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See detailChallenge with lipopolysaccharides or Freund's adjuvant? What is the best option to trigger acute phase protein production in broilers?
Koppenol, A.; Everaert, Nadia ULg; Buyse, J. et al

in Research in Veterinary Science (2015), 99

Broilers were injected at 10 days of age with either Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or with Freund's adjuvants (FA) to investigate its triggering effect on the acute phase reaction (APR ... [more ▼]

Broilers were injected at 10 days of age with either Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or with Freund's adjuvants (FA) to investigate its triggering effect on the acute phase reaction (APR). First the kinetics of certain APP was studied by sampling blood 4 h, 8 h, 12 h and 24 h post injection with LPS. Ovotransferrin (OVT) and ?-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentration increased with time post injection (PI) with LPS to reach a plateau at 12 and 24 h PI. Caeruloplasmin (CP) did not increase with time PI. Compared to injection with phosphate buffered saline, OVT concentrations were higher when injecting chicks with LPS at all time points PI. At 24 h PI, LPS injection resulted in higher OVT and AGP concentration compared to injection with FA. It is recommended to use LPS instead of FA to trigger the APR. The best time point to sample blood for APP determination is 24 h PI. � 2015 Elsevier Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailLe pouvoir par les armes, le pouvoir par les idées
Dumont, Jonathan ULg; Masson, Christophe ULg

in Moyen Age (Le) (2015), CXXI(I),

Ouverte à des questions que seulement quelques décennies auparavant elle peinait à envisager, l'histoire politique ou l'histoire du/des pouvoir(s) n'est plus uniquement aujourd'hui une étude des ... [more ▼]

Ouverte à des questions que seulement quelques décennies auparavant elle peinait à envisager, l'histoire politique ou l'histoire du/des pouvoir(s) n'est plus uniquement aujourd'hui une étude des structures administratives et judiciaires, ou encore des événements dits "politiques". Elle fait, tout au contraire, la part belle à des dynamiques de recherche interdisciplinaire. L'étude croisée du fait militaire et des idées est l'une d'entre elles. Le présent recueil d'articles, "Le pouvoir par les armes. Le pouvoir par les idées", se positionne dans la continuité des recherches récentes en la matière. Il entend, en particulier, se concentrer sur les liens que les hommes et les femmes de la fin du Moyen Âge établirent entre l'action armée et les discours sur le pouvoir. C'est en effet à travers les interconnexions de ces deux champs que l'on peut mieux comprendre le succès ou l'insuccès d'une politique - militaire ou non - ou l'émergence d'une propagande justifiant un pouvoir et, parfois, le recours aux armes. Ce volume entend ainsi contribuer à éclairer la manière dont émerge, se construit et s'affirme les différents pouvoirs au Moyen Âge tardif et au cours de la première Renaissance. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of seawater temperature on sound characteristics in Ophidion rochei (Ophidiidae)
Kever, Loïc ULg; Boyle, Kelly S.; Parmentier, Eric ULg

in Journal of Fish Biology (2015)

Although the sound production mechanisms of male and female Ophidion rochei (Ophidiidae) differ significantly, temperature affects them in the same manner. In both sexes, temperature correlated negatively ... [more ▼]

Although the sound production mechanisms of male and female Ophidion rochei (Ophidiidae) differ significantly, temperature affects them in the same manner. In both sexes, temperature correlated negatively with pulse period and positively with sound frequencies but had no, or weak effects on other sound characteristics [less ▲]

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See detailA retrospective study on equine herpesvirus type-1 associated myeloencephalopathy in France (2008-2011)
Van Galen, G; Leblond, A; Tritz, P et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (2015)

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See detailThe enfranchisement of citizens abroad: variations and explanations
Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULg

in Democratization (2015)

Today, a large majority of states allow at least some of their emigrants to take part in home country elections from abroad. This article first looks at the diffusion of external voting laws and shows ... [more ▼]

Today, a large majority of states allow at least some of their emigrants to take part in home country elections from abroad. This article first looks at the diffusion of external voting laws and shows that over the past 25 years they have become widely-adopted and are no longer limited to specific professional categories of citizens. Second, the article explains the international diffusion of external voting by discussing the “norm- internationalization hypothesis” and the “electoral-competition hypothesis.” Third, the article attempts to demonstrate that these hypotheses cannot explain why, in a democratic context, states continue to implement a series of hurdles that deter emigrants from using their newly gained rights. Looking at recent developments in Latin America and the Middle East and North Africa, it concludes that the diffusion and variations of external voting laws result from transnational negotiation processes in a context of democratic transformation among various actors whose interests are strongly affected by the inclusion or exclusion of these new voters. [less ▲]

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See detailFramework for the integration of genomics, epigenomics, and transcriptomics in complex diseases
Pineda San Juan, Silvia ULg; Gómez-Rubio, Paulina; Antoni, Picornell et al

in Human Heredity (2015)

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See detail« Autorités publiques et commémorations - Le plan "Commémorer 14/18" en tant qu’instrument d’exercice du pouvoir
Nossent, Jérôme ULg

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2015), 1

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See detailLes pouvoirs du curateur aux meubles
Moreau, Pierre ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2015), (17), 808-809

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See detailWhich Fungus Originally was Trichophyton mentagrophytes? Historical Review and Illustration by a Clinical Case
Chollet, A; Cattin, V; Fratti, M et al

in Mycopathologia (2015), 180

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See detailEffects of vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc gluconate, and selenomethionine supplementation on muscle function and oxidative stress biomarkers in patients with facioscapulohumeral dystrophy: a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial.
Passerieux, Emilie; Hayot, Maurice; Jaussent, Audrey et al

in Free radical biology & medicine (2015), 81

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by progressive weakness and atrophy of specific skeletal muscles. As growing evidence suggests that oxidative ... [more ▼]

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by progressive weakness and atrophy of specific skeletal muscles. As growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress may contribute to FSHD pathology, antioxidants that might modulate or delay oxidative insults could help in maintaining FSHD muscle function. Our primary objective was to test whether oral administration of vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc gluconate, and selenomethionine could improve the physical performance of patients with FSHD. Adult patients with FSHD (n=53) were enrolled at Montpellier University Hospital (France) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot clinical trial. Patients were randomly assigned to receive 500 mg vitamin C, 400mg vitamin E, 25mg zinc gluconate and 200 mug selenomethionine (n=26), or matching placebo (n=27) once a day for 17 weeks. Primary outcomes were changes in the two-minute walking test (2-MWT), maximal voluntary contraction, and endurance limit time of the dominant and nondominant quadriceps (MVCQD, MVCQND, TlimQD, and TlimQND, respectively) after 17 weeks of treatment. Secondary outcomes were changes in the antioxidant status and oxidative stress markers. Although 2-MWT, MVCQ, and TlimQ were all significantly improved in the supplemented group at the end of the treatment compared to baseline, only MVCQ and TlimQ variations were significantly different between groups (MVCQD: P=0.011; MVCQND: P=0.004; TlimQD: P=0.028; TlimQND: P=0.011). Similarly, the vitamin C (P<0.001), vitamin E as alpha-tocopherol (P<0.001), vitamin C/vitamin E ratio (P=0.017), vitamin E gamma/alpha ratio (P=0.022) and lipid peroxides (P<0.001) variations were significantly different between groups. In conclusion, vitamin E, vitamin C, zinc, and selenium supplementation has no significant effect on the 2-MWT, but improves MVCQ and TlimQ of both quadriceps by enhancing the antioxidant defenses and reducing oxidative stress. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (number: NCT01596803). [less ▲]

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See detailA Systematic Review of Cost-Effectiveness Analyses of Drugs for Postmenopausal Osteoporosis.
Hiligsmann, Mickaël ULg; Evers, Silvia M.; Ben Sedrine, Wafa et al

in PharmacoEconomics (2015), 33(3), 205-224

BACKGROUND: Given the limited availability of healthcare resources and the recent introduction of new anti-osteoporosis drugs, the interest in the cost effectiveness of drugs in postmenopausal ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Given the limited availability of healthcare resources and the recent introduction of new anti-osteoporosis drugs, the interest in the cost effectiveness of drugs in postmenopausal osteoporosis remains and even increases. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify all recent economic evaluations on drugs for postmenopausal osteoporosis, to critically appraise the reporting quality, and to summarize the results. METHODS: A literature search using Medline, the National Health Service Economic Evaluation database and the Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry was undertaken to identify original articles published between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2013. Studies that assessed cost effectiveness of drugs in postmenopausal osteoporosis were included. The Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement was used to assess the quality of reporting of these articles. RESULTS: Of 1,794 articles identified, 39 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. They were conducted in 14 different countries and nine active interventions were assessed. When compared with no treatment, active osteoporotic drugs were generally cost effective in postmenopausal women aged over 60-65 years with low bone mass, especially those with prior vertebral fractures. Key drivers of cost effectiveness included individual fracture risk, medication adherence, selected comparators and country-specific analyses. Quality of reporting varied between studies with an average score of 17.9 out of 24 (range 7-21.5). CONCLUSION: This review found a substantial number of published cost-effectiveness analyses of drugs in osteoporosis in the last 6 years. Results and critical appraisal of these articles can help decision makers when prioritizing health interventions and can inform the development of future economic evaluations. [less ▲]

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See detailSFX Miscellaneous Free Ejournals Target: Usage Survey among the SFX Community
Renaville, François ULg; Branse, Yosef; Chen, Xiaotian et al

in Serials Review (2015), 41(2), 58-68

The number of free or open access articles is increasing rapidly, and their retrieval with library indexes and OpenURL link resolvers has been a challenge. In June 2014, the SFX MISCELLANEOUS FREE ... [more ▼]

The number of free or open access articles is increasing rapidly, and their retrieval with library indexes and OpenURL link resolvers has been a challenge. In June 2014, the SFX MISCELLANEOUS FREE EJOURNALS target contained more than 24,000 portfolios of all kinds. The SFX Knowledge Base Advisory Board (KBAB) carried out an international survey to get an overview of the usage of this target by the SFX community and to precisely identify what could be done to improve it. The target is widely used among the community. However, many respondents complained about three major problems: (a) incorrect links, (b) full texts actually not free, and (c) incorrect or missing thresholds (years and volumes information). [less ▲]

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See detailObservations sous un arrêt de la Cour de cassation du 14 janvier 2013
Moreau, Pierre ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2015), (17), 777

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See detailA novel form of ficin from Ficus carica latex: Purification and characterization
Baeyens-Volant, Danielle; Matagne, André ULg; El Mahyaoui, Rachida et al

in Phytochemistry (2015), 117

A novel ficin form, named ficin E, was purified from fig tree latex by a combination of cation-exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose Fast Flow, Thiopropyl Sepharose 4B and fplc-gel filtration ... [more ▼]

A novel ficin form, named ficin E, was purified from fig tree latex by a combination of cation-exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose Fast Flow, Thiopropyl Sepharose 4B and fplc-gel filtration chromatography. The new ficin appeared not to be sensitive to thiol derivatization by a polyethylene glycol derivative, allowing its purification. The protease is homogeneous according to PAGE, SDS–PAGE, mass spectrometry, N-terminal micro-sequencing analyses and E-64 active site titration. N-terminal sequencing of the first ten residues has shown high identity with the other known ficin (iso)forms. The molecular weight was found to be (24,294 ± 10) Da by mass spectrometry, a lower value than the apparent molecular weight observed on SDS–PAGE, around 27 kDa. Far-UV CD data revealed a secondary structure content of 22% a-helix and 26% b-sheet. The protein is not glycosylated as shown by carbohydrate analysis. pH and temperature measurements indicated maxima activity at pH 6.0 and 50 °C, respectively. Preliminary pH stability analyses have shown that the protease conserved its compact structure in slightly acidic, neutral and alkaline media but at acidic pH (<3), the formation of some relaxed or molten state was evidenced by 8-anilino-1-naphtalenesulfonic acid binding characteristics. Comparison with the known ficins A, B, C, D1 and D2 (iso)forms revealed that ficin E showed activity profile that looked like ficin A against two chromogenic substrates while it resembled ficins D1 and D2 against three fluorogenic substrates. Enzymatic activity of ficin E was not affected by Mg2+, Ca2+ and Mn2+ at a concentration up to 10 mM. However, the activity was completely suppressed by Zn2+ at a concentration of 1 mM. Inhibitory activity measurements clearly identified the enzyme as a cysteine protease, being unaffected by synthetic (Pefabloc SC, benzamidine) and by natural proteinaceous (aprotinin) serine proteases inhibitors, by aspartic proteases inhibitors (pepstatin A) and by metallo-proteases inhibitors (EDTA, EGTA). Surprisingly, it was well affected by the metallo-protease inhibitor o-phenanthroline. The enzymatic activity was however completely blocked by cysteine proteases inhibitors (E-64, iodoacetamide), by thiol-blocking compounds (HgCl2) and by cysteine/serine proteases inhibitors (TLCK and TPCK). This is a novel ficin form according to peptide mass fingerprint analysis, specific amidase activity, SDS–PAGE and PAGE electrophoretic mobility, N-terminal sequencing and unproneness to thiol pegylation. [less ▲]

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See detailTemperature and moisture storage in crop-based materials: Modelling a straw bale wall subject to a thermal shock
Dubois, Samuel ULg; Evrard, Arnaud ULg; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

in Jounal of Building Physics (2015)

Modelling the hygrothermal behaviour of crop-based insulation products is essential to assess their impact on the energy performance of the building, predict indoor climate conditions, and prevent any ... [more ▼]

Modelling the hygrothermal behaviour of crop-based insulation products is essential to assess their impact on the energy performance of the building, predict indoor climate conditions, and prevent any risk of unexpected degradation. Traditionally, transient numerical models that predict internal conditions of construction materials consider that the variation of moisture storage with temperature is negligible although the sorp- tion behaviour is known to be temperature dependent. This paper investigates this par- ticular effect for crop-based materials and uses a refinement of standard mathematical representations. For this purpose, the effects of a thermal shock on the evolution of hygrothermal conditions inside a straw-bale wall are studied with several versions of a flexible research model. The latter is capable of incorporating the temperature depen- dency of the sorption curve with both a physically-based and an empirical description. A large climate chamber is used to gather experimental data and is able to host a full- size straw bale prefabricated panel. Internal conditions of straw bales are obtained with proper sensors bars. Results show that when large temperature gradients occur in a crop-based material, a model that considers temperature effect on moisture storage enhances greatly the prediction of internal conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailTrebananib (AMG 386) plus weekly paclitaxel with or without bevacizumab as first-line therapy for HER2-negative locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer: A phase 2 randomized study.
Dieras, Veronique; Wildiers, Hans; Jassem, Jacek et al

in Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland) (2015), 24

INTRODUCTION: This phase 2 randomized study evaluated trebananib (AMG 386), a peptide-Fc fusion protein that inhibits angiogenesis by neutralizing the interaction of angiopoietin-1 and -2 with Tie2, in ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: This phase 2 randomized study evaluated trebananib (AMG 386), a peptide-Fc fusion protein that inhibits angiogenesis by neutralizing the interaction of angiopoietin-1 and -2 with Tie2, in combination with paclitaxel with or without bevacizumab in previously untreated patients with HER2-negative locally recurrent/metastatic breast cancer. METHODS: Patients received paclitaxel 90 mg/m2 once weekly (3-weeks-on/1-week-off) and were randomly assigned 1:1:1:1 to also receive blinded bevacizumab 10 mg/kg once every 2 weeks plus either trebananib 10 mg/kg once weekly (Arm A) or 3 mg/kg once weekly (Arm B), or placebo (Arm C); or open-label trebananib 10 mg/kg once a week (Arm D). Progression-free survival was the primary endpoint. RESULTS: In total, 228 patients were randomized. Median estimated progression-free survival for Arms A, B, C, and D was 11.3, 9.2, 12.2, and 10 months, respectively. Hazard ratios (95% CI) for Arms A, B, and D versus Arm C were 0.98 (0.61-1.59), 1.12 (0.70-1.80), and 1.28 (0.79-2.09), respectively. The objective response rate was 71% in Arm A, 51% in Arm B, 60% in Arm C, and 46% in Arm D. The incidence of grade 3/4/5 adverse events was 71/9/4%, 61/14/5%, 62/16/3%, and 52/4/7% in Arms A/B/C/D. In Arm D, median progression-free survival was 12.8 and 7.4 months for those with high and low trebananib exposure (AUCss >/= 8.4 versus < 8.4 mg.h/mL), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There was no apparent prolongation of estimated progression-free survival with the addition of trebananib to paclitaxel and bevacizumab at the doses tested. Toxicity was manageable. Exposure-response analyses support evaluation of combinations incorporating trebananib at doses > 10 mg/kg in this setting. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00511459. [less ▲]

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See detailShort-term Effect of Infliximab Is Reflected in the Clot Lysis Profile of Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Prospective Study.
Bollen, Lize; Vande Casteele, Niels; Peeters, Miet et al

in Inflammatory bowel diseases (2015), 21(3), 570-8

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is recognized as an independent risk factor for thrombosis. First, we investigate whether the concentration of fibrinolysis inhibitors is increased in patients ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is recognized as an independent risk factor for thrombosis. First, we investigate whether the concentration of fibrinolysis inhibitors is increased in patients with IBD. Second, we investigate the effect of infliximab induction therapy on the hemostatic profile. METHODS: This prospective study included 103 patients with IBD starting infliximab therapy and 113 healthy controls. Plasma was collected before the first infliximab infusion (wk 0) and after induction therapy (wk 14). Patients not showing a clinical response on induction were considered as primary nonresponders. Fibrinolysis inhibitors were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Using a clot lysis assay, the area under the curve (global marker for coagulation/fibrinolysis), 50% clot lysis time (marker for fibrinolytic capacity), and amplitude (indicator for clot formation) were determined. RESULTS: Patients with IBD selected for infliximab treatment have higher area under the curve (median 29 [interquartile range, 20-38]) and amplitude (0.4 [0.3-0.5]) compared with healthy controls (18 [13-24] and 0.3 [0.2-0.3], respectively, P < 0.001). Primary nonresponders showed a decrease neither in inflammatory markers nor in hemostatic parameters, whereas in primary responders, a decrease in inflammatory markers was associated with a decrease in both area under the curve (29 [20-38] (wk 0) to 20 [14-28] (wk 14), P < 0.001) and amplitude (0.4 [0.3-0.5] (wk 0) to 0.3 [0.3-0.4] (wk 14), P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first prospective study demonstrating that the clot lysis profile differs between patients with IBD and healthy individuals. On infliximab induction treatment, this clot lysis profile normalizes in responders suggesting that infliximab treatment is advisable for patients with IBD with an activated hemostatic profile. [less ▲]

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See detailThe prediction of fund failure through performance diagnostics
Cogneau, Philippe ULg; Hübner, Georges ULg

in Journal of Banking and Finance (2015), 50

Using an international database featuring 1624 mutual funds over 15 years, this paper analyses the joint abilities of performance measures to predict subsequent fund failure. We examine the probability of ... [more ▼]

Using an international database featuring 1624 mutual funds over 15 years, this paper analyses the joint abilities of performance measures to predict subsequent fund failure. We examine the probability of disappearance over a time window, and expected fund survival time, and study the circumstances of a fund’s disappearance, its currency and domicile. By combining relevant measures, fund failure appears to a significant extent predictable, more than with single classical measures. Survivorship predictability has significant economic value. Such evidence suggests that past performance does not only influence investors’ perception of fund quality, but also reflects managers’ ability to sustain performance. [less ▲]

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See detailReview of dietary supplements for the management of osteoarthritis in dogs in studies from 2004 to 2014
Comblain, Fanny ULg; Serisier, Samuel; Barthelemy, Nicolas ULg et al

in Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology & Therapeutics (2015)

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See detailHow does thymus infection by coxsackievirus contribute to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes?
Michaux, Hélène ULg; Martens, Henri ULg; Jaïdane, Hela et al

in Frontiers in Immunology (2015), 6(Article 338), 1-6

Through synthesis and presentation of neuroendocrine self-antigens by major histocom- patibility complex proteins, thymic epithelial cells (TECs) play a crucial role in programing central immune self ... [more ▼]

Through synthesis and presentation of neuroendocrine self-antigens by major histocom- patibility complex proteins, thymic epithelial cells (TECs) play a crucial role in programing central immune self-tolerance to neuroendocrine functions. Insulin-like growth factor- 2 (IGF-2) is the dominant gene/polypeptide of the insulin family that is expressed in TECs from different animal species and humans. Igf2 transcription is defective in the thymus of diabetes-prone bio-breeding rats, and tolerance to insulin is severely decreased in Igf2−/− mice. For more than 15 years now, our group is investigating the hypothesis that, besides a pancreotropic action, infection by coxsackievirus B4 (CV- B4) could implicate the thymus as well, and interfere with the intrathymic programing of central tolerance to the insulin family and secondarily to insulin-secreting islet β cells. In this perspective, we have demonstrated that a productive infection of the thymus occurs after oral CV-B4 inoculation of mice. Moreover, our most recent data have demonstrated that CV-B4 infection of a murine medullary (m) TEC line induces a significant decrease in Igf2 expression and IGF-2 production. In these conditions, Igf1 expression was much less affected by CV-B4 infection, while Ins2 transcription was not detected in this cell line. Through the inhibition of Igf2 expression in TECs, CV-B4 infection could lead to a breakdown of central immune tolerance to the insulin family and promote an autoimmune response against insulin-secreting islet β cells. Our major research objective now is to understand the molecular mechanisms by which CV-B4 infection of TECs leads to a major decrease in Igf2 expression in these cells. [less ▲]

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See detailRituximab therapy for hairy cell leukemia : a retrospective study of 41 cases
Leclerc, Mathieu; Suarez, Felipe; Noël, Marie-Pierre et al

in Annals of Hematology (2015), 94

The purine analogs (PAs) cladribine and pentostatin have transformed the prognosis of hairy cell leukemia (HCL). However, some patients still relapse after PAs, or fail to reach an optimal response, and ... [more ▼]

The purine analogs (PAs) cladribine and pentostatin have transformed the prognosis of hairy cell leukemia (HCL). However, some patients still relapse after PAs, or fail to reach an optimal response, and new agents are needed to further improve treatment outcome. We retrospectively studied 41 HCL patients from 10 centers in France and Belgium, who received 49 treatment courses with the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab. Most of the patients were treated at relapse (84 % of cases) and rituximab was combined to a PA in 41 % of cases. Overall, response rate is 90 % including 71 % complete hematologic responses (CHRs). Frontline treatment, combination therapy, and absolute neutrophil count were associated with response in multivariate analysis. Three-year relapse-free and overall survivals are 68 and 90 %, respectively. When combined to a PA, rituximab yields a 100 % response rate, even beyond frontline therapy. In contrast, response rate is only 82 % (59 % CHR) when rituximab is used alone. In this latter setting, relapse rate is 56 % and median time to relapse is 17.5 months. All eight patients who were treated two times with the antibody responded again to retreatment. We confirm the high efficacy of the combination rituximab + PA. However, when rituximab is used as monotherapy, response rate is lower and the high relapse rate is a concern. Prospective clinical trials are needed to confirm the superiority of the combination rituximab + PA over PA alone, both as frontline therapy and at relapse. [less ▲]

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See detailTargeting cholesterol homeostasis to fight hearing loss: a new perspective.
Malgrange, Brigitte ULg; Varela-Nieto, Isabel; de Medina, Philippe et al

in Frontiers in aging neuroscience (2015), 7

Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is a major pathology of the inner ear that affects nearly 600 million people worldwide. Despite intensive researches, this major health problem remains without ... [more ▼]

Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is a major pathology of the inner ear that affects nearly 600 million people worldwide. Despite intensive researches, this major health problem remains without satisfactory solutions. The pathophysiological mechanisms involved in SNHL include oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, inflammation, and ischemia, resulting in synaptic loss, axonal degeneration, and apoptosis of spiral ganglion neurons. The mechanisms associated with SNHL are shared with other neurodegenerative disorders. Cholesterol homeostasis is central to numerous pathologies including neurodegenerative diseases and cholesterol regulates major processes involved in neurons survival and function. The role of cholesterol homeostasis in the physiopathology of inner ear is largely unexplored. In this review, we discuss the findings concerning cholesterol homeostasis in neurodegenerative diseases and whether it should be translated into potential therapeutic strategies for the treatment of SNHL. [less ▲]

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See detailBoosting regulatory T-cell function with the humanized CD4-specific humanized monoclonal antibody Tregalizumab (BT-061)
Humblet-Baron, Stéphanie; Baron, Frédéric ULg

in Immunology & Cell Biology (2015), 1-2

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See detailHabitat use by white-thighed colobus in the Kikélé sacred forest: ativity budget, feeding ecology and selection of sleeping trees
Djègo-Djossou, Sylvie; Koné, I; Fandohan, A.B. et al

in Primate conservation (2015), 29

Abstract: Understanding habitat preference and use is an important aspect of primate ecology, and is essential for setting conservation strategies. This study examined the activity budget, feeding ecology ... [more ▼]

Abstract: Understanding habitat preference and use is an important aspect of primate ecology, and is essential for setting conservation strategies. This study examined the activity budget, feeding ecology and selection of sleeping trees of a population of white-thighed colobus (Colobus vellerosus). A group of 18 was followed during 72 days over a full annual cycle in the Kikélé Sacred Forest of the Bassila administrative region in central Benin (West Africa). Activity budget and diet were determined using scan sampling. The structure of the habitat and the physical characteristics of sleeping trees were determined using plot surveys. Resting, feeding, moving, social interactions and other activities accounted for 56.6%, 26.3%, 13.0%, 3.3%, and 0.7% of the activity budget, respectively. The group spent more time feeding and less time moving in the dry season compared to the rainy season. The diet was composed of 35 plant species belonging to 16 families, with items including leaves, fruits, seeds, buds, bark, flowers, gum, and inflorescences. Only three tree species were used as sleeping trees: Celtis integrifolia, Cola cordifolia, and Holoptelea grandis. Our findings suggest that the monkeys prefer tall (22.53 ± SD 3.76 m) and large-trunked (112.07 ± SD 14.23 cm) sleeping trees. The results of this study can be used for sound management of the white-thighed colobus in the study area and elsewhere. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamics of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O) along the Zambezi River and major tributaries, and their importance in the riverine carbon budget
Teodoru, C. R.; Nyoni, F. C.; Borges, Alberto ULg et al

in Biogeosciences (2015), 12(8), 2431-2453

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See detailAbsence of female-typical pheromone-induced hypothalamic neural responses and kisspeptin neuronal activity in alpha-fetoprotein knockout female mice.
Taziaux, Mélanie ULg; Bakker, Julie ULg

in Endocrinology (2015)

Pheromones induce sexually dimorphic neuroendocrine responses, such as LH secretion. However, the neuronal network by which pheromones are converted into signals that will initiate and modulate endocrine ... [more ▼]

Pheromones induce sexually dimorphic neuroendocrine responses, such as LH secretion. However, the neuronal network by which pheromones are converted into signals that will initiate and modulate endocrine changes remains unclear. We asked whether two sexually dimorphic populations in the anteroventral periventricular and periventricular nuclei (AVPV/PeN) that express kisspeptin and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) are potential candidates that will transduce the olfactory signal to the neuroendocrine system. Furthermore, we assessed whether this transduction is sensitive to perinatal actions of estradiol by using female mice deficient in alpha-fetoprotein (AfpKO), which lack the protective actions of Afp against maternal estradiol. Wild-type (WT) and AfpKO male and female mice were exposed to same- versus opposite-sex odors and the expression of c-Fos was analyzed along the olfactory projection pathways as well as whether kisspeptin, TH and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are responsive to opposite-sex odors. Male odors induced a female-typical Fos expression in target forebrain sites of olfactory inputs involved in reproduction in WT, but not in AfpKO females, whereas female odors induced a male-typical Fos expression in males of both genotypes. In WT females, opposite-sex odors induced Fos in kisspeptin and TH neurons, whereas in AfpKO females and WT males, only a lower, but still significant, Fos expression was observed in TH, but not in kisspeptin neurons. Finally, opposite-sex odors did not induce any significant Fos expression in GnRH neurons of both sexes or genotypes. Our results strongly suggest a role for fetal estrogen in the sexual differentiation of neural responses to sex-related olfactory cues. [less ▲]

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See detailPostcolonial Thesholds: Gateways and Borders
Wilson, Janet; Tunca, Daria ULg

in Journal of Postcolonial Writing (2015), 51(1), 1-107

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See detailTernary DNA computing using 3 x 3 multiplication matrices
Orbach, Ron; Lilienthal, Sivan; Klein, Michael et al

in Chemical Science (2015), 6

Non-Boolean computations implementing operations on multi-valued variables beyond base 2 allow enhanced computational complexity. We introduce DNA as a functional material for ternary computing, and in ... [more ▼]

Non-Boolean computations implementing operations on multi-valued variables beyond base 2 allow enhanced computational complexity. We introduce DNA as a functional material for ternary computing, and in particular demonstrate the use of three-valued oligonucleotide inputs to construct a 3 [times] 3 multiplication table. The system consists of two three-valued inputs of -1; 0; +1 and a fluorophore/quencher functional hairpin acting as computational and reporter module. The interaction of the computational hairpin module with the different values of the inputs yields a 3 [times] 3 multiplication matrix consisting of nine nanostructures that are read out by three distinct fluorescence intensities. By combining three different hairpin computational modules, each modified with a different fluorophore/quencher pair, and using different sets of inputs, the parallel operation of three multiplication tables is demonstrated. [less ▲]

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See detailIsolation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutants with altered mitochondrial respiration by chlorophyll fluorescence measurement.
Massoz, Simon; Larosa, Véronique ULg; Horrion, Bastien et al

in Journal of biotechnology (2015)

The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a model organism for studying energetic metabolism. Most mitochondrial respiratory-deficient mutants characterized to date have been isolated on the ... [more ▼]

The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a model organism for studying energetic metabolism. Most mitochondrial respiratory-deficient mutants characterized to date have been isolated on the basis of their reduced ability to grow in heterotrophic conditions. Mitochondrial deficiencies are usually partly compensated by adjustment of photosynthetic activity and more particularly by transition to state 2. In this work, we explored the opportunity to select mutants impaired in respiration and/or altered in dark metabolism by measuring maximum photosynthetic efficiency by chlorophyll fluorescence analyses (FV/FM). Out of about 2900 hygromycin-resistant insertional mutants generated from wild type or from a mutant strain deficient in state transitions (stt7 strain), 22 were found to grow slowly in heterotrophic conditions and 8 of them also showed a lower FV/FM value. Several disrupted coding sequences were identified, including genes coding for three different subunits of respiratory-chain complex I (NUO9, NUOA9, NUOP4) or for isocitrate lyase (ICL1). Overall, the comparison of respiratory mutants obtained in wild-type or stt7 genetic backgrounds indicated that the FV/FM value can be used to isolate mutants severely impaired in dark metabolism. [less ▲]

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See detailNeuromodulation in cluster headache.
Fontaine, Denys; Vandersteen, Clair; MAGIS, Delphine ULg et al

in Advances and technical standards in neurosurgery (2015), 42

Medically refractory chronic cluster headache (CH) is a severely disabling headache condition for which several surgical procedures have been proposed as a prophylactic treatment. None of them have been ... [more ▼]

Medically refractory chronic cluster headache (CH) is a severely disabling headache condition for which several surgical procedures have been proposed as a prophylactic treatment. None of them have been evaluated in controlled conditions, only open studies and case series being available. Destructive procedures (radiofrequency lesioning, radiosurgery, section) and microvascular decompression of the trigeminal nerve or the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) have induced short-term improvement which did not maintain on long term in most of the patients. They carried a high risk of complications, including severe sensory loss and neuropathic pain, and consequently should not be proposed in first intention.Deep brain stimulation (DBS), targeting the presumed CH generator in the retro-hypothalamic region or fibers connecting it, decreased the attack frequency >50 in 60 % of the 52 patients reported. Complications were infrequent: gaze disturbances, autonomic disturbances, and intracranial hemorrhage (2).Occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) was efficient (decrease of attack frequency >50 %) in about 70 % of the 60 patients reported, with a low risk of complications (essentially hardware related). Considering their respective risks, ONS should be proposed first and DBS only in case of ONS failure.New on-demand chronically implanted SPG stimulation seemed to be efficient to abort CH attacks in a pilot controlled trial, but its long-term safety needs to be further studied. [less ▲]

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See detailStellar acoustic radii, mean densities, and ages from seismic inversion techniques
Buldgen, Gaël ULg; Dupret, Marc-Antoine ULg; Reese, Daniel et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2015), 574

Context. Determining stellar characteristics such as the radius, mass or age is crucial when studying stellar evolution or exoplanetary systems, or when characterising stellar populations in the Galaxy ... [more ▼]

Context. Determining stellar characteristics such as the radius, mass or age is crucial when studying stellar evolution or exoplanetary systems, or when characterising stellar populations in the Galaxy. Asteroseismology is the golden path to accurately obtain these characteristics. In this context, a key question is how to make these methods less model-dependent. Aims: Building on the previous work of Daniel Reese, we wish to extend the Substractive Optimally Localized Averages (SOLA) inversion technique to new stellar global characteristics beyond the mean density. The goal is to provide a general framework in which to estimate these characteristics as accurately as possible in low-mass main-sequence stars. Methods: First, we describe our framework and discuss the reliability of the inversion technique and possible sources of error. We then apply this methodology to the acoustic radius, an age indicator based on the sound speed derivative and the mean density, and compare it to estimates based on the average large and small frequency separations. These inversions are carried out for several test cases including various metallicities, different mixing-lengths, non-adiabatic effects, and turbulent pressure. Results: We observe that the SOLA method yields accurate results in all test cases whereas results based on the large and small frequency separations are less accurate and more sensitive to surface effects and structural differences in the models. If we include the surface corrections of Kjeldsen et al. (2008, ApJ, 683, L175), we obtain results of comparable accuracy for the mean density. Overall, the mean density and acoustic radius inversions are more robust than the inversions for the age indicator. Moreover, the current approach is limited to relatively young stars with radiative cores. Increasing the number of observed frequencies improves the reliability and accuracy of the method. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of the neutralizing epitopes of Merkel cell polyomavirus major capsid protein within the BC and EF surface loops.
Fleury, Maxime J. J.; Nicol, Jérôme ULg; Samimi, Mahtab et al

in PloS one (2015), 10(3), 0121751

Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is the first polyomavirus clearly associated with a human cancer, i.e. the Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). Polyomaviruses are small naked DNA viruses that induce a robust ... [more ▼]

Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is the first polyomavirus clearly associated with a human cancer, i.e. the Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). Polyomaviruses are small naked DNA viruses that induce a robust polyclonal antibody response against the major capsid protein (VP1). However, the polyomavirus VP1 capsid protein epitopes have not been identified to date. The aim of this study was to identify the neutralizing epitopes of the MCPyV capsid. For this goal, four VP1 mutants were generated by insertional mutagenesis in the BC, DE, EF and HI loops between amino acids 88-89, 150-151, 189-190, and 296-297, respectively. The reactivity of these mutants and wild-type VLPs was then investigated with anti-VP1 monoclonal antibodies and anti-MCPyV positive human sera. The findings together suggest that immunodominant conformational neutralizing epitopes are present at the surface of the MCPyV VLPs and are clustered within BC and EF loops. [less ▲]

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See detailFilter-free exhaustive odds ratio-based genome-wide interaction approach pinpoints evidence for interaction in the HLA region in psoriasis.
Grange, Laura; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Nikolayeva, Iryna et al

in BMC genetics (2015), 16(1), 11

BackgroundDeciphering the genetic architecture of complex traits is still a major challenge for human genetics. In most cases, genome-wide association studies have only partially explained the ... [more ▼]

BackgroundDeciphering the genetic architecture of complex traits is still a major challenge for human genetics. In most cases, genome-wide association studies have only partially explained the heritability of traits and diseases. Epistasis, one potentially important cause of this missing heritability, is difficult to explore at the genome-wide level. Here, we develop and assess a tool based on interactive odds ratios (IOR), Fast Odds Ratio-based sCan for Epistasis (FORCE), as a novel approach for exhaustive genome-wide epistasis search. IOR is the ratio between the multiplicative term of the odds ratio (OR) of having each variant over the OR of having both of them. By definition, an IOR that significantly deviates from 1 suggests the occurrence of an interaction (epistasis). As the IOR is fast to calculate, we used the IOR to rank and select pairs of interacting polymorphisms for P value estimation, which is more time consuming.ResultsFORCE displayed power and accuracy similar to existing parametric and non-parametric methods, and is fast enough to complete a filter-free genome-wide epistasis search in a few days on a standard computer. Analysis of psoriasis data uncovered novel epistatic interactions in the HLA region, corroborating the known major and complex role of the HLA region in psoriasis susceptibility.ConclusionsOur systematic study revealed the ability of FORCE to uncover novel interactions, highlighted the importance of exhaustiveness, as well as its specificity for certain types of interactions that were not detected by existing approaches. We therefore believe that FORCE is a valuable new tool for decoding the genetic basis of complex diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailEncore un Christ de l'ancienne cathédrale Saint-Lambert (XIVe siècle) au Trésor de Liège
George, Philippe ULg; GHISLAIN, Jean-Claude

in Bulletin de l'Institut Archéologique Liégeois (2015), 119

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See detailL’acte incendiaire, son sujet et sa signification : propositions à partir du Saint Genet de Jean-Paul Sartre
Englebert, Jérôme ULg

in Annales Médico-Psychologiques (2015), 172(2), 186-192

Objectives In this paper we studied fire setters with the hermeneutics’ method from the philosophy of Jean-Paul Sartre. In the psychobiography of Jean Genet, the philosopher raises issues of the ... [more ▼]

Objectives In this paper we studied fire setters with the hermeneutics’ method from the philosophy of Jean-Paul Sartre. In the psychobiography of Jean Genet, the philosopher raises issues of the infractional acting and its social meaning. Methods After recalling the basic notions of international literature about fire setters (including confusion with pyromania, diagnostic problems proposed by the DSM IV and the concept of "communicative arson"), we propose phenomenological and existential clues to discuss the act and its meaning. It is the unlawful act that is analysed and more specifically the arson. We propose different analysis than the psychic causality which is inspired by psychoanalysis. The criminogenesis gives way to a questioning of identity, about the place of fire in the subject’s history and within its relationships to others. As proposed by Sartre, the paradigm of this research is to consider the meaning "as the return of the future in the present". The second field of this study is an analysis of three clinical cases. These cases are the result of a forensic practice. The method is focused on the analysis of a narrative and autobiographical production. By this way we studied the temporal process of these three arsonists. Results A comparative reading of the psychobiography of Jean Genet written by Sartre and of the situation of arsonists gives accurate information. The "criminogenesis" gives way to a questioning of identity. In this way we discuss the meaning of fire in the subject's history and within its relationship to others. We highlight the inscription of the act in the social and constitutive process of the individual. From the clinical material, the author demonstrates a link between arson and construction of identity. Identity is considered as a dialectic between “ipse” and “idem”, as suggested by Ricœur. We can therefore consider the real sense that the arson has from the perspective of the actor but also from the viewpoint of the society and these conceptions may be similar or different. In clinical practice, we recommend to pay special attention to how the fire is part of the biography of the patient. Conclusions The fascination for fire is a source of meaning which can be radically different depending on whether we consider the external interpreter (the world or the clinician) or the author of the action. The basic principles of hermeneutics, as described by Gadamer and Ricœur, are to demonstrate that the understanding and the interpretation are not only the methods used in the human sciences but are also part of the fundamental processes inherent in human nature. Hermeneutics in general is the opposite of a doctrine of truth. It rather seeks to show arbitrarily how the interpretation and the search for meaning are paradigmatic of the human experience. [less ▲]

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See detailSmall Angle X-ray Scattering Insights into the Architecture-Dependent Emulsifying Properties of Amphiphilic Copolymers in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
Alaimo, David ULg; Hermida Merino, Daniel; Grignard, Bruno ULg et al

in Journal of Physical Chemistry B (2015), 119

The supramolecular assembly of a series of copolymers combining a PEO-rich hydrophilic and fluorinated CO2-philic sequences is analysed by synchrotron small-angle xray scattering (SAXS) in supercritical ... [more ▼]

The supramolecular assembly of a series of copolymers combining a PEO-rich hydrophilic and fluorinated CO2-philic sequences is analysed by synchrotron small-angle xray scattering (SAXS) in supercritical CO2, as well as in water/CO2 emulsions. These copolymers were designed to have the same molecular weight and composition, and to differ only by their macromolecular architecture. The investigated copolymers have random, block, and palm-tree architectures. Besides, thermo-responsive copolymer is also analysed, having a hydrophilic sequence becoming water-insoluble around 41 °C, i.e. just above the critical point of CO2. At the length scale investigated by SAXS, only the random copolymer appears to self-assemble in pure CO2, in the form of a disordered microgel-like network. The random, block and thermo-responsive copolymers are all able to stabilize water/CO2 emulsions but not the copolymer with the palm-tree architecture, pointing at the importance of macromolecular architecture for the emulsifying properties. A modelling of the SAXS data shows that the block and the thermo-responsive copolymers form spherical micelle-like structures containing about 70 % water and 30 % polymer. [less ▲]

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See detailThe clinical use of vitamin D metabolites and their potential developments: a position statement from the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) and the International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF).
Cianferotti, Luisella; Cricelli, Claudio; Kanis, John A. et al

in Endocrine (2015)

Several compounds are produced along the complex pathways of vitamin D3 metabolism, and synthetic analogs have been generated to improve kinetics and/or vitamin D receptor activation. These metabolites ... [more ▼]

Several compounds are produced along the complex pathways of vitamin D3 metabolism, and synthetic analogs have been generated to improve kinetics and/or vitamin D receptor activation. These metabolites display different chemical properties with respect to the parental or native vitamin D3, i.e., cholecalciferol, which has been, so far, the supplement most employed in the treatment of vitamin D inadequacy. Hydrophilic properties of vitamin D3 derivatives facilitate their intestinal absorption and their manageability in the case of intoxication because of the shorter half-life. Calcidiol is a more hydrophilic compound than parental vitamin D3. Active vitamin D analogs, capable of binding the vitamin D receptor evoking vitamin D-related biological effects, are mandatorily employed in hypoparathyroidism and kidney failure with impaired 1alpha-hydroxylation. They have been shown to increase BMD, supposedly ameliorating calcium absorption and/or directly affecting bone cells, although their use in these conditions is jeopardized by the development of hypercalciuria and mild hypercalcemia. Further studies are needed to assess their overall safety and effectiveness in the long-term and new intermittent regimens, especially when combined with the most effective antifracture agents. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic and impact of major insect pests on Jatropha curcas L. in two cropping systems with contrasting characteristics in the province of Kinshasa (DRC)
Minengu, Jean de Dieu; Verheggen, François ULg; Mergeai, Guy ULg

in Tropicultura (2015), 3

The dynamic and impact of the major insect pests on Jatropha curcas L. were studied on two plantations located in the province of Kinshasa, the first in pure stand without irrigation (Mbankana site), the ... [more ▼]

The dynamic and impact of the major insect pests on Jatropha curcas L. were studied on two plantations located in the province of Kinshasa, the first in pure stand without irrigation (Mbankana site), the second under irrigation in combination with other crops (N'sele site). In Mbankana, after being planted during the long rainy season (October - December), the plants suffer significant attacks by crickets Brachytrupes membranaceus Drury (Orthoptera, Gryllidae), which cause a mortality rate of 10 - 40%. The first half of October and second half of December are the best planting periods when it comes to limiting these losses. At N'sele, cricket attacks during planting are controlled by the farmers who eat these insects. After being planted at both sites, the plants are attacked by leaf miner caterpillars Stomphastis thraustica Meyrick (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) and flea beetles Aphthona sp. (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae), which consume the leaf blades and buds. The size of these two pest populations and resulting damage reach a peak during the wettest time of year. On adult plants at N'sele, insect pests observed include flea beetles, leaf miners, and shield-backed bugs Calidea sp. (Heteroptera, Scutelleridae). These bugs cause damage to flowers and capsules. In the absence of insecticide treatments, yield losses reached 90% in Mbankana and 60% in N'sele. The discussion focuses on what causes the different pest impact levels recorded between the cropping systems and methods used to limit the main types of damage caused by insects on J. curcas in the Kinshasa region. [less ▲]

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See detailJean-Marie KAJDANSKI, Pain gris, 2014.
Baiwir, Esther ULg

in Wallonnes : Chronique de la Société de Langue et de Littérature Wallonnes (2015), (1/2015), 13-14

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See detailAnatomically discrete sex differences in neuroplasticity in zebra finches as reflected by perineuronal nets.
Cornez, Gilles; Ter Haar, Sita M.; Cornil, Charlotte ULg et al

in PloS one (2015), 10(4), 0123199

Large morphological sex differences in the vertebrate brain were initially identified in song control nuclei of oscines. Besides gross differences between volumes of nuclei in males and females, sex ... [more ▼]

Large morphological sex differences in the vertebrate brain were initially identified in song control nuclei of oscines. Besides gross differences between volumes of nuclei in males and females, sex differences also concern the size and dendritic arborization of neurons and various neurochemical markers, such as the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PV). Perineuronal nets (PNN) of the extracellular matrix are aggregates of different compounds, mainly chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, that surround subsets of neurons, often expressing PV. PNN develop in zebra finches song control nuclei around the end of the sensitive period for song learning and tutor deprivation, known to delay the end of the song learning sensitive period, decreases the numbers of PNN in HVC. We demonstrate here the existence in zebra finches of a major sex difference (males > females) affecting the number of PNN (especially those surrounding PV-positive cells) in HVC and to a smaller extent the robust nucleus of the arcopallium, RA, the two main nuclei controlling song production. These differences were not present in Area X and LMAN, the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium. A dense expression of material immunoreactive for chondroitin sulfate was also detected in several nuclei of the auditory and visual pathways. This material was often organized in perineuronal rings but quantification of these PNN did not reveal any sex difference with the exception that the percentage of PNN surrounding PV-ir cells in the dorsal lateral mesencephalic nucleus, MLd, was larger in females than in males, a sex difference in the opposite direction compared to what is seen in HVC and RA. These data confirm and extend previous studies demonstrating the sex difference affecting PNN in HVC-RA by showing that this sex difference is anatomically specific and does not concern visual or auditory pathways. [less ▲]

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See detailGlioblastoma Circulating Cells: Reality, Trap or Illusion?
LOMBARD, Arnaud ULg; Goffart, Nicolas ULg; Rogister, Bernard ULg

in Stem Cells International (2015)

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See detailLa sécurité affective chez l'enfant en milieu résidentiel : Des soins du corps au bien être émotionnel
Aprile, Pauline ULg; Englebert, Jérôme ULg; Gauthier, Jean-Marie ULg

in Evolution Psychiatrique (2015), 80(3), 501-513

Objectives - This review studies the concept of affective security in children living outside of their family environment by a brief exposition of its practical illustration in institution. We want to ... [more ▼]

Objectives - This review studies the concept of affective security in children living outside of their family environment by a brief exposition of its practical illustration in institution. We want to show that sufficient affective security can be achieved even in children institutionalized with major attachment difficulties. Method - We will first examine the original meaning of the concept by a theoretical review of its evolution over the years in the literature. Then, we will consider various questions concerning the legitimacy of institutionalization in link with affective security through a case analysis illustrating the issue. We will finally end by mentioning the main practical implications about the optimization of affective security in children institutionalized. Results - It is foremost by the predictable and expected daily acts posed by the professional caregivers in institution that the child may find sufficient affective security, generating emotional well-being and ultimately, an overall adequate development. Discussion – Children early separated from their family home to be placed in residential institution most often suffer from serious difficulties in terms of attachment to others. In this context, the institution has to deal with a specifically challenge: that is, to help the child to (re-)find sufficient internal security to allow him to grow on solid foundations. The institutional life which replaces family life primarily consists of an organizational structure that seeks to make child life as predictable as possible so that it has the necessary daily benchmarks to evolve adequately. Conclusion – In the everyday life in institution, the professionals struggling with children’s attachment disorders constantly try to achieve a right emotional-body balance through their psycho-educational practices with the child deprived of secure attachment strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of 6 % hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 on the correlation between standard laboratory tests and thromboelastography (TEG(R)) after cardiopulmonary bypass.
HANS, Grégory ULg; Hartstein, Gary ULg; Roediger, Laurence et al

in Thrombosis research (2015), 135(5), 984-9

BACKGROUND: Hydroxyethyl starches (HES) affect the results of thromboelastography (TEG(R)). We sought to determine whether using HES rather than crystalloids for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) prime and ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Hydroxyethyl starches (HES) affect the results of thromboelastography (TEG(R)). We sought to determine whether using HES rather than crystalloids for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) prime and intraoperative fluid therapy changes the TEG cutoff values best identifying patients with a low platelet count or a low fibrinogen level after CPB. METHODS: Data from 96 patients who had on-pump cardiac surgery, a TEG(R) (kaolin-heparinase) and standard investigations of blood clotting performed after separation from CPB and protamine administration were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were assigned to the HES or crystalloid group according to whether balanced 6% HES 130/0.4 or balanced crystalloids were used for intraoperative fluid therapy and pump prime. Mutlivariable linear regression models with computation of the standardized regression coefficients were used to identify independent associations between the four main TEG parameters (R time, alpha angle, K time and MA) and the type of fluid used, the INR, the aPTT, the fibrinogen level and the platelet count. Receiver-operating-characteristic curves were used to assess the effect of HES on the ability of TEG parameters to identify patients with a platelet count<80.000mul(-1) or a fibrinogen level<1.5 gr l(-1) and on the cutoff values best identifying these patients. RESULTS: The type of fluid used significantly affected the MA (P<0.001), the K time (P<0.001) and the alpha angle (P<0.001) regardless of the results of the standard clotting tests. According to standardized ss regression coefficients the platelet count and the type of fluid used were stronger predictors of the MA, the alpha angle and the K time than the fibrinogen level. MA better predicted platelets<80.000mul(-1) than K time and alpha angle (P=0.023). The best cutoff value of MA identifying patients with platelets<80.000mul(-1) was 62mm in the crystalloid group and 53mm in the HES group. MA, K time and alpha angle were poor predictors of the postoperative fibrinogen level. CONCLUSION: HES significantly changes the cutoff value of TEG(R) MA best identifying patients<80.000mul(-1) after on-pump cardiac surgery. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment and validation of the French version of a tool assessing patient's expectations in lower limb osteoarthritis
NEUPREZ, Audrey ULg; Delcour, JP; Fatemi, F et al

in Journal of Orthopaedics (2015), 12

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See detailInvestigation of the links between mass transfer conditions, dissolved hydrogen concentration and biohydrogen production by the pure strain Clostridium butyricum CWBI1009
Beckers, L.; Masset, J.; Hamilton, C. et al

in Biochemical Engineering Journal (2015), 98

Fermentative hydrogen production has often been described as inhibited by its own gas production. In this work, hydrogen production by Clostridium butyricum was investigated in batch Biochemical Hydrogen ... [more ▼]

Fermentative hydrogen production has often been described as inhibited by its own gas production. In this work, hydrogen production by Clostridium butyricum was investigated in batch Biochemical Hydrogen Potential (BHP) tests and in a 2.5L anaerobic sequenced batch reactor (AnSBR) under different operating conditions regarding liquid-to-gas mass transfer. Through the addition of both stirring up to 400rpm and nitrogen sparging, the yields were enhanced from 1.6 to 3.1molH2molglucose -1 and the maximum hydrogen production rates from 140 to 278mLh-1. These original results were achieved with a pure Clostridium strain. They showed that hydrogen production was improved by a higher liquid-to-gas hydrogen transfer resulting in a lower dissolved hydrogen concentration in the culture medium and therefore in a lower bacterial inhibition. In addition, biohydrogen partitioning between the gas and the liquid phase did not conform to Henry's Law due to critical supersaturation phenomena up to seven-fold higher than the equilibrium conditions. Therefore, dissolved hydrogen concentration should be systematically measured instead of the headspace hydrogen partial pressure. A model was proposed to correlate H2 production yield and rate by the pure C. butyricum strain CWBI1009 with mass transfer coefficient KLa. [less ▲]

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See detailLa construction des dispositifs de GRH territoriale: grille d’analyse et modalités du processus de traduction
Mazilli, Ingrid; Pichault, François ULg

in Management International = International Management = Gestión Internacional (2015), 19(3), 31-46

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See detailClinical Significance of Exercise Pulmonary Hypertension in Secondary Mitral Regurgitation.
Lancellotti, Patrizio ULg; Magne, Julien; DULGHERU, Raluca Elena ULg et al

in The American journal of cardiology (2015)

In patients with heart failure, exercise echocardiography can help in risk stratification and decision making. The prognostic significance of exercise pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with ... [more ▼]

In patients with heart failure, exercise echocardiography can help in risk stratification and decision making. The prognostic significance of exercise pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with secondary mitral regurgitation (MR) remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to assess the prognostic value of exercise PH in patients with secondary MR and narrow QRS intervals. From 2005 to 2012, 159 consecutive patients with secondary MR, narrow QRS intervals, left ventricular dysfunction (mean ejection fraction 36 +/- 7%), and measurable systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (SPAP) during exercise echocardiography were included. Resting and exercise PH were defined as SPAP >50 and >60 mm Hg, respectively. Exercise PH was more frequent than resting PH (40% vs 13%, p <0.0001). On multivariate logistic regression, the independent determinants of exercise PH were resting SPAP (p <0.0001), exercise MR severity (p <0.0001), and e'-wave velocity (p = 0.004). The incidence of cardiac events during follow-up was significantly higher in patients with exercise PH compared with those without exercise PH (4 years: 40 +/- 7% vs 20 +/- 5%, p <0.0001). Patients with exercise PH exhibited higher rates of cardiac events and death than those with resting PH. In a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, exercise PH was independently associated with the occurrence of cardiac events (p <0.0001). In conclusion, in patients with secondary MR, exercise PH is determined mainly by resting SPAP, left ventricular diastolic burden, and exercise MR severity. Exercise PH is a powerful predictor of poor outcomes, with a 5.3-fold increased risk for cardiac-related death during follow-up. These results highlight the added value of exercise echocardiography in secondary MR. [less ▲]

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See detailSinusoidal obstruction syndrome/veno-occlusive disease: current situation and perspectives—a position statement from the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT)
Mohty, M.; Malard, F.; Abecassis, M. et al

in Bone Marrow Transplantation (2015)

Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome or veno-occlusive disease (SOS/VOD) is a potentially life-threatening complication of hematopoietic SCT (HSCT). This review aims to highlight, on behalf of the European ... [more ▼]

Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome or veno-occlusive disease (SOS/VOD) is a potentially life-threatening complication of hematopoietic SCT (HSCT). This review aims to highlight, on behalf of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, the current knowledge on SOS/VOD pathophysiology, risk factors, diagnosis and treatments. Our perspectives on SOS/VOD are (i) to accurately identify its risk factors; (ii) to define new criteria for its diagnosis; (iii) to search for SOS/VOD biomarkers and (iv) to propose prospective studies evaluating SOS/VOD prevention and treatment in adults and children. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative biogeochemistry-ecosystem-human interactions on dynamic continental margins
Levin, Lisa A.; Liu, Kon-Kee; Kay-Christian, Emeis et al

in Journal of Marine Systems (2015), 141

The ocean’s continental margins face strong and rapid change, forced by a combination of direct human activity, anthropogenic CO2-induced climate change, and natural variability. Stimulated by discussions ... [more ▼]

The ocean’s continental margins face strong and rapid change, forced by a combination of direct human activity, anthropogenic CO2-induced climate change, and natural variability. Stimulated by discussions in Goa, India at the IMBER IMBIZO III, we (1) provide an overview of the drivers of biogeochemical variation and change on margins, (2) compare temporal trends in hydrographic and biogeochemical data across different margins (3) review ecosystem responses to these changes, (4) highlight the importance of margin time series for detecting and attributing change and (5) examine societal responses to changing margin biogeochemistry and ecosystems. We synthesize information over a wide range of margin settings in order to identify the commonalities and distinctions among continental margin ecosystems. Key drivers of biogeochemical variation include long-term climate cycles, CO2-induced warming, acidification, and deoxygenation, as well as sea level rise, eutrophication, hydrologic and water cycle alteration, changing land use, fishing, and species invasion. Ecosystem responses are complex and impact major margin services including primary production, fisheries production, nutrient cycling, shoreline protection, chemical buffering, and biodiversity. Despite regional differences, the societal consequences of these changes are unarguably large and mandate coherent actions to reduce, mitigate and adapt to multiple stressors on continental margins. [less ▲]

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See detailTrabecular bone score (TBS) as a new complementary approach for osteoporosis evaluation in clinical practice.
Harvey, N. C.; Gluer, C. C.; Binkley, N. et al

in Bone (2015), 78

Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a recently-developed analytical tool that performs novel grey-level texture measurements on lumbar spine dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) images, and thereby captures ... [more ▼]

Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a recently-developed analytical tool that performs novel grey-level texture measurements on lumbar spine dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) images, and thereby captures information relating to trabecular microarchitecture. In order for TBS to usefully add to bone mineral density (BMD) and clinical risk factors in osteoporosis risk stratification, it must be independently associated with fracture risk, readily obtainable, and ideally, present a risk which is amenable to osteoporosis treatment. This paper summarizes a review of the scientific literature performed by a Working Group of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis. Low TBS is consistently associated with an increase in both prevalent and incident fractures that is partly independent of both clinical risk factors and areal BMD (aBMD) at the lumbar spine and proximal femur. More recently, TBS has been shown to have predictive value for fracture independent of fracture probabilities using the FRAX(R) algorithm. Although TBS changes with osteoporosis treatment, the magnitude is less than that of aBMD of the spine, and it is not clear how change in TBS relates to fracture risk reduction. TBS may also have a role in the assessment of fracture risk in some causes of secondary osteoporosis (e.g. diabetes, hyperparathyroidism and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis). In conclusion, there is a role for TBS in fracture risk assessment in combination with both aBMD and FRAX. [less ▲]

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See detailFarmers' practices and willingness to adopt supplemental irrigation in Burkina Faso
Zongo, Bétéo ULg; Diarra, Abdoulaye; Barbier, Bruno et al

in International Journal of Food and Agricultural Economics (2015), 3(1), 101-117

This study analyzes farmers' practices and willingness to adopt supplemental irrigation on rainfed crops in the Sahelian and Sudano-Sahelian areas of Burkina Faso. A survey of 629 farmers revealed a ... [more ▼]

This study analyzes farmers' practices and willingness to adopt supplemental irrigation on rainfed crops in the Sahelian and Sudano-Sahelian areas of Burkina Faso. A survey of 629 farmers revealed a diversity of farming practices within and between two agro-climatic zones. Over 65% of farmers believe that supplemental irrigation is a good way to mitigate the adverse effects of dry spells on crop yields. Determining factors of farmers’ willingness to adopt supplemental irrigation were identified using a logistic model. Lack of information is the major obstacle to promoting this innovation. Farmers’ training and information dissemination are the best ways to increase the acceptance of this promising technology. [less ▲]

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See detailTechnical Note: Large overestimation of pCO2 calculated from pH and alkalinity in acidic, organic-rich freshwaters
Abril, G; Bouillon, S; Darchambeau, François ULg et al

in Biogeosciences (2015), 12(1), 67-78

Inland waters have been recognized as a significant source of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere at the global scale. Fluxes of CO2 between aquatic systems and the atmosphere are calculated from the ... [more ▼]

Inland waters have been recognized as a significant source of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere at the global scale. Fluxes of CO2 between aquatic systems and the atmosphere are calculated from the gas transfer velocity and the water–air gradient of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2). Currently, direct measurements of water pCO2 remain scarce in freshwaters, and most published pCO2 data are calculated from temperature, pH and total alkalinity (TA). Here, we compare calculated (pH and TA) and measured (equilibrator and headspace) water pCO2 in a large array of temperate and tropical freshwaters. The 761 data points cover a wide range of values for TA (0 to 14 200 μmol L􀀀1), pH (3.94 to 9.17), measured pCO2 (36 to 23 000 ppmv), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (29 to 3970 μmol L􀀀1). Calculated pCO2 were >10% higher than measured pCO2 in 60% of the samples (with a median overestimation of calculated pCO2 compared to measured pCO2 of 2560 ppmv) and were >100% higher in the 25% most organic-rich and acidic samples (with a median overestimation of 9080 ppmv). We suggest these large overestimations of calculated pCO2 with respect to measured pCO2 are due to the combination of two cumulative effects: (1) a more significant contribution of organic acids anions to TA in waters with low carbonate alkalinity and high DOC concentrations; (2) a lower buffering capacity of the carbonate system at low pH, which increases the sensitivity of calculated pCO2 to TA in acidic and organicrich waters. No empirical relationship could be derived from our data set in order to correct calculated pCO2 for this bias. Owing to the widespread distribution of acidic, organic-rich freshwaters, we conclude that regional and global estimates of CO2 outgassing from freshwaters based on pH and TA data only are most likely overestimated, although the magnitude of the overestimation needs further quantitative analysis. Direct measurements of pCO2 are recommended in inland waters in general, and in particular in acidic, poorly buffered freshwaters [less ▲]

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See detailPaleomagnetic and geochemical record from cores from the Sea of Marmara, Turkey: Age constraints and implications of sapropelic deposition on early diagenesis
Drab, Laureen; Carlut, Julie; Hubert, Aurelia ULg et al

in Marine Geology (2015), 360

We present results of a multi-proxy analysis of two sediment cores from the Marmara Sea. The cores were ana- lyzed using paleomagnetic and geochemical measurements. Two sapropels are documented in the ... [more ▼]

We present results of a multi-proxy analysis of two sediment cores from the Marmara Sea. The cores were ana- lyzed using paleomagnetic and geochemical measurements. Two sapropels are documented in the last 11 kyr and are recorded in several locations across the Marmara Sea. These two sapropels have contrasting magnetic prop- erties. The magnetic record is affected by intense early diagenesis; the most recent upper sapropelic layer has low remanence and susceptibility values. A record of paleomagnetic inclinations could still be isolated above the dia- genesis front and is compared with secular variation models. The lower sapropel is identified in the deep part of the oldest studied core (Klg07) and has distinct magnetic properties characterized by high remanence and sus- ceptibility values. Using the magnetic properties it is possible to constrain bottom water ventilation and recon- nection episodes between the Marmara Sea and the Black Sea following the sea level rise during the last glacial to inter-glacial transition. [less ▲]

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See detailMarine space ecology and seagrasses. Does patch type matter in Posidonia oceanica seascapes?
Abadie, Arnaud ULg; Gobert, Sylvie ULg; Bonacorsi, Marina et al

in Ecological Indicators (2015), 57

The use of landscape tools in the study of seagrass meadows (seascapes) begins to be widely spreadbut still require the establishment of several basis, i.e. a patch type classification based on ... [more ▼]

The use of landscape tools in the study of seagrass meadows (seascapes) begins to be widely spreadbut still require the establishment of several basis, i.e. a patch type classification based on numericalcharacteristics. Thanks to the complex seascapes created by the Posidonia oceanica meadows, they appearto be suitable for a study at a patch type level (class), which bring a new insight of their arrangement at thewhole seascape scale. By interpreting side scan sonar images from the Corsican coast (France) through aGIS software, it was possible to describe 11 types of patches and to evaluate their natural or anthropogenicorigin. Comparison of different landscape metrics and wave exposure (Relative wave Exposure Index,REI) at the seascape and the patch level showed that the particularity of P. oceanica seascapes are mainlycharacterized by certain types of patches often of anthropogenic origin. Furthermore the REI seems not tobe a relevant index for a study at a class scale. A bathymetrical succession of natural patches was outlinedfrom the lower to the upper limit of the meadow, with a long-term dynamic opposed to a shorter oneconcerning anthropogenic patches. In order to assess the origin (natural or induced by human activities)of the patches in P. oceanica meadows, as well as in any other seagrass, a Patchiness Source Index (PaSI),ranging from 0 to 1, was defined. [less ▲]

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See detailCaryl Phillips’s drama: Liminal fiction under construction?
Ledent, Bénédicte ULg

in Journal of Postcolonial Writing (2015), 51(1), 84-94

Most of the existing criticism on Caryl Phillips deals with his novels or his essays. His plays, which were for the most part written in the 1980s, have received comparatively little attention. This ... [more ▼]

Most of the existing criticism on Caryl Phillips deals with his novels or his essays. His plays, which were for the most part written in the 1980s, have received comparatively little attention. This article argues that Phillips’s dramatic production should be examined closely because it contains in a nutshell some of the themes and characters that recur in his more mature work and therefore form the backbone of his world vision. Such a comparative approach helps to highlight Phillips’s artistic consistency and his ability to give different forms to similar concerns. More specifically, its aim is to show to what extent Phillips’s novel In the Falling Snow (2009) is a liminal text that is in fact built upon the preoccupations at the heart of his early plays, most notably Strange Fruit (1981), Where There Is Darkness (1982) and The Shelter (1983). [less ▲]

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See detailPOPs in free-ranging pilot whales, sperm whales and fin whales from the Mediterranean Sea: Influence of biological and ecological factors
Pinzone, Marianna ULg; Budzinski, Hélène; Tasciotti, Aurélie et al

in Environmental Research (2015), 142

The pilot whale Globicephala melas, the sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus and the fin whale Balaenoptera physalus are large cetaceans permanently inhabiting the Mediterranean Sea. These species are ... [more ▼]

The pilot whale Globicephala melas, the sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus and the fin whale Balaenoptera physalus are large cetaceans permanently inhabiting the Mediterranean Sea. These species are subjected to numerous anthropogenic threats, such as exposure to high levels of contaminants. Therefore, selected persistent organic pollutants, POPs (29 PCBs, 15 organochlorine compounds, nine PBDEs and 17 PCDD/Fs), were analysed in the blubber biopsies of 49 long-finned pilot whales, 61 sperm whales and 70 fin whales collected in the north-western Mediterranean Sea (NWMS) from 2006 to 2013. The contamination profile and species feeding ecology were combined through the use of stable isotopes. δ13C, δ15N values and POPs levels were assessed through IR-MS and GC-MS, respectively. To assess the toxic potency of the dioxin-like compounds, the TEQ approach was applied. δ15N values were 12.2 ± 1.3‰ for sperm whales, 10.5 ± 0.7‰ for pilot whales and 7.7±0.8‰ in fin whales, which positions sperm whales at higher trophic levels. δ13C of the two odontocetes were similar and amounted to −17.3±0.4‰ for sperm whales and −17.8±0.3‰ for pilot whales, whereas the result for fin whales reflected more depleted (−18.7±0.4‰). This outcome indicates a partial overlap in the feeding habits of toothed whales and confirms the differences in feeding behaviour of the mysticete. Pilot whales had higher concentrations than sperm whales for ΣPCBs (38666 ± 25731 ng.g-1 lw and 22849 ± 15566 ng.g-1 lw, respectively), ΣPBDEs (712±412 ng.g-1 lw and 347±173 ng.g-1 lw, respectively) and ΣDDTs (46081±37506 ng.g-1 lw and 37647±38518 ng.g-1 lw, respectively). Fin whales had the lowest values, which reflected its trophic position (ΣPCBs: 5721±5180 ng.g-1 lw, ΣPBDEs: 177±208 ng.g-1 lw and ΣDDTs: 6643±5549 ng.g-1 lw). Each species was characterized by large inter-individual variations that are more related to sex than trophic level. Males presented a higher contaminant burden than females. The discriminant analysis (DA) confirmed how DDTs and highly chlorinated PCBs could differentiate the three species. The pollutant concentrations of our species were significantly higher than both their southern hemisphere and North Atlantic counterparts. This result is possibly due to Mediterranean geomorphology, which influences the distribution and recycling of pollutants. Dioxin-like PCBs accounted for over 80% of the total TEQ. This study demonstrated (1) the pollutants of Mediterranean cetaceans often surpassed the estimated threshold toxicity value of 17000 ng.g−1 lw for blubber in marine mammals and (2) how the final pollutant burden in these animals is strongly influenced not only by trophic position but also by numerous other factors, including sex, age, body size and geographical distribution. [less ▲]

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See detailAdded value of a triaxial accelerometer assessing gait parameters to predict falls and mortality among nursing home residents: A two-year prospective study.
Buckinx, Fanny ULg; Beaudart, Charlotte ULg; Slomian, Justine ULg et al

in Technology and health care : official journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine (2015), 23

BACKGROUND: Gait impairment seems to be a risk factor for falls and mortality. Because gait change cannot be determined easily with classical clinical tests, some authors have suggested that it might be ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Gait impairment seems to be a risk factor for falls and mortality. Because gait change cannot be determined easily with classical clinical tests, some authors have suggested that it might be useful to use a gait-analysis system among elderly community-dwelling people. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of the present study was to determine the predictive value of a quantitative evaluation of the gait characteristics in nursing home residents for the occurrence of falls and death performed using a tri-axial accelerometer (Locometrix(R)). MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred elderly nursing home residents (80 women and 20 men, mean age 86.4 +/- 6.04 years) were included in this study with the aim to follow them for 2 years. Deaths and falls were systematically recorded. A quantitative evaluation of a 10-second walk was performed with a tri-axial accelerometer (Locometrix(R)). Demographic data (i.e age, sex, body mass index) and clinical data (i.e. fall risk evaluated by the Tinetti test) were also recorded. RESULTS: During the two years of follow-up, 27 patients died. After adjustment on all potential confounding variables, only body mass index was significantly associated with the risk of mortality with an odds ratio of 0.86 (95% CI: 0.77-0.96, p=0.04). At the end of the study period, 440 falls had occurred (mean: 4.44 +/- 6.79 falls per patient) but no single factors were independently associated with fall incidence. CONCLUSION: Our results show that a quantitative gait analysis performed using a tri-axial accelerometer is not predictive of long-term falls and mortality among nursing home residents. [less ▲]

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See detailWelcome to papers from the Second International Meeting of Agora Paleobotanica
Cascales - Miñana, Borja ULg; Diez, José B.

in Historical Biology (2015), 27(3–4), 291293

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See detailDetection of differential item functioning using the lasso approach
Magis, David ULg; Tuerlinckx, Francis; De Boeck, Paul

in Journal of Educational & Behavioral Statistics (2015), 40

This paper proposes a novel approach to detect differential item functioning (DIF) among dichotomously scored items. Unlike standard DIF methods that perform an item-by-item analysis, we propose the “LR ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes a novel approach to detect differential item functioning (DIF) among dichotomously scored items. Unlike standard DIF methods that perform an item-by-item analysis, we propose the “LR lasso DIF method”: logistic regression (LR) model is formulated for all item responses. The model contains item specific intercepts, an effect of the sum score and item-group interaction (i.e. DIF) effects, with a lasso penalty on all DIF parameters. Optimal penalty parameter selection is investigated through several known information criteria (AIC, BIC and cross-validation) as well as through a newly developed alternative. A simulation study was conducted to compare the global performance of the suggested “LR lasso DIF” method to the logistic regression and Mantel-Haenszel methods (in terms of false alarm and hit rates). It is concluded that for small samples the LR lasso DIF approach globally outperforms the logistic regression method, and also the Mantel-Haenszel method, especially in the presence of item impact, while it yields similar results with larger samples. [less ▲]

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See detailCompte rendu de 'Mutations et déterminisme chez Bourdieu'
Saint-Amand, Denis ULg

in Lectures (2015)

En définitive, il aurait sans doute mieux valu resserrer le propos sous la forme d’un article critique qui aurait pu trouver place dans une revue spécialisée : ne se donnant par les moyens de ses trop ... [more ▼]

En définitive, il aurait sans doute mieux valu resserrer le propos sous la forme d’un article critique qui aurait pu trouver place dans une revue spécialisée : ne se donnant par les moyens de ses trop hautes ambitions, l’ouvrage se révèle trop léger en plus de se distinguer par le manque de soin apporté à sa réalisation [less ▲]

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See detailBioaccumulation of organohalogenated compounds in sharks and rays from the southeastern USA
Weijs, Liesbeth; Briels, Nathalie; Adams, Douglas et al

in Environmental Research (2015), 137

Organohalogenated compounds are widespread in the marine environment and can be a serious threat to organisms in all levels of aquatic food webs, including elasmobranch species. Information about the ... [more ▼]

Organohalogenated compounds are widespread in the marine environment and can be a serious threat to organisms in all levels of aquatic food webs, including elasmobranch species. Information about the concentrations of POPs (persistent organic pollutants) and of MeO-PBDEs (methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers) in elasmobranchs is scarce and potential toxic effects are poorly understood. The aims of the present study were therefore to investigate the occurrence of multiple POP classes (PCBs, PBDEs, DDXs, HCB, CHLs) and of MeO-PBDEs in various elasmobranch species from different trophic levels in estuarine and marine waters of the southeastern United States. Overall, levels and patterns of PCBs, PBDEs, DDXs, HCB, CHLs and of MeO-PBDEs varied according to the species, maturity stage, gender and habitat type. The lowest levels of POPs were found in Atlantic stingrays and the highest levels were found in bull sharks. As both species are respectively near the bottom and at top of the trophic web, with juvenile bull sharks frequently feeding on Atlantic stingrays, these findings further suggest a bioaccumulation and biomagnification process with trophic position. MeO-PBDEs were not detected in Atlantic stingrays, but were found in all shark species. HCB was not found in Atlantic stingrays, bonnetheads or lemon sharks, but was detected in the majority of bull sharks examined. Comparison with previous studies suggests that Atlantic stingrays may be experiencing toxic effects of PCBs and DDXs on their immune system. However, the effect of these compounds on the health of shark species remains unclear. [less ▲]

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See detailLe conceivable et l’imaginable. Analyse conceptuelle et intuition éidétique
Leclercq, Bruno ULg

in Cercle Herméneutique (Le) (2015)

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See detailAn analogue of Cobham's theorem for graph directed iterated function systems
Charlier, Emilie ULg; Leroy, Julien ULg; Rigo, Michel ULg

in Advances in Mathematics (2015), 280

Feng and Wang showed that two homogeneous iterated function systems in $\mathbb{R}$ with multiplicatively independent contraction ratios necessarily have different attractors. In this paper, we extend ... [more ▼]

Feng and Wang showed that two homogeneous iterated function systems in $\mathbb{R}$ with multiplicatively independent contraction ratios necessarily have different attractors. In this paper, we extend this result to graph directed iterated function systems in $\mathbb{R}^n$ with contraction ratios that are of the form $\frac{1}{\beta}$, for integers $\beta$. By using a result of Boigelot {\em et al.}, this allows us to give a proof of a conjecture of Adamczewski and Bell. In doing so, we link the graph directed iterated function systems to Büchi automata. In particular, this link extends to real numbers $\beta$. We introduce a logical formalism that permits to characterize sets of $\mathbb{R}^n$ whose representations in base $\beta$ are recognized by some Büchi automata. This result depends on the algebraic properties of the base: $\beta$ being a Pisot or a Parry number. The main motivation of this work is to draw a general picture representing the different frameworks where an analogue of Cobham's theorem is known. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficient 3D transfer operators based on numerical integration
Bussetta, Philippe ULg; Boman, Romain ULg; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg

in International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering (2015), 102(3-4), 892-929

This paper deals with data transfer between two meshes as it happens in a finite element context when a remeshing has to be performed. We propose a finite-volume-based data transfer method for an ... [more ▼]

This paper deals with data transfer between two meshes as it happens in a finite element context when a remeshing has to be performed. We propose a finite-volume-based data transfer method for an efficient remeshing of three-dimensional solid mechanics problems. The originality of this transfer method stems from a linear reconstruction of the fields to be transferred on an auxiliary finite volume mesh, a fast computation of the transfer operator and the application to the complete remeshing of 3D problems. This procedure is applicable to both nodal values and discrete fields defined at quadrature points. In addition, a data transfer method using mortar elements is presented. The main improvement made to this second method comes from a fast computation of mortar elements. These two data transfer methods are compared with the simplest transfer method, which consists of a classical interpolation. After some academic examples, we present 2D forging and 3D friction stir welding applications. [less ▲]

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See detailLow back pain-related meta-analysis: Caution is needed when interpreting published research results
Demoulin, Christophe ULg; Bruyère, Olivier ULg; SOMVILLE, Pierre-René ULg et al

in World Journal of Meta-Analysis (2015), 26(3(2)), 93-96

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See detailMultiple timescale spectral analysis
Denoël, Vincent ULg

in Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics (2015), 39(0), 69--86

Abstract Spectral analysis is a classical tool for the structural analysis of structures subjected to random excitations. The most common application of spectral analysis is the determination of the ... [more ▼]

Abstract Spectral analysis is a classical tool for the structural analysis of structures subjected to random excitations. The most common application of spectral analysis is the determination of the steady-state second order cumulant of a linear oscillator, under the action of a stationary loading prescribed by means of its power spectral density. There exists however a broad variety of such similar problems, extending the concept to multi degree-of-freedom systems, non Gaussian excitation, slightly nonlinear oscillators or even transient excitations. In this wide class of problems, the cumulants of the response are obtained as the result of the integral of corresponding spectra over the frequency space, which is possibly multidimensional. Application of standard numerical integration techniques may be prohibitive, a reason why the spectral approach is often left aside. Besides, many engineering problems involve a clear timescale separation, usually of those pertaining to the loading and to the mechanical behavior of the system. In these problems, a proper consideration of the timescale separation results in dropping the order of integration by one, at least. This offers the possibility to derive analytical solutions, whenever the order of integration drops to zero, or to make numerical integration competitive. The paper presents this general method, together with some applications in wind and marine engineering. [less ▲]

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See detailTest-positive rate at CT colonography is increased by rectal bleeding and/orunexplained weight loss, unlike other common gastrointestinal symptoms
Hock, Danielle; MATERNE, Roland; Ouhadi, Roxanne et al

in European Journal of Radiology (2015), 2

2015AbstractPurpose: We evaluated the rate of significant colonic and extra-colonic abnormalities at computed tomography colonography (CTC), accordingto symptoms and age.Materials and methods: We ... [more ▼]

2015AbstractPurpose: We evaluated the rate of significant colonic and extra-colonic abnormalities at computed tomography colonography (CTC), accordingto symptoms and age.Materials and methods: We retrospectively evaluated 7361 consecutive average-risk subjects (3073 males, average age: 60.3 ± 13.9; range 18–96years) for colorectal cancer (CRC) who underwent CTC. They were divided into three groups according to clinical symptoms: 1343 asymptomaticindividuals (group A), 899 patients with at least one “alarm” symptom for CRC, including rectal bleeding and unexplained weight loss (groupC), and 5119 subjects with other gastrointestinal symptoms (group B). Diagnostic and test-positive rates of CTC were established using opticalcolonoscopy (OC) and/or surgery as reference standard. In addition, clinically significant extra-colonic findings were noted.Results: 903 out of 7361 (12%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11–0.13) subjects had at least one clinically significant colonic finding at CTC. CTCtrue positive fraction and false positive fraction were respectively 637/642 (99.2%, 95%CI 0.98–0.99) and 55/692 (7.95%, 95%CI 0.05–0.09). Thepooled test-positive rate in group C (138/689, 20.0%, 95%CI 0.17–0.23) was significantly higher than in both groups A (79/1343, 5.9%, 95%CI0.04–0.07) and B (420/5329, 7.5%, 95%CI 0.07–0.08) (p < 0.001). Aging and male gender were associated to a higher test positive rate. The rateof clinically significant extra-colonic findings was significantly higher in group C (44/689, 6.4%, 95%CI 0.04–0.08) versus groups A (26/1343,1.9%, 95%CI 0.01–0.02) and B (64/5329, 1.2%, 95%CI 0.01–0.02) (p < 0.001).Conclusion: Both test-positive and significant extra-colonic finding rates at CTC are significantly increased in the presence of “alarm” gastroin-testinal symptoms especially in older patients. [less ▲]

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See detailLinear and nonlinear optical properties of functionalized CdSe quantum dots prepared by plasma sputtering and wet chemistry
Humbert, Christophe; Dahi, Abdellatif; Dalstein, Laetitia et al

in Journal of Colloid & Interface Science (2015), 445

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See detailLe genre Guibourtia Benn., un taxon à haute valeur commerciale et sociétale (synthèse bibliographique)
Tosso, Dji-ndé Félicien ULg; Daïnou, Kasso ULg; Hardy, J. Olivier et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2015), 19(1),

Known as a genus of great socio-cultural and economical importance, Guibourtia Benn. includes morphologically very similar multipurpose sister species, found in various habitats with different climate and ... [more ▼]

Known as a genus of great socio-cultural and economical importance, Guibourtia Benn. includes morphologically very similar multipurpose sister species, found in various habitats with different climate and soil conditions. In many places, Guibourtia is subject to local overexploitation by forest companies and local communities. As the population density of Guibourtia species is generally very low, it may be necessary to conduct scientific investigations that will provide valuable information for the management of the populations concerned. This paper is based on an extensive literature review and summarizes the available information on the genus Guibourtia, in terms of botany, ecology, genetics, forestry and ethnobotany. Our review provided evidence that, to date, ecological and silvicultural knowledge regarding Guibourtia species is lacking and that it is very difficult to morphologically differentiate very similar sister species. In addition, we provide a new determination key for the genus Guibourtia. Based on the available information, it is difficult to assess the conservation status of these taxa. Further investigations are needed to suggest appropriate management strategies for Guibourtia. Moreover, species diversity within this genus and its distribution in various tropical biomes make it an excellent biological model for understanding the historical, biological and environmental mechanisms that explain the diversity of tropical moist forests. [less ▲]

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See detailDo aphids actively search for ant partners?
Fischer, Christophe ULg; Vanderplanck, Maryse; Lognay, Georges ULg et al

in Insect Science (2015), 22(2), 283-288

The aphid–ant mutualistic relationships are not necessarily obligate for neither partners but evidence is that such interactions provide them strong advantages in terms of global fitness. While it is ... [more ▼]

The aphid–ant mutualistic relationships are not necessarily obligate for neither partners but evidence is that such interactions provide them strong advantages in terms of global fitness. While it is largely assumed that ants actively search for their mutualistic partners namely using volatile cues; whether winged aphids (i.e. aphids’ most mobile form) are able to select ant-frequented areas had not been investigated so far. Ant-frequented sites would indeed offer several advantages for these aphids including a lower predation pressure through ant presence and enhanced chances of establishing mutuaslistic interactions with neighbour ant colonies. In the field, aphid colonies are often observed in higher densities around ant nests, which is probably linked to a better survival ensured by ants’ services. Nevertheless, this could also result from a preferential establishment of winged aphids in ant-frequented areas. We tested this last hypothesis through different ethological assays and show that the facultative myrmecophilous black bean aphid, Aphis fabae L., does not orientate its search for a host plant preferentially towards ant-frequented plants. However our results suggest that ants reduce the number of winged aphids leaving the newly colonized plant. Thus, ants involved in facultative myrmecophilous interactions with aphids appear to contribute to structure aphid populations in the field by ensuring a better establishment and survival of newly established colonies rather than by inducing a deliberate plant selection by aphid partners based on the proximity of ant colonies. [less ▲]

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See detailL'environnement entre science et sens commun
Mormont, Marc ULg

in Natures Sciences Sociétés (2015), 23(3), 150-153

John Dewey propose dès 1948 une conception des rapports entre science et sens commun qui permet d'élucider les difficultés permanentes de l'apporche de l'environnement.

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See detailLe regard (peu optimiste) du soignant sur la personne âgée
Schroyen, Sarah ULg; Missotten, Pierre ULg; Marquet, Manon ULg et al

in Medi-Sphere (2015), 469

L’âgisme (c’est-à-dire l’ensemble de nos stéréotypes liés à l’avancée en âge) a de nombreuses conséquences négatives tant pour le patient lui-même qu’au sein de la relation entre le patient et le ... [more ▼]

L’âgisme (c’est-à-dire l’ensemble de nos stéréotypes liés à l’avancée en âge) a de nombreuses conséquences négatives tant pour le patient lui-même qu’au sein de la relation entre le patient et le personnel soignant. Au cours de cet article, nous illustrerons les représentations du vieillissement prévalentes chez les soignants et aborderons brièvement les conséquences de l’âgisme sur leurs attitudes de soins. [less ▲]

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See detailA 24-month Study Evaluating the Efficacy and Safety of Denosumab for the Treatment of Men With Low Bone Mineral Density: Results From the ADAMO Trial.
Langdahl, Bente L.; Teglbjaerg, Christence S.; Ho, Pei-Ran et al

in The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism (2015), 100(4), 1335-1342

Context: One in 4 men in the US aged >50 will suffer an osteoporosis-related fracture. Less data are available on osteoporosis treatment in men than women. Objective: Evaluate denosumab therapy in men ... [more ▼]

Context: One in 4 men in the US aged >50 will suffer an osteoporosis-related fracture. Less data are available on osteoporosis treatment in men than women. Objective: Evaluate denosumab therapy in men with low BMD. Design: Phase 3 study with two treatment periods: a previously reported 12-month double-blind, placebo-controlled phase and a 12-month open-label phase. Setting: Multicenter in North America and Europe. Participants: 228 men entered the open-label phase and 219 completed the study. Intervention: Men from the original denosumab (long-term) and placebo (crossover) groups received denosumab 60 mg SC every 6 months. Main Outcome Measures: BMD, serum C-telopeptide (sCTX), and safety. Results: During the open-label phase, continued BMD increases occurred with long-term denosumab treatment (2.2% lumbar spine; 0.9% total hip; 1.3% femoral neck; 1.3% trochanter; and 0.2% 1/3 radius), resulting in cumulative 24-month gains from baseline of 8.0%, 3.4%, 3.4%, 4.6%, and 0.7%, respectively (all P<0.01). The crossover group showed BMD gains after 12 months of denosumab treatment similar to the long-term denosumab group during the first treatment year. Significant reductions in sCTX were observed following denosumab administration. Adverse events rates were similar between groups and no new safety signals identified. Conclusions: In men with low BMD, denosumab treatment for a second year continued to increase BMD, maintained reductions in bone resorption, and was well tolerated. BMD increased in men initiating denosumab during the second year. These effects were similar to those previously seen in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and men with prostate cancer on androgen deprivation therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailOak barks as raw materials for the extraction of polyphenols for the chemical and pharmaceutical sectors: a regional case study
Dedrie, Maxime; Jacquet, Nicolas ULg; Bombeck, Pierre-Louis ULg et al

in Industrial Crops and Products (2015), 70

Despite their potential for chemical recycling, residues from forest harvesting and wood processing are mostly used for industrial applications with low added value (energy, paper pulp, panels). Bark of ... [more ▼]

Despite their potential for chemical recycling, residues from forest harvesting and wood processing are mostly used for industrial applications with low added value (energy, paper pulp, panels). Bark of both oak species, Quercus robur L. 1753, Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. 1784 is a by-product from sawmill and pulp mill activities. Bark is mainly used as a fuel for the same wood plants. The aim of this study is to look at the feasibility of enhancing the value of this material through the extraction of bioactive molecules such as polyphenols (i.e. catechin, gallic and ellagic acids). First, the effect of industrial storage of logs and bark on their polyphenol content was explored. Then, referring to the selection of tan oaks in the past, the question of an optimum harvesting age is addressed in order to maximize the polyphenol content of the barks. In the end, molecular diversity of bark is examined through the identification of molecules of interest, using different chromatographic analyses. The results show an effect of the industrial context and an effect of the raw material age on the chemical properties of the bark. First investigations also highlight molecules of interest and the molecular diversity, which needs to be further explored. [less ▲]

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See detailTrans-iron elements in the hot DO-type white dwarf RE 0503-289 and the prospective search for technetium
Werner, K; Rauch, T; Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J R et al

in The Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series (2015), 493

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See detailNoncollinear magnetism in post-perovskites from first-principles: Comparison between CaRhO3 and NaNiF3
Garcia Castro, Andrés Camilo ULg; Romero, Aldo; Bousquet, Eric ULg

in Physica Status Solidi B. Basic Research (2015), 252(4), 689

Based on first-principles calculations, we study the noncollinear magnetism in the post-perovskites (pPv) phase of NaNiFinline image and CaRhOinline image crystals. We find that the magnetic canting is ... [more ▼]

Based on first-principles calculations, we study the noncollinear magnetism in the post-perovskites (pPv) phase of NaNiFinline image and CaRhOinline image crystals. We find that the magnetic canting is one of the most promising properties of pPv systems, which is allowed by symmetry in all the pPv crystals inline image with a magnetically active B-site. In the pPv phase of NaNiFinline image, which has a inline image antiferromagnetic ground state with a inline image ferromagnetic canting, we obtain a magnetic canting amplitude of about 0.1 inline imageatominline image, which is much larger than in the one obtained in CaRhOinline image (canting amplitude of 0.04 inline image). We also computed the exchange constants (inline image), the single-ion anisotropy (SIA) parameters and the anti-symmetric magnetic coupling described by the Dzyaloshinsky–Moriya (DM) interaction in order to scrutinize the origin of the magnetic canting. We find that the canting in NaNiFinline image is mainly due to the DM interaction, while in CaRhOinline image, both DM and SIA contribute to the magnetic canting. Our calculations thus confirm the noncollinear magnetic ground-state solution experimentally observed in both compounds and the calculated magnetic exchange interactions also confirm the quasi-2D magnetic behavior reported in pPv. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of mouse strain on ovarian tissue recovery after engraftment with angiogenic factor.
Fransolet, Maïté ULg; Henry, Laurie ULg; Labied, Soraya et al

in Journal of Ovarian Research (2015), 8(1), 14

BACKGROUND: For women facing gonadotoxic treatment, cryopreservation of ovarian tissue with subsequent retransplantation during remission is a promising technique for fertility preservation. However ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: For women facing gonadotoxic treatment, cryopreservation of ovarian tissue with subsequent retransplantation during remission is a promising technique for fertility preservation. However, follicle loss within grafted ovarian tissue can be caused by ischemia and progressive revascularization. Several xenograft models using different immunodeficient rodent lines are suitable for studying ovarian tissue survival and follicular viability after frozen-thawed ovarian cortex transplantation. SCID mice, which are deficient for functional B and T cells, are the most commonly used mice for ovarian xenograft studies. However, due to incomplete immunosuppression, NOD-SCID mice displaying low NK cell function and an absence of circulating complement might be more appropriate. The present study aims to define the most appropriate immunodeficient mouse strain for ovarian tissue xenotransplantation by comparing ovarian graft recovery in SCID and NOD-SCID mice following engraftment in the presence of isoform 111 of vascular endothelial growth factor. METHODS: Sheep ovarian cortex fragments were embedded in a collagen matrix, with or without VEGF111, before being stitched onto the ovaries of SCID and NOD-SCID mice. Transplants were recovered after 3 days to study early revascularization or after 3 weeks to evaluate follicle preservation and tissue fibrosis through histological analyses. RESULTS: At day 3, vessels were largely reorganized in the ovarian grafts of both mouse strains. After 3 weeks, the cortical tissue was clearly identifiable in SCID mice but not in NOD-SCID mice. Upon VEGF111 treatment, vascularization was significantly improved 3 days after transplantation in SCID mice. This increase in vessel density was correlated with better follicular preservation in SCID mice 3 weeks after transplantation. Fibrosis was not decreased by VEGF treatment in either mouse strain. CONCLUSIONS: Tissue architecture and follicular morphology were better preserved in ovarian tissues grafted in SCID mice in comparison with NOD-SCID mice. Moreover, tissue revascularization was improved in SCID mice by VEGF111 graft treatment. Thus, we consider SCID mice to be the best murine model for studying ovarian tissue xenografts. [less ▲]

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See detailA network meta-analysis of everolimus plus exemestane versus chemotherapy in the first- and second-line treatment of estrogen receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer.
Generali, Daniele; Venturini, Sergio; Rognoni, Carla et al

in Breast cancer research and treatment (2015), 152(1), 95-117

The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy and toxicity of chemotherapy to exemestane plus everolimus (EXE/EVE) through a network meta-analysis (NMA) of randomized controlled trials. NMA methods ... [more ▼]

The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy and toxicity of chemotherapy to exemestane plus everolimus (EXE/EVE) through a network meta-analysis (NMA) of randomized controlled trials. NMA methods extend standard pairwise meta-analysis to allow simultaneous comparison of multiple treatments while maintaining randomization of individual studies. The method enables "direct" evidence (i.e., evidence from studies directly comparing two interventions) and "indirect" evidence (i.e., evidence from studies that do not compare the two interventions directly) to be pooled under the assumption of evidence consistency. We used NMA to evaluate progression-free survival (PFS) and time to progression (TTP) curves in 34 studies, and response rate (RR) and the hazard ratios (HRs) of the PFS/TTP in 36 studies. A number needed to treat (NNT) analysis was also performed as well as descriptive comparison of reported toxicities. The NMA for PFS/TTP curves and for HR shows EXE/EVE is more efficacious than capecitabine plus sunitinib, CMF, megestrol acetate and tamoxifen, with an average of related-PFS/TTP difference ranging from about 10 months for capecitabine plus sunitinib to more than 6 months for tamoxifen. The NMA for overall RR shows that EXE/EVE provides a better RR than bevacizumab plus capecitabine, capecitabine, capecitabine plus sorafenib, capecitabine plus sunitinib, CMF, gemcitabine plus epirubicin plus paclitaxel, EVE plus tamoxifen, EXE, FEC, megestrol acetate, mitoxantrone, and tamoxifen. Finally, the NMA for NNT shows that EXE/EVE is more beneficial as compared to BMF, capecitabine, capecitabine plus sunitinib, CMF, FEC, megestrol acetate, mitoxantrone, and tamoxifen. The combination of EXE/EVE as first- or second-line therapy for ER+ve/HER2-ve metastatic breast cancer is more efficacious than several chemotherapy regimens that were reported in the literature. Toxicities also favored EXE/EVE in most instances. [less ▲]

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See detailEducation et formation en médecine gériatrique en Europe : challenge du futur?
ROLLER, REGINA ELISABETH; PETERMANS, Jean ULg

in Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement (2015)

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See detailGiven to a Deity? Religious and Social Reappraisal of Human Consecrations in the Hellenistic and Roman East
Caneva, Stefano ULg; Delli Pizzi, Aurian ULg

in Classical Quarterly (2015), 65(1), 167-191

Various cases of human beings ‘dedicated’ to deities are attested in Greek epigraphic evidence. Are these kinds of offerings comparable to the dedication of inanimate objects? Besides, does the fact that ... [more ▼]

Various cases of human beings ‘dedicated’ to deities are attested in Greek epigraphic evidence. Are these kinds of offerings comparable to the dedication of inanimate objects? Besides, does the fact that someone is said to be ‘sacred’ to a specific deity necessarily involve that he went through a process of dedication? This article aims at providing a global picture of different situations in which processes of dedications took place. Among the several issues that are tackled, the cornerstone of this article consists of two questions: for what purposes did some people decide to consecrate a human being to a deity and what were the consequences for the consecrated individuals on religious and social levels? Different categories of persons will be contrasted, in terms of processes through which they acquire their new status but also in terms of the freedom/lack of freedom which is conveyed by this new status. It will also be shown that, as far as method is concerned, it is necessary to complete a lexical analysis with a contextual perspective for a deeper understanding of the problem. [less ▲]

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See detailERRA-KIBRI, ŠABRA D’IDDIN-ILUM ET SES COLLEGUES
Colonna d'Istria, Laurent ULg; Beyer, Dominique

in Journal of Cuneiform Studies (2015), 67

In an article entitled “Wer war Tarâm-Mari?” K. Hecker (2008) published two private contracts from the Old Assyrian Karum II level at Kültepe-Kaniš (Kt m/k and Kt 102 m/171 k). These contracts bore the ... [more ▼]

In an article entitled “Wer war Tarâm-Mari?” K. Hecker (2008) published two private contracts from the Old Assyrian Karum II level at Kültepe-Kaniš (Kt m/k and Kt 102 m/171 k). These contracts bore the impression of the seal of someone who was a dependent of Iddin-Ilum, the ruler (šakkanakku) of the Syrian city of Mari. In this study we propose to read the name of the original owner of the seal as Erra-kibrī rather than as of Tarâm-Mari as had been previously proposed, and to identify him as a ŠABRA official. This seal also provides another example of representation of the goddess who wields a knife, one who occurs frequently on seals of ŠABRA’s and other officials during the reigns of Iddin-ilum and Isi-Dagan of Mari. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphological details in bloodstain particles
De Wael, Kris; Lepot, Laurent ULg

in Forensic Science International (2015), 246(0), 50-54

Abstract During the commission of crimes blood can be transferred to the clothing of the offender or on other crime related objects. Bloodstain particles are sub-millimetre sized flakes that are lost from ... [more ▼]

Abstract During the commission of crimes blood can be transferred to the clothing of the offender or on other crime related objects. Bloodstain particles are sub-millimetre sized flakes that are lost from dried bloodstains. The nature of these red particles is easily confirmed using spectroscopic methods. In casework, bloodstain particles showing highly detailed morphological features were observed. These provided a rationale for a series of experiments described in this work. It was found that the “largest” particles are shed from blood deposited on polyester and polyamide woven fabrics. No particles are lost from the stains made on absorbent fabrics and from those made on knitted fabrics. The morphological features observed in bloodstain particles can provide important information on the substrates from which they were lost. [less ▲]

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See detailSartre in Venedig: der Mann, der in die Kälte ging
Cormann, Grégory ULg; Viehöver, Vera ULg

in Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique (2015), 11

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See detailExtracellular peptidase hunting for improvement of protein production in plant cells and roots
Lallemand, Jérôme ULg; Bouché, Frédéric ULg; Desiron, Carole et al

in Frontiers in Plant Science (2015), 6(37),

Plant-based recombinant protein production systems have gained an extensive interest over the past few years, because of their reduced cost and relative safety. Although the first products are now ... [more ▼]

Plant-based recombinant protein production systems have gained an extensive interest over the past few years, because of their reduced cost and relative safety. Although the first products are now reaching the market, progress are still needed to improve plant hosts and strategies for biopharming. Targeting recombinant proteins toward the extracellular space offers several advantages in terms of protein folding and purification, but degradation events are observed, due to endogenous peptidases. This paper focuses on the analysis of extracellular proteolytic activities in two production systems: cell cultures and root-secretion (rhizosecretion), in Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum. Proteolytic activities of extracellular proteomes (secretomes) were evaluated in vitro against two substrate proteins: bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum immunoglobulins G (hIgGs). Both targets were found to be degraded by the secretomes, BSA being more prone to proteolysis than hIgGs. The analysis of the proteolysis pH-dependence showed that target degradation was mainly dependent upon the production system: rhizosecretomes contained more peptidase activity than extracellular medium of cell suspensions, whereas variations due to plant species were smaller. Using class-specific peptidase inhibitors, serine and metallopeptidases were found to be responsible for degradation of both substrates. An in-depth in silico analysis of genomic and transcriptomic data from Arabidopsis was then performed and led to the identification of a limited number of serine and metallo-peptidases that are consistently expressed in both production systems. These peptidases should be prime candidates for further improvement of plant hosts by targeted silencing. [less ▲]

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See detailA new Cambrian black pigment used during the late Middle Palaeolithic discovered at Scladina Cave (Andenne, Belgium)
Bonjean, Dominique ULg; Vanbrabant, Yves; Abrams, Gregory et al

in Journal of Archaeological Science (2015), 55

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See detailMultifactorial Optimization of Contrast-Enhanced Nanofocus Computed Tomography for Quantitative Analysis of Neo-Tissue Formation in Tissue Engineering Constructs.
Sonnaert, Maarten; Kerckhofs, Greet; Papantoniou, Ioannis et al

in PloS one (2015), 10(6), 0130227

To progress the fields of tissue engineering (TE) and regenerative medicine, development of quantitative methods for non-invasive three dimensional characterization of engineered constructs (i.e. cells ... [more ▼]

To progress the fields of tissue engineering (TE) and regenerative medicine, development of quantitative methods for non-invasive three dimensional characterization of engineered constructs (i.e. cells/tissue combined with scaffolds) becomes essential. In this study, we have defined the most optimal staining conditions for contrast-enhanced nanofocus computed tomography for three dimensional visualization and quantitative analysis of in vitro engineered neo-tissue (i.e. extracellular matrix containing cells) in perfusion bioreactor-developed Ti6Al4V constructs. A fractional factorial 'design of experiments' approach was used to elucidate the influence of the staining time and concentration of two contrast agents (Hexabrix and phosphotungstic acid) and the neo-tissue volume on the image contrast and dataset quality. Additionally, the neo-tissue shrinkage that was induced by phosphotungstic acid staining was quantified to determine the operating window within which this contrast agent can be accurately applied. For Hexabrix the staining concentration was the main parameter influencing image contrast and dataset quality. Using phosphotungstic acid the staining concentration had a significant influence on the image contrast while both staining concentration and neo-tissue volume had an influence on the dataset quality. The use of high concentrations of phosphotungstic acid did however introduce significant shrinkage of the neo-tissue indicating that, despite sub-optimal image contrast, low concentrations of this staining agent should be used to enable quantitative analysis. To conclude, design of experiments allowed us to define the most optimal staining conditions for contrast-enhanced nanofocus computed tomography to be used as a routine screening tool of neo-tissue formation in Ti6Al4V constructs, transforming it into a robust three dimensional quality control methodology. [less ▲]

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See detailWithdrawal of Immunomodulators After Co-treatment Does Not Reduce Trough Level of Infliximab in Patients With Crohn's Disease.
Drobne, David; Bossuyt, Peter; Breynaert, Christine et al

in Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association (2015), 13(3), 514-5214

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The addition of immunomodulators increases the efficacy of maintenance therapy with infliximab for up to 1 year in patients with Crohn's disease who have not been previously treated ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The addition of immunomodulators increases the efficacy of maintenance therapy with infliximab for up to 1 year in patients with Crohn's disease who have not been previously treated with immunomodulators. However, there are questions about the effect of withdrawing immunomodulator therapy from these patients. We studied the effects of treatment with infliximab and immunomodulators (co-treatment) and then immunomodulator withdrawal on long-term outcomes of patients, as well as trough levels of infliximab and formation of anti-infliximab antibodies (ATI). METHODS: In a retrospective study with the median follow-up period of 34 months (interquartile range, 19-58 months), we analyzed data from 223 patients treated for Crohn's disease between May 1999 and December 2010 at the University Hospitals, Leuven, Belgium (65 received infliximab monotherapy, 158 received infliximab and an immunomodulator). Trough levels of infliximab and levels of ATI were measured in blood samples collected from 117 patients throughout co-treatment, as well as the time of immunomodulator withdrawal and after withdrawal. RESULTS: Patients receiving co-treatment had higher trough levels of infliximab (adjusted mean increase, 1.44-fold) than those receiving infliximab monotherapy (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.92; P = .02). A smaller percentage of patients receiving co-treatment developed ATI (35 of 158, 22%) than those receiving infliximab monotherapy (25 of 65, 38%; P = .01). Among co-treated patients, levels of infliximab remained stable after immunomodulators were withdrawn (before: 3.2 mug/mL; 95% CI, 1.6-5.8 mug/mL and after: 3.7 mug/mL; 95% CI, 1.3-6.3 mug/mL; P = .70). After withdrawal of immunomodulators, 45 of 117 patients (38%) required increasing doses of infliximab, and 21 of 117 (18%) discontinued infliximab. At the time of immunomodulator withdrawal, trough levels of infliximab and C-reactive protein were most strongly associated with response to infliximab thereafter. CONCLUSIONS: In a retrospective analysis, we confirmed that withdrawal of immunomodulators after at least 6 months (median, 13 months) of co-treatment with infliximab does not reduce the trough levels of infliximab in patients with Crohn's disease. Detectable trough levels of infliximab at the time of immunomodulator withdrawal are associated with long-term response. [less ▲]

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See detailTransnational Politics as Cultural Circulation: Toward a Conceptual Understanding of Migrant Political Participation on the Move
Boccagni, Paolo; Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULg; Levitt, Peggu

in Mobilities (2015)

This article contributes to the burgeoning literature on transnational politics by bringing tools used by scholars of cultural diffusion and circulation into these debates. We build on research on social ... [more ▼]

This article contributes to the burgeoning literature on transnational politics by bringing tools used by scholars of cultural diffusion and circulation into these debates. We build on research on social remittances and their potential to yield broader and deeper effects or to ‘scale up’ and ‘scale out.’ Based on a variety of empirical examples, we propose that processes such as circulation, portability, and contact, viewed through a transnational optic, help to nuance recent research on political transnationalism and its empirical indicators – including, most notably, external voting. [less ▲]

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See detailNanocomposite foams of polypropylene and carbon nanotubes: preparation, characterization, and evaluation of their performance as EMI absorbers
Tran, Minh-Phuong; Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg; Alexandre, Michaël et al

in Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics (2015), 216(12), 1302-1312

Highly expanded nanocomposite foams of polypropylene and carbon nanotubes (PP/CNT) are formed using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO 2 ) technology. The foaming parameters (temperature, pressure) are ... [more ▼]

Highly expanded nanocomposite foams of polypropylene and carbon nanotubes (PP/CNT) are formed using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO 2 ) technology. The foaming parameters (temperature, pressure) are investigated to establish their infl uence on the morphology of the resulting foams and their impact on the electrical con- ductivity. As promising electromagnetic-interference (EMI) absorbers, the EMI shielding performance of the foams is determined, and a preliminary relationship is established between foam morphology and the EMI shielding perfor- mance. The best candidates are highly expanded foams with a volume expansion of >25, containing 0.1 vol% CNTs; they are able to absorb more than 90% of the incident radiation between 25 and 40 GHz. [less ▲]

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See detailApproximate Bayesian Computation reveals the crucial role of oceanic islands for the assembly of continental biodiversity
Patino, J; Carine, M; Mardulyn, P et al

in Systematic Biology (2015), 64

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See detailEffects of thirty elements on bone metabolism
DERMIENCE, Michael ULg; Lognay, Georges ULg; Mathieu, Françoise et al

in Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology (2015), (32), 86-106

The human skeleton, made of 206 bones, plays vital roles including supporting the body, protecting organs, enabling movement, and storing minerals. Bones are made of organic structures, intimately ... [more ▼]

The human skeleton, made of 206 bones, plays vital roles including supporting the body, protecting organs, enabling movement, and storing minerals. Bones are made of organic structures, intimately connected with an inorganic matrix produced by bone cells. Many elements are ubiquitous in our environment, and many impact bone metabolism. Most elements have antagonistic actions depending on concentration. Indeed, some elements are essential, others are deleterious, and many can be both. Several pathways mediate effects of element deficiencies or excesses on bone metabolism. This paper aims to identify all elements that impact bone health and explore the mechanisms by which they act. To date, this is the first time that the effects of thirty minerals on bone metabolism have been summarized. [less ▲]

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See detaila phase IV, two-armed, randomized, cross-over study comparing compliance with once-a-month administration of vitamin D3 to compliance with daily administration of a fixed-dose combination of vitamin D3 and calcium during two 6-month periods
Bruyère, Olivier ULg; DEROISY, Rita ULg; Dardenne, Nadia ULg et al

in Osteoporosis International (2015)

Summary In a randomized, cross-over study, once monthly administration of vitamin D3 was preferred over a once daily administration of a fixed-dose combination of vitamin D3 and calcium, with a better ... [more ▼]

Summary In a randomized, cross-over study, once monthly administration of vitamin D3 was preferred over a once daily administration of a fixed-dose combination of vitamin D3 and calcium, with a better compliance but without any significant difference in the increase in vitamin D levels. Introduction The aim of the present study was to compare a once-monthly administration of vitamin D3 to a daily administration of a fixed-dose combination of vitamin D3 and calcium during two treatment periods of 6 months. Methods One hundred volunteers aged 50 years old or older were randomized to receive either one drinkable ampoule containing 25,000 IU vitamin D3 (D-Cure®, SMB) once monthly (group VD) or one chewable tablet containing 1000 mg calcium carbonate+800 IU vitamin D3 (Steovit Forte®, Takeda) once daily (group VDCa) during 6 months. After the first 6 months of treatment, the groups were reversed according to the randomized cross-over design. Treatment compliance (i.e. the primary outcome), preference, acceptability and vitamin D levels and adverse events were all collected. Results For the two periods, the patients had a significantly higher compliance in the VD group than in the VDCa group (p<0.0001). During the study, 50 (56.8 %) patients preferred the VD treatment, 16 (18.2 %) patients preferred the VDCa, and for 22 (25.0 %) patients, neither treatment was preferred. At the end of the first 6 months of treatment, the mean (SD) increase of 25(OH)D was 6.57 ng/mL (8.19) in the VD group and 3.88 ng/mL (10.0) in the VDCa group (p=0.16 between groups). Conclusion In this study, a once-monthly administration of vitamin D3 was preferred over a once-daily administration of a fixed-dose combination of vitamin D3 and calcium, with a better compliance but without any significant difference in the increase in vitamin D levels. [less ▲]

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See detailComment j'explore ... le "cheetah-look". Regard sur la peau sous des longueurs d'ondes particulieres de la lumiere.
Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine ULg; Hermanns-Lê, Trinh ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg et al

in Revue medicale de Liege (2015), 70(4), 204-6

The melanotic facial pigmentation of each individual is frequently heterogeneous, even when this condition remains imperceptible under natural ambient light. However, with aging, this aspect may appear to ... [more ▼]

The melanotic facial pigmentation of each individual is frequently heterogeneous, even when this condition remains imperceptible under natural ambient light. However, with aging, this aspect may appear to everybody. The melanin heterochromia has various origins including ethnicity, the hormonal impact, the influence of various inflammatory, toxic and drug-induced disorders, as well as the impact of photoaging. The cheetah-look aspect is thus established and well identified under ultraviolet light or using an ingenious trick selecting some wavelengths of visible light. [less ▲]

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