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See detailA finite-element reciprocity solution for EEG forward modeling with realistic individual head models
Ziegler, Erik ULg; Chellappa, Sarah Laxhmi ULg; Gaggioni, Giulia ULg et al

in NeuroImage (2014), 103

Highlights • Creates EEG forward models suitable for high-resolution source localization. • Automatic T1-based whole-head finite element meshing and leadfield computation. • Pipelines can incorporate ... [more ▼]

Highlights • Creates EEG forward models suitable for high-resolution source localization. • Automatic T1-based whole-head finite element meshing and leadfield computation. • Pipelines can incorporate conductivity tensors from diffusion-weighted images. • Open-source toolbox shared under a permissive software license. • Accuracy comparable to SimBio FEM and superior to OpenMEEG BEM solutions. [less ▲]

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See detailCellules stromales mésenchymateuses et transplantation d'organes
DETRY, Olivier ULg; JOURET, François ULg; VANDERMEULEN, Morgan ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014), 69

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are multipotent and self-renewing cells. MSC are studied for their in vivo and in vitro immunomodulatory effects, in the prevention or the treatment of ischemic injury, and ... [more ▼]

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are multipotent and self-renewing cells. MSC are studied for their in vivo and in vitro immunomodulatory effects, in the prevention or the treatment of ischemic injury, and for their potential properties of tissue or organ reconstruction. Over the last few years, the potential role of MSC in organ transplantation has been studied both in vitro and in vivo, and their properties make them an ideal potential cell therapy after solid organ transplantation. A prospective, controlled, phase 1-2 study has been initiated at the CHU of Liege, Belgium. This study assesses the potential risks and benefits of MSC infusion after liver or kidney transplantation. Even if the preliminary results of this study look promising, solely a prospective, randomized, large scale, phase 3 study will allow the clinical confirmation of the theoretical benefits of MSC in solid organ transplantation. [less ▲]

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See detailHeterogeneity of phenotypes in severe asthmatics. The Belgian Severe Asthma Registry (BSAR).
SCHLEICH, FLorence ULg; Brusselle, G.; Louis, Renaud ULg et al

in Respiratory medicine (2014), 108(12), 1723-32

The Belgian severe asthma registry is a web-based registry encompassing demographic, clinical, functional and inflammatory data of severe asthmatics (SA), aiming at improving awareness, knowledge on its ... [more ▼]

The Belgian severe asthma registry is a web-based registry encompassing demographic, clinical, functional and inflammatory data of severe asthmatics (SA), aiming at improving awareness, knowledge on its natural history and subphenotypes, and offering tools to optimize care of this asthma population. METHODS: The cross-sectional analyses of this registry included 350 SA as defined by the ATS (2000) from 9 Belgian centres, with at least one year follow up. RESULTS: Mean age was 55 +/- 14 yrs. SA were more frequently female (57%) and atopic (70%). Late-onset asthma (>/=40 yr) was observed in 31% of SA. Current smokers represented 12% while 31% were ex-smokers. In addition to high doses ICS + LABA, 65% of patients were receiving LTRA, 27% anti-IgE and 24% maintenance oral corticosteroids (8 mg (Interquartile range-IQR:4-8) methylprednisolone). Despite impaired airflow (median FEV1:67%; IQR: 52-81) only 65% had a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio <70%. The median blood eosinophil count was 240/mm(3). The median FENO was 26 ppb (IQR: 15-43) and 22% of SA had FENO >/= 50 ppb. Induced sputum was successful in 86 patients. Eosinophilic asthma (sputum Eos >/= 3%) was the predominant phenotype (55%) while neutrophilic (sputum Neu >/= 76%) and paucigranulocytic asthma accounted for 22% and 17% respectively. Comorbidities included rhinitis and chronic rhinosinusitis (49%), nasal polyposis (19%), oesophageal reflux (36%), overweight and obesity (47%) and depression (19%). In addition, 8% had aspirin-induced asthma and 3% ABPA. Asthma was not well-controlled in 83% according to ACT < 20 and 77% with ACQ > 1.5. CONCLUSION: In this cohort of patients with severe asthma, the majority displayed indices of persistent airflow limitation and eosinophilic inflammation despite high-dose corticosteroids, suggesting potential for eosinophil-targeted biotherapies. [less ▲]

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See detailInput of supercritical carbon dioxide to polymer synthesis: an overview
Boyère, Cédric; Jérôme, Christine ULg; Debuigne, Antoine ULg

in European Polymer Journal (2014), 61

The ongoing search for environmentally friendlier alternative to the organic solvents used in chemical processes has led to the development of technologies based on supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 ... [more ▼]

The ongoing search for environmentally friendlier alternative to the organic solvents used in chemical processes has led to the development of technologies based on supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2), which is non-flammable, non-toxic and relatively inert fluid. Polymer chemistry does not escape this trend and last achievements in the field of polymer synthesis in scCO2 are reviewed here. Without claiming to be exhaustive, we go through and discuss the benefits of the main polymerization processes in scCO2 including homogeneous, precipitation, dispersion, suspension and emulsion systems. A particular attention is drawn to water/carbon dioxide emulsion polymerization and to the suited surface active agents. This review also underlines that heterogeneous polymerization based on CO2 is more than a strategy for reducing the ecological footprint of the polymer production but it allows structuring the polymer materials into particles or highly interconnected macroporous networks. [less ▲]

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See detailMethodology to characterize a residential building stock using a bottom-up approach: a case study applied to Belgium
Gendebien, Samuel ULg; Georges, Emeline ULg; Bertagnolio, Stéphane et al

in International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management (2014)

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See detailLes arabismes dans le TLF : tentative de classement historique
Baiwir, Esther ULg

in Revue de Linguistique Romane (2014), 78

Parmi les nombreux mots traditionnellement étiquetés comme «arabismes» figurent des cas relevant de classes diverses. Nous jetons ici un regard diachronique et global sur cette classe de lexèmes ... [more ▼]

Parmi les nombreux mots traditionnellement étiquetés comme «arabismes» figurent des cas relevant de classes diverses. Nous jetons ici un regard diachronique et global sur cette classe de lexèmes particuliers, parmi lesquels nous distinguons les emprunts dits directs, émanant de contacts récurrents et prolongés entre populations arabophones et populations francophones, et les emprunts dits indirects, qu'en toute rigueur nous devrions exclure de notre étude en vertu de la défiance légitime envers l'etimologia remota. Nous tentons cependant de montrer que cette méfiance mérite d'être nuancée à l'aune des conclusions que cette pratique lexicographique permet de tirer sur les mouvements socio-historiques qu'elle illustre. En effet, de l'examen des itinéraires et des époques d'emprunt se dégage l'histoire des relations entre monde arabophone et monde roman. [less ▲]

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See detailSpeciation in Malagasy lemurs: a review of the cryptic diversity in genus Lepilemur
Wilmet, Leslie ULg; Schwitzer, Christoph; Devillers, Pierre et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(4), 577-588

Madagascar is one of the highest biodiversity hotspots on the planet; however, it is also one of the most heavily impacted countries in the world in terms of forest degradation and general habitat ... [more ▼]

Madagascar is one of the highest biodiversity hotspots on the planet; however, it is also one of the most heavily impacted countries in the world in terms of forest degradation and general habitat destruction. Genus Lepilemur, in family Lepilemuridae, is a genus of small, nocturnal, exclusively arboreal Malagasy folivores. All species in the genus have small ranges of distribution. Fully forest-dependent, they have a high risk of extinction. Various models and theories of speciation mechanisms have been developed for the fauna and flora of Madagascar. For instance, in the northwestern part of the island, some authors used Lepilemur spp. to test two existing models of distribution: the “Martin model” and “Wilmé model”. Regarding the impact of forest destruction and habitat degradation in Madagascar, conservation strategies for Lepilemur need to be put in place. This paper gives an overview of the current knowledge of the genus Lepilemur and examines speciation for Malagasy lemurs. The understanding of species distribution within biodiversity hotspots is important to identify target for conservation. Therefore, we summarize and compare three biogeography models related to lemurs distribution in order to understand the reasons behind the high diversity (26 species in total) among the genus Lepilemur. Particular attention is also given to the concept of species regarding biodiversity issues and the taxonomic explosion in genus Lepilemur. [less ▲]

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See detailTransient small-scale structure in the main auroral emission at Jupiter
Palmaerts, Benjamin ULg; Radioti, Aikaterini ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics (2014), 119

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See detailComment je traite … Recommandations pour interrompre un traitement médicamenteux
SCHEEN, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014), 69(12), 644-649

L’interruption d’un traitement pharmacologique est une situation clinique fréquente qui peut paraître plus simple à gérer que l’instauration d’un nouveau traitement, mais qui impose néanmoins de remplir ... [more ▼]

L’interruption d’un traitement pharmacologique est une situation clinique fréquente qui peut paraître plus simple à gérer que l’instauration d’un nouveau traitement, mais qui impose néanmoins de remplir certaines conditions et de respecter certaines précautions : 1) pouvoir expliciter les raisons qui justifient l’arrêt du traitement; 2) vérifier qu’il n’y a pas de danger à interrompre le traitement (même si cette interruption est transitoire); 3) savoir comment gérer au mieux l’arrêt de la thérapeutique, en particulier choisir entre une interruption immédiate et une décroissance posologique progressive; et, enfin, 4) assurer un suivi approprié du patient dûment informé chez lequel le traitement vient d’être stoppé. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of the oxidative stability of blends of ‘Arbequina’ olive oils with other monovarietal olive oils
Mansouri, F.; Ben Moumen, A.; Houmy, N. et al

in Olivae (Official Journal of the International Olive Council) (2014), 120

Like elsewhere in the Mediterranean, the olive oil sector is one of the strategic branches of the Moroccan economy owing to its social and economic significance. This research entailed evaluation of the ... [more ▼]

Like elsewhere in the Mediterranean, the olive oil sector is one of the strategic branches of the Moroccan economy owing to its social and economic significance. This research entailed evaluation of the oxidative stability of olive oils made up of a blend of ‘Arbequina’ olive oil with ‘Arbosana’ and ‘Koroneiki’ monovarietal oils known for their high content of natural antioxidants (phenols and tocopherols) and their superior oxidative stability compared with ‘Arbequina’ oil. The monovarietal oils produced from the ‘Arbequina’, ‘Arbosana’ and ‘Koroneiki’ varieties, which have recently been introduced under intensive cultivation in the eastern region of Morocco, underwent physico–chemical characterisation to determine quality criteria, natural antioxidant content, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile. The Rancimat test* was performed to assess the oxidative stability of these monovarietal oils and their three-variety blends. The oxidation tests were performed on five freshly prepared blends (A) of the three varieties – ‘Arbequina’/’Arbosana’/‘Koroneiki’ – according to the following volume ratios: A1: 60/30/10; A2: 60/20/20; A3: 60:10:30; A4: 50:25:25 and A5: 40:30:30. The test results show that blends A4 and A5 displayed the best oxidative stability, recording respective values of 72.67 h and 75.42 h. These results are comparable to those obtained for ‘Arbosana’ monovarietal oil (75.42 h), which is considered to be relatively stable. Hence, blending is an excellent tool for enhancing oils produced from varieties which, despite their excellent initial quality and their organoleptic attributes, are handicapped by their poor stability, as is the case of ‘Arbequina’ oil. [less ▲]

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See detailMetacognitive components in learning to learn approaches
Frenkel, Stéphanie ULg

in International Journal of Psychology : A Biopsychosocial Approach (2014), 14

Background. Numerous students are having school difficulties linked to the way they learn. Some people speak of a “metacognitive deficit”. We refer to a “sleeping potential” instead. Be it psychologists ... [more ▼]

Background. Numerous students are having school difficulties linked to the way they learn. Some people speak of a “metacognitive deficit”. We refer to a “sleeping potential” instead. Be it psychologists, teachers or parents, all wish to develop their skills in order to help these students. This is the case in primary and secondary school. The EDUCA + project is intended to provide possible solutions. Purpose. The aim of this paper is to present a metacognitive and cognitive theory of learning to learn, which will (a) explain why numerous students are having school difficulties, and (b) predict the success of the EDUCA + project. [less ▲]

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See detailLa "nuit étoilée" et le "triangle hyperéchogène péri-veineux hilaire", signes de torsion splénique à l'échographie?
Terradas Crespo, Emilia; Barthelemy, Nicolas ULg; Gommeren, Kris ULg et al

in Monde Vétérinaire (Le) : European Veterinary Magazine (2014), 147

Une splénomégalie avec des plages hypoéchogènes diffuses et de multiples lignes hyperéchogènes parallèles dans le parenchyme, appelé lacy pattern ou stary sky = nuit étoilée, est un signe ayant une haute ... [more ▼]

Une splénomégalie avec des plages hypoéchogènes diffuses et de multiples lignes hyperéchogènes parallèles dans le parenchyme, appelé lacy pattern ou stary sky = nuit étoilée, est un signe ayant une haute probabilité de torsion splénique à l’échographie. Un autre signe échographique a été décrit comme étant un signe encore plus fiable de torsion splénique aigue. Il s’agit du triangle hyperéchogène péri-veineux hilaire. Cependant, ces signes ne sont pas des signes pathognomoniques de torsion splénique à l’échographie. [less ▲]

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See detailGérer les différences : une préoccupation commune
Blondin, Christiane ULg; Cornet, Jacques; Delvaux, Bernard

in Education et formation (2014), e-302

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See detailPoly( N-vinylcaprolactam): A thermoresponsive macromolecule with promising future in biomedical field
Liu, Ji; Debuigne, Antoine ULg; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg et al

in Advanced Healthcare Materials (2014), 3(12), 1941-1968

Poly( N -vinylcaprolactam) (PNVCL) is a thermoresponsive and biocompatible polymer that raises an increasing interest in the biomedical area, especially in drug delivery systems (DDS) that include ... [more ▼]

Poly( N -vinylcaprolactam) (PNVCL) is a thermoresponsive and biocompatible polymer that raises an increasing interest in the biomedical area, especially in drug delivery systems (DDS) that include micelles, hydrogels, and hybrid particles. The thermoresponsiveness of PNVCL, used alone or in combination with other stimuli- responsive polymers or particles (pH, magnetic fi eld, or chemicals), is often key in the loading and/or release process in these DDS. The renewed focus on this polymer, which is known for decades, is to a large extent due to recent progress in synthetic strategies. Especially, the advent of efficient controlled radical polymerization (CRP) methods for NVCL monomer gives now access to unprecedented well-defi ned NVCL-based copolymers with unique properties. This Review article addresses up-to-date synthetic aspects, biological features, and biomedical applications of the latest NVCL-containing systems. [less ▲]

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See detailDivision ethnoraciale et pénalisation
Vanneste, Charlotte ULg

in Revue de l'Institut de Sociologie de l'Université Libre de Bruxelles (2014), volume 2013

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See detailCharacteristics and ceramic properties of clayey materials from Amezmiz region (Western High Atlas, Morocco)
Daoudi, Lahcen; El Boudour El Idrissi, Hicham ULg; Saadi, Latifa et al

in Applied Clay Science (2014)

Five clayey materials from two quarries located in the Amezmiz region (Morocco) were sampled and investigated for their physical, chemical, mineralogical and thermal characteristics to evaluate their ... [more ▼]

Five clayey materials from two quarries located in the Amezmiz region (Morocco) were sampled and investigated for their physical, chemical, mineralogical and thermal characteristics to evaluate their potential suitability as raw materials in various ceramic applications. Physical properties were identified by particle size distribution, consistency limits and total organic content. Chemical, mineralogical, and thermal properties were investigated by XRF, XRD, and TG/DTA techniques, respectively. A common raw material in pottery manufacturing of Morocco was used as reference sample (REF). Results show that the main oxides in the samples were SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3, whereas the other oxides were present only in small quantities. Quartz, illite and vermiculite were present as dominant mineral phases with minor kaolinite, calcite and smectite. The results showed that three of the studied clayey materials have adequate characteristics for the production of structural ceramics. However, for the two other clays it is necessary to add more plastic clays to enhance the workability. [less ▲]

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See detailConfiance politique et institutions internationales. Les perceptions de l'efficacité, de la légitimité et de la démocratie par des jeunes
Grandjean, Geoffrey ULg

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2014), 3

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See detailThermodynamic Characterization of New Positive Allosteric Modulators Binding to the Glutamate Receptor A2 Ligand-Binding Domain: Combining Experimental and Computational Methods Unravels Differences in Driving Forces
Nørholm, Ann-Beth; Francotte, Pierre ULg; Goffin, Eric ULg et al

in Journal of Chemical Information & Modeling (2014), 54(12), 3404-3416

Positive allosteric modulation of the ionotropic glutamate receptor GluA2 presents a potential treatment of cognitive disorders, for example, Alzheimer’s disease. In the present study, we describe the ... [more ▼]

Positive allosteric modulation of the ionotropic glutamate receptor GluA2 presents a potential treatment of cognitive disorders, for example, Alzheimer’s disease. In the present study, we describe the synthesis, pharmacology, and thermodynamic studies of a series of monofluoro-substituted 3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxides. Measurements of ligand binding by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) showed similar binding affinities for the modulator series at the GluA2 LBD but differences in the thermodynamic driving forces. Binding of 5c (7-F) and 6 (no-F) is enthalpy driven, and 5a (5-F) and 5b (6-F) are entropy driven. For 5d (8-F), both quantities were equal in size. Thermodynamic integration (TI) and one-step perturbation (OSP) were used to calculate the relative binding affinity of the modulators. The OSP calculations had a higher predictive power than those from TI, and combined with the shorter total simulation time, we found the OSP method to be more effective for this setup. Furthermore, from the molecular dynamics simulations, we extracted the enthalpies and entropies, and along with the ITC data, this suggested that the differences in binding free energies are largely explained by the direct ligand-surrounding enthalpies. Furthermore, we used the OSP setup to predict binding affinities for a series of polysubstituted fluorine compounds and monosubstituted methyl compounds and used these predictions to characterize the modulator binding pocket for this scaffold of positive allosteric modulators.10.1021/ci500559b [less ▲]

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See detailClustering and segregation in driven granular fluids
Opsomer, Eric ULg; Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Noirhomme, Martial ULg et al

in European Physical Journal E -- Soft Matter (2014)

In microgravity, the successive inelastic collisions in a granular gas can lead to a dynamical clustering of the particles. This transition depends on the filling fraction of the system, the restitution ... [more ▼]

In microgravity, the successive inelastic collisions in a granular gas can lead to a dynamical clustering of the particles. This transition depends on the filling fraction of the system, the restitution of the used materials and on the size of the particles. We report simulations of driven bi-disperse gas made of small and large spheres. The size as well as the mass difference imply a strong modification in the kinematic chain of collisions and therefore alter significantly the formation of a cluster. Moreover, the different dynamical behaviors can also lead to a demixing of the system, adding a few small particles in a gas of large ones can lead to a partial clustering of the taller type. We realized a detailed phase diagram recovering the encountered regimes and developed a theoretical model predicting the possibility of dynamical clustering in binary systems. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysical and bacterial controls on inorganic nutrients and dissolved organic carbon during a sea ice growth and decay experiment
Zhou, Jiayun ULg; Delille, Bruno ULg; Kaartokallio, Hermanni et al

in Marine Chemistry (2014), 166

We investigated how physical incorporation, brine dynamics and bacterial activity regulate the distribution of inorganic nutrients and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in artificial sea ice during a 19-day ... [more ▼]

We investigated how physical incorporation, brine dynamics and bacterial activity regulate the distribution of inorganic nutrients and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in artificial sea ice during a 19-day experiment that included periods of both ice growth and decay. The experiment was performed using two series of mesocosms: the first consisted of seawater and the second consisted of seawater enriched with humic-rich river water. We grew ice by freezing the water at an air temperature of -14 °C for 14 days after which ice decay was induced by increasing the air temperature to -1 °C. Using the ice temperatures and bulk ice salinities, we derived the brine volume fractions, brine salinities and Rayleigh numbers. The temporal evolution of these physical parameters indicate that there was a succession of 3 stages in the brine dynamics: forced-convection, followed by bottom convection during ice growth, and then brine stratification during ice decay. The major findings are: (1) the incorporation of dissolved compounds (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosphate, silicate, and DOC) into the sea ice was not conservative (relative to salinity) during ice growth. Brine convection clearly influenced the incorporation of the dissolved compounds, since the non-conservative behavior of the dissolved compounds was particularly pronounced in the absence of brine convection. (2) Bacterial activity further regulated nutrient availability in the ice: ammonium and nitrite accumulated as a result of remineralization processes, although bacterial production was too low to induce major changes in DOC concentrations. (3) Different forms of DOC have different properties and hence incorporation efficiencies. In particular, the terrestrially-derived DOC from the river water was less efficiently incorporated into sea ice than the DOC in the seawater. Therefore the main factors regulating the distribution of the dissolved compounds within sea ice are clearly a complex interaction of brine dynamics, biological activity and in the case of dissolved organic matter, the physico-chemical properties of the dissolved constituents themselves. [less ▲]

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See detailDouble thermoresponsive di- and triblock copolymers based on N-vinylcaprolactam and N-vinylpyrrolidone: synthesis and comparative study of solution behaviour
Kermagoret, Anthony ULg; Mathieu, Kevin ULg; Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg et al

in Polymer Chemistry (2014), 5(22), 6534-6544

Poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PNVCL) and poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PNVP) are water soluble polymers of interest especially in the biomedical field. Moreover, PNVCL is characterized by a lower critical ... [more ▼]

Poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PNVCL) and poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PNVP) are water soluble polymers of interest especially in the biomedical field. Moreover, PNVCL is characterized by a lower critical solution temperature close to 36 °C in water, which makes it useful for the design of thermoresponsive systems. In this context, we used the cobalt-mediated radical polymerization (CMRP) and reaction coupling (CMRC) for synthesizing a series of well-defined NVCL and NVP-based copolymers, including statistical copolymers as well as double thermoresponsive diblocks and triblocks. Dynamic light scattering and turbidimetry analyses highlighted the crucial impact of the copolymer composition and architecture on the cloud point temperature (TCP) of each segment and also their influence on the multistep assembly behaviour of block copolymers. Addition of NaCl enabled us to adjust the inter-TCP range of the di- and triblock in which selective precipitation of one block and self-assembly of the copolymer were favoured. Overall, data presented here provide a basis for the synthesis of a broad range of NVCL/NVP based copolymer architectures with a tunable thermal response in water. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Investigation of the Late Excitatory Potentials in the Hand following Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Early Alzheimer's Disease.
Balla, christina; PEPIN, Jean-Louis ULg; MAERTENS DE NOORDHOUT, Alain ULg

in Dementia & Geriatric Cognitive Disorders (2014), 4

BACKGROUND: Recent neuroimaging studies in humans support the clinical observations that the motor cortex is affected early in the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We measured the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Recent neuroimaging studies in humans support the clinical observations that the motor cortex is affected early in the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We measured the silent period (SP) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation in AD patients in the very early stage of the disease, and we explored whether and in which way the pharmacologic manipulation of the cholinergic system could modify it. RESULTS: An increase in the duration of the SP was observed in AD patients in the early stage in comparison to controls. After 2 months of treatment with donepezil, the duration did not differ significantly from that of normal subjects. The results of our study show a fragmentation and an enlargement of the SP in the presence of multiple late excitatory potentials (LEPs) in early untreated AD patients. These LEPs were also modulated by donepezil. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest an early functional impairment of cholinergic neurotransmission in AD. The disturbance in acetylcholine output in early AD leads to a decrease in excitability of the motor system. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term evolution and seasonal modulation of methanol above Jungfraujoch (46.5°N, 8.0°E): Optimisation of the retrieval strategy, comparison with model and independant observations
Bader, Whitney ULg; Stavrakou, T; Muller, J-F et al

in Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (2014), 7

Methanol (CH3OH) is the second most abundant organic compound in the Earth's atmosphere after methane. In this work, we present the first long-term time series of methanol total, lower tropospheric and ... [more ▼]

Methanol (CH3OH) is the second most abundant organic compound in the Earth's atmosphere after methane. In this work, we present the first long-term time series of methanol total, lower tropospheric and upper tropospheric-lower stratospheric partial columns derived from the analysis of high resolution Fourier transform infrared solar spectra recorded at the Jungfraujoch station (46.5° N, 3580 m a.s.l.). The retrieval of methanol is very challenging due to strong absorptions of ozone in the region of the selected υ8 band of CH3OH. Two wide spectral intervals have been defined and adjusted in order to maximize the information content. Methanol does not exhibit a significant trend over the 1995–2012 time period, but a strong seasonal modulation characterized by maximum values and variability in June–July, minimum columns in winter and a peak-to-peak amplitude of 130%. In situ measurements performed at the Jungfraujoch and ACE-FTS occultations give similar results for the methanol seasonal variation. The total and lower tropospheric columns are also compared with IMAGESv2 model simulations. There is no systematic bias between the observations and IMAGESv2 but the model underestimates the peak-to-peak amplitude of the seasonal modulations. [less ▲]

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See detailAllelopathic and autotoxicity effects of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) root exudates
Bouhaouel, Imen; Gfeller, Aurélie; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULg et al

in BioControl (2014), Online First

The allelopathic activity of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) root exudates was studied by comparing their effects on seedling establishment in barley itself and in two weed species, Bromus ... [more ▼]

The allelopathic activity of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) root exudates was studied by comparing their effects on seedling establishment in barley itself and in two weed species, Bromus diandrus Roth. and Lolium rigidum Gaudin, using an original laboratory protocol, named ‘seed-after-seed’. In this protocol, the donor and the receiver species of watersoluble allelochemicals are grown one after the other in the same dishes, in conditions reducing resource competition between both species. Growth of all receptive species (weeds and barley) was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner, when using increasing barley seed densities (0, 8, 19 and 25 seeds per Petri dish). In our conditions, the barley varieties and landraces exhibited different allelopathic activities against weeds or barley. The allelopathic potential of the barley root exudates was also dependent on the receiver species. Indeed, the released allelochemicals proved to be more toxic against the weed plants than on barley itself. Furthermore, the toxicity of the allelochemicals increased after their release by roots, between day 0 and day 6. These allelochemicals might contribute to the plant community dynamics and their usefulness as bio-herbicides deserves further consideration. [less ▲]

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See detailSoil charcoal to assess the impacts of past human disturbances on tropical forests
Vleminckx, Jason; Morin-Rivat, Julie ULg; Biwolé, Achille et al

in PLoS ONE (2014)

The canopy of many central African forests is dominated by light-demanding tree species that do not regenerate well under themselves. The prevalence of these species might result from ancient slash-and ... [more ▼]

The canopy of many central African forests is dominated by light-demanding tree species that do not regenerate well under themselves. The prevalence of these species might result from ancient slash-and-burn agricultural activities that created large openings, while a decline of these activities since the colonial period could explain their deficit of regeneration. To verify this hypothesis, we compared soil charcoal abundance, used as a proxy for past slash-and-burn agriculture, and tree species composition assessed on 208 rainforest 0.2 ha plots located in three areas from Southern Cameroon. Species were classified in regeneration guilds (pioneer, non-pioneer light-demanding, shade-bearer) and characterized by their woodspecific gravity, assumed to reflect light requirement. We tested the correlation between soil charcoal abundance and: (i) the relative abundance of each guild, (ii) each species and family abundance and (iii) mean wood-specific gravity. Charcoal was found in 83% of the plots, indicating frequent past forest fires. Radiocarbon dating revealed two periods of fires: ‘‘recent’’ charcoal were on average 300 years old (up to 860 BP, n = 16) and occurred in the uppermost 20 cm soil layer, while ‘‘ancient’’ charcoal were on average 1900 years old (range: 1500 to 2800 BP, n = 43, excluding one sample dated 9400 BP), and found in all soil layers. While we expected a positive correlation between the relative abundance of light demanding species and charcoal abundance in the upper soil layer, overall there was no evidence that the current heterogeneity in tree species composition can be explained by charcoal abundance in any soil layer. The absence of signal supporting our hypothesis might result from (i) a relatively uniform impact of past slash-and-burn activities, (ii) pedoturbation processes bringing ancient charcoal to the upper soil layer, blurring the signal of centuries-old Human disturbances, or (iii) the prevalence of other environmental factors on species composition. [less ▲]

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See detailUltrasonographic assessment of uterine involution and ovarian activity in West African Sahelian goats.
Zongo, Moussa; Traore, Boureima; Ababneh, Mohammed Mahmoud et al

in Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health (2014), 7(2), 71-76

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See detailVitamin D status in critically ill patients: back to basics!
ROUSSEAU, Anne-Françoise ULg; CAVALIER, Etienne ULg

in Critical Care (2014), 18(6), 611

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See detailUmbilical cord fibroblasts
ZEDDOU M; RELIC, Biserka ULg; Malaise, Michel ULg

in Rheumatology (2014)

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See detailSurvey of Artificial Insemination Practices in Algeria
Souames, Samir; Hanzen, Christian ULg; Detilleux, Johann ULg et al

in Research Journal for Veterinary Practitioner (2014), 3(1), 1-9

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See detailRecent Northern Hemisphere stratospheric HCl increase due to atmospheric circulation changes
Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg; Chipperfield, M. P.; Notholt, J. et al

in Nature (2014), 515(7525), 104--107

The abundance of chlorine in the Earth’s atmosphere increased considerably during the 1970s to 1990s, following large emissions of anthropogenic long-lived chlorine-containing source gases, notably the ... [more ▼]

The abundance of chlorine in the Earth’s atmosphere increased considerably during the 1970s to 1990s, following large emissions of anthropogenic long-lived chlorine-containing source gases, notably the chlorofluorocarbons. The chemical inertness of chlorofluorocarbons allows their transport and mixing throughout the troposphere on a global scale[1], before they reach the stratosphere where they release chlorine atoms that cause ozone depletion[2]. The large ozone loss over Antarctica[3] was the key observation that stimulated the definition and signing in 1987 of the Montreal Protocol, an international treaty establishing a schedule to reduce the production of the major chlorine- and bromine-containing halocarbons. Owing to its implementation, the near-surface total chlorine concentration showed a maximum in 1993, followed by a decrease of half a per cent to one per cent per year[4], in line with expectations. Remote-sensing data have revealed a peak in stratospheric chlorine after 1996[5], then a decrease of close to one per cent per year[6,7], in agreement with the surface observations of the chlorine source gases and model calculations[7]. Here we present ground-based and satellite data that show a recent and significant increase, at the 2σ level, in hydrogen chloride (HCl), the main stratospheric chlorine reservoir, starting around 2007 in the lower stratosphere of the Northern Hemisphere, in contrast with the ongoing monotonic decrease of near-surface source gases. Using model simulations, we attribute this trend anomaly to a slowdown in the Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation, occurring over several consecutive years, transporting more aged air to the lower stratosphere, and characterized by a larger relative conversion of source gases to HCl. This short-term dynamical variability will also affect other stratospheric tracers and needs to be accounted for when studying the evolution of the stratospheric ozone layer. [less ▲]

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See detailPositive Allosteric Modulators of 2-Amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic Acid Receptors Belonging to 4-Cyclopropyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-pyridothiadiazine Dioxides and Diversely Chloro-Substituted 4-Cyclopropyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-Dioxides
Francotte, Pierre ULg; Nørholm, Ann-Beth; Deva, Taru et al

in Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2014), 57(22), 9539-9553

Two 4-ethyl-substituted pyridothiadiazine dioxides belonging to α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor positive allosteric modulators were cocrystallized with the GluA2 ... [more ▼]

Two 4-ethyl-substituted pyridothiadiazine dioxides belonging to α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor positive allosteric modulators were cocrystallized with the GluA2 ligand binding domain in order to decipher the impact of the position of the nitrogen atom on their binding mode at the AMPA receptors. The latter was found to be very similar to that of previously described benzothiadiazine-type AMPA receptor modulators. The affinity of the two compounds for the receptor was determined by isothermal titration calorimetry. Accordingly, the synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 4-cyclopropyl-substituted pyridothiadiazine dioxides was performed and completed with the synthesis of the corresponding chloro-substituted 4-cyclopropyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxides. The “8-aza” compound 32 was found to be the most potent pyridothiadiazine-type AMPA receptor potentiator in vitro, whereas the 7-chloro-substituted compound 36c emerged as the most promising benzothiadiazine dioxide. Due to proper drug-likeness and low in vivo acute toxicity in mice, 36c was chosen for a more complete preclinical evaluation. The compound was able to easily cross the blood–brain barrier. In an in vivo object recognition test with CD1 mice, oral administration of 36c was found to significantly improve cognition performance at doses as low as 1 mg/kg. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Robust Economic Statistical Design of the Hotelling’s T^2 Chart
Faraz, Alireza ULg; Chalaki, Kamyar; Saniga, Erwin et al

in Communications in Statistics : Theory & Methods (2014)

Economic statistical designs aim at minimizing the cost of process monitoring when a specific scenario or a set of estimated process and cost parameters is given. However, in practical situations the ... [more ▼]

Economic statistical designs aim at minimizing the cost of process monitoring when a specific scenario or a set of estimated process and cost parameters is given. However, in practical situations the process may be affected by more than one scenario which may lead to severe cost penalties for upsetting the true scenario. This paper presents the robust economic statistical design (RESD) of the T^2 chart to reduce the monetary losses when there are multiple distinct scenarios. The genetic algorithm optimization method is employed here to minimize the total expected monitoring cost across all distinct scenarios. Through two numerical examples the proposed method is illustrated. Simulation studies indicate that the robust economic statistical designs should be encouraged in practice. [less ▲]

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See detailOrigin and immunoescape of uterine cervical cancer
Van hede, Dorien ULg; Langers, Inge ULg; DELVENNE, Philippe ULg et al

in Presse Médicale (2014)

Human papillomavirus associated uterine cervical cancer is an important public health problem since it is classified as the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide with more than 500 000 recorded ... [more ▼]

Human papillomavirus associated uterine cervical cancer is an important public health problem since it is classified as the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide with more than 500 000 recorded cases. This review is focused on where and why HPV infection induces cervical cancers and how this virus avoids the host immune response. Immunological therapeutic approaches are also addressed. [less ▲]

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See detailPrognosis of HPV-positive head and neck cancers : implication of smoking and immunosuppression
Duray, Anaëlle; LACREMANS, Daniel ULg; Demoulin, Stéphanie ULg et al

in Advances in Cellular and Molecular Otolaryngology (2014), 2

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See detailSouthern Massive Stars at High Angular Resolution: Observational Campaign and Companion Detection
Sana, H.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Lacour, S. et al

in Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series (2014), 215

Multiplicity is one of the most fundamental observable properties of massive O-type stars and offers a promising way to discriminate between massive star formation theories. Nevertheless, companions at ... [more ▼]

Multiplicity is one of the most fundamental observable properties of massive O-type stars and offers a promising way to discriminate between massive star formation theories. Nevertheless, companions at separations between 1 and 100 milliarcsec (mas) remain mostly unknown due to intrinsic observational limitations. At a typical distance of 2 kpc, this corresponds to projected ph [less ▲]

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See detailSearching for faint companions with VLTI/PIONIER. II. 92 main sequence stars from the Exozodi survey
Marion, Lindsay ULg; Absil, Olivier ULg; Ertel, S. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 570

Context. The Exozodi survey aims to determine the occurrence rate of bright exozodiacal discs around nearby main sequence stars using infrared interferometry. Although the Exozodi survey targets have been ... [more ▼]

Context. The Exozodi survey aims to determine the occurrence rate of bright exozodiacal discs around nearby main sequence stars using infrared interferometry. Although the Exozodi survey targets have been carefully selected to avoid the presence of binary stars, the results of this survey can still be biased by the presence of unidentified stellar companions. <BR /> Aims: Using the PIONIER data set collected within the Exozodi survey in 2012, we aim to search for the signature of point-like companions around the Exozodi target stars. <BR /> Methods: We make use of both the closure phases and squared visibilities collected by PIONIER to search for companions within the ~100 mas interferometric field of view. The presence of a companion is assessed by computing the goodness of fit to the data for a series of binary models with various separations and contrasts. <BR /> Results: Five stellar companions are resolved for the first time around five A-type stars: HD 4150, HD 16555, HD 29388, HD 202730, and HD 224392 (although the companion to HD 16555 was independently resolved by speckle interferometry while we were carrying out the survey). In the most likely case of main sequence companions, their spectral types range from A5V to K4V. Three of these stars were already suspected to be binaries from Hipparcos astrometric measurements, although no information was available on the companions themselves so far. In addition to debiasing the statistics of the Exozodi survey, these results can also be used to revise the fraction of visual binaries among A-type stars, suggesting that an extra ~13% A-type stars are visual binaries in addition to the ones detected in previous direct imaging surveys. <BR /> Conclusions: We estimate that about half the population of nearby A-type stars could be resolved as visual binaries using a combination of state-of-the-art interferometry and single-aperture imaging, and we suggest that a significant fraction of these binaries remains undetected to date. [less ▲]

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See detailA near-infrared interferometric survey of debris-disk stars. IV. An unbiased sample of 92 southern stars observed in H band with VLTI/PIONIER
Ertel, S.; Absil, Olivier ULg; Defrere, D. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 570

Context. Detecting and characterizing circumstellar dust is a way to study the architecture and evolution of planetary systems. Cold dust in debris disks only traces the outer regions. Warm and hot ... [more ▼]

Context. Detecting and characterizing circumstellar dust is a way to study the architecture and evolution of planetary systems. Cold dust in debris disks only traces the outer regions. Warm and hot exozodiacal dust needs to be studied in order to trace regions close to the habitable zone. <BR /> Aims: We aim to determine the prevalence and to constrain the properties of hot exozodiacal dust around nearby main-sequence stars. <BR /> Methods: We searched a magnitude-limited (H <= 5) sample of 92 stars for bright exozodiacal dust using our VLTI visitor instrument PIONIER in the H band. We derived statistics of the detection rate with respect to parameters, such as the stellar spectral type and age or the presence of a debris disk in the outer regions of the systems. We derived more robust statistics by combining our sample with the results from our CHARA/FLUOR survey in the K band. In addition, our spectrally dispersed data allowed us to put constraints on the emission mechanism and the dust properties in the detected systems. <BR /> Results: We find an overall detection rate of bright exozodiacal dust in the H band of 11% (9 out of 85 targets) and three tentative detections. The detection rate decreases from early type to late type stars and increases with the age of the host star. We do not confirm the tentative correlation between the presence of cold and hot dust found in our earlier analysis of the FLUOR sample alone. Our spectrally dispersed data suggest that either the dust is extremely hot or the emission is dominated by the scattered light in most cases. The implications of our results for the target selection of future terrestrial planet-finding missions using direct imaging are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailOccurence of Satellite RNAs associated with Cucumber mosaic virus isolated from banana (Musa sp.) in Ivory Coast
Kouadio, Kouakou Théodore; De Clerck, Caroline ULg; Agneroh, TA et al

in British Society for Plant Pathology - New Disease Reports (2014), 30

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See detailEconomic Statistical Design of the VP( X) ̅ Control Charts for Monitoring a Process under Non-normality
Seif, Asghar; Faraz, Alireza ULg; Saniga, Erwin

in International Journal of Production Research (2014)

Recent studies proved that variable parameters (VP) X ̅ control charts not only detects process mean shifts quicker than the classical X ̅ control chart but also has better economic properties ... [more ▼]

Recent studies proved that variable parameters (VP) X ̅ control charts not only detects process mean shifts quicker than the classical X ̅ control chart but also has better economic properties. Furthermore, like most papers in control chart design, the fundamental assumption is that process data are normally distributed. Nevertheless, process quality variables may not be normal in application. In this paper, we investigate the economic statistical design of the VP X ̅ control chart when the underlying process distribution is non-normal. We illustrate the design procedure and perform a sensitivity analysis on the process and cost parameters based upon the degrees of skewness and kurtosis of the population using an industrial application. [less ▲]

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See detailA comparison of raters and disease assessment methods for estimating disease severity for purposes of hypothesis testing.
Bock, Clive; El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; Kouadio, Louis et al

in Phytopathology (2014), 104(11), 26

Assessment of disease severity is most often made visually, and estimates can be inaccurate. Nearest percent estimates (NPEs) of Septoria leaf blotch on leaves of winter wheat by four raters (R1-R4 ... [more ▼]

Assessment of disease severity is most often made visually, and estimates can be inaccurate. Nearest percent estimates (NPEs) of Septoria leaf blotch on leaves of winter wheat by four raters (R1-R4) assessing non-treated (NT) and fungicide-treated (FT) plots were compared to true values using Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient (ρc) on two dates in 2006 and 2007. Estimates were converted to Horsfall-Barratt (HB) mid-points and again compared for accuracy and precision. Estimates of severity from FT and NT plots were analyzed to ascertain effects of rater using both the NPE and HB values. Regardless of method, all raters showed a range of agreement with true values on FT and NT plots (ρc = 0 to 1). Use of the HB scale most often reduced agreement (84.4% of the time), and did not improve rater-associated bias of treatment mean severity estimates. Consequently, estimates of mean severity differed significantly among raters and from true values (F=126 to 1260, P=0.002 to<0.0001). However, a comparison of treatment effects showed that the true values and R1 to R4 all demonstrated significant effects of fungicide (F=101 to 1952, P=0.002 to <0.00001). Ranking of raters differed on one occasion when HB values were used. These results demonstrate the effect of the HB scale, and the need for accurate disease assessment to minimize over or underestimates compared to true severity so as to minimize the potential for type II errors. [less ▲]

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See detailX-Ray Emission from Magnetic Massive Stars
Nazé, Yaël ULg; Petit, Véronique; Rinbrand, Melanie et al

in The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series (2014), 215

Magnetically confined winds of early-type stars are expected to be sources of bright and hard X-rays. To clarify the systematics of the observed X-ray properties, we have analyzed a large series of ... [more ▼]

Magnetically confined winds of early-type stars are expected to be sources of bright and hard X-rays. To clarify the systematics of the observed X-ray properties, we have analyzed a large series of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, corresponding to all available exposures of known massive magnetic stars (over 100 exposures covering ~60% of stars compiled in the catalog of Petit et al.). We show that the X-ray luminosity is strongly correlated with the stellar wind mass-loss rate, with a power-law form that is slightly steeper than linear for the majority of the less luminous, lower-{\dot{M}} B stars and flattens for the more luminous, higher-{\dot{M}} O stars. As the winds are radiatively driven, these scalings can be equivalently written as relations with the bolometric luminosity. The observed X-ray luminosities, and their trend with mass-loss rates, are well reproduced by new MHD models, although a few overluminous stars (mostly rapidly rotating objects) exist. No relation is found between other X-ray properties (plasma temperature, absorption) and stellar or magnetic parameters, contrary to expectations (e.g., higher temperature for stronger mass-loss rate). This suggests that the main driver for the plasma properties is different from the main determinant of the X-ray luminosity. Finally, variations of the X-ray hardnesses and luminosities, in phase with the stellar rotation period, are detected for some objects and they suggest that some temperature stratification exists in massive stars' magnetospheres. Based on data collected with XMM-Newton and Chandra. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effects of rater bias on hypothesis testing when using different assessment methods for estimating disease severity.
CHIANG, KUO-SZU; Bock, Clive; El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg et al

in Phytopathology (2014), 104(11), 26

Bias (over and underestimates) in estimates of disease severity, and the impact of that inaccuracy on hypothesis testing using different disease scales was explored. Nearest percent estimates (NPE), the ... [more ▼]

Bias (over and underestimates) in estimates of disease severity, and the impact of that inaccuracy on hypothesis testing using different disease scales was explored. Nearest percent estimates (NPE), the Horsfall-Barratt (H-B) scale and four different linear category scales (5% and 10% increments, with and without additional grades at low severity) were compared. Actual values and estimates by 4 different raters of the severity (0 to 100%) of Septoria leaf blotch on leaves of winter wheat were used to develop distributions for a simulation model. The simulations were based on i) all the 4 raters data combined, ii) only the most accurate rater estimates, and iii) only the most biased rater. Regardless of the effect of rater ability, we found that, there were lower type II error rates with NPEs as compared with the other category scales at severities of 80 to 100%. On the other hand, with lower severities (0 to 20%), the 5% and 10% scales with additional grades had type II error rates comparable to those for the NPEs. Raters who overestimated severity and used the H-B scale had the highest risk of a type II error when the mean disease severity was low. Knowledge of how rater ability and scale type can affect hypothesis testing can be used to improve disease assessment as well as to provide a logical framework for developing standard area diagrams. [less ▲]

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See detailLe langage et l’homme
Dubuisson, Francois ULg

in Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique [En ligne] (2014), 10(11),

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See detailVizieR Online Data Catalog: Mixed modes in red giants (Mosser+, 2014)
Mosser, B.; Benomar, O.; Belkacem, K. et al

in VizieR Online Data Catalog (2014), 357

Seismic global parameters of the stars listed in the paper. Each star is identified with its KIC number (Kepler Input Catalog). The asymptotic frequency and period spacing are derived from the fit of the ... [more ▼]

Seismic global parameters of the stars listed in the paper. Each star is identified with its KIC number (Kepler Input Catalog). The asymptotic frequency and period spacing are derived from the fit of the radial and dipole oscillation modes. The stellar mass is derived from the seismic scaling relations. The evolutionary status is derived according to the location of the star in the DPi1 - Dnu diagram (Fig. 1) (1 data file). [less ▲]

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See detailDisease severity assessment in epidemiological studies: accuracy and reliability of visual estimates of Septoria leaf blotch (SLB) in winter wheat.
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; Kouadio, Louis; Mackels, Christophe et al

in Phytopathology (2014), 104(11), 37

The accuracy and reliability of visual assessments of SLB severity by raters (i.e. one plant pathologist with extensive experience and three other raters trained prior to field observations using standard ... [more ▼]

The accuracy and reliability of visual assessments of SLB severity by raters (i.e. one plant pathologist with extensive experience and three other raters trained prior to field observations using standard area diagrams and DISTRAIN) was determined by comparison with assumed actual values obtained by digital image analysis. Initially analyses were performed using SLB severity over the full 0-100% range; then, to explore error over short ranges of the 0-100% scale, the scale was divided into sequential 10%-increments based on the actual values. Lin’s concordance correlation (LCC) analysis demonstrated that all raters were accurate when compared over the whole severity range (LCC coefficient (ρc)= 0.92-0.99). However, agreement between actual and visual SLB severities was less good when compared over the short intervals of the 10×10% classes (ρc= -0.12-0.99), demonstrating that agreement will vary depending on the actual disease range over which it is compared. Inter-rater reliability between each pair of raters over the full 0-100% range (correlation analysis r= 0.970-0.992, P<0.0001), and inter-class correlation coefficient (ρ≥ 0.927) were very high. This study provides new insight into using a full range of actual disease severity vs limited ranges to ensure a realistic measure of rater accuracy and reliability, in addition to contributing to the ongoing debate on the use of visual disease estimates based on the 0-100% ratio scale for epidemiological research. [less ▲]

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See detailInstrumental methods for professional and amateur collaborations in planetary astronomy
Mousis, O.; Hueso, R.; Beaulieu, J.-P. et al

in Experimental Astronomy (2014), 38

Amateur contributions to professional publications have increased exponentially over the last decades in the field of planetary astronomy. Here we review the different domains of the field in which ... [more ▼]

Amateur contributions to professional publications have increased exponentially over the last decades in the field of planetary astronomy. Here we review the different domains of the field in which collaborations between professional and amateur astronomers are effective and regularly lead to scientific publications.We discuss the instruments, detectors, software and methodologies typically used by amateur astronomers to collect the scientific data in the different domains of interest. Amateur contributions to the monitoring of planets and interplanetary matter, characterization of asteroids and comets, as well as the determination of the physical properties of Kuiper Belt Objects and exoplanets are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailGain-of-function of mutant p53: mutant p53 enhances cancer progression by inhibiting KLF17 expression in invasive breast carcinoma cells.
Ali, Amjad ULg; Shah AS; Ahmad A

in Cancer Letters (2014)

Kruppel-like-factor 17 (KLF17) is a negative regulator of metastasis and epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT). However, its expression is downregulated in metastatic breast cancer that contains p53 ... [more ▼]

Kruppel-like-factor 17 (KLF17) is a negative regulator of metastasis and epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT). However, its expression is downregulated in metastatic breast cancer that contains p53 mutations. Here, we show that mutant-p53 plays a key role to suppress KLF17 and thereby enhances cancer progression, which defines novel gain-of-function (GOF) of mutant-p53. Mutant-p53 interacts with KLF17 and antagonizes KLF17 mediated EMT genes transcription. Depletion of KLF17 promotes cell viability, decreases apoptosis and induces drug resistance in metastatic breast cancer cells. KLF17 suppresses cell migration and invasion by decreasing CD44, PAI-1 and Cyclin-D1 expressions. Taken together, our results show that KLF17 is important for the suppression of metastasis and could be a potential therapeutic target during chemotherapy. [less ▲]

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See detailBuilding galaxies, stars, planets and the ingredients for life between the stars. The science behind the European Ultraviolet-Visible Observatory
Gómez de Castro, Ana I.; Appourchaux, Thierry; Barstow, Martin A. et al

in Astrophysics and Space Science (2014), 354

This contribution gathers the contents of the white paper submitted by the UV community to the Call issued by the European Space Agency in March 2013, for the definition of the L2 and L3 missions in the ... [more ▼]

This contribution gathers the contents of the white paper submitted by the UV community to the Call issued by the European Space Agency in March 2013, for the definition of the L2 and L3 missions in the ESA science program. We outlined the key science that a large UV facility would make possible and the instrumentation to be implemented. The growth of luminous structures and the building blocks of life in the Universe began as primordial gas was processed in stars and mixed at galactic scales. The mechanisms responsible for this development are not well-understood and have changed over the intervening 13 billion years. To follow the evolution of matter over cosmic time, it is necessary to study the strongest (resonance) transitions of the most abundant species in the Universe. Most of them are in the ultraviolet (UV; 950 Å-3000 Å) spectral range that is unobservable from the ground. A versatile space observatory with UV sensitivity a factor of 50-100 greater than existing facilities will revolutionize our understanding of the Universe. Habitable planets grow in protostellar discs under ultraviolet irradiation, a by-product of the star-disk interaction that drives the physical and chemical evolution of discs and young planetary systems. The electronic transitions of the most abundant molecules are pumped by this UV field, providing unique diagnostics of the planet-forming environment that cannot be accessed from the ground. Earth's atmosphere is in constant interaction with the interplanetary medium and the solar UV radiation field. A 50-100 times improvement in sensitivity would enable the observation of the key atmospheric ingredients of Earth-like exoplanets (carbon, oxygen, ozone), provide crucial input for models of biologically active worlds outside the solar system, and provide the phenomenological baseline to understand the Earth atmosphere in context. [less ▲]

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See detailControl of molecular dynamics with zero-area fields. application to molecular orientation and photodissociation
Sugny, Dominique; Vranckx, Stéphane; Ndong, Mamadou et al

in Physical Review A (2014), 90

The constraint of time-integrated zero area on the laser field is a fundamental requirement, both theoretically and experimentally, in the control of molecular dynamics. By using techniques of local and ... [more ▼]

The constraint of time-integrated zero area on the laser field is a fundamental requirement, both theoretically and experimentally, in the control of molecular dynamics. By using techniques of local and optimal control theory, we show how to enforce this constraint in two benchmark control problems, namely, molecular orientation and photofragmentation. The origin and the physical implications for the dynamics of this zero-area control field are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailThe phycologist Pierre Compère: his contribution to cyanobacterial studies
Golubic, Stjepko; Wilmotte, Annick ULg

in Plant Ecology and Evolution (2014), 147(3), 307-310

At the occasion of the 80th birthday of Pierre Compère, his rich career as a phycologist and cyanobacteriologist is placed in the context of the advances of the scientific theories, the evolution of the ... [more ▼]

At the occasion of the 80th birthday of Pierre Compère, his rich career as a phycologist and cyanobacteriologist is placed in the context of the advances of the scientific theories, the evolution of the cyanobacterial taxonomy and the nomenclatural discussions linked to the utilization of two different Codes of nomenclature. [less ▲]

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See detail"Über Ländergrenzen hinaus" - Der Deutsche Buchpreis und seine Wirkung
Houscheid, Karin ULg

in Literaturkritik.de (2014)

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See detailLes progrès de la poésie en 1867. Portrait de Gautier en grand rapporteur
Durand, Pascal ULg

in Bulletin de la Société Théophile Gautier (2014), 36

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See detailThe role of olfaction in wireworms: a review on foraging behavior and sensory apparatus
Barsics, Fanny ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(4), 524-535

Introduction Integrated management of wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) depends upon approaches applied both above- and belowground, and over several spatial scales. While foraging, these soil pests use ... [more ▼]

Introduction Integrated management of wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) depends upon approaches applied both above- and belowground, and over several spatial scales. While foraging, these soil pests use biotic and abiotic signals to orientate towards target plant organs. Development of efficient techniques for implementation in integrated strategies relies upon improved knowledge of this process. In particular, an important step consists of elucidating the role of volatile organic compounds (VOC), emitted by belowground plant organs, in wireworm chemical ecology. This would have a positive impact on push-pull strategies and varietal selection developed against these insects. Literature In this work, we summarized the available data regarding wireworm foraging behavior as well as variables that should be considered when studying the potential role of plant-produced volatile semiochemicals. This includes CO2 gradients and other host-related cues, temperature, relative humidity and soil moisture, and wireworm physiological stage. We also review what is known of the sensory apparatus of wireworms, since this is involved in every step of the foraging process. Conclusion Some baseline data for studying VOC related wireworm foraging behavior exists. Using it as a tool in applied entomology should result in discovery of the semiochemicals that underpin trophic interactions involving these pests. However, most of the key pest species are not fully described with regards to the parameters detailed here. Obtaining accurate information to fill the current knowledge gaps will be needed in order to devise new integrated management strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailPrediction of mean and turbulent kinetic energy in rectangular shallow reservoirs
Camnasio, Erica; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics (2014), 8(4),

Shallow rectangular reservoirs are common structures in urban hydraulics and river engineering. Despite their simple geometry, complex symmetric and asymmetric flow fields develop in such reservoirs ... [more ▼]

Shallow rectangular reservoirs are common structures in urban hydraulics and river engineering. Despite their simple geometry, complex symmetric and asymmetric flow fields develop in such reservoirs, depending on their expansion ratio and length-to-width ratio. The original contribution of this study is the analysis of the kinetic energy content of the mean flow, based on UVP velocity measurements carried throughout the reservoir in eleven different geometric configurations. A new relationship is derived between the specific mean kinetic energy and the reservoir shape factor. For most considered geometric configurations, leading to four different flow patterns, the experimentally observed flow fields and mean kinetic energy contents are successfully reproduced by an operational numerical model based on the depth-averaged flow equations and a two-length-scale k-e turbulence closure. The analysis also highlights the better performance of this depth-averaged k-e model compared to an algebraic turbulence model. Finally, the turbulent kinetic energy in the reservoir is derived from the experimental measurements and the corresponding numerical predictions based on the k-e model agree satisfactorily in the main jet but not in the recirculation zones. [less ▲]

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See detailLes inhibiteurs de la PSCK9: une innovation majeure dans le traitement des dyslipidémies ?
PAQUOT, Nicolas ULg

in ABD- le supplément du médecin (2014), 57(6), 6-7

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See detailOncogenic BRAF induces chronic ER stress condition resulting in increased basal autophagy and apoptotic resistance of cutaneous melanoma.
Corazzari, M; Rapino, Francesca ULg; Ciclosanti, F et al

in Cell Death & Differentiation (2014)

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See detailDe l’usage des programmes électoraux. Compétition sur enjeux et attribution des compétences au sein du gouvernement wallon 2014-2019
Piet, Grégory ULg

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2014), 3

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See detailPlasma riche en plaquettes et lésions tendineuses
KAUX, Jean-François ULg; Drion, Pierre ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014), 69(Synthèse 2014), 72-77

Platelets contain growth factors released during their degranulation following activation. These growth factors promote tissue remodeling, wound healing and angiogenesis. Currently, the clinical effect of ... [more ▼]

Platelets contain growth factors released during their degranulation following activation. These growth factors promote tissue remodeling, wound healing and angiogenesis. Currently, the clinical effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) is still discussed or even controversial. Our researches have evaluated the effectiveness of PRP on the healing of animal tendons and human suffering from chronic jumper's knee. [less ▲]

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See detailSputum cytokines levels in patients undergoing hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) and comparison with healthy subjects and COPD: a pilot study
MOERMANS, Catherine ULg; BONNET, Christophe ULg; WILLEMS, Evelyne ULg et al

in Bone Marrow Transplantation (2014), 49(11), 1382-1388

Patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) display an airway neutrophilic inflammation before the transplantation that persists over the years. In this study, we have investigated ... [more ▼]

Patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) display an airway neutrophilic inflammation before the transplantation that persists over the years. In this study, we have investigated the cytokine profile over a period of one year in sputum supernatant of patients who underwent HSCT. We have measured sputum supernatant levels of TNF-α, TGF-β1, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, and IFN-γ in 49 HSCT patients and compared the results with those found in 40 COPD and 54 healthy subjects matched for age. Compared to healthy subjects, before the transplantation, HSCT patients exhibited raised levels of IL-6 (p<0.001) and IL-8 (p<0.05) while the other cytokines were generally poorly detectable. This picture was rather similar to what is seen in COPD even if cytokine levels were much greater in the latter with IL-8 being significantly greater in COPD than in HSCT patients (p<0.0001). In the 1 year following the transplantation, sputum IL-6 and IL-8 did not differ any longer compared to healthy subjects. Overall in HSCT patients, sputum IL-8 and IL-6 correlated with sputum neutrophil counts (r=0.4, p<0.0001; r=0.42, p<0.0001, respectively). In conclusion, sputum IL-6 and IL-8 may play a role in neutrophilic airway inflammation seen in patients undergoing HSCT. [less ▲]

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See detailGlioblastoma stem cells: new insights in therapeutic strategies
Goffart, Nicolas ULg; Dedobbeleer, Matthias ULg; Rogister, Bernard ULg

in Future Neurology (2014), 9(6), 639-653

Despite notable achievements in glioblastoma diagnosis and treatment, the prognosis of glioblastoma patients remains poor and reflects the failure of current therapeutic modalities. In this context ... [more ▼]

Despite notable achievements in glioblastoma diagnosis and treatment, the prognosis of glioblastoma patients remains poor and reflects the failure of current therapeutic modalities. In this context, innovative therapeutic strategies have recently been developed to specifically target glioblastoma stem cells, a subpopulation of tumor cells involved in experimental tumorigenesis and known to be critical for tumor recurrence and therapeutic resistance. The current review summarizes the different trails which make glioblastoma stem cells resistant to treatments, mainly focusing on radio-, chemo- and immunotherapy. This broad overview might actually help to set up new bases for glioblastoma therapy in order to better fight tumor relapses and to improve the patients’ prognosis. [less ▲]

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See detailEnterovirus persistence as a mechanism in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes
Alidjinou, Enagnon Kazali; Sané, Famara; Engelmann, Ilka et al

in Discovery Medicine (2014), 18

Beyond acute clinical conditions, the role of enteroviruses (EVs) in chronic human diseases has been described. Although they are considered as highly cytolytic viruses, EVs can persist in various tissues ... [more ▼]

Beyond acute clinical conditions, the role of enteroviruses (EVs) in chronic human diseases has been described. Although they are considered as highly cytolytic viruses, EVs can persist in various tissues. The persistence is believed to play a major role in the pathogenesis of EV related chronic dis- eases such as type 1 diabetes (T1D). T1D is charac- terized by an autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells, and results from interplay between a genetic predisposition, the immune system, and environmental factors. EVs and especially group B coxsackieviruses (CVB) have been the most incrimi- nated as exogenous agents involved in the develop- ment of T1D. Enteroviral persistence is the result of a virus-host coevolution combining a cell resistance to lysis through mutations or down-regulation of viral receptor, and a decrease of the viral replication by genomic modifications or the production of a sta- ble double-stranded RNA form. CVB can persist in pancreatic cells and therefore could trigger, in genet- ically predisposed individuals, the autoimmune destruction of beta cells mainly through an activa- tion of inflammation. The persistence of the virus in other tissues such as intestine, blood cells, and thy- mus has been described, and could also contribute to some extent to the enteroviral pathogenesis of T1D. The molecular and cellular mechanisms of CVB per- sistence and the link with the development of T1D should be investigated further. [less ▲]

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See detailA new long-tailed bsal bird from the Lower Cretaceous of north-eastern China
Lefevre, Ulysse ULg; Hu, Dongyu; Escuillié, François et al

in Biological Journal of the Linnean Society (2014), 113(3), 790-804

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See detailDépression et diabète de type 2. Analyse étiopathogènique d'une comorbidité fréquente
LUPPENS, David ULg; PIETTE, Catherine ULg; RADERMECKER, R.P et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014), 69(11), 611-617

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See detailProjections graphiques de quelques espaces de la vie sociale au Japon
Badir, Sémir ULg

in Lexia (2014), 17-18

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See detailBook Review: Ralf Brand and Sarah Fregonese 2013: The Radicals’ City: Urban Environment, Polarisation, Cohesion. Surrey: Ashgate.
Farah, Jihad ULg

in International Journal of Urban and Regional Research (2014), 38(6),

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See detailMapping French terms in a Belgian guideline on heart failure to international classifications and nomenclatures: the devil is in the detail.
Jamoulle, Marc ULg; Cardillo, Elena; Roumier, Joseph et al

in Informatics in Primary Care (2014), 4

Introduction: With growing sophistication of eHealth platforms, the ability increases to share medical information across patients, health care providers, institutions and across borders. This implies ... [more ▼]

Introduction: With growing sophistication of eHealth platforms, the ability increases to share medical information across patients, health care providers, institutions and across borders. This implies more stringent demands on the quality of data-entry at the point-of-care. Non-native English speaking general practitioners experience difficulties in interacting with international classification systems and nomenclatures to facilitate the secondary use of their data and to ensure semantic interoperability. Aim: To identify words and phrases pertaining to the heart failure domain and to explore the difficulties in mapping to corresponding concepts in ICPC-2, ICD-10, SNOMED-CT, and UMLS. Methods: The medical concepts in a Belgian guideline for General Practitioners (GPs) in its French version were extracted manually and coded first in ICPC-2, then ICD-10 by a physician, an expert in classification systems. In addition, mappings were sought with SNOMED-CT and UMLS concepts, using the UMLS SNOMED-CT browser. Results: We retained 143 words and phrases, of which 128 referred to a single concept (1-to-1 mapping), while 15 referred to 2 or more concepts (1-to-n mapping to ICPC rubrics or to the other nomenclatures). In the guideline, words or phrases were often too general for adequate correspondence. Marked discrepancy between semantic tags and types was found. Conclusion: This study illustrates the variability of the various international classifications and nomenclatures, the need for structured guidelines with more attention to precise wording, and the need for classification expertise embedded in sophisticated terminological resources. End-users need support to perform their clinical work in their own language, while still assuring standardized and semantic interoperable medical registration. Collaboration between computational linguists, knowledge engineers, health informaticians and domain experts is needed. [less ▲]

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See detailPractical aspects of genome-wide association interaction analysis.
Gusareva, Elena ULg; Van Steen, Kristel ULg

in Human Genetics (2014), 133(11), 1343-58

Large-scale epistasis studies can give new clues to system-level genetic mechanisms and a better understanding of the underlying biology of human complex disease traits. Though many novel methods have ... [more ▼]

Large-scale epistasis studies can give new clues to system-level genetic mechanisms and a better understanding of the underlying biology of human complex disease traits. Though many novel methods have been proposed to carry out such studies, so far only a few of them have demonstrated replicable results. Here, we propose a minimal protocol for genome-wide association interaction (GWAI) analysis to identify gene–gene interactions from large-scale genomic data. The different steps of the developed protocol are discussed and motivated, and encompass interaction screening in a hypothesis-free and hypothesisdriven manner. In particular, we examine a wide range of aspects related to epistasis discovery in the context of complex traits in humans, hereby giving practical recommendations for data quality control, variant selection or prioritization strategies and analytic tools, replication and meta-analysis, biological validation of statistical findings and other related aspects. The minimal protocol provides guidelines and attention points for anyone involved in GWAI analysis and aims to enhance the biological relevance of GWAI findings. At the same time, the protocol improves a better assessment of strengths and weaknesses of published GWAI methodologies. [less ▲]

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See detailIsotopic tracing of sediment components that are assimilated by epibiontic juveniles of Holothuria scabra (Holothuroidea)
Plotieau, Thomas; Lepoint, Gilles ULg; Lavitra, Thiery et al

in Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom (2014), 94(7), 1485-1490

Despite H. scabra’s wide distribution and status as one of the best candidates for sustaining the development of tropical sea cucumber aquaculture, very few data are available regarding the organic ... [more ▼]

Despite H. scabra’s wide distribution and status as one of the best candidates for sustaining the development of tropical sea cucumber aquaculture, very few data are available regarding the organic fraction it assimilates in practice. In this study we report experimental results where H. scabra’s diet was supplemented with various 15N-labelled organic fractions of sediment. We used juveniles weighing between 38- 88 mg at the beginning of the experiment (ca. 2 cm long and 30 days old). Their growth was measured over a four week period and their 15N composition recorded. The results showed that H. scabra juveniles assimilated all added organic components from both dissolved and particulate fractions of the sediment. Bacteria seem to be an important food source for juveniles, even more so than microphytobenthos (diatoms). [less ▲]

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See detailEstetrol attenuates neonatal hypoxic–ischemic brain injury
Tskitishvili, Ekaterine ULg; Nisolle, Michelle ULg; Munaut, Carine ULg et al

in Experimental Neurology (2014), 261

Estetrol (E4) is a recently described natural estrogen with four hydroxyl-groups that is synthesized exclusively during pregnancy by the human fetal liver. It has important antioxidative activity. The aim ... [more ▼]

Estetrol (E4) is a recently described natural estrogen with four hydroxyl-groups that is synthesized exclusively during pregnancy by the human fetal liver. It has important antioxidative activity. The aim of the present study was to define the importance of E4 in the attenuation of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Antioxidative effect of 650μM, 3.25mM and 6.5mM E4 on primary hippocampal cell cultures was studied before/after H202-induced oxidative stress. To examine oxidative stress and cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase activity and cell proliferation colorimetric assays were performed. To study the neuroprotective and therapeutic effects of E4 in vivo neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy model of 7-day-old newborn rat pups was used. The neuroprotective and therapeutic effects of estetrol before/after hypoxic-ischemic insult was studied in 1mg/kg/day, 5mg/kg/day, 10mg/kg/day, 50mg/kg/day E4 pretreated/treated groups and compared with the sham and the vehicle treated groups. The body temperature of the rat pups was examined along with their body and brain weights. Brains were studied at the level of the hippocampus and cortex. Intact cell counting and expressions of microtubule-associated protein-2, doublecortin and vascular-endothelial growth factor were evaluated by histo- and immunohistochemistry. ELISAs were performed on blood samples to detect concentrations of S100B and glial fibrillary acidic protein as brain damage markers. This work reveals for the first time that E4 significantly decreases LDH activity and enhances cell proliferation in primary hippocampal neuronal cell cultures in vitro, and decreases the early gray matter loss and promotes neuro- and angiogenesis in vivo. [less ▲]

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See detailVegetative Regeneration Capacities of Five Ornamental Plant Invaders After Shredding
Monty, Arnaud ULg; Eugène, Marie; Mahy, Grégory ULg

in Environmental Management (2014)

Vegetation management often involves shredding to dispose of cut plant material or to destroy the vegetation itself. In the case of invasive plants, this can represent an environmental risk if the ... [more ▼]

Vegetation management often involves shredding to dispose of cut plant material or to destroy the vegetation itself. In the case of invasive plants, this can represent an environmental risk if the shredded material exhibits vegetative regeneration capacities. We tested the effect of shredding on aboveground and below-ground vegetative material of five ornamental widespread invaders in Western Europe that are likely to be managed by cutting and shredding techniques: Buddleja davidii (butterfly bush, Scrophulariaceae), Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed, Polygonaceae), Spiraea x billardii He´rincq (Billard’s bridewort, Rosaceae), Solidago gigantea (giant goldenrod, Asteraceae), and Rhus typhina L. (staghorn sumac, Anacardiaceae). We looked at signs of vegetative regeneration and biomass production, and analyzed the data with respect to the season of plant cutting (spring vs summer), the type of plant material (aboveground vs below-ground), and the shredding treatment (shredded vs control). All species were capable of vegetative regeneration, especially the belowground material. We found differences among species, but the regeneration potential was generally still present after shredding despite a reduction of growth rates. Although it should not be excluded in all cases (e.g., destruction of giant goldenrod and staghorn sumac aboveground material), the use of a shredder to destroy woody alien plant material cannot be considered as a general management option without significant environmental risk. [less ▲]

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See detailA BCool magnetic snapshot survey of solar-type stars
Marsden, S.C.; Petit, P.; Jeffers, S.V. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2014), 444

We present the results of a major high-resolution spectropolarimetric BCool project magnetic survey of 170 solar-type stars. Surface magnetic fields were detected on 67 stars, with 21 classified as mature ... [more ▼]

We present the results of a major high-resolution spectropolarimetric BCool project magnetic survey of 170 solar-type stars. Surface magnetic fields were detected on 67 stars, with 21 classified as mature solar-type stars, a result that increases by a factor of 4 the number of mature solar-type stars on which magnetic fields have been observed. In addition, a magnetic field was detected for 3 out of 18 of the subgiant stars surveyed. For the population of K-dwarfs, the mean value of |Bl| (|Bl|mean) was also found to be higher (5.7 G) than |Bl|mean measured for the G-dwarfs (3.2 G) and the F-dwarfs (3.3 G). For the sample as a whole, |Bl|mean increases with rotation rate and decreases with age, and the upper envelope for |Bl| correlates well with the observed chromospheric emission. Stars with a chromospheric S-index greater than about 0.2 show a high magnetic field detection rate and so offer optimal targets for future studies. This survey constitutes the most extensive spectropolarimetric survey of cool stars undertaken to date, and suggests that it is feasible to pursue magnetic mapping of a wide range of moderately active solar-type stars to improve our understanding of their surface fields and dynamos. [less ▲]

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See detailRetrofitting the suburbs: Insulation, density, urban form and location
Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Environmental management and sustainable development (2014), 3(2), 138-153

The effects of urban sprawl have been well documented, particularly regarding energy consumption. Suburban neighbourhoods are known to be energy inefficient and urban sprawl is considered as a major issue ... [more ▼]

The effects of urban sprawl have been well documented, particularly regarding energy consumption. Suburban neighbourhoods are known to be energy inefficient and urban sprawl is considered as a major issue for sustainable development. To improve the energy efficiency of existing suburban urban fabrics is a major challenge that must be addressed to favour a sustainability transition of our built environment. In this context, this paper aims at investigating several scenarios that could be developed to improve the sustainability of existing suburban neighbourhoods: three main types of scenarios (building insulation, density, and urban form) and twelve sub-scenarios, which are focused on the possible evolution of the existing suburban building stocks, are proposed. Quantitative methods developed in previous research are used to assess and compare building and transportation energy consumption of a representative suburban case study. This application aims at investigating two main research questions: (1) "how to intervene in suburban neighbourhoods?" and (2) «where to intervene?" The main results of this application, which are focused on energy efficiency, are then studied in a larger framework to highlight their opportunities and constraints. The main findings of the paper are that, beyond the traditional polarisation of the debates on the energy efficiency of our built environment between the “compact” and the “sprawled” city, a new pragmatic paradigm, which is focused on the smooth densification of existing suburban neighbourhoods, can make them evolve towards greater sustainability. [less ▲]

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See detailLa Gestion des âges : réalités et défis
Dujardin, Jean-Marie ULg; Cornet, Annie ULg; Randaxhe, David ULg

in Revue Management et Avenir [= RMA] (2014), 73

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See detailImprints of the quasar structure in time-delay light curves: Microlensing-aided reverberation mapping
Sluse, Dominique ULg; Tewes, M.

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 571(A60), 10

Owing to the advent of large area photometric surveys, the possibility to use broad band photometric data, instead of spectra, to measure the size of the broad line region of active galactic nuclei, has ... [more ▼]

Owing to the advent of large area photometric surveys, the possibility to use broad band photometric data, instead of spectra, to measure the size of the broad line region of active galactic nuclei, has raised a large interest. We describe here a new method using time-delay lensed quasars where one or several images are affected by microlensing due to stars in the lensing galaxy. Because microlensing decreases (or increases) the flux of the continuum compared to the broad line region, it changes the contrast between these two emission components. We show that this effect can be used to effectively disentangle the intrinsic variability of those two regions, offering the opportunity to perform reverberation mapping based on single band photometric data. Based on simulated light curves generated using a damped random walk model of quasar variability, we show that measurement of the size of the broad line region can be achieved using this method, provided one spectrum has been obtained independently during the monitoring. This method is complementary to photometric reverberation mapping and could also be extended to multi-band data. Because the effect described above produces a variability pattern in difference light curves between pairs of lensed images which is correlated with the time-lagged continuum variability, it can potentially produce systematic errors in measurement of time delays between pairs of lensed images. Simple simulations indicate that time-delay measurement techniques which use a sufficiently flexible model for the extrinsic variability are not affected by this effect and produce accurate time delays. [less ▲]

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See detailTrajectory-Based Supplementary Damping Control for Power System Electromechanical Oscillations
Wang, Da ULg; Glavic, Mevludin ULg; Wehenkel, Louis ULg

in IEEE Transactions on Power Systems (2014), 29(6), 2835-2845

This paper considers a trajectory-based approach to determine control signals superimposed to those of existing controllers so as to enhance the damping of electromechanical oscillations. This approach is ... [more ▼]

This paper considers a trajectory-based approach to determine control signals superimposed to those of existing controllers so as to enhance the damping of electromechanical oscillations. This approach is framed as a discrete-time, multi-step optimization problem which can be solved by model-based and/or by learning-based methods. This paper proposes to apply a model-free tree-based batch mode Reinforcement Learning (RL) algorithm to perform such a supplementary damping control based only on information collected from observed trajectories of the power system. This RL-based supplementary damping control scheme is first implemented on a single generator and then several possibilities are investigated for extending it to multiple generators. Simulations are carried out on a 16-generators medium size power system model, where also possible benefits of combining this RL-based control with Model Predictive Control (MPC) are assessed. [less ▲]

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See detailCompte rendu de "Où est passé la critique sociale", P. Corcuff, La découverte, 2013
Frère, Bruno ULg

in SociologieS (2014)

L’ouvrage dont Philippe Corcuff nous suggère ici un grand résumé est stimulant à plus d’un titre. Comme à son habitude l’auteur fait montre d’une étonnante faculté à circuler entre les différents espaces ... [more ▼]

L’ouvrage dont Philippe Corcuff nous suggère ici un grand résumé est stimulant à plus d’un titre. Comme à son habitude l’auteur fait montre d’une étonnante faculté à circuler entre les différents espaces de réflexion de l’agir humain, balayant tour à tour le champ de la sociologie, de la philosophie, du cinéma, de la littérature, de l’engagement social et politique ou de la culture populaire. Passant de Michel Jonaz à Foucault, de Weber à Al Pacino, de Marcos à Magris, Corcuff jongle assez magistralement avec des univers distincts que nos habitudes intellectuelles aiment séparer tantôt par souci prétendu de « scientificité » tantôt parce que, bon gré mal gré, nos esprits de chercheurs en sciences humaines ont été configurés de telle sorte que les passerelles entre divers champs de réflexions possibles (artistiques, politiques, sociologiques, etc.) ne se construisent même plus. Je voudrais donc ouvrir la discussion autour de Où est passé la critique sociale ? en saluant l’audace des ponts entrepris par Philippe Corcuff. Que l’on accepte de le suivre sur chacun d’entre eux ou pas n’enlève rien à la qualité de cette tentative intellectuellement risquée (tant les espaces parcourus sont vastes) à l’heure où la doxa académique, comme dirait Bourdieu, voudrait que nous nous enfermions tous exclusivement dans l’ultra-spécialisation scientifique de micro-catégories du savoir rassemblées dans une case de la sous-spécialité de la discipline que nous avons choisi. Cela afin de parvenir à pointer du doigt un détail qui sera jugé suffisamment original par les rares pairs aussi spécialisés que nous pour décrocher le graal d’une publication dans une sacro-sainte revue rankée. Ainsi, Corcuff semble nous dire : je ne suis pas spécialiste des gender studies mais j’ose évoquer le féminisme. Je ne suis pas spécialiste de la Grèce Antique mais j’ose citer Aristote. On se moque du contenu des textes de tel chanteur populaire, mais j’ose indiquer en quoi il recèle, au même titre que le féminisme ou Aristote, des ressources pour construire une sociologie ou, plus simplement, une esquisse de pensée analytique. Corcuff démontre qu’il est possible de rompre les barrières, de fréquenter des terres improbables pour faire naître le plaisir de la réflexion. Et c’est très heureux. Cette appréciation globale posée, je voudrais à présent entrer dans le vif du sujet et structurer mon commentaire en deux temps. Le premier voudrait insister sur les deux principales qualités des deux textes. De par la variété des paradigmes sociologiques, philosophiques, anthropologiques ou historiques convoqués, Où est passée la critique sociale ? et son résumé dévoilent un intérêt pédagogique singulier pour tout qui désire fréquenter ces disciplines. D’autre part, l’un des trois axes de l’ouvrage repérés par Corcuff dans son grand résumé mérite pour sa part clairement l’intérêt des spécialistes contemporains de la critique sociale. Le second temps de mon commentaire traitera alors de l’écueil que je pense cette fois déceler dans le résumé et l’ouvrage. Cet écueil illustre d’ailleurs une légère insatisfaction ressentie à l’égard de plusieurs ouvrages de l’auteur, insatisfaction précisément due à la frustration de ne pas voir l’originalité de sa démarche être conduite à son terme. Pour le dire rapidement, je chercherai à indiquer que, d’une certaine manière, la tentative de Corcuff a le défaut de ses qualités : il en fait trop et trop peu à la fois. Tout se passe comme si l’ouvrage – et le résumé – n’étaient qu’un succession de notes éparses qui se succèdent au sujet d’un très grand nombre d’auteurs, cités parfois lapidairement, souvent très rapidement, sur un concept ou l’autre, jamais développé de façon systématique, en arguant qu’au bout du compte, la démarche se justifie par la légitimité du bricolage en sociologie. A ce titre, l’ouvrage peut parfois apparaître redondant. Il semble en effet ressasser tout du long la même idée (intéressante au demeurant) d’une sociologie comme boîte à outil, assumant son incomplétude et ses insuffisances, en la déclinant il est vrai sous plusieurs angles. Ceci sans jamais véritablement entrer dans le vif du sujet et entreprendre soit l’approfondissement théorique de son intuition fondamentale soit son application empirique dans une enquête approfondie. [less ▲]

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See detailLa dépression à l'adolescence: Quels signes ? Quand s'inquiéter ?
Boulard, Aurore ULg

in Eduquer : Tribune Laïque (2014), 109

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See detailTwo new aromadendrane sesquiterpenes from the stem bark of Alafia multiflora
Tchinda Tiabou, Alembert ULg; Tsala, David E.; Nnanga, Nga et al

in Natural Product Communications (2014), 9(12), 1673-1675

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See detailSpasticity in disorders of consciousness: a behavioral study
Thibaut, Aurore ULg; Chatelle, Camille ULg; Wannez, Sarah ULg et al

in European Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation (2014)

Background: Spasticity is a frequent complication after severe brain injury, which may impede the rehabilitation process and diminish the patients’ quality of life. Aim: We here investigate the presence ... [more ▼]

Background: Spasticity is a frequent complication after severe brain injury, which may impede the rehabilitation process and diminish the patients’ quality of life. Aim: We here investigate the presence of spasticity in a population of non-communicative patients with disorders of consciousness. We also evaluate the correlation between spasticity and potential factors of co-morbidity, frequency of physical therapy, time since insult presence of pain, presence of tendon retraction, etiology and diagnosis. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: University Hospital of Liège, Belgium. Population: 65 patients with chronic (>3 months post insult) disorders of consciousness were included (22 women; mean age: 44±14y; 40 with traumatic etiology; 40 in a minimally conscious state; time since insult: 39±37months). Methods: Spasticity was measured with the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) and pain was assessed using the Nociception Coma Scale-Revised (NCS-R). Results: Out of 65 patients, 58 demonstrated signs of spasticity (89%; MAS ≥ 1), including 39 who showed severe spasticity (60%; MAS ≥ 3). Patients with spasticity receiving anti-spastic medication were more spastic than unmedicated patients. A negative correlation was observed between the severity of spasticity and the frequency of physical therapy. MAS scores correlated positively with time since injury and NCS-R scores. We did not observe a difference of spasticity between the diagnostic. Conclusion: A large proportion of patients with disorders of consciousness develop severe spasticity, possibly affecting their functional recovery and their quality of life. The observed correlation between degrees of spasticity and pain scores highlights the importance of pain management in these patients with altered states of consciousness. Finally, the relationship between spasticity and treatment (i.e., pharmacological and physical therapy) should be further investigated in order to improve clinical care. Clinical Rehabilitation Impact: Managing spasticity at first signs could improve rehabilitation of patients with disorders of consciousness and maximize their chances of recovery. In addition, decreasing this trouble could allow a better quality of life for these non-communicative patients. [less ▲]

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See detailCompte-rendu de l'ouvrage de D. Chancé & A. Ricard : Traductions postcoloniales
Oumarou Mal Mazou, Rachid ULg

in African Literature Today (2014), 32

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See detailRecommandations européennes concernant la prise en charge de l'embolie pulmonaire.
MELISSOPOULOU, Maria ULg; ANCION, Arnaud ULg; LANCELLOTTI, Patrizio ULg

in Revue Medicale de Liege (2014), 69(11), 594-599

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See detailRaman hyperspectral imaging: a single tool to characterise pharmaceutical products
Netchacovitch, Lauranne ULg; De Bleye, Charlotte ULg; Chavez, Pierre-François ULg et al

in European Pharmaceutical Review (2014), 19(5), 8-11

Raman hyperspectral imaging is an increasingly used tool in the pharmaceutical field because it allows for the investigation of many characteristics on a solid sample. This paper delves into Raman ... [more ▼]

Raman hyperspectral imaging is an increasingly used tool in the pharmaceutical field because it allows for the investigation of many characteristics on a solid sample. This paper delves into Raman spectroscopy and imaging, including spectral and spatial information, and presents some applications of Raman hyperspectral imaging in the pharmaceutical field. [less ▲]

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See detailSex Differences in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: the Role of Sex Hormones.
Makrygiannis, Georgios ULg; Courtois, Audrey ULg; Drion, Pierre ULg et al

in Annals of vascular surgery (2014), 28(8), 1946-1958

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a complex multifactorial disease with genetic and environmental components. AAA is more common in males, whereas women have a greater risk of rupture and more frequently ... [more ▼]

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a complex multifactorial disease with genetic and environmental components. AAA is more common in males, whereas women have a greater risk of rupture and more frequently have concomitant thoracic aortic aneurysms. Moreover, women are diagnosed with AAA about 10 years later and seem to be protected by female sex hormones. In this MEDLINE-based review of literature we examined human and animal, in vivo and in vitro studies, to further deepen our understanding of the sexual dimorphism of AAA. We focus on the role of sex hormones during the formation and growth of AAA. Endogenous estrogens and exogenous 17beta-estradiol were found to exert favorable actions protecting from AAA in animal models, whereas exogenous hormone replacement therapy in humans had inconclusive results. Androgens, known to have detrimental effects in the vasculature, in sufficient levels maintain the integrity of the aortic wall through their anabolic actions and act differentially in males and females, whereas lower levels of testosterone have been associated with AAA in humans. In conclusion, sex differences remain an important area of AAA research, but further studies especially in humans are needed. Furthermore, differential molecular mechanisms of sex hormones constitute a potential therapeutic target for AAA. [less ▲]

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See detailLa strega, la contessa, il ragno. Sciascia e i differenziali della storia
Fichera, Gabriele ULg

in Todo modo. Rivista internazionale di studi sciasciani (2014), Anno IV

Analysing 1912 + 1, this essay sets out to demonstrate the ways in which Sciascia’s blending of fiction and history addresses the contentious issue of identifying truth. It examines the intricate ... [more ▼]

Analysing 1912 + 1, this essay sets out to demonstrate the ways in which Sciascia’s blending of fiction and history addresses the contentious issue of identifying truth. It examines the intricate philosophical links between freedom and necessity, and compares Sciascia’s writing with that of authors who were dear to him, such as Diderot, Manzoni, Tolstoj and Savinio. [less ▲]

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See detailIl faut agir sur les structures et les pratiques
Lafontaine, Dominique ULg

in Wallonie : Revue du Conseil Economique et Social de la Région Wallonne (2014), (124), 16-19

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See detailComparison of the Decomposition VOC Profile during Winter and Summer in a Moist, Mid-latitude (Cfb) Climate
Forbes, Shari L.; Perrault, Katelynn A.; Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2014), 9(e113681), 1-11

The investigation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with decomposition is an emerging field in forensic taphonomy due to their importance in locating human remains using biological detectors ... [more ▼]

The investigation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with decomposition is an emerging field in forensic taphonomy due to their importance in locating human remains using biological detectors such as insects and canines. A consistent decomposition VOC profile has not yet been elucidated due to the intrinsic impact of the environment on the decomposition process in different climatic zones. The study of decomposition VOCs has typically occurred during the warmer months to enable chemical profiling of all decomposition stages. The present study investigated the decomposition VOC profile in air during both warmer and cooler months in a moist, mid-latitude (Cfb) climate as decomposition occurs year-round in this environment. Pig carcasses (Sus scrofa domesticus L.) were placed on a soil surface to decompose naturally and their VOC profile was monitored during the winter and summer months. Corresponding control sites were also monitored to determine the natural VOC profile of the surrounding soil and vegetation. VOC samples were collected onto sorbent tubes and analyzed using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography – time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC6GC-TOFMS). The summer months were characterized by higher temperatures and solar radiation, greater rainfall accumulation, and comparable humidity when compared to the winter months. The rate of decomposition was faster and the number and abundance of VOCs was proportionally higher in summer. However, a similar trend was observed in winter and summer demonstrating a rapid increase in VOC abundance during active decay with a second increase in abundance occurring later in the decomposition process. Sulfur-containing compounds, alcohols and ketones represented the most abundant classes of compounds in both seasons, although almost all 10 compound classes identified contributed to discriminating the stages of decomposition throughout both seasons. The advantages of GC6GC-TOFMS were demonstrated for detecting and identifying trace levels of VOCs, particularly ethers, which are rarely reported as decomposition VOCs. [less ▲]

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See detailInternational Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes. Subcommittee on the taxonomy of phototrophic bacteria: Minutes of the meetings, 11 August 2009, Montreal, Canada
Imhoff, Johannes; Wilmotte, Annick ULg

in International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology (2014), 64

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See detail"If it helps, i'll carry on" : Factors supporting the Participation of Native and Immigrants Youth in Belgium and Germany
Born, Michel ULg; Marzana, Daniela; Alfieri, Sara et al

in Journal of psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied (2014), 148

This article is looking into some factors for Civic Participation and the intention to continue to participate among local (Study I) and immigrant (Study II) young people living in Belgium and Germany ... [more ▼]

This article is looking into some factors for Civic Participation and the intention to continue to participate among local (Study I) and immigrant (Study II) young people living in Belgium and Germany. The results provide the same results in the immigrant and in the native group. Once observable demographic factors are controlled, many of the differences found in other researches (immigrant youth less committed or subjected to other paths of participation) disappear. Applicative repercussions are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailLa bibliothèque ouverte : hommage à Christine Pagnoulle
Decoster, Sara ULg

in Culture, le Magazine Culturel de l'Université de Liège (2014), hors série

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See detailPoints d'appui
Jacquemain, Marc ULg

in SociologieS (2014)

L'article discute un grand résumé de Jan Spurk. Il met le doigt sur la contradiction dans ce "grand résumé" entre l'assomption que je le "je" est au coeur du capitalisme contemporain et le fait de confier ... [more ▼]

L'article discute un grand résumé de Jan Spurk. Il met le doigt sur la contradiction dans ce "grand résumé" entre l'assomption que je le "je" est au coeur du capitalisme contemporain et le fait de confier au sujet la tâche de l'émancipation de ce même capitalisme. Il propose de relever, dans différents courants de la littérature contemporaine de sciences sociales, les éléments qui plaident pour un "sujet" doté d'une capacité empirique de résistance au capitalisme. [less ▲]

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See detailComment je traite … Recommandations pour surveiller et optimiser un traitement médicamenteux en cours
SCHEEN, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014), 69(11), 581-585

Any pharmacological treatment should ideally be effective and safe. The supervision of an ongoing therapy should control that individualized goals are reached while tolerance and safety are present. In ... [more ▼]

Any pharmacological treatment should ideally be effective and safe. The supervision of an ongoing therapy should control that individualized goals are reached while tolerance and safety are present. In case of not reaching the predefined objectives, the causes of failure should first be screened (for instance, exclusion of poor patient compliance), and the treatment should be then optimized : dose adjustment, add-on of another drug (if possible synergistic combination) and/or shift to a more effective pharmacological therapy. In some cases, therapeutic monitoring may be useful or even mandatory in order to better adjust drug dosing and thus guarantee both efficacy and safety. [less ▲]

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See detailAn inverse modelling approach to estimate the hygric parameters of clay-based masonry during a Moisture Buffer Value test
Dubois, Samuel ULg; McGregor, Fionn; Evrard, Arnaud et al

in Building & Environment (2014), 81

This paper presents an inverse modelling approach for parameter estimation of a model dedicated to the description of moisture mass transfer in porous hygroscopic building materials. The hygric behaviour ... [more ▼]

This paper presents an inverse modelling approach for parameter estimation of a model dedicated to the description of moisture mass transfer in porous hygroscopic building materials. The hygric behaviour of unfired clay-based masonry samples is specifically studied here and the Moisture Buffer Value (MBV) protocol is proposed as a data source from which it is possible to estimate several parameters at once. Those include materials properties and experimental parameters. For this purpose, the mass of two clay samples with different compositions is continuously monitored during several consecutive humidity cycles in isothermal conditions. Independently of these dynamic experimental tests, their moisture storage and transport parameters are measured with standard steady-state methods. A simple moisture transfer model developed in COMSOL Multiphysics is used to predict the moisture uptake/release behaviour during the MBV tests. The set of model parameters values that minimizes the difference between simulated and experimental results is then automatically estimated using an inverse modelling algorithm based on Bayesian techniques. For materials properties, the optimized parameters values are compared to values that were experimentally measured in steady state. And because a precise understanding of parameters is needed to assess the confidence in the inverse modelling results, a sensitivity analysis of the model is also provided. [less ▲]

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