymnaeid snails in Vietnam. Identification of lymnaeid snails in Vietnam and their role in the liver fluke transmission should be further investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnosis of the transport of adsorbed material in the Scheldt estuary: A proof of concept
Delhez, Eric ULg; Wolk, Frank ULg

in Journal of Marine Systems (2013), 128

Many contaminants can attach to suspended particles. Their transport differs therefore from the transport of dissolved substances, especially in highly turbid environment like estuaries. In this paper, we ... [more ▼]

Many contaminants can attach to suspended particles. Their transport differs therefore from the transport of dissolved substances, especially in highly turbid environment like estuaries. In this paper, we show how the Constituent Age and Residence time Theory (CART — www.climate.be/CART) can be adapted to quantify in a rigorous manner the transport rate of contaminants that are present in both the dissolved and adsorbed phases. On the basis of numerical experiment using a 1D model of the Scheldt estuary, it is shown that the interaction with suspended particles significantly affects the transport of contaminants with partition coefficients larger than 1000 ml/g. The mean transit time from Ghent to Vlissingen of such contaminants can reach 160 days while it is only 60 days for water and dissolved constituents. This increase of the transit time is mainly due to the fact that adsorbed constituents spend long periods of time on the bottom. Surprisingly, the downstream transport of adsorbed constituents in the water column appears more effective than that of dissolved constituents. This transport affects however a small fraction of the adsorbed constituent and is therefore not sufficient to compensate for the long resting phase on the bottom of the bulk of the constituent. The concept and methodology introduced in this paper are easily applicable to most model studies and provide powerful and flexible tools for the detailed understanding of the transport of contaminants in estuaries. In particular, the concept of age and modified ages taking into account specifically the time spent in the water column or in the bottom provide new diagnostic tools to understand and quantify the dynamics of contaminants. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamiques écosystémiques co-évolutives : portance écologique du territoire wallon
Hendrickx, Sébastien ULg; Van Der Kaa, Claire ULg; Sérusiaux, Emmanuël ULg

in Notes de recherche - Conférence Permanente du Développement Territorial Région Wallonne (2013), 44

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See detailEgg and meat production performances of two varieties of the local Ardennaise poultry breed: silver black and golden black
Moula, Nassim ULg; Michaux, Charles ULg; Philippe, François-Xavier ULg et al

in Animal Genetic Resources = Resources Génétiques Animales = Recursos Genéticos Animales (2013), 53(2), 57-67

The Ardennaise breed is emblematic of the Belgian poultry diversity. We compared two varieties of the breed, the golden black and the silver black. The comparison encompassed: (i) the morphology of adult ... [more ▼]

The Ardennaise breed is emblematic of the Belgian poultry diversity. We compared two varieties of the breed, the golden black and the silver black. The comparison encompassed: (i) the morphology of adult birds, (ii) the growth, carcass characteristics and meat quality of broilers 22 weeks old, (iii) the laying rate during 52 weeks and the egg quality. Significant differences were observed in the size of mature males and females: body weight, diameter and length of the tarsus, size of the comb and wattles. The two varieties did not differ concerning the carcass and meat quality traits. The golden black has a higher laying rate and a higher yolk / albumen ratio, but lays lighter eggs. It could be interesting to complete this study by molecular markers analysis to evaluate the degree of genetic diversity between the two varieties. [less ▲]

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See detailSimultaneous design of structural layout and discrete fiber orientation using bi-value coding parameterization and volume constraint
TONG, Gao; ZHANG, Weihong; Duysinx, Pierre ULg

in Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization (2013), 48(6), 1075-1088

The so-called bi-value coding parameterization (BCP) method is developed for the simultaneous optimization of layout design and discrete fiber orientations of laminated structures related to the ... [more ▼]

The so-called bi-value coding parameterization (BCP) method is developed for the simultaneous optimization of layout design and discrete fiber orientations of laminated structures related to the compliance minimization and natural frequency maximization. Both kinds of problems are transformed into a discrete material selection problem that is then solved as a continuous topology optimization problem with multiphase materials. A new form of the volume constraint is introduced in accordance with the BCP to control the material usage and material removal in the corresponding problem formulation. The BCP scheme assigning the integer value of +1 or -1 to each design variable for the unique “coding” is efficiently used to interpolate discrete fiber orientations and to identify the presence and removal of materials. Meanwhile, a general set-up strategy is proposed by assigning “uniform” weight values in BCP to ensure the feasibility of the initial starting point. Numerical tests illustrate that the BCP is efficient in dealing with both kinds of design problems including the volume constraint. [less ▲]

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See detailDosimétrie vocale chez des enseignantes des niveaux maternel et primaire
Remacle, Angélique ULg; Morsomme, Dominique ULg; FINCK, Camille ULg

in Cahiers de l'ASELF (2013), 10(4), 14-29

Objectifs - Cette étude quantifie l’usage vocal professionnel et extra-professionnel chez des enseignantes en différenciant deux niveaux scolaires : le maternel et le primaire. L’objectif est d’identifier ... [more ▼]

Objectifs - Cette étude quantifie l’usage vocal professionnel et extra-professionnel chez des enseignantes en différenciant deux niveaux scolaires : le maternel et le primaire. L’objectif est d’identifier le contexte (professionnel versus extra- professionnel) ainsi que le niveau scolaire (maternel versus primaire) requérant la charge vocale la plus importante. Méthodologie - Le comportement vocal de 21 enseignantes du maternel et de 20 enseignantes du primaire a été accumulé à l’aide d’un dosimètre pendant une semaine de travail (5 jours). Les paramètres analysés sont les suivants : l’intensité vocale, la fréquence fondamentale, la durée de phonation, le nombre de vibrations et la distance parcourue par les plis vocaux. Résultats - Comme attendu, le contexte professionnel est associé à des valeurs significativement plus élevées que le contexte extra-professionnel pour tous les paramètres mesurés. Par ailleurs, la comparaison entre les deux groupes montre des valeurs significativement plus élevées chez les enseignantes du maternel pour le nombre de vibrations et la distance parcourue par les plis vocaux. Conclusions - Le risque de développer des pathologies liées à la charge vocale est principalement associé à l’usage vocal professionnel des enseignantes, et il semble davantage présent chez les institutrices du niveau maternel que chez celles du primaire. [less ▲]

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See detailTgfbeta-Smad and MAPK signaling mediate scleraxis and proteoglycan expression in heart valves.
Barnette, Damien; Hulin, Alexia; Ahmed, Ishtiaq et al

in Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology (2013), 65

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See detailCe cavernome cérébral est-il la cause d'un syndrome parkinsonien ?
Benmouna, Karim; DIVE, Dominique ULg; WANG, François-Charles ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2013), 68(12), 613-616

We report the case of a patient presenting with an akineto-rigid syndrome of the left hemibody whose etiological exploration by magnetic resonance imaging showed the presence of a cavernoma located in the ... [more ▼]

We report the case of a patient presenting with an akineto-rigid syndrome of the left hemibody whose etiological exploration by magnetic resonance imaging showed the presence of a cavernoma located in the right lenticular region. The interest of this situation lies in establishing whether pathophysiological link may exist between such symptoms and the lesion. [less ▲]

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See detailL'efficacité de l'aide en santé en Afrique de l'Ouest: maintenant plus que jamais
Paul, Elisabeth ULg; Eclou, Dieudonné; Sossouhounto, Nadine et al

in Global Health Promotion (2013)

La préoccupation d'améliorer l'efficacité de l'aide au développement dans le secteur de la santé est plus que jamais d’actualité. L'approche sectorielle permet d'obtenir des améliorations importantes à ce ... [more ▼]

La préoccupation d'améliorer l'efficacité de l'aide au développement dans le secteur de la santé est plus que jamais d’actualité. L'approche sectorielle permet d'obtenir des améliorations importantes à ce niveau et connaît un renouveau à travers le Partenariat International pour la Santé et initiatives liées (IHP+). Dans ce commentaire, nous montrons comment l'IHP+ a été mis en œuvre dans trois pays ouest-africains francophones: le Bénin, le Burkina Faso et le Mali. La dynamique existant dans le secteur de la santé dans chacun des pays a influencé la façon dont l'IHP+ s’y est traduit. Au-delà de ces dynamiques différentes, l'IHP+ a permis de renforcer la place des plans et dispositifs nationaux de coordination comme plateforme de suivi-évaluation et de redevabilité du secteur santé. Toutefois, certaines pratiques contraires aux principes de l'efficacité de l'aide perdurent encore, en particulier le manque d'alignement sur les systèmes de gestion nationaux et le manque de prévisibilité de l'aide. [less ▲]

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See detailEntrevista a Juan Carlos Méndez Guédez
Berlage, Pauline ULg

in Revista Letral (2013)

Este encuentro, que tuvo lugar en Madrid en otoño de 2012, se abre con una reflexión sobre el estatus del escritor entre las dos orillas y sigue con los temas de escritura y lectura transatlántica, así ... [more ▼]

Este encuentro, que tuvo lugar en Madrid en otoño de 2012, se abre con una reflexión sobre el estatus del escritor entre las dos orillas y sigue con los temas de escritura y lectura transatlántica, así como el de la labor de plasmación escrita en géneros literarios variados. [less ▲]

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See detailLocal head-loss coefficient at the rectangular transition from a free-surface channel to a conduit
Van Nam, Nguyen; Archambeau, Pierre ULg; Dewals, Benjamin ULg et al

in Journal of Hydraulic Engineering (2013), 139(12), 1318-1323

Experimental tests have been performed to observe and determine, in stationary flow conditions, the local head loss at the transition from a free surface channel to a conduit. These investigations ... [more ▼]

Experimental tests have been performed to observe and determine, in stationary flow conditions, the local head loss at the transition from a free surface channel to a conduit. These investigations considered a wide range of discharge and varied dimensions and positions of a rectangular cross section conduit connected to the downstream extremity of a rectangular free surface channel. From the head loss evaluation results, simple analytical expressions to predict the local head loss coefficient value at the rectangular transition from a channel to a conduit are proposed and validated. [less ▲]

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See detailQuality Assessment of Marketed Eggs in Basse kabylie (Algeria)
Moula, Nassim ULg; Ait Kaki, Asma ULg; Leroy, Pascal ULg et al

in Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola (2013), 15(4), 395-399

Quality variations in retail eggs are widely reported. This study aims at assessing the quality of eggs according to the marketing channel in the department of Bejaia (Algeria). In spring and summer 2012 ... [more ▼]

Quality variations in retail eggs are widely reported. This study aims at assessing the quality of eggs according to the marketing channel in the department of Bejaia (Algeria). In spring and summer 2012, 3330 eggs were bought in 30 stores divided into 3 categories: 10 supermarkets (1146 eggs), 10 public markets (1048 eggs), and 10 shops (1136 eggs). Egg weights differed significantly between marketing channels with 58.9±0.14, 61.2±0.13 and 62.8±0.13 g for public markets, shops and supermarkets, respectively (p<0.001). Although shell thickness was similar for all marketing channels, the proportion of damaged eggs was higher in public markets (9.0%), intermediate in food shops (7.3%) and lower in supermarkets (5.7%; p<0.05). The yolk/albumen ratio was significantly higher for eggs from supermarkets (48.0%) compared with the other channels (around 47.4%; p<0.05). The freshness of the eggs, measured by the Haugh method, was lower in public markets (74.3 units), intermediate in shops (77.6 units) and higher in supermarkets (79.9 units; p<0.05). The price of eggs, expressed in Algerian Dinar (AD) per kg, was significantly lower in public markets (124 AD/kg) compared with the two other channels (around 131 AD/kg; p<0.05). It is possible to conclude that egg quality in Bass Kabylie differs significantly among marketing channels, with higher quality observed in supermarkets. The lower quality of eggs in public markets is associated with lower price. Eggs from shops present an intermediate quality. A one-year study would allow studying both the potential seasonal effect and compare intrinsic variability across marketing channels. [less ▲]

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See detailAnisotropy preserving DTI processing
Collard, Anne ULg; Bonnabel, Silvère; Phillips, Christophe ULg et al

in International Journal of Computer Vision (2013)

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See detailHigh-resolution modelling of the Antarctic surface mass balance, application for the twentieth, twenty first and twenty second centuries
Agosta, Cécile ULg; Favier, Vincent; Krinner, Gerhard et al

in Climate Dynamics (2013), 41(11-12), 3247-3260

About 75% of the Antarctic surface mass gain occurs over areas below 2000 m asl, which cover 40% of the grounded ice-sheet. As the topography is complex in many of these regions, SMB modelling is highly ... [more ▼]

About 75% of the Antarctic surface mass gain occurs over areas below 2000 m asl, which cover 40% of the grounded ice-sheet. As the topography is complex in many of these regions, SMB modelling is highly dependent on resolution, and studying the impact of Antarctica on the future rise in sea level requires physical approaches. We have developed a low time consuming, physical downscaling model for high-resolution (15 km) long-term surface mass balance (SMB) projections. Here, we present results of this model, called SMHiL (surface mass balance high-resolution downscaling), which was forced with the LMDZ4 atmospheric general circulation model to assess SMB variation in the 21st and the 22nd centuries under two different scenarios. The higher resolution of SMHiL better reproduces the geographical patterns of SMB and increase significantly the averaged SMB over the grounded ice-sheet for the end of the 20th century. A comparison with more than 3200 quality-controlled field data shows that LMDZ4 and SMHiL compare the observed values equally well. Nevertheless, field data below 2000 m asl are too scarce to efficiency show the interest of SMHiL and measuring the SMB in these undocumented areas should be then a future scientific priority. Our results suggest that running LMDZ4 at a finer resolution (15km) may give a future increase in SMB in Antarctica about 30% higher than by using its standard resolution (60 km) due to higher increase in precipitation in the coastal areas at 15 km. However, a part (~ 15%) of these discrepancies could be an artefact from SMHiL since it neglects the foehn effect and then likely overestimates the precipitation increase. Future changes in the Antarctic SMB at low elevations will result from the conflict between higher snow accumulation and runoff. For this reason, developing downscaling models is crucial to represent processes in sufficient detail and correctly model the SMB in the coastal areas. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyse des perspectives de rentabilité de la culture extensive de Jatropha curcas L. dans la zone agroécologique de transition orientale du Sénégal : cas de la communauté rurale de Dialacoto
Terren, Marieke ULg; Cissé, Chérif; Mergeai, Guy ULg

in Cahiers d'Etudes et de Recherches Francophones. Agricultures (2013), 22(6), 568-574

The profitability prospects of the three main modes of extensive cultivation of Jatropha curcas L. in the Rural Community of Dialacoto were studied on 24 farms from 2008 to 2012. In the best tended ... [more ▼]

The profitability prospects of the three main modes of extensive cultivation of Jatropha curcas L. in the Rural Community of Dialacoto were studied on 24 farms from 2008 to 2012. In the best tended peasant plantations aged four or five years the dry seed yield obtained in sole cropping was less than 200 kg/ha. Under these conditions, it is very unlikely that the yield achieved in sole cropping exceeds 800 kg/ha in full production. The average yield per meter of live fences older than fifteen years was 0.9 kg/m. Considering the purchase price of jatropha seeds in 2012 in Senegal (65 F CFA/kg – 0.1 euro/kg), and given the bad productivity and the low precocity of the available planting material, the cultivation of jatropha (as a sole crop or in intercropping) is far less profitable than the main cropping system practiced in the region (groundnut/pearl millet/sorghum/cotton rotation with input application). Any improvement in the economic performance of the production of jatropha seeds requires the selection of varieties that are early, hardy and productive. The establishment of living hedges is for the moment the only installation method that can be recommended to farmers. In addition to providing supplementary income related to seed harvest, hedgerows provide different non-monetary benefits appreciated by farmers: land demarcation, soil protection against wind and water erosion, improved soil water balance and windbreak effect favourable to crop development, crop protection against wandering ruminants, and enclosure for the cattle. [less ▲]

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See detailRivaling Evidence-Bases and Politics in Regulatory Science
Hendrickx, Kim ULg

in Food Science and Law (2013), 4

In line with contemporary political and sociological research on science and regulation, this article problematizes the notion of ‘scientific evidence’ as something independent from and prior to political ... [more ▼]

In line with contemporary political and sociological research on science and regulation, this article problematizes the notion of ‘scientific evidence’ as something independent from and prior to political values. The production of scientific or technical criteria supporting regulatory politics is referred to as ‘regulatory science’ in the fields of policy studies and the sociology of science and technology. Evidence-bases are an example of regulatory science and they illustrate the latter’s intimate relation with political values. I will briefly outline how evidence-bases are not a neutral basis for politics, but that they are constructed through politics and interested groups. Taking the European health claims debate as an example, I show that there exists no unitary notion of evidence, but a confrontation of two scientific frameworks, supported by different expert networks, and proposing different conceptions of what scientific 'evidence' is. In regulatory matters, scientific evidence alone cannot settle disputes once and for all because the evidence is precisely what's at stake. [less ▲]

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See detailDe l’expérimentation à la modélisation des propriétés hygrothermiques de parois isolées en paille
Louis, Arnaud ULg; Evrard, Arnaud; Courard, Luc ULg et al

in Annales du Bâtiment et des Travaux Publics (2013)

Some results of aPROpaille project are presented. The goal of this project is to improve the knowledge about hygrothermal performances of walls in which thermal insulation is mainly provided by straw ... [more ▼]

Some results of aPROpaille project are presented. The goal of this project is to improve the knowledge about hygrothermal performances of walls in which thermal insulation is mainly provided by straw. Besides an overall characterization of straw properties and two types of earth plaster, a series of tests was performed to determine the hygrothermal properties of these materials: porosity, sorption curve, water vapour diffusion, capillary absorption, total water absorption, specific heat and thermal conductivity. The determination of these parameters required sometimes the implementation of unusual protocols or unreleased materials. Numerical simulations based on the properties defined in the test campaign are also presented. Results clearly point out the influence of the type of plaster and the orientation of fibres into straw bale. [less ▲]

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See detailChemical soil factors influencing plant assemblages along copper-cobalt gradients: implications for conservation and restoration
Seleck, Maxime ULg; Bizoux, Jean-Philippe ULg; Colinet, Gilles ULg et al

in Plant and Soil (2013), 373

Aims Define the chemical factors structuring plant communities of three copper-cobalt outcrops (Tenke-Fungurume, Katangan Copperbelt, D. R. Congo) presenting extreme gradients. Methods To discriminate ... [more ▼]

Aims Define the chemical factors structuring plant communities of three copper-cobalt outcrops (Tenke-Fungurume, Katangan Copperbelt, D. R. Congo) presenting extreme gradients. Methods To discriminate plant communities, 172 vegetation records of all species percentage cover were classified based on NMDS and the Calinski criterion. Soil samples were analyzed for 13 chemical factors and means compared among communities with ANOVA. Partial canonical correspondence analysis (pCCA) was used to determine amount of variation explained individually by each factor and site effect. Results Seven communities were identified. Six of the studied communities were related to distinct sites. Site effect (6.0 % of global inertia) was identified as the most important factor related to plant communities’ variation followed by Cu (5.5 %), pH (3.6 %) and Co (3.5 %). Unique contribution of site effect (3.8 %) was higher than that of Cu (1.1 %) and Co (1.0 %). Conclusions In restoration, not only Cu and Co contents will be important to maintain vegetation diversity, attention should also be given to co-varying factors potentially limiting toxicity of metals: pH, organic matter, Ca and Mn. Physical parameters were also identified as important in the creation of adequate conditions for diverse communities. Further studies should focus on the effect of physical parameters and geology. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of different kinds of anoxia/reoxygenation on the mitochondrial function and the free radicals production of cultured primary equine skeletal myoblasts.
Ceusters, Justine ULg; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange ULg; Franck, Thierry ULg et al

in Research in Veterinary Science (2013), 95

Horses are outstanding athletes, performing in many different disciplines involving different kinds of efforts and metabolic responses. Depending on exercise intensity, their skeletal muscle oxygenation ... [more ▼]

Horses are outstanding athletes, performing in many different disciplines involving different kinds of efforts and metabolic responses. Depending on exercise intensity, their skeletal muscle oxygenation decreases, and the reperfusion at cessation of the exercise can cause excessive production of free radicals. This study on cultured primary equine myoblasts investigated the effect of different kinds of anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R) on routine respiration, mitochondrial complex I specific activity and free radicals production. Our data revealed that short cycles of A/R caused a decrease of all the parameters, opposite to what a single long period of anoxia did. A preconditioning-like effect could explain our first pattern of results whereas mild uncoupling could be more appropriate for the second one. Anyway, it seems that mitochondrial complex I could play a major role in the regulation of the balance between metabolic and antioxidant protection of the muscular function of athletic horses. [less ▲]

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See detailTINA BROWN & THE GOSPEL MESSENGERS
Sacré, Robert ULg

in ABS Magazine (2013), (40), 26-31

Interviews Tina Brown , Gospel Messengers

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See detailUn siècle de physiognomonie
Stienon, Valérie ULg; Wicky, Érika

in Etudes Françaises (2013), 49(3), 5-14

Produit syncrétique et protéiforme d’une très longue histoire, la physiognomonie remonte au moins au Pseudo-Aristote (IVe-IIIe siècle av. J.-C.). Très tôt, l’essentiel est déjà posé : il s’agit de ... [more ▼]

Produit syncrétique et protéiforme d’une très longue histoire, la physiognomonie remonte au moins au Pseudo-Aristote (IVe-IIIe siècle av. J.-C.). Très tôt, l’essentiel est déjà posé : il s’agit de considérer les manifestations physiques de l’âme. À la faveur des XVIe et XVIIe siècles, cette étude se précise avec l’association de telle détermination somatique à telle spécificité de caractère, fondant l’explication des moeurs des hommes par des traits corporels considérés comme autant de signes à interpréter. Une distinction vient ensuite faire le départ entre les caractéristiques fixes du corps et du caractère, et leurs aspects mutables. À la fin du XVIIIe siècle, sous l’influence du sensualisme et après l’étude des passions qui avait occupé le siècle classique, cette distinction fonde la séparation entre une physiognomonie au sens restreint et une pathognomonie consacrée à l’étude des signes physiques traduisant le caractère en mouvement et les signes fugitifs de l’expression humaine. La suite de cette histoire, au XIXe siècle, fait l’objet du présent numéro d’Études françaises, qui remet en perspective les formes et les influences de la physiognomonie à ce moment stratégique de son développement. Le bouleversement des hiérarchies socio-culturelles et l’industrialisation des objets socialement distinctifs (vêtements, bijoux, cannes, ombrelles, etc.) ont certainement contribué à accentuer l’intérêt pour la physiognomonie en rendant indispensable la maîtrise d’un certain savoir social. Mais l’engouement qu’elle suscite se caractérise surtout, à ce moment, par la création de foyers institutionnels spécifiques qui la dotent d’un ancrage dans des associations scientifiques, des cercles intellectuels et des organes de presse. Il s’agira donc, indissociablement, de comprendre les raisons d’un succès et d’examiner les reconfigurations d’un héritage. [less ▲]

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See detailReorientation of the helix of the tryptophan-rich gp41W peptide from HIV-1 at interfaces
Matar, Gladys; Benichou, Emmanuel; Nasir, Mehmet Nail ULg et al

in Journal of Chemical Physics (2013), 139

The glycoprotein gp41 from the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) has an amino acid sequence enriched in tryptophan residues, the so-called gp41W peptide (i.e., KWASLWNWFNITNWLWYIK) and plays a ... [more ▼]

The glycoprotein gp41 from the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) has an amino acid sequence enriched in tryptophan residues, the so-called gp41W peptide (i.e., KWASLWNWFNITNWLWYIK) and plays a crucial role in HIV-1 host cell infection. Using the coupling of Second Harmonic Generation targeting the tryptophan residues with lateral surface tension measurements, we investigate the interaction of gp41W with a neat air/water and a lipid/water interfaces. At the air/water interface, gp41W presents a well-defined orientation and this orientation is strongly modified at the lipid/water interface, depending on the surface pressure. These results show that this strategy is well suited to monitor tryptophan containing α-helices orientation at lipid/water interfaces. [less ▲]

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See detailEBP : grille de mots croisés
Durieux, Nancy ULg; Martinez Perez, Trecy ULg

in Cahiers de l'ASELF (2013), 10(4), 30-3136

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See detailDiscussion on the optimization problem formulation of flexible components in multibody systems
Tromme, Emmanuel ULg; Bruls, Olivier ULg; Emonds-Alt, Jonathan et al

in Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization (2013), 48(6), 1189-1206

This paper is dedicated to the structural optimization of flexible components in mechanical systems modeled as multibody systems. While most of the structural optimization developments have been conducted ... [more ▼]

This paper is dedicated to the structural optimization of flexible components in mechanical systems modeled as multibody systems. While most of the structural optimization developments have been conducted under (quasi-)static loadings or vibration design criteria, the proposed approach aims at considering as precisely as possible the effects of dynamic loading under service conditions. Solving this problem is quite challenging and naive implementations may lead to inaccurate and unstable results. To elaborate a robust and reliable approach, the optimization problem formulation is investigated because it turns out that it is a critical point. Different optimization algorithms are also tested. To explain the efficiency of the various solution approaches, the complex nature of the design space is analyzed. Numerical applications considering the optimization of a two-arm robot subject to a trajectory tracking constraint and the optimization of a slider-crank mechanism with a cyclic dynamic loading are presented to illustrate the different concepts. [less ▲]

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See detailNew developments in artificially layered ferroelectric oxide superlattices
Dawber, Matthew; Bousquet, Eric ULg

in MRS Bulletin (2013), 38

Artifi cially layered superlattices of oxide materials have been intensely investigated for some time, but continue to reveal new potential as a route to advanced functional materials. As well as ... [more ▼]

Artifi cially layered superlattices of oxide materials have been intensely investigated for some time, but continue to reveal new potential as a route to advanced functional materials. As well as considering electrostatics and strain, a more complete picture of the interfaces in these systems also needs to incorporate the possibility of additional structural distortions, electronic redistributions, and complex polarization domain structures. Here we focus on superlattices composed of two perovskite oxide materials, where one is a ferroelectric, and discuss the important interactions between the component materials that determine the behavior of the new artifi cial material. We discuss interfaces both with and without electronic screening. The fi rst class of interface contains technologically relevant ultrathin ferroelectric capacitors and the more recently studied ferroelectric-metal superlattices. In these systems, the infl uence of the ferroelectric polarization decreases rapidly with distance from the interface. By contrast, in systems where the materials adjacent to the ferroelectric layers are dielectrics, the polarization of the ferroelectric layer infl uences the properties of the adjacent layers over a much longer distance, setting the stage for fascinating competition between the properties of the combined materials. [less ▲]

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See detailThe usefulness of outcrop-analogue air-permeameter measurements for analysing aquifer heterogeneity: testing outcrop hydrogeological parameters with independent borehole data
Rogiers, Bart; Beerten, Koen; Smeekens, Tom et al

in Hydrology & Earth System Sciences (2013), 17

Outcropping sediments can be used as easily accessible analogues for studying subsurface sediments, especially to determine the small-scale spatial variability of hydrogeological parameters. The use of ... [more ▼]

Outcropping sediments can be used as easily accessible analogues for studying subsurface sediments, especially to determine the small-scale spatial variability of hydrogeological parameters. The use of cost-effective in situvmeasurement techniques potentially makes the study of outcrop sediments even more attractive. We investigate to what degree air-permeameter measurements on outcrops of unconsolidated sediments can be a proxy for aquifer saturated hydraulic conductivity (K) heterogeneity. The Neogene aquifer in northern Belgium, known as a major groundwater resource, is used as the case study. K and grain-size data obtained from different outcropping sediments are compared with K and grain-size data from aquifer sediments obtained either via laboratory analyses on undisturbed borehole cores (K and grain size) or via large-scale pumping tests (K only). This comparison shows a pronounced and systematic difference between outcrop and aquifer sediments. Part of this difference is attributed to grain-size variations and earth surface processes specific to outcrop environments, including root growth, bioturbation, and weathering. Moreover, palaeoenvironmental conditions such as freezing–drying cycles and differential compaction histories will further alter the initial hydrogeological properties of the outcrop sediments. A linear correction is developed for rescaling the outcrop data to the subsurface data. The spatial structure pertaining to outcrops complements that obtained from the borehole cores in several cases. The higher spatial resolution of the outcrop measurements identifies small-scale spatial structures that remain undetected in the lower resolution borehole data. Insights in stratigraphic and K heterogeneity obtained from outcrop sediments improve developing conceptual models of groundwater flow and transport. [less ▲]

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See detailLa cascade des MAP kinases : traitements ciblés en cancérologie cutanée.
PIERARD, Gérald ULg; Franchimont, Claudine ULg; LEONARD, Boris ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2013), 68(12), 650-654

Résumé : Les «Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases» (MAPK) forment un ensemble coordonné de protéines cellulaires impliquées dans la prolifération, la différenciation, la migration et l’apoptose des cellules ... [more ▼]

Résumé : Les «Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases» (MAPK) forment un ensemble coordonné de protéines cellulaires impliquées dans la prolifération, la différenciation, la migration et l’apoptose des cellules. Elles sont particulièrement activées, par certaines cytokines, hormones, le stress environnemental, ainsi que dans des cancers cutanés. Des agents pharmacologiques ciblés contre la cascade MAPK révolutionnent actuellement la cancérologie cutanée, du moins dans une phase transitoire du processus métastatique. Des traitements combinés sont susceptibles d’améliorer la survie médiane. [less ▲]

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See detailForêts communautaires camerounaises et Plan d’action « Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade » (FLEGT) : quel prix pour la légalité ?
Julve, Cécilia; Eckebil, Tabi Pamela; Nzoyem Saha, Nadège et al

in Bois et Forêts des Tropiques (2013), 317(3), 71-80

Illegal logging is a threat to the world’s tropical forests. To act against overexploitation of timber, the European Union has set up the Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade action plan (FLEGT ... [more ▼]

Illegal logging is a threat to the world’s tropical forests. To act against overexploitation of timber, the European Union has set up the Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade action plan (FLEGT), which opened the Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) negotiating agenda with Cameroon. In 2010, the two parties signed the VPA, committing Cameroon to ensure the legality of timber from all logging concessions sold on external and domestic markets. Community forests (CF) were included in the agreement and must therefore ensure the legality of their timber production. To do that, a specific legality grid has been developed. This was tested in half of active community forests in Cameroon to analyse any gaps between activities as practiced in the field and the legality criteria set out in the legality grid. The result show that no CF fully complied with this grid. The study identified obstacles due to complex procedures and to the excessive costs of compliance. Some criteria not currently met could be complied with through community capacity-building and by amending certain regulations. Under these conditions, community forests could become a source of legal supplies at least for the domestic timber market. [less ▲]

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See detailAbundance estimates of southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) in Bahía San Antonio, Patagonia, Argentina
Vermeulen, Els ULg

in Journal of Cetacean Research and Management (2013), 13

The abundance of southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) was estimated by the means of aerial line-transect surveys for the area of Bahía San Antonio, a bay located in the north-western region of the ... [more ▼]

The abundance of southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) was estimated by the means of aerial line-transect surveys for the area of Bahía San Antonio, a bay located in the north-western region of the San Matías Gulf (40°50’S 64°50’W), Rio Negro, Patagonia Argentina. In total, seven aerial surveys were conducted in the first week of August and September 2009, September, October and November 2010, and August, September 2011. Survey effort equalled a total flight time of 12.4h, during which 200 whales were counted in 119 whale groups. Half of the encounters were solitary animals and 17% were mating groups. Corrected abundance estimates showed the highest amount of whales present in the bay during the month of September, with 85±71, 207±108 and 117±55 animals in 2009, 2010 and 2011 respectively. In adjacent months, less than half the amount of whales seemed to be present. The correction factor g(0)availability resulted 0.392±0.456. Perception bias was not accounted for. These aerial surveys resulted in the first estimates of southern right whale abundance in this north Patagonian bay and indicated a rather abrupt peak during the month of September. This being the peak month for right whale presence is consistent with data from other regions in the Southwest Atlantic, but data obtained in the other months remained scarce and thus results should be interpreted carefully. The complete absence of whales in the area during November 2010 and August 2011 raises further questions on the predictability of the whale’s presence in the area. Overall, more consistent aerial surveys should be conducted to accurately determine the annual and interannual evolution of southern right whale abundance in the study area. [less ▲]

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See detailCrisis management: Lessons learnt from BP Deepwater Horizon Spill Oil
de Wolf, Daniel ULg

in Business Management and Strategy (2013), 4(1), 69-90

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See detailRetour d'expérience sur le robot de traite mobile
Lessire, Françoise ULg; Knapp, Emilie ULg; Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg

in Point Vétérinaire (2013), 341

Using a mobile robot to milk grazing cows influences their milk yield. Several factors influencing mik production are described in this paper as is their relative impact on the production.

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See detailAssociations between properties linked with persistence in a collection of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis
Bardiau, Marjorie ULg; Detilleux, Johann; Farnir, Frédéric et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (2013)

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See detailResponding Bodies and Partial Affinities in Human–Animal Worlds
Despret, Vinciane ULg

in Theory, Culture & Society (2013), 30(7/8), 66-91

The aim of this paper is to explore the different manners in which scientists’ bodies are actively engaged when interacting with the animals they observe in the field. Bodies are multiple, as are the ... [more ▼]

The aim of this paper is to explore the different manners in which scientists’ bodies are actively engaged when interacting with the animals they observe in the field. Bodies are multiple, as are the practices that involve them: sharing the same diet, feeling similar affects, acting the same, inhabiting the same world of perceptions, constructing empathic affinities, etc.
Some scientists aim to embody the animals’ experiences. Some are willing to empathetically experience situations “from inside”, while others “undo and redo” their own bodies in order to interact more closely with the animals and to respond to them more cautiously. Still others are faced with the question: what can we do or what are we allowed to do with our bodies when we are with our animals?
All of these practices present a very different version of “embodied empathy”, a concept which describes feeling/seeing/thinking bodies that undo and redo each other, reciprocally though not symmetrically, as partial perspectives that attune themselves to each other. Therefore, empathy is not experiencing with one’s own body what the other experiences, but rather creating the possibilities of an embodied communication. [less ▲]

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See detailThe X-ray under-luminosity of the O-type supergiants HD16691 and HD14947 revealed by XMM-Newton
De Becker, Michaël ULg

in New Astronomy (2013), 25

The members of the scarce category of Of^+ supergiants present properties that are intermediate between regular O-stars and Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars. Significant similarities between these transitional stars ... [more ▼]

The members of the scarce category of Of^+ supergiants present properties that are intermediate between regular O-stars and Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars. Significant similarities between these transitional stars and WN-type objects are now clearly established, at least in the visible and near-infrared domains, pointing to common stellar wind properties. In this study, we report on the first dedicated X-ray observations of HD16691 (O4If^+) and HD14947 (O5f^+), revealing a soft thermal spectrum in agreement with the expected X-ray emission from a single O-type star. However, the X-ray luminosity of our targets is slightly lower than expected for single O-type stars, suggesting that the particular properties of their stellar wind has also a significant impact on the X-ray emission of these objects on the way to the WN category. We argue that the X-ray under-luminosity of HD16691 and HD14947 may be interpreted as the signature in X-rays of the intermediate stage between O and WR stars, as a consequence of enhanced wind density. [less ▲]

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See detailModelling phytoplankton succession and nutrient transfer along the Scheldt estuary (Belgium, The Netherlands)
Gypens, N.; Delhez, Eric ULg; Vanhoutte-Brunier, A. et al

in Journal of Marine Systems (2013), 128

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See detailA genome scan conducted in a multigenerational pedigree with convergent strabismus supports a complex genetic determinism.
GEORGES, Anouk ULg; Cambisano, Nadine ULg; Ahariz, Naïma ULg et al

in PloS one (2013), 8(12), 83574

A genome-wide linkage scan was conducted in a Northern-European multigenerational pedigree with nine of 40 related members affected with concomitant strabismus. Twenty-seven members of the pedigree ... [more ▼]

A genome-wide linkage scan was conducted in a Northern-European multigenerational pedigree with nine of 40 related members affected with concomitant strabismus. Twenty-seven members of the pedigree including all affected individuals were genotyped using a SNP array interrogating > 300,000 common SNPs. We conducted parametric and non-parametric linkage analyses assuming segregation of an autosomal dominant mutation, yet allowing for incomplete penetrance and phenocopies. We detected two chromosome regions with near-suggestive evidence for linkage, respectively on chromosomes 8 and 18. The chromosome 8 linkage implied a penetrance of 0.80 and a rate of phenocopy of 0.11, while the chromosome 18 linkage implied a penetrance of 0.64 and a rate of phenocopy of 0. Our analysis excludes a simple genetic determinism of strabismus in this pedigree. [less ▲]

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See detail« Dozon, Jean-Pierre. Une anthropologie en mouvement. L’Afrique miroir du contemporain. Versailles. Éditions Quae, 2008, 272 p.»
Melice, Anne ULg

in Cahiers d'Etudes Africaines (2013), 212(LIII (4)), 951-954

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See detailDo Board Characteristics Affect Information Asymmetry?
Sougné, Danielle ULg; Laouti, Mhamed; Ajina, Aymen ULg

in International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences (2013), 3(12), 660-675

In this paper, we investigate the empirical relationship between corporate governance and information asymmetry across a range of French firms. Based on a cross-sectional analysis, our study of the ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we investigate the empirical relationship between corporate governance and information asymmetry across a range of French firms. Based on a cross-sectional analysis, our study of the empirical relationship between corporate governance and information asymmetry involved 160 companies over the years 2008-2010. Mechanisms of corporate governance include the characteristics of the board of directors. Our results seem to indicate a significant relationship between certain mechanisms of corporate governance and the information asymmetry of the French market. These mechanisms can reduce adverse selection costs, and make exchanges more transparent. These results suggest that firms with efficient corporate governance mechanisms may reduce informative asymmetry and improve transparency between investors. [less ▲]

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See detailFROM SECRET AGENTS TO INTERAGENCY
Despret, Vinciane ULg

in History and theory (2013), 52

Some scientists who study animals have emphasized the need to focus on the “point of view” of the animals they are studying. This methodological shift has led to animals being credited with much more ... [more ▼]

Some scientists who study animals have emphasized the need to focus on the “point of view” of the animals they are studying. This methodological shift has led to animals being credited with much more agency than is warranted. However, as critics suggest, on the one hand, the “perspective” of another being rests mostly upon “sympathetic projection,” and may be difficult to apply to unfamiliar beings, such as bees or even flowers. On the other hand, the very notion of agency still conveys its classic understanding as intentional, rational, and premeditated, and is still embedded in humanist and Christian conceptions of human exceptionalism. This paper seeks, in the first part, to investigate the practical link between these two notions and the problems they raise. In the second part, following the work of two historians of science who have revisited Darwin’s studies of orchids and their pollinators, it will observe a shift in the meaning of the concept of agency. Indeed, creatures may appear as “secret agents” as long as we adopt a conventional definition of agency based on subjective experience and autonomous intention. However, when reframed in the terms of “agencement”—an assemblage that produces “agentivity”— agency seems to be much more extensively shared in the living world. We will then explore some of the concrete situations in which these agencements are manifested, and through which creatures of different species become, one for another and one with another, companion-agents. [less ▲]

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See detailDiabète et nutrition artificielle : principes de prise en charge
Quilliot, Didier; Malgras, Aurélie; PAQUOT, Nicolas ULg et al

in Nutrition Clinique et Metabolisme (2013), 27(4), 230-235

At home as in the hospital, the diabetic patients are at high risk of malnutrition. In patients with hyperglycemia in artificial nutrition, the primary objective is to to cover their protein needs and ... [more ▼]

At home as in the hospital, the diabetic patients are at high risk of malnutrition. In patients with hyperglycemia in artificial nutrition, the primary objective is to to cover their protein needs and their caloric needs and to optimize accordingly the antidiabetic treatment. Insulin therapy is the treatment of choice. The use of low glycaemic index is probably better, especially for oral supplementation. An equivalent parenteral carbohydrate intake has a hyperglycaemic effect more important than with the oral or enteral way. The management of hyperglycemia in artificial nutrition requires defining glycemic goals, tailored to the patient, to the type and the sequences of artificial nutrition, establishing patterns of insulin therapy and providing accurate adaptation rules. Above the basal requirement, insulin therapy sufficient to meet caloric exposure must be prescribed appropriate in timing with the artificial nutrition. The use of sliding scale as monotherapy is ineffective. This management requires forming the nurse team. The acute phase has passed, the disease stabilized, it is sometimes possible to introduce oral antidiabetic drugs and stop insulin. In this case, we apply the same prescription rules to these drugs as for the patient fed orally. [less ▲]

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See detailTraite robotisée et pâturage sont-ils compatibles?
Lessire, Françoise ULg; Knapp, Emilie ULg; Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg

in Point Vétérinaire (2013), 341

Combining automatic milking system and grazing is often considered as impossible. This paper defined the difficulties related to grazing cows milked by a robot and how to manage them.

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See detailEffect of non-sperm cells removal with single layer colloidal centrifugation on myeloperoxidase concentration in post-thaw equine semen
Ponthier, Jérôme ULg; Teague, Sheila; Franck, Thierry ULg et al

in Theriogenology (2013), 80(9), 1082-1087

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a pro-oxidant enzyme contained in, and released by, neutrophils during degranulation or after lysis. Post-thaw semen contains MPO and its concentration is associated with ... [more ▼]

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a pro-oxidant enzyme contained in, and released by, neutrophils during degranulation or after lysis. Post-thaw semen contains MPO and its concentration is associated with decreased sperm motility. Recently, MPO concentration in post-thaw semen was shown to be associated with presence of non-sperm cells. The aim of this study was to describe the effect of centrifugal fractionation of semen prior to cryopreservation on post-thaw concentrations of non-sperm cells and MPO. The experimental design consisted in freezing semen with or without previous centrifugation through two concentrations of single layer colloid media. Non-sperm cells and MPO concentrations were assessed in pellet and upper layer at each step of the procedure and MPO was detected in cells by immunocytochemistry. Single layer colloid centrifugation decreased non-sperm cells and MPO concentrations in post-thaw semen. The MPO concentration was correlated with concentration of non-sperm cells in the upper layer of the supernatant. In post-thaw semen, with or without previous single layer colloid centrifugation, MPO concentration was correlated with concentration of non-sperm cells. Overall, neutrophils were rarely observed and non-sperm cells were mainly epithelial cells or cellular debris, as demonstrated by MPO immunocytochemistry. Following single layer colloid centrifugation, MPO concentration was decreased, and correlations observed in different samples of the experiments revealed an association between concentrations of MPO and non-sperm cells. At all steps of the semen processing and cryopreservation, MPO immunostaining was clearly identified only on non-sperm cells. Our results demonstrate that non-sperm cells present in fresh semen release MPO during freezing. [less ▲]

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See detailA combined incremental-secant mean-field homogenization scheme with per-phase residual strains for elasto-plastic composites
Wu, Ling ULg; Noels, Ludovic ULg; Adam, Laurent et al

in International Journal of Plasticity (2013), 51

This paper presents an incremental secant mean-fi eld homogenization (MFH) procedure for composites made of elasto-plastic constituents. In this formulation, the residual stress and strain states reached ... [more ▼]

This paper presents an incremental secant mean-fi eld homogenization (MFH) procedure for composites made of elasto-plastic constituents. In this formulation, the residual stress and strain states reached in the elasto-plastic phases upon a fi ctitious elastic unloading are considered as starting point to apply the secant method. The mean stress fields in the phases are then computed using secant tensors, which are naturally isotropic and enable to de fine the Linear-Comparison-Composite. The method, which remains simple in its formulation, is valid for general non-monotonic and non-proportional loading. It is applied on various problems involving elastic, elasto-plastic and perfectly-plastic phases, to demonstrate its accuracy compared to other existing MFH methods. [less ▲]

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See detailStiefbroeders. Zuid-Nederlandse letteren en natievorming onder Willem I, 1814-1834
Steyaert, Kris ULg

in Tijdschrift voor Nederlandse Taal- en Letterkunde (2013), 129(4),

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See detailMise en route d'un robot mobile: réponses aux contraintes techniques
Lessire, Françoise ULg; Knapp, Emilie ULg; Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg

in Point Vétérinaire (2013), 341

This paper explains the technical problems related to the use of a mobile automatic miking system and the solutions found at the University of Liege.

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See detailExpanding the CHARA/FLUOR hot disk survey
Mennesson, B.; Scott, N.; Ten Brummelaar, T. et al

in Journal of Astronomical Instrumentation (2013), 2(2), 1340010

Little is presently known about the hot (>300 K) dust component of debris disks surrounding main sequence stars, similar to the zodiacal dust cloud found in the inner solar system.While extensive surveys ... [more ▼]

Little is presently known about the hot (>300 K) dust component of debris disks surrounding main sequence stars, similar to the zodiacal dust cloud found in the inner solar system.While extensive surveys have been carried out from space, the majority of detections have surprisingly come from the ground, where near infrared interferometric observations have recently revealed small (∼1%) resolved excesses around a dozen nearby main sequence stars. Most of these results have come from the CHARA array “FLUOR” instrument (Mt. Wilson, CA), which has demonstrated the best sensitivity worldwide so far for this type of studies, and has carried out an initial survey of ∼40 stars. In order to further understand the origin of this “hot dust phenomenon”, we will extend this initial survey to a larger number of stars and lower excess detection limits, i.e. higher visibility accuracy providing higher contrast measurements. To this end, two major instrumental developments are underway at CHARA. The first one aims at improving FLUOR’s sensitivity to a median K-band magnitude limit of 5 (making 200 targets available). The second development is based on a method that we recently developed for accurate (better than 0.1%) null depth measurements of stars, and that can be extended to regular interferometric visibility measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailUne pièce en wallon au Théâtre de Liège...
Baiwir, Esther ULg

in Culture, le Magazine Culturel de l'Université de Liège (2013)

En décembre, le nouveau Théâtre de Liège propose à son public de découvrir une œuvre en wallon, Lès vwès dèl nut' , de Jean Rathmès. Si cet auteur mérite certainement l'hommage qui lui est ainsi rendu, c ... [more ▼]

En décembre, le nouveau Théâtre de Liège propose à son public de découvrir une œuvre en wallon, Lès vwès dèl nut' , de Jean Rathmès. Si cet auteur mérite certainement l'hommage qui lui est ainsi rendu, c'est aussi l'occasion de s'interroger sur le sens de mettre en scène du théâtre dialectal aujourd'hui. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrobial, biochemical and sensorial quality assessment of Algerian farmed tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) stored at 4 and 30°C
Dergal, Nadir; Abi-Ayad, S.M.E.-A.; Degand, Guy ULg et al

in African Journal of Food Science (2013), 7(12), 498-507

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See detailThe Francophone Parties in Unfamiliar Territory
Renard, Hugues ULg; Verjans, Pierre ULg

in Samenleving en Politiek : Tijdschrift voor een Democratisch Socialisme (2013)

The francophone parties are preparing themselves for the federal, regional and European elections of 25 May 2014. Three simultaneous elections, like those of 1999 and referred to by the Flemish as ‘the ... [more ▼]

The francophone parties are preparing themselves for the federal, regional and European elections of 25 May 2014. Three simultaneous elections, like those of 1999 and referred to by the Flemish as ‘the mother of all elections’. The Walloon context differs fundamentally from the Flemish, which has changed radically during the past ten years. In Wallonia the political landscape has been surprisingly stable, more so even than in Brussels. In both these French-speaking regions the four major parties (Socialist PS, Liberal MR, Christian-democratic cdH and Green Ecolo) continue to dominate the political scene. Unless something very unexpected occurs, such as the Dioxine Affair of 1999, the ‘second round’ of the elections, the negotiations and the formation of the governing coalitions, will remain in the hands of these parties. [less ▲]

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See detailLa magie et la sorcellerie des visages comme socle anthropologique de la philosophie sartrienne
Englebert, Jérôme ULg

in Etudes Sartriennes (2013), 17

L’« émotion » est la possibilité d’une « anthropologie de la relation ». Énoncer une telle proposition nécessite de définir les deux blocs qu’elle relie. Nous réaliserons cette entreprise en recourant à ... [more ▼]

L’« émotion » est la possibilité d’une « anthropologie de la relation ». Énoncer une telle proposition nécessite de définir les deux blocs qu’elle relie. Nous réaliserons cette entreprise en recourant à un troisième axe, intermédiaire : celui du visage ou, plutôt, des visages. La thèse de ce court essai tient à considérer que la phénoménologie sartrienne a déjà réalisé ce travail de fond qui requiert, pour le rendre explicite, articulation simple et ordonnancement. [less ▲]

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See detailConnection between cardiac vascular permeability, myocardial oedema and inflammation during sepsis: role of the alpha1AMPK isoform
Castanares-Zapatero, Diego; Bouleti, C; Sommereyns, C et al

in Critical Care Medicine (2013), 41(12), 411-22

Objective: Since AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) both controls cytoskeletonorganization in endothelial cells (ECs) and exerts anti-inflammatory effects, we here postulated that it could influence ... [more ▼]

Objective: Since AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) both controls cytoskeletonorganization in endothelial cells (ECs) and exerts anti-inflammatory effects, we here postulated that it could influence vascular permeability and inflammation, thereby counteracting cardiac wall oedema during sepsis. Design: Controlled animal study Settings: University research laboratory Subjects: C57BL/6J, α1AMPK-/- and α1AMPK+/+ mice Intervention: Sepsis was triggered in vivo using a sub-lethal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, O55B5, 10 mg.kg-1), inducing systolic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. LV function, oedema, vascular permeability and inflammation were assessed in vivo in both wild type (WT) mice (α1AMPK+/+) and α1AMPK-deficient mice (α1AMPK-/-). 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAr) served to study the impact of AMPK activation on vascular permeability in vivo. The integrity of EC monolayers was also examined in vitro after LPS challenge in the presence of AICAr and/or after α1AMPK silencing. Measurements and main results: α1AMPK-deficiency dramatically impaired tolerance to LPS challenge. Indeed, α1AMPK-/- exhibited heightened cardiac vascular permeability after LPS challenge compared to α1AMPK+/+. Consequently, an increase in LV mass corresponding to exaggerated wall oedema occurred in α1AMPK-/-, without any further decrease in systolic function. Mechanistically, the LPS-induced α1AMPK-/- cardiac phenotype could not be attributed to major changes in the systemic inflammatory response, but was due to an increased disruption of interendothelial tight junctions. Accordingly, AMPK activation by AICAr counteracted LPS-induced hyperpermeability in WT mice in vivo as well as in ECs in vitro. This effect was associated with a potent protection of ZO-1 linear border pattern in ECs. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate, for the first time the involvement of a signalling pathway in the control of LV wall oedema during sepsis. AMPK exerts a protective action through the preservation of interendothelial tight junctions. Interestingly, exaggerated LV wall oedema was not coupled with aggravated systolic dysfunction. However, it could contribute to diastolic dysfunction in septic patients. [less ▲]

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See detailA Review of the Empirical Research in Management Control, Strategy and Sustainability
Crutzen, Nathalie ULg; Herzig, Christian

in Studies in Managerial and Financial Accounting (2013), 26

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See detailConstructing practice on evolutionary knowledge in ECEC
Pirard, Florence ULg

in Nordisk Barnehageforskning 2013 (Nordic Early Childhood Education Research) (2013), 6(28), 1-7

This article provides a discussion on the importance of knowledge in early childhood education and also the role of knowledge dissemination process in the field. From the question of giving more freedom ... [more ▼]

This article provides a discussion on the importance of knowledge in early childhood education and also the role of knowledge dissemination process in the field. From the question of giving more freedom of movement, knowledge about this topic used in a Belgian curriculum, the article illustrates the importance of considering practice not as an application of theory, but as a co-construct and complex process that combines it with other resources in context. It illustrates the importance of going further than the production of knowledge to create appropriate practice in service. [less ▲]

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See detailBreeding sites and species association of the main Bluetongue and Schmallenberg virus vectors, the Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), in northern Europe
Zimmer, Jean-Yves ULg; Losson, Bertrand ULg; Saegerman, Claude ULg et al

in Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (2013), 49(3), 335-344

Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges are biological vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV) and, as recently discovered, Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in northern Europe. Since ... [more ▼]

Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges are biological vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV) and, as recently discovered, Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in northern Europe. Since their recent emergence in this part of the continent, these diseases that affect domestic and wild ruminants have caused considerable economic losses to the sheep and cattle industries. The substrates that are suitable for larval development of the main vector species are still relatively unknown. This study assessed all the substrates present in the immediate surroundings of a Belgian cattle farm and aimed to highlight the main breeding sites of these midge species. A total of 1639 immature Culicoides and 1320 adult specimens belonging to 13 species were found in 15 out of the 43 substrates studied: maize silage residues for C. obsoletus/C. scoticus, old overwintered cattle dung in the meadow for C. chiopterus and C. dewulfi, ground of a flooded meadow, green filamentous algae and underlying substrate, silt from a pond, and ground of hollows caused by the crossing of machines on a dirt track for C. festivipennis, silt from a pond for C. nubeculosus, and ground of a flooded meadow for C. lupicaris. Identification of these micro-habitats and the associations among the species they contain could allow their localization and the development of new strategies of vector control, while preventing the creation of new Culicoides larval micro-habitats. Finally, measures designed to reduce larval populations could improve efficacy of vaccination campaigns against BTV in Europe. [less ▲]

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See detailAnnual variation in neustonic micro- and meso-plastic particles and zooplankton in the Bay of Calvi (Mediterranean–Corsica)
Collignon, Amandine ULg; Hecq, Jean-Henri ULg; Galgani, François et al

in Marine Pollution Bulletin (2013)

The annual variation in neustonic plastic particles and zooplankton was studied in the Bay of Calvi 23 (Corsica) between 30 August 2011 and 7 August 2012. Plastic particles were classified into three size ... [more ▼]

The annual variation in neustonic plastic particles and zooplankton was studied in the Bay of Calvi 23 (Corsica) between 30 August 2011 and 7 August 2012. Plastic particles were classified into three size classes, small microplastics (0.2–2 mm), large microplastics (2–5 mm) and mesoplastics (5–10 mm). 74% of the 38 samples contained plastic particles of varying composition: e.g. filaments, polystyrene, thin plastic films. An average concentration of 6.2 particles/100 m2 was observed. The highest abundance values (69 particles/100 m2) observed occurred during periods of low offshore wind conditions. These values rose in the same order of magnitude as in previous studies in the North Western Mediterranean. The relationships between the abundance values of the size classes between zooplankton and plastic particles were then examined. The ratio for the intermediate size class (2–5 mm) reached 2.73. This would suggest a potential confusion for predators regarding planktonic prey of this size class. [less ▲]

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See detailPeptidomic comparison and characterization of the major components of the venom of the giant ant Dinoponera quadriceps collected in four different areas of Brazil.
Cologna, Camila Takeno; Cardoso, Jaqueline Dos Santos; Jourdan, Emmanuel et al

in Journal of Proteomics (2013), 94

Despite the noxious effects inflicted by Dinoponera ant's envenomation, the information about the biological properties and composition of their venom is still very limited. Ants from the genus Dinoponera ... [more ▼]

Despite the noxious effects inflicted by Dinoponera ant's envenomation, the information about the biological properties and composition of their venom is still very limited. Ants from the genus Dinoponera are believed to be the world's largest living ants with a body length of 3cm. Their occurrence is restricted to tropical areas of South America. In this work, we study the venom of the giant Dinoponera quadriceps ant collected in 4 different regions of Brazil. By using a combination of complementary mass spectrometric approaches, we aim at: (i) characterizing the venom composition of these ants; (ii) establishing a comparative analysis of the venom from four geographically different regions in Brazil. This approach demonstrates that ant venom is a copious source of new compounds. Several peptides were identified and selected for "de novo sequencing". Since most of the new peptides showed similarities with antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), antimicrobial assays were performed with the purpose of evaluating their activity. In regard to the comparative study of the four regions, we observed not only major differences in the venom compositions, but also that the venoms collected in closest areas are more similar than the ones collected in distant regions. These observations seem to highlight an adaption of the ant venoms to the local environment. Concerning the biological assays, the peptides called Dq-3162 and Da-3177 showed a wide-ranging antimicrobial activity. The characterization of new AMPs with a broad spectrum of activity and different scaffolds may aid scientists to design new therapeutic agents and understand the mechanisms of those peptides to interact with microbial membranes. The results obtained betoken the biotechnological potential of ant's venom. BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: For the first time this manuscript describes an extensive proteomics characterization of the D. quadriceps venom. In addition this study reports the variation in venom composition of primitive ants from 4 geographically different areas of Brazil. The results reveal the presence of ~335 compounds for each venom/area and inter-colony variations were observed. 16 new peptides were characterized and 2 of them were synthesized and biologically assayed. These findings highlight the considerable and still unexplored diversity of ant's venom which could be used as valuable research tools in different areas of knowledge. [less ▲]

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See detail« Dozon, Jean-Pierre. Une anthropologie en mouvement. L’Afrique miroir du contemporain. Versailles. Éditions Quae, 2008, 272 p.»
Melice, Anne ULg

in Cahiers d'Etudes Africaines (2013), 212(LIII (4)), 951-954

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See detailMacrophytes: Limitations of Using Them to Assess Reservoir Status According to the Water Framework Directive
Sossey Alaoui, Khadija ULg; Galoux, Daniel; Rosillon, Francis ULg

in International Journal of Water Sciences (2013)

Macrophytes are among the major groups of organisms that the Water Framework Directive (WFD) recommends should be used in assessing the status of natural lakes. The use of macrophytes in reservoir ... [more ▼]

Macrophytes are among the major groups of organisms that the Water Framework Directive (WFD) recommends should be used in assessing the status of natural lakes. The use of macrophytes in reservoir monitoring is still limited and further studies are needed on their inter-calibration and sources of variation. Many status assessment methods based on macrophyte <br />communities have been defined for lakes. Nevertheless, few of them have been tested for reservoirs. The purpose of the study is to highlight the limitations of using macrophytes to assess reservoir status according to the Water Framework Directive. <br />An assessment of macrophyte composition and abundance and of water quality was carried out in nine Walloon reservoirs between 2010 and 2012. The main limitations of the macrophyte approach for assessing these reservoirs were: i) geographical features; ii) physical variables; iii) lack of ecological information on the various macrophytic groups, such as helophytes, algae and mosses. We used two assessment methods to test the relevance of using macrophyte communities to assess reservoir status: the Flanders (Belgium) method (BE-FL method) and the United Kingdom method (UK method). The relationships between macrophyte metrics for both methods and nutrient enrichment were examined. Highly significant correlations were found between the chemical variables O-P [mg P/l]), Total P (µg P/l), Conductivity (µS/cm) and the trophic UK-metric (Lake Macrophyte Nutrient) (LMNI), as well as between such variables and the abundance of Bl-FL "disturbance indicators" metric(V). The UK "group of macrophyte species" metric provided limited information on the quality or degrees of degradation in the environment from which the sample was taken. [less ▲]

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See detailPeut-on avoir plusieurs pensées en même temps ? Étude d’une controverse scolaire et de son traitement par Descartes dans L’Entretien avec Burman
Dubouclez, Olivier ULg

in UBB Studia. Philosophia (2013), 58(3), 85-108

According to Burman, Descartes’ proof of the existence of God in the Third Meditation depends on the reader’s ability to attend to several axioms at the same time. However it is a claim endorsed by a wide ... [more ▼]

According to Burman, Descartes’ proof of the existence of God in the Third Meditation depends on the reader’s ability to attend to several axioms at the same time. However it is a claim endorsed by a wide range of Aristotelian schoolmen and by Burman after them that such a simultaneous conception is far beyond the capacity of our mind. Descartes takes an original stand in that controversy : human thought is a temporal process in which ideas not only succeed but also interfere with one another ; meditation can help stretching our attention so as to embrace more than one argument in a same moment. Indeed, metaphysics is not only a matter of order for Descartes, but also of synoptical power. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferentiation of Boettcher's cells during postnatal development of rat cochlea.
Cloes, Marie ULg; Renson, Thomas; Johnen, Nicolas et al

in Cell and tissue research (2013), 354(3), 707716

Contrary to the highly specialized epithelial cells of the mammalian auditory organ, little is known about the surrounding cells and, in particular, Boettcher's cells (BC). Our morphological studies show ... [more ▼]

Contrary to the highly specialized epithelial cells of the mammalian auditory organ, little is known about the surrounding cells and, in particular, Boettcher's cells (BC). Our morphological studies show that, in rats, these cells began their differentiation around postnatal day 8 (P8) reaching maturity around P20, when they are completely covered by Hensen's and Claudius' cells. Tight junctions were noted near the apex of BC, providing that they were in direct contact with the endolymphatic space, between approximately P8 and P16. We observed gap junctions between BC and adjacent cells before the end of the covering process suggesting the additional involvement of BC in potassium recycling into the endolymph. Adherens junctions were also seen between BC throughout their maturation. Importantly, we noticed cytoplasmic secretory granules and an accumulated material, probably a secretion, in the intercellular space, between P8 and P25. These results indicate that BC could basally take part in the secretion of the extracellular matrix of the basilar membrane. Finally, we show that the basolateral interdigitations of BC are longer and more tighlty grouped at maturity and harbour urea transporters as early as P18. Our observations thus support the view that BC perform several functions. [less ▲]

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See detail125 ans de logement social
Frankignoulle, Pierre ULg

in Architrave (2013), 178

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See detailHow could the Io footprint disappear?
Hess, Sébastien; Bonfond, Bertrand ULg; Delamere, Peter

in Planetary and Space Science (2013), 89

The interaction of Io with the Jovian magnetosphere is the best known – and the most intense – case of satellite-magnetosphere interaction. The interaction involves a power of more than a TeraWatt, a few ... [more ▼]

The interaction of Io with the Jovian magnetosphere is the best known – and the most intense – case of satellite-magnetosphere interaction. The interaction involves a power of more than a TeraWatt, a few percent of which are transferred to electrons. These electrons precipitate in the Jovian ionosphere where they light-up bright auroral emissions (several 100's kR to a few 1000's kR). The brightness of the Io-controlled UV auroras is known to vary, due to the Jovian magnetic field tilt, which induces longitudinal variations, and due to the Io torus ever changing parameters (possibly due to Io's volcanic activity), which induce a temporal variation. As Io-controlled UV auroras have been monitored for a long time, the variation of their brightness is well-documented, and the typical amplitude of these variations has been established. However, on June, 7th 2012 an unusual event occurred in the plasma torus surrounding Io, which triggered its own UV emissions on Jupiter in a region mapping to Io's orbit. When Io reached that region, Io's auroral footprint disappeared, its brightness dimming by at least a factor of three to be below the background aurora brightness. Both the auroral event at such a low latitude and the Io footprint disappearance are events that have never been observed before and should be quite rare. However, the question of how the bright Io footprint becomes that weak remains. From a theoretical point-of-view, the Io-Jupiter interaction has been widely studied. In the 80's, it was shown that Alfvén waves are radiated from Io, carrying currents to Jupiter. In the late-2000's, studies showed that dispersive Alfvén waves were likely to cause the acceleration of the electrons powering the auroral emissions, although Io-scale Alfvén waves should be non-dispersive. More recently, a model was built which permits one to compute the ratio between dispersive and non-dispersive waves in the auroral region for satellite-magnetosphere interactions, and thus the brightness of the related aurorae. We use this model to investigate which variation of the interaction parameters could lead to the Io footprint disappearance. [less ▲]

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See detailTransmitive spectral SPR droplet biosensing: principle, sensor design and experimental demonstration
Hastanin, Juriy ULg; Lenaerts, Cedric ULg; Fleury-Frenette, Karl ULg et al

in Plasmonics (2013)

Surface Plasmons Resonance (SPR) architectures based on grating coupler/disperser combination is an attractive alternative for spectral-based biochemical sensing. In this paper, we investigate ... [more ▼]

Surface Plasmons Resonance (SPR) architectures based on grating coupler/disperser combination is an attractive alternative for spectral-based biochemical sensing. In this paper, we investigate theoretically and experimentally a new concept where the plasmon coupling occurs through a thin film grating and sensing occurs via the first evanescent diffraction order in transmitive mode. The surface plasmon wave excitation induces a peak in the wavelength as well as in the angular spectra of the detected first transmitted diffraction order. Accordingly, a change in SPR spectrum of the detected diffraction order can be used to quantify the amount of the target molecules immobilized on the sensor surface and therefore, the concentration of these molecules in the analyte solution. The developed sensor architecture is dedicated to droplet biochemical sensing and appears to be especially suitable for biosensor integration and miniaturization. The presented sensor concept is perfectly suited for mass production of low-cost and reproducible SPR sensor chip for biochemical analysis. The implemented setup gives access to multichannel biosensing with the potential for efficient internal referencing, essential to achieve sufficiently high reproducibility and accuracy of the measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailImpôt immobilier et panneaux photovoltaïques : Réflexions sur la détermination du revenu cadastral d'une habitation
Xhignesse, Guillaume ULg

in Revue de Fiscalité Régionale et Locale (2013), 4

Nous discutons, dans cette contribution, de l’évaluation du revenu cadastral des parcelles bâties. Nous profitons de la parution en 2013, dans la presse francophone belge, de plusieurs articles relatifs à ... [more ▼]

Nous discutons, dans cette contribution, de l’évaluation du revenu cadastral des parcelles bâties. Nous profitons de la parution en 2013, dans la presse francophone belge, de plusieurs articles relatifs à une éventuelle réévaluation du revenu cadastral des habitations équipées de panneaux photovoltaïques pour tenter d'éclaircir certaines questions spécifiques relatives à cette matière. Nous mettons en évidence la nécessité de mettre en place, à l'échelon de la Wallonie, une base de taxation plus en phase avec les enjeux et le contexte actuels. [less ▲]

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See detail"La perte des avantages matrimoniaux pour cause d'indignité"
Moreau, Pierre ULg

in Revue du Notariat Belge (2013), (3080), 810-832

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See detailRECOMMANDATIONS EUROPÉENNES POUR LA PRISE EN CHARGE DU DIABÈTE, DU PRÉ-DIABÈTE ET DES MALADIES CARDIO-VASCULAIRES 2ème partie. Gestion des complications cardiaques, cérébro-vasculaires et artériopathiques périphériques
SCHEEN, André ULg; LANCELLOTTI, Patrizio ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2013), 68(12), 617-624

Summary : Patients with prediabetes (dysglycaemia) or diabetes present accelerated atherosclerosis that predisposes them to multiple cardiovascular complications. We summarize here the joint ... [more ▼]

Summary : Patients with prediabetes (dysglycaemia) or diabetes present accelerated atherosclerosis that predisposes them to multiple cardiovascular complications. We summarize here the joint recommendations recently published by the European Society of Cardiology and the European Society for the Study of Diabetes. The management of main risk factors, aiming to optimize primary or secondary prevention, has been developed in a first article. This second article is focusing on the management of cardiac, cerebrovascular and peripheral arteriopathic complications. The importance of an individualized patient-centered strategy is emphasized, including the management of microangiopathies and, ideally, within a multidisciplinary approach. [less ▲]

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See detailPerformances of Volume Phase Holographic grating for space applications: study of the radiation effect
Loicq, Jerôme ULg; Georges, Marc ULg; Stockman, Yvan ULg et al

in Applied Optics (2013), 52(34),

The special properties of volume phase holographic gratings make them promising candidates for spectrometry applications where high spectral resolution, low levels of straylight, and low polarization ... [more ▼]

The special properties of volume phase holographic gratings make them promising candidates for spectrometry applications where high spectral resolution, low levels of straylight, and low polarization sensitivity are required. Therefore it is of interest to assess the maturity and suitability of volume phase holographic gratings as enabling technologies for future space missions, with demanding requirements for spectrometry. One of the main areas of research is related to grating ageing under space radiation. In the present paper, two volume grating technologies are analyzed and compared under gamma irradiation. The performances of both technologies, the photo–thermo–refractive glass and the Dichromated Gelatin, are tested on samples and assessed in the and near-infrared bands. The diffraction efficiency degradation under gamma irradiation is assessed. [less ▲]

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See detailL'acidose subaigüe du rumen, une pathologie encore méconnue
Lessire, Françoise ULg; Rollin, Frédéric ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2013), 157

Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a major problem in high-producing dairy cows. The drop in ruminal pH below 5.6 was considered as the major factor inducing this pathology till recently. However, new ... [more ▼]

Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a major problem in high-producing dairy cows. The drop in ruminal pH below 5.6 was considered as the major factor inducing this pathology till recently. However, new technologies such as continuous monitoring of ruminal pH and rumen microbiome assessment have contributed to reconsider this concept. The aim of this article is to review the literature for a better understanding of SARA. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat is the actual conductor temperature on Power Lines
Balghouzal, Salima ULg; Lilien, Jean-Louis ULg; El Adnani, Mustapha

in Electrical and Power Engineering Frontier (2013), 2(4), 118-129

This paper will focus on power lines conductor temperature recording owing to smart sensor which is giving access to behaviour of power line span. Laboratory testing heating up HTLS (high temperature low ... [more ▼]

This paper will focus on power lines conductor temperature recording owing to smart sensor which is giving access to behaviour of power line span. Laboratory testing heating up HTLS (high temperature low sag) conductor up to 200°C with a smart sensor installed on the conductor is detailed. [less ▲]

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See detailAccelerated and Localized Newton Schemes for Faster Dynamic Simulation of Large Power Systems
Fabozzi, Davide; Chieh, Angela; Haut, Bertrand et al

in IEEE Transactions on Power Systems (2013), 28(4), 4936-4947

This paper proposes two methods to speed up the demanding time-domain simulations of large power system models. First, the sparse linear system to solve at each Newton iteration is decomposed according to ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes two methods to speed up the demanding time-domain simulations of large power system models. First, the sparse linear system to solve at each Newton iteration is decomposed according to its bordered block diagonal structure, in order to solve only those parts that need to be solved, and update only sub-matrices of the Jacobian that need to be updated. This brings computational savings without degradation of accuracy. Next, the Jacobian structure is further exploited to localize the system response, i.e. involve only the components identified as active, with an acceptable and controllable decrease in accuracy. The accuracy and computational savings are assessed on a large-scale test system. [less ▲]

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See detail« Elements d’actualité fiscale : Taxation des revenus mobiliers, nouvelles obligations de mention dans la déclaration et régularisation fiscale »
Bourgeois, Marc ULg; Garroy, Sabine ULg

in Fiscale Praktijkstudies (2013), 39

La contribution se subdivise en trois parties, chacune envisageant une question particulière. 1) Un premier chapitre a fait la synthèse et le point sur les évolutions du régime de taxation des revenus ... [more ▼]

La contribution se subdivise en trois parties, chacune envisageant une question particulière. 1) Un premier chapitre a fait la synthèse et le point sur les évolutions du régime de taxation des revenus mobiliers, depuis l’entrée en fonction du Gouvernement di Rupo. L’objet du propos est informatif et descriptif. 2) Dans un deuxième temps, nous avons analysé plus en détails le souci de transparence des patrimoines qui anime notre législateur, par le biais de l’introduction de nouvelles obligations de mention dans la déclaration annuelle à l’impôt des personnes physiques (assurances-vie individuelles auprès d’entreprises d’assurance établies à l’étranger ; existence d’une « construction juridique »), ou encore des efforts accomplis avec d’autres Etats membres au niveau de l’Union européenne. 3) Enfin, l’examen de la procédure de régularisation fiscale, telle que réformée par la loi du 11 juillet 2013 a fait l’objet du troisième chapitre. [less ▲]

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See detailEdible insects acceptance by belgian consumers: promising attitude for entomophagy development
Caparros Megido, Rudy ULg; Sablon, Ludovic; Geuens, Mélodie et al

in Journal of Sensory Studies (2013)

Entomophagy is not well accepted in Western European populations but it is common in the world. In the future, populations from developed countries should adapt to other sources of animal proteins because ... [more ▼]

Entomophagy is not well accepted in Western European populations but it is common in the world. In the future, populations from developed countries should adapt to other sources of animal proteins because traditional breeding of beef, poultry or pork will become unsustainable. This study was performed to assess the perception of entomophagy in the Belgian population. A slight neophobia was detected but people agreed to evaluate insect preparations. Various insect formulations (mealworms and house crickets) were prepared, and insects associated with known flavors and crispy textures were preferred. After a hedonic test, people seemed to be willing to eat and cook insects in the near future. The opportunity to introduce entomophagy in food habits of Western Euro- pean populations was positively concluded. Integration of edible insects in human food is a potential solution to replace other animal protein sources in a much more sustainable development and will deserve more attention in the future. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing multiple point geostatistics for tracer test modeling in a clay-drape environment with spatially variable conductivity and sorption coefficient
Huysmans, Marijke; Orban, Philippe ULg; Cochet, Elke et al

in Mathematical Geosciences (2013), 46(5), 519-537

This study investigates the effect of fine-scale clay drapes on tracer transport. A tracer test was performed in a sandbar deposit consisting of cross-bedded sandy units intercalated with many fine-scale ... [more ▼]

This study investigates the effect of fine-scale clay drapes on tracer transport. A tracer test was performed in a sandbar deposit consisting of cross-bedded sandy units intercalated with many fine-scale clay drapes. The heterogeneous spatial distribution of the clay drapes causes a spatially variable hydraulic conductivity and sorption coefficient. A fluorescent tracer (sodium naphthionate) was injected in two injection wells and groundwater was sampled and analyzed from five pumping wells. To determine (1) whether the fine-scale clay drapes have a significant effect on the measured concentrations and (2) whether application of multiple-point geostatistics can improve interpretation of tracer tests in media with complex geological heterogeneity, this tracer test is analyzed with a local 3D groundwater flow and transport model in which fine-scale sedimentary heterogeneity is modeled using multiple-point geostatistics. To reduce memory needs and calculation time for the multiple-point geostatistical simulation step, this study uses the technique of "direct multiple-point geostatistical simulation of edge properties". Instead of simulating pixel values, model cell edge properties indicating the presence of irregularly-shaped surfaces are simulated using multiple point geostatistical simulations. Results of a sensitivity analysis show under which conditions clay drapes have a significant effect on the concentration distribution. Calibration of the model against measured concentrations from the tracer tests reduces the uncertainty on the clay drape parameters. The calibrated model shows which features of the breakthrough curves can be attributed to the geological heterogeneity of the aquifer and which features are caused by other processes. [less ▲]

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See detailShort communication - Isolation of amylolytic, xylanolytic, and cellulolytic microorganisms extracted from the gut of the termite Reticulitermes santonensis by means of a micro-aerobic atmosphere
Tarayre, Cédric ULg; Brognaux, Alison ULg; Bauwens, Julien ULg et al

in World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology (2013)

The aim of this work was to isolate enzyme-producing microorganisms from the tract of the termite Reticulitermes santonensis. The microorganisms were extracted from the guts and anaerobic (CO2 or CO2/H2 ... [more ▼]

The aim of this work was to isolate enzyme-producing microorganisms from the tract of the termite Reticulitermes santonensis. The microorganisms were extracted from the guts and anaerobic (CO2 or CO2/H2) and micro-aerobic atmospheres were used to stimulate growth. Three different strategies were tried out. First, the sample was spread on Petri dishes containing solid media with carboxymethylcellulose, microcrystalline cellulose or cellobiose. This technique allowed us to isolate two bacteria: Streptomyces sp. strain ABGxAviA1 and Pseudomonas sp. strain ABGxCellA. The second strategy consisted in inoculating a specific liquid medium containing carboxymethylcellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, or cellobiose. The samples were then spread on Petri dishes with the same specific medium containing carboxymethylcellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, or cellobiose. This led to the isolation of the mold Aspergillus sp. strain ABGxAviA2. Finally, the third strategy consisted in heating the first culture and spreading samples on agar plates containing rich medium. This led to the isolation of the bacterium Bacills subtilis strain ABGx. All those steps were achieved in controlled atmospheres. The four enzyme-producing strains which were isolated were obtained by using a micro-aerobic atmosphere. Later, enzymatic assays were performed on the four strains. Streptomyces sp. strain ABGxAviA1 was found to produce only amylase, while Pseudomonas sp. strain ABGxCellA was found to produce β-glucosidase as well. Aspergillus sp. strain ABGxAviA2 showed β-glucosidase, amylase, cellulase, and xylanase activities. Finally, Bacillus subtilis strain ABGx produced xylanase and amylase. [less ▲]

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See detailLa culture mathématique à 15 ans. Premiers résultats de PISA 2012 en Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles
Demonty, Isabelle ULg; Blondin, Christiane ULg; Matoul, Anne ULg et al

in Les Cahiers des sciences de l'éducation (2013), 34

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See detailLa politique étrangère de la Belgique face à la France lors de la crise de la chaise vide (1965-1966). Rôle d’un ‘petit pays’, poids d’une relation bilatérale
Genin, Vincent ULg

in Journal Of European Integration History = Revue d'Histoire de l'Intégration Européenne = Zeitschrift für Geschichte der europaïschen Integration (2013), 19(2), 259-276

Die von Juni 1965 bis Januar 1966 andauernde europäische Krise des leeren Stuhls, ist Gegenstand zahlreicher historischer Forschungsarbeiten. Während dieser Krise stört behindert De Gaulles Frankreich den ... [more ▼]

Die von Juni 1965 bis Januar 1966 andauernde europäische Krise des leeren Stuhls, ist Gegenstand zahlreicher historischer Forschungsarbeiten. Während dieser Krise stört behindert De Gaulles Frankreich den europäischen Einigungsprozess indem es die Pläne der europäischen Kommission durchkreuzt. Belgien, ein „kleines Land” dessen Außenpolitik von Paul-Henri Spaak geleitet wurde, übernahm die Vermittlerrolle zwischen Frankreich und den anderen Ländern des Gemeinsamen Marktes, um das europäische Projekt wieder in Fahrt zu bringen. Oftmals wurde Belgien als Gegner der europäischen Vision de Gaulles hingestellt; die Beziehungen zu Frankreich sind aber komplexer als man denkt. Ihre wahren Züge verdeutlichen sich anhand der Auswertung unveröffentlichter Dokumente, in etwa jener der von Marcel-Henri Jaspar geleiteten belgischen Botschaft in Paris. Diese Studie versucht den Zustand der beidseitige französisch-belgischen Beziehungen abzuwägen, um herauszufinden inwieweit er das Ende der Krise ermöglichte. Sie beweist unter anderem, dass das Königreich durchaus eine eigene Politik entfalten konnte, auch wenn seine Politik sich normalerweise nur innerhalb des Benelux-Verbandes oder des Gemeinsamen Marktes versteht. [less ▲]

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See detailÉtude des conditions de vie et d’accessibilité aux soins de santé de qualité des populations en situation de précarité, dans la zone de sante de Bandalungwa à Kinshasa (Congo) grâce à la micro-assurance santé en 2008.
Manzambi Kuwekita, Joseph ULg; Guillaume, Michèle ULg; Balula Semutsari, Marie-Paule et al

in Journal d’Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique (2013), 12

This study investigates the conditions under which populations living in poverty are able to accumulate savings and contribute to a micro-insurance health system to improve their living standards and ... [more ▼]

This study investigates the conditions under which populations living in poverty are able to accumulate savings and contribute to a micro-insurance health system to improve their living standards and access quality health care. We carried out a comprehensive survey in 2008 in the Bandalungwa health zone of Kinshasa. It was based on the Manzambi Model for health financing and the extension of social protection to the poor in developing countries. Each day, the leader of the group hands the members’ contributions to a loan officer. Two micro -entrepreneurs (3%) paid by these funds have disappeared, with the help of a loan officer. The main results of this study show that of all those contributing to the scheme, 78.1% improved their living conditions. 50% were able to start saving while 71.9% of these regularly contributed 1 US$ to the micro-insurance fund. 40.6% regularly contributed 1 US$ to the health micro-insurance fund, 88.5% of these improved their access to health care. When micro-credit promotes significant compulsory savings, the obligatory contribution of one dollar a day to the micro-insurance fund becomes easier and results in improved access to care (p<0.000) for household members. 68% of micro-entrepreneurs who paid their dues improved their purchasing power. If we want to keep people out of poverty, we must find a way to help them with these compulsory savings. The results of this study show that micro-entrepreneurs who have improved their living conditions also saw an improvement in their access to care (86.4%) (p=0.003). The Manzambi model provides a sustainable solution to the problem of health financing and extends social protection to fragile populations in developing countries. It also brings us closer to the objective of "health for all". [less ▲]

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