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See detailBlood Glucose Levels of Subelite Athletes During 6 Days of Free Living.
Thomas, Felicity Louise ULg; Pretty, Chris G.; Desaive, Thomas ULg et al

in Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology (2016)

BACKGROUND: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices, with their 1-5 min measurement interval, allow blood glucose (BG) concentration dynamics to be captured more frequently and less invasively than ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices, with their 1-5 min measurement interval, allow blood glucose (BG) concentration dynamics to be captured more frequently and less invasively than traditional BG measures. One cohort CGM could provide insight is athletes. This study investigates what impact their heightened energy expenditure and dietary intake may have on their ability to achieve optimal BG. METHODS: Ten subelite athletes (resting HR<60 bpm, training>6 hrs per week) were recruited. Two Ipro2 CGM devices (Medtronic Minimed, Northridge, CA) were inserted into the abdomen and remained in place for ~6 days. Time in band was calculated as the percentage of CGM BG measurements with in the 4.0-6.0 mmol/L. Fasting glucose was calculated using CGM calibration BG measurements and postprandial glucose response was also calculated using the CGM values. RESULTS: 4/10 athletes studied spent more than 70% of the total monitoring time above 6.0 mmol/L even with the 2-hour period after meals is excluded. Fasting BG was also in the ADA defined prediabetes range for 3/10 athletes. Only 1 participant spent substantial time below 4.0 mmol/L which was largely due to significantly lower energy intake compared to recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to expectations high BG appears to be more of a concern for athletes then low BG even in those with the highest energy expenditure and consuming below the recommended carbohydrate intake. This study warrants further investigation on the recommended diets and the BG of athletes to better determine the causes and impact of this hyperglycemia on overall athlete health. [less ▲]

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See detailStructural Proteomics of Herpesviruses.
Leroy, Baptiste; Gillet, Laurent ULg; Vanderplasschen, Alain ULg et al

in Viruses (2016), 8(2),

Herpesviruses are highly prevalent viruses associated with numerous pathologies both in animal and human populations. Until now, most of the strategies used to prevent or to cure these infections have ... [more ▼]

Herpesviruses are highly prevalent viruses associated with numerous pathologies both in animal and human populations. Until now, most of the strategies used to prevent or to cure these infections have been unsuccessful because these viruses have developed numerous immune evasion mechanisms. Therefore, a better understanding of their complex lifecycle is needed. In particular, while the genome of numerous herpesviruses has been sequenced, the exact composition of virions remains unknown for most of them. Mass spectrometry has recently emerged as a central method and has permitted fundamental discoveries in virology. Here, we review mass spectrometry-based approaches that have recently allowed a better understanding of the composition of the herpesvirus virion. In particular, we describe strategies commonly used for proper sample preparation and fractionation to allow protein localization inside the particle but also to avoid contamination by nonstructural proteins. A collection of other important data regarding post-translational modifications or the relative abundance of structural proteins is also described. This review also discusses the poorly studied importance of host proteins in herpesvirus structural proteins and the necessity to develop a quantitative workflow to better understand the dynamics of the structural proteome. In the future, we hope that this collaborative effort will assist in the development of new strategies to fight these infections. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative value of post-remission treatment in cytogenetically normal AML subclassified by NPM1 and FLT3-ITD allelic ratio.
Versluis, J.; In 't Hout, F. E. M.; Devillier, R. et al

in Leukemia : Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K (2016)

Post-remission treatment (PRT) in patients with cytogenetically normal (CN) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR1) is debated. We studied 521 patients with CN-AML in CR1, for whom ... [more ▼]

Post-remission treatment (PRT) in patients with cytogenetically normal (CN) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR1) is debated. We studied 521 patients with CN-AML in CR1, for whom mutational status of NPM1 and FLT3-ITD was available, including the FLT3-ITD allelic ratio. PRT consisted of reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) (n=68), myeloablative conditioning (MAC) alloHSCT (n=137), autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (autoHSCT) (n=168) or chemotherapy (n=148). Favorable overall survival (OS) was found for patients with mutated NPM1 without FLT3-ITD (71+/-4%). Outcome in patients with a high FLT3-ITD allelic ratio appeared to be very poor with OS and relapse-free survival (RFS) of 23+/-8% and 12+/-6%, respectively. Patients with wild-type NPM1 without FLT3-ITD or with a low allelic burden of FLT3-ITD were considered as intermediate-risk group because of similar OS and RFS at 5 years, in which PRT by RIC alloHSCT resulted in better OS and RFS as compared with chemotherapy (hazard ratio (HR) 0.56, P=0.022 and HR 0.50, P=0.004, respectively) or autoHSCT (HR 0.60, P=0.046 and HR 0.60, P=0.043, respectively). The lowest cumulative incidence of relapse (23+/-4%) was observed following MAC alloHSCT. These results suggest that alloHSCT may be preferred in patients with molecularly intermediate-risk CN-AML, while the choice of conditioning type may be personalized according to risk for non-relapse mortality.Leukemia advance online publication, 15 July 2016; doi:10.1038/leu.2016.183. [less ▲]

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See detailSalicylic acid differently impacts ethylene and polyamine synthesis in the glycophyte Solanum lycopersicum and the wild-related halophyte Solanum chilense exposed to mild salt stres
Gharbi, Emna; Martinez, Juan Pablo; Benahmed, Hela et al

in Physiologia Plantarum (2016), 171

This study aimed to determine the effects of exogenous application of salicylic acid on the toxic effects of salt in relation to ethylene and polyamine synthesis, and to correlate these traits with the ... [more ▼]

This study aimed to determine the effects of exogenous application of salicylic acid on the toxic effects of salt in relation to ethylene and polyamine synthesis, and to correlate these traits with the expression of genes involved in ethylene and polyamine metabolism in two tomato species differing in their sensitivity to salt stress, Solanum lycopersicum cv Ailsa Craig and its wild salt-resistant relative Solanum chilense. [less ▲]

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See detailSurfactant-assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis of hematite mesoporous thin films
Henrist, Catherine ULg; Toussaint, Caroline ULg; De Vroede, Jordan et al

in Microporous and Mesoporous Materials (2016), 221

Mesoporous crystalline hematite is a material difficult to prepare by soft-templating with conventional techniques, because of its high crystallization temperature associated to the crystal-to-crystal ... [more ▼]

Mesoporous crystalline hematite is a material difficult to prepare by soft-templating with conventional techniques, because of its high crystallization temperature associated to the crystal-to-crystal goethiteto-hematite phase transition. In a previous work, it has been reported that with very careful calcination steps, it is possible to prepare mesoporous hematite films with the spin-coating technique. However, with less conventional techniques such as surfactant-assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis, the deposition usually leads to non-porous oxide films or to films with interstitial porosity. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time the proof-of-concept of block-copolymer templating of hematite thin films by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. Despite the fast thermal decomposition during spray deposition, a regular, monodisperse packing of spherical pores is observed after deposition on pre-heated substrates (250 C) and after a careful post-annealing step at 470 C. Moreover, with the use of a silica scaffold, we successfully preserved porosity up to a temperature as high as 800 C. These films are highly crystalline and they are composed by randomly oriented nanocrystallites with sizes as small as 25 nm. Furthermore, we show that the crystallization evolution with temperature is influenced by the presence of the templating agent and also by the preparation technique. [less ▲]

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See detailDe Novo Mutations in DENR Disrupt Neuronal Development and Link Congenital Neurological Disorders to Faulty mRNA Translation Re-initiation.
Haas, Matilda A.; Ngo, Linh; Li, Shan Shan et al

in Cell Reports (2016)

Disruptions to neuronal mRNA translation are hypothesized to underlie human neurodevelopmental syndromes. Notably, the mRNA translation re-initiation factor DENR is a regulator of eukaryotic translation ... [more ▼]

Disruptions to neuronal mRNA translation are hypothesized to underlie human neurodevelopmental syndromes. Notably, the mRNA translation re-initiation factor DENR is a regulator of eukaryotic translation and cell growth, but its mammalian functions are unknown. Here, we report that Denr influences the migration of murine cerebral cortical neurons in vivo with its binding partner Mcts1, whereas perturbations to Denr impair the long-term positioning, dendritic arborization, and dendritic spine characteristics of postnatal projection neurons. We characterized de novo missense mutations in DENR (p.C37Y and p.P121L) detected in two unrelated human subjects diagnosed with brain developmental disorder to find that each variant impairs the function of DENR in mRNA translation re-initiation and disrupts the migration and terminal branching of cortical neurons in different ways. Thus, our findings link human brain disorders to impaired mRNA translation re-initiation through perturbations in DENR (OMIM: 604550) function in neurons. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Uptake of 18F-FDG by Renal Allograft in Kidney Transplant Recipients Is Not Influenced by Renal Function.
Jadoul, Alexandre; Lovinfosse, Pierre; Weekers, Laurent et al

in Clinical Nuclear Medicine (2016), 41(9), 683-7

PURPOSE OF THE REPORT: F-FDG PET/CT has been recently proposed as a noninvasive tool for the diagnosis of renal allograft acute rejection (AR) in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Still, the influence ... [more ▼]

PURPOSE OF THE REPORT: F-FDG PET/CT has been recently proposed as a noninvasive tool for the diagnosis of renal allograft acute rejection (AR) in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Still, the influence of kidney function on F-FDG uptake by renal grafts remains unknown. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively identified all KTRs who underwent at least one F-FDG PET/CT. Kidney transplant recipients with documented pyelonephritis or AR were excluded. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was assessed using chronic kidney disease (CKD)-EPI equation. Mean standardized uptake values (SUVmean) of renal graft cortex and aorta were measured in 4 and 1 volumes of interest, respectively. Spearman rank correlation coefficient (rho) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed. RESULTS: Eighty-two KTRs underwent F-FDG PET/CT for tumor staging (n = 46), suspected infection (n = 11), or fever of unknown origin (n = 25). Mean eGFR was 50 +/- 19 mL/min per 1.73 m, including CKD stage 1 (n = 3), stage 2 (n = 21), stage 3a (n = 20), stage 3b (n = 29), and stage 4 (n = 9). Mean kidney and aorta SUVmean were 1.8 +/- 0.2 and 1.7 +/- 0.3, respectively. No significant correlation was observed between eGFR and kidney SUVmean (rho, 0.119; P, 0.28) or aorta SUVmean (rho, -0.144; P, 0.20). ANOVA showed no difference of kidney (P, 0.62) and aorta (P, 0.85) SUVmean between CKD groups. Mean coefficient of variation (on the basis of kidney SUVmean of >3 consecutive F-FDG PET/CT in 15 patients with no significant change of eGFR) reached 13.1%. CONCLUSIONS: The uptake of F-FDG by renal allografts within an hour postinjection is not significantly impacted by CKD. [less ▲]

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See detailProposal for standardized ultrasound descriptors of abnormally invasive placenta (AIP)
Collins, Sally; Anna, Ashcroft; Braun, Thorsten et al

in Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology (2016)

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See detailMonitoring the laccase reaction of vanillin and poplar hydrolysate
Sòti, Valentin; Jacquet, Nicolas ULg; Apers, Sandra et al

in Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology (2016), 91(6), 1914-1922

BACKGROUND: Laccase is an intensively researched enzyme for industrial use. Except for decolorisation measurements, HPLC analysis is the conventional method for monitoring the phenolic removal during ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Laccase is an intensively researched enzyme for industrial use. Except for decolorisation measurements, HPLC analysis is the conventional method for monitoring the phenolic removal during laccase enzyme reaction. This paper reports an investigation of the continuous UV absorbance follow-up of the laccase reaction with steam pretreated poplar hydrolysate. RESULTS: Vanillin was used as a model substrate and lignocellulose xylose rich fraction (XRF) as a biologically complex substrate for laccase detoxification. The reaction was followed by HPLC-UV as well as by UV spectrometric measurements. Results suggest that the reaction can be successfully monitored by measuring the change of UV absorbance at 280 nm, without previous compound separation. In case of XRF experiments the spectrophotometric follow-up is especially useful, as HPLC analysis takes a long time and provides less information than in case of single substrates. The method seems to be suitable for optimization and process control. CONCLUSION: The obtained results can help to construct a fast, easy and straightforward monitoring system for laccase-phenolic substrate reactions. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation of the added mass method for seismic design of lock gates
Buldgen, Loïc ULg; Le Sourne, Hervé; Caprace, Jean-David ULg et al

in Engineering Structures (2016)

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See detailProcesses involving few degrees of freedom in the frame of the Intranuclear Cascade approaches
Cugnon, Joseph ULg; Boudard, Alain; David, Jean-Christophe et al

in Eur. Phys. J. Plus (2016), 131

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See detailEffects of reducing blood pressure on cardiovascular outcomes and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes: Focus on SGLT2 inhibitors and EMPA-REG OUTCOME.
Scheen, André ULg

in Diabetes Research & Clinical Practice (2016), 121

Empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, has shown a remarkable reduction in cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and antecedents of ... [more ▼]

Empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, has shown a remarkable reduction in cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and antecedents of cardiovascular disease in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial. This effect has been attributed to a hemodynamic rather than a metabolic effect, partly due to the osmotic/diuretic effect of empagliflozin and to the reduction in arterial blood pressure. The present review will: (1) summarize the results of specific studies having tested the blood pressure lowering effects of SGLT2 inhibitors; (2) describe the results of meta-analyses of trials having evaluated the effects on mortality and cardiovascular outcomes of lowering blood pressure in patients with T2D, with a special focus on baseline and target blood pressures; (3) compare the cardiovascular outcome results in EMPA-REG OUTCOME versus other major trials with antihypertensive agents in patients with T2D; and (4) evaluate post-hoc analyses from EMPA-REG OUTCOME, especially subgroups of patients of special interest regarding the blood pressure lowering hypothesis. Although BP reduction associated to empagliflozin therapy may partly contribute to the benefits reported in EMPA-REG OUTCOME, other mechanisms most probably play a greater role in the overall CV protection and reduction in mortality observed in this trial. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of chondroitin sulfate on soluble biomarkers of osteoarthritis: a method to analyze and interpret the results from an open-label trial in unilateral knee osteoarthritis patients.
Moller, Ingrid; Gharbi, Myriam; Martinez Serrano, Helena et al

in BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders (2016), 17(1), 416

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chondroitin sulfate (CS) on the serum levels of Coll2-1 in patients with knee OA. METHODS: Seventy two patients with unilateral ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chondroitin sulfate (CS) on the serum levels of Coll2-1 in patients with knee OA. METHODS: Seventy two patients with unilateral symptomatic knee OA were involved in a post-authorization open-label study evaluating CS (800 mg/day). The primary outcome was the % relative change in serum Coll2-1 (sColl2-1). The secondary outcomes were the evaluation of pain (VAS) and function (Lequesne's Index). Responders and non-responders were classified according to OMERACT-OARSI recommendations. Finally, an original cut-off method was applied to categorize patients and interpret individual variations in serum levels of Coll2-1. RESULTS: Patients showed no difference in the sColl2-1 levels at baseline. When considering responders and non-responders from the ITT population, a significant difference was found for Coll2-1 at 3 months (p = 0.030) and 6 months (p = 0.038). A decrease in pain (VAS) and an improvement in function (LI) were recorded throughout the visits (p < 0.01). Considering an intra-batch cut-off of 21 %, CS decreased Coll2-1 serum levels between baseline and 1-month visit compared to the value of Coll2-1 before treatment (screening visit) which can be interpreted as a drastic reduction of the proportion of patients with an increase of Coll2-1 over 21 % (reduction from 13 to 3 %). It also consisted in a more important proportion of patients with a decrease in Coll2-1 (from 5 to 10 %). CONCLUSION: This study proposes a new approach for the analysis and the interpretation of the individual variation in biomarker levels and introduces the notion of metabolic responders. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ID ISRCTN63795830 . The trial was retrospectively registered on 2 October, 2015. [less ▲]

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See detailHow to scan who: the delicate balance between selecting the patient and selecting the imaging protocol.
Hustinx, Roland ULg

in European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (2016)

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See detailMolecular detection of bovine noroviruses in Argentinean dairy calves: Circulation of a tentative new genotype
Ferragut, Fatima; Vega, Celina; Mauroy, Axel ULg et al

in Infection, Genetics and Evolution : Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics of Infectious Diseases (2016), 40

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See detailAssessment of cardiovascular risk of new drugs for the treatment of diabetes mellitus: risk assessment vs. risk aversion.
Zannad, Faiez; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Lipicky, Raymond J. et al

in European heart journal. Cardiovascular pharmacotherapy (2016), 2(3), 200-205

The Food and Drug Administration issued guidance for evaluating the cardiovascular risk of new diabetes mellitus drugs in 2008. Accumulating evidence from several completed trials conducted within this ... [more ▼]

The Food and Drug Administration issued guidance for evaluating the cardiovascular risk of new diabetes mellitus drugs in 2008. Accumulating evidence from several completed trials conducted within this framework raises questions as to whether requiring safety outcome studies for all new diabetes mellitus therapies remains justified. Given the burden of cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes, the focus should shift towards cardiovascular outcome studies designed to evaluate efficacy (i.e. to determine the efficacy of a drug over placebo or standard care) rather than demonstrating that risk is not increased by a pre-specified safety margin. All stakeholders are responsible for ensuring that new drug approvals occur under conditions of appropriate safety and effectiveness. It is also a shared responsibility to avoid unnecessary hurdles that may compromise access to useful drugs and threaten the sustainability of health systems. It is critical to renew this debate so that stakeholders can collectively determine the optimal approach for developing new drugs to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification and frequencies of cystic fibrosis mutations in central Argentina.
Pepermans, Xavier; Mellado, Soledad; Chialina, Sergio et al

in Clinical biochemistry (2016)

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See detailBone markers during acute burn care: Relevance to clinical practice?
ROUSSEAU, Anne-Françoise ULg; Damas, Pierre ULg; DELANAYE, Pierre ULg et al

in Burns : Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries (2016)

OBJECTIVE: Bone changes are increasingly described after burn. How bone markers could help to detect early bone changes or to screen burn patients at higher risk of demineralization is still not made ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: Bone changes are increasingly described after burn. How bone markers could help to detect early bone changes or to screen burn patients at higher risk of demineralization is still not made clear. We performed an observational study assessing the changes in serum bone markers after moderate burn. METHODS: Adults admitted in the first 24h following burn extended on >10% body surface area were included. Serum levels of collagen type 1 cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTX), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP), type 1 procollagen N-terminal (P1NP) and bone alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP) were measured at admission and every week during the first month. Data are expressed as median [min-max]. RESULTS: Bone markers were measured in 20 patients: 18 men, 2 women (including one post-menopausal). Age was 46 [19-86] years old, burn surface area reached 15 [7-85] %. Twelve patients completed the study. All biomarkers mainly remained into normal ranges during evolution. A huge variability was observed regarding biomarkers evolution. Patient's evolution was not linear and could fluctuate from a decrease to an increase of blood concentrations. There was not necessarily a consistency between the two formation or the two resorption markers. Variations observed between two consecutive measurements were lesser than the accepted critical difference in almost one third of the cases. CONCLUSIONS: Considering available data, role and interest of bone markers in management of burn related bone disease remain unclear. [less ▲]

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See detailImaging protoplanets: observing transition disks with non-redundant masking
Sallum, S.; Eisner, J.; Close, L. M. et al

in Proceedings of SPIE (2016), 9907

Transition disks, protoplanetary disks with inner clearings, are promising objects in which to directly image forming planets. The high contrast imaging technique of non-redundant masking is well posed to ... [more ▼]

Transition disks, protoplanetary disks with inner clearings, are promising objects in which to directly image forming planets. The high contrast imaging technique of non-redundant masking is well posed to detect planetary mass companions at several to tens of AU in nearby transition disks. We present non-redundant masking observations of the T Cha and LkCa 15 transition disks, both of which host posited sub-stellar mass companions. However, due to a loss of information intrinsic to the technique, observations of extended sources (e.g. scattered light from disks) can be misinterpreted as moving companions. We discuss tests to distinguish between these two scenarios, with applications to the T Cha and LkCa 15 observations. We argue that a static, forward-scattering disk can explain the T Cha data, while LkCa 15 is best explained by multiple orbiting companions. [less ▲]

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See detailRelationship between grey matter integrity and executive abilities in aging
Manard, Marine ULg; Bahri, Mohamed Ali ULg; Salmon, Eric ULg et al

in Brain Research (2016), 1642

This cross-sectional study was designed to investigate grey matter changes that occur in healthy aging and the relationship between grey matter characteristics and executive functioning. Thirty-six young ... [more ▼]

This cross-sectional study was designed to investigate grey matter changes that occur in healthy aging and the relationship between grey matter characteristics and executive functioning. Thirty-six young adults (18 to 30 years old) and 43 seniors (60 to 75 years old) were included. A general executive score was derived from a large battery of neuropsychological tests assessing three major aspects of executive functioning (inhibition, updating and shifting). Age-related grey matter changes were investigated by comparing young and older adults using voxel-based morphometry and voxel-based cortical thickness methods. A widespread difference in grey matter volume was found across many brain regions, whereas cortical thinning was mainly restricted to central areas. Multivariate analyses showed age-related changes in relatively similar brain regions to the respective univariate analyses but appeared more limited. Finally, in the older adult sample, a significant relationship between global executive performance and decreased grey matter volume in anterior (i.e. frontal, insular and cingulate cortex) but also some posterior brain areas (i.e. temporal and parietal cortices) as well as subcortical structures was observed. Results of this study highlight the distribution of age-related effects on grey matter volume and show that cortical atrophy does not appear primarily in “frontal” brain regions. From a cognitive viewpoint, age-related executive functioning seems to be related to grey matter volume but not to cortical thickness. Therefore, our results also highlight the influence of methodological aspects (from preprocessing to statistical analysis) on the pattern of results, which could explain the lack of consensus in literature. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis, characterization, and gas-phase fragmentation of rhenium-carbonyl complexes bearing imidazol(in)ium-2-dithiocarboxylate ligands
Beltran Alvarez, Tomás Francisco ULg; Zaragoza, Guillermo; Delaude, Lionel ULg

in Dalton Transactions (2016), 45

Five complexes with the generic formula [ReBr(CO)3([small kappa]2-S,S[prime or minute]-S2C[middle dot]NHC)] were obtained by reacting [ReBr(CO)5] with a set of representative imidazol(in)ium-2 ... [more ▼]

Five complexes with the generic formula [ReBr(CO)3([small kappa]2-S,S[prime or minute]-S2C[middle dot]NHC)] were obtained by reacting [ReBr(CO)5] with a set of representative imidazol(in)ium-2-dithiocarboxylate zwitterions. These ligands are the adducts of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) and carbon disulfide. The monometallic Re(i) compounds were further coupled with Na[Re(CO)5] to afford bimetallic Re(0) species. Depending on the experimental conditions, either octacarbonyl dimers [Re2(CO)8([small mu ]2-[small kappa]1-S,[small kappa]1-S[prime or minute]-S2C[middle dot]NHC)] or hexacarbonyl clusters [Re2(CO)6([small kappa]2-S,S[prime or minute]-[small kappa]3-S,C,S[prime or minute]-S2C[middle dot]NHC)] were isolated. All the products were fully characterized using various analytical techniques. Single crystal XRD analysis helped establish with certainty the various binding modes exhibited by the NHC[middle dot]CS2 ligands. With bite angles ranging from ca. 104 to 130[degree], these zwitterions displayed a remarkable flexibility, which also permitted significant twists of the thiometallated rings to preserve a staggered arrangement of the carbonyl groups in the bimetallic systems. Monitoring the chemical shift of the CS2- moiety by 13C NMR spectroscopy was most useful to detect its change of hapticity upon decarbonylation of the octacarbonyl compounds into hexacarbonyl derivatives. IR spectroscopy was another very convenient tool to identify the type of complex formed in a reaction, based on the pattern of its carbonyl vibration bands. Advanced mass spectrometry techniques showed that all the compounds underwent partial or total decarbonylation in the gas phase with no concomitant fragmentation of the bimetallic assemblies into monometallic ions. [less ▲]

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See detailL’utilisation de l’hydrolyse enzymatique pour la production de nanocellulose dans une stratégie de bioraffinage forestier intégré (Synthèse Bibliographique)
Bombeck, Pierre-Louis ULg; Hebert, Jacques ULg; Richel, Aurore ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2016), 20(1), 94-103

Introduction. In a world that seeks to break free from petrochemicals, the concept of forest biomass biorefinery is increasingly being studied as a way to maximize the value of the components of this ... [more ▼]

Introduction. In a world that seeks to break free from petrochemicals, the concept of forest biomass biorefinery is increasingly being studied as a way to maximize the value of the components of this biomass. Due to the high added value expected when transforming cellulose fibers into nanocellulose, this technology is highly attractive to the pulp and paper industrial world. <br />Literature. The concept of integrated forest biorefinery is to adapt existing pulp mills so as to maximize the value of the co-products. Through the use of various methods, two types of nanocellulose may be obtained from the cellulose in the pulp. Due to its production of valuable byproducts, enzymatic hydrolysis is an interesting method to use for this purpose, but it must be combined with mechanical post-treatments. The production of nanocellulose from chemical pulp takes place in the final step of pulp production, and could be implemented without modifying the existing mills. The economic viability of this mode of production and the potential market size are the subject of recent studies that appear encouraging. <br />Conclusions. Nanocellulose is a promising biomaterial whose field of application continues to grow. Cellulose in wood pulp can be used as a raw material for the production of nanocellulose using enzymatic pre-treatments that generate valuable co-products. This process can be integrated into a conventional chemical pulp mill and constitutes a broadening of the products available to the pulp and paper industry. [less ▲]

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See detailStratigraphy and depositional environments of the Late Famennian (Late Devonian) of Southern Belgium and characterization of the Strud locality
Denayer, Julien ULg; Prestianni, Cyrille; Gueriau, Pierre et al

in Geological Magazine (2016), 153(1), 112-127

The Famennian (Upper Devonian, c. 372 to 359 Ma) strata of Belgium have recently received much attention after the discoveries of early tetrapod remains and outstandingly preserved continental arthropods ... [more ▼]

The Famennian (Upper Devonian, c. 372 to 359 Ma) strata of Belgium have recently received much attention after the discoveries of early tetrapod remains and outstandingly preserved continental arthropods. The Strud locality has yielded a diverse flora and fauna including seed-plants, tetrapods, various placoderm, actinopterygian, acanthodian and sarcopterygian fishes, crustaceans (anostracans, notostracans, conchostracans and decapods) and a putative complete insect. This fossil assemblage is one of the oldest continental – probably fresh-water – ecosystems with a considerable vertebrate and invertebrate diversity. The study of the palaeoenvironment of the Strud locality is crucial because it records one of the earliest and most important phases of tetrapod evolution that took place after their emergence but before their terrestrialization. It raises the question of environmental and ecological conditions for the Devonian aquatic ecosystem and the selection pressures occurring at the onset of tetrapod terrestrialization. The present study characterized the fluvial facies of the Upper Famennian sedimentary rocks of Strud and the surrounding areas. The exceptional preservation of arthropods and plants in the main fossiliferous layers is explained by rapid burial in the fine-grained sediment of the quiet and confined flood plain environment. Newly investigated fossiliferous sections in the Meuse–Samson area led to the description and correlation of key sections (Strud, Wierde and Jausse sections, complemented by the less continuous Haltinne, Huy and Coutisse sections). Moreover, the investigated sections allowed a review of the age of the fossiliferous horizon, which is now definitely considered to be Late Famennian in age. [less ▲]

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See detailPrognostic relevance of epilepsy at presentation in glioblastoma patients.
Berendsen, Sharon; Varkila, Meri; Kroonen, Jerome et al

in Neuro-oncology (2016)

BACKGROUND: Epileptogenic glioblastomas are thought to convey a favorable prognosis, either due to early diagnosis or potential antitumor effects of antiepileptic drugs. We investigated the relationship ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Epileptogenic glioblastomas are thought to convey a favorable prognosis, either due to early diagnosis or potential antitumor effects of antiepileptic drugs. We investigated the relationship between survival and epilepsy at presentation, early diagnosis, and antiepileptic drug therapy in glioblastoma patients. METHODS: Multivariable Cox regression was applied to survival data of 647 consecutive patients diagnosed with de novo glioblastoma between 2005 and 2013 in order to investigate the association between epilepsy and survival in glioblastoma patients. In addition, we quantified the association between survival and valproic acid (VPA) treatment. RESULTS: Epilepsy correlated positively with survival (HR: 0.75 (95% CI: 0.61-0.92), P < .01). This effect is independent of age, sex, performance status, type of surgery, adjuvant therapy, tumor location, and tumor volume, suggesting that this positive correlation cannot be attributed solely to early diagnosis. For patients who presented with epilepsy, the use of the antiepileptic drug VPA did not associate with survival when compared with patients who did not receive VPA treatment. CONCLUSION: Epilepsy is an independent prognostic factor for longer survival in glioblastoma patients. This prognostic effect is not solely explained by early diagnosis, and survival is not associated with VPA treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of methanol/sorbitol co-feeding rate on pAOX1 induction in a Pichia pastoris Mut+ strain in bioreactor with limited oxygen transfer rate.
Carly, F.; Niu, H.; Delvigne, Frank ULg et al

in Journal of industrial microbiology & biotechnology (2016), 43(4), 517-23

High Pichia pastoris biomass density could be obtained using high co-feeding rate of methanol and sorbitol in a fed-batch or continuous culture, while further higher feeding rate finally leads to oxygen ... [more ▼]

High Pichia pastoris biomass density could be obtained using high co-feeding rate of methanol and sorbitol in a fed-batch or continuous culture, while further higher feeding rate finally leads to oxygen limitation in bioreactor. In the literature, there is lack of report about AOX1 promoter regulation with regard to dissolved oxygen level (DO). Therefore, in this work, chemostat cultures were performed to investigate the cell growth, metabolism and regulation of the AOX1 promoter (pAOX1) regarding co-feeding rate of optimized methanol/sorbitol mixture (methanol fraction 0.60 C-mol/C-mol) using a P. pastoris Mut+/pAOX1-lacZ strain. The oxygen transfer rates (OTR) in bioreactor were kept in the range of typical values of large bioreactor, i.e., 4-8 g/(L h) if DO equals 30 % saturation or 5-10 g/(L h) if DO nears zero. For DO >0, an increase of the carbon fed led to an increase of pAOX1 induction. By contrast, when dissolved oxygen was completely depleted, methanol accumulated, causing a 30 % decrease of pAOX1 induction. However, this decrease is more likely to be lined to methanol accumulation than to low level of dissolved oxygen (<4 % DO). Methanol/sorbitol co-feeding allowed cells to adapt to oxygen transient limitations that often occur at industrial scale with reduced effect on pAOX1 induction. The optimal feeding rate tested here was 6.6 mmol C (DCW h)(-1) at an OTR of 8.28 g O2(L h)(-1) with over fivefold pAOX1 induction (probably directly associated with target protein productivity) compared with previous work. [less ▲]

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See detailSources of dissolved silica to the fjords of northern Patagonia (44–48°S): the importance of volcanic ash soil distribution and weathering
Vandekerkhove, Elke; Bertrand, Sébastien; Reid, Brian et al

in Earth Surface Processes and Landforms (2016), 41(4), 499-512

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See detailAnalgesic Efficacy and Safety of Curcuminoids in Clinical Practice: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Sahebkar, A; Henrotin, Yves ULg

in Pain Medicine : The Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine (2016)

Background. Curcuminoids are natural products with potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. There have been a number of reports on the analgesic effects of curcuminoids in clinical trials, yet ... [more ▼]

Background. Curcuminoids are natural products with potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. There have been a number of reports on the analgesic effects of curcuminoids in clinical trials, yet data have not been fully conclusive. Objectives. To provide the highest level of evidence on the efficacy of curcuminoids in patients with painful conditions through meta-analysis of data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Methods. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted using data reported by RCTs. The primary efficacy measure was pain intensity or algofunctional status. Treatment effect was summarized with standardized mean difference (SMD) calculated from differences in means of pain measures between treatment and control groups using a random-effects model. Results. A total of eight RCTs met our inclusion criteria that included 606 randomized patients. Curcuminoids were found to significantly reduce pain (SMD: −0.57, 95% CI: −1.11 to −0.03, P = 0.04). This pain-relieving effect was found to be independent of administered dose and duration of treatment with curcuminoids, and was free from publication bias. Curcuminoids were safe and well tolerated in all evaluated RCTs. Conclusion. Curcuminoids supplements may be a safe and effective strategy to improve pain severity, by warranting further rigorously conducted studies to define the long-term efficacy and safety. [less ▲]

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See detailSound production by the Shi drum Umbrina cirrosa and comparison with the brown meagre Sciaena umbra: A passive acoustic monitoring perspective
Picciulin, Marta; Bolgan, Marta ULg; Coro', A.B. et al

in Journal of Fish Biology (2016), 88(4),

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See detailPrestation de services: précision sur la nature économique des services de planification et de gestion du service public de santé
Zians, Audrey ULg

in Revue Trimestrielle de Droit Européen (2016), 1(janvier-mars), 191-192

L'arrêt Saudaçor offre l'occasion à la Cour de réitérer sa jurisprudence souple en matière d'appréciation du caractère économique des prestations de services, position qui lui permet de maximiser le champ ... [more ▼]

L'arrêt Saudaçor offre l'occasion à la Cour de réitérer sa jurisprudence souple en matière d'appréciation du caractère économique des prestations de services, position qui lui permet de maximiser le champ d'application du droit de l'Union (CJUE 29 octobre 2015, aff. C-174/14, Saudaçor, EU:C:2015:733). [less ▲]

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See detailIn silico regenerative medicine: how computational tools allow regulatory and financial challenges to be addressed in a volatile market.
Geris, Liesbet ULg; Guyot, Y.; Schrooten, J. et al

in Interface focus (2016), 6(2), 20150105

The cell therapy market is a highly volatile one, due to the use of disruptive technologies, the current economic situation and the small size of the market. In such a market, companies as well as ... [more ▼]

The cell therapy market is a highly volatile one, due to the use of disruptive technologies, the current economic situation and the small size of the market. In such a market, companies as well as academic research institutes are in need of tools to advance their understanding and, at the same time, reduce their R&D costs, increase product quality and productivity, and reduce the time to market. An additional difficulty is the regulatory path that needs to be followed, which is challenging in the case of cell-based therapeutic products and should rely on the implementation of quality by design (QbD) principles. In silico modelling is a tool that allows the above-mentioned challenges to be addressed in the field of regenerative medicine. This review discusses such in silico models and focuses more specifically on the bioprocess. Three (clusters of) examples related to this subject are discussed. The first example comes from the pharmaceutical engineering field where QbD principles and their implementation through the use of in silico models are both a regulatory and economic necessity. The second example is related to the production of red blood cells. The described in silico model is mainly used to investigate the manufacturing process of the cell-therapeutic product, and pays special attention to the economic viability of the process. Finally, we describe the set-up of a model capturing essential events in the development of a tissue-engineered combination product in the context of bone tissue engineering. For each of the examples, a short introduction to some economic aspects is given, followed by a description of the in silico tool or tools that have been developed to allow the implementation of QbD principles and optimal design. [less ▲]

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See detailChemoautotrophy and anoxygenic photosynthesis within the water column of a large meromictic tropical lake (Lake Kivu, East Africa)
Morana, Cédric; Roland, Fleur ULg; Crowe, Sean A. et al

in Limnology and Oceanography (2016)

We quantified chemoautotrophic and anoxygenic photosynthetic microbial production in the water column of Lake Kivu, a permanently stratified tropical lake situated amidst volcanic activity, and aimed to ... [more ▼]

We quantified chemoautotrophic and anoxygenic photosynthetic microbial production in the water column of Lake Kivu, a permanently stratified tropical lake situated amidst volcanic activity, and aimed to identify the microorganisms involved in these processes through the analysis of their phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) content and stable isotope (13C) labelling of PLFA in a set of incubation experiments. Data demonstrate the existence of a biogeochemically active chemoautotrophic bacterial community in the redoxcline of Lake Kivu (50–70 m). PLFA data indicate that the bacterial communities are structured vertically in the water column, with a large dissimilarity between the oxic and anoxic waters. Maximum volumetric dark CO2 fixation rates measured in Lake Kivu were in the same range as values reported from H2S-rich marine redoxclines, such as the Black and Baltic Seas, and the Cariaco Basin. Similarly, maximal chemoautotrophic activities in Lake Kivu were observed in sulfidic waters, just below the oxycline. Anoxygenic photosynthetic production was never observed in the main basin of Lake Kivu. However, anoxygenic phototrophs largely dominated CO2 fixation in the illuminated redoxcline of Kabuno Bay, a shallower ferruginous sub-basin. Overall, this study supports the idea that chemoautotrophs and/or anoxygenic photoautotrophs might play an important role in the flow of carbon and energy in permanently stratified tropical ecosystems. In Lake Kivu, these processes significantly contribute to organic matter biosynthesis and exert an indirect control on oxygenic photoautotrophs by shortcircuiting the vertical transport of nutrients to the illuminated and oxygenated surface waters. [less ▲]

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See detailGender effect on the scapular 3D posture and kinematic in healthy subjects
Schwartz, Cédric ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Rigaux, Elise et al

in Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging (2016)

Populations considered for shoulder analysis are often composed of various ratios of men and women. It is consequently hypothesized that gender has no significant effect on the joint kinematic. However ... [more ▼]

Populations considered for shoulder analysis are often composed of various ratios of men and women. It is consequently hypothesized that gender has no significant effect on the joint kinematic. However the literature reports, for the shoulder, differences in the range of motion between genders. The specific influence of gender on the scapula-thoracic kinematics has not been studied yet. The dominant shoulder of two populations of men and women composed of 11 subjects each were evaluated in three dimensions for three distinct motions: flexion in the sagittal plane, abduction in the frontal plane and gleno-humeral internal/external rotation with the arm abducted at 90°. Posture, kinematics and range of motion were studied separately. For flexion and abduction and with regard to the scapular kinematic, external rotation were significantly larger for women than men. The differences were of at least 5° at 120° of humeral elevation. Upward rotations were identical. Women also showed larger average active humero-thoracic range of motion. The mean differences were of 13°, 7°, 12° and 5° for abduction, flexion, internal rotation and external rotation, respectively. No difference was observed between the scapular resting positions of both populations. The observed differences concerning both the scapular and humeral patterns would indicate that the shoulder behavior of men and women should not be expected to be similar. [less ▲]

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See detailDulaglutide (LY-2189265) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Scheen, André ULg

in Expert review of clinical pharmacology (2016), 9(3), 385-99

Dulaglutide is a new once-weekly glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist for the management of hyperglycemia in adult patients with type 2 diabetes. It stimulates dose-dependent insulin secretion and ... [more ▼]

Dulaglutide is a new once-weekly glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist for the management of hyperglycemia in adult patients with type 2 diabetes. It stimulates dose-dependent insulin secretion and reduces glucagon secretion, both in a glucose-dependent manner. Efficacy on blood glucose control and safety were demonstrated in the large AWARD program in type 2 diabetic patients treated with diet, metformin, dual oral therapy or insulin lispro with or without metformin, confirming findings of pilot studies in Caucasian patients and data in Japanese patients. Dulaglutide 1.5 mg once weekly was superior to metformin, sitagliptin, insulin glargine and exenatide twice daily, and non-inferior to liraglutide 1.8 mg once daily regarding the reduction in glycated hemoglobin. A modest but significant weight loss was consistently observed. Most frequent adverse events were transient and generally mild gastrointestinal disturbances. Clinical outcomes of dulaglutide will not be known until the large prospective cardiovascular outcome trial REWIND is complete. [less ▲]

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See detailObservation en bref
Onclin, François ULg

in Aménagement - Environnement (2016)

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See detailLiver Transplantation for Hepatic Trauma: A Study From the European Liver Transplant Registry.
Krawczyk, Marek; Grat, Michal; Adam, Rene et al

in Transplantation (2016), 100(11), 2372-2381

BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation is the most extreme form of surgical management of patients with hepatic trauma, with very limited literature data supporting its use. The aim of this study was to assess ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation is the most extreme form of surgical management of patients with hepatic trauma, with very limited literature data supporting its use. The aim of this study was to assess the results of liver transplantation for hepatic trauma. METHODS: This retrospective analysis based on European Liver Transplant Registry comprised data of 73 recipients of liver transplantation for hepatic trauma performed in 37 centers in the period between 1987 and 2013. Mortality and graft loss rates at 90 days were set as primary and secondary outcome measures, respectively. RESULTS: Mortality and graft loss rates at 90 days were 42.5% and 46.6%, respectively. Regarding general variables, cross-clamping without extracorporeal veno-venous bypass was the only independent risk factor for both mortality (P = 0.031) and graft loss (P = 0.034). Regarding more detailed factors, grade of liver trauma exceeding IV increased the risk of mortality (P = 0.005) and graft loss (P = 0.018). Moreover, a tendency above the level of significance was observed for the negative impact of injury severity score (ISS) on mortality (P = 0.071). The optimal cut-off for ISS was 33, with sensitivity of 60.0%, specificity of 80.0%, positive predictive value of 75.0%, and negative predictive value of 66.7%. CONCLUSIONS: Liver transplantation seems to be justified in selected patients with otherwise fatal severe liver injuries, particularly in whom cross-clamping without extracorporeal bypass can be omitted. The ISS cutoff less than 33 may be useful in the selection process. [less ▲]

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See detailThe radial artery for coronary artery bypass grafting: a second revival?
Sousa Uva, Miguel; Kolh, Philippe ULg

in European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery (2016), 49(1), 210-1

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See detailCombining microCT-based characterization with empirical modelling as a robust screening approach for the design of optimized CaP-containing scaffolds for progenitor cell-mediated bone formation.
Kerckhofs, G.; Chai, Y. C.; Luyten, F. P. et al

in Acta Biomaterialia (2016), 35

Biomaterials are a key ingredient to the success of bone tissue engineering (TE), which focuses on the healing of bone defects by combining scaffolds with cells and/or growth factors. Due to the widely ... [more ▼]

Biomaterials are a key ingredient to the success of bone tissue engineering (TE), which focuses on the healing of bone defects by combining scaffolds with cells and/or growth factors. Due to the widely variable material characteristics and patient-specificities, however, current bone TE strategies still suffer from low repeatability and lack of robustness, which hamper clinical translation. Hence, optimal TE construct (i.e. cells and scaffold) characteristics are still under debate. This study aimed to reduce the material-specific variability for cell-based construct design, avoiding trial-and-error, by combining microCT characterization and empirical modelling as an innovative and robust screening approach. Via microCT characterization we have built a quantitative construct library of morphological and compositional properties of six CE approved CaP-based scaffolds (CopiOs(R), BioOss, Integra Mozaik, chronOS Vivify, MBCP and ReproBone), and of their bone forming capacity and in vivo scaffold degradation when combined with human periosteal derived cells (hPDCs). The empirical model, based on the construct library, allowed identification of the construct characteristics driving optimized bone formation, i.e. (a) the percentage of beta-TCP and dibasic calcium phosphate, (b) the concavity of the CaP structure, (c) the average CaP structure thickness and (d) the seeded cell amount (taking into account the seeding efficiency). Additionally, the model allowed to quantitatively predict the bone forming response of different hPDC-CaP scaffold combinations, thus providing input for a more robust design of optimized constructs and avoiding trial-and error. This could improve and facilitate clinical translation. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Biomaterials that support regenerative processes are a key ingredient for successful bone tissue engineering (TE). However, the optimal scaffold structure is still under debate. In this study, we have provided a useful innovative approach for robust screening of potential biomaterials or constructs (i.e. scaffolds seeded with cells and/or growth factors) by combining microCT characterization with empirical modelling. This novel approach leads to a better insight in the scaffold parameters influencing progenitor cell-mediated bone formation. Additionally, it serves as input for more controlled and robust design of optimized CaP-containing bone TE scaffolds. Hence, this novel approach could improve and facilitate clinical translation. [less ▲]

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See detailA review of the characteristics of Small-Leaved Lime (Tilia cordata Mill.) and their implications for silviculture in a changing climate
De Jaegere, Tanguy; Hein, Sébastien; Claessens, Hugues ULg

in Forests (2016), 7(3), 56

Tilia cordata Mill. is a minor European broadleaved species with a wide but scattered distribution. Given its scarcity and low value in the wood market, it has received little attention from researchers ... [more ▼]

Tilia cordata Mill. is a minor European broadleaved species with a wide but scattered distribution. Given its scarcity and low value in the wood market, it has received little attention from researchers and forest managers. This review summarizes the main aspects of T. cordata ecology and growth. Its main limiting factor is its need for warm summer temperatures to ensure successful seed production. It has a height growth pattern relatively similar to that of Acer pseudoplatanus L., with a slight delay in the early stages. Yield tables report great productivity, especially in eastern Europe. T. cordata used to be a major species in Europe, in contrast to its present distribution, but it is very likely to receive renewed interest in the future. Indeed, with the potential change of competition between species in some regions and the need for important diversification in others, T. cordata may play an important role in forest adaptation to climate change, especially owing to its wide ecological tolerance and its numerous ecosystem services. It is necessary to increase our knowledge about its regeneration and its responses to environmental and silvicultural factors, to establish clear management recommendations. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation on the use of foamed plastic waste as natural aggregates replacement in lightweight mortar
Coppola, Bartolomeo ULg; Courard, Luc ULg; Michel, Frédéric et al

in Composites : Part B, Engineering (2016), 99

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See detailA comprehensive density functional theory study of the key role of fluorination and dual hydrogen bonding in the activation of the epoxide/CO2 coupling by fluorinated alcohols
Alves, Margot ULg; Méreau, Raphaël; Grignard, Bruno ULg et al

in RSC Advances (2016), 6(43), 36327-36335

The activation mechanism of the CO2/propylene oxide coupling catalysed by a bicomponent organocatalyst combining the use of TBABr with (multi)phenolic or fluorinated hydrogen bond donors (HBDs) was ... [more ▼]

The activation mechanism of the CO2/propylene oxide coupling catalysed by a bicomponent organocatalyst combining the use of TBABr with (multi)phenolic or fluorinated hydrogen bond donors (HBDs) was investigated using the Density Functional Theory (DFT). Thus, it was shown that increasing the number of electron withdrawing trifluoromethyl substituents in HBDs strengthens their proton donor capability and allows a better stabilization by hydrogen bonding of the intermediates and transition states. In addition, the high efficiency of fluorinated monoalcohol activators is related to a dual hydrogen bonding mechanism by two fluorinated molecules that cooperatively contribute to the CO2/propylene oxide coupling. [less ▲]

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See detailLa empresa social en Bélgica: diversidad de fuentes, modelos y campos
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg

in Revista de la Academia (2016), 21

Este artículo está estructurado como sigue: la primera sección introductoria revisa las principales raíces históricas que han conduci- do a la emergencia de una diversidad de modelos relacionados con la ... [more ▼]

Este artículo está estructurado como sigue: la primera sección introductoria revisa las principales raíces históricas que han conduci- do a la emergencia de una diversidad de modelos relacionados con la empresa social y a la economía social en Bélgica. Enseguida, la segunda sección esboza los principales aspectos de esos modelos en relación a sus formas legales, tipos de misión social a las que se orientan, dinámicas de gobierno y recursos. En la tercera sección, esos modelos son ilustrados in diferentes campos de actividad, tanto establecidos como emergentes. Finalmente, la cuarta sección propone un análisis transversal de los principales tendencias y desafíos que enfrenta el desarrollo y coexisten- cia de los diferentes modelos. [less ▲]

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See detailPreliminary studies on Imbrasia oyemensis, a valuable non-wood forest productinCameroon
Tabi Eckebil, Paule Pamela; Verheggen, François ULg; Sonwa, Denis Jean et al

in Nature et Faune (2016), 30(2), 73-78

La consommation d’insectes occupe une grande place dans le domaine de la sécurité alimentaire des peuples d’Afrique, d’Asie et d’Amérique latine. Imbrasia oyemensis (Saturniidae) est une chenille ... [more ▼]

La consommation d’insectes occupe une grande place dans le domaine de la sécurité alimentaire des peuples d’Afrique, d’Asie et d’Amérique latine. Imbrasia oyemensis (Saturniidae) est une chenille comestible, classée comme Produit Forestier Non Ligneux (PFNL). Elle est inféodée à Entandrophragma cylindricum dénommé « Sapelli », classée parmi les principales essences de bois d’œuvre d’Afrique centrale destinée à l’export. L’exploitation de cette essence de bois d’œuvre pourrait donc être concurrentielle pour les populations locales, qui pourraient se trouver privées de cette ressource non ligneuse qu’est la chenille. Ce papier présente les résultats préliminaires d’une étude qui visait à déterminer les caractéristiques morphologiques des arbres impliquées dans la sélection du site de ponte des papillons. Les larves d’I.oyemensis se retrouvent principalement sur des individus co-dominant ou dominant ayant déjà atteint le diamètre de fructification régulière. Ces résultats fournissent des pistes utiles comme point de départ aux études sur l’écologie de la chenille en relation avec son arbre hôte. [less ▲]

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See detailRecent Advances on the Oil-Free Scroll Compressor
Bin, Peng; Legros, Arnaud; Lemort, Vincent ULg et al

in Recent Patents on Mechanical Engineering (2016), 9

Traditionally, scroll compressors are mainly made of metallic parts and oil is used to lubricate the friction surfaces and reduce discharge temperature and leakage. But for the food processing, medical ... [more ▼]

Traditionally, scroll compressors are mainly made of metallic parts and oil is used to lubricate the friction surfaces and reduce discharge temperature and leakage. But for the food processing, medical systems, textile manufacturing, fuel cell system, and other super-clean fields, the oil-less operation is critical. The oil is strictly forbidden in the working chambers of the scroll compressor in order to get the oil-free compressed air. So it is very important to develop the oil-free scroll compressor (OFSC). In this paper, the working principle and structure characteristics of the OFSC are investigated. Some of research works and the recent patents in this area are described and analyzed in detail, especially the water injection and air cooling OFSC. The future development on an OFSC is also presented. The analysis results demonstrated that there is dramatic growth potential in OFSC field. [less ▲]

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See detailElongator controls cortical interneuron migration by regulating actomyosin dynamics.
Tielens, Sylvia ULg; Huysseune, Sandra; Godin, Juliette D. et al

in Cell Research (2016)

The migration of cortical interneurons is a fundamental process for the establishment of cortical connectivity and its impairment underlies several neurological disorders. During development, these ... [more ▼]

The migration of cortical interneurons is a fundamental process for the establishment of cortical connectivity and its impairment underlies several neurological disorders. During development, these neurons are born in the ganglionic eminences and they migrate tangentially to populate the cortical layers. This process relies on various morphological changes that are driven by dynamic cytoskeleton remodelings. By coupling time lapse imaging with molecular analyses, we show that the Elongator complex controls cortical interneuron migration in mouse embryos by regulating nucleokinesis and branching dynamics. At the molecular level, Elongator fine-tunes actomyosin forces by regulating the distribution and turnover of actin microfilaments during cell migration. Thus, we demonstrate that Elongator cell-autonomously promotes cortical interneuron migration by controlling actin cytoskeletal dynamics.Cell Research advance online publication 27 September 2016; doi:10.1038/cr.2016.112. [less ▲]

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See detailFast In-Plane Dynamics of a Beam with Unilateral Constraints
Liakou, Anna; Denoël, Vincent ULg; Detournay, Emmanuel

in Journal of Engineering Mechanics (2016), 0(0), 04016116

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See detailThe place of viscoelastic testing in clinical practice.
Hans, Grégory ULg; Besser, Martin W.

in British Journal of Haematology (2016), 173(1), 37-48

Hellmut Hartert was the first person to exploit the viscoelastic properties of clotting blood to measure blood coagulation in 1948. Since then, the technology has improved, allowing these analyses to be ... [more ▼]

Hellmut Hartert was the first person to exploit the viscoelastic properties of clotting blood to measure blood coagulation in 1948. Since then, the technology has improved, allowing these analyses to be performed as point-of-care tests with immediately-available results. The addition of several activators and inhibitors to the original assay creates a panel of tests able to quantify the different aspects of blood clotting that can rival conventional laboratory assays. However, although much progress has been made, the standardization and validation of these tests still need improvement. Viscoelastic analyses of blood coagulation are mainly used to guide haemostatic therapy in bleeding patients and have proven superior to standard clotting tests in some circumstances. There is potential to extend their use to other areas, such as drug monitoring, and diagnosis and management of congenital bleeding disorders. The forthcoming cartridge-based assays are expected to improve the reliability and usability of viscoelastic assays of blood coagulation but high quality clinical trials remain urgently needed to determine their exact place, benefit and cost effectiveness. [less ▲]

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See detailA roadmap to multifactor dimensionality reduction methods.
Gola, Damian; Mahachie John, Jestinah M.; Van Steen, Kristel ULg et al

in Briefings in Bioinformatics (2016), 17(2), 293-308

Complex diseases are defined to be determined by multiple genetic and environmental factors alone as well as in interactions. To analyze interactions in genetic data, many statistical methods have been ... [more ▼]

Complex diseases are defined to be determined by multiple genetic and environmental factors alone as well as in interactions. To analyze interactions in genetic data, many statistical methods have been suggested, with most of them relying on statistical regression models. Given the known limitations of classical methods, approaches from the machine-learning community have also become attractive. From this latter family, a fast-growing collection of methods emerged that are based on the Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (MDR) approach. Since its first introduction, MDR has enjoyed great popularity in applications and has been extended and modified multiple times. Based on a literature search, we here provide a systematic and comprehensive overview of these suggested methods. The methods are described in detail, and the availability of implementations is listed. Most recent approaches offer to deal with large-scale data sets and rare variants, which is why we expect these methods to even gain in popularity. [less ▲]

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See detailReview of Abigail Ward, Caryl Phillips, David Dabydeen, and Fred D’Aguiar: Representations of Slavery
Ledent, Bénédicte ULg

in Moving Worlds : A Journal of Transcultural Writings (2016), 16(2), 114-116

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See detailThe Belgian supermarkets 'hub&spoke' settlement decision
Mattioli, Evi ULg

in Journal for European Competition Law and Practice (2016), 7(4), 261-266

The Belgian Competition Authority (BCA) recently imposed the highest fine ever in history of Belgian competition law enforcement for a ‘hub&spoke’ cartel in the supply and retail sector of drugstore ... [more ▼]

The Belgian Competition Authority (BCA) recently imposed the highest fine ever in history of Belgian competition law enforcement for a ‘hub&spoke’ cartel in the supply and retail sector of drugstore, perfumery, and hygiene (DPH) products. Seven supermarkets had indirectly coordinated end-consumer price increases for branded DPH products by exchanging information through the suppliers, who knowingly provided support to the cartel as intermediaries and facilitators of the cartel. In its settlement decision, the BCA ultimately failed to base the finding of an infringement by settlement decision on established competition law principles. [less ▲]

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See detailReady for Change!
Nchimi Longang, Alain ULg

in Journal of the Belgian Society of Radiology (2016)

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See detailExamen de jurisprudence (2010-2013) - Les sociétés commerciales (deuxième partie)
Léonard, Laura ULg; Caprasse, Olivier; Dieux, Xavier et al

in Revue Critique de Jurisprudence Belge [= RCJB] (2016), (2),

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See detailRisks and some prevention solution in the chicken raising: a case study in Kim Dong District, Hung Yen Province, Vietnam
Bui Thi, Nga; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

in Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research (2016), 3(4), 506-510

Chicken raising in Vietnam is still spontaneous, small scale, scattered, backward, low productivity, and especially faces many risks which would reduce the efficiency and profits of the farmers. This ... [more ▼]

Chicken raising in Vietnam is still spontaneous, small scale, scattered, backward, low productivity, and especially faces many risks which would reduce the efficiency and profits of the farmers. This study aims to analyze risks and suggest some prevention solutions in the chicken raising in a case study of the Kim Dong district, Hung Yen province based on the questionnaire survey data of 40 representative chicken raising farmers. The results showed that, the most popular risks of input came from the high feed price (80%), and the easily engaged in diseases breed (72.5%). In the chicken raising period, they got the risks of diseases (90%), 35% had experienced with massive death. There were 80% farmers found difficulty or slow consumption, 70% was at risk of reducing or low output prices, and 65% responded that the market sometimes was distorted by the traders. The study suggests that, farmers need to have a strong cooperative to create a greater power in the negotiation with feed providing companies; select good prestige, ensured quality breed providers; reorganize their production process, regularly vaccinate, carefully monitored for early detection of epidemics, quarantine sick chickens from the flock, treat the diseases completely; update the market information to raise at the suitable production size. Government and local authorities should support them about market information so they can make the most appropriate and beneficial decision about production. [less ▲]

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See detailPlicathyridine brachiopods (Athyridida) from the Frasnian (Late Devonian) of Western Europe and Middle East
Mottequin, Bernard; Brice, Denise; Marion, Jean-Marc ULg et al

in Geobios (2016), 49

Plicathyridine brachiopods (Athyridida) from the early–middle Frasnian of southern Belgium and northern France (Dinant Synclinorium) are systematically described for the first time. They include two ... [more ▼]

Plicathyridine brachiopods (Athyridida) from the early–middle Frasnian of southern Belgium and northern France (Dinant Synclinorium) are systematically described for the first time. They include two species: Anathyris (Anathyris) calestiennensis nov. sp., and A. (A.) sp. indet. 1. They are uncommon in the mainly shally La Prée (Nismes Formation) and Ermitage (Moulin Liénaux Formation) members and are absent from the mixed argillaceous–carbonate late Frasnian succession in this area, contrary to what is observed in Russia, notably in the East-European Platform and Siberia. In the Middle East, two species of Anathyris are recognized on the basis of a limited material from the Dascht-e-Nawar area in Afghanistan (A. (A.) sp. indet. 2) and the Kuh-e Kaftar mountains in Central Iran (A. (A.) sp. indet. 3). Anathyris (A.) calestiennensis nov. sp. is sometimes encrusted by epizoans (tabulate and rugose corals, and bryozoans) and rarely displays single, small circular drill holes. The past and current epizoan–brachiopod interactions are also discussed (Anathyris vs. Lingula, respectively). [less ▲]

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See detailCytogenetic Studies of Rwandan Pediatric Patients Presenting with Global Developmental Delay, Intellectual Disability and/or Multiple Congenital Anomalies.
Uwineza, Annette; Hitayezu, Janvier; JAMAR, Mauricette ULg et al

in Journal of tropical pediatrics (2016)

Global developmental delay (GDD) is defined as a significant delay in two or more developmental domains: gross or fine motor, speech/language, cognitive, social/personal and activities of daily living ... [more ▼]

Global developmental delay (GDD) is defined as a significant delay in two or more developmental domains: gross or fine motor, speech/language, cognitive, social/personal and activities of daily living. Many of these children will go on to be diagnosed with intellectual disability (ID), which is most commonly defined as having an IQ <75 in addition to impairment in adaptive functioning. Cytogenetic studies have been performed in 664 Rwandan pediatric patients presenting GDD/ID and/or multiple congenital abnormalities (MCA). Karyotype analysis was performed in all patients and revealed 260 chromosomal abnormalities. The most frequent chromosomal abnormality was Down syndrome and then Edward syndrome and Patau syndrome. Other identified chromosomal abnormalities included 47,XX,+del(9)(q11), 46,XY,del(13)(q34) and 46,XX,der(22)t(10;22)(p10;p10)mat. In conclusion, our results highlight the high frequency of cytogenetically detectable abnormalities in this series, with implications for the burden on the healthcare. This study demonstrates the importance of cytogenetic analysis in patients with GDD/ID and MCA. [less ▲]

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See detailStaphylococcus aureus genotype B and other genotypes isolated from cow milk in European countries.
Cosandey, A.; Boss, R.; Luini, M. et al

in Journal of dairy science (2016), 99(1), 529-40

Staphylococcus aureus is globally one of the most important pathogens causing contagious mastitis in cattle. Previous studies, however, have demonstrated in Swiss cows that Staph. aureus isolated from ... [more ▼]

Staphylococcus aureus is globally one of the most important pathogens causing contagious mastitis in cattle. Previous studies, however, have demonstrated in Swiss cows that Staph. aureus isolated from bovine intramammary infection is genetically heterogeneous, with Staph. aureus genotype B (GTB) and GTC being the most prominent genotypes. In addition, Staph. aureus GTB was found to be contagious, whereas Staph. aureus GTC and all the remaining genotypes were involved in individual cow disease. The aim of this study was to subtype strains of Staph. aureus isolated from bovine mastitic milk and bulk tank milk to obtain a unified view of the presence of bovine staphylococcal subtypes in 12 European countries. A total of 456 strains of Staph. aureus were subjected to different typing methods: ribosomal spacer PCR, detection of enterotoxin genes, and detection of gene polymorphisms (lukE, coa). Major genotypes with their variants were combined into genotypic clusters (CL). This study revealed 5 major CL representing 76% of all strains and comprised CLB, CLC, CLF, CLI, and CLR. The clusters were characterized by the same genetic properties as the Swiss isolates, demonstrating high clonality of bovine Staph. aureus. Interestingly, CLB was situated in central Europe whereas the other CL were widely disseminated. The remaining 24% of the strains comprised 41 genotypes and variants, some of which (GTAM, GTBG) were restricted to certain countries; many others, however, were observed only once. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of vertical contamination of Cd, Pb and Zn in soils around a former ore smelter in Wallonia, Belgium
Liénard, Amandine ULg; Colinet, Gilles ULg

in Environmental Earth Sciences (2016), 75

Concentrations of trace elements (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) and major elements (Ca, Mg, K, Fe, Al and Mn) as well as pHKCl and total organic carbon (TOC) were measured on 22 profiles located in a 3 ... [more ▼]

Concentrations of trace elements (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) and major elements (Ca, Mg, K, Fe, Al and Mn) as well as pHKCl and total organic carbon (TOC) were measured on 22 profiles located in a 3 km radius of a former ore-treatment plant in Wallonia (Belgium). The enrichment factor (EF), vertical impoverishment factor (VIF) and availability ratio (AR) were used as diagnostic tools of contamination and migration of Cd, Pb and Zn in profiles. The data revealed that the soil profiles are significantly contaminated. The ranges of EFs for Cd (17–3570), Pb (1–2883) and Zn (2–309) are very broad with the higher EF in the topsoil of the profiles. VIFs of subhorizons are rarely above 1. In the few cases with VIF > 1, the main factor explaining is the soil type (in particular, Colluvic Regosols, Luvisols and Cambisols with shale load). Cd, Pb and Zn ARs are strongly correlated with TOC and to a lesser extent with pHKCl; Pb and Zn ARs are influenced by soil type while land use only has an effect on Zn AR. The Cd availability is independent of these two factors. The contents of trace elements measured in soil profiles are very high, especially in topsoil. At present, the Cd, Pb and Zn vertical distribution shows a low migration from topsoil to deeper levels. However, we must not discount the hazard of a future potential transfer. [less ▲]

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See detailGrasshoppers as a food source? A review
Paul, Aman ULg; Frederich, Michel ULg; Uyttenbroeck, Roel ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment (2016), 20(AgricultureIsLife), 337-352

Description of the subject. Current trends suggest an increasing future demand for conventional meats, which indicates a strong need to shift this dependency to other alternative protein sources such as ... [more ▼]

Description of the subject. Current trends suggest an increasing future demand for conventional meats, which indicates a strong need to shift this dependency to other alternative protein sources such as insects. Literature. From a nutritional point of view, of all the insects consumed globally, grasshoppers are particularly important as a human food. Data from the literature regarding the nutrient composition, amino acid profile, fatty acid profile, mineral composition and vitamin content of grasshoppers as reviewed in this paper, suggest that a number of grasshopper species are a good source of nutrients. It also highlights some of the health related aspects that might arise from the consumption of grasshoppers, mostly linked to agricultural practices and the allergic response of sensitive individuals. The paper also summarizes some religious, social and economic factors that are associated with grasshopper consumption. Conclusions. The success of introducing grasshoppers as a novel food in western countries depends on changes in consumer attitudes. It would be interesting to develop food products derived from grasshoppers in a form acceptable to consumers. Furthermore, it is important to explore the food potential of some grasshopper species native to western countries and to develop their rearing methodologies to enhance availability. [less ▲]

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See detailPlan de formation-insertion et garantie d'emploi : l'employeur qui s'engage
Cordier, Quentin ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2016), 14

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See detailMaximum Entropy Kernels for System Identification
Carli, Francesca Paola ULg; Chen, Tianshi; Ljung, Lennart

in IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control (2016)

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See detailReassessment of the acrylamide risk: Belgium as a case-study
Claes, Wendie; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Huyghebaert, André et al

in Food Control (2016), 59

Acrylamide is a food process contaminant with carcinogenic and genotoxic properties. As a result of intensive research, numerous mitigation initiatives to prevent its formation were suggested and various ... [more ▼]

Acrylamide is a food process contaminant with carcinogenic and genotoxic properties. As a result of intensive research, numerous mitigation initiatives to prevent its formation were suggested and various of them were implemented in the food chain. To evaluate if the mitigation strategies applied were significant, a comparison was made between two time periods (2002e2007 versus 2008e2013) in terms of acrylamide food levels and dietary exposure in Belgian. The most important changes observed are a significant decrease of the acrylamide content in potato crisps and gingerbread, and a significant increase in (instant) coffee. Additionally, the acrylamide content of breakfast cereals, bread and rolls, chocolate and baby biscuits showed a downward trend, whereas for coffee substitute and ready-to-eat French fries (mainly obtained from catering facilities), an upward, although not significant, trend was observed. These changes resulted in only a slight, but insignificant decline of the overall dietary exposure of adults, adolescents and children. The mean and P95 intake estimated in the 2008e2013 period for these consumer groups corresponded to margins of exposure (MOE) ranging between 515 and 236 and between 155 and 71, respectively, when based on the endpoint for neoplastic effects (BMDL10 ¼ 0.17 mg/kg bw per day). Such low MOE values indicate that acrylamide remains an issue for public concern, requiring renewed attention. [less ▲]

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See detailZooarchaeological study of an Upper Palaeolithic site with mammoth remains, Pushkari Ieexcavation VII (Chernigov oblast, Ukraine)
Demay, Laëtitia ULg; Péan, Stéphane; Belyaeva, Valentina I. et al

in Quaternary International (2016)

The Pushkari archaeological complex is one of the few sites which shows human occupations related to the first part of the Upper Pleniglacial. Pushkari I furnished rich archaeological material. Study of ... [more ▼]

The Pushkari archaeological complex is one of the few sites which shows human occupations related to the first part of the Upper Pleniglacial. Pushkari I furnished rich archaeological material. Study of the lithic industry identified a facies of Gravettian with epigravettian features, called Pushkarian. In order to figure out acquisition and treatment modalities of large mammals, and to test the hypothesis of the use of woolly mammoth as a source of food and building material, we conducted a zooarchaeological study of the faunal remains from excavation VII of Pushkari I. The faunal spectrum is made of Mammuthus primigenius, the predominant species, Equus sp., R. tarandus, Canis lupus and Vulpes vulpes/Alopex lagopus. Taphonomic study suggests that some bone remains of mammoth lay in open-air for a long time before they were buried while bones of carnivores and other bones of mammoth were quickly buried. All the assemblage was affected by acid sandy deposits. Phenomena of freeze-thaw action were observed, but the archaeological layer was little disturbed. Mammoths came regularly on the promontory. The skeletal preservation shows that they died there. The mortality profile with a majority of adults combined with a palethnographic interpretation suggests that they were slaughtered and butchered by human groups. Tusks were stored. The spatial distribution indicates a campsite, which corresponds to recurrent short-termed occupations on the promontory by human groups. This site is a strategic place to collect flint to make weapons, to find dry mammoth bones, and to hunt and butcher mammoths. This study provides new data to understand the particular status of the woolly mammoth for the Upper Pleniglacial human groups in the Russo-Ukrainian plain. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluences of the aqueous synthesis way and organosilane nature on the physico-chemical properties of porous alumina
Claude, Vincent ULg; Vilaseca, Miriam; Tatton, Andrew ULg et al

in European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry (2016), 2016(11), 1678-1689

The aqueous sol-gel synthesis of γ-Al2O3 modified with different silicon precursors {trimethoxysilane, triethoxysilane and N-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ethylene diamine} has been investigated. Two ... [more ▼]

The aqueous sol-gel synthesis of γ-Al2O3 modified with different silicon precursors {trimethoxysilane, triethoxysilane and N-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ethylene diamine} has been investigated. Two parameters have been studied: the silicon addition step and the type of silicon alkoxide. A first observation was that adding a silicon alkoxide either before or just after the precipitation step influences both the crystallinity and structure, whereas adding the alkoxide after a long agitation time only slightly modifies the support properties. It was also highlighted that due to their higher reactivity, silicon precursors with methoxy groups interact more strongly with the bulk alumina than the silicon precursors with ethoxy groups. This difference of Si location in the alumina structure permitted not only their resistance toward phase transition to be increased at high temperature, but also to stabilize them more efficiently against sintering under normal and steam conditions. Among the different silicon alkoxides tested, samples prepared with N-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ethylene diamine showed very unusual properties. The alumina supports modified with this precursor showed grain-shaped nanocrystallites, whereas all other samples were platelet-like. As a result, this sample presented a very narrow pore diameter distribution of around 5 nm and a remarkably high specific surface area (530 m2/g). [less ▲]

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See detailApoptosis of Sertoli cells after conditional ablation of murine double minute 2 (Mdm2) gene is p53-dependent and results in male sterility.
Fouchecourt, S.; Livera, G.; Messiaen, S. et al

in Cell death and differentiation (2016)

Beside its well-documented role in carcinogenesis, the function of p53 family has been more recently revealed in development and female reproduction, but it is still poorly documented in male reproduction ... [more ▼]

Beside its well-documented role in carcinogenesis, the function of p53 family has been more recently revealed in development and female reproduction, but it is still poorly documented in male reproduction. We specifically tested this possibility by ablating Mdm2, an E3 ligase that regulates p53 protein stability and transactivation function, specifically in Sertoli cells (SCs) using the AMH-Cre line and created the new SC-Mdm2-/- line. Heterozygous SC-Mdm2-/+ adult males were fertile, but SC-Mdm2-/- males were infertile and exhibited: a shorter ano-genital distance, an extra duct along the vas deferens that presents a uterus-like morphology, degenerated testes with no organized seminiferous tubules and a complete loss of differentiated germ cells. In adults, testosterone levels as well as StAR, P450c17 (Cyp17a1) and P450scc (Cyp11a1) mRNA levels decreased significantly, and both plasma LH and FSH levels increased. A detailed investigation of testicular development indicated that the phenotype arose during fetal life, with SC-Mdm2-/- testes being much smaller at birth. Interestingly, Leydig cells remained present until adulthood and fetal germ cells abnormally initiated meiosis. Inactivation of Mdm2 in SCs triggered p53 activation and apoptosis as early as 15.5 days post conception with significant increase in apoptotic SCs. Importantly, testis development occurred normally in SC-Mdm2-/- lacking p53 mice (SC-Mdm2-/-p53-/-) and accordingly, these mice were fertile indicating that the aforementioned phenotypes are entirely p53-dependent. These data not only highlight the importance of keeping p53 in check for proper testicular development and male fertility but also certify the critical role of SCs in the maintenance of meiotic repression.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 16 October 2015; doi:10.1038/cdd.2015.120. [less ▲]

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See detailCompte rendu de Vincent Artuso, La "question juive" au Luxembourg (1933-1941)
Brüll, Christoph ULg

in Hemecht : Zeitschrift für Luxemburger Geschichte = Revue d'Histoire Luxembourgeoise (2016), (3), 378-382

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See detailAbelian bordered factors and periodicity
Charlier, Emilie ULg; Harju, Tero; Puzynina, Svetlana et al

in European Journal of Combinatorics (2016), 51

A finite word u is said to be bordered if u has a proper prefix which is also a suffix of u, and unbordered otherwise. Ehrenfeucht and Silberger proved that an infinite word is purely periodic if and only ... [more ▼]

A finite word u is said to be bordered if u has a proper prefix which is also a suffix of u, and unbordered otherwise. Ehrenfeucht and Silberger proved that an infinite word is purely periodic if and only if it contains only finitely many unbordered factors. We are interested in abelian and weak abelian analogues of this result; namely, we investigate the following question(s): Let w be an infinite word such that all sufficiently long factors are (weakly) abelian bordered; is w (weakly) abelian periodic? In the process we answer a question of Avgustinovich et al. concerning the abelian critical factorization theorem. [less ▲]

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See detailFully automated electrophoretically mediated microanalysis for CYP1A1 activity monitoring optimized by multivariate approach
Farcas, Elena ULg; Servais, Anne-Catherine ULg; Lamalle, Caroline ULg et al

in Electrophoresis (2016), 37(2), 248-255

In this study, a fully automatized in-capillary system was developed to monitor the activity of CYP1A1 in physiological conditions. Ethoxycoumarin, the selected substrate, undergoes an in-line bioreaction ... [more ▼]

In this study, a fully automatized in-capillary system was developed to monitor the activity of CYP1A1 in physiological conditions. Ethoxycoumarin, the selected substrate, undergoes an in-line bioreaction in the presence of CYP1A1 supersomes and NADPH as co-factor, giving rise to hydroxycoumarin, the product that was assayed. The optimization of the experimental conditions was supported by the application of a design of experiment, providing a better understanding of electrophoretic mixing parameters that influence the metabolic reactions. The results obtained in optimal conditions were compared not only to those achieved after off-line metabolization but also with liver microsomes. Finally, inhibition studies were conducted showing an important decrease of hydroxycoumarin formation using apigenin as CYP1A1 potent inhibitor. This study demonstrates the usefulness of our in-line system for the fully automated in vitro metabolism studies and the screening of new CYP1A1 inhibitors. [less ▲]

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See detailFacteurs pronostiques du cancer pulmonaire non à petites cellules
GESTER, Fanny; PAULUS, Astrid ULg; SIBILLE, Anne ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2016), 71(1), 34-39

Summary : Non small cell lung cancer is the most frequent type of lung cancer and its prognosis is still very poor. Relapse is frequent and can be observed even in early stages of the disease, in spite of ... [more ▼]

Summary : Non small cell lung cancer is the most frequent type of lung cancer and its prognosis is still very poor. Relapse is frequent and can be observed even in early stages of the disease, in spite of a surgical management with curative intent. This paper gives an overview of the main prognostic factors, the two most important of which remain the staging and tumor histology. These also determine the therapeutic strategy. Other factors of poor prognosis might also be useful for clinicians, particularly in their decision to refer patients for adjuvant therapies. Keywords : Non-small cell lung cancer – Prognostic factors – Pulmonary oncology – Surgery [less ▲]

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See detailTrace Elements in Marine Environments : Occurrence, Threats and Monitoring with Special Focus on the Costal Mediterranean
Richir, Jonathan ULg; Gobert, Sylvie ULg

in Journal of Environmental and Analytical Toxicology (2016), 6:1

Trace elements, as building blocks of matter, are naturally present in the environment. However, their extraction, production, use and release by men can lead to the increase of their environmental levels ... [more ▼]

Trace elements, as building blocks of matter, are naturally present in the environment. However, their extraction, production, use and release by men can lead to the increase of their environmental levels to concentrations that may be toxic for both men and the biota. The overall aim of this review is therefore to recall that trace elements remain contaminants of concern that still require scientific attention. Because marine coastal systems (and transitional environments in general) are particularly vulnerable to contamination processes, they deserve to be accurately monitored with quality indicator species. As an example, the 2 most widely quality indicator species used to assess the health status of the coastal Mediterranean are the seagrass Posidonia oceanica and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. In this review, after a short introduction on human pressures on the World Ocean and the coastal Mediterranean in particular (1), we will redefine the term trace element from an environmental perspective and discuss their accumulation and toxicity for men and the biota (2). We will consider the benefits of using biological indicators instead of water and sediment measurements to assess the health status of the marine environment (3), and more particularly as regards the accurate and complementary indicators that are seagrasses (4) and mussels (5). [less ▲]

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See detailRhubarb extract prevents hepatic inflammation induced by acute alcohol intake, an effect related to the modulation of the gut microbiota.
Neyrinck, Audrey M.; Etxeberria, Usune; Taminiau, Bernard ULg et al

in Molecular Nutrition & Food Research (2016)

SCOPE: Binge consumption of alcohol is an alarming global health problem. Acute ethanol intoxication is characterized by inflammation and oxidative stress, which could be promoted by gut barrier function ... [more ▼]

SCOPE: Binge consumption of alcohol is an alarming global health problem. Acute ethanol intoxication is characterized by inflammation and oxidative stress, which could be promoted by gut barrier function alterations. In this study, we have tested the hypothesis of the hepatoprotective effect of rhubarb extract in a mouse model of binge drinking and we explored the contribution of the gut microbiota in the related- metabolic effects. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mice were fed a control diet supplemented with or without 0.3% rhubarb extract for 17 days and were necropsied 6 hours after an alcohol challenge. Supplementation with rhubarb extract changed the microbial ecosystem (assessed by 16S rDNA pyrosequencing) in favor of Akkermansia muciniphila and Parabacteroides goldsteinii. Furthermore, it improved alcohol-induced hepatic injury, down-regulated key markers of both inflammatory and oxidative stresses in the liver tissue, without affecting significantly steatosis. In the gut, rhubarb supplementation increased crypt depth, tissue weight, the expression of antimicrobial peptides. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that some bacterial genders involved in gut barrier function, are promoted by phytochemicals present in rhubarb extract, and could therefore be involved in the modulation of the susceptibility to hepatic diseases linked to acute alcohol consumption. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailTRANSCUTANEOUS OCCIPITAL NERVE STIMULATION AND TRANSCRANIAL DIRECT CURRENT STIMULATION IN CHRONIC MIGRAINE: A PILOT COMPARISON OF THERAPEUTIC AND ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS
MAGIS, Delphine ULg; D'Ostilio, Kevin ULg; Baschi et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2016), 36(1S), 31

Background: Management of chronic migraine (CM) is often challenging. There is a need for more effective and better-tolerated preventive therapies. Among non-invasive neurostimulation procedures ... [more ▼]

Background: Management of chronic migraine (CM) is often challenging. There is a need for more effective and better-tolerated preventive therapies. Among non-invasive neurostimulation procedures, transcutaneous occipital nerve stimulation (tONS) would act via central pain modulation, while transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) would modify cortical excitability that is abnormal in CM. Objectives: In this pilot trial we compared the clinical effects of tDCS and tONS in refractory CM and their ability to modify nociception and cortical responsiveness. Methods: Forty-three CM patients (17 with history of drug overuse) applied either 2mA tDCS during 2 months (N¼20, cathode over visual cortex, anode over left DLPFC), or tONS during 3 months (N¼23, Cefaly Kit ArnoldTM), both in daily 20 min-sessions. Visual evoked potentials (VEP), nociceptive blink reflexes (nBR) and quantitative sensory testing were recorded before and after treatment. Results: During the last stimulation month, total headache days decreased in both groups ( 16.4% for tDCS, 17% for tONS, p<0.05). Migraine days were reduced by 21.4% (p¼0.06) and 22% (p<0.05) respectively, while 30% responder rates were 47% and 42%. Medication intake was significantly reduced after tONS ( 43%). There was no significant change of nBR in either group. VEP habituation reversed to an episodic migraine pattern, i.e. a deficit, after tONS but not after tDCS. Conclusion: tONS and inhibitory tDCS of the visual cortex are interesting non-invasive options for the treatment of CM, but these results have to be confirmed in a randomized controlled trial. tONS was able to induce recordable changes in visual cortex responsiveness [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of wheel traffic on the physical properties of a Luvisol
Destain, Marie-France ULg; Roisin, Christian; Dalcq, Anne-Catherine ULg et al

in Geoderma (2016), 262

The effects of machine traffic were assessed on a Luvisol in a temperate climate area in Belgium. Soil samples were taken from topsoil (0.07-0.25 m) and subsoil (0.35-0.50 m), on plots under long-term ... [more ▼]

The effects of machine traffic were assessed on a Luvisol in a temperate climate area in Belgium. Soil samples were taken from topsoil (0.07-0.25 m) and subsoil (0.35-0.50 m), on plots under long-term reduced tillage (RT) and conventional tillage (CT). Cone index (CI), bulk density (BD) and precompression stress (Pc) were chosen as indicators of mechanical strength. Mercury intrusion porosimetry was used to characterize the soil microporosity structure. It was presented in two forms: (i) cumulative pore volume vs. equivalent pore radius r, from which four classes of porosity were defined: r < 0.2 μm, 0.2 ≤ r < 9 µm, 9 ≤ r < 73 µm and r ≥ 73 μm; (ii) pore-size distribution (PSDs). In the reference situation where there had been no recent passage of machines, the voids with 0.2 ≤ r < 9 µm were the most important class in RT topsoil. The voids with r ≥ 73 µm represented the main porosity class in the topsoil of CT. In the subsoil, for both tillage systems, the porosity was almost equally distributed between voids with 0.2 ≤ r < 9 µm and voids with r greater than 9 µm. Machine traffic was carried out when the soil water content was close to the optimum Proctor. Although unfavourable, these wet conditions often occur during the beet harvesting period in Belgium. The highest modifications in soil structure (increase in BD and Pc, reduction of macroporosity r ≥ 73 μm) were observed in the topsoil of CT. More limited modifications were noticed in the soil structure of RT topsoil and subsoil layers but these latter are problematic in that the soil would no longer be loosened by subsequent tillage. These modifications could lead to soil consolidation as a result of wheel traffic year after year. [less ▲]

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See detailHearing “quack” and remembering a duck: Evidence for fluency attribution in young children
Geurten, Marie ULg; Lloyd, Marianne; Willems, Sylvie ULg

in Child Development (2016)

Previous research has suggested that fluency does not influence memory decisions until age 7-8. In two experiments (n=96 and n=64, respectively), children, aged 4, 6, and 8 years (Experiment 1-2), and ... [more ▼]

Previous research has suggested that fluency does not influence memory decisions until age 7-8. In two experiments (n=96 and n=64, respectively), children, aged 4, 6, and 8 years (Experiment 1-2), and adults (Experiment 2) studied a list of pictures. Participants completed a recognition test during which each study item was preceded by a sound providing either a highly predictive or mildly predictive context in order to make some test items more conceptually fluent. Overall, highly predictive items were recognized at a higher rate than mildly predictive items demonstrating an earlier development of the fluency heuristic than previously observed. The study provides insight on how children develop metacognitive expectations and when they start to use them to guide their memory responses. [less ▲]

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See detailBurkholderia genome mining for nonribosomal peptide synthetases reveals a great potential for novel siderophores and lipopeptides synthesis
Esmaeel, Q.; Pupin, M.; Phuong Kieu, N. et al

in MicrobiologyOpen (2016), 5(3), 512-526

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See detailInvestigation of the genotoxicity of substances migrating from polycarbonate replacement baby bottles to identify chemicals of high concern.
Mertens; Simon, Coraline ULg; Van Bossuyt et al

in Food & Chemical Toxicology (2016), 89

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See detailBiophysical characterization data of the artificial protein Octarellin V.1 and binding test with its X-ray helpers.
Figueroa Yévenes, Maximiliano ULg; Vandenameele, Julie ULg; Goormaghtigh, Erik et al

in Data in Brief (2016), 8

The artificial protein Octarellin V.1 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsb.2016.05.004[1]) was obtained through a direct evolution process over the de novo designed Octarellin V (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016 ... [more ▼]

The artificial protein Octarellin V.1 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsb.2016.05.004[1]) was obtained through a direct evolution process over the de novo designed Octarellin V (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-2836(02)01206-8[2]). The protein has been characterized by circular dichroism and fluorescence techniques, in order to obtain data related to its thermo and chemical stability. Moreover, the data for the secondary structure content studied by circular dichroism and infra red techniques is reported for the Octarellin V and V.1. Two crystallization helpers, nanobodies (http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nprot.2014.039[3]) and alphaRep (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2010.09.048[4]), have been used to create stable complexes. Here we present the data obtained of the binding characterization of the Octarellin V.1 with the crystallization helpers by isothermal titration calorimetry. [less ▲]

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See detailForce measurements reveal how small binders perturb the dissociation mechanisms of DNA duplex sequences
Burmistrova, Anastasia; Fresch, Barbara ULg; Sluysmans, Damien ULg et al

in Nanoscale (2016), 8

The force-driven separation of double-stranded DNA is crucial to the accomplishment of cellular pro- cesses like genome transactions. Ligands binding to short DNA sequences can have a local stabilizing or ... [more ▼]

The force-driven separation of double-stranded DNA is crucial to the accomplishment of cellular pro- cesses like genome transactions. Ligands binding to short DNA sequences can have a local stabilizing or destabilizing effect and thus severely affect these processes. Although the design of ligands that bind to specific sequences is a field of intense research with promising biomedical applications, so far, their effect on the force-induced strand separation has remained elusive. Here, by means of AFM-based single mole- cule force spectroscopy, we show the co-existence of two different mechanisms for the separation of a short DNA duplex and demonstrate how they are perturbed by small binders. With the support of Mole- cular Dynamics simulations, we evidence that above a critical pulling rate one of the dissociation pathways becomes dominant, with a dramatic effect on the rupture forces. Around the critical threshold, we observe a drop of the most probable rupture forces for ligand-stabilized duplexes. Our results offer a deep understanding of how a stable DNA–ligand complex behaves under force-driven strand separation [less ▲]

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See detailHigh serum sclerostin levels are associated with a better outcome in haemodialysis patients
Jean, Guillaume; Chazot, Charles; Bresson, Eric et al

in Nephron. Clinical Practice (2016)

Sclerostin is an osteocyte hormone that de- creases osteoblastogenesis. Sclerostin may play a key role in osteoporosis and also in vascular calcification (VC). In chron- ic kidney disease and ... [more ▼]

Sclerostin is an osteocyte hormone that de- creases osteoblastogenesis. Sclerostin may play a key role in osteoporosis and also in vascular calcification (VC). In chron- ic kidney disease and haemodialysis (HD) patients, serum sclerostin levels are high. Aim: To assess the correlation of serum sclerostin levels with VC, bone mineral density (BMD), and survival rate in HD patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in prevalent HD patients to correlate serum sclerostin tertiles with the Kauppila aortic calcification score, BMD scores and survival rate. Results: We studied 207 patients who had a mean serum sclerostin level of 1.9 ± 0.7 ng/ml. Compared to patients in the 1st tertile of serum sclerostin levels (0.6–1.53 ng/ml), patients in the 3rd tertile (2.2–4.6 ng/ml) were significantly older (73.7 ± 12 vs. 64.7 ± 18 years), more frequently of the male gender (74 vs. 48%), had lower serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatases values (14 ± 9 vs. 20.4 ± 13 µg/l), were less frequently treated with alfacalcidol, displayed lower aortic calcification scores (9.5 ± 5 vs. 12.5 ± 7/24) and had higher BMD scores. Furthermore, patients of the 3rd tertile displayed a lower mortality rate compared to tertile 1 using multivariable adjusted Cox mod- el (hazard ratio 0.5, 95% CI 0.25–0.93, p = 0.03). The main fac- tors associated with VC score were age, diabetes, cardiovas- cular disease, CRP level and Warfarin use. Conclusion: Our study of HD patients shows that higher serum sclerostin lev- els are associated with higher BMD, lower aortic calcification scores, and a better survival rate. [less ▲]

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See detailMETABOLIC CHANGES IN THE MIGRAINE BRAIN IN RELATION TO AGEING AND DISEASE LOAD
D'Ostilio, Kevin ULg; Lisicki Martinez, Marco ULg; NONIS, Romain ULg et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2016), 36(1S), 59

Introduction: Migraine prevalence tends to decrease with advancing age. Morphological and functional brain changes occuring in migraine could be secondary to repeated attacks and/or to abnormal sensory ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Migraine prevalence tends to decrease with advancing age. Morphological and functional brain changes occuring in migraine could be secondary to repeated attacks and/or to abnormal sensory processing. In normal ageing, brain modifications could traduce a progressive refinement to cope with the environment, associated with a reduction in the complexity of brain connections. We hypothesized that metabolism in various brain regions might be differentially modified by age in migraine patients. Materials and methods: Forty-one subjects underwent a FDG-PET scan: 21 patients with interictal episodic migraine without aura (MO, age range: 20–63 years, 5M) and 20 healthy controls (HV, 21–59 years, 5 M). Results: In MO vs. HV, the overall FDG uptake was reduced in the left visual cortex, left medial frontal gyrus and bilaterally in the insula, somatosensory and motor cortices. Metabolisms of the posterior thalamus, brainstem including the periaqueductal gray (PAG), visual cortex, and (para)hippocampus, strongly increased with age in MO patients but not in HV. Disease duration positively correlated with PAG, (para)hippocampus and rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) metabolisms in MO. Conclusion: Migraine patients, compared to HV, have a decreased resting metabolism in several areas belonging to the ‘‘pain/salience matrix’’, which is in line with previous neuroimaging studies. Metabolism of the rACC is specifically related to disease load whereas metabolism of other sensory processing regions is more affected by age. Whether these functional changes are due to repeated stereotyped attack-related stimulations and to a learning process with complexity reduction of neuronal connections and/or compensatory age-related hyperactivity, remains to be demonstrated [less ▲]

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See detailA cross-sectional analysis of developmental trajectories of vocabulary comprehension among children and adolescents with Down syndrome or intellectual disability of undifferentiated aetiology
Facon, Bruno; Courbois, Yannick; Magis, David ULg

in Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability (2016), 41

Background: This work seeks to expand our knowledge of developmental trajectories of subcomponents of the language systems of individuals with intellectual disability (ID). It aims to explore how general ... [more ▼]

Background: This work seeks to expand our knowledge of developmental trajectories of subcomponents of the language systems of individuals with intellectual disability (ID). It aims to explore how general and relational vocabularies evolve as a function of cognitive level. Method: Developmental trajectories of general and relational vocabulary comprehension were compared among typically developing children (TYP) and children and adolescents with ID of undifferentiated aetiology (UND) or Down syndrome (DS). Results: Comparisons between TYP and UND participants showed no interaction between cognitive level and diagnostic status for general vocabulary, and only a very weak interaction for relational vocabulary. Comparisons between TYP and DS participants failed to reveal groupspecific trajectories. Performance in general vocabulary was higher than in relational vocabulary for both UND and DS participants. Conclusion: The developmental trajectories of vocabulary appear to be globally comparable for participants with or without ID. [less ▲]

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See detailAgricultural Land Conversion Drivers in Northeast Iran: Application of Structural Equation Model
Azadi, Hossein ULg; Barati, Ali Akbar; Rafiaani, Parisa et al

in Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy (2016), 9(4), 591609

Identifying driving forces behind agricultural land conversion (ALC) remains one of the most difficult challenges that agricultural and environmental scientists must continually deal with. The difficulty ... [more ▼]

Identifying driving forces behind agricultural land conversion (ALC) remains one of the most difficult challenges that agricultural and environmental scientists must continually deal with. The difficulty emerges from the fact that in ALC, multiple actions and interactions between different factors (i.e., economic, political, environmental, biophysical, institutional, and cultural) exist and make it difficult to understand the function of the processes behind the changes. The phenomenon of ALC in different countries is varied in terms of intensity, trends and drivers. The main goal of this study was to understand these drivers in Northeast Iran through applying structural equation model (SEM). Using multi-stage stratified random sampling, 101 executive officers participated in the study. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire. A multi-stakeholder analysis and a mixed-method (qualitative and quantitative) approach were applied. Results revealed that not only from the policy makers’ perspective but also based on the SEM, “economic”, “political”, “technological”, “social” and “environmental” factors should respectively be the five major drivers of ALC. The results also showed that among other drivers, “more profitability of non-agriculture sectors”, “excessive rising of land prices”, “farmers’ income instability”, “land fragmentation”, “urban sprawl” and “inheritance laws” are the main six causes of ALC. Hence, it can be concluded that policy-makers and planners need to take these drivers and subsidiaries more into consideration in order to properly respond to ALC. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization of a cheap and residential small-scale production of edible crickets with local by-products as an alternative protein-rich human food source in Ratanakiri Province (Cambodia)
Caparros Megido, Rudy ULg; Alabi, Taofic ULg; Nieus, Clément et al

in Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture (2016)

Background - Health status of the indigenous people of the Ratanakiri Province, Cambodia, is significantly lower compared to the rest of the nation. The domestication and mass production of insects may ... [more ▼]

Background - Health status of the indigenous people of the Ratanakiri Province, Cambodia, is significantly lower compared to the rest of the nation. The domestication and mass production of insects may represent a sustainable, cost effective and high quality alternative source of protein to traditional livestock. This study aimed to optimise a cheap and residential cricket breeding system based on unused wild resources. The cricket development, Teleogryllus testaceus (Walker), under seven diets composed of taro aerial parts, young cassava leaves, young cashew leaves and brown rice flour (with or without banana slices), versus a traditionally used broiler feed diet was studied. Results - Cricket mortality was low in all diets, except the two cashew-based diets. Total biomass was significantly higher under the broiler feed, in addition to the two diets containing a combination of cassava leaf powder and brown rice. Yet, crickets fed with the taro diet had the highest percentage of protein. Concerning the breeding system cost, units using cassava leaves were the cheapest ones. Conclusion – Diets based of cassava leaves seems to be the most promising ones. Nevertheless, to produce crickets with a high body mass and a high protein level, a new experiment must be realised in which the cassava leaf maturity will be adapted to fit with the cricket growth stage. Moreover, to reduce the cost of the breeding units, handmade local products should be used instead of purchased components. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Role of Post-Translational Modifications in Hearing and Deafness
Mateo Sanchez, Susana ULg; Freeman, Stephen ULg; Delacroix, Laurence ULg et al

in Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS (2016)

Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are key molecular events that modify proteins after their synthesis and modulate their ultimate functional properties by affecting their stability, localisation ... [more ▼]

Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are key molecular events that modify proteins after their synthesis and modulate their ultimate functional properties by affecting their stability, localisation, interaction potential or activity. These chemical changes expand the size of the proteome adding diversity to the molecular pathways governing the biological outcome of cells. PTMs are thus crucial in regulating a variety of cellular processes such as apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation and have been shown to be instrumental during embryonic development. In addition, alterations in protein PTMs have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, including deafness. In this review, we summarize the recent progress made in understanding the roles of PTMs during cochlear development, with particular emphasis on the enzymes driving protein phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation, glycosylation, ubiquitination and SUMOylation. We also discuss how these enzymes may contribute to hearing impairment and deafness. [less ▲]

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See detailLymphocytoses B monoclonales : de la revue de la littérature à la pratique de laboratoire.
KEUTGENS, Aurore ULg; Foguenne, Jacques; Gothot, André ULg et al

in Annales de biologie clinique (2016), 74(2), 168-175

Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) is defined as an asymptomatic condition characterized by the presence of less than 5,000 monoclonal B-cells per microliter and the absence of clinical signs or ... [more ▼]

Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) is defined as an asymptomatic condition characterized by the presence of less than 5,000 monoclonal B-cells per microliter and the absence of clinical signs or symptoms of a B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder. Most MBL cases involve B cells presenting an identical phenotype to CLL (CLL-like MBL) with a Catovsky-Matutes score of 3 to 5 and share the same chromosomal abnormalities than CLL. Depending on the absolute B cell count, one may distinguish low-count CLL-like MBL (<500 B cells/muL) which have no evidence of progression, no reduction in overall survival, no increase in infection risk and do not require any specific follow-up. Patients with clinical CLL-like MBL (>500 B cells/muL) have a 1% to 2% per year risk of progression to CLL requiring therapy, a higher risk of infectious complications and mortality implicating an annual follow-up by hematologist. MBL may also express other less common phenotypes and are named atypical MBL in case of CD5 antigen expression (Catovsky-Matutes score: 1-2) and non-CLL-like MBL for CD5 negative cases (Catovsky-Matutes score: 0-2). Their poorer prognosis implicates imaging studies, bone marrow biopsy and cytogenetic analysis in addition to physical examination in order to rule out non-hodgkinien lymphoma, and require a more frequent follow-up. This review focuses on key concepts in the classification, diagnosis, monitoring and biology of MBL in laboratory practice. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-ovarian aromatization is required to activate female sexual motivation in testosterone-treated ovariectomized quail
de Bournonville, Catherine; Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Ball, Gregory et al

in Hormones and Behavior (2016), 83

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See detailHow do cumulative live birth rates and cumulative multiple live birth rates over complete courses of assisted reproductive technology treatment per woman compare among registries?
De Neubourg, Diane; Bogaerts, Kris; Blockeel, Christophe et al

in Human Reproduction (2016)

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See detailMelting processes and mantle sources of lavas on Mercury
Namur, Olivier; Collinet, Max; Charlier, Bernard ULg et al

in Earth and Planetary Science Letters (2016), 439

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