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See detailThe combined mechanism of bone morphogenetic protein- and calcium phosphate-induced skeletal tissue formation by human periosteum derived cells.
Bolander, J.; Ji, W.; Geris, Liesbet ULg et al

in European Cells and Materials (2016), 31

When combining osteogenic progenitor cells such as human periosteum derived cells (hPDCs) with osteoconductive biomaterials like calcium phosphate (CaP)-scaffolds, in vivo bone formation can be achieved ... [more ▼]

When combining osteogenic progenitor cells such as human periosteum derived cells (hPDCs) with osteoconductive biomaterials like calcium phosphate (CaP)-scaffolds, in vivo bone formation can be achieved. This process is dependent on the early activation of Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-signalling. However, the bone forming process is slow and routinely only a limited amount of bone and bone marrow is formed. Therefore, we hypothesised that a robust clinically relevant outcome could be achieved by adding more physiological levels of potent BMP-ligands to these cell- and CaP-based constructs. For this, hPDCs were characterised for their responsiveness to BMP-ligands upon in vitro 2D stimulation. BMP-2, -4, -6 and -9 robustly induced osteochondrogenic differentiation. Subsequently, these ligands were coated onto clinically approved CaP-scaffolds, BioOss(R) and CopiOs(R), followed by hPDC-seeding. Protein lysates and conditioned media were investigated for activation of BMP signalling pathways. Upon in vivo implantation, the most abundant bone formation was found in BMP-2 and BMP-6-coated scaffolds. Implanted cells actively contributed to the newly formed bone. Remnants of cartilage could be observed in BMP-coated CopiOs(R)-constructs. Computational analysis displayed that the type of BMP-ligand as well as the CaP-scaffold affects skeletal tissue formation, observed in a qualitative as well as quantitative manner. Furthermore, the in vitro mechanism appears to predict the in vivo outcome. This study presents further evidence for the potential of BMP-technology in the development of clinically relevant cell-based constructs for bone regenerative strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailBlowing a liquid curtain
Lhuissier, Henri; Brunet, Philippe; Dorbolo, Stéphane ULg

in Journal of Fluid Mechanics (2016), 795

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See detailDifferential effects of context on psychomotor sensitization to ethanol and cocaine
Didone, Vincent ULg; Quoilin, Caroline; Dieupart, Julie et al

in Behavioural Pharmacology (2016), 27(2 & 3), 173-181

Repeated drug injections lead to sensitization of their stimulant effects in mice, a phenomenon sometimes referred to as drug psychomotor sensitization. Previous studies showed that sensitization to ... [more ▼]

Repeated drug injections lead to sensitization of their stimulant effects in mice, a phenomenon sometimes referred to as drug psychomotor sensitization. Previous studies showed that sensitization to cocaine is context dependent as its expression is reduced in an environment that was not paired with cocaine administration. In contrast, the effects of the test context on ethanol sensitization remain unclear. In the present study, female OF1 mice were repeatedly injected with 1.5 g/kg ethanol to test for both the effects of context novelty/familiarity and association on ethanol sensitization. A first group of mice was extensively pre-exposed to the test context before ethanol sensitization and ethanol injections were paired with the test context (familiar and paired group). A second group was not pre-exposed to the test context, but ethanol injections were paired with the test context (nonfamiliar and paired group). Finally, a third group of mice was not pre-exposed to the test context and ethanol was repeatedly injected in the home cage (unpaired group). Control groups were similarly exposed to the test context, but were injected with saline. In a second experiment, cocaine was used as a positive control. The same behavioral procedure was used, except that mice were injected with 10 mg/kg cocaine instead of ethanol. The results show a differential involvement of the test context in the sensitization to ethanol and cocaine. Cocaine sensitization is strongly context dependent and is not expressed in the unpaired group. In contrast, the expression of ethanol sensitization is independent of the context in which it was administered, but is strongly affected by the relative novelty/familiarity of the environment. Extensive pre-exposure to the test context prevented the expression of ethanol sensitization. One possible explanation is that expression of ethanol sensitization requires an arousing environment. [less ▲]

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See detailConvective drying of cherry tomato: Study of skin effect
Khama, Reda; Aissani, F.; Alkama, R. et al

in Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (2016), 11(3), 443-457

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See detailSHIP2 controls plasma membrane PI(4,5)P2 thereby participating in the control of cell migration in 1321 N1 glioblastoma.
Edimo, William S Elong; Ghosh, Somadri; Derua, Rita et al

in Journal of cell science (2016)

Phosphoinositides, particularly PI(3,4,5)P3, and PI(4,5)P2, are recognized by SHIP2 a member of the inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase family. SHIP2 dephosphorylates PI(3,4,5)P3 to form PI(3,4)P2; the ... [more ▼]

Phosphoinositides, particularly PI(3,4,5)P3, and PI(4,5)P2, are recognized by SHIP2 a member of the inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase family. SHIP2 dephosphorylates PI(3,4,5)P3 to form PI(3,4)P2; the latter interacts with specific target proteins (e.g. lamellipodin). Although the SHIP2 preferred substrate is PI(3,4,5)P3, PI(4,5)P2 could also be dephosphorylated to PI4P. Through depletion of SHIP2 in a glioblastoma cell line 1321 N1 cells, we show that SHIP2 inhibits cell migration. In different glioblastoma cell lines and primary cultures, SHIP2 staining at the plasma membrane partly overlaps with PI(4,5)P2 immunoreactivity. PI(4,5)P2 was upregulated in SHIP2-deficient N1 cells as compared to control cells; in contrast, PI4P was very much decreased in SHIP2-deficient cells. Therefore, SHIP2 controls both PI(3,4,5)P3 and PI(4,5)P2 levels in intact cells. In N1 cells, the PI(4,5)P2 binding protein myosin-1c was identified as a new interactor of SHIP2. Regulation of PI(4,5)P2 and PI4P content by SHIP2 controls N1 cell migration through the organization of focal adhesions. Thus, our results reveal a novel role of SHIP2 in the control of PI(4,5)P2, PI4P and cell migration in PTEN-deficient glioblastoma N1 cells. [less ▲]

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See detailGeographic range in liverworts: does sex really matter?
Laenen, B.; Machac, A.; Gradstein, S.R. et al

in Journal of Biogeography (2016)

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See detailSynthesis of hydrophilic CuInS2/ZnS quantum dots with different polymeric shells and study of their cytotoxicity and hemocompatibility
Speranskaya, Elena Sergeevna; Sevrin, Chantal ULg; De Saeger, Sarah et al

in ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces (2016)

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See detailLongitudinal Study of Growth and Osteoarticular Status in Foals Born to Between-Breed Embryo Transfers
Peugnet, Pauline; Mendoza García, Luis ULg; Wimel, Laurence et al

in Journal of Equine Veterinary Science (2016), 37

The role of antenatal events on growth and predisposition to osteochondrosis (OC) was investigated in foals born to between-breed embryo transfers. Pony (P), saddlebred (S), and draft (D) horses were used ... [more ▼]

The role of antenatal events on growth and predisposition to osteochondrosis (OC) was investigated in foals born to between-breed embryo transfers. Pony (P), saddlebred (S), and draft (D) horses were used. Control P-P (n ¼ 21) and S-S (n ¼ 28) pregnancies were obtained by artificial insemination. Enhanced and restricted pregnancies were obtained by transferring P or S embryos into D mares (P-D, n ¼ 6 and S-D, n ¼ 8) and S embryos into P mares (S-P, n ¼ 6), respectively. Control and experimental foals were raised by their dams and recipient mothers, respectively, and weaned at age 6 months. Body measurements were recorded from birth to age 18 months. Osteochondrosis status was evaluated shortly after weaning and at age 18 months. Fetal growth was enhanced in P-D foals with overgrowth of most body segments until age 18 months. Fetal growth was restricted in S-P foals compared with S-D foals. Body weight, shoulder, and hip width of S-P foals grew slower before weaning but subsequently caught up after weaning. Other segments did not catch up, resulting in reduced body weight and withers’ height in S-P compared with S-D foals at age 18 months. The relative risk of developing OC was increased in restricted S-P foals compared with S-S and S-D foals shortly after weaning where all S-P foals were OC positive. Only two S-P foals were still OC positive at age 18 months. These data confirm the impact of the intrauterine environment on growth, skeletal health, and possibly athletic capacities of horses. [less ▲]

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See detailCrystal structure of bassetite and saléeite: new insight into autunite-group minerals
Dal Bo, Fabrice ULg; Hatert, Frédéric ULg; Mees, Florias et al

in European Journal of Mineralogy (2016)

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See detailcompte rendu de : Lenglet-Dufresnoy, Écrits inédits sur le roman. Édité par J. Herman et J. Cormier. Oxford, Voltaire Foundation, 2014.
Decoster, Sara ULg

in Revue d'Histoire Littéraire de la France (2016), 116(1), 222-224

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See detailLike a bridge over troubled water – opening pathways for integrating social sciences and humanities into nuclear research
Turcanu, Catrinel; Schröder, Jantine; Meskens, Gaston et al

in Journal of Environmental Radioactivity (2016), 153

Research on nuclear technologies has been largely driven by a detachment of the 'technical content' from the 'social context'. However, social studies of science and technology - also for the nuclear ... [more ▼]

Research on nuclear technologies has been largely driven by a detachment of the 'technical content' from the 'social context'. However, social studies of science and technology - also for the nuclear domain – emphasize that 'the social' and 'the technical' dimensions of technology development are inter-related and co-produced. In an effort to create links between nuclear research and innovation and society in mutually beneficial ways, the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre started fifteen years ago a ‘Programme of Integration of Social Aspects into nuclear research’ (PISA). In line with broader science-policy agendas (responsible research and innovation and technology assessment), this paper argues that the importance of such programmes is threefold. First, their multi-disciplinary basis and participatory character contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between science, technology and society, in general, and the complexity of nuclear technology assessment in particular. Second, their functioning as (self )critical policy supportive research with outreach to society is an essential prerequisite for policies aiming at generating societal trust in the context of controversial issues related to nuclear technologies and exposure to ionising radiation. Third, such programmes create an enriching dynamic in the organisation itself, stimulating collective learning and transdisciplinarity. The paper illustrates with concrete examples these claims and concludes by discussing some key challenges that researchers face while engaging in work of this kind. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of methods of detection of water estrogenicity for their use as monitoring tools in a process of estrogenicity removal
Blavier; Songulashvili; Simon, Coraline ULg et al

in Environmental Technology (2016)

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See detailAssociation Between Necropsy Evidence of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation and Hemostatic Variables Before Death in Horses With Colic.
Cesarini Latorre, Carlota ULg; Cotovio, M.; Rios, J. et al

in Journal of veterinary internal medicine / American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2016), 30(1), 269-75

BACKGROUND: Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is frequent in horses with severe gastrointestinal disorders. Postmortem studies have found fibrin microthrombi in tissues of these horses, but ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is frequent in horses with severe gastrointestinal disorders. Postmortem studies have found fibrin microthrombi in tissues of these horses, but studies relating these histopathological findings with antemortem hemostatic data are lacking. HYPOTHESIS: Antemortem classification of coagulopathy is related to the presence and severity of fibrin deposits observed postmortem in horses with severe gastrointestinal disorders. ANIMALS: Antemortem hemostatic profile data and postmortem tissue samples (kidney, lung, liver) from 48 horses with colic. METHODS: Tissue samples were stained with phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin and immunohistochemical methods for histological examination. A fibrin score (grades 0-4) was assigned for each technique, tissue and horse, as well as the presence or absence of DIC at postmortem examination. D-dimer concentration, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and antithrombin (AT) activity, as well as the clinicopathological evidence of coagulopathy, were determined from plasma samples collected 0-24 hours before death or euthanasia. Histologic and clinicopathologic data from the same horses were compared retrospectively. RESULTS: No association was found between antemortem classification of coagulopathy and postmortem diagnosis of DIC based on tissue fibrin deposition. None of the hemostatic parameters was significantly different between horses with or without postmortem diagnosis of DIC. There was no association between horses with fibrin in tissues or different cut-offs for D-dimer concentration and postmortem evidence of DIC. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Abnormalities of the routine clotting profile, including D-dimer concentration, were not useful in predicting histologic evidence of DIC at necropsy in horses with severe gastrointestinal disorders. [less ▲]

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See detailFarmers’ Perception and Willingness to Pay for Climate Information in Burkina Faso
Zongo, Bétéo ULg; Diarra, Abdoulaye; Barbier, Bruno et al

in Journal of Agricultural Science (2016), 8

This study highlights the perception and the option value of climate information in the sahelian and sudano-sahelian agro-climatic zones of Burkina Faso. From the sampled farmers only 21.78% have access ... [more ▼]

This study highlights the perception and the option value of climate information in the sahelian and sudano-sahelian agro-climatic zones of Burkina Faso. From the sampled farmers only 21.78% have access to climate information, while 93% of them need climate information to guide through their decision in planning agricultural activities. Option value shows the interest granted by farmers using climate information. About 64% of the farmers are willing to pay an average of Francs CFA 546.34 to obtain climate information. The willingness to pay is determined by the the farmers’ ability to predict the climate, to use radio as a means of information, farmers’ awareness of previous forecasts and early onset of rainy season. While farmers considered benefits from the use of climate information, it is clear that its contribution to farm income remains a field of research to explore. Thus it is necessary to experiment with individual farms and to evaluate the contribution of climate information to the value added in different crops and farmers’ income. [less ▲]

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See detailSex differences in partner preferences in humans and animals.
Balthazart, Jacques ULg

in Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences (2016), 371(1688),

A large number of morphological, physiological and behavioural traits are differentially expressed by males and females in all vertebrates including humans. These sex differences, sometimes, reflect the ... [more ▼]

A large number of morphological, physiological and behavioural traits are differentially expressed by males and females in all vertebrates including humans. These sex differences, sometimes, reflect the different hormonal environment of the adults, but they often remain present after subjects of both sexes are placed in the same endocrine conditions following gonadectomy associated or not with hormonal replacement therapy. They are then the result of combined influences of organizational actions of sex steroids acting early during development, or genetic differences between the sexes, or epigenetic mechanisms differentially affecting males and females. Sexual partner preference is a sexually differentiated behavioural trait that is clearly controlled in animals by the same type of mechanisms. This is also probably true in humans, even if critical experiments that would be needed to obtain scientific proof of this assertion are often impossible for pragmatic or ethical reasons. Clinical, epidemiological and correlative studies provide, however, converging evidence strongly suggesting, if not demonstrating, that endocrine, genetic and epigenetic mechanisms acting during the pre- or perinatal life control human sexual orientation, i.e. homosexuality versus heterosexuality. Whether they interact with postnatal psychosexual influences remains, however, unclear at present. [less ▲]

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See detailDe la grammaire pure logique à la grammaire philosophique. La grammaire des concepts chez Wittgenstein
Gauvry, Charlotte ULg

in Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique (2016)

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See detailSubunit Asa1 spans all the peripheral stalk of the mitochondrial ATP synthase of the chlorophycean alga Polytomella sp.
Colina-Tenorio, Lilia; Miranda-Astudillo, Hector; Cano-Estrada, Araceli et al

in Biochimica et biophysica acta (2016)

Mitochondrial F1FO-ATP synthase of chlorophycean algae is dimeric. It contains eight orthodox subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, epsilon, OSCP, a and c) and nine atypical subunits (Asa1 to 9). These ... [more ▼]

Mitochondrial F1FO-ATP synthase of chlorophycean algae is dimeric. It contains eight orthodox subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, epsilon, OSCP, a and c) and nine atypical subunits (Asa1 to 9). These subunits build the peripheral stalk of the enzyme and stabilize its dimeric structure. The location of the 66.1kDa subunit Asa1 has been debated. On one hand, it was found in a transient subcomplex that contained membrane-bound subunits Asa1/Asa3/Asa5/Asa8/a (Atp6)/c (Atp9). On the other hand, Asa1 was proposed to form the bulky structure of the peripheral stalk that contacts the OSCP subunit in the F1 sector. Here, we overexpressed and purified the recombinant proteins Asa1 and OSCP and explored their interactions in vitro, using immunochemical techniques and affinity chromatography. Asa1 and OSCP interact strongly, and the carboxy-terminal half of OSCP seems to be instrumental for this association. In addition, the algal ATP synthase was partially dissociated at relatively high detergent concentrations, and an Asa1/Asa3/Asa5/Asa8/a/c10 subcomplex was identified. Furthermore, Far-Western analysis suggests an Asa1-Asa8 interaction. Based on these results, a model is proposed in which Asa1 spans the whole peripheral arm of the enzyme, from a region close to the matrix-exposed side of the mitochondrial inner membrane to the F1 region where OSCP is located. 3D models show elongated, helix-rich structures for chlorophycean Asa1 subunits. Asa1 subunit probably plays a scaffolding role in the peripheral stalk analogous to the one of subunit b in orthodox mitochondrial enzymes. [less ▲]

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See detailConcordance between iohexol and iothalamate plasma clearance
DELANAYE, Pierre ULg; JOURET, François ULg; LE GOFF, Caroline ULg et al

in American Journal of Kidney Diseases (2016)

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See detailReference Method and Reference Material Are Necessary Tools to Reveal the Variability of Cystatin C Assays
Bargnoux, Anne-Sophie; Kuster, Nils; Delatour, Vincent et al

in Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine (2016), 140(2), 117-118

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See detailWeakening of Jupiter's main auroral emission during January 2014
Badman, S. V.; Bonfond, Bertrand ULg; Fujimoto, M. et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2016), 43(3), 988-997

In January 2014 Jupiter's FUV main auroral oval decreased its emitted power by 70% and shifted equatorward by ∼1°. Intense, low-latitude features were also detected. The decrease in emitted power is ... [more ▼]

In January 2014 Jupiter's FUV main auroral oval decreased its emitted power by 70% and shifted equatorward by ∼1°. Intense, low-latitude features were also detected. The decrease in emitted power is attributed to a decrease in auroral current density rather than electron energy. This could be caused by a decrease in the source electron density, an order of magnitude increase in the source electron thermal energy, or a combination of these. Both can be explained either by expansion of the magnetosphere or by an increase in the inward transport of hot plasma through the middle magnetosphere and its interchange with cold flux tubes moving outward. In the latter case the hot plasma could have increased the electron temperature in the source region and produced the intense, low-latitude features, while the increased cold plasma transport rate produced the shift of the main oval. © 2016. The Authors. [less ▲]

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See detailIgE and mast cells in host defense against parasites and venoms.
Mukai, Kaori; Tsai, Mindy; Starkl, Philipp et al

in Seminars in Immunopathology (2016)

IgE-dependent mast cell activation is a major effector mechanism underlying the pathology associated with allergic disorders. The most dramatic of these IgE-associated disorders is the fatal anaphylaxis ... [more ▼]

IgE-dependent mast cell activation is a major effector mechanism underlying the pathology associated with allergic disorders. The most dramatic of these IgE-associated disorders is the fatal anaphylaxis which can occur in some people who have developed IgE antibodies to otherwise innocuous antigens, such as those contained in certain foods and medicines. Why would such a highly "maladaptive" immune response develop in evolution and be retained to the present day? Host defense against parasites has long been considered the only beneficial function that might be conferred by IgE and mast cells. However, recent studies have provided evidence that, in addition to participating in host resistance to certain parasites, mast cells and IgE are critical components of innate (mast cells) and adaptive (mast cells and IgE) immune responses that can enhance host defense against the toxicity of certain arthropod and animal venoms, including enhancing the survival of mice injected with such venoms. Yet, in some people, developing IgE antibodies to insect or snake venoms puts them at risk for having a potentially fatal anaphylactic reaction upon subsequent exposure to such venoms. Delineating the mechanisms underlying beneficial versus detrimental innate and adaptive immune responses associated with mast cell activation and IgE is likely to enhance our ability to identify potential therapeutic targets in such settings, not only for reducing the pathology associated with allergic disorders but perhaps also for enhancing immune protection against pathogens and animal venoms. [less ▲]

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See detailGenotyping and strain distribution of Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis isolated from humans and pigs in Belgium, 2011-2013
Vluggen, C; Soetaert, K; Duytschaever, L et al

in Eurosurveillance (2016), 21(3), 18-25

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See detailUnravelling the mechanisms of a protein refolding process based on the association of detergents and co-solvents.
Michaux, Catherine; Roussel, Guillaume; Lopes-Rogrigues, M. et al

in Journal of peptide science : an official publication of the European Peptide Society (2016)

A new technique associating the detergent Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS) and an alcohol-type co-solvent has been set up, showing an unexpected efficiency to refold several types of soluble or membrane ... [more ▼]

A new technique associating the detergent Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS) and an alcohol-type co-solvent has been set up, showing an unexpected efficiency to refold several types of soluble or membrane proteins. The present contribution deepens the fundamental knowledge on the phenomena underlying this process, considering the refolding of two model peptides featuring the main protein secondary structures: alpha-helix and beta-sheet. Their refolding was monitored by fluorescence and circular dichroism, and it turns out that: (i) 100% recovery of the folded structure is observed for both peptides, (ii) the highest the SDS concentration, the more co-solvent to be added to recover the peptides' native structures, (iii) a high alcohol concentration is required to alter the SDS denaturing properties, (iv) the co-solvent performance relies on its specific lipophilic-hydrophilic balanced character, (v) the size of the micelle formed by the detergent does not enter the process critical parameters, and (vi) increasing the salt concentration up to 1 M NaCl has a beneficial impact on the process efficiency. These mechanistic aspects will help us to improve the method and extend its application. Copyright (c) 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailOrbitally induced hierarchy of exchange interactions in zigzag antiferromagnetic state of honeycomb silver delafossite Ag3Co2SbO6
Zvereva, E.A.; Stratan, M.I.; Ushakov, A.V. et al

in Dalton Transactions (2016)

We report the revised crystal structure, static and dynamic magnetic properties of quasi-two dimensional honeycomb lattice silver delafossite Ag3Co2SbO6. The magnetic susceptibility and specific heat data ... [more ▼]

We report the revised crystal structure, static and dynamic magnetic properties of quasi-two dimensional honeycomb lattice silver delafossite Ag3Co2SbO6. The magnetic susceptibility and specific heat data are consistent with the onset of antiferromagnetic long range order at low temperatures with Néel temperature TN ~ 21.2 K. In addition, the magnetization curves revealed a field-induced (spin-flop type) transition below TN in moderate magnetic fields. The GGA+U calculations show the importance of the orbital degrees of freedom, which maintain a hierarchy of exchange interaction in the system. The strongest antiferromagnetic exchange coupling was found in the shortest Co-Co pairs and is due to direct and superexchange interaction between the half-filled xz+yz orbitals pointing directly to each other. The other four out of six nearest neighbor exchanges within the cobalt hexagon are suppressed, since for these bonds active half-filled orbitals turned out to be parallel and do not overlap. The electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra reveal a broad absorption line attributed to Co2+ ion in octahedral coordination with average effective g-factor g=2.40±0.05 at room temperature and show strong divergence of ESR parameters below ~ 150 K, which implies an extended region of short-range correlations. Based on the results of magnetic and thermodynamic studies in applied fields, we propose the magnetic phase diagram for the new honeycomb-lattice delafossite. [less ▲]

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See detailManipulation et mobilisation en cas de cervicalgie
Demoulin, Christophe ULg

in Cochrane (2016)

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See detailCombinatorial Analysis of Growth Factors Reveals the Contribution of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins to Chondrogenic Differentiation of Human Periosteal Cells.
Mendes, Luis Filipe; Tam, Wai Long; Chai, Yoke Chin et al

in Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods (2016), 22(5), 473-86

Successful application of cell-based strategies in cartilage and bone tissue engineering has been hampered by the lack of robust protocols to efficiently differentiate mesenchymal stem cells into the ... [more ▼]

Successful application of cell-based strategies in cartilage and bone tissue engineering has been hampered by the lack of robust protocols to efficiently differentiate mesenchymal stem cells into the chondrogenic lineage. The development of chemically defined culture media supplemented with growth factors (GFs) has been proposed as a way to overcome this limitation. In this work, we applied a fractional design of experiment (DoE) strategy to screen the effect of multiple GFs (BMP2, BMP6, GDF5, TGF-beta1, and FGF2) on chondrogenic differentiation of human periosteum-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hPDCs) in vitro. In a micromass culture (muMass) system, BMP2 had a positive effect on glycosaminoglycan deposition at day 7 (p < 0.001), which in combination with BMP6 synergistically enhanced cartilage-like tissue formation that displayed in vitro mineralization capacity at day 14 (p < 0.001). Gene expression of muMasses cultured for 7 days with a medium formulation supplemented with 100 ng/mL of BMP2 and BMP6 and a low concentration of GDF5, TGF-beta1, and FGF2 showed increased expression of Sox9 (1.7-fold) and the matrix molecules aggrecan (7-fold increase) and COL2A1 (40-fold increase) compared to nonstimulated control muMasses. The DoE analysis indicated that in GF combinations, BMP2 was the strongest effector for chondrogenic differentiation of hPDCs. When transplanted ectopically in nude mice, the in vitro-differentiated muMasses showed maintenance of the cartilaginous phenotype after 4 weeks in vivo. This study indicates the power of using the DoE approach for the creation of new medium formulations for skeletal tissue engineering approaches. [less ▲]

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See detailSaturn’s auroral morphology and field-aligned currents during a solar wind compression
Badman, S.V.; Provan, G.; Bunce, E.J. et al

in Icarus (2016)

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See detailLearning of interval and general type-2 fuzzy logic systems using simulated annealing: Theory and practice
Almaraashi, Majid; John, Robert; Hopgood, Adrian ULg et al

in Information Sciences (2016), 360

This paper reports the use of simulated annealing to design more efficient fuzzy logic systems to model problems with associated uncertainties. Simulated annealing is used within this work as a method for ... [more ▼]

This paper reports the use of simulated annealing to design more efficient fuzzy logic systems to model problems with associated uncertainties. Simulated annealing is used within this work as a method for learning the best configurations of interval and general type-2 fuzzy logic systems to maximize their modeling ability. The combination of simulated annealing with these models is presented in the modeling of four benchmark problems including real-world problems. The type-2 fuzzy logic system models are compared in their ability to model uncertainties associated with these problems. Issues related to this combination between simulated annealing and fuzzy logic systems, including type-2 fuzzy logic systems, are discussed. The results demonstrate that learning the third dimension in type-2 fuzzy sets with a deterministic defuzzifier can add more capability to modeling than interval type-2 fuzzy logic systems. This finding can be seen as an important advance in type-2 fuzzy logic systems research and should increase the level of interest in the modeling applications of general type-2 fuzzy logic systems, despite their greater computational load. [less ▲]

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See detailHDAC7 inhibition resets STAT3 tumorigenic activity in human glioblastoma independently of EGFR and PTEN: new opportunities for selected targeted therapies
Peixoto, Paul; Blomme, Arnaud; Costanza, Brunella ULg et al

in Oncogene (2016)

To date, the mutational status of EGFR and PTEN has been shown as relevant for favoring pro- or anti-tumor functions of STAT3 in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). We have screened genomic data from 154 ... [more ▼]

To date, the mutational status of EGFR and PTEN has been shown as relevant for favoring pro- or anti-tumor functions of STAT3 in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). We have screened genomic data from 154 patients and have identified a strong positive correlation between STAT3 and HDAC7 expression. In the current work we show the existence of a subpopulation of patients overexpressing HDAC7 and STAT3 that has particularly poor clinical outcome. Surprisingly, the somatic mutation rate of both STAT3 and HDAC7 was insignificant in GBM comparing with EGFR, PTEN or TP53. Depletion of HDAC7 in a range of GBM cells induced the expression of tyrosine kinase JAK1 and the tumor suppressor AKAP12. Both proteins synergistically sustained the activity of STAT3 by inducing its phosphorylation (JAK1) and protein expression (AKAP12). In absence of HDAC7, activated STAT3 was responsible for significant imbalance of secreted pro-/anti-angiogenic factors. This inhibited the migration and sprouting of endothelial cells in paracrine fashion in vitro as well as angiogenesis in vivo. In a murine model of GBM, induced HDAC7-silencing decreased the tumor burden by threefold. The current data show for the first time that silencing HDAC7 can reset the tumor suppressor activity of STAT3, independently of the EGFR/PTEN/TP53 background of the GBM. This effect could be exploited to overcome tumor heterogeneity and provide a new rationale behind the development of specific HDAC7 inhibitors for clinical use. [less ▲]

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See detailModular Diversification of the Locomotor System in Damselfishes (Pomacentridae)
Aguilar-Medrano, Rosalia; Frederich, Bruno ULg; Barber, Paul H.

in Journal of Morphology (2016)

As fish move and interact with their aquatic environment by swimming, small morphological variations of the locomotor system can have profound implications on fitness. Damselfishes (Pomacentridae) have ... [more ▼]

As fish move and interact with their aquatic environment by swimming, small morphological variations of the locomotor system can have profound implications on fitness. Damselfishes (Pomacentridae) have inhabited coral reef ecosystems for more than 50 million years. As such, habitat preferences and behavior could significantly constrain the morphology and evolvability of the locomotor system. To test this hypothesis, we used phylogenetic comparative methods on morphometric, ecological and behavioral data. While body elongation represented the primary source of variation in the locomotor system of damselfishes, results also showed a diverse suite of morphological combinations between extreme morphologies. Results show clear associations between behavior, habitat preferences, and morphology, suggesting ecological constraints on shape diversification of the locomotor system. In addition, results indicate that the three modules of the locomotor system are weakly correlated, resulting in versatile and independent characters. These results suggest that Pomacentridae is shape may result from the interaction between (1) integrated parts of morphological variation that main- tain overall swimming ability and (2) relatively independent parts of the morphology that facilitate adaptation and diversification. [less ▲]

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See detailCOMPARISON OF ULTRASOUND-GUIDED VS. STANDARD LANDMARK TECHNIQUES FOR TRAINING NOVICE OPERATORS IN PLACING NEEDLES INTO THE LUMBAR SUBARACHNOID SPACE OF CANINE CADAVERS
Etienne, Anne-Laure ULg; Delguste, Catherine ULg; Busoni, Valeria ULg

in Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound (2016)

The standard technique for placing a needle into the canine lumbar subarachnoid space is primarily based on palpation of anatomic landmarks and use of probing movements of the needle, however, this ... [more ▼]

The standard technique for placing a needle into the canine lumbar subarachnoid space is primarily based on palpation of anatomic landmarks and use of probing movements of the needle, however, this technique can be challenging for novice operators. The aim of the current observational, prospective, ex vivo, feasibility study was to compare ultrasound-guided vs. standard anatomic landmark approaches for novices performing needle placement into the lumbar subarachnoid space using dog cadavers. Eight experienced operators validated the canine cadaver model as usable for training landmark and ultrasound-guided needle placement into the lumbar subarachnoid space based on realistic anatomy and tissue consistency. With informed consent, 67 final year veterinary students were prospectively enrolled in the study. Students had no prior experience in needle placement into the lumbar subarachnoid space or use of ultrasound. Each student received a short theoretical training about each technique before the trial and then attempted blind landmark-guided and ultrasound-guided techniques on randomized canine cadavers. After having performed both procedures, the operators completed a self-evaluation questionnaire about their performance and self-confidence. Total success rates for students were 48% and 77% for the landmark- and ultrasound-guided techniques, respectively. Ultrasound guidance significantly increased total success rate when compared to the landmark-guided technique and significantly reduced the number of attempts. With ultrasound guidance self-confidence was improved, without bringing any significant change in duration of the needle placement procedure. Findings indicated that use of ultrasound guidance and cadavers are feasible methods for training novice operators in needle placement into the canine lumbar subarachnoid space. [less ▲]

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See detailFluorodeoxyglucose F Positron Emission Tomography Coupled With Computed Tomography in Suspected Acute Renal Allograft Rejection.
Lovinfosse, P.; Weekers, L.; Bonvoisin, C. et al

in American Journal of Transplantation (2016)

Management of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) with suspected acute rejection (AR) ultimately relies on kidney biopsy; however, noninvasive tests predicting nonrejection would help avoid unnecessary ... [more ▼]

Management of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) with suspected acute rejection (AR) ultimately relies on kidney biopsy; however, noninvasive tests predicting nonrejection would help avoid unnecessary biopsy. AR involves recruitment of leukocytes avid for fluorodeoxyglucose F18 (18 F-FDG), thus 18 F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) coupled with computed tomography (CT) may noninvasively distinguish nonrejection from AR. From January 2013 to February 2015, we prospectively performed 32 18 F-FDG PET/CT scans in 31 adult KTRs with suspected AR who underwent transplant biopsy. Biopsies were categorized into four groups: normal (n = 8), borderline (n = 10), AR (n = 8), or other (n = 6, including 3 with polyoma BK nephropathy). Estimated GFR was comparable in all groups. PET/CT was performed 201 +/- 18 minutes after administration of 3.2 +/- 0.2 MBq/kg of 18 F-FDG, before any immunosuppression change. Mean standard uptake values (SUVs) of both upper and lower renal poles were measured. Mean SUVs reached 1.5 +/- 0.2, 1.6 +/- 0.3, 2.9 +/- 0.8, and 2.2 +/- 1.2 for the normal, borderline, AR, and other groups, respectively. One-way analysis of variance demonstrated a significant difference of mean SUVs among groups. A positive correlation between mean SUV and acute composite Banff score was found, with r2 = 0.49. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.93, with 100% sensitivity and 50% specificity using a mean SUV threshold of 1.6. In conclusion, 18 F-FDG PET/CT may help noninvasively prevent avoidable transplant biopsies in KTRs with suspected AR. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of total phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity in cherry species and cultivars
Pissard, Audrey; Lateur, Marc; Baeten, V et al

in Journal of Berry Research (2016)

BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that cherries, especially sour cultivars, contain substantial amounts of phenolic compounds. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to (i) analyze the total phenolic compound ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that cherries, especially sour cultivars, contain substantial amounts of phenolic compounds. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to (i) analyze the total phenolic compound (TPC) content and the antioxidant capacity (AC) of a large range of cultivars using the same methodology in one laboratory, and (ii) determine the possible relationship between agronomic characteristics and AC. METHODS: A total of 245 samples including sweet, sour and hybrid cultivars from our collections were harvested at their optimum maturity and characterized according to their TPC, DPPH and ORAC values. RESULTS: The TPC content and DPPH and ORAC values varied greatly among the cherries, with the sour cultivars presenting higher levels than the sweet ones. The PCA plot showed a slight grouping by species and confirmed the high TPC content level in sour cultivars. The bi-colored cultivars had lower TPC and antioxidant capacity (AC) values than dark-colored ones, indicating that coloration could give an indication of the AC of fruits. No significant relationship between the agronomic and chemical properties was highlighted. CONCLUSIONS: Cherry fruits, especially from sour cultivars, represent an important source of bioactive compounds and could attract new interest as a ‘functional food’. [less ▲]

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See detailCombining feature extraction methods to assist the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease
Segovia, Fermin; Górriz, J. M.; Ramírez, J. et al

in Current Alzheimer Research (2016), 13

Neuroimaging data as 18F-FDG PET is widely used to assist the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Looking for regions with hypoperfusion/ hypometabolism, clinicians may predict or corroborate the ... [more ▼]

Neuroimaging data as 18F-FDG PET is widely used to assist the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Looking for regions with hypoperfusion/ hypometabolism, clinicians may predict or corroborate the diagnosis of the patients. Modern computer aided diagnosis (CAD) systems based on the statistical analysis of whole neuroimages are more accurate than classical systems based on quantifying the uptake of some predefined regions of interests (ROIs). In addition, these new systems allow determining new ROIs and take advantage of the huge amount of information comprised in neuroimaging data. A major branch of modern CAD systems for AD is based on multivariate techniques, which analyse a neuroimage as a whole, considering not only the voxel intensities but also the relations among them. In order to deal with the vast dimensionality of the data, a number of feature extraction methods have been successfully applied. In this work, we propose a CAD system based on the combination of several feature extraction techniques. First, some commonly used feature extraction methods based on the analysis of the variance (as principal component analysis), on the factorization of the data (as non-negative matrix factorization) and on classical magnitudes (as Haralick features) were simultaneously applied to the original data. These feature sets were then combined by means of two different combination approaches: i) using a single classifier and a multiple kernel learning approach and ii) using an ensemble of classifier and selecting the final decision by majority voting. The proposed approach was evaluated using a labelled neuroimaging database along with a cross validation scheme. As conclusion, the proposed CAD system performed better than approaches using only one feature extraction technique. We also provide a fair comparison (using the same database). [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of 10Hz and 20Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation on automatic motor control
Cappon, Davide; D'Ostilio, Kevin ULg; Garraux, Gaëtan ULg et al

in Brain Stimulation (2016)

Background: Automatic motor inhibition is an important and adaptive process through which an activated motor plan is suppressed if the movement is not intended to be executed. Neuronal networks are ... [more ▼]

Background: Automatic motor inhibition is an important and adaptive process through which an activated motor plan is suppressed if the movement is not intended to be executed. Neuronal networks are characterized by oscillatory activity. In the brain, a large variety of rhythms have been described that differ in their frequency, origin and reactivity to changes in task demands. Recent studies have demonstrated that active cortical networks are susceptible to weak sinusoidal perturbations of exogenous electric fields. Objective/Hypothesis: The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency-specific effect of transcranial alternate current stimulation (tACS) over the automatic control of movement in healthy volunteers. We hypothesized that applying two different tACS frequencies during a visuo-motor task would result in different behavioural effects and in diverse modulation of cortical excitability. Methods: In this study we used tACS to interact non-invasively with the ongoing task-related oscillatory activity. Stimulation was delivered at alpha (10 Hz) and beta (20 Hz) frequency over the supplementary motor area and the primary motor cortex (SMA-M1) connections, which are part of the BG-cortical motor loop, during the execution of the subliminal masked prime task. We measured the effects on task performance and on motor cortex corticospinal excitability by means of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Results: Results indicate a specific effect of 10 and 20-Hz tACS on functional inhibition in the SMA-M1 circuit. Behaviorally there is an interference in task-related automatic inhibition: 10 Hz tACS reduced the automatic inhibition. In contrast 20 Hz tACS increased the automatic inhibition. At a neurophysiological level there is a modulation in excitability of M1: 20 Hz tACS reduced MEP amplitudes, whereas there was no change after 10 Hz tACS. Conclusion(s): The current study provides novel evidence that automatic mechanisms of motor behaviour can be modulated by imposing synchronized electrical oscillatory activity upon motor cortical regions. Our study has important implications for cognitive neuroscience studies suggesting that the use tACS might offer the possibility to demonstrate a causal link between endogenous brain oscillations, specific exogenous alternate current frequencies and specific cognitive processes. [less ▲]

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See detailGetDDM: an Open Framework for Testing Optimized Schwarz Methods for Time-Harmonic Wave Problems
Thierry, Bertrand; Vion, Alexandre; Tournier, Simon et al

in Computer Physics Communications (2016), 203

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See detailLogistics Service Quality: The Case of Da Nang City
Limbourg, Sabine ULg; Giang, Ho Thi Quynh; Cools, Mario ULg

in Procedia Engineering (2016), 142

Cost minimization is a key objective in managing logistics services. In this context, a growing interest in quality improvement can be observed. However, service quality is hard to quantify as it is a ... [more ▼]

Cost minimization is a key objective in managing logistics services. In this context, a growing interest in quality improvement can be observed. However, service quality is hard to quantify as it is a function of varying customer perceptions over time, of the measurement process and of the analysis of the data gathered. This study examines the logistics service quality by scales developed according to SERVQUAL instrument. A survey of 200 customers of logistics service providers (LSP) was conducted in Da Nang City. The data analysis shows that LSPs in Da Nang city need to improve Research and Development and to develop Customer Care programs. [less ▲]

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See detailLa pensée future épisodique : entre simulation et contexte autobiographique
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg

in Revue de Neuropsychologie (2016), 8

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See detailThermal properties of Ti-doped Cu–Zn soft ferrites used as thermally actuated material for magnetizing superconductors
Stachowiak, Piotr; Mucha, Jan; Szewczyk, Daria et al

in Journal of Physics : D Applied Physics (2016), 49

A great majority of widely used ferrite ceramics exhibit a relatively high temperature of order–disorder phase transition in their magnetic subsystem. For applications related to the magnetization process ... [more ▼]

A great majority of widely used ferrite ceramics exhibit a relatively high temperature of order–disorder phase transition in their magnetic subsystem. For applications related to the magnetization process of superconductors, however, a low value of Tc is required. Here we report and analyze in detail the thermal properties of bulk Ti-doped Cu–Zn ferrite ceramics Cu0.3Zn0.7Ti0.04Fe1.96O4 and Mg0.15Cu0.15Zn0.7Ti0.04Fe1.96O4. They are characterized by a Curie temperature in the range 120–170 K and a maximum DC magnetic susceptibility exceeding 20 for the Cu0.3Zn0.7Ti0.04Fe1.96O4 material. The temperature dependence of both the specific heat Cp and of the thermal conductivity κ, determined between 2 and 300 K, are found not to exhibit any peculiar feature at the magnetic transition temperature. The low-temperature dependence of both κ and the mean free path of phonons suggests a mesoscopic fractal structure of the grains. From the measured data, the characteristics of thermally actuated waves are estimated. The low magnetic phase transition temperature and suitable thermal parameters make the investigated ferrite ceramics applicable as magnetic wave producers in devices designed for magnetization of high-temperature superconductors. [less ▲]

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See detailA new numerical framework for simulating the control of weather and climate on the evolution of soil-mantled hillslopes
Bovy, Benoît ULg; Braun, Jean; Demoulin, Alain ULg

in Geomorphology (2016), 263

We present a new numerical framework for simulating short to long-term hillslope evolution. This modeling framework, to which we have given the name CLICHE (CLImate Control on Hillslope Evolution), aims ... [more ▼]

We present a new numerical framework for simulating short to long-term hillslope evolution. This modeling framework, to which we have given the name CLICHE (CLImate Control on Hillslope Evolution), aims to better capture the control of climate on soil dynamics. It allows the use of realistic forcing that involves, through a specific time discretization scheme, the variability of both the temperature and precipitation at time scales ranging from the daily rainfall events to the climatic oscillations of the Quaternary, also including seasonal variability. Two simple models of soil temperature and soil water balance permit the link between the climatic inputs and derived quantities that take part in the computation of the soil flux, such as the surface water discharge and the depth of the non-frozen soil layer. Using this framework together with a multi-process parameterization of soil transport, we apply an original method to calculate hillslope effective diffusivity as a function of climate. This allows us to demonstrate the ability of the model to simulate observed rates of hillslope erosion under different climates (cold and temperate) with a single set of parameter values. Numerical experiments furthermore suggest a potential high peak of sediment transport on hillslopes during the glacialinterglacial transitions of the Quaternary. We finally discuss the need to improve the parameterization of the soil production and transport processes in order to explicitly account for other key controlling factors that are also climate-sensitive, such as biological activity. [less ▲]

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See detailThe mass of the very massive binary WR21a
Tramper, F.; Sana, H.; Fitzsimons, N. E. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2016)

We present multi-epoch spectroscopic observations of the massive binary system WR21a, which include the 2011 January periastron passage. Our spectra reveal multiple SB2 lines and facilitate an accurate ... [more ▼]

We present multi-epoch spectroscopic observations of the massive binary system WR21a, which include the 2011 January periastron passage. Our spectra reveal multiple SB2 lines and facilitate an accurate determination of the orbit and the spectral types of the components. We obtain minimum masses of 64.4±4.8 Msun and 36.3±1.7 Msun for the two components of WR21a. Using disentangled spectra of the individual components, we derive spectral types of O3/WN5ha and O3Vz ((f*)) for the primary and secondary, respectively. Using the spectral type of the secondary as an indication for its mass, we estimate an orbital inclination of i=58.8±2.5° and absolute masses of 103.6±10.2 Msun and 58.3±3.7 Msun, in agreement with the luminosity of the system. The spectral types of the WR21a components indicate that the stars are very young (1–2 Myr), similar to the age of the nearby Westerlund 2 cluster. We use evolutionary tracks to determine the mass–luminosity relation for the total system mass. We find that for a distance of 8 kpc and an age of 1.5 Myr, the derived absolute masses are in good agreement with those from evolutionary predictions. [less ▲]

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See detailRisk assessment of soil compaction in the Walloon region in Belgium
D'Or, Dimitri; Destain, Marie-France ULg

in Mathematical Geosciences (2016)

It is well known that soil compaction affects root growth and disrupts the activity of soil microfauna and microorganisms, resulting in yield loss. With the more intensive use of heavy machines in ... [more ▼]

It is well known that soil compaction affects root growth and disrupts the activity of soil microfauna and microorganisms, resulting in yield loss. With the more intensive use of heavy machines in agriculture and forestry, the risk of soil compaction is increasing. In this study, precompression stress (Pc) was chosen as an indicator of the susceptibility of soils to compaction and was calculated using pedotransfer functions (PTFs). PTFs involve eight variables related to the hydraulic and mechanical behaviour of soils: organic matter content; bulk density; air capacity; available water capacity; non-plant available water capacity; saturated hydraulic conductivity; cohesion; and angle of internal friction. Combining these PTFs with geostatistics and Monte Carlo simulations, Pc maps were produced at the regional scale for Wallonia in Belgium, accompanied by uncertainty quantification maps. These maps were then used to produce compaction risk maps based on common scenarios. The results showed that the modal Pc map was coherent with the spatial distribution of the main variables, namely soil texture and organic matter content. The risk maps enabled areas with a compaction risk in both agricultural and forestry contexts to be identified. These maps could be useful in drawing up soil protection measures and policies. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat mediates postoperative risk in obstructive sleep apnea: airway obstruction, nocturnal hypoxia or both ?
DEFLANDRE, Eric; BONHOMME, Vincent ULg; BRICHANT, Jean-François ULg et al

in Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia = Journal Canadien d'Anesthésie (2016)

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See detailUne présentation rare de craniosténose associée à un crâne lacunaire
Vaessen, françois; Thimmesch, Mathieu; BORN, Jacques et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2016), 71(3), 120-123

A rare case of lacunar skull deformity associated with craniosynostosis Summary : The lacunar skull is a radiologic description characterised by the presence of lacunae in the cranial vault. Its ... [more ▼]

A rare case of lacunar skull deformity associated with craniosynostosis Summary : The lacunar skull is a radiologic description characterised by the presence of lacunae in the cranial vault. Its physiopathology remains up to now poorly understood; it is mostly associated with neural tube defects. The association of a lacunar skull with a craniosynostosis has rarely been described in the literature. The case of a 9-month-old patient presenting a multisutural craniosynostosis with a lacunar skull is reported in this article. The surgical treatment allowed to remodel the skull and to hope for a spontaneous regression of the lacunae. [less ▲]

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See detailTrace Elements in Marine Environments : Occurrence, Threats and Monitoring with Special Focus on the Costal Mediterranean
Richir, Jonathan ULg; Gobert, Sylvie ULg

in Journal of Environmental and Analytical Toxicology (2016), 6:1

Trace elements, as building blocks of matter, are naturally present in the environment. However, their extraction, production, use and release by men can lead to the increase of their environmental levels ... [more ▼]

Trace elements, as building blocks of matter, are naturally present in the environment. However, their extraction, production, use and release by men can lead to the increase of their environmental levels to concentrations that may be toxic for both men and the biota. The overall aim of this review is therefore to recall that trace elements remain contaminants of concern that still require scientific attention. Because marine coastal systems (and transitional environments in general) are particularly vulnerable to contamination processes, they deserve to be accurately monitored with quality indicator species. As an example, the 2 most widely quality indicator species used to assess the health status of the coastal Mediterranean are the seagrass Posidonia oceanica and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. In this review, after a short introduction on human pressures on the World Ocean and the coastal Mediterranean in particular (1), we will redefine the term trace element from an environmental perspective and discuss their accumulation and toxicity for men and the biota (2). We will consider the benefits of using biological indicators instead of water and sediment measurements to assess the health status of the marine environment (3), and more particularly as regards the accurate and complementary indicators that are seagrasses (4) and mussels (5). [less ▲]

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See detailGuiana Dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) and DR-CALUX for Screening Coastal Brazilian Environments for Dioxins and Related Compounds
Dorneles, Paulo; Lailson-Brito, Jose; Bisi, Tatiana et al

in Archives of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology (2016)

Guiana dolphin is the top predator of highest toxicological concern in Brazil and many studies on levels of persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxicant (PBT) pollutants have been performed on the species ... [more ▼]

Guiana dolphin is the top predator of highest toxicological concern in Brazil and many studies on levels of persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxicant (PBT) pollutants have been performed on the species. However, due to high costs of the analyses, only one investigation comprised the determination of dioxins and related compounds (DRCs) in Guiana dolphin tissues. The dioxin responsive-chemically activated luciferase gene expression (DR-CALUX ) cell bioassay was used in the present study for the analyses of hepatic samples from 28 male Guiana dolphins in order to screen estuarine environments for DRCs, comprising three regions (Northeastern, Southeastern, and Southern) and four states [Parana´ (PR), Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Espı´rito Santo (ES), and Ceara´ (CE)] of Brazil. High bioanalytical equivalent (BEQ) concentrations [dioxins (pg BEQ/g lipid)] were found, varying from 1.94 to 15.6 pg BEQ/g. A significant negative correlation between BEQ concentrations and total length was found in Guiana dolphins from Brazil (all analysed dolphins). This pattern also was verified for RJ state, pointing to (1) chemically induced developmental disruption or to (2) increasing efficiency of the detoxifying activity with the growth of the animal. Comparison was performed with literature data and significantly higher BEQ levels were found in Brazilian Guiana dolphins than in those reported for North Sea harbour porpoises. Higher levels were found in Southeastern (the most PBT-contaminated area of the country) than in Southern region. However, it is not possible to affirm that Guiana dolphins are more contaminated by DRCs in SE than in S region, because individuals were lengthier in S than in SE region. Our results seem to have mirrored dolphin exposure to PCBs in Brazil according to the literature. Further studies are required for investigating the hypotheses 1 and 2 mentioned above. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Medium is the Message. Olivier Schrauwen's ‘Arsène Schrauwen’ Beyond Expectations of Autobiography, Colonial History and the Graphic Novel
Crucifix, Benoît ULg; Meesters, Gert

in European Comic Art (2016), 9(1), 24-62

This article proposes a close reading of Olivier Schrauwen's Arsène Schrauwen, focusing on the various cultural discourses that it engages with, and particularly its ironical self-positioning within the ... [more ▼]

This article proposes a close reading of Olivier Schrauwen's Arsène Schrauwen, focusing on the various cultural discourses that it engages with, and particularly its ironical self-positioning within the field of comics. First of all, Schrauwen playfully questions the entrenchment of autobiography in the contemporary graphic novel by presenting a wholly fantasized adventure as biographical family history. This play with generic expectations is continued through Schrauwen’s reliance on the tropes of the adventure story and its figuration of the voyage. Arsène Schrauwen also draws on stereotypical images of both Belgium and the Belgian Congo and integrates them into a grotesque narrative so as to question the supposed unicity of the individual and colonial bodies. Last but not least, the book displays a highly self-reflexive approach to comics storytelling, building on a legacy from Flemish comics in order to play with reading conventions, graphic enunciation and abstraction, thereby thematising the perception of the main character. [less ▲]

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See detail2015 ESC Guidelines for the management of infective endocarditis.
Habib, Gilbert; LANCELLOTTI, Patrizio ULg; Antunes, Manuel J. et al

in Revista espanola de cardiologia (English ed.) (2016), 69(1), 69

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See detailAn Improved Molecular Histology Method for Ion Suppression Monitoring and Quantification of Phosphatidyl Cholines During MALDI MSI Lipidomics Analyses.
Jadoul, Laure ULg; Smargiasso, Nicolas ULg; Pamelard, Fabien et al

in OMICS : A Journal of Integrative Biology (2016), 20(2), 110-21

Tissue lipidomics is one of the latest omics approaches for biomarker discovery in pharmacology, pathology, and the life sciences at large. In this context, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization ... [more ▼]

Tissue lipidomics is one of the latest omics approaches for biomarker discovery in pharmacology, pathology, and the life sciences at large. In this context, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is the most versatile tool to map compounds within tissue sections. However, ion suppression events occurring during MALDI MSI analyses make it impossible to use this method for quantitative investigations without additional validation steps. This is especially true for lipidomics, since different lipid classes are responsible for important ion suppression events. We propose here an improved lipidomics method to assess local ion suppression of phospatidylcholines in tissues. Serial tissue sections were spiked with different amounts of PC(16:0 d31/18:1) using a nebulization device. Settings for standard nebulization were strictly controlled for a detection similar to when using spiked tissue homogenates. The sections were simultaneously analyzed by MALDI MSI using a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance analyzer. Such a spray-based approach allows taking into account the biochemical heterogeneity of the tissue for the detection of PC(16:0 d31/18:1). Thus, here we present the perspective to use this method for quantification purposes. The linear regression lines are considered as calibration curves and we calculate PC(16:0/18:1) quantification values for different ROIs. Although those values need to be validated by a using a different independent approach, the workflow offers an insight into new quantitative mass spectrometry imaging (q-MSI) methods. This approach of ion suppression monitoring of phosphocholines in tissues may be highly interesting for a large range of applications in MALDI MSI, particularly for pathology using translational science workflows. [less ▲]

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See detailNociceptive and sympathetic innervations in the abaxial part of the cranial horn of the equine medial meniscus: an immunohistochemical approach
Nemery, Elodie ULg; Gabriel, Annick ULg; Piret, Joëlle ULg et al

in Journal of Anatomy (2016)

In athletic horses, diseases leading to lameness are of major importance due to the loss of performance and the resultant economic concerns. Although, in the hindlimb, stifle lesions are frequent due to ... [more ▼]

In athletic horses, diseases leading to lameness are of major importance due to the loss of performance and the resultant economic concerns. Although, in the hindlimb, stifle lesions are frequent due to the large and complex joint, and meniscal tears have been identified as the most common soft tissue injuries in this joint, little is known about the mechanism that causes the painful sensation and thus the lameness. The aim of our study was therefore to highlight any peripheral fibres involved in meniscal nociception in five healthy anterior horns of the equine medial meniscus, which is the most common locale reported for equine meniscal injuries. Immunohistochemical stainings were performed using antibodies against Substance P in order to identify nociceptive fibres; antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase for detecting postganglionic sympathetic fibres; and against glial fibrillary acidic proteins in order to identify Schwann cells. Fundamentally, our work highlights for the first time the presence of nociceptive and sympathetic fibres in equine menisci. They were found in the abaxial part of the anterior horn of the equine medial meniscus. This study suggests thus that when the abaxial part is injured, the meniscus itself could be the source of pain. This finding provides a better understanding of the nociceptive and sympathetic innervation of the equine meniscus which could contribute towards improving the therapeutic strategies in order to alleviate pain in cases of equine meniscal injury. [less ▲]

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See detailDrivers of earthworm incidence and abundance across European forests
De Wandeler, Hans; Sousa-Silva, Rita; Ampoorter, Evy et al

in Soil Biology & Biochemistry (2016), 99

Earthworms have a significant influence on the structure, composition and functioning of forest ecosystems, but in spite of their role as ecosystem engineers, little is known on the factors controlling ... [more ▼]

Earthworms have a significant influence on the structure, composition and functioning of forest ecosystems, but in spite of their role as ecosystem engineers, little is known on the factors controlling their distribution across European forests. Optimised sampling techniques, as well as more advanced statistical tools and geographical information systems have facilitated studies at the landscape scale. But these, and even larger-scale studies, are scarce due to data limitations, taxonomic inconsistencies and practical issues in linking existing databases. In this continental-scale field-based study we used boosted regression tree modelling to identify and evaluate the relative importance of environmental factors explaining earthworm incidence (presence/absence) and abundance (density and biomass) in European forests. To parameterise our models earthworms were sampled in six forest landscapes along a latitudinal gradient from the boreal north to the Mediterranean south in spring or autumn of 2012, together with several environmental variables. Earthworms were sampled using a combined method of mustard extraction and hand sorting of litter and a soil monolith, after which they were weighed and identified to functional group (epigeic, endogeic and anecic). We found that litter- and soil-related variables best explained earthworm incidence and biomass in European forests, leaving only a minor role to climaterelated variables. Among the litter related variables, understory vegetation played an important role in explaining earthworm incidence and abundance. The relative importance of explanatory variables differed between models for incidence, density and biomass and between earthworm functional groups. Our results suggested that threshold values for soil C:N ratio, forest floor pH and understory plant biomass and plant nutrient concentrations have to be attained before earthworms can occur. Beyond these threshold values, variables like soil C:N ratio, tree litter C:P ratio and forest floor mass further explain earthworm biomass. Mechanisms behind these observations are discussed in the light of future earthworm distribution modelling at continental scale. [less ▲]

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See detailFossil Biogeography: A new model to infer dispersal, extinction and sampling from paleontological data
Silvestro, Daniele; Zizka, Alexander; Bacon, Christine D. et al

in Philosophical Transactions : Biological Sciences (2016)

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See detailPoplar-root-knot nematode interaction: a model for perennial woody species
Baldacci-Cresp, Fabien; Sacre, Pierre-Yves ULg; Twyffels, Laure et al

in Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions [=MPMI] (2016), 29(7), 560-572

Plant root-knot nematode interaction studies are performed on several host plant models. However, even though root-knot nematodes interact with trees, no perennial woody model has been explored so far. We ... [more ▼]

Plant root-knot nematode interaction studies are performed on several host plant models. However, even though root-knot nematodes interact with trees, no perennial woody model has been explored so far. We show here that poplar (Populus tremula x Populus alba) grown in vitro is susceptible to Meloidogyne incognita as this nematode is able to penetrate, to induce feeding sites and to reproduce in poplar roots. As analyzed by Raman spectromicroscopy, the cell walls of the giant cells, with typical characteristics of transfer cell walls, were not lignified and were composed mainly of pectin and cellulose. To better depict the poplar-nematode interaction at the molecular level, a quantitative RT-PCR analysis was performed to study changes in poplar gene expression in galls compared to non-infected roots. Three marker genes, reported for other plant hosts, including expansin A, histone 3.1 and asparagine synthase, were conserved for poplar-nematode interaction. In addition, the down-regulation of four genes coding for enzymes of the lignin biosynthesis pathway was evidenced in galls, suggesting a modification in lignin composition within galls developed in poplar roots. Together, this study shows that poplar is a suitable model host for specific traits of tree-nematode interaction. [less ▲]

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See detailLa Cour constitutionnelle et la Princesse au petit pois: note sous Cour constitutionnelle, 3 février 2016
Fierens, Jacques ULg; Mathieu, Géraldine

in Actualités du Droit de la Famille (2016), 18/2016

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See detailThe internal consistency of the North Sea carbonate system
Salt, Lesley A.; Thomas, Helmuth; Bozec, Yann et al

in Journal of Marine Systems (2016), 157

Abstract In 2002 (February) and 2005 (August), the full suite of carbonate system parameters (total alkalinity (AT), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), pH, and partial pressure of \{CO2\} (pCO2) were ... [more ▼]

Abstract In 2002 (February) and 2005 (August), the full suite of carbonate system parameters (total alkalinity (AT), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), pH, and partial pressure of \{CO2\} (pCO2) were measured on two re-occupations of the entire North Sea basin, with three parameters (AT, DIC, pCO2) measured on four additional re-occupations, covering all four seasons, allowing an assessment of the internal consistency of the carbonate system. For most of the year, there is a similar level of internal consistency, with \{AT\} being calculated to within ± 6 μmol kg− 1 using \{DIC\} and pH, \{DIC\} to ± 6 μmol kg− 1 using \{AT\} and pH, pH to ± 0.008 using \{AT\} and pCO2, and pCO2 to ± 8 μatm using \{DIC\} and pH, with the dissociation constants of Millero et al. (2006). In spring, however, we observe a significant decline in the ability to accurately calculate the carbonate system. Lower consistency is observed with an increasing fraction of Baltic Sea water, caused by the high contribution of organic alkalinity in this water mass, not accounted for in the carbonate system calculations. Attempts to improve the internal consistency by accounting for the unconventional salinity–borate relationships in freshwater and the Baltic Sea, and through application of the new North Atlantic salinity–boron relationship (Lee et al., 2010), resulted in no significant difference in the internal consistency. [less ▲]

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See detailThe terrestrialization process: A palaeobotanical and palynological perspective.
Meyer-Berthaud, Brigitte; Servais, Thomas; Vecoli, Marco et al

in Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology (2016), 224(Part 1), 1-3

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See detailA Belgian Survey on Geriatric Assessment in Oncology Focusing on Large-Scale Implementation and Related Barriers and Facilitators.
Kenis, C.; Heeren, P.; Decoster, L. et al

in The journal of nutrition, health & aging (2016), 20(1), 60-70

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to describe a large-scale, Belgian implementation project about geriatric assessment (=GA) in daily oncology practice and to identify barriers and facilitators for ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to describe a large-scale, Belgian implementation project about geriatric assessment (=GA) in daily oncology practice and to identify barriers and facilitators for implementing GA in this setting. Design / setting / participants: The principal investigator of every participating hospital (n=22) was invited to complete a newly developed questionnaire with closed- and open-ended questions. The closed-ended questions surveyed how GA was implemented. The open-ended questions identified barriers and facilitators for the implementation of GA in daily oncology practice. Descriptive statistics and conventional content analysis were performed as appropriate. RESULTS: Qualifying criteria (e.g. disease status and cancer type) for GA varied substantially between hospitals. Thirteen hospitals (59.1%) succeeded to screen more than half of eligible patients. Most hospitals reported that GA data and follow-up data had been collected in almost all screened patients. Implementing geriatric recommendations and formulating new geriatric recommendations at the time of follow-up are important opportunities for improvement. The majority of identified barriers were organizational, with high workload, lack of time or financial/staffing problems as most cited. The most cited facilitators were all related to collaboration. CONCLUSION: Interventions to improve the implementation of GA in older patients with cancer need to address a wide range of factors, with organization and collaboration as key elements. All stakeholders, seeking to improve the implementation of GA in older patients with cancer, should consider and address the identified barriers and facilitators. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantification of paravalvular regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve implantation: improved accuracy means better standardization.
Lancellotti, Patrizio ULg; Piazza, Nicolo; Modine, Thomas

in European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging (2016)

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See detailReconstruction of the Schmallenberg virus epidemic in Belgium: Complementary use of disease surveillance approaches
Poskin, A; Theron, Léonard ULg; Hanon, JB et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (2016), 183

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See detailTowards sustainable food systems: the concept of agroecology and how it questions current research practices. A review
Hatt, Séverin ULg; Artru, Sidonie ULg; Brédart, David ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment (2016), 20(Special issue 1), 215-224

Introduction. Multiple environmental and socio-economic indicators show that our current agriculture and the organization of the food system need to be revised. Agroecology has been proposed as a ... [more ▼]

Introduction. Multiple environmental and socio-economic indicators show that our current agriculture and the organization of the food system need to be revised. Agroecology has been proposed as a promising concept for achieving greater sustainability. This paper offers an overview and discussion of the concept based on existing literature and case studies, and explores the way it questions our current research approaches and education paradigms. Literature. In order to improve the sustainability of agriculture, the use of external and chemical inputs needs to be minimized. Agroecological farming practices seek to optimize ecological processes, thus minimizing the need for external inputs by providing an array of ecosystem services. Implementing such practices challenges the current structure of the food system, which has been criticized for its lack of social relevance and economic viability. An agroecological approach includes all stakeholders, from field to fork, in the discussion, design and development of future food systems. This inclusion of various disciplines and stakeholders raises issues about scientists and their research practices, as well as about the education of the next generation of scientists. Conclusions. Agroecology is based on the concept that agricultural practices and food systems cannot be dissociated because they belong to the same natural and socio-economic context. Clearly, agroecology is not a silver-bullet, but its principles can serve as avenues for rethinking the current approaches towards achieving greater sustainability. Adapting research approaches in line with indicators that promote inter- and transdisciplinary research is essential if progress is to be made. [less ▲]

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See detailComment je traite… L’insomnie chronique par la thérapie comportementale et cognitive
Dethier, Marie ULg; Blairy, Sylvie ULg; POIRRIER, Robert ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2016)

L’insomnie est actuellement traitée majoritairement par la pharmacothérapie. Or la thérapie comportementale et cognitive pour l’insomnie présente une meilleure efficacité à long terme que celle-ci. Dans ... [more ▼]

L’insomnie est actuellement traitée majoritairement par la pharmacothérapie. Or la thérapie comportementale et cognitive pour l’insomnie présente une meilleure efficacité à long terme que celle-ci. Dans cet article nous décrivons les principes de base de ce traitement psychothérapeutique de courte durée. Il s’agit de combiner des méthodes de restriction de sommeil, de contrôle des stimuli en lien avec le sommeil, d’apprentissage de techniques de relaxation, des conseils sur l’hygiène de sommeil et des techniques de thérapie cognitive appliquées aux cognitions envahissants les moments d’insomnie. [less ▲]

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See detailContribution of four lifelong factors of cognitive reserve on late cognition in normal aging and Parkinson’s disease
Rouillard, Maud; Audiffren, Michel; Albinet, Cédric et al

in Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology (2016)

Introduction. Cognitive reserve (CR) was proposed to explain how individual differences in brain function help to cope with the effects of normal aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Education ... [more ▼]

Introduction. Cognitive reserve (CR) was proposed to explain how individual differences in brain function help to cope with the effects of normal aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Education, professional solicitations, engagement in leisure and physical activities across the lifetime are considered as major determinants of this reserve. Method. Using multiple linear regression analyses, we tested separately in healthy elderly and Parkinson's disease (PD) populations to what extent cognitive performance in several domains was explained by (1) any of these four environmental lifespan variables ; (2) demographic and clinical variables (age, gender, depression score and, for the PD group, duration of disease and dopaminergic drugs). We also tested for an interaction, if any, between these lifespan variables and brain pathology indexed by global atrophy measured from high-resolution anatomical magnetic resonance imaging. Results. Age was negatively associated with cognitive performance in the PD group. In healthy elderly participants, we observed significant positive associations between cognitive performance and 1) education, 2) leisure activities, 3) professional solicitation (decisional latitude). Furthermore, participants with greater brain atrophy benefited more from CR. In PD patients, education and professional solicitations contributed to cognitive performance but to a lesser extent than in controls. CR factors modulated the relationship between cognition and brain atrophy only in patients with a slight or moderate brain atrophy. Conclusions. Education is the CR factor that contributed the most to late cognitive functioning in both groups, closely followed by leisure activity in normal aging and professional solicitations in PD. Our results also provide evidence suggesting that the effects of CR does not express similarly in normal aging and PD. From a broader perspective, these results seem to indicate that CR factors the most consistently practiced across lifespan (education and professional solicitation) are those that are the more strongly associated to late cognitive efficiency. [less ▲]

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See detailLe syndrome thyro-gastrique auto-immun : actualités cliniques et thérapeutiques
VALDES SOCIN, Hernan Gonzalo ULg; SID, Sélim ULg; LUTTERI, Laurence ULg et al

in Vaisseaux, Coeur, Poumons (2016), 21(4), 11-15

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See detailSystematic interactome mapping of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cancer gene products reveals EXT-1 tumor suppressor as a Notch1 and FBWX7 common interactor.
Daakour, Sarah ULg; Hajingabo, Leon Juvenal; Kerselidou, Despoina et al

in BMC Cancer (2016), 16(1), 335

BACKGROUND: Perturbed genotypes in cancer can now be identified by whole genome sequencing of large number of diverse tumor samples, and observed gene mutations can be used for prognosis and ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Perturbed genotypes in cancer can now be identified by whole genome sequencing of large number of diverse tumor samples, and observed gene mutations can be used for prognosis and classification of cancer subtypes. Although mutations in a few causative genes are directly linked to key signaling pathways perturbation, a global understanding of how known cancer genes drive oncogenesis in human is difficult to assess. METHODS: We collected available information about mutated genes in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). Validated human protein interactions (PPI) were collected from IntAct, HPRD and BioGRID interactomics databases, or obtained using yeast two-hybrid screening assay. RESULTS: We have mapped interconnections between 116 cancer census gene products associated with ALL. Combining protein-protein interactions data and cancer-specific gene mutations information, we observed that 63 ALL-gene products are interconnected and identified 37 human proteins interacting with at least 2 ALL-gene products. We highlighted exclusive and coexistence genetic alterations in key signaling pathways including the PI3K/AKT and the NOTCH pathways. We then used different cell lines and reporter assay systems to validate the involvement of EXT1 in the Notch pathway. CONCLUSION: We propose that novel ALL-gene candidates can be identified based on their functional association with well-known cancer genes. We identified EXT1, a gene not previously linked to ALL via mutations, as a common interactor of NOTCH1 and FBXW7 regulating the NOTCH pathway in an FBXW7-dependend manner. [less ▲]

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See detailMetastable inhomogeneous vortex configuration with non-uniform filling fraction inside a blind hole array patterned in a BSCCO single crystal and concentrating magnetic flux inside it
Shaw, Gorky ULg; Banerjee, S. S.; Tamegai, T. et al

in Superconductor Science and Technology (2016), 29(6), 065021

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See detailTargeted control of the saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (von Roser) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), and the benefits of good control of this pest to winter wheat yield
Censier, Florence ULg; Chavalle, Sandrine ULg; San Martin y Gomez, Gilles et al

in Pest Management Science (2016)

BACKGROUND: Since 2010, there has been a resurgence of the saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (von Roser), in Belgium and several other European countries, with this pest sometimes causing severe ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Since 2010, there has been a resurgence of the saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (von Roser), in Belgium and several other European countries, with this pest sometimes causing severe damage in cereals. In 2012 and 2013, field trials were conducted in heavily infested fields to assess its impact on winter wheat crops and to determine efficient ways of dealing with severe infestations. RESULTS: Crop exposure to H. marginata varied with the different protection methods tried. These methods included one to four successive applications of lambda-cyhalothrin. Yield losses were significant, reaching 6% in 2012 and as high as 15% in 2013, and these losses were linearly related to the number of galls on stems. CONCLUSION: The trials showed that insecticide applications needed to be synchronized with H. marginata flight peaks and to target the egg hatching period. They also revealed that insecticides applied to coincide with the first flight could, in humid conditions, also reach the larvae close to the soil surface, prior to their pupation. [less ▲]

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See detailDopaminergic neurons differentiating from LRRK2 G2019S induced pluripotent stem cells show early neuritic branching defects.
Borgs, Laurence; Peyre, Elise ULg; Alix, Philippe et al

in Scientific Reports (2016), 6

Some mutations of the LRRK2 gene underlie autosomal dominant form of Parkinson's disease (PD). The G2019S is a common mutation that accounts for about 2% of PD cases. To understand the pathophysiology of ... [more ▼]

Some mutations of the LRRK2 gene underlie autosomal dominant form of Parkinson's disease (PD). The G2019S is a common mutation that accounts for about 2% of PD cases. To understand the pathophysiology of this mutation and its possible developmental implications, we developed an in vitro assay to model PD with human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) reprogrammed from skin fibroblasts of PD patients suffering from the LRKK2 G2019S mutation. We differentiated the hiPSCs into neural stem cells (NSCs) and further into dopaminergic neurons. Here we show that NSCs bearing the mutation tend to differentiate less efficiently into dopaminergic neurons and that the latter exhibit significant branching defects as compared to their controls. [less ▲]

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See detailA cross-sectional analysis of developmental trajectories of vocabulary comprehension among children and adolescents with Down syndrome or intellectual disability of undifferentiated aetiology
Facon, Bruno; Courbois, Yannick; Magis, David ULg

in Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability (2016)

Background: This work seeks to expand our knowledge of developmental trajectories of subcomponents of the language systems of individuals with intellectual disability (ID). It aims to explore how general ... [more ▼]

Background: This work seeks to expand our knowledge of developmental trajectories of subcomponents of the language systems of individuals with intellectual disability (ID). It aims to explore how general and relational vocabularies evolve as a function of cognitive level. Method: Developmental trajectories of general and relational vocabulary comprehension were compared among typically developing children (TYP) and children and adolescents with ID of undifferentiated aetiology (UND) or Down syndrome (DS). Results: Comparisons between TYP and UND participants showed no interaction between cognitive level and diagnostic status for general vocabulary, and only a very weak interaction for relational vocabulary. Comparisons between TYP and DS participants failed to reveal groupspecific trajectories. Performance in general vocabulary was higher than in relational vocabulary for both UND and DS participants. Conclusion: The developmental trajectories of vocabulary appear to be globally comparable for participants with or without ID. [less ▲]

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See detailPrediction of the post-dilution hematocrit during cardiopulmonary bypass. Are new formulas needed?
ERPICUM, Marie ULg; Dardenne, Nadia ULg; HANS, Grégory ULg et al

in Perfusion (2016)

Objectives: Predicting the post-dilution hematocrit is an important tool to avoid preventable anemia or unnecessary transfusion. Simplified empirical formulas currently used for such a prediction may lead ... [more ▼]

Objectives: Predicting the post-dilution hematocrit is an important tool to avoid preventable anemia or unnecessary transfusion. Simplified empirical formulas currently used for such a prediction may lead to large errors. We aimed to improve the accuracy of these formulas by a better estimation of the dilution volume and the patient circulatory blood volume. Methods: We compared the estimation accuracy of two formulas, using fixed (formula A) versus estimated (formula D) dilution volume and patient circulatory blood volume for 100 cardiac interventions. The difference between predicted and measured HctT1 was considered as “good” if less than 0.5%, “moderate” between 0.5 and 2% and “poor” if higher than 2%. The influence of the body mass index (BMI) on patient blood volume estimation was explored by categorized groups’ comparison. Results: The mean difference between predicted and measured HctT1 differed significantly between formulas A and D. Formula A didn’t differ from HctT1 (p=0.19, IC95% [-0.89-0.18]), but a significant and higher underestimation was observed in the BMI⩽25 group compared to the other BMI groups (p<0.001). Formula D overestimated HctT1 (p<0.001, IC95% [1.01-1.93]) without a difference between the BMI groups. No difference was observed in their overall proportions of good (11 vs 10%), moderate (44 vs 46%) and poor predictions (47 vs 44%) (p=0.117). Conclusions: Formulas used for post-dilution hematocrit prediction lead to major estimation errors and a risk of inadequate transfusion practices. Estimations performed by experienced clinicians could not minimize these biases in all clinical cases as significant errors remain, with potential clinical impact. No estimation formula should be used as a hard tool for transfusing patients, but rather as a guide to predicting the probability of transfusion requirement. [less ▲]

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See detailEnvironmental Control of Root System Biology.
Rellan-Alvarez, Ruben; Lobet, Guillaume ULg; Dinneny, Jose R.

in Annual review of plant biology (2016)

The plant root system traverses one of the most complex environments on earth. Understanding how roots support plant life on land requires knowing how soil properties affect the availability of nutrients ... [more ▼]

The plant root system traverses one of the most complex environments on earth. Understanding how roots support plant life on land requires knowing how soil properties affect the availability of nutrients and water and how roots manipulate the soil environment to optimize acquisition of these resources. Imaging of roots in soil allows the integrated analysis and modeling of environmental interactions occurring at micro- to macroscales. Advances in phenotyping of root systems is driving innovation in cross-platformcompatible methods for data analysis. Root systems acclimate to the environment through architectural changes that act at the root-type level as well as through tissue-specific changes that affect the metabolic needs of the root and the efficiency of nutrient uptake. A molecular understanding of the signaling mechanisms that guide local and systemic signaling is providing insight into the regulatory logic of environmental responses and has identified points where crosstalk between pathways occurs. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Plant Biology Volume 67 is April 29, 2016. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates. [less ▲]

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See detailViruses within animal genome
De Brogniez, Alix ULg; Willems, Luc ULg

in Revue scientifique et technique - Office international des épizooties (2016)

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See detailRole of a heart valve clinic programme in the management of patients with aortic stenosis.
Zilberszac, Robert; Lancellotti, Patrizio ULg; Gilon, Dan et al

in European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging (2016)

AIMS: We sought to assess the efficacy of a heart valve clinic (HVC) follow-up programme for patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). METHODS AND RESULTS: Three hundred and eighty-eight consecutive ... [more ▼]

AIMS: We sought to assess the efficacy of a heart valve clinic (HVC) follow-up programme for patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). METHODS AND RESULTS: Three hundred and eighty-eight consecutive patients with AS (age 71 +/- 10 years; aortic-jet velocity 5.1 +/- 0.6 m/s) and an indication for aortic valve replacement (AVR) were included. Of these, 290 patients presented with an indication for surgery at their first visit at the HVC and 98 asymptomatic patients who had been enrolled in an HVC monitoring programme developed indications for surgery during follow-up. Time to symptom detection was significantly longer in patients that presented with symptoms at baseline (352 +/- 471 days) than in patients followed in the HVC (76 +/- 75 days, P < 0.001). Despite being educated to recognize and promptly report new symptoms, 77 of the 98 patients in the HVC programme waited until the next scheduled consultation to report them. Severe symptom onset (NYHA or CCS Class >/=III) was present in 61% of patients being symptomatic at the initial visit and in 34% of patients in the HVC programme (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Delays in referral and symptom reporting as well as symptom denial are common in patients with AS. These findings support the concept of risk stratification to identify patients who may benefit from elective surgery. A structured HVC programme results in the detection of symptoms at an earlier and less severe stage and thus in an optimized timing of surgery. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficient P- and Ag-doped titania for the photocatalytic degradation of waste water organic pollutants
Bodson, Céline ULg; Heinrichs, Benoît ULg; Tasseroul, Ludivine ULg et al

in Journal of Alloys & Compounds (2016), 682

In this work, physico-chemical properties and photocatalytic activity of three types of dried or dried and calcined TiO2 materials, synthesized by the cogelation method, were studied: (i) a pure TiO2 ... [more ▼]

In this work, physico-chemical properties and photocatalytic activity of three types of dried or dried and calcined TiO2 materials, synthesized by the cogelation method, were studied: (i) a pure TiO2 xerogel ; (ii) TiO2 xerogels doped with Ag ; (iii) TiO2 xerogels co-doped with Ag and P. The presence of silver nanoparticles was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the oxidation state of silver after calcination was examined by temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) measurements. The physico-chemical properties of xerogels were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance UV-Vis spectroscopy (DR UV-Vis) and from nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was quantified for the p-nitrophenol degradation under visible light. [less ▲]

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See detailKinetic Study of Laboratory Mutants of NDM-1 Metallo-beta-Lactamase and the Importance of an Isoleucine at Position 35.
Marcoccia, Francesca; Bottoni, Carlo; Sabatini, Alessia et al

in Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy (2016), 60(4), 2366-72

Two laboratory mutants of NDM-1 were generated by replacing the isoleucine at position 35 with threonine and serine residues: the NDM-1(I35T)and NDM-1(I35S)enzymes. These mutants were well characterized ... [more ▼]

Two laboratory mutants of NDM-1 were generated by replacing the isoleucine at position 35 with threonine and serine residues: the NDM-1(I35T)and NDM-1(I35S)enzymes. These mutants were well characterized, and their kinetic parameters were compared with those of the NDM-1 wild type. Thekcat,Km, andkcat/Kmvalues calculated for the two mutants were slightly different from those of the wild-type enzyme. Interestingly, thekcat/Kmof NDM-1(I35S)for loracarbef was about 14-fold higher than that of NDM-1. Far-UV circular dichroism (CD) spectra of NDM-1 and NDM-1(I35T)and NDM-1(I35S)enzymes suggest local structural rearrangements in the secondary structure with a marked reduction of alpha-helix content in the mutants. [less ▲]

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See detailA FE2 modelling approach to hydromechanical coupling in cracking-induced localization problems
Van den Eijnden, AP; Bésuelle, Pierre; Chambon, René et al

in International Journal of Solids and Structures (2016), 97

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See detailLes droits fondamentaux, au coeur de la pluralité des sources et de la pluralité des juges: vers une "dématérialisation" des droits fondamentaux?
Rosoux, Géraldine ULg

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2016)

L'article contient un résumé de la thèse de doctorat de l'auteur, publiée chez Bruylant en 2015.

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See detailMechanical behaviour of tape springs used in the deployment of reflectors around a solar panel
Dewalque, Florence ULg; Collette, Jean-Paul; Bruls, Olivier ULg

in Acta Astronautica (2016), 123

In order to increase the production of power on small satellites, solar panels are commonly deployed and, in some cases, reflectors are added to improve the concentration factor on solar cells. In this ... [more ▼]

In order to increase the production of power on small satellites, solar panels are commonly deployed and, in some cases, reflectors are added to improve the concentration factor on solar cells. In this work, reflectors are deployed by the means of compliant mechanisms known as tape springs. Their attractive characteristics are, among others, their passive behaviour, their self-locking capacity, their elastic deformations and their robustness. However, their mechanical behaviour is highly nonlinear and requires thorough analyses in order to develop predictive numerical models. It is shown here through parametric studies that the nonlinear behaviour of a tape spring is mainly governed by its geometry. Thus, for each specific application, its dimensions can be determined in order to minimise two critical features: the maximum stress affecting the structure and the maximum motion amplitude during deployment. In this paper, an optimisation procedure is proposed to meet these requirements. [less ▲]

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See detailPolyphenols from Silybum marianum inhibit in vitro the oxidant response of equine neutrophils and myeloperoxidase activity.
Zholobenko, A.; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange ULg; Modriansky, M. et al

in Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology & Therapeutics (2016)

A recent study showed that silymarin, a standardized extract of S. marianum might be used in the prevention of equine laminitis. We investigated the effects of quercetin and some compounds found in ... [more ▼]

A recent study showed that silymarin, a standardized extract of S. marianum might be used in the prevention of equine laminitis. We investigated the effects of quercetin and some compounds found in silymarin (silybin, taxifolin and dehydrosilybin) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and myeloperoxidase (MPO) release by stimulated equine neutrophils (PMNs) and on MPO activity. All compounds (tested between 100 nm and 100 mum) inhibited superoxide anion production by stimulated PMNs in a dose-dependent manner. Dehydrosilybin and quercetin inhibited superoxide production and MPO release from 10 mum. Classical MPO assay showed quercetin as the most potent inhibitor, followed by taxifolin, dehydrosilybin and silybin. SIEFED MPO assay highlighting the binding of tested compounds to MPO showed that only quercetin and taxifolin maintained an efficient inhibition above 90% at 10 mum. Altogether, our results showed a strong inhibition of PMN activation by planar compounds such as quercetin and dehydrosilybin and a strong inhibition of MPO activity by the smallest molecules, quercetin and taxifolin. In conclusion, the compounds from silymarin may be useful for modulating the oxidative response of PMNs, involved in the pathogenesis of laminitis, but further in vivo studies are needed. [less ▲]

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See detailLe tarif des corps accidentés: genèse, mobilisations et pratiques judiciaires. France-Belgique (premier XXe siècle)
Bruno, Anne-Sophie; Geerkens, Eric ULg

in Revue du Nord (2016), n° 35 HS coll. Histoire

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See detailCompte rendu de "Plotin, Traité 12 (II, 4), Introduction, traduction, commentaires et notes par Elena Perdikouri"
Gavray, Marc-Antoine ULg

in Revue Philosophique de la France et de l'Etranger (2016), (2), 281-282

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See detailPassive acoustic recording of Ophidion rochei calling activity in Calvi Bay (France)
Kever, Loïc ULg; Lejeune, Pierre; Michel, Loïc ULg et al

in Marine Ecology (2016)

Passive acoustic recording (PAR) systems are non-invasive and allow researchers to collect data on large spatial and temporal scales. Since fish sounds are species-specific and repetitive, PAR can provide ... [more ▼]

Passive acoustic recording (PAR) systems are non-invasive and allow researchers to collect data on large spatial and temporal scales. Since fish sounds are species-specific and repetitive, PAR can provide a large amount of data about spatio-temporal variation in fish distribution and behaviors. Ophidion rochei is a sand-dwelling species from Mediterranean and Black Sea meaning the behavior of this discreet nocturnal fish cannot be observed in the field. Fortunately, male O. rochei produce long multiple-pulsed calls that are easy to identify. The aim of this study was to determine that male calls are linked to reproduction behaviors. If so, PAR would allow a fine description of the seasonal and daily cycles in O. rochei reproduction. A hydrophone was deployed from 18 July 2011 to 21 June 2012 and from 7 June 2013 to 2 July 2013 on a sandy area (42.5801° N, 8.7285° E) in front of the STARESO research station (NW Corsica). Male sounds were obtained only at night from late spring to early fall. The annual sound production period corresponds to the reproductive season of O. rochei. Sound production followed diel cycles: it was sustained for the entire night at the beginning of the sound production season but limited to shorter periods in the evening during the second half of the season. These differences in daily and seasonal sound production tempo can be used in future recordings to make inter-annual comparisons and estimate the physiological state of the fish. [less ▲]

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See detailPolytype Attainability in III-V Semiconductor Nanowires
Johansson, J.; Zanolli, Zeila ULg; Dick, K. A.

in Crystal Growth & Design (2016), 16(1), 371-379

We propose a model that explains the phenomenon of polytypism in metal particle-seeded III-V semiconductor nanowires. The model is based on classical nucleation theory, utilizing the axial next-nearest ... [more ▼]

We propose a model that explains the phenomenon of polytypism in metal particle-seeded III-V semiconductor nanowires. The model is based on classical nucleation theory, utilizing the axial next-nearest-neighbor Ising (ANNNI) model to account for interlayer interaction up to the third nearest-neighboring layer. We investigate the limits of polytypism by varying the ANNNI interaction parameters. These calculations lead to attainability diagrams, which show the regions in interaction energy space where certain polytypes can be attained given that the supersaturation is precisely tuned. We calculate the values of the ANNNI interaction parameters for six common III-V materials from first principles by means of the projector-augmented wave method. We discuss our calculated values in view of previous results. Using these calculated values in our nucleation model, our analysis suggests that besides the commonly observed 3C (zinc blende) and 2H (wurtzite) polytypes the higher order polytypes 4H and 6H can also be attained, in agreement with experimental observations. © 2015 American Chemical Society. [less ▲]

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See detailLa construction du sens dans le discours du football : essai d'une sémiotique applicable
Bassilua Nzuzi, Anicet ULg

in Actes du congrès de l'Association Française de Sémiotique (2016)

The game of soccer seems particularly unfold through a particular model of enunciation in which participate simultaneously two types of subjects: individual subjects (players) and collective subjects ... [more ▼]

The game of soccer seems particularly unfold through a particular model of enunciation in which participate simultaneously two types of subjects: individual subjects (players) and collective subjects (teams). These subjects inscrive themselves in a discursive syntax that is built through a succession of narrative sequences carried around the ball. In this study, we describe a model of mediation in the game of soccer that we identify through the terms of the transfer of the object "ball". [less ▲]

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See detailA Bayesian path analysis to estimate causal effects of bazedoxifene acetate on incidence of vertebral fractures, either directly or through non-linear changes in bone mass density.
Detilleux, Johann ULg; REGINSTER, Jean-Yves ULg; Chines, A. et al

in Statistical Methods in Medical Research (2016), 25(1), 400-412

Background/Aims Bone mass density values have been related with risk of vertebral fractures in post-menopausal women. However, bone mass density is not perfectly accurate in predicting risk of fracture ... [more ▼]

Background/Aims Bone mass density values have been related with risk of vertebral fractures in post-menopausal women. However, bone mass density is not perfectly accurate in predicting risk of fracture, which decreases its usefulness as a surrogate in clinical trials. We propose a modeling framework with three interconnected parts to improve the evaluation of bone mass density accuracy in forecasting fractures after treatment. Methods The modeling framework includes: (1) a piecewise regression to describe non-linear temporal BMD changes more accurately than crude percent changes, (2) a structural equation model to analyze interdependencies among vertebral fractures and their potential risk factors in preference to regression techniques that consider only directional associations, and (3) a counterfactual causal interpretation of the direct and indirect relationships between treatment and occurrence of vertebral fractures. We apply the methods to BMD repeated measurements from a study of the effect of bazedoxifene acetate on incident vertebral fractures in three different geographical regions. Results We made four observations: (1) bone mass density changes varied largely across participants, (2) baseline age and body mass index influenced baseline bone mass density that, in turn, had an effect on prevalent fractures, (3) direct and/or indirect effects of bazedoxifene acetate on incident fractures were different across regions, and (4) estimates of indirect effects were sensible to the presence of post-treatment unmeasured confounders. In one region, around 40% of the bazedoxifene acetate effect on the occurrence of fracture is explained by its effect on bone mass density. Under the counterfactual approach, these 40% represent the average difference in the occurrence of fracture observed for untreated individuals when their bone mass density values are set at the value under bazedoxifene acetate versus under placebo. Conclusions Computational methods are available to evaluate and interpret the surrogacytic capability of a biomarker of a primary outcome. © SAGE Publications 2012. [less ▲]

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See detailLung-resident eosinophils represent a distinct regulatory eosinophil subset
Mesnil, Claire ULg; Raulier, Stéfanie ULg; Paulissen, G et al

in Journal of Clinical Investigation (2016), 126(9), 3275-3295

Increases in eosinophil numbers are associated with infection and allergic diseases, including asthma, but there is also evidence that eosinophils contribute to homeostatic immune processes. In mice, the ... [more ▼]

Increases in eosinophil numbers are associated with infection and allergic diseases, including asthma, but there is also evidence that eosinophils contribute to homeostatic immune processes. In mice, the normal lung contains resident eosinophils (rEos), but their function has not been characterized. Here, we have reported that steady-state pulmonary rEos are IL-5–independent parenchymal Siglec-FintCD62L+CD101lo cells with a ring-shaped nucleus. During house dust mite–induced airway allergy, rEos features remained unchanged, and rEos were accompanied by recruited inflammatory eosinophils (iEos), which were defined as IL-5–dependent peribronchial Siglec-FhiCD62L–CD101hi cells with a segmented nucleus. Gene expression analyses revealed a more regulatory profile for rEos than for iEos, and correspondingly, mice lacking lung rEos showed an increase in Th2 cell responses to inhaled allergens. Such elevation of Th2 responses was linked to the ability of rEos, but not iEos, to inhibit the maturation, and therefore the pro-Th2 function, of allergen-loaded DCs. Finally, we determined that the parenchymal rEos found in nonasthmatic human lungs (Siglec-8+CD62L+IL-3Rlo cells) were phenotypically distinct from the iEos isolated from the sputa of eosinophilic asthmatic patients (Siglec-8+CD62LloIL-3Rhi cells), suggesting that our findings in mice are relevant to humans. In conclusion, our data define lung rEos as a distinct eosinophil subset with key homeostatic functions. [less ▲]

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See detailTendances récentes de la recherche en rhétorique
Provenzano, François ULg

in Français Moderne (Le) (2016), 84(2),

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See detailThe Calern Asteroid Polarimetric Survey using the Torino Polarimeter: assessment of instrument performances and first scientific results
Devogele, Maxime ULg; Cellino, Alberto; Bagnulo, Stefano et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2016)

A new polarimeter based on the Wedged double Wollaston concept has been built at the Torino Observatory and installed on a 1-meter telescope at the Calern observing station of the ``Observatoire de la C ... [more ▼]

A new polarimeter based on the Wedged double Wollaston concept has been built at the Torino Observatory and installed on a 1-meter telescope at the Calern observing station of the ``Observatoire de la C{\^o}te d'Azur''. Its main purpose is to carry out a polarimetric survey of Solar System objects. This survey is called CAPS (Calern Asteroid Polarimetric Survey). In this paper, the new Torino polarimeter (ToPo) and its preliminary validation campaign is described. The first results of the CAPS survey are also presented. A number of standard stars with known polarization states, as well as a number of asteroids for which the polarimetric properties are known, have been observed in order to assess the instrument accuracy. The instrument response over the field of view and also its stability over single nights and longer periods have also been tested. It has been found that the instrument polarization is stable within a few $10^{-4}$ units. The first polarimetric observations of a still limited number of asteroids show an excellent agreement with previously available data and make already some significant contributions by adding new data to a number of objects that had been poorly observed so far. [less ▲]

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See detailEscribir el presente histórico mexicano: narrar desde narcolandia
Vanden Berghe, Kristine ULg

in Studi Ispanici (2016), XLI

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See detailRecording and Reading Alchemy and Art-Technology in Medieval and Premodern German Recipe Collections
Neven, Sylvie ULg

in Nuncius. Journal of the Material and Visual History of Science (2016)

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See detailEuropean Commission Joint Research Center Export Control Capacity Building Initiatives: Staying Relevant for 1540 Implementation
Chatelus, Renaud ULg

in 1540 Compass (2016), Issue 10(Spring 2016), 8

After 11 years of implementing UNSC resolution 1540, many of us can testify to the variety of export control components which must be developed, maintained,andkeptuptodatetofulfilltheresolution’s ... [more ▼]

After 11 years of implementing UNSC resolution 1540, many of us can testify to the variety of export control components which must be developed, maintained,andkeptuptodatetofulfilltheresolution’s requirements. Considering the complexity of the topic, we must not only do more and do it well, but we must also constantly explore new ways to do better. Some of the recent European Commission Joint Research Center (JRC) initiatives described hereafter are examples of good practices. They are creative and complementary activities designed to be part of this required constant effort to keep international trade from contributing to the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. [less ▲]

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See detailProduction of New Cotton Interspecific Hybrids with Enhanced Fiber Fineness
Nacoulima, L.N.; Diouf, F.H.; Konan, N.O. et al

in Journal of Agricultural Science (2016), 8(2), 46-56

To improve cotton fiber fineness, the (Gossypium hirsutum L. × Gossypium longicalyx Hutch. & Lee)² allohexaploid and the [(Gossypium hirsutum L. × Gossypium thurberi To d . ) ² × G. longicalyx ... [more ▼]

To improve cotton fiber fineness, the (Gossypium hirsutum L. × Gossypium longicalyx Hutch. & Lee)² allohexaploid and the [(Gossypium hirsutum L. × Gossypium thurberi To d . ) ² × G. longicalyx] allotetraploid were backcrossed to G. hirsutum to produce introgressed genetic stocks. The ribbon width (RW) of 600 swelled fibers produced by the hybrids, their parents, and their backcross progeny were analyzed for each compared genotype using an optical microscope. The RWs varied between 6.41±2.15 µm for G. longicalyx to 17.45±2.98 µm for the G. hirsutum parent cultivar C2. Fibers produced by the trispecific hybrids and their progeny were finer than the bispecific hybrid material. For the introgressed stocks, the lowest RWs were observed for the trispecific hybrid (10.79±2.14 µm) and certain backcross progenies (between 11.98±1.27 µm to 12.71±1.61 µm). The allohexaploid RW was 13.58±1.41 µm. One of its tetraploid progeny produced approximately the same value (13.94±2.48 µm). These results show that G. longicalyx is a potential genetic stock for cotton fiber fineness improvement. The genetic stocks produced are valuable materials for improve the fineness of cotton fiber. [less ▲]

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See detailTECHNIQUE, DIFFICULTY, AND ACCURACY OF COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY-GUIDED TRANSLAMINAR AND TRANSFORAMINAL LUMBOSACRAL EPIDURAL AND INTRAARTICULAR LUMBAR FACET JOINT INJECTIONS IN DOGS.
Liotta, Annalisa Pia ULg; Sandersen, Charlotte ULg; Couvreur, Thierry et al

in Veterinary radiology & ultrasound : the official journal of the American College of Veterinary Radiology and the International Veterinary Radiology Association (2016), 57(2), 191-8

In human medicine, spinal pain and radiculopathy are commonly managed by computed tomography (CT)-guided facet joint injections and by transforaminal or translaminar epidural injections. In dogs, CT ... [more ▼]

In human medicine, spinal pain and radiculopathy are commonly managed by computed tomography (CT)-guided facet joint injections and by transforaminal or translaminar epidural injections. In dogs, CT-guided lumbosacral epidural or lumbar facet joint injections have not been described. The aim of this experimental, ex vivo, feasibility study was to develop techniques and to assess their difficulty and accuracy. Two canine cadavers were used to establish the techniques and eight cadavers to assess difficulty and accuracy. Contrast medium was injected and a CT scan was performed after each injection. Accuracy was assessed according to epidural or joint space contrast opacification. Difficulty was classified as easy, moderately difficult, or difficult, based on the number of CT scans needed to guide insertion of the needle. A total of six translaminar and five transforaminal epidural and 53 joint injections were performed. Translaminar injections had a high success rate (100%), were highly accurate (75%), and easy to perform (100%). Transforaminal injections had an moderately high success rate (75%), were accurate (75%), and moderately difficult to perform (100%). Success rate of facet joint injections was 62% and was higher for larger facet joints, such as L7-S1. Accuracy of facet joint injections ranged from accurate (37-62%) to highly accurate (25%) depending on the volume injected. In 77% of cases, injections were moderately difficult to perform. Possible complications of epidural and facet joint injections were subarachnoid and vertebral venous plexus puncture and periarticular spread, respectively. Further studies are suggested to evaluate in vivo feasibility and safety of these techniques. [less ▲]

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See detail[18F]FPRGD2 PET/CT imaging of integrin αvβ3 levels in patients with locally advanced rectal carcinoma
WITHOFS, Nadia ULg; Martinive, Philippe ULg; VANDERICK, Jean ULg et al

in European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging (2016)

PURPOSE: Our primary objective was to determine if [18F]FPRGD2 PET/CT performed at baseline and/or after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) could predict tumour regression grade (TRG) in locally advanced rectal ... [more ▼]

PURPOSE: Our primary objective was to determine if [18F]FPRGD2 PET/CT performed at baseline and/or after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) could predict tumour regression grade (TRG) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Secondary objectives were to compare baseline [18F]FPRGD2 and [18F]FDG uptake, to evaluate the correlation between posttreatment [18F]FPRGD2 uptake and tumour microvessel density (MVD) and to determine if [18F]FPRGD2 and FDG PET/CT could predict disease-free survival. METHODS: Baseline [18F]FPRGD2 and FDG PET/CT were performed in 32 consecutive patients (23 men, 9 women; mean age 63 +/- 8 years) with LARC before starting any therapy. A posttreatment [18F]FPRGD2 PET/CT scan was performed in 24 patients after the end of CRT (median interval 7 weeks, range 3 - 15 weeks) and before surgery (median interval 4 days, range 1 - 15 days). RESULTS: All LARC showed uptake of both [18F]FPRGD2 (SUVmax 5.4 +/- 1.5, range 2.7 - 9) and FDG (SUVmax 16.5 +/- 8, range 7.1 - 36.5). There was a moderate positive correlation between [18F]FPRGD2 and FDG SUVmax (Pearson's r = 0.49, p = 0.0026). There was a moderate negative correlation between baseline [18F]FPRGD2 SUVmax and the TRG (Spearman's r = -0.37, p = 0.037), and a [18F]FPRGD2 SUVmax of >5.6 identified all patients with a complete response (TRG 0; AUC 0.84, 95 % CI 0.68 - 1, p = 0.029). In the 24 patients who underwent a posttreatment [18F]FPRGD2 PET/CT scan the response index, calculated as [(SUVmax1 - SUVmax2)/SUVmax1] x 100 %, was not associated with TRG. Post-treatment [18F]FPRGD2 uptake was not correlated with tumour MVD. Neither [18F]FPRGD2 nor FDG uptake predicted disease-free survival. CONCLUSION: Baseline [18F]FPRGD2 uptake was correlated with the pathological response in patients with LARC treated with CRT. However, the specificity was too low to consider its clinical routine use. [less ▲]

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See detailGenome Sequences of Four Strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis, Isolated from Swine and Humans, Differing in Virulence in a Murine Intranasal Infection Model
Bruffaerts; Vluggen, C; Duytschaever, L et al

in Genome Announcements (2016), 4(3),

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See detailAssessment of the entering stock, migration dynamics and fish pass fidelity of european eel in the belgian meuse river
Nzau Matondo, Billy ULg; Benitez, Jean-Philippe ULg; Dierckx, Arnaud ULg et al

in River Research & Applications (2016)

Migration dynamics of incoming eels in Belgium via Lixhe in the Meuse River were investigated using two fish passes with different configurations— net traps and automatic detection stations—as tools to ... [more ▼]

Migration dynamics of incoming eels in Belgium via Lixhe in the Meuse River were investigated using two fish passes with different configurations— net traps and automatic detection stations—as tools to distinguish resident and migrating eels. From April to September 2013, 435 eels (P50 length, 403 mm; range, 196–836 mm) were caught (daily maxima catch, 90 eels per day), 90% between 13 June and 1 August (50 days) and P50 on 19 July. Eels migrated mostly at 19–26 °C (P50, 24.4 °C), river discharge 65–314m3 s 1 (P50, 84m3 s 1), during the dark at 00:00–05:00 h and during both the waxing and waning phases of moonlight. From 396 eels tagged and released 0.3 km downstream of the Lixhe dam, 6.8% of them were recaptured, and 37.4% were detected. Migration flux was estimated at 7184 eels (0.863 t) using the markrecapture method and decreased to 1156 eels (0.139 t) using automatic transponder detection. Most eels probably migrated through a sluice located downstream of Lixhe to reach the upper Meuse via the Albert Canal. Eels moved almost independently to the configuration of the fish passes and their location, but most eels displayed fidelity to the fish pass where they were captured. Migrant eels showed a wide range of size and life stages, with a higher proportion of eels (80%) belonging to the yellow eel stage. A lower proportion of eels (6%) had a larger size and presented an advanced continental silvering process corresponding to the migrating stage before their transatlantic migration. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentifying the factors determining blooms of cyanobacteria in a set of shallow lakes
Descy, Jean-Pierre; Leprieur, Fabien; Pirlot, Samuel et al

in Ecological Informatics (2016), 34

There is a strong interest in developing a capacity to predict the occurrence of cyanobacteria blooms in lakes and to identify the measures to be taken to reduce water quality problems associated with the ... [more ▼]

There is a strong interest in developing a capacity to predict the occurrence of cyanobacteria blooms in lakes and to identify the measures to be taken to reduce water quality problems associated with the occurrence of potentially harmful taxa. Here we conducted a weekly to bi-weekly monitoring program on five shallow eutrophic lakes during two years, with the aim of gathering data on total cyanobacterial abundance, as estimated from marker pigments determined by HPLC analysis of phytoplankton extracts. We also determined bloom composition and measured weather and limnological variables. The most frequently identified taxa were Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Microcystis aeruginosa, Planktothrix agardhii and Anabaena spp. We used the data base composed of a total of 306 observations and an adaptive regression trees method, the boosted regression tree (BRT), to develop predictive models of bloom occurrence and composition, based on environmental conditions. Data processing with BRT enabled the design of satisfactory prediction models of cyanobacterial abundance and of the occurrence of the main taxa. Phosphorus (total and soluble reactive phosphate), dissolved inorganic nitrogen, epilimnion temperature, photoperiod and euphotic depth were among the best predictive variables, contributing for at least 10 % in the models, and their relative contribution varied in accordance with the ecological traits of the taxa considered. Meteorological factors (wind, rainfall, surface irradiance) had a significant role in species selection. Such results may contribute to designing measures for bloom management in shallow lakes. [less ▲]

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