Pour atteindre le succès observé, un effort particulier a été apporté à l'implémentation se "services à valeur ajoutée" pour l'auteur, l'institution et plus globalement le citoyen et la communauté scientifique. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 171 (11 ULg) Qualité de vie du patient sarcopénique : apport de l’étude liégeoise SarcoPhAgeBeaudart, Charlotte ; Reginster, Jean-Yves ; PETERMANS, Jean et alin Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement (2015), 13(4), 391-5The consequences of sarcopenia on quality are difficult to evaluate and consequently are quite poorly studied. The few studies assessing the quality of life in sarcopenic subjects currently use generic ... [more ▼]The consequences of sarcopenia on quality are difficult to evaluate and consequently are quite poorly studied. The few studies assessing the quality of life in sarcopenic subjects currently use generic quality of life questionnaires such as SF36 and EQ5D. The SarcoPhAge study, conducted on a cohort developed in Liège including 534 subjects of 65 years or older, suggested that sarcopenic subjects present a significant worse quality of life in the domains of physical function compared to nonsarcopenic subjects. Generic tools do not cover exhaustively all the areas of potential dysfunction concerned in this geriatric syndrome. Yet, there is no specific and validated quality of life questionnaire for sarcopenia. It would be useful to have at our disposal a sarcopenia specific quality of life questionnaire to assess not only the prospective quality of life of sarcopenic subjects but also to assess the efficacy and the rele [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 38 (10 ULg) Comparison of serum fractionation methods by data independent label-free proteomicsBaiwir, Dominique ; Mazzucchelli, Gabriel ; Smargiasso, Nicolas et alin EuPA Open Proteomics (2015), 9Off-line sample prefractionations applied prior to biomarker discovery proteomics are options to enable more protein identifications and detect low-abundance proteins. This work compared five commercial ... [more ▼]Off-line sample prefractionations applied prior to biomarker discovery proteomics are options to enable more protein identifications and detect low-abundance proteins. This work compared five commercial methods efficiency to raw serum analysis using label-free proteomics. The variability of the protein quantities determined for each process was similar to the unprefractionated serum. A 49% increase in protein identifications and 12.2% of reliable quantification were obtained. A 61 times lower limit of protein quantitation was reached compared to protein concentrations observed in raw serum. The concentrations of detected proteins were confronted to estimated reference values. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 70 (11 ULg) Earthworms Eisenia fetida affect the uptake of heavy metals by plants Vicia faba and Zea mays in metal-contaminated soilsLemtiri, Aboulkacem ; Liénard, Amandine ; Alabi, Taofic et alin Applied Soil Ecology (2015)Earthworms increase the availability of heavy metals in some situations and aid in maintaining the structure and quality of soil. The introduction of earthworms into metal-contaminated soils has been ... [more ▼]Earthworms increase the availability of heavy metals in some situations and aid in maintaining the structure and quality of soil. The introduction of earthworms into metal-contaminated soils has been suggested as an aid for phytoremediation processes. In Wallonia, Belgium, a century of industrial metallurgic activities has led to the substantial pollution of soils by heavy metals, including copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd), due to atmospheric dusts. Two plant species, Vicia faba and Zea mays, and earthworms (Eisenia fetida) (Savigny, 1826) were exposed to different concentrations of long-term-contaminated soils for 42 days. The soil samples, which were collected from the land surrounding a former Zn-Pb ore-treatment plant, exhibited different levels of heavy metals. Our aim was to evaluate the role of earthworms E. fetida on the availability of metals in soils and their effects on metal uptake by V. faba and Z. mays plants at different soil concentrations. The results suggest that earthworms and plants modified the availability of metals in contaminated soils after 42 days of exposure. Earthworm life-cycle parameters were affected by metal contamination and/or the addition of plants; cocoon production and weight were more responsive to adverse conditions than earthworm survival or weight change. The concentrations of Pb and Cd in earthworm tissues decreased in the presence of plants. Results showed that metal accumulation in plants depended on the metal element considered and the presence of earthworms. However, the presence of earthworms did not change the concentrations of metals in plants, except for Cd. In the presence or absence of earthworms, V. faba accumulated higher concentrations of Cu and Zn compared with Z. mays, which accumulated higher concentrations of Cd. These findings have revealed that earthworm activities can modify the availability of heavy metals for uptake by plants in contaminated soils. Moreover, the study results show that the ecological context of phytoremediation should be broadened by considering earthworm-plant-soil interaction, which influence both the health of the plant and the uptake of heavy metals by plants. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 27 (7 ULg) Gender differences in responses in Gammarus pulex exposed to BDE-47: a gel-free proteomic approachGismondi, Eric ; Mazzucchelli, Gabriel ; De Pauw, Edwin et alin Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety (2015), 122Very few ecotoxicological studies have considered differences in toxic effects on male and female organisms. Here, we investigated protein expression differences in caeca of Gammarus pulex males and ... [more ▼]Very few ecotoxicological studies have considered differences in toxic effects on male and female organisms. Here, we investigated protein expression differences in caeca of Gammarus pulex males and females under control conditions (unexposed) and after 96 h exposure to BDE-47. Using gel-free proteomic analysis, we have identified 45 proteins, of which 25 were significantly differently expressed according to sex and/or BDE-47 exposure. These proteins were involved in several biological processes such as energy metabolism, chaperone proteins, or transcription/translation. In unexposed amphipods, 11 proteins were significantly over-expressed in females, and 6 proteins were over-expressed in males. Under BDE-47 stress, 7 proteins were differently impacted according to sex. For example, catalase was over-expressed in exposed females and under-expressed in exposed males, as compared to respective controls. Conversely, proteins involved in energy metabolism were up-regulated in males and down-regulated in females. Our proteomic study showed differences in responses of males and females to BDE-47 exposure, emphasizing that sex is a confounding factor in ecotoxicological assessment. However, due to the limited information existing in databases on Gammarids, it was difficult to define a BDE-47 mechanism of action. The gel-free proteomic seems to be a promising method to develop in future ecotoxicological studies and thus, to improve our understanding of the mechanism of action of xenobiotics. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 27 (4 ULg) Magritte et la censureBadir, Sémir in Lexia (2015), 21-22In1948, the Belgian painter René Magritte exhibited in an art gallery in Paris paintings and gouaches that were met with acrimony. Leaders of surreal- ism, usually fond of provocations, did not accepted ... [more ▼]In1948, the Belgian painter René Magritte exhibited in an art gallery in Paris paintings and gouaches that were met with acrimony. Leaders of surreal- ism, usually fond of provocations, did not accepted this one. Many readings of this event have been proposed, starting from Magritte himself. The variety or even the divergence of such readings, however, suggests the need to interpret these works from a broader perspective. Starting from the aesthetic principles established by Hegel, the present essay seeks to show how Magritte endeav- oured to “release painting” from both personal and social censorship, which is constitutive of the very art of painting. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 16 (0 ULg) Pressure-impulse diagram of a beam developing non-linear membrane action under blast loadingHamra, Lotfi ; Demonceau, Jean-François ; Denoël, Vincent in International Journal of Impact Engineering (2015), 86The p–I diagram of a frame beam subjected to blast loading is established, including the elastic lateral restraint and inertia offered by the rest of the structure, the development of nonlinear membrane ... [more ▼]The p–I diagram of a frame beam subjected to blast loading is established, including the elastic lateral restraint and inertia offered by the rest of the structure, the development of nonlinear membrane action and also, the bending-tension (M−N) interaction that develops in the plastic hinges. The analytical procedures to compute the asymptotes in the p–I diagram as well as a parametric study on the p–I diagram are provided. A dimensional analysis of the problem reveals that, under the considered assumptions, four dimensionless parameters mainly influence the required ductility of the beam. Two of them are related to the behavior of the indirectly affected part (the lateral restraint and mass). Another one is related to the mechanical properties of the investigated beam (i.e. the ratio of the bending to axial resistance). The last parameter incorporates scales of the geometry and of the deformed configuration at the onset of the plastic mechanism. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 113 (38 ULg) Nonthermal radiative transfer of oxygen 98.9 nm ultraviolet emission: Solving an old mysteryHubert, Benoît ; Gérard, Jean-Claude; Shematovich, Valery I. et alin Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics (2015), 120Sounding rocket measurements conducted in 1988 under high solar activity conditions revealed that the intensity of thermospheric OI emissions at 98.9 nm present an anomalous vertical profile, showing ... [more ▼]Sounding rocket measurements conducted in 1988 under high solar activity conditions revealed that the intensity of thermospheric OI emissions at 98.9 nm present an anomalous vertical profile, showing exospheric intensities much higher than expected from radiative transfer model results, which included the known sources of excited oxygen. All attempts based on modeling of the photochemical processes and radiative transfer were unable to account for the higher than predicted brightnesses. More recently, the SOHO-SUMER instrument measured the UV solar flux at high spectral resolution, revealing the importance of a significant additional source of oxygen emission at 98.9 nm that had not been accounted for before. In this study, we simulate the radiative transfer of the OI-98.9 nm multiplet, including the photochemical sources of excited oxygen, the resonant scattering of solar photons, and the effects of non-thermal atoms, i.e. a population of fast-moving oxygen atoms in excess of the Maxwellian distribution. Including resonance scattering of the 98.9 nm solar multiplet, we find good agreement with the previous sounding rocket observation. The inclusion of a nonthermal oxygen population with a consistent increase of the total density produces a larger intensity at high altitude that apparently better accounts for the observation, but such a correction cannot be demonstrated given the uncertainties of the observations. A good agreement between model and sounding rocket observation is also found with the triplet at 130.4 nm. We further investigate the radiative transfer of the OI-98.9 nm multiplet, and the oxygen emissions at 130.4 and 135.6 nm using observations from the STP78-1 satellite. We find a less satisfying agreement between the model and the STP78-1 data that can be accounted for by scaling the modelled intensity within a range acceptable given the uncertainties on the STP78-1 absolute calibration. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 11 (5 ULg) Recent decline of roach Rutilus rutilus stock in a large river ecosystem in relation with its population dynamicsOtjacques, William; Latli, Adrien; Bernard, Benoît et alin Fundamental and Applied Limnology (2015), 187(2), 151-163Studies dealing with quantitative decline of freshwater fish species with long-time series data are rather scarce and primarily limited to migratory species. We present an original work integrating over ... [more ▼]Studies dealing with quantitative decline of freshwater fish species with long-time series data are rather scarce and primarily limited to migratory species. We present an original work integrating over two decades investigations on roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) stock, one of the dominant cyprinid fish species in the River Meuse (Belgium). This study aimed to quantify changes in the stock of roach after recent indicators (captures from sport fishermen) suggested a sharp decline. Three methods were used: capture-mark-recapture (CMR) estimation, catch per unit of effort by gillnetting (CPUE) and long-term monitoring of fish-passes. Population dynamics of roach was also investigated. CMR method demonstrated a decrease of 91% of the roach stock compared to earlier data (1993–2003), with current densities close to 300 roach ha–1. This was also confirmed by a decrease of 95 % in CPUEs and a decrease between 93 and 98 % in two fish-passes during the same period. On the other hand, growth and mortality did not indicate radical changes before and after the decline was found. As roach stock decline is generalizable to the whole Belgian’s Meuse following estimations in two other sites, further investigations are needed to explain the reasons underlying this decline in order to take conservation measures. First, the uptake of primary production (i.e. phytoplankton) by invasive clams is supposed. And secondly, an increase in predation pressure by the Great Cormorant is effective as this avian predator was found in high densities from 2000 until 2006. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 47 (5 ULg) Environmental impacts of phosphoric acid production using di-hemihydrate process: a Belgian case studyBelboom, Sandra ; Szöcs, Carl; Léonard, Angélique in Journal of Cleaner Production (2015), 108This paper undertakes an environmental evaluation of phosphoric acid production, using industrial data from Prayon SA in Belgium. Phosphoric acid is produced using the wet di-hemihydrate process also ... [more ▼]This paper undertakes an environmental evaluation of phosphoric acid production, using industrial data from Prayon SA in Belgium. Phosphoric acid is produced using the wet di-hemihydrate process also called Central Prayon process. Both grades of phosphoric acid are evaluated: fertilizer and purified grades. Specificities of this plant are highlighted and improvements of the process in terms of energy and facilities integration through years are quantified as environmental benefits. The implementation on site of two sulphuric acid production facilities and their energetic integration allow a reduction of climate change impact of 80%. Results also show the importance of phosphogypsum valorisation which is sold for the main part in this case study. Concerning the purified grade, this specific process has been compared to the thermal process, using Best Available Techniques (BAT) values for the modelling. It shows a reduced environmental impact for the wet process in the majority of categories studies. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 71 (3 ULg) Direction and surface sampling in ray tracing for spacecraft radiative heat transferJacques, Lionel ; Masset, Luc ; Kerschen, Gaëtan in Aerospace Science and Technology (2015), 47This paper addresses the computation of radiative exchange factors through Monte Carlo ray tracing with the aim of reducing their computation time when dealing with the finite element method. Both ... [more ▼]This paper addresses the computation of radiative exchange factors through Monte Carlo ray tracing with the aim of reducing their computation time when dealing with the finite element method. Both direction and surface samplings are studied. The recently-introduced isocell method for partitioning the unit disk is applied to the direction sampling and compared to other direction sampling methods. It is then combined to different surface sampling schemes with either one or multiple rays traced per surface sampling point. Two promising approaches present better performances than standard spacecraft thermal analysis software. The first approach combines a Gauss surface sampling strategy with a local isocell direction sampling, whereas the second approach fires one ray per surface points using a global isocell direction sampling scheme. The advantages and limitations of the two methods are discussed, and they are benchmarked against a standard thermal analysis software using the entrance baffle of the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager instrument of the Solar Orbiter mission. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 45 (17 ULg) The importance of phenotypic diversity in conservation: Resilience of palmate newt morphotypes after fish removal in Larzac ponds (France)Denoël, Mathieu ; Winandy, Laurane in Biological Conservation (2015), 192Resilience of organisms after threat removal is an essential feature to justify conservation efforts. Amphibians are particularly threatened with a worldwide decline, showing a low resistance to invaders ... [more ▼]Resilience of organisms after threat removal is an essential feature to justify conservation efforts. Amphibians are particularly threatened with a worldwide decline, showing a low resistance to invaders such as fish. Previous research has shown that they could recover after fish extirpation due to metamorphosed colonizers. However, not all amphibian phenotypes are able to persist to fish introduction and disperse. In many species of newts and salamanders, paedomorphs retain gills in the adult stage, which makes them fully aquatic. A proposed way to conserve this phenotype would be to remove introduced fish from their habitats. However, because paedomorphosis is usually not expressed in the presence of fish, it is unknown whether fish removal could allow the resilience of paedomorphs. This would be possible only if progenies of metamorphosed individuals could become paedomorphic in restored habitats. Through a quantitative survey in three types of ponds, including control ponds without fish, ponds in which fish were extirpated, and fish ponds, we determined abundances of paedomorphic and metamorphic palmate newts (Lissotriton helveticus). The results show that paedomorphosis resilience is possible and even highly frequent, as paedomorphs were found in 80% of ponds where fish disappeared. Abundances were similar between these ponds and control ponds whereas fish ponds had almost no newts, indicating a very low resistance to invaders. This shows that conserving common phenotypes can help to preserve endangered phenotypes, as paedomorphs were produced through the reproduction of metamorphs. There is thus hope of maintaining intraspecific biodiversity though conservation action involving threat removal. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 60 (21 ULg) Agriculture et environnement : genèse des relationsHabran, Maxime in Revue de l'Union européenne (2015), (593), 604-617Les négociations portant sur la réforme de la politique agricole commune (PAC) auraient dû mettre la politique de protection de l’environnement sur le devant de la scène. Au lieu de cela, la PAC s’est vu ... [more ▼]Les négociations portant sur la réforme de la politique agricole commune (PAC) auraient dû mettre la politique de protection de l’environnement sur le devant de la scène. Au lieu de cela, la PAC s’est vu doter d’un nouveau mécanisme appelé verdissement ou paiement vert destiné à verdir le pilier des soutiens de marché. Ce mécanisme rend opaque la prise en compte de l’environnement et affaiblit la conditionnalité. D’un greening, les négociateurs se sont mis d’accord sur un greenwashing. L’objectif de cette contribution est de montrer la manière dont est intégrée la politique de protection de l’environnement au sein de la politique agricole commune. La notion de conditionnalité environnementale permet de comprendre l’articulation et l’interaction entre ces deux politiques. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 65 (8 ULg) The protective effects of free wheel-running against cocaine psychomotor sensitization persist after exercise cessation in C57BL/6J miceLespine, Louis-Ferdinand ; Tirelli, Ezio in Neuroscience (2015), 310Previous literature suggests that free access to a running wheel can attenuate the behavioral responsiveness to addictive drugs in rodents. In a few studies, wheel-running cessation accentuated drug ... [more ▼]Previous literature suggests that free access to a running wheel can attenuate the behavioral responsiveness to addictive drugs in rodents. In a few studies, wheel-running cessation accentuated drug responsiveness. Here, we tested whether free wheel-running cessation is followed by (1) an accentuation or (2) an attenuation of cocaine psychomotor sensitization, knowing that no cessation of (continuous) wheel-running is associated with an attenuation of cocaine responsiveness. Male C57BL/6J mice, aged 35 days, were housed singly either with (exercising mice) or without (non-exercising mice) a running wheel. At the end of a period of 36 days, half of the exercising mice were deprived of their wheel whereas the other half of exercising mice kept their wheel until the end of experimentation (which lasted 85 days). The non-exercising mice were housed without wheel throughout experimentation. Testing took place 3 days after exercise cessation. After 2 once-daily drug-free test sessions, mice were tested for initiation of psychomotor sensitization over 13 once-daily injections of 8 mg/kg cocaine. Post-sensitization conditioned activation (saline challenge) and long-term expression of sensitization were assessed 2 or 30 days after the last sensitizing injection (same treatments as for initiation of sensitization), respectively. Exercising mice and mice undergoing wheel-running cessation exhibited comparable degrees of attenuation of all cocaine effects in comparison with the continuously non-exercising mice, which showed the greatest effects. Thus, the efficaciousness of wheel-running at attenuating cocaine sensitization not only resisted to exercise cessation but also was unambiguously persistent (an important effect rarely reported in previous literature). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (5 ULg) Nouvelles données sur un pigment noir d’origine cambrienne, utilisé au Paléolithique moyen et découvert dans la grotte Scladina (Andenne, Belgique)Bonjean, D; Vanbrabant, Y; Abrams, G et alin Notae Praehistoricae (2015), 35Detailed reference viewed: 26 (1 ULg) Principes pratiques de l'animatique des groupes. Stratégies d'animation en vue d'un apprentissage expérientielFaulx, Daniel ; Danse, Cédric in Cahiers Internationaux de Psychologie Sociale (2015), 4he paradigm of the face-to-face group dynamics encloses the postulates, intentions and principles underlying group’s process. It formates the methodology of their conduct. Fourteen components of this ... [more ▼]he paradigm of the face-to-face group dynamics encloses the postulates, intentions and principles underlying group’s process. It formates the methodology of their conduct. Fourteen components of this paradigm are here listed, to help the trainers, from the angle to apply it in their practical experience in leading groups. They make a consistent whole and guide the trainer in its using of the methodology of structured experiences. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 32 (2 ULg) The cultivable surface microbiota of the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum is enriched in macroalgal-polysaccharide-degrading bacteriaMartin, Marjolaine ; Barbeyron, Tristan; Martin, Renée et alin Frontiers in Microbiology (2015), 6(december), Bacteria degrading algal polysaccharides are key players in the global carbon cycle and in algal biomass recycling. Yet the water column, which has been studied largely by metagenomic approaches, is poor ... [more ▼]Bacteria degrading algal polysaccharides are key players in the global carbon cycle and in algal biomass recycling. Yet the water column, which has been studied largely by metagenomic approaches, is poor in such bacteria and their algal-polysaccharide-degrading enzymes. Even more surprisingly, the few published studies on seaweed-associated microbiomes have revealed low abundances of such bacteria and their specific enzymes. However, as macroalgal cell-wall polysaccharides do not accumulate in nature, these bacteria and their unique polysaccharidases must not be that uncommon. We, therefore, looked at the polysaccharide-degrading activity of the cultivable bacterial subpopulation associated with Ascophyllum nodosum. From A. nodosum triplicates, 324 bacteria were isolated and taxonomically identified. Out of these isolates, 78 (∼25%) were found to act on at least one tested algal polysaccharide (agar, ι- or κ-carrageenan, or alginate). The isolates “active” on algal-polysaccharides belong to 11 genera: Cellulophaga, Maribacter, Algibacter, and Zobellia in the class Flavobacteriia (41) and Pseudoalteromonas, Vibrio, Cobetia, Shewanella, Colwellia, Marinomonas, and Paraglaceciola in the class Gammaproteobacteria (37). A major part represents likely novel species. Different proportions of bacterial phyla and classes were observed between the isolated cultivable subpopulation and the total microbial community previously identified on other brown algae. Here, Bacteroidetes and Gammaproteobacteria were found to be the most abundant and some phyla (as Planctomycetes and Cyanobacteria) frequently encountered on brown algae weren’t identified. At a lower taxonomic level, twelve genera, well-known to be associated with algae (with the exception for Colwellia), were consistently found on all three A. nosodum samples. Even more interesting, 9 of the 11 above mentioned genera containing polysaccharolytic isolates were predominant in this common core. The cultivable fraction of the bacterial community associated with A. nodosum is, thus, significantly enriched in macroalgal-polysaccharide-degrading bacteria and these bacteria seem important for the seaweed holobiont even though they are under-represented in alga-associated microbiome studies. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 30 (2 ULg) Structure-Activity Relationships of Novel Tryptamine-Based Inhibitors of Bacterial Transglycosylase.Sosic, Izidor; Anderluh, Marko; Sova, Matej et alin Journal of medicinal chemistry (2015)Penicillin-binding proteins represent well-established, validated, and still very promising targets for the design and development of new antibacterial agents. The transglycosylase domain of penicillin ... [more ▼]Penicillin-binding proteins represent well-established, validated, and still very promising targets for the design and development of new antibacterial agents. The transglycosylase domain of penicillin-binding proteins is especially important, as it catalyzes polymerization of glycan chains, using the peptidoglycan precursor lipid II as a substrate. On the basis of the previous discovery of a noncovalent small-molecule inhibitor of transglycosylase activity, we systematically explored the structure-activity relationships of these tryptamine-based inhibitors. The main aim was to reduce the nonspecific cytotoxic properties of the initial hit compound and concurrently to retain the mode of its inhibition. A focused library of tryptamine-based compounds was synthesized, characterized, and evaluated biochemically. The results presented here show the successful reduction of the nonspecific cytotoxicity, and the retention of the inhibition of transglycosylase enzymatic activity, as well as the ability of these compounds to bind to lipid II and to have antibacterial actions. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (4 ULg) L'accès à long terme aux périodiques scientifiques électroniques dans les universités de la Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles. Quelles solutions?Alexandre, Aude in Cahiers de la Documentation = Bladen voor Documentatie (2015), (4), 5-16L’accès à long terme aux périodiques scientifiques électroniques pose des problématiques concrètes spécifiques, qui dépassent celles de la conservation des données numériques. Après une synthèse des ... [more ▼]L’accès à long terme aux périodiques scientifiques électroniques pose des problématiques concrètes spécifiques, qui dépassent celles de la conservation des données numériques. Après une synthèse des différents risques et concepts liés à l’accès pérenne, cet article examine en particulier les questions juridiques et contractuelles ainsi que les différentes solutions d’archivage externes dédiées à la préservation des e-journaux (LOCKSS, CLOCKSS, Portico). Le constat posé est qu’il n’existe à l’heure actuelle pas de solution miracle, mais bien un ensemble d’actions possibles et de solutions matures et complémentaires. Une échelle de stratégies concrètes a été recommandée aux universités de la Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles en 2014, qui ont commencé à les mettre en place. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 44 (1 ULg) Experimental and computational micro–mechanical investigations of compressive properties of polypropylene/multi–walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite foamsWan, Fangyi; Tran, Minh Phuong; Leblanc, Christophe et alin Mechanics of Materials (2015), 91(Part 1), 95-118The compressive behavior of nanocomposite foams is studied by both experimental and computational micro-mechanics approaches with the aim of providing an efficient computational model for this kind of ... [more ▼]The compressive behavior of nanocomposite foams is studied by both experimental and computational micro-mechanics approaches with the aim of providing an efficient computational model for this kind of material. The nanocomposites based on polypropylene (PP) and different contents of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are prepared by melt mixing method. The nanocomposite samples are foamed using super-critical carbon dioxide (ScCO2) as blowing agent at different soaking temperatures. The influence of this foaming parameter on the morphological characteristics of the foam micro-structure is discussed. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) measurements are used to quantify the crystallinity degree of both nanocomposites and foams showing that the crystallinity degree is reduced after the foaming process. This modification leads to mechanical properties of the foam cell walls that are different from the raw nanocomposite PP/CNTs material. Three--point bending tests are performed on the latter to measure the flexural modulus in terms of the crystallinity degree. Uniaxial compression tests are then performed on the foamed samples under quasi-static conditions in order to extract the macro-scale compressive response. Next, a two-level multi-scale approach is developed to model the behavior of the foamed nanocomposite material. On the one hand, the micro-mechanical properties of nanocomposite PP/CNTs cell walls are evaluated from a theoretical homogenization model accounting for the micro-structure of the semi-crystalline PP, for the degree of crystallinity, and for the CNT volume fraction. The applicability of this theoretical model is demonstrated via the comparison with experimental data from the described experimental measurements and from literature. On the other hand, the macroscopic behavior of the foamed material is evaluated using a computational micro-mechanics model using tetrakaidecahedron unit cells and periodic boundary conditions to estimate the homogenized properties. The unit cell is combined with several geometrical imperfections in order to capture the elastic collapse of the foamed material. The numerical results are compared to the experimental measurements and it is shown that the proposed unit cell computational micro-mechanics model can be used to estimate the homogenized behavior, including the linear and plateau regimes, of nanocomposite foams. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 205 (67 ULg) Entraîner la communication professionnelle par des dispositifs en e-learning au cours du Master en orthophonieMartinez Perez, Trecy ; Maillart, Christelle ; Willems, Sylvie in Rééducation Orthophonique (2015), 264La capacité à communiquer efficacement constitue une qualité professionnelle incontournable des orthophonistes. Néanmoins, dans la formation initiale, les compétences communicationnelles sont rarement ... [more ▼]La capacité à communiquer efficacement constitue une qualité professionnelle incontournable des orthophonistes. Néanmoins, dans la formation initiale, les compétences communicationnelles sont rarement travaillées et évaluées au contraire d’autres compétences cliniques telles que l’évaluation et la rééducation. Beaucoup considèrent en effet que ces compétences relationnelles s’entraîneront naturellement sur le terrain. Or, la communication professionnelle possède des caractéristiques qui lui sont propres et qui doivent être entraînées. Dans le Master en orthophonie à l’Université de Liège, deux dispositifs ont été développés et ciblent la communication au cours de l’entretien anamnestique et de la remise de conclusion. Ces dispositifs reposent essentiellement sur des modules en e-learning et permettent de garantir aux étudiants en orthophonie les bases nécessaires en communication professionnelle avec peu de ressources académiques. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 76 (7 ULg) " D'ombre et de lumière " : Récit d'une régénération réussie en chênaie ardennaiseLayon, José; Dubois, Héloïse in FORÊT.NATURE (2015), (137), 38-47Nombreux sont les sylviculteurs qui souhaitent régénérer naturellement la chênaie mais le processus demande une gestion pointue, permettant de contourner les obstacles. Une régénération naturelle du chêne ... [more ▼]Nombreux sont les sylviculteurs qui souhaitent régénérer naturellement la chênaie mais le processus demande une gestion pointue, permettant de contourner les obstacles. Une régénération naturelle du chêne sessile a été mise en place dès 1989 dans un compartiment de 16 ha situé sur le cantonnement DNF de La Roche-en-Ardenne (Belgique). Le peuplement initial était un médiocre taillis sous futaie de chêne et de hêtre à sous-étage de charme. Par ses observations et ses actions précises, le gestionnaire a réussi à installer les semis de chêne, à en soustraire suffisamment de la dent du gibier, bien présent, pour constituer un peuplement de qualité. Les enseignements de l'expérience sont multiples. Quelques points essentiels sont exposés : dosage fin de la lumière pour favoriser le développement des semis de chêne en maîtrisant le hêtre et la végétation adventice, observation de la réaction des semis comme indicateur du moment de l'intervention, exploitation adaptée, dégagement et/ou dépressage dans le semis, pression du gibier, etc. Actuellement, le chêne est régénéré sur plus de 12 ha. Le coût total est estimé entre 800 et 1000 €/ha. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 140 (21 ULg) Les dysfonctionnements précoces et les trajectoires développementales d’enfants avec Troubles du Spectre de l’Autisme : une revue des recherches et approches diagnostiques et évaluatives.Boulard, Aurore ; Morange-Majoux, françoise; Devouche, Emmanuel et alin Devenir (2015), 27(4), 231-242Detailed reference viewed: 97 (13 ULg) Tribulations d’une vieille dame : De la « loi relative aux anormaux et délinquants d’habitude » à la « loi relative à l’internement des personnes atteintes d'un trouble mental »Garcet, Serge in Revue Médicale de Liège (2015), 70e annéeLe système belge de prise en charge des délinquants atteints de troubles mentaux est organisé selon un principe de défense sociale. Il se caractérise par une double attention pour, d’une part, la ... [more ▼]Le système belge de prise en charge des délinquants atteints de troubles mentaux est organisé selon un principe de défense sociale. Il se caractérise par une double attention pour, d’une part, la protection de la société par une neutralisation du risque et, d’autre part, la nécessité de soins à prodiguer à la personne internée. L’évolution du cadre juridique de la loi de 1930 relative aux anormaux et délinquants d’habitude à la loi relative à l’internement des personnes atteintes d'un trouble mental de 2014 rend compte des vicissitudes nées du tiraillement entre ces deux piliers sécuritaire et thérapeutique. Dans ce difficile rapport de forces, bien que publiée mais pas encore d’application, la version de 2014 de la loi constitue à bien des égards une évolution positive dans la prise en compte des personnes internées et de leurs besoins. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 17 (7 ULg) Tissues from equine cadaver ligaments up to 72 hours of post-mortem: a promising reservoir of stem cellsShikh Al Sook, Mohamad Khir ; Gabriel, Annick ; Piret, Joëlle et alin Stem Cell Research and Therapy (2015)Detailed reference viewed: 147 (83 ULg) Entre soins aux patients psychiatriques délinquants et protection sociale à l’égard des délinquants psychiatriques : enjeux et perspectives criminologiques du plan pour patients psychiatriques médico-légauxGarcet, Serge in Revue de Droit Pénal et de Criminologie (2015)En Belgique, la réforme de la santé mentale a récemment été élargie aux populations internées dans le cadre de la loi dite « de défense sociale ». Construite sur un modèle communautaire du soin, elle ... [more ▼]En Belgique, la réforme de la santé mentale a récemment été élargie aux populations internées dans le cadre de la loi dite « de défense sociale ». Construite sur un modèle communautaire du soin, elle propose une approche globale et intégrée de tous les acteurs, services et secteurs pertinents. Tout en développant les principaux axes de la réforme, l’article questionne la mise en œuvre de ce modèle dans le contexte hybride de l’internement entre mesure de protection et nécessité de soins. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 29 (14 ULg) Les Mots des Maths : OsculateurDupont, Pascal in Losanges (2015), 31Detailed reference viewed: 9 (0 ULg) Latex, un peu, beaucoup (10. Miscellanées (1))Dupont, Pascal in Losanges (2015), 31Detailed reference viewed: 26 (1 ULg) Ferroelectric instability in nanotubes and spherical nanoshellsQiu, Ruihao ; Bousquet, Eric ; Cano, Andresin Europhysics Letters [=EPL] (2015), 112The emergence of ferroelectricity in nanotubes and spherical nanoshells is studied theoretically. We determine semi-analytically the size and thickness dependence of the ferroelectric instability, as well ... [more ▼]The emergence of ferroelectricity in nanotubes and spherical nanoshells is studied theoretically. We determine semi-analytically the size and thickness dependence of the ferroelectric instability, as well as its dependence on the properties of the surrounding media and the corresponding interfaces. By properly tuning these factors, we demonstrate possible routes for enhancing the ferroelectric transition temperature and promoting the competition between irrotational and vortex-like states in the ultra-thin limit due to the specific topology of these nanoparticles. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 19 (2 ULg) Discrimination of deciduous tree species from time series of unmanned aerial system imageryLisein, Jonathan ; Michez, Adrien ; Claessens, Hugues et alin PLoS ONE (2015), 10(11), Technology advances can revolutionize Precision Forestry by providing accurate and fine forest information at tree level. This paper addresses the question of how and particularly when Unmanned Aerial ... [more ▼]Technology advances can revolutionize Precision Forestry by providing accurate and fine forest information at tree level. This paper addresses the question of how and particularly when Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) should be used in order to efficiently discriminate deciduous tree species. A time series of high resolution UAS imagery was collected to cover the growing season from leaf flush to leaf fall. Full benefit was taken of the temporal resolution of UAS acquisition, one of the most promising features of small drones. The disparity in forest tree phenology is at the maximum during early spring and late autumn. But the phenology state that optimized the classification result is the one that minimizes the spectral variation within tree species groups and, at the same time, maximizes the phenologic differences between species. Sunlit tree crowns (5 deciduous species groups) were classified using a Random Forest approach for monotemporal, two-date and three-date combinations. The end of leaf flushing was the most efficient single-date time window. Multitemporal datasets definitely improve the overall classification accuracy. But single-date high resolution orthophotomosaics, acquired on optimal time-windows, result in a very good classification accuracy (overall out of bag error of 16%). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 127 (54 ULg) Post-coronagraphic tip-tilt sensing for vortex phase masks: the QACITS techniqueHuby, Elsa ; Baudoz, Pierre; Mawet, Dimitri et alin Astronomy and Astrophysics (2015), 584Small inner working angle coronagraphs, like the vortex phase mask, are essential to exploit the full potential of ground-based telescopes in the context of exoplanet detection and characterization ... [more ▼]Small inner working angle coronagraphs, like the vortex phase mask, are essential to exploit the full potential of ground-based telescopes in the context of exoplanet detection and characterization. However, the drawback of this attractive feature is a high sensitivity to pointing errors, which degrades the performance of the coronagraph. We propose a tip-tilt retrieval technique based on the analysis of the final coronagraphic image, hereafter called Quadrant Analysis of Coronagraphic Images for Tip-tilt Sensing (QACITS). Under the assumption of small phase aberrations, we show that the behaviour of the vortex phase mask can be simply described from the entrance pupil to the Lyot stop plane by Zernike polynomials. This convenient formalism is used to establish the theoretical basis of the QACITS technique. Simulations have been performed to demonstrate the validity and limits of the technique, including the case of a centrally obstructed pupil. The QACITS technique principle is further validated by experimental results in the case of an unobstructed circular aperture. The typical configuration of the Keck telescope (24% central obstruction) has been simulated with additional high order aberrations. In these conditions, our simulations show that the QACITS technique is still adapted to centrally obstructed pupils and performs tip-tilt retrieval with a precision of $5 \times 10^{-2}$ {\lambda}/D when wavefront errors amount to {\lambda}/14 rms and $10^{-2}$ {\lambda}/D for {\lambda}/70 rms errors (with {\lambda} the wavelength and D the pupil diameter). The implementation of the QACITS technique is based on the analysis of the scientific image and does not require any modification of the original setup. Current facilities equipped with a vortex phase mask can thus directly benefit from this technique to improve the contrast performance close to the axis. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 31 (11 ULg) Recent advances in BLV researchBarez, Pierre-Yves ; De Brogniez, Alix ; Carpentier, Alexandre et alin Viruses (2015), 7(11), 6080-6088Different animal models have been proposed to investigate the mechanisms of HTLV-induced pathogenesis: rats, transgenic and NOD-SCID/γcnull (NOG) mice, rabbits, squirrel monkeys, baboons and macaques ... [more ▼]Different animal models have been proposed to investigate the mechanisms of HTLV-induced pathogenesis: rats, transgenic and NOD-SCID/γcnull (NOG) mice, rabbits, squirrel monkeys, baboons and macaques. These systems indeed provide useful information but have intrinsic limitations such as lack of disease relevance, species specificity or inadequate immune response. Another strategy based on a comparative virology approach is to characterize a related pathogen and to speculate on possible shared mechanisms. In this perspective, bovine leukemia virus (BLV), another member of the deltaretrovirus genus, is evolutionary related to HTLV-1. BLV induces lymphoproliferative disorders in ruminants providing useful information on the mechanisms of viral persistence, genetic determinants of pathogenesis and potential novel therapies. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 47 (21 ULg) Primary osteosarcoma of the breast : a case reportCrevecoeur, Julie; Jossa, Véronique; GENNIGENS, Christine et alin Clinical Case Reports (2015)Detailed reference viewed: 22 (2 ULg) gammaMAXT: a fast multiple-testing correction algorithmVan Lishout, François ; Gadaleta, Francesco; Moore, Jason H. et alin BioData Mining (2015), 8(36), Background: The purpose of the maxT algorithm is to provide a significance test algorithm that controls the family-wise error rate (FWER) during simultaneous hypothesis testing. However, the requirements ... [more ▼]Background: The purpose of the maxT algorithm is to provide a significance test algorithm that controls the family-wise error rate (FWER) during simultaneous hypothesis testing. However, the requirements in terms of computing time and memory of this procedure are proportional to the number of investigated hypotheses. The memory issue has been solved in 2013 by Van Lishout’s implementation of MaxT, which makes the memory usage independent from the size of the dataset. This algorithm is implemented in MBMDR-3.0.3, a software that is able to identify genetic interactions, for a variety of SNP-SNP based epistasis models effectively. On the other hand, that implementation turned out to be less suitable for genome-wide interaction analysis studies, due to the prohibitive computational burden. Results: In this work we introduce gammaMAXT, a novel implementation of the maxT algorithm for multiple testing correction. The algorithm was implemented in software MBMDR-4.2.2, as part of the MB-MDR framework to screen for SNP-SNP, SNP-environment or SNP-SNP-environment interactions at a genome-wide level. We show that, in the absence of interaction effects, test-statistics produced by the MB-MDR methodology follow a mixture distribution with a point mass at zero and a shifted gamma distribution for the top 10 % of the strictly positive values. We show that the gammaMAXT algorithm has a power comparable to MaxT and maintains FWER, but requires less computational resources and time. We analyze a dataset composed of 106 SNPs and 1000 individuals within one day on a 256-core computer cluster. The same analysis would take about 104 times longer with MBMDR-3.0.3. Conclusions: These results are promising for future GWAIs.However, the proposed gammaMAXT algorithm offers a general significance assessment and multiple testing approach, applicable to any context that requires performing hundreds of thousands of tests. It offers new perspectives for fast and efficient permutation-based significance assessment in large-scale (integrated) omics studies. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 38 (7 ULg) “Shakespeare was wrong”: counter-discursive intertextuality in Gail Jones’s SorryBelleflamme, Valérie-Anne in Journal of Postcolonial Writing (2015), 51(6), 661671In what is presented as a moment of truth in Gail Jones’s novel Sorry, the narrator’s brief statement that “Shakespeare was wrong” appears to call into question the English dramatist’s literary and ... [more ▼]In what is presented as a moment of truth in Gail Jones’s novel Sorry, the narrator’s brief statement that “Shakespeare was wrong” appears to call into question the English dramatist’s literary and epistemological supremacy. Starting from this unsettling premise, this article seeks to define Jones’s counter-discursive use of Shakespearean intertextuality. While it has, for decades, proved a risky task for both historians and novelists to write about the delicate issue of silence in Australia without risking the appropriation of an Aboriginal voice, the article examines how Jones exploits defamiliarizing techniques in order to undermine the dominant European discourse (as encoded in the Shakespearean text) without assuming an Aboriginal perspective. Her aim is to facilitate the emergence of an incipient, tentatively-defined counter-discourse sufficiently attuned to the specific realities of Australia. The article argues that by adopting an Australian cultural perspective designed to decentre Shakespeare Jones hopes to reconcile history and writing, but also the divided aspects of White Australia’s twofold identity at a time of profound national changes. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 46 (18 ULg) A KNOWLEDGE-BASED APPROACH FOR MAPPING LAND DEGRADATION IN THE ARID RANGELANDS OF NORTH AFRICAMahyou, Hamid; Tychon, Bernard ; Balaghi, Riad et alin Land Degradation & Development (2015)Rangelands cover about 82% of the arid area of Morocco. It is generally acknowledged that these areas are threatened by desertification. Monitoring desertification requires accurate knowledge about the ... [more ▼]Rangelands cover about 82% of the arid area of Morocco. It is generally acknowledged that these areas are threatened by desertification. Monitoring desertification requires accurate knowledge about the current status of rangeland degradation. Remote sensing is widely used to assess changes in land cover, but its use in arid rangelands has limitations because of spectral confusion among various types of land cover. The objective of this study was to assess the severity and spatial extent of rangeland degradation in the high plateaus of eastern Morocco, using a knowledge-based approach combining remote sensing and ancillary data. This approach relies on analyzing datasets derived from Landsat TM satellite imagery, lithology, bioclimatic data and field measurements. The level of rangeland degradation was assessed using indicators such as vegetation parameters, grazing levels and cultivation intensity, which provided a high level of accuracy for mapping and monitoring the degradation of the arid rangelands. The results showed that the total area of degraded rangeland in the high plateaus of eastern Morocco is about 17,417 km², accounting for 48% in the studied area. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 25 (5 ULg) Clinical utility gene card for: Biotinidase deficiency-update 2015.Kury, Sebastien; RAMAEKERS, Vincent ; Bezieau, Stephane et alin European journal of human genetics : EJHG (2015)Detailed reference viewed: 10 (1 ULg) Retrieval of ammonia from ground-based FTIR solar spectraDammers, Enrico; Vigouroux, C; Palm, M et alin Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (2015), 15We present a retrieval method for ammonia (NH3) total columns from ground-based Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) observations. Observations from Bremen (53.10° N, 8.85° E), Lauder (45.04° S, 169.68° E ... [more ▼]We present a retrieval method for ammonia (NH3) total columns from ground-based Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) observations. Observations from Bremen (53.10° N, 8.85° E), Lauder (45.04° S, 169.68° E), Reunion (20.9° S, 55.50° E) and Jungfraujoch (46.55° N, 7.98° E) were used to illustrate the capabilities of the method. NH3 mean total columns ranging three orders of magnitude were obtained with higher values at Bremen (mean of 13.47 × 1015 molecules cm-2) to the lower values at Jungfraujoch (mean of 0.18 × 1015 molecules cm-2). In conditions with high surface concentrations of ammonia, as in Bremen, it is possible to retrieve information on the vertical gradient as two layers can be discriminated. The retrieval there is most sensitive to ammonia in the planetary boundary layer, where the trace gas concentration is highest. For conditions with low concentrations only the total column can be retrieved. Combining the systematic and random errors we have a mean total error of 26 % for all spectra measured at Bremen (Number of spectra (N) = 554), 30 % for all spectra from Lauder (N =2412), 25 % for spectra from Reunion (N =1262) and 34 % for spectra measured at Jungfraujoch (N =2702). The error is dominated by the systematic uncertainties in the spectroscopy parameters. Station specific seasonal cycles were found to be consistent with known seasonal cycles of the dominant ammonia sources in the station surroundings. The developed retrieval methodology from FTIR-instruments provides a new way to obtain highly time-resolved measurements of ammonia burdens. FTIR-NH3 observations will be useful for understanding the dynamics of ammonia concentrations in the atmosphere and for satellite and model validation. It will also provide additional information to constrain the global ammonia budget. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 45 (13 ULg) Field data on the little known and endangered Lepilemur mittermeieriWilmet, Leslie ; Schwitzer, Christoph; Beudels-Jamar, Roseline C. et alin Journal of Primatology (2015), 4(2), Lepilemur mittermeieri is a very little known sportive lemur of the Ampasindava peninsula of Madagascar, presently regarded as endangered. On the basis of genetic material only, obtained from three ... [more ▼]Lepilemur mittermeieri is a very little known sportive lemur of the Ampasindava peninsula of Madagascar, presently regarded as endangered. On the basis of genetic material only, obtained from three individuals collected at the same locality. No observation confidently allocated to the species has been reported since. The objectives of our research were to verify that the sportive lemurs found in forests of the Ampasindava peninsula beyond the type-locality of Lepilemur mittermeieri belonged to the same species as the type, to provide morphological and behavioural data for populations confidently attributed to L. mittermeieri and to obtain for these populations preliminary evaluations of density variations within the peninsula. Our surveys were undertaken in March and April 2014 in remnant forest patches of the western part of the Ampasindava peninsula. Linear transects by night and punctual observations by day were conducted. A total of 54 animals were seen along nine transects situated in four forest patches, two at low altitude and two at high altitude. All animals examined and photographed appeared similar, and the impression was gained that a single taxon was involved. Genetic material collected from one dead specimen proved identical to the type of L. mittermeieri which confirmed the identity of the populations we observed. It thus appears that L. mittermeieri is indeed the only sportive lemur present on the peninsula and that it occurs in several forest remnants. We endeavoured to get evaluations of the density and abundance of the species in the four forest patches we studied. We used KAIs (Kilometric Abundance Indices) to evaluate and compare relative densities, and Buckland’s distance sampling method to evaluate absolute densities. The latter suggested a density of 1.9 animals/ha, a result that must, however, be taken with caution. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 27 (8 ULg) Elp3 drives Wnt-dependent tumor initiation and regeneration in the intestineLADANG, Aurélie ; Rapino, Francesca ; Heukamp, Lukas et alin Journal of Experimental Medicine (2015), 212(12), 2057-75Tumor initiation in the intestine can rapidly occur from Lgr5(+) crypt columnar stem cells. Dclk1 is a marker of differentiated Tuft cells and, when coexpressed with Lgr5, also marks intestinal cancer ... [more ▼]Tumor initiation in the intestine can rapidly occur from Lgr5(+) crypt columnar stem cells. Dclk1 is a marker of differentiated Tuft cells and, when coexpressed with Lgr5, also marks intestinal cancer stem cells. Here, we show that Elp3, the catalytic subunit of the Elongator complex, is required for Wnt-driven intestinal tumor initiation and radiation-induced regeneration by maintaining a subpool of Lgr5(+)/Dclk1(+)/Sox9(+) cells. Elp3 deficiency dramatically delayed tumor appearance in Apc-mutated intestinal epithelia and greatly prolonged mice survival without affecting the normal epithelium. Specific ablation of Elp3 in Lgr5(+) cells resulted in marked reduction of polyp formation upon Apc inactivation, in part due to a decreased number of Lgr5(+)/Dclk1(+)/Sox9(+) cells. Mechanistically, Elp3 is induced by Wnt signaling and promotes Sox9 translation, which is needed to maintain the subpool of Lgr5(+)/Dclk1(+) cancer stem cells. Consequently, Elp3 or Sox9 depletion led to similar defects in Dclk1(+) cancer stem cells in ex vivo organoids. Finally, Elp3 deficiency strongly impaired radiation-induced intestinal regeneration, in part because of decreased Sox9 protein levels. Together, our data demonstrate the crucial role of Elp3 in maintaining a subpopulation of Lgr5-derived and Sox9-expressing cells needed to trigger Wnt-driven tumor initiation in the intestine. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 61 (21 ULg) Thermoelectric properties of the unfilled skutterudite FeSb3 from first principles and Seebeck local probesLemal, Sébastien ; Ngoc, Nguyen; de Boor, Johannes et alin Physical Review. B: Condensed Matter and Materials Physics (2015), 92Using a combination of first-principles calculations and experimental transport measurements, we study the electronic and magnetic structure of the unfilled skutterudite FeSb3. We employ the hybrid ... [more ▼]Using a combination of first-principles calculations and experimental transport measurements, we study the electronic and magnetic structure of the unfilled skutterudite FeSb3. We employ the hybrid functional approach for exchange-correlation. The ground state is determined to be anti-ferromagnetic with an atomic magnetic moment of 1.6 μB/Fe. The Néel temperature Tn is estimated at 6 K, in agreement with experiments which found a paramagnetic state down to 10 K. The ground state is semiconducting, with a small electronic gap of 33 meV, also consistent with previous experiments on films. Charge carrier concentrations are estimated from Hall resistance measurements. The Seebeck coefficient is measured and mapped using a scanning probe at room temperature that yields an average value of 38.6 μV/K, slightly lower than the theoretical result. The theoretical conductivity is analyzed as a function of temperature and concentration of charge carriers. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 89 (19 ULg) Les musées à forme d’établissement public administratif peuvent-ils recourir à l’arbitrage ?Desseilles, François in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2015), (3), 497-520This article aims to study the possibility of using alternative dispute resolution (ADR), specifically arbitration, in the museum sphere. If the answer given will naturally vary according to the nature of ... [more ▼]This article aims to study the possibility of using alternative dispute resolution (ADR), specifically arbitration, in the museum sphere. If the answer given will naturally vary according to the nature of institutions, the study focused on public administrative institutions in French law. We focus first on the place of ADR in the museum context and the expansion of market logic faced by public museums. The role of arbitration in these is discussed and some definitions and concepts are correlatively recalled. Next, the article examines the arbitrability of disputes concerning contracts of a public administrative establishment. It is first of all a matter of the analysis of the principle of prohibition to public entities to resort to arbitration. Second, the article examines the principles and conditions of the validity of the arbitration clause in international contracts, considering mainly the French jurisprudence, which decides that arbitrability of disputes in international trade is feasible in principle. Finally a description of various mechanisms and several stakeholders in the arbitration is made. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 21 (1 ULg) A linear Hf isotope-age array despite different granitoid sources and complex Archean geodynamics: Example from the Pietersburg block (South Africa)Laurent, Oscar ; Zeh, Arminin Earth and Planetary Science Letters (2015), 430Detailed reference viewed: 15 (2 ULg) Laser cladding as repair technology for Ti6Al4V alloy: Influence of building strategy on microstructure and hardnessPaydas, Hakan ; Mertens, Anne ; Carrus, Raoul et alin Materials & Design (2015), 85Laser cladding is a metal deposition technique used to fabricate or repair components made from high value metallic alloys. In the present work Ti-6Al-4V deposits with variable thickness are made to ... [more ▼]Laser cladding is a metal deposition technique used to fabricate or repair components made from high value metallic alloys. In the present work Ti-6Al-4V deposits with variable thickness are made to assess the use of laser cladding as a repair technology. Both the effect of the building strategy (BS) and the incident energy (IE) on the metallurgical characteristics of the deposits in relation to their complex thermal history have been studying. It is shown that for the configuration consisting in a decreasing track length (DTL) under high IE, a gradient of cooling rate exists that leads to the presence of different phases within the microstructure. Conversely homogeneous microstructures are present either for the configuration with a constant track length (CTL) under high IE, and for the strategy obtained from a DTL under low IE. Depending on the possible heat accumulation the nature of the phases are determined together with hardness maps within the deposits. Some qualification criteria are set prior to tensile tests to selected the adequate candidate-deposit that does not weaken the cladded material when it is stressed. A thermo-metallurgical scheme is proposed that helps understanding the effect of both the BS and the IE on the microstructure. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 71 (21 ULg) Synthesis of polyphosphodiesters by ring-opening polymerization of cyclic phosphates bearing allyl phosphoester protecting groupsClément, Benoit; Molin, Daniel G.; Jérôme, Christine et alin Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry (2015), 53(22), 2642-2648The allyl phosphoester group is shown to be a protecting group for the synthesis of anionic polyphosphodiesters. Our strategy relies on the synthesis of a cyclic phosphate monomer bearing a pendant allyl ... [more ▼]The allyl phosphoester group is shown to be a protecting group for the synthesis of anionic polyphosphodiesters. Our strategy relies on the synthesis of a cyclic phosphate monomer bearing a pendant allyl phosphoester group, its easy purification by fractional distillation, its organocatalyzed ring-opening polymerization by 1,8-diazobicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) and 1-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-3-cyclohexyl-thiourea (TU). Finally, the deprotection of the allyl phosphoester group is carried out by reaction with sodium benzenethiolate in the absence of any detectable degradation. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 76 (23 ULg) First New Solar Models With Opas Opacity TablesLe Pennec, Maëlle; Turck-Chièze, Sylvaine; Salmon, Sébastien et alin Astrophysical Journal Letters (2015), 813(2), 42Stellar seismology appears more and more as a powerful tool for a better determination of the fundamental properties of solar-type stars. However, the particular case of the Sun is still challenging. For ... [more ▼]Stellar seismology appears more and more as a powerful tool for a better determination of the fundamental properties of solar-type stars. However, the particular case of the Sun is still challenging. For about a decade now, the helioseismic sound-speed determination has continued to disagree with the standard solar model (SSM) prediction, questioning the reliability of this model. One of the sources of uncertainty could be in the treatment of the transport of radiation from the solar core to the surface. In this Letter, we use the new OPAS opacity tables, recently available for solar modeling, to address this issue. We discuss first the peculiarities of these tables, then we quantify their impact on the solar sound-speed and density profiles using the reduced OPAS tables taken on the grids of the OPAL ones. We use the two evolution codes, Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics and Code Liégeois d'Evolution Stellaire, that led to similar conclusions in the solar radiative zone. In comparison to commonly used OPAL opacity tables, the new solar models are computed for the most recent photospheric composition with OPAS tables and present improvements to the location of the base of the convective zone and to the description of the solar radiative zone in comparison to the helioseismic observations, even if the differences in the Rosseland mean opacity do not exceed 6%. We finally carry out a comparison to a solar model computed with the OP opacity tables. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (6 ULg) Wood Specific Gravity Variations and Biomass of Central African Tree Species: The Simple Choice of the Outer WoodBastin, Jean-François ; Fayolle, Adeline ; Tarelkin, Yegor et alin PLoS ONE (2015)Context: Wood specific gravity is a key element in tropical forest ecology. It integrates many aspects of tree mechanical properties and functioning and is an important predictor of tree biomass. Wood ... [more ▼]Context: Wood specific gravity is a key element in tropical forest ecology. It integrates many aspects of tree mechanical properties and functioning and is an important predictor of tree biomass. Wood specific gravity varies widely among and within species and also within individual trees. Notably, contrasted patterns of radial variation of wood specific gravity have been demonstrated and related to regeneration guilds (light demanding vs. shade-bearing). However, although being repeatedly invoked as a potential source of error when estimating the biomass of trees, both intraspecific and radial variations remain little studied. In this study we characterized detailed pith-to-bark wood specific gravity profiles among contrasted species prominently contributing to the biomass of the forest, i.e., the dominant species, and we quantified the consequences of such variations on the biomass. Methods: Radial profiles of wood density at 8% moisture content were compiled for 14 dominant species in the Democratic Republic of Congo, adapting a unique 3D X-ray scanning technique at very high spatial resolution on core samples. Mean wood density estimates were validated by water displacement measurements. Wood density profiles were converted to wood specific gravity and linear mixed models were used to decompose the radial variance. Potential errors in biomass estimation were assessed by comparing the biomass estimated from the wood specific gravity measured from pith-to-bark profiles, from global repositories, and from partial information (outer wood or inner wood). Results: Wood specific gravity profiles from pith-to-bark presented positive, neutral and negative trends. Positive trends mainly characterized light-demanding species, increasing up to 1.8 g.cm-3 per meter for Piptadeniastrum africanum, and negative trends characterized shade-bearing species, decreasing up to 1 g.cm-3 per meter for Strombosia pustulata. The linear mixed model showed the greater part of wood specific gravity variance was explained by species only (45%) followed by a redundant part between species and regeneration guilds (36%). Despite substantial variation in wood specific gravity profiles among species and regeneration guilds, we found that values from the outer wood were strongly correlated to values from the whole profile, without any significant bias. In addition, we found that wood specific gravity from the DRYAD global repository may strongly differ depending on the species (up to 40% for Dialium pachyphyllum). Main conclusion: Therefore, when estimating forest biomass in specific sites, we recommend the systematic collection of outer wood samples on dominant species. This should prevent the main errors in biomass estimations resulting from wood specific gravity and allow for the collection of new information to explore the intraspecific variation of mechanical properties of trees. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 39 (6 ULg) Optimal electron, phonon, and magnetic characteristics for low energy thermally induced magnetization switchingAtxitia, U.; Ostler, Thomas ; Chantrell, R. W. et alin Applied Physics Letters (2015), 107(19), 192402Using large-scale computer simulations, we thoroughly study the minimum energy required to ther- mally induced magnetization switching (TIMS) after the application of a femtosecond heat pulse in ... [more ▼]Using large-scale computer simulations, we thoroughly study the minimum energy required to ther- mally induced magnetization switching (TIMS) after the application of a femtosecond heat pulse in transition metal-rare earth ferrimagnetic alloys. We find that for an energy efficient TIMS, a low ferrimagnetic net magnetization with a strong temperature dependence is the relevant factor for the magnetic system. For the lattice and electron systems, the key physics for efficient TIMS is a large electron-phonon relaxation time. Importantly, we show that as the cooling time of the heated elec- trons is increased, the minimum power required to produce TIMS can be reduced by an order of magnitude. Our results show the way to low power TIMS by appropriate engineering of magnetic heterostructures. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (1 ULg) Positive trends in Southern Hemisphere carbonyl sulfideKremser, Stefanie; Jones, Nicholas B.; Palm, Mathias et alin Geophysical Research Letters (2015), 42Transport of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) from the troposphere to the stratosphere contributes sulfur to the stratospheric aerosol layer, which reflects incoming short-wave solar radiation, cooling the climate ... [more ▼]Transport of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) from the troposphere to the stratosphere contributes sulfur to the stratospheric aerosol layer, which reflects incoming short-wave solar radiation, cooling the climate system. Previous analyses of OCS observations have shown no significant trend, suggesting that OCS is unlikely to be a major contributor to the reported increases in stratospheric aerosol loading and indicating a balanced OCS budget. Here we present analyses of ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer measurements of OCS at three Southern Hemisphere sites spanning 34.45°S to 77.80°S. At all three sites statistically significant positive trends are seen from 2001 to 2014 with an observed overall trend in total column OCS at Wollongong of 0.73 ± 0.03%/yr, at Lauder of 0.43 ± 0.02%/yr, and at Arrival Heights of 0.45 ± 0.05%/yr. These observed trends in OCS imply that the OCS budget is not balanced and could contribute to constraints on current estimates of sources and sinks. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 11 (3 ULg) Composite dark matter and direct-search experimentsWallemacq, Quentin in International Journal of Modern Physics D : Gravitation, Astrophysics & Cosmology (2015), 24The results of the direct searches for dark matter are reinterpreted in the framework of composite dark matter, i.e. dark matter particles that form neutral bound states, generically called “dark atoms” ... [more ▼]The results of the direct searches for dark matter are reinterpreted in the framework of composite dark matter, i.e. dark matter particles that form neutral bound states, generically called “dark atoms”. Two different scenarios are presented: milli-interacting dark matter and dark anti-atoms. In both of them, dark matter interacts sufficiently strongly with terrestrial matter to be stopped in it before reaching underground detec- tors, which are typically located at a depth of 1 km. As they drift towards the center of the earth because of gravity, these thermal dark atoms are radiatively captured by the atoms of the active medium of underground detectors, which causes the emission of photons that produce the signals through their interac- tions with the electrons of the medium. This provides a way of reinterpreting the results in terms of electron recoils instead of nuclear recoils. The two models involve milli-charges and are able to reconcile the most contradictory experiments. We determine, for each model, the regions in the parameter space that reproduce the experiments with positive results in con- sistency with the constraints of the experiments with negative results. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (8 ULg) Remote control of self-assembled microswimmersGrosjean, Galien ; Lagubeau, Guillaume ; Darras, Alexis et alin Scientific Reports (2015)Floating magnetic particles can self-assemble into structures. These structures are periodically deformed in a non reciprocal way using magnetic fields, which leads to controllable low Reynolds number ... [more ▼]Floating magnetic particles can self-assemble into structures. These structures are periodically deformed in a non reciprocal way using magnetic fields, which leads to controllable low Reynolds number locomotion. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 42 (15 ULg) Change in ATP-binding cassette B1/19, glutamine synthetase and alcohol dehydrogenase gene expression during root elongation in Betula pendula Roth and Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn in response to leachate and leonardite humic substancesTahiri, Abdelghani ; Delporte, Fabienne ; Muhovski, Yordan et alin Plant Physiology & Biochemistry (2015), 98Humic substances (HS) are complex and heterogeneous compounds of humified organic matter resulting from the chemical and microbiological decomposition of organic residues. HS have a positive effect on ... [more ▼]Humic substances (HS) are complex and heterogeneous compounds of humified organic matter resulting from the chemical and microbiological decomposition of organic residues. HS have a positive effect on plant growth and development by improving soil structure and fertility. They have long been recognized as plant growth-promoting substances, particularly with regard to influencing nutrient uptake, root growth and architecture. The biochemical and molecular mechanisms through which HS influence plant physiology are not well understood. This study evaluated the bioactivity of landfill leachate and leonardite HS on alder (Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn) and birch (Betula pendula Roth) during root elongation in vitro. Changes in root development were studied in relation to auxin, carbon and nitrogen metabolisms, as well as to the stress adaptive response. The cDNA fragments of putative genes encoding two ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (ABCB1 and ABCB19) belonging to the B subfamily of plant ABC auxin transporters were cloned and sequenced. Molecular data indicate that HS and their humic acid (HA) fractions induce root growth by influencing polar auxin transport (PAT), as illustrated by the modulation of the ABCB transporter transcript levels (ABCB1 and ABCB19). There were also changes in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and glutamine synthetase (GS) gene transcript levels in response to HS exposure. These findings confirmed that humic matter affects plant growth and development through various metabolic pathways, including hormonal, carbon and nitrogen metabolisms and stress response or signalization. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 33 (9 ULg) Accreting protoplanets in the LkCa 15 transition diskSallum, S.; Follette, K. B.; Eisner, J. A. et alin Nature (2015), 527Exoplanet detections have revolutionized astronomy, offering new insights into solar system architecture and planet demographics. While nearly 1,900 exoplanets have now been discovered and confirmed, none ... [more ▼]Exoplanet detections have revolutionized astronomy, offering new insights into solar system architecture and planet demographics. While nearly 1,900 exoplanets have now been discovered and confirmed, none are still in the process of formation. Transition disks, protoplanetary disks with inner clearings best explained by the influence of accreting planets, are natural laboratories for the study of planet formation. Some transition disks show evidence for the presence of young planets in the form of disk asymmetries or infrared sources detected within their clearings, as in the case of LkCa 15 (refs 8, 9). Attempts to observe directly signatures of accretion onto protoplanets have hitherto proven unsuccessful. Here we report adaptive optics observations of LkCa 15 that probe within the disk clearing. With accurate source positions over multiple epochs spanning 2009-2015, we infer the presence of multiple companions on Keplerian orbits. We directly detect Hα emission from the innermost companion, LkCa 15 b, evincing hot (about 10,000 kelvin) gas falling deep into the potential well of an accreting protoplanet. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 10 (1 ULg) Do single, double or triple fungicide sprays differentially affect the grain quality in winter wheat?El Jarroudi, Moussa ; kOUADIO, Louis; Junk et alin Field Crops Research (2015), 183(257-266), Foliar fungicides in wheat are typically used to safeguard against economic losses from diseases. In this study, we assessed the effects of three fungicide spray regimes [single, double, and triple ... [more ▼]Foliar fungicides in wheat are typically used to safeguard against economic losses from diseases. In this study, we assessed the effects of three fungicide spray regimes [single, double, and triple treatments] on four different grain quality parameters [thousand grain weight (TGW), test weight (TW), grain protein content (GPC), and Zeleny sedimentation volume (ZSV)] during the 2006–2009 period at two sites in Luxembourg. The fungicides used were generally a mix of chlorothalonil and triazoles. At Burmerange, (cultivar Cubus), the values of TGW, TW, GPC and ZSV ranged from 38 to 62 g, 67 to 83 kg hl−1, 12.0% to 14.7% dry matter (DM), and 27 to 54 ml, respectively. Whereas, at Everlange (cultivar Achat), the ranges of TGW, TW, GPC and ZSV were 42 to 65 g, 65 to 81 kg hl−1, 11.0% to 15.0% DM, and 21 to 66 ml, respectively. In more than 75% cases, the results indicate that fungicides did not significantly affect TW or ZSV at either sites (P > 0.05). However, there was a significant and positive fungicide effect on GPC in 2006 and 2009 at Burmerange, and only in 2006 at Everlange (P < 0.05). On the contrary, TGW was significantly affected at Burmerange in all years, except 2008 when a positive increase was observed compared to control plots; and in 2006 and 2007 at Everlange. Interestingly, when there was an effect of fungicides on a quality parameter, there was no difference among different fungicide treatments. Thus under conditions prevailing in Luxembourg, a single fungicide treatment applied with judicious timing generally resulted in statistically similar grain quality parameters when compared with a double or triple fungicide treatment. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 36 (1 ULg) Postures et figures « néo-réactionnaires ». Autour d'un personnage collectifDurand, Pascal ; Sindaco, Sarah in COnTEXTES : Revue de Sociologie de la Littérature (2015)Rendre compte du courant dit des « nouveaux réactionnaires » en dressant le portrait du personnage collectif qui lui sert de support tient ici d’une mesure de prudence autant que d’un choix de méthode, à ... [more ▼]Rendre compte du courant dit des « nouveaux réactionnaires » en dressant le portrait du personnage collectif qui lui sert de support tient ici d’une mesure de prudence autant que d’un choix de méthode, à la faveur d’une double distance créée avec l’objet : distance historique pour commencer, même si celle-ci tendra à se resserrer progressivement autour dudit objet ; distance assurée d’un autre côté par un effort d’abstraction des régularités en fait de rhétorique et de posture caractéristiques du phénomène examiné dans son ensemble. Un phénomène à la fois social et discursif dont les conditions de possibilité et d’efficacité intéresse davantage le propos du présent article que les contenus polémiques dont il se nourrit et les fortes individualités dont il se soutient [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 43 (7 ULg) A rocky planet transiting a nearby low-mass starBerta-Thompson, Zachory K.; Irwin, Jonathan; Charbonneau, David et alin Nature (2015), 527M-dwarf stars—hydrogen-burning stars that are smaller than 60 per cent of the size of the Sun—are the most common class of star in our Galaxy and outnumber Sun-like stars by a ratio of 12:1. Recent ... [more ▼]M-dwarf stars—hydrogen-burning stars that are smaller than 60 per cent of the size of the Sun—are the most common class of star in our Galaxy and outnumber Sun-like stars by a ratio of 12:1. Recent results have shown that M dwarfs host Earth-sized planets in great numbers: the average number of M-dwarf planets that are between 0.5 to 1.5 times the size of Earth is at least 1.4 per star. The nearest such planets known to transit their star are 39 parsecs away, too distant for detailed follow-up observations to measure the planetary masses or to study their atmospheres. Here we report observations of GJ 1132b, a planet with a size of 1.2 Earth radii that is transiting a small star 12 parsecs away. Our Doppler mass measurement of GJ 1132b yields a density consistent with an Earth-like bulk composition, similar to the compositions of the six known exoplanets with masses less than six times that of the Earth and precisely measured densities. Receiving 19 times more stellar radiation than the Earth, the planet is too hot to be habitable but is cool enough to support a substantial atmosphere, one that has probably been considerably depleted of hydrogen. Because the host star is nearby and only 21 per cent the radius of the Sun, existing and upcoming telescopes will be able to observe the composition and dynamics of the planetary atmosphere. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 30 (3 ULg) X-Ray Emission from Massive Stars in Cyg OB2Rauw, Gregor ; Nazé, Yaël ; Wright, N. J. et alin Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series (2015), 221We report on the analysis of the Chandra-ACIS data of O, B, and WR stars in the young association Cyg OB2. X-ray spectra of 49 O-stars, 54 B-stars, and 3 WR-stars are analyzed and for the brighter sources ... [more ▼]We report on the analysis of the Chandra-ACIS data of O, B, and WR stars in the young association Cyg OB2. X-ray spectra of 49 O-stars, 54 B-stars, and 3 WR-stars are analyzed and for the brighter sources, the epoch dependence of the X-ray fluxes is investigated. The O-stars in Cyg OB2 follow a well-defined scaling relation between their X-ray and bolometric luminosities: log(Lx/Lbol)=-7.2+/- 0.2. This relation is in excellent agreement with the one previously derived for the Carina OB1 association. Except for the brightest O-star binaries, there is no general X-ray overluminosity due to colliding winds in O-star binaries. Roughly half of the known B-stars in the surveyed field are detected, but they fail to display a clear relationship between Lx and Lbol. Out of the three WR stars in Cyg OB2, probably only WR 144 is itself responsible for the observed level of X-ray emission, at a very low log(Lx/Lbol)=-8.8+/- 0.2. The X-ray emission of the other two WR-stars (WR 145 and 146) is most probably due to their O-type companion along with a moderate contribution from a wind–wind interaction zone. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (3 ULg) Active content determination of pharmaceutical tablets using near infrared spectroscopy as Process Analytical Technology toolChavez, Pierre-François ; Sacre, Pierre-Yves ; De Bleye, Charlotte et alin Talanta (2015), 144Detailed reference viewed: 73 (29 ULg) Observations of radio-quiet quasars at 10-mas resolution by use of gravitational lensingJackson, Neal; Tagore, Amitpal S.; Roberts, Carl et alin Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2015), 454We present Very Large Array detections of radio emission in 4 four-image gravitational lens systems with quasar sources: HS 0810+2554, RX J0911+0511, HE 0435-1223 and SDSS J0924+0219, and extended Multi ... [more ▼]We present Very Large Array detections of radio emission in 4 four-image gravitational lens systems with quasar sources: HS 0810+2554, RX J0911+0511, HE 0435-1223 and SDSS J0924+0219, and extended Multi-Element Remote Linked Interferometer (e-MERLIN) observations of two of the systems. The first three are detected at a high level of significance, and SDSS J0924+0219 is detected. HS 0810+2554 is resolved, allowing us for the first time to achieve 10-mas resolution of the source frame in the structure of a radio-quiet quasar. The others are unresolved or marginally resolved. All four objects are among the faintest radio sources yet detected, with intrinsic flux densities in the range 1-5 μJy; such radio objects, if unlensed, will only be observable routinely with the Square Kilometre Array. The observations of HS 0810+2554, which is also detected with e-MERLIN, strongly suggest the presence of a mini active galactic nucleus, with a radio core and milliarcsecond scale jet. The flux densities of the lensed images in all but HE 0435-1223 are consistent with smooth galaxy lens models without the requirement for smaller scale substructure in the model, although some interesting anomalies are seen between optical and radio flux densities. These are probably due to microlensing effects in the optical. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg) X-ray emission from the giant magnetosphere of the magnetic O-type star NGC 1624-2Petit, V.; Cohen, D. H.; Wade, G. A. et alin Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2015), 453We observed NGC 1624-2, the O-type star with the largest known magnetic field (B[SUB]p[/SUB] ˜ 20 kG), in X-rays with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS-S) camera on-board the Chandra X-ray ... [more ▼]We observed NGC 1624-2, the O-type star with the largest known magnetic field (B[SUB]p[/SUB] ˜ 20 kG), in X-rays with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS-S) camera on-board the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Our two observations were obtained at the minimum and maximum of the periodic Hα emission cycle, corresponding to the rotational phases where the magnetic field is the closest to equator-on and pole-on, respectively. With these observations, we aim to characterize the star's magnetosphere via the X-ray emission produced by magnetically confined wind shocks. Our main findings are as follows. (i) The observed spectrum of NGC 1624-2 is hard, similar to the magnetic O-type star θ[SUP]1[/SUP] Ori C, with only a few photons detected below 0.8 keV. The emergent X-ray flux is 30 per cent lower at the Hα minimum phase. (ii) Our modelling indicated that this seemingly hard spectrum is in fact a consequence of relatively soft intrinsic emission, similar to other magnetic Of?p stars, combined with a large amount of local absorption (˜1-3× 10[SUP]22[/SUP] cm[SUP]-2[/SUP]). This combination is necessary to reproduce both the prominent Mg and Si spectral features, and the lack of flux at low energies. NGC 1624-2 is intrinsically luminous in X-rays (log L^{em}_X˜ 33.4) but 70-95 per cent of the X-ray emission produced by magnetically confined wind shocks is absorbed before it escapes the magnetosphere (log L^{ISMcor}_X˜ 32.5). (iii) The high X-ray luminosity, its variation with stellar rotation, and its large attenuation are all consistent with a large dynamical magnetosphere with magnetically confined wind shocks. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 27 (5 ULg) COMMENT EXPLORER LES SYMPTOMES NEGATIFS DE LA PSYCHOSE CHEZ L'ENFANT: UNE SEMIOLOGIE DIMENSIONNELLESCHOLL, Jean-Marc in Acta Psychiatrica Belgica (2015), 116(3), 15-21Despite its high frequency, psychotic syndrome in childhood is little understood and is often diagnosed only after several years of development, and this during a time when the child’s psychosocial future ... [more ▼]Despite its high frequency, psychotic syndrome in childhood is little understood and is often diagnosed only after several years of development, and this during a time when the child’s psychosocial future is at stake. Negative symptoms are systematically present at the prodromal phase and are the most stable thereafter. It is therefore essential to furnish clinicians with precise semiological markers to recognize it. This paper presents a dimensional semiology of the negative symptoms for use in anamnesis and in clinical observation of the child. Is also gives a guide to the interviewing process. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 49 (5 ULg) Métroplasties (utérus en T après l'ère DES, septum): quel bénéfice?BRICHANT, Géraldine ; CLOSON, François ; MASEREEL, Marie-Caroline et alin Louvain Medical (2015), 134Mûllerian anomalies are associated with infertility and obstetric complications, such as recurrent pregnancy loss, preterm labor or birth, as well as malpresentation. The most common anomalies inlude ... [more ▼]Mûllerian anomalies are associated with infertility and obstetric complications, such as recurrent pregnancy loss, preterm labor or birth, as well as malpresentation. The most common anomalies inlude septate uterus, uterus bicornuate, and uterus didelphys (Class II and III according to ESHRE/ESGE classification). Hypoplastic uteri are rare, being usually caused by in utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol. Hysteroscopic metroplasty has been shown to improve both fertility and obstetrical outcomes in patients with hypoplastic or septate uterus [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 29 (8 ULg) Quand débute le délai de prescription d’un prêt consenti pour une durée indéterminée ?Biquet, Christine in Revue du Notariat Belge (2015)Detailed reference viewed: 30 (2 ULg) Hypervulnerability to Sound Exposure through Impaired Adaptive Proliferation of Peroxisomes.Delmaghani, Sedigheh; Defourny, Jean; Aghaie, Asadollah et alin Cell (2015), 163(4), 894-906A deficiency in pejvakin, a protein of unknown function, causes a strikingly heterogeneous form of human deafness. Pejvakin-deficient (Pjvk(-/-)) mice also exhibit variable auditory phenotypes ... [more ▼]A deficiency in pejvakin, a protein of unknown function, causes a strikingly heterogeneous form of human deafness. Pejvakin-deficient (Pjvk(-/-)) mice also exhibit variable auditory phenotypes. Correlation between their hearing thresholds and the number of pups per cage suggest a possible harmful effect of pup vocalizations. Direct sound or electrical stimulation show that the cochlear sensory hair cells and auditory pathway neurons of Pjvk(-/-) mice and patients are exceptionally vulnerable to sound. Subcellular analysis revealed that pejvakin is associated with peroxisomes and required for their oxidative-stress-induced proliferation. Pjvk(-/-) cochleas display features of marked oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant defenses, and peroxisomes in Pjvk(-/-) hair cells show structural abnormalities after the onset of hearing. Noise exposure rapidly upregulates Pjvk cochlear transcription in wild-type mice and triggers peroxisome proliferation in hair cells and primary auditory neurons. Our results reveal that the antioxidant activity of peroxisomes protects the auditory system against noise-induced damage. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 21 (3 ULg) Trunk muscle profile in elite tennis players with and without low back painGROSDENT, Stéphanie ; Demoulin, Christophe ; Souchet, Matthieu et alin Journal of Sports Medicine & Physical Fitness (2015), 55(11), 1354-1362Detailed reference viewed: 165 (49 ULg) La collection "Poétique" : terre d'accueilLorent, Fanny in A l'épreuve (2015), 2Detailed reference viewed: 29 (5 ULg) La Communauté germanophone après la sixième réforme de l’État : état des lieux et perspectivesBouhon, Frédéric ; Niessen, Christoph; Reuchamps, Minin Courrier Hebdomadaire du CRISP (2015), 2266-2267Cet article dresse un état des lieux des compétences et du financement de la Communauté germanophone, en identifiant les modifications que la sixième réforme de l'État a apportées à cet égard. Il fait ... [more ▼]Cet article dresse un état des lieux des compétences et du financement de la Communauté germanophone, en identifiant les modifications que la sixième réforme de l'État a apportées à cet égard. Il fait état des débats politiques qui ont accompagné ces réformes et de la manière dont celles-ci ont déjà partiellement été mises en œuvre. Il récapitule aussi la représentation dont la Communauté germanophone bénéficie au sein de l'Union européenne, de l'Autorité fédérale, de la Région wallonne et de la Province de Liège. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 28 (9 ULg)